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Sample records for food additives efeito

  1. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002435.htm Food additives To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Food additives are substances that become part of a food ...

  2. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  3. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  4. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  5. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  6. Food additives: an ethical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mepham, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Food additives are an integral part of the modern food system, but opinion polls showing most Europeans have worries about them imply an urgent need for ethical analysis of their use. The existing literature on food ethics, safety assessment and animal testing. Food additives provide certain advantages in terms of many people's lifestyles. There are disagreements about the appropriate application of the precautionary principle and of the value and ethical validity of animal tests in assessing human safety. Most consumers have a poor understanding of the relative benefits and risks of additives, but concerns over food safety and animal testing remain high. Examining the impacts of food additives on consumer sovereignty, consumer health and on animals used in safety testing should allow a more informed debate about their appropriate uses.

  7. Food additives and preschool children.

    PubMed

    Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.

  8. [Unusual reactions to food additives].

    PubMed

    Novembre, E; Dini, L; Bernardini, R; Resti, M; Vierucci, A

    1992-01-01

    The most important symptoms caused by food additives are urticaria and angioedema, but rhinitis, asthma and gastrointestinal disturbances are also reported. Only seldom food additives have been shown to induce symptoms in other organs such central nervous system or joints and with a sparse objective evidence. In this study, we report two cases of unusual reactions to food additives (tartrazine and benzoates) involving mainly the central nervous system (headache, migraine, overactivity, concentration and learning difficulties, depression) and joints (arthralgias), confirmed with diet and double blind challenge. The possible pathogenetic mechanisms are also discussed.

  9. Hypersensitivity reactions to food additives.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Shahid; Bahna, Sami L

    2009-06-01

    To provide an updated concise review on food additives adverse reactions, diagnosis, and management. Despite the common use of food additives, their adverse reactions seem to be very rare in the general population (0.01-0.23%) but higher in atopic individuals (2-7%). Probably because of the difficulty in diagnosis, most of the available information is based on case reports or small series. Reported reactions are mostly mild and may affect the skin, the gastrointestinal tract, or the airways, and rarely anaphylaxis. Food additives should be suspected as the culprit in patients who report a history of reactions to a number of unrelated foods or to a certain food when commercially prepared but not when prepared at home. The major problem in dealing with reactions to additives is the identification of the offending agent(s). Apart from a careful history taking, allergy skin testing or in-vitro testing are rarely useful. Trials of elimination and reintroduction may be more helpful. If the anticipated reaction is severe, a well designed challenge testing should be carried out. Once the offending additive(s) is confirmed, treatment is avoidance. Because accidental exposure often happens, patients with a history of severe reactions should have self-injectable epinephrine and wear MedicAlert (Turlock, California, USA) identification.

  10. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting.

  11. ADHD Diet: Do Food Additives Cause Hyperactivity?

    MedlinePlus

    ... say about the relationship between food additives and ADHD? Answers from David C. Agerter, M.D Food ... There's no solid evidence that food additives cause attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the topic of food additives and ...

  12. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10 Section 170.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food additives...

  13. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10 Section 170.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food additives...

  14. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food additives... the Act, which proposes the inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of identity...

  15. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food additives... the Act, which proposes the inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of identity...

  16. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10... (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food additives in standardized foods. (a) The... inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of identity, the provisions of the regulations...

  17. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for five food additives (magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate; mineral oil (medium and low viscosity) classes II and III; 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; serine protease (chymotrypsin) from Nocardiopsis prasina expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; and serine protease (trypsin) from Fusarium oxysporum expressed in Fusarium venenatum) and 16 groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; phenol and phenol derivatives; pyrazine derivatives; pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; and sulfur-substituted furan derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: ethyl cellulose, mineral oil (medium viscosity), modified starches and titanium

  18. [Safety of food additives in Japan].

    PubMed

    Ito, Sumio

    2011-01-01

    Recently, many accidents relating to food happened in Japan. The consumer's distrust for food, food companies, and the administration is increasing. The consumer especially has an extreme refusal feeling for chemicals such as food additives and agricultural chemicals, and begins to request agricultural chemical-free vegetables and food additive-free food. Food companies also state no agricultural chemicals and no food additives to correspond with consumers' request and aim at differentiating. The food additive is that the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare specifies the one that person's health might not be ruined by providing for Food Sanitation Law Article 10 in our country. The standard for food additives and standard for use of food additives are provided according to regulations of Food Sanitation Law Article 11. Therefore, it is thought that the food additive used is safe now. Then, it reports on the procedure and the safety examination, etc. in our country for designation for food additive this time.

  19. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives (in particular, flavouring agents). A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives (asparaginase from Aspergillus niger expressed in A. niger, calcium lignosulfonate (40-65), ethyl lauroyl arginate, paprika extract, phospholipase C expressed in Pichia pastoris, phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters, polydimethylsiloxane, steviol glycosides and sulfites [assessment of dietary exposure]) and 10 groups of related flavouring agents (aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; alkoxy-substituted allylbenzenes present in foods and essential oils and used as flavouring agents; esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with aliphatic linear saturated carboxylic acids; furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives; and substances structurally related to menthol). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: canthaxanthin; carob bean gum and carob bean gum (clarified); chlorophyllin copper complexes, sodium and potassium salts; Fast Green FCF; guar gum and guar gum (clarified

  20. 21 CFR 25.32 - Foods, food additives, and color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Foods, food additives, and color additives. 25.32... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.32 Foods, food additives, and color additives.... (b) Action on a request for exemption for investigational use of a food additive if the food additive...

  1. 21 CFR 25.32 - Foods, food additives, and color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Foods, food additives, and color additives. 25.32... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.32 Foods, food additives, and color additives.... (b) Action on a request for exemption for investigational use of a food additive if the food additive...

  2. 21 CFR 25.32 - Foods, food additives, and color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Foods, food additives, and color additives. 25.32... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.32 Foods, food additives, and color additives.... (b) Action on a request for exemption for investigational use of a food additive if the food additive...

  3. 21 CFR 25.32 - Foods, food additives, and color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foods, food additives, and color additives. 25.32 Section 25.32 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.32 Foods, food additives, and color additives...

  4. 21 CFR 25.32 - Foods, food additives, and color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Foods, food additives, and color additives. 25.32 Section 25.32 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.32 Foods, food additives, and color additives...

  5. 77 FR 41899 - Indirect Food Additives: Polymers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 177 Indirect Food Additives: Polymers AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) is amending the food additive regulations to no longer provide for the use of...

  6. Adverse reactions to food additives.

    PubMed

    Simon, R A

    1986-01-01

    There are thousands of agents that are intentionally added to the food that we consume. These include preservatives, stabilizers, conditioners, thickeners, colorings, flavorings, sweeteners, antioxidants, etc. etc. Yet only a surprisingly small number have been associated with hypersensitivity reactions. Amongst all the additives, FD&C dyes have been most frequently associated with adverse reactions. Tartrazine is the most notorious of them all; however, critical review of the medical literature and current Scripps Clinic studies would indicate that tartrazine has been confirmed to be at best only occasionally associated with flares of urticaria or asthma. There is no convincing evidence in the literature of reactivity to the other azo or nonazo dyes. This can also be said of BHA/BHT, nitrites/nitrates and sorbates. Parabens have been shown to elicit IgE mediated hypersensitivity reactions when used as pharmaceutical preservatives; however, as with the other additives noted above, ingested parabens have only occasionally been associated with adverse reactions. MSG, the cause of the 'Chinese restaurant syndrome' has only been linked to asthma in one report. Sulfiting agents used primarily as food fresheners and to control microbial growth in fermented beverages have been established as the cause of any where from mild to severe and even fatal reactions in at least 5% of the asthmatic population. Other reactions reported to follow sulfite ingestion include anaphylaxis, gastro intestinal complaints and dermatological eruptions. The prevalence of these non asthmatic reactions is unknown. The mechanism of sulfite sensitive asthma is also unknown but most likely involves hyperreactivity to inhale SO2 in the great majority of cases; however, there are reports of IgE mediated reactions and other sulfite sensitive asthmatics have been found with low levels of sulfite oxidase; necessary to oxidize endogenous sulfite to sulfate.

  7. 76 FR 41687 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Hydroxypropyl Cellulose

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Hydroxypropyl Cellulose AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the food additive...

  8. Allergic and immunologic reactions to food additives.

    PubMed

    Gultekin, Fatih; Doguc, Duygu Kumbul

    2013-08-01

    For centuries, food additives have been used for flavouring, colouring and extension of the useful shelf life of food, as well as the promotion of food safety. During the last 20 years, the studies implicating the additives contained in foods and medicine as a causative factor of allergic reactions have been proliferated considerably. In this review, we aimed to overview all of the food additives which were approved to consume in EU and find out how common and serious allergic reactions come into existence following the consuming of food additives.

  9. Intolerance to food additives - does it exist?

    PubMed

    Turner, Paul J; Kemp, Andrew S

    2012-02-01

    'Food intolerance' is often confused with a range of adverse symptoms which may be coincidental to ingestion of food. 'Food intolerance' is defined as a reaction in which symptoms must be objectively reproducible and not known to involve an immunological mechanism. A more precise term is non-allergic food hypersensitivity, which contrasts with food allergies which are due to an immunological mechanism. Some children will experience food reactions to food additives. Reported symptoms range from urticaria/angioedema to hyperactive behaviours. While parents/carers report that over one fifth of children experience of food reaction, only 1 in 20 of these are confirmed to have a non-allergic food hypersensitivity on testing.

  10. 76 FR 16285 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Bacteriophage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 (formerly Docket No. 2002F-0316) Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Bacteriophage Preparation AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule; response to objections and denial of requests...

  11. [Adverse reactions induced by food additives: sulfites].

    PubMed

    Montaño García, M L

    1989-01-01

    Many chemicals are used to preserve, color and flavor foods and drugs. There have been numerous reports of adverse reactions, including urticaria, angioneurotic edema, asthma an anaphylaxis following the ingestion of food additives such as tartrazine, monosodium glutamate and benzoic acid. Recently the food and drug additives reaching medical awareness as a cause of sensitivity are the sulfiting agents. Sulfites are widely used in the food and beverage industry as preservatives and antioxidants. They are also used by the pharmaceutical industry. This work describes the common uses of sulfiting agents, the mechanisms of sulfite sensitivity, the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of adverse reactions to sulfites.

  12. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The Committee also evaluated the risk posed by two food contaminants, with the aim of deriving tolerable intakes where appropriate and advising on risk management options for the purpose of public health protection. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives and contaminants. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for certain food additives (aluminium-containing food additives, Benzoe Tonkinensis, glycerol ester of gum rosin, glycerol ester of tall oil rosin, glycerol ester of wood rosin, octenyl succinic acid modified gum arabic, polydimethyl siloxane, Ponceau 4R, pullulan, pullulanase from Bacillus deromificans expressed in Bacillus licheniformis, Quinoline Yellow and Sunset Yellow FCF) and two food contaminants (cyanogenic glycosides and fumonisins). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: aluminium lakes of colouring matters; beta-apo-8'-carotenal; beta-apo-8'-carotenoic acid ethyl ester; beta-carotene, synthetic; hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose; magnesium silicate, synthetic; modified starches; nitrous oxide; sodium carboxymethyl cellulose; and sucrose monoesters of lauric, palmitic or stearic acid. Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of the food additives and contaminants considered.

  13. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.

    PubMed

    2001-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives and contaminants, with a view to recommending Acceptable Daily Intakes (ADIs) and tolerable intakes, respectively, and to prepare specifications for the identity and purity of food additives. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of food additives and contaminants (including flavouring agents), and the establishment and revision of specifications. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of toxicological data on various specific food additives (furfural, paprika oleoresin, caramel colour II, cochineal extract, carmines, aspartame-acesulfame salt, D-tagatose, benzoyl peroxide, nitrous oxide, stearyl tartrate and trehalose), flavouring agents and contaminants (cadmium and tin), and of intake data on calcium from calcium salts of food additives. Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for ADIs of the food additives and tolerable intakes of the contaminants considered, changes in the status of specifications of these food additives and specific flavouring agents, and further information required or desired.

  14. [Trends in the utilization of food additives].

    PubMed

    Szűcs, Viktória; Bánáti, Diána

    2013-11-17

    The frequent media reports on food additives weakened consumers' trust in food producers and food control authorities as well. Furthermore, consumers' uncertainty is also raised by the fact that they obtain their information from inadequate, mistrustful sources and, therefore, consumers might avoid the consumption of certain foodstuffs. While food producers may react by replacing artificial components by natural ones, they try to emphasize the favourable characteristics of their products. The authors describe the main trends and efforts related to food additives. On the basis of the overview it can be concluded that - besides taking into consideration consumers' needs - product development and research directions are promising. Food producers' efforts may help to restore consumer confidence and trust and they may help them to have informed choice.

  15. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives and a food contaminant with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for seven food additives (advantame; glucoamylase from Trichoderma reesei expressed in Trichoderma reesei; glycerol ester of gum rosin; glycerol ester of tall oil rosin; glycerol ester of wood rosin; nisin; and octenyl succinic acid modified gum arabic) and an assessment of dietary exposure to cadmium from cocoa and cocoa products. Specifications for the following food additives were revised: annatto extracts (solvent-extracted bixin and solvent-extracted norbixin); Benzoe tonkinensis; food additives containing aluminium and/or silicon; mineral oil (medium viscosity); modified starches; paprika extract; phosphates (analytical methods for the determination of phosphorus and revision of specifications); 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; potassium aluminium silicate; and potassium aluminium silicate-based pearlescent pigments. Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of the food additives and contaminant considered.

  16. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) met in Rome from 14 to 23 June 2011. The purpose of the committee was to provide the Codex Alimentarius Commission access with objective advice on high priority food safety matters. Specifically, the tasks before the Committee were: i) t...

  17. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives and contaminants, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes for humans, and to prepare specifications for the identity and purity of food additives. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of principles governing the toxicological evaluation of food additives and contaminants, including flavouring agents, and the establishment and revision of specifications, with comments concerning limits for arsenic, lead and heavy metals. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of toxicological data on various specific food additives (including tert-butylhydroquinone, mineral oils, waxes and alitame) and on beta-cyclodextrin, nitrate, nitrite, potassium bromate and the contaminants ochratoxin A and patulin. Annexed to the report are a table summarizing the committee's recommendations for acceptable daily intakes of these substances and changes in the status of specifications, and a list of further toxicological studies required or desired.

  18. Overview of Food Ingredients, Additives and Colors

    MedlinePlus

    ... natural sources such as vegetables, minerals or animals. Nature derived color additives are typically more expensive than ... food coloring). Other ingredients are not found in nature and therefore must be synthetically produced as artificial ...

  19. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to prepare specifications for the identity and purity of food additives. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of food additives (including flavouring agents) and contaminants, assessments of intake, and the establishment and revision of specifications for food additives. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of toxicological and intake data on various specific food additives (alpha-amylase from Bacillus lichenformis containing a genetically engineered alpha-amylase gene from B. licheniformis, annatto extracts, curcumin, diacetyl and fatty acid esters of glycerol, D-tagatose, laccase from Myceliophthora thermophila expressed in Aspergillus oryzae, mixed xylanase, beta-glucanase enzyme preparation produced by a strain of Humicola insolens, neotame, polyvinyl alcohol, quillaia extracts and xylanase from Thermomyces lanuginosus expressed in Fusarium venenatum), flavouring agents, a nutritional source of iron (ferrous glycinate, processed with citric acid), a disinfectant for drinking-water (sodium dichloroisocyanurate) and contaminants (cadmium and methylmercury). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for ADIs of the food additives, recommendations on the flavouring agents considered, and tolerable intakes of the contaminants considered, changes in the status of specifications and further information requested or desired.

  20. 21 CFR 170.18 - Tolerances for related food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tolerances for related food additives. 170.18... (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.18 Tolerances for related food additives. (a) Food... food additives. (b) Tolerances established for such related food additives may limit the amount of a...

  1. [Intolerance to food additives: an update].

    PubMed

    Cardinale, F; Mangini, F; Berardi, M; Sterpeta Loffredo, M; Chinellato, I; Dellino, A; Cristofori, F; Di Domenico, F; Mastrototaro, M F; Cappiello, A; Centoducati, T; Carella, F; Armenio, L

    2008-12-01

    Contrary to common believing, the prevalence of the intolerance to food additives in the general population is rather low. Nowadays many doubts persist with regard both to the pathogenetic mechanisms and to the clinical and diagnostic aspects in this field. Symptoms due to, or exacerbated from, food additives usually involve non-IgE-mediate mechanisms (pseudo-allergic reactions, PAR) and are usually less severe of those induced by food allergy. The most frequent clinical feature of the intolerance to food additives still remains the urticaria-angioedema syndrome, although these substances are really involved only in a minority of patients. Other possible clinical features include anaphylaxis, atopic eczema, behaviour disturbances, asthma and non-allergic rhinitis. The diagnostic approach consists in diary cards, reporting symptoms and food habits, elimination diet and double blinded placebo-controlled oral challenge with suspected additives. However, such procedure still remains poorly standardized and numerous uncertainties persist with regard to optimal conditions for performing and interpret the challenge results. The therapeutic approach consists in the exclusion of foods and products containing the additive involved, and, in patients not compliant to the diet, in treatment with symptomatic drugs.

  2. Food additives and contaminants. An update.

    PubMed

    Newberne, P M; Conner, M W

    1986-10-15

    Food additives continue to be a source of benefits to the consuming public but there are also perceived risks. Concern for the latter in the last decade has produced a society afflicted with cancer phobia. The intentional additives including sugars, salt, corn syrup, and dextrose make up 90% of the direct additives. These, along with a limited number of familiar items make up a large proportion of the remainder of the additives. Such common ingredients as nitrates and nitrites, solanine, cyanogenetic compounds, arsenic, etc., are unavoidably consumed in the diet and with little if any evidence for public health consequences. Major concern on the part of the public in recent years has been focused on man-made chemicals which are intentionally added to foods to enhance flavors and acceptability, nutrient value, shelf life and increased availability. These include food colors, nonnutritive and low-nutrient sweeteners, (saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame); antioxidants; and nitrites. Contaminants, sometimes incorrectly included in lists of food additives, present the greatest potential threat to public health. Such contaminants as mycotoxins, nitrosamines, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, among others, provide a continuing challenge to our regulatory agencies and to public health authorities. Evidence to date indicate that these responsible for food safety are doing an admirable job, and as a society, our food supply has never been better, or safer, and, as a population, we have never been healthier. Aside from contaminants, major concerns relate to an excess of good food and to obesity. These comments should not be taken to infer that we should relax our concern and surveillance; instead more concern and surveillance should be exerted toward those uncontrolled substances such as natural plant products and alleged natural nutrients, roots, herbs, etc., which are given much credit for positive health effects, without meeting the high standards of our

  3. Asthma and anaphylactoid reactions to food additives.

    PubMed Central

    Tarlo, S. M.; Sussman, G. L.

    1993-01-01

    Presumed allergic reactions to hidden food additives are both controversial and important. Clinical manifestations include asthma, urticaria, angioedema, and anaphylactic-anaphylactoid events. Most adverse reactions are caused by just a few additives, such as sulfites and monosodium glutamate. Diagnosis is suspected from the history and confirmed by specific challenge. The treatment is specific avoidance. PMID:8499792

  4. 21 CFR 170.38 - Determination of food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Determination of food additive status. 170.38... (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.38 Determination of food additive status. (a) The... determining that a substance is not GRAS and is a food additive subject to section 409 of the Act. (b)(1) The...

  5. The teratology testing of food additives.

    PubMed

    Barrow, Paul C; Spézia, François

    2013-01-01

    The developmental and reproductive toxicity testing (including teratogenicity) of new foods and food additives is performed worldwide according to the guidelines given in the FDA Redbook. These studies are not required for substances that are generally recognized as safe, according to the FDA inventory. The anticipated cumulated human exposure level above which developmental or reproduction studies are required depends on the structure-alert category. For food additives of concern, both developmental (prenatal) and reproduction (multigeneration) studies are required. The developmental studies are performed in two species, usually the rat and the rabbit. The reproduction study is generally performed in the rat. The two rat studies are preferably combined into a single experimental design, if possible. The test methods described in the FDA Redbook are similar to those specified by the OECD for the reproductive toxicity testing of chemicals.

  6. Microbial biosurfactants as additives for food industries.

    PubMed

    Campos, Jenyffer Medeiros; Stamford, Tânia Lúcia Montenegro; Sarubbo, Leonie Asfora; de Luna, Juliana Moura; Rufino, Raquel Diniz; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2013-01-01

    Microbial biosurfactants with high ability to reduce surface and interfacial surface tension and conferring important properties such as emulsification, detergency, solubilization, lubrication and phase dispersion have a wide range of potential applications in many industries. Significant interest in these compounds has been demonstrated by environmental, bioremediation, oil, petroleum, food, beverage, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries attracted by their low toxicity, biodegradability and sustainable production technologies. Despite having significant potentials associated with emulsion formation, stabilization, antiadhesive and antimicrobial activities, significantly less output and applications have been reported in food industry. This has been exacerbated by uneconomical or uncompetitive costing issues for their production when compared to plant or chemical counterparts. In this review, biosurfactants properties, present uses and potential future applications as food additives acting as thickening, emulsifying, dispersing or stabilising agents in addition to the use of sustainable economic processes utilising agro-industrial wastes as alternative substrates for their production are discussed. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  7. 21 CFR 170.18 - Tolerances for related food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tolerances for related food additives. 170.18... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.18 Tolerances for related food additives. (a) Food additives that cause similar or related pharmacological effects will be...

  8. 21 CFR 170.18 - Tolerances for related food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tolerances for related food additives. 170.18... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.18 Tolerances for related food additives. (a) Food additives that cause similar or related pharmacological effects will be...

  9. 21 CFR 170.38 - Determination of food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of food additive status. 170.38... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.38 Determination of food additive status. (a) The Commissioner may, in accordance with § 170.35(b)(4) or (c)(5...

  10. 21 CFR 170.38 - Determination of food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determination of food additive status. 170.38... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.38 Determination of food additive status. (a) The Commissioner may, in accordance with § 170.35(b)(4) or (c)(5...

  11. 21 CFR 170.18 - Tolerances for related food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tolerances for related food additives. 170.18... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.18 Tolerances for related food additives. (a) Food additives that cause similar or related pharmacological effects will be...

  12. 21 CFR 170.38 - Determination of food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Determination of food additive status. 170.38... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.38 Determination of food additive status. (a) The Commissioner may, in accordance with § 170.35(b)(4) or (c)(5...

  13. 21 CFR 170.38 - Determination of food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determination of food additive status. 170.38... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.38 Determination of food additive status. (a) The Commissioner may, in accordance with § 170.35(b)(4) or (c)(5...

  14. Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Folic Acid. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-04-15

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is amending the food additive regulations to provide for the safe use of folic acid in corn masa flour. We are taking this action in response to a food additive petition filed jointly by Gruma Corporation, Spina Bifida Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of Pediatrics, Royal DSM N.V., and National Council of La Raza.

  15. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.

    PubMed

    Bend, J; Bolger, M; Knaap, A G A C; Kuznesof, P M; Larsen, J C; Mattia, A; Meylan, I; Pitt, J I; Resnik, S; Schlatter, J; Vavasour, E; Rao, M Veerabhadra; Verger, P; Walker, R; Wallin, H; Whitehouse, B; Abbott, P J; Adegoke, G; Baan, R; Baines, J; Barlow, S; Benford, D; Bruno, A; Charrondiere, R; Chen, J; Choi, M; DiNovi, M; Fisher, C E; Iseki, N; Kawamura, Y; Konishi, Y; Lawrie, S; Leblanc, J C; Leclercq, C; Lee, H M; Moy, G; Munro, I C; Nishikawa, A; Olempska-Beer, Z; de Peuter, G; Pronk, M E J; Renwick, A G; Sheffer, M; Sipes, I G; Tritscher, A; Soares, L Valente; Wennberg, A; Williams, G M

    2007-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The Committee also evaluated the risk posed by two food contaminants, with the aim of advising on risk management options for the purpose of public health protection. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives (in particular flavouring agents) and contaminants. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives (acidified sodium chlorite, asparaginase from Aspergillus oryzae expressed in Aspergillus oryzae, carrageenan and processed Eucheuma seaweed, cyclotetraglucose and cyclotetraglucose syrup, isoamylase from Pseudomonas amyloderamosa, magnesium sulfate, phospholipase A1 from Fusarium venenatum expressed in Aspergillus oryzae, sodium iron(III) ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and steviol glycosides); eight groups of related flavouring agents (linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic acyclic and alicyclic terpenoid tertiary alcohols and structurally related substances; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; aliphatic acyclic dials, trials and related substances; aliphatic acetals; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; and aliphatic alicyclic linear alpha, beta -unsaturated di- and trienals and related alcohols, acids and esters); and two food contaminants (aflatoxin and ochratoxin A). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: maltol and ethyl maltol, nisin preparation, pectins, polyvinyl alcohol, and sucrose esters of fatty acids. Specifications

  16. 21 CFR 570.38 - Determination of food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of food additive status. 570.38 Section 570.38 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 570.38...

  17. 21 CFR 570.38 - Determination of food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of food additive status. 570.38 Section 570.38 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 570.38...

  18. [Food additive hypersenisivity--near myth].

    PubMed

    Hannuksela, Matti; Haahtela, Tari

    2009-01-01

    There are over 200 food additives that have been approved in Finland. They are being used in order to improve preservability, flavor, appearance and texture. Some of them may cause hypersensitivity reactions, the most common being anaphylactic reactions, urticaria and exacerbation of asthma. Such reactions are, however, very rare. Anaphylactic reactions and other symptoms have resulted from carmine, lysozyme, acetic acid and acetates, gums of plant origin, sulfites and tartrazine.

  19. 21 CFR 570.38 - Determination of food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determination of food additive status. 570.38... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 570.38 Determination of food additive status. (a) The Commissioner may, in accordance with § 570.35 (b)(4) or (c)(5...

  20. 21 CFR 570.38 - Determination of food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determination of food additive status. 570.38... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 570.38 Determination of food additive status. (a) The Commissioner may, in accordance with § 570.35 (b)(4) or (c)(5...

  1. 21 CFR 570.18 - Tolerances for related food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tolerances for related food additives. 570.18... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.18 Tolerances for related food additives. (a) Food additives that cause similar or related pharmacological effects...

  2. 21 CFR 570.18 - Tolerances for related food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tolerances for related food additives. 570.18... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.18 Tolerances for related food additives. (a) Food additives that cause similar or related pharmacological effects...

  3. 21 CFR 570.38 - Determination of food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Determination of food additive status. 570.38... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 570.38 Determination of food additive status. (a) The Commissioner may, in accordance with § 570.35 (b)(4) or (c)(5...

  4. 21 CFR 570.18 - Tolerances for related food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tolerances for related food additives. 570.18... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.18 Tolerances for related food additives. (a) Food additives that cause similar or related pharmacological effects...

  5. 77 FR 52228 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Vitamin D2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Vitamin D2 Bakers Yeast AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the food additive...

  6. Evaluation of certain food additive and contaminants.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The Committee also evaluated the risk posed by two food contaminants, with the aim of deriving tolerable intakes where appropriate and advising on risk management options for the purpose of public health protection. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives (particularly flavouring agents) and contaminants. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for 12 groups of flavouring agents (alicyclic ketones, secondary alcohols and related esters; alicyclic primary alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic acyclic and alicyclic alpha-diketones and related alpha-hydroxyketones; aliphatic acyclic and alicyclic terpenoid tertiary alcohols and structurally related substances; aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic lactones; aliphatic primary alcohols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, acetals and esters containing additional oxygenated functional groups; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters and acetals; aromatic substituted secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; benzyl derivatives; phenol and phenol derivatives; and simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols) and two food contaminants (cadmium and lead). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: activated carbon, cassia gum, indigotine, steviol glycosides, sucrose esters of fatty acids, sucrose monoesters of lauric, palmitic or stearic acid and titanium dioxide. Specifications for the following flavouring agents were revised: 4-carvomenthol and 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinoxaline. Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the

  7. 21 CFR 170.18 - Tolerances for related food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tolerances for related food additives. 170.18 Section 170.18 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.18 Tolerances for...

  8. 21 CFR 570.18 - Tolerances for related food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tolerances for related food additives. 570.18 Section 570.18 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.18 Tolerances...

  9. 77 FR 13232 - Abbott Laboratories; Filing of Food Additive Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 Abbott Laboratories; Filing of Food Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of petition. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing that Abbott Laboratories has filed a petition proposing that the food additive...

  10. 21 CFR 570.18 - Tolerances for related food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tolerances for related food additives. 570.18 Section 570.18 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.18 Tolerances...

  11. 77 FR 5201 - Ecolab, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 173 Ecolab, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of petition. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing that Ecolab, Inc., has filed a petition proposing that the food additive...

  12. 75 FR 17145 - Food Additives; Bisphenol A; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... Memorandum from: Chemistry Review Group 1, 22, 2009 Division of Food Contact Notifications and Chemistry Team, HFS-275 and Chemistry Review Team, Division of Biotechnology and GRAS Notice Review, Office of Food... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food Additives; Bisphenol A; Availability AGENCY: Food and...

  13. 77 FR 71695 - Secondary Direct Food Additives Permitted in Food for Human Consumption; Sodium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 173 Secondary Direct Food Additives Permitted in Food for Human Consumption; Sodium Dodecylbenzenesulfonate AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the food additive...

  14. 76 FR 11328 - Secondary Direct Food Additives Permitted in Food for Human Consumption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 173 Secondary Direct Food Additives Permitted in Food for Human Consumption AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the food additive regulations to permit the use of...

  15. 78 FR 14664 - Food and Color Additives; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 73, 172, 173, 176, 177, 178, 184, and 189 Food and Color Additives; Technical Amendments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule; technical amendments. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending certain...

  16. 78 FR 28163 - Zentox Corporation; Withdrawal of Food Additive Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 173 Zentox Corporation; Withdrawal of Food Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of withdrawal. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is announcing the withdrawal, without prejudice to a future...

  17. Comprehensive European dietary exposure model (CEDEM) for food additives.

    PubMed

    Tennant, David R

    2016-05-01

    European methods for assessing dietary exposures to nutrients, additives and other substances in food are limited by the availability of detailed food consumption data for all member states. A proposed comprehensive European dietary exposure model (CEDEM) applies summary data published by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in a deterministic model based on an algorithm from the EFSA intake method for food additives. The proposed approach can predict estimates of food additive exposure provided in previous EFSA scientific opinions that were based on the full European food consumption database.

  18. 77 FR 53801 - Nexira; Filing of Food Additive Petition; Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the expanded safe use of acacia gum (gum.... The petition proposes to amend the food additive regulations in Sec. 172.780 Acacia (gum arabic) (21 CFR 172.780) to provide for the expanded safe use of acacia gum (gum arabic) in food. Under 21 CFR 171...

  19. Migration of fluorochemical paper additives from food-contact paper into foods and food simulants.

    PubMed

    Begley, T H; Hsu, W; Noonan, G; Diachenko, G

    2008-03-01

    Fluorochemical-treated paper was tested to determine the amount of migration that occurs into foods and food-simulating liquids and the characteristics of the migration. Migration characteristics of fluorochemicals from paper were examined in Miglyol, butter, water, vinegar, water-ethanol solutions, emulsions and pure oil containing small amounts of emulsifiers. Additionally, microwave popcorn and chocolate spread were used to investigate migration. Results indicate that fluorochemicals paper additives do migrate to food during actual package use. For example, we found that microwave popcorn contained 3.2 fluorochemical mg kg(-1) popcorn after popping and butter contained 0.1 mg kg(-1) after 40 days at 4 degrees C. Tests also indicate that common food-simulating liquids for migration testing and package material evaluation might not provide an accurate indication of the amount of fluorochemical that actually migrates to food. Tests show that oil containing small amounts of an emulsifier can significantly enhance migration of a fluorochemical from paper.

  20. 78 FR 49990 - Dean Foods Company and WhiteWave Foods Company; Filing of Food Additive Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 Dean Foods Company and WhiteWave Foods Company; Filing of Food Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of petition. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is announcing that we have filed a petition...

  1. 21 CFR 130.20 - Food additives proposed for use in foods for which definitions and standards of identity are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Food additives proposed for use in foods for which...: GENERAL Food Additives in Standardized Foods § 130.20 Food additives proposed for use in foods for which... the act, which proposes the inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of identity...

  2. 21 CFR 130.20 - Food additives proposed for use in foods for which definitions and standards of identity are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Food additives proposed for use in foods for which...: GENERAL Food Additives in Standardized Foods § 130.20 Food additives proposed for use in foods for which... the act, which proposes the inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of identity...

  3. 21 CFR 130.20 - Food additives proposed for use in foods for which definitions and standards of identity are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Food additives proposed for use in foods for which...: GENERAL Food Additives in Standardized Foods § 130.20 Food additives proposed for use in foods for which... the act, which proposes the inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of identity...

  4. 21 CFR 130.20 - Food additives proposed for use in foods for which definitions and standards of identity are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Food additives proposed for use in foods for which...: GENERAL Food Additives in Standardized Foods § 130.20 Food additives proposed for use in foods for which... the act, which proposes the inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of identity...

  5. 21 CFR 130.20 - Food additives proposed for use in foods for which definitions and standards of identity are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Food additives proposed for use in foods for which...: GENERAL Food Additives in Standardized Foods § 130.20 Food additives proposed for use in foods for which... the act, which proposes the inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of identity...

  6. 78 FR 73434 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Acacia (Gum Arabic)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... to Food for Human Consumption; Acacia (Gum Arabic) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... regulations to provide for the expanded safe use of acacia (gum arabic) in foods. This action is in response... ] additive regulations in Sec. 172.780, Acacia (gum arabic) (21 CFR 172.780) to provide for the expanded safe...

  7. [Aluminium content in foods with aluminium-containing food additives].

    PubMed

    Ogimoto, Mami; Suzuki, Kumi; Kabashima, Junichiro; Nakazato, Mitsuo; Uematsu, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    The aluminium (Al) content of 105 samples, including bakery products made with baking powder, agricultural products and seafoods treated with alum, was investigated. The amounts of Al detected were as follows (limit of quantification: 0.01 mg/g): 0.01-0.37 mg/g in 26 of 57 bakery products, 0.22-0.57 mg/g in 3 of 6 powder mixes, 0.01-0.05 mg/g in all three agricultural products examined, 0.03-0.90 mg/g in 4 of 6 seafood samples, 0.01-0.03 mg/g in 3 of 11 samples of instant noodles, 0.04-0.14 mg/g in 3 of 4 samples of vermicelli, 0.01 mg/g in 1 of 16 soybean products, but none in soybeans. Amounts equivalent to the PTWI of a 16 kg infant were detected in two samples of bakery products, two samples of powder mixes and one sample of salted jellyfish, if each sample was taken once a week. These results suggest that certain foods, depending on the product and the intake, might exceed the PTWI of children, especially infants.

  8. Basophil Activation Test with Food Additives in Chronic Urticaria Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min-Gyu; Song, Woo-Jung; Park, Han-Ki; Lim, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Su-Jung; Lee, Suh-Young; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up

    2014-01-01

    The role of food additives in chronic urticaria (CU) is still under investigation. In this study, we aimed to explore the association between food additives and CU by using the basophil activation test (BAT). The BAT using 15 common food additives was performed for 15 patients with CU who had a history of recurrent urticarial aggravation following intake of various foods without a definite food-specific IgE. Of the 15 patients studied, two (13.3%) showed positive BAT results for one of the tested food additives. One patient responded to monosodium glutamate, showing 18.7% of CD203c-positive basophils. Another patient showed a positive BAT result to sodium benzoate. Both patients had clinical correlations with the agents, which were partly determined by elimination diets. The present study suggested that at least a small proportion of patients with CU had symptoms associated with food additives. The results may suggest the potential utility of the BAT to identity the role of food additives in CU. PMID:24527415

  9. Basophil activation test with food additives in chronic urticaria patients.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Gyu; Song, Woo-Jung; Park, Han-Ki; Lim, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Su-Jung; Lee, Suh-Young; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2014-01-01

    The role of food additives in chronic urticaria (CU) is still under investigation. In this study, we aimed to explore the association between food additives and CU by using the basophil activation test (BAT). The BAT using 15 common food additives was performed for 15 patients with CU who had a history of recurrent urticarial aggravation following intake of various foods without a definite food-specific IgE. Of the 15 patients studied, two (13.3%) showed positive BAT results for one of the tested food additives. One patient responded to monosodium glutamate, showing 18.7% of CD203c-positive basophils. Another patient showed a positive BAT result to sodium benzoate. Both patients had clinical correlations with the agents, which were partly determined by elimination diets. The present study suggested that at least a small proportion of patients with CU had symptoms associated with food additives. The results may suggest the potential utility of the BAT to identity the role of food additives in CU.

  10. Potential hazards due to food additives in oral hygiene products.

    PubMed

    Tuncer Budanur, Damla; Yas, Murat Cengizhan; Sepet, Elif

    2016-01-01

    Food additives used to preserve flavor or to enhance the taste and appearance of foods are also available in oral hygiene products. The aim of this review is to provide information concerning food additives in oral hygiene products and their adverse effects. A great many of food additives in oral hygiene products are potential allergens and they may lead to allergic reactions such as urticaria, contact dermatitis, rhinitis, and angioedema. Dental practitioners, as well as health care providers, must be aware of the possibility of allergic reactions due to food additives in oral hygiene products. Proper dosage levels, delivery vehicles, frequency, potential benefits, and adverse effects of oral health products should be explained completely to the patients. There is a necessity to raise the awareness among dental professionals on this subject and to develop a data gathering system for possible adverse reactions.

  11. The Prevalence of Phosphorus Containing Food Additives in Top Selling Foods in Grocery Stores

    PubMed Central

    León, Janeen B.; Sullivan, Catherine M.; Sehgal, Ashwini R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of phosphorus-containing food additives in best selling processed grocery products and to compare the phosphorus content of a subset of top selling foods with and without phosphorus additives. Design The labels of 2394 best selling branded grocery products in northeast Ohio were reviewed for phosphorus additives. The top 5 best selling products containing phosphorus additives from each food category were matched with similar products without phosphorus additives and analyzed for phosphorus content. Four days of sample meals consisting of foods with and without phosphorus additives were created and daily phosphorus and pricing differentials were computed. Setting Northeast Ohio Main outcome measures Presence of phosphorus-containing food additives, phosphorus content Results 44% of the best selling grocery items contained phosphorus additives. The additives were particularly common in prepared frozen foods (72%), dry food mixes (70%), packaged meat (65%), bread & baked goods (57%), soup (54%), and yogurt (51%) categories. Phosphorus additive containing foods averaged 67 mg phosphorus/100 gm more than matched non-additive containing foods (p=.03). Sample meals comprised mostly of phosphorus additive-containing foods had 736 mg more phosphorus per day compared to meals consisting of only additive-free foods. Phosphorus additive-free meals cost an average of $2.00 more per day. Conclusion Phosphorus additives are common in best selling processed groceries and contribute significantly to their phosphorus content. Moreover, phosphorus additive foods are less costly than phosphorus additive-free foods. As a result, persons with chronic kidney disease may purchase these popular low-cost groceries and unknowingly increase their intake of highly bioavailable phosphorus. PMID:23402914

  12. Corn fiber hulls as a food additive or animal feed

    DOEpatents

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Cecava, Michael J.; Doane, Perry H.

    2010-12-21

    The present invention provides a novel animal feed or food additive that may be made from thermochemically hydrolyzed, solvent-extracted corn fiber hulls. The animal feed or food additive may be made, for instance, by thermochemically treating corn fiber hulls to hydrolyze and solubilize the hemicellulose and starch present in the corn fiber hulls to oligosaccharides. The residue may be extracted with a solvent to separate the oil from the corn fiber, leaving a solid residue that may be prepared, for instance by aggolmerating, and sold as a food additive or an animal feed.

  13. The prevalence of phosphorus-containing food additives in top-selling foods in grocery stores.

    PubMed

    León, Janeen B; Sullivan, Catherine M; Sehgal, Ashwini R

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of phosphorus-containing food additives in best-selling processed grocery products and to compare the phosphorus content of a subset of top-selling foods with and without phosphorus additives. The labels of 2394 best-selling branded grocery products in northeast Ohio were reviewed for phosphorus additives. The top 5 best-selling products containing phosphorus additives from each food category were matched with similar products without phosphorus additives and analyzed for phosphorus content. Four days of sample meals consisting of foods with and without phosphorus additives were created, and daily phosphorus and pricing differentials were computed. Presence of phosphorus-containing food additives, phosphorus content. Forty-four percent of the best-selling grocery items contained phosphorus additives. The additives were particularly common in prepared frozen foods (72%), dry food mixes (70%), packaged meat (65%), bread and baked goods (57%), soup (54%), and yogurt (51%) categories. Phosphorus additive-containing foods averaged 67 mg phosphorus/100 g more than matched nonadditive-containing foods (P = .03). Sample meals comprised mostly of phosphorus additive-containing foods had 736 mg more phosphorus per day compared with meals consisting of only additive-free foods. Phosphorus additive-free meals cost an average of $2.00 more per day. Phosphorus additives are common in best-selling processed groceries and contribute significantly to their phosphorus content. Moreover, phosphorus additive foods are less costly than phosphorus additive-free foods. As a result, persons with chronic kidney disease may purchase these popular low-cost groceries and unknowingly increase their intake of highly bioavailable phosphorus. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 76 FR 47210 - Notices of Filing of Petitions for Food Additives and Color Additives; Relocation in the Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Notices of Filing of Petitions for Food Additives and Color Additives; Relocation in the Federal Register AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... petitions for food additives and color additives that are published in accordance with the Federal Food...

  15. Contribution of Food Additives to Sodium and Phosphorus Content of Diets Rich in Processed Foods

    PubMed Central

    Carrigan, Anna; Klinger, Andrew; Choquette, Suzanne S.; Luzuriaga-McPherson, Alexandra; Bell, Emmy K.; Darnell, Betty; Gutiérrez, Orlando M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Phosphorus-based food additives increase total phosphorus content of processed foods. However, the extent to which these additives augment total phosphorus intake per day is unclear. Design, setting, and measurements In order to examine the contribution of phosphorus-based food additives to the total phosphorus content of processed foods, separate four-day menus for a low-additive and additive-enhanced diet were developed using Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR) software. The low-additive diet was designed to conform to United States Department of Agriculture guidelines for energy and phosphorus intake (~2,000 kcal per day and 900 mg of phosphorus per day) and contained minimally-processed foods. The additive-enhanced diet contained the same food items as the low-additive diet except that highly-processed foods were substituted for minimally-processed foods. Food items from both diets were collected, blended, and sent for measurement of energy and nutrient intake. Results Both the low-additive and additive-enhanced diet provided ~2,200 kcal, 700 mg of calcium and 3,000 mg of potassium per day on average. Measured sodium and phosphorus content standardized per 100 mg of food was higher each day of the additive-enhanced diet as compared to the low-additive. When averaged over the four menu days, measured phosphorus and sodium contents of the additive-enhanced diet were 606 ± 125 and 1,329 ± 642 mg higher than the low-additive diet, respectively, representing a 60% increase in total phosphorus and sodium content on average. When comparing the measured values of the additive-enhanced diet to NDSR-estimated values, there were no statistically significant differences in measured vs. estimated phosphorus contents. Conclusion Phosphorus and sodium additives in processed foods can substantially augment phosphorus and sodium intake, even in relatively healthy diets. Current dietary software may provide reasonable estimates of phosphorus content in

  16. FADB: a food additive molecular database for in silico screening in food toxicology.

    PubMed

    Ginex, Tiziana; Spyrakis, Francesca; Cozzini, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    A crucial limit to in silico preliminary toxicological evaluations in the "food safety" area is the lack of a specific, efficient and available free dataset of 3D small molecules. In this direction, we present the first version of FADB (Food Additives Data Base), a suitable and freely available food additives dataset. FADB is the 3D version of the EAFUS (Everything Added to Food in the United States) list, a sum of WHO, FAO food additive databases and could be a useful starting material in preliminary stages of toxicological assessments. Molecules in FADB are represented through several chemical and 1D identifies, physical properties and 3D (SD and Mol2 file) file formats. FADB also contains important information about functional uses of chemicals as food additives. The aim of the work is to put together substances potentially relevant to food into a "computational" library for virtual screening and docking studies with interesting scenarios for toxicology.

  17. Interaction of Food Additives with Intestinal Efflux Transporters.

    PubMed

    Sjöstedt, Noora; Deng, Feng; Rauvala, Oskari; Tepponen, Tuomas; Kidron, Heidi

    2017-10-05

    Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), multidrug resistance associated protein 2 (MRP2) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are ABC transporters that are expressed in the intestine, where they are involved in the efflux of many drugs from enterocytes back into the intestinal lumen. The inhibition of BCRP, MRP2, and P-gp can result in enhanced absorption and exposure of substrate drugs. Food additives are widely used by the food industry to improve the stability, flavor, and consistency of food products. Although they are considered safe for consumption, their interactions with intestinal transporters are poorly characterized. Therefore, in this study, selected food additives, including preservatives, colorants, and sweeteners, were studied in vitro for their inhibitory effects on intestinal ABC transporters. Among the studied compounds, several colorants were able to inhibit BCRP and MRP2, whereas P-gp was fairly insensitive to inhibition. Additionally, one sweetener was identified as a potent inhibitor of BCRP. Dose-response studies revealed that the IC50 values of the inhibitors were lower than the estimated intestinal concentrations after the consumption of beverages containing food colorants. This suggests that there is potential for previously unrecognized transporter-mediated food additive-drug interactions.

  18. Chemistry of Food Additives: Direct and Indirect Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauli, George H.

    1984-01-01

    The primary component(s), impurities, and degradation products of polysorbate 80, nitrate and nitrite salts, and diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC) are discussed. Safety considerations related to these food additives are also noted. The chick-edema factor which results from an additive in poultry feed is also discussed. (JN)

  19. Chemistry of Food Additives: Direct and Indirect Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauli, George H.

    1984-01-01

    The primary component(s), impurities, and degradation products of polysorbate 80, nitrate and nitrite salts, and diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC) are discussed. Safety considerations related to these food additives are also noted. The chick-edema factor which results from an additive in poultry feed is also discussed. (JN)

  20. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... food additives. 170.20 Section 170.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.20 General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. (a) In reaching a...

  1. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... food additives. 170.20 Section 170.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.20 General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. (a) In reaching a...

  2. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... food additives. 170.20 Section 170.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.20 General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. (a) In reaching a...

  3. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... food additives. 170.20 Section 170.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.20 General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. (a) In reaching a...

  4. [Food additives and genetically modified food--a risk for allergic patients?].

    PubMed

    Wüthrich, B

    1999-04-01

    Adverse reactions to food and food additives must be classified according to pathogenic criteria. It is necessary to strictly differentiate between an allergy, triggered by a substance-specific immunological mechanism, and an intolerance, in which no specific immune reaction can be established. In contrast to views expressed in the media, by laymen and patients, adverse reactions to additives are less frequent than is believed. Due to frequently "alternative" methods of examination, an allergy to food additives is often wrongly blamed as the cause of a wide variety of symptoms and illness. Diagnosing an allergy or intolerance to additives normally involves carrying out double-blind, placebo-controlled oral provocation tests with food additives. Allergic reactions to food additives occur particularly against additives which are organic in origin. In principle, it is possible that during the manufacture of genetically modified plants and food, proteins are transferred which potentially create allergies. However, legislation exists both in the USA (Federal Drug Administration, FDA) and in Switzerland (Ordinance on the approval process for GM food, GM food additives and GM accessory agents for processing) which require a careful analysis before a genetically modified product is launched, particularly where foreign genes are introduced. Products containing genetically modified organisms (GMO) as additives must be declared. In addition, the source of the foreign protein must be identified. The "Round-up ready" (RR) soya flour introduced in Switzerland is no different from natural soya flour in terms of its allergenic potential. Genetically modified food can be a blessing for allergic individuals if gene technology were to succeed in removing the allergen (e.g. such possibilities exist for rice). The same caution shown towards genetically modified food might also be advisable for foreign food in our diet. Luckily, the immune system of the digestive tract in healthy people

  5. ADME-Tox profiles of some food additives and pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craciun, Dana; Modra, Dorina; Isvoran, Adriana

    2015-12-01

    Within this study we compute the Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion and Toxicity (ADME-Tox) profiles of several commonly used food additives and some pesticides. As expected, all the food additives considered in this study provided to be safe, their ADME-Tox profiles indicating that they have a good oral bioavailability and they do not produce phosphoslipidosis. The ADME-Tox profiles of the pesticides indicate that, with a few exceptions, they are highly toxic (some of them being not approved in the EU, but still used in other countries) and may cause many diseases. Our results are in good agreement with published data concerning the considered food additives and pesticides revealing that the ADME-Tox profiling method may be successfully used to test other chemicals than drug candidates.

  6. 37 CFR 1.776 - Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... extension for a food additive or color additive. 1.776 Section 1.776 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive. (a) If a determination is made pursuant to § 1.750 that a patent for a food additive or color additive is eligible for extension, the term...

  7. 37 CFR 1.776 - Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... extension for a food additive or color additive. 1.776 Section 1.776 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive. (a) If a determination is made pursuant to § 1.750 that a patent for a food additive or color additive is eligible for extension, the term...

  8. 37 CFR 1.776 - Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... extension for a food additive or color additive. 1.776 Section 1.776 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive. (a) If a determination is made pursuant to § 1.750 that a patent for a food additive or color additive is eligible for extension, the term...

  9. 37 CFR 1.776 - Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... extension for a food additive or color additive. 1.776 Section 1.776 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive. (a) If a determination is made pursuant to § 1.750 that a patent for a food additive or color additive is eligible for extension, the term...

  10. 37 CFR 1.776 - Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... extension for a food additive or color additive. 1.776 Section 1.776 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive. (a) If a determination is made pursuant to § 1.750 that a patent for a food additive or color additive is eligible for extension, the term...

  11. Phosphate additives in food--a health risk.

    PubMed

    Ritz, Eberhard; Hahn, Kai; Ketteler, Markus; Kuhlmann, Martin K; Mann, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Hyperphosphatemia has been identified in the past decade as a strong predictor of mortality in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). For example, a study of patients in stage CKD 5 (with an annual mortality of about 20%) revealed that 12% of all deaths in this group were attributable to an elevated serum phosphate concentration. Recently, a high-normal serum phosphate concentration has also been found to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality in the general population. Therefore, phosphate additives in food are a matter of concern, and their potential impact on health may well have been underappreciated. We reviewed pertinent literature retrieved by a selective search of the PubMed and EU databases (www.zusatzstoffe-online.de, www.codexalimentarius.de), with the search terms "phosphate additives" and "hyperphosphatemia." There is no need to lower the content of natural phosphate, i.e. organic esters, in food, because this type of phosphate is incompletely absorbed; restricting its intake might even lead to protein malnutrition. On the other hand, inorganic phosphate in food additives is effectively absorbed and can measurably elevate the serum phosphate concentration in patients with advanced CKD. Foods with added phosphate tend to be eaten by persons at the lower end of the socioeconomic scale, who consume more processed and "fast" food. The main pathophysiological effect of phosphate is vascular damage, e.g. endothelial dysfunction and vascular calcification. Aside from the quality of phosphate in the diet (which also requires attention), the quantity of phosphate consumed by patients with advanced renal failure should not exceed 1000 mg per day, according to the guidelines. Prospective controlled trials are currently unavailable. In view of the high prevalence of CKD and the potential harm caused by phosphate additives to food, the public should be informed that added phosphate is damaging to health. Furthermore, calls for labeling

  12. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. Eightieth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives and contaminants and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a brief description of general considerations addressed at the meeting, including updates on matters of interest to the work of the Committee. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and/or dietary exposure data for seven food additives (benzoates; lipase from Fusarium heterosporum expressed in Ogataea polymorpha; magnesium stearate; maltotetraohydrolase from Pseudomonas stutzeri expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; mixed β-glucanase, cellulase and xylanase from Rasamsonia emersonii; mixed β-glucanase and xylanase from Disporotrichum dimorphosporum; polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)- polyethylene glycol (PEG) graft copolymer) and two groups of contaminants (non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and pyrrolizidine alkaloids). Specifications for the following food additives were revised or withdrawn: advantame; annatto extracts (solavnt extracted bixin, ad solvent-extracted norbixin); food additives containing aluminium and/or silicon (aluminium silicate; calcium aluminium silicate; calcium silicate; silicon dioxide, amorphous; sodium aluminium silicate); and glycerol ester of gum rosin. Annexed to the report are tables or text summarizing the toxicological and dietary exposure information and information on specifications as well as the Committees recommendations on the food additives and contaminants considered at this meeting.

  13. Evaluation of certain food additives. Fifty-ninth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.

    PubMed

    2002-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to prepare specifications for the identity and purity of food additives. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of food additives and contaminants (including flavouring agents), and the establishment and revision of specifications. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of toxicological data on various specific food additives (alitame, cross-linked sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, mineral oils (low- and medium-viscosity), nitrate, nitrite, and salatrim and six groups of flavouring agents). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for ADIs of the food additives and recommendations on the flavouring agents considered, changes in the status of specifications, further information required or desired, and a summary of conclusions on flavouring agents with minimum assay values of 95% or less.

  14. Evaluation of certain food additives. Seventy-first report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.

    PubMed

    2010-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives: branching glycosyltransferase from Rhodothermus obamensis expressed in Bacillus subtilis, cassia gum, cyclamic acid and its salts (dietary exposure assessment), cyclotetraglucose and cyclotetraglucose syrup, ferrous ammonium phosphate, glycerol ester of gum rosin, glycerol ester of tall oil rosin, lycopene from all sources, lycopene extract from tomato, mineral oil (low and medium viscosity) class II and class III, octenyl succinic acid modified gum arabic, sodium hydrogen sulfate and sucrose oligoesters type I and type II. Specifications for the following food additives were revised: diacetyltartaric acid and fatty acid esters of glycerol, ethyl lauroyl arginate, glycerol ester of wood rosin, nisin preparation, nitrous oxide, pectins, starch sodium octenyl succinate, tannic acid, titanium dioxide and triethyl citrate. Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for intakes and toxicological evaluations of the food additives considered.

  15. Mastication and swallowing: influence of fluid addition to foods.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Luciano José; Gavião, Maria Beatriz Duarte; Engelen, Lina; Van der Bilt, Andries

    2007-02-01

    The production of sufficient saliva is indispensable for good chewing. Recent research has demonstrated that salivary flow rate has little influence on the swallowing threshold. The hypothesis examined in the present study was that adding fluids to foods will influence chewing physiology. Twenty subjects chewed on melba toast, cake, carrot, peanut and Gouda cheese. They also chewed on these foods after addition of different volumes of water or alpha-amylase solution. Jaw muscle activity, number of chewing cycles until swallowing and chewing cycle duration were measured. Repeated measures analysis of variance was applied to test the null hypothesis that there would be no statistically significant difference among the results obtained for the various food types and fluids. Subsequently, contrasts were determined to study the levels of intra-subjects factors (food type and fluid volume). Linear regression was used to determine the changes in muscle activity and cycle duration as a function of the chewing cycles. Fluid addition significantly decreased muscle activity and swallowing threshold for melba, cake and peanut (p<0.05). The effect of alpha-amylase in the solutions was similar to that of water (p>0.05). Doubling the volume of tap water had a greater effect. Fluid addition facilitated chewing of dry foods (melba, cake), but did not influence the chewing of fatty (cheese) and wet products (carrot). This study is relevant to improve patients' life quality and the management of chewing and feeding disorders caused by hyposalivation.

  16. [Properties of commercial licorice extracts used as a food additive].

    PubMed

    Iida, Kenji; Uematsu, Yoko; Suzuki, Kumi; Yasuno, Tetsuko; Hirata, Keiko; Ito, Kouichi

    2007-08-01

    Properties of eight commercial licorice extracts used as a food additive (sweetener, listed in the List of Existing Food Additives in the Japanese Food Sanitation Law) were surveyed. Residue on ignition ranged from 0.3 to 12.4%, and pH ranged from 4.1 to 6.8, amount of glycyrrhizin, which is the major component in licorice extract, ranged from 10.9 to 77.4%, sodium ranged from 0.1 to 1.2%, potassium ranged from 0.3 to 5.0%, and ammonium nitrogen ranged from 0.03 to 2.5%. These results indicated that various products were distributed on the market. Differences in the manufacturing process may contribute to the variations of product properties.

  17. Contribution of food additives to sodium and phosphorus content of diets rich in processed foods.

    PubMed

    Carrigan, Anna; Klinger, Andrew; Choquette, Suzanne S; Luzuriaga-McPherson, Alexandra; Bell, Emmy K; Darnell, Betty; Gutiérrez, Orlando M

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus-based food additives increase the total phosphorus content of processed foods. However, the extent to which these additives augment total phosphorus intake per day is unclear. To examine the contribution of phosphorus-based food additives to the total phosphorus content of processed foods, separate 4-day menus for a low-additive and additive-enhanced diet were developed using Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR) software. The low-additive diet was designed to conform to U.S. Department of Agriculture guidelines for energy and phosphorus intake (∼2,000 kcal/day and 900 mg of phosphorus per day), and it contained minimally processed foods. The additive-enhanced diet contained the same food items as the low-additive diet except that highly processed foods were substituted for minimally processed foods. Food items from both diets were collected, blended, and sent for measurement of energy and nutrient intake. The low-additive and additive-enhanced diet provided approximately 2,200 kcal, 700 mg of calcium, and 3,000 mg of potassium per day on average. Measured sodium and phosphorus content standardized per 100 mg of food was higher each day of the additive-enhanced diet as compared with the low-additive diet. When averaged over the 4 menu days, the measured phosphorus and sodium contents of the additive-enhanced diet were 606 ± 125 and 1,329 ± 642 mg higher than the low-additive diet, respectively, representing a 60% increase in total phosphorus and sodium content on average. When comparing the measured values of the additive-enhanced diet to NDSR-estimated values, there were no statistically significant differences in measured versus estimated phosphorus contents. Phosphorus and sodium additives in processed foods can substantially augment phosphorus and sodium intake, even in relatively healthy diets. Current dietary software may provide reasonable estimates of the phosphorus content in processed foods. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney

  18. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... food additives. 570.20 Section 570.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 570.20 General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. (a) In reaching a...

  19. 21 CFR 172.5 - General provisions for direct food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true General provisions for direct food additives. 172.5... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION General Provisions § 172.5 General provisions for direct food additives. (a...

  20. 21 CFR 172.5 - General provisions for direct food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false General provisions for direct food additives. 172... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION General Provisions § 172.5 General provisions for direct food additives. (a...

  1. 21 CFR 172.5 - General provisions for direct food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false General provisions for direct food additives. 172... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION General Provisions § 172.5 General provisions for direct food additives. (a...

  2. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... food additives. 570.20 Section 570.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 570.20 General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. (a) In reaching a...

  3. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... food additives. 170.20 Section 170.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.20 General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. (a) In reaching a decision on any petition filed under section 409...

  4. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... food additives. 570.20 Section 570.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 570.20 General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. (a) In reaching a...

  5. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... food additives. 570.20 Section 570.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 570.20 General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. (a) In reaching a...

  6. 21 CFR 172.5 - General provisions for direct food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General provisions for direct food additives. 172... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION General Provisions § 172.5 General provisions for direct food additives. (a...

  7. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... food additives. 570.20 Section 570.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 570.20 General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. (a) In reaching a...

  8. The Role of Drugs, Diet, and Food Additives in Hyperactivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harshbarger, Mary E.

    A variety of causes have been suggested for hyperactivity: anoxia and other adverse birth conditions, genetic factors, delayed maturation, maternal smoking and drinking during pregnancy, interaction of temperament and environment, lead poisoning, radiation stress, allergy and food additives, and deprivation of required stimulation. Treatments…

  9. [Factors associated with the addition of salt to prepared food].

    PubMed

    de Castro, Raquel da Silva Assunção; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2014-05-01

    The scope of this research was to investigate the potential differences between men and women in the addition of salt to prepared food. The study included 47,557 individuals aged 18 to 64 participating in the Risk and Protection Factors for Chronic Disease Surveillance System by Telephone Interview carried out in 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District in 2006. Differences between men and women were tested by the chi-square test and the association magnitudes between the dependent and independent variables were estimated by the Odds Ratio obtained by Multiple Logistic Regression analysis. The prevalence of the addition of salt to prepared food was 8.3%, being higher among men (9,8% vs 6,9%, p < 0.01). After adjustment, the addition of salt to prepared food was higher in individuals with self-rated fair to poor health, reporting cardiovascular disease and living in the North of Brazil. Hypertensive individuals reported addition of less salt to prepared food. Educational level was not associated with salt usage. Men add more salt than women. Public health policies aimed at reducing salt intake by the population should take into account the gender differences in salt intake and the factors that contribute to such differences.

  10. Synthetic surfactant food additives can cause intestinal barrier dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Csáki, Katalin F

    2011-05-01

    In addition to genetic factors and antigen exposure, intestinal barrier dysfunction plays a key role in the pathogenesis of numerous allergic and autoimmune diseases. The hypothesis of this article is that synthetic surfactant food additives (also called emulsifiers) - which are applied in relatively high concentrations in even the most frequently consumed foods -cause increased intestinal permeability, hence they can play a significant role in the increasing incidence of numerous allergic and autoimmune diseases. In many cases the surfactants added to foods are exactly the same as the ones used in pharmaceutics as absorption enhancers. Numerous synthetic surfactant food additives have been shown to increase the intestinal permeability through paracellular and/or transcellular mechanisms and some of them were also shown to inhibit P-glycoprotein. Additionally, based on the general characteristics of surfactants it can be predicted that they decrease the hydrophobicity of the mucus layer, which has also been shown to associate with increased intestinal permeability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Phenolic plant metabolites as bioactive food and feed additives

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Functional additives in food and animal feed formulations are gaining acceptance as consumers and producers recognize the health benefits associated with certain natural plant products. Phenolic compounds in particular have emerged as a class of compounds with antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifun...

  12. The Role of Drugs, Diet, and Food Additives in Hyperactivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harshbarger, Mary E.

    A variety of causes have been suggested for hyperactivity: anoxia and other adverse birth conditions, genetic factors, delayed maturation, maternal smoking and drinking during pregnancy, interaction of temperament and environment, lead poisoning, radiation stress, allergy and food additives, and deprivation of required stimulation. Treatments…

  13. Risk analysis of sulfites used as food additives in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian Bo; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Hua Li; Zhang, Ji Yue; Luo, Peng Jie; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Zhu Tian

    2014-02-01

    This study was to analyze the risk of sulfites in food consumed by the Chinese people and assess the health protection capability of maximum-permitted level (MPL) of sulfites in GB 2760-2011. Sulfites as food additives are overused or abused in many food categories. When the MPL in GB 2760-2011 was used as sulfites content in food, the intake of sulfites in most surveyed populations was lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Excess intake of sulfites was found in all the surveyed groups when a high percentile of sulfites in food was in taken. Moreover, children aged 1-6 years are at a high risk to intake excess sulfites. The primary cause for the excess intake of sulfites in Chinese people is the overuse and abuse of sulfites by the food industry. The current MPL of sulfites in GB 2760-2011 protects the health of most populations. Copyright © 2014 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  14. Spent yeast as natural source of functional food additives

    PubMed

    Rakowska, Rita; Sadowska, Anna; Dybkowska, Ewa; Świderski, Franciszek

    Spent yeasts are by-products arising from beer and wine production which over many years have been chiefly used as feed additives for livestock. They contain many valuable and bioactive substances which has thereby generated much interest in their exploitation. Up till now, the main products obtained from beer-brewing yeasts are β-glucans and yeast extracts. Other like foodstuffs include dried brewer’s yeast, where this is dried and the bitterness removed to be fit for human consumption as well as mannan-oligosaccharides hitherto used in the feed industry. β-glucans constitute the building blocks of yeast cell walls and can thus be used in human nutrition as dietary supplements or serving as food additives in functional foods. β-glucans products obtained via post-fermentation of beer also exhibit a high and multi-faceted biological activity where they improve the blood’s lipid profile, enhance immunological status and have both prebiotic and anti-oxidant properties. Yeast extracts are currently being used more and more to enhance flavour in foodstuffs, particularly for meat and its products. Depending on how autolysis is carried out, it is possible to design extracts of various meat flavours characteristic of specific meats. Many different flavour profiles can be created which may be additionally increased in combination with vegetable extracts. Within the food market, yeast extracts can appear in various guises such as liquids, pastes or powders. They all contain significant amounts of glutamic acid, 5’-GMP and 5’-IMP nucleotides together with various amino acids and peptides that act synergistically for enhancing the flavour of foodstuff products. Recent studies have demonstrated additional benefits of yeast extracts as valuable sources of amino acids and peptides which can be used in functional foods and dietary supplements. These products possess GRAS status (Generally Recognised As Safe) which thereby also adds further as to why they should be used

  15. [Questions safety and tendency of using genetically modified microorganisms in food, food additives and food derived].

    PubMed

    Khovaev, A A

    2008-01-01

    In this article analysis questions of using genetically modified microorganisms in manufacture food production, present new GMM used in manufacture -food ferments; results of medical biological appraisal/ microbiological and genetic expert examination/ of food, getting by use microorganisms or there producents with indication modern of control methods.

  16. Public risk perception of food additives and food scares. The case in Suzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Linhai; Zhong, Yingqi; Shan, Lijie; Qin, Wei

    2013-11-01

    This study examined the factors affecting public risk perception of food additive safety and possible resulting food scares using a survey conducted in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China. The model was proposed based on literature relating to the role of risk perception and information perception of public purchase intention under food scares. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used for data analysis. The results showed that attitude towards behavior, subjective norm and information perception exerted moderate to high effect on food scares, and the effects were also mediated by risk perceptions of additive safety. Significant covariance was observed between attitudes toward behavior, subjective norm and information perception. Establishing an effective mechanism of food safety risk communication, releasing information of government supervision on food safety in a timely manner, curbing misleading media reports on public food safety risk, and enhancing public knowledge of the food additives are key to the development and implementation of food safety risk management policies by the Chinese government. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The food additives inulin and stevioside counteract oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Stoyanova, Silviya; Geuns, Jan; Hideg, Eva; Van den Ende, Wim

    2011-05-01

    Prebiotics such as inulin (Inu)-type fructans and alternative natural sweeteners such as stevioside (Ste) become more popular as food ingredients. Evidence is accumulating that carbohydrates and carbohydrate-containing biomolecules can be considered true antioxidants, capable of scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we report on the ROS scavenging abilities of Inu and Ste in comparison with other sugars, sugar derivatives and arbutin. It is found that Inu and Ste are superior scavengers of both hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, more effective than mannitol and sucrose. Other compounds, such as 1-kestotriose, trehalose, raffinose and L-malic acid, also showed good reactivity to at least one of the two oxygen free radicals. The strong antioxidant properties of Inu and Ste are discussed. Within the plant vacuole, these compounds could play a crucial role in antioxidant defense mechanisms to help survive stresses. Addition to food assists in natural sweetening, food stabilization and maximizes health impact.

  18. Current developments in food additive toxicology in the USA.

    PubMed

    Hattan, David G; Kahl, Linda S

    2002-12-27

    A recently published proposal (Fed. Reg. 66 (2001) 4706) for mandatory submission of information on all plant-derived bioengineered foods fed to humans or animals will be reviewed. Under this proposal, information such as data on identity, level and function of the introduced substance(s); an estimate of dietary exposure; allergenic potential of the protein; data relevant to other safety issues that may be associated with the substance; selection of a comparable food; historic uses of comparable food; composition and characteristics of bioengineered food versus those of the comparable food should be provided. In addition, characterization of the parent plant; construction of the transformation vector and introduced genetic material along with number of insertion sites and genes; data on the genetic material and any newly inserted genes for antibiotic resistance should be submitted with the notification. The Interagency Coordinating Committee for Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) was identified by the U.S. Congress as the organization to review and validate new alternative toxicological test methods for 14 U.S. government agencies. Validated and accepted alternative toxicity tests will be incorporated into toxicity testing recommendations for regulatory agencies.

  19. 21 CFR 170.6 - Opinion letters on food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Opinion letters on food additive status. 170.6... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.6 Opinion letters on food additive status. (a) Over the years the Food and Drug Administration has given informal...

  20. 75 FR 4523 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Additives

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... Food Additives AGENCY: Office of the Acting Under Secretary for Food Safety, USDA. ACTION: Notice of..., International Activities Office of Food Additive Safety, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, FDA, 5100..., Consumer Safety Officer, Division of Food Contact Notifications, Office of Food Additive Safety CFSAN/FDA...

  1. 21 CFR 170.6 - Opinion letters on food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Opinion letters on food additive status. 170.6... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.6 Opinion letters on food additive status. (a) Over the years the Food and Drug Administration has given informal...

  2. 21 CFR 170.6 - Opinion letters on food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Opinion letters on food additive status. 170.6... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.6 Opinion letters on food additive status. (a) Over the years the Food and Drug Administration has given informal...

  3. 21 CFR 170.6 - Opinion letters on food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Opinion letters on food additive status. 170.6... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.6 Opinion letters on food additive status. (a) Over the years the Food and Drug Administration has given informal...

  4. 76 FR 59247 - Environmental Impact Considerations, Food Additives, and Generally Recognized As Safe Substances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... Environmental Impact Considerations, Food Additives, and Generally Recognized As Safe Substances; Technical... considerations, food additives, and generally recognized as safe (GRAS) substances to correct minor errors in the... affecting certain regulations regarding environmental impact considerations (part 25), food additives (parts...

  5. 77 FR 67655 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Food Additive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ...) Moderate Category: For a food additive petition without complex chemistry, manufacturing, efficacy, or...) Complex Category: For a food additive petition with complex chemistry, manufacturing, efficacy, and/or... investigational food additive file without complex chemistry, manufacturing, efficacy, or safety issues,...

  6. 21 CFR 172.5 - General provisions for direct food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false General provisions for direct food additives. 172... (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION General Provisions § 172.5 General provisions for direct food additives. (a) Regulations prescribing conditions under which...

  7. 21 CFR 174.5 - General provisions applicable to indirect food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... additives. 174.5 Section 174.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: GENERAL § 174.5 General provisions applicable to indirect food additives. (a) Regulations prescribing conditions under which food additive substances may be...

  8. 21 CFR 170.6 - Opinion letters on food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Opinion letters on food additive status. 170.6... (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.6 Opinion letters on food additive status. (a) Over the... the Food Additives Amendment of 1958 (Pub. L. 85-929; Sept. 6, 1958), these opinions were given...

  9. 76 FR 71248 - Animal Food Labeling; Declaration of Certifiable Color Additives

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 501 Animal Food Labeling; Declaration of Certifiable Color Additives AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food... additives on the labels of animal food including animal feeds and pet foods. FDA is issuing a final...

  10. [Dihydroquercetin--a new antioxidant and biologically active food additive].

    PubMed

    Tiukavkina, N A; Rulenko, I A; Kolesnik, Iu A

    1997-01-01

    Information about types of vegetative raw material for flavonoid dihydroquercetin manufacture are given. Data of a wide spectrum of biological activity of dihydroquercetin are systematized. Two directions of use dihydroquercetin in food industry: as antioxidant and as biologically active supplement for creation different types of parapharmaceutical production is shown. Dihydroquercetin in the capacity of antioxidant may be compared or exceeds many synthetic and natural antioxidants and, in particular, known bioflavonoids (quercetin). High antioxidant activity of dihydroquercetin is combined with absence embryotoxicity, teratogenicity, allergenicity and mutability. Dihydroquercetin used as efficient antioxidant with regard to vegetable oils, animal fat, milk powder, fat contain pastry. Parapharmaceutical production with dihydroquercetin is intended for prophylactic of "oxidative stress" diseases (cardiovascular, bronchopulmonary, etc.). Practical application of new types of products containing dihydroquercetin was described. Dihydroquercetin is an available commercial food additive, producing domestic industry.

  11. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and...

  12. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and...

  13. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and...

  14. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and...

  15. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and...

  16. Antioxidant properties of Mediterranean spices compared with common food additives.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Tomé, M; Jiménez, A M; Ruggieri, S; Frega, N; Strabbioli, R; Murcia, M A

    2001-09-01

    In this study, the antioxidant properties of Mediterranean food spices (annatto, cumin, oregano, sweet and hot paprika, rosemary, and saffron) at 5% concentration and of common food additives (butylated hydroxyanisole [BHA], butylated hydroxytoluene [BHT], and propyl gallate) at 100 microg/g are compared. The ability of these compounds to inhibit lipid peroxidation was, in decreasing order, rosemary > oregano > propyl gallate > annatto > BHA > sweet paprika > cumin > hot paprika > saffron > BHT. Deoxyribose damage is partially inhibited in the presence of cumin extract that exhibits the strongest protective action. The rest of the spices also protect deoxyribose better than the BHA and BHT used in the assay. Finally, the results obtained in the assay point to the prooxidant effect of propyl gallate. Hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity is measured by using peroxidase-based assay systems. In aqueous medium, the spice extracts show lower antioxidant activity than propyl gallate, the decreasing order being cumin > oregano > annatto > rosemary > hot paprika > sweet paprika. BHA and BHT did not scavenge H2O2 Spices are able to scavenge HOCl and protect alpha1-antiproteinase. The results indicate that rosemary and oregano are more effective HOCl scavengers than the other substances analyzed, which, in decreasing order, were propyl gallate, annatto, sweet and hot paprika, saffron, and cumin. The effect of Mediterranean food spices on the oxidative stability of refined olive oil tested by the Rancimat method was compared with common food additives during storage (72 h, 2, 4, and 6 months) at room temperature. The results showed that the spice extracts analyzed have significant stabilizing effects (P < 0.05).

  17. 77 FR 5483 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Additives

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... Food Additives AGENCY: Office of the Under Secretary for Food Safety, USDA. ACTION: Notice of public....) positions that will be discussed at the 44th Session of the Codex Committee on Food Additives (CCFA) of the... CCFA Contact: Dennis M. Keefe, Ph.D., Director, Office of Food Additive Safety, Center for Food Safety...

  18. 21 CFR 570.6 - Opinion letters on food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Opinion letters on food additive status. 570.6... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.6 Opinion letters on food additive status. (a) Over the years the Food and Drug Administration has given informal...

  19. 21 CFR 174.5 - General provisions applicable to indirect food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... additives. 174.5 Section 174.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: GENERAL § 174.5 General provisions applicable to indirect food additives. (a) Regulations prescribing conditions under...

  20. 21 CFR 570.6 - Opinion letters on food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Opinion letters on food additive status. 570.6... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.6 Opinion letters on food additive status. (a) Over the years the Food and Drug Administration has given informal...

  1. 21 CFR 570.6 - Opinion letters on food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Opinion letters on food additive status. 570.6... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.6 Opinion letters on food additive status. (a) Over the years the Food and Drug Administration has given informal...

  2. 21 CFR 174.5 - General provisions applicable to indirect food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... additives. 174.5 Section 174.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: GENERAL § 174.5 General provisions applicable to indirect food additives. (a) Regulations prescribing conditions under...

  3. 76 FR 15985 - Hartech Corporation; Denial Without Prejudice of Food Additive Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... Without Prejudice of Food Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is denying a food additive petition (FAP 1M4246) proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of a source of ionizing...

  4. 21 CFR 174.5 - General provisions applicable to indirect food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... additives. 174.5 Section 174.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: GENERAL § 174.5 General provisions applicable to indirect food additives. (a) Regulations prescribing conditions under...

  5. 21 CFR 570.6 - Opinion letters on food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Opinion letters on food additive status. 570.6... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.6 Opinion letters on food additive status. (a) Over the years the Food and Drug Administration has given informal...

  6. 21 CFR 570.6 - Opinion letters on food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Opinion letters on food additive status. 570.6... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.6 Opinion letters on food additive status. (a) Over the years the Food and Drug Administration has given informal...

  7. 76 FR 15986 - Alpha Omega Technology, Inc.; Denial Without Prejudice of Food Additive Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ....; Denial Without Prejudice of Food Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is denying a food additive petition (FAP 0M4181) proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of a source of...

  8. 21 CFR 174.5 - General provisions applicable to indirect food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... additives. 174.5 Section 174.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: GENERAL § 174.5 General provisions applicable to indirect food additives. (a) Regulations prescribing conditions under...

  9. 77 FR 65340 - Ajinomoto Co., Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition; Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 Ajinomoto Co., Inc.; Filing of Food Additive... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the filing notice for a food additive petition filed by... 35871), FDA announced that a food additive petition (FAP 9A4778) had been filed by Ajinomoto, Co., Inc...

  10. 76 FR 22904 - Ferm Solutions, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Erythromycin Thiocyanate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... food additive regulations in part 573 Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Ferm Solutions, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Erythromycin Thiocyanate AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY...

  11. German database on the occurrence of food additives: application for intake estimation of five food colours for toddlers and children.

    PubMed

    Diouf, Friederike; Berg, Katharina; Ptok, Sebastian; Lindtner, Oliver; Heinemeyer, Gerhard; Heseker, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    To get a more realistic estimation of food additive intake for toddlers and children, a German database on the occurrence of food additives was created. It uses consumption data of two recent national nutrition surveys for toddlers and children in combination with qualitative information of food additive occurrence in the consumed food. The information on food additive occurrence is based on food labelling. A categorisation system was developed according to regulations to classify the foods consumed and to identify possible food additive use in the food groups. Two natural (E120, E160b) and three artificial food colours (E110, E124, E129) were chosen for an assessment of food additive intake. The percentage of food items containing one of the chosen food colours was calculated for every food group and the food groups with most items containing the additive were identified. Intake estimations were performed based on maximum permitted-use levels (MPLs). Firstly, additive use was assumed in all foods consumed (tier 2); and secondly, food additive use was assumed only for those items where labelling confirmed the use and for all foods with no labelling available (tier 2b). Intake estimations were then compared with the ADI. Most food items with at least one of the food colours were found in the food groups confectionary, desserts, fermented milk products, flavoured drinks and breakfast cereals. The tier 2b approach provided more realistic estimations, which were always below those of the tier 2 approach and below the ADI for mean exposure. Exposure for high-level consumers exceeded the ADI for two of the food additives in tier 2b. Keeping in mind that the database is only mirroring the current situation, it provides a good possibility to refine the estimation of food additive intake for toddlers and children in Germany.

  12. Autoinducer-2-like activity associated with foods and its interaction with food additives.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lingeng; Hume, Michael E; Pillai, Suresh D

    2004-07-01

    The autoinducer-2 (AI-2) molecule produced by bacteria as part of quorum sensing is considered to be a universal inducer signal in bacteria because it reportedly influences gene expression in a variety of both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. The objective of this study was to determine whether selected fresh produce and processed foods have AI-2-like activity and whether specific food additives can act as AI-2 mimics and result in AI-2-like activity. The luminescence-based response of the reporter strain Vibrio harveyi BB170 was used as the basis for determining AI-2 activity in the selected foods and food ingredients. Maximum AI-2 activity was seen on the frozen fish sample (203-fold, compared with the negative control) followed by tomato, cantaloupe, carrots, tofu, and milk samples. Interestingly, some samples were capable of inhibiting AI-2 activity. Turkey patties showed the highest inhibition (99.8% compared with the positive control) followed by chicken breast (97.5%), homemade cheeses (93.7%), beef steak (90.6%), and beef patties (84.4%). AI-2 activity was almost totally inhibited by sodium propionate, whereas sodium benzoate caused 93.3% inhibition, compared with 75% inhibition by sodium acetate. Sodium nitrate did not have any appreciable effect, even at 200 ppm. Understanding the relationships that exist between AI-2 activity on foods and the ecology of pathogens and food spoilage bacteria on foods could yield clues about factors controlling food spoilage and pathogen virulence.

  13. Genotoxicity studies of the food additive ester gum.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, A; Agarwal, K; Chakrabarti, J

    1992-07-01

    Ester gum (EG) is used in citrus oil-based beverage flavourings as a weighting or colouring agent. In the present study, concentrations of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight were administered orally to male Swiss albino mice, and sister chromatid exchange and chromosomal aberration were used as the cytogenetic endpoints to determine the genotoxic and clastogenic potential of the food additive. Although EG was weakly clastogenic and could induce a marginal increase in sister chromatid exchange frequencies, it was not a potential health hazard at the doses tested.

  14. 75 FR 22411 - Fonterra (USA) Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Fonterra (USA) Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing that Fonterra (USA) Inc. has filed a petition proposing that the food additive regulations be...

  15. Alcohol Use During Pregnancy. [and] Fast Food and the American Diet. [and] Food Additives and Hyperactivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Terrence; And Others

    These three separate pamphlets provide background information, brief discussions of research findings, and guidelines and recommendations concerning selected aspects of diet. The first pamphlet discusses food additives and hyperactivity, focusing on both the Feingold theory and controlled experiments which do not support Feingold's clinical…

  16. Alcohol Use During Pregnancy. [and] Fast Food and the American Diet. [and] Food Additives and Hyperactivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Terrence; And Others

    These three separate pamphlets provide background information, brief discussions of research findings, and guidelines and recommendations concerning selected aspects of diet. The first pamphlet discusses food additives and hyperactivity, focusing on both the Feingold theory and controlled experiments which do not support Feingold's clinical…

  17. Cereal Starch Nanoparticles- A Prospective Food Additive: A Review.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jashandeep; Kaur, Gurkirat; Sharma, Savita; Jeet, Kiran

    2016-11-10

    Starch is one of the most abundant biopolymers in nature and is typically isolated from plants in the form of micro-scale granules. Raw starch has limited applications due to its innate disadvantages such as poor solubility in cold water, tendency to retrograde and high viscosity once it is gelatinized. Therefore, some degree of modification is required to enhance its functionality. Starch nanoparticle is one of the products of such modification. Chemical, enzymatic, and physical treatments are used for the preparation of starch nanoparticles and to study their granular and molecular structures. Characterization of starch nanoparticles on the size distribution, crystalline structure, and physical properties in relation to the starch sources and preparation methods can be done using various characterization tools e.g. Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Atomic Florescence Microscopy, etc. Starch nanoparticles can be used as a food additive as it has adverse range of uses in food such as emulsion stabilizer, fat replacer, Thickener or rheology modifier etc.

  18. FDA regulations regarding iodine addition to foods and labeling of foods containing added iodine.

    PubMed

    Trumbo, Paula R

    2016-09-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the addition of iodine to infant formulas, the iodization of salt, and the addition of salt and iodine to foods. The required amount of iodine in infant formulas is based on caloric content, and the label must provide the iodine content per 100 kcal. Cuprous iodide and potassium iodide may be added to table salt as a source of dietary iodine at a maximum amount of 0.01%; if added, the label must indicate that the salt is iodized. Table salt to which iodine has not been added must bear the statement, "This salt does not supply iodide, a necessary nutrient." If a nutrient is to be appropriately added to a food for the purpose of correcting a dietary insufficiency, there should be sufficient scientific information available to demonstrate a nutritional deficiency and/or identify a public health problem. Furthermore, the population groups that would benefit from the proposed fortification should be identified. If iodine is added to a food, the percent Daily Value of iodine must be listed. There are no FDA regulations governing ingredient standards for dietary supplements. As a result, some dietary supplements include iodine and others do not. If a supplement contains iodine, the Supplement Facts label must list iodine as a nutrient ingredient. If iodine is not listed on the Supplement Facts label, then it has not been added. There are similarities between the FDA, which establishes US food regulations and policies, and the Codex Alimentarius (Codex), which develops international food standards and guidelines under the aegis of the FAO and the WHO. Both the FDA and Codex call for the labeling of table salt to indicate fortification with iodine, voluntary labeling of iodine on foods, and a Daily Value (called a Nutrient Reference Value by Codex) of 150 μg for iodine. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. FDA regulations regarding iodine addition to foods and labeling of foods containing added iodine12

    PubMed Central

    Trumbo, Paula R

    2016-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the addition of iodine to infant formulas, the iodization of salt, and the addition of salt and iodine to foods. The required amount of iodine in infant formulas is based on caloric content, and the label must provide the iodine content per 100 kcal. Cuprous iodide and potassium iodide may be added to table salt as a source of dietary iodine at a maximum amount of 0.01%; if added, the label must indicate that the salt is iodized. Table salt to which iodine has not been added must bear the statement, “This salt does not supply iodide, a necessary nutrient.” If a nutrient is to be appropriately added to a food for the purpose of correcting a dietary insufficiency, there should be sufficient scientific information available to demonstrate a nutritional deficiency and/or identify a public health problem. Furthermore, the population groups that would benefit from the proposed fortification should be identified. If iodine is added to a food, the percent Daily Value of iodine must be listed. There are no FDA regulations governing ingredient standards for dietary supplements. As a result, some dietary supplements include iodine and others do not. If a supplement contains iodine, the Supplement Facts label must list iodine as a nutrient ingredient. If iodine is not listed on the Supplement Facts label, then it has not been added. There are similarities between the FDA, which establishes US food regulations and policies, and the Codex Alimentarius (Codex), which develops international food standards and guidelines under the aegis of the FAO and the WHO. Both the FDA and Codex call for the labeling of table salt to indicate fortification with iodine, voluntary labeling of iodine on foods, and a Daily Value (called a Nutrient Reference Value by Codex) of 150 μg for iodine. PMID:27534626

  20. Artificial sweeteners and mixture of food additives cause to break oral tolerance and induce food allergy in murine oral tolerance model for food allergy.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, H; Matsuhara, H; Miotani, S; Sako, Y; Matsui, T; Tanaka, H; Inagaki, N

    2017-09-01

    Processed foods are part of daily life. Almost all processed foods contain food additives such as sweeteners, preservatives and colourants. From childhood, it is difficult to avoid consuming food additives. It is thought that oral tolerance for food antigens is acquired during early life. If tolerance fails, adverse immune responses to food proteins may occur. We hypothesized that food additives prevent acquisition of oral tolerance and aimed to verify the safety of food additives. We induced experimental oral tolerance in mice for ovalbumin (OVA), a food antigen, by previous oral treatment with OVA before sensitization with OVA injections. Food additives were administered at the induction of oral tolerance, and food allergy was induced by repeated administration of OVA. Symptoms of food allergy were defined as a change in body temperature and allergic diarrhoea. Saccharin sodium and a mixture of food additives inhibited acquisition of oral tolerance. Hypothermia and allergic diarrhoea with elevation of OVA-specific IgE were induced in the murine model of oral tolerance. Analyses of antigen-presenting cells in mesenteric lymph nodes showed that food additives affected their manner of migration. Additionally, food additives decreased the proportion of CD25(hi) regulatory T cells among CD4(+) T cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes. A large amount of food additives may prevent acquisition of oral tolerance. Intake of food additives in early life may increase the risk of food allergies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Spectroscopic analysis and DFT calculations of a food additive Carmoisine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snehalatha, M.; Ravikumar, C.; Hubert Joe, I.; Sekar, N.; Jayakumar, V. S.

    2009-04-01

    FT-IR and Raman techniques were employed for the vibrational characterization of the food additive Carmoisine (E122). The equilibrium geometry, various bonding features, and harmonic vibrational wavenumbers have been investigated with the help of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. A good correlation was found between the computed and experimental wavenumbers. Azo stretching wavenumbers have been lowered due to conjugation and π-electron delocalization. Predicted electronic absorption spectra from TD-DFT calculation have been analysed comparing with the UV-vis spectrum. The first hyperpolarizability of the molecule is calculated. Intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) responsible for the optical nonlinearity of the dye molecule has been discussed theoretically and experimentally. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions, charge delocalization and C-H⋯O, improper, blue shifted hydrogen bonds have been analysed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis.

  2. Haberlea rhodopensis: pharmaceutical and medical potential as a food additive.

    PubMed

    Todorova, Roumiana; Atanasov, Atanas T

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses the potential of Haberlea rhodopensis as a food additive. The following are described: plant distribution, reproduction, cultivation, propagation and resurrection properties; extraction, isolation and screening of biologically active compounds; metabolite changes during dehydration; phytotherapy-related properties such as antioxidant potential and free radical-scavenging activities, antioxidant skin effect, antibacterial activity, cytotoxic activity and cancer-modulating effect, radioprotective effect, chemoprotective effect, immunologic effect; present use in homoeopathy and cosmetics, pharmacological and economical importance; perspectives based on the ethnobotanical data for medicinal, cosmetic or ritual attributes. H. rhodopensis showed unique medical and pharmaceutical potential, related to antioxidant, antimicrobial, antimutagenic, anticancer, radioprotective, chemoprotective and immunological properties. H. rhodopensis extracts lack any cytotoxic activity and could be used in phytotherapy. The metabolic profiling of H. rhodopensis extracts revealed the presence of biologically active compounds, possessing antiradical and other physiological activities, useful for design of in vitro synthesised analogues and drugs.

  3. [Determination method of isocitric acid in food additive citric acid].

    PubMed

    Kishi, H; Kawana, K

    2001-02-01

    A simple and rapid method using HPLC was developed for the determination of isocitric acid in food additive citric acid. One gram of sample was dissolved in 100 mL of water. HPLC separation was performed on an Inertsil ODS-3 column (4.6 mm i.d. x 250 mm) using 0.1% phosphoric acid as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. Isocitric acid was detected at 210 nm. The calibration graph was rectilinear from 5 to 100 micrograms/mL. The recoveries of isocitric acid from sample at the levels of 0.1% and 0.4% were 98% and 99%, respectively, and the determination limit was 0.05%.

  4. Nanoscale semiconducting silicon as a nutritional food additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canham, L. T.

    2007-05-01

    Very high surface area silicon powders can be realized by high energy milling or electrochemical etching techniques. Such nanoscale silicon structures, whilst biodegradable in the human gastrointestinal tract, are shown to be remarkably stable in most foodstuffs and beverages. The potential for using silicon to improve the shelf life and bioavailability of specific nutrients in functional foods is highlighted. Published drug delivery data implies that the nanoentrapment of hydrophobic nutrients will significantly improve their dissolution kinetics, through a combined effect of nanostructuring and solid state modification. Nutrients loaded to date include vitamins, fish oils, lycopene and coenzyme Q10. In addition, there is growing published evidence that optimized release of orthosilicic acid, the biodegradation product of semiconducting silicon in the gut, offers beneficial effects with regard bone health. The utility of nanoscale silicon in the nutritional field shows early promise and is worthy of much further study.

  5. Aluminium content of some processed foods, raw materials and food additives in China by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Deng, Gui-Fang; Li, Ke; Ma, Jing; Liu, Fen; Dai, Jing-Jing; Li, Hua-Bin

    2011-01-01

    The level of aluminium in 178 processed food samples from Shenzhen city in China was evaluated using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Some processed foods contained a concentration of up to 1226 mg/kg, which is about 12 times the Chinese food standard. To establish the main source in these foods, Al levels in the raw materials were determined. However, aluminium concentrations in raw materials were low (0.10-451.5 mg/kg). Therefore, aluminium levels in food additives used in these foods was determined and it was found that some food additives contained a high concentration of aluminium (0.005-57.4 g/kg). The results suggested that, in the interest of public health, food additives containing high concentrations of aluminium should be replaced by those containing less. This study has provided new information on aluminium levels in Chinese processed foods, raw materials and a selection of food additives.

  6. 75 FR 62545 - Ferm Solutions, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Virginiamycin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Ferm Solutions, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition... that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of virginiamycin as an... is given that a food additive petition (FAP 2264) has been filed by Ferm Solutions, Inc., PO Box 203...

  7. 78 FR 41840 - Indirect Food Additives: Adhesives and Components of Coatings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 175 Indirect Food Additives: Adhesives and... Drug Administration (FDA or we) is amending the food additive regulations to no longer provide for the... the Federal Register of July 17, 2012 (77 FR 41953), we announced that food additive petition (FAP...

  8. 76 FR 48751 - Lanxess Corp.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Calcium Formate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 573 Lanxess Corp.; Filing of Food Additive... petition proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of calcium...)), notice is given that a food additive petition (FAP 2261) has been filed by Lanxess Corp. (Lanxess), 111...

  9. 75 FR 21300 - North American Bioproducts Corp.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Erythromycin...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration North American Bioproducts Corp.; Filing of Food Additive... filed a petition proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of...)(5) (21 U.S.C. 348(b)(5)), notice is given that a food additive petition (FAP 2263) has been filed by...

  10. 78 FR 8101 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Additives

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... Codex Committee on Food Additives AGENCY: Office of the Under Secretary for Food Safety, USDA. ACTION... Session of the Codex Committee on Food Additives (CCFA) of the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex..., Ph.D., Supervisory Chemist, Division of Petition Review, Office of Food Additive Safety, Center for...

  11. 75 FR 17928 - Nisso America, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Nisso America, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition AGENCY... announcing that Nisso America, Inc., has filed a petition proposing that the food additive regulations for... Cosmetic Act (sec. 409(b)(5) (21 U.S.C. 348(b)(5))), notice is given that a food additive petition (FAP...

  12. Biokinetics of food additive silica nanoparticles and their interactions with food components.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-A; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Song, Jae Ho; Jo, Mi-Rae; Yu, Jin; Kim, Kyoung-Min; Kim, Young-Rok; Oh, Jae-Min; Choi, Soo-Jin

    2017-02-01

    Nanomaterials have been widely utilized in the food industry in production, packaging, sensors, nutrient delivery systems, and food additives. However, research on the interactions between food-grade nanoparticles and biomolecules as well as their potential toxicity is limited. In the present study, the in vivo solubility, oral absorption, tissue distribution, and excretion kinetics of one of the most extensively used food additives, silica (SiO2) were evaluated with respect to particle size (nano vs bulk) following single-dose oral administration to rats. Intestinal transport mechanism was investigated using a 3D culture system, in vitro model of human intestinal follicle-associated epithelium (FAE). The effect of the presence of food components, such as sugar and protein, on the oral absorption of nanoparticles was also evaluated with focus on their interactions. The results obtained demonstrated that the oral absorption of nanoparticles (3.94±0.38%) was greater than that of bulk materials (2.95±0.37%), possibly due to intestinal transport by microfold (M) cells. On the other hand, particle size was found to have no significant effect on in vivo dissolution property, biodistribution, or excretion kinetics. Oral absorption profile of silica nanoparticles was highly dependent on the presence of sugar or protein, showing rapid absorption rate in glucose, presumably due to their surface interaction on nanoparticles. These findings will be useful for predicting the potential toxicity of food-grade nanoparticles and for understanding biological interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Aluminium content of foods originating from aluminium-containing food additives.

    PubMed

    Ogimoto, Mami; Suzuki, Kumi; Haneishi, Nahoko; Kikuchi, Yuu; Takanashi, Mayu; Tomioka, Naoko; Uematsu, Yoko; Monma, Kimio

    2016-09-01

    Aluminium (Al) levels of 90 food samples were investigated. Nineteen samples contained Al levels exceeding the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) for young children [body weight (bw): 16 kg] when consuming two servings/week. These samples were purchased multiple times at specific intervals and were evaluated for Al levels. Al was detected in 27 of the 90 samples at levels ranging from 0.01 (limit of quantitation) to 1.06 mg/g. Of these, the Al intake levels in two samples (cookie and scone mix, 1.3 and 2 mg/kg bw/week, respectively) exceeded the TWI as established by European Food Safety Authority, although the level in the scone mix was equivalent to the provisional TWI (PTWI) as established by Joint Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives. The Al levels markedly decreased in 14 of the 19 samples with initially high Al levels. These results indicated reductions in the Al levels to below the PTWI limits in all but two previously identified food samples.

  14. Survey of residue levels of organic solvents in "existing food additives" and health food materials by head-space GC.

    PubMed

    Uematsu, Yoko; Ogimoto, Mami; Suzuki, Kumi; Kabashima, Junichirou; Ito, Koichi; Nakazato, Mitsuo

    2008-01-01

    Organic solvent residue levels in "Existing Food Additives" (n=145), health food materials (n=23), and commercial health food products (n=19) were surveyed. Ethanol was the dominant solvent found in the samples, suggesting its use in the manufacturing process. Methanol, acetone, 2-propanol and ethyl acetate was also found. No residual solvent exceeded the limits set by the Food Sanitation Law.

  15. 77 FR 9608 - American Chemistry Council; Filing of Food Additive Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 177 American Chemistry Council; Filing of Food Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of petition. SUMMARY: The Food... Chemistry Council (ACC), 700 Second St. NE., Washington, DC 20002. The petition proposes to amend the food...

  16. 75 FR 41725 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 573 (formerly Docket No. 2007F-0478) Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate AGENCY: Food and Drug... regulations for food additives permitted in feed and drinking water of animals to provide for the safe use of...

  17. 78 FR 42692 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 573 Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule... regulations for food additives permitted in feed and drinking water of animals do not correctly describe...

  18. Possible neurologic effects of aspartame, a widely used food additive.

    PubMed Central

    Maher, T J; Wurtman, R J

    1987-01-01

    The artificial sweetener aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanyl-methyl ester), is consumed, primarily in beverages, by a very large number of Americans, causing significant elevations in plasma and, probably, brain phenylalanine levels. Anecdotal reports suggest that some people suffer neurologic or behavioral reactions in association with aspartame consumption. Since phenylalanine can be neurotoxic and can affect the synthesis of inhibitory monoamine neurotransmitters, the phenylalanine in aspartame could conceiveably mediate neurologic effects. If mice are given aspartame in doses that elevate plasma phenylalanine levels more than those of tyrosine (which probably occurs after any aspartame dose in humans), the frequency of seizures following the administration of an epileptogenic drug, pentylenetetrazole, is enhanced. This effect is simulated by equimolar phenylalanine and blocked by concurrent administration of valine, which blocks phenylalanine's entry into the brain. Aspartame also potentiates the induction of seizures by inhaled fluorothyl or by electroconvulsive shock. Perhaps regulations concerning the sale of food additives should be modified to require the reporting of adverse reactions and the continuing conduct of mandated safety research. PMID:3319565

  19. 76 FR 78866 - Nexira; Filing of Food Additive Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... be amended to provide for the expanded safe use of acacia gum (gum arabic) in food. FOR FURTHER... regulations in Sec. 172.780 Acacia (gum arabic) (21 CFR 172.780), to provide for the expanded safe use of acacia gum (gum arabic) in food. The Agency has determined under 21 CFR 25.32(k) that this action is of a...

  20. [Risk hidden in the small print? : Some food additives may trigger pseudoallergic reactions].

    PubMed

    Zuberbier, Torsten; Hengstenberg, Claudine

    2016-06-01

    Some food additives may trigger pseudoallergenic reactions. However, the prevalence of such an overreaction is - despite the increasing number of food additives - rather low in the general population. The most common triggers of pseudoallergic reactions to food are naturally occurring ingredients. However, symptoms in patients with chronic urticaria should improve significantly on a pseudoallergen-free diet. In addition, some studies indicate that certain food additives may also have an impact on the symptoms of patients with neurodermatitis and asthma.

  1. 78 FR 43093 - Richard C. Theuer; Filing of Food Additive Petition and Citizen Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... Additive Petition and Citizen Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of...., has filed a petition proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to prohibit the use of... a food additive petition (FAP 3A4798; Docket No. FDA-2013-F-0700). The petition proposes to amend...

  2. 75 FR 55798 - North American Bioproducts Corporation; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Penicillin...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... Additive Petition (Animal Use); Penicillin G Procaine AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... Corp. has filed a petition proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the... Cosmetic Act (section 409(b)(5) (21 U.S.C. 348(b)(5))), notice is given that a food additive petition (FAP...

  3. 77 FR 71750 - DSM Nutritional Products; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... Additive Petition (Animal Use) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of petition... petition proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of benzoic..., and Cosmetic Act (section 409(b)(5) (21 U.S.C. 348(b)(5))), notice is given that a food additive...

  4. Food additives used in meat processing according to the Polish and European Union legislation.

    PubMed

    Uradziński, J; Weiner, M

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the legal regulations related to the use of food additives in meat production in Poland and the European Union. The Polish legal definition of food additives is given as well as the classification of permitted food additives added to food and stimulants by their technological function. In addition, a definition of processing aids in the food industry is included. It shows that Polish legislation includes food additives used to ensure or improve food nutritional value, whereas in the EU legislation, these substances are not included in the list of food additives. Moreover, the Council Directives include food additive specific purity criteria, whereas the Polish regulations do not mention the legal regulations of this issue in practice. The European Union use mechanisms and procedures for the introduction of new food additives into internal markets as well as controlling the circulation of additives. The Polish legislation in practice, however, does not determine approval or methods for the introduction of new food additives to the market. Legal regulations on the monitoring of food additives no exist.

  5. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials...

  6. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials...

  7. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials...

  8. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials...

  9. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials...

  10. 75 FR 39699 - Sterigenics International, Inc.; Withdrawal of Food Additive Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration (formerly Docket No. 2004F-0455) Sterigenics International, Inc.; Withdrawal of Food Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the withdrawal, without prejudice to a...

  11. 77 FR 2492 - United States Pharmacopeial Convention; Filing of Food Additive Petition; Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 172, 173, 178, and 180 United States Pharmacopeial Convention; Filing of Food Additive Petition; Amendment AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of petition. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the filing notice...

  12. 78 FR 77384 - DSM Nutritional Products; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 573 DSM Nutritional Products; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of petition. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing that DSM Nutritional Products has filed...

  13. 21 CFR 73.1 - Diluents in color additive mixtures for food use exempt from certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sequestrant in color additive mixtures intended only for ingested use; the color additive mixture (solution or... additive mixture (solution or dispersion) may contain not more than 1 percent by weight of the diluent... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diluents in color additive mixtures for food...

  14. Effect of preservation techniques and food additives on staphylococcal thermonuclease.

    PubMed

    Kumar, J K; Sharma, A K; Kulkarni, P R

    2000-08-01

    Staphylococcal TNase was found to retain its activity fully even after exposure to chilling and refrigeration temperatures for 24 h. It was not inhibited by p-hydroxy benzoic acid, sorbic acid, methylpropyl p-benzoic acid and sodium nitrite in the concentration range of 0.04 to 0.5%, whereas it was inhibited by 100 ppm of butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA), 200 ppm of butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT), and 300 ppm of propyl gallate. There was not complete inhibition of S. aureus and TNase by tocopherol (TP) and ascorbic acid (AA) even at concentration of 300 ppm. These results indicate that TNase can be used as an index of potentially enterotoxin producing S. aureus contamination in foods subjected to chilling, refrigeration as well as in foods containing common preservatives and antioxidants.

  15. Prevalence of Phosphorus-Based Additives in the Australian Food Supply: A Challenge for Dietary Education?

    PubMed

    McCutcheon, Jemma; Campbell, Katrina; Ferguson, Maree; Day, Sarah; Rossi, Megan

    2015-09-01

    Phosphorus-based food additives may pose a significant risk in chronic kidney disease given the link between hyperphosphatemia and cardiovascular disease. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of phosphorus-based food additives in best-selling processed grocery products and to establish how they were reported on food labels. A data set of 3000 best-selling grocery items in Australia across 15 food and beverage categories was obtained for the 12 months ending December 2013 produced by the Nielsen Company's Homescan database. The nutrition labels of the products were reviewed in store for phosphorus additives. The type of additive, total number of additives, and method of reporting (written out in words or as an E number) were recorded. Presence of phosphorus-based food additives, number of phosphorus-based food additives per product, and the reporting method of additives on product ingredient lists. Phosphorus-based additives were identified in 44% of food and beverages reviewed. Additives were particularly common in the categories of small goods (96%), bakery goods (93%), frozen meals (75%), prepared foods (70%), and biscuits (65%). A total of 19 different phosphorus additives were identified across the reviewed products. From the items containing phosphorus additives, there was a median (minimum-maximum) of 2 (1-7) additives per product. Additives by E number (81%) was the most common method of reporting. Phosphorus-based food additives are common in the Australian food supply. This suggests that prioritizing phosphorus additive education may be an important strategy in the dietary management of hyperphosphatemia. Further research to establish a database of food items containing phosphorus-based additives is warranted. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Pattern of intake of food additives associated with hyperactivity in Irish children and teenagers.

    PubMed

    Connolly, A; Hearty, A; Nugent, A; McKevitt, A; Boylan, E; Flynn, A; Gibney, M J

    2010-04-01

    A double-blind randomized intervention study has previously shown that a significant relationship exists between the consumption of various mixes of seven target additives by children and the onset of hyperactive behaviour. The present study set out to ascertain the pattern of intake of two mixes (A and B) of these seven target additives in Irish children and teenagers using the Irish national food consumption databases for children (n = 594) and teenagers (n = 441) and the National Food Ingredient Database. The majority of additive-containing foods consumed by both the children and teenagers contained one of the target additives. No food consumed by either the children or teenagers contained all seven of the target food additives. For each additive intake, estimates for every individual were made assuming that the additive was present at the maximum legal permitted level in those foods identified as containing it. For both groups, mean intakes of the food additives among consumers only were far below the doses used in the previous study on hyperactivity. Intakes at the 97.5th percentile of all food colours fell below the doses used in Mix B, while intakes for four of the six food colours were also below the doses used in Mix A. However, in the case of the preservative sodium benzoate, it exceeded the previously used dose in both children and teenagers. No child or teenager achieved the overall intakes used in the study linking food additives with hyperactivity.

  17. Centauries as underestimated food additives: antioxidant and antimicrobial potential.

    PubMed

    Siler, Branislav; Zivković, Suzana; Banjanac, Tijana; Cvetković, Jelena; Nestorović Živković, Jasmina; Cirić, Ana; Soković, Marina; Mišić, Danijela

    2014-03-15

    Methanol extracts of aerial parts and roots of five centaury species (Centaurium erythraea, C. tenuiflorum, C. littorale ssp. uliginosum, C. pulchellum, and Schenkia spicata) were analysed for their main secondary metabolites: secoiridoid glycosides, a group of monoterpenoid compounds, and phenolics (xanthones and flavonoids), and further investigated for antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial activity. The results of ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays showed that above ground parts generally displayed up to 13 times higher antioxidant activity compared to roots, which should be related to higher phenolics content, especially flavonoids, in green plant organs. Secoiridoid glycosides showed no antioxidant activity. All the tested extracts demonstrated appreciative antibacterial (0.05-0.5 mg ml(-1)) and strong antifungal activity (0.1-0.6 mg ml(-1)). Our results imply that above ground parts of all centaury species studied, could be recommended for human usage as a rich source of natural antioxidants and also in food industry as strong antimicrobial agents for food preservation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. FoodWiki: a Mobile App Examines Side Effects of Food Additives Via Semantic Web.

    PubMed

    Çelik Ertuğrul, Duygu

    2016-02-01

    In this article, a research project on mobile safe food consumption system (FoodWiki) is discussed that performs its own inferencing rules in its own knowledge base. Currently, the developed rules examines the side effects that are causing some health risks: heart disease, diabetes, allergy, and asthma as initial. There are thousands compounds added to the processed food by food producers with numerous effects on the food: to add color, stabilize, texturize, preserve, sweeten, thicken, add flavor, soften, emulsify, and so forth. Those commonly used ingredients or compounds in manufactured foods may have many side effects that cause several health risks such as heart disease, hypertension, cholesterol, asthma, diabetes, allergies, alzheimer etc. according to World Health Organization. Safety in food consumption, especially by patients in these risk groups, has become crucial, given that such health problems are ranked in the top ten health risks around the world. It is needed personal e-health knowledge base systems to help patients take control of their safe food consumption. The systems with advanced semantic knowledge base can provide recommendations of appropriate foods before consumption by individuals. The proposed FoodWiki system is using a concept based search mechanism that performs on thousands food compounds to provide more relevant information.

  19. 5 CFR 8301.104 - Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service. 8301.104 Section 8301.104 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF....104 Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service. Any employee of the Food Safety and Inspection Service not otherwise required to obtain approval for outside employment...

  20. 5 CFR 8301.104 - Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service. 8301.104 Section 8301.104 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF....104 Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service. Any employee of the Food Safety and Inspection Service not otherwise required to obtain approval for outside employment...

  1. 5 CFR 8301.104 - Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service. 8301.104 Section 8301.104 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF....104 Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service. Any employee of the Food Safety and Inspection Service not otherwise required to obtain approval for outside employment...

  2. 5 CFR 8301.104 - Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service. 8301.104 Section 8301.104 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF....104 Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service. Any employee of the Food Safety and Inspection Service not otherwise required to obtain approval for outside employment...

  3. 5 CFR 8301.104 - Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service. 8301.104 Section 8301.104 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF....104 Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service. Any employee of the Food Safety and Inspection Service not otherwise required to obtain approval for outside employment...

  4. Influence of Food Characteristics and Food Additives on the Antimicrobial Effect of Garlic and Oregano Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    García-Díez, Juan; Alheiro, Joana; Pinto, Ana Luisa; Soares, Luciana; Falco, Virgilio; Fraqueza, Maria João; Patarata, Luis

    2017-06-10

    Utilization of essential oils (EOs) as antimicrobial agents against foodborne disease has gained importance, for their use as natural preservatives. Since potential interactions between EOs and food characteristics may affect their antimicrobial properties, the present work studies the influence of fat, protein, pH, aw and food additives on the antimicrobial effect of oregano and garlic EOs against Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. Results showed that protein, pH, aw, presence of beef extract, sodium lactate and nitrates did not influence their antimicrobial effect. In contrast, the presence of pork fat had a negative effect against both EOs associated with their dilution of the lipid content. The addition of food phosphates also exerts a negative effect against EOs probably associated with their emulsification properties as observed with the addition of fat. The results may help the food industry to select more appropriate challenges to guarantee the food safety of foodstuffs.

  5. Influence of Food Characteristics and Food Additives on the Antimicrobial Effect of Garlic and Oregano Essential Oils

    PubMed Central

    García-Díez, Juan; Alheiro, Joana; Pinto, Ana Luísa; Soares, Luciana; Falco, Virgílio; Fraqueza, Maria João; Patarata, Luís

    2017-01-01

    Utilization of essential oils (EOs) as antimicrobial agents against foodborne disease has gained importance, for their use as natural preservatives. Since potential interactions between EOs and food characteristics may affect their antimicrobial properties, the present work studies the influence of fat, protein, pH, aw and food additives on the antimicrobial effect of oregano and garlic EOs against Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. Results showed that protein, pH, aw, presence of beef extract, sodium lactate and nitrates did not influence their antimicrobial effect. In contrast, the presence of pork fat had a negative effect against both EOs associated with their dilution of the lipid content. The addition of food phosphates also exerts a negative effect against EOs probably associated with their emulsification properties as observed with the addition of fat. The results may help the food industry to select more appropriate challenges to guarantee the food safety of foodstuffs. PMID:28604598

  6. Validation analysis of probabilistic models of dietary exposure to food additives.

    PubMed

    Gilsenan, M B; Thompson, R L; Lambe, J; Gibney, M J

    2003-10-01

    The validity of a range of simple conceptual models designed specifically for the estimation of food additive intakes using probabilistic analysis was assessed. Modelled intake estimates that fell below traditional conservative point estimates of intake and above 'true' additive intakes (calculated from a reference database at brand level) were considered to be in a valid region. Models were developed for 10 food additives by combining food intake data, the probability of an additive being present in a food group and additive concentration data. Food intake and additive concentration data were entered as raw data or as a lognormal distribution, and the probability of an additive being present was entered based on the per cent brands or the per cent eating occasions within a food group that contained an additive. Since the three model components assumed two possible modes of input, the validity of eight (2(3)) model combinations was assessed. All model inputs were derived from the reference database. An iterative approach was employed in which the validity of individual model components was assessed first, followed by validation of full conceptual models. While the distribution of intake estimates from models fell below conservative intakes, which assume that the additive is present at maximum permitted levels (MPLs) in all foods in which it is permitted, intake estimates were not consistently above 'true' intakes. These analyses indicate the need for more complex models for the estimation of food additive intakes using probabilistic analysis. Such models should incorporate information on market share and/or brand loyalty.

  7. Food additives reducing volatility of antioxidants at frying temperature

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    At frying temperature, antioxidants are lost not only by reaction with radicals formed by oil oxidation, but also by decomposition and evaporation before they are able to exert antioxidant activity. In this study it was hypothesized that an additive that can bind or interact with an antioxidant coul...

  8. The Revision of Aluminum-containing Food Additive Provisions in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Ji Yue; Wang, Hua Li; Luo, Peng Jie; Zhang, Jian Bo

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to revise the provisions for aluminum-containing food additives in GB 2760-2011 (The National Food Safety Standard for Use of Food Additives), in order to reduce aluminum exposure among the Chinese population. According to the latest risk assessment results of JECFA and China on aluminum and the actual use of aluminum-containing food additives in certain products, the aluminum-containing food additive-related provisions in GB 2760-2011 were revised. Those revisions included narrowing down the applicable food categories and adjusting the maximum use level of aluminum potassium sulfate and aluminum ammonium sulfate, repealing nine aluminum-containing food additives in puffed food and repealing the use of sodium aluminum phosphate, sodium aluminosilicate and starch aluminum octenylsuccinate in all food. After revision of the use of aluminum food additive provisions, the weekly dietary intake of aluminum in the Chinese population can be reduced to a safe level. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  9. Bactericidal activity of the food color additive Phloxine B against Staphylococcus aureus and other food borne microbial pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The spread of antibiotic resistance among Staphylococcus aureus strains requires the development of new anti S. aureus agents. The objective of this study was evaluating the antimicrobial activity of the food color additive Phloxine B against S. aureus and other food microbial pathogens. Our result ...

  10. Food webs in the litter: effects of food and nest addition on ant communities in coffee agroecosystems and forest.

    PubMed

    Murnen, Cody J; Gonthier, David J; Philpott, Stacy M

    2013-08-01

    Community assembly is driven by multiple factors, including resource availability and habitat requirements. Litter nesting ants respond to food and nest site availability, and adding food and nests may increase ant species richness and abundance. However, litter decomposers share food resources with ants, and increasing food availability may speed decomposition processes, eliminating twigs and seeds in which litter ants nest. We manipulated ant food and nest resources in three habitat types (forest, high-shade coffee, and low-shade coffee) to determine ant community responses after 1 and 2 mo. We examined changes in numbers of ant species, colonies, workers, brood, colony growth rate, and ant species composition. Habitat type strongly affected ant communities, influencing ant species richness, numbers of colonies and workers, and ant species composition. However, food addition and nest addition did not affect these community characteristics. Colony growth rate did not differ with food addition but was greater in forest and low-shade coffee compared with high-shade coffee. Habitat differences in colony growth may be because of presence of an aggressive species (Wasmannia auropunctata Roger) in high-shade coffee plots or naturally low arthropod densities during a time when ant colonization was low. Thus, in coffee landscapes, habitat type impacts litter nesting ant community structure, composition, and colony growth rate; however, food and nest addition had small impacts.

  11. Hidden sources of phosphorus: presence of phosphorus-containing additives in processed foods.

    PubMed

    Lou-Arnal, Luis M; Arnaudas-Casanova, Laura; Caverni-Muñoz, Alberto; Vercet-Tormo, Antonio; Caramelo-Gutiérrez, Rocío; Munguía-Navarro, Paula; Campos-Gutiérrez, Belén; García-Mena, Mercedes; Moragrera, Belén; Moreno-López, Rosario; Bielsa-Gracia, Sara; Cuberes-Izquierdo, Marta

    2014-01-01

    An increased consumption of processed foods that include phosphorus-containing additives has led us to propose the following working hypothesis: using phosphate-rich additives that can be easily absorbed in processed foods involves a significant increase in phosphorus in the diet, which may be considered as hidden phosphorus since it is not registered in the food composition tables. The quantity of phosphorus contained in 118 processed products was determined by spectrophotometry and the results were contrasted with the food composition tables of the Higher Education Centre of Nutrition and Diet, those of Morandeira and those of the BEDCA (Spanish Food Composition Database) Network. Food processing frequently involves the use of phosphoric additives. The products whose label contains these additives have higher phosphorus content and higher phosphorus-protein ratio. We observed a discrepancy with the food composition tables in terms of the amount of phosphorus determined in a sizeable proportion of the products. The phosphorus content of prepared refrigerated foods hardly appears in the tables. Product labels provide little information on phosphorus content. We observed a discrepancy in phosphorus content in certain foods with respect to the food composition tables. We should educate our patients on reviewing the additives on the labels and on the limitation of processed foods. There must be health policy actions to deal with the problem: companies should analyse the phosphorus content of their products, display the correct information on their labels and incorporate it into the food composition tables. Incentives could be established to prepare food with a low phosphorus content and alternatives to phosphorus-containing additives.

  12. A new application for food customization with additive manufacturing technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serenó, L.; Vallicrosa, G.; Delgado, J.; Ciurana, J.

    2012-04-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies have emerged as a freeform approach capable of producing almost any complete three dimensional (3D) objects from computer-aided design (CAD) data by successively adding material layer by layer. Despite the broad range of possibilities, commercial AM technologies remain complex and expensive, making them suitable only for niche applications. The developments of the Fab@Home system as an open AM technology discovered a new range of possibilities of processing different materials such as edible products. The main objective of this work is to analyze and optimize the manufacturing capacity of this system when producing 3D edible objects. A new heated syringe deposition tool was developed and several process parameters were optimized to adapt this technology to consumers' needs. The results revealed in this study show the potential of this system to produce customized edible objects without qualified personnel knowledge, therefore saving manufacturing costs compared to traditional technologies.

  13. Oral provocation tests with aspirin and food additives in asthmatic patients.

    PubMed

    Hong, S P; Park, H S; Lee, M K; Hong, C S

    1989-12-01

    Aspirin and food additives are known to induce bronchoconstriction, angioedema or urticaria in susceptible patients. To evaluate the incidence of hypersensitivity to aspirin and food additives, 36 subjects with bronchial asthma, 33 of whom were non-allergic asthmatics and 3 were allergic asthmatics who had a history of aspirin sensitivity, were challenged orally with six compounds: acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), sodium bisulfite, tartrazine, sodium benzoate, 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, and monosodium L-glutamate. Significant bronchoconstrictions were found in 15 (41.7%) of the 36 subjects tested. Eight of the 15 subjects showed positive asthmatic responses to the aspirin, two showed asthmatic responses to the food additives, and five responded to both aspirin and the food additives. It is suggested that ASA and food additives could be causes of clinically significant bronchoconstriction in moderately severe non-allergic asthmatic patients.

  14. "The Dose Makes the Poison": Informing Consumers About the Scientific Risk Assessment of Food Additives.

    PubMed

    Bearth, Angela; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Siegrist, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Intensive risk assessment is required before the approval of food additives. During this process, based on the toxicological principle of "the dose makes the poison,ˮ maximum usage doses are assessed. However, most consumers are not aware of these efforts to ensure the safety of food additives and are therefore sceptical, even though food additives bring certain benefits to consumers. This study investigated the effect of a short video, which explains the scientific risk assessment and regulation of food additives, on consumers' perceptions and acceptance of food additives. The primary goal of this study was to inform consumers and enable them to construct their own risk-benefit assessment and make informed decisions about food additives. The secondary goal was to investigate whether people have different perceptions of food additives of artificial (i.e., aspartame) or natural origin (i.e., steviolglycoside). To attain these research goals, an online experiment was conducted on 185 Swiss consumers. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group, which was shown a video about the scientific risk assessment of food additives, or the control group, which was shown a video about a topic irrelevant to the study. After watching the video, the respondents knew significantly more, expressed more positive thoughts and feelings, had less risk perception, and more acceptance than prior to watching the video. Thus, it appears that informing consumers about complex food safety topics, such as the scientific risk assessment of food additives, is possible, and using a carefully developed information video is a successful strategy for informing consumers. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Effect of vermiculite addition on compost produced from Korean food wastes.

    PubMed

    Seo, J Y; Heo, J S; Kim, T H; Joo, W H; Crohn, D M

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of vermiculite addition on composting food wastes from Korean households, food wastes were composted in three small bins to which different additives were added. The following three bins were employed: in Case I, only recycled compost was composted; in Case II, food wastes with recycled compost; and in Case III, food wastes with recycled compost and vermiculite. In the experiment performed for 30 days, it was confirmed that the supplementary addition of vermiculite to the composting mixture did not significantly improve the weight loss rate and the decomposition rate of food wastes. Due to dilution through the use of inorganic vermiculite, the vermiculite addition reduced the organic matter concentration of the composting mixtures. Vermiculite addition did not raise the pH value. Weight losses of roughly 70% were observed based on calculating moisture loss as well as dry food waste loss and not considering additives, while dry food waste loss was 29.4% and 35.8% with and without the addition of vermiculite, respectively. For these experiments, the major portion of the weight loss was the loss of water. The results indicate a need to differentiate between weight loss percentages and decomposition percentages, and a need to indicate if either of these percentages includes or excludes the mass of additives.

  16. Examining the Proportion of Dietary Phosphorus From Plants, Animals, and Food Additives Excreted in Urine.

    PubMed

    St-Jules, David E; Jagannathan, Ram; Gutekunst, Lisa; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2017-03-01

    Phosphorus bioavailability is an emerging topic of interest in the field of renal nutrition that has important research and clinical implications. Estimates of phosphorus bioavailability, based on digestibility, indicate that bioavailability of phosphorus increases from plants to animals to food additives. In this commentary, we examined the proportion of dietary phosphorus from plants, animals, and food additives excreted in urine from four controlled-feeding studies conducted in healthy adults and patients with chronic kidney disease. As expected, a smaller proportion of phosphorus from plant foods was excreted in urine compared to animal foods. However, contrary to expectations, phosphorus from food additives appeared to be incompletely absorbed. The apparent discrepancy between digestibility of phosphorus additives and the proportion excreted in urine suggests a need for human balance studies to determine the bioavailability of different sources of phosphorus. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Safety of food additives from a German and European point of view].

    PubMed

    Gürtler, R

    2010-06-01

    There are about 300 food additives permitted in the EU for which a re-evaluation program was initiated recently. Occasionally, it is speculated that the use of single food additives might be of safety concern. First results of the re-evaluation could give an impression on how such concerns were taken into account by responsible authorities, such as the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). For some of the food additives, the lowest dose resulting in adverse effects was lower in recent studies compared to previous studies. Thus, the acceptable daily intake (ADI) derived applying the common uncertainty factor was lower than the ADI derived using data from previous studies. Therefore, it has to be considered whether the conditions of use need to be modified for these food additives.

  18. Estimation of daily aluminum intake in Japan based on food consumption inspection results: impact of food additives

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Kyoko; Suzuki, Ippei; Kubota, Hiroki; Furusho, Noriko; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Yasukouchi, Yoshikazu; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Dietary aluminum (Al) intake by young children, children, youths, and adults in Japan was estimated using the market basket method. The Al content of food category (I–VII) samples for each age group was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The Al content in processed foods and unprocessed foods ranged from 0.40 to 21.7 mg/kg and from 0.32 to 0.54 mg/kg, respectively. For processed foods in all age groups, the Al content in food category VI samples, sugar and confections/savories, was the highest, followed by those in category II, cereals. The daily dietary Al intake from processed foods was much larger than that from unprocessed foods. The mean weekly percentages of the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI, established by the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives in 2011) from processed foods for all age groups are 43.1, 22.4, 17.6 and 15.1%, respectively. Only the highest consumer Al exposure value (>P95) of the young children group exceeded the PTWI. PMID:25473496

  19. Natural additives and agricultural wastes in biopolymer formulations for food packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdés, Arantzazu; Mellinas, Ana Cristina; Ramos, Marina; Garrigós, María Carmen; Jiménez, Alfonso

    2014-02-01

    The main directions in food packaging research are targeted towards improvements in food quality and food safety. For this purpose, food packaging providing longer product shelf-life, as well as the monitoring of safety and quality based upon international standards, is desirable. New active packaging strategies represent a key area of development in new multifunctional materials where the use of natural additives and/or agricultural wastes is getting increasing interest. The development of new materials, and particularly innovative biopolymer formulations, can help to address these requirements and also with other packaging functions such as: food protection and preservation, marketing and smart communication to consumers. The use of biocomposites for active food packaging is one of the most studied approaches in the last years on materials in contact with food. Applications of these innovative biocomposites could help to provide new food packaging materials with improved mechanical, barrier, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. From the food industry standpoint, concerns such as the safety and risk associated with these new additives, migration properties and possible human ingestion and regulations need to be considered. The latest innovations in the use of these innovative formulations to obtain biocomposites are reported in this review. Legislative issues related to the use of natural additives and agricultural wastes in food packaging systems are also discussed.

  20. Natural additives and agricultural wastes in biopolymer formulations for food packaging.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Arantzazu; Mellinas, Ana Cristina; Ramos, Marina; Garrigós, María Carmen; Jiménez, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    The main directions in food packaging research are targeted toward improvements in food quality and food safety. For this purpose, food packaging providing longer product shelf-life, as well as the monitoring of safety and quality based upon international standards, is desirable. New active packaging strategies represent a key area of development in new multifunctional materials where the use of natural additives and/or agricultural wastes is getting increasing interest. The development of new materials, and particularly innovative biopolymer formulations, can help to address these requirements and also with other packaging functions such as: food protection and preservation, marketing and smart communication to consumers. The use of biocomposites for active food packaging is one of the most studied approaches in the last years on materials in contact with food. Applications of these innovative biocomposites could help to provide new food packaging materials with improved mechanical, barrier, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties. From the food industry standpoint, concerns such as the safety and risk associated with these new additives, migration properties and possible human ingestion and regulations need to be considered. The latest innovations in the use of these innovative formulations to obtain biocomposites are reported in this review. Legislative issues related to the use of natural additives and agricultural wastes in food packaging systems are also discussed.

  1. Natural additives and agricultural wastes in biopolymer formulations for food packaging

    PubMed Central

    Valdés, Arantzazu; Mellinas, Ana Cristina; Ramos, Marina; Garrigós, María Carmen; Jiménez, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    The main directions in food packaging research are targeted toward improvements in food quality and food safety. For this purpose, food packaging providing longer product shelf-life, as well as the monitoring of safety and quality based upon international standards, is desirable. New active packaging strategies represent a key area of development in new multifunctional materials where the use of natural additives and/or agricultural wastes is getting increasing interest. The development of new materials, and particularly innovative biopolymer formulations, can help to address these requirements and also with other packaging functions such as: food protection and preservation, marketing and smart communication to consumers. The use of biocomposites for active food packaging is one of the most studied approaches in the last years on materials in contact with food. Applications of these innovative biocomposites could help to provide new food packaging materials with improved mechanical, barrier, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties. From the food industry standpoint, concerns such as the safety and risk associated with these new additives, migration properties and possible human ingestion and regulations need to be considered. The latest innovations in the use of these innovative formulations to obtain biocomposites are reported in this review. Legislative issues related to the use of natural additives and agricultural wastes in food packaging systems are also discussed. PMID:24790975

  2. Synergistic, additive, and antagonistic effects of food mixtures on total antioxidant capacities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sunan; Meckling, Kelly A; Marcone, Massimo F; Kakuda, Yukio; Tsao, Rong

    2011-02-09

    Different foods possess different bioactive compounds with varied antioxidant capacities. When foods are consumed together, the total antioxidant capacity of food mixtures may be modified via synergistic, additive, or antagonistic interactions among these components, which may in turn alter their physiological impacts. The main objective of this study was to investigate these interactions and identify any synergistic combinations. Eleven foods from three categories, including fruits (raspberry, blackberry, and apple), vegetables (broccoli, tomato, mushroom, and purple cauliflower), and legumes (soybean, adzuki bean, red kidney bean, and black bean) were combined in pairs. Four assays (total phenolic content, ferric reducing antioxidant power, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, radical scavenging capacity, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity) were used to evaluate the antioxidant capacities of individual foods and their combinations. The results indicated that within the same food category, 13, 68, and 21% of the combinations produced synergistic, additive, and antagonistic interactions, respectively, while the combinations produced 21, 54, and 25% synergistic, additive, and antagonistic effects, respectively, across food categories. Combining specific foods across categories (e.g., fruit and legume) was more likely to result in synergistic antioxidant capacity than combinations within a food group. Combining raspberry and adzuki bean extracts demonstrated synergistic interactions in all four chemical-based assays. Compositional changes did not seem to have occurred in the mixture. Results in this study suggest the importance of strategically selecting foods or diets to maximum synergisms as well as to minimum antagonisms in antioxidant activity.

  3. Estimated Daily Intake and Safety of FD&C Food Colour Additives in the US Population.

    PubMed

    Bastaki, Maria; Farrell, Thomas; Bhusari, Sachin; Bi, Xiaoyu; Scrafford, Carolyn

    2017-03-23

    A refined exposure assessment was undertaken to calculate the Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) of the seven FD&C straight colour additives and five FD&C colour lakes ("synthetic" food colours) approved in the United States (US). The EDIs were calculated for the US population as a whole and specific age groups, including children 2-5 y, children 6-12 y, adolescents 13-18 y, and adults 19+ y. Actual use data were collected from an industry survey of companies who are users of these colour additives in a variety of products, with additional input from food colour manufacturers. Food consumption data were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The assessment was further refined by adjusting the intake to more realistic scenarios based on the fraction of products containing colour within specific food categories using data provided by the Mintel International Group LTD. The results of the analysis indicate that a) the use levels reported by industry are consistent with the concentrations measured analytically by the US Food and Drug Administration; b) exposure to food colour additives in the US by average and high intake consumers is well below the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of each colour additive as published by the Joint WHO/FAO Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and allows wide margins of safety; and c) for children to reach the intake assumed in the Southampton study, they would have to consume at least 30 times more foods and beverages daily than the high consumers (95%) and the foods would have to contain four different colours at maximum use levels, a clearly unrealistic scenario. It is concluded that food colour use as currently practiced in the US is safe and does not result in excessive exposure to the population, even at conservative ranges of food consumption and levels of use.

  4. Effects of additional food in a delayed predator-prey model.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Banshidhar; Poria, Swarup

    2015-03-01

    We examine the effects of supplying additional food to predator in a gestation delay induced predator-prey system with habitat complexity. Additional food works in favor of predator growth in our model. Presence of additional food reduces the predatory attack rate to prey in the model. Supplying additional food we can control predator population. Taking time delay as bifurcation parameter the stability of the coexisting equilibrium point is analyzed. Hopf bifurcation analysis is done with respect to time delay in presence of additional food. The direction of Hopf bifurcations and the stability of bifurcated periodic solutions are determined by applying the normal form theory and the center manifold theorem. The qualitative dynamical behavior of the model is simulated using experimental parameter values. It is observed that fluctuations of the population size can be controlled either by supplying additional food suitably or by increasing the degree of habitat complexity. It is pointed out that Hopf bifurcation occurs in the system when the delay crosses some critical value. This critical value of delay strongly depends on quality and quantity of supplied additional food. Therefore, the variation of predator population significantly effects the dynamics of the model. Model results are compared with experimental results and biological implications of the analytical findings are discussed in the conclusion section.

  5. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. Forty-sixth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives and contaminants, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes for humans, and to prepare specifications for the identity and purity of food additives. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of principles governing the toxicological evaluation of food additives and contaminants, including flavouring agents, and the establishment and revision of specifications, with comments concerning limits for arsenic, lead and heavy metals. The toxicological significance of proliferative lesions of the adrenal medulla in rats fed polyols and other poorly digestible carbohydrates is also discussed. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of toxicological data on various specific food additives (dodecyl, octyl and propyl gallate, glycerol ester of wood rosin, ethyl esters, isoamyl alcohol and related esters, allyl esters, alitame, konjac flour, benzyl acetate, benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde, benzoic acid, the benzoate salts, and sucrose acetate isobutyrate) and the contaminants aflatoxins. Annexed to the report are a table summarizing the Committee's recommendations for acceptable daily intakes of these substances, changes in the status of specifications and further toxicological studies required, and toxicological data on the ethyl and isoamyl esters considered.

  6. [FADCC in NIHS for prior consultation system of application of food additives].

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Hiroshi; Sato, Kyoko

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of inquiries about application of food additives have been made from businesses in and outside Japan. The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) is requested to expedite the procedure for designation and revision of use standards. In June 2014, the MHLW set up a center for consultation on application concerning food additives (Food Additive Designation Consultation Center, FADCC) in the National Institute of Health Sciences, aiming to smoothly and expeditiously handle clerical work for designation or revision of the use standards. FADCC gives advice on how to prepare documents on the information such as physicochemical characteristics, effectiveness, safety, daily intake and use standards, based on actual cases and experience.

  7. Extra-phosphate load from food additives in commonly eaten foods: a real and insidious danger for renal patients.

    PubMed

    Benini, Omar; D'Alessandro, Claudia; Gianfaldoni, Daniela; Cupisti, Adamasco

    2011-07-01

    Restriction of dietary phosphorus is a major aspect of patient care in those with renal disease. Restriction of dietary phosphorus is necessary to control for phosphate balance during both conservative therapy and dialysis treatment. The extra amount of phosphorus which is consumed as a result of phosphate-containing food additives is a real challenge for patients with renal disease and for dieticians because it represents a "hidden" phosphate load. The objective of this study was to measure phosphorus content in foods, common protein sources in particular, and comprised both those which included a listing of phosphate additives and those which did not. Determinations of dry matter, nitrogen, total and soluble phosphate ions were carried out in 60 samples of foods, namely cooked ham, roast breast turkey, and roast breast chicken, of which, 30 were with declared phosphate additives and the other 30 similar items were without additives. Total phosphorus (290 ± 40 mg/100 g vs. 185 ± 23 mg/100 g, P < .001) and soluble phosphorus (164 ± 25 mg/100 g vs. 100 ± 19 mg/100 g, P < .001) content were higher in products containing additives than in foods without additives. No difference was detected between the 2 groups regarding dry matter (27.2 ± 2.0 g/100 g vs. 26.7 ± 1.9 g/100 g) or total nitrogen (3.15 ± 0.40 g/100 g vs. 3.19 ± 0.40 g/100 g). Consequently, phosphorus intake per gram of protein was much greater in the foods containing phosphorus additives (15.0 ± 3.1 mg/g vs. 9.3 ± 0.7 mg/g, P < .001). Our results show that those foods which contain phosphate additives have a phosphorus content nearly 70% higher than the samples which did not contain additives. This creates a special concern because this extra amount of phosphorus is almost completely absorbed by the intestinal tract. These hidden phosphates worsen phosphate balance control and increase the need for phosphate binders and related costs. Information and educational programs are essential to make

  8. 77 FR 56175 - Arcadia Biosciences, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... petition proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use in dry dog... CFR part 573) to provide for the safe use in dry dog food of oil from a variety of bioengineered... dogs. The petitioner has requested a categorical exclusion from preparing an environmental assessment...

  9. 78 FR 52429 - Indirect Food Additives: Adhesives and Components of Coatings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 175 Indirect Food Additives: Adhesives and Components of Coatings CFR Correction In Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 170 to 199...

  10. 78 FR 68461 - Guidance for Industry: Studies To Evaluate the Utility of Anti-Salmonella Chemical Food Additives...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... Anti- Salmonella Chemical Food Additives in Feeds; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug... Chemical Food Additives in Feeds,'' and is seeking comments on this guidance before revisions are made... Guidance for Industry: Studies to Evaluate the Utility of Anti-Salmonella Chemical Food Additives in Feeds...

  11. Is Patch Testing with Food Additives Useful in Children with Atopic Eczema?

    PubMed

    Catli, Gonul; Bostanci, Ilknur; Ozmen, Serap; Dibek Misirlioglu, Emine; Duman, Handan; Ertan, Ulker

    2015-01-01

    Atopy patch testing is a useful way to determine delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions to foods and aeroallergens. Although food additives have been accused of worsening atopic eczema symptoms, according to recent studies the role of food additives in atopic eczema remains unclear. The purpose of our study was to investigate food additive hypersensitivity in a group of children with atopic eczema by using standardized atopy patch testing and to determine the role of food additive hypersensitivity in atopic eczema. Thirty-four children with atopic eczema and 33 healthy children were enrolled in the study. Children who consumed foods containing additives and did not use either antihistamines or local or systemic corticosteroids for at least 7 days prior to admission were enrolled in the study. All children were subjected to atopy patch testing and after 48 and 72 hours their skin reactions were evaluated by using the guidelines. Positive atopy patch test results were significantly higher in the atopic eczema group. Forty-one percent of the atopic eczema group (n = 14) and 15.2% (n = 5) of the control group had positive atopy patch test results with food additives (p = 0.036) (estimated relative risk 1.68, case odds 0.7, control odds 0.17). Carmine hypersensitivity and the consumption of foods containing carmine, such as gumdrops, salami, and sausage, were significantly higher in the children with atopic eczema. This is the first study investigating hypersensitivity to food additives in children with atopic eczema. Our results indicate that carmine may play a role in atopic eczema. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. SOLUBILIZATION AND MICROEMULSIFICATION OF CHLORINATED SOLVENTS USING DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVE (EDIBLE) SURFACTANTS (JOURNAL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surfactant enhanced subsurface remediation is being evaluated as an innovative technology to expedite contaminant extraction from the subsurface. Regulatory approval of this technology will likely be enhanced by use of surfactants with FDA direct food additive status ("edible" su...

  13. SOLUBILIZATION AND MICROEMULSIFICATION OF CHLORINATED SOLVENTS USING DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVE (EDIBLE) SURFACTANTS (JOURNAL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surfactant enhanced subsurface remediation is being evaluated as an innovative technology to expedite contaminant extraction from the subsurface. Regulatory approval of this technology will likely be enhanced by use of surfactants with FDA direct food additive status ("edible" su...

  14. Providing additional money to food-insecure households and its effect on food expenditure: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Smith, Claire; Parnell, Winsome Ruth; Brown, Rachel Clare; Gray, Andrew Robert

    2013-08-01

    Financial constraint is the underpinning determinant of household food insecurity; however, there has been little research examining the impact that increasing the ‘money available’ to food-insecure households could have on food purchasing. The main objective of the present study was to examine the effect of additional money (in the form of supermarket vouchers) on food expenditure in food-insecure households with children. A parallel randomized controlled trial with a 4-week baseline phase followed by a 4-week intervention phase. Households were randomized to either receive vouchers (coupons) for 4 weeks or a control group that did not receive any vouchers. Dunedin, New Zealand. Low-income households with children ≥ 18 years) reporting food insecurity (n 214). The mean monetary value of the vouchers received by households was $NZ 17?00 per week. The voucher group spent ≥ NZ 15.20 (95% CI 1.46, 28.94) more per week on food during the intervention phase compared with the control group (P50.030). There were no differences in expenditure between the voucher and the control group for the food groups ‘fruit and vegetables’ (mean difference: ≥ NZ 0?46; 95% CI 21.97, 2.89; P50.709), ‘meat and poultry’ (mean difference: ≥ NZ 0.29; 95% CI 23.07, 3.64; P50.866) and ‘dairy’ (mean difference: ≥ NZ 0.82; 95% CI 20.75, 2.42; P50.302). Providing money via supermarket vouchers to food-insecure resulted in an increase in overall expenditure on food.

  15. Replacing Phosphorus-Containing Food Additives With Foods Without Additives Reduces Phosphatemia in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    de Fornasari, Margareth Lage Leite; Dos Santos Sens, Yvoty Alves

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to verify the effects of replacing phosphorus-containing food additives with foods without additives on phosphatemia in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Randomized clinical trial. Adult patients on hemodialysis for ≥6 months at a single center. A total of 134 patients with phosphorus levels of >5.5 mg/dL were included and were randomized into an intervention group (n = 67) and a control group (n = 67). The IG received individual orientation to replace processed foods that have phosphorus additives with foods of similar nutritional value without these additives. The CG received only the nutritional orientation given before the study. Clinical laboratory data, nutritional status, energy and protein intake, and normalized protein nitrogen appearance (nPNA) were evaluated at the beginning of the study and after 90 days. There was no initial difference between the groups in terms of serum phosphorus levels, nutritional status, and energy intake. After 3 months, there was a decline in phosphorus levels in the IG (from 7.2 ± 1.4 to 5.0 ± 1.3 mg/dL, P < .001), but there was no significant difference in the CG (from 7.1 ± 1.2 to 6.7 ± 1.2 mg/dL, P = .65). In the IG, 69.7% of the patients reached the serum phosphorus target of ≤5.5 mg/dL; however, only 18.5% of the CG subjects reached this level (P < .001). At the end, there was no difference between the two groups in terms of nutritional status, energy intake, protein intake, and nPNA. The replacing phosphorus-containing food additives with foods without additives reduced serum phosphorus without interfering in the nutritional status of ESRD patients. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Antibacterial effect of food additives and detergents against histamine-producing bacteria on food contact material surfaces].

    PubMed

    Kamii, Eri; Terada, Gaku; Akiyama, Junki; Isshiki, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the antibacterial activity of food additives and detergents against histamine-producing bacteria on food contact material surfaces. Based on minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing with Morganella morganii NBRC3848, Raoultella planticola NBRC3317 and Enterobacter aerogenes NCTC10006, we screened nine food additives and four detergents with relatively high inhibitory potency. We prepared food contact material surfaces contaminated with histamine-producing bacteria, and dipped them into fourteen agents (100 µg/mL). Sodium hypochlorite, benzalkonium chloride, benzethonium chloride, n-hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride and 1-n-hexadecylpyridinium chloride showed antibacterial activity against histamine-producing bacteria. We prepared low concentrations of the five agents (10 and 50 µg/mL) and tested them in the same way. Sodium hypochlorite showed high antibacterial activity at 10 µg/mL, and the other four showed activity at 50 µg/mL. So, washing the material surface with these reagents might be effective to prevent histamine food poisoning owing to bacterial contamination of food contact surfaces.

  17. Synergistic interactions between commonly used food additives in a developmental neurotoxicity test.

    PubMed

    Lau, Karen; McLean, W Graham; Williams, Dominic P; Howard, C Vyvyan

    2006-03-01

    Exposure to non-nutritional food additives during the critical development window has been implicated in the induction and severity of behavioral disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although the use of single food additives at their regulated concentrations is believed to be relatively safe in terms of neuronal development, their combined effects remain unclear. We therefore examined the neurotoxic effects of four common food additives in combinations of two (Brilliant Blue and L-glutamic acid, Quinoline Yellow and aspartame) to assess potential interactions. Mouse NB2a neuroblastoma cells were induced to differentiate and grow neurites in the presence of additives. After 24 h, cells were fixed and stained and neurite length measured by light microscopy with computerized image analysis. Neurotoxicity was measured as an inhibition of neurite outgrowth. Two independent models were used to analyze combination effects: effect additivity and dose additivity. Significant synergy was observed between combinations of Brilliant Blue with L-glutamic acid, and Quinoline Yellow with aspartame, in both models. Involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in food additive-induced neurite inhibition was assessed with a NMDA antagonist, CNS-1102. L-glutamic acid- and aspartame-induced neurotoxicity was reduced in the presence of CNS-1102; however, the antagonist did not prevent food color-induced neurotoxicity. Theoretical exposure to additives was calculated based on analysis of content in foodstuff, and estimated percentage absorption from the gut. Inhibition of neurite outgrowth was found at concentrations of additives theoretically achievable in plasma by ingestion of a typical snack and drink. In addition, Trypan Blue dye exclusion was used to evaluate the cellular toxicity of food additives on cell viability of NB2a cells; both combinations had a straightforward additive effect on cytotoxicity. These data have implications for the

  18. Lack of genotoxicity in vivo for food color additive Allura Red AC.

    PubMed

    Bastaki, Maria; Farrell, Thomas; Bhusari, Sachin; Pant, Kamala; Kulkarni, Rohan

    2017-07-01

    Allura Red AC is an approved food color additive internationally with INS number 129, in the United States as food color subject to batch certification "Food, Drug, and Cosmetic" (FD&C) Red No. 40, and in Europe as food color additive with E number 129. In their evaluation of the color (2013), the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) expressed concerns of potential genotoxicity, based primarily on one genotoxicity study that was not conducted according to Guidelines. The present in vivo genotoxicity study was conducted according to OECD Guidelines in response to EFSA's request for additional data. The animal species and strain, and the tissues examined were selected specifically to address the previously reported findings. The results show clear absence of genotoxic activity for Allura Red AC, in the bone marrow micronucleus assay and the Comet assay in the liver, stomach, and colon. These data addressed EFSA's concerns for genotoxicity. The Joint WHO/FAO Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) (2016) also reviewed the study and concluded that there is no genotoxicity concern for Allura Red AC. Negative findings in parallel genotoxicity studies on Tartrazine and Ponceau 4R (published separately) are consistent with lack of genotoxicity for azo dyes used as food colors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Oregano Essential Oil as an Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Additive in Food Products.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Garcia, I; Silva-Espinoza, B A; Ortega-Ramirez, L A; Leyva, J M; Siddiqui, M W; Cruz-Valenzuela, M R; Gonzalez-Aguilar, G A; Ayala-Zavala, J F

    2016-07-26

    Food consumers and industries urged the need of natural alternatives to assure food safety and quality. As a response, the use of natural compounds from herbs and spices is an alternative to synthetic additives associated with toxic problems. This review discusses the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of oregano essential oil (OEO) and its potential as a food additive. Oregano is a plant that has been used as a food seasoning since ancient times. The common name of oregano is given to several species: Origanum (family: Lamiaceae) and Lippia (family: Verbenaceae), amongst others. The main compounds identified in the different OEOs are carvacrol and thymol, which are responsible for the characteristic odor, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activity; however, their content may vary according to the species, harvesting season, and geographical sources. These substances as antibacterial agents make the cell membrane permeable due to its impregnation in the hydrophobic domains, this effect is higher against gram positive bacteria. In addition, the OEO has antioxidant properties effective in retarding the process of lipid peroxidation in fatty foods, and scavenging free radicals. In this perspective, the present review analyzes and discusses the state of the art about the actual and potential uses of OEO as an antimicrobial and antioxidant food additives.

  20. Impact of Phosphorus-Based Food Additives on Bone and Mineral Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Orlando M; Luzuriaga-McPherson, Alexandra; Lin, Yiming; Gilbert, Linda C; Ha, Shin-Woo; Beck, George R

    2015-11-01

    Phosphorus-based food additives can substantially increase total phosphorus intake per day, but the effect of these additives on endocrine factors regulating bone and mineral metabolism is unclear. This study aimed to examine the effect of phosphorus additives on markers of bone and mineral metabolism. Design and Setting, and Participants: This was a feeding study of 10 healthy individuals fed a diet providing ∼1000 mg of phosphorus/d using foods known to be free of phosphorus additives for 1 week (low-additive diet), immediately followed by a diet containing identical food items; however, the foods contained phosphorus additives (additive-enhanced diet). Parallel studies were conducted in animals fed low- (0.2%) and high- (1.8%) phosphorus diets for 5 or 15 weeks. The changes in markers of mineral metabolism after each diet period were measured. Participants were 32 ± 8 years old, 30% male, and 70% black. The measured phosphorus content of the additive-enhanced diet was 606 ± 125 mg higher than the low-additive diet (P < .001). After 1 week of the low-additive diet, consuming the additive-enhanced diet for 1 week significantly increased circulating fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), osteopontin, and osteocalcin concentrations by 23, 10, and 11%, respectively, and decreased mean sclerostin concentrations (P < .05 for all). Similarly, high-phosphorus diets in mice significantly increased blood FGF23, osteopontin and osteocalcin, lowered sclerostin, and decreased bone mineral density (P < .05 for all). The enhanced phosphorus content of processed foods can disturb bone and mineral metabolism in humans. The results of the animal studies suggest that this may compromise bone health.

  1. Impact of Phosphorus-Based Food Additives on Bone and Mineral Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Luzuriaga-McPherson, Alexandra; Lin, Yiming; Gilbert, Linda C.; Ha, Shin-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Context: Phosphorus-based food additives can substantially increase total phosphorus intake per day, but the effect of these additives on endocrine factors regulating bone and mineral metabolism is unclear. Objective: This study aimed to examine the effect of phosphorus additives on markers of bone and mineral metabolism. Design and Setting, and Participants: This was a feeding study of 10 healthy individuals fed a diet providing ∼1000 mg of phosphorus/d using foods known to be free of phosphorus additives for 1 week (low-additive diet), immediately followed by a diet containing identical food items; however, the foods contained phosphorus additives (additive-enhanced diet). Parallel studies were conducted in animals fed low- (0.2%) and high- (1.8%) phosphorus diets for 5 or 15 weeks. Main Outcome Measures: The changes in markers of mineral metabolism after each diet period were measured. Results: Participants were 32 ± 8 years old, 30% male, and 70% black. The measured phosphorus content of the additive-enhanced diet was 606 ± 125 mg higher than the low-additive diet (P < .001). After 1 week of the low-additive diet, consuming the additive-enhanced diet for 1 week significantly increased circulating fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), osteopontin, and osteocalcin concentrations by 23, 10, and 11%, respectively, and decreased mean sclerostin concentrations (P < .05 for all). Similarly, high-phosphorus diets in mice significantly increased blood FGF23, osteopontin and osteocalcin, lowered sclerostin, and decreased bone mineral density (P < .05 for all). Conclusions: The enhanced phosphorus content of processed foods can disturb bone and mineral metabolism in humans. The results of the animal studies suggest that this may compromise bone health. PMID:26323022

  2. Application of antibodies for the identification of polysaccharide gum additives in processed foods.

    PubMed

    Pazur, J H; Li, N-Q

    2004-11-01

    Anti-carbohydrate antibodies with specificities for polysaccharide gums were isolated from the serum of rabbits that were immunized with a solution of the gums and Freund's complete adjuvant. The primary objective was to test an immunological method for the detection of the polysaccharide gums as additives to processed foods. Analysis involved the extraction of food with phosphate buffer and the testing of the extract for a reaction with anti-gum antibodies by the agar diffusion method. Reaction by a specific gum with the homologous antibodies establishes the presence of the gum in the food. The method is a novel application of antibodies. The antibody method is highly specific for a gum and thus possesses advantages over other methods of analysis for polysaccharide gums as additives in processed foods.

  3. The prediction of food additives in the fruit juice based on electronic nose with chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Shanshan; Wang, Jun

    2017-09-01

    Food additives are added to products to enhance their taste, and preserve flavor or appearance. While their use should be restricted to achieve a technological benefit, the contents of food additives should be also strictly controlled. In this study, E-nose was applied as an alternative to traditional monitoring technologies for determining two food additives, namely benzoic acid and chitosan. For quantitative monitoring, support vector machine (SVM), random forest (RF), extreme learning machine (ELM) and partial least squares regression (PLSR) were applied to establish regression models between E-nose signals and the amount of food additives in fruit juices. The monitoring models based on ELM and RF reached higher correlation coefficients (R(2)s) and lower root mean square errors (RMSEs) than models based on PLSR and SVM. This work indicates that E-nose combined with RF or ELM can be a cost-effective, easy-to-build and rapid detection system for food additive monitoring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dynamics of additional food provided predator-prey system with mutually interfering predators.

    PubMed

    Prasad, B S R V; Banerjee, Malay; Srinivasu, P D N

    2013-11-01

    Use of additional/alternative food source to predators is one of the widely recognised practices in the field of biological control. Both theoretical and experimental works point out that quality and quantity of additional food play a vital role in the controllability of the pest. Theoretical studies carried out previously in this direction indicate that incorporating mutual interference between predators can stabilise the system. Experimental evidence also point out that mutual interference between predators can affect the outcome of the biological control programs. In this article dynamics of additional food provided predator-prey system in the presence of mutual interference between predators has been studied. The mutual interference between predators is modelled using Beddington-DeAngelis type functional response. The system analysis highlights the role of mutual interference on the success of biological control programs when predators are provided with additional food. The model results indicate the possibility of stable coexistence of predators with low prey population levels. This is in contrast to classical predator-prey models wherein this stable co-existence at low prey population levels is not possible. This study classifies the characteristics of biological control agents and additional food (of suitable quality and quantity), permitting the eco-managers to enhance the success rate of biological control programs.

  5. Consumer exposures to anthocyanins from colour additives, colouring foodstuffs and from natural occurrence in foods.

    PubMed

    Tennant, David R; Klingenberg, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Anthocyanins are responsible for the red/blue colour of grapes, currants, and other fruits and vegetables. They may also be extracted for use as colour additives (E163) or concentrated for use as colouring foods. Consumer exposures have been assessed using data on natural occurrence, use levels and frequencies from food manufacturers and European food consumption data. Intakes from natural occurrence can be up to 4 mg kg bw(-1) day(-1) at the mean and up to 17 mg kg bw(-1) day(-1) for children who are high level consumers of red/black berries and small fruits. High-level intakes for children from food colour and colouring food applications lie in the range 0.3-6.3 mg kg bw(-1) day(-1) and for adults at 0.6-2.8 mg kg bw(-1) day(-1). Exposures from food colour use and colouring foods separately or combined are therefore lower than those from natural occurrence in foods.

  6. Importance of perceived naturalness for acceptance of food additives and cultured meat.

    PubMed

    Siegrist, Michael; Sütterlin, Bernadette

    2017-06-01

    Four experiments examined some factors influencing the perceived naturalness of food products and their biasing effect on risk perception. The results of Experiment 1a showed that three food additives displaying their respective E-numbers (i.e., codes for food additives in the European Union and Switzerland) decreased perceived naturalness. Experiment 1b demonstrated that mentioning possible health effects decreased the perceived naturalness of a plant-based food additive. This experiment further showed that it would not matter for perceived naturalness whether the food was synthetic or nature-identical. Moreover, the results of Experiments 2 and 3 suggested that the same risk associated with meat consumption was much more acceptable for traditionally produced meat compared with in-vitro meat. Experiment 3 further indicated that the perceived naturalness of the meat (i.e., traditional or cultured meat) had a full mediation effect on participants' evaluation of the acceptability of the risk of colon cancer associated with the meat consumption. Even if the new production method (i.e., cultured meat) was more environmentally friendly and less harmful to animals, the perceived lack of naturalness might reduce the acceptability of the risk associated with such a product. The present study provides evidence that consumers rely on symbolic information when evaluating foods, which may lead to biased judgments and decisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Presence of nano-sized silica during in vitro digestion of foods containing silica as a food additive.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ruud; Kramer, Evelien; Oomen, Agnes G; Rivera, Zahira E Herrera; Oegema, Gerlof; Tromp, Peter C; Fokkink, Remco; Rietveld, Anton; Marvin, Hans J P; Weigel, Stefan; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Bouwmeester, Hans

    2012-03-27

    The presence, dissolution, agglomeration state, and release of materials in the nano-size range from food containing engineered nanoparticles during human digestion is a key question for the safety assessment of these materials. We used an in vitro model to mimic the human digestion. Food products subjected to in vitro digestion included (i) hot water, (ii) coffee with powdered creamer, (iii) instant soup, and (iv) pancake which either contained silica as the food additive E551, or to which a form of synthetic amorphous silica or 32 nm SiO(2) particles were added. The results showed that, in the mouth stage of the digestion, nano-sized silica particles with a size range of 5-50 and 50-500 nm were present in food products containing E551 or added synthetic amorphous silica. However, during the successive gastric digestion stage, this nano-sized silica was no longer present for the food matrices coffee and instant soup, while low amounts were found for pancakes. Additional experiments showed that the absence of nano-sized silica in the gastric stage can be contributed to an effect of low pH combined with high electrolyte concentrations in the gastric digestion stage. Large silica agglomerates are formed under these conditions as determined by DLS and SEM experiments and explained theoretically by the extended DLVO theory. Importantly, in the subsequent intestinal digestion stage, the nano-sized silica particles reappeared again, even in amounts higher than in the saliva (mouth) digestion stage. These findings suggest that, upon consumption of foods containing E551, the gut epithelium is most likely exposed to nano-sized silica.

  8. Regulation of Cancer-Causing Food Additives-Time for a Change?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-11

    essential nutrient, (2) economic benefits--reduced cost or increased supply, and (3) other benefits, such as increased appeal--improved aesthetic value...additives. Although color additives and new animal drugs are exempt from food additive status, the FD&C Act sets out standards essentially identical to... essential nature of a disease in animals, especially the struc- tural and functional changes in tissues and organs of a body which cause or are caused by

  9. [Use of the granulocytic myeloperoxidase release reaction to diagnose food additive allergies].

    PubMed

    Titova, N D

    2011-03-01

    Adverse reactions to food additives are difficult to diagnose due to the diversity of mechanisms involved in their realization and to the absence of reasonably reliable methods for their determination. Eighty-three patients with allergic diseases were examined using the granulocytic myeloperoxidase release reaction (MRR) to diagnose intolerance reactions to food additives (E102, E122, E124, E132, E110, E2111). MRR revealed leukocyte hypersensitivity to tartrazine in 10.8%, sunset yellow in 4.8%, ponceau in 13.2%, indigo carmine in 8.4%, carmoisine and benzoate in 9.6%. The findings were correlated with history data and the levels of IgE antibodies to these dyes. The practical use of the proposed MRR method makes it possible to enhance the accuracy of diagnosis of allergy to food additives.

  10. [Fatty acid of Chelidonium majus L. oil and its byologikal active as a food-additive].

    PubMed

    Kikalishvili, B; Zurabashvili, D; Wachnadze, N; Zurabashvili, Z; Giorgobiani, I

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the study is individual identification of fatty acids in oil of Chelidonium majus L. and prediction of its effects as a food-additive. By high-effective liquid chromatographic methods, fatty acids were fractionated. Identification of the fatty acids constituents was based on comparison of their retentium time. Their relative concentrations are expressed as percentages of the total fatty acid component. The impact of Chelidonium majus L. oil as a food-additive supplement on the contents of fatty acid in liver lipids of mice was determined. Investigations were carried out on 40 imbred mice. The investigation showed that the 5% food-additive of Chelidonium majus L. oil fulfil an important role in physiological processes in imbred mice livers.

  11. Sensitivity to food additives, vaso-active amines and salicylates: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Skypala, Isabel J; Williams, M; Reeves, L; Meyer, R; Venter, C

    2015-01-01

    Although there is considerable literature pertaining to IgE and non IgE-mediated food allergy, there is a paucity of information on non-immune mediated reactions to foods, other than metabolic disorders such as lactose intolerance. Food additives and naturally occurring 'food chemicals' have long been reported as having the potential to provoke symptoms in those who are more sensitive to their effects. Diets low in 'food chemicals' gained prominence in the 1970s and 1980s, and their popularity remains, although the evidence of their efficacy is very limited. This review focuses on the available evidence for the role and likely adverse effects of both added and natural 'food chemicals' including benzoate, sulphite, monosodium glutamate, vaso-active or biogenic amines and salicylate. Studies assessing the efficacy of the restriction of these substances in the diet have mainly been undertaken in adults, but the paper will also touch on the use of such diets in children. The difficulty of reviewing the available evidence is that few of the studies have been controlled and, for many, considerable time has elapsed since their publication. Meanwhile dietary patterns and habits have changed hugely in the interim, so the conclusions may not be relevant for our current dietary norms. The conclusion of the review is that there may be some benefit in the removal of an additive or a group of foods high in natural food chemicals from the diet for a limited period for certain individuals, providing the diagnostic pathway is followed and the foods are reintroduced back into the diet to assess for the efficacy of removal. However diets involving the removal of multiple additives and food chemicals have the very great potential to lead to nutritional deficiency especially in the paediatric population. Any dietary intervention, whether for the purposes of diagnosis or management of food allergy or food intolerance, should be adapted to the individual's dietary habits and a suitably

  12. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-25

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-01

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety.

  14. Food additives, essential nutrients and neurodevelopmental behavioural disorders in children: A brief review

    PubMed Central

    Buka, Irena; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Clark, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades, changing lifestyles in Canadian homes has led to demand for foods with long shelf lives that are cosmetically appealing, palatable, easy to prepare and to consume. Food additives, especially preservatives and artificial colours as well as suboptimal intake of essential nutrients, have been linked to hyperactive behaviours and poor attention in a subgroup of children. Although other risk factors (ie, genetic, etc) for these conditions have received more attention in the scientific literature, the authors believe that there is enough evidence to consider dietary influences as a modifiable risk factor. This would involve raising awareness among clinicians and, subsequently, reviewing food regulatory processes to better protect children in Canada – similar to the regulations recently undertaken by the British Food Standards Agency. Conflicts of interest due to food and medication industry support for organizations advocating for children would need to be resolved by open communication between government regulatory agencies, academia and industry. Canadian parents and children need to be advised to limit unnecessary food additives and consume a diet rich in essential nutrients while more complete relationships are being explored further. PMID:22851902

  15. Food additives, essential nutrients and neurodevelopmental behavioural disorders in children: A brief review.

    PubMed

    Buka, Irena; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Clark, Brenda

    2011-08-01

    In recent decades, changing lifestyles in Canadian homes has led to demand for foods with long shelf lives that are cosmetically appealing, palatable, easy to prepare and to consume. Food additives, especially preservatives and artificial colours as well as suboptimal intake of essential nutrients, have been linked to hyperactive behaviours and poor attention in a subgroup of children. Although other risk factors (ie, genetic, etc) for these conditions have received more attention in the scientific literature, the authors believe that there is enough evidence to consider dietary influences as a modifiable risk factor. This would involve raising awareness among clinicians and, subsequently, reviewing food regulatory processes to better protect children in Canada - similar to the regulations recently undertaken by the British Food Standards Agency. Conflicts of interest due to food and medication industry support for organizations advocating for children would need to be resolved by open communication between government regulatory agencies, academia and industry. Canadian parents and children need to be advised to limit unnecessary food additives and consume a diet rich in essential nutrients while more complete relationships are being explored further.

  16. Determination of seven certified color additives in food products using liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Harp, Bhakti Petigara; Miranda-Bermudez, Enio; Barrows, Julie N

    2013-04-17

    This study describes a new method for determining FD&C Blue No. 1, FD&C Blue No. 2, FD&C Green No. 3, FD&C Red No. 3, FD&C Red No. 40, FD&C Yellow No. 5, and FD&C Yellow No. 6 in food products. These seven color additives are water-soluble dyes that are required to be batch certified by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) before they may be used in food and other FDA-regulated products. In the new method, the color additives are extracted from a product using one of two procedures developed for various product types, isolated from the noncolored components, and analyzed by liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. The method was validated by determining linearity, range, precision, recovery from various matrices, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, and relative standard deviation for each color additive. A survey of 44 food products, including beverages, frozen treats, powder mixes, gelatin products, candies, icings, jellies, spices, dressings, sauces, baked goods, and dairy products, found total color additives ranging from 1.9 to 1221 mg/kg. FDA intends to use the new method for conducting a rigorous, comprehensive dietary exposure assessment of certified color additives in products likely to be consumed by children.

  17. Prevalence of sensitivity to food and drug additives in patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Jessica P; Simon, Ronald A; Bosso, John V

    2014-01-01

    Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) is defined as the presence of urticaria most days of the week for a period of 6 weeks or longer. There have been reports of food additive sensitivity in CIU previously, but the prevalence has not been precisely determined. To determine the prevalence of reactions to food and drug additives in patients with CIU. We challenged 100 patients in our allergy/immunology division with CIU to the 11 additives most commonly associated with reactions: tartrazine (FD&C Yellow 5), potassium metabisulfite, monosodium glutamate, aspartame, sodium benzoate, methyl paraben, butylated hydroxy anisole, butylated hydroxy toluene, FD&C Yellow 6, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite. All of the patients had a history of CIU for longer than 6 weeks, and 43 reported possible history of food or drug additive sensitivity. Single-blind challenges to all of the additives were performed in the clinic and skin scores were recorded. Subjects with positive challenge tests underwent double-blind placebo controlled challenges. Of 100 subjects, only 2 had a positive urticarial response on single-blind challenge. Neither of these patients had a positive urticarial response on double-blind placebo-controlled challenge. There were no gastrointestinal, respiratory, or other symptom, and no patients reported late reactions. We were able to conclude, with 95% confidence intervals that sensitivity to any of the 11 food and drug additives occurs in fewer than 1% of patients with CIU. Food and drug additives appear to be a rare cause of CIU, and avoidance is not recommended. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The identification of Combretum gums which are not permitted food additives, II.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D M; Morrison, N A

    1990-01-01

    Combretum gums, readily available at low prices in East and West Africa, may be offered for sale as 'gum arabic'. Vigilance is necessary to detect such misrepresentations because Combretum gums differ greatly from gum arabic (Acacia senegal (L.) Willd.) in terms of quality, solution properties and value. Moreover, because there is no toxicological evidence for their safety in use, Combretum gums are not included in any of the international lists of permitted food additives. Food manufacturers and regulatory authorities therefore require data that characterize Combretum gums so that their use in foodstuffs can be prevented. This paper presents such data for the gums from a further six Combretum species. All of these have negative optical rotations similar to that of food grade gum arabic. It is no longer sufficient, therefore, to rely solely on an optical rotation measurement to confirm the identity of gum arabic. The additional analyses necessary to differentiate between Combretum gums and gum arabic are discussed.

  19. Solubility Testing of Sucrose Esters of Fatty Acids in International Food Additive Specifications.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Yukino; Kawano, Satoko; Motoda, Kenichiro; Tomida, Masaaki; Tatebe, Chiye; Sato, Kyoko; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the solubility of 10 samples of sucrose esters of fatty acids (SEFA) products that are commercially available worldwide as food additives (emulsifiers). Although one sample dissolved transparently in both water and ethanol, other samples produced white turbidity and/or precipitates and did not meet the solubility criterion established by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). When the sample solutions were heated, the solubility in both water and ethanol increased. All of the samples dissolved transparently in ethanol, and dispersed and became white without producing precipitates in water. The present study suggests that the current solubility criterion of the JECFA SEFA specifications needs to be revised.

  20. Food additives and environmental chemicals as sources of childhood behavior disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, B.

    1982-01-01

    The Feingold hypothesis postulates that many children who exhibit disturbed behavior improve on a diet devoid of certain food additives. Its validity has been examined on the basis of controlled trails. The total evidence, although not wholly consistent, nevertheless suggests that the hypothesis is, in principle, correct. Such a conclusion poses difficult problems and new issues for etiology, treatment, toxicology, and regulation.

  1. The National Advisory Committee on Hyperkinesis and Food Additives. Report to the Nutrition Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Advisory Committee on Hyperkinesis and Food Additives.

    Reviewed in the report is research on hyperkinesis, specifically B. Feingold's hypotheses on the role of salicylates and food additives. Criticisms of Feingold's studies are seen to include methodological weaknesses (no double blind controlled experiments), nutritional concerns over the adequacy of prescribed diets, and lack of a specifically…

  2. Food Additives: "Eat, Drink, and Be Healthy". Health and the Consumer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Elementary and Secondary Education.

    One in a series, this consumer education learning activity package teaches secondary students about food additives. The package includes instructions for the teacher, suggestions for activities, lists of resource materials, film guides, student activity worksheets, a student resource booklet of background readings, and answer keys. Content taught…

  3. Evaluating Drugs and Food Additives for Public Use: A Case Studies Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Sheridan V.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a case study used in an introductory college biology course that provides a basis for generating debate on an issue concerning the regulation of controversial food additives and prescription drugs. The case study contained within this article deals with drug screening, specifically with information related to thalidomide. (CS)

  4. Effects of labile carbon addition on a headwater stream food web

    Treesearch

    Heidi S. Wilcox; J. Bruce Wallace; Judy L. Meyer; Jonathan P. Benstead

    2005-01-01

    We added dextrose for two 8-week periods (summer and autumn) to a highly heterotrophic headwater stream in North Carolina, U.S.A., to examine the responses of its benthic food web to increased labile carbon. We hypothesized that addition of labile carbon would elevate microbial abundance and activity, resulting in greater resource availability and higher...

  5. 75 FR 64733 - Arcadia Biosciences, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Safflower Seed Meal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... part 573 Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals (21 CFR part 573) to provide... cattle and poultry feeds. The safflower variety has been bioengineered to contain a gene from the water mold Saprolegnia diclina responsible for production of -linolenic acid in the seed oil. Seed meals are...

  6. The National Advisory Committee on Hyperkinesis and Food Additives. Final Report to the Nutrition Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutrition Foundation, Inc., Washington, DC.

    In response to the issues raised by B. Feingold regarding the possible role of food additives as a cause of hyperactivity and learing disability, the Nutrition Foundation organized a critical review of Feinfold's claims by a group of behavioral and medical scientists. Among the cliams made by Feingold was that, when treated with the salicylate and…

  7. Studies on the Food Additive Propyl Gallate: Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrido, Jorge; Garrido, E. Manuela; Borges, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidants are additives largely used in industry for delaying, retarding, or preventing the development of oxidative deterioration. Propyl gallate (E310) is a phenolic antioxidant extensively used in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. A series of lab experiments have been developed to teach students about the importance and…

  8. Evaluating Drugs and Food Additives for Public Use: A Case Studies Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Sheridan V.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a case study used in an introductory college biology course that provides a basis for generating debate on an issue concerning the regulation of controversial food additives and prescription drugs. The case study contained within this article deals with drug screening, specifically with information related to thalidomide. (CS)

  9. The National Advisory Committee on Hyperkinesis and Food Additives. Report to the Nutrition Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Advisory Committee on Hyperkinesis and Food Additives.

    Reviewed in the report is research on hyperkinesis, specifically B. Feingold's hypotheses on the role of salicylates and food additives. Criticisms of Feingold's studies are seen to include methodological weaknesses (no double blind controlled experiments), nutritional concerns over the adequacy of prescribed diets, and lack of a specifically…

  10. Food Additives: "Eat, Drink, and Be Healthy". Health and the Consumer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Elementary and Secondary Education.

    One in a series, this consumer education learning activity package teaches secondary students about food additives. The package includes instructions for the teacher, suggestions for activities, lists of resource materials, film guides, student activity worksheets, a student resource booklet of background readings, and answer keys. Content taught…

  11. The National Advisory Committee on Hyperkinesis and Food Additives. Final Report to the Nutrition Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutrition Foundation, Inc., Washington, DC.

    In response to the issues raised by B. Feingold regarding the possible role of food additives as a cause of hyperactivity and learing disability, the Nutrition Foundation organized a critical review of Feinfold's claims by a group of behavioral and medical scientists. Among the cliams made by Feingold was that, when treated with the salicylate and…

  12. Studies on the Food Additive Propyl Gallate: Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrido, Jorge; Garrido, E. Manuela; Borges, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidants are additives largely used in industry for delaying, retarding, or preventing the development of oxidative deterioration. Propyl gallate (E310) is a phenolic antioxidant extensively used in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. A series of lab experiments have been developed to teach students about the importance and…

  13. Recent trends in the use of food additives in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Saltmarsh, Mike

    2015-03-15

    The E number system for food additives was introduced in the 1960s and the E was intended to reassure consumers that permitted additives were safe. In the 1980s full ingredient declarations had to be provided on food products for the first time and manufacturers were permitted to use either the name or the number of the additive on the ingredient list. This paper outlines some of the trends in the sourcing, use and labelling of additives since the introduction of full ingredient listing. Generally, sourcing has become more global with a large number of suppliers being based in China. From an initial use of E numbers in ingredient lists, manufacturers are increasingly using the names of additives. This trend is being extended to avoid the use of anything the consumer might consider an additive, particularly in connection with colours and preservatives. Specifically, the colours used in the Southampton study on the impact of food colours on hyperactivity in children have largely been replaced by colouring foodstuffs, and the preservative used in the study, sodium benzoate, has been replaced by potassium sorbate in the majority of soft drinks. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Nitrogen addition and warming independently influence the belowground micro-food web in a temperate steppe.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Bai, Huahua; Liang, Wenju; Xia, Jianyang; Wan, Shiqiang; van der Putten, Wim H

    2013-01-01

    Climate warming and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition are known to influence ecosystem structure and functioning. However, our understanding of the interactive effect of these global changes on ecosystem functioning is relatively limited, especially when it concerns the responses of soils and soil organisms. We conducted a field experiment to study the interactive effects of warming and N addition on soil food web. The experiment was established in 2006 in a temperate steppe in northern China. After three to four years (2009-2010), we found that N addition positively affected microbial biomass and negatively influenced trophic group and ecological indices of soil nematodes. However, the warming effects were less obvious, only fungal PLFA showed a decreasing trend under warming. Interestingly, the influence of N addition did not depend on warming. Structural equation modeling analysis suggested that the direct pathway between N addition and soil food web components were more important than the indirect connections through alterations in soil abiotic characters or plant growth. Nitrogen enrichment also affected the soil nematode community indirectly through changes in soil pH and PLFA. We conclude that experimental warming influenced soil food web components of the temperate steppe less than N addition, and there was little influence of warming on N addition effects under these experimental conditions.

  15. Nitrogen Addition and Warming Independently Influence the Belowground Micro-Food Web in a Temperate Steppe

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qi; Bai, Huahua; Liang, Wenju; Xia, Jianyang; Wan, Shiqiang; van der Putten, Wim H.

    2013-01-01

    Climate warming and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition are known to influence ecosystem structure and functioning. However, our understanding of the interactive effect of these global changes on ecosystem functioning is relatively limited, especially when it concerns the responses of soils and soil organisms. We conducted a field experiment to study the interactive effects of warming and N addition on soil food web. The experiment was established in 2006 in a temperate steppe in northern China. After three to four years (2009–2010), we found that N addition positively affected microbial biomass and negatively influenced trophic group and ecological indices of soil nematodes. However, the warming effects were less obvious, only fungal PLFA showed a decreasing trend under warming. Interestingly, the influence of N addition did not depend on warming. Structural equation modeling analysis suggested that the direct pathway between N addition and soil food web components were more important than the indirect connections through alterations in soil abiotic characters or plant growth. Nitrogen enrichment also affected the soil nematode community indirectly through changes in soil pH and PLFA. We conclude that experimental warming influenced soil food web components of the temperate steppe less than N addition, and there was little influence of warming on N addition effects under these experimental conditions. PMID:23544140

  16. Assessing the effect, on animal model, of mixture of food additives, on the water balance.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Mariola; Kuchlewska, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine, on the animal model, the effect of modification of diet composition and administration of selected food additives on water balance in the body. The study was conducted with 48 males and 48 females (separately for each sex) of Wistar strain rats divided into four groups. For drinking, the animals from groups I and III were receiving water, whereas the animals from groups II and IV were administered 5 ml of a solution of selected food additives (potassium nitrate - E 252, sodium nitrite - E 250, benzoic acid - E 210, sorbic acid - E 200, and monosodium glutamate - E 621). Doses of the administered food additives were computed taking into account the average intake by men, expressed per body mass unit. Having drunk the solution, the animals were provided water for drinking. The mixture of selected food additives applied in the experiment was found to facilitate water retention in the body both in the case of both male and female rats, and differences observed between the volume of ingested fluids and the volume of excreted urine were statistically significant in the animals fed the basal diet. The type of feed mixture provided to the animals affected the site of water retention - in the case of animals receiving the basal diet analyses demonstrated a significant increase in water content in the liver tissue, whereas in the animals fed the modified diet water was observed to accumulate in the vascular bed. Taking into account the fact of water retention in the vascular bed, the effects of food additives intake may be more adverse in the case of females.

  17. Generation of reactive oxygen species by interaction between antioxidants used as food additive and metal ions.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Yusuke; Oda, Momoko; Tsukuda, Yuri; Nagamori, Yuki; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Ito, Rie; Saito, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Food additives, such as preservatives, sweeteners, coloring agents, and flavoring agents, are widely used in food manufacturing. However, their combined effects on the human body are not known. The purpose of this study was to examine whether combinations of antioxidants and metal ions generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) under in vitro conditions using electron spin resonance (ESR). Among the metal ions examined, only iron and copper generated ROS in the presence of antioxidants. Moreover, certain phenolic antioxidants having pro-oxidant activity induced DNA oxidation and degradation via the generation of high levels of ROS in the presence of copper ion, resulting in complete degradation of DNA in vitro.

  18. Chromatographic Evaluation and Characterization of Components of Gentian Root Extract Used as Food Additives.

    PubMed

    Amakura, Yoshiaki; Yoshimura, Morio; Morimoto, Sara; Yoshida, Takashi; Tada, Atsuko; Ito, Yusai; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Gentian root extract is used as a bitter food additive in Japan. We investigated the constituents of this extract to acquire the chemical data needed for standardized specifications. Fourteen known compounds were isolated in addition to a mixture of gentisin and isogentisin: anofinic acid, 2-methoxyanofinic acid, furan-2-carboxylic acid, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, isovitexin, gentiopicroside, loganic acid, sweroside, vanillic acid, gentisin 7-O-primeveroside, isogentisin 3-O-primeveroside, 6'-O-glucosylgentiopicroside, and swertiajaposide D. Moreover, a new compound, loganic acid 7-(2'-hydroxy-3'-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl)benzoate (1), was also isolated. HPLC was used to analyze gentiopicroside and amarogentin, defined as the main constituents of gentian root extract in the List of Existing Food Additives in Japan.

  19. Effects of maternally exposed colouring food additives on cognitive performance in rats.

    PubMed

    Doguc, Duygu Kumbul; Ceyhan, Betul Mermi; Ozturk, Mustafa; Gultekin, Fatih

    2013-08-01

    Artificial food colourings and additives (AFCAs) have long been suggested to adversely affect the learning and behaviour in children. In this study, we aimed to provide additional data to clarify the possible side effects of colouring additives on behaviour and memory. We administered acceptable daily intake values of AFCAs as a mixture (Eritrosin, Ponceau 4R, Allura Red AC, Sunset Yellow FCF, Tartrazin, Amaranth, Brilliant Blue, Azorubin and Indigotin) to female rats before and during gestation and then tested their effects on behaviour and on spatial working memory in their offspring. Effects on spatial learning and memory were evaluated by Morris water maze, behavioural effects were evaluated by open-field test and forced swim test. Our results showed that commonly used artificial food colourings have no adverse effects on spatial working memory and did not create a depressive behaviour in offspring. But they showed a few significant effects on locomotor activity as AFCAs increased some parameters of locomotor activity.

  20. The Use of Ascorbic Acid as a Food Additive: Technical-Legal Issues

    PubMed Central

    Varvara, Michele; Bozzo, Giancarlo; Celano, Giuseppe; Disanto, Chiara; Pagliarone, Cosimo Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Ascorbic acid (C6H8O6) is an organic compound belonging to the family of monosaccharide. It is highly soluble in water, and is often called one of the secrets of the Mediterranean diet. Its use is widespread in the food industry is also important, having always been exploited for its antioxidant and stabilising ability. Many indeed are the additive formulations that take advantage of these properties. The purpose of this paper is to explain the characteristics that make ascorbic acid an important food additive and to emphasise the technical and legal issues related to its use in food productions. In particular, in the course of this employment, laws and scientific studies have been applied to the resolution of a lawsuit, having as its object the use of ascorbic acid in preparations of ground beef sold at a butcher shop. The views expressed in court by the technical consultant have led to the acquittal of the accused, in the light of the demonstrated and proven non-toxicity of the molecule and the use of a mixture of additives for the production of sausage. The European and national legislations, supported by numerous scientific studies, define the possible use of ascorbic acid according to the principle of quantum satis, and it can be used in foods for children. Our work aims to represent further evidence of the safety of use of ascorbic acid as a food additive, and – as confirmed by the legal decision reported – it wants to bring out the prospects for use of ascorbic acid for technological purposes even by registered establishments. PMID:27800425

  1. Perception Gaps on Food Additives among Various Groups in Korea: Food Experts, Teachers, Nutrition Teachers, Nongovernmental Organization Members, and General Consumers.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hee-Jin; Kim, Suna; Lee, Gunyoung; Lim, Ho Soo; Yun, Sang Soon; Kim, Jeong-Weon

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions and information needs of food experts, teachers, nutrition teachers, members of nongovernmental organizations, and general consumers concerning food additives. Questions in a survey format included perceptions, information needs, and preferred communication channels. The survey was conducted both off-line and on-line via e-mail and Google Drive in March 2015. The results indicated that most Korean consumers are concerned about the safety of using food additives in processed foods and do not recognize these additives as safe and useful materials as part of a modern diet. We also identified perception gaps among different groups regarding food additives. Nutrition teachers and members of nongovernmental organizations in Korea appeared to have a biased perception of food additives, which may cause general consumers to have a negative perception of food additives. The group of food experts did not have this bias. Governmental institutions must overcome the low confidence levels of various groups as an information provider about food additives. Based on the findings in this study, it will be possible to develop a strategy for risk communication about food additives for each group.

  2. Antagonistic control of a dual-input mammalian gene switch by food additives.

    PubMed

    Xie, Mingqi; Ye, Haifeng; Hamri, Ghislaine Charpin-El; Fussenegger, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Synthetic biology has significantly advanced the design of mammalian trigger-inducible transgene-control devices that are able to programme complex cellular behaviour. Fruit-based benzoate derivatives licensed as food additives, such as flavours (e.g. vanillate) and preservatives (e.g. benzoate), are a particularly attractive class of trigger compounds for orthogonal mammalian transgene control devices because of their innocuousness, physiological compatibility and simple oral administration. Capitalizing on the genetic componentry of the soil bacterium Comamonas testosteroni, which has evolved to catabolize a variety of aromatic compounds, we have designed different mammalian gene expression systems that could be induced and repressed by the food additives benzoate and vanillate. When implanting designer cells engineered for gene switch-driven expression of the human placental secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) into mice, blood SEAP levels of treated animals directly correlated with a benzoate-enriched drinking programme. Additionally, the benzoate-/vanillate-responsive device was compatible with other transgene control systems and could be assembled into higher-order control networks providing expression dynamics reminiscent of a lap-timing stopwatch. Designer gene switches using licensed food additives as trigger compounds to achieve antagonistic dual-input expression profiles and provide novel control topologies and regulation dynamics may advance future gene- and cell-based therapies. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. Antagonistic control of a dual-input mammalian gene switch by food additives

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Mingqi; Ye, Haifeng; Hamri, Ghislaine Charpin-El; Fussenegger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology has significantly advanced the design of mammalian trigger-inducible transgene-control devices that are able to programme complex cellular behaviour. Fruit-based benzoate derivatives licensed as food additives, such as flavours (e.g. vanillate) and preservatives (e.g. benzoate), are a particularly attractive class of trigger compounds for orthogonal mammalian transgene control devices because of their innocuousness, physiological compatibility and simple oral administration. Capitalizing on the genetic componentry of the soil bacterium Comamonas testosteroni, which has evolved to catabolize a variety of aromatic compounds, we have designed different mammalian gene expression systems that could be induced and repressed by the food additives benzoate and vanillate. When implanting designer cells engineered for gene switch-driven expression of the human placental secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) into mice, blood SEAP levels of treated animals directly correlated with a benzoate-enriched drinking programme. Additionally, the benzoate-/vanillate-responsive device was compatible with other transgene control systems and could be assembled into higher-order control networks providing expression dynamics reminiscent of a lap-timing stopwatch. Designer gene switches using licensed food additives as trigger compounds to achieve antagonistic dual-input expression profiles and provide novel control topologies and regulation dynamics may advance future gene- and cell-based therapies. PMID:25030908

  4. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  5. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  6. Qualitative identification of permitted and non-permitted colour additives in food products.

    PubMed

    Harp, Bhakti Petigara; Miranda-Bermudez, Enio; Baron, Carolina I; Richard, Gerald I

    2012-01-01

    Colour additives are dyes, pigments or other substances that can impart colour when added or applied to food, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, or the human body. The substances must be pre-approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) and listed in Title 21 of the US Code of Federal Regulations before they may be used in products marketed in the United States. Some also are required to be batch certified by the USFDA prior to their use. Both domestic and imported products sold in interstate commerce fall under USFDA jurisdiction, and the USFDA's district laboratories use a combination of analytical methods for identifying or confirming the presence of potentially violative colour additives. We have developed a qualitative method for identifying 17 certifiable, certification exempt, and non-permitted colour additives in various food products. The method involves extracting the colour additives from a product and isolating them from non-coloured components with a C(18) Sep-Pak cartridge. The colour additives are then separated and identified by liquid chromatography (LC) with photodiode array detection, using an Xterra RP18 column and gradient elution with aqueous ammonium acetate and methanol. Limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.02 to 1.49 mg/l. This qualititative LC method supplements the visible spectrophotometric and thin-layer chromatography methods currently used by the USFDA's district laboratories and is less time-consuming and requires less solvent compared to the other methods. The extraction step in the new LC method is a simple and an efficient process that can be used for most food types.

  7. Effects of water soaking and/or sodium polystyrene sulfonate addition on potassium content of foods.

    PubMed

    Picq, Christian; Asplanato, Marion; Bernillon, Noémie; Fabre, Claudie; Roubeix, Mathilde; Ricort, Jean-Marc

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we determined, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, the potassium amount leached by soaking or boiling foods identified by children suffering from chronic renal failure as "pleasure food" and that they cannot eat because of their low-potassium diet, and evaluated whether addition of sodium polystyrene sulfonate resin (i.e. Kayexalate®) during soaking or boiling modulated potassium loss. A significant amount of potassium content was removed by soaking (16% for chocolate and potato, 26% for apple, 37% for tomato and 41% for banana) or boiling in a large amount of water (73% for potato). Although Kayexalate® efficiently dose-dependently removed potassium from drinks (by 48% to 73%), resin addition during soaking or boiling did not eliminate more potassium from solid foods. Our results therefore provide useful information for dietitians who elaborate menus for people on potassium-restricted diets and would give an interesting alternative to the systematic elimination of all potassium-rich foods from their diet.

  8. DNA damage in human germ cell exposed to the some food additives in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pandir, Dilek

    2016-08-01

    The use of food additives has increased enormously in modern food technology but they have adverse effects in human healthy. The aim of this study was to investigate the DNA damage of some food additives such as citric acid (CA), benzoic acid (BA), brilliant blue (BB) and sunset yellow (SY) which were investigated in human male germ cells using comet assay. The sperm cells were incubated with different concentrations of these food additives (50, 100, 200 and 500 μg/mL) for 1 h at 32 °C. The results showed for CA, BA, BB and SY a dose dependent increase in tail DNA%, tail length and tail moment in human sperm when compared to control group. When control values were compared in the studied parameters in the treatment concentrations, SY was found to exhibit the highest level of DNA damage followed by BB > BA > CA. However, none of the food additives affected the tail DNA%, tail length and tail moment at 50 and 100 μg/mL. At 200 μg/mL of SY, the tail DNA% and tail length of sperm were 95.80 ± 0.28 and 42.56 ± 4.66, for BB the values were 95.06 ± 2.30 and 39.56 ± 3.78, whereas for BA the values were 89.05 ± 2.78 and 31.50 ± 0.71, for CA the values were 88.59 ± 6.45 and 13.59 ± 2.74, respectively. However, only the highest concentration of the used food additives significantly affected the studied parameters of sperm DNA. The present results indicate that SY and BB are more harmful than BA and CA to human sperm in vitro.

  9. Identification of Xenoestrogens in Food Additives by an Integrated in Silico and in Vitro Approach

    PubMed Central

    Amadasi, Alessio; Mozzarelli, Andrea; Meda, Clara; Maggi, Adriana; Cozzini, Pietro

    2009-01-01

    In the search for xenoestrogens within food additives, we have analyzed the Joint FAO-WHO expert committee database, containing 1500 compounds, using an integrated in silico and in vitro approach. This analysis identified 31 potential estrogen receptor α ligands that were reduced to 13 upon applying a stringent filter based on ligand volume and binding mode. Among the 13 potential xenoestrogens, four were already known to exhibit an estrogenic activity, and the other nine were assayed in vitro, determining the binding affinity to the receptor and biological effects. Propyl gallate was found to act as an antagonist, and 4-hexylresorcinol was found to act as a potent transactivator; both ligands were active at nanomolar concentrations, as predicted by the in silico analysis. Some caution should be issued for the use of propyl gallate and 4-hexylresorcinol as food additives. PMID:19063592

  10. Toxic effects of some synthetic food colorants and/or flavor additives on male rats.

    PubMed

    El-Wahab, Hanan Mohamed Fathy Abd; Moram, Gehan Salah El-Deen

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the broadest toxic effect of some synthetic additives of colorants and/or flavors on different body organs and metabolic aspects in rats. A number of chemical food color and flavor additives are routinely added during processing to improve the aesthetic appearance of the dietary items. However, many of them are toxic after prolonged use. In this experiment, a total of 100 male albino rats of Spargue Dawley strain were divided into 10 groups: G(1) was fed basal diet and served as control, G(2): basal diet + Brilliant blue (blue dye, No. 2, 124 mg/kg diet), G(3): basal diet + carmoisine (red dye, No. 3, 70 mg/kg diet), G(4): basal diet + tartrazine (yellow dye, FD & C yellow No. 5, 75 mg/kg diet), G(5): basal diet + trans-anethole (4.5 g/kg diet) G(6): basal diet + propylene glycol (0.25 g/kg diet), G(7): basal diet + vanillin(1.25 g/kg diet), G(8): basal diet + Brilliant blue + propylene glycol, G(9): basal diet + carmoisine + trans-anethole, G(10): basal diet + tartrazine + vanillin for 42 successive days. All food colorants mixed with or without flavor additives induced a significant decrease in body weight, hemoglobin concentration and red blood cell count. Also there was a significant decrease in reduced glutathione content; glutathione-S-transferase and superoxide dismutase activities in both blood and liver compared to control group. On the other hand, a significant increase in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase activities, bilirubin, urea, creatinine, total protein and albumin were observed in all test groups when compared to control group. Finally, it is advisable to limit the uses of these food colorants and/or food flavor additives especially those used by children.

  11. Formation and reduction of carcinogenic furan in various model systems containing food additives.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Sil; Her, Jae-Young; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study was to analyse and reduce furan in various model systems. Furan model systems consisting of monosaccharides (0.5M glucose and ribose), amino acids (0.5M alanine and serine) and/or 1.0M ascorbic acid were heated at 121°C for 25 min. The effects of food additives (each 0.1M) such as metal ions (iron sulphate, magnesium sulphate, zinc sulphate and calcium sulphate), antioxidants (BHT and BHA), and sodium sulphite on the formation of furan were measured. The level of furan formed in the model systems was 6.8-527.3 ng/ml. The level of furan in the model systems of glucose/serine and glucose/alanine increased 7-674% when food additives were added. In contrast, the level of furan decreased by 18-51% in the Maillard reaction model systems that included ribose and alanine/serine with food additives except zinc sulphate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Problems Related to the Use of Food Additives in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Oser, Bernard L.

    1966-01-01

    Major problems encountered by enforcement agencies and by regulated industries, respectively, in implementing and conforming to recent food additive laws are reviewed. Decisions as to which substances fall within the broad terms of the legal definition, and which escape by virtue of “generally recognized as safe” (GRAS) status, are often difficult and complex. Distinctions cannot be made solely on the basis of whether substances are old or new, natural or synthetic. Registration of pesticides on a “no residue” basis and establishment of “zero tolerances” for food additives have created an anomalous situation as a result of improvements in sensitivity of analytical techniques which revealed the presence of minute amounts of substances where none were believed to exist. A solution has been recommended by a specially appointed committee of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council (U.S.A.). Enforcement of the new food additive laws warrants revision of present labelling requirements to provide for designating chemical ingredients by functional categories rather than by confusing chemical terminology.

  13. Using epidemiology to regulate food additives: saccharin case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Cordle, F; Miller, S A

    1984-01-01

    The increasing use of nonnutritive sweeteners and the widely publicized 1969 ban on cyclamate led to additional investigations in rodents of the carcinogenic potential of saccharin. Preliminary results of a long-term feeding study indicated formation of bladder tumors in rodents, and collective experimental evidence has demonstrated that high doses of the synthetic sweetener saccharin can cause bladder cancer in rodents. Based on the results of that and other rodent studies indicating an increased risk of bladder cancer associated with saccharin, the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration announced the agency's intention to propose a ban on saccharin. This intention was made known in April 1977 under the Delaney Clause of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The clause essentially states that no additive shall be deemed safe if it is found to induce cancer in man or animals, or if it is found, after tests appropriate for the evaluation of the safety of food additives, to induce cancer in man or animals. Also in 1977, a group of epidemiologists began to assess the available epidemiologic information to determine the potential human risk. This report describes the assessment of several human epidemiologic studies available then and the results of more recent epidemiologic studies.

  14. Risk assessment for the combinational effects of food color additives: neural progenitor cells and hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Park, Mikyung; Park, Hee Ra; Kim, So Jung; Kim, Min-Sun; Kong, Kyoung Hye; Kim, Hyun Soo; Gong, Ein Ji; Kim, Mi Eun; Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Byung Mu; Lee, Jaewon

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, the Korea Food and Drug Administration reported that combinations of dietary colors such as allura red AC (R40), tartrazine (Y4), sunset yellow FCF (Y5), amaranth (R2), and brilliant blue FCF (B1) are widely used in food manufacturing. Although individual tar food colors are controlled based on acceptable daily intake (ADI), there is no apparent information available for how combinations of these additives affect food safety. In the current study, the potencies of single and combination use of R40, Y4, Y5, R2, and B1 were examined on neural progenitor cell (NPC) toxicity, a biomarker for developmental stage, and neurogenesis, indicative of adult central nervous system (CNS) functions. R40 and R2 reduced NPC proliferation and viability in mouse multipotent NPC, in the developing CNS model. Among several combinations tested in mouse model, combination of Y4 and B1 at 1000-fold higher than average daily intake in Korea significantly decreased numbers of newly generated cells in adult mouse hippocampus, indicating potent adverse actions on hippocampal neurogenesis. However, other combinations including R40 and R2 did not affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. Evidence indicates that single and combination use of most tar food colors may be safe with respect to risk using developmental NPC and adult hippocampal neurogenesis. However, the response to excessively high dose combination of Y4 and B1 is suggestive of synergistic effects to suppress proliferation of NPC in adult hippocampus. Data indicated that combinations of tar colors may adversely affect both developmental and adult hippocampal neurogenesis; thus, further extensive studies are required to assess the safety of these additive combinations.

  15. Estimated daily intake of benzoic acid through food additives in adult population of South East Serbia.

    PubMed

    Lazarević, Konstansa; Stojanović, Dusica; Rancić, Natasa

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate dietary intake of benzoic acid and its salts through food additives in adult population of South East Serbia. Information on dietary intake among 620 adults (aged 18-65) was collected using a food frequency questionnaire, and 748 food samples were analyzed. The mean estimated intake of benzoic acid -0.32 mg/kg of body weight (bw) per day was below acceptable daily intake (ADI). Dietary exposure to benzoic acid (0.36 mg/kg of bw/day; 7.2% ADI) (consumer only), also did not exceed ADI. The main contributors of benzoic acid to dietary intake were non alcoholic beverages (43.1%), ketchup and tomato products (36.1%), and domestic pickled vegetables (19.4%). The results of this study indicate that dietary exposure to benzoic acid and its salts through food preservatives does not represent a public health risk for the adult population of South East Serbia.

  16. [Prevalence of chronic urticaria following the ingestion of food additives in a third tier hospital].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Aranda, G S; Flores-Sandoval, G; Gómez-Vera, J; Orea-Solano, M

    1996-01-01

    We studied 40 patients with the clinical diagnostic of chronic urticaria from January to June, 1995 and excluded 4 patients who did not fulfilled the entry criteria. 29 women and 7 men with age from 4 to 62 years old. We performed a basic clinics history and the oral challenge tests (PRO) included Tartrazine (Ta), Sodium Metabisulfite (MS), Potasium Metabisulfite (MP) and Sodium Bisulfite (BS) in consecutive days with increasing doses unless an adverse reactions appear. Other tests included Skin Prick tests for food (PC), complete blood counts, coprology and immunology tests (IgE, IgA, IgM, IgG, C3, C4, Cel LE and ANA) and paranasal sinus X Ray. 63.8% (23/36) had positive PRO. 47.2% (17/36) positives to Ta,, 36.1% (13/36) to MS, 33.3% (12/36) to BS and 30.5% (11/36) to MP. 72.2% (26/36) had positive PC to one or more foods, 65.3% (17/26) besides had positive PRO. 41.1% (7/17) of the patients who had positive PRO and positive PC to foods had sinusitis. One patient (0.23%) had palpebral angioedema with PRO. The prevalence was 3.1%. Ta was the additive that cause more reactivity. It is possible to find reactivity to one or more additives in a patient with chronic urticaria.

  17. Reduction of carcinogenic 4(5)-methylimidazole in a caramel model system: influence of food additives.

    PubMed

    Seo, Seulgi; Ka, Mi-Hyun; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2014-07-09

    The effect of various food additives on the formation of carcinogenic 4(5)-methylimidazole (4-MI) in a caramel model system was investigated. The relationship between the levels of 4-MI and various pyrazines was studied. When glucose and ammonium hydroxide were heated, the amount of 4-MI was 556 ± 1.3 μg/mL, which increased to 583 ± 2.6 μg/mL by the addition of 0.1 M of sodium sulfite. When various food additives, such as 0.1 M of iron sulfate, magnesium sulfate, zinc sulfate, tryptophan, and cysteine were added, the amount of 4-MI was reduced to 110 ± 0.7, 483 ± 2.0, 460 ± 2.0, 409 ± 4.4, and 397 ± 1.7 μg/mL, respectively. The greatest reduction, 80%, occurred with the addition of iron sulfate. Among the 12 pyrazines, 2-ethyl-6-methylpyrazine with 4-MI showed the highest correlation (r = -0.8239).

  18. [Survey of toxic heavy metals and arsenic in existing food additives (natural colors)].

    PubMed

    Ogimoto, Mami; Uematsu, Yoko; Suzuki, Kumi; Kabashima, Junichiro; Nakazato, Mitsuo

    2009-10-01

    Pollution levels of toxic heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Hg) and arsenic in existing food additives used as food colors (40 samples of 15 kinds) were investigated. Heavy metals were detected in 8 samples; Pb in 1 sample (2.8 microg/g), Hg in 8 samples (0.1-3.4 microg/g) and arsenic in 2 samples (1.7, 2.6 microg/g). The Pb level in 1 sample of lac color (2.8 microg/g) exceeded the limit of 2 microg/g proposed by JECFA and Hg levels in 3 samples of cacao color (1.2-3.4 microg/g) exceeded the limit of 1 microg/g in the EU specification.

  19. Under the law, FDA must grant different standards for new dietary ingredients and food additives.

    PubMed

    Mister, Steven; Hathcock, John

    2012-04-01

    The FDA's draft Guidance on notifications for new dietary ingredients attempts to narrow the scope of "old" dietary ingredients that do not require notification to FDA and repeats some mistakes from the past by going beyond what is required or permitted by the Food, Drug & Cosmetic Act, as amended by the Dietary Supplements Health and Education Act of 1994. The draft Guidance attempts to apply the notification requirement to new supplements, not just new ingredients, and it expands the working definition of "chemically altered" to include many changes that were not foreseen in the Congressional Record in 1994. Through these misinterpretations, FDA attempts to impose a food additives-like safety standard, and gain de facto premarket approval against the overt wishes of Congress.

  20. Early additional food and fluids for healthy breastfed full-term infants.

    PubMed

    Smith, Hazel A; Becker, Genevieve E

    2016-08-30

    Health organisations recommend exclusive breastfeeding for six months. However, the addition of other fluids or foods before six months is common in many countries. Recently, research has suggested that introducing solid food at around four months of age while the baby continues to breastfeed is more protective against developing food allergies compared to exclusive breastfeeding for six months. Other studies have shown that the risks associated with non-exclusive breastfeeding are dependent on the type of additional food or fluid given. Given this background we felt it was important to update the previous version of this review to incorporate the latest findings from studies examining exclusive compared to non-exclusive breastfeeding. To assess the benefits and harms of additional food or fluid for full-term healthy breastfeeding infants and to examine the timing and type of additional food or fluid. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (1 March 2016) and reference lists of all relevant retrieved papers. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials in infants under six months of age comparing exclusive breastfeeding versus breastfeeding with any additional food or fluids. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Two review authors assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We included 11 trials (2542 randomised infants/mothers). Nine trials (2226 analysed) provided data on outcomes of interest to this review. The variation in outcome measures and time points made it difficult to pool results from trials. Data could only be combined in a meta-analysis for one primary (breastfeeding duration) and one secondary (weight change) outcome. None of the trials reported on physiological jaundice. Infant mortality was only reported in one trial.For the majority of older trials, the description of study methods was inadequate to

  1. Statement Summarizing Research Findings on the Issue of the Relationship Between Food-Additive-Free Diets and Hyperkinesis in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipton, Morris; Wender, Esther

    The National Advisory Committee on Hyperkinesis and Food Additives paper summarized some research findings on the issue of the relationship between food-additive-free diets and hyperkinesis in children. Based on several challenge studies, it is concluded that the evidence generally refutes Dr. B. F. Feingold's claim that artificial colorings in…

  2. Statement Summarizing Research Findings on the Issue of the Relationship Between Food-Additive-Free Diets and Hyperkinesis in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipton, Morris; Wender, Esther

    The National Advisory Committee on Hyperkinesis and Food Additives paper summarized some research findings on the issue of the relationship between food-additive-free diets and hyperkinesis in children. Based on several challenge studies, it is concluded that the evidence generally refutes Dr. B. F. Feingold's claim that artificial colorings in…

  3. [Acetylsalicylic acid and food additive intolerance in urticaria, bronchial asthma and rhinopathy].

    PubMed

    Wüthrich, B; Fabro, L

    1981-09-26

    Adverse reactions (urticaria, angio-edema, bronchoconstriction, purpura) to Aspirin (ASS) and food-and-drug additives such as the yellow dye tartrazine and the preservative benzoate are observed all over the world. Since the exact pathogenetic mechanisms of this condition is unknown, it is described as intolerance or pseudo-allergy and has been related to an imbalance of prostaglandin synthesis. Among 620 patients with urticaria, bronchial asthma or chronic rhinitis, oral provocation tests with ASS, tartrazine or benzoic acid revealed in 165 (26.6%) intolerance to ASS or additives. Frequency of intolerance to tartrazine varied between 6.1% in urticaria (n=308), 7.3% in asthma (n=96) and 14.5% in urticaria and asthma patients, while intolerance to benzoate varied from 2.5% in rhinitis (n=40) to 11.5% in asthma. More than two thirds of the intolerant patients were improved by an elimination diet and by the avoidance of "aspirin-like" drugs. More than one third of chronic urticaria patients became symptomfree. In Switzerland exact declaration of all food additives is urgently needed. Moreover, azo-dyes must no longer be used for colouring of drugs.

  4. Use of anatomical and kinetic models in the evaluation of human food additive safety.

    PubMed

    Roth, William L

    2005-09-22

    Toxicological testing in animals is relied upon as a surrogate for clinical testing of most food additives. Both animal and human clinical test results are generally available for direct additives when high levels of exposure are expected. Limited animal studies or in vitro test results may be the only sources of toxicological data available when low levels of exposure (microg/person/day) are expected and where no effects of the additive on the food itself are desired. Safety assessment of such materials for humans requires mathematical extrapolation from any effects observed in test animals to arrive at acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) for humans. Models of anatomy may be used to estimate tissue and organ weights where that information is missing and necessary for evaluation of a data set. The effect of growth on target tissue exposure during critical phases of organ development can be more accurately assessed when models of growth and known physiological changes are combined with pharmacokinetic results for test species. Kinetic models, when combined with limited chemical property, kinetic, and distribution data, can often be used to predict steady-state plasma and tissue levels of a test material over the range of doses employed in chronic studies to aid in interpretation of effects that are often nonlinear with respect to delivered dose. A better understanding of the reasons for nonlinearity of effects in animals improves our confidence in extrapolation to humans.

  5. [Analysis of components in natural food additive "grapefruit seed extract" by HPLC and LC/MS].

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, S; Sato, K; Maitani, T; Yamada, T

    1996-01-01

    The components in a commercial natural food additive "Grapefruit seed extract" and the ethanol extract of grapefruit seeds were analyzed by HPLC and LC/MS. The HPLC chromatogram of the commercial grapefruit seed extract was quite different from that of the ethanol extract of grapefruit seeds. Three main peaks were observed in the chromatogram of the commercial grapefruit seed extract. By comparison of the retention times and the absorption spectra with those of authentic samples, two peaks were ascribed to methyl-p-hydroxybenzoate and 2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxydiphenylether (triclosan). Triclosan was also identified by LC/MS by using the negative electrospray ionization method.

  6. [Inhibitory effect of essential oils, food additives, peracetic acid and detergents on bacterial histidine decarboxylase].

    PubMed

    Kamii, Eri; Terada, Gaku; Akiyama, Jyunki; Isshiki, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine whether various essential oils, food additives, peracetic acid and detergents inhibit bacterial histidine decarboxylase. Crude extract of Morganella morganii NBRC3848 was prepared and incubated with various agents. Histidine decarboxylase activity was significantly inhibited (p<0.05) by 26 of 45 compounds tested. Among the 26 agents, sodium hypochlorite completely decomposed both histidine and histamine, while peracetic acid caused slight decomposition. Histidine and histamine were stable in the presence of the other 24 agents. These results indicated that 25 of the agents examined were inhibitors of histidine decarboxylase.

  7. The metabolism of some food additives related to piperonal in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Wright, D J; Holder, G M

    1980-04-01

    1. The metabolism of piperonylidene acetone, and the food additives piperonyl acetone, piperonyl acetate and piperonyl isobutyrate were studied in male rabbits after oral doses of 100 mg/kg. 2. Both piperonylidene acetone and piperonyl acetone were extensively excreted as 4-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-butan-2-ol to the extent of 71.5% and 81.5% dose respectively in the three-day urine. 3. The esters, piperonyl acetate and piperonyl isobutyrate, were both metabolized to piperonylic acid, to the extent of 70.5% and 11.4% of dose respectively, in the three-day urine.

  8. Effect of lipase addition on hydrolysis and biomethane production of Chinese food waste.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ying; Li, Sang; Yuan, Hairong; Zou, Dexun; Liu, Yanping; Zhu, Baoning; Li, Xiujin

    2015-03-01

    The lipase obtained from Aspergillums niger was applied to promote the hydrolysis of food waste for achieving high biomethane production. Two strategies of lipase additions were investigated. One (Group A) was to pre-treat food waste to pre-decompose lipid to fatty acids before anaerobic digestion, and another one (Group B) was to add lipase to anaerobic digester directly to degrade lipid inside digester. The lipase was used at the concentrations of 0.1%, 0.5%, and 1.0% (w/v). The results showed that Group A achieved higher biomethane production, TS and VS reductions than those of Group B. At 0.5% lipase concentration, Group A obtained experimental biomethane yield of 500.1 mL/g VS(added), 4.97-26.50% higher than that of Group B. The maximum Bd of 73.8% was also achieved in Group A. Therefore, lipase pre-treatment strategy is recommended. This might provide one of alternatives for efficient biomethane production from food waste and mitigating environmental impact associated.

  9. Biological responses of a simulated marine food chain to lead addition.

    PubMed

    Soto-Jiménez, Martín F; Arellano-Fiore, Claudia; Rocha-Velarde, Ruth; Jara-Marini, Martín E; Ruelas-Inzunza, Jorge; Voltolina, Domenico; Frías-Espericueta, Martín G; Quintero-Alvarez, Jesús M; Páez-Osuna, Federico

    2011-07-01

    This investigation sought to assess the biological responses to Pb along a simplified four-level food chain, from the primary producer, the microalgae Tetraselmis suecica, grown in a control medium with < 1 µg/L of Pb and exposed to a sublethal dose (20 µg/L of Pb) and used as the base of a simulated food chain, through the primary-, secondary-, and tertiary-level consumers, namely, the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana; the white-leg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei; and the grunt fish, Haemulon scudderi, respectively. Growth of Pb-exposed T. suecica was 40% lower than that of the control cultures, and survival of A. franciscana fed this diet was 25 to 30% lower than the control. No differences in the growth rates of Pb-exposed and control shrimp and fish and no gross morphological changes were evident in the exposed specimens. However, the exposed shrimp and fish had 20 and 15% higher mortalities than their controls, respectively. In addition, behavioral alterations were observed in exposed shrimp and fish, including reduction in food consumption or cessation of feeding, breathing air out of the water, reduction of motility, and erratic swimming. The negative correlation between Pb concentration in whole body of shrimp and fish and Fulton's condition factor suggested also that the exposed organisms were stressed because of Pb accumulation.

  10. Cell-mediated immune responses to artificial food additives in chronic urticaria.

    PubMed

    Warrington, R J; Sauder, P J; McPhillips, S

    1986-11-01

    In some cases of chronic urticaria it is suspected that food additives such as tartrazine and sodium benzoate or salicylates may play a role in the pathogenesis of the condition. Since, at times, chronic urticaria may appear histologically similar to a mild cell-mediated immune response, the release of the T cell-derived lymphokine leucocyte inhibitory factor (LIF), in response to incubation with these additives and with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), was measured in vitro using cells from normal controls, from patients with chronic urticaria with or without clinically associated additive sensitivity and from patients with asthma with or without associated ASA sensitivity. It was found that significant production of LIF occurred in response to tartrazine and sodium benzoate in those individuals with chronic additive induced urticaria. In addition, tartrazine caused LIF release from mononuclear cells of ASA-sensitive asthmatics. These results may indicate a possible role for additive-induced cell-mediated immune responses in the pathogenesis of some cases of chronic urticaria and suggest a potential diagnostic test for this condition.

  11. The safety of nanostructured synthetic amorphous silica (SAS) as a food additive (E 551).

    PubMed

    Fruijtier-Pölloth, Claudia

    2016-12-01

    Particle sizes of E 551 products are in the micrometre range. The typical external diameters of the constituent particles (aggregates) are greater than 100 nm. E 551 does not break down under acidic conditions such as in the stomach, but may release dissolved silica in environments with higher pH such as the intestinal tract. E 551 is one of the toxicologically most intensively studied substances and has not shown any relevant systemic or local toxicity after oral exposure. Synthetic amorphous silica (SAS) meeting the specifications for use as a food additive (E 551) is and has always been produced by the same two production methods: the thermal and the wet processes, resulting in E 551 products consisting of particles typically in the micrometre size range. The constituent particles (aggregates) are typically larger than 100 nm and do not contain discernible primary particles. Particle sizes above 100 nm are necessary for E 551 to fulfil its technical function as spacer between food particles, thus avoiding the caking of food particles. Based on an in-depth review of the available toxicological information and intake data, it is concluded that the SAS products specified for use as food additive E 551 do not cause adverse effects in oral repeated-dose studies including doses that exceed current OECD guideline recommendations. In particular, there is no evidence for liver toxicity after oral intake. No adverse effects have been found in oral fertility and developmental toxicity studies, nor are there any indications from in vivo studies for an immunotoxic or neurotoxic effect. SAS is neither mutagenic nor genotoxic in vivo. In intact cells, a direct interaction of unlabelled and unmodified SAS with DNA was never found. Differences in the magnitude of biological responses between pyrogenic and precipitated silica described in some in vitro studies with murine macrophages at exaggerated exposure levels seem to be related to interactions with cell culture proteins

  12. Critical review of the safety assessment of nano-structured silica additives in food.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Hans Christian; Suter, Mark; Naegeli, Hanspeter

    2016-06-10

    The development of nano-materials is viewed as one of the most important technological advances of the 21st century and new applications of nano-sized particles in the production, processing, packaging or storage of food are expected to emerge soon. This trend of growing commercialization of engineered nano-particles as part of modern diet will substantially increase oral exposure. Contrary to the proven benefits of nano-materials, however, possible adverse health effects have generally received less attention. This problem is very well illustrated by nano-structured synthetic amorphous silica (SAS), which is a common food additive since several decades although the relevant risk assessment has never been satisfactorily completed. A no observed adverse effect level of 2500 mg SAS particles/kg body weight per day was derived from the only available long-term administration study in rodents. However, extrapolation to a safe daily intake for humans is problematic due to limitations of this chronic animal study and knowledge gaps as to possible local intestinal effects of SAS particles, primarily on the gut-associated lymphoid system. This uncertainty is aggravated by digestion experiments indicating that dietary SAS particles preserve their nano-sized structure when reaching the intestinal lumen. An important aspect is whether food-borne particles like SAS alter the function of dendritic cells that, embedded in the intestinal mucosa, act as first-line sentinels of foreign materials. We conclude that nano-particles do not represent a completely new threat and that most potential risks can be assessed following procedures established for conventional chemical hazards. However, specific properties of food-borne nano-particles should be further examined and, for that purpose, in vitro tests with decision-making cells of the immune system are needed to complement existing in vivo studies.

  13. Potential food additives from Carex distachya roots: identification and in vitro antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Fiorentino, Antonio; Ricci, Andreina; D'Abrosca, Brigida; Pacifico, Severina; Golino, Annunziata; Letizia, Marianna; Piccolella, Simona; Monaco, Pietro

    2008-09-10

    In the present study, the chemical composition and antioxidant properties of root methanol extract of Carex distachya Desf. (Cyperaceae) were assessed to use this plant as sources of food additives and nutraceuticals. The IC50 of the extract (4.2 microg/mL), derived from the DPPH radical scavenging capacity assay, was similar to those of ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, and BHT. These results revealed a strong antioxidant activity because of the presence of an extraordinary quantity of bioactive phytochemicals. The phytochemical study of the root extract led to the isolation and identification of new and known polyphenols, most of them common constituents of plant foods. A total of 16 polyphenols, identified on the basis of spectroscopic data as 7 lignans, 4 phenylethanoids, 3 resveratrol derivatives, a monolignol, and a secoiridoid glucoside, were isolated. The tentative structural elucidation of the new metabolites 5'-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy-3,3'-dimethoxy-7,9'-epoxylignan-4,8',9-triol and 3,5-bis-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy-3'-methoxy-trans-stilben-4'-ol have been performed by a combined approach using ESI/TQ/MS techniques and 1D and 2D NMR experiments. All of the compounds have been tested for their antioxidant activity using six different antioxidant and radical scavenging tests. Interestingly, the extract contained high quantities of polyphenols, most of them reported as constituents of edible plants, such as grape and olive, suggesting that the methanol root extract of this plant could be used as a source of natural antioxidants useful as potential food additives.

  14. Critical review of public health regulations of titanium dioxide, a human food additive.

    PubMed

    Jovanović, Boris

    2015-01-01

    From 1916 to 2011, an estimated total of 165050000 metric tons of titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) pigment were produced worldwide. Current safety regulations on the usage of the TiO2 pigment as an inactive ingredient additive in human food are based on legislation from 1969 and are arguably outdated. This article compiles new research results to provide fresh data for potential risk reassessment. However, even after 45 years, few scientific research reports have provided truly reliable data. For example, administration of very high doses of TiO2 is not relevant to daily human uptake. Nevertheless, because dose makes the poison, the literature provides a valuable source for understanding potential TiO2 toxicity after oral ingestion. Numerous scientific articles have observed that TiO2 can pass and be absorbed by the mammalian gastrointestinal tract; can bioconcentrate, bioaccumulate, and biomagnify in the tissues of mammals and other vertebrates; has a very limited elimination rate; and can cause histopathological and physiological changes in various organs of animals. Such action is contrary to the 1969 decision to approve the use of TiO2 as an inactive ingredient in human food without an established acceptable daily intake, stating that neither significant absorption nor tissue storage following ingestion of TiO2 was possible. Thus, relevant governmental agencies should reassess the safety of TiO2 as an additive in human food and consider establishing an acceptable maximum daily intake as a precautionary measure. © 2014 The Author. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

  15. Critical Review of Public Health Regulations of Titanium Dioxide, a Human Food Additive

    PubMed Central

    Jovanović, Boris

    2015-01-01

    From 1916 to 2011, an estimated total of 165 050 000 metric tons of titanium dioxide (TiO2) pigment were produced worldwide. Current safety regulations on the usage of the TiO2 pigment as an inactive ingredient additive in human food are based on legislation from 1969 and are arguably outdated. This article compiles new research results to provide fresh data for potential risk reassessment. However, even after 45 years, few scientific research reports have provided truly reliable data. For example, administration of very high doses of TiO2 is not relevant to daily human uptake. Nevertheless, because dose makes the poison, the literature provides a valuable source for understanding potential TiO2 toxicity after oral ingestion. Numerous scientific articles have observed that TiO2 can pass and be absorbed by the mammalian gastrointestinal tract; can bioconcentrate, bioaccumulate, and biomagnify in the tissues of mammals and other vertebrates; has a very limited elimination rate; and can cause histopathological and physiological changes in various organs of animals. Such action is contrary to the 1969 decision to approve the use of TiO2 as an inactive ingredient in human food without an established acceptable daily intake, stating that neither significant absorption nor tissue storage following ingestion of TiO2 was possible. Thus, relevant governmental agencies should reassess the safety of TiO2 as an additive in human food and consider establishing an acceptable maximum daily intake as a precautionary measure. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2015;11:10–20. © 2014 The Author. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. PMID:25091211

  16. Food additive carrageenan: Part II: A critical review of carrageenan in vivo safety studies.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Myra L

    2014-03-01

    Carrageenan (CGN) is a seaweed-derived high molecular weight (Mw) hydrocolloid, primarily used as a stabilizer and thickener in food. The safety of CGN regarding its use in food is reviewed. Based on experimental studies in animals, ingested CGN is excreted quantitatively in the feces. Studies have shown that CGN is not significantly degraded by low gastric pH or microflora in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Due to its Mw, structure and its stability when bound to protein, CGN is not significantly absorbed or metabolized. CGN also does not significantly affect the absorption of nutrients. Subchronic and chronic feeding studies in rodents indicate that CGN at doses up to 5% in the diet does not induce any toxicological effects other than soft stools or diarrhea, which are a common effect for non-digestible high molecular weight compounds. Review of several studies from numerous species indicates that food grade CGN does not produce intestinal ulceration at doses up to 5% in the diet. Effects of CGN on the immune system following parenteral administration are well known, but not relevant to food additive uses. The majority of the studies evaluating the immunotoxicity potential were conducted with CGN administered in drinking water or by oral gavage where CGN exists in a random, open structured molecular conformation, particularly the lambda form; hence, it has more exposure to the intestinal mucosa than when bound to protein in food. Based on the many animal subchronic and chronic toxicity studies, CGN has not been found to affect the immune system, as judged by lack of effects on organ histopathology, clinical chemistry, hematology, normal health, and the lack of target organ toxicities. In these studies, animals consumed CGN at orders of magnitude above levels of CGN in the human diet: ≥1000 mg/kg/d in animals compared to 18-40 mg/kg/d estimated in the human diet. Dietary CGN has been shown to lack carcinogenic, tumor promoter, genotoxic, developmental, and

  17. Sensitization to Food Additives in Patients with Allergy: A Study Based on Skin Test and Open Oral Challenge.

    PubMed

    Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Hejrati, Zinatosadat; Dehghani, Zahra; Dehghani, Faranak; Kolahi, Niloofar

    2016-06-01

    There has been a great increase in the consumption of various food additives in recent years. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence of sensitization to food additives by using skin prick test in patients with allergy and to determine the concordance rate between positive skin tests and oral challenge in hypersensitivity to additives. This cross-sectional study included 125 (female 71, male 54) patients aged 2-76 years with allergy and 100 healthy individuals. Skin tests were performed in both patient and control groups with 25 fresh food additives. Among patients with allergy, 22.4% showed positive skin test at least to one of the applied materials. Skin test was negative to all tested food additives in control group. Oral food challenge was done in 28 patients with positive skin test, in whom 9 patients showed reaction to culprit (Concordance rate=32.1%). The present study suggested that about one-third of allergic patients with positive reaction to food additives showed positive oral challenge; it may be considered the potential utility of skin test to identify the role of food additives in patients with allergy.

  18. A combined toxicity study of zinc oxide nanoparticles and vitamin C in food additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanli; Yuan, Lulu; Yao, Chenjie; Ding, Lin; Li, Chenchen; Fang, Jie; Sui, Keke; Liu, Yuanfang; Wu, Minghong

    2014-11-01

    At present, safety evaluation standards for nanofood additives are made based on the toxic effects of a single additive. Since the size, surface properties and chemical nature influence the toxicity of nanomaterials, the toxicity may have dramatically changed when nanomaterials are used as food additives in a complex system. Herein, we investigated the combined toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and vitamin C (Vc, ascorbic acid). The results showed that Vc increased the cytotoxicity significantly compared with that of the ZnO only NPs. When the cells were exposed to ZnO NPs at a concentration less than 15 mg L-1, or to Vc at a concentration less than 300 mg L-1, there was no significant cytotoxicity, both in the case of gastric epithelial cell line (GES-1) and neural stem cells (NSCs). However, when 15 mg L-1 of ZnO NPs and 300 mg L-1 of Vc were introduced to cells together, the cell viability decreased sharply indicating significant cytotoxicity. Moreover, the significant increase in toxicity was also shown in the in vivo experiments. The dose of the ZnO NPs and Vc used in the in vivo study was calculated according to the state of food and nutrition enhancer standard. After repeated oral exposure to ZnO NPs plus Vc, the injury of the liver and kidneys in mice has been indicated by the change of these indices. These findings demonstrate that the synergistic toxicity presented in a complex system is essential for the toxicological evaluation and safety assessment of nanofood.At present, safety evaluation standards for nanofood additives are made based on the toxic effects of a single additive. Since the size, surface properties and chemical nature influence the toxicity of nanomaterials, the toxicity may have dramatically changed when nanomaterials are used as food additives in a complex system. Herein, we investigated the combined toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and vitamin C (Vc, ascorbic acid). The results showed that Vc increased the

  19. DNA damage in human lymphocytes exposed to four food additives in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Serkan; Unal, Fatma; Yüzbaşıoğlu, Deniz; Celik, Mustafa

    2014-11-01

    In vitro genotoxic effects of antioxidant additives, such as citric acid (CA) and phosphoric acid (PA) and their combination, as well as antimicrobial additives, such as benzoic acid (BA) and calcium propionate (CP), on human lymphocytes were determined using alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis. There was a significant increase in the DNA damage in human lymphocytes after 1 h of in vitro exposure to CA, PA, BA and CP (200, 25-200, 50-500, 50-1000 μg/mL, respectively). The combination of CA and PA significantly increased the mean tail intensity at all the concentrations used (25-200 μg/mL) and significantly increased the mean tail length mainly after higher concentrations (100 and 200 μg/mL). Data in this study showed that the concentrations of food additives used induce DNA damage and PA was the most genotoxic and CA was less genotoxic additives among them. © The Author(s) 2012.

  20. A combined toxicity study of zinc oxide nanoparticles and vitamin C in food additives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanli; Yuan, Lulu; Yao, Chenjie; Ding, Lin; Li, Chenchen; Fang, Jie; Sui, Keke; Liu, Yuanfang; Wu, Minghong

    2014-12-21

    At present, safety evaluation standards for nanofood additives are made based on the toxic effects of a single additive. Since the size, surface properties and chemical nature influence the toxicity of nanomaterials, the toxicity may have dramatically changed when nanomaterials are used as food additives in a complex system. Herein, we investigated the combined toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and vitamin C (Vc, ascorbic acid). The results showed that Vc increased the cytotoxicity significantly compared with that of the ZnO only NPs. When the cells were exposed to ZnO NPs at a concentration less than 15 mg L(-1), or to Vc at a concentration less than 300 mg L(-1), there was no significant cytotoxicity, both in the case of gastric epithelial cell line (GES-1) and neural stem cells (NSCs). However, when 15 mg L(-1) of ZnO NPs and 300 mg L(-1) of Vc were introduced to cells together, the cell viability decreased sharply indicating significant cytotoxicity. Moreover, the significant increase in toxicity was also shown in the in vivo experiments. The dose of the ZnO NPs and Vc used in the in vivo study was calculated according to the state of food and nutrition enhancer standard. After repeated oral exposure to ZnO NPs plus Vc, the injury of the liver and kidneys in mice has been indicated by the change of these indices. These findings demonstrate that the synergistic toxicity presented in a complex system is essential for the toxicological evaluation and safety assessment of nanofood.

  1. Characterization and biocompatibility of glucan: a safe food additive from probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum DM5.

    PubMed

    Das, Deeplina; Goyal, Arun

    2014-03-15

    Exopolysaccharide produced by lactic acid bacteria are the subject of an increasing number of studies for their potential applications in the food industry as stabilizing, bio-thickening and immunostimulating agents. In this regard, the authors isolated an exopolysaccharide producing probiotic lactic acid bacterium from fermented beverage Marcha of north eastern Himalayas. The isolate Lactobacillus plantarum DM5 showed extracellular glucansucrase activity of 0.48 U mg⁻¹ by synthesizing natural exopolysaccharide glucan (1.87 mg mL⁻¹) from sucrose. Zymogram analysis of purified enzyme confirms the presence of glucosyltransferase of approximately 148 kDa with optimal activity of 18.7 U mg⁻¹ at 30 °C and pH 5.4. The exopolysaccharide was purified by gel permeation chromatography and had an average molecular weight of 1.11 × 10⁶ Da. Acid hydrolysis and structural characterization of exopolysaccharide revealed that it was composed of d-glucose residues, containing 86.5% of α-(1→6) and 13.5% of α-(1→3) linkages. Rheological study exhibited a shear thinning effect of glucan appropriate for food additives. A cytotoxicity test of glucan on human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293) and human cervical cancer (HeLa) cell lines revealed its nontoxic biocompatible nature. This is the first report on the structure and biocompatibility of homopolysaccharide α-D-glucan (dextran) from probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum strain and its unique physical and rheological properties that facilitate its application in the food industry as viscosifying and gelling agent. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of Sunset Yellow and Brilliant Blue, colorant food additives, on human blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Kus, Esra; Eroglu, Halil Erhan

    2015-01-01

    The synthetic dyes over fifty are used in many areas including the food industry around the world. Sunset Yellow FCF and Brilliant Blue FCF are used as colorant food additives in many food products. The present study investigated the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of Sunset Yellow and Brilliant Blue. Genotoxic and cytotoxic activities of the food additives were evaluated in lymphocyte cell cultures using mitotic index, replication index and micronucleus assay. Mitotic index frequencies and replication index values were decreased and micronucleus frequency was increased with increasing concentrations of Sunset Yellow and Brilliant Blue. The changes in mitotic index and micronucleus are statistically significant (p<0.05). The results show that the Sunset Yellow and Brilliant Blue can have cytotoxic and genotoxic potential. It care must be taken when using these materials as a food additive.

  3. Size characterization by Sedimentation Field Flow Fractionation of silica particles used as food additives.

    PubMed

    Contado, Catia; Ravani, Laura; Passarella, Martina

    2013-07-25

    Four types of SiO2, available on the market as additives in food and personal care products, were size characterized using Sedimentation Field Flow Fractionation (SdFFF), SEM, TEM and Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS). The synergic use of the different analytical techniques made it possible, for some samples, to confirm the presence of primary nanoparticles (10 nm) organized in clusters or aggregates of different dimension and, for others, to discover that the available information is incomplete, particularly that regarding the presence of small particles. A protocol to extract the silica particles from a simple food matrix was set up, enriching (0.25%, w w(-1)) a nearly silica-free instant barley coffee powder with a known SiO2 sample. The SdFFF technique, in conjunction with SEM observations, made it possible to identify the added SiO2 particles and verify the new particle size distribution. The SiO2 content of different powdered foodstuffs was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS); the concentrations ranged between 0.006 and 0.35% (w w(-1)). The protocol to isolate the silica particles was so applied to the most SiO2-rich commercial products and the derived suspensions were separated by SdFFF; SEM and TEM observations supported the size analyses while GFAAS determinations on collected fractions permitted element identification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Is the structural diversity of tripeptides sufficient for developing functional food additives with satisfactory multiple bioactivities?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian-Hui; Liu, Yong-Le; Ning, Jing-Heng; Yu, Jian; Li, Xiang-Hong; Wang, Fa-Xiang

    2013-05-01

    Multifunctional peptides have attracted increasing attention in the food science community because of their therapeutic potential, low toxicity and rapid intestinal absorption. However, previous study demonstrated that the limited structural variations make it difficult to optimize dipeptide molecules in a good balance between desirable and undesirable properties (F. Tian, P. Zhou, F. Lv, R. Song, Z. Li, J. Pept. Sci. 13 (2007) 549-566). In the present work, we attempt to answer whether the structural diversity is sufficient for a tripeptide to have satisfactory multiple bioactivities. Statistical test, structural examination and energetic analysis confirm that peptides of three amino acids long can bind tightly to human angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and thus exert significant antihypertensive efficacy. Further quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling and prediction of all 8000 possible tripeptides reveal that their ACE-inhibitory potency exhibits a good (positive) relationship to antioxidative activity, but has only a quite modest correlation with bitterness. This means that it is possible to find certain tripeptide entities possessing the optimal combination of strong ACE-inhibitory potency, high antioxidative activity and weak bitter taste, which are the promising candidates for developing multifunctional food additives with satisfactory multiple bioactivities. The marked difference between dipeptide and tripeptide can be attributed to the fact that the structural diversity of peptides increases dramatically with a slight change in sequence length.

  5. Effects of the food additive, citric acid, on kidney cells of mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xg; Lv, Qx; Liu, Ym; Deng, W

    2015-01-01

    Citric acid is a food additive that is widely used in the food and drink industry. We investigated the effects of citric acid injection on mouse kidney. Forty healthy mice were divided into four groups of 10 including one control group and three citric acid-treated groups. Low dose, middle dose and high dose groups were given doses of 120, 240 and 480 mg/kg of citric acid, respectively. On day 7, kidney tissues were collected for histological, biochemical and molecular biological examination. We observed shrinkage of glomeruli, widened urinary spaces and capillary congestion, narrowing of the tubule lumen, edema and cytoplasmic vacuolated tubule cells, and appearance of pyknotic nuclei. The relation between histopathological changes and citric acid was dose dependent. Compared to the control, T-SOD and GSH-Px activities in the treated groups decreased with increasing doses of citric acid, NOS activity tended to increase, and H2O2 and MDA contents gradually decreased, but the differences between any treated group and the control were not statistically significant. The apoptosis assay showed a dose-dependent increase of caspase-3 activity after administering citrate that was statistically significant. DNA ladder formation occurred after treatment with any dose of citric acid. We concluded that administration of citric acid may cause renal toxicity in mice.

  6. Spiroketalcarminic Acid, a Novel Minor Anthraquinone Pigment in Cochineal Extract Used in Food Additives.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yusai; Harikai, Naoki; Ishizuki, Kyoko; Shinomiya, Kazufusa; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2017-09-01

    Cochineal extract prepared from the scale insect Dactylopus coccus (American cochineal) has been used as a natural red dye for food, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. The major pigment in cochineal extract is carminic acid (CA), an anthraquinone glucoside, and several minor pigments have been previously reported. Our investigation aimed at establishing the safety of cochineal dye products using ultra performance liquid chromatography-photo diode array-electrospray ionization-time of flight (UPLC-PDA-ESI-TOF)/MS found an unknown minor pigment, spiroketalcarminic acid (1), in three commercial cochineal extract samples; cochineal extract used in food additives, carmine that is an aluminum salt of cochineal extract used as natural dye, and a research reagent of CA. The purification of 1 from cochineal extract involved sequential chromatographic techniques, including preparative reversed-phase HPLC. Two dimensional (2D)-NMR and mass analyses established the structure of 1 to be a novel anthraquinone with an unusual 6,5-spiroketal system instead of the C-glucosyl moiety of CA. The absolute stereochemistry of the spiroketal moiety in 1 was determined by nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) correlations and optical rotation. No data corresponding to 1 had previously been reported for extracts of dried cochineal insects and traditional art products dyed with cochineal extract, indicating that 1 is likely produced during the preparation of commercial cochineal extract.

  7. The food additive vanillic acid controls transgene expression in mammalian cells and mice

    PubMed Central

    Gitzinger, Marc; Kemmer, Christian; Fluri, David A.; Daoud El-Baba, Marie; Weber, Wilfried; Fussenegger, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Trigger-inducible transcription-control devices that reversibly fine-tune transgene expression in response to molecular cues have significantly advanced the rational reprogramming of mammalian cells. When designed for use in future gene- and cell-based therapies the trigger molecules have to be carefully chosen in order to provide maximum specificity, minimal side-effects and optimal pharmacokinetics in a mammalian organism. Capitalizing on control components that enable Caulobacter crescentus to metabolize vanillic acid originating from lignin degradation that occurs in its oligotrophic freshwater habitat, we have designed synthetic devices that specifically adjust transgene expression in mammalian cells when exposed to vanillic acid. Even in mice transgene expression was robust, precise and tunable in response to vanillic acid. As a licensed food additive that is regularly consumed by humans via flavoured convenience food and specific fresh vegetable and fruits, vanillic acid can be considered as a safe trigger molecule that could be used for diet-controlled transgene expression in future gene- and cell-based therapies. PMID:22187155

  8. Effects of maternally exposed food coloring additives on laryngeal histology in rats.

    PubMed

    Başak, Kayhan; Doguç, Duygu Kumbul; Aylak, Firdevs; Karadayi, Nimet; Gültekin, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    Experimental reports showed carcinogenic effects of artificial food colors and additives (AFCAs) on many organs, including the head and neck region. We aimed to investigate the effect of AFCAs on laryngeal histomorphology and immunohistochemical expression in maternally exposed rats. "No observable adverse effect levels" of commonly used AFCAs as a mixture were given to female rats before and during gestation. Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings were evaluated in their offspring. Significant decreasing in goblet cell count and cilia loss were observed with AFCAs in maternally exposed rats (p<0.05). Immunohistochemically, the Ki67 index was significantly increased and villin expression was significantly reduced in laryngeal epithelium in the study group (p<0.05), whereas expression of cyclooxygenase type 2, Muc-2, Muc-5AC, p53, and epidermal growth factor receptors did not differ between the groups. This study demonstrated that maternal exposure of AFCAs plays a role in the mucosal defense system and possibly in carcinogenesis.

  9. Review on Polygonum minus. Huds, a commonly used food additive in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Christapher, Parayil Varghese; Parasuraman, Subramani; Christina, Josephine Maria Arokiaswamy; Asmawi, Mohd. Zaini; Vikneswaran, Murugaiyah

    2015-01-01

    Polygonum minus (Polygonaceae), generally known as ‘kesum’ in Malaysia is among the most commonly used food additive, flavoring agent and traditionally used to treat stomach and body aches. Raw or cooked leaves of P. minus are used in digestive disorders in the form of a decoction and the oil is used for dandruff. The pharmacological studies on P. minus have demonstrated antioxidant, in vitro LDL oxidation inhibition, antiulcer activity, analgesic activity, anti-inflammatory activity, in vitro antiplatelet aggregation activity, antimicrobial activity, digestive enhancing property and cytotoxic activity. The spectroscopic studies of essential oil of P. minus showed the presence of about 69 compounds, which are responsible for the aroma. The phytochemical studies showed presence of flavonoids and essential oils. This review is an effort to update the botanical, phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological data of the plant P. minus. PMID:25598627

  10. Influence of surface-active food additives on the integrity and permeability of rat intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Tagesson, C; Edling, C

    1984-11-01

    The influence of two surface-active food additives on the integrity and permeability of rat ileal mucosa has been studied. We determined the activity of N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase, a lysosomal enzyme, in the rat intestinal lumen after deposition of polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate (polysorbate 60; Tween 60) or polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate (polysorbate 80; Tween 80) in a section of ligated, cannulated gut. We also determined the activities of N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase, alkaline phosphatase, 5'-nucleotidase and phospholipase A2 in mixtures of isolated mucosal cells and polysorbate 60 or polysorbate 80. The activity of N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase was increased in the luminal contents of the cannulated gut 15 min after deposition of either polysorbate 60 or polysorbate 80 (10 mg/ml fluid instilled into gut). It was also increased in mixtures of mucosal cells and polysorbate 60 or polysorbate 80 (0.1-10 mg/ml). In contrast, the activities of alkaline phosphatase and 5'-nucleotidase were unaffected and that of phospholipase A2 was decreased by the presence of either polysorbate. These findings indicated that polysorbate 60 and polysorbate 80 released lysosomal enzymes from the intestinal mucosal cells and that these agents might damage the intestinal mucosa and increase its permeability. We therefore determined the intestinal permeability to sodium fluorescein in the absence and presence of polysorbate 60 or 80 and found that the permeability was slightly increased in the presence of either of the compounds at concentrations of 10 mg/ml fluid instilled into gut. It is possible therefore that surface-active food additives might impair the function of the mucosal barrier and increase the permeability of the gut to potentially toxic and pathogenic molecules.

  11. Early additional food and fluids for healthy breastfed full-term infants.

    PubMed

    Becker, Genevieve E; Remmington, Tracey

    2014-11-25

    Widespread recommendations from health organisations encourage exclusive breastfeeding for six months. However, the addition of other fluids or foods before six months is common in many countries and communities. This practice suggests perceived benefits of early supplementation or lack of awareness of the possible risks. To assess the benefits and harms of supplementation for full-term healthy breastfed infants and to examine the timing and type of supplementation. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (21 March 2014) and reference lists of all relevant retrieved papers. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials in infants under six months of age comparing exclusive breastfeeding versus breastfeeding with any additional food or fluids. Two review authors independently selected the trials, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We included eight trials (984 randomised infants/mothers). Six trials (n = 613 analysed) provided data on outcomes of interest to this review. The variation in outcome measures and time points made it difficult to pool results from trials. Data could only be combined in a meta-analysis for one secondary outcome (weight change). The trials that provided outcome data compared exclusively breastfed infants with breastfed infants who were allowed additional nutrients in the form of artificial milk, glucose, water or solid foods.In relation to the majority of the older trials, the description of study methods was inadequate to assess the risk of bias. The two more recent trials, were found to be at low risk of bias for selection and detection bias. The overall quality of the evidence for the main comparison was low.In one trial (170 infants) comparing exclusively breastfeeding infants with infants who were allowed additional glucose water, there was a significant difference favouring exclusive breastfeeding up to and including week 20 (risk ratio (RR) 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05 to 1

  12. Sodium- and phosphorus-based food additives: persistent but surmountable hurdles in the management of nutrition in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Orlando M

    2013-03-01

    Sodium- and phosphorus-based food additives are among the most commonly consumed nutrients in the world. This is because both have diverse applications in processed food manufacturing, leading to their widespread use by the food industry. Since most foods are naturally low in salt, sodium additives almost completely account for the excessive consumption of sodium throughout the world. Similarly, phosphorus additives represent a major and "hidden" phosphorus load in modern diets. These factors pose a major barrier to successfully lowering sodium or phosphorus intake in patients with CKD. As such, any serious effort to reduce sodium or phosphorus consumption will require reductions in the use of these additives by the food industry. The current regulatory environment governing the use of food additives does not favor this goal, however, in large part because these additives have historically been classified as generally safe for public consumption. To overcome these barriers, coordinated efforts will be needed to demonstrate that high intake of these additives is not safe for public consumption and as such should be subject to greater regulatory scrutiny. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sodium and phosphorus-based food additives: persistent but surmountable hurdles in the management of nutrition in chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Orlando M.

    2012-01-01

    Sodium and phosphorus-based food additives are among the most commonly consumed nutrients in the world. This is because both have diverse applications in processed food manufacturing, leading to their widespread utilization by the food industry. Since most foods are naturally low in salt, sodium additives almost completely account for the excessive consumption of sodium throughout the world. Similarly, phosphorus additives represent a major and “hidden” phosphorus load in modern diets. These factors pose a major barrier to successfully lowering sodium or phosphorus intake in patients with chronic kidney disease. As such, any serious effort to reduce sodium or phosphorus consumption will require reductions in the use of these additives by the food industry. The current regulatory environment governing the use of food additives does not favor this goal, however, in large part because these additives have historically been classified as generally safe for public consumption. To overcome these barriers, coordinated efforts will be needed to demonstrate that high intakes of these additives are not safe for public consumption and as such, should be subject to greater regulatory scrutiny. PMID:23439374

  14. Changes in intestinal tight junction permeability associated with industrial food additives explain the rising incidence of autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Aaron; Matthias, Torsten

    2015-06-01

    The incidence of autoimmune diseases is increasing along with the expansion of industrial food processing and food additive consumption. The intestinal epithelial barrier, with its intercellular tight junction, controls the equilibrium between tolerance and immunity to non-self-antigens. As a result, particular attention is being placed on the role of tight junction dysfunction in the pathogenesis of AD. Tight junction leakage is enhanced by many luminal components, commonly used industrial food additives being some of them. Glucose, salt, emulsifiers, organic solvents, gluten, microbial transglutaminase, and nanoparticles are extensively and increasingly used by the food industry, claim the manufacturers, to improve the qualities of food. However, all of the aforementioned additives increase intestinal permeability by breaching the integrity of tight junction paracellular transfer. In fact, tight junction dysfunction is common in multiple autoimmune diseases and the central part played by the tight junction in autoimmune diseases pathogenesis is extensively described. It is hypothesized that commonly used industrial food additives abrogate human epithelial barrier function, thus, increasing intestinal permeability through the opened tight junction, resulting in entry of foreign immunogenic antigens and activation of the autoimmune cascade. Future research on food additives exposure-intestinal permeability-autoimmunity interplay will enhance our knowledge of the common mechanisms associated with autoimmune progression. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Immunotoxicity of the colour additive caramel colour III; a review on complicated issues in the safety evaluation of a food additive.

    PubMed

    Houben, G F; Penninks, A H

    1994-08-12

    Food additives can be regarded as the safest constituents of our daily food. Nevertheless, complicated issues with respect to their safety evaluation do also occur. In this review paper, some of these issues are illustrated by the description and evaluation of the research on the immunotoxicity of the food additive Caramel Colour III. Caramel Colour III is commonly used as a color additive in many products for human consumption. Toxicity studies conducted in the seventies demonstrated that administration of Caramel Colour III can cause a reduction in total white blood cell counts in rats, due to reduced lymphocyte counts. Studies reviewed in this paper demonstrated several other effects of Caramel Colour III on the immune system of rodents, including disturbed immune functions and changed resistance in infection models. In addition, studies in rats demonstrated that most of the effects occur only when the animals are fed a diet low in vitamin B6. The imidazole derivative 2-acetyl-4(5)-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxy-butyl)-imidazole (THI) was found to be responsible for the immunotoxicity. Issues such as the mechanism of action of THI and the role of vitamin B6 are discussed. Finally, the results of a human intervention study and the observed effect levels of THI in rats are discussed in terms of safety of the use of Caramel Colour III in our daily food supply.

  16. 78 FR 77384 - DSM Nutritional Products; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 573 DSM Nutritional Products; Filing of Food.... SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing that DSM Nutritional Products has filed a... filed by DSM Nutritional Products, 45 Waterview Blvd., Parsippany, NJ 07054. The petition proposes...

  17. 75 FR 30844 - General Mills, Inc.; Withdrawal of Food Additive Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... in aqueous sugar solutions and potable water intended for use in food production. FOR FURTHER... potable water intended for use in food production. General Mills, Inc., has now withdrawn the petition... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration (formerly Docket No. 2007F-0454) General Mills, Inc...

  18. Toxicogenomics concepts and applications to study hepatic effects of food additives and chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Stierum, Rob . E-mail: stierum@voeding.tno.nl; Heijne, Wilbert; Kienhuis, Anne; Ommen, Ben van; Groten, John

    2005-09-01

    Transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics are genomics technologies with great potential in toxicological sciences. Toxicogenomics involves the integration of conventional toxicological examinations with gene, protein or metabolite expression profiles. An overview together with selected examples of the possibilities of genomics in toxicology is given. The expectations raised by toxicogenomics are earlier and more sensitive detection of toxicity. Furthermore, toxicogenomics will provide a better understanding of the mechanism of toxicity and may facilitate the prediction of toxicity of unknown compounds. Mechanism-based markers of toxicity can be discovered and improved interspecies and in vitro-in vivo extrapolations will drive model developments in toxicology. Toxicological assessment of chemical mixtures will benefit from the new molecular biological tools. In our laboratory, toxicogenomics is predominantly applied for elucidation of mechanisms of action and discovery of novel pathway-supported mechanism-based markers of liver toxicity. In addition, we aim to integrate transcriptome, proteome and metabolome data, supported by bioinformatics to develop a systems biology approach for toxicology. Transcriptomics and proteomics studies on bromobenzene-mediated hepatotoxicity in the rat are discussed. Finally, an example is shown in which gene expression profiling together with conventional biochemistry led to the discovery of novel markers for the hepatic effects of the food additives butylated hydroxytoluene, curcumin, propyl gallate and thiabendazole.

  19. Determination of the Relative Effectiveness of Four Food Additives in Degrading Aflatoxin in Distillers Wet Grains and Condensed Distillers Solubles.

    PubMed

    Shi, H U; Stroshine, Richard L; Ileleji, Klein

    2017-01-01

    The food additives sodium bisulfite, sodium hypochlorite, citric acid, and ammonium persulfate were evaluated for their effectiveness in degrading aflatoxin in samples of distillers wet grains (DWG) and condensed distillers solubles (CDS) obtained from an industrial ethanol plant. Aqueous food additive solutions, 0.5% by weight, were added to DWG or CDS at the level of 0.5 ml/g of sample, and the materials were heated at 90°C for 1 h. Sodium bisulfite was not effective in degrading aflatoxin in either DWG or CDS. Among the four food additives tested, sodium hypochlorite was the most effective. However, it bleached the substrate and left an off-odor. Citric acid and ammonium persulfate reduced aflatoxin levels by 31 to 51%. Citric acid is the most promising additive for degrading aflatoxin because it has been classified as generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Aflatoxin reduction was enhanced by increasing the citric acid addition level and prolonging the heating time. Reductions of 65 and 80% in DWG and CDS, respectively, were obtained by the addition of 2.5% (by weight) citric acid and heating at 90°C for 1 h. Aflatoxin levels in DWG and CDS were gradually reduced with prolonged heating at 90°C, even without the addition of food additives. Aflatoxin reductions of 53 and 73% were achieved in DWG and CDS as a result of heating at 90°C for 5 h.

  20. Some Technological Challenges in the Addition of Probiotic Bacteria to Foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champagne, Claude P.

    In North-America, up to 93% of consumers believe certain foods have health benefits that may reduce the risk of disease (Clydesdale, 2005). Using a strict definition, limited to food and drinks that tend to make specific health claims of some kind on the packaging or in advertising, the functional foods (FF) and drinks market in the five major European markets, the USA, Japan and Australia had a combined value of 16 billion USD in 2005 (Leatherhead Food International, 2006). Dairy products account for nearly 43% of this market, which is almost entirely made up of fermented dairy products (Leatherhead Food International, 2006).

  1. Carvacrol, a Food-Additive, Provides Neuroprotection on Focal Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Pei, Aijie; Hua, Fang; Qian, Xuanchen; He, Jinjiang; Liu, Chun-Feng; Xu, Xingshun

    2012-01-01

    Carvacrol (CAR), a naturally occurring monoterpenic phenol and food additive, has been shown to have antimicrobials, antitumor, and antidepressant-like activities. A previous study demonstrated that CAR has the ability to protect liver against ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of CAR on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in a middle cerebral artery occlusion mouse model. We found that CAR (50 mg/kg) significantly reduced infarct volume and improved neurological deficits after 75 min of ischemia and 24 h of reperfusion. This neuroprotection was in a dose-dependent manner. Post-treatment with CAR still provided protection on infarct volume when it was administered intraperitoneally at 2 h after reperfusion; however, intracerebroventricular post-treatment reduced infarct volume even when the mice were treated with CAR at 6 h after reperfusion. These findings indicated that CAR has an extended therapeutic window, but delivery strategies may affect the protective effects of CAR. Further, we found that CAR significantly decreased the level of cleaved caspase-3, a marker of apoptosis, suggesting the anti-apoptotic activity of CAR. Finally, our data indicated that CAR treatment increased the level of phosphorylated Akt and the neuroprotection of CAR was reversed by a PI3K inhibitor LY-294002, demonstrating the involvement of the PI3K/Akt pathway in the anti-apoptotic mechanisms of CAR. Due to its safety and wide use in the food industry, CAR is a promising agent to be translated into clinical trials. PMID:22438954

  2. The applicability of the ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake) for food additives to infants and children.

    PubMed

    Ostergaard, G; Knudsen, I

    1998-01-01

    recommended that intake assessment of children be considered separately from that of adults because patterns of consumption are different. The ADI should cover the entire population including children. Special considerations regarding the use of food additives do apply to infants below the age of 12 weeks, who depend entirely on infant formula for nutrition.

  3. Regulatory use of computational toxicology tools and databases at the United States Food and Drug Administration's Office of Food Additive Safety.

    PubMed

    Arvidson, Kirk B; Chanderbhan, Ronald; Muldoon-Jacobs, Kristi; Mayer, Julie; Ogungbesan, Adejoke

    2010-07-01

    Over 10 years ago, the Office of Food Additive Safety (OFAS) in the FDA's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition implemented the formal use of structure-activity relationship analysis and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis in the premarket review of food-contact substances. More recently, OFAS has implemented the use of multiple QSAR software packages and has begun investigating the use of metabolism data and metabolism predictive models in our QSAR evaluations of food-contact substances. In this article, we provide an overview of the programs used in OFAS as well as a perspective on how to apply multiple QSAR tools in the review process of a new food-contact substance.

  4. 300 The Method of Antigen Specific Damage of Leucocytes by Food Additives in Patients with Bronchial Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Titova, Nadya

    2012-01-01

    Background Diagnosis of adverse reactions to food additives is difficult due to a variety of mechanisms involved and the lack of sufficiently reliable methods for their determination. The diagnosis of intolerance to food additives is still based only on placebo-controlled oral provocation. Methods The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of intolerance to ponceau 4R (E124), indigo carmine (E132), azorubine (E122), tartrazine (E102), sunset yellow (E110) and sodium benzoate (E211) among patients with bronchial asthma. We studied 114 patients with bronchial asthma using clinical and laboratory methods. Also we used the method of antigen specific damage of leucocytes by food additives. After the incubation of leucocytes with solutions of food additives to leucocytes was added 0.05 mL of trypan blue and counted the percentage of stained (damaged) granulocytes with the food dye and in control tests. If damaging leucocytes were more than 20% in comparison with controls - the test considered positive. Results It was found that positive to ponceau 4R were 6 of 114 patients, to indigo carmine–3 of 73, to sodium benzoate–4 of 73, to azorubine–11 of 114, to tartrazine–7 of 114 and to sunset yellow–9 of 114. There was a correlation between the results obtained and data history. Between experienced and control group (the patients without allergic diseases) were the reliable differences (P < 0.05). Conclusions 1. Under influence of the food additives leukocytes of patients with bronchial asthma are damaged and painted by trypan blue. 2. The method of antigen specific damage of leucocytes by food additives can be used for diagnostics of the allergies to food dyes, sodium benzoate and other gaptens.

  5. Seasonal variation exceeds effects of salmon carcass additions on benthic food webs in the Elwha River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morley, S.A.; Coe, H.J.; Duda, J.J.; Dunphy, L.S.; McHenry, M.L.; Beckman, B.R.; Elofson, M.; Sampson, E. M.; Ward, L.

    2016-01-01

    Dam removal and other fish barrier removal projects in western North America are assumed to boost freshwater productivity via the transport of marine-derived nutrients from recolonizing Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). In anticipation of the removal of two hydroelectric dams on the Elwha River in Washington State, we tested this hypothesis with a salmon carcass addition experiment. Our study was designed to examine how background nutrient dynamics and benthic food webs vary seasonally, and how these features respond to salmon subsidies. We conducted our experiment in six side channels of the Elwha River, each with a spatially paired reference and treatment reach. Each reach was sampled on multiple occasions from October 2007 to August 2008, before and after carcass placement. We evaluated nutrient limitation status; measured water chemistry, periphyton, benthic invertebrates, and juvenile rainbow trout (O. mykiss) response; and traced salmon-derived nutrient uptake using stable isotopes. Outside of winter, algal accrual was limited by both nitrogen and phosphorous and remained so even in the presence of salmon carcasses. One month after salmon addition, dissolved inorganic nitrogen levels doubled in treatment reaches. Two months after addition, benthic algal accrual was significantly elevated. We detected no changes in invertebrate or fish metrics, with the exception of 15N enrichment. Natural seasonal variability was greater than salmon effects for the majority of our response metrics. Yet seasonality and synchronicity of nutrient supply and demand are often overlooked in nutrient enhancement studies. Timing and magnitude of salmon-derived nitrogen utilization suggest that uptake of dissolved nutrients was favored over direct consumption of carcasses. The highest proportion of salmon-derived nitrogen was incorporated by herbivores (18–30%) and peaked 1–2 months after carcass addition. Peak nitrogen enrichment in predators (11–16%) occurred 2–3

  6. Use of retailer fidelity card schemes in the assessment of food additive intake: Sunset Yellow a case study.

    PubMed

    Sardi, M; Haldemann, Y; Nordmann, H; Bottex, B; Safford, B; Smith, B; Tennant, D; Howlett, J; Jasti, P R

    2010-11-01

    The feasibility of using a retailer fidelity card scheme to estimate food additive intake was investigated using the Swiss retailer MIGROS's Cumulus Card and the example of the food colour Sunset Yellow (E 110). Information held within the card scheme was used to identify a sample of households purchasing foods containing Sunset Yellow over a 15 day period. A sample of 1204 households was selected for interview, of which 830 households were retained in the study following interview. Interviews were conducted to establish household structure, patterns of consumption by different individuals within the household, and the proportion of foods containing Sunset Yellow habitually purchased at the retailer and/or consumed outside the home. Information provided by the retailer on levels of Sunset Yellow in the foods was combined with the information obtained at interview to calculate the per-capita intake of Sunset Yellow by members of participating households. More than 99% of consumers (n = 1902) of foods containing Sunset Yellow were estimated to consume less than 1 mg Sunset Yellow kg(-1) body weight day(-1). The method proved to be a simple and resource-efficient approach to estimate food additive intake on the basis of actual consumer behaviour and thus reports results more closely related to the actual consumption of foods by individuals.

  7. Benefits and concerns associated with biotechnology-derived foods: can additional research reduce children health risks?

    PubMed

    Cantani, A

    2009-01-01

    The development of techniques devised for the genetic manipulation of foods poses new risks for children with food allergy (FA). The introduction of foreign allergenic proteins from different foods into previously tolerated foods may trigger allergic reactions, often complicating with anaphylactic shock in a subset of allergic babies. Children with FA, even if subjected to preventative diets, always challenge the risk of developing allergic manifestations after unintentional intake of a non tolerated food in restaurant settings, with relatives or schoolmates, etc, where product labelling is necessarily lacking. The introduction of potentially allergenic proteins into foods generally considered safe for allergic children can be done deliberately, by either substantially altering the food ingredients, or by genetic manipulation which change the composition or transfer allergens, or unintentionally by qualitycontrol failures, due to contaminations in the production process, or to genetic mismanipulation. There is a controversy between multinationals often favored by governments and consumer association resistance, thus an equidistant analysis poses some unprecedented impediments. The importance of FA and the potential of transgenic plants to bring food allergens into the food supply should not be disregarded. The expression in soybeans of a Brazil nut protein resulted in a food allergen ex-pressed in widely used infant formulas, so paving the way to an often reported multinational debacle. Genetic engineering poses innovative ethical and social concerns, as well as serious challenges to the environment, human health, animal welfare, and the future of agriculture. In this paper will be emphasized practical concepts more crucial for pediatricians.

  8. Benefits and concerns associated with biotechnology-derived foods: can additional research reduce children health risks?

    PubMed

    Cantani, A

    2006-01-01

    The development of techniques devised for the genetic manipulation of foods poses new risks for children with food allergy (FA). The introduction of foreign allergenic proteins from different foods into previously tolerated foods may trigger allergic reactions, often complicating with anaphylactic shock in a subset of allergic babies. Children with FA, even if subjected to preventative diets, always challenge the risk of developing allergic manifestations after unintentional intake of a non tolerated food in restaurant settings, with relatives or schoolmates, etc, where product labelling is necessarily lacking. The introduction of potentially allergenic proteins into foods generally considered safe for allergic children can be done deliberately, by either substantially altering the food ingredients, or by genetic manipulation which change the composition or transfer allergens, or unintentionally by quality-control failures, due to contaminations in the production process, or to genetic mismanipulation. There is a controversy between multinationals often favored by governments and consumer association resistance, thus an equidistant analysis poses some unprecedented impediments. The importance of FA and the potential of transgenic plants to bring food allergens into the food supply should not be disregarded. The expression in soybeans of a Brazil nut protein resulted in a food allergen expressed in widely used infant formulas, so paving the way to an often reported multinational debacle. Genetic engineering poses innovative ethical and social concerns, as well as serious challenges to the environment, human health, animal welfare, and the future of agriculture. In this paper will be emphasized practical concepts more crucial for pediatricians.

  9. 78 FR 71457 - Food Additive Regulations; Incorporation by Reference of the Food Chemicals Codex, 7th Edition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ...) Vitamin D2 Meets FCC 7 specifications. 172.380(b) Vitamin D3 Meets FCC 7 specifications. 172.665(d)(2... Sec. 172.379 by revising paragraph (b) to read as follows: Sec. 172.379 Vitamin D 2 . * * * * * (b) Vitamin D 2 meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 7th ed. (2010), pp. 1080-1081, which...

  10. Erythorbyl laurate as a potential food additive with multi-functionalities: Interfacial characteristics and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung-Min; Lee, Min Joo; Jo, Su-Kyung; Choi, Seung Jun; Lee, JaeHwan; Chang, Pahn-Shick

    2017-01-15

    The interfacial characteristics and antioxidant activities of erythorbyl laurate were investigated to provide information on practical applications as a multi-functional food additive. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of erythorbyl laurate was 0.101mM and its foam stability was three times (half-life 24.33±0.94h) higher than that of Tween 20 (8.00±1.63h). In free radical scavenging assay, the negligible decrease in EC50 of erythorbyl laurate compared to erythorbic acid manifested that C-5 selective esterification of erythorbic acid with an acyl group (lauric acid) did not reduce the inherent antioxidant activity of the donor (erythorbic acid). Erythorbyl laurate formed lipid peroxides slower (i.e. retarded oxidation) in an emulsion system than did erythorbic acid. The localization of erythorbyl laurate as an emulsifier allowed the antioxidant molecules to be concentrated at the oil-water interface where oxidation is prevalent, which led to more effective retardation of lipid oxidation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and structurally related synthetic food additives towards Clostridium perfringens.

    PubMed

    Si, W; Ni, X; Gong, J; Yu, H; Tsao, R; Han, Y; Chambers, J R

    2009-01-01

    To assess the potential of essential oils and structurally related synthetic food additives in inhibiting the growth of Clostridium perfringens for the control of necrotic enteritis in chickens. The antimicrobial activity of essential oils/compounds was measured by determining the inhibition of bacterial growth. Thirty-three of 66 oils/compounds exhibited > or =80% inhibition. Seven with the highest potency were further studied. The oils/compounds had MIC(95) values between 167 and 425 microg ml(-1). Most of them were tolerant to low pH (2.0) and exhibited minor or no inhibition of Lactobacillus isolates from the chicken intestine. When mixed with chicken ileal digesta, the oils/compounds retained their efficacy against C. perfringens, but had little effect on the total number of lactobacilli and anaerobic bacteria in the digesta. Some essential oils/compounds demonstrated good potential in controlling C. perfringens. This study has identified candidates of essential oils/compounds for in vivo studies for the control of necrotic enteritis in chickens.

  12. Antiproliferative and genotoxic effects of nature identical and artificial synthetic food additives of aroma and flavor.

    PubMed

    Nunes, R D M; Sales, I M S; Silva, S I O; Sousa, J M C; Peron, A P

    2016-07-25

    This study aimed to analyze the antiproliferative and genotoxic potential of synthetic food flavorings, nature identical passion fruit and artificial vanilla. This assessment used root meristem cells of Allium cepa L., in exposure times of 24 and 48 hours and using doses of 0.2; 0.4 and 0.6 mL. Roots were fixed in Carnoy's solution, hydrolyzed in hydrochloric acid, stained with acetic orcein and analyzed with optical microscope at 400× magnification, 5,000 cells for each treatment. For data analysis, it was used Chi-square test at 5%. Doses of 0.2 mL at ET 48 h; 0.4 and 0.6 mL at ET 24 and 48 h of passion fruit flavor, and the three doses of the vanilla flavor at ET 24 and 48 h significantly reduced the cell division rate in the meristems of roots, proving to be cytotoxic. Doses of 0.2; 0.4 and 0.6 mL of the passion fruit additive, and the three doses of vanilla tested, in the two exposure times, induced mitotic spindle changes and micronuclei formation in the cells of the test organism used, proving to be genotoxic. Therefore, under the studied conditions, flavoring solutions of vanilla and passion fruit, marketed nationally and internationally, significantly altered the functioning of the cell cycle in root meristem cells of A. cepa.

  13. Food Additive P-80 Impacts Mouse Gut Microbiota Promoting Intestinal Inflammation, Obesity and Liver Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ratnesh Kumar; Ishikawa, Seiichi

    2016-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity has emerged as one of the most important global public health issue. The change to the human microbiome as a result of changes in the quality and quantity of food intake over the past several decades has been implicated in the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome. We administered polysorbate-80 to mice via gavage. The researchers monitor liver noninvasively using a bioluminescence imaging. For the liver dysfunction we measure the liver enzymes and PAS stain on liver, electron microscopy liver mitochondria. For the assessment of intestinal inflammation we measured fecal LCN2, LPS, MPO and flagellin by ELISA and qPCR. We use confocal microscopy to detect closet bacteria near the epithelium. 16S sequence was used for the composition of microbiota. Compared with control mice, those receiving emulsifier, showed impaired glycemic tolerance, hyperinsulinemia, altered liver enzymes, larger mitochondria and increased gall bladder size. Additionally, mice in the experimental group showed higher levels of DCA, reduced Muc2 RNA expression, reduced mucus thickness in the intestinal epithelium and increased gut permeability. Intestinal bacteria of mice receiving P-80 were found deeper in the mucus and closer to the intestinal epithelium and had increased level of bioactive LPS, flagellin and LCN2 expression. The result of the study are supportive of evidence that emulsifier agents such as polysorbate-80, may be contributing to obesity related intestinal inflammation and progression of liver dysfunction and alternation of gut microbiota. PMID:27430014

  14. Characterization of glucansucrase and dextran from Weissella sp. TN610 with potential as safe food additives.

    PubMed

    Bejar, Wacim; Gabriel, Valérie; Amari, Myriam; Morel, Sandrine; Mezghani, Monia; Maguin, Emmanuelle; Fontagné-Faucher, Catherine; Bejar, Samir; Chouayekh, Hichem

    2013-01-01

    Pear-derived Weissella sp. TN610 produced extracellular glycosyltransferase activity responsible for the synthesis of soluble exopolysaccharide from sucrose. Acid and dextranase-catalyzed hydrolysis revealed that the synthesized polymer was a glucan. According to (1)H and (13)C NMR analysis, the glucan produced by TN610 was a linear dextran made of 96% α-(1→6) and 4% α-(1→3) linkages. Zymogram analysis confirmed the presence of a unique glucansucrase of approximately 180 kDa in the cell-free supernatant from TN610. The crude enzyme, optimally active at 37°C and pH 5, has promising potential for application as a food additive since it catalyzes dextran synthesis in sucrose-supplemented milk, allowing its solidification. A 4257-bp product corresponding to the mature glucansucrase gene was amplified by PCR from TN610. It encoded a polypeptide of 1418 residues having a calculated molecular mass of 156.089 kDa and exhibiting 96% and 95% identity with glucansucrases from Lactobacillus fermentum Kg3 and Weissella cibaria CMU, respectively.

  15. Cryptic biodiversity effects: importance of functional redundancy revealed through addition of food web complexity.

    PubMed

    Philpott, Stacy M; Pardee, Gabriella L; Gonthier, David J

    2012-05-01

    Interactions between predators and the degree of functional redundancy among multiple predator species may determine whether herbivores experience increased or decreased predation risk. Specialist parasites can modify predator behavior, yet rarely have cascading effects on multiple predator species and prey been evaluated. We examined influences of specialist phorid parasites (Pseudacteon spp.) on three predatory ant species and herbivores in a coffee agroecosystem. Specifically, we examined whether changes in ant richness affected fruit damage by the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) and whether phorids altered multi-predator effects. Each ant species reduced borer damage, and without phorids, increasing predator richness did not further decrease borer damage. However, with phorids, activity of one ant species was reduced, indicating that the presence of multiple ant species was necessary to limit borer damage. In addition, phorid presence revealed synergistic effects of multiple ant species, not observed without the presence of this parasite. Thus, a trait-mediated cascade resulting from a parasite-induced predator behavioral change revealed the importance of functional redundancy, predator diversity, and food web complexity for control of this important pest.

  16. What do asthmatics have to fear from food and additive allergy?

    PubMed

    Gillman, A; Douglass, Jo A

    2010-09-01

    International studies report marked increases in the prevalence of food allergy, along with increases in hospital admissions and emergency presentations for severe allergic reactions due to foods. The prevalence of self-reported food allergy is common, but generally exceeds that which can be verified from challenge studies, although nut allergies appear to be an important exception to this rule. Studies examining food allergy deaths suggest that those who die of food allergy usually have co-existent asthma. Adolescents and young adults are at most risk, and adrenaline auto-injectors are sub-optimally used. Food chemical sensitivity is very commonly reported but not usually verified by challenge testing. However, the exception to this is sulphite sensitivity, which can elicit reproducible reactions in some. The increasing prevalence of severe food allergies and awareness of its risk in those with asthma demands an especially rigorous approach to the diagnosis and management of co-existent food allergy and asthma, especially in young people who appear to be at most risk from death from severe food allergy.

  17. Parameters and pitfalls to consider in the conduct of food additive research, Carrageenan as a case study.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Myra L

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides guidance on the conduct of new in vivo and in vitro studies on high molecular weight food additives, with carrageenan, the widely used food additive, as a case study. It is important to understand the physical/chemical properties and to verify the identity/purity, molecular weight and homogeneity/stability of the additive in the vehicle for oral delivery. The strong binding of CGN to protein in rodent chow or infant formula results in no gastrointestinal tract exposure to free CGN. It is recommended that doses of high Mw non-caloric, non-nutritive additives not exceed 5% by weight of total solid diet to avoid potential nutritional effects. Addition of some high Mw additives at high concentrations to liquid nutritional supplements increases viscosity and may affect palatability, caloric intake and body weight gain. In in vitro studies, the use of well-characterized, relevant cell types and the appropriate composition of the culture media are necessary for proper conduct and interpretation. CGN is bound to media protein and not freely accessible to cells in vitro. Interpretation of new studies on food additives should consider the interaction of food additives with the vehicle components and the appropriateness of the animal or cell model and dose-response. Copyright © 2015 FMC Corporation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Increasing Dietary Phosphorus Intake from Food Additives: Potential for Negative Impact on Bone Health123

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Eiji; Yamamoto, Hironori; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Taketani, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    It is important to consider whether habitual high phosphorus intake adversely affects bone health, because phosphorus intake has been increasing, whereas calcium intake has been decreasing in dietary patterns. A higher total habitual dietary phosphorus intake has been associated with higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and lower serum calcium concentrations in healthy individuals. Higher serum PTH concentrations have been shown in those who consume foods with phosphorus additives. These findings suggest that long-term dietary phosphorus loads and long-term hyperphosphatemia may have important negative effects on bone health. In contrast, PTH concentrations did not increase as a result of high dietary phosphorus intake when phosphorus was provided with adequate amounts of calcium. Intake of foods with a ratio of calcium to phosphorus close to that found in dairy products led to positive effects on bone health. Several randomized controlled trials have shown positive relations between dairy intake and bone mineral density. In our loading test with a low-calcium, high-phosphorus lunch provided to healthy young men, serum PTH concentrations showed peaks at 1 and 6 h, and serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) concentrations increased significantly at 8 h after the meal. In contrast, the high-calcium, high-phosphorus meal suppressed the second PTH and FGF23 elevations until 8 h after the meal. This implies that adequate dietary calcium intake is needed to overcome the interfering effects of high phosphorus intake on PTH and FGF23 secretion. FGF23 acts on the parathyroid gland to decrease PTH mRNA and PTH secretion in rats with normal kidney function. However, increased serum FGF23 is an early alteration of mineral metabolism in chronic kidney disease, causing secondary hyperthyroidism, and implying resistance of the parathyroid gland to the action of FGF23 in chronic kidney disease. These findings suggest that long-term high-phosphorus diets may impair bone health

  19. Increasing dietary phosphorus intake from food additives: potential for negative impact on bone health.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Eiji; Yamamoto, Hironori; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Taketani, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    It is important to consider whether habitual high phosphorus intake adversely affects bone health, because phosphorus intake has been increasing, whereas calcium intake has been decreasing in dietary patterns. A higher total habitual dietary phosphorus intake has been associated with higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and lower serum calcium concentrations in healthy individuals. Higher serum PTH concentrations have been shown in those who consume foods with phosphorus additives. These findings suggest that long-term dietary phosphorus loads and long-term hyperphosphatemia may have important negative effects on bone health. In contrast, PTH concentrations did not increase as a result of high dietary phosphorus intake when phosphorus was provided with adequate amounts of calcium. Intake of foods with a ratio of calcium to phosphorus close to that found in dairy products led to positive effects on bone health. Several randomized controlled trials have shown positive relations between dairy intake and bone mineral density. In our loading test with a low-calcium, high-phosphorus lunch provided to healthy young men, serum PTH concentrations showed peaks at 1 and 6 h, and serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) concentrations increased significantly at 8 h after the meal. In contrast, the high-calcium, high-phosphorus meal suppressed the second PTH and FGF23 elevations until 8 h after the meal. This implies that adequate dietary calcium intake is needed to overcome the interfering effects of high phosphorus intake on PTH and FGF23 secretion. FGF23 acts on the parathyroid gland to decrease PTH mRNA and PTH secretion in rats with normal kidney function. However, increased serum FGF23 is an early alteration of mineral metabolism in chronic kidney disease, causing secondary hyperthyroidism, and implying resistance of the parathyroid gland to the action of FGF23 in chronic kidney disease. These findings suggest that long-term high-phosphorus diets may impair bone health

  20. Allergens and food additives, including potentially harmful ones, present in food products that are preferred by children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Budrewicz, Sandra; Banaszczak, Marcin; Piotrowski, Jakub; Czerwińska, Maja; Stachowska, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    The proper development of a child is linked with proper nutrition, including nutritional habits which are formed from childhood. The aim of the study was to establish a list of the most popular food products among children and to develop a register of potentially dangerous substances on a Facebook website. A website was created on Facebook. The participants provided lists of favorite dishes or products. The study involved 264 participants. An inverse correlation was observed with reference to the age of the subjects and the occurrence of sugar syrup in their diet (R=-0.20; p<0.001), glucose-fructose (R= -0.18; p< 0.004), and glucose (R=-0.13; p< 0.039) syrups. The most common potential food allergens are: gluten (R=0.28; p<0.001), eggs (R=0.28; p<0.001), and wheat (R=0.25; p<0.001). The main substances added to food that are present in a child's diet that increase proportionally with reference to the child's age are: salicylates (R=0.37; p<0.001), iron and ammonium sulfates (R=0.21; p<0.001). The choices of favorite products are related to age and sex. Products containing gluten, the consumption of which increases with age, carry a risk of undiagnosed celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity in people with a genetic predisposition. Facebook has fulfilled its role as an effective tool for gathering information about the food preferences of children and adolescents.

  1. 77 FR 41953 - Representative Edward J. Markey; Filing of Food Additive Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 175 Representative Edward J. Markey; Filing of...: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing that Representative Edward J. Markey has filed a... Edward J. Markey, House of Representatives, 2108 Rayburn House Office Building, Washington, DC...

  2. Time optimal control of an additional food provided predator-prey system with applications to pest management and biological conservation.

    PubMed

    Srinivasu, P D N; Prasad, B S R V

    2010-04-01

    Use of additional food has been widely recognized by experimental scientists as one of the important tools for biological control such as species conservation and pest management. The quality and quantity of additional food supplied to the predators is known to play a vital role in the controllability of the system. The present study is continuation of a previous work that highlights the importance of quality and quantity of the additional food in the dynamics of a predator-prey system in the context of biological control. In this article the controllability of the predator-prey system is analyzed by considering inverse of quality of the additional food as the control variable. Control strategies are offered to steer the system from a given initial state to a required terminal state in a minimum time by formulating Mayer problem of optimal control. It is observed that an optimal strategy is a combination of bang-bang controls and could involve multiple switches. Properties of optimal paths are derived using necessary conditions for Mayer problem. In the light of the results evolved in this work it is possible to eradicate the prey from the eco-system in the minimum time by providing the predator with high quality additional food, which is relevant in the pest management. In the perspective of biological conservation this study highlights the possibilities to drive the state to an admissible interior equilibrium (irrespective of its stability nature) of the system in a minimum time.

  3. Uncertainty analysis of the use of a retailer fidelity card scheme in the assessment of food additive intake.

    PubMed

    McNamara, C; Mehegan, J; O'Mahony, C; Safford, B; Smith, B; Tennant, D; Buck, N; Ehrlich, V; Sardi, M; Haldemann, Y; Nordmann, H; Jasti, P R

    2011-12-01

    The feasibility of using a retailer fidelity card scheme to estimate food additive intake was investigated in an earlier study. Fidelity card survey information was combined with information provided by the retailer on levels of the food colour Sunset Yellow (E110) in the foods to estimate a daily exposure to the additive in the Swiss population. As with any dietary exposure method the fidelity card scheme is subject to uncertainties and in this paper the impact of uncertainties associated with input variables including the amounts of food purchased, the levels of E110 in food, the proportion of food purchased at the retailer, the rate of fidelity card usage, the proportion of foods consumed outside of the home and bodyweights and with systematic uncertainties was assessed using a qualitative, deterministic and probabilistic approach. An analysis of the sensitivity of the results to each of the probabilistic inputs was also undertaken. The analysis identified the key factors responsible for uncertainty within the model and demonstrated how the application of some simple probabilistic approaches can be used quantitatively to assess uncertainty.

  4. The joint food and agriculture organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives and its role in the evaluation of the safety of veterinary drug residues in foods.

    PubMed

    MacNeil, James D

    2005-09-22

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended the evaluation of food additives at the international level through the establishment of an expert committee or committees. These committees evaluated the safety of food additives present as residues resulting from the use of pesticides or veterinary pharmaceuticals. The results of these meetings include international harmonization on acceptable daily intake of these compounds and the maximum residue limit that is permitted to be present within any food of animal or plant origin. The decisions rendered by these committees provide a key element in the elimination of international trade barriers associated with products intended for human consumption.

  5. Recent advances on the anti-cancer properties of Nigella sativa, a widely used food additive.

    PubMed

    Majdalawieh, Amin F; Fayyad, Muneera W

    The use of naturally-occurring agents to regulate tumorigenesis is on the rise. Several herbal extracts, pure plant-derived active constituents, and food additives have been reported to possess potent anti-cancer properties and cancer-ameliorating effects. The wide-range anti-cancer effects of Nigella sativa, also known as black seed or black cumin, have been extensively studied using different in vitro and in vivo models. Here, we provide a comprehensive, analytical review of the reported anti-cancer properties of N. sativa seed extracts. This review focuses on analyzing experimental findings related to the ability of N. sativa to exert anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, anti-oxidant, cytotoxic, anti-mutagenic, anti-metastatic, and NK cytotoxic activity enhancing effects against various primary cancer cells and cancer cell lines. Moreover, we underline the molecular mechanisms of action and the signal transduction pathways implicated in the suppression of tumorigenesis by N. sativa. The major signaling pathway utilized by N. sativa to manifest its anti-cancer activity is the iNOS signaling pathway. This review underscores the recent developments that highlight an effective therapeutic potential of N. sativa to suppress tumor development, reduce tumor incidence, and ameliorate carcinogenesis. In sum, experimental findings reported in the last two decades strongly suggest that N. sativa fractions could serve, alone or in combination with known chemotherapeutic drugs, as effective agents to control tumor initiation, growth, and metastasis, and hence, treatment of a wide range of cancers.

  6. Does maternal exposure to artificial food coloring additives increase oxidative stress in the skin of rats?

    PubMed

    Başak, K; Başak, P Y; Doğuç, D K; Aylak, F; Oğuztüzün, S; Bozer, B M; Gültekin, F

    2016-11-16

    Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and cytochrome P450 family 1 subfamily A polypeptide 1 (CYP1A1) metabolize and detoxify carcinogens, drugs, environmental pollutants, and reactive oxygen species. Changes of GST expression in tissues and gene mutations have been reported in association with many neoplastic skin diseases and dermatoses. Widely used artificial food coloring additives (AFCAs) also reported to effect primarily behavioral and cognitive function and cause neoplastic diseases and several inflammatory skin diseases. We aimed to identify the changes in expression of GSTs, CYP1A1, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in rat skin which were maternally exposed AFCAs. A rat model was designed to evaluate the effects of maternal exposure of AFCAs on skin in rats. "No observable adverse effect levels" of commonly used AFCAs as a mixture were given to female rats before and during gestation. Immunohistochemical expression of GSTs, CYP1A1, and VEGF was evaluated in their offspring. CYP1A1, glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTP), glutathione S-transferase alpha (GSTA), glutathione S-transferase mu (GSTM), glutathione S-transferase theta (GSTT), and VEGF were expressed by epidermal keratinocytes, dermal fibroblasts, sebaceous glands, hair follicle, and subcutaneous striated muscle in the normal skin. CYP1A1, GSTA, and GSTT were expressed at all microanatomical sites of skin in varying degrees. The expressions of CYP1A1, GSTA, GSTT, and VEGF were decreased significantly, while GSTM expression on sebaceous gland and hair follicle was increased. Maternal exposure of AFCAs apparently effects expression of the CYP1A1, GSTs, and VEGF in the skin. This prominent change of expressions might play role in neoplastic and nonneoplastic skin diseases.

  7. Differential colon DNA damage induced by azo food additives between rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Chihiro; Kano, Kiyoshi; Sasaki, Yu F; Sato, Itaru; Tsudua, Shuji

    2010-08-01

    Azo dyes, amaranth, allura red and new coccine, which are currently used as food color additives in Japan, have been reported to cause colon specific DNA damage in mice. To examine species difference in the DNA damage between rats and mice, each of dyes was administered to male mice (1 and 10 mg/kg) and male rats (10, 100 and 1,000 mg/kg) by gavage. Brain, lung, liver, kidney, glandular stomach, colon, urinary bladder and bone marrow were sampled 3 hr (for mice) and 3, 6, 12 and 24 hr (for rats) after the treatment. The alkaline comet assay showed DNA damage in the mouse colon 3 hr after the administration of all of the dyes at 10 mg/kg. In rats, however, none of the dyes damaged DNA. Azo dyes should undergo metabolic reduction in the colon to be adducted to DNA. To determine transit time of the dyes to the colon after their administration, gastric emptying and intestinal transport in mice and rats were examined using brilliant blue FCF (BB) as an indicator. The half times of gastric emptying were 70 and 80 min for mice and rats, respectively; and about 60% of the BB was removed from the stomach 1 hr after the gastric intubation in both mice and rats. BB reached the mouse and rat colon 1 and 3 hr after the administration, respectively. Considering the wide dose range and sampling times well covering the transit time to the colon, rats may be insensitive to these azo dye-induced DNA damage.

  8. Determination of 30 synthetic food additives in soft drinks by HPLC/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hui; Yang, Minli; Wang, Minglin; Zhao, Yansheng; Cao, Ya; Chu, Xiaogang

    2013-01-01

    A method combining SPE with HPLC/electrospray ionization-MS/MS was developed for simultaneous determination of 30 synthetic food additives, including synthetic colorants, preservatives, and sweeteners in soft drinks. All targets were efficiently separated using the optimized chromatographic and MS conditions and parameters in a single run within 18 min. The LOD of the analytes ranged from 0.01 to 20 microg/kg, and the method was validated with recoveries in the 80.8 to 106.4% range. This multisynthetic additive method was found to be accurate and reliable and will be useful to ensure the safety of food products, such as the labeling and proper use of synthetic food additives in soft drinks.

  9. Effect of tartarate and citrate based food additives on the micellar properties of sodium dodecylsulfate for prospective use as food emulsifier.

    PubMed

    Banipal, Tarlok S; Kaur, Harjinder; Kaur, Amanpreet; Banipal, Parampaul K

    2016-01-01

    Citrate and tartarate based food preservatives can be used to enhance the emulsifying properties of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) based micellar system and thus making it appropriate for food applications. Exploration of interactions between the two species is the key constraint for execution of such ideas. In this work various micellar and thermodynamic parameters of SDS like critical micellar concentration (CMC), standard Gibbs free energy of micellization (ΔG(0)mic.) etc. have been calculated in different concentrations of disodium tartarate (DST) and trisodium citrate (TSC) in the temperature range (288.15-318.15)K from the conductivity and surface tension measurements. The parameters obtained from these studies reveal the competitive nature of both the additives with SDS for available positions at the air/water interface. TSC is found to be more effective additive in order to make SDS micellar system better for its potential applications as food emulsifier. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Semi-micro flow injection analysis method for evaluation of quenching effect of health foods or food additive antioxidants on peroxynitrite.

    PubMed

    Wada, Mitsuhiro; Kira, Megumi; Kido, Hirotsugu; Ikeda, Rie; Kuroda, Naotaka; Nishigaki, Toshiaki; Nakashima, Kenichiro

    2011-01-01

    A semi-micro flow injection analysis (SMFIA) method for evaluation of quenching effect of food additive antioxidants or health foods on peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) is described. The injected sample was carried with phosphate buffer containing NaNO(2), mixed with a trigger solution to generate ONOO(-) and then detected CL generated after mixing with luminol solution. Selective chemiluminescence caused by ONOO(-) in this generation system was confirmed by catalase treatment. Ascorbic acid (ASA), Trolox and ascorbyl palmitate (ASP) were used as food additive antioxidants. EC(50) values of ASA, Trolox and ASP were 2.6, 6.4 and 43 µg/mL, respectively. The amount of reagents required for an assay by this SMFIA system could reduce the time by a third compared with the conventional method previously reported. Furthermore, as an application of the proposed method, the quenching effect of commercially available Noni (Morinda citrifolia) juices was evaluated. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Chemical rules on the assessment of antioxidant potential in food and food additives aimed at reducing oxidative stress and neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Franco, Rafael; Martínez-Pinilla, Eva

    2017-11-15

    Antioxidants (aOXs) enlarge the useful life of products consumed by humans. Life requires oxidation of glucose/fatty acids and, therefore, "antioxidant" becomes an oxymoron when trying to define benefits in organisms living in an oxygen-rich atmosphere. According to basic physico-chemical principles, the in vivo aOX potential of food supplements is negligible when compared with the main aOX molecules in the animal Kingdom: glucose and fatty acids. Thus, the aOX assumption to improve life-quality is misleading as oxidative stress and exacerbation occur when oxidant foods (e.g. fava beans) are consumed. Evolution produced potent detoxification mechanisms to handle these situations. When age/genetic/environmental factors negatively impact on detoxification mechanisms, nutrition helps on providing metabolites/precursors needed for boosting innate resources. Ambiguous techniques that attempt to measure in vivo aOX power, should give way to measuring the level of supplements and their metabolites in body fluids/tissues, and to measure the efficacy on antioxidant boosting REDOX pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterizing chronic and acute health risks of residues of veterinary drugs in food: latest methodological developments by the joint FAO/WHO expert committee on food additives.

    PubMed

    Boobis, Alan; Cerniglia, Carl; Chicoine, Alan; Fattori, Vittorio; Lipp, Markus; Reuss, Rainer; Verger, Philippe; Tritscher, Angelika

    2017-07-10

    The risk assessment of residues of veterinary drugs in food is a field that continues to evolve. The toxicological end-points to be considered are becoming more nuanced and in light of growing concern about the development of antimicrobial resistance, detailed analysis of the antimicrobial activity of the residues of veterinary drugs in food is increasingly incorporated in the assessment. In recent years, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) has refined its approaches to provide a more comprehensive and fit-for-purpose risk assessment. This publication describes in detail the consideration of acute and chronic effects, the estimation of acute and chronic dietary exposure, current approaches for including microbiological endpoints in the risk assessment, and JECFA's considerations for the potential effects of food processing on residues from veterinary drugs. JECFA now applies these approaches in the development of health-based guidance values (i.e. safe exposure levels) for residues of veterinary drugs. JECFA, thus, comprehensively addresses acute and chronic risks by using corresponding estimates for acute and chronic exposure and suitable correction for the limited bioavailability of bound residues by the Gallo-Torres model. On a case-by-case basis, JECFA also considers degradation products that occur from normal food processing of food containing veterinary drug residues. These approaches will continue to be refined to ensure the most scientifically sound basis for the establishment of health-based guidance values for veterinary drug residues.

  13. The role of histamine degradation gene polymorphisms in moderating the effects of food additives on children's ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Jim; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; McCann, Donna; Grimshaw, Kate; Parker, Karen M; Rose-Zerilli, Matthew J; Holloway, John W; Warner, John O

    2010-09-01

    Food additives can exacerbate ADHD symptoms and cause non-immunoglobulin E-dependent histamine release from circulating basophils. However, children vary in the extent to which their ADHD symptoms are exacerbated by the ingestion of food additives. The authors hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms affecting histamine degradation would explain the diversity of responses to additives. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial, challenges involving two food color additive and sodium benzoate (preservative) mixtures in a fruit drink were administered to a general community sample of 3-year-old children (N = 153) and 8/9-year-old children (N = 144). An aggregate ADHD symptom measure (based on teacher and parent blind ratings of behavior, blind direct observation of behavior in the classroom, and--for 8/9-year-old children only--a computerized measure of attention) was the main outcome variable. The adverse effect of food additives on ADHD symptoms was moderated by histamine degradation gene polymorphisms HNMT T939C and HNMT Thr105Ile in 3- and 8/9-year-old children and by a DAT1 polymorphism (short versus long) in 8/9-year-old children only. There was no evidence that polymorphisms in catecholamine genes COMT Val108Met, ADRA2A C1291G, and DRD4-rs7403703 moderated the effect on ADHD symptoms. Histamine may mediate the effects of food additives on ADHD symptoms, and variations in genes influencing the action of histamine may explain the inconsistency between previous studies. Genes influencing a range of neurotransmitter systems and their interplay with environmental factors, such as diet, need to be examined to understand genetic influences on ADHD symptoms.

  14. The threshold of regulation and its application to indirect food additive contaminants in recycled plastics.

    PubMed

    Bayer, F L

    1997-01-01

    Recycled plastics have been used in food-contact applications since 1990 in various countries around the world. To date, there have been no reported issues concerning health or off-taste resulting from the use of recycled plastics in food-contact applications. This is due to the fact that the criteria that have been established regarding safety and processing are based on extremely high standards that render the finished recycled material equivalent in virtually all aspects to virgin polymers. The basis for this conclusion is detailed in this document.

  15. [Assessment of the effect of selected mixture of food additives on the protein metabolism--model studies].

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Mariola; Kuchlewska, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Contemporarily, food production without food additives is very rare. Increasingly often, however, scientific works report on adverse effects of specified, single food additives on the body. Data is, in turn, lacking on the synergistic effect of a mixture of different food additives on body functions and its main metabolic pathways. The objective of this study, an animal model, was to evaluate if and in what way the compound of chosen and most frequently used and consumed food additives, along with the change of diet composition to processed, purified, influence the selected markers of protein metabolism. The animals were divided into four groups, which were fed with compound of feed pellets: group I and II with basic compound, group III and IV with modified compound in which part of the full grain was replaced by isocalorie wheat flour type 500 and saccharose. Animals from groups I and III received tap water, which was standing for some time, to drink. Animals from groups II and IV received solution of chosen additives to food and next they were given water to drink. The amount of given food additives was evaluated by taking into consideration their consumption by people recalculated to 1 kg of their body mass. The experiment spanned for 7 weeks. It was ascertained that the applied additives caused significant changes in total protein concentration and its fractions: albumin, alpha1-globulin, alpha2-globulin, beta-globulin and gamma-globulin in the blood serum of the animals under research, which can indicate and contribute to disclosure of creation of undesirable food reaction, especially when recommended levels of consumption of those additives are being exceeded. The organism response to the applied additives and accompanying it change of diet was essentially connected to sex of the animals. Undesirable character of changes taking place under the influence of applied additives, was observed both in animals fed with basic feed and modified feed with various

  16. Hyperactivity--Drug Therapy/Food Additives/Allergies. A Selective Bibliography. Exceptional Child Bibliography Series No. 602.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children, Reston, VA.

    The annotated bibliography on Hyperactivity--Drug Therapy/Food Additives/Allergies contains approximately 65 abstracts and associated indexing information for documents or journal articles published from 1968 to 1975 and selected from the computer files of the Council for Exceptional Children's Information Services and the Education Resources…

  17. Listing of color additives for coloring sutures; [phthalocyaninato(2-)] copper. Food and Drug Administration, HHS. Final rule.

    PubMed

    1999-04-30

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the color additive regulations to provide for the safe use of [phthalocyaninato(2-)] copper in coloring nonabsorbable sutures for general and ophthalmic surgery made from a blend of poly(vinylidene fluoride) and poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene). This action responds to a petition filed by Ethicon, Inc.

  18. Hypersensitivity to tartrazine (FD&C Yellow No. 5) and other dyes and additives present in foods and pharmaceutical products.

    PubMed

    Lockey, S D

    1977-03-01

    Tartrazine (FD&C Yellow No. 5) and other allowed certified color additives may have an exacerbating effect in chronic urticaria and asthma sufferers. In the individual patient the only way to determine their relevance is to administer test doses. By altering doses, timing and substances and by interspacing controls a battery of tests has been developed. Methods of testing for sensitization to food additives and analgesics are described.

  19. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis: A Controlled Double-Blind Experiment. (Includes NIE Staff Critique).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conners, C. Keith; And Others

    Fifteen hyperkinetic children (6-12 years old) were involved in a pilot study to test B. Feingold's hypothesis that hyperkinesis may be caused by artificial flavors and colors in food. Prior to treatment, parents and teachers completed bi-weekly questionnaires regarding each Ss' behavior both on medication (pretreatment period) and when medication…

  20. 76 FR 7106 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Formic Acid

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... Drinking Water of Animals; Formic Acid AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule... in feed and drinking water of animals to provide for the safe use of formic acid as an acidifying... safe use of formic acid as an acidifying agent at levels not to exceed 1.2 percent in swine feed. The...

  1. Aluminum bioavailability from basic sodium aluminum phosphate, an approved food additive emulsifying agent, incorporated in cheese

    PubMed Central

    Yokel, Robert A.; Hicks, Clair L.; Florence, Rebecca L.

    2008-01-01

    Oral aluminum (Al) bioavailability from drinking water has been previously estimated, but there is little information on Al bioavailability from foods. It was suggested that oral Al bioavailability from drinking water is much greater than from foods. The objective was to further test this hypothesis. Oral Al bioavailability was determined in the rat from basic [26Al]-sodium aluminum phosphate (basic SALP) in a process cheese. Consumption of ~ 1 gm cheese containing 1.5 or 3% basic SALP resulted in oral Al bioavailability (F) of ~ 0.1 and 0.3%, respectively, and time to maximum serum 26Al concentration (Tmax) of 8 to 9 h. These Al bioavailability results were intermediate to previously reported results from drinking water (F ~ 0.3%) and acidic-SALP incorporated into a biscuit (F ~ 0.1%), using the same methods. Considering the similar oral bioavailability of Al from food vs. water, and their contribution to the typical human’s daily Al intake (~ 95 and 1.5%, respectively), these results suggest food contributes much more Al to systemic circulation, and potential Al body burden, than does drinking water. These results do not support the hypothesis that drinking water provides a disproportionate contribution to total Al absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:18436363

  2. [The influence of vegetable biologically active food additives on men's health].

    PubMed

    Rakhmanov, R S; Grishin, D B; Gruzdeva, A E; Fandeev, V A

    2002-01-01

    The young people of draft age often have breach of a the dietary, that guite often is accompanied by decrease resistance and adaptation of opportunities. Application vegetative BAS to food (the beet with selderej) separately or especially together with liquid biphidiumbacterin gives good therapeutic effect.

  3. Developing Save Your Food Kit (Sayofu Kit) to Support Inquiry, Improve Student Learning Outcomes at SMP Plus Hidayatul Mubtadiin and Public Awareness on Food Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astutik, J.

    2017-02-01

    Food additives are materials that can not be separated from the lives of students and the community. Based on the preliminary questionnaire, it indicates the lack of kit supporting material additives in some schools and communities. The research objectives of this development are (1) to develop Kit experiment (SAYOFU KIT) and supplementary books to improve student learning outcomes in the classroom and public awareness on food additives (2) to describe the feasibility and potential effectiveness of SAYOFU KIT developed (3) to analyze the practice of SAYOFU KIT and benefits for students and the community. This development study uses 4-D models Thiagarajan, et al (1974). Through some stages, they are: defining, designing, developing and disseminating which involes the students and community. The developed SAYOFU KIT includes additives sample kit, borax test kit, curcumin test kit, formaldehyde test kit, modification heater to the identification of dyes and dye test paper. The study is conducted at SMP Plus Hidayatul Mubtadiin, and TKIT Al Uswah. The products are validated by experts and education practitioners. Qualitative data processing uses descriptive method, whereas quantitative data by using the N-gain. The average yield of expert validation of SAYOFU KIT with supplementary books 76.50% teacher’s book and 76.30% student’s book are eligible. The average yield of 96.81% validation of educational practitioners criteria, piloting a small group of 83.15%, and 82.89% field trials are very decent. The average yield on the student questionnaire responses SAYOFU kit and supplementary book is 87.6% with the criteria very well worth it. N-Gain 0:56 cognitive achievement with the criteria enough. The results of the public poll showed 95% feel the benefits SAYOFU kits for testing food. Based from description indicates that SAYOFU Kit developed feasible, practical, useful to support inquiry learning and improve student learning outcomes as well as public awareness of

  4. Evaluation of certain veterinary drug residues in food. Eighty-first report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of residues of certain veterinary drugs in food and to recommend maximum levels for such residues in food. The first part of the report considers general principles regarding the evaluation of residues of veterinary drugs within the terms of reference of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), including MRLs for generic fish species, acute reference doses (ARfDs) for veterinary drugs, an approach for dietary exposure assessment of compounds used for multiple purposes (i.e veterinary drugs and pesticides), dietary exposure assessment for less-than-lifetime exposure, and the assessment of short-term (90-day and 12-month) studies in dogs. Summaries follow of the Committee's evaluations of toxicological and residue data on a variety of veterinary drugs: two insecticides (diflubenzuron and teflubenzuron), an antiparasitic agent (ivermectin), an ectoparasiticide (sisapronil) and a β2-adrenoceptor agonist (zilpaterol hydrochloride). In addition, the Committee considered issues raised in concern forms from the Codex Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in Foods on lasalocid sodium, an antiparasitic agent. Annexed to the report is a summary of the Committee's recommendations on these drugs, including acceptable daily intakes (ADIs), ARfDs and proposed MRLs.

  5. Methods for determination of milt protein and epsilon-polylysine in food additive preparations and processed foods by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hirokado, M; Shimamura, Y; Nakajima, K; Ozawa, H; Kimura, K; Yasuda, K; Nishijima, M

    2001-04-01

    A simple and rapid method using capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) for the determination of milt protein (MP), which contains mainly protamine, and polylysine (PL) in food additive preparations and processed foods was developed. CZE separation was performed on poly(vinyl alcohol)-coated capillaries at a column temperature of 20 degrees C with 120 mmol/L phosphate buffer (pH 2.5) as the running buffer. The influence of various components in food additive preparations on CZE analysis of MP and PL was examined. Egg white lysozyme, glycine, sodium acetate, glycerol, fumaric acid, calcium carbonate, dextrin, emulsifiers and sodium polyphosphate and pyrophosphate had no effect. No peak of protamine was detected in preparations containing metaphosphate. The analysis method for processed foods was composed of extraction with 4% formic acid, precipitation of macromolecular compounds with ethanol, concentration in a water bath and determination by CZE. The average recoveries were 108.4% for protamine sulfate (PS) in red bean sticky rice, and 81.3% for PL in white rice, 118% in egg sandwiches, and 115% in shiraae. The limits of detection of PS in red bean sticky rice and PL in white rice were both 50 ppm.

  6. Effect of organic additives on silver release from nanosilver-polyethylene composite films to acidic food simulant.

    PubMed

    Su, Qi-Zhi; Lin, Qin-Bao; Chen, Chao-Fang; Wu, Li-Bing; Wang, Zhi-Wei

    2017-08-01

    The effects of organic additives (Irgafos 168, Irganox 1076, Tinuvin 622, Chimassorb 944, UV-P, and UV-531) on silver release from nanosilver-polyethylene composite films into an acidic food simulant (3% acetic acid) were investigated using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The limits of detection and quantification, coefficient of determination, and recoveries of the method used were 3.7ngL(-1), 12.4ngL(-1), 0.999, and 89-113%, respectively. The results indicated that additives can affect silver release via two simultaneous processes: (i) reactions between organic additives and silver that promote silver release from the composite film to the acidic food simulant; and (ii) the promotion or inhibition of silver release by affecting silver oxidation. High temperature and humidity treatment of the composite films was found to significantly increase silver release by promoting silver oxidation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An Internet compendium of analytical methods and spectroscopic information for monomers and additives used in food packaging plastics.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, J; Simoneau, C; Cote, D; Boenke, A

    2000-10-01

    An internet website (http:¿cpf.jrc.it/smt/) has been produced as a means of dissemination of methods of analysis and supporting spectroscopic information on monomers and additives used for food contact materials (principally packaging). The site which is aimed primarily at assisting food control laboratories in the European Union contains analytical information on monomers, starting substances and additives used in the manufacture of plastics materials. A searchable index is provided giving PM and CAS numbers for each of 255 substances. For each substance a data sheet gives regulatory information, chemical structures, physico-chemical information and background information on the use of the substance in particular plastics, and the food packaging applications. For monomers and starting substances (155 compounds) the infra-red and mass spectra are provided, and for additives (100 compounds); additionally proton NMR are available for about 50% of the entries. Where analytical methods have been developed for determining these substances as residual amounts in plastics or as trace amounts in food simulants these methods are also on the website. All information is provided in portable document file (PDF) format which means that high quality copies can be readily printed, using freely available Adobe Acrobat Reader software. The website will in future be maintained and up-dated by the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) as new substances are authorized for use by the European Commission (DG-ENTR formerly DGIII). Where analytical laboratories (food control or other) require reference substances these can be obtained free-of-charge from a reference collection housed at the JRC and maintained in conjunction with this website compendium.

  8. 78 FR 12937 - Additional Safeguards for Children in Clinical Investigations of Food and Drug Administration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... Continuing Education C. Risk Categories D. Obtaining Assent From Children E. Waiver of Permission F. Wards G... sections 505(i) and 520(g) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) (21 U.S.C 355(i) and... regulated by FDA under sections 505(i) and 520(g) of the FD&C Act, as well as clinical investigations...

  9. Directions on the use of stevia leaves (Stevia Rebauidana) as an additive in food products.

    PubMed

    Kobus-Moryson, Małgorzata; Gramza-Michałowska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Due to the high intake of sugars, especially sucrose, global trends in food processing have encouraged producers to use sweeteners, particularly synthetic ones, to a wide extent. For several years, increasing attention has been paid in the literature to the stevia (Stevia rebauidana), containing glycosidic diterpenes, for which sweetening properties have been identified. Chemical composition, nutritional value and application of stevia leaves are briefl y summarized and presented.

  10. Simultaneous determination of some food additives in soft drinks and other liquid foods by flow injection on-line dialysis coupled to high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kritsunankul, Orawan; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2011-06-15

    Flow injection on-line dialysis was developed for sample pretreatment prior to the simultaneous determination of some food additives by high performance liquid chromatography (FID-HPLC). A liquid sample or mixed standard solution (900 μL) was injected into a donor stream (5%, w/v, sucrose) of FID system and was pushed further through a dialysis cell, while an acceptor solution (0.025 mol L(-1) phosphate buffer, pH 3.75) was held in the opposite side of the dialysis membrane. The dialysate was then flowed to an injection loop of the HPLC valve, where it was further injected into the HPLC system and analyzed under isocratic reverse-phase HPLC conditions and UV detection (230 nm). The order of elution of five food additives was acesulfame-K, saccharin, caffeine, benzoic acid and sorbic acid, respectively, with the analysis time of 14 min. On-line dialysis and HPLC analysis could be performed in parallel, providing sample throughput of 4.3h(-1). Dialysis efficiencies of five food additives were in ranges of 5-11%. Linear calibration graphs were in ranges of 10-100 mg L(-1) for acesulfame-K and saccharin, 10-250 mg L(-1) for benzoic acid and 10-500 mg L(-1) for caffeine and sorbic acid. Good precisions (RSD<5%) for all the additives were obtained. The proposed system was applied to soft drink and other liquid food samples. Acceptable percentage recoveries could be obtained by appropriate dilution of the sample before injecting into the system. The developed system has advantages of high degrees of automation for sample pretreatment, i.e., on-line sample separation and dilution and low consumption of chemicals and materials. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Sweeteners as food additives in the XXI century: A review of what is known, and what is to come.

    PubMed

    Carocho, Márcio; Morales, Patricia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2017-09-01

    Sweet has always been a very important basic taste for mankind, although sweetness is always related to either weight gain or teeth decay. Sweeteners entered the food industry back in the 1800's and are now staple in foodstuffs. Despite their long relationship with food, sweeteners have been in the spotlights for many reasons. Since being the perfect choice for diabetics, to the dangers concerning toxicity, cancer and other health issues associated with their consumption, sweeteners have come a long way. The conflicting results for the same sweeteners and the divergent regulations are fuel for a wide debate on the impact of sweeteners in the industry, health and lifestyle of mankind. In this review, the history, main concerns, benefits, disadvantages, classification and future trends are revisited for nutritive, intense and natural food additives, while future perspectives are hypothesized. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The optimisation of food waste addition as a co-substrate in anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Woo; Han, Sun-Kee; Shin, Hang-Sik

    2003-12-01

    Food waste has been regarded as the main source of various environmental pollution in Korea due to the high volatile solids (VS) and moisture content caused by the features of dietary habits. The feasibility of food waste as a co-substrate in anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge was investigated in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions using batch tests. Cumulative methane production, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) were monitored to find the optimal mixing ratios of food waste and sewage sludge for the enhanced performance of co-digestion. It was observed that adequately mixed food waste led to the enhanced methane production both at mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. However, a conventional linear regression conducted for the optimisation of co-substrate mixing ratios was not accurate in describing exact methane production trends of co-digestion because of the different biodegradability of substrates. Therefore, a remodified Gompertz equation showing nonlinear relationship between variables was developed to find exact information with the same experimental data obtained at 2g VS/l generally used in biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. Based on an influential parameter, methane production rate (MPR), the optimal mixing ratios of food waste were 39.3% and 50.1% in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, respectively. To confirm the application of the remodified Gompertz equation, secondary batch tests were conducted with the substrate concentrations of 1-4g VS/l. In overall range tested, the confident mixing ratios of food waste was adjusted to 30-40% and 40% in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, respectively. The most significant factor for enhanced performance was the improved organic carbon content provided by additional food waste.

  13. Fertilizer addition lessens the flux of microbial carbon to higher trophic levels in soil food webs of grassland.

    PubMed

    Lemanski, Kathleen; Scheu, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Roots and root-derived C compounds are increasingly recognised as important resources for soil animal food webs. We used (13)C-labelled glucose as a model C compound representing root exudates to follow the incorporation of root-derived C into the soil animal food web of a temperate grassland over a period of 52 weeks. We investigated variations in glucose C incorporation with fertilizer addition and sward composition, i.e. variations in plant functional groups. The approach allowed the differentiation of trophic chains based on primary decomposers feeding on litter and phytophagous species feeding on roots (i.e. not incorporating glucose C) from those based on secondary decomposers feeding on microorganisms (thereby assimilating glucose C). Each of the studied soil animal species incorporated glucose C, indicating that the majority of grassland soil animal species rely on microorganisms as food resources with microorganisms being fuelled by root exudates. However, incorporation of glucose C into soil animal species varied markedly with species identity, suggesting that detritivorous microarthropods complement each other in channelling microbial C through soil food webs. Fertilizer addition markedly reduced the concentration of glucose C in most soil animal species as well as the absolute transfer of glucose C into oribatid mites as major secondary decomposers. The results suggest that fertilizer addition shifts the basis of the decomposer food web towards the use of unlabelled resources, presumably roots, i.e. towards a herbivore system, thereby lessening the link between microorganisms and microbial grazers and hampering the propagation of microbial C to higher trophic levels.

  14. Increased food intake after the addition of amylase-rich flour to supplementary food for malnourished children in rural communities of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M Iqbal; Wahed, M A; Ahmed, Shaheen

    2005-12-01

    In Bangladesh, as in other developing countries, protein-energy malnutrition is mostprevalent among children during weaning. After weaning, children are often fed cereal-based diluted low-calorie porridge, resulting in growth-faltering. To assess the effect on food intake of adding amylase-rich flour (ARF) from germinated wheat to supplementary food among children in nine rural Community Nutrition Centers under the Bangladesh Integrated Nutrition Project (BINP). A total of 166 malnourished children of either sex, aged 6 to 24 months, received one of three diets randomly allocated to the Community Nutrition Centers. The composition of the diets was the same; however, the consistency and calorie density were altered by adding either ARF or water. Thirty-five children received the standard supplementary food of the BINP (S-SF), 65 received supplementaryfood with added ARF (ARF-SF), and 66 received supplementary food with added water (W-SF). The children were studied for six weeks. Results. The mean +/- SD intake of supplementaryfood from a single meal by children completing six weeks on the diets was higher for children receiving ARF-SF (33.91 +/- 8.25 g) than for those receiving S-SF (25.66 +/- 6.73 g) or W-SF (30.26 +/- 8.39g) (p < .05 for both comparisons). The weight of vomited food was significantly higher for children receiving W-SF than for children in the other two groups. Weight gain and increments in length and weight-for-height were higher for children who received ARF-SF than for children in the other two groups, but the differences were not statistically significant. The acceptability ofARF-SF was higher than that of the two other diets. The additional cost of adding 2 g of ARF to the diet was about Taka 0.25 (U.S. dollar 1 = Taka 48). Addition of ARF to existing standard supplementary food, as used under the BINP program, is a simple and effective means to increase the intake of food by changing its consistency, thus making it easier for malnourished

  15. Improvement of mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of agri-food waste by addition of glycerol.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Antonio; Siles, Jose A; Chica, Arturo F; Martin, M Angeles

    2014-07-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion is a promising alternative to manage agri-food waste rather than landfilling, composting or incineration. But improvement of methane yield and biodegradability is often required to optimize its economic viability. Biomethanization of agri-food solid waste presents the disadvantage of a slow hydrolytic phase, which might be enhanced by adding a readily digestible substrate such as glycerol. In this study, strawberry extrudate, fish waste and crude glycerol derived from biodiesel manufacturing are mixed at a proportion of 54:5:41, in VS (VS, total volatile solids), respectively. The mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion at lab-scale of the mixture was stable at loads lower than 1.85 g VS/L, reaching a methane yield coefficient of 308 L CH4/kg VS (0 °C, 1 atm) and a biodegradability of 96.7%, in VS. Moreover, the treatment capacity of strawberry and fish waste was increased 16% at adding the crude glycerol. An economic assessment was also carried out in order to evaluate the applicability of the proposed process. Even in a pessimistic scenario, the net balance was found to be positive. The glycerol adding implied a net saving in a range from 25.5 to 42.1 €/t if compared to landfill disposal.

  16. Is there a role of food additives in recurrent aphthous stomatitis? A prospective study with patch testing.

    PubMed

    Gülseren, Duygu; Hapa, Asli; Ersoy-Evans, Sibel; Elçin, Gonca; Karaduman, Ayşen

    2017-03-01

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a common disease of the oral mucosa with an unknown etiology. This study aimed to determine if food additives play a role in the etiology of RAS as well as to determine if patch testing can be used to detect which allergens cause RAS. This prospective study included 24 patients with RAS and 22 healthy controls. All the participants underwent patch testing for 23 food additives. In total, 21 (87.5%) RAS patients and 3 (13.6%) controls had positive patch test reactions to ≥1 allergens; the difference in the patch test positivity rate between groups was significant (P < 0.05). The most common allergen that elicited positive patch test results in the patient group was cochineal red (n = 15 [62.5%]), followed by azorubine (n = 11 [45.8%]) and amaranth (n = 6 [25%]). The present findings show that food additives might play a role in the etiology of RAS and that patch testing could be a method for determining the etiology of RAS. © 2016 The International Society of Dermatology.

  17. Applicability of the DPPH assay for evaluating the antioxidant capacity of food additives - inter-laboratory evaluation study -.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Tomoko; Sumikura, Yoshihiro; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tada, Atsuko; Kashiwagi, Takehiro; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Matsui, Toshiro; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Ukeda, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    An inter-laboratory evaluation study was conducted in order to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of food additives by using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Four antioxidants used as existing food additives (i.e., tea extract, grape seed extract, enju extract, and d-α-tocopherol) and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox) were used as analytical samples, and 14 laboratories participated in this study. The repeatability relative standard deviation (RSD(r)) of the IC50 of Trolox, four antioxidants, and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) were 1.8-2.2%, 2.2-2.9%, and 2.1-2.5%, respectively. Thus, the proposed DPPH assay showed good performance within the same laboratory. The reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSD(R)) of IC50 of Trolox, four antioxidants, and TEAC were 4.0-7.9%, 6.0-11%, and 3.7-9.3%, respectively. The RSD(R)/RSD(r) values of TEAC were lower than, or nearly equal to, those of IC50 of the four antioxidants, suggesting that the use of TEAC was effective for reducing the variance among the laboratories. These results showed that the proposed DPPH assay could be used as a standard method to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of food additives.

  18. RAPD analysis of salt-tolerant yeasts from contaminated seasoned pickled plums and their growth inhibition using food additives.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Shingen; Fukuda, Seiko; Fujita, Tokio; Kishimoto, Noriaki

    2008-12-01

    Eight salt-tolerant yeasts were isolated from contaminated pickled plums which were seasoned with honey and "Umami" seasoning. They were classified into four main groups according to random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, and three of ten kinds of food additives tested inhibited their growth. The type strains of each group were identified as Zygosaccharomyces bisporus, Pichia subpeliculosa, and two strains of Candida apicola based on the D1/D2 region sequence of the 26S rRNA gene. They were able to grow in medium containing 6% (w/v) NaCI. A number of yeasts were isolated from production lines by the swab method, but not from the salted plums used as raw materials. These results show that the production lines require washing with antimicrobial agents effective against salt-tolerant yeasts. Three commercial food additives, San-keeper 381, Sunsoft No.700P-2, and potassium sorbate inhibited the growth of Z. bisporus at 125 to 250 microg/ml. In particular, San-keeper 381 altered the morphology of this species at 125 microg/ml. C. apicola and P. subpelliculosa were inhibited by Sunsoft No.700P-2 and potassium sorbate at 250 microg/ml. These results indicate that the washing of production lines with disinfectant and the use of food additives that effectively prevent salt-tolerant yeast contamination are necessary.

  19. A Bioengineered Nisin Derivative, M21A, in Combination with Food Grade Additives Eradicates Biofilms of Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Muireann K; Draper, Lorraine A; Hazelhoff, Pieter-Jan; Cotter, Paul D; Ross, R P; Hill, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The burden of foodborne disease has large economic and social consequences worldwide. Despite strict regulations, a number of pathogens persist within the food environment, which is greatly contributed to by a build-up of resistance mechanisms and also through the formation of biofilms. Biofilms have been shown to be highly resistant to a number of antimicrobials and can be extremely difficult to remove once they are established. In parallel, the growing concern of consumers regarding the use of chemically derived antimicrobials within food has led to a drive toward more natural products. As a consequence, the use of naturally derived antimicrobials has become of particular interest. In this study we investigated the efficacy of nisin A and its bioengineered derivative M21A in combination with food grade additives to treat biofilms of a representative foodborne disease isolate of Listeria monocytogenes. Investigations revealed the enhanced antimicrobial effects, in liquid culture, of M21A in combination with citric acid or cinnamaldehyde over its wild type nisin A counterpart. Subsequently, an investigation was conducted into the effects of these combinations on an established biofilm of the same strain. Nisin M21A (0.1 μg/ml) alone or in combination with cinnamaldehyde (35 μg/ml) or citric acid (175 μg/ml) performed significantly better than combinations involving nisin A. All combinations of M21A with either citric acid or cinnamaldehyde eradicated the L. monocytogenes biofilm (in relation to a non-biofilm control). We conclude that M21A in combination with available food additives could further enhance the antimicrobial treatment of biofilms within the food industry, simply by substituting nisin A with M21A in current commercial products such as Nisaplin(®) (Danisco, DuPont).

  20. A Bioengineered Nisin Derivative, M21A, in Combination with Food Grade Additives Eradicates Biofilms of Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Muireann K.; Draper, Lorraine A.; Hazelhoff, Pieter-Jan; Cotter, Paul D.; Ross, R. P.; Hill, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The burden of foodborne disease has large economic and social consequences worldwide. Despite strict regulations, a number of pathogens persist within the food environment, which is greatly contributed to by a build-up of resistance mechanisms and also through the formation of biofilms. Biofilms have been shown to be highly resistant to a number of antimicrobials and can be extremely difficult to remove once they are established. In parallel, the growing concern of consumers regarding the use of chemically derived antimicrobials within food has led to a drive toward more natural products. As a consequence, the use of naturally derived antimicrobials has become of particular interest. In this study we investigated the efficacy of nisin A and its bioengineered derivative M21A in combination with food grade additives to treat biofilms of a representative foodborne disease isolate of Listeria monocytogenes. Investigations revealed the enhanced antimicrobial effects, in liquid culture, of M21A in combination with citric acid or cinnamaldehyde over its wild type nisin A counterpart. Subsequently, an investigation was conducted into the effects of these combinations on an established biofilm of the same strain. Nisin M21A (0.1 μg/ml) alone or in combination with cinnamaldehyde (35 μg/ml) or citric acid (175 μg/ml) performed significantly better than combinations involving nisin A. All combinations of M21A with either citric acid or cinnamaldehyde eradicated the L. monocytogenes biofilm (in relation to a non-biofilm control). We conclude that M21A in combination with available food additives could further enhance the antimicrobial treatment of biofilms within the food industry, simply by substituting nisin A with M21A in current commercial products such as Nisaplin® (Danisco, DuPont). PMID:27965658

  1. Biological effect of food additive titanium dioxide nanoparticles on intestine: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Song, Zheng-Mei; Chen, Ni; Liu, Jia-Hui; Tang, Huan; Deng, Xiaoyong; Xi, Wen-Song; Han, Kai; Cao, Aoneng; Liu, Yuanfang; Wang, Haifang

    2015-10-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are widely found in food-related consumer products. Understanding the effect of TiO2 NPs on the intestinal barrier and absorption is essential and vital for the safety assessment of orally administrated TiO2 NPs. In this study, the cytotoxicity and translocation of two native TiO2 NPs, and these two TiO2 NPs pretreated with the digestion simulation fluid or bovine serum albumin were investigated in undifferentiated Caco-2 cells, differentiated Caco-2 cells and Caco-2 monolayer. TiO2 NPs with a concentration less than 200 µg ml(-1) did not induce any toxicity in differentiated cells and Caco-2 monolayer after 24 h exposure. However, TiO2 NPs pretreated with digestion simulation fluids at 200 µg ml(-1) inhibited the growth of undifferentiated Caco-2 cells. Undifferentiated Caco-2 cells swallowed native TiO2 NPs easily, but not pretreated NPs, implying the protein coating on NPs impeded the cellular uptake. Compared with undifferentiated cells, differentiated ones possessed much lower uptake ability of these TiO2 NPs. Similarly, the traverse of TiO2 NPs through the Caco-2 monolayer was also negligible. Therefore, we infer the possibility of TiO2 NPs traversing through the intestine of animal or human after oral intake is quite low. This study provides valuable information for the risk assessment of TiO2 NPs in food.

  2. New method of DNA isolation from two food additives suitable for authentication in polymerase chain reaction assays.

    PubMed

    Urdiaín, Mercedes; Doménech-Sánchez, Antonio; Albertí, Sebastián; Benedí, V Javier; Rosselló, Josep A

    2005-05-04

    Locust bean gum and guar gum are galactomannans used as additives (E 410 and E 412, respectively) in the food industry as stabilizing agents. Analytical discrimination between the two additives in gums and foods is now feasible by molecular techniques. However, only complex and time-consuming DNA isolation protocols are available to date. We have developed simple improved protocols to obtain enough DNA suitable for PCR amplification from a few milligrams of commercial E 410 and E 412 additives (containing more than 75% polysaccharides). The suspension of additives in water or 10 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.5, efficiently recovers DNA suitable for authentication in PCR assays. However, the Tris method was much more efficient for the extraction of DNA from E 410 than for E 412 additives. Conversely, the water method was the most suitable for detecting DNA extracted from E 412 or from E 410/E 412 mixtures. Combined with the use of the two specific ribosomal primer pairs previously designed, our methods are well-suited for a fast and simple high-throughput sample treatment of commercial gums for molecular certification.

  3. Conflicts of interest in approvals of additives to food determined to be generally recognized as safe: out of balance.

    PubMed

    Neltner, Thomas G; Alger, Heather M; O'Reilly, James T; Krimsky, Sheldon; Bero, Lisa A; Maffini, Maricel V

    Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance allows food manufacturers to determine whether additives to food are "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS). Manufacturers are not required to notify the FDA of a GRAS determination, although in some instances they notify the agency. The individuals that companies select to make these determinations may have financial conflicts of interest. To determine the extent to which individuals selected by manufacturers to make GRAS determinations have conflicts of interest between their obligations to ensure that the use of the additive is safe and their financial relationships to the company. DESIGN Using conflict of interest criteria developed by a committee of the Institute of Medicine, we analyzed 451 GRAS notifications that were voluntarily submitted to the FDA between 1997 and 2012. Number of GRAS notices submitted to the FDA; frequency of various types of relationships between decision maker and additive manufacturer; frequency of participation on GRAS panels by individuals; and number of GRAS safety determinations identified by the FDA that were not submitted to the agency. For the 451 GRAS notifications, 22.4% of the safety assessments were made by an employee of an additive manufacturer, 13.3% by an employee of a consulting firm selected by the manufacturer, and 64.3% by an expert panel selected by either a consulting firm or the manufacturer. A standing expert panel selected by a third party made none of these safety assessments. The 290 panels that made GRAS determinations had an average of 3.5 members, with a maximum of 7. Ten individuals served on 27 or more panels; 1 individual served on 128 panels (44.1%). At least 1 of the 10 individuals with the most frequent service was a member of 225 panels (77.6%). Between 1997 and 2012, financial conflicts of interest were ubiquitous in determinations that an additive to food was GRAS. The lack of independent review in GRAS determinations raises concerns about the integrity

  4. Hindbrain leptin and glucagon-like-peptide-1 receptor signaling interact to suppress food intake in an additive manner.

    PubMed

    Zhao, S; Kanoski, S E; Yan, J; Grill, H J; Hayes, M R

    2012-12-01

    The physiological control of feeding behavior involves modulation of the intake inhibitory effects of gastrointestinal satiation signaling via endogenous hindbrain leptin receptor (LepR) and glucagon-like-peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activation. Using a variety of dose-combinations of hindbrain delivered (4th intracerebroventricular; i.c.v.) leptin and the GLP-1R agonist exendin-4, experiments demonstrate that hindbrain LepR and GLP-1R signaling interact to control food intake and body weight in an additive manner. In addition, the maximum intake suppressive response that could be achieved by 4th i.c.v. leptin alone in non-obese rats (∼33%) was shown to be further suppressed when exendin-4 was co-administered. Importantly, it was determined that the interaction between hindbrain LepR signaling and GLP-1R signaling is relevant to endogenous food intake control, as hindbrain GLP-1R blockade by the selective antagonist exendin-(9-39) attenuated the intake inhibitory effects of hindbrain leptin delivery. Collectively, the findings reported here show that hindbrain LepR and GLP-1R activation interact in at least an additive manner to control food intake and body weight. As evidence is accumulating that combination pharmacotherapies offer greater sustained food intake and body weight suppression in obese individuals when compared with mono-drug therapies or lifestyle modifications alone, these findings highlight the need for further examination of combined central nervous system GLP-1R and LepR signaling as a potential drug target for obesity treatment.

  5. Chlorogenic Acid: Recent Advances on Its Dual Role as a Food Additive and a Nutraceutical against Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Santana-Gálvez, Jesús; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; Jacobo-Velázquez, Daniel A

    2017-02-26

    Chlorogenic acid (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid) is a phenolic compound from thehydroxycinnamic acid family. This polyphenol possesses many health-promoting properties, mostof them related to the treatment of metabolic syndrome, including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory,antilipidemic, antidiabetic, and antihypertensive activities. The first part of this review will discussthe role of chlorogenic acid as a nutraceutical for the prevention and treatment of metabolicsyndrome and associated disorders, including in vivo studies, clinical trials, and mechanisms ofaction. The second part of the review will be dealing with the role of chlorogenic acid as a foodadditive. Chlorogenic acid has shown antimicrobial activity against a wide range of organisms,including bacteria, yeasts, molds, viruses, and amoebas. These antimicrobial properties can beuseful for the food industry in its constant search for new and natural molecules for thepreservation of food products. In addition, chlorogenic acid has antioxidant activity, particularlyagainst lipid oxidation; protective properties against degradation of other bioactive compoundspresent in food, and prebiotic activity. The combination of these properties makes chlorogenic acidan excellent candidate for the formulation of dietary supplements and functional foods.

  6. An Experimental Evaluation of Hyperactivity and Food Additives. 1977-Phase I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, J. Preston

    Reported are findings of a study involving 46 families in which the effect of the Feingold (additive free) diet on hyperactivity in preschool and elementary age children was investigated. Eleven sections cover the following project components: introduction (definition of hyperactivity and the B. Feingold hypothesis), methodology, demographic…

  7. An Experimental Evaluation of Hyperactivity and Food Additives. 1977-Phase I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, J. Preston

    Reported are findings of a study involving 46 families in which the effect of the Feingold (additive free) diet on hyperactivity in preschool and elementary age children was investigated. Eleven sections cover the following project components: introduction (definition of hyperactivity and the B. Feingold hypothesis), methodology, demographic…

  8. Study on the interaction of the toxic food additive carmoisine with serum albumins: a microcalorimetric investigation.

    PubMed

    Basu, Anirban; Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh

    2014-05-30

    The interaction of the synthetic azo dye and food colorant carmoisine with human and bovine serum albumins was studied by microcalorimetric techniques. A complete thermodynamic profile of the interaction was obtained from isothermal titration calorimetry studies. The equilibrium constant of the complexation process was of the order of 10(6)M(-1) and the binding stoichiometry was found to be 1:1 with both the serum albumins. The binding was driven by negative standard molar enthalpy and positive standard molar entropy contributions. The binding affinity was lower at higher salt concentrations in both cases but the same was dominated by mostly non-electrostatic forces at all salt concentrations. The polyelectrolytic forces contributed only 5-8% of the total standard molar Gibbs energy change. The standard molar enthalpy change enhanced whereas the standard molar entropic contribution decreased with rise in temperature but they compensated each other to keep the standard molar Gibbs energy change almost invariant. The negative standard molar heat capacity values suggested the involvement of a significant hydrophobic contribution in the complexation process. Besides, enthalpy-entropy compensation phenomenon was also observed in both the systems. The thermal stability of the serum proteins was found to be remarkably enhanced on binding to carmoisine.

  9. Thermodynamics of the interaction of the food additive tartrazine with serum albumins: a microcalorimetric investigation.

    PubMed

    Basu, Anirban; Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh

    2015-05-15

    The thermodynamics of the interaction of the food colourant tartrazine with two homologous serum proteins, HSA and BSA, were investigated, employing microcalorimetric techniques. At T=298.15K the equilibrium constants for the tartrazine-BSA and HSA complexation process were evaluated to be (1.92 ± 0.05) × 10(5)M(-1) and (1.04 ± 0.05) × 10(5)M(-1), respectively. The binding was driven by a large negative standard molar enthalpic contribution. The binding was dominated essentially by non-polyelectrolytic forces which remained largely invariant at all salt concentrations. The polyelectrolytic contribution was weak at all salt concentrations and accounted for only 6-18% of the total standard molar Gibbs energy change in the salt concentration range 10-50mM. The negative standard molar heat capacity values, in conjunction with the enthalpy-entropy compensation phenomenon observed, established the involvement of dominant hydrophobic forces in the complexation process. Tartrazine enhanced the stability of both serum albumins against thermal denaturation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Low hygroscopic spray-dried powders with trans-glycosylated food additives enhance the solubility and oral bioavailability of ipriflavone.

    PubMed

    Fujimori, Miki; Kadota, Kazunori; Kato, Kouki; Seto, Yoshiki; Onoue, Satomi; Sato, Hideyuki; Ueda, Hiroshi; Tozuka, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    The improvement in the solubility and dissolution rate may promote a superior absorption property towards the human body. The spray-dried powders (SDPs) of ipriflavone, which was used as a model hydrophobic flavone, with trans-glycosylated rutin (Rutin-G) showed the highest solubilizing effect of ipriflavone among three types of trans-glycosylated food additives. The SDPs of ipriflavone with Rutin-G have both a significant higher dissolution rate and solubility enhancement of ipriflavone. This spray-dried formulation of ipriflavone with Rutin-G exhibited a low hygroscopicity as a critical factor in product preservation. In addition, an improvement in the oral absorption of ipriflavone was achieved by means of preparing composite particles of ipriflavone/Rutin-G via spray drying, indicating a 4.3-fold increase in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve compared with that of untreated ipriflavone. These phenomena could be applicable to food ingredients involving hydrophobic flavones for producing healthy food with a high quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of certain veterinary drug residues in food. Seventy-eighth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of residues of certain veterinary drugs in food and to recommend maximum levels for such residues of food. The first part of the report considers general principles regarding the evaluation of residues of veterinary drugs within the terms of reference of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), including extrapolation of maximum residue limits (MRLs) to minor species, MRLs for veterinary drug residues in honey, MRLs relating to fish and fish species, dietary exposure assessment methodologies, the decision-tree approach to the evaluation of residues of veterinary drugs and guidance for JECFA experts. Summaries follow of the Committee's evaluations of toxicology and residue data on a variety of veterinary drugs: two anthelminthic agents (derquantel, monepantel), three antiparasitic agents (emanectin benzoate, ivermectin, lasalocid sodium), one antibacterial, antifungal and anthelminthic agent (gentian violet), a production aid (recombinant bovine somatotropins) and an adrenoceptor agonist and growth promoter (zilpaterol hydorchloride). Annexed to the report is a summary of the Committee's recommendations on these drugs, including acceptable daily intakes (ADIs)) and proposed MRLs.

  12. Emerging role of phenolic compounds as natural food additives in fish and fish products.

    PubMed

    Maqsood, Sajid; Benjakul, Soottawat; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2013-01-01

    Chemical and microbiological deteriorations are principal causes of quality loss of fish and fish products during handling, processing, and storage. Development of rancid odor and unpleasant flavor, changes of color and texture as well as lowering nutritional value in fish can be prevented by appropriate use of additives. Due to the potential health hazards of synthetic additives, natural products, especially antioxidants and antimicrobial agents, have been intensively examined as safe alternatives to synthetic compounds. Polyphenols (PP) are the natural antioxidants prevalent in fruits, vegetables, beverages (tea, wine, juices), plants, seaweeds, and some herbs and show antioxidative and antimicrobial activities in different fish and fish products. The use of phenolic compounds also appears to be a good alternative for sulphiting agent for retarding melanosis in crustaceans. Phenolic compounds have also been successfully employed as the processing aid for texture modification of fish mince and surimi. Thus, plant polyphenolic compounds can serve as potential additives for preventing quality deterioration or to retain the quality of fish and fish products.

  13. Individual and combined in vitro (anti)androgenic effects of certain food additives and cosmetic preservatives.

    PubMed

    Pop, Anca; Drugan, Tudor; Gutleb, Arno C; Lupu, Diana; Cherfan, Julien; Loghin, Felicia; Kiss, Béla

    2016-04-01

    The individual and combined (binary mixtures) (anti)androgenic effect of butylparaben (BuPB), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and propyl gallate (PG) was evaluated using the MDA-kb2 cell line. Exposing these cells to AR agonists results in the expression of the reporter gene (encoding for luciferase) and luminescence can be measured in order to monitor the activity of the reporter protein. In case of the evaluation of the anti-androgenic effect, the individual test compounds or binary mixtures were tested in the presence of a fixed concentration of a strong AR agonist (1000 pM 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone; DHT). Cell viability was assessed using a resazurin based assay. For PG, this is the first report in the literature concerning its (anti)androgenic activity. In case of both individual and mixture testing none of the compounds or binary combinations showed androgenic activity. When tested in the presence of DHT, BuPB, BHA and BHT proved to be weak anti-androgens and this was confirmed during the evaluation of binary mixtures (BuPB+BHA, BuPB+BHT and BHA+BHT). Besides performing the in vitro testing of the binary combinations, two mathematical models (dose addition and response addition) were evaluated in terms of accuracy of prediction of the anti-androgenic effect of the selected binary mixtures. The dose addition model guaranteed a good correlation between the experimental and predicted data. However, no estimation was possible in case of mixtures containing PG, due to the lack of effect of the compound in case of the individual testing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Various Food Additives on the Levels of 4(5)-Methylimidazole in a Soy Sauce Model System.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sumin; Lee, Jung-Bin; Hwang, Junho; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effect of food additives such as iron sulfate, magnesium sulfate, zinc sulfate, citric acid, gallic acid, and ascorbic acid on the reduction of 4(5)-methylimidazole (4(5)-MI) was investigated using a soy sauce model system. The concentration of 4(5)-MI in the soy sauce model system with 5% (v/v) caramel colorant III was 1404.13 μg/L. The reduction rate of 4(5)-MI level with the addition of 0.1M additives followed in order: iron sulfate (81%) > zinc sulfate (61%) > citric acid (40%) > gallic acid (38%) > ascorbic acid (24%) > magnesium sulfate (13%). Correlations between 4(5)-MI levels and the physicochemical properties of soy sauce, including the amount of caramel colorant, pH value, and color differences, were determined. The highest correlations were found between 4(5)-MI levels and the amount of caramel colorant and pH values (r(2) = 0.9712, r(2) = 0.9378). The concentration of caramel colorants in 8 commercial soy sauces were estimated, and ranged from 0.01 to 1.34% (v/v). © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Cytotoxicity and DNA damage properties of tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) food additive.

    PubMed

    Eskandani, Morteza; Hamishehkar, Hamed; Ezzati Nazhad Dolatabadi, Jafar

    2014-06-15

    Tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) was tested for potential cytotoxicity and genotoxicity upon A549 lung cancer cells and Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC). Cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay and flow cytometry analysis, while genotoxicity was assessed in vitro by alkaline comet, DNA fragmentation and DAPI staining assays. TBHQ dose- and time-dependently decreased the growth of A549 and HUVEC cells. Flow cytometry analyses determined early and late apoptosis in the treated cells. Also, single strand DNA breaking has been observed through comet assay technique. In addition, morphology of DAPI stained cells and DNA fragmentation assay using gel electrophoresis showed clear fragmentation in the chromatin and DNA rings within the nucleus of cell's treated TBHQ. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Addition of calcium compounds to reduce soluble oxalate in a high oxalate food system.

    PubMed

    Bong, Wen-Chun; Vanhanen, Leo P; Savage, Geoffrey P

    2017-04-15

    Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is often used as a base vegetable to make green juices that are promoted as healthy dietary alternatives. Spinach is known to contain significant amounts of oxalates, which are toxic and, if consumed regularly, can lead to the development of kidney stones. This research investigates adding 50-500mg increments of calcium carbonate, calcium chloride, calcium citrate and calcium sulphate to 100g of raw homogenates of spinach to determine whether calcium would combine with the soluble oxalate present in the spinach. Calcium chloride was the most effective additive while calcium carbonate was the least effective. The formation of insoluble oxalate after incubation at 25°C for 30min is a simple practical step that can be incorporated into the juicing process. This would make the juice considerably safer to consume on a regular basis.

  17. Composition of the gum from Combretum paniculatum and four other gums which are not permitted food additives.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D M; Wang, W P

    1990-01-01

    Only three gum exudates are permitted for pharmaceutical and food use by international regulatory authorities, viz. gum tragacanth (Asiatic Astragalus spp.), gum karaya (Sterculia spp.) and gum arabic [Acacia senegal (L.) Willd.], but a wide range of other tree exudates is used for a variety of uses in their countries of origin. This paper presents analytical data for the gum exudates from Atalaya hemiglauca, Cassine aethiopica, Combretum paniculatum, Sclerocarya birrea, and Pseudocedrela kotschyi. These gums may have local technological applications, but are not recommended for addition to foodstuffs.

  18. Synthesis, Characterization, Molecular Modeling, and DNA Interaction Studies of Copper Complex Containing Food Additive Carmoisine Dye.

    PubMed

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Akbari, Alireza; Jamshidbeigi, Mina; Khodarahmi, Reza

    2016-06-02

    A copper complex of carmoisine dye; [Cu(carmoisine)2(H2O)2]; was synthesized and characterized by using physico-chemical and spectroscopic methods. The binding of this complex with calf thymus (ct) DNA was investigated by circular dichroism, absorption studies, emission spectroscopy, and viscosity measurements. UV-vis results confirmed that the Cu complex interacted with DNA to form a ground-state complex and the observed binding constant (2× 10(4) M(-1)) is more in keeping with the groove bindings with DNA. Furthermore, the viscosity measurement result showed that the addition of complex causes no significant change on DNA viscosity and it indicated that the intercalation mode is ruled out. The thermodynamic parameters are calculated by van't Hoff equation, which demonstrated that hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions played major roles in the reaction. The results of circular dichroism (CD) suggested that the complex can change the conformation of DNA from B-like form toward A-like conformation. The cytotoxicity studies of the carmoisine dye and its copper complex indicated that both of them had anticancer effects on HT-29 (colon cancer) cell line and they may be new candidates for treatment of the colon cancer.

  19. Arginine and proline applied as food additives stimulate high freeze tolerance in larvae of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Koštál, Vladimír; Korbelová, Jaroslava; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Moos, Martin; Šimek, Petr

    2016-08-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is an insect of tropical origin. Its larval stage is evolutionarily adapted for rapid growth and development under warm conditions and shows high sensitivity to cold. In this study, we further developed an optimal acclimation and freezing protocol that significantly improves larval freeze tolerance (an ability to survive at -5°C when most of the freezable fraction of water is converted to ice). Using the optimal protocol, freeze survival to adult stage increased from 0.7% to 12.6% in the larvae fed standard diet (agar, sugar, yeast, cornmeal). Next, we fed the larvae diets augmented with 31 different amino compounds, administered in different concentrations, and observed their effects on larval metabolomic composition, viability, rate of development and freeze tolerance. While some diet additives were toxic, others showed positive effects on freeze tolerance. Statistical correlation revealed tight association between high freeze tolerance and high levels of amino compounds involved in arginine and proline metabolism. Proline- and arginine-augmented diets showed the highest potential, improving freeze survival to 42.1% and 50.6%, respectively. Two plausible mechanisms by which high concentrations of proline and arginine might stimulate high freeze tolerance are discussed: (i) proline, probably in combination with trehalose, could reduce partial unfolding of proteins and prevent membrane fusions in the larvae exposed to thermal stress (prior to freezing) or during freeze dehydration; (ii) both arginine and proline are exceptional among amino compounds in their ability to form supramolecular aggregates which probably bind partially unfolded proteins and inhibit their aggregation under increasing freeze dehydration. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Evaluation of the ability of Eleutherine americana crude extract as natural food additive in cooked pork.

    PubMed

    Ifesan, B O T; Siripongvutikorn, S; Hutadilok-Towatana, N; Voravuthikunchai, S P

    2009-09-01

    The scavenging activities of crude ethanolic extract from Eleutherine americana, on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl free radicals were investigated. The results revealed that the extract produced IC(50) values of 8.4 microg/mL and 0.78 mg/mL on DPPH and hydroxyl free radicals, respectively. The total phenolic content of the extract was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and the crude extract yielded high phenolic content of 4.56 mumol gallic acid equivalent per milligram dried extract. The extract, at different concentrations, was incorporated into pork, cooked in the microwave, and stored at 4 degrees C for 9 d. The crude extract demonstrated antioxidant activity, which increases with increased extract concentrations and retarded lipid oxidation in the cooked pork. Antibacterial activity of the extract against Staphylococcus aureus in the cooked pork revealed that at a concentration of 10.8 mg/100 g, the extract reduced the bacterial population by 0.57 log compared to control at 9 d of storage. The sensory results revealed that the pork samples treated with the extract and the control sample were not significantly different from day 0 to 6; however, on day 9 the treatments were significantly scored higher than the control. Furthermore, addition of the extract led to an increase in the redness values of the pork and this was acceptable from the sensory point of view. E. americana crude extract could be a promising novel antioxidant to prevent lipid oxidation and a potential natural color enhancer of red meat and meat products.

  1. Microbiological and biochemical characteristics of ground beef as affected by gamma irradiation, food additives and edible coating film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouattara, B.; Giroux, M.; Yefsah, R.; Smoragiewicz, W.; Saucier, L.; Borsa, J.; Lacroix, M.

    2002-03-01

    The current interest in "minimally processed foods" has attracted the attention for combination of mild treatments to improve food safety and shelf-life extention. The present study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of gamma irradiation and incorporation of naturally occurring antimicrobial compounds on microbial and biochemistry characteristics of ground beef. Ground beef patties (23% fat ) were purchased from a local grocery store (IGA, Laval, Que., Canada) and divided into 3 separate treatment groups: (i) control (ground beef without additive), (ii) ground beef with 0.5% (w/w) ascorbic acid, and (iii) ground beef with 0.5% ascorbic acid and coated with a protein-based coating containing selected spices. Samples were irradiated at 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy final dose at the CIC. Samples were stored at 4°C and evaluated periodically for microbial growth, total thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) and free sulfydryl content. At the end of the storage period, Enterobacteriaceae, Lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas and Brochothrix thermosphacta were enumerated. Regardless of the treatment group, irradiation significantly ( p⩽0.05) reduced the total aerobic plate counts (APC). Irradiation doses of 1, 2, and 3 kGy produced immediate reduction of 2, 3, and 4 log units of APCs, respectively. Also, shelf-life periods were higher for ground beef samples containing food additives. Lactic acid bacteria and Brochothrix thermosphacta were more resistant to irradiation than Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas. Concentration of TBARS and free sulfydryl concentrations were stabilized during post-irradiation storage for samples containing ascorbic acid and coated with the protein-based coating containing spices.

  2. Additional safeguards for children in clinical investigations of food and drug administration-regulated products. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2013-02-26

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its regulations to provide additional safeguards for children enrolled in clinical investigations of FDA-regulated products. This rule finalizes the interim rule published in 2001 to bring FDA regulations into compliance with provisions of the Children's Health Act of 2000 (the Children's Health Act). The Children's Health Act requires that all research involving children that is conducted, supported, or regulated by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) be in compliance with HHS regulations providing additional protections for children involved as subjects in research. FDA is taking this action both to comply with the congressional mandate and because of increases in the enrollment of children in clinical investigations as a result of ongoing pediatric initiatives.

  3. Subchronic toxicological evaluation of brea gum (Parkinsonia preacox) as a food additive in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    von Müller, Axel R; López, Cristina B; Eynard, Aldo R; Guzmán, Carlos A

    2009-01-01

    Brea gum is a phloematic exudate from Parkinsonia praecox, an autoctonous tree that grows in the arid areas of Argentina. In this work, we propose its potential as a food additive. However, as no toxicological safety evaluation of brea gum has yet been reported, this preliminary study was conducted to evaluate its long-term toxicity over a 120-day period in BALB/c mice fed with brea gum at various levels in the diet. The results showed that animals on diets containing up to 5% brea gum were healthy, exhibiting growth curves similar to controls for both males (P = 0.9138) and females (P = 0.9459), thereby indicating that feed intake and utilization was not affected. A histopathological examination and weight recording of liver, kidneys, and intestine did not reveal any microscopic abnormalities or adverse toxicological effect (weights respect to control: P > 0.1). Moreover, hematological parameters and enzyme activities were within the normal values previously reported for mice. Our findings suggest that feeding brea gum at levels up to 5% to BALB/c mice do not exert any toxicological effects, supporting its potential use as a food additive for human consumption.

  4. Preventing necrotizing enterocolitis by food additives in neonates: A network meta-analysis revealing the efficacy and safety.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wentao; Sui, Wu; Mu, Linsong; Yi, Wenying; Li, Haijuan; Wei, Liqin; Yin, Weihong

    2017-05-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious multifactorial gastrointestinal disease which is often discovered in premature infants. Various additives have been used to prevent NEC; yet, their relative efficacy and safety remain disputed. This study aims to compare the efficacy and safety of 5 food additives, namely, probiotics, probiotics + fructo-oligosaccharides, pentoxifylline, arginine, and lactoferrin in preventing NEC in neonates. Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane Library had been searched for all eligible randomized control trials. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated for dichotomous data and mean differences with 95% credible intervals (CrIs) were estimated for continuous data. Surface under the cumulative ranking curve was used to rank efficacy and safety of the prevention methods on each endpoint. A total of 27 eligible studies with 4649 preterm infants were included in this network meta-analysis (NMA), and the efficacy and safety of 5 food additives were evaluated. Probiotic and arginine exhibited better preventive efficacy compared with placebo (OR = 0.50, 95% CrIs: 0.32-0.73; OR = 0.30, 95% CrIs: 0.12-0.73, respectively). Only probiotic achieved a considerable decrease in the risk of mortality compared to placebo (OR = 0.68, 95% CrIs: 0.46-0.98). NEC patients with lactoferrin appeared to have lower incidence of sepsis than those of placebo (OR = 0.13, 95% CrIs: 0.03-0.61) or probiotic (OR = 0.18, 95% CrIs: 0.03-0.83). Based on this NMA, probiotics had the potential to be the most preferable additive, since it exhibited a significant superiority for NEC and mortality as well as a relatively balanced performance in safety.

  5. Evaluation of certain veterinary drug residues in food. Sixty-sixth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of residues of certain veterinary drugs in food and to recommend maximum levels for such residues in food. The first part of the report considers general principles regarding the evaluation of veterinary drugs within the terms of reference of JECFA, including compounds without an ADI or MRL; recommendations on principles and methods in derivation of MRLs, including a new procedure for estimating chronic dietary intakes; the use of a spreadsheet-based procedure for the statistical evaluation of residue depletion data; a revised approach for the derivation of microbiological ADIs; and the Committee's review of and comments on documents provided by the Codex Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs. Summaries follow of the Committee's evaluations of toxicological and residue data on a variety of veterinary drugs: three antimicrobial agents (colistin, erythromycin, flumequine), two production aids (melengestrol acetate, ractopamine hydrochloride), an insecticide (trichlorfon (metrifonate)) and an anthelminthic (triclabendazole). In addition, the attempt by the Committee to use tylosin as an example to investigate if evaluations are possible based on published data in the absence of data submissions from sponsors is described. Annexed to the report is a summary of the Committee's recommendations on these drugs, including acceptable daily intakes and proposed maximum residue limits.

  6. What Are We Putting in Our Food That Is Making Us Fat? Food Additives, Contaminants, and Other Putative Contributors to Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Amber L.; Schlezinger, Jennifer J.; Corkey, Barbara E.

    2014-01-01

    The “chemical obesogen” hypothesis conjectures that synthetic, environmental contaminants are contributing to the global epidemic of obesity. In fact, intentional food additives (e.g., artificial sweeteners and colors, emulsifiers) and unintentional compounds (e.g., bisphenol A, pesticides) are largely unstudied in regard to their effects on overall metabolic homeostasis. With that said, many of these contaminants have been found to dysregulate endocrine function, insulin signaling, and/or adipocyte function. Although momentum for the chemical obesogen hypothesis is growing, supportive, evidence-based research is lacking. In order to identify noxious synthetic compounds in the environment out of the thousands of chemicals that are currently in use, tools and models from toxicology should be adopted (e.g., functional high throughput screening methods, zebrafish-based assays). Finally, mechanistic insight into obesogen-induced effects will be helpful in elucidating their role in the obesity epidemic as well as preventing and reversing their effects. PMID:25045594

  7. Titanium dioxide food additive (E171) induces ROS formation and genotoxicity: contribution of micro and nano-sized fractions.

    PubMed

    Proquin, Héloïse; Rodríguez-Ibarra, Carolina; Moonen, Carolyn G J; Urrutia Ortega, Ismael M; Briedé, Jacob J; de Kok, Theo M; van Loveren, Henk; Chirino, Yolanda I

    2017-01-01

    Since 1969, the European Union approves food-grade titanium dioxide (TiO2), also known as E171 colouring food additive. E171 is a mixture of micro-sized particles (MPs) and nano-sized particles (NPs). Previous studies have indicated adverse effects of oral exposure to E171, i.e. facilitation of colon tumour growth. This could potentially be partially mediated by the capacity to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of the present study is to determine whether E171 exposure induces ROS formation and DNA damage in an in vitro model using human Caco-2 and HCT116 cells and to investigate the contribution of the separate MPs and NPs TiO2 fractions to these effects. After suspension of the particles in Hanks' balanced salt solution buffer and cell culture medium with either bovine serum albumin (BSA) or foetal bovine serum, characterization of the particles was performed by dynamic light scattering, ROS formation was determined by electron spin/paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and DNA damage was determined by the comet and micronucleus assays. The results showed that E171, MPs and NPs are stable in cell culture medium with 0.05% BSA. The capacity for ROS generation in a cell-free environment was highest for E171, followed by NPs and MPs. Only MPs were capable to induce ROS formation in exposed Caco-2 cells. E171, MPs and NPs all induced single-strand DNA breaks. Chromosome damage was shown to be induced by E171, as tested with the micronucleus assay in HCT116 cells. In conclusion, E171 has the capability to induce ROS formation in a cell-free environment and E171, MPs and NPs have genotoxic potential. The capacity of E171 to induce ROS formation and DNA damage raises concerns about potential adverse effects associated with E171 (TiO2) in food.

  8. Plant essential oils and allied volatile fractions as multifunctional additives in meat and fish-based food products: a review.

    PubMed

    Patel, Seema

    2015-01-01

    Essential oils are concentrated aromatic volatile compounds derived from botanicals by distillation or mechanical pressing. They play multiple, crucial roles as antioxidants, food pathogen inhibitors, shelf-life enhancers, texture promoters, organoleptic agents and toxicity-reducing agents. For their versatility, they appear promising as food preservatives. Several research findings in recent times have validated their potential as functional ingredients in meat and fish processing. Among the assortment of bioactive compounds in the essential oils, p-cymene, thymol, eugenol, carvacrol, isothiocyanate, cinnamaldehyde, cuminaldehyde, linalool, 1,8-cineol, α-pinene, α-terpineol, γ-terpinene, citral and methyl chavicol are most familiar. These terpenes (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) and phenolics (alcohols, esters, aldehydes and ketones) have been extracted from culinary herbs such as oregano, rosemary, basil, coriander, cumin, cinnamon, mint, sage and lavender as well as from trees such as myrtle, fir and eucalyptus. This review presents essential oils as alternatives to conventional chemical additives. Their synergistic actions with modified air packaging, irradiation, edible films, bacteriocins and plant byproducts are discussed. The decisive roles of metabolic engineering, microwave technology and metabolomics in quality and quantity augmentation of essential oil are briefly mooted. The limitations encountered and strategies to overcome them have been illuminated to pave way for their enhanced popularisation. The literature has been mined from scientific databases such as Pubmed, Pubchem, Scopus and SciFinder.

  9. A food additive with prebiotic properties of an α-d-glucan from lactobacillus plantarum DM5.

    PubMed

    Das, Deeplina; Baruah, Rwivoo; Goyal, Arun

    2014-08-01

    An α-d-glucan produced by Lactobacillus plantarum DM5 was explored for in vitro prebiotic activities. Glucan-DM5 demonstrated 21.6% solubility, 316.9% water holding capacity, 86.2% flocculation activity, 71.4% emulsification activity and a degradation temperature (Td) of 292.2°C. Glucan-DM5 exhibited lowest digestibility of 0.54% by artificial gastric juice, 0.21% by intestinal fluid and 0.32% by α-amylase whereas the standard prebiotic inulin, showed 25.23%, 5.97% and 19.13%, hydrolysis, respectively. Prebiotic activity assay of glucan-DM5 displayed increased growth of probiotic bacteria such as Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus acidophilus, but did not support the growth of non-probiotic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes. The overall findings indicated that glucan from L. plantarum DM5 can serve as a potential prebiotic additive for food products.

  10. Multi-spectroscopic and molecular modeling studies of bovine serum albumin interaction with sodium acetate food additive.

    PubMed

    Mohammadzadeh-Aghdash, Hossein; Ezzati Nazhad Dolatabadi, Jafar; Dehghan, Parvin; Panahi-Azar, Vahid; Barzegar, Abolfazl

    2017-08-01

    Sodium acetate (SA) has been used as a highly effective protectant in food industry and the possible effect of this additive on the binding to albumin should be taken into consideration. Therefore, for the first time, the mechanism of SA interaction with bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been investigated by multi-spectroscopic and molecular modeling methods under physiological conditions. Stern-Volmer fluorescence quenching analysis showed an increase in the fluorescence intensity of BSA upon increasing the amounts of SA. The high affinity of SA to BSA was demonstrated by a binding constant value (1.09×10(3) at 310°K). The thermodynamic parameters indicated that hydrophobic binding plays a main role in the binding of SA to Albumin. Furthermore, the results of UV-vis spectra confirmed the interaction of this additive to BSA. In addition, molecular modeling study demonstrated that A binding sites of BSA play the main role in the interaction with acetate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Oregano essential oil as an antimicrobial additive to detergent for hand washing and food contact surface cleaning.

    PubMed

    Rhoades, J; Gialagkolidou, K; Gogou, M; Mavridou, O; Blatsiotis, N; Ritzoulis, C; Likotrafiti, E

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the potential use of oregano essential oil as an antimicrobial agent in liquid soap for hand washing and for food contact surface cleaning. Oregano essential oil (O.E.O.) was emulsified in liquid detergent solution. This was challenge tested against a commercial antimicrobial soap in hand washing trials using natural flora. Soap with O.E.O. was as effective as the commercial antimicrobial soap at reducing aerobic plate count on the hands and more effective than plain soap with no additives. Cloths wetted with soap with O.E.O. were used to clean three different surfaces contaminated with four bacterial pathogens. For three of the four pathogens, the addition of 0·5% v/v O.E.O. to the soap solution enhanced cleaning performance and also reduced bacterial survival on the cloth after cleaning. Oregano essential oil (0·5%) is effective as an antimicrobial additive to detergent solutions for hand washing and surface cleaning. This preliminary study has shown that oregano essential oil is a potential alternative to antimicrobials used in various detergents, such as chloroxylenol and triclosan, which can have adverse environmental and health effects. Further development could lead to a commercial product. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Role of quantity of additional food to predators as a control in predator-prey systems with relevance to pest management and biological conservation.

    PubMed

    Srinivasu, P D N; Prasad, B S R V

    2011-10-01

    Necessity to understand the role of additional food as a tool in biological control programs is being increasingly felt, particularly due to its eco-friendly nature. A thorough mathematical analysis in this direction revealed the vital role of quality and quantity of the additional food in the controllability of the predator-prey systems. In this article controllability of the additional food--provided predator-prey system is studied from perspectives of pest eradication and biological conservation. Time optimal paths have been constructed to drive the state of the system to a desired terminal state by choosing quantity of the additional food as control variable. The theory developed in this article has been illustrated by solving problems related to pest eradication and biological conservation.

  13. Protecting child health and nutrition status with ready-to-use food in addition to food assistance in urban Chad: a cost-effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite growing interest in use of lipid nutrient supplements for preventing child malnutrition and morbidity, there is inconclusive evidence on the effectiveness, and no evidence on the cost-effectiveness of this strategy. Methods A cost effectiveness analysis was conducted comparing costs and outcomes of two arms of a cluster randomized controlled trial implemented in eastern Chad during the 2010 hunger gap by Action contre la Faim France and Ghent University. This trial assessed the effect on child malnutrition and morbidity of a 5-month general distribution of staple rations, or staple rations plus a ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF). RUSF was distributed to households with a child aged 6–36 months who was not acutely malnourished (weight-for-height > = 80% of the NCHS reference median, and absence of bilateral pitting edema), to prevent acute malnutrition in these children. While the addition of RUSF to a staple ration did not result in significant reduction in wasting rates, cost-effectiveness was assessed using successful secondary outcomes of cases of diarrhea and anemia (hemoglobin <110 g/L) averted among children receiving RUSF. Total costs of the program and incremental costs of RUSF and related management and logistics were estimated using accounting records and key informant interviews, and include costs to institutions and communities. An activity-based costing methodology was applied and incremental costs were calculated per episode of diarrhea and case of anemia averted. Results Adding RUSF to a general food distribution increased total costs by 23%, resulting in an additional cost per child of 374 EUR, and an incremental cost per episode of diarrhea averted of 1,083 EUR and per case of anemia averted of 3,627 EUR. Conclusions Adding RUSF to a staple ration was less cost-effective than other standard intervention options for averting diarrhea and anemia. This strategy holds potential to address a broad array of health and

  14. In vitro evaluation of the erosive potential of orange juice modified by food additives in enamel and dentine.

    PubMed

    Scaramucci, Taís; Hara, Anderson T; Zero, Domenick T; Ferreira, Stella S; Aoki, Idalina V; Sobral, Maria Angela P

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the erosive potential of orange juice modified by food additives in enamel and dentine. Calcium lactate pentahydrate (CLP), xanthan gum (XG), sodium linear polyphosphate (LPP), sodium pyrophosphate tetrabasic (PP), sodium tripolyphosphate (STP) and some of their combinations were added to an orange juice. Pure orange juice and a calcium-modified juice were used as negative (C-) and positive (C+) controls, respectively. In phase 1, 15 modified orange juices were tested for erosive potential using pH-stat analysis. In phase 2, the additives alone and the combination with good results in phase 1 and in previous studies (CLP+LPP) were tested in an erosion-remineralization cycling model. In phase 3, the erosion and remineralization episodes were studied independently. Enamel was analysed by surface microhardness (SMH) and profilometry, whilst dentine by profilometry. In phase 1, reduction of the erosive potential was observed for all additives and their combinations, except XG alone. In phase 2, no detectable enamel loss was observed when CLP, LPP and CLP+LPP were added to the juice. XG, STP and PP had enamel loss similar to C- (p>0.05). Amongst additives, the combination CLP+LPP showed the highest SMH values followed by CLP (p<0.05). All the other groups presented SMH values similar to C- (p>0.05). For dentine, only CLP+LPP lead to surface loss values lower than C- (p<0.05). In phase 3, CLP, LPP and CLP+LPP seemed to protect against erosion; whilst none of the tested compounds seemed to interfere with the remineralization process. CLP and LPP reduced erosion on enamel and this effect was enhanced by their combination. For dentine, only the combination CLP+LPP reduced erosion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of trace element addition on biogas production from food industrial waste--linking process to microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xin Mei; Karlsson, Anna; Svensson, Bo H; Bertilsson, Stefan

    2010-10-01

    Laboratory-scale reactors treating food industry waste were used to investigate the effects of additions of cobalt (Co), nickel/molybdenum/boron (Ni/Mo/B) and selenium/tungsten (Se/W) on the biogas process and the associated microbial community. The highest methane production (predicted value: 860 mL g(-1) VS) was linked to high Se/W concentrations in combination with a low level of Co. A combination of quantitative real-time PCR of 16S rRNA genes, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and clone library sequencing was used for the community analysis. The T-RFLP data show a higher diversity for bacteria than for archaea in all the treatments. The most abundant bacterial population (31-55% of the total T-RFLP fragments' intensity) was most closely related to Actinomyces europaeus (94% homology). Two dominant archaeal populations shared 98-99% sequence homology with Methanosarcina siciliae and Methanoculleus bourgensis, respectively. Only limited influence of the trace metal additions was found on the bacterial community composition, with two bacterial populations responding to the addition of a combination of Ni/Mo/B, while the dominant archaeal populations were influenced by the addition of Ni/Mo/B and/or Se/W. The maintenance of methanogenic activity was largely independent of archaeal community composition, suggesting a high degree of functional redundancy in the methanogens of the biogas reactors. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of sodium alginate addition to chocolate milk on glycemia, insulin, appetite and food intake in healthy adult men.

    PubMed

    El Khoury, D; Goff, H D; Berengut, S; Kubant, R; Anderson, G H

    2014-05-01

    Sodium alginate reduces appetite and glycemia, when consumed in water- and sugar-based drinks. But, its effects when added to other commonly consumed beverages have not been reported. Because chocolate milk (CM) is criticized for raising blood glucose more than unflavored milk, the aim of our study was to investigate the effect of adding a strong-gelling sodium alginate to CM on glycemia, insulinemia, appetite and food intake. In a randomized crossover design, 24 men (22.9±0.4 years; 22.5±0.3 kg/m(2)) were provided with isovolumetric (325 ml) treatments of CM, 1.25% alginate CM, 2.5% alginate CM or 2.5% alginate solution. Sodium alginate had a ratio of 0.78:1 of mannuronic acid (M) to guluronic acid (G) residues, and was block distributed. Treatments were standardized for lactose, sucrose and calcium content, and provided 120 min before an ad libitum pizza meal during which food intake was measured. Appetite and blood glucose and insulin were measured at baseline and at intervals pre- and post-meal. Addition of 2.5% alginate to CM reduced peak glucose concentrations, at 30 min, by an average of 6% and 13% compared with 1.25% alginate CM (95% confidence intervals (CIs): 0.02-1.08; P=0.037) and CM alone (95% CIs: 0.49-1.55; P=0.000) respectively. Insulin peaks at 30 min were lower by 46% after 2.5% alginate CM relative to CM (95% CIs: 3.49-31.78; P=0.009). Pre-meal appetite was attenuated dose dependently by alginate addition to CM; CM with 2.5% alginate reduced mean appetite by an average of 134% compared with CM alone (95% CIs: 8.87-18.98; P=0.000). However, total caloric intake at the pizza meal did not differ among treatments. The addition of a strong-gelling sodium alginate to CM decreases pre-meal glycemia, insulinemia and appetite, but not caloric intake at a meal 2 h later, in healthy adult men.

  17. Ecotoxicological effects of a veterinary food additive, copper sulphate, on antioxidant enzymes and mRNA expression in earthworms.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wenguang; Ding, Xueyao; Zhang, Yiming; Sun, Yongxue

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of the veterinary food additive copper sulphate (CuSO₄) on the eco-toxicological responses of earthworms Eisenia fetida (E. fetida). The following biomarkers were measured: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities. Gene expression analyses such as metallothionein (MT) and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) were also examined. A time-dependent increase of CAT activity was found at 400 mg/kg and SOD activity at 200 and 400 mg/kg. The highest expression of Hsp70 (4.4-fold) was observed at day 15 at 400 mg/kg. Our results indicated that the measured antioxidant enzymes (except GST) had the ability to provide antioxidant defenses against the stressor; and compared to expression of MT, expression of Hsp70 could be more reliable molecular tools with predictive possibilities to monitor the eco-toxicity of stressors such as feed additive CuSO₄.

  18. Change in plasma membrane potential of rat thymocytes by tert-butylhydroquinone, a food additive: Possible risk on lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Maki; Oyama, Keisuke; Kamemura, Norio; Kanemaru, Kaori; Yuasa, Keizo; Yokoigawa, Kumio; Oyama, Yasuo

    2017-09-09

    Tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) is a food additive and has various beneficial actions under in vitro and in vivo experimental conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to collect additional data on the toxicity of TBHQ in order to avoid adverse effects during clinical applications. Changes in plasma membrane potential are associated with changes in physiological functions even in non-excitable cells such as lymphocytes. Thus, compounds that affect membrane potential may modify some lymphocytic functions. The effect of TBHQ on plasma membrane potential was examined in rat thymocytes using flow cytometric techniques. Treatment of rat thymocytes with TBHQ caused hyperpolarization and then depolarization. The TBHQ-induced hyperpolarization was due to the activation of Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels. TBHQ elevated intracellular Ca(2+) levels. The depolarization by TBHQ was caused by a nonspecific increase in membrane ionic permeability. Both the sustained depolarization and elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) level by TBHQ are thought to be adverse for thymocytes because such changes disturb membrane and intracellular signaling. The thymus is most active during neonatal and pre-adolescent periods. If TBHQ exerts adverse actions on thymocytes, it may result in an immunotoxic effect in neonates and adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Value of oral provocation tests to aspirin and food additives in the routine investigation of asthma and chronic urticaria.

    PubMed

    Genton, C; Frei, P C; Pécoud, A

    1985-07-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and certain food or drug additives are known to induce acute bronchospasms, angioneurotic edema, and urticaria in susceptible patients. Thirty-four patients (17 with asthma and 17 with urticaria), whose case history suggested such intolerance, were challenged orally with increasing doses of seven compounds: acetylsalicylic acid, glafenine, sodium benzoate, sulfur dioxide, potassium sorbate, sodium glutamate, and tartrazine. Among 162 oral provocation tests, 38 were positive (20% decrease in peak flow rate or appearance of acute urticaria/angioneurotic edema). Twenty-four of the 34 patients (nine with asthma and 15 with urticaria) were intolerant to at least one compound. However, no serious reaction was observed. In 20 of these 24 patients (six with asthma and 14 with urticaria), a diet free of additives and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs resulted, within 5 days, in a marked improvement of symptoms, which persisted 8 to 14 mo after starting the diet. Age, prevalence of IgE-mediated allergy, and nasal polyposis were similar in patients with or without reactions of intolerance. Under the conditions used, oral provocation tests proved to be feasible, safe, and useful in many patients not helped by existing methods.

  20. Overview of existing European food consumption databases: critical aspects in relation to their use for the assessment of dietary exposure to additives, flavourings and residues of food contact materials.

    PubMed

    Le Donne, Cinzia; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Sette, Stefania; Leclercq, Catherine

    2011-03-01

    A critical analysis of existing food consumption databases was performed with particular regard for their current and potential use for the assessment of dietary exposure to additives, flavourings and residues of food contact materials. Within the European Food Consumption Validation project (EFCOVAL), a questionnaire on critical aspects of such datasets was developed and administered to researchers responsible for the collection/analysis of national food consumption data in European countries. Information collected was complemented through a review of the literature and of grey publications in order to provide an inventory of the main food consumption surveys performed in Europe from 1994 to 2007, for a total of 23 countries and 37 surveys. It appeared that existing European food consumption surveys have as a main objective the assessment of nutrient intake in the population. On the other hand, most of the databases were shown to be used also for the purpose of dietary exposure assessment.

  1. State of the art of Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Food: a tool for nutraceuticals addition to foodstuff.

    PubMed

    Santini, Antonello; Novellino, Ettore; Armini, Vincenzo; Ritieni, Alberto

    2013-10-15

    Therapeutic foodstuff are a challenge for the use of food and functional food ingredients in the therapy of different pathologies. Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Food (RUTF) are a mixture of nutrients designed and primarily addressed to the therapy of the severe acute malnutrition. The main ingredients of the formulation are powdered milk, peanuts butter, vegetal oil, sugar, and a mix of vitamins, salts, and minerals. The potential of this food are the low percentage of free water and the high energy and nutritional density. The high cost of the powdered milk, and the food safety problems connected to the onset of toxigenic moulds on the peanuts butter, slowed down considerably the widespread and homogenous diffusion of this product. This paper presents the state of the art of RUTF, reviews the different proposed recipes, suggests some possible new formulations as an alternative of novel recipes for this promising food.

  2. Estimation of inorganic food additive (nitrite, nitrate and sulfur dioxide), antioxidant (BHA and BHT), processing agent (propylene glycol) and sweetener (sodium saccharin) concentrations in foods and their daily intake based on official inspection results in Japan in fiscal year 1998.

    PubMed

    Ishiwata, Hajimu; Nishijima, Motohiro; Fukasawa, Yoshinobu

    2003-04-01

    The mean concentration and daily intake of inorganic food additives (nitrite, nitrate, and sulfur dioxide), antioxidants (BHA and BHT), a processing agent (propylene glycol), and a sweetener (sodium saccharin) were estimated based on the results of an analysis of 34,489 food samples obtained in official inspections by 106 local governments in Japan in fiscal year 1998. The ratios of mean concentrations of these seven food additives to each allowable limit were 20.0%, 53.9%, 15.5%, 6.2%, 0.4%, 18.5%, and 5.7%, respectively. The daily intakes of these food additives estimated from their concentrations in foods and the daily consumption of foods were 0.205, 0.532, 4.31, 0.119, 0.109, 77.5, and 7.27 mg per person, respectively. These amounts were 6.8%, 0.3%, 12.3%, 0.5%, 0.7%, 6.2%, and 2.6% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI), respectively, when body weight was assumed to be 50 kg. No remarkable differences in the daily intakes of these seven food additives or the ratios to the ADI were observed compared with the results based on the official inspections in fiscal years 1994 and 1996.

  3. Effect of diet composition and mixture of selected food additives on the erythrocytic system and iron metabolism in peripheral blood of male rats.

    PubMed

    Sadowska, Joanna; Kuchlewska, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic processes of food additives which are "exogenous xenobiotics" are catalysed, primarily, by enzymes located in microsomes of hepatocytes affiliated to P-450 cytochrome superfamily, containing iron. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of diet composition and selected food additives on the erythrocyte system and iron metabolism in peripheral blood of male rats. The experiment was carried out on 30 male rats sorted into three equinumerous groups. For drinking animals received pure, settled tap water, animals from group III were receiving additionally an aqueous solution of sodium (nitrate), potassium nitrite, benzoic acid, sorbic acid and monosodium glutamate. Ascertained a significant effect of changes in diet composition on the increase in hematocrit marker value and the count of red blood cells in blood of animals examined. Used food additives diminished hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit value and red blood cell count, diminishing also iron concentration in serum, the total iron binding capacity and transferrin saturation with iron. Analysis of the results allowed ascertain adverse changes in values of the erythrocytic system markers, occurring under the influence of the applied mixture of food additives. Used food additives change the iron metabolism, most likely from the necessity of applied xenobiotics biotransformation by heme-containing monoxygenases of P-450 cytochrome.

  4. Development and Validation of HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Five Food Additives and Caffeine in Soft Drinks

    PubMed Central

    Aşçı, Bürge; Dinç Zor, Şule; Aksu Dönmez, Özlem

    2016-01-01

    Box-Behnken design was applied to optimize high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) conditions for the simultaneous determination of potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, carmoisine, allura red, ponceau 4R, and caffeine in commercial soft drinks. The experimental variables chosen were pH (6.0–7.0), flow rate (1.0–1.4 mL/min), and mobile phase ratio (85–95% acetate buffer). Resolution values of all peak pairs were used as a response. Stationary phase was Inertsil OctaDecylSilane- (ODS-) 3V reverse phase column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) dimensions. The detection was performed at 230 nm. Optimal values were found 6.0 pH, 1.0 mL/min flow rate, and 95% mobile phase ratio for the method which was validated by calculating the linearity (r 2 > 0.9962), accuracy (recoveries ≥ 95.75%), precision (intraday variation ≤ 1.923%, interday variation ≤ 1.950%), limits of detection (LODs), and limits of quantification (LOQs) parameters. LODs and LOQs for analytes were in the range of 0.10–0.19 μg/mL and 0.33–0.63 μg/mL, respectively. The proposed method was applied successfully for the simultaneous determination of the mixtures of five food additives and caffeine in soft drinks. PMID:26989415

  5. Development and Validation of HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Five Food Additives and Caffeine in Soft Drinks.

    PubMed

    Aşçı, Bürge; Dinç Zor, Şule; Aksu Dönmez, Özlem

    2016-01-01

    Box-Behnken design was applied to optimize high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) conditions for the simultaneous determination of potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, carmoisine, allura red, ponceau 4R, and caffeine in commercial soft drinks. The experimental variables chosen were pH (6.0-7.0), flow rate (1.0-1.4 mL/min), and mobile phase ratio (85-95% acetate buffer). Resolution values of all peak pairs were used as a response. Stationary phase was Inertsil OctaDecylSilane- (ODS-) 3V reverse phase column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) dimensions. The detection was performed at 230 nm. Optimal values were found 6.0 pH, 1.0 mL/min flow rate, and 95% mobile phase ratio for the method which was validated by calculating the linearity (r (2) > 0.9962), accuracy (recoveries ≥ 95.75%), precision (intraday variation ≤ 1.923%, interday variation ≤ 1.950%), limits of detection (LODs), and limits of quantification (LOQs) parameters. LODs and LOQs for analytes were in the range of 0.10-0.19 μg/mL and 0.33-0.63 μg/mL, respectively. The proposed method was applied successfully for the simultaneous determination of the mixtures of five food additives and caffeine in soft drinks.

  6. Effects of maternally exposed coloring food additives on receptor expressions related to learning and memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Ceyhan, Betul Mermi; Gultekin, Fatih; Doguc, Duygu Kumbul; Kulac, Esin

    2013-06-01

    Exposure to artificial food colors and additives (AFCAs) has been implicated in the induction and severity of some childhood behavioral and learning disabilities. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nACHRs) are thought to be effective in the learning and memory-generating process. In this study, we investigated the effects of intrauterine exposure to AFCAs on subunit concentrations of NMDARs and nAChRs isoforms in rats. We administered a mixture of AFCAs (Eritrosin, Ponceau 4R, Allura Red AC, Sunset Yellow FCF, Tartrazin, Amaranth, Brilliant Blue, Azorubin and Indigotin) to female rats before and during gestation. The concentration of NR2A and NR2B subunits and nAChR α7, α4β2 isoforms in their offspring's hippocampi were measured by Western Blotting. Expressions of NR2B and nAChR β2 were significantly increased (17% and 6.70%, respectively), whereas expression of nAChR α4 was significantly decreased (5.67%) in male experimental group compared to the male control group (p<0.05). In the female experimental group, AFCAs caused a 14% decrease in NR2B expression when compared to the female control group (p<0.05). Our results indicate that exposure to AFCAs during the fetal period may lead to alterations in expressions of NMDARs and nAChRs in adulthood. These alterations were different between male and female genders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A facile pollutant-free approach toward a series of nutritionally effective calcium phosphate nanomaterials for food and drink additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jieru; Chen, Xiaoyi; Yang, Xianyan; Xu, Sanzhong; Zhang, Xinli; Gou, Zhongru

    2011-03-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition is widespread and constitutes one of the main nutritional problems worldwide. Vitamins, amino acids, carbohydrates and Ca-phosphate (CaP) minerals are important to human health and disease prevention. Herein we developed a simple wet-chemical method to prepare multinary nutrients-containing CaP nanomaterials in diluted apple, orange, and grape juices. The scanning electron microscopy observation shows that these nanomaterials are short plate-like CaP nanocrystals of 500 nm in length. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption, thermogravimetric analyses confirm the different specific surface area and organic nutrient contents. The Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction analyses indicate there exist similar organic groups (i.e., COO-, HN-CO) but different CaP species in the precipitates. The dissolution test in vitro simulated stomach juice pH condition indicates that these inorganic-organic nanohybrid materials are multidoped by micronutrients (such as Zn, Sr, Mg, K, vitamin c) and can be readily dissolved in the weak acidic aqueous solutions. This highly efficient utilization of fruit juice to produce CaP-based micronutrient composites may minimize the adverse side effect, so that the nanomaterials are promising as functional food/drink additives. Thus, this novel approach is environmentally and biologically friendly to produce edible nutrients while production cost is attained.

  8. Abortion after deliberate Arthrotec® addition to food. Mass spectrometric detection of diclofenac, misoprostol acid, and their urinary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Watzer, Bernhard; Lusthof, Klaas J; Schweer, Horst

    2015-07-01

    Arthrotec(®) (AT) is a combination of diclofenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), and misoprostol (MP), a synthetic analogue of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1). MP is a lipophilic methyl ester prodrug. It is readily metabolized to the biologically active misoprostol acid (MPA). During the last few years, medical studies exhibited MP to be an excellent abortive. In this paper, we describe a rare criminal case of MP abortion, initiated by the expectant father. After the abortion, samples of vomit and urine were collected. Systemic exposure to MP is difficult to prove, because both MP and the active metabolite MPA are hardly excreted in urine. Therefore, in addition to routine toxicological analysis, we used slightly modified, well-established liquid and gas chromatographic/tandem mass spectrometric (LC/MS/MS and GC/MS/MS) methods, for the direct and the indirect detection of MPA and its metabolites. In this case, we were able to demonstrate the presence of the major MP metabolites 2,3-dinor-MPA and 2,3,4,5-tetranor-MPA in the urine of the victim. We also detected paracetamol, 3-methoxyparacetamol and diclofenac-glucuronide in the urine. In the vomit of the victim, we detected diclofenac and MPA. These results, combined with the criminal investigations, showed that the accused had mixed MP into the food of his pregnant girlfriend. Finally, these investigations contributed to a confession of the accused.

  9. The effects of maternal exposure to food additive E341 (tricalcium phosphate) on foetal development of rats.

    PubMed

    Güngörmüş, Cansın; Kılıç, Aysun; Akay, M Turan; Kolankaya, Dürdane

    2010-03-01

    E341 (tricalcium phosphate) (TCP) is commonly used as a food additive and also as a nutritional supplement. To evaluate the possible developmental effects, female Wistar rats were treated with E341 (TCP) by oral gavage during pregnancy. There were three groups of each containing five rats. Rats in Groups I-III were fed with standard diet, oil and E341 (TCP) 175mg/kg body weight during gestation days (GD 0-20) respectively. We assessed foetal body lengths and weights and also made morphometric examination of placenta and umbilical cord. The placental weights of E341 (TCP) group (Group III) were found to be decreased statistically. According to skeletal stainings of foetuses, lengths of left ulna (28.3%), right femur (29.8%), left femur (34.9%) and diameter of the skull of y-axis were significantly decreased (12.3%) in E341 (TCP) treatment groups. There was an increase in trans-umbilical diameter in treatment group (14%). This is the first study in which developmental effects of E341 (TCP) have ever evaluated. The results suggest that prenatal development of rats during gestation is sensitive to E341 (TCP) exposure. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Determination of isothiocyanates and related compounds in mustard extract and horseradish extract used as natural food additives].

    PubMed

    Uematsu, Yoko; Hirata, Keiko; Suzuki, Kumi; Iida, Kenji; Ueta, Tadahiko; Kamata, Kunihiro

    2002-02-01

    Amounts of isothiocyanates and related compounds in a mustard extract and a horseradish extract for food additive use were determined by GC, after confirmation of the identity of GC peaks by GC/MS. Amounts of allyl isothiocyanate, which included that of allyl thiocyanate, because most of the allyl thiocyanate detected in the sample was assumed to have been formed from allyl isothiocyanate during GC analysis, were 97.6% and 85.4%, in the mustard extract and the horseradish extract, respectively. Total amounts of the identified isothiocyanates in the mustard extract and the horseradish extract were 98.5% and 95.4%, respectively. Allyl cyanide, a degradation product of allyl isothiocyanate, was found in the mustard extract and the horseradish extract at the levels of 0.57% and 1.73%, respectively. beta-Phenylethyl cyanide, a possible degradation product of beta-phenylethyl isothiocyanate, and allyl sulfides were found in the horseradish extract, at the levels of 0.13% and 0.46%, respectively. Allylamine, which is another degradation product of allyl isothiocyanate, was determined after acetylation, and was found in the mustard extract and the horseradish extract at the levels of 8 micrograms/g and 67 micrograms/g, respectively.

  11. Use of Antimicrobial Food Additives as Potential Dipping Solutions to Control Pseudomonas spp. Contamination in the Frankfurters and Ham

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Mi-Hwa; Park, Beom-Young; Choi, Kyoung-Hee

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of sodium diacetate and sodium lactate solutions for reducing the cell count of Pseudomonas spp. in frankfurters and hams. A mixture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NCCP10338, NCCP10250, and NCCP11229), and Pseudomonas fluorescens (KACC10323 and KACC10326) was inoculated on cooked frankfurters and ham. The inoculated samples were immersed into control (sterile distilled water), sodium diacetate (5 and 10%), sodium lactate (5 and 10%), 5% sodium diacetate + 5% sodium lactate, and 10% sodium diacetate + 10% sodium lactate for 0-10 min. Inoculated frankfurters and ham were also immersed into acidified (pH 3.0) solutions such as acidified sodium diacetate (5 and 10%), and acidified sodium lactate (5 and 10%) in addition to control (acidified distilled water) for 0-10 min. Total aerobic plate counts for Pseudomonas spp. were enumerated on Cetrimide agar. Significant reductions (ca. 2 Log CFU/g) in Pseudomonas spp. cells on frankfurters and ham were observed only for a combination treatment of 10% sodium lactate + 10% sodium diacetate. When the solutions were acidified to pH 3.0, the total reductions of Pseudomonas spp. were 1.5-4.0 Log CFU/g. The order of reduction amounts of Pseudomonas spp. cell counts was 10% sodium lactate > 5% sodium lactate ≥ 10% sodium diacetate > 5% sodium diacetate > control for frankfurters, and 10% sodium lactate > 5% sodium lactate > 10% sodium diacetate > 5% sodium diacetate > control for ham. The results suggest that using acidified food additive antimicrobials, as dipping solutions, should be useful in reducing Pseudomonas spp. on frankfurters and ham. PMID:26761492

  12. Inactivation of barotolerant Listeria monocytogenes in sausage by combination of high-pressure processing and food-grade additives.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yoon-Kyung; Vurma, Mustafa; Turek, Evan J; Chism, Grady W; Yousef, Ahmed E

    2005-04-01

    Food-grade additives were used to enhance the efficacy of high-pressure processing (HPP) against barotolerant Listeria monocytogenes. Three strains of L. monocytogenes (Scott A, OSY-8578, and OSY-328) were compared for their sensitivity to HPP, nisin, tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), and their combination. Inactivation of these strains was evaluated in 0.2 M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) and commercially sterile sausage. A cell suspension of L. monocytogenes in buffer (10(9) CFU/ml) was treated with TBHQ at 100 ppm, nisin at 100 IU/ml, HPP at 400 MPa for 5 min, and combinations of these treatments. Populations of strains Scott A, OSY-8578, and OSY-328 decreased 3.9, 2.7, and 1.3 log with HPP alone and 6.4, 5.2, and 1.9 log with the HPP-TBHQ combination, respectively. Commercially sterile sausage was inoculated with the three L. monocytogenes strains (10(6) to 10(7) CFU/g) and treated with selected combinations of TBHQ (100 to 300 ppm), nisin (100 and 200 ppm), and HPP (600 MPa, 28 degrees C, 5 min). Samples were enriched to detect the viability of the pathogen after the treatments. Most of the samples treated with nisin, TBHQ, or their combination were positive for L. monocytogenes. HPP alone resulted in a modest decrease in the number of positive samples. L. monocytogenes was not detected in any of the inoculated commercial sausage samples after treatment with HPP-TBHQ or HPP-TBHQ-nisin combinations. These results suggest that addition of TBHQ or TBHQ plus nisin to sausage followed by in-package pressurization is a promising method for producing Listeria-free ready-to-eat products.

  13. Assessing direct analysis in real-time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) for the rapid identification of additives in food packaging.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, L K; Noonan, G O; Begley, T H

    2009-12-01

    The ambient ionization technique direct analysis in real time (DART) was characterized and evaluated for the screening of food packaging for the presence of packaging additives using a benchtop mass spectrometer (MS). Approximate optimum conditions were determined for 13 common food-packaging additives, including plasticizers, anti-oxidants, colorants, grease-proofers, and ultraviolet light stabilizers. Method sensitivity and linearity were evaluated using solutions and characterized polymer samples. Additionally, the response of a model additive (di-ethyl-hexyl-phthalate) was examined across a range of sample positions, DART, and MS conditions (temperature, voltage and helium flow). Under optimal conditions, molecular ion (M+H+) was the major ion for most additives. Additive responses were highly sensitive to sample and DART source orientation, as well as to DART flow rates, temperatures, and MS inlet voltages, respectively. DART-MS response was neither consistently linear nor quantitative in this setting, and sensitivity varied by additive. All additives studied were rapidly identified in multiple food-packaging materials by DART-MS/MS, suggesting this technique can be used to screen food packaging rapidly. However, method sensitivity and quantitation requires further study and improvement.

  14. The work of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Food Additives (EURL) and its support for the authorisation process of feed additives in the European Union: a review

    PubMed Central

    von Holst, Christoph; Robouch, Piotr; Bellorini, Stefano; de la Huebra, María José González; Ezerskis, Zigmas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper describes the operation of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Feed Additives (EURL) and its role in the authorisation procedure of feed additives in the European Union. Feed additives are authorised according to Regulation (EC) No. 1831/2003, which introduced a completely revised authorisation procedure and also established the EURL. The regulations authorising feed additives contain conditions of use such as legal limits of the feed additives, which require the availability of a suitable method of analysis for official control purposes under real world conditions. It is the task of the EURL to evaluate the suitability of analytical methods as proposed by the industry for this purpose. Moreover, the paper shows that one of the major challenges is the huge variety of the methodology applied in feed additive analysis, thus requiring expertise in quite different analytical areas. In order to cope with this challenge, the EURL is supported by a network of national reference laboratories (NRLs) and only the merged knowledge of all NRLs allows for a scientifically sound assessment of the analytical methods. PMID:26540604

  15. Toxicity of food additives (excluding antioxidants). January 1978-November 1987 (citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Report for January 1978-November 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the toxicity of food additives (excluding antioxidants) and their effects on the liver, kidneys, bladder, and other organs. The carcinogenic and teratogenic properties of these substances are also considered. The synthetic sweeteners, particularly the saccharins and cyclamates, and other additives, including nitrates and nitrites are discussed. Methods to detect and quantitate these additives are also included. (This updated bibliography contains 340 citations, 132 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  16. Effect of Food Additive Citric Acid on The Growth of Human Esophageal Carcinoma Cell Line EC109

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoguang; Lv, Qiongxia; Liu, Yumei; Deng, Wen

    2017-01-01

    Objective Today, esophageal cancer (EC) has become one of the most common cancer types in China. Therefore, new drug and therapeutic strategies are urgently needed to improve postoperative survival rate of patients with EC. As a food additive, several lines of evidence have shown that citric acid can be served as glycolysis suppressor to inhibit growth of some tumor cells. However, little is known about the effect of this organic acid on the growth of human esophageal carcinoma cell line, EC109. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, cell proliferation rate was determined using MTT assay. Apoptotic morphological changes were evaluated by fluorescent microscopy using Hoechst 33258 staining. Cell apoptosis rate and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were detected using flow-cytometry. Effect of citric acid on cellular membrane permeability was assessed by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, using LDH assay kit. Results Compared to the control group, there was a marked decrease in cells proliferation when the cells were treated with higher citric acid concentrations (800, 1600 μg/ml). Typical apoptotic morphology of EC109 cells was observed upon treatment with citric acid, such as chromatin condensation and appearance of apoptotic body. Cell apoptotic indexes were significantly increased (P<0.01) after treatment with citric acid at the concentration of 400-1600 μg/ml. Extracellular LDH activity and loss of MMP in all of the treated groups were significantly higher than control (P<0.05), in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion These results suggest that citric acid prevents EC109 cell growth by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis, which perhaps offers some theoretical guidance for its application in EC treatment. PMID:28042534

  17. Sodium benzoate, a metabolite of cinnamon and a food additive, upregulates ciliary neurotrophic factor in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Khushbu K.; Jana, Malabendu; Mondal, Susanta; Pahan, Kalipada

    2015-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a promyelinating trophic factor that plays an important role in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, mechanisms by which CNTF expression could be increased in the brain are poorly understood. Recently we have discovered anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities of sodium benzoate (NaB), a metabolite of cinnamon and a widely-used food additive. Here, we delineate that NaB is also capable of increasing the mRNA and protein expression of CNTF in primary mouse astrocytes and oligodendrocytes and primary human astrocytes. Accordingly, oral administration of NaB and cinnamon led to the upregulation of astroglial and oligodendroglial CNTF in vivo in mouse brain. Induction of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS, reduced the level of CNTF in the brain, which was restored by oral administration of cinnamon. While investigating underlying mechanisms, we observed that NaB induced the activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and H-89, an inhibitor of PKA, abrogated NaB-induced expression of CNTF. The activation of cAMP response element binding (CREB) protein by NaB, the recruitment of CREB and CREB-binding protein to the CNTF promoter by NaB and the abrogation of NaB-induced expression of CNTF in astrocytes by siRNA knockdown of CREB suggest that NaB increases the expression of CNTF via the activation of CREB. These results highlight a novel myelinogenic property of NaB and cinnamon, which may be of benefit for MS and other demyelinating disorders. PMID:26399250

  18. Tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced inflammation is increased but apoptosis is inhibited by common food additive carrageenan.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Dudeja, Pradeep K; Tobacman, Joanne K

    2010-12-10

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, a homotrimeric, pleiotropic cytokine, is secreted in response to inflammatory stimuli in diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. TNF-α mediates both apoptosis and inflammation, stimulating an inflammatory cascade through the non-canonical pathway of NF-κB activation, leading to increased nuclear RelB and p52. In contrast, the common food additive carrageenan (CGN) stimulates inflammation through both the canonical and non-canonical pathways of NF-κB activation and utilizes the adaptor molecule BCL10 (B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 10). In a series of experiments, colonic epithelial cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts were treated with TNF-α and carrageenan in order to simulate the possible effects of exposure to dietary CGN in the setting of a TNF-α-mediated inflammatory disease process. A marked increase in secretion of IL-8 occurred, attributable to synergistic effects on phosphorylated NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) in the non-canonical pathway. TNF-α induced the ubiquitination of TRAF2 (TNF receptor-associated factor 2), which interacts with NIK, and CGN induced phosphorylation of BCL10, leading to increased NIK phosphorylation. These results suggest that TNF-α and CGN in combination act to increase NIK phosphorylation, thereby increasing activation of the non-canonical pathway of NF-κB activation. In contrast, the apoptotic effects of TNF-α, including activation of caspase-8 and PARP-1 (poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1) fragmentation, were markedly reduced in the presence of CGN, and CGN caused reduced expression of Fas. These findings demonstrate that exposure to CGN drives TNF-α-stimulated cells toward inflammation rather than toward apoptotic cell death and suggest that CGN exposure may compromise the effectiveness of anti-TNF-α therapy.

  19. Sodium Benzoate, a Metabolite of Cinnamon and a Food Additive, Upregulates Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor in Astrocytes and Oligodendrocytes.

    PubMed

    Modi, Khushbu K; Jana, Malabendu; Mondal, Susanta; Pahan, Kalipada

    2015-11-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a promyelinating trophic factor that plays an important role in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, mechanisms by which CNTF expression could be increased in the brain are poorly understood. Recently we have discovered anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities of sodium benzoate (NaB), a metabolite of cinnamon and a widely-used food additive. Here, we delineate that NaB is also capable of increasing the mRNA and protein expression of CNTF in primary mouse astrocytes and oligodendrocytes and primary human astrocytes. Accordingly, oral administration of NaB and cinnamon led to the upregulation of astroglial and oligodendroglial CNTF in vivo in mouse brain. Induction of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, an animal model of MS, reduced the level of CNTF in the brain, which was restored by oral administration of cinnamon. While investigating underlying mechanisms, we observed that NaB induced the activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and H-89, an inhibitor of PKA, abrogated NaB-induced expression of CNTF. The activation of cAMP response element binding (CREB) protein by NaB, the recruitment of CREB and CREB-binding protein to the CNTF promoter by NaB and the abrogation of NaB-induced expression of CNTF in astrocytes by siRNA knockdown of CREB suggest that NaB increases the expression of CNTF via the activation of CREB. These results highlight a novel myelinogenic property of NaB and cinnamon, which may be of benefit for MS and other demyelinating disorders.

  20. Glucuronidation as a mechanism of intrinsic drug resistance in human colon cancer: reversal of resistance by food additives.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Jeffrey; Ethell, Brian T; Jardine, Lesley; Boyd, Gary; Macpherson, Janet S; Burchell, Brian; Smyth, John F; Jodrell, Duncan I

    2003-12-01

    Colon cancer exhibits inherent insensitivity to chemotherapy by mechanisms that are poorly characterized. We have shown that human colon cancer cells are efficient in drug conjugation catalyzed by UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) and now report on the role of glucuronidation in de novo resistance to two topoisomerase I inhibitors. Identification of the UGT responsible for glucuronidation of SN-38 and the anthraquinone NU/ICRF 505 was achieved by first using a panel of human cDNA-expressed isozymes to measure conjugating activity. HT29 colon cancer cells were then probed by reverse transcriptase-PCR, Western Blot analysis, and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry for their profile and activity of UGT isozymes and screened for effective inhibitors of glucuronidation. Expression analysis was also conducted in colon cancer biopsies and paired adjacent normal colon specimens. UGT1A9 was identified as the isozyme catalyzing biotransformation of the two compounds in HT29 cells and propofol as an effective competitive inhibitor of this metabolism. Inhibition of glucuronidation resulted in up to a 5-fold enhancement in drug activity. The majority of colon cancer biopsies studies expressed UGT protein at levels greater than in HT29 cells but with marked interpatient variations and proficiently glucuronidated the two anticancer drugs. A range of UGT aglycones were capable of modulating glucuronidation in the biopies with octylgallate being 10-fold more potent (ID(50) 24 microM) than propofol. In a subset of tumors (33%), UGT protein levels and activity exceeded that of paired normal colon. Glucuronidation may represent a mechanism of intrinsic drug resistance in colon cancer open to modulation by a range of food additives and proprietary medicines.

  1. A square-wave adsorptive stripping voltammetric method for the determination of Amaranth, a food additive dye.

    PubMed

    Alghamdi, Ahmad H

    2005-01-01

    Square-wave adsorptive stripping voltammetric (AdSV) determinations of trace concentrations of the azo coloring agent Amaranth are described. The analytical methodology used was based on the adsorptive preconcentration of the dye on the hanging mercury drop electrode, followed by initiation of a negative sweep. In a pH 10 carbonate supporting electrolyte, Amaranth gave a well-defined and sensitive AdSV peak at -518 mV. The electroanalytical determination of this azo dye was found to be optimal in carbonate buffer (pH 10) under the following experimental conditions: accumulation time, 120 s; accumulation potential, 0.0 V; scan rate, 600 mV/s; pulse amplitude, 90 mV; and frequency, 50 Hz. Under these optimized conditions the AdSV peak current was proportional over the concentration range 1 x 10(-8)-1.1 x 10(-7) mol/L (r = 0.999) with a detection limit of 1.7 x 10(-9) mol/L (1.03 ppb). This analytical approach possessed enhanced sensitivity, compared with conventional liquid chromatography or spectrophotometry and it was simple and fast. The precision of the method, expressed as the relative standard deviation, was 0.23%, whereas the accuracy, expressed as the mean recovery, was 104%. Possible interferences by several substances usually present as food additive azo dyes (E110, E102), gelatin, natural and artificial sweeteners, preservatives, and antioxidants were also investigated. The developed electroanalyticals method was applied to the determination of Amaranth in soft drink samples, and the results were compared with those obtained by a reference spectrophotometric method. Statistical analysis (paired t-test) of these data showed that the results of the 2 methods compared favorably.

  2. Effects of additional fermented food wastes on nitrogen removal enhancement and sludge characteristics in a sequential batch reactor for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongmei; Wang, Xiaochang C; Cheng, Zhe; Li, Yuyou; Tang, Jialing

    2016-07-01

    In order to enhance nitrogen removal from domestic wastewater with a carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio as low as 2.2:1, external carbon source was prepared by short-term fermentation of food wastes and its effect was evaluated by experiments using sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). The addition of fermented food wastes, with carbohydrate (42.8 %) and organic acids (24.6 %) as the main organic carbon components, could enhance the total nitrogen (TN) removal by about 25 % in contrast to the 20 % brought about by the addition of sodium acetate when the C/N ratio was equally adjusted to 6.6:1. The fermented food waste addition resulted in more efficient denitrification in the first anoxic stage of the SBR operation cycle than sodium acetate. In order to characterize the metabolic potential of microorganisms by utilizing different carbon sources, Biolog-ECO tests were conducted with activated sludge samples from the SBRs. As a result, in comparison with sodium acetate, the sludge sample by fermented food waste addition showed a greater average well color development (AWCD590), better utilization level of common carbon sources, and higher microbial diversity indexes. As a multi-organic mixture, fermented food wastes seem to be superior over mono-organic chemicals as an external carbon source.

  3. [Influences of ion-suppressors on retention behaviors of nine food additives in reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic separation].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yonggang; Chen, Xiaohong; Li, Xiaoping; Yao, Shanshan; Jin, Micong

    2011-10-01

    The influences of ion-suppressors on retention behaviors of nine food additives, i.e., acesulfame, saccharin, caffeine, aspartame, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, stevioside, dehydroacetic acid and neotame in reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) separation were investigated. The organic modification effects of acids, i. e. , trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and buffer salts, i. e. , TFA-ammonium acetate (AmAc) were studied emphatically. The relationships between retention factors of solutes and volume percentages of ion-suppressors in the mobile phase systems of acetonitrile-TFA aqueous solution and acetonitrile-TFA-AmAc aqueous solution were quantitatively established, separately. The separation of nine food additives was completed by a gradient elution with acetonitrile-TFA (0.01%, v/v)-AmAc (2. 5 mmol/L) aqueous solution as the mobile phases. An RP-HPLC method was established for the simultaneous determination of nine food additives in red wine. In the range of 10. 0 - 100. 0 mg/L, nine food additives showed good linearity with the correlation coefficients ( r2 ) larger than 0. 999 1. The limits of detection (LODs) were in the range of 0. 33 - 2. 36 mg/L and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were in the range of 1. 11 - 7. 80 mg/L. The spiked recoveries were between 87. 61% and 108. 4% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2. 2% -9. 4%. These results are of referential significance for the rapid establishment and accu- rate optimization of RP-HPLC separation for the simultaneous determination of food additives in other foods.

  4. Food additives: Sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, azorubine, and tartrazine modify the expression of NFκB, GADD45α, and MAPK8 genes.

    PubMed

    Raposa, B; Pónusz, R; Gerencsér, G; Budán, F; Gyöngyi, Z; Tibold, A; Hegyi, D; Kiss, I; Koller, Á; Varjas, T

    2016-09-01

    It has been reported that some of the food additives may cause sensitization, inflammation of tissues, and potentially risk factors in the development of several chronic diseases. Thus, we hypothesized that expressions of common inflammatory molecules - known to be involved in the development of various inflammatory conditions and cancers - are affected by these food additives. We investigated the effects of commonly used food preservatives and artificial food colorants based on the expressions of NFκB, GADD45α, and MAPK8 (JNK1) from the tissues of liver. RNA was isolated based on Trizol protocol and the activation levels were compared between the treated and the control groups. Tartrazine alone could elicit effects on the expressions of NFκB (p = 0.013) and MAPK8 (p = 0.022). Azorubine also resulted in apoptosis according to MAPK8 expression (p = 0.009). Preservatives were anti-apoptotic in high dose. Sodium benzoate (from low to high doses) dose-dependently silenced MAPK8 expression (p = 0.004 to p = 0.002). Addition of the two preservatives together elicited significantly greater expression of MAPK8 at half-fold dose (p = 0.002) and at fivefold dose (p = 0.008). This study suggests that some of the food preservatives and colorants can contribute to the activation of inflammatory pathways.

  5. Evaluation of certain veterinary drug residues in food. Forty-eighth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of residues of certain veterinary drugs in foods and to recommend maximum levels for such residues in food. The first part of the report considers standards for the performance of studies, residues at the injection site, and several initiatives to promote transparency of the process for setting Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs). A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of toxicological and residue data on a variety of veterinary drugs: two anthelminthic agents (moxidectin and tiabendazole), eight antimicrobial agents (ceftiofur, danofloxacin, dihydrostreptomycin, streptomycin, enrofloxacin, flumequine, gentamicin and spiramycin), one glucocorticosteroid (dexamethasone), and two insecticides (cyfluthrin and fluazuron). Annexed to the report are a summary of the Committee's recommendations on these drugs, including Acceptable Daily Intakes and MRL's and further toxicological studies and other information required.

  6. Inhibition of Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum by hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-lipid edible composite films containing food additives with antifungal properties.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Chamorro, Silvia A; Palou, Lluís; del Río, Miguel A; Pérez-Gago, María B

    2008-12-10

    New hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-lipid edible composite films containing low-toxicity chemicals with antifungal properties were developed. Tested chemicals were mainly salts of organic acids, salts of parabens, and mineral salts, classified as food additives or generally recognized as safe (GRAS) compounds. Selected films containing food preservatives were used for in vitro evaluation (disk diameter test) of their antifungal activity against Penicillium digitatum (PD) and Penicillium italicum (PI), the most important postharvest pathogens of fresh citrus fruit. Mechanical properties and oxygen (OP) and water vapor permeabilities (WVP) of selected films were also determined. Film disks containing parabens and their mixtures inhibited PD and PI to a higher extent than the other chemicals tested. Among all organic acid salts tested, potassium sorbate (PS) and sodium benzoate (SB) were the most effective salts in controlling both PD and PI. The use of mixtures of parabens or organic acid salts did not provide an additive or synergistic effect for mold inhibition when compared to the use of single chemicals. Barrier and mechanical properties of films were affected by the addition of food preservatives. Results showed that HPMC-lipid films containing an appropriate food additive should promise as potential commercial antifungal edible coatings for fresh citrus fruit.

  7. 76 FR 32332 - BASF Corp.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Methyl Esters of Conjugated Linoleic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... (Animal Use); Methyl Esters of Conjugated Linoleic Acid; Silicon Dioxide AGENCY: Food and Drug... for the safe use of methyl esters of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as a source of fatty acids in... part 573) to provide for the safe use of methyl esters of conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9, trans-11 and...

  8. Food additives such as sodium sulphite, sodium benzoate and curcumin inhibit leptin release in lipopolysaccharide-treated murine adipocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ciardi, Christian; Jenny, Marcel; Tschoner, Alexander; Ueberall, Florian; Patsch, Josef; Pedrini, Michael; Ebenbichler, Christoph; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2012-03-01

    Obesity leads to the activation of pro-inflammatory pathways, resulting in a state of low-grade inflammation. Recently, several studies have shown that the exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) could initiate and maintain a chronic state of low-grade inflammation in obese people. As the daily intake of food additives has increased substantially, the aim of the present study was to investigate a potential influence of food additives on the release of leptin, IL-6 and nitrite in the presence of LPS in murine adipocytes. Leptin, IL-6 and nitrite concentrations were analysed in the supernatants of murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes after co-incubation with LPS and the food preservatives, sodium sulphite (SS), sodium benzoate (SB) and the spice and colourant, curcumin, for 24 h. In addition, the kinetics of leptin secretion was analysed. A significant and dose-dependent decrease in leptin was observed after incubating the cells with SB and curcumin for 12 and 24 h, whereas SS decreased leptin concentrations after 24 h of treatment. Moreover, SS increased, while curcumin decreased LPS-stimulated secretion of IL-6, whereas SB had no such effect. None of the compounds that were investigated influenced nitrite production. The food additives SS, SB and curcumin affect the leptin release after co-incubation with LPS from cultured adipocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Decreased leptin release during the consumption of nutrition-derived food additives could decrease the amount of circulating leptin to which the central nervous system is exposed and may therefore contribute to an obesogenic environment.

  9. [Escherichia coli, other Enterobacteriaceae and additional indicators as markers of microbiologic quality of food: advantages and limitations].

    PubMed

    Mossel, D A; Struijk, C B

    1995-03-01

    The 93/43 European Union directive assigns to the food and catering industries the main responsibility for an integrated safety and quality assurance strategy in the food chain. Relying on hazard analysis, followed by design and adoption of control of all critical points and practices ("HACCP"). Hiatus-free compliance with such HACCP-based Codes of Good Practices is to be assessed by monitoring, recording results on process performance charts and gauging such data against experimentally established, attainable and maintainable references ranges ("standards"). Marker microorganisms are a major analytical tool for validating compliance in the sense of the EU directive. They should be expertly chosen amongst microbes usually present in food so that their, whose presence in quantities exceeding predetermined levels point to a lack of microbiological integrity of a food product. This may encompass (i) the potential presence of taxonomically, physiologically and ecologically related pathogens, markers are called index organisms; or else (ii) a lack of process integrity; in this case, markers are termed indicator organisms. The classical index organism was E. coli, introduced in the 1980's to monitor drinking water supplies. It is still used as an appropriate marker to assess the bacteriological safety of raw foods. In the 1920's the coli-aerogenes ("coliform") group was adopted as an indicator to validate the adequate processing, i.e. pasteurization of dairy products. Since the 1950's the entire Enterobacteriaceae taxon is preferred for the latter purpose because it is better defined in determinative sense and includes more organisms of significance. In some food and water supplies, processed for safety, more vigorous or more resistant organisms than the Gram-negative rods are reliable supplementary markers. These include Enterococcus spp., spores of the Clostridium genus, and bacteriophages of E. coli and Bacteroides fragilis mimicking the fate of enteric viruses under

  10. Designating Additions to the Current List of Tropical Diseases in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. Final order.

    PubMed

    2015-08-20

    The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) authorizes the Food and Drug Administration (FDA or Agency) to award priority review vouchers (PRVs) to tropical disease product applicants when the applications meet certain criteria. The FD&C Act lists the diseases that are considered to be tropical diseases for purposes of obtaining PRVs, and also provides for Agency expansion of that list to include other diseases that satisfy the definition of ``tropical diseases'' as set forth in the FD&C Act. FDA has determined that Chagas disease and neurocysticercosis satisfy this definition, and therefore is adding them to the list of designated tropical diseases whose product applications may result in the award of PRVs. Sponsors submitting certain applications for the treatment of Chagas disease and neurocysticercosis may be eligible to receive a PRV if such applications are approved by FDA.

  11. Benzoic acid and its derivatives as naturally occurring compounds in foods and as additives: Uses, exposure, and controversy.

    PubMed

    Del Olmo, Ana; Calzada, Javier; Nuñez, Manuel

    2017-09-22

    Benzoic acid is an aromatic carboxylic acid naturally present in plant and animal tissues, which can also be produced by microorganisms. Benzoic acid and a wide range of derivatives and related benzenic compounds, such as salts, alkyl esters, parabens, benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde, and benzoyl peroxide, are commonly used as antibacterial and antifungal preservatives and as flavoring agents in food, cosmetic, hygiene, and pharmaceutical products. As a result of their widespread occurrence, production, and uses, these compounds are largely distributed in the environment and found in water, soil, and air. Consequently, human exposure to them can be high, common, and lengthy. This review is mainly focused on the presence and use of benzoic acid in foods but it also covers the occurrence, uses, human exposure, metabolism, toxicology, analytical methods for detection, and legal limits for benzoic acid and its derivatives. Their controversial effects and potential public health concerns are discussed.

  12. Meta-Analysis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Restriction Diet, and Synthetic Food Color Additives

    PubMed Central

    Nigg, Joel T.; Lewis, Kara; Edinger, Tracy; Falk, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective The role of diet and of food colors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or its symptoms warrants updated quantitative meta-analysis, in light of recent divergent policy in Europe and the United States. Method Studies were identified through a literature search using the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and PsycNET databases through February 2011. Twenty-four publications met inclusion criteria for synthetic food colors; 10 additional studies informed analysis of dietary restriction. A random-effects meta-analytic model generated summary effect sizes. Results Restriction diets reduced ADHD symptoms at an effect of g = 0.29 (95% CI, 0.07–0.53). For food colors, parent reports yielded an effect size of g = 0.18 (95% CI, 0.08–0.24; p = .0007), which decreased to 0.12 (95% CI, 0.01–0.23; p < .05) after adjustment for possible publication bias. The effect was reliable in studies restricted to food color additives (g = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.06–0.36) but did not survive correction for possible publication bias and was not reliable in studies confined to Food and Drug Administration–approved food colors. Teacher/observer reports yielded a nonsignificant effect of 0.07 (95% CI = −0.03 to 0.18; p = .14). However, high-quality studies confined to color additives yielded a reliable effect (g = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.10–0.41, p = .030) that survived correction. In psychometric tests of attention, the summary effect size was 0.27 (95% CI = 0.07–0.47; p = .007) and survived correction. An estimated 8% of children with ADHD may have symptoms related to synthetic food colors. Conclusions A restriction diet benefits some children with ADHD. Effects of food colors were notable were but susceptible to publication bias or were derived from small, nongeneralizable samples. Renewed investigation of diet and ADHD is warranted. PMID:22176942

  13. Meta-analysis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, restriction diet, and synthetic food color additives.

    PubMed

    Nigg, Joel T; Lewis, Kara; Edinger, Tracy; Falk, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The role of diet and of food colors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or its symptoms warrants updated quantitative meta-analysis, in light of recent divergent policy in Europe and the United States. Studies were identified through a literature search using the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and PsycNET databases through February 2011. Twenty-four publications met inclusion criteria for synthetic food colors; 10 additional studies informed analysis of dietary restriction. A random-effects meta-analytic model generated summary effect sizes. Restriction diets reduced ADHD symptoms at an effect of g = 0.29 (95% CI, 0.07-0.53). For food colors, parent reports yielded an effect size of g = 0.18 (95% CI, 0.08-0.24; p = .0007), which decreased to 0.12 (95% CI, 0.01-0.23; p < .05) after adjustment for possible publication bias. The effect was reliable in studies restricted to food color additives (g = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.06-0.36) but did not survive correction for possible publication bias and was not reliable in studies confined to Food and Drug Administration-approved food colors. Teacher/observer reports yielded a nonsignificant effect of 0.07 (95% CI = -0.03 to 0.18; p = .14). However, high-quality studies confined to color additives yielded a reliable effect (g = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.10-0.41, p = .030) that survived correction. In psychometric tests of attention, the summary effect size was 0.27 (95% CI = 0.07-0.47; p = .007) and survived correction. An estimated 8% of children with ADHD may have symptoms related to synthetic food colors. A restriction diet benefits some children with ADHD. Effects of food colors were notable were but susceptible to publication bias or were derived from small, nongeneralizable samples. Renewed investigation of diet and ADHD is warranted. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Food.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athnasios, Albert K.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Topics covered in this review of analytical methods include: additives, adulteration, contamination, decomposition, carbohydrates, color, enzymes, fats, oils, fatty acids, flavor, identifying compounds, inorganic methods, moisture, organic acids, nitrogen processes, and vitamins. (MVL)

  15. Food.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athnasios, Albert K.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Topics covered in this review of analytical methods include: additives, adulteration, contamination, decomposition, carbohydrates, color, enzymes, fats, oils, fatty acids, flavor, identifying compounds, inorganic methods, moisture, organic acids, nitrogen processes, and vitamins. (MVL)

  16. Simulating the response to phosphate additions in the oligotrophic eastern Mediterranean using an idealized four-member microbial food web model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thingstad, T.

    2005-11-01

    Elsewhere in this volume, observations of the natural microbial food web in the Cyprus Gyre, eastern Mediterranean, and its transient responses both to phosphate additions in situ and to phosphate and ammonium additions when enclosed in microcosm bottles, are reported. We here explore an idealized four-population model of the microbial part of the food web, containing features suggested in these reports to be essential for the observed responses. Such features include a steady state with P-limited growth heterotrophic bacteria and P-limited or N/P co-limited growth of phytoplankton a mechanism for luxury consumption and nutrient storage in the osmotrophs (phytoplankton and bacteria), a supply of labile organic carbon substrates in excess of bacterial carbon demand, a relatively small excess of bio-available nitrogen, and an assumption that heterotrophic bacteria are superior to phytoplankton in competing for dissolved organic nitrogen. From a P-limited steady-state dominated by heterotrophic organisms, the model responds to the in situ phosphate addition of the Lagrangian experiment with a decrease in chlorophyll, an increase in bacterial production and in bacterial biomass, and a decrease in uptake potential for phosphate. These modeled responses at the osmotroph level are qualitatively and quantitatively comparable to those observed, while detailed comparison of model and observations at the predator level appears more difficult. The model is also able to explain main traits of the dynamic patterns observed in microcosm experiments, both when different concentrations of phosphate were added to previously unperturbed water, and when water collected inside the patch of the Lagrangian experiment was enclosed and supplied with ammonia. We conclude that the idealized model contains sufficient elements to capture a useful first-order approximation to a presumably quite complex microbial food web. In this model, predator growth responds not only to food quantity, but

  17. [Study on Extraction Conditions of Water-Soluble Substances—Purity Test (4) for Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone Listed in Japan's Specifications and Standards for Food Additives].

    PubMed

    Yanagi, Tokue; Matsumoto, Makoto; Shimizu, Sachiko; Iwamura, Tetsuro; Ogaki, Mamiko

    2015-01-01

    The food additive polyvinylpolypyrrolidone is approved for use as a filter aid. The water-soluble substances test of polyvinylpolypyrrolidone often shows poor reproducibility. The instruction "boil gently while stirring using a stirrer" was considered critical, and so this issue was examined. The results showed that the use of a combination of both an oil bath and a stirrer provided good reproducibility without decomposition or other problems.

  18. Towards Celiac-safe foods: Decreasing the affinity of transglutaminase 2 for gliadin by addition of ascorbyl palmitate and ZnCl2 as detoxifiers.

    PubMed

    Engstrom, N; Saenz-Méndez, P; Scheers, J; Scheers, N

    2017-12-01

    Initiation of celiac disease is triggered in the gastrointestinal tract by transglutaminase 2 (TG2) assisted deamidation of gluten peptides. Deamidation is a side-reaction to transamidation and occurs if primary amines are absent. In contrast to deamidation, transamidation does not trigger an immune response. The aim of the study was to identify a suitable food additive that interacts with TG2 binding motives in gluten-derived peptides to prevent deamidation/transamidation. Homology modelling of α2-gliadin and computational screening of compounds for their binding affinity to a common TG2 binding motive (P)QLP were done by using computational approaches followed by experimental testing of TG2 activity. A database containing 1174 potential food grade ligands was screened against the model of α2-gliadin (27 out of 33 aa). Out of the five best ligands, ascorbyl palmitate, was observed to decrease TG2 transamidation of gliadin by 82% ± 2%. To completely silence the transamidation, we added zinc chloride (ZnCl2), and thereby reached a 99% ± 1% inhibition of TG2 activity. In addition, we conducted a pilot experiment in which ascorbyl palmitate was observed to decrease TG2 deamidation of gliadin completely. We propose ascorbyl palmitate in combination with ZnCl2 with the future perspective to become an additive in celiac-safe foods.

  19. Long-term measurement of gastric motility using passive telemetry and effect of guar and cellulose as food additives in dogs.

    PubMed

    Burger, D M; Wiestner, T; Montavon, P M; Kündig, H; Hubler, M; Binder, H; Arnold, S

    2006-03-01

    The suitability of passive telemetry for long-term measurements of gastric motility in two groups of dogs with different body weights, four Beagles and four Labrador Retrievers, was investigated. An intra-abdominal measuring device, with a pressure sensor and electrodes within the gastric wall, allowed the continuous recording of the intensity and frequency of contractions simultaneously with an electromyogram (EMG). In fasting dogs a typical inter-digestive motility cycle was reproducible. Within 15 min of feeding the integral of the pressure curve increased significantly, reaching its maximum 30-45 min post-prandially. The peak frequency also significantly increased immediately after feeding, reaching the maximum of 22 contractions per 5 min. The post-prandial motility patterns of the groups were significantly different. The pressure amplitudes of the Labradors were significantly higher and the peak frequencies significantly lower than the Beagles. The addition of guar to the food (2.5% or 5%) leads to a significant reduction of the intensity of the antral contractions, whereas the frequency was hardly affected. In comparison, the effect of cellulose, as a food additive (2.5% or 5%), was rather modest. The intensity of the post-prandial contractions, influenced by cellulose, was significantly increased in Beagles, but was decreased in Labradors. Passive telemetry has been proven to be a suitable method for the long-term investigation of the physiological gastric motility and the effect of food additives. The measuring device was still functional after removal 8 weeks later.

  20. Microbial oils as food additives: recent approaches for improving microbial oil production and its polyunsaturated fatty acid content.

    PubMed

    Bellou, Stamatia; Triantaphyllidou, Irene-Eva; Aggeli, Dimitra; Elazzazy, Ahmed Mohammed; Baeshen, Mohammed Nabih; Aggelis, George

    2016-02-01

    In this short review, we summarize the latest research in the production of polyunsaturated microbial oils that are of interest in food technology. The current research targets the productivity of oleaginous microorganisms, as well as the biosynthesis of particular polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The most important efforts target the efficiency of the oleaginous machinery, via overexpression of key-enzymes involved in lipid biosynthesis, as well as the minimization of lipid degradation, by repressing genes involved in the β-oxidation pathway. The production of specific PUFAs is approached by homologous or heterologous expression of specific desaturases and elongases involved in PUFA biosynthesis in oleaginous microorganisms. New perspectives, such as the production of triacylglycerols of specific structure and the employment of adaptive experimental evolution for creating robust oleaginous strains able to produce PUFAs are also discussed.