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Sample records for food aid users

  1. Design and usability evaluation of user-centered and visual-based aids for dietary food measurement on mobile devices in a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying-Chieh; Chen, Chien-Hung; Lee, Chien-Wei; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Chen, Hsin-Yun; Yeh, Jou-Yin; Chiu, Sherry Yueh-Hsia

    2016-12-01

    . However, improvements are needed because both the IPI and TLP accuracies associated with some food shapes were lower than 60%. The SBI is not yet a viable aid. This innovative alternative required further improvements to the user interface. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. User-Centered Computer Aided Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaphiris, Panayiotis, Ed.; Zacharia, Giorgos, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    In the field of computer aided language learning (CALL), there is a need for emphasizing the importance of the user. "User-Centered Computer Aided Language Learning" presents methodologies, strategies, and design approaches for building interfaces for a user-centered CALL environment, creating a deeper understanding of the opportunities and…

  3. User-Centered Computer Aided Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaphiris, Panayiotis, Ed.; Zacharia, Giorgos, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    In the field of computer aided language learning (CALL), there is a need for emphasizing the importance of the user. "User-Centered Computer Aided Language Learning" presents methodologies, strategies, and design approaches for building interfaces for a user-centered CALL environment, creating a deeper understanding of the opportunities and…

  4. Satisfaction of Elderly Hearing Aid Users

    PubMed Central

    Kozlowski, Lorena; Ribas, Angela; Almeida, Gleide; Luz, Idalina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The impact of auditory sensory deprivation in the life of an individual is enormous because it not only affects one's ability to properly understand auditory information, but also the way people relate to their environment and their culture. The monitoring of adult and elderly subjects with hearing loss is intended to minimize the difficulties and handicaps that occur as a consequence of this pathology. Objective To evaluate the level of user satisfaction with hearing aids. Methods A clinical and experimental study involving 91 elderly hearing aid users. We used the questionnaire Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life to determine the degree of the satisfaction provided by hearing aids. We evaluated mean global score, subscales, as well as the variables time to use, age, and degree of hearing loss. Results Mean global score was 4.73, the score for Positive Effects 5.45, Negative Factors 3.2, demonstrating that they were satisfied; Services and Costs 5.98: very satisfied ; 3.65 Personal Image: dissatisfied. We observed statistically significant difference for the time of hearing aid use, age, and degree of hearing loss. Conclusion The SADL is a tool, simple and easy to apply and in this study we can demonstrate the high degree of satisfaction with the hearing aids by the majority of the sample collected, increasing with time of use and a greater degree of hearing loss. PMID:28050214

  5. Satisfaction of Elderly Hearing Aid Users.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, Lorena; Ribas, Angela; Almeida, Gleide; Luz, Idalina

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The impact of auditory sensory deprivation in the life of an individual is enormous because it not only affects one's ability to properly understand auditory information, but also the way people relate to their environment and their culture. The monitoring of adult and elderly subjects with hearing loss is intended to minimize the difficulties and handicaps that occur as a consequence of this pathology. Objective To evaluate the level of user satisfaction with hearing aids. Methods A clinical and experimental study involving 91 elderly hearing aid users. We used the questionnaire Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life to determine the degree of the satisfaction provided by hearing aids. We evaluated mean global score, subscales, as well as the variables time to use, age, and degree of hearing loss. Results Mean global score was 4.73, the score for Positive Effects 5.45, Negative Factors 3.2, demonstrating that they were satisfied; Services and Costs 5.98: very satisfied ; 3.65 Personal Image: dissatisfied. We observed statistically significant difference for the time of hearing aid use, age, and degree of hearing loss. Conclusion The SADL is a tool, simple and easy to apply and in this study we can demonstrate the high degree of satisfaction with the hearing aids by the majority of the sample collected, increasing with time of use and a greater degree of hearing loss.

  6. AIDS education in drug user treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Passannante, M R; Wells, D V; Quinones, M A; Jackson, J F; Rotkiewicz, L G

    1991-05-01

    This paper presents the results of an AIDS educational intervention for intravenous drug users (IVDUs) who participated in the New Jersey State Department of Health's Coupon program. An examination of the data showed that those with high pre-intervention test scores were more likely to have been White and to have been in treatment since 1981. Furthermore, the 1-hour AIDS educational intervention produced significantly higher post-intervention test scores (overall and for 27 of the 31 individual test items). Finally, none of the demographic and drug history variables used in this analysis were found to contribute significantly to the effectiveness of the educational session.

  7. Hearing aid user guides: suitability for older adults.

    PubMed

    Caposecco, Andrea; Hickson, Louise; Meyer, Carly

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the content, design, and readability of printed hearing aid user guides to determine their suitability for older adults, who are the main users of hearing aids. Hearing aid user guides were assessed using four readability formulae and a standardized tool to assess content and design (SAM - Suitability Assessment of Materials). A sample of 36 hearing aid user guides (four user guides from nine different hearing aid manufacturers) were analysed. Sixty nine percent of user guides were rated 'not suitable' and 31% were rated 'adequate' for their suitability. Many scored poorly for scope, vocabulary, aspects of layout and typography, and learning stimulation and motivation. The mean reading grade level for all user guides was grade 9.6 which is too high for older adults. The content, design, and readability of hearing aid user guides are not optimal for older adults and thus may serve as a barrier to successful hearing aid outcomes for this population.

  8. The Water Footprint of Food Aid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, N. D.; Konar, M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Food aid is a critical component of the global food system, particularly when emergency situations arise. For the first time, we evaluate the water footprint of food aid. To do this, we draw on food aid data from theWorld Food Programme and virtual water content estimates from WaterStat. We find that the total water footprint of food aid was 10 km3 in 2005, which represents approximately 0.5% of the water footprint of food trade and 2.0% of the water footprint of land grabbing (i.e., water appropriation associated with large agricultural land deals). The United States is by far the largest food aid donor and contributes 82% of the water footprint of food aid. The countries that receive the most water embodied in aid are Ethiopia, Sudan, North Korea, Bangladesh and Afghanistan. Notably, we find that there is significant overlap between countries that receive food aid and those that have their land grabbed. Multivariate regression results indicate that donor water footprints are driven by political and environmental variables, whereas recipient water footprints are driven by land grabbing and food indicators.

  9. Degree of satisfaction among hearing aid users

    PubMed Central

    Mondelli, Maria Fernanda Capoani Garcia; Rocha, Andressa Vital; Honório, Heitor Marques

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Hearing loss (HL) is defined as the complete or partial loss of hearing ability. Aims: To characterize (1) the degree of satisfaction among adult and elderly hearing aid (HA) users who were treated by a public hearing health service and (2) the relationship between satisfaction and the variables of gender, age, degree of HL, and type of HA. Method: The clinical and experimental study included the administration of the Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life (SADL) questionnaire to 110 patients who had used HAs for more than 3 months and were 18 years of age or older. Results: Test patients were sex-balanced (48% were women) and had a mean age of 67 years. A relatively high incidence of sensorineural moderate HL was detected in the study patients (66%) and device B was the most commonly used HA type (48%). No significant differences were evident between HA satisfaction and sex. The importance placed on services/costs and personal image varied between age groups. Correlation was evident at all levels between user satisfaction and amplification. Decreased satisfaction was observed in individuals with severe and/or profound HL. The type of HA used yielded statistically significant differences in the positive effects referring. Conclusion: No correlations were evident between the different factors proposed. HA users exhibited high levels of satisfaction in all SADL areas. PMID:25991994

  10. [User benefit of modern hearing aids. A comparative study].

    PubMed

    Kießling, J; Kreikemeier, S

    2013-08-01

    In the face of the rapid development of hearing aid system technology it is helpful to regularly study the user benefit of the current generation. To contribute to the question on how the user benefit of current hearing aids compares with the benefit of the previous generation of hearing aids, a multicentre study was carried out in cooperation with 79 hearing aid acoustics companies in Germany. The user benefit of modern hearing aids in everyday life was assessed by asking end users to participate in a survey by completing a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of 20 items, 10 of which were taken from validated international inventories (SSQ: Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing scale, IOI-HA: International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids) and the other 10 were formulated particularly for this purpose. A total of 664 usable questionnaires were returned whereby 421 responders were first time users and 243 responders were previous hearing aid users. The results of the present study showed that modern hearing aid system technology provides significant extra benefits at the 5 % level relative to the previous generation of hearing aids for all variables tested in this study. Even though the amount of gain in terms of user benefit may be overestimated due to well-known placebo effects, an obvious net effect was evident. Correlations between the level of hearing aid benefit and possible influencing factors, such as age, gender, subjects own hearing aid, duration of use or hearing loss, could not be identified.

  11. 'Getting used to' hearing aids from the perspective of adult hearing-aid users.

    PubMed

    Dawes, Piers; Maslin, Michael; Munro, Kevin J

    2014-12-01

    To describe getting used to hearing aids from the perspective of adult hearing-aid users. Three focus group discussions were carried out. A topic guide and discussion exercises were used to elicit views on getting used to hearing aids. Discussion was audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and subjected to qualitative content analysis. Adult hearing aid users (n = 16). Participants described getting used to hearing aids as a multi-factorial process which included adjusting to altered sensory input, practical matters such as cleaning and maintenance, and managing the psychosocial impact of hearing-aid use, such as on self-image. Users reported a process of discovering benefits and limitations of hearing aids leading to individual patterns of use that was relatively independent of input from audiologists. Getting used to hearing aids is a challenging multi-factorial process with both psychosocial and practical difficulties besides demands of adjusting to hearing-aid input.

  12. Evaluation of a Modified User Guide for Hearing Aid Management.

    PubMed

    Caposecco, Andrea; Hickson, Louise; Meyer, Carly; Khan, Asaduzzaman

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated if a hearing aid user guide modified using best practice principles for health literacy resulted in superior ability to perform hearing aid management tasks, compared with the user guide in the original form. This research utilized a two-arm study design to compare the original manufacturer's user guide with a modified user guide for the same hearing aid--an Oticon Acto behind-the-ear aid with an open dome. The modified user guide had a lower reading grade level (4.2 versus 10.5), used a larger font size, included more graphics, and had less technical information. Eighty-nine adults ages 55 years and over were included in the study; none had experience with hearing aid use or management. Participants were randomly assigned either the modified guide (n = 47) or the original guide (n = 42). All participants were administered the Hearing Aid Management test, designed for this study, which assessed their ability to perform seven management tasks (e.g., change battery) with their assigned user guide. The regression analysis indicated that the type of user guide was significantly associated with performance on the Hearing Aid Management test, adjusting for 11 potential covariates. In addition, participants assigned the modified guide required significantly fewer prompts to perform tasks and were significantly more likely to perform four of the seven tasks without the need for prompts. The median time taken by those assigned the modified guide was also significantly shorter for three of the tasks. Other variables associated with performance on the Hearing Aid Management test were health literacy level, finger dexterity, and age. Findings indicate that the need to design hearing aid user guides in line with best practice principles of health literacy as a means of facilitating improved hearing aid management in older adults.

  13. 76 FR 12016 - Local and Regional Food Aid Procurement Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Local and Regional Food Aid Procurement Projects AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural... and Regional Food Aid Procurement Pilot Project (USDA LRP Project). All available funding for field...: Jamie Fisher, Chief, Local and Regional Procurement, Food Assistance Division, Foreign Agricultural...

  14. USAID's review of food aid quality.

    PubMed

    Webb, Patrick

    2011-09-01

    As part of US Agency for International Development (USAID) efforts to improve the quality of food aid products and programs, a two year study was commissioned to produce recommendations on ways to improve the quality of food aid products, programming, and institutional processes. The review determined that while much valuable work is done in both emergencies and non-emergency contexts, there is scope for improvement. Smarter programming, more careful targeting, greater attention to cost-effectiveness (in relation to planned human outcomes, not just numbers of people "fed"), enhanced coordination of interagency processes, enhanced policy harmonization among international players, and application of best practices in product formulation can help increase the impact of U.S. food aid resources.

  15. Conceptual Data Visualization in Archival Finding Aids: Preliminary User Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahde, Anne

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores possibilities for marrying data visualization to online archival finding aids, which have continually suffered from usability issues in their long history. This paper describes a project in which two different data visualization models were built to replace sections of an archival finding aid. Users were then shown the models,…

  16. Dietary behaviour and nutritional status in underprivileged people using food aid (ABENA study, 2004-2005).

    PubMed

    Castetbon, K; Méjean, C; Deschamps, V; Bellin-Lestienne, C; Oleko, A; Darmon, N; Hercberg, S

    2011-12-01

    Although initiatives are setting up to improve the nutritional status of deprived people, few studies have described the food aid user profile and evaluated their nutritional needs. The contributions of food aid to the food supply, dietary behaviour and nutritional status of food aid users were evaluated in the ABENA study. A cross-sectional study was conducted among food aid users in four urban French zones (n = 1664, age ≥18 years). Sociodemographic and economic characteristics, food insufficiency, food supply and diet behaviours were assessed using standardised questionnaires. A subsample of participants underwent clinical and biochemical examinations. Descriptive and comparative analyses were performed taking into account sample weights. Over 70% of participants used food aid as the only source of supply among numerous food groups, and one-quarter of them (27.2%) were using food aid for 3 years or more. The mean food budget was €70.0 per person per month, and 46.0% of subjects were classified as 'food-insufficient'. Half of the subjects fulfilled the French recommendations for starchy foods (48.7%) and 'meat, fish and eggs' (49.4%); 27.3% met the requirements for seafood. Only a very small proportion of participants met the recommendations for fruits and vegetables (1.2%) and dairy products (9.2%). In addition, 16.7% of subjects were obese, 29.4% had high blood pressure, 14.8% were anaemic, 67.9% were at risk of folate deficiency and 85.6% had vitamin D deficiency. These results provide evidence of an unhealthy diet and poor health profiles in severely disadvantaged persons and highlight the importance of food aid in this population. Thus, this study points to the necessity of improving the nutritional quality of currently distributed food aid. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2011 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  17. International epidemiology of HIV and AIDS among injecting drug users.

    PubMed

    Des Jarlais, D C; Friedman, S R; Choopanya, K; Vanichseni, S; Ward, T P

    1992-10-01

    HIV/AIDS and iv drug use (IVDU) are of significant multinational scope and growing. Supporting increased IVDU in many countries are countries' geographical proximity to illicit drug trafficking distribution routes, law enforcement efforts which increase the demand for more efficient drug distribution and consumption, and countries' infrastructural and social modernization. Given the failures of intensified law enforcement efforts to thwart the use and proliferation of illegal drugs, countries with substantial IVDU should look away from preventing use to preventing HIV transmission within drug user populations. With HIV seroprevalence rates rapidly reaching 40-50% in some developing country IVDU groups, a variety of prevention programs is warranted. Such programs should be supported and implemented while prevention remains feasible. This paper examines the variation in HIV seroprevalence among IVD users, rapid HIV spread among users, HIV among IVDUs in Bangkok, emerging issues in HIV transmission among IVDUs, non-AIDS manifestations of HIV infection among IVDUs, prevention programs and effectiveness, and harm reduction.

  18. Formal auditory training in adult hearing aid users

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Daniela; Iorio, Maria Cecília Martinelli

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Individuals with sensorineural hearing loss are often able to regain some lost auditory function with the help of hearing aids. However, hearing aids are not able to overcome auditory distortions such as impaired frequency resolution and speech understanding in noisy environments. The coexistence of peripheral hearing loss and a central auditory deficit may contribute to patient dissatisfaction with amplification, even when audiological tests indicate nearly normal hearing thresholds. OBJECTIVE This study was designed to validate the effects of a formal auditory training program in adult hearing aid users with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss. METHODS Fourteen bilateral hearing aid users were divided into two groups: seven who received auditory training and seven who did not. The training program was designed to improve auditory closure, figure-to-ground for verbal and nonverbal sounds and temporal processing (frequency and duration of sounds). Pre- and post-training evaluations included measuring electrophysiological and behavioral auditory processing and administration of the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB) self-report scale. RESULTS The post-training evaluation of the experimental group demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in P3 latency, improved performance in some of the behavioral auditory processing tests and higher hearing aid benefit in noisy situations (p-value < 0,05). No changes were noted for the control group (p-value <0,05). CONCLUSION The results demonstrated that auditory training in adult hearing aid users can lead to a reduction in P3 latency, improvements in sound localization, memory for nonverbal sounds in sequence, auditory closure, figure-to-ground for verbal sounds and greater benefits in reverberant and noisy environments. PMID:20186300

  19. Internet Competency Predicts Practical Hearing Aid Knowledge and Skills in First-Time Hearing Aid Users.

    PubMed

    Maidment, David; Brassington, William; Wharrad, Heather; Ferguson, Melanie

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess whether Internet competency predicted practical hearing aid knowledge and handling skills in first-time hearing aid users. The design was a prospective, randomized controlled trial of a multimedia educational intervention consisting of interactive video tutorials (or reusable learning objects [RLOs]). RLOs were delivered through DVD for TV or PC, and online. Internet competency was measured at the hearing aid fitting appointment, whereas hearing aid knowledge and practical handling skills were assessed 6 weeks postfitting. Internet competency predicted practical hearing aid knowledge and handling skills, controlling for age, hearing sensitivity, educational status, and gender for the group that received the RLOs. Internet competency was inversely related to the number of times the RLOs were watched. Associations between Internet competency and practical hearing aid knowledge, handling skills, and watching the RLOs fewer times may have arisen because of improved self-efficacy. Therefore, first-time hearing aid users who are more competent Internet users may be better equipped to apply newly learned information to effectively manage their hearing loss.

  20. Background sounds and hearing-aid users: A scoping review.

    PubMed

    Gygi, Brian; Ann Hall, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    A scoping review focused on background sounds and adult hearing-aid users, including aspects of aversiveness and interference. The aim was to establish the current body of knowledge, identify knowledge gaps, and to suggest possible future directions for research. Data were gathered using a systematic search strategy, consistent with scoping review methodology. Searches of public databases between 1988 and 2014 returned 1182 published records. After exclusions for duplicates and out-of- scope works, 75 records remained for further analysis. Content analysis was used to group the records into five separate themes. Content analysis indicated numerous themes relating to background sounds. Five broad emergent themes addressed the development and validation of outcome instruments, satisfaction surveys, assessments of hearing-aid technology and signal processing, acclimatization to the device post-fitting, and non-auditory influences on benefit and satisfaction. A large proportion of hearing-aid users still find particular hearing-aid features and attributes dissatisfying when listening in background sounds. Many conclusions are limited by methodological drawbacks in study design and too many different outcome instruments. Future research needs to address these issues, while controlling for hearing-aid fitting.

  1. Level of user satisfaction with hearing AIDS and environment: the international outcome inventory for hearing AIDS.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, Lorena; Almeida, Gleide; Ribas, Angela

    2014-07-01

    Introduction The main function of hearing is to enable oral communication. Hearing loss impairs communication skills. Objective To evaluate the level of user satisfaction with hearing aids. Methods This is a cross-sectional group study comprising 108 subjects (56% men and 44% women). The average age of the subjects was 77 years. These subjects had been recently fitted with their hearing aids and showed sensorineural (90%) and mixed (10%) hearing loss as determined via the Questionnaire International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids Outcome Inventory (IOI-HA), which determined the benefit and satisfaction obtained by sound amplification. Results The hearing aids improved the quality of life of 52.78% of the patients, which was revealed by their high scores (mean = 27.3). The relationship of the user with the environment was significantly better (p < 0.001) than that of the user with the hearing aid. Conclusion IOI-HA is a simple and easy-to-use tool. Based on the results of this study, we can show a high degree of satisfaction with their hearing aids in the majority of the participants, which improved the quality of life.

  2. Level of User Satisfaction with Hearing Aids and Environment: The International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids

    PubMed Central

    Kozlowski, Lorena; Almeida, Gleide; Ribas, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The main function of hearing is to enable oral communication. Hearing loss impairs communication skills. Objective To evaluate the level of user satisfaction with hearing aids. Methods This is a cross-sectional group study comprising 108 subjects (56% men and 44% women). The average age of the subjects was 77 years. These subjects had been recently fitted with their hearing aids and showed sensorineural (90%) and mixed (10%) hearing loss as determined via the Questionnaire International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids Outcome Inventory (IOI-HA), which determined the benefit and satisfaction obtained by sound amplification. Results The hearing aids improved the quality of life of 52.78% of the patients, which was revealed by their high scores (mean = 27.3). The relationship of the user with the environment was significantly better (p < 0.001) than that of the user with the hearing aid. Conclusion IOI-HA is a simple and easy-to-use tool. Based on the results of this study, we can show a high degree of satisfaction with their hearing aids in the majority of the participants, which improved the quality of life. PMID:25992097

  3. HIV/AIDS, Undernutrition and Food Insecurity

    PubMed Central

    Ivers, Louise C; Cullen, Kimberly A; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Block, Steven; Coates, Jennifer; Webb, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Despite tremendous advances in HIV care and increased funding for treatment, morbidity and mortality from HIV/AIDS in developing countries remains unacceptably high. A major contributing factor is that globally over 800 million people remain chronically undernourished and the HIV epidemic largely overlaps with populations already suffering from low diet quality and quantity. We present an updated review of the relationship between HIV, nutritional deficiencies and food insecurity, and consider efforts to interrupt this cycle at a programmatic level. As HIV infection progresses, it causes a catabolic state and increased susceptibility to infection which are compounded by lack of caloric and other nutrient intake, leading to progressive worsening of malnutrition. Despite calls from national and international organizations to integrate HIV and nutrition programs, data are lacking on how such programs can be effectively implemented in resource-poor settings, on the optimum content and duration of nutrition support and on ideal target recipients. PMID:19725790

  4. HIV/AIDS, undernutrition, and food insecurity.

    PubMed

    Ivers, Louise C; Cullen, Kimberly A; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Block, Steven; Coates, Jennifer; Webb, Patrick

    2009-10-01

    Despite tremendous advances in care for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and increased funding for treatment, morbidity and mortality due to HIV/AIDS in developing countries remains unacceptably high. A major contributing factor is that >800 million people remain chronically undernourished globally, and the HIV epidemic largely overlaps with populations already experiencing low diet quality and quantity. Here, we present an updated review of the relationship between HIV infection, nutritional deficiencies, and food insecurity and consider efforts to interrupt this cycle at a programmatic level. As HIV infection progresses, it causes a catabolic state and increased susceptibility to other infections, which are compounded by a lack of caloric and other nutrient intake, leading to progressive worsening of malnutrition. Despite calls from national and international organizations to integrate HIV and nutritional programs, data are lacking on how such programs can be effectively implemented in resource-poor settings, on the optimum content and duration of nutritional support, and on ideal target recipients.

  5. [The outcome analysis of different age paragraph hearing aid users].

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingqing; Zhou, Huijfang; Zhang, Jing; Guo, Yuxi; Wang, Xiuzhen

    2012-05-01

    To compare and analysis outcomes of different age paragraph hearing aid users by questionnaires. The questionnaire was deployed to 90 hearing aid users, 40 females and 50 males, with ages between 19 and 80 years-from junior high school education to university education, suffering binaural severe or moderate sensorineural deafness. The subjects were devided into 3 groups, the A group with ages between 19 and 40 years, the B group with ages between 41 and 60 years, the C group with ages between 61 and 80 years. After being fitted with hearing aids for 6 weeks, 6 months and 12 months, SADL and IOI-HA were applied to evaluating 90 subjects. The study was carried out through face to face interview or by telephone. There were significant differences in SADL scores of positive effect, service and Personal image among the 3 groups (P < 0.01). The scores of the A group was the highest, and the B group was higher than the C group. On the contrary, there were significant differences in SADL scores of negative effect among the 3 groups (P < 0.01), with the scores of the A group being the lowest, and the B group being lower than the C group. There were also significant differences in IOI-HA scores among the 3 groups (P < 0.01). The scores of the A group was the highest, and the B group was higher than the C group. The outcome and satisfaction of hearing aids among different age paragraph is improved with the wearing time growth, but the outcome and satisfaction of hearing aids are decreased with the age growth.

  6. A generalisable methodology for stability assessment of walking aid users.

    PubMed

    Costamagna, E; Thies, S B; Kenney, L P J; Howard, D; Liu, A; Ogden, D

    2017-09-01

    To assist balance and mobility, older adults are often prescribed walking aids. Nevertheless, surprisingly their use has been associated with increased falls-risk. To address this finding we first need to characterise a person's stability while using a walking aid. Therefore, we present a generalisable method for the assessment of stability of walking frame (WF) users. Our method, for the first time, considers user and device as a combined system. We define the combined centre of pressure (CoPsystem) of user and WF to be the point through which the resultant ground reaction force for all feet of both the WF and user acts if theresultant moment acts only around an axisperpendicular tothe ground plane. We also define the combined base of support (BoSsystem) to be the convex polygon formed by the boundaries of the anatomical and WF feet in contact with the ground and interconnecting lines between them. To measure these parameters we have developed an instrumented WF with a load cell in each foot which we use together with pressure-sensing insoles and a camera system, the latter providing the relative position of the WF and anatomical feet. Software uses the resulting data to calculate the stability margin of the combined system, defined as the distance between CoPsystem and the nearest edge of BoSsystem. Our software also calculates the weight supported through the frame and when each foot (of user and/or frame) is on the floor. Finally, we present experimental work demonstrating the value of our approach. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Food and Nutrition: Supplemental Lessons for Training Extension Aides: Food Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Evelyn H.; And Others

    The lessons were written to help trainer agents prepare aides for work with families in Extension's Expanded Food and Nutrition Program. The purpose is to enrich the aides' background in food preparation and to provide practical teaching methods that can be used in presenting food preparation information to families. The 21 lessons are an…

  8. Food Composition Database Format and Structure: A User Focused Approach.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Annabel K; Woods, Kaitlyn; McMahon, Anne; Probst, Yasmine

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the needs of Australian food composition database user's regarding database format and relate this to the format of databases available globally. Three semi structured synchronous online focus groups (M = 3, F = 11) and n = 6 female key informant interviews were recorded. Beliefs surrounding the use, training, understanding, benefits and limitations of food composition data and databases were explored. Verbatim transcriptions underwent preliminary coding followed by thematic analysis with NVivo qualitative analysis software to extract the final themes. Schematic analysis was applied to the final themes related to database format. Desktop analysis also examined the format of six key globally available databases. 24 dominant themes were established, of which five related to format; database use, food classification, framework, accessibility and availability, and data derivation. Desktop analysis revealed that food classification systems varied considerably between databases. Microsoft Excel was a common file format used in all databases, and available software varied between countries. User's also recognised that food composition databases format should ideally be designed specifically for the intended use, have a user-friendly food classification system, incorporate accurate data with clear explanation of data derivation and feature user input. However, such databases are limited by data availability and resources. Further exploration of data sharing options should be considered. Furthermore, user's understanding of food composition data and databases limitations is inherent to the correct application of non-specific databases. Therefore, further exploration of user FCDB training should also be considered.

  9. Food and Nutrition...Basic Lessons for Training Extension Aides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    These lessons were designed to help the trainer agent give aides the background in food and nutrition they will need for their work with low-income families. The 15 basic lessons provide aides with the necessary information to begin the job of helping families improve their diets. During the initial training period, training agents need time to…

  10. Delivering Improved Nutrition: Dairy Ingredients in Food Aid Products.

    PubMed

    Schlossman, Nina

    2016-03-01

    The United States has a long history of food assistance for humanitarian need. The Food for Peace Act of 1954 established the United States' permanent food assistance program which has fed over 3 billion people in 150 countries worldwide through thousands of partner organizations. In 60 years, the program has evolved and will continue to do so. Recently, the program has gone from a focus on quantity of food shipped to quality food assistance from improved products, programs, and processes to effectively meet the needs of different vulnerable groups. The current debate focuses on the appropriateness of using fortified blended foods to prevent and treat malnutrition during the first 1000 days of life. Dairy ingredients have been at the center of this debate; they were included initially in fortified blended, removed in the 1980s, and now reincorporated into fortified therapeutic and supplemental foods. Improved quality food baskets and effective nutrition programming to prevent and treat malnutrition were developed through multisectoral collaboration between government and nongovernment organizations. The US Agency for International Development has focused on improving nutrition through development programs often tied to health, education, and agriculture. The years since 2008 have been a particularly intense period for improvement. The Food Aid Quality Review was established to update current food aid programming products, program implementation, cost-effectiveness, and interagency processes. Trials are underway to harmonize the areas of multisectoral nutrition programming and gather more evidence on the effects of dairy ingredients in food aid products. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Are well-calibrated users effective users? Associations between calibration of trust and performance on an automation-aided task.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Stephanie M; Lee, Deborah; Unnerstall, Jennifer L; Huber, Kelli

    2015-02-01

    We present alternative operationalizations of trust calibration and examine their associations with predictors and outcomes. It is thought that trust calibration (correspondence between aid reliability and user trust in the aid) is a key to effective human-automation performance. We propose that calibration can be operationalized in three ways. Perceptual accuracy is the extent to which the user perceives the aid's reliability accurately at one point in time. Perceptual sensitivity and trust sensitivity reflect user adjustment of perceived reliability and trust as the aid's actual reliability changes over time. One hundred fifty-five students completed an X-ray screening task with an automated screener. Awareness of the aid's accuracy trajectory and error type was examined as predictors, and task performance and aid failure detection were examined as outcomes. Awareness of accuracy trajectory was significantly associated with all three operationalizations of calibration, but awareness of error type was not when considered in conjunction with accuracy trajectory. Contrary to expectations, only perceptual accuracy was significantly associated with task performance and failure detection, and combined, the three operationalizations accounted for only 9% and 4% of the variance in these outcomes, respectively. Our results suggest that the potential importance of trust calibration warrants further examination. Moderators may exist. Users who were better able to perform the task unaided were better able to identify and correct aid failure, suggesting that user task training and expertise may benefit human-automation performance.

  12. International Food Aid Programs: Background and Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-03

    such as the World Food Programme (WFP). In FY2009, USDA provided over 280,000 metric tons of U.S. commodities (including wheat , wheat flour , soybean...Trust was originally authorized by the Agricultural Act of 1980 (P.L. 96-494) as the Food Security Wheat Reserve, but was later reauthorized and...Security Commodity Reserve established in the 1996 farm bill and its predecessor, the Food Security Wheat Reserve, originally authorized by the

  13. Acceptance of Noise Growth Patterns in Hearing Aid Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freyaldenhoven, Melinda C.; Plyler, Patrick N.; Thelin, James W.; Muenchen, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To examine whether the effects of speech presentation level on acceptance of noise could differentiate full-time, part-time, and nonusers of hearing aids and whether these effects could predict hearing aid use. Method: Participants were separated into 3 groups on the basis of hearing aid use: (a) full-time use, (b) part-time use, or (c)…

  14. Current status of drug use and HIV/AIDS prevention in drug users in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianhua; Li, Xinyue

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to review the current status of drug use and HIV/AIDS prevention for drug users in China and provide scientific evidence for HIV/AIDS prevention and control in drug users. Literature and articles related to drug abuse in China, as well as the results of prevention efforts and successful cases regarding HIV/AIDS prevention in drug users, are reviewed. Lessons learned are drawn out for the future improvement of work and the sustainable development of treatment programs. The number of drug users in China is increasing. Even though the number of opioid-type drug users is growing more slowly than in the past, the number of amphetamine-type stimulant users has increased sharply. It has been proven that methadone maintenance treatment and syringe exchange programs gradually and successfully control HIV/AIDS transmission in drug users. However, it is necessary to enhance these prevention methods and expand their coverage. In addition, the strengthening of antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment for HIV-infected drug users is crucial for HIV/AIDS prevention and control. The rapidly growing number of amphetamine-type stimulant users, along with their high-risk behavior, poses a hidden danger of greater HIV/AIDS transmission through sexual intercourse in the near future. PMID:25284965

  15. Food Composition Database Format and Structure: A User Focused Approach

    PubMed Central

    Clancy, Annabel K.; Woods, Kaitlyn; McMahon, Anne; Probst, Yasmine

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the needs of Australian food composition database user’s regarding database format and relate this to the format of databases available globally. Three semi structured synchronous online focus groups (M = 3, F = 11) and n = 6 female key informant interviews were recorded. Beliefs surrounding the use, training, understanding, benefits and limitations of food composition data and databases were explored. Verbatim transcriptions underwent preliminary coding followed by thematic analysis with NVivo qualitative analysis software to extract the final themes. Schematic analysis was applied to the final themes related to database format. Desktop analysis also examined the format of six key globally available databases. 24 dominant themes were established, of which five related to format; database use, food classification, framework, accessibility and availability, and data derivation. Desktop analysis revealed that food classification systems varied considerably between databases. Microsoft Excel was a common file format used in all databases, and available software varied between countries. User’s also recognised that food composition databases format should ideally be designed specifically for the intended use, have a user-friendly food classification system, incorporate accurate data with clear explanation of data derivation and feature user input. However, such databases are limited by data availability and resources. Further exploration of data sharing options should be considered. Furthermore, user’s understanding of food composition data and databases limitations is inherent to the correct application of non-specific databases. Therefore, further exploration of user FCDB training should also be considered. PMID:26554836

  16. Food Aid and the African Food Crisis. Foreign Agricultural Economic Report No. 221.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapouri, Shahla; And Others

    Nine of 11 low and medium income Sub-Saharan African countires studied may face even greater problems feeding their populations if recent trends continue. These countries rely on food imports and, increasingly, on food aid to meet minimum nutritional requirements for their populations. Food production is hampered by droughts which hit about every…

  17. Food Purchasing Pointers for School Food Service. Program Aid No. 1160.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luck, Joan; Cazier, Amelia

    This publication is designed to aid school food service personnel in implementing effective food purchasing practices and obtaining optimum food quality. Part 1 outlines procedures for sound purchasing practices and presents suggested forms for use in implementing these procedures. Information is also provided on inventory systems and stock…

  18. The difficulties of using MACSYMA and the function of user aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genesereth, M. R.

    1977-01-01

    The size and complexity of the MACSYMA system may create learning difficulties for users. Deficiency in understanding the system leads to resource knowledge difficulties. A communication factor arises from a difference between the primitive objects, actions, and relations of a user's problem and those provided by the system. The functions of various user aids in handling each of these difficulties are discussed.

  19. The difficulties of using MACSYMA and the function of user aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genesereth, M. R.

    1977-01-01

    The size and complexity of the MACSYMA system may create learning difficulties for users. Deficiency in understanding the system leads to resource knowledge difficulties. A communication factor arises from a difference between the primitive objects, actions, and relations of a user's problem and those provided by the system. The functions of various user aids in handling each of these difficulties are discussed.

  20. Comparison of sensory, physiological, personality, and cultural attributes in regular spicy food users and non-users.

    PubMed

    Ludy, Mary-Jon; Mattes, Richard D

    2012-02-01

    Some individuals savor spicy foods, while others avoid them. Reasons underlying this range of hedonic responses are unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore the basis for individual differences in preference for spicy foods. Regular spicy food users (n=13) and non-users (n=12) were characterized for selected sensory, physiological, personality, and cultural attributes. Individual differences between users and non-users were primarily related to sensory and cultural attributes (i.e., a higher proportion of users reported consuming spicy foods since childhood and users rated spicy foods as more palatable and were better able to discriminate this burn than non-users). Users and non-users exhibited comparable responsiveness to noxious pressure pain, oral tactile sensitivity, and auditory sensitivity, varying only in responsiveness to oral thermal heat (i.e., users were more sensitive to increases than non-users). Studied personality traits did not vary between users and non-users. These findings suggest that prior experience, rather than physiological adaptation or personality differences, may best predict preference for spicy foods. These findings are of public health interest, given that spicy food consumption is reported to confer weight management and food safety benefits.

  1. Level 5: user refinement to aid the fusion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik P.; Plano, Susan

    2003-04-01

    The revised JDL Fusion model Level 4 process refinement covers a broad spectrum of actions such as sensor management and control. A limitation of Level 4 is the purpose of control - whether it be for user needs or system operation. Level 5, User Refinement, is a modification to the Revised JDL model that distinguishes between machine process refinement and user refinement. User refinement can either be human control actions or refinement of the user's cognitive model. In many cases, fusion research concentrates on the machine and does not take full advantage of the human as not only a qualified expert to refine the fusion process, but also as customer for whom the fusion system is designed. Without user refinement, sensor fusion is incomplete, inadequate, and the user neglects its worthiness. To capture user capabilities, we explore the concept of user refinement through decision and action based on situational leadership models. We develop a Fuse-Act Situational User Refinement (FASUR) model that details four refinement behaviors: Neglect, Consult, Rely, and Interact and five refinement functions: Planning, Organizing, Coordinating, Directing, and Controlling. Process refinement varies for different systems and different user information needs. By designing a fusion system with a specific user in mind, vis Level 5, a fusion architecture can meet user's information needs for varying situations, extend user sensing capabilities for action, and increase the human-machine interaction.

  2. Recording and classification of the acoustic environment of hearing aid users.

    PubMed

    Wagener, Kirsten Carola; Hansen, Martin; Ludvigsen, Carl

    2008-04-01

    This article investigates the different acoustic signals that hearing aid users are exposed to in their everyday environment. Binaural microphone signals from recording positions close to the microphone locations of behind-the-ear hearing aids were recorded by 20 hearing aid users during daily life. The recorded signals were acoustically analyzed with regard to narrowband short-term level distributions. The subjects also performed subjective assessments of their own recordings in the laboratory using several questions from the Glasgow Hearing Aid Benefit Profile (GHABP) questionnaire. Both the questionnaire and the acoustic analysis data show that the importance, problems, and hearing aid benefit as well as the acoustic characteristics of the individual situations vary a lot across subjects. Therefore, in addition to a nonlinear hearing aid fitting, further signal classification and signal/situation-adaptive features are highly desirable inside modern hearing aids. These should be compatible with the variability of the individual sound environments of hearing-impaired listeners.

  3. Nutritional enhancement of US Title II food aid products.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Irwin; Tilahun, Jessica; Schlossman, Nina; Bagriansky, Jack; Johnson, Quentin; Webb, Patrick; Rogers, Beatrice; Masterson, Amelia Reese

    2011-09-01

    Food aid provided by the United States has saved the lives of the vulnerable for many years. Recognizing the need for a thorough review of product formulations and specifications, the US Agency for International Development (USAID) commissioned a 2-year assessment of quality issues relating to Title II food aid products. This article presents findings and recommendations of that review relating to product enhancements. The core question addressed was: Are current commodity specifications for enriched FBFs appropriate in light of evolving nutritional science and food fortification technology, or do they need to be updated? Empirical data were derived from a number of sources, including a survey of Title II implementing partners focusing on procurement and logistics, and uses of FBFs and other foods. Input of implementing partners, civil society, and donor organizations was obtained through individual consultations, international and small group meetings. More than 400 individuals accessed the project's website. The project convened a panel of experts in food technology and science, food policy, law, industry, medicine, development and humanitarian work, and the maritime industry, and held regular joint meetings with USDA and USAID. The draft report was widely disseminated and posted on the website. The findings of this research led to the following broad areas of improvement in US Title II food aid products: 1) Improve the formulation of existing FBF products used in Title II programming. This includes the addition of a dairy source of protein to products targeted to children 6 to 24 months of age, pregnant and lactating women, wasted children, and wasted individuals undergoing HIV/AIDS treatment. 2) Upgrade the vitamin and mineral mixes used and diversify approaches to addressing micronutrient needs. Enhance the composition of premixes used to fortify blended foods as well as milled grains and vegetable oil; facilitate shipping offortificant premix with bulk

  4. Food insecurity in university students receiving financial aid.

    PubMed

    Meldrum, Liesel A; Willows, Noreen D

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the adequacy of loans funding and the risk for food insecurity in students living away from home and receiving loans at the University of Alberta. A nutritious seven-day menu was developed. The menu was priced for skilled and unskilled shoppers at a grocery store near to campus and a discount-style grocery store further away. The menu was more costly for males, unskilled shoppers and those students who shopped near to campus. The menu cost was as high as $296/month and often exceeded the $196 allocated by the Canada Student Loans Program for food each month. Based on the findings from this study, students reliant on financial assistance likely have insufficient money for a nutritionally adequate diet and are at risk for food insecurity. Shopping skills and budgeting, while important, would be insufficient to alleviate food insecurity for many students who require financial aid. Increased funding for food in student loans is necessary.

  5. The clinical implications of ear canal debris in hearing aid users

    PubMed Central

    Orji, Foster Tochukwu; O. Onyero, Emmanuel; Agbo, Christian Ejiofor

    2014-01-01

    Objective : The ear irritations suffered by hearing aid (HA) users are yet to be related to the clinical state of canal. We undertook this study to examine the nature of debris and the microbial flora of ears of hearing aid users, as well as evaluate the determinant factors of ear irritation in this population. Methods : An observational clinical study was carried out involving 32 unilateral hearing aid users recruited from ENT clinic of a tertiary referral center. Each subject underwent otoscopic assessment of canal debris and microbial analysis of swab cultures taken from the hearing aid-wearing ear and contralateral normal ear without hearing aid. Results : Canal debris [wax (28%), fungal deposits (19%), bacteria exudates (13%)]. as well as microorganisms were identified in significant number of ears with hearing aids than ears without hearing aid (P = 0.003 and P = 0.006 respectively). Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the commonest identified bacteria. Others were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus species. Intolerable irritations of hearing aid wearing ears were significantly associated with bacterial and fungal otitis externa, and ear discharge (P = 0.005, 0.02, 0.03 respectively). Conclusions : This study demonstrates that using hearing aid alters the ear canal flora; increases risk of both fungal and bacterial otitis externa, as well as encourage wax debris formation, with resultant ear irritations. To ensure compliance their ears should periodically be attended to, by de-waxing or given topical antimicrobial agents where indicated. PMID:24948963

  6. The clinical implications of ear canal debris in hearing aid users.

    PubMed

    Orji, Foster Tochukwu; O Onyero, Emmanuel; Agbo, Christian Ejiofor

    2014-05-01

    Objective : The ear irritations suffered by hearing aid (HA) users are yet to be related to the clinical state of canal. We undertook this study to examine the nature of debris and the microbial flora of ears of hearing aid users, as well as evaluate the determinant factors of ear irritation in this population. Methods : An observational clinical study was carried out involving 32 unilateral hearing aid users recruited from ENT clinic of a tertiary referral center. Each subject underwent otoscopic assessment of canal debris and microbial analysis of swab cultures taken from the hearing aid-wearing ear and contralateral normal ear without hearing aid. Results : Canal debris [wax (28%), fungal deposits (19%), bacteria exudates (13%)]. as well as microorganisms were identified in significant number of ears with hearing aids than ears without hearing aid (P = 0.003 and P = 0.006 respectively). Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the commonest identified bacteria. Others were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus species. Intolerable irritations of hearing aid wearing ears were significantly associated with bacterial and fungal otitis externa, and ear discharge (P = 0.005, 0.02, 0.03 respectively). Conclusions : This study demonstrates that using hearing aid alters the ear canal flora; increases risk of both fungal and bacterial otitis externa, as well as encourage wax debris formation, with resultant ear irritations. To ensure compliance their ears should periodically be attended to, by de-waxing or given topical antimicrobial agents where indicated.

  7. Training Aide: Research and Guidance for Effective Training User Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    task difficulty sequencing, error prevention, scaffolding , learner control, and exploratory learning), as well as factors that moderate their...Effectiveness, Training Methods, Graphical User Interface, Part Task Training, Scaffolding , Transfer of Training SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF 19...58 Scaffolding

  8. Global factors shaping the future of food aid: the implications for WFP.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Daniel

    2007-03-01

    Food aid is a key component of a humanitarian response but its use in other programming contexts is subject to numerous criticisms. Even in humanitarian emergencies food aid is often late, unreliable and out of proportion to other elements of the response. Three major factors will shape the future of food aid. First, mechanisms of food aid governance are being reviewed and may undergo major changes--particularly the Food Aid Convention now that hopes have diminished for an Agreement on Agriculture at the World Trade Organisation. The second significant factor is donor agency trends. Overall levels of food aid have dropped fairly steadily in recent decades and there are several discernible trends in resource allocation, procurement and the use of food aid. The third factor is an emerging body of best practice that will define acceptable standards of food aid programming in the future.

  9. Users' experience of a cochlear implant combined with a hearing aid.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth Mary; Séguin, Christiane; Schramm, David; Chenier, Josée; Armstrong, Shelly

    2009-04-01

    This study examined: (1) the prevalence of hearing-aid use in a clinical population of adults with unilateral cochlear implants, (2) the relationship between hearing-aid use, severity of hearing loss, duration of deafness and duration of cochlear implant use, and (3) the benefits of bimodal hearing from the users' perspective. Using a retrospective design, 31 adults were identified as bimodal users, and 93 adults implanted in the same period were identified as non hearing-aid users. The two groups were similar in regards to duration of deafness but differed in severity of hearing loss and time since implantation. Questionnaires examining frequency and situations of hearing-aid use were completed by 24 of 31 bimodal users. Fifteen of these 24 adults reported hearing-aid use more than 50% of the time. These findings suggest that, of the 72 adults in this study with useable hearing (pure-tone average better than 110 dB), about 30% or less regularly combined a hearing aid and cochlear implant. The questionnaire results suggest that regular bimodal users prefer bimodal hearing across a variety of listening environments such as music, noise, and reverberation.

  10. Second Generation Weather Impacts Decision Aid User’s Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Second Generation Weather Impacts Decision Aid User’s Manual by Jim Brandt, Leelinda Dawson, Jeffrey Johnson, David Marlin, Yasmina Raby...User’s Manual Jim Brandt, Leelinda Dawson, Jeffrey Johnson, David Marlin, Richard Shirkey, Jeffrey Swanson, Richard Szymber, and Subing Zeng...AUTHOR(S) by Jim Brandt, Leelinda Dawson, Jeffrey Johnson, David Marlin, Yasmina Raby,* Richard Shirkey, Jeffrey Swanson, Richard Szymber, and

  11. 77 FR 20353 - United States Warehouse Act; Export Food Aid Commodities Licensing Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency United States Warehouse Act; Export Food Aid Commodities.... SUMMARY: This notice specifies the fee schedule for the new Export Food Aid Commodities (EFAC) licensing... developed in response to concerns of export food aid providers; specifically, the sanitation and security of...

  12. Frequent food insecurity among injection drug users: correlates and concerns

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Food insecurity and nutrition are two topics that are under-researched among injection drug users (IDUs). Our study examined the extent and correlates of food insecurity among a sample of IDUs and explored whether there is an association between food insecurity and injection-related HIV risk. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Data were collected at a needle exchange program in London, Ontario, Canada between September 2006 and January 2007. Participants included 144 English-speaking IDUs who had injected drugs in the past 30 days. Participants were asked about their socio-demographic characteristics, HIV risk behaviours, food insecurity, and health/social service use. Results In the past 6 months, 54.5% of participants reported that on a daily/weekly basis they did not have enough to eat because of a lack of money, while 22.1% reported this type of food insecurity on a monthly basis. Moreover, 60.4% and 24.3% reported that they did not eat the quality or quantity of food they wanted on a daily/weekly or a monthly basis, respectively. Participants reported re-using someone else’s injection equipment: 21% re-used a needle, 19% re-used water, and 37.3% re-used a cooker. The odds of sharing injection equipment were increased for food insecure individuals. Conclusions Findings show that IDUs have frequent and variable experiences of food insecurity and these experiences are strongly correlated with sharing of injection-related equipment. Such behaviours may increase the likelihood of HIV and HCV transmission in this population. Addressing food-related needs among IDUs is urgently needed. PMID:23216869

  13. Advantages of binaural amplification to acceptable noise level of directional hearing aid users.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ja-Hee; Lee, Jae Hee; Lee, Ho-Ki

    2014-06-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine whether Acceptable Noise Levels (ANLs) would be lower (greater acceptance of noise) in binaural listening than in monaural listening condition and also whether meaningfulness of background speech noise would affect ANLs for directional microphone hearing aid users. In addition, any relationships between the individual binaural benefits on ANLs and the individuals' demographic information were investigated. Fourteen hearing aid users (mean age, 64 years) participated for experimental testing. For the ANL calculation, listeners' most comfortable listening levels and background noise level were measured. Using Korean ANL material, ANLs of all participants were evaluated under monaural and binaural amplification with a counterbalanced order. The ANLs were also compared across five types of competing speech noises, consisting of 1- through 8-talker background speech maskers. Seven young normal-hearing listeners (mean age, 27 years) participated for the same measurements as a pilot testing. The results demonstrated that directional hearing aid users accepted more noise (lower ANLs) with binaural amplification than with monaural amplification, regardless of the type of competing speech. When the background speech noise became more meaningful, hearing-impaired listeners accepted less amount of noise (higher ANLs), revealing that ANL is dependent on the intelligibility of the competing speech. The individuals' binaural advantages in ANLs were significantly greater for the listeners with longer experience of hearing aids, yet not related to their age or hearing thresholds. Binaural directional microphone processing allowed hearing aid users to accept a greater amount of background noise, which may in turn improve listeners' hearing aid success. Informational masking substantially influenced background noise acceptance. Given a significant association between ANLs and duration of hearing aid usage, ANL measurement can be useful for

  14. Advantages of Binaural Amplification to Acceptable Noise Level of Directional Hearing Aid Users

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ja-Hee; Lee, Ho-Ki

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The goal of the present study was to examine whether Acceptable Noise Levels (ANLs) would be lower (greater acceptance of noise) in binaural listening than in monaural listening condition and also whether meaningfulness of background speech noise would affect ANLs for directional microphone hearing aid users. In addition, any relationships between the individual binaural benefits on ANLs and the individuals' demographic information were investigated. Methods Fourteen hearing aid users (mean age, 64 years) participated for experimental testing. For the ANL calculation, listeners' most comfortable listening levels and background noise level were measured. Using Korean ANL material, ANLs of all participants were evaluated under monaural and binaural amplification with a counterbalanced order. The ANLs were also compared across five types of competing speech noises, consisting of 1- through 8-talker background speech maskers. Seven young normal-hearing listeners (mean age, 27 years) participated for the same measurements as a pilot testing. Results The results demonstrated that directional hearing aid users accepted more noise (lower ANLs) with binaural amplification than with monaural amplification, regardless of the type of competing speech. When the background speech noise became more meaningful, hearing-impaired listeners accepted less amount of noise (higher ANLs), revealing that ANL is dependent on the intelligibility of the competing speech. The individuals' binaural advantages in ANLs were significantly greater for the listeners with longer experience of hearing aids, yet not related to their age or hearing thresholds. Conclusion Binaural directional microphone processing allowed hearing aid users to accept a greater amount of background noise, which may in turn improve listeners' hearing aid success. Informational masking substantially influenced background noise acceptance. Given a significant association between ANLs and duration of hearing aid

  15. Food aid and food crisis in Sub-Saharan Africa: Statistical trends and implications*.

    PubMed

    Benson, C; Clay, E J

    1986-12-01

    This paper documents the rapid expansion and changes in food aid flows to Sub-Saharan Africa up to mid-1985. Trends for Sub-Saharan Africa as a whole and for the more seriously affected countries are examined, as are the comparative experiences of food aid of individual countries in the region. Table 11 lists the Sub-Saharan African countries and indicates the most seriously affected food-short countries, as defined by the WFP/FAO task force. It should be borne in mind that some practical problems exist in compiling data on food aid. These include lack of availability of reliable data, especially of most recent data; lack of common terminology and definitions; and different accounting systems. These data problems are sometimes a source of confusion. However, the basic facts are clear: food aid gradually emerged during the early 1980s as a resource too often of considerable significance to many countries of Sub-Saharan Africa. These trends were only accelerated with the crisis of 1984-1985. These facts provide a point of reference for further analysis of the sources of the crisis, its actual dimensions and consequences.

  16. Information Retention and Overload in First-Time Hearing Aid Users: An Interactive Multimedia Educational Solution.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Melanie; Brandreth, Marian; Brassington, William; Wharrad, Heather

    2015-09-01

    An educational intervention to improve knowledge of hearing aids and communication in first-time hearing aid users was assessed. This intervention was based on the concept of reusable learning objects (RLOs). A randomized controlled trial was conducted. One group received the educational intervention, and the other acted as a control group. RLOs were delivered online and through DVD for television and personal computer. Knowledge of both practical and psychosocial aspects of hearing aids and communication was assessed using a free-recall method 6 weeks postfitting. Knowledge of both practical and psychosocial issues was significantly higher in the group that received the RLOs than in the control group. Moderate to large effect sizes indicated that these differences were clinically significant. An educational intervention that supplements clinical practice results in improved knowledge in first-time hearing aid users.

  17. Web-based auditory self-training system for adult and elderly users of hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Vitti, Simone Virginia; Blasca, Wanderléia Quinhoneiro; Sigulem, Daniel; Torres Pisa, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Adults and elderly users of hearing aids suffer psychosocial reactions as a result of hearing loss. Auditory rehabilitation is typically carried out with support from a speech therapist, usually in a clinical center. For these cases, there is a lack of computer-based self-training tools for minimizing the psychosocial impact of hearing deficiency. To develop and evaluate a web-based auditory self-training system for adult and elderly users of hearing aids. Two modules were developed for the web system: an information module based on guidelines for using hearing aids; and an auditory training module presenting a sequence of training exercises for auditory abilities along the lines of the auditory skill steps within auditory processing. We built aweb system using PHP programming language and a MySQL database .from requirements surveyed through focus groups that were conducted by healthcare information technology experts. The web system was evaluated by speech therapists and hearing aid users. An initial sample of 150 patients at DSA/HRAC/USP was defined to apply the system with the inclusion criteria that: the individuals should be over the age of 25 years, presently have hearing impairment, be a hearing aid user, have a computer and have internet experience. They were divided into two groups: a control group (G1) and an experimental group (G2). These patients were evaluated clinically using the HHIE for adults and HHIA for elderly people, before and after system implementation. A third web group was formed with users who were invited through social networks for their opinions on using the system. A questionnaire evaluating hearing complaints was given to all three groups. The study hypothesis considered that G2 would present greater auditory perception, higher satisfaction and fewer complaints than G1 after the auditory training. It was expected that G3 would have fewer complaints regarding use and acceptance of the system. The web system, which was named Sis

  18. The Impact of Food Assistance on Dietary Diversity and Food Consumption among People Living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Tirivayi, Nyasha; Groot, Wim

    2016-12-15

    Little is known about the outcomes of food assistance targeted to food insecure people living with HIV/AIDS. Using primary data from Zambia, we estimated the impact of food assistance on the dietary diversity and consumption expenditures of households with HIV infected members receiving antiretroviral therapy. Propensity score matching estimates show that food assistance increased dietary diversity by 9.8 points (23%) mainly through the consumption of food items provided in the ration. Food assistance recipients were 20% points more likely to have acceptable food consumption and 15% points less likely to have poor food consumption than non-recipients. Food assistance also increased food consumption expenditures but had no significant impact on food purchases and total consumption expenditures. Overall, our findings demonstrate that food assistance can be an effective instrument for improving diets and enhancing the food security of people living with HIV/AIDS.

  19. Communication abilities of children with aided residual hearing: comparison with cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Laurie S; Kirk, Karen Iler; Martinez, Amy Schaefer; Ying, Elizabeth A; Miyamoto, Richard T

    2004-05-01

    To compare the communication outcomes between children with aided residual hearing and children with cochlear implants. Measures of speech recognition and language were administered to pediatric hearing aid users and cochlear implant users followed up longitudinally as part of an ongoing investigation on cochlear implant outcomes. The speech recognition measures included the Lexical Neighborhood Test, Phonetically Balanced-Kindergarten Word Lists, and the Hearing in Noise Test for Children presented in quiet and noise (+5 dB signal-to-noise ratio). Language measures included the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test: Third Edition (PPVT-III), the Reynell Developmental Language Scales, and the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Revised. Subjects The experimental group was composed of 39 pediatric hearing aid users with a mean unaided pure-tone average threshold of 78.2 dB HL (hearing level). The comparison group was composed of 117 pediatric cochlear implant users with a mean unaided pure-tone average threshold of 110.2 dB HL. On average, both groups lost their hearing at younger than 1 year and were fitted with their respective sensory aids at 2 to 2.6 years of age. Not every child was administered every test for a variety of reasons. Between-group performance was equivalent on most speech recognition and language measures. The primary difference found between groups was on the PPVT-III, in which the hearing aid group had a significantly higher receptive vocabulary language quotient than the cochlear implant group. Notably, the cochlear implant group was substantially younger than the hearing aid group and had less experience with their sensory devices on this measure. Data obtained from children with aided residual hearing can be useful in determining cochlear implant candidacy.

  20. Relationship between Speech Perception and Level of Satisfaction of Hearing Aid Users

    PubMed Central

    Mantello, Erika Barioni; Silva, Carla Dias da; Massuda, Eduardo Tanaka; Hyppolito, Miguel Angelo; Reis, Ana Cláudia Mirândola Barbosa dos

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hearing difficulties can be minimized by the use of hearing aids. Objective The objective of this study is to assess the speech perception and satisfaction of hearing aids users before and after aid adaptation and to determine whether these measures are correlated. Methods The study was conducted on 65 individuals, 54% females and 46% males aged 63 years on average, after the systematic use of hearing aids for at least three months. We characterized subjectś personal identification data, the degree, and configuration of hearing loss, as well as aspects related to adaptation. We then applied a satisfaction questionnaire and a speech perception test (words and sentences), with and without the use of the hearing aids. Results Mean speech recognition with words and sentences was 69% and 79%, respectively, with hearing aids use; whereas, without hearing aids use the figures were 43% and 53%. Mean questionnaire score was 30.1 points. Regarding hearing loss characteristics, 78.5% of the subjects had a sensorineural loss, 20% a mixed loss, and 1.5% a conductive loss. Hearing loss of moderate degree was present in 60.5% of cases, loss of descending configuration in 47%, and plain loss in 37.5%. There was no correlation between individual satisfaction and the percentages of the speech perception tests applied. Conclusion Word and sentence recognition was significantly better with the use of the hearing aids. The users showed a high degree of satisfaction. In the present study, there was no correlation observed between the levels of speech perception and levels of user satisfaction measured with the questionnaire. PMID:27746833

  1. Knowledge of AIDS and HIV transmission among drug users in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Proper knowledge of HIV transmission is not enough for people to adopt protective behaviors, but deficits in this information may increase HIV/AIDS vulnerability. Objective To assess drug users' knowledge of HIV/AIDS and the possible association between knowledge and HIV testing. Methods A Cross-sectional study conducted in 2006/7 with a convenience sample of 295 illicit drug users in Rio de Janeiro, assessing knowledge on AIDS/HIV transmission and its relationship with HIV testing. Information from 108 randomly selected drug users who received an educational intervention using cards illustrating situations potentially associated with HIV transmission were assessed using Multidimensional Scaling (MDS). Results Almost 40% of drug users reported having never used condoms and more than 60% reported not using condoms under the influence of substances. Most drug users (80.6%) correctly answered that condoms make sex safer, but incorrect beliefs are still common (e.g. nearly 44% believed HIV can be transmitted through saliva and 55% reported that HIV infection can be transmitted by sharing toothbrushes), with significant differences between drug users who had and who had not been tested for HIV. MDS showed queries on vaginal/anal sex and sharing syringes/needles were classified in the same set as effective modes of HIV transmission. The event that was further away from this core of properly perceived risks referred to blood donation, perceived as risky. Other items were found to be dispersed, suggesting inchoate beliefs on transmission modes. Conclusions Drug users have an increased HIV infection vulnerability compared to the general population, this specific population expressed relevant doubts about HIV transmission, as well as high levels of risky behavior. Moreover, the findings suggest that possessing inaccurate HIV/AIDS knowledge may be a barrier to timely HIV testing. Interventions should be tailored to such specific characteristics. PMID:21324119

  2. Comparison of three procedures for initial fitting of compression hearing aids. III. Inexperienced versus experienced users.

    PubMed

    Marriage, Josephine; Moore, Brian C J; Alcántara, José I

    2004-04-01

    We assessed whether gain requirements differ for experienced users and new users when fitted with multi-band compression hearing aids Three procedures for initial fitting were used: the Cambridge method for loudness equalization (CAMEQ), the Cambridge method for loudness restoration (CAMREST), and the desired sensation level input/output (DSL[i/o]) method. Twenty experienced hearing aid users and 20 new users with mild-to-severe sensorineural loss were fitted with Danalogic 163D digital hearing aids, using each procedure in turn in a counter-balanced order. The new users were given a pre-fitting with slightly reduced gains prior to the 'formal' fitting. Immediately after formal fitting with a given procedure, and 1 week after fitting, the gains were adjusted by the minimum amount necessary to achieve acceptable fittings. The amount of adjustment required provided the main measure of the adequacy of the initial fitting. On average, new users required decreases in gain for all procedures, the decreases being larger for DSL[i/o] than for CAMEQ or CAMREST. For experienced users, gain adjustments were small for CAMEQ and CAMREST, but were larger and mostly negative for DSL[i/o]. After these gain adjustments, users wore the aids for at least 3 weeks before filling out the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB) questionnaire and taking part in laboratory measurements of the speech reception threshold (SRT) for sentences in quiet and in steady and fluctuating background noise at levels of 60 and 75 dBSPL. The scores on the APHAB test and the SRTs did not differ significantly for the three procedures. We conclude that the CAMEQ and CAMREST procedures provide more appropriate initial fittings than DSL[i/o]. For inexperienced users, gains typically need to be reduced by about 3dB relative to those prescribed by CAMEQ or CAMREST, although the amount of reduction may depend on hearing loss. An analysis of gain adjustments as a function of order of testing provided

  3. Searching Databases without Query-Building Aids: Implications for Dyslexic Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berget, Gerd; Sandnes, Frode Eika

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Few studies document the information searching behaviour of users with cognitive impairments. This paper therefore addresses the effect of dyslexia on information searching in a database with no tolerance for spelling errors and no query-building aids. The purpose was to identify effective search interface design guidelines that…

  4. Re-Imagining Archival Display: Creating User-Friendly Finding Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daines, J. Gordon, III; Nimer, Cory L.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines how finding aids are structured and delivered, considering alternative approaches. It suggests that single-level displays, those that present a single component of a multilevel description to users at a time, have the potential to transform the delivery and display of collection information while improving the user…

  5. AIDS knowledge and attitudes among injection drug users: the issue of reliability.

    PubMed

    Longshore, D; Hsieh, S C; Anglin, M D

    1992-01-01

    Among injection drug users (IDUs), AIDS-related knowledge and attitudes have not consistently predicted AIDS risk behavior. This may be due in part to the limited reliability of indexes used to measure drug users' AIDS knowledge and attitudes. In addition, the substantive interpretation of findings is confounded if index reliability is lower for particular demographic groups (e.g., ethnic populations and women). This report is based on 8 measures of AIDS-related knowledge and attitudes in a sample of 332 injection drug users in Los Angeles. The reliability of knowledge and attitude indexes for the overall sample is generally acceptable for the purpose of group comparison (average alpha = .60). But reliability is consistently lower for respondents who are Hispanic (average alpha = .49) and respondents with less formal education (alpha = .56). The reliability of 2 measures of sex-related attitudes is lower for female respondents. It is therefore important that the reliability of knowledge and attitude indexes be assessed not just for drug-user samples as a whole, but also within demographic groups of substantive interest.

  6. Assessing speech recognition abilities with digits in noise in cochlear implant and hearing aid users.

    PubMed

    Kaandorp, Marre W; Smits, Cas; Merkus, Paul; Goverts, S Theo; Festen, Joost M

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of the study was to investigate the feasibility, reliability, and validity of the Dutch digits in noise (DIN) test for measuring speech recognition in hearing aid and cochlear implant users and compare results to the standard sentences-in-noise (SIN) test. The relation between speech reception thresholds for DIN test and SIN test was analysed to determine the validity of the DIN test. As linguistic skills were expected to make different contributions in these tests, their influence was analysed. Participants were 12 normal-hearing listeners, 24 hearing aid users, and 24 cochlear implant users. The DIN test was feasible for more participants than the SIN test. Intraclass correlation coefficients showed high reliability. The standard error of measurement was smaller for the DIN test than for the SIN test. DIN test and SIN test were highly correlated (r = 0.95 and r = 0.56 for NH+ HA and CI users respectively). In the regression analysis no significant contribution of basic linguistic skills or personal factors was found. In the assessment of speech recognition in noise of aided hearing-impaired listeners with hearing aids or cochlear implants, the DIN test is a feasible, reliable and valid test.

  7. Re-Imagining Archival Display: Creating User-Friendly Finding Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daines, J. Gordon, III; Nimer, Cory L.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines how finding aids are structured and delivered, considering alternative approaches. It suggests that single-level displays, those that present a single component of a multilevel description to users at a time, have the potential to transform the delivery and display of collection information while improving the user…

  8. Motivational engagement in first-time hearing aid users: A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Melanie; Maidment, David; Russell, Naomi; Gregory, Melanie; Nicholson, Richard

    2016-07-01

    To assess (1) the feasibility of incorporating the Ida Institute's Motivation Tools into a UK audiology service, (2) the potential benefits of motivational engagement in first-time hearing aid users, and (3) predictors of hearing aid and general health outcome measures. A feasibility study using a single-centre, prospective, quasi-randomized controlled design with two arms. The Ida Institute's Motivation Tools formed the basis for motivational engagement. First-time hearing aid users were recruited at the initial hearing assessment appointment. The intervention arm underwent motivational engagement (M+, n = 32), and a control arm (M-, n = 36) received standard care only. The M+ group showed greater self-efficacy, reduced anxiety, and greater engagement with the audiologist at assessment and fitting appointments. However, there were no significant between-group differences 10-weeks post-fitting. Hearing-related communication scores predicted anxiety, and social isolation scores predicted depression for the M+ group. Readiness to address hearing difficulties predicted hearing aid outcomes for the M- group. Hearing sensitivity was not a predictor of outcomes. There were some positive results from motivational engagement early in the patient journey. Future research should consider using qualitative methods to explore whether there are longer-term benefits of motivational engagement in hearing aid users.

  9. 75 FR 38073 - Information Collection; Commodity Request (Food Aid Request Entry System (FARES))

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Farm Service Agency Information Collection; Commodity Request (Food Aid Request... individuals and organizations on an extension of a currently approved information collection for the Food Aid Request Entry System (FARES). FSA and CCC procure various processed foods and commodities to be exported...

  10. Social capital, social support, and food insecurity in food pantry users.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Surbhi; Falciglia, Grace A; Lee, Seung-Yeon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between food security, social capital, and social support among urban food pantry users in Cincinnati. In-person interviews with 53 participants were completed using the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module, Social Capital questionnaire, and Social Support questionnaire. Social capital was assessed through four subscales using a Likert scale, with a response range 1 to 4, and social support was measured by rating significant others' emotional, informational, and instrumental support as well as companionship (ranged from 0 to 4). The findings suggested that there were no significant associations among them. This may be due to a small sample size. Thus, the associations need to be examined with a larger sample. Further, a qualitative approach may be necessary to explore the contextual nature of social capital and social support related to food security.

  11. DeMAID/GA USER'S GUIDE Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition with a Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L.

    1996-01-01

    Many companies are looking for new tools and techniques to aid a design manager in making decisions that can reduce the time and cost of a design cycle. One tool that is available to aid in this decision making process is the Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition (DeMAID). Since the initial release of DEMAID in 1989, numerous enhancements have been added to aid the design manager in saving both cost and time in a design cycle. The key enhancement is a genetic algorithm (GA) and the enhanced version is called DeMAID/GA. The GA orders the sequence of design processes to minimize the cost and time to converge to a solution. These enhancements as well as the existing features of the original version of DEMAID are described. Two sample problems are used to show how these enhancements can be applied to improve the design cycle. This report serves as a user's guide for DeMAID/GA.

  12. User-centered design and the development of patient decision aids: protocol for a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Witteman, Holly O; Dansokho, Selma Chipenda; Colquhoun, Heather; Coulter, Angela; Dugas, Michèle; Fagerlin, Angela; Giguere, Anik Mc; Glouberman, Sholom; Haslett, Lynne; Hoffman, Aubri; Ivers, Noah; Légaré, France; Légaré, Jean; Levin, Carrie; Lopez, Karli; Montori, Victor M; Provencher, Thierry; Renaud, Jean-Sébastien; Sparling, Kerri; Stacey, Dawn; Vaisson, Gratianne; Volk, Robert J; Witteman, William

    2015-01-26

    Providing patient-centered care requires that patients partner in their personal health-care decisions to the full extent desired. Patient decision aids facilitate processes of shared decision-making between patients and their clinicians by presenting relevant scientific information in balanced, understandable ways, helping clarify patients' goals, and guiding decision-making processes. Although international standards stipulate that patients and clinicians should be involved in decision aid development, little is known about how such involvement currently occurs, let alone best practices. This systematic review consisting of three interlinked subreviews seeks to describe current practices of user involvement in the development of patient decision aids, compare these to practices of user-centered design, and identify promising strategies. A research team that includes patient and clinician representatives, decision aid developers, and systematic review method experts will guide this review according to the Cochrane Handbook and PRISMA reporting guidelines. A medical librarian will hand search key references and use a peer-reviewed search strategy to search MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, the ACM library, IEEE Xplore, and Google Scholar. We will identify articles across all languages and years describing the development or evaluation of a patient decision aid, or the application of user-centered design or human-centered design to tools intended for patient use. Two independent reviewers will assess article eligibility and extract data into a matrix using a structured pilot-tested form based on a conceptual framework of user-centered design. We will synthesize evidence to describe how research teams have included users in their development process and compare these practices to user-centered design methods. If data permit, we will develop a measure of the user-centeredness of development processes and identify practices that are likely

  13. Using cohort studies to estimate mortality among injecting drug users that is not attributable to AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Degenhardt, L; Hall, W; Warner‐Smith, M

    2006-01-01

    Background Injecting drug use (IDU) and associated mortality appear to be increasing in many parts of the world. IDU is an important factor in HIV transmission. In estimating AIDS mortality attributable to IDU, it is important to take account of premature mortality rates from other causes to ensure that AIDS related mortality among injecting drug users (IDUs) is not overestimated. The current review provides estimates of the excess non‐AIDS mortality among IDUs. Method Searches were conducted with Medline, PsycINFO, and the Web of Science. The authors also searched reference lists of identified papers and an earlier literature review by English et al (1995). Crude mortality rates (CMRs) were derived from data on the number of deaths, period of follow up, and number of participants. In estimating the all‐cause mortality, two rates were calculated: one that included all cohort studies identified in the search, and one that only included studies that reported on AIDS deaths in their cohort. This provided lower and upper mortality rates, respectively. Results The current paper derived weighted mortality rates based upon cohort studies that included 179 885 participants, 1 219 422 person‐years of observation, and 16 593 deaths. The weighted crude AIDS mortality rate from studies that reported AIDS deaths was approximately 0.78% per annum. The median estimated non‐AIDS mortality rate was 1.08% per annum. Conclusions Illicit drug users have a greatly increased risk of premature death and mortality due to AIDS forms a significant part of that increased risk; it is, however, only part of that risk. Future work needs to examine mortality rates among IDUs in developing countries, and collect data on the relation between HIV and increased mortality due to all causes among this group. PMID:16735295

  14. The impact of a school food aid program on household food insecurity

    PubMed Central

    Petralias, Athanassios; Papadimitriou, Eleni; Riza, Elena; Karagas, Margaret R.; Zagouras, Alexia B.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We had a unique opportunity to establish the extent of food insecurity and the potential impact of a large-scale school-based nutritional program, in low-socioeconomic status districts of Greece, during the current economic crisis. Methods: Around 162 schools with 25 349 students participated during the 2012–2013 school year. Each student received a daily healthy meal designed by nutrition specialists. Food insecurity levels, measured using the Food Security Survey Module were assessed at baseline and after a 1–8-month intervention period. Pre–post intervention responses were matched at an individual level. Results: Around 64.2% of children’s households experienced food insecurity at baseline. This percentage decreased to 59.1% post-intervention, P < 0.001. On an individual level, food insecurity score diminished by 6.5%, P < 0.001. After adjustment for various socioeconomic factors, for each additional month of participation, the odds of reducing the food insecurity score increased by 6.3% (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02–1.11). Those experiencing food insecurity with hunger at baseline were more likely to improve food insecurity score than those who did not (OR = 3.51, 95%CI: 2.92–4.21). Conclusion: Children and families residing in low socioeconomic areas of Greece, experience high levels of food insecurity. Our findings suggest that participation in a school-based food aid program may reduce food insecurity for children and their families in a developed country in times of economic hardship. PMID:26873860

  15. Full time directional versus user selectable microphone modes in hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Ricketts, Todd; Henry, Paula; Gnewikow, David

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to systematically examine hearing aid benefit as measured by speech recognition and self-assessment methods across omnidirectional and directional hearing aid modes. These data were used to compare directional benefit as measured by speech recognition in the laboratory to hearing aid wearer's perceptions of benefit in everyday environments across full-time directional, full-time omnidirectional, and user selectable directional fittings. Identification of possible listening situations that resulted in different self reported hearing aid benefit as a function of microphone type was a secondary objective of this experiment. Fifteen adults with symmetrical, sloping sensorineural hearing loss were fitted bilaterally with in-the-ear (ITE) directional hearing aids. Measures of hearing aid benefit included the Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (PHAB), the Connected Sentence Test (CST), the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT), and a daily use log. Additionally, two new subscales were developed for administration with the PHAB. These subscales were developed to specifically address situations in which directional hearing aids may provide different degrees of benefit than omnidirectional hearing aids. Participants completed these measures in three conditions: omnidirectional only (O), directional only with low-frequency gain compensation (D), and user-selectable directional/omnidirectional (DO). Results from the speech intelligibility in noise testing indicated significantly more hearing aid benefit in directional modes than omnidirectional. PHAB results indicated more benefit on the background noise subscale (BN) in the DO condition than in the O condition; however, this directional advantage was not present for the D condition. Although the reliability of the newly proposed subscales is as yet unknown, the data were interpreted as revealing a directional advantage in situations where the signal of interest was in front of the participant and a

  16. Dichotic Hearing in Elderly Hearing Aid Users Who Choose to Use a Single-Ear Device

    PubMed Central

    Ribas, Angela; Mafra, Nicoli; Marques, Jair; Mottecy, Carla; Silvestre, Renata; Kozlowski, Lorena

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Elderly individuals with bilateral hearing loss often do not use hearing aids in both ears. Because of this, dichotic tests to assess hearing in this group may help identify peculiar degenerative processes of aging and hearing aid selection. Objective To evaluate dichotic hearing for a group of elderly hearing aid users who did not adapt to using binaural devices and to verify the correlation between ear dominance and the side chosen to use the device. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study involving 30 subjects from 60 to 81 years old, of both genders, with an indication for bilateral hearing aids for over 6 months, but using only a single device. Medical history, pure tone audiometry, and dichotic listening tests were all completed. Results All subjects (100%) of the sample failed the dichotic digit test; 94% of the sample preferred to use the device in one ear because bilateral use bothered them and affected speech understanding. In 6%, the concern was aesthetics. In the dichotic digit test, there was significant predominance of the right ear over the left, and there was a significant correlation between the dominant side with the ear chosen by the participant for use of the hearing aid. Conclusion In elderly subjects with bilateral hearing loss who have chosen to use only one hearing aid, there is dominance of the right ear over the left in dichotic listening tasks. There is a correlation between the dominant ear and the ear chosen for hearing aid fitting. PMID:25992120

  17. After the famine: food aid policy and management issues in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Stephens, T W

    1986-08-01

    The large amount of food aid that was required to meet Africa's emergency food situation resulted in the postponement of some fundamental decisions that were being taken about food aid use in sub-Saharan Africa. Now the donor community and recipient governments are again giving priority to integrating food aid with other available resources in order to meet longer-term food policy and wider development objectives. This paper looks at some of the policy and management issues which need to be addressed if the effectiveness of food aid assistance is to be improved in the current African context. Shortages of locally qualified personnel to administer project food aid have proven to be a major bottleneck in most sub-Saharan countries. Most sub-Saharan states receive food aid from a variety of sources: multilateral, bilateral and a few private-voluntary organizations. As a result, countervailing priorities are set by the donors themselves and give rise to conflicts. The recent drought and famine conditions have compounded an image problem in which food aid is narrowly identified by recipient governments as a project resource to be used primarily for nutrition interventions and for the rural sector. The image problem often limits project selection and overlooks innovative uses of food aid. Many sub-Saharan countries are starting to acquire considerable amounts of counterpart funds from program food aid. However, their use is not coherently integrated with the total aid flow. Multi-year programming has emerged as a management issue which has unnecessarily divided the food aid donor community. The fundamental issue is flexibility in programming, not multi-year programming. The major policy objective now facing the food aid donor community and recipient countries is how to lower emergency allocations while simultaneously increasing project and program aid. Most nonfood-aid donor agencies and their constituent bodies do not treat food aid as a valid economic resource, thereby

  18. Contrasting benefits from contralateral implants and hearing aids in cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    van Hoesel, Richard J M

    2012-06-01

    In recent years a substantial number of studies have reported results from cochlear implant users who increasingly are being fitted with a contralateral hearing aid or second implant. Often outcomes are discussed in relation to the benefits available to listeners with normal hearing in both ears. The objective of this paper is to consider the available cues that are degraded in different ways when a cochlear implant is combined with a contralateral hearing aid or second implant, and to review the literature in that context. It is found that the data largely confirm the expectations that arise from those considerations, and that outcomes differ substantially for the two types of listeners, with a greater emphasis on better ear selection and comparison of information at the two ears for bilateral implant users, and conversely, on the complementary use of information from the two ears in bimodal listeners. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 75 FR 46909 - Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding Assessments Focused on Improving Food Aid and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... National Institute of Food and Agriculture Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding Assessments Focused on Improving Food Aid and Providing Safe Water AGENCY: National Institute of Food and Agriculture, USDA. ACTION: Notice; request for public comment. SUMMARY: The National Institute of Food and...

  20. Confronting the AIDS epidemic among i.v. drug users: does ethnic culture matter?

    PubMed

    Singer, M

    1991-01-01

    The AIDS education and prevention literature contains numerous calls for the development of culturally relevant efforts to reach members of ethnic minority populations. In the AIDS literature on IV drug users (IVDUs), however, this issue finds less emphasis despite the disproportionate rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in minority IVDUs. The reason appears to be the sense in the drug field that the primary culture of the IVDU is drug culture rather than ethnic culture. This paper explores this issue in light of a review of recent research on IVDUs, ethnicity, and AIDS risk behavior. Specifically, this review covers literature on 6 topics in light of ethnic differences: changing patterns of IV drug use prevalence, AIDS prevalence among IVDUs, needle-related AIDS risk, polydrug use, sexual risk among IVDUs, and the drug subculture. Finding that ethnic culture does matter in infection patterns and risk behavior, this paper examines a typology for the analysis of discontinuities in intercultural communication and presents a framework for comparing alternative models for overcoming cultural barriers to effective AIDS education with IVDUs.

  1. Is normal or less than normal overall loudness preferred by first-time hearing aid users?

    PubMed

    Smeds, Karolina

    2004-04-01

    Most prescriptive methods for nonlinear, wide dynamic range compression (WDRC) hearing aids are based on the assumption that a hearing-impaired listener should perceive amplified sounds at the same overall loudness as would a normal-hearing listener without amplification. However, some previous research on linear amplification has indicated that subjects prefer less overall gain than prescribed by the most commonly used prescriptive method for linear hearing aids, NAL-R, a method that gives close to normal overall loudness for a mid-level input. The current study aims at comparing two prescriptive methods for WDRC hearing aids. The methods differ in the overall loudness they aim to give the hearing aid user. One method, called NormLoudn, is based on a generic method that prescribes gain so that the overall loudness is restored to normal. Another method, called LessLoudn, is based on a hearing aid specific prescription, and gives the hearing aid user less than normal overall loudness. Do first-time hearing aid users prefer the method that restores overall loudness to normal or the method that gives less than normal overall loudness? Twenty-one first-time hearing aid users with typical hearing losses for this group of clients participated in a crossover blinded field study where the two fitting methods were compared using a multi-programmable hearing aid, Danalogic 163D. Preference in the field was evaluated using interview, questionnaire, and diary. The field test was accompanied by laboratory tests, which included paired comparison judgments of preference and loudness and a speech recognition test. Loudness calculations were also used when interpreting the results, and a theoretical comparison with other prescriptive methods for WDRC hearing aids was made. After necessary adjustments, the measured gain for the two methods was similar in gain-frequency shape, but NormLoudn gave more overall gain than LessLoudn. Generally, NormLoudn fittings led to calculated overall

  2. Rehabilitative online education versus internet discussion group for hearing aid users: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Thorén, Elisabet; Svensson, Monica; Törnqvist, Anna; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per; Lunner, Thomas

    2011-05-01

    By using the Internet in the audiological rehabilitation process, it might be possible in a cost-effective way to include additional rehabilitation components by informing and guiding hearing aid users about such topics as communication strategies, hearing tactics, and how to handle hearing aids. To evaluate the effectiveness of an online education program for adult experienced hearing aid users including professional guidance by an audiologist and compare it with the effects of participation in an online discussion forum without any professional contact. A randomized controlled study with two groups of participants. Repeated measures at prestudy, immediate follow-up, and a 6 mo follow-up. Fifty-nine experienced hearing aid users participated in the study, ranging in age from 24 to 84 yr (mean 63.5 yr). The intervention group (N = 29) underwent a five-week rehabilitative online education in which activities for each week included information, tasks, and assignments, and contact with a professional audiologist was included. The participants in the control group (N = 30) were referred to an online discussion forum without any audiologist contact. A set of questionnaires administered online were used as outcome measures: (1) Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly, (2) International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids, (3) Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life, and (4) Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Significant improvements measured by the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly were found in both groups of participants, and the effects were maintained at the 6 mo follow-up. The results on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale showed that the participants in the intervention group showed reduced symptoms of depression immediately/6 mo after the intervention. At the 6 mo follow-up participants in the control group reported fewer symptoms of anxiety than they did before the intervention started. This study provides preliminary evidence that the

  3. Comparison of three procedures for initial fitting of compression hearing aids. II. Experienced users, fitted unilaterally.

    PubMed

    Alcántara, José I; Moore, Brian C J; Marriage, Josephine

    2004-01-01

    This paper is the second in a series comparing three procedures for the initial fitting of multichannel compression hearing aids. The first paper reported the results for a group of 10 experienced hearing aid users fitted bilaterally. This paper reports the results for a different group of 10 experienced hearing aid users fitted unilaterally. The three procedures were: (1) CAMEQ, which aims to amplify speech so as to give equal loudness per critical band over the frequency range 500-5000 Hz, and to give similar overall loudness to normal over a wide range of speech levels; (2) CAMREST, which aims to amplify speech so as to restore normal specific loudness patterns, over a wide range of speech levels; and (3) DSL [i/o], which aims to map the dynamic range of normal-hearing people into the reduced dynamic range of hearing-impaired people, with full restoration of audibility. Each subject was fitted with one Danalogic 163D digital hearing aid, using each of the three fitting procedures in turn; the order was counter-balanced across subjects. Prescribed insertion gains for 55 and 80 dB SPL input levels were verified using real-ear measurements. Immediately after fitting with a given procedure, and 1 week after fitting. the gains were adjusted, when required, by the minimum amount necessary to achieve acceptable fittings. On average, the adjustments were smallest for the CAMREST procedure, slightly larger for the CAMEQ procedure, and largest of all for DSL [i/o]. For the DSL [i/o] the gain changes were mostly negative, especially for high frequencies and the higher input level. After these gain adjustments, users wore the aids for at least 3 weeks before speech reception thresholds (SRTs) for sentences in quiet and in steady and fluctuating background noise were measured. The APHAB questionnaire was also administered. The hearing aids were then refitted with the next procedure. SRTs and APHAB scores did not differ significantly between the three procedures. We conclude

  4. Training experienced hearing-aid users to identify syllable-initial consonants in quiet and noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, James D.; Dalby, Jonathan M.; Watson, Charles S.; Burleson, Deborah F.

    2004-05-01

    Five experienced hearing-aid users with sensorineural hearing loss were given 14 h of intensive training identifying consonants in quiet and noise. Their performance was compared to that of five similar hearing-aid users with no special training. All listeners had moderate to severe hearing losses and had worn hearing aids for at least 1 year. All were pretested with a set of 20 consonants combined with three vowels /I,a,u/ as spoken by six different talkers. Pretests were conducted in quiet and in noise (multitalker babble) at moderate signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Training was conducted with eight target consonants (TCs). The TCs were in each listener's middle range of difficulty, and the three most common confusors for each target were individually selected, forming target sets of four consonants. Training was conducted in quiet and noise. During training, trial-by-trial feedback was given and, following an error, the listener could rapidly compare the intended syllable with its confusor. In noise, the SNR adapted to a criterion of 80 correct. There were no differences between training and control listeners on the pretests. After training, there was a significant 5% advantage for the trained listeners. Training generalized to talkers never heard during training. [Work supported by NIDCD.

  5. Adult hearing-aid users with cochlear dead regions restricted to high frequencies: Implications for amplification.

    PubMed

    Pepler, Anna; Lewis, Kathryn; Munro, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Cochlear dead regions (DR) are common in adult hearing-aid users, but are usually restricted to high frequencies. The aim was to determine the benefit of high-frequency amplification for ears with and without high-frequency DRs. Participants were fitted with the study hearing aid and tested under four conditions: unfiltered (NAL-NL2 prescription), and low-pass filtered at 1.5, 2, and 3 kHz. VCV stimuli were presented at 65 dB (A) in quiet and in 20-talker babble at a signal-to-babble ratio of 0 dB. Experienced adult hearing-aid users: one group of 18 with a DR edge frequency above 1.5 kHz, and a group of 18 matched controls. Overall performance was best in the unfiltered condition. There was no significant difference in mean performance between the two groups when tested in quiet. However, the DR group obtained less benefit from high-frequency amplification when tested in babble: the mean difference between the unfiltered and 3-kHz filtered condition was 6% and 13% for the DR group and controls, respectively. In adults with a moderate hearing loss and a restricted DR, speech recognition was always best in the unfiltered condition, although mean performance in babble was lower for the DR group.

  6. Effects of transient noise reduction algorithms on speech intelligibility and ratings of hearing aid users.

    PubMed

    DiGiovanni, Jeffrey J; Davlin, Erin A; Nagaraj, Naveen K

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the functional utility of transient noise reduction (TNR) algorithms available in hearing aids via speech intelligibility and user preferences. Two pairs of hearing aids, 1 pair each from Siemens and Unitron, were programmed for 17 hearing impaired individuals after a hearing evaluation. Intelligibility was measured for each participant for sentences presented in quiet, with 2 types of transient noise, multitalker babble, and in a combination of each type of transient noise and multitalker babble. Each condition was tested with TNR activated and TNR deactivated in a counterbalanced, single-blinded format. Subjective ratings of overall speech understanding, comfort, and sound quality were obtained for each condition. A significant improvement in speech intelligibility was measured with the TNR activated when speech was presented in multitalker babble, in the presence of chair clang transient noises, and when combining these noises. Activation of the TNR algorithm did not result in significant improvements for any of the subjective ratings. While improvements were limited to certain conditions, specifically those with the chair clang transient and/or multitalker babble, TNR appears to offer an incremental step in improving the listening experience for hearing aid users.

  7. Computer-aided fit testing: an approach for examining the user/equipment interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corner, Brian D.; Beecher, Robert M.; Paquette, Steven

    1997-03-01

    Developments in laser digitizing technology now make it possible to capture very accurate 3D images of the surface of the human body in less than 20 seconds. Applications for the images range from animation of movie characters to the design and visualization of clothing and individual equipment (CIE). In this paper we focus on modeling the user/equipment interface. Defining the relative geometry between user and equipment provides a better understanding of equipment performance, and can make the design cycle more efficient. Computer-aided fit testing (CAFT) is the application of graphical and statistical techniques to visualize and quantify the human/equipment interface in virtual space. In short, CAFT looks to measure the relative geometry between a user and his or her equipment. The design cycle changes with the introducing CAFT; now some evaluation may be done in the CAD environment prior to prototyping. CAFT may be applied in two general ways: (1) to aid in the creation of new equipment designs and (2) to evaluate current designs for compliance to performance specifications. We demonstrate the application of CAFT with two examples. First, we show how a prototype helmet may be evaluated for fit, and second we demonstrate how CAFT may be used to measure body armor coverage.

  8. Hearing aid users benefit from induction loop when using digital cellular phones.

    PubMed

    Sorri, Martti; Piiparinen, Peeta; Huttunen, Kerttu; Haho, Mikko; Tobey, Emily; Thibodeau, Linda; Buckley, Kristi

    2003-04-01

    Hearing aid users have recently been reported to experience problems with electromagnetic interference when using digital cellular phones. This study was undertaken to investigate the possible benefit of an induction loop system developed for use with some cellular phone models, and also to compare the possible benefit in two languages (Finnish and American English) as well as the benefit with two hearing aid technologies (analog versus digital). The study was performed in controlled laboratory conditions at two tertiary care hearing health care centers, one in Oulu, Finland and the other in Dallas, in the United States. The subjects were experienced users of behind-the-ear hearing aids and served as their own controls in three different listening conditions. Thirty-two eligible subjects (20 in Oulu and 12 in Dallas) participated in three test conditions: 1. call with a landline phone, 2. call with a digital cellular phone alone and 3. call with a digital cellular phone coupled to an induction loop. Sentence recognition scores and subjective judgments using a visual analog scale revealed the poorest results with the digital cellular phone alone. When the induction loop was used with the digital cellular phones, sentence recognition scores and the visual analog scale scores were comparable to the scores obtained with a landline phone. The mean sentence recognition score for analog hearing aids was 62.4% (95% confidence interval 50.2 to 74.6) with the landline phone, 12.6% (-1.6 to 26.9) with the digital cellular phone alone, and 63.3% (44.2 to 82.3) when using the digital cellular phone with the induction loop. For digital hearing aids, the sentence recognition scores were 62.4% (51.9 to 72.9), 37.4% (18.0 to 56.8) and 57.6% (39.0 to 76.2), respectively. There was no significant difference in performance between the two centers. However, when using the digital cellular phone alone, there was no drop in the sentence recognition scores with the few (N = 5) digital

  9. Relationship between Otolaryngologic Complaints and Systemic Comorbidities Observed in a Group of Hearing Aid Users

    PubMed Central

    Ribas, Angela; Silvestre, Renata; Mottecy, Carla Meller; Kozlowski, Lorena; Marques, Jair Mendes

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Optimization of the selection, adaptation, and benefit of hearing aids is necessary to characterize and manage hearing loss, user expectations, otolaryngologic symptoms, and systemic comorbidities. Objective To compare the occurrence of otologic complaints, systemic diseases, and effective use of hearing aids in men and women with deafness. Methods Patients from a Unified Health System–accredited hearing health service, who reported problems in adapting to their hearing aids, were evaluated by a physician and audiologist. An anamnesis, ENT evaluation, and audiological evaluation were performed. Results During the data collection period, 278 subjects came in for follow-up visits; of these, 61 (21%) reported otologic or operational problems with their equipment. The most prevalent type of hearing loss was basocochlear, a characteristic of presbycusis, in both men and women; the most frequently reported comorbidities were hypercholesterolemia (more significant in women) and hypertension (more significant in men). Fourteen subjects reported using their device discontinuously, with no significant difference between genders; the reasons for discontinuation of use were itching and ringing, with more complaints from women. Conclusion The incidence of systemic and audiological complaints is high in this population. These patients should be evaluated thoroughly, as resolutions of these complaints can contribute to improving the quality of life and assist in the process of hearing aid fitting. PMID:26157495

  10. An experiential program to reduce AIDS risk among female sex partners of injection-drug users.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, F; Wolitski, R J; Thornton-Johnson, S

    1992-11-01

    This article describes the development and implementation of an acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) intervention program for female sex partners of male injection-drug users. Four psychoeducational workshops were designed to motivate personal risk reduction, provide participants with necessary cognitive and behavioral skills, and enhance participants' perceived ability to enact positive changes in their lives. The development of the workshop modules was guided by traditional theories of health behavior change and social learning. Also included in the intervention are referral and advocacy services, personal risk reduction counseling, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody testing. Preliminary results indicate that the program has made a significant impact on the AIDS risk of participants--91 percent of women who completed the program reported that they had made positive changes in their lives to reduce their risk of HIV infection.

  11. Comparison of three procedures for initial fitting of compression hearing aids. I. Experienced users, fitted bilaterally.

    PubMed

    Moore, B C; Alcántara, J I; Marriage, J

    2001-12-01

    We compared the effectiveness of three procedures for the initial fitting of hearing aids with multi-band compression: (1) CAMEQ, which aims to amplify speech so as to give equal loudness per critical band over the frequency range important for speech intelligibility, and to give similar overall loudness to 'normal': (2) CAMREST, which aims to amplify speech so as to restore 'normal' specific loudness patterns, over a wide range of speech levels; (3) DSL I/O, which aims to map the dynamic range of normally hearing people into the reduced dynamic range of hearing-impaired people, with 'full' restoration of audibility. Ten experienced hearing aid users with moderate sensorineural loss were fitted bilaterally with Danalogic 163D digital hearing aids, using each procedure in turn; the order was counterbalanced across subjects. The fitting required specification of gains for input levels of 55 and 80 dB SPL at six centre frequencies. Real-ear measurements were made to ensure that target gains were reached (+/-3 dB). Immediately after fitting with a given procedure, and one week after fitting, the gains were adjusted when required by the minimum amount necessary to achieve acceptable fittings. The amount of adjustment required provides one measure of the adequacy of the initial fitting. On average, the adjustments were smallest for the CAMEQ procedure. The gain changes were slightly larger for the CAMREST procedure and were largest of all for DSL I/O. For the latter, the gain changes were mostly negative, especially for high frequencies and the higher input level. This indicates that the DSL I/O procedure prescribes more high-frequency gain than is preferred by adult users. After these gain adjustments, users wore the aids for at least three weeks before filling out the APHAB questionnaire and taking part in laboratory measurements of the speech reception threshold (SRT) for sentences in quiet and in steady and fluctuating background noise at levels of 60 and 75 dB SPL

  12. User acceptance of intelligent avionics: A study of automatic-aided target recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Curtis A.; Hayes, Brian C.; Gorman, Patrick C.

    1991-01-01

    User acceptance of new support systems typically was evaluated after the systems were specified, designed, and built. The current study attempts to assess user acceptance of an Automatic-Aided Target Recognition (ATR) system using an emulation of such a proposed system. The detection accuracy and false alarm level of the ATR system were varied systematically, and subjects rated the tactical value of systems exhibiting different performance levels. Both detection accuracy and false alarm level affected the subjects' ratings. The data from two experiments suggest a cut-off point in ATR performance below which the subjects saw little tactical value in the system. An ATR system seems to have obvious tactical value only if it functions at a correct detection rate of 0.7 or better with a false alarm level of 0.167 false alarms per square degree or fewer.

  13. User's manual: Computer-aided design programs for inductor-energy-storage dc-to-dc electronic power converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, S.

    1977-01-01

    Detailed instructions on the use of two computer-aided-design programs for designing the energy storage inductor for single winding and two winding dc to dc converters are provided. Step by step procedures are given to illustrate the formatting of user input data. The procedures are illustrated by eight sample design problems which include the user input and the computer program output.

  14. CYCLES OF POVERTY, FOOD INSECURITY, AND PSYCHOSOCIAL STRESS AMONG AIDS CARE VOLUNTEERS IN URBAN ETHIOPIA

    PubMed Central

    Maes, Kenneth; Shifferaw, Selamawit

    2013-01-01

    With the rollout of AIDS therapies, volunteer AIDS care has been promoted across Africa under the assumption that volunteerism is economically imperative in settings of health professional and resource scarcity. As low-income volunteers have become a major part of HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment workforces, it is imperative to question how poverty impacts their well-being. This chapter presents epidemiologic data collected during the 2008 food crisis from a sample of 110 AIDS care volunteers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, as well as narratives offered by HIV-positive volunteers, highlighting a widely overlooked way in which food insecurity and mental distress impact efforts to treat AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. Food insecurity and elevated common mental disorder (CMD) symptom loads were common and tightly linked among the volunteers in the sample. Volunteers who were HIV-positive (17 percent) fared slightly worse in terms of food insecurity and psychosocial well-being. However, positive HIV serostatus was not associated with CMD in multivariate analyses accounting for food insecurity. Narratives illustrate how being HIV-positive shaped experiences of psychosocial stress, which involved unemployment and lack of prospects for marital relationships or strife within them. Our focus demonstrates the potential for mixing ethnographic and epidemiological methods to inform policy questions regarding poverty-reduction through compensation for volunteers’ valuable labor, as well as AIDS care program sustainability. [volunteerism, AIDS care, food insecurity, livelihoods, HIV, psychosocial health] PMID:24077603

  15. CYCLES OF POVERTY, FOOD INSECURITY, AND PSYCHOSOCIAL STRESS AMONG AIDS CARE VOLUNTEERS IN URBAN ETHIOPIA.

    PubMed

    Maes, Kenneth; Shifferaw, Selamawit

    2011-05-01

    With the rollout of AIDS therapies, volunteer AIDS care has been promoted across Africa under the assumption that volunteerism is economically imperative in settings of health professional and resource scarcity. As low-income volunteers have become a major part of HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment workforces, it is imperative to question how poverty impacts their well-being. This chapter presents epidemiologic data collected during the 2008 food crisis from a sample of 110 AIDS care volunteers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, as well as narratives offered by HIV-positive volunteers, highlighting a widely overlooked way in which food insecurity and mental distress impact efforts to treat AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. Food insecurity and elevated common mental disorder (CMD) symptom loads were common and tightly linked among the volunteers in the sample. Volunteers who were HIV-positive (17 percent) fared slightly worse in terms of food insecurity and psychosocial well-being. However, positive HIV serostatus was not associated with CMD in multivariate analyses accounting for food insecurity. Narratives illustrate how being HIV-positive shaped experiences of psychosocial stress, which involved unemployment and lack of prospects for marital relationships or strife within them. Our focus demonstrates the potential for mixing ethnographic and epidemiological methods to inform policy questions regarding poverty-reduction through compensation for volunteers' valuable labor, as well as AIDS care program sustainability. [volunteerism, AIDS care, food insecurity, livelihoods, HIV, psychosocial health].

  16. An AIDS model with distributed incubation and variable infectiousness: applications to i.v. drug users in Latium, Italy.

    PubMed

    Iannelli, M; Loro, R; Milner, F; Pugliese, A; Rabbiolo, G

    1992-07-01

    An AIDS model with distributed incubation and variable infectiousness is considered and simulated via a second-order numerical method. The method is applied to the HIV epidemic among IV drug users in the Latium region of Italy, using available data on the length of the incubation period before the onset of AIDS, on the infectivity of infected individuals during that period, and on the demography of drug users. The contact rate is adjusted to match the actual number of AIDS cases. The sensitivity of the model to uncertainties in the parameters is finally investigated, by performing several simulations.

  17. Experiences about HIV-AIDS preventive-control activities. Discourses from non-governmental organizations professionals and users.

    PubMed

    Berenguera, Anna; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta; Violan, Concepció; Romaguera, Amparo; Mansilla, Rosa; Giménez, Albert; Almeda, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to identify the experiences of professionals in nongovernmental organizations (NGO) in Catalonia (Spain) working in HIV/AIDS prevention and control activities and potential areas of improvement of these activities and their evaluation. A further aim was to characterize the experiences, knowledge and practices of users of these organizations with regard to HIV infection and its prevention. A phenomenological qualitative study was conducted with the participation of both professionals and users of Catalan nongovernmental organizations (NGO) working in HIV/AIDS. Theoretical sampling (professional) and opportunistic sampling (users) were performed. To collect information, the following techniques were used: four focus groups and one triangular group (professionals), 22 semi-structured interviews, and two observations (users). A thematic interpretive content analysis was conducted by three analysts. The professionals of nongovernmental organizations working in HIV/AIDS adopted a holistic approach in their activities, maintained confidentiality, had cultural and professional competence and followed the principles of equality and empathy. The users of these organizations had knowledge of HIV/AIDS and understood the risk of infection. However, a gap was found between knowledge, attitudes and behavior. NGO offer distinct activities adapted to users' needs. Professionals emphasize the need for support and improvement of planning and implementation of current assessment. The preventive activities of these HIV/AIDS organizations are based on a participatory health education model adjusted to people's needs and focused on empowerment. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. [Building evaluation criteria: experts and user satisfaction with pharmaceutical delivery services for HIV/Aids].

    PubMed

    Esher, Ângela; dos Santos, Elizabeth Moreira; Magarinos-Torres, Rachel; Azeredo, Thiago Botelho

    2012-01-01

    A criterion is a typical tool in the evaluation field that can be defined as a standard-dimension under which the object of an evaluation receives qualitative or quantitative judgments. During an evaluation, several rigorous methodological procedures are involved in development and application of suitable criteria to determine the value of the object being evaluated. This article presents a set of criteria to evaluate user satisfaction with HIV/Aids-related pharmaceutical delivery services. The criteria construction process involved consensus amongst different experts, from academia, NGOs, management, by means of the Delphi technique. This technique prescribes a series of formal steps towards a consensus of experts, based on pre-structured methodology and processes. The findings were systematically organized in a structure under which the resulting satisfaction criteria are hierarchically organized. Results suggest the importance of developing a methodological strategy in evaluation that involves participation of different actors and of enhancing knowledge on user satisfaction and pharmaceutical delivery services for HIV/Aids.

  19. Seed Aid for Food Security? Some Lessons from Zimbabwe's Agricultural Recovery Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foti, Richard; Muringai, Violet; Mavunganidze, Zira

    2007-01-01

    Does agricultural input aid always lead to favourable food security outcomes? This paper describes Zimbabwe's agricultural recovery program for the 2003/2004 farming season and draws some lessons that can be used in the designing and implementation of future programs. Input aid was found to be most beneficial if it is packaged together with other…

  20. Seed Aid for Food Security? Some Lessons from Zimbabwe's Agricultural Recovery Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foti, Richard; Muringai, Violet; Mavunganidze, Zira

    2007-01-01

    Does agricultural input aid always lead to favourable food security outcomes? This paper describes Zimbabwe's agricultural recovery program for the 2003/2004 farming season and draws some lessons that can be used in the designing and implementation of future programs. Input aid was found to be most beneficial if it is packaged together with other…

  1. "Nipe Nikupe": Dependency, Reciprocity, and Paradoxes of Food Aid in Lugufu Refugee Camp Kigoma, Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyer, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This paper is based on primary fieldwork conducted in Lugufu refugee camp in the rural Kigoma Region of western Tanzania. It is an anthropological inquiry into the paradox of refugee food aid based on the prevailing dynamic of domination and submission currently advanced by the international aid community. This inquiry asks fundamental questions…

  2. Food Safety for People with HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cook and Chill. back to top Common Foods: Select the Lower Risk Options Type of Food Higher ... some up from the produce section before you select your meat, poultry, and seafood. Buy only pasteurized ...

  3. The AIDS epidemic among Spanish drug users: a birth cohort-associated phenomenon.

    PubMed Central

    Castilla, J; Pollán, M; López-Abente, G

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In Spain the number of new acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases among injection drug users continues to rise. The time trend up to 1994 has been analyzed, with special attention paid to the different generations. METHODS: The source for injection drug use-related cases was the Spanish AIDS Register. Independent analyses of annual specific rates were run for each sex with the use of an age-period-cohort log-linear model. RESULTS: After adjustment for age and year of diagnosis, AIDS incidence related to injection drug use is associated with specific birth cohorts. Rising values are observed in the successive generations born during the 1950s, peaking in men born in 1962 and women born in 1964. In subsequent cohorts, there is a marked falloff in incidence for both sexes, but this decline is seen to halt in men from the 1972 birth cohort onwards. The overall period effect is upward, yet the trend flattens in the last years. There is a pronounced age effect with maximum values in men and women at ages 29 and 27, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: It is essential to urge avoidance of risk behaviors in new generations. PMID:9184504

  4. Low-floor bus design preferences of walking aid users during simulated boarding and alighting.

    PubMed

    D'souza, Clive; Paquet, Victor; Lenker, James; Steinfeld, Edward; Bareria, Piyush

    2012-01-01

    Low-floor buses represent a significant improvement in accessible public transit for passengers with limited mobility. However, there is still a need for research on the inclusive design of transit buses to identify specific low-floor bus design conditions that are either particularly accommodating or challenging for passengers with functional and mobility impairments. These include doorway locations, seating configuration and the large front wheel-well covers that collectively impact boarding, alighting and interior movement of passengers. Findings from a laboratory study using a static full-scale simulation of a lowfloor bus to evaluate the impact of seating configuration and crowding on interior movement and accessibility for individuals with and without walking aids are presented (n=41). Simulated bus journeys that included boarding, fare payment, seating, and alighting were performed. Results from video observations and subjective assessments showed differences in boarding and alighting performance and users' perceptions of task difficulty. The need for assistive design features (e.g. handholds, stanchions), legroom and stowage space for walking aids was evident. These results demonstrate that specific design conditions in low-floor buses can significantly impact design preference among those who use walking aids. Consideration of ergonomics and inclusive design can therefore be used to improve the design of low-floor buses.

  5. Improving the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of food aid grain delivery.

    PubMed

    Walker, D J

    1996-06-01

    Grain food aid averages 13 million tons per year. Donors have a duty to deliver food aid grain in an adequate and acceptable condition at least cost. This paper reviews commodity procurement, packaging, inspection, shipping and storage with regard to overall quality assurance and cost-effectiveness. Experience at ports of loading and discharge and in food aid delivery programmes indicates that sufficient attention is rarely paid to quality assurance and loss minimisation. Grain procurement specifications that are normally appropriate for safe handling and storage in temperate climates, particularly moisture content, are commonly inappropriate for tropical climates. The technology for safe delivery of food aid grain is well established but not always implemented. Procurement of food aid grain in developing countries has increased recently, creating a need to improve operational and management aspects of tendering and quality assurance procedures. Such purchases entail potential cost savings but are associated with lengthening delivery lead times for non-urgent consignments. Although woven polypropylene sacks are cheaper to buy than jute ones, the losses associated with handling and storage problems indicate that jute sacks are preferable for food aid delivery.

  6. Health and treatment implications of food insufficiency among people living with HIV/AIDS, Atlanta, Georgia.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, Seth C; Cherry, Chauncey; Amaral, Christina; White, Denise; Kalichman, Moira O; Pope, Howard; Swetsze, Connie; Jones, Michel; Macy, Rene

    2010-07-01

    HIV/AIDS is concentrated among the inner-city poor and poverty may directly interfere with HIV treatment. This study examined food insufficiency in relation to HIV-related health and treatment. A sample of 344 men and women living with HIV/AIDS in Atlanta, Georgia completed measures of food security, health, and HIV disease progression and treatment. HIV treatment adherence was monitored using unannounced pill counts. Results showed that half of people living with HIV/AIDS in this study lacked sufficient food, and food insufficiency was associated with multiple indicators of poor health, including higher HIV viral loads, lower CD4 cell counts, and poorer treatment adherence. Adjusted analyses showed that food insufficiency predicted HIV treatment non-adherence over and above years of education, employment status, income, housing, depression, social support, and non-alcohol substance use. Hunger and food insecurity are prevalent among people living with HIV/AIDS, and food insufficiency is closely related to multiple HIV-related health indicators, particularly medication adherence. Interventions that provide consistent and sustained meals to people living with HIV/AIDS are urgently needed.

  7. Health and Treatment Implications of Food Insufficiency among People Living with HIV/AIDS, Atlanta, Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, Chauncey; Amaral, Christina; White, Denise; Kalichman, Moira O.; Pope, Howard; Swetsze, Connie; Jones, Michel; Macy, Rene

    2010-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is concentrated among the inner-city poor and poverty may directly interfere with HIV treatment. This study examined food insufficiency in relation to HIV-related health and treatment. A sample of 344 men and women living with HIV/AIDS in Atlanta, Georgia completed measures of food security, health, and HIV disease progression and treatment. HIV treatment adherence was monitored using unannounced pill counts. Results showed that half of people living with HIV/AIDS in this study lacked sufficient food, and food insufficiency was associated with multiple indicators of poor health, including higher HIV viral loads, lower CD4 cell counts, and poorer treatment adherence. Adjusted analyses showed that food insufficiency predicted HIV treatment non-adherence over and above years of education, employment status, income, housing, depression, social support, and non-alcohol substance use. Hunger and food insecurity are prevalent among people living with HIV/AIDS, and food insufficiency is closely related to multiple HIV-related health indicators, particularly medication adherence. Interventions that provide consistent and sustained meals to people living with HIV/AIDS are urgently needed. PMID:20419478

  8. [Socio-demographic and food insecurity characteristics of soup-kitchen users in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Godoy, Kátia Cruz; Sávio, Karin Eleonora Oliveira; Akutsu, Rita de Cássia; Gubert, Muriel Bauermann; Botelho, Raquel Braz Assunção

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to characterize users of a government soup-kitchen program and the association with family food insecurity, using a cross-sectional design and random sample of 1,637 soup-kitchen users. The study used a questionnaire with socioeconomic variables and the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale, and measured weight and height. The chi-square test was applied, and the crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated using Poisson regression. Prevalent characteristics included per capita income ranging from one-half to one minimum wage (35.1%), complete middle school (39.8%), and food security (59.4%). Users in the North of Brazil showed the worst data: incomplete primary school (39.8%), per capita income up to one-half the minimum wage (50.8%), and food insecurity (55.5%). Prevalence ratios for food insecurity were higher among users with per capita income up to one-fourth the minimum wage (p < 0.05). Income was the only variable that remained associated with higher prevalence of food insecurity in the adjusted PR. Knowing the characteristics of soup-kitchen users with food insecurity can help orient the program's work, location, and operations.

  9. Calcium Nutrition Perceptions among Food Bank Users: A Canadian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Shanthi; Hawkins, Nicki

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the differences in the food bank users' perceptions related to calcium nutrition across sex and employment status using a cross-sectional, prospective design at a large food bank in Canada. A total of 197 individuals participated for a response rate of 97%. A structured survey was developed and pilot tested before it was…

  10. Investigating Differences in Preferred Noise Reduction Strength Among Hearing Aid Users

    PubMed Central

    Wagener, Kirsten C.

    2016-01-01

    Even though hearing aid (HA) users can respond very differently to noise reduction (NR) processing, knowledge about possible drivers of this variability (and thus ways of addressing it in HA fittings) is sparse. The current study investigated differences in preferred NR strength among HA users. Participants were groups of experienced users with clear preferences (“NR lovers”; N = 14) or dislikes (“NR haters”; N = 13) for strong NR processing, as determined in two earlier studies. Maximally acceptable background noise levels, detection thresholds for speech distortions caused by NR processing, and self-reported “sound personality” traits were considered as candidate measures for explaining group membership. Participants also adjusted the strength of the (binaural coherence-based) NR algorithm to their preferred level. Consistent with previous findings, NR lovers favored stronger processing than NR haters, although there also was some overlap. While maximally acceptable noise levels and detection thresholds for speech distortions tended to be higher for NR lovers than for NR haters, group differences were only marginally significant. No clear group differences were observed in the self-report data. Taken together, these results indicate that preferred NR strength is an individual trait that is fairly stable across time and that is not easily captured by psychoacoustic, audiological, or self-report measures aimed at indexing susceptibility to background noise and processing artifacts. To achieve more personalized NR processing, an effective approach may be to let HA users determine the optimal setting themselves during the fitting process. PMID:27604781

  11. Food, Aid, and Education in East Africa: Repackaging the Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stambach, Amy

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines students' food perspectives in three rapidly diversifying contemporary contexts: a university setting in Kigali, Rwanda where students help to prepare Chinese dumplings; a school garden and canteen in Nairobi, Kenya where students jostle for bowls of beans and rice; and a fast-food restaurant in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, where…

  12. Food, Aid, and Education in East Africa: Repackaging the Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stambach, Amy

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines students' food perspectives in three rapidly diversifying contemporary contexts: a university setting in Kigali, Rwanda where students help to prepare Chinese dumplings; a school garden and canteen in Nairobi, Kenya where students jostle for bowls of beans and rice; and a fast-food restaurant in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, where…

  13. Vowel production of Mandarin-speaking hearing aid users with different types of hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yu-Chen; Lee, Ya-Jung; Tsai, Li-Chiun

    2017-01-01

    In contrast with previous research focusing on cochlear implants, this study examined the speech performance of hearing aid users with conductive (n = 11), mixed (n = 10), and sensorineural hearing loss (n = 7) and compared it with the speech of hearing control. Speech intelligibility was evaluated by computing the vowel space area defined by the Mandarin Chinese corner vowels /a, u, i/. The acoustic differences between the vowels were assessed using the Euclidean distance. The results revealed that both the conductive and mixed hearing loss groups exhibited a reduced vowel working space, but no significant difference was found between the sensorineural hearing loss and normal hearing groups. An analysis using the Euclidean distance further showed that the compression of vowel space area in conductive hearing loss can be attributed to the substantial lowering of the second formant of /i/. The differences in vowel production between groups are discussed in terms of the occlusion effect and the signal transmission media of various hearing devices.

  14. Error Patterns Analysis of Hearing Aid and Cochlear Implant Users as a Function of Noise.

    PubMed

    Chun, Hyungi; Ma, Sunmi; Han, Woojae; Chun, Youngmyoung

    2015-12-01

    Not all impaired listeners may have the same speech perception ability although they will have similar pure-tone threshold and configuration. For this reason, the present study analyzes error patterns in the hearing-impaired compared to normal hearing (NH) listeners as a function of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Forty-four adults participated: 10 listeners with NH, 20 hearing aids (HA) users and 14 cochlear implants (CI) users. The Korean standardized monosyllables were presented as the stimuli in quiet and three different SNRs. Total error patterns were classified into types of substitution, omission, addition, fail, and no response, using stacked bar plots. Total error percent for the three groups significantly increased as the SNRs decreased. For error pattern analysis, the NH group showed substitution errors dominantly regardless of the SNRs compared to the other groups. Both the HA and CI groups had substitution errors that declined, while no response errors appeared as the SNRs increased. The CI group was characterized by lower substitution and higher fail errors than did the HA group. Substitutions of initial and final phonemes in the HA and CI groups were limited by place of articulation errors. However, the HA group had missed consonant place cues, such as formant transitions and stop consonant bursts, whereas the CI group usually had limited confusions of nasal consonants with low frequency characteristics. Interestingly, all three groups showed /k/ addition in the final phoneme, a trend that magnified as noise increased. The HA and CI groups had their unique error patterns even though the aided thresholds of the two groups were similar. We expect that the results of this study will focus on high error patterns in auditory training of hearing-impaired listeners, resulting in reducing those errors and improving their speech perception ability.

  15. Error Patterns Analysis of Hearing Aid and Cochlear Implant Users as a Function of Noise

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Hyungi; Ma, Sunmi; Chun, Youngmyoung

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Not all impaired listeners may have the same speech perception ability although they will have similar pure-tone threshold and configuration. For this reason, the present study analyzes error patterns in the hearing-impaired compared to normal hearing (NH) listeners as a function of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Subjects and Methods Forty-four adults participated: 10 listeners with NH, 20 hearing aids (HA) users and 14 cochlear implants (CI) users. The Korean standardized monosyllables were presented as the stimuli in quiet and three different SNRs. Total error patterns were classified into types of substitution, omission, addition, fail, and no response, using stacked bar plots. Results Total error percent for the three groups significantly increased as the SNRs decreased. For error pattern analysis, the NH group showed substitution errors dominantly regardless of the SNRs compared to the other groups. Both the HA and CI groups had substitution errors that declined, while no response errors appeared as the SNRs increased. The CI group was characterized by lower substitution and higher fail errors than did the HA group. Substitutions of initial and final phonemes in the HA and CI groups were limited by place of articulation errors. However, the HA group had missed consonant place cues, such as formant transitions and stop consonant bursts, whereas the CI group usually had limited confusions of nasal consonants with low frequency characteristics. Interestingly, all three groups showed /k/ addition in the final phoneme, a trend that magnified as noise increased. Conclusions The HA and CI groups had their unique error patterns even though the aided thresholds of the two groups were similar. We expect that the results of this study will focus on high error patterns in auditory training of hearing-impaired listeners, resulting in reducing those errors and improving their speech perception ability. PMID:26771013

  16. A user-friendly model for spray drying to aid pharmaceutical product development.

    PubMed

    Grasmeijer, Niels; de Waard, Hans; Hinrichs, Wouter L J; Frijlink, Henderik W

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a user-friendly model for spray drying that can aid in the development of a pharmaceutical product, by shifting from a trial-and-error towards a quality-by-design approach. To achieve this, a spray dryer model was developed in commercial and open source spreadsheet software. The output of the model was first fitted to the experimental output of a Büchi B-290 spray dryer and subsequently validated. The predicted outlet temperatures of the spray dryer model matched the experimental values very well over the entire range of spray dryer settings that were tested. Finally, the model was applied to produce glassy sugars by spray drying, an often used excipient in formulations of biopharmaceuticals. For the production of glassy sugars, the model was extended to predict the relative humidity at the outlet, which is not measured in the spray dryer by default. This extended model was then successfully used to predict whether specific settings were suitable for producing glassy trehalose and inulin by spray drying. In conclusion, a spray dryer model was developed that is able to predict the output parameters of the spray drying process. The model can aid the development of spray dried pharmaceutical products by shifting from a trial-and-error towards a quality-by-design approach.

  17. A User-Friendly Model for Spray Drying to Aid Pharmaceutical Product Development

    PubMed Central

    Grasmeijer, Niels; de Waard, Hans; Hinrichs, Wouter L. J.; Frijlink, Henderik W.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a user-friendly model for spray drying that can aid in the development of a pharmaceutical product, by shifting from a trial-and-error towards a quality-by-design approach. To achieve this, a spray dryer model was developed in commercial and open source spreadsheet software. The output of the model was first fitted to the experimental output of a Büchi B-290 spray dryer and subsequently validated. The predicted outlet temperatures of the spray dryer model matched the experimental values very well over the entire range of spray dryer settings that were tested. Finally, the model was applied to produce glassy sugars by spray drying, an often used excipient in formulations of biopharmaceuticals. For the production of glassy sugars, the model was extended to predict the relative humidity at the outlet, which is not measured in the spray dryer by default. This extended model was then successfully used to predict whether specific settings were suitable for producing glassy trehalose and inulin by spray drying. In conclusion, a spray dryer model was developed that is able to predict the output parameters of the spray drying process. The model can aid the development of spray dried pharmaceutical products by shifting from a trial-and-error towards a quality-by-design approach. PMID:24040240

  18. arriba-lib: Analyses of user interactions with an electronic library of decision aids on the basis of log data.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Oliver; Szabo, Elisabeth; Keller, Heidemarie; Kramer, Lena; Krones, Tanja; Donner-Banzhoff, Norbert

    2012-12-01

    Computerised log files are important for analysing user behaviour in health informatics to gain insight into processes that lead to suboptimal user patterns. This is important for software training programmes or for changes to improve usability. Technical user behaviour regarding decision aids has not so far been thoroughly investigated with log files. The aim of our study was to examine more detailed user interactions of primary-care physicians and their patients with arriba-lib, our multimodular electronic library of decision aids used during consultations, on the basis of log data. We analysed 184 consultation log files from 28 primary-care physicians. The average consultation time of our modules was about 8 min. Two-thirds of the consultation time were spent in the history information part of the programme. In this part, mainly bar charts were used to display risk information. Our electronic library of decision aids does not generate specific user behaviour based on physician characteristics such as age, gender, years in practice, or prior experience with decision aids. This supports the widespread use of our e-library in the primary-care sector and probably beyond.

  19. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Benefits of a Multimedia Educational Program for First-Time Hearing Aid Users

    PubMed Central

    Brandreth, Marian; Brassington, William; Leighton, Paul; Wharrad, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of this study were to (1) develop a series of short interactive videos (or reusable learning objects [RLOs]) covering a broad range of practical and psychosocial issues relevant to the auditory rehabilitation for first-time hearing aid users; (2) establish the accessibility, take-up, acceptability and adherence of the RLOs; and (3) assess the benefits and cost-effectiveness of the RLOs. Design: The study was a single-center, prospective, randomized controlled trial with two arms. The intervention group (RLO+, n = 103) received the RLOs plus standard clinical service including hearing aid(s) and counseling, and the waitlist control group (RLO−, n = 100) received standard clinical service only. The effectiveness of the RLOs was assessed 6-weeks posthearing aid fitting. Seven RLOs (total duration 1 hr) were developed using a participatory, community of practice approach involving hearing aid users and audiologists. RLOs included video clips, illustrations, animations, photos, sounds and testimonials, and all were subtitled. RLOs were delivered through DVD for TV (50.6%) and PC (15.2%), or via the internet (32.9%). Results: RLO take-up was 78%. Adherence overall was at least 67%, and 97% in those who attended the 6-week follow-up. Half the participants watched the RLOs two or more times, suggesting self-management of their hearing loss, hearing aids, and communication. The RLOs were rated as highly useful and the majority of participants agreed the RLOs were enjoyable, improved their confidence and were preferable to written information. Postfitting, there was no significant between-group difference in the primary outcome measure, overall hearing aid use. However, there was significantly greater hearing aid use in the RLO+ group for suboptimal users. Furthermore, the RLO+ group had significantly better knowledge of practical and psychosocial issues, and significantly better practical hearing aid skills than the RLO− group. Conclusions: The RLOs

  20. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Benefits of a Multimedia Educational Program for First-Time Hearing Aid Users.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Melanie; Brandreth, Marian; Brassington, William; Leighton, Paul; Wharrad, Heather

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) develop a series of short interactive videos (or reusable learning objects [RLOs]) covering a broad range of practical and psychosocial issues relevant to the auditory rehabilitation for first-time hearing aid users; (2) establish the accessibility, take-up, acceptability and adherence of the RLOs; and (3) assess the benefits and cost-effectiveness of the RLOs. The study was a single-center, prospective, randomized controlled trial with two arms. The intervention group (RLO+, n = 103) received the RLOs plus standard clinical service including hearing aid(s) and counseling, and the waitlist control group (RLO-, n = 100) received standard clinical service only. The effectiveness of the RLOs was assessed 6-weeks posthearing aid fitting. Seven RLOs (total duration 1 hr) were developed using a participatory, community of practice approach involving hearing aid users and audiologists. RLOs included video clips, illustrations, animations, photos, sounds and testimonials, and all were subtitled. RLOs were delivered through DVD for TV (50.6%) and PC (15.2%), or via the internet (32.9%). RLO take-up was 78%. Adherence overall was at least 67%, and 97% in those who attended the 6-week follow-up. Half the participants watched the RLOs two or more times, suggesting self-management of their hearing loss, hearing aids, and communication. The RLOs were rated as highly useful and the majority of participants agreed the RLOs were enjoyable, improved their confidence and were preferable to written information. Postfitting, there was no significant between-group difference in the primary outcome measure, overall hearing aid use. However, there was significantly greater hearing aid use in the RLO+ group for suboptimal users. Furthermore, the RLO+ group had significantly better knowledge of practical and psychosocial issues, and significantly better practical hearing aid skills than the RLO- group. The RLOs were shown to be beneficial to first

  1. 77 FR 20825 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; User Fees for 513(g) Requests for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ...; User Fees for 513(g) Requests for Information; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... guidance entitled ``Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; User Fees for 513(g) Requests for Information.'' This guidance document describes the user fees associated with 513(g) requests...

  2. Assessing American Red Cross First Aid mobile app user trends: Implications for resilience.

    PubMed

    Musigdilok, Visanee V; Demeter, Natalie E; Burke, Rita V; Shook, Eric; Ajayakumar, Jayakrishnan; Berg, Bridget M; Hawkins, Michelle D; Ferree, John; MacAloney, Brenton W; Chung, Sarita; Pellegrino, Jeffrey L; Tolli, Dominick; Hansen, Grant; Upperman, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    Disasters have devastated communities, impacted the economy, and resulted in a significant increase in injuries. As the use of mobile technology increasingly becomes a common aspect of everyday life, it is important to understand how it can be used as a resource. The authors examined the use of American Red Cross mobile apps and aimed to characterize user trends to better understand how mobile apps can help bolster individual and community preparedness, resilience, and response efforts. Tornado data were obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the National Weather Service. Data for the mobile apps were provided by the American Red Cross. All data were reviewed for 2013, 2014, and three specific tornado events. Data were organized in Microsoft Excel spreadsheets and then graphed or mapped using ArcMap 10.2(™). Between 2013 and 2014, 1,068 tornado watches and 3,682 tornado warnings were issued. Additionally, 37,957,560 Tornado app users and 1,289,676 First Aid app users were active from 2013 to 2014. Overall, there was an increase in the use of American Red Cross mobile apps during tornado occurrences. Yet the increase does not show a consistent correlation with the number of watches and warnings issued. Mobile apps can be a resourceful tool. This study shows that mobile app use increases during a disaster. The findings indicate that there is potential to use mobile apps for building resilience as the apps provide information to support individuals and communities in helping before, during, and after disasters.

  3. Food insufficiency among HIV-infected crack-cocaine users in Atlanta and Miami

    PubMed Central

    Vogenthaler, Nicholas S; Hadley, Craig; Lewis, Sarah J; Rodriguez, Allan E; Metsch, Lisa R; del Rio, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Objective To measure the occurrence and correlates of food insufficiency among HIV-infected crack-cocaine users in Atlanta and Miami, USA. Design Non-probability cross-sectional sample. Setting Inner-city hospitals in Atlanta and Miami. Subjects Two hundred and eighty-seven HIV-infected crack users. Results One-third (34 %) of respondents experienced food insufficiency within 30 d of interview. Increased odds of food insufficiency was associated with current homelessness (adjusted OR = 3·78, 95% CI 1·70, 8·41), living alone (adjusted OR = 2·85, 95% CI 1·36, 5·98), religious service attendance (adjusted OR = 2·34, 95% CI 1·02, 5·38) and presence of health insurance (adjusted OR = 2·41, 95% CI 1·06, 5·54). Monthly income greater than $US 600 (adjusted OR = 0·19, 95% CI 0·06, 0·58) was associated with decreased odds of food insufficiency, and less than weekly crack use was marginally associated with decreased odds of food insufficiency (adjusted OR = 0·39, 95 % CI 0·13, 1·08). Conclusions Food insufficiency is very prevalent among HIV-infected urban crack-cocaine users in Atlanta and Miami. Correlates of food insufficiency confirm the social vulnerability of these individuals. Routine assessment for food insecurity should become a routine component of treatment and prevention programmes in at-risk populations. PMID:20074395

  4. Food insufficiency among HIV-infected crack-cocaine users in Atlanta and Miami.

    PubMed

    Vogenthaler, Nicholas S; Hadley, Craig; Lewis, Sarah J; Rodriguez, Allan E; Metsch, Lisa R; del Rio, Carlos

    2010-09-01

    To measure the occurrence and correlates of food insufficiency among HIV-infected crack-cocaine users in Atlanta and Miami, USA. Non-probability cross-sectional sample. Inner-city hospitals in Atlanta and Miami. Two hundred and eighty-seven HIV-infected crack users. One-third (34 %) of respondents experienced food insufficiency within 30 d of interview. Increased odds of food insufficiency was associated with current homelessness (adjusted OR = 3.78, 95 % CI 1.70, 8.41), living alone (adjusted OR = 2.85, 95 % CI 1.36, 5.98), religious service attendance (adjusted OR = 2.34, 95 % CI 1.02, 5.38) and presence of health insurance (adjusted OR = 2.41, 95 % CI 1.06, 5.54). Monthly income greater than $US 600 (adjusted OR = 0.19, 95 % CI 0.06, 0.58) was associated with decreased odds of food insufficiency, and less than weekly crack use was marginally associated with decreased odds of food insufficiency (adjusted OR = 0.39, 95 % CI 0.13, 1.08). Food insufficiency is very prevalent among HIV-infected urban crack-cocaine users in Atlanta and Miami. Correlates of food insufficiency confirm the social vulnerability of these individuals. Routine assessment for food insecurity should become a routine component of treatment and prevention programmes in at-risk populations.

  5. Food security and nutrition interventions in response to the AIDS epidemic: assessing global action and evidence.

    PubMed

    Aberman, Noora-Lisa; Rawat, Rahul; Drimie, Scott; Claros, Joan M; Kadiyala, Suneetha

    2014-10-01

    The number of people receiving antiretroviral therapy in developing countries has increased dramatically. The last decade has brought an increased understanding of the interconnectedness between HIV/AIDS, food insecurity, and undernutrition and a surge of evidence on how to address the food security and nutrition dimensions of the epidemic. We review this evidence as well as the corresponding evolution of policy support for incorporating food security and nutrition concerns into HIV programming. The available evidence, although varied in scope and methodologies, shows that nutrition supplementation and safety nets in the form of food assistance and livelihood interventions have potential in certain contexts to improve food security and nutrition outcomes in an HIV/AIDS context. In the face of funding uncertainties and competing priorities, we must maintain momentum towards effective and sustainable solutions to the epidemic through continued systematic research to inform policy and through the strengthening of monitoring systems to dynamically inform intervention development.

  6. Rising oceans, climate change, food aid, and human rights in the Marshall Islands.

    PubMed

    Ahlgren, Ingrid; Yamada, Seiji; Wong, Allen

    2014-01-01

    Climate change impacts are expected to produce more frequent, longer and unpredictable drought periods with further saltwater intrusion in the Marshall Islands. As a result, a significant return to traditional food cropping is unlikely. This will lead to an increased dependence on food aid, especially in the outer atoll populations. An examination of the nutritional content of food aid suggests it is likely to lead to poor health outcomes. Dependence on food aid has gradually increased over the past 70 years in the Marshall Islands, starting with population relocation because of war and nuclear testing and most recently because of climate change. The authors argue that the health impacts of the supplemental imported diet, combined with migration to population centers, may result in an even greater prevalence of chronic diseases, and exert pressures that lead to more communicable disease, further exacerbating the syndemics in the Marshall Islands. The authors conclude that food aid donors and the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) government have human rights obligations to ensure that the people in the Marshall Islands have access to adequate nutrition. Accordingly, donors and the government should re-examine the content of food and ensure it is of sufficient quality to meet the right to health obligations.

  7. The social context of food insecurity among persons living with HIV/AIDS in rural Uganda.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Alexander C; Bangsberg, David R; Emenyonu, Nneka; Senkungu, Jude K; Martin, Jeffrey N; Weiser, Sheri D

    2011-12-01

    HIV/AIDS and food insecurity are two of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, with each heightening the vulnerability to, and worsening the severity of, the other. Less research has focused on the social determinants of food insecurity in resource-limited settings, including social support and HIV-related stigma. In this study, we analyzed data from a cohort of 456 persons from the Uganda AIDS Rural Treatment Outcomes study, an ongoing prospective cohort of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) initiating HIV antiretroviral therapy in Mbarara, Uganda. Quarterly data were collected by structured interviews. The primary outcome, food insecurity, was measured with the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale. Key covariates of interest included social support, internalized HIV-related stigma, HIV-related enacted stigma, and disclosure of HIV serostatus. Severe food insecurity was highly prevalent overall (38%) and more prevalent among women than among men. Social support, HIV disclosure, and internalized HIV-related stigma were associated with food insecurity; these associations persisted after adjusting for household wealth, employment status, and other previously identified correlates of food insecurity. The adverse effects of internalized stigma persisted in a lagged specification, and the beneficial effect of social support further persisted after the inclusion of fixed effects. International organizations have increasingly advocated for addressing food insecurity as part of HIV/AIDS programming to improve morbidity and mortality. This study provides quantitative evidence on social determinants of food insecurity among PLWHA in resource-limited settings and suggests points of intervention. These findings also indicate that structural interventions to improve social support and/or decrease HIV-related stigma may also improve the food security of PLWHA.

  8. Conceptual framework for understanding the bidirectional links between food insecurity and HIV/AIDS1234

    PubMed Central

    Young, Sera L; Cohen, Craig R; Kushel, Margot B; Tsai, Alexander C; Tien, Phyllis C; Hatcher, Abigail M; Frongillo, Edward A; Bangsberg, David R

    2011-01-01

    Food insecurity, which affects >1 billion people worldwide, is inextricably linked to the HIV epidemic. We present a conceptual framework of the multiple pathways through which food insecurity and HIV/AIDS may be linked at the community, household, and individual levels. Whereas the mechanisms through which HIV/AIDS can cause food insecurity have been fairly well elucidated, the ways in which food insecurity can lead to HIV are less well understood. We argue that there are nutritional, mental health, and behavioral pathways through which food insecurity leads to HIV acquisition and disease progression. Specifically, food insecurity can lead to macronutrient and micronutrient deficiencies, which can affect both vertical and horizontal transmission of HIV, and can also contribute to immunologic decline and increased morbidity and mortality among those already infected. Food insecurity can have mental health consequences, such as depression and increased drug abuse, which, in turn, contribute to HIV transmission risk and incomplete HIV viral load suppression, increased probability of AIDS-defining illness, and AIDS-related mortality among HIV-infected individuals. As a result of the inability to procure food in socially or personally acceptable ways, food insecurity also contributes to risky sexual practices and enhanced HIV transmission, as well as to antiretroviral therapy nonadherence, treatment interruptions, and missed clinic visits, which are strong determinants of worse HIV health outcomes. More research on the relative importance of each of these pathways is warranted because effective interventions to reduce food insecurity and HIV depend on a rigorous understanding of these multifaceted relationships. PMID:22089434

  9. The social context of food insecurity among persons living with HIV/AIDS in rural Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Alexander C.; Bangsberg, David R.; Emenyonu, Nneka; Senkungu, Jude K.; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Weiser, Sheri D.

    2011-01-01

    HIV/AIDS and food insecurity are two of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, with each heightening the vulnerability to, and worsening the severity of, the other. Less research has focused on the social determinants of food insecurity in resource-limited settings, including social support and HIV-related stigma. In this study, we analyzed data from a cohort of 456 persons from the Uganda AIDS Rural Treatment Outcomes study, an ongoing prospective cohort of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) initiating HIV antiretroviral therapy in Mbarara, Uganda. Quarterly data were collected by structured interviews. The primary outcome, food insecurity, was measured with the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale. Key covariates of interest included social support, internalized HIV-related stigma, HIV-related enacted stigma, and disclosure of HIV serostatus. Severe food insecurity was highly prevalent overall (38%) and more prevalent among women than among men. Social support, HIV disclosure, and internalized HIV-related stigma were associated with food insecurity; these associations persisted after adjusting for household wealth, employment status, and other previously identified correlates of food insecurity. The adverse effects of internalized stigma persisted in a lagged specification, and the beneficial effect of social support further persisted after the inclusion of fixed effects. International organizations have increasingly advocated for addressing food insecurity as part of HIV/AIDS programming to improve morbidity and mortality. This study provides quantitative evidence on social determinants of food insecurity among PLWHA in resource-limited settings and suggests points of intervention. These findings also indicate that structural interventions to improve social support and/or decrease HIV-related stigma may also improve the food security of PLWHA. PMID:22019367

  10. Utilizing computerized entertainment education in the development of decision aids for lower literate and naïve computer users.

    PubMed

    Jibaja-Weiss, Maria L; Volk, Robert J

    2007-01-01

    Decision aids have been developed by using various delivery methods, including interactive computer programs. Such programs, however, still rely heavily on written information, health and digital literacy, and reading ease. We describe an approach to overcome these potential barriers for low-literate, underserved populations by making design considerations for poor readers and naïve computer users and by using concepts from entertainment education to engage the user and to contextualize the content for the user. The system design goals are to make the program both didactic and entertaining and the navigation and graphical user interface as simple as possible. One entertainment education strategy, the soap opera, is linked seamlessly to interactive learning modules to enhance the content of the soap opera episodes. The edutainment decision aid model (EDAM) guides developers through the design process. Although designing patient decision aids that are educational, entertaining, and targeted toward poor readers and those with limited computer skills is a complex task, it is a promising strategy for aiding this population. Entertainment education may be a highly effective approach to promoting informed decision making for patients with low health literacy.

  11. What Do You Mean It Doesn't Make Sense? Redesigning Finding Aids from the User's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimer, Cory; Daines, J. Gordon, III

    2008-01-01

    Archivists have begun to rethink the way that they present finding aids to patrons online. They are utilizing user studies to gain a better understanding of what information patrons expect to find and are investigating how to utilize Web 2.0 technologies to better meet patron needs. This article examines how the L. Tom Perry Special Collections is…

  12. What Do You Mean It Doesn't Make Sense? Redesigning Finding Aids from the User's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimer, Cory; Daines, J. Gordon, III

    2008-01-01

    Archivists have begun to rethink the way that they present finding aids to patrons online. They are utilizing user studies to gain a better understanding of what information patrons expect to find and are investigating how to utilize Web 2.0 technologies to better meet patron needs. This article examines how the L. Tom Perry Special Collections is…

  13. The use of Photovoice to document and characterize the food security of users of community food programs in Iqaluit, Nunavut.

    PubMed

    Lardeau, M-P; Healey, G; Ford, J

    2011-01-01

    Food insecurity is a chronic problem affecting Inuit communities. The most comprehensive assessment of Inuit food security to-date, the Inuit Health Survey, reported that 70% of Inuit pre-school children lived in 'food insecure' households. Food banks and soup kitchens are relatively new in the Arctic but the number of users is increasing. Little is known about the experience and determinants of food insecurity among food program users who are often among the most marginalized (socially and economically) in communities. The use of participatory research methods when working in the north of Canada can promote meaningful knowledge exchange with community members and this approach was used in the present 'Photovoice' research. Photovoice uses photography to develop a baseline understanding of an issue, in this case the experience and determinants of food insecurity among users of community food programs in Iqaluit, Nunavut. The target population includes those who face significant social and economic marginalization, an often neglected group in Arctic food systems research. Eight regular users of food programs were recruited and engaged in a Photovoice research project to document factors determining their daily food consumption. The research method was introduced in workshops and discussion included the ethical concerns related to photography and how to take pictures. Participants were supplied with digital cameras, and asked to answer the following question using photography: 'What aspects of your everyday life affect what you eat and how much you have to eat?'. In the final workshop, photographs were discussed among the group and participants identified key themes in the photographs, offering an understanding of food insecurity from their perspectives. The group then discussed what should be done with the knowledge gained. Factors improving food security were the customary systems for sharing 'country food', and the presence of social support networks in the

  14. Digital processing technology for bone-anchored hearing aids: randomised comparison of two devices in hearing aid users with mixed or conductive hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Hill-Feltham, P; Roberts, S A; Gladdis, R

    2014-02-01

    This study compared the performance of two new bone-anchored hearing aids with older bone-anchored hearing aids that were not fully digital. Fourteen experienced bone-anchored hearing aid users participated in this cross-over study. Performance of their existing bone-anchored hearing aid was assessed using speech-in-noise testing and questionnaires. Participants were then fitted with either a Ponto Pro or a BP100 device. After four weeks of use with each new device, the same assessments were repeated. Speech-in-noise testing for the 50 per cent signal-to-noise ratio (the ratio at which 50 per cent of responses were correct) showed no significant differences between the Ponto Pro and the BP100 devices (p = 0.1) However, both devices showed significant improvement compared with the participants' previous bone-anchored hearing aid devices (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences between the two new devices in the questionnaire data. Both fully digital bone-anchored hearing aids demonstrated superior speech processing compared with the previous generation of devices. There were no substantial differences between the two digital devices in either objective or subjective tests.

  15. From food aid to livelihoods support: rethinking the role of WFP in eastern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Pantuliano, Sara

    2007-03-01

    Despite more than 20 years of distribution of free emergency food in eastern Sudan (38 years in the case of refugees) Global Acute Malnutrition rates are currently the highest in the country. There has been no real improvement in the chronic livelihoods vulnerability that affects people in the region--particularly pastoralists. Food security must be seen from an informed livelihoods perspective. While food aid may still be required as part of transition, WFP must rethink its assistance strategy and advocate for complementarity in the efforts by development actors working across a range of sectors. Alternative models and interventions focused on the rehabilitation of markets and the development of' cargo nets' for the destitute, including cash transfers, must be developed and tested. Land tenure issues should be given particular attention. Food aid will probably remain an important element in the overall response, but its significance relative to other less developed forms of interventions should be reassessed.

  16. DeMAID: A Design Manager's Aide for Intelligent Decomposition user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L.

    1989-01-01

    A design problem is viewed as a complex system divisible into modules. Before the design of a complex system can begin, the couplings among modules and the presence of iterative loops is determined. This is important because the design manager must know how to group the modules into subsystems and how to assign subsystems to design teams so that changes in one subsystem will have predictable effects on other subsystems. Determining these subsystems is not an easy, straightforward process and often important couplings are overlooked. Moreover, the planning task must be repeated as new information become available or as the design specifications change. The purpose of this research is to develop a knowledge-based tool called the Design Manager's Aide for Intelligent Decomposition (DeMAID) to act as an intelligent advisor for the design manager. DeMaid identifies the subsystems of a complex design problem, orders them into a well-structured format, and marks the couplings among the subsystems to facilitate the use of multilevel tools. DeMAID also provides the design manager with the capability of examining the trade-offs between sequential and parallel processing. This type of approach could lead to a substantial savings or organizing and displaying a complex problem as a sequence of subsystems easily divisible among design teams. This report serves as a User's Guide for the program.

  17. Vowel production of Mandarin-speaking hearing aid users with different types of hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ya-Jung; Tsai, Li-Chiun

    2017-01-01

    In contrast with previous research focusing on cochlear implants, this study examined the speech performance of hearing aid users with conductive (n = 11), mixed (n = 10), and sensorineural hearing loss (n = 7) and compared it with the speech of hearing control. Speech intelligibility was evaluated by computing the vowel space area defined by the Mandarin Chinese corner vowels /a, u, i/. The acoustic differences between the vowels were assessed using the Euclidean distance. The results revealed that both the conductive and mixed hearing loss groups exhibited a reduced vowel working space, but no significant difference was found between the sensorineural hearing loss and normal hearing groups. An analysis using the Euclidean distance further showed that the compression of vowel space area in conductive hearing loss can be attributed to the substantial lowering of the second formant of /i/. The differences in vowel production between groups are discussed in terms of the occlusion effect and the signal transmission media of various hearing devices. PMID:28575087

  18. HIV/AIDS prevention among female sexual partners of injection drug users in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Pinto, J B; Ramos, R

    1995-01-01

    A participatory community project in the US-Mexico border town of Ciudad Juarez, aimed at helping women who are sex partners of male injection drug users to reduce behaviours which increase their risk for HIV infection, is described and evaluated. The design and implementation of the project were influenced by Paulo Freire's pedagogy in the Latin American tradition of 'popular' education, by Bandura's self-efficacy concepts, and by David Warner's 'barefoot doctor' community health care methodology. Using these approaches the participants were directly involved in the development of teaching materials, and curriculum content and implementation of the project. The programme was evaluated quantitatively using NIDA's AIDS Intake and Follow-up Assessment (AIA/AFA) questionnaires, and qualitatively using open ended interviews. While the AIA/AFA questionnaires detected small changes in the frequency of condom use among the participants, ethnographic interviews detected significant changes in the nature of the behaviours which were placing the women at risk. The changes seem to stem from an increase in the degree of self-esteem, self-efficacy and awareness of the social, economic, and political constraints of their lives. These results demonstrate the need for qualitative measures to be incorporated in the evaluation of community based health education programmes. A series of recommendations is presented to facilitate further development and replication of the programme in similar populations.

  19. Effectiveness of an online SUpport PRogramme (SUPR) for older hearing aid users: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Meijerink, Janine Fj; Pronk, Marieke; Paulissen, Bernadette; Witte, Birgit I; Wouden, Bregje van der; Jansen, Vera; Kramer, Sophia E

    2017-06-20

    An educational SUpport PRogramme called SUPR has been developed for hearing aid users (HAUs) and their communication partners (CPs) offering care beyond hearing aid fitting. SUPR teaches its users communication strategies, hearing aid handling skills and personal adjustment to hearing impairment. Using a cluster randomised controlled trial design, 70 Dutch hearing aid dispenser practices were randomised into hearing aid fitting (care as usual, 34 practices) and hearing aid fitting including SUPR (36 practices). The aim was to recruit a total of 569 older (aged 50+ years) first-time (n=258) and experienced (n=311) HAUs and their CPs. SUPR consists of a Practical Support Booklet and online material offered via email over a period of 6-7 months. The booklet provides practical information on hearing aids, advice on communication strategies and home exercises. The online material consists of educational videos on hearing aid functionality and usage, communication strategies and peer testimonials. Finally, noncommittal email contact with the dispenser is offered. Every HAU is asked to assign a CP who is advised to be involved intensively. Effect measurements for HAUs and their CPs will occur at baseline and at 6, 12 and 18 months follow-up via online questionnaires. The primary outcomes for HAUs will be the use of communication strategies as measured by the subscales of the Communication Profile for the Hearing Impaired. A process evaluation will be performed. The study was approved by the Dutch Institutional Review Board of the VU Medical University Center Amsterdam. This intervention could contribute to lowering the hearing impairment burden in our ageing society. The results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and scientific conferences. ISRCTN77340339; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly

  20. Effectiveness of an online SUpport PRogramme (SUPR) for older hearing aid users: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Meijerink, Janine FJ; Pronk, Marieke; Paulissen, Bernadette; Witte, Birgit I; van der Wouden, Bregje; Jansen, Vera; Kramer, Sophia E

    2017-01-01

    Background An educational SUpport PRogramme called SUPR has been developed for hearing aid users (HAUs) and their communication partners (CPs) offering care beyond hearing aid fitting. SUPR teaches its users communication strategies, hearing aid handling skills and personal adjustment to hearing impairment. Methods/design Using a cluster randomised controlled trial design, 70 Dutch hearing aid dispenser practices were randomised into hearing aid fitting (care as usual, 34 practices) and hearing aid fitting including SUPR (36 practices). The aim was to recruit a total of 569 older (aged 50+ years) first-time (n=258) and experienced (n=311) HAUs and their CPs. SUPR consists of a Practical Support Booklet and online material offered via email over a period of 6–7 months. The booklet provides practical information on hearing aids, advice on communication strategies and home exercises. The online material consists of educational videos on hearing aid functionality and usage, communication strategies and peer testimonials. Finally, noncommittal email contact with the dispenser is offered. Every HAU is asked to assign a CP who is advised to be involved intensively. Effect measurements for HAUs and their CPs will occur at baseline and at 6, 12 and 18 months follow-up via online questionnaires. The primary outcomes for HAUs will be the use of communication strategies as measured by the subscales of the Communication Profile for the Hearing Impaired. A process evaluation will be performed. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Dutch Institutional Review Board of the VU Medical University Center Amsterdam. This intervention could contribute to lowering the hearing impairment burden in our ageing society. The results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and scientific conferences. Trial registration number ISRCTN77340339; Pre-results. PMID:28634259

  1. 78 FR 15019 - Food and Drug Administration Prescription Drug User Fee Act V Benefit-Risk Plan; Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Prescription Drug User Fee Act V Benefit-Risk Plan; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice, request for comments. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) is announcing...

  2. How to Buy Food: Lesson Aids for Teachers. Agriculture Handbook No. 443. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Agricultural Marketing Services.

    This teachers guide presents lesson aids on how to buy food for home economics or consumer education in high school or adult education courses. An introductory section explains how to get the supplementary materials (publications, films, and slides/filmstrips), what the contents and objectives of these materials are, suggestions for lesson…

  3. Food and Nutrition, In-Service Training for Extension Aides: A Problem-Centered Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This guide is intended to assist trainer agents in providing inservice training for extension aides working with low-income families whose resources are limited. Included are a list of reference materials from which additional information may be obtained as well as outlines for units of study on: (1) What Food Means To People, (2) Breads and…

  4. Food Safety Knowledge, Beliefs and Behavior of Persons with AIDS: A Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Dworkin, Mark S.; Peterson, Caryn E.; Gao, Weihua; Mayor, Angel; Hunter, Robert; Negron, Edna; Fleury, Alison; Besch, C. Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Persons living with AIDS are highly vulnerable to foodborne enteric infections including recurrent Salmonella septicemia and toxoplasmosis of the brain with the potential for substantial morbidity and mortality. Patients with immunologic AIDS in Chicago, New Orleans, and Bayamon were interviewed to determine gaps in food safety knowledge and prevalence of related behaviors in order to create targeted educational material for this population. A food safety score was calculated based on responses to 40 knowledge, belief, and behavior questions. Among 268 AIDS patients interviewed, the overall food safety score was 63% (range 28% to 93%). Many patients believed it was okay to eat higher risk food (38% for eating eggs served loose or runny, 27% for eating store-bought hot dogs without heating them first), 40% did not know that eating unpasteurized cheese may get germs inside their body that could cause hospitalization and possibly death, and 40% would not throw away salad that had been splashed with a few drops of raw chicken juice. These data demonstrate substantial knowledge gaps and behavioral risk related to acquisition of foodborne disease among AIDS patients. Healthcare providers should incorporate education regarding foodborne disease risk into routine outpatient discussion of improving and maintaining their health. PMID:25061438

  5. Ineffectiveness of AIDS education and HIV antibody testing in reducing high-risk behaviors among injection drug users.

    PubMed Central

    Calsyn, D A; Saxon, A J; Freeman, G; Whittaker, S

    1992-01-01

    The effectiveness of education in reducing high-risk human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission behaviors was examined in 313 injection drug users. Involvement in high-risk behaviors was assessed via structured interview at study entry and 4 months following the intervention. Subjects were randomly assigned to (1) AIDS education, (2) AIDS education with optional HIV antibody testing, or (3) a wait list. The sample as a whole decreased its involvement in high-risk behaviors, but there were no significant differences as a function of experimental group assignment. PMID:1546776

  6. Epidemiological assessment of food aid in the Bosnian conflict, 1994-97.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Neil; Paredes-Solís, Sergio; Cockcroft, Anne; Sherr, Lorraine

    2012-04-01

    Surveys in emergency settings are important for the accountability of food aid. Four household surveys conducted between 1994 and 1997 measured the performance of the Bosnia food aid programme, covering a random sample of clusters in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republica Srpska. The team calculated coverage, exclusion and inclusion errors, programme misses, and under-supply. Despite intended universal coverage from 1994-96, 15, 19, and 31 per cent, respectively, did not receive food across the three-year time frame. Households categorised as vulnerable were somewhat more likely to receive food. Programme misses were rare, whereas under-supply fell from 30 per cent in 1994 to four per cent in 1997, as the availability of other food increased. Extrapolation suggested that 61 per cent of the food distributed did not reach households. The programme introduced priority categories for targeting in 1997, yet nearly one-half of the highest priority households did not receive food. Incomplete coverage and weak targeting were related to political constraints.

  7. HIV/AIDS patient satisfaction with a food assistance programme in Sofala province, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Posse, Mariana; Baltussen, Rob

    2013-12-01

    Food insecurity is one of the main factors affecting access and adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in middle- and low-income countries. To mitigate this problem, food assistance interventions are being integrated in ART programmes. As evidence of effectiveness of these interventions has been mixed, evaluating their implementation is important. We measured the satisfaction of HIV/AIDS patients with a food assistance programme in Sofala province in Mozambique. This was an observational study that used a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. HIV/AIDS patients receiving food assistance took part in focus group discussions (FDGs) and completed a semi-structured questionnaire about their opinions about the programme. Data were analysed using content and factor analysis, percentages of the maximum attainable scores (PMAS) and regression. Patients were satisfied with food assistance and rated it well above 60% of PMAS. Four factors were identified as underlying factors of satisfaction with food assistance. From these factors, patients were satisfied with 2, product availability and the distribution process, and rated these above 60%. They were dissatisfied with the other 2, quantity of products and the enrolment period, and rated these below 60%. From the four factors, only the distribution process was significantly associated with satisfaction with food assistance (p = 0.001). Satisfaction and the helpfulness of food assistance in adherence to ART, as perceived by patients, were significantly associated (p < 0.001). Patients were satisfied with food assistance. Programme managers should focus on the distribution process, quantity of products and enrolment period to further improve satisfaction of patients receiving food assistance.

  8. HIV/AIDS, artisanal fishing and food security in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngwenya, B. N.; Mosepele, K.

    Generally, rural households pursue all year round natural and non-natural resource-based livelihood systems to diversify these options in order to cope with risks emanating from a range of shocks and stressors. Artisanal fishing in the Delta is not only a major livelihood option but also a source of food security. This paper is based on analysis of primary data collected from a survey of 248 subsistence fishers’ households through simple random sampling in 22 villages in the Delta. The overall objectives of the survey were to assess the general prevalence of HIV/AIDS in the Ngamiland district of Botswana, to investigate potential effects of AIDS-related stressors, particularly chronic illness on artisanal fishing activities, and to assess implications towards food security. Results from this study indicate that HIV prevalence rates for pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in the Delta are approximately 30% and are related to factors such as marriage, education, and employment. Despite this relatively high prevalence percentage, most of the affected households do not have adequate access to HIV/AIDS support facilities. Support services are provided on the basis of population size and/or status of the settlement (i.e. urban, urban village, rural or remote). Therefore, since about 50% of the Delta’s population lives in settlements of less than 500 people, they receive health services indirectly through major population centres whose capacity to deliver timely HIV/AIDS services is limited. This disproportionate access to HIV/AIDS services disadvantages the majority of fishing communities in the Delta, and may affect their ability to fish. Moreover, about 53% of sampled households had cared for a continuously ill person/s (CIP’s) in the last 5 years, out of which approximately 29% felt that this seriously impacted fishing activities. These serious impacts included sale of family assets, depletion of savings, and switching or abandoning fishing activities

  9. 75 FR 22601 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; User Fees for 513(g...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... Staff; User Fees for 513(g); Requests for Information; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... the draft guidance entitled ``Draft Guidance for Industry and FDA Staff; User Fees for 513(g) Requests for Information.'' This draft guidance describes the user fees associated with 513(g) requests for...

  10. Working memory training for adult hearing aid users: study protocol for a double-blind randomized active controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Henshaw, Helen; Ferguson, Melanie A

    2013-12-05

    One in ten people aged between 55 to 74 years have a significant hearing impairment in their better hearing ear (as defined by audiometric hearing thresholds). However, it is becoming increasingly clear that the challenges faced by older listeners cannot be explained by the audiogram alone. The ability for people with hearing loss to use cognition to support speech perception allows for compensation of the degraded auditory input. This in turn offers promise for new cognitive-based rehabilitative interventions. Working memory is known to be highly associated with language comprehension and recent evidence has shown significant generalization of learning from trained working memory tasks to improvements in sentence-repetition skills of children with severe to profound hearing loss. This evidence offers support for further investigation into the potential benefits of working memory training to improve speech perception abilities in other hearing impaired populations. This is a double-blind randomized active controlled trial aiming to assess whether a program of working memory training results in improvements in untrained measures of cognition, speech perception and self-reported hearing abilities in adult hearing aid users aged (50 to 74 years) with mild-to-moderate hearing loss hearing aid users, compared with an active control group who receive a placebo version of the working memory training program. The present study aims to generate high-quality preliminary evidence for the efficacy of working memory training for adult hearing aid users with mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss who are existing hearing aid users. This trial addresses a number of gaps in the published literature assessing training interventions for people with hearing loss, and in the general literature surrounding working memory training, such as the inclusion of an active control group, participant and tester blinding, and increased transparency in reporting. Clinical

  11. Food security in HIV/AIDS response: insights from Homa Bay, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Datta, Dipankar; Njuguna, James

    2009-12-01

    This paper examines the viability and effectiveness of a pilot farming initiative in reversing impacts of HIV/AIDS on the most affected households in Homa Bay, Kenya. The paper argues that once patients are stable, they can effectively be engaged in farming with minimal financial and technical support, resulting in enhanced food security of the affected households. More importantly, it helps to reduce HIV/AIDS-related stigma and improve the individual's self-esteem. Some of the key challenges of the pilot initiative were the limited number of agricultural extension workers and absence of facilities to enable them to deliver services to the farmers, the high cost of farm inputs, the unavailability of farm inputs when they were needed, poorly developed agricultural markets, and the absence of irrigation facilities. The paper recommends the sensitive scaling-up of this approach. However, farming initiatives by HIV/AIDS service NGOs should be linked to at least three key aspects: (a) treatment, care and support to HIV/AIDS affected households; (b) micro grant schemes or subsidies to enable farmers to purchase farming tools and farm inputs; and (c) comprehensive on-farm training support. To ensure effectiveness and wider reach, government needs to view agriculture through an HIV lens and promote a multisectoral approach that recognises the relationship between HIV/AIDS and food security. A number of immediate actions are required to strengthen this relationship, such as increased public investment to augment extension services, subsidise farm inputs, and develop infrastructure including agricultural markets.

  12. Screening for anti-nutritional compounds in complementary foods and food aid products for infants and young children.

    PubMed

    Roos, Nanna; Sørensen, Jens Christian; Sørensen, Hilmer; Rasmussen, Søren Kjaersgaard; Briend, André; Yang, Zhenyu; Huffman, Sandra L

    2013-01-01

    A range of compounds with negative nutritional impact - 'anti-nutrients' - are found in most plant foods. The contents of anti-nutrients in processed foods depend on the ingredients and processing. Anti-nutrients in complementary foods for children can have a negative impact on nutritional status. The aim of this study was to screen complementary foods from developing countries for the anti-nutritional compounds, phytate, polyphenols, inhibitors of trypsin and chymotrypsin, and lectins. Commercial products based on whole grain cereals were included as a 'worst-case' scenario for anti-nutrient exposure in Europe. Contents of minerals (iron, zinc and calcium), in which absorption or utilisation is affected by anti-nutrients, were analysed. Thirty-six products representing foods used in food aid programmes, local blended foods, fortified instant porridges and 'baby foods' were analysed. The content of minerals indicated that the fortification of a number of products did not meet the declared levels of iron, zinc and calcium. The phytate content ranged from 68 to 1536 mg/100 g, confirming a persistent problem of high levels of phytate in processed cereal- and legume-based products. The phytate : Fe molar ratio exceeded the recommended level of <1.0 in 32 of the 36 products. The total polyphenols varied from 1.3 to 9.3 mg gentisic acid equivalents g(-1) . Screening low-molecular weight soluble polyphenols may be more relevant in complementary foods than total polyphenolic compounds. Trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors and lectins were found in residual amounts in most products, indicating efficient degradation by heat processing. However, young infants and malnourished children may have reduced pancreatic function, and upper limits for residual trypsin inhibitors are needed.

  13. Looking beyond food aid to livelihoods, protection and partnerships: strategies for WFP in the Darfur states.

    PubMed

    Young, Helen

    2007-03-01

    The humanitarian crisis in Darfur remains extremely serious. The optimism that followed the signing of the Abuja Peace Accord was followed by a rapid deterioration in security on the ground in part associated with increasing factionalism in various rebel movements. This paper briefly reviews the evolution of the crisis, its impact on lives and livelihoods and the response by the World Food Programme (WFP) to June 2006. The major challenges and issues facing the food aid programme in the previous 18 months included: dealing with insecurity while maintaining or even extending programme outreach; the need to link protection with assistance more explicitly; and determining the wider impact of food aid programming on the processes and institutions linked with the conflict. The paper discusses the main strategic issues facing WFP in the future such as: integrating security and protection with needs assessments and operational decisions, broadening response strategies beyond food aid and bringing livelihoods to the fore, the need to review cost-efficiency, promoting partnerships and strengthening national and regional capacities.

  14. Enhancing processes for introduction, production, quality assurance, and delivery of US Title II food aid products.

    PubMed

    Schlossman, Nina; Webb, Patrick; Bagriansky, Jack; Johnson, Quentin; Rogers, Beatrice; Tilahun, Jessica; Masterson, Amelia Reese

    2011-09-01

    Enacted in 1950, Public Law 480 (PL480) dramatically increased the volume of U.S.food aid and the scope of interventions it supports. Billions of dollars have been invested, both to enhance the diets of chronically undernourished people in development settings, and to support nutritional needs during conflicts and natural disasters. Review the institutional processes-from procurement to delivery-that support this programming. We examined the systems that govern and oversee the many components of food aid programming and the extent to which they support a whole-of-government, multi-agency food aid agenda. We conducted consultations with US government employees and contractors, academics, industry representatives, donor agency staff United Nations personnel, and field-level food aid programming technical staff from many countries. A survey of USAID implementing partners conducted among 64 responding offices in 40 countries provided data on the use and effectiveness of enriched, fortified, or blended Title II commodities, the use of new commodities, and related procurement or logistics aspects. Expert panels provided input and feedback throughout the process. We identified potential improvements to overall delivery and cost-effectiveness of USAID programming to better meet the nutrition needs of beneficiaries. Options include changes in product formulation, the range of products provided, and/or the modes of product approval, processing, procurement, and distribution. This research points to several improvements in processes related to food aid: 1) Establish an interagency committee to oversee all government interests in the food aid agenda through an ongoing review process. 2) Enhance processes and quality assurance along the product value chain including the importance of effective interaction with the private sector to incorporate industry best practices and create public-private partnerships to promote product innovations. 3) Strengthen the evidence base for

  15. Dealing food: female drug users' narratives about food in a prison place and implications for their health.

    PubMed

    Smoyer, Amy B; Blankenship, Kim M

    2014-05-01

    Prison is a major "place" for drug users in the US, yet remarkably little is known about the lived experience of incarceration. More information about prison life is needed to improve health outcomes for incarcerated and formerly incarcerated people. Thirty (30) formerly incarcerated women were interviewed about prison food. All interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed. Qualitative data analysis software was used to code and organize the data using thematic analysis. As described in these participants' narratives, prison food systems contributed to the construction of boundaries that distinguished the prison place from places and life outside the institution's walls. Participants also described boundaries within the prison that resulted in a patchwork of interior places, each with their own unique structure, meaning, and food system. These places, constructed by physical location, movement, and power, or lack thereof, included various micro-geographies that further defined women's individual prison experience. The boundaries that separated these places were not fixed: Women shifted and diminished internal and external borders by resisting food policies and reproducing their outside lives inside. These findings call for public policy officials and prison administrators to reexamine the prison place in order to facilitate healthier eating behaviors and lay the groundwork for more positive communication between inmates and correctional staff and administration. More research is needed to measure how these types of changes to the prison food environment impact nutritional, mental health, substance abuse, and criminal justice outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Hunger, poverty and food aid in Sub-Saharan Africa: Retrospect and potential.

    PubMed

    Green, R H

    1986-12-01

    Frustrations and failures will continue to mount if we do not immediately summon the courage to revise the ways we think and take action-as well as maintaining essential services to support life and health … Saving hundreds of thousands … who are at risk of dying from malnutrition or infection is an immediate imperative. But it must be only one stage in the progress toward other activities, and one element in the truly comprehensive approach… The main intent of this paper is to explore aspects of the nature and evolution of poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa with special reference to food and hunger and their interaction with macro-economic policy. An attempt is made to outline the overall context within which food aid needs to be used in order to have a greater developmental impact. Following an Introductory Section I, Section II provides a sketch map of how recession and lagging food production - with cyclical weather crises superimposed - affect the human condition of poor people. Section III reviews die interaction between "standard" IMF stabilization and World Bank structural adjustment strategies and poverty/hunger. Improvements in the design of stabilization and adjustment programmes, and of the inter-relationship with them of emergency programmes, can be identified. A number turn on the broadened and more innovative or catalytic use of food aid. Section IV reviews aspects of facing a continuing series of emergencies and of designing life support programmes to facilitate rehabilitation of the households directly affected as well as of the national economies. From this base it explores a series of elements in achieving renewed development. The concluding Section seeks to explore the strengths, limitations and potentials of food aid in the context set by the previous sections. The standard criticisms of food aid appear to be overstated and/or to relate to particular modalities or approaches rather than to anything intrinsic. A number of criteria for improving

  17. Postural support by a standing aid alleviating subjective discomfort among cooks in a forward-bent posture during food preparation.

    PubMed

    Iwakiri, Kazuyuki; Kunisue, Reiko; Sotoyama, Midori; Udo, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects on subjective discomfort among cooks during food preparation through use of a standing aid that we developed to alleviate the workload on the low back in the forward-bent posture. Twelve female cooks who worked in a kitchen in a nursing home were asked to prepare foods in 2 working postures: (a) supported by the standing aid (Aid) and (b) without the aid (No aid). They were instructed to evaluate discomfort in 13-body regions during food preparation and the degree of fatigue at the day's end and to enter their ratings after the end of the workday. Since a significant correlation was observed between body height and the improvement effect of discomfort through use of the standing aid, cooks were divided into two groups according to the height, and ratings were analyzed in each group. Among the tall cooks, subjective discomfort in the low back and the front and back of thighs was significantly less with the Aid posture than with the No aid posture. However, in short cooks these values tended to increase in the Aid posture compared with the No aid posture. The results suggest that the standing aid was effective in alleviating tall cooks' workload on the low back in the forward-bent posture.

  18. Food insecurity among volunteer AIDS caregivers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia was highly prevalent but buffered from the 2008 food crisis.

    PubMed

    Maes, Kenneth C; Hadley, Craig; Tesfaye, Fikru; Shifferaw, Selamawit; Tesfaye, Yihenew Alemu

    2009-09-01

    Our objective in this study was to assess the validity and dependability of the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS), which was developed for international use, among community health volunteers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The HFIAS was translated into Amharic and subsequently tested for content and face validity. This was followed by a quantitative validation study based on a representative sample (n = 99) of female community volunteers (HIV/AIDS home-based caregivers), with whom the HFIAS was administered at 3 time points over the course of 2008, in the context of the local and global "food crisis." By pooling observations across data collection rounds and accounting for intra-individual correlation in repeated measures, we found that the HFIAS performed well according to standards in the field. We also observed slight amelioration in reported food insecurity (FI) status over time, which seems paradoxical given the increasing inaccessibility of food over the same time period due to inflating prices and disappearing food aid. We attempted to resolve this paradox by appealing to self-report-related phenomena that arise in the context of longitudinal study designs: 1) observation bias, in which respondents change their reports according to changing expectations of the observer-respondent relationship or change their behavior in ways that ameliorate FI after baseline self-reports; and 2) "response shift," in which respondents change their reports according to reassessment of internal standards of FI. Our results are important for the validation of FI tools and for the sustainability of community health programs reliant on volunteerism in sub-Saharan Africa.

  19. Selection and use of US Title II food aid products in programming contexts.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Beatrice; Webb, Patrick; Wanke, Christine; Sadler, Kate; Masterson, Amelia Reese; Bagriansky, Jack; Schlossman, Nina; Narayan, Anuradha; Tilahun, Jessica

    2011-09-01

    Food aid provided by the United States has saved lives for almost two centuries. Delivering the right products is important, but of equal concern are the ways in which products are delivered and to whom. The study addresses how food products are currently used, whether interventions are appropriate to achieve nutrition objectives, and whether nutrition targets could be met more cost-effectively with a different mix of products or programs. The team conducted consultations with a broad range of stakeholders. A survey of Title II implementing partners was conducted, focusing on procurement and logistics, and uses of FBFs and other foods. Input of implementing partners, civil society, and donor organizations was obtained through individual consultations, international and small group meetings. More than 400 individuals accessed the project's website. The project convened a panel of experts in food technology and science, food policy, law, industry, medicine, development and humanitarian work, and the maritime industry, and held regular joint meetings with USDA and USAID. The draft report was widely disseminated and posted on the website. There is wide variation in the quantities of fortified blended foods provided to target populations. Most of these foods are used in health/nutrition programs, but they are also used in general family rations or as an incentive or pay. Clearer programming guidance and improved decision tools are needed to match products to nutrition goals, and programs should consider delivering nutrients across a basket of commodities, not single products. The evidence base for the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of specific foods and programs needs to be strengthened and should be supported by FFP Research is needed to provide guidance on nutrition support for HIV/AIDS. Additional investments are needed in effective behavior change communication.

  20. Encoded Archival Description: Are Finding Aids Boundary Spanners or Barriers for Users?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakel, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    The article reports the results of a usability study of an EAD interface. Findings indicate that subjects had trouble understanding archival terminology and how best to search for information in finding aids. Furthermore, they were not familiar with the structure or contents of finding aids. In addition to building interfaces that minimize…

  1. The international food unit: a new measurement aid that can improve portion size estimation.

    PubMed

    Bucher, T; Weltert, M; Rollo, M E; Smith, S P; Jia, W; Collins, C E; Sun, M

    2017-09-12

    Portion size education tools, aids and interventions can be effective in helping prevent weight gain. However consumers have difficulties in estimating food portion sizes and are confused by inconsistencies in measurement units and terminologies currently used. Visual cues are an important mediator of portion size estimation, but standardized measurement units are required. In the current study, we present a new food volume estimation tool and test the ability of young adults to accurately quantify food volumes. The International Food Unit™ (IFU™) is a 4x4x4 cm cube (64cm(3)), subdivided into eight 2 cm sub-cubes for estimating smaller food volumes. Compared with currently used measures such as cups and spoons, the IFU™ standardizes estimation of food volumes with metric measures. The IFU™ design is based on binary dimensional increments and the cubic shape facilitates portion size education and training, memory and recall, and computer processing which is binary in nature. The performance of the IFU™ was tested in a randomized between-subject experiment (n = 128 adults, 66 men) that estimated volumes of 17 foods using four methods; the IFU™ cube, a deformable modelling clay cube, a household measuring cup or no aid (weight estimation). Estimation errors were compared between groups using Kruskall-Wallis tests and post-hoc comparisons. Estimation errors differed significantly between groups (H(3) = 28.48, p < .001). The volume estimations were most accurate in the group using the IFU™ cube (Mdn = 18.9%, IQR = 50.2) and least accurate using the measuring cup (Mdn = 87.7%, IQR = 56.1). The modelling clay cube led to a median error of 44.8% (IQR = 41.9). Compared with the measuring cup, the estimation errors using the IFU™ were significantly smaller for 12 food portions and similar for 5 food portions. Weight estimation was associated with a median error of 23.5% (IQR = 79.8). The IFU™ improves volume estimation accuracy compared

  2. Depressive Symptoms and Food Insufficiency Among HIV-Infected Crack Users in Atlanta and Miami

    PubMed Central

    Hadley, Craig; Rodriguez, Allan E.; Valverde, Eduardo E.; del Rio, Carlos; Metsch, Lisa R.

    2010-01-01

    Depression contributes to worse general and HIV-related clinical outcomes. We examined the prevalence of and factors associated with depressive symptomatology among HIV-infected crack cocaine users recruited for Project HOPE (Hospital Visit is an Opportunity for Prevention and Engagement with HIV-positive Crack Users). We used multiple logistic regression to determine socio-demographic correlates associated with screening in for depression. Among 291 participants, three-quarters (73.5%) were identified as depressed. Higher odds of screening in for depression was associated with food insufficiency and monthly income below $600. Alcohol and crack use were not associated with screening in for depression. Depressive symptomatology is extremely prevalent among HIV-infected crack cocaine users and is associated with food insufficiency and lower income. Screening for depression and food insecurity should be included in HIV prevention and treatment programs. Improved recognition and mitigation of these conditions will help alleviate their contribution to HIV-related adverse health outcomes. PMID:20099017

  3. Sufficient Protein Quality of Food Aid Varies with the Physiologic Status of Recipients.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Meghan; Oyama, Momo; Manary, Mark

    2017-03-01

    Protein quality scores use the amino acid (AA) requirements of a healthy North American child. AA requirements vary with physiologic status. We estimated AA requirements for healthy North American children, children with environmental enteric dysfunction, children recovering from wasting, and children with an acute infection. The protein quality of food aid products was then calculated to determine whether it was sufficient in all these groups, and we found that it may not be adequate for all of them. Physiologic status is important when assessing the protein quality of food aid. Rates of weight gain from 8 published trials treating children with moderate acute malnutrition were abstracted, and protein quality scores from the corresponding food aid products were calculated with the use of the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS). Two DIAAS values were calculated, one in healthy children aged 1-3 y as a reference population and the other in malnourished children aged 1-3 y as a reference population. These data were used to calculate the best fit regression line between weight gain and protein quality. The slope of the regression line was greater when malnourished children were used as a reference population than when healthy children were used (0.128; 95% CI: 0.118, 0.138 compared with 0.097; 95% CI: 0.090, 0.105 measured in g · kg(-1) · d(-1) · DIASS U(-1)). These findings suggest that adjusting AA requirements for physiologic status may more accurately estimate the minimum protein quality of food aid products.

  4. Linking rights and standards: the process of developing "rights-based" minimum standards on food security, nutrition and food aid.

    PubMed

    Young, Helen; Taylor, Anna; Way, Sally-Anne; Leaning, Jennifer

    2004-06-01

    This article examines the recent revision of the Sphere Minimum Standards in disaster response relating to food security, nutrition and food aid. It describes how the revision attempted to incorporate the principles of the Humanitarian Charter, as well as relevant human rights principles and values into the Sphere Minimum Standards. The initial aim of the revision was to ensure that the Sphere Minimum Standards better reflected the principles embodied in the Humanitarian Charter. This was later broadened to ensure that key legal standards and principles from human rights and humanitarian law were considered and also incorporated, in part to fill the "protection gap" within the existing standards. In relation to the food security, nutrition and food aid standards, it was agreed by participants in the process that the human right to adequate food and freedom from hunger should be incorporated. In relation to more general principles underlying the Humanitarian Charter, itself drawn largely from human rights and humanitarian law, it was agreed that there was a need to strengthen "protection" elements within the standards and a need to incorporate the basic principles of the right to life with dignity, non-discrimination, impartiality and participation, as well as to explore the relevance of the concept of the progressive realisation of the right to food. The questions raised in linking rights to operational standards required thought, on the one hand, about whether the technical standards reflected a deep understanding of the values expressed within the legal instruments, and whether the existing standards were adequate in relation to those legal rights. On the other hand, it also required reflection on how operational standards like Sphere could give concrete content to human rights, such as the right to food and the right to be free from hunger. However, there remain challenges in examining what a rights-based approach will mean in terms of the role of humanitarian

  5. Computer-Aided Authoring System (AUTHOR) User's Guide. Volume I. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guitard, Charles R.

    This user's guide for AUTHOR, an automatic authoring system which produces programmed texts for teaching symbol recognition, provides detailed instructions to help the user construct and enter the information needed to create the programmed text, run the AUTHOR program, and edit the automatically composed paper. Major sections describe steps in…

  6. Food insecurity in the context of HIV/AIDS: a framework for a new era of programming.

    PubMed

    Frega, Romeo; Duffy, Francesca; Rawat, Rahul; Grede, Nils

    2010-12-01

    Food insecurity can be both a consequence and a driver of HIV/AIDS. It is often difficult to disentangle these two roles of food insecurity, since the HIV epidemic has different drivers in different settings. The advent of antiretroviral treatment in resource-limited settings adds an additional layer of complexity. This paper seeks to organize current thinking by reviewing the existing literature on food insecurity and HIV/AIDS and describing the complex interactions between them. Based on literature review, the paper proposes a framework to understand the linkages, distinguishing four types of interventions to address them. It is hoped that the model, albeit simplified as is any framework, will help to structure research, policy, and programming in the field of HIV/AIDS and food insecurity. Finally, the paper intends to widen the lens to regard food not just as a means to provide calories or an income transfer but also as a carrier of adequate nutrition in the context of HIV. An adequate response to HIV/AIDS and food insecurity must be tailored to specific settings. Interventions distinguished in this paper are aimed at both promoting food security and providing antiretroviral treatment and nutrition support. The four types of interventions are containing HIV and preventing AIDS through comprehensive treatment regimes that include nutritional support; mitigating the effects of AIDS through support; providing HIV-sensitive, but not HIV-exclusive, safety nets at the individual, household, and community levels; and limiting the exposure to risk through HIV prevention activities.

  7. Perceived AIDS risk among adult arrestee injection drug users in Los Angeles county.

    PubMed

    Henson, K D; Longshore, D; Kowalewski, M R; Anglin, M D; Annon, K

    1998-10-01

    In this paper we examine the determinants of perceived risk for getting HIV and AIDS among adult Los Angeles arrestees reporting any lifetime injection drug use (N = 958). Our sample, drawn from the Drug Use Forecasting program, is 60% male and 40% female. Higher rates of reported risky drug and sexual behaviors than in the general population make this a particularly relevant sample within which to explore correlates of perceived risk for getting HIV and AIDS. We used multiple logistic regression to assess the relationship between perceived risk and a variety of demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial variables. Arrestees reporting celibacy in the past year, having an injection-drug-using sexual partner, having more than 20 sexual partners, engaging in sex while high, knowing someone with AIDS, and having been tested for HIV antibodies were more likely to perceive themselves at greater risk of getting HIV and AIDS. African American arrestees and arrestees reporting having attempted to reduce their sexual risks were less likely to perceive themselves at greater risk for getting AIDS. Implications for AIDS education and prevention are discussed.

  8. Implant survival rate in bone-anchored hearing aid users: long-term results.

    PubMed

    Wallberg, E; Granström, G; Tjellström, A; Stalfors, J

    2011-11-01

    To investigate the long-term survival rate of bone-anchored hearing aid implants, and to assess the number of patients who stop using their bone-anchored hearing aid. Patients who underwent bone-anchored hearing aid surgery between September 1977 and December 1986 were identified from a prospective database. Data were collected from patient records. During the study period, 143 patients were fitted with a bone-anchored hearing aid. Records from 132 patients were found, with a mean follow up of nine years. A total of 150 implants were installed in these patients. A total of 41 implants (27 per cent) were lost during follow up: 17 lost osseointegration, 16 were removed and eight were lost due to direct trauma. At the end of follow up, 119/132 (90 per cent) patients were still using their bone-anchored hearing aid. Despite a high incidence of implant loss over time, a large number of patients still continued to use their bone-anchored hearing aid.

  9. Effect of preparation method on viscosity and energy density of fortified humanitarian food-aid commodities.

    PubMed

    Black, Cameron T; Pahulu, Heather F; Dunn, Michael L

    2009-01-01

    Corn soy blend, wheat soy blend, and corn soy milk are fortified food-aid commodities distributed by the US Government, and often used in complementary feeding programs. The viscosity and energy density of these products was compared in cooked porridges, at concentrations between 8% and 20% (w/w), using a Bostwick consistometer. All three products required nearly 20% addition of dry meal in water to achieve the energy density of 0.8 kcal/g, recommended for complementary foods. At this concentration, all three were excessively viscous. Cooking times beyond 1 min showed no significant increase in viscosity. Corn soy milk was less viscous than the other products at lower concentrations. Replacement of corn meal and soy with vegetable oil produces less viscous porridges but reformulation would be needed to maintain protein and micronutrient levels. Significant process and formulation changes are needed in these products to increase their suitability for use as complementary foods.

  10. Personality profile among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positives and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients of injecting drug users.

    PubMed

    Budhachandra, Y; Ramesh, K; Sumitra, G

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to find out the various personality factors among HIV/AIDS patients of injecting drug users. The study was conducted during the period of July 2001 to August 2004 at Manipur State, India in which 60 samples of both male and female in the age range of 21 to 35 years were taken through the helps from R.I.M.S Hospital, Imphal, J.N. Hospital, Imphal and several NGOs of Manipur. The patients were administered 16 PF (Personality profile developed by R.B. Cattell and H.W. Eber) test in which 16 personalities were detected. The profile of the respondents includes age and sex cases of HIV/ AIDS. In the sample among the HIV/AIDS patients, from the age group of 21 to 25 years consists of only 20%. Most of the patients are from 26 to 35 years consisting of two age groups, i.e., 26 to 30 years and 31 to 35 years having 40% each with total of 80%. In the survey, it has been found that majority of the HIV/AIDS patients is male which consists of 60% and remaining 40% belongs to female in the ratio of 60:40. The following four scales are used to explain personality profile: 1 Introversion vs extraversion. 2 Low anxiety vs high anxiety. 3 Emotional sensitivity vs tough poise. 4 Subdueness vs independence.

  11. Computer aided boar semen motility analysis for cereulide detection in different food matrices.

    PubMed

    Rajkovic, Andreja; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Debevere, Johan

    2007-02-28

    Computer Aided Semen Analysis (CASA) study of the boar semen motility has been demonstrated to be an appropriate assay for detection of cereulide (Bacillus cereus emetic toxin). Application of the boar semen bio-assay to detect cereulide directly in foods requires investigation of potential interference of food components, preservatives and other microbial and chemical food contaminants with the bio-assay. Current study provides evidence that none of included Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins A, B, C and D nor B. cereus Hemolysin BL (HBL) and non-hemolytic enterotoxin (NHE) and three mycotoxins (Sterigmatocystin, Fumonisin B1 and Patulin) exhibited a toxic impact on semen progressive motility. Aflatoxin M1, M3 and zearalenone impaired semen motility only at concentrations (0.004 mg ml(-1), 0.1 mg ml(-1) and 10 mg ml(-1), respectively) much higher than those found in foods and those permitted by legislation, in comparison to cereulide which induces motility cease at concentrations lower than 20 ng ml(-1). Ten commonly used preservatives, namely potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, (DL) malic acid, citric acid, (L+) tartaric acid, acetic acid, (DL) lactic acid, (L+) ascorbic acid, sodium chloride and sucrose induced no cease in spermatozoa motility even at preservative concentrations higher than permitted by legislation. Dioxins, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and acrylamide had no acute effect on spermatozoa motility at concentrations of 500 and 10,000 mg ml(-1), respectively. Robustness of computer aided boar semen motility analysis, tested with 14 different foods inoculated with cereulide producing B. cereus, showed distinct cereulide production in seven samples (although B. cereus growth to counts higher than 8 log CFU g(-1) was noted in 11 samples), in amounts close to those reported in foodborne outbreaks. Test evaluation in 33 samples suspected to hold cereulide showed actual cereulide presence in ten samples and no interference of food matrix

  12. Analysis for organic residues from aids to polymerization used to make plastics intended for food contact.

    PubMed

    Fordham, P J; Gramshaw, J W; Castle, L

    2001-05-01

    Polymers intended for food contact use have been analysed for organic residues which could be attributed to a range of substances employed as polymerization aids (e.g. initiators and catalysts). A wide range of polymers was extracted with solvents and the extracts analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The overwhelming majority of substances identified were not derived from aids to polymerization but were oligomers, additives and adventitious contaminants. However, a small number of substances were identified as initiator residues. These included tetramethylsuccinonitrile (TMSN) which was observed in two polymers and it derived from recombination of two azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) initiator radicals. Methyl benzoate, benzoic acid, biphenyl and phenyl benzoate were detected in one poly(methyl methacrylate) sample and in two polyvinylchlorides and they are thought to be derived from benzoyl peroxide initiator. TMSN was subsequently targeted for analysis of poly-(methyl methacrylate) plastics using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (1H-NMR) and GC-MS. NMR detected the presence of cyanoisopropyl radical residues in the plastic at 470-3400 mg/kg whereas GC-MS detected TMSN at only 65-540 mg/kg in the samples. It is concluded that the bulk of cyanoisopropyl residues detected by NMR were either polymer-bound or were the products of side-reactions of the initiator radical. The migration of TMSN itself into the food simulants 3% aqueous acetic acid, 15% aqueous ethanol, and olive oil, at 40 degrees C for 10 days, was measured using GC-MS. Migration was very low with < 1 microg/kg released from a finished article (a drinking straw) and < 5 microg/kg from resin pellets. The overall conclusions from this work are that organic residues from aids to polymerization are generally found at reassuringly low levels in plastics intended for food contact and their potential for migration to foods is correspondingly low.

  13. Transitioning hearing aid users with severe and profound loss to a new gain/frequency response: benefit, perception, and acceptance.

    PubMed

    Convery, Elizabeth; Keidser, Gitte

    2011-03-01

    Adults with severe and profound hearing loss tend to be long-term, full-time users of amplification who are highly reliant on their hearing aids. As a result of these characteristics, they are often reluctant to update their hearing aids when new features or signal-processing algorithms become available. Due to the electroacoustic constraints of older devices, many severely and profoundly hearing-impaired adults continue to wear hearing aids that provide more low- and mid-frequency gain and less high-frequency gain than would be prescribed by the National Acoustic Laboratories' revised formula with profound correction factor (NAL-RP). To investigate the effect of a gradual change in gain/frequency response on experienced hearing-aid wearers with moderately severe to profound hearing loss. Double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Twenty-three experienced adult hearing-aid users with severe and profound hearing loss participated in the study. Participants were selected for inclusion in the study if the gain/frequency response of their own hearing aids differed significantly from their NAL-RP prescription. Participants were assigned either to a control or to an experimental group balanced for aided ear three-frequency pure-tone average (PTA) and age. Participants were fitted with Siemens Artis 2 SP behind-the-ear (BTE) hearing aids that were matched to the gain/frequency response of their own hearing aids for a 65 dB SPL input level. The experimental group progressed incrementally to their NAL-RP targets over the course of 15 wk, while the control group maintained their initial settings throughout the study. Aided speech discrimination testing, loudness scaling, and structured questionnaires were completed at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 wk postfitting. A paired comparison between the old and new gain/frequency responses was completed at 1 and 15 wk postfitting. Statistical analysis was conducted to examine differences between the experimental and control groups and changes

  14. Quality of life in bimodal hearing users (unilateral cochlear implants and contralateral hearing aids).

    PubMed

    Farinetti, A; Roman, S; Mancini, J; Baumstarck-Barrau, K; Meller, R; Lavieille, J P; Triglia, J M

    2015-11-01

    The main objective was to evaluate the bimodal self-rated benefits on auditory performance under real conditions and the quality of life in two groups of cochlear-implanted adults, with or without a contralateral hearing aid. The secondary objective was to investigate correlations between the use of a hearing aid and residual hearing on the non-implanted ear. This retrospective study was realized between 2000 and 2010 in two referral centers. A population of 183 postlingually deaf adults, implanted with a cochlear experience superior to 6 months, was selected. The Speech, Spatial, and other Qualities of Hearing Scale were administered to evaluate the auditory performances, and the Nijmegen Cochlear Implant Questionnaire to evaluate the quality of life. The population was divided into two groups: a group with unilateral cochlear implants (Cochlear Implant-alone, n = 54), and a bimodal group with a cochlear implant and a contralateral hearing aid (n = 62). Both groups were similar in terms of auditory deprivation duration, duration of cochlear implant use, and pure-tone average on the implanted ear. There was a significant difference in terms of pure-tone average on low and low-to-mid frequencies on the non-implanted ear. The scores on both questionnaires showed an improvement in the basic sound perception and quality of social activities for the bimodal group. The results suggest that the bimodal stimulation (cochlear implant and contralateral hearing aid) improved auditory perception in quiet and the quality of life domain of social activities.

  15. Findings Aids--Records--Computers: One Archivist's Search for User-Friendly Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanDereedt, Angie S.

    This paper examines some of the finding aids (e.g., information that provides insight into a group of records in an archival collection) currently used or being developed by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). It explores their practicality and whether and how they can be improved. In addition, the paper analyzes the factors…

  16. Psychometric evaluation of the Gothenburg Profile for measurement of experienced hearing disability and handicap: applications with new hearing aid candidates and experienced hearing aid users.

    PubMed

    Ringdahl, A; Eriksson-Mangold, M; Andersson, G

    1998-12-01

    The Gothenburg Profile (GP) for measurement of experienced hearing disability and handicap was developed with content partly taken from the shortened Hearing Measurement Scale (HMS25). The GP consists of 20 items divided into two subscales. The first subscale measures Experienced Disability as to hearing speech (items 1-5) and sound localization (items 6-10). The second subscale targets the Experienced Handicap in social settings (items 11-15) and the personal reactions to the experienced handicap (items 16-20). In this study, data are presented for new hearing aid candidates (NewHA) (n=441) and for experienced hearing aid users (ExpHA) (n=476). Principal components factor analyses were conducted and a three-factor solution was obtained, supporting the two factors of the Experienced Disability subscale, but just confirming one factor in the Experienced Handicap subscale. The internal consistency reliability (coefficient alpha) was good (0.85 to 0.95) for the subscales as was the test-retest reliability. The ExpHA group expressed significantly greater disability (first subscale) as well as experienced handicap (second subscale). However, when controlling for hearing level the differences disappeared. The clinical use of the GP for assessment of rehabilitation needs is recommended.

  17. Impact of the AIDS epidemic on morbidity and mortality among intravenous drug users in a New York City methadone maintenance program.

    PubMed

    Selwyn, P A; Hartel, D; Wasserman, W; Drucker, E

    1989-10-01

    To examine the impact of the AIDS epidemic on morbidity and mortality in a defined population of intravenous drug users, we analyzed overall and cause-specific death rates, AIDS incidence, and acute medical hospitalizations among patients in a long-term methadone maintenance program in New York City for the years 1984 through 1987 (midyear population for each year 828 to 891; demographic characteristics did not differ). The number of deaths while in treatment increased from 11 (13.3/1000) in 1984 to 39 (44.2/1000) in 1987. Deaths from AIDS increased from 3.6/1000 to 14.7/1000, deaths due to bacterial pneumonia/sepsis from 3.6/1000 to 13.6/1000; deaths from cirrhosis, drug overdose, trauma, and other causes remained relatively stable. AIDS incidence rose from six cases/1000 in 1984 to 20.4.1000 in 1987. Hospitalizations for AIDS, pneumonia, tuberculosis, and endocarditis/sepsis increased from 84.9/1000 in 1986 to 144.8/1000 in 1987. These data suggest that the AIDS epidemic has had a profound effect on patterns of morbidity and mortality among intravenous drug users in this methadone program population. Drug treatment programs may be important sites for targeting clinical services for drug users with AIDS, although the increasing burden of AIDS-related disease will require expansion of existing funding and treatment resources.

  18. LOGSIM user's manual. [Logic Simulation Program for computer aided design of logic circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. L.; Taylor, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    The user's manual for the LOGSIM Program is presented. All program options are explained and a detailed definition of the format of each input card is given. LOGSIM Program operations, and the preparation of LOGSIM input data are discused along with data card formats, postprocessor data cards, and output interpretation.

  19. User Interface Preferences in the Design of a Camera-Based Navigation and Wayfinding Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arditi, Aries; Tian, YingLi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Development of a sensing device that can provide a sufficient perceptual substrate for persons with visual impairments to orient themselves and travel confidently has been a persistent rehabilitation technology goal, with the user interface posing a significant challenge. In the study presented here, we enlist the advice and ideas of…

  20. Risk Behaviors and Perceptions of AIDS among Street Injection Drug Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Fen; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Conducted 325 survey interviews and 22 guided in-depth interviews with injection drug users to document drug usage and injection patterns, sexual practices, perceived risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection, sources of health information, and knowledge and attitudes about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. (Author/ABL)

  1. User Interface Preferences in the Design of a Camera-Based Navigation and Wayfinding Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arditi, Aries; Tian, YingLi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Development of a sensing device that can provide a sufficient perceptual substrate for persons with visual impairments to orient themselves and travel confidently has been a persistent rehabilitation technology goal, with the user interface posing a significant challenge. In the study presented here, we enlist the advice and ideas of…

  2. Risk Behaviors and Perceptions of AIDS among Street Injection Drug Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Fen; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Conducted 325 survey interviews and 22 guided in-depth interviews with injection drug users to document drug usage and injection patterns, sexual practices, perceived risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection, sources of health information, and knowledge and attitudes about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. (Author/ABL)

  3. Extended bandwidth nonlinear frequency compression in Mandarin-speaking hearing-aid users.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Wen-Hsuan; Hsieh, Dun-Lieh; Shih, Wan-Ting; Liu, Tien-Chen

    2017-04-06

    The high frequency information of consonant messages is important for recognition of speech. Recently, the nonlinear frequency compression (NLFC) technique has been shown to improve the speech perception in patients with high frequency hearing loss. In Mandarin, seven consonants are located over 10-16 kHz. Extended-bandwidth (EB) NLFC may provide an additional benefit for recognition of Mandarin words. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of NLFC and EB-NLFC on Mandarin word recognition in patients with high frequency hearing loss. Fourteen native Mandarin-speaking adult patients, aged 20-65 years with bilateral, moderate to severe, sensorineural hearing loss, specifically high frequency hearing loss were included in single-blind randomized study. The assessment tools included the Mandarin Monosyllable Recognition Test (MMRT), Mandarin Hearing in Noise Test (MHINT), and International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA) and sound quality scale of the hearing aids. The patients were tested under unaided condition, after which they were randomly assigned to wear NLFC and EB-NLFC hearing aids, alternatively, in a crossover fashion. After each 4-week block, the patients were tested again to obtain the test outcomes. Patients with hearing aids with EB-NLFC had a significantly better word and consonant recognition using the MMRT (p<0.05). The MHINT was better for the EB-NLFC group without significant differences. The EB-NLFC group had better scores in both the IOI-HA and sound quality scale but not statistically significant. Patients with high-frequency hearing loss may benefit more from using EB-NLFC for word and consonant recognition; however, the improvement was small under a noisy listening environment. The subjective questionnaires did not show significant benefit of EB-NLFC either. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Dual-microphone and binaural noise reduction techniques for improved speech intelligibility by hearing aid users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousefian Jazi, Nima

    Spatial filtering and directional discrimination has been shown to be an effective pre-processing approach for noise reduction in microphone array systems. In dual-microphone hearing aids, fixed and adaptive beamforming techniques are the most common solutions for enhancing the desired speech and rejecting unwanted signals captured by the microphones. In fact, beamformers are widely utilized in systems where spatial properties of target source (usually in front of the listener) is assumed to be known. In this dissertation, some dual-microphone coherence-based speech enhancement techniques applicable to hearing aids are proposed. All proposed algorithms operate in the frequency domain and (like traditional beamforming techniques) are purely based on the spatial properties of the desired speech source and does not require any knowledge of noise statistics for calculating the noise reduction filter. This benefit gives our algorithms the ability to address adverse noise conditions, such as situations where interfering talker(s) speaks simultaneously with the target speaker. In such cases, the (adaptive) beamformers lose their effectiveness in suppressing interference, since the noise channel (reference) cannot be built and updated accordingly. This difference is the main advantage of the proposed techniques in the dissertation over traditional adaptive beamformers. Furthermore, since the suggested algorithms are independent of noise estimation, they offer significant improvement in scenarios that the power level of interfering sources are much more than that of target speech. The dissertation also shows the premise behind the proposed algorithms can be extended and employed to binaural hearing aids. The main purpose of the investigated techniques is to enhance the intelligibility level of speech, measured through subjective listening tests with normal hearing and cochlear implant listeners. However, the improvement in quality of the output speech achieved by the

  5. Considering the effects purchase food balance guide utilizing cable television has on the user.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kimiko; Hosokawa, Atsushi; Sugiyama, Masumi; Moriwaki, Hiroko; Nakamura, Masaru; Takenori, Tatsuaki; Mikami, Hiroshi; Kihara, Kazumitsu; Ono, Takeya

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to empirically investigate the needfulness of the Purchased Foodstuffs Balance Guide as designed for its users and also consider its influence on better dietary habits. The participants included 89 students who attended City A's Senior Citizens' College, and the reality of their ICT and dietary habits were surveyed. Next, 27 cable television subscribers were asked to be monitors for testing the Guide. The study took place during a period of September 2013 to March 2014. The results indicated that, for the senior citizens, ICT use was centred on communication with their families and that their awareness or desire was a low in terms of the functions of information transmission, entertainment and receipt of services. Next, after using the Purchased Foodstuffs Balance Guide, its needfulness and its influence on better food habits were examined. As a result, the most frequent response by the participants was that they 'understood [their own] purchasing tendencies' (36.0%), followed by the three items: 'The Guide is useful for managing my nutrition', 'The Guide enabled me to know what foodstuffs are required to supplement my diet' and 'I became more careful about purchasing foodstuffs in a balanced way.' The study showed that 70% of the participants felt that the Purchased Foodstuffs Balance Guide was useful and make decisions when purchasing food using the Guide. This indicates the possibility that the Guide exerts a positive influence on users' awareness of nutritional balance, foodstuff purchasing choices and dietary habits.

  6. Evaluation of Speech-Perception Training for Hearing Aid Users: A Multisite Study in Progress.

    PubMed

    Miller, James D; Watson, Charles S; Dubno, Judy R; Leek, Marjorie R

    2015-11-01

    Following an overview of theoretical issues in speech-perception training and of previous efforts to enhance hearing aid use through training, a multisite study, designed to evaluate the efficacy of two types of computerized speech-perception training for adults who use hearing aids, is described. One training method focuses on the identification of 109 syllable constituents (45 onsets, 28 nuclei, and 36 codas) in quiet and in noise, and on the perception of words in sentences presented in various levels of noise. In a second type of training, participants listen to 6- to 7-minute narratives in noise and are asked several questions about each narrative. Two groups of listeners are trained, each using one of these types of training, performed in a laboratory setting. The training for both groups is preceded and followed by a series of speech-perception tests. Subjects listen in a sound field while wearing their hearing aids at their usual settings. The training continues over 15 to 20 visits, with subjects completing at least 30 hours of focused training with one of the two methods. The two types of training are described in detail, together with a summary of other perceptual and cognitive measures obtained from all participants.

  7. Evaluation of Speech-Perception Training for Hearing Aid Users: A Multisite Study in Progress

    PubMed Central

    Miller, James D.; Watson, Charles S.; Dubno, Judy R.; Leek, Marjorie R.

    2015-01-01

    Following an overview of theoretical issues in speech-perception training and of previous efforts to enhance hearing aid use through training, a multisite study, designed to evaluate the efficacy of two types of computerized speech-perception training for adults who use hearing aids, is described. One training method focuses on the identification of 109 syllable constituents (45 onsets, 28 nuclei, and 36 codas) in quiet and in noise, and on the perception of words in sentences presented in various levels of noise. In a second type of training, participants listen to 6- to 7-minute narratives in noise and are asked several questions about each narrative. Two groups of listeners are trained, each using one of these types of training, performed in a laboratory setting. The training for both groups is preceded and followed by a series of speech-perception tests. Subjects listen in a sound field while wearing their hearing aids at their usual settings. The training continues over 15 to 20 visits, with subjects completing at least 30 hours of focused training with one of the two methods. The two types of training are described in detail, together with a summary of other perceptual and cognitive measures obtained from all participants. PMID:27587914

  8. Adherence to HIV/AIDS antiretroviral therapy among drug users: A qualitative study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Zahra; Eftkhar, Hasan; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Ebadi, Abbas; Abbasian, Ladan; Zamani, Fereshte; Aghamollaei, Teamur; Shojaeizade, Davood

    2016-01-01

    Background: The introduction of antiretroviral therapy has caused a remarkable decrease in the occurrence of diseases and mortality among HIV-positive patients, while this success has not been achieved among injection addicts due to a low adherence to antiretroviral medicine. This study aims at clarifying the important factors affecting adherence to treatment in addicts suffering from HIV. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative research, data were gathered through in-depth interviews and field notes, and were interpreted through content analysis in the form of constant comparison. The participants were 16 drug addicts living with HIV/AIDS. Most of them had records of imprisonment and were receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) drug treatments in the AIDS center of Imam Khomeini Hospital complex, affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Sampling was started in a purposive method and was continued until data were saturated. Results: Four main categories including psychological reactions, contradictory beliefs, perceived support, and individual and environmental barriers were extracted from the data, each having some sub-categories. Conclusions: The obtained results indicated that adherence to the treatment of HIV is not constant and mono-dimensional, but is a function of different factors. Hence, an individual having feeble adherence in a specific time and under specific circumstances may show desirable adherence under a different circumstance. Thus, treatment of addicts living with HIV/AIDS requires physical, psychological, and social attention along with drug treatments. PMID:26985220

  9. [The users of centers for AIDS information and prevention in the Comunidad Valenciana, Spain: a study based on cluster analysis].

    PubMed

    González Aracil, J; Ruiz Pérez, I; Aviñó Rico, M J; Hernández Aguado, I

    1999-01-01

    To measure the usefulness of multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) and cluster analysis applied to the epidemiological research of HIV infection. The specific are to explore the relationships between the different variables that characterize the users of the AIDS Information and Prevention Center (CIPS) and to identify clusters of characteristics which in terms of the attendance to these centers, could be considered similar. The clinical history the CIPS in the Valencian region in Spain was used as data source. The target population target were intravenous drug users (IDUSs) attending these centers between 1987 and 1994 (n = 6211). Information about socio-demographic and HIV type I infection-related variables (drug use and sexual behaviour) was collected by means of a semistructured questionnaire. A MCA was carried out to obtain a group of quantitative factors that were used in a cluster analysis. A 44.8% HIV type I prevalence was found. Five factors were detected by MCA that explain 51.14% of the total variability, of which sex, age and the usual sexual partner were the variables best explained. Cluster analysis allowed to describe 5 different subgroups of CIPS users according to their socio-demographics characteristics, risk behaviours and serologic status. It is necessary to highlight the categories 1 and 2, which collect the serologic status and the most relevant characteristics of HIV infection. Category I contains users with a negative serology and characterized by being mainly single adolescent men, with a low educational level; they stated that they have no steady sexual partner, do not share syringes and have been intravenous drug users between 3 and 10 years. They mainly come from the city of Alicante. Category 2 contains mainly people that are HIV positive and older. They also share syringes and have been intravenous drug users for a longer time; they have a higher education level and most of them come from the city of Valencia. The proposed method of

  10. Attitude of Health Care Workers (HCWs) toward Patients Affected by HIV/AIDS and Drug Users: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ledda, Caterina; Cicciù, Francesca; Puglisi, Beatrice; Ramaci, Tiziana; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Rapisarda, Venerando

    2017-01-01

    Caring for HIV/AIDS patients and/or drug users requires health care workers (HCWs) to have good knowledge of the issues. Cultural differences in HCWs, combined with professional ethics and personal beliefs, could also result in conflicting attitudes, leading to difficulties related to looking after people affected by HIV/AIDS or drug users. A cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the attitude towards HIV/AIDS patients and/or drug users in a sample of workers operating in a large university hospital in southern Italy. A total of 736 workers were surveyed from May to November 2016. During the periodic occupational health surveillance, a questionnaire was administered about attitudes of discrimination, acceptance and fear towards these patients. Respondents showed average levels of acceptance to HIV/AIDS and drug user patients. As years of experience and professional training increased, scores for discrimination, acceptance of HIV/AIDS, acceptance of drug users and fear decreased. Factors positively influencing levels of attitudes were being female and younger. Supplementary education is needed to strengthen the awareness of HCWs. PMID:28282937

  11. Attitude of Health Care Workers (HCWs) toward Patients Affected by HIV/AIDS and Drug Users: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Ledda, Caterina; Cicciù, Francesca; Puglisi, Beatrice; Ramaci, Tiziana; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Rapisarda, Venerando

    2017-03-09

    Caring for HIV/AIDS patients and/or drug users requires health care workers (HCWs) to have good knowledge of the issues. Cultural differences in HCWs, combined with professional ethics and personal beliefs, could also result in conflicting attitudes, leading to difficulties related to looking after people affected by HIV/AIDS or drug users. A cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the attitude towards HIV/AIDS patients and/or drug users in a sample of workers operating in a large university hospital in southern Italy. A total of 736 workers were surveyed from May to November 2016. During the periodic occupational health surveillance, a questionnaire was administered about attitudes of discrimination, acceptance and fear towards these patients. Respondents showed average levels of acceptance to HIV/AIDS and drug user patients. As years of experience and professional training increased, scores for discrimination, acceptance of HIV/AIDS, acceptance of drug users and fear decreased. Factors positively influencing levels of attitudes were being female and younger. Supplementary education is needed to strengthen the awareness of HCWs.

  12. Promoting food security and well-being among poor and HIV/AIDS affected households: lessons from an interactive and integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Swaans, Kees; Broerse, Jacqueline; Meincke, Maylin; Mudhara, Maxwell; Bunders, Joske

    2009-02-01

    Participatory and interdisciplinary approaches have been suggested to develop appropriate agricultural innovations as an alternative strategy to improve food security and well-being among HIV/AIDS affected households. However, sustainable implementation of such interactive approaches is far from easy and straight forward. This study reports of the Interactive Learning and Action (ILA) approach, a methodology for agricultural innovation which has been adapted to the context of HIV/AIDS. Role players in agriculture and health were brought together to stimulate and sustain innovation among three support groups for poor and affected households in a rural high HIV/AIDS prevalence area in South Africa. The effectiveness of the approach was evaluated using both outcome and process criteria. The results indicate that an interactive approach in which service providers/researchers engage themselves as actors to explore the livelihood system and develop appropriate solutions in joint collaboration with resource users has potential. However, it also revealed that cooperation among participants and stakeholders at the interface of agriculture and HIV/AIDS is complicated and sensitive to erosion. Of particular concern was the difficulty of mobilizing members from poor and affected households to participate and to overcome stigma and discrimination. Lessons and potential applications for the further development of interactive approaches are discussed.

  13. First-aid treatment of anaphylaxis to food: focus on epinephrine.

    PubMed

    Simons, F Estelle R

    2004-05-01

    Avoiding food triggers for anaphylactic reactions (severe acute systemic allergic reactions) is easier said than done. Most episodes of anaphylaxis to food occur unexpectedly in the community in the absence of a health care professional. All individuals at risk should therefore have an emergency action plan in place. The cornerstone of first-aid treatment of anaphylaxis is epinephrine injected intramuscularly in the vastus lateralis muscle (lateral aspect of the thigh). In this review, we focus on epinephrine. We examine a therapeutic dilemma: the issue of epinephrine dose selection in an individual for whom no optimal fixed-dose auto-injector formulation exists, and a therapeutic controversy: the issue of epinephrine injection versus an oral H1-antihistamine in anaphylaxis episodes that appear to be mild. The pharmaceutical industry could address the first of these issues by providing a wider range of epinephrine fixed doses in easy-to-use auto-injectors, or by providing adjustable epinephrine doses in auto-injectors. The second issue could be addressed in part by development of alternative routes of epinephrine administration for the first-aid, out-of-hospital treatment of anaphylaxis.

  14. CADS - A Computer Aided Design System. Volume 2. User’s Guide.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    the terminal. After this is accomplished, the nodes generated in the DIRECT and SHAPES NODE subprocessors are automatically displayed as a gene - ration...NODES, allows the user to select, by list gene - rated means, a series of nodes to be altered in the specified manner. r For example, the following...given group based upon the order in which they were gene - rated in the ELEMENT generation module. The element numbers are the sequential position numbers

  15. Advanced earth observation spacecraft computer-aided design software: Technical, user and programmer guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, C. E.; Krauze, L. D.

    1983-01-01

    The IDEAS computer of NASA is a tool for interactive preliminary design and analysis of LSS (Large Space System). Nine analysis modules were either modified or created. These modules include the capabilities of automatic model generation, model mass properties calculation, model area calculation, nonkinematic deployment modeling, rigid-body controls analysis, RF performance prediction, subsystem properties definition, and EOS science sensor selection. For each module, a section is provided that contains technical information, user instructions, and programmer documentation.

  16. User-Friendly, Syntax Directed Input to a Computer Aided Design System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    indepen- dern-. oblems arise in both compu:er aided design and in software development as a result of multipla types cf computz , mUtiple languages...Base CONLAN. Ease CONLAN is defined cy three i- ms , a set of object types and cperations, syntax, and a comPuta-IoL model. It is defined with Primitive...ycsjum on Computer Hardware= DescrT:--c-: -Lanquaqes. ~ p. =-3’EEET73 28. H1Il, F. J., and Petezzcn, J. R., DjZt4- S Lt-= Ms : Hardware O~gan iza,,i.n cand

  17. A tool for hearing aid and cochlear implant users to judge the usability of cellular telephones in field conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deer, Maria Soledad

    The auditory experience of using a hearing aid or a cochlear implant simultaneously with a cell phone is driven by a number of factors. These factors are: radiofrequency and baseband interference, speech intelligibility, sound quality, handset design, volume control and signal strength. The purpose of this study was to develop a tool to be used by hearing aid and cochlear implant users in retail stores as they try cell phones before buying them. This tool is meant to be an efficient, practical and systematic consumer selection tool that will capture and document information on all the domains that play a role in the auditory experience of using a cell phone with a hearing aid or cochlear implant. The development of this consumer tool involved three steps as follows: preparation, verification and measurement of success according to a predefined criterion. First, the consumer tool, consisting of a comparison chart and speech material, was prepared. Second, the consumer tool was evaluated by groups of subjects in a two-step verification process. Phase I was conducted in a controlled setting and it was followed by Phase II which took place in real world (field) conditions. In order to perform a systematic evaluation of the consumer tool two questionnaires were developed: one questionnaire for each phase. Both questionnaires involved five quantitative variables scored with the use of ratings scales. These ratings were averaged yielding an Overall Consumer Performance Score. A qualitative performance category corresponding to the Mean Opinion Score (MOS) was allocated to each final score within a scale ranging from 1 to 5 (where 5 = excellent and 1 = bad). Finally, the consumer tool development was determined to be successful if at least 80% of the participants in verification Phase II rated the comparison chart as excellent or good according to the qualitative MOS score. The results for verification Phase II (field conditions) indicated that the Overall Consumer

  18. The effects of frequency lowering on speech perception in noise with adult hearing aid users

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Christi W.; Bates, Emily; Brennan, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Objective Frequency lowering (FL) strategies move high frequency sound into a lower frequency range. This study determined if speech perception differences are observed between some of the different frequency lowering strategies that are available. Design A cross-sectional, repeated-measures design was used to compare three hearing aids that used wide-dynamic range compression (WDRC) and either non-linear frequency compression (NFC), linear frequency transposition (LFT), or frequency translation (FT). The hearing aids were matched to prescriptive real ear targets for WDRC. The settings for each FL strategy were adjusted to provide audibility for a 6300 Hz filtered speech signal. Sentence recognition in noise, subjective measures of sound quality, and a modified version of the speech intelligibility index (SII) were measured. Study Sample Ten adults between the ages of 63 to 82 years with bilateral, high frequency hearing loss. Results LFT and FT led to poorer sentence recognition compared to WDRC for most individuals. No difference in sentence recognition occurred with and without NFC. The quality questionnaire and SII showed few differences between conditions. Conclusion Under similar fitting and testing conditions of this study, FL techniques may not provide speech understanding benefit in certain background noise situations. PMID:26938846

  19. CAMEO-Valdez: A user's perspective. [Computer-Aided Management of Emergency Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, T.J.

    1990-01-11

    On the morning of March 24, 1989, the tanker EXXON VALDEZ ran aground on Bligh Reef in Alaska's Prince William Sound. The vessel was carrying over 53 million gallons of North Slope crude oil of which almost 11 million gallons were spilled in the water. The immediately impacted area included most of the western part of the Sound, but eventually, the area expanded to include parts of Seward, Homer, and Kodiak. This event constituted the worst oil spill in the history of this country, and was identified as a 'spill of national significance.' A major response to clean up the oil by EXXON, which was closely monitored by Federal and State agencies and various interest groups, was necessary. Early in the response it was obvious to the Federal On-Scene Coordinator (FOSC) that a computer-aided management system was necessary to monitor the progress of the spill clean-up operations. This paper will describe CAMEO (Computer-Aided Management of Emergency Operations) - Valdez, developed for the FOSC by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration acting in its role as the Scientific Support Coordinator (SSC). A discussion of how CAMEO was used and an evaluation of its effectiveness will also be presented.

  20. The effects of frequency lowering on speech perception in noise with adult hearing-aid users.

    PubMed

    Miller, Christi W; Bates, Emily; Brennan, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Frequency lowering (FL) strategies move high frequency sound into a lower frequency range. This study determined if speech perception differences are observed between some of the different frequency lowering strategies that are available. A cross-sectional, repeated-measures design was used to compare three hearing aids that used wide-dynamic range compression (WDRC) and either non-linear frequency compression (NFC), linear frequency transposition (LFT), or frequency translation (FT). The hearing aids were matched to prescriptive real ear targets for WDRC. The settings for each FL strategy were adjusted to provide audibility for a 6300 Hz filtered speech signal. Sentence recognition in noise, subjective measures of sound quality, and a modified version of the speech intelligibility index (SII) were measured. Ten adults between the ages of 63 to 82 years with bilateral, high frequency hearing loss. LFT and FT led to poorer sentence recognition compared to WDRC for most individuals. No difference in sentence recognition occurred with and without NFC. The quality questionnaire and SII showed few differences between conditions. Under similar fitting and testing conditions of this study, FL techniques may not provide speech understanding benefit in certain background noise situations.

  1. Food consumption patterns, diversity of food nutrients and mean nutrient intake in relation to HIV/AIDS status in Kisumu district Kenya.

    PubMed

    Onyango, Agatha Christine; Walingo, Mary Khakoni; Othuon, Lucas

    2009-09-01

    As the causes and consequences of the AIDS epidemic become clearer, so does the fundamental importance of food and nutritional security for HIV-affected individuals. Even as food insecurity remains a major problem in poor households, its effects are worsened in disease states like HIV infection. Food deficiency and nutritional inadequacy compromise an individual's physical status and work capacity, and may also diminish their resource base and household provisioning. The prevalence of HIV and AIDS in Kenya threatens food production systems, which intensifies poverty, increases the nutritional implications for HIV-infected individuals, accelerates the rate of orphanhood beyond what existing social networks can cope with, and basically affects all indicators of socio-economic development in the country. This cross-sectional study sought to assess food and nutrient intake in HIV-affected versus non-HIV-affected households. Purposive sampling was used to select 160 households (77 HIV-affected households and 83 non-HIV-affected households) in Kisumu district, a lowland area along Lake Victoria. A consolidated questionnaire that included a food-frequency checklist and personal 24-hour dietary recall was used to gather information from 40 households. The data were analysed quantitatively; descriptive statistics were mainly measures of central tendency, and inferential statistics involved chi-square tests and independent t-test samples. A table depicting food composition was used to compute the nutrient intake of each household. The findings reveal a significant relationship between a household's HIV/AIDS status and nutrient intake.

  2. The characteristics and experience of community food program users in arctic Canada: a case study from Iqaluit, Nunavut

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Community food programs (CFPs), including soup kitchens and food banks, are a recent development in larger settlements in the Canadian Arctic. Our understanding of utilization of these programs is limited as food systems research has not studied the marginalised and transient populations using CFPs, constraining service planning for some of the most vulnerable community members. This paper reports on a baseline study conducted with users of CFPs in Iqaluit, Nunavut, to identify and characterize utilization and document their food security experience. Methods Open ended interviews and a fixed-choice survey on a census (n = 94) were conducted with of users of the food bank, soup kitchen, and friendship centre over a 1 month period, along with key informant interviews. Results Users of CFPs are more likely to be Inuit, be unemployed, and have not completed high school compared to the general Iqaluit population, while also reporting high dependence on social assistance, low household income, and an absence of hunters in the household. The majority report using CFPs for over a year and on a regular basis. Conclusions The inability of users to obtain sufficient food must be understood in the context of socio-economic transformations that have affected Inuit society over the last half century as former semi-nomadic hunting groups were resettled into permanent settlements. The resulting livelihood changes profoundly affected how food is produced, processed, distributed, and consumed, and the socio-cultural relationships surrounding such activities. Consequences have included the rising importance of material resources for food access, the weakening of social safety mechanisms through which more vulnerable community members would have traditionally been supported, and acculturative stress. Addressing these broader challenges is essential for food policy, yet CFPs also have an essential role in providing for those who would otherwise have limited food access

  3. The characteristics and experience of community food program users in arctic Canada: a case study from Iqaluit, Nunavut.

    PubMed

    Ford, James; Lardeau, Marie-Pierre; Vanderbilt, Will

    2012-06-21

    Community food programs (CFPs), including soup kitchens and food banks, are a recent development in larger settlements in the Canadian Arctic. Our understanding of utilization of these programs is limited as food systems research has not studied the marginalised and transient populations using CFPs, constraining service planning for some of the most vulnerable community members. This paper reports on a baseline study conducted with users of CFPs in Iqaluit, Nunavut, to identify and characterize utilization and document their food security experience. Open ended interviews and a fixed-choice survey on a census (n = 94) were conducted with of users of the food bank, soup kitchen, and friendship centre over a 1 month period, along with key informant interviews. Users of CFPs are more likely to be Inuit, be unemployed, and have not completed high school compared to the general Iqaluit population, while also reporting high dependence on social assistance, low household income, and an absence of hunters in the household. The majority report using CFPs for over a year and on a regular basis. The inability of users to obtain sufficient food must be understood in the context of socio-economic transformations that have affected Inuit society over the last half century as former semi-nomadic hunting groups were resettled into permanent settlements. The resulting livelihood changes profoundly affected how food is produced, processed, distributed, and consumed, and the socio-cultural relationships surrounding such activities. Consequences have included the rising importance of material resources for food access, the weakening of social safety mechanisms through which more vulnerable community members would have traditionally been supported, and acculturative stress. Addressing these broader challenges is essential for food policy, yet CFPs also have an essential role in providing for those who would otherwise have limited food access.

  4. Behavioral outcomes of AIDS educational interventions for drug users in short-term treatment.

    PubMed Central

    McCusker, J; Stoddard, A M; Zapka, J G; Lewis, B F

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports the behavioral outcomes of informational vs enhanced small-group educational interventions for drug users among 407 subjects in a short-term drug treatment program. Logistic regression was used to analyze drug use and sexual behaviors at the final follow-up visit. Among lower risk subjects, the enhanced intervention was more effective in reducing injection practices that produced risks in terms of human immunodeficiency virus infection; among those at highest risk, the informational interventions were more effective. The enhanced intervention was more effective than the informational interventions in reducing cocaine use at follow-up. No differential intervention effect on sexual risk behaviors was found. PMID:8214241

  5. Interactive Voice Response Self-Monitoring to Assess Risk Behaviors in Rural Substance Users Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Jalie A.; Blum, Elizabeth R.; Xie, Lili; Roth, David L.; Simpson, Cathy A.

    2011-01-01

    Community-dwelling HIV/AIDS patients in rural Alabama self-monitored (SM) daily HIV risk behaviors using an Interactive Voice Response (IVR) system, which may enhance reporting, reduce monitored behaviors, and extend the reach of care. Sexually active substance users (35 men, 19 women) engaged in IVR SM of sex, substance use, and surrounding contexts for 4–10 weeks. Baseline predictors of IVR utilization were assessed, and longitudinal IVR SM effects on risk behaviors were examined. Frequent (n = 22), infrequent (n = 22), and non-caller (n = 10) groups were analyzed. Non-callers had shorter durations of HIV medical care and lower safer sex self-efficacy and tended to be older heterosexuals. Among callers, frequent callers had lost less social support. Longitudinal logistic regression models indicated reductions in risky sex and drug use with IVR SM over time. IVR systems appear to have utility for risk assessment and reduction for rural populations living with HIV disease. PMID:21311964

  6. Interactive voice response self-monitoring to assess risk behaviors in rural substance users living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Jalie A; Blum, Elizabeth R; Xie, Lili; Roth, David L; Simpson, Cathy A

    2012-02-01

    Community-dwelling HIV/AIDS patients in rural Alabama self-monitored (SM) daily HIV risk behaviors using an Interactive Voice Response (IVR) system, which may enhance reporting, reduce monitored behaviors, and extend the reach of care. Sexually active substance users (35 men, 19 women) engaged in IVR SM of sex, substance use, and surrounding contexts for 4-10 weeks. Baseline predictors of IVR utilization were assessed, and longitudinal IVR SM effects on risk behaviors were examined. Frequent (n = 22), infrequent (n = 22), and non-caller (n = 10) groups were analyzed. Non-callers had shorter durations of HIV medical care and lower safer sex self-efficacy and tended to be older heterosexuals. Among callers, frequent callers had lost less social support. Longitudinal logistic regression models indicated reductions in risky sex and drug use with IVR SM over time. IVR systems appear to have utility for risk assessment and reduction for rural populations living with HIV disease.

  7. Psychological assessment and AIDS research with intravenous drug users: challenges in measurement.

    PubMed

    Huang, K H; Watters, J K; Case, P

    1988-01-01

    The instruments used for psychological assessment have been under close scrutiny for many years. In particular, ethnic and racial minorities have pointed out that misapplication of instruments standardized to White middle-class norms can result in incorrect assessments. An analogous situation exists with IVDUs. In the work of the present authors with IVDUs, they were found to be a very diverse group. Contrary to common wisdom, they differ by race, ethnicity, age, and drug use profiles. However, their economic circumstances and social stigma make them a special case in terms of psychological assessment. Given the unique characteristics of IVDUs, it behooves researchers to carefully examine the standardized instruments that are available for psychological evaluation. Too often, measures standardized on White middle-class samples lack the value neutrality that makes them applicable across disparate groups. In addition, many such measures are designed with certain presumptions that do not necessarily hold true with this population (e.g., willingness and/or ability to communicate intimate information about one's feelings and psychological states). This article briefly describes some of the challenges encountered in examining standardized instruments for use in the study of IVDUs, their health psychology and AIDS-related behavior. Concerns with self-report biases, literacy, attentional focus, measurement constructs, and drug states confounding psychological states all pose challenges to psychological research with this heterogeneous population. While the need for direct intervention on the sexual and needle-sharing behaviors of IVDUs remains paramount in the combat against the spread of AIDS, researchers must also continue with the further development of basic measurement tools.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Horizontal sound localization in cochlear implant users with a contralateral hearing aid.

    PubMed

    Veugen, Lidwien C E; Hendrikse, Maartje M E; van Wanrooij, Marc M; Agterberg, Martijn J H; Chalupper, Josef; Mens, Lucas H M; Snik, Ad F M; John van Opstal, A

    2016-06-01

    Interaural differences in sound arrival time (ITD) and in level (ILD) enable us to localize sounds in the horizontal plane, and can support source segregation and speech understanding in noisy environments. It is uncertain whether these cues are also available to hearing-impaired listeners who are bimodally fitted, i.e. with a cochlear implant (CI) and a contralateral hearing aid (HA). Here, we assessed sound localization behavior of fourteen bimodal listeners, all using the same Phonak HA and an Advanced Bionics CI processor, matched with respect to loudness growth. We aimed to determine the availability and contribution of binaural (ILDs, temporal fine structure and envelope ITDs) and monaural (loudness, spectral) cues to horizontal sound localization in bimodal listeners, by systematically varying the frequency band, level and envelope of the stimuli. The sound bandwidth had a strong effect on the localization bias of bimodal listeners, although localization performance was typically poor for all conditions. Responses could be systematically changed by adjusting the frequency range of the stimulus, or by simply switching the HA and CI on and off. Localization responses were largely biased to one side, typically the CI side for broadband and high-pass filtered sounds, and occasionally to the HA side for low-pass filtered sounds. HA-aided thresholds better than 45 dB HL in the frequency range of the stimulus appeared to be a prerequisite, but not a guarantee, for the ability to indicate sound source direction. We argue that bimodal sound localization is likely based on ILD cues, even at frequencies below 1500 Hz for which the natural ILDs are small. These cues are typically perturbed in bimodal listeners, leading to a biased localization percept of sounds. The high accuracy of some listeners could result from a combination of sufficient spectral overlap and loudness balance in bimodal hearing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Supporting Shared Decision-making for Children's Complex Behavioral Problems: Development and User Testing of an Option Grid™ Decision Aid.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Erin R; Boucher, Elizabeth A; Daviss, William B; Elwyn, Glyn

    2017-04-11

    There is a lack of research to guide collaborative treatment decision-making for children who have complex behavioral problems, despite the extensive use of mental health services in this population. We developed and pilot-tested a one-page Option Grid™ patient decision aid to facilitate shared decision-making for these situations. An editorial team of parents, child psychiatrists, researchers, and other stakeholders developed the scope and structure of the decision aid. Researchers included information about a carefully chosen number of psychosocial and pharmacological treatment options, using descriptions based on the best available evidence. Using semi-structured qualitative interviews (n = 18), we conducted user testing with four parents and four clinical prescribers and field testing with four parents, four clinical prescribers, and two clinic administrators. The researchers coded and synthesized the interview responses using mixed inductive and deductive methods. Parents, clinicians, and administrators felt the Option Grid had significant value, although they reported that additional training and other support would be required in order to successfully implement the Option Grid and achieve shared decision-making in clinical practice.

  10. An Eye-Blinking-Based Beamforming Control Protocol for Hearing Aid Users With Neurological Motor Disease or Limb Amputation.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jungmin; Nam, Kyoung Won; Lee, Jun Chang; Jang, Dong Pyo; Kim, In Young

    2017-02-01

    For hearing-impaired individuals with neurological motor deficits or finger/arm amputation due to accident or disease, hearing aid adjustment using a conventional finger manipulation-based remote controller is unavailable, and a more dedicated, hands-free alternative is required. In this study, we propose an eye-blinking-based beamforming control scheme for hearing aid users. Three electroencephalogram signals measured around the ears were utilized to detect eye-blinking patterns based on a three-layer artificial neural network. The performance of the proposed control scheme was evaluated by both subjective experiments and objective index comparison tests in simulated situations. Experimental results from the subjective test demonstrated that without the pretraining phase, the accuracy and latency time were 68.57 ± 18.50% and 10.06 ± 0.94 s, respectively; in contrast, after the pretraining phase, both the accuracy and latency time were improved to 91.00 ± 4.69% and 8.60 ± 1.05 s, respectively. In index comparison tests, the proposed control scheme exhibited improvements in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as well as the segmental SNR in all tested situations, as compared to a conventional forward-focusing beamforming algorithm. We believe that the proposed control scheme provides a novel, hands-free way in which to control the operation of hearing aids for hearing-impaired patients with additional motor deficits or amputation. © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Costs of hospital-based methadone maintenance treatment in HIV/AIDS control among injecting drug users in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Afriandi, Irvan; Siregar, Adiatma Y M; Meheus, Filip; Hidayat, Teddy; van der Ven, Andre; van Crevel, Reinout; Baltussen, Rob

    2010-04-01

    To assess the cost of hospital-based methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) for injecting drug users (IDUs) in Bandung, Indonesia; to address concerns of financial sustainability at the hospital level and financial accessibility and economic attractiveness at the health care policy level. In a 1 year observation period in 2006-2007, MMT service delivery costs were estimated on the basis of a micro-costing approach. Patient costs were estimated on the basis of a survey among 48 methadone clients. A total number of 129 clients attended the MMT clinic, resulting in a total of 16,335 client visits. Total annual societal costs of running the MMT clinic equalled Rp 1130 mln (US$123,672), or Rp 69,206 (US$7.57) per client visit. Of total costs, patient costs established the largest share (65%), followed by that of central government (20%), and the hospital (15%). Present consultation tariffs already cover hospital costs and the patient costs of accessing MMT services constitute almost 70% of their income. Under current circumstances, MMT services are financially sustainable to the hospital. MMT services are subsidized by the central government, and this is warranted considering the important role of the program in HIV/AIDS among IDUs. Still, the present user fee seems a barrier to utilization, and a higher level of subsidy might be justified to reduce the cost to the patient. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Medication assisted treatment in the treatment of drug abuse and dependence in HIV/AIDS infected drug users.

    PubMed

    Kresina, Thomas F; Bruce, R Douglas; McCance-Katz, Elinore F

    2009-07-01

    Drug use and HIV/AIDS are global public health issues. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that up to 30% of HIV infections are related to drug use and associated behaviors. The intersection, of the twin epidemics of HIV and drug/alcohol use, results in difficult medical management issues for the health care providers and researchers who work in the expanding global HIV prevention and treatment fields. Access to care and treatment, medication adherence to multiple therapeutic regimens, and concomitant drug -drug interactions of prescribed treatments are difficult barriers for drug users to overcome without directed interventions. Injection drug users are frequently disenfranchised from medical care and suffer sigma and discrimination creating additional barriers to care and treatment for their drug abuse and dependence as well as HIV infection. In an increasing number of studies, medication assisted treatment of drug abuse and dependence has been shown to be an important HIV prevention intervention. Controlling the global transmission of HIV will require further investment in evidence-based interventions and programs to enhance access to care and treatment of individuals who abuse illicit drugs and alcohol. In this review, we present the cumulative evidence of the importance of medication assisted treatment in the prevention, care, and treatment of HIV infected individuals who also abuse drugs and alcohol.

  13. Volunteer home-based HIV/AIDS care and food crisis in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: sustainability in the face of chronic food insecurity.

    PubMed

    Maes, Kenneth C; Shifferaw, Selamawit; Hadley, Craig; Tesfaye, Fikru

    2011-01-01

    Low-income volunteers constitute a major part of AIDS care workforces in sub-Saharan Africa, yet little research has been conducted to determine how poverty and insecurity among volunteers impact their wellbeing and the sustainability of the AIDS treatment programmes they support. This paper presents longitudinal ethnographic and epidemiological research documenting how the 2008 food crisis in Addis Ababa affected AIDS care volunteers' care relationships and motivations. Ethnographic results highlight the distress and demotivation that rising food costs created for caregivers by contributing to their own and their care recipients' experiences of food insecurity and HIV-related stigmatization. Epidemiological results underscore a high prevalence of food insecurity (approximately 80%) even prior to the peak of food prices. Rising food prices over the 3 years prior to 2008, underemployment and household per capita incomes averaging less than US$1/day, likely contributed to the very high prevalence of food insecurity reported by caregivers in our sample. We also show that new volunteers recruited in early 2008 by one of the non-governmental organizations (NGOs) involved in this study were more likely to be dependants within their households, and that these participants reported lower rates of food insecurity and higher household income. While this shift in volunteer recruitment may help sustain volunteer care programmes in the face of widespread poverty and underemployment, food insecurity was still highly prevalent (58-71%) among this sub-group. Given the inability of the local NGOs that organize volunteers to address the challenge of food insecurity for programme sustainability, our results raise important policy questions regarding compensation for volunteers' valuable labour and poverty reduction through public health sector job creation.

  14. Volunteer home-based HIV/AIDS care and food crisis in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: sustainability in the face of chronic food insecurity

    PubMed Central

    Maes, Kenneth C; Shifferaw, Selamawit; Hadley, Craig; Tesfaye, Fikru

    2011-01-01

    Low-income volunteers constitute a major part of AIDS care workforces in sub-Saharan Africa, yet little research has been conducted to determine how poverty and insecurity among volunteers impact their wellbeing and the sustainability of the AIDS treatment programmes they support. This paper presents longitudinal ethnographic and epidemiological research documenting how the 2008 food crisis in Addis Ababa affected AIDS care volunteers’ care relationships and motivations. Ethnographic results highlight the distress and demotivation that rising food costs created for caregivers by contributing to their own and their care recipients’ experiences of food insecurity and HIV-related stigmatization. Epidemiological results underscore a high prevalence of food insecurity (approximately 80%) even prior to the peak of food prices. Rising food prices over the 3 years prior to 2008, underemployment and household per capita incomes averaging less than US$1/day, likely contributed to the very high prevalence of food insecurity reported by caregivers in our sample. We also show that new volunteers recruited in early 2008 by one of the non-governmental organizations (NGOs) involved in this study were more likely to be dependants within their households, and that these participants reported lower rates of food insecurity and higher household income. While this shift in volunteer recruitment may help sustain volunteer care programmes in the face of widespread poverty and underemployment, food insecurity was still highly prevalent (58–71%) among this sub-group. Given the inability of the local NGOs that organize volunteers to address the challenge of food insecurity for programme sustainability, our results raise important policy questions regarding compensation for volunteers’ valuable labour and poverty reduction through public health sector job creation. PMID:20439347

  15. [The contributing factors to surplus medicine by long-term users of medical aid in Korea].

    PubMed

    Shin, Sun Mi; Kim, Eui Sook; Lee, Hee Woo

    2009-11-01

    The amount of medical utilization by Medical Aid recipients was 3.7 times that of patients with Korean Medical Insurance. This study aims to describe the surplus medicine and the medication-related utilization, and to determine factors contributing to surplus medicine. Among those who used copayment-free Class I Medical Aid in 2005, 146,880 subjects who were >/=19 year-old and received >365 days medical treatment per year were studied with their case managers by conducting face-to-face interviews. The analytic methods were description, chi-square, t-tests, ANCOVA and multiple logistic regressions. Most subjects were female (68.6%), the elderly (62.5%), and the separated (61.6%), had an elementary graduation or less (74.8%), and had disabilities (33.2%). The percentage of subjects with surplus medicine was 18.5%. However, the percentage of females, the elderly, those with non-disabilities, the separated, the uneducated, those with a very poor perceived health status and those with an economical burden for medical treatment was 19.3%, 18.9%, 19.0%, 19.3%, 19.0%, 20.2% and 24.3%, respectively. For subjects with surplus medicine, averages for the number of used pharmacies, the pharmacy-visit days and the medication costs were 4.6 drugstores, 34.9 days and approximately 1,124 thousand Won(\\). These values were higher than those without surplus medicine (4.4 drugstores , 33.8 days, and Won(\\)1,110 thousand, respectively). The odds ratios of the contributing factors to surplus medicine were female 1.11 (95% CI=1.07-1.14), the elderly 1.06 (95% CI=1.02-1.10), those with non-disabilities 1.08 (95% CI=1.05-1.12), the separated 1.14 (95% CI=1.10-1.18), the unmarried 1.12 (95% CI=1.07-1.18), the uneducated 1.03 (95% CI=1.01-1.08), those with a very poor perceived health status 1.04 (95% CI=1.01-1.08) and experiencing an economical burden for medical treatment 2.33 (95% CI=2.26-2.40). 18.5% of subjects had surplus medicine with a higher mean of medication cost. Therefore

  16. Multilevel Predictors of Concurrent Opioid Use during Methadone Maintenance Treatment among Drug Users with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Bach Xuan; Ohinmaa, Arto; Mills, Steve; Duong, Anh Thuy; Nguyen, Long Thanh; Jacobs, Philip; Houston, Stan

    2012-01-01

    Background Ongoing drug use during methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) negatively affects outcomes of HIV/AIDS care and treatment for drug users. This study assessed changes in opioid use, and longitudinal predictors of continued opioid use during MMT among HIV-positive drug users in Vietnam, with the aim of identifying changes that might enhance program efficacy. Methods We analyze data of 370 HIV-positive drug users (mean age 29.5; 95.7% male) taking MMT at multi-sites. Opioid use was assessed at baseline, 3, 6, and 9 months using interviews and heroin confirmatory urine tests. A social ecological model was applied to explore multilevel predictors of continued opioid use, including individual, interpersonal, community and service influences. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) statistical models were constructed to adjust for intra-individual correlations. Results Over 9 month follow-up, self-reported opioid use and positive heroin urine test substantially decreased to 14.6% and 14.4%. MMT helped improve referrals and access to health care and social services. However, utilization of social integration services was small. GEE models determined that participants who were older (Adjusted Odd Ratio - AOR = 0.97 for 1 year increase), had economic dependents (AOR = 0.33), or were referred to TB treatment (AOR = 0.53) were less likely to continue opioid use. Significant positive predictors of ongoing opioid use included frequency of opioid use prior to MMT, peer pressure, living with sexual partners, taking antiretroviral treatment, other health concerns and TB treatment. Conclusion These findings show that MMT in the Vietnamese context can dramatically reduce opioid use, which is known to be associated with reduced antiretroviral (ART) adherence. Disease stage and drug interactions between antiretrovirals or TB drugs and MMT could explain some of the observed predictors of ongoing drug use; these findings could inform changes in MMT program design and

  17. Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and tuberculosis among minority injection drug users.

    PubMed Central

    Estrada, Antonio L.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This article reviews the literature on the impact of HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV, HCV), and tuberculosis on minority drug injectors in the United States. OBSERVATIONS: Injection drug use is a key factor in the transmission of blood-borne pathogens, and HIV disease is exacerbated by tuberculosis infection. Minority drug injectors are disproportionately represented in the national statistics on these infections. Behavioral epidemiologic studies show that both injection-related risk factors years of injecting drugs, type of drug injected, direct and indirect sharing of injection paraphernalia) and sex-related risk factors (lack of condom use, multiple sexual partners, survival sex) are conducive to the spread of HIV, HBV, and HCV. CONCLUSIONS: Two issues must be addressed to halt the spread of HIV infection and hepatitis B and C. The capacity of syringe-exchange programs to refer participants to drug treatment programs and facilitate access to health and social services must be increased. Culturally appropriate behavioral interventions targeting risk behaviors among ethnic and racial minorities, especially women, must be developed and put in place. PMID:12435836

  18. Speech perception and quality of life of open-fit hearing aid users

    PubMed Central

    GARCIA, Tatiana Manfrini; JACOB, Regina Tangerino de Souza; MONDELLI, Maria Fernanda Capoani Garcia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To relate the performance of individuals with hearing loss at high frequencies in speech perception with the quality of life before and after the fitting of an open-fit hearing aid (HA). Methods The WHOQOL-BREF had been used before the fitting and 90 days after the use of HA. The Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) had been conducted in two phases: (1) at the time of fitting without an HA (situation A) and with an HA (situation B); (2) with an HA 90 days after fitting (situation C). Study Sample Thirty subjects with sensorineural hearing loss at high frequencies. Results By using an analysis of variance and the Tukey’s test comparing the three HINT situations in quiet and noisy environments, an improvement has been observed after the HA fitting. The results of the WHOQOL-BREF have showed an improvement in the quality of life after the HA fitting (paired t-test). The relationship between speech perception and quality of life before the HA fitting indicated a significant relationship between speech recognition in noisy environments and in the domain of social relations after the HA fitting (Pearson’s correlation coefficient). Conclusions The auditory stimulation has improved speech perception and the quality of life of individuals. PMID:27383708

  19. School Nutrition and Food Service Techniques for Children with Exceptional Needs: Guidelines for Food Service Personnel, Teachers, Aides, Volunteers, and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunther, Margaret L.; Troftgruben, Judith A.

    Designed to help school food service personnel, teachers, aides, and volunteers extend the benefits of the school meal program to handicapped children, this manual discusses eating problems resulting from such conditions as cerebral palsy, mental retardation, blindness, orthopedic handicaps, and other health impairments. Specific recommendations…

  20. Are Experienced Hearing Aid Users Faster at Grasping the Meaning of a Sentence Than Inexperienced Users? An Eye-Tracking Study

    PubMed Central

    Kollmeier, Birger; Neher, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of hearing aid (HA) experience on how quickly a participant can grasp the meaning of an acoustic sentence-in-noise stimulus presented together with two similar pictures that either correctly (target) or incorrectly (competitor) depict the meaning conveyed by the sentence. Using an eye tracker, the time taken by the participant to start fixating the target (the processing time) was measured for two levels of linguistic complexity (low vs. high) and three HA conditions: clinical linear amplification (National Acoustic Laboratories-Revised), single-microphone noise reduction with National Acoustic Laboratories-Revised, and linear amplification ensuring a sensation level of ≥ 15 dB up to at least 4 kHz for the speech material used here. Timed button presses to the target stimuli after the end of the sentences (offline reaction times) were also collected. Groups of experienced (eHA) and inexperienced (iHA) HA users matched in terms of age, hearing loss, and working memory capacity took part (N = 15 each). For the offline reaction times, no effects were found. In contrast, processing times increased with linguistic complexity. Furthermore, for all HA conditions, processing times were longer (poorer) for the iHA group than for the eHA group, despite comparable speech recognition performance. Taken together, these results indicate that processing times are more sensitive to speech processing-related factors than offline reaction times. Furthermore, they support the idea that HA experience positively impacts the ability to process noisy speech quickly, irrespective of the precise gain characteristics. PMID:27595793

  1. A Randomized Trial Comparing Classical Participatory Design to VandAID, an Interactive CrowdSourcing Platform to Facilitate User-Centered Design.

    PubMed

    Dufendach, Kevin R; Koch, Sabine; Unertl, Kim M; Lehmann, Christoph U

    2017-04-28

    Early involvement of stakeholders in the design of medical software is particularly important due to the need to incorporate complex knowledge and actions associated with clinical work. Standard user-centered design methods include focus groups and participatory design sessions with individual stakeholders, which generally limit user involvement to a small number of individuals due to the significant time investments from designers and end users. The goal of this project was to reduce the effort for end users to participate in co-design of a software user interface by developing an interactive web-based crowdsourcing platform. In a randomized trial, we compared a new web-based crowdsourcing platform to standard participatory design sessions. We developed an interactive, modular platform that allows responsive remote customization and design feedback on a visual user interface based on user preferences. The responsive canvas is a dynamic HTML template that responds in real time to user preference selections. Upon completion, the design team can view the user's interface creations through an administrator portal and download the structured selections through a REDCap interface. We have created a software platform that allows users to customize a user interface and see the results of that customization in real time, receiving immediate feedback on the impact of their design choices. Neonatal clinicians used the new platform to successfully design and customize a neonatal handoff tool. They received no specific instruction and yet were able to use the software easily and reported high usability. VandAID, a new web-based crowdsourcing platform, can involve multiple users in user-centered design simultaneously and provides means of obtaining design feedback remotely. The software can provide design feedback at any stage in the design process, but it will be of greatest utility for specifying user requirements and evaluating iterative designs with multiple options.

  2. Health status, food insecurity, and time allocation patterns of patients with AIDS receiving antiretroviral treatment in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Alok; Booysen, Frederik Le Roux; Walsh, Corinna M

    2017-09-01

    For patients with AIDS receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) in South Africa via public clinics, improvements in nutritional status and economic productivity are likely to depend on adherence to drug regimen and quality of diet reflected in protein and micronutrient intakes. This study randomized 643 patients receiving ART from public clinics in the Free State Province into a Control group, a treatment group receiving adherence support, and a treatment group receiving adherence support and a nutritious food supplement. The data on food insecurity levels and time spent on various activities were analyzed for assessing the impact of the intervention programs. The main results were, first, changes between survey rounds 1 and 3 were significant at the 5% level for outcomes such as food insecurity levels and CD4 cell counts. Moreover, there was a significant reduction in food insecurity levels of patients with BMI less than 25 who received the nutritious food supplement. Second, the estimated parameters from models for patients' food insecurity levels showed that household incomes were significantly associated with lower food insecurity levels. Third, patients' BMI was a significant predictor of time spent on sedentary, moderate and overall activity levels, and it was important to separately evaluate the effects of BMI for under-weight and over-weight patients. Overall, the results indicated the need for reducing food insecurity levels, and for designing different interventions for under-weight and over-weight patients with AIDS for enhancing their labor productivity.

  3. Protein Quality, Growth, and Malnutrition: Advances in Science and the Role of Dairy Ingredients in Food Aid: Introduction.

    PubMed

    Whitsett-Morrow, Dacia; LaGrange, Veronique

    2016-03-01

    This article is the introduction to our formal proceedings of the symposium titled "Protein Quality, Growth and Malnutrition: Latest Scientific Findings and the Role of Dairy in Food Aid," held during the Experimental Biology 2015 annual meeting in Boston, Massachusetts. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. HIV/AIDS stigma among a sample of primarily African-American and Latino men who have sex with men social media users.

    PubMed

    Garett, Renee; Smith, Justin; Chiu, Jason; Young, Sean D

    2016-01-01

    The recent increase in social media use allows these technologies to rapidly reach communities with higher HIV prevalence, such as African-American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). However, no studies have looked at HIV/AIDS stigma among social media users from African-American and Latino MSM communities, or the association between stigma and social media use among these groups. This study sought to assess the level of HIV/AIDS stigma among a sample of social media-using African-American and Latino MSM from Los Angeles. A total of 112 (primarily African-American and Latino, n = 98, 88%) MSM Facebook users completed a survey on demographics, online social network use, and HIV/AIDS stigma. A composite stigma score was created by taking the cumulative score from a 15-item stigma questionnaire. Cumulative logistic models were used to assess the association between HIV/AIDS stigma and online social network use. In general, participants reported a low level of HIV/AIDS stigma (mean = 22.2/75, SD = 5.74). HIV/AIDS stigma composite score was significantly associated with increased time spent on online social networks each day (Adjusted odds ratios (AOR): 1.07, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.15). Among this diverse sample of MSM online social network users, findings suggest that HIV/AIDS stigma is associated with usage of social media. We discuss the implications of this work for future HIV prevention.

  5. Food insecurity, depression and the modifying role of social support among people living with HIV/AIDS in rural Uganda.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Alexander C; Bangsberg, David R; Frongillo, Edward A; Hunt, Peter W; Muzoora, Conrad; Martin, Jeffrey N; Weiser, Sheri D

    2012-06-01

    Depression is common among people living with HIV/AIDS and contributes to a wide range of worsened HIV-related outcomes, including AIDS-related mortality. Targeting modifiable causes of depression, either through primary or secondary prevention, may reduce suffering as well as improve HIV-related outcomes. Food insecurity is a pervasive source of uncertainty for those living in resource-limited settings, and cross-sectional studies have increasingly recognized it as a critical determinant of poor mental health. Using cohort data from 456 men and women living with HIV/AIDS initiating HIV antiretroviral therapy in rural Uganda, we sought to (a) estimate the association between food insecurity and depression symptom severity, (b) assess the extent to which social support may serve as a buffer against the adverse effects of food insecurity, and (c) determine whether the buffering effects are specific to certain types of social support. Quarterly data were collected by structured interviews and blood draws. The primary outcome was depression symptom severity, measured by a modified Hopkins Symptom Checklist for Depression. The primary explanatory variables were food insecurity, measured with the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale, and social support, measured with a modified version of the Functional Social Support Questionnaire. We found that food insecurity was associated with depression symptom severity among women but not men, and that social support buffered the impacts of food insecurity on depression. We also found that instrumental support had a greater buffering influence than emotional social support. Interventions aimed at improving food security and strengthening instrumental social support may have synergistic beneficial effects on both mental health and HIV outcomes among PLWHA in resource-limited settings.

  6. Using feature objects aided strategy to evaluate the biomethane production of food waste and corn stalk anaerobic co-digestion.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi; Yuan, Hairong; Liu, Yanping; Zou, Dexun; Zhu, Baoning; Chufo, Wachemo A; Jaffar, Muhammad; Li, Xiujin

    2015-03-01

    Feature objects aided strategy was used to predict and evaluate the biomethane production of food waste and corn stalk anaerobic co-digestion. The kinetics of co-digestion and mono-digestion of food waste and/or corn stalk was also analyzed. The results indicated that the compositions of food waste and corn stalk were significantly different. The anaerobic digestion of three feature objects at different mixing ratios showed the different biomethane yields and kinetic constants. Food waste and corn stalk co-digestion enhanced the digestion rate and achieved 22.48% and 41.55% higher biomethane production than those of food waste and corn stalk mono-digestion, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Food Patterns Equivalents Database 2009-10: Methodology and User Guide

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of developing the Food Patterns Equivalents Database (FPED) 2009-10 is to convert the 8,190 foods in the Food and Nutrients Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) 5.0 used for the What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA, NHANES) 2009-10 to USDA Food ...

  8. The Design and Development of a User-Controlled Visual Aid for Improving Students' Understanding in Introductory Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Brandon K.; Wang, Pei-Yu

    2009-01-01

    The use of visual aids is expected to have a positive effect on students' learning. However, not all visual aids work equally well. A recent meta-analytic research which examined 42 studies has found that the use of animated visuals does not facilitate learning (Anglin, Vaez & Cunnincham, 2004). The failure of visual aids can be attributed to…

  9. The Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Position paper on harm reduction and HIV care for drug users: integrating harm-reduction methods and HIV care.

    PubMed

    Fisk, S N

    1998-01-01

    As the epidemic of HIV disease continues to grow among drug users and their sexual partners, new ways must be adopted to do prevention work, outreach, and service delivery to this population. The Harm Reduction Model offers methods of working with drug users, which are in contrast to traditional methods based on confrontation and that require abstinence before change can occur. This position paper examines the Harm Reduction Model and outlines areas in which the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care can play a role in the expansion of harm-reduction-based intervention and policies.

  10. Atraumatic Restoration of Vertical Food Impaction with an Open Contact Using Flowable Composite Resin Aided by Cerclage Wire under Tension

    PubMed Central

    Ying Cao, Chris; Xu, Qiang-Jian; Xu, Xiao-Hua; Yin, Jia-Li

    2016-01-01

    To date, treating vertical food impaction with open contact effectively, especially with an atraumatic therapy, remains a challenge. In this study, we developed a simple, atraumatic, and economic therapeutic measure to treat vertical food impaction. The scientific rationale of our therapeutic technique is to restore an intact and firm proximal contact with proper location and form relationships to prevent forceful interproximal wedging of food, which in turn protects interdental papilla. We performed the procedure using flowable composite resin or composite resin cement with the aid of a cerclage wire under tension to rebuild the contact area. The reported method is especially useful for some challenging clinical cases, such as food impaction after crown and inlay on onlay restoration, and some conventional treatment methods, such as contouring the marginal ridge and developmental grooves, are ineffective. PMID:27579217

  11. Atraumatic Restoration of Vertical Food Impaction with an Open Contact Using Flowable Composite Resin Aided by Cerclage Wire under Tension.

    PubMed

    Li, Quan-Li; Ying Cao, Chris; Xu, Qiang-Jian; Xu, Xiao-Hua; Yin, Jia-Li

    2016-01-01

    To date, treating vertical food impaction with open contact effectively, especially with an atraumatic therapy, remains a challenge. In this study, we developed a simple, atraumatic, and economic therapeutic measure to treat vertical food impaction. The scientific rationale of our therapeutic technique is to restore an intact and firm proximal contact with proper location and form relationships to prevent forceful interproximal wedging of food, which in turn protects interdental papilla. We performed the procedure using flowable composite resin or composite resin cement with the aid of a cerclage wire under tension to rebuild the contact area. The reported method is especially useful for some challenging clinical cases, such as food impaction after crown and inlay on onlay restoration, and some conventional treatment methods, such as contouring the marginal ridge and developmental grooves, are ineffective.

  12. Computer-aided DSM-IV-diagnostics – acceptance, use and perceived usefulness in relation to users' learning styles

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Lars G; Fors, Uno GH

    2005-01-01

    Background CDSS (computerized decision support system) for medical diagnostics have been studied for long. This study was undertaken to investigate how different preferences of Learning Styles (LS) of psychiatrists might affect acceptance, use and perceived usefulness of a CDSS for diagnostics in psychiatry. Methods 49 psychiatrists (specialists and non-specialists) from 3 different clinics volunteered to participate in this study and to use the CDSS to diagnose a paper-based case (based on a real patient). LS, attitudes to CDSS and complementary data were obtained via questionnaires and interviews. To facilitate the study, a special version of the CDSS was created, which automatically could log interaction details. Results The LS preferences (according to Kolb) of the 49 physicians turned out as follows: 37% were Assimilating, 31% Converging, 27% Accommodating and 6% Diverging. The CDSS under study seemed to favor psychiatrists with abstract conceptualization information perceiving mode (Assimilating and Converging learning styles). A correlation between learning styles preferences and computer skill was found. Positive attitude to computer-aided diagnostics and learning styles preferences was also found to correlate. Using the CDSS, the specialists produced only 1 correct diagnosis and the non-specialists 2 correct diagnoses (median values) as compared to the three predetermined correct diagnoses of the actual case. Only 10% had all three diagnoses correct, 41 % two correct, 47 % one correct and 2 % had no correct diagnose at all. Conclusion Our results indicate that the use of CDSS does not guarantee correct diagnosis and that LS might influence the results. Future research should focus on the possibility to create systems open to individuals with different LS preferences and possibility to create CDSS adapted to the level of expertise of the user. PMID:15638940

  13. Computer-aided DSM-IV-diagnostics - acceptance, use and perceived usefulness in relation to users' learning styles.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Lars G; Fors, Uno G H

    2005-01-07

    CDSS (computerized decision support system) for medical diagnostics have been studied for long. This study was undertaken to investigate how different preferences of Learning Styles (LS) of psychiatrists might affect acceptance, use and perceived usefulness of a CDSS for diagnostics in psychiatry. 49 psychiatrists (specialists and non-specialists) from 3 different clinics volunteered to participate in this study and to use the CDSS to diagnose a paper-based case (based on a real patient). LS, attitudes to CDSS and complementary data were obtained via questionnaires and interviews. To facilitate the study, a special version of the CDSS was created, which automatically could log interaction details. The LS preferences (according to Kolb) of the 49 physicians turned out as follows: 37% were Assimilating, 31% Converging, 27% Accommodating and 6% Diverging. The CDSS under study seemed to favor psychiatrists with abstract conceptualization information perceiving mode (Assimilating and Converging learning styles).A correlation between learning styles preferences and computer skill was found. Positive attitude to computer-aided diagnostics and learning styles preferences was also found to correlate. Using the CDSS, the specialists produced only 1 correct diagnosis and the non-specialists 2 correct diagnoses (median values) as compared to the three predetermined correct diagnoses of the actual case. Only 10% had all three diagnoses correct, 41 % two correct, 47 % one correct and 2 % had no correct diagnose at all. Our results indicate that the use of CDSS does not guarantee correct diagnosis and that LS might influence the results. Future research should focus on the possibility to create systems open to individuals with different LS preferences and possibility to create CDSS adapted to the level of expertise of the user.

  14. Hearing progress and fluctuations in bimodal-binaural hearing users (unilateral cochlear implants and contralateral hearing aid).

    PubMed

    Luntz, Michal; Yehudai, Noam; Shpak, Talma

    2007-10-01

    Mean scores achieved using a cochlear implant (CI) plus a hearing aid (HA) were consistently higher (statistically non-significant) than those for CI alone. The addition of a contralateral HA partially compensated for the negative hearing fluctuations as well as for the slow initial progress with the CI. To examine hearing progress over the first 3 years after unilateral cochlear implantation in users who had residual hearing in the non-implanted ear at the time of surgery and continued to use a HA in that ear thereafter. Thirteen patients were followed up for 36 months after continuous concomitant use of a CI and a contralateral HA. To evaluate hearing progress, sentence identification in background noise (presentation level, 55 dB; S/N ratio, +10 dB) was tested for CI alone and for CI with contralateral HA (CI+HA). Subjects were tested after 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months of concomitant use of both devices. Mixed regression model was used to evaluate the group's progression of scores and the added value of a contralateral HA over time. When last tested (36 months after CI) the mean group score for CI alone was 72.6% +/- 19.3%, and 12/13 patients scored at least 65% with either CI alone or CI+HA. Mean scores achieved using CI+HA were consistently higher than those for CI alone. Percentage improvement in CI+HA relative to CI alone was highest (19.2%) after 18 months of concomitant usage and then diminished gradually to 7.7% at 36 months. Most patients showed some negative fluctuations in performance with CI alone at some point during the 36 months of post-CI follow-up.

  15. Efficacy of a food safety comic book on knowledge and self-reported behavior for persons living with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, Mark S; Peterson, Caryn E; Gao, Weihua; Mayor, Angel; Hunter, Robert; Negron, Edna; Fleury, Alison; Besch, C Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Persons living with AIDS are highly vulnerable to foodborne enteric infections with the potential for substantial morbidity and mortality. Educational materials about foodborne enteric infections intended for this immunocompromised population have not been assessed for their efficacy in improving knowledge or encouraging behavior change. AIDS patients in four healthcare facilities in Chicago, New Orleans, and Puerto Rico were recruited using fliers and word of mouth to healthcare providers. Those who contacted research staff were interviewed to determine food safety knowledge gaps and risky behaviors. A food safety educational comic book that targeted knowledge gaps was created, piloted, and provided to these patients who were instructed to read it and return at least 2 weeks later for a follow-up interview. The overall food safety score was determined by the number of the 26 knowledge/belief/behavior questions from the survey answered correctly. Among 150 patients who participated in both the baseline and follow-up questionnaire, the intervention resulted in a substantial increase in the food safety score (baseline 59%, post-intervention 81%, p<0.001). The intervention produced a significant increase in all the food safety knowledge, belief, and behavior items that comprised the food safety score. Many of these increases were from baseline knowledge below 80 percent to well above 90%. Most (85%) of the patients stated they made a change to their behavior since receiving the educational booklet. This comic book format intervention to educate persons living with AIDS was highly effective. Future studies should examine to what extent long-term behavioral changes result.

  16. Efficacy of a Food Safety Comic Book on Knowledge and Self-Reported Behavior for Persons Living with AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Dworkin, Mark S.; Peterson, Caryn E.; Gao, Weihua; Mayor, Angel; Hunter, Robert; Negron, Edna; Fleury, Alison; Besch, C. Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Persons living with AIDS are highly vulnerable to foodborne enteric infections with the potential for substantial morbidity and mortality. Educational materials about foodborne enteric infections intended for this immunocompromised population have not been assessed for their efficacy in improving knowledge or encouraging behavior change. Methods/Results AIDS patients in four healthcare facilities in Chicago, New Orleans, and Puerto Rico were recruited using fliers and word of mouth to healthcare providers. Those who contacted research staff were interviewed to determine food safety knowledge gaps and risky behaviors. A food safety educational comic book that targeted knowledge gaps was created, piloted, and provided to these patients who were instructed to read it and return at least 2 weeks later for a follow-up interview. The overall food safety score was determined by the number of the 26 knowledge/belief/behavior questions from the survey answered correctly. Among 150 patients who participated in both the baseline and follow-up questionnaire, the intervention resulted in a substantial increase in the food safety score (baseline 59%, post-intervention 81%, p<0.001). The intervention produced a significant increase in all the food safety knowledge, belief, and behavior items that comprised the food safety score. Many of these increases were from baseline knowledge below 80 percent to well above 90%. Most (85%) of the patients stated they made a change to their behavior since receiving the educational booklet. Conclusion This comic book format intervention to educate persons living with AIDS was highly effective. Future studies should examine to what extent long-term behavioral changes result. PMID:24124447

  17. Food insufficiency, substance use, and sexual risks for HIV/AIDS in informal drinking establishments, Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, Seth C; Watt, Melissa; Sikkema, Kathleen; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree

    2012-12-01

    HIV/AIDS is concentrated in impoverished communities. Two critical aspects of poverty are food insufficiency and substance abuse, and both are associated with sexual risks for HIV/AIDS in southern Africa. The current study is the first to examine both hunger and substance use in relation to sexual risks for HIV infection in South African alcohol serving establishments. Anonymous venue-based intercept surveys were completed by men (n = 388) and women (n = 407) patrons of six informal drinking places (e.g., shebeens) in Cape Town, South Africa. Food insufficiency and its more extreme form hunger were common in the sample, with 24 % of men and 53 % of women experiencing hunger in the previous 4 months. Multiple regression analyses showed that quantity of alcohol use was related to higher rates of unprotected sex for men and women. Trading sex to meet survival needs was related to food insufficiency and methamphetamine use among men but not women. Food insufficiency and substance use may both contribute to HIV risks in South African shebeens. However, the influence of hunger and substance use on sexual risks varies for men and women. Interventions to reduce HIV transmission risks may be bolstered by reducing both food insufficiency and substance use.

  18. Gated auditory speech perception in elderly hearing aid users and elderly normal-hearing individuals: effects of hearing impairment and cognitive capacity.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Shahram; Lidestam, Björn; Hällgren, Mathias; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2014-07-31

    This study compared elderly hearing aid (EHA) users and elderly normal-hearing (ENH) individuals on identification of auditory speech stimuli (consonants, words, and final word in sentences) that were different when considering their linguistic properties. We measured the accuracy with which the target speech stimuli were identified, as well as the isolation points (IPs: the shortest duration, from onset, required to correctly identify the speech target). The relationships between working memory capacity, the IPs, and speech accuracy were also measured. Twenty-four EHA users (with mild to moderate hearing impairment) and 24 ENH individuals participated in the present study. Despite the use of their regular hearing aids, the EHA users had delayed IPs and were less accurate in identifying consonants and words compared with the ENH individuals. The EHA users also had delayed IPs for final word identification in sentences with lower predictability; however, no significant between-group difference in accuracy was observed. Finally, there were no significant between-group differences in terms of IPs or accuracy for final word identification in highly predictable sentences. Our results also showed that, among EHA users, greater working memory capacity was associated with earlier IPs and improved accuracy in consonant and word identification. Together, our findings demonstrate that the gated speech perception ability of EHA users was not at the level of ENH individuals, in terms of IPs and accuracy. In addition, gated speech perception was more cognitively demanding for EHA users than for ENH individuals in the absence of semantic context. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Food Patterns Equivalents Database 2005-2006: Methodology and User Guide

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of developing the Food Patterns Equivalents Database (FPED) 2005-2006 is to convert the 7,000+ foods in the Food and Nutrients Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) 3.0 used for the What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA, NHANES) 2005-2006, to USDA...

  20. Food Patterns Equivalents Database 2011-12: Methodology and User Guide

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of developing the Food Patterns Equivalents Database (FPED) 2011-12 is to convert the 8,251 foods in the Food and Nutrients Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) 2011-12 used for the What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA, NHANES) 2011-12 to 37 USD...

  1. Food Patterns Equivalents Database 2013-14: Methodology and User Guide

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of developing the Food Patterns Equivalents Database (FPED) 2013-14 is to convert the 8,536 foods in the Food and Nutrients Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) 2013-14 used for the What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA, NHANES) 2013-14 to the 37...

  2. Food Patterns Equivalents Database 2007-08: Methodology and User Guide

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of developing the Food Patterns Equivalents Database (FPED) 2007-08 is to convert the 8,076 foods and beverages in the Food and Nutrients Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) 4.1 used for the What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA, NHANES) 2007-08...

  3. Utilization of formal and informal home care by AIDS patients in Boston: a comparison of intravenous drug users and homosexual males.

    PubMed

    Ettner, S L; Weissman, J

    1994-05-01

    The assumption that intravenous (i.v.) drug users have weaker informal support networks than homosexual men has led to opposing policy recommendations: one emphasizes outreach and more formal (paid) home care for i.v. drug users, whereas the other maintains that formal home care programs are less effective for this risk group due to the lack of informal (unpaid) caregivers to coordinate efforts. Data from interviews with a sample of 231 persons with AIDS in the Boston area were used to compare the use of formal and informal home care between the two largest risk groups, homosexual men and i.v. drug users. Multivariate regression analysis was also employed to adjust estimates and to determine the significance of population characteristics in explaining utilization differences. IV drug users received about twice as much formal and informal home care as homosexual men. Controlling for functional status, income and assets, insurance and potential caregiver supply, i.v. drug users obtained significantly fewer formal home care services, but more informal care. Overall, i.v. drug users received a greater number of adjusted home care hours. These findings cast doubt upon the previous assumptions of the literature and suggest that members of both risk groups are appropriate candidates for formal home care services.

  4. Food and Beverage Selection Patterns among Menu Label Users and Nonusers: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Gruner, Jessie; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam

    2017-06-01

    By May 5, 2017, restaurants with 20 or more locations nationwide will be required to post calorie information on menus and menu boards. Previous research shows that those who use menu labels purchase fewer calories, but how users are saving calories is unknown. To assess food and beverage selection patterns among menu label users and nonusers. Secondary, cross-sectional analysis using data from a study examining sociodemographic disparities in menu label usage at a national fast-food restaurant chain. Participants were recruited outside restaurant locations, using street-intercept survey methodology. Consenting customers submitted receipts and completed a brief oral survey. Receipt data were used to categorize food and beverage purchases. Side, beverage, and entrée purchases. Sides and beverages were classified as healthier and less-healthy options consistent with the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Healthier options contained items promoted in the guidelines, such as whole fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy, and 100% fruit juice; less-healthy options contained solid fat or added sugar. Entrées were categorized as lower-, medium-, and higher-calorie options, based on quartile cutoffs. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) for purchases among menu label users and nonusers, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and total price paid. Healthier sides were selected by 7.5% of users vs 2.5% of nonusers; healthier beverages were selected by 34.0% of users vs 11.6% of nonusers; and lowest-calorie entrées were selected by 28.3% of users vs 30.1% of nonusers. Compared with nonusers (n=276), users (n=53) had a higher probability of purchasing healthier sides (PR=5.44; P=0.034), and healthier beverages (PR=3.37; P=0.005). No significant differences were seen in the purchasing patterns of entrées. Targeting educational campaigns to side and beverage purchasing behaviors may increase the effectiveness of menu

  5. They Only See It when the Sun Shines in My Ears: Exploring Perceptions of Adolescent Hearing Aid Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Bruce; Smith, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Hard-of-hearing (HOH) young people may encounter multiple challenges to their educational, social, and emotional development. The benefits of wearing hearing aids to enhance communication may be countered by negative stigma associated with hearing aids. This study explored the experience of 16 bilaterally, moderately to severely HOH adolescents in…

  6. Benefit of Wearing a Hearing Aid on the Unimplanted Ear in Adult Users of a Cochlear Implant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Camille C.; Tyler, Richard S.; Witt, Shelley A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to document performance of participants wearing a cochlear implant and hearing aid in opposite ears on speech-perception and localization tests. Twelve individuals who wore a cochlear implant and a hearing aid on contralateral ears were tested on their abilities to understand words in quiet and sentences in…

  7. Benefit of Wearing a Hearing Aid on the Unimplanted Ear in Adult Users of a Cochlear Implant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Camille C.; Tyler, Richard S.; Witt, Shelley A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to document performance of participants wearing a cochlear implant and hearing aid in opposite ears on speech-perception and localization tests. Twelve individuals who wore a cochlear implant and a hearing aid on contralateral ears were tested on their abilities to understand words in quiet and sentences in…

  8. Food insecurity among homeless and marginally housed individuals living with HIV/AIDS in San Francisco.

    PubMed

    Weiser, Sheri D; Bangsberg, David R; Kegeles, Susan; Ragland, Kathleen; Kushel, Margot B; Frongillo, Edward A

    2009-10-01

    Food insecurity is a risk factor for both HIV transmission and worse HIV clinical outcomes. We examined the prevalence of and factors associated with food insecurity among homeless and marginally housed HIV-infected individuals in San Francisco recruited from the Research on Access to Care in the Homeless Cohort. We used multiple logistic regression to determine socio-demographic and behavioral factors associated with food insecurity, which was measured using the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale. Among 250 participants, over half (53.6%) were food insecure. Higher odds of food insecurity was associated with being white, low CD4 counts, recent crack use, lack of health insurance, and worse physical and mental health. Food insecurity is highly prevalent among HIV-infected marginally housed individuals in San Francisco, and is associated with poor physical and mental health and poor social functioning. Screening for and addressing food insecurity should be a critical component of HIV prevention and treatment programs.

  9. Computer-Aided Structural Engineering (CASE) Project. User’s Guide: Computer-Aided Structural Modeling (CASM). Version 5.00

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    started. 1-1 PM USER WOUES WOD N PROGRAM USER GUIDES rpm musix CASM guides provided for your use. The CASM ~9r’ Gulde, you with Information for Inutling...provides you with detailed descriptions for each of the CASM commands. You may then proceed to the "Tutorial Guide" to learn how to use CASM. &or the...section in this guide to learn more about any of the CASM commands. 1-4 INTFODUCTION CONVENi• L ED IN THIS MANUAL CONVENTIONS USED IN THIS MANUAL Pr

  10. Lexical tone perception ability of profoundly hearing-impaired children: performance of cochlear implant and hearing aid users.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kathy Y S; van Hasselt, Charles Andrew; Tong, Michael C F

    2010-09-01

    In tone languages such as Cantonese, a change in tone denotes a change in lexical meaning. The present study investigates the functional benefit of hearing devices in assisting tone perception among children with profound hearing impairment. Fifty-two children with profound hearing loss were categorized into two groups based on their primary type of hearing device - a hearing aid group and cochlear implant group. A 75-item tone identification test covering all 15 Cantonese tone contrast pairs was administered to each subject under two conditions - unaided (hearing devices turned off) and aided (devices turned on). The proportion of correct responses was computed as the total score for all items and subtotal contrast scores for each of the 15 tone contrasts. The results indicated no significant differences between the children wearing hearing aids and those with cochlear implants under the unaided or the aided condition (z = -0.91, p = 0.36; z = -0.40, p = 0.69, respectively). Regardless of the type of device used, the total scores under the aided condition were higher than those under the unaided condition (z = -3.55 for the hearing aid group; z = -4.87 for the cochlear implant group, both ps < 0.01). Children wearing hearing devices generally have a satisfactory functional gain in tone perception. No major observable difference was noted between children using cochlear implants and those using hearing aids. Tone contrast pairs with dissimilar fundamental frequency at onset and dissimilar tone contour patterns were more easily identified.

  11. Food Intakes Converted to Retail Commodities Databases 2003-08: Methodology and User Guide

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose for developing the Food Intakes Converted to Retail Commodities Databases (FICRCD) 2003-08 is to convert foods consumed in What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA, NHANES) 2003-2004, 2005-2006, and 2007-2008 to respective amounts of retail-level fo...

  12. New governance: can user-promulgated certification schemes provide safer, higher quality food?

    PubMed

    Hass, Tacy Katherine

    2013-01-01

    This article explores whether private regulation of food safety may fill in the gaps of statutory food reforms such as the Food Modernization Safety Act. The relatively new economic school of thought labeled "New Governance" centers around non-state actors acting not just as the object of but also as the creators of the norms regulating their own behavior. This regime may not only enable more efficient food safety regulations in the domestic setting, but also in the international context, as cooperation between non-state actors may overcome the traditional frictions between nations regarding regulatory schemes. It seems, therefore, as one example of "New Governance" rules, that third-party certification schemes may indeed play a vital and successful role in achieving a higher level of quality and safety for foods imported into the United States.

  13. User evaluation of two electronic mobility aids for persons who are visually impaired: a quasi-experimental study using a standardized mobility course.

    PubMed

    Roentgen, Uta R; Gelderblom, Gert Jan; de Witte, Luc P

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to enhance insight into the functionality, usability, and efficacy of two systematically selected Electronic Mobility Aids (EMA) aimed at obstacle detection and orientation. Eight persons who are visually impaired participated in a user evaluation of the UltraCane and the Miniguide. The participants' mobility performance was observed while completing a standardized indoor mobility course with their regular mobility aid, then with each EMA, and assessed in terms of speed, Percentage Preferred Walking Speed (PPWS), type and number of mobility incidents made. Interviews were administered to ascertain users' satisfaction with the functionality, effectiveness and specific features of the assistive devices. Walking speed and PPWS declined when using an EMA compared to the long cane. The mean total number of previously defined mobility incidents decreased significantly and also the type of mobility incidents changed. Generally, participants were quite satisfied with the use of the EMA, and detailed advantageous as well as disadvantageous aspects concerning functionality and certain features of both devices. The UltraCane and the Miniguide have proven to be effective on an indoor mobility course. Individual users' characteristics and preferences appear to be critical for their appraisal of the devices.

  14. Application of the Consumer Decision-Making Model to Hearing Aid Adoption in First-Time Users.

    PubMed

    Amlani, Amyn M

    2016-05-01

    Since 1980, hearing aid adoption rates have remained essentially the same, increasing at a rate equal to the organic growth of the population. Researchers have used theoretical models from psychology and sociology to determine those factors or constructs that lead to the adoption of hearing aids by first-time impaired listeners entering the market. In this article, a theoretical model, the Consumer Decision-Making Model (CDM), premised on the neobehavioral approach that considers an individual's psychological and cognitive emphasis toward a product or service, is described. Three theoretical models (i.e., transtheoretical, social model of disability, Health Belief Model), and their relevant findings to the hearing aid market, are initially described. The CDM is then presented, along with supporting evidence of the model's various factors from the hearing aid literature. Future applications of the CDM to hearing health care also are discussed.

  15. Application of the Consumer Decision-Making Model to Hearing Aid Adoption in First-Time Users

    PubMed Central

    Amlani, Amyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Since 1980, hearing aid adoption rates have remained essentially the same, increasing at a rate equal to the organic growth of the population. Researchers have used theoretical models from psychology and sociology to determine those factors or constructs that lead to the adoption of hearing aids by first-time impaired listeners entering the market. In this article, a theoretical model, the Consumer Decision-Making Model (CDM), premised on the neobehavioral approach that considers an individual's psychological and cognitive emphasis toward a product or service, is described. Three theoretical models (i.e., transtheoretical, social model of disability, Health Belief Model), and their relevant findings to the hearing aid market, are initially described. The CDM is then presented, along with supporting evidence of the model's various factors from the hearing aid literature. Future applications of the CDM to hearing health care also are discussed. PMID:27516718

  16. Clustering and meso-level variables in cross-sectional surveys: an example of food aid during the Bosnian crisis.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Neil; Lamothe, Gilles

    2011-12-21

    Focus groups, rapid assessment procedures, key informant interviews and institutional reviews of local health services provide valuable insights on health service resources and performance. A long-standing challenge of health planning is to combine this sort of qualitative evidence in a unified analysis with quantitative evidence from household surveys. A particular challenge in this regard is to take account of the neighbourhood or clustering effects, recognising that these can be informative or incidental. An example of food aid and food sufficiency from the Bosnian emergency (1995-96) illustrates two Lamothe cluster-adjustments of the Mantel Haenszel (MH) procedure, one assuming a fixed odds ratio and the other allowing for informative clustering by not assuming a fixed odds ratio. We compared these with conventional generalised estimating equations and a generalised linear mixed (GLMM) model, using a Laplace adjustment. The MH adjustment assuming incidental clustering generated a final model very similar to GEE. The adjustment that does not assume a fixed odds ratio produced a final multivariate model and effect sizes very similar to GLMM. In medium or large data sets with stratified last stage random sampling, the cluster adjusted MH is substantially more conservative than the naïve MH computation. In the example of food aid in the Bosnian crisis, the cluster adjusted MH that does not assume a fixed odds ratio produced similar results to the GLMM, which identified informative clustering.

  17. Association of self-reported race with AIDS death in continuous HAART users in a cohort of HIV-infected women in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Kerry; Hoover, Donald R.; Shi, Qiuhu; Cohen, Mardge; Gandhi, Monica; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Gustafson, Deborah R.; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Young, Mary; Anastos, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the association of race with clinical outcomes in HIV-positive women on continuous HAART. Design: Prospective study that enrolled women from 1994 to 1995 and 2001 to 2002. Setting: Women's Interagency HIV Study, a community-based cohort in five US cities. Participants: One thousand, four hundred and seventy-one HIV-positive continuous HAART users. Main outcome measures: Times to AIDS and non-AIDS death and incident AIDS-defining illness (ADI) after HAART initiation. Results: In adjusted analyses, black vs. white women had higher rates of AIDS death [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 2.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30, 3.50; P = 0.003] and incident ADI (aHR 1.58, 95% CI 1.08, 2.32; P = 0.02), but not non-AIDS death (aHR 0.91, 95% CI 0.59, 1.39; P = 0.65). Cumulative AIDS death incidence at 10 years was 17.3 and 8.3% for black and white women, respectively. Other significant independent pre-HAART predictors of AIDS death included peak viral load (aHR 1.70 per log10, 95% CI 1.34, 2.16; P < 0.001), nadir CD4+ cell count (aHR 0.65 per 100 cells/μl, 95% CI 0.56, 0.76; P < 0.001), depressive symptoms by Center for Epidemiology Studies Depression score at least 16 (aHR 2.10, 95% CI 1.51, 2.92; P < 0.001), hepatitis C virus infection (aHR 1.57, 95% CI 1.02, 2.40; P = 0.04), and HIV acquisition via transfusion (aHR 2.33, 95% CI 1.21, 4.49; P = 0.01). In models with time-updated HAART adherence, association of race with AIDS death remained statistically significant (aHR 3.09, 95% CI 1.38, 6.93; P = 0.006). Conclusion: In continuous HAART-using women, black women more rapidly died from AIDS or experienced incident ADI than their white counterparts after adjusting for confounders. Future studies examining behavioral and biologic factors in these women may further the understanding of HAART prognosis. PMID:24037210

  18. The Efficacy of Short-term Gated Audiovisual Speech Training for Improving Auditory Sentence Identification in Noise in Elderly Hearing Aid Users

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Shahram; Wahlin, Anna; Hällgren, Mathias; Rönnberg, Jerker; Lidestam, Björn

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the efficacy and maintenance of short-term (one-session) gated audiovisual speech training for improving auditory sentence identification in noise in experienced elderly hearing-aid users. Twenty-five hearing aid users (16 men and 9 women), with an average age of 70.8 years, were randomly divided into an experimental (audiovisual training, n = 14) and a control (auditory training, n = 11) group. Participants underwent gated speech identification tasks comprising Swedish consonants and words presented at 65 dB sound pressure level with a 0 dB signal-to-noise ratio (steady-state broadband noise), in audiovisual or auditory-only training conditions. The Hearing-in-Noise Test was employed to measure participants’ auditory sentence identification in noise before the training (pre-test), promptly after training (post-test), and 1 month after training (one-month follow-up). The results showed that audiovisual training improved auditory sentence identification in noise promptly after the training (post-test vs. pre-test scores); furthermore, this improvement was maintained 1 month after the training (one-month follow-up vs. pre-test scores). Such improvement was not observed in the control group, neither promptly after the training nor at the one-month follow-up. However, no significant between-groups difference nor an interaction between groups and session was observed. Conclusion: Audiovisual training may be considered in aural rehabilitation of hearing aid users to improve listening capabilities in noisy conditions. However, the lack of a significant between-groups effect (audiovisual vs. auditory) or an interaction between group and session calls for further research. PMID:28348542

  19. The Efficacy of Short-term Gated Audiovisual Speech Training for Improving Auditory Sentence Identification in Noise in Elderly Hearing Aid Users.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Shahram; Wahlin, Anna; Hällgren, Mathias; Rönnberg, Jerker; Lidestam, Björn

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the efficacy and maintenance of short-term (one-session) gated audiovisual speech training for improving auditory sentence identification in noise in experienced elderly hearing-aid users. Twenty-five hearing aid users (16 men and 9 women), with an average age of 70.8 years, were randomly divided into an experimental (audiovisual training, n = 14) and a control (auditory training, n = 11) group. Participants underwent gated speech identification tasks comprising Swedish consonants and words presented at 65 dB sound pressure level with a 0 dB signal-to-noise ratio (steady-state broadband noise), in audiovisual or auditory-only training conditions. The Hearing-in-Noise Test was employed to measure participants' auditory sentence identification in noise before the training (pre-test), promptly after training (post-test), and 1 month after training (one-month follow-up). The results showed that audiovisual training improved auditory sentence identification in noise promptly after the training (post-test vs. pre-test scores); furthermore, this improvement was maintained 1 month after the training (one-month follow-up vs. pre-test scores). Such improvement was not observed in the control group, neither promptly after the training nor at the one-month follow-up. However, no significant between-groups difference nor an interaction between groups and session was observed. Audiovisual training may be considered in aural rehabilitation of hearing aid users to improve listening capabilities in noisy conditions. However, the lack of a significant between-groups effect (audiovisual vs. auditory) or an interaction between group and session calls for further research.

  20. Social determinants, lived experiences, and consequences of household food insecurity among persons living with HIV/AIDS on the shore of Lake Victoria, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Jason M; Magerenge, Richard O; Young, Sera L; Oguta, Joel O; Weiser, Sheri D; Cohen, Craig R

    2012-01-01

    Food insecurity is a considerable challenge in sub-Saharan Africa, disproportionately affecting persons living with HIV/AIDS. This study investigates the lived experience, determinants, and consequences of food insecurity and hunger among individuals living with HIV/AIDS on the shore of Lake Victoria in Suba District, Kenya. Parallel mixed methods included semi-structured interviews and administration of the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale among a systematic sample of 67 persons living with HIV/AIDS (49 of whom were receiving antiretroviral therapy [ART]). All respondents were either severely (79.1%) or moderately (20.9%) food insecure; no respondents were mildly food insecure or food secure. Qualitative data and simple and multiple linear regression models indicated that significant determinants of food insecurity include increased age, a greater number of children, and not being married. A number of themes related to food insecurity and ART emerged, including: (1) an increase in hunger or appetite since initiating ART; (2) exacerbation of ART-related side effects; and (3) non-adherence to ART due to hunger, food insecurity, or agricultural work responsibilities. HIV interventions should address food insecurity and hunger, particularly among at-risk populations, to promote ART adherence and better health outcomes.

  1. Quantifying the bystander-effect of 2.5G mobile telephones on the speech perception of digital hearing aid users.

    PubMed

    Vlastarakos, P V; Nikolopoulos, T P; Manolopoulos, L; Stamou, A; Halkiotis, K K; Ferekidis, E; Georgiou, E

    2012-01-01

    To quantify the bystander-effect of 2.5G mobile telephones (2.5G-MTs) on the speech perception of digital hearing-aid (dHA) users. Differences in the susceptibility of behind-the-ear (BTE) compared to in-to-the-ear (ITE) dHAs were also assessed. Prospective-comparative study conducted at a tertiary referral centre (ENT Department) and a HA-fitting laboratory. Key-word recognition scores from open-sentence lists were calculated. Power-analysis determined that a minimum of 60 subjects with SNHL (30 in each group), using either BTE or ITE dHAs, were required for reliable study outcomes. Sixty-four adults were tested with a functioning 2.5G-MT at almost physical contact with their ear; thirty subjects used BTE and 34 ITE dHAs. Aided word recognition score differences between studied groups and within each group, while a 2.5G-MT was activated. Cut-off inclusion criterion regarding baseline aided word recognition score was 75%. Baseline aided word recognition scores for ITE dHAs were better compared to BTE ones (p < 0.01). Following the 2.5G-MT activation, this difference disappeared. No statistically significant difference in word recognition was observed between the examined groups, or within the BTE group, from the bystander-effect of the 2.5G-MT. ITE dHAs proved more susceptible to electromagnetic interference (p < 0.05). The bystander-effect of 2.5G-MTs on the speech perception of dHA users is either minimal, or not significant. The observed compatibility has a positive impact on the lives of millions of people worldwide. The long-standing theory of more interference in BTE compared to ITE HAs is not confirmed by the results of the present study. EBM level of evidence: 2c.

  2. If I Didn't Have HIV I'd Be Dead Now: Illness Narratives of Drug Users Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Mosack, Katie E.; Abbott, Maryann; Singer, Merrill; Weeks, Margaret R.; Lucy, Rohena

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to illuminate the experiences of poor, urban HIV-positive drug users. Sixty participants were asked about HIV risk behaviors, the impact of HIV on their lives, religious beliefs, life plans, relationships, and work-related issues both prior to and since diagnosis. A theoretical framework was developed using Frank's (1995; 1998) Illness Narratives and Boss and Couden's (2002) Ambiguous Loss theories. Themes pertaining to both physical and emotional or spiritual dimensions were located within Benefit, Loss, or Status Quo orientations. The findings contribute to researchers' understanding of the HIV/AIDS illness experiences among the very marginalized and they have important implications for physical and mental health care professionals working with HIV-positive drug users. PMID:15802537

  3. Pitch and lexical tone perception of bilingual English-Mandarin-speaking cochlear implant recipients, hearing aid users, and normally hearing listeners.

    PubMed

    Looi, Valerie; Teo, Elizabeth-Raye; Loo, Jenny

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this current study was to investigate whether pitch, lexical tone, and/or speech-in-noise perception were significantly correlated for Singaporean teenagers or adults who spoke both Mandarin and English. Thirty-three normal hearing or near-normal hearing listeners who did not use a hearing device (NNH group), eight postlingually deafened cochlear implant (CI) recipients (CI group), and three postlingually deafened bilateral hearing aid (HA) users (HA group) were recruited. All participants were bilingual Mandarin-English-speaking Singaporean residents. Participants were assessed on tests of pitch-ranking, lexical tone perception, and speech-in-noise. The NNH group scored significantly better than the CI group for all tests and subtests. There were no significant differences for the pitch test between the HA group and either the CI or NNH group. However, HA users scored significantly better than the CI group, and more aligned with the NNH group's scores for both the lexical tone and Mandarin speech-in-noise test. There were highly significant moderate positive correlations between all three tests. Discussion Overall, the performance of the CI users in this study indicates that CI recipients still struggle on pitch-related auditory perception tasks. Additionally, although the test scores from the HA users were better than the CI recipients, they were not as good as the NNH listeners. The significant moderate correlations between all three tests indicate that there is at least some degree of overlap in the skills required to accurately perceive these stimuli. The overall results suggest that CI users, and to a lesser extent HA users, still struggle with complex auditory perceptual tasks, particularly when it requires the perception of pitch. However, it may be possible that training one of these skills (e.g. musical pitch) may then generalize to other tasks (e.g. lexical tone and/or speech-in-noise). This is important for counseling, as well as for

  4. Risk contexts and risk behaviors in the Euregion Maas-Rhein: the Boule de Neige intervention for AIDS prevention among drug users.

    PubMed

    Franken, I H; Kaplan, C D

    1997-04-01

    Using targeted sampling, self-reported data of 1,767 drug users in the Euregion Maas-Rhein were collected over 3 years. Forty-two percent of the injection drug users shared syringes with sexual partners and 47.8% with friends. Eighty-one percent of the total sample had sexual contact in the last 6 months, half of whom with one person and half with two or more. Significant predictors of high-risk drug use were injecting in the presence of others, injection onset before the age of 20, female gender, and not living in The Netherlands. Participation in needle exchange or methadone programs and sufficient knowledge of risk factors was not significantly related to a reduction of high-risk drug use behavior. High-risk sexual behavior was found to be related to male gender, under the age of 30 and to multiple sexual partners. We conclude that in a social context where needle exchange, methadone programs, and sufficient knowledge of risk factors among the drug user population exist, AIDS prevention can be improved through behavioral skills training and developing specific interventions that target the peer group environments, rituals, partner relationships, and lifestyles of drug users.

  5. Food insecurity, HIV/AIDS pandemic and sexual behaviour of female commercial sex workers in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oyefara, J L

    2007-08-01

    This study examined the role of hunger and food insecurity in the sexual behaviour of female commercial sex workers in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria within the context of HIV/AIDS. In addition, the study investigated the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and induced abortion among the respondents. Cross-sectional survey and in-depth interview research methods were adopted to generate both quantitative and qualitative data from the respondents. Findings of the study showed that 35.0% of the respondents joined the sex industry because of poverty and lack of other means of getting daily food. While all the respondents had knowledge about the existence of HIV/AIDS, 82.0% of them identified sexual intercourse as a major route of HIV transmission. There was a significant relationship between poverty, food insecurity and consistent use of condoms by female sex workers at P<0.01. Specifically, only 24.7% of the respondents used condoms regularly in every sexual act. Consequently, 51.6% had previous cases of STIs. The most prevalent STI among the respondents was gonorrhea, with 76.4% prevalence among ever infected female sex workers. This was followed by syphilis with a prevalence of 21.1%. In addition, 59.1% of the sample had become pregnant while on the job and 93.1% of these pregnancies were aborted through induced abortion. In conclusion, hunger and malnutrition were the factors that pushed young women into prostitution in Nigeria and these same factors hindered them from practicing safe sex within the sex industry. Thus, it is recommended that the Nigerian government should develop programmes that will reduce hunger and food insecurity, in order to reduce rapid transmission of HIV infection in the country.

  6. Metropolitan Social Environments and Pre-HAART/HAART Era Changes in Mortality Rates (per 10,000 Adult Residents) among Injection Drug Users Living with AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Samuel R.; West, Brooke S.; Pouget, Enrique R.; Hall, H. Irene; Cantrell, Jennifer; Tempalski, Barbara; Chatterjee, Sudip; Hu, Xiaohong; Cooper, Hannah L. F.; Galea, Sandro; Des Jarlais, Don C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Among the largest US metropolitan areas, trends in mortality rates for injection drug users (IDUs) with AIDS vary substantially. Ecosocial, risk environment and dialectical theories suggest many metropolitan areas characteristics that might drive this variation. We assess metropolitan area characteristics associated with decline in mortality rates among IDUs living with AIDS (per 10,000 adult MSA residents) after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was developed. Methods This is an ecological cohort study of 86 large US metropolitan areas from 1993–2006. The proportional rate of decline in mortality among IDUs diagnosed with AIDS (as a proportion of adult residents) from 1993–1995 to 2004–2006 was the outcome of interest. This rate of decline was modeled as a function of MSA-level variables suggested by ecosocial, risk environment and dialectical theories. In multiple regression analyses, we used 1993–1995 mortality rates to (partially) control for pre-HAART epidemic history and study how other independent variables affected the outcomes. Results In multivariable models, pre-HAART to HAART era increases in ‘hard drug’ arrest rates and higher pre-HAART income inequality were associated with lower relative declines in mortality rates. Pre-HAART per capita health expenditure and drug abuse treatment rates, and pre- to HAART-era increases in HIV counseling and testing rates, were weakly associated with greater decline in AIDS mortality. Conclusions Mortality among IDUs living with AIDS might be decreased by reducing metropolitan income inequality, increasing public health expenditures, and perhaps increasing drug abuse treatment and HIV testing services. Given prior evidence that drug-related arrest rates are associated with higher HIV prevalence rates among IDUs and do not seem to decrease IDU population prevalence, changes in laws and policing practices to reduce such arrests while still protecting public order should be considered

  7. Complications in cosmetic laser surgery: a review of 494 Food and Drug Administration Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience Reports.

    PubMed

    Zelickson, Zachary; Schram, Sarah; Zelickson, Brian

    2014-04-01

    Complications in cosmetic laser and energy based surgery affect a number of patients every year and may cause scars, burns, blisters, and pigmentation damage. To evaluate documented complications in cosmetic laser- and energy-based surgeries, determine the most common errors, and recommend a simple procedural sequence to reduce patient complications. U.S. Food and Drug Administration Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience Adverse Event Reports after cosmetic laser- and energy-based procedures with varied devices were reviewed (N = 494). The laser manufacturer, device used, event type, injury type, cause, operator, and indication for treatment for each case were identified. In the 494 cases reviewed between 2006 and 2011, the most common complications were burns, scarring, blistering, pigmentation damage, and infection. The most common cause of these complications was user error by a healthcare provider (30%), followed by laser device malfunction (20%) and patient error (4%). Indications for treatment were unknown for 69% of cases, and 38% of the cases were an unknown cause of complication. User error was a major factor in laser surgery complications. To improve safety and reduce errors, we propose the implementation of a procedural sequence for cosmetic laser surgery. © 2014 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. AID and Universities Have Yet to Forge an Effective Partnership to Combat World Food Problems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-16

    1979, and (3) beans and cowpeas started in October 1980. These 3 CRSPs involve 30 title XII universities and institutions. Each CRSP 27 activity is...establish firm links with develop- ing countries. An official from the beans and cowpeas CRSP said that CRSP is not incorporated as part of AID host-country

  9. Self-reported outcome in new hearing aid users over a 24-week post-fitting period.

    PubMed

    Munro, Kevin J; Lutman, Mark E

    2004-01-01

    Evidence for the existence of auditory acclimatization is mixed, and the implications for clinical practice are unclear. The aim of this study was to seek evidence of perceived changes in performance over a 24-week post-fitting period. Thirty-two new, elderly subjects were recruited and fitted monaurally with the same model of linear, programmable hearing aid that provided in excess of 20-dB insertion gain at 2000-4000 Hz. The Glasgow Hearing Aid Benefit Profile (GHABP) was used to measure self-reported changes over time. The questions concerning benefit and satisfaction were modified to produce two versions: half of the subjects reported changes relative to the time of fitting, while the remainder reported changes relative to the previous occasion on which they completed the GHABP (3 weeks earlier). Subjects reported using hearing aids in excess of 90% of the time when in listening situations that cause difficulty. The median residual disability measure from the GHABP remained low (10-20%) over the duration of the study. The median scores for additional benefit and satisfaction showed a small but statistically significant improvement over the first 3 months of hearing aid use but only for the subjects who referenced this to their perceived performance 3 weeks earlier. The limited evidence for self-reported improvements in benefit and satisfaction over time reported to date must be tempered by the possibility of response bias arising from the method used to measure changes over time.

  10. Healthy food procurement policy: an important intervention to aid the reduction in chronic noncommunicable diseases.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Norm; Duhaney, Tara; Arango, Manuel; Ashley, Lisa A; Bacon, Simon L; Gelfer, Mark; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Mang, Eric; Morris, Dorothy; Nagpal, Seema; Tsuyuki, Ross T; Willis, Kevin J

    2014-11-01

    In 2010, unhealthy diets were estimated to be the leading risk for death and disability in Canada and globally. Although important, policies aimed at improving individual's skills in selecting and eating healthy foods has had a limited effect. Policies that create healthy eating environments are strongly recommended but have not yet been effectively and/or broadly implemented in Canada. Widespread adoption of healthy food procurement policies are strongly recommended in this policy statement from the Hypertension Advisory Committee with support from 15 major national health organizations. The policy statement calls on governments to take a leadership role, but also outlines key roles for the commercial and noncommercial sectors including health and scientific organizations and the Canadian public. The policy statement is based on a systematic review of healthy food procurement interventions that found them to be almost uniformly effective at improving sales and purchases of healthy foods. Successful food procurement policies are nearly always accompanied by supporting education programs and some by pricing policies. Ensuring access and availability to affordable healthy foods and beverages in public and private sector settings could play a substantive role in the prevention of noncommunicable diseases and health risks such as obesity, hypertension, and ultimately improve cardiovascular health. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Critical issues in sensor science to aid food and water safety.

    PubMed

    Farahi, R H; Passian, A; Tetard, L; Thundat, T

    2012-06-26

    The stability of food and water supplies is widely recognized as a global issue of fundamental importance. Sensor development for food and water safety by nonconventional assays continues to overcome technological challenges. The delicate balance between attaining adequate limits of detection, chemical fingerprinting of the target species, dealing with the complex food matrix, and operating in difficult environments are still the focus of current efforts. While the traditional pursuit of robust recognition methods remains important, emerging engineered nanomaterials and nanotechnology promise better sensor performance but also bring about new challenges. Both advanced receptor-based sensors and emerging non-receptor-based physical sensors are evaluated for their critical challenges toward out-of-laboratory applications.

  12. Critical Issues in Sensor Science To Aid Food and Water Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Farahi, R. H.; Passian, A.; Tetard, L.; Thundat, T.

    2012-06-26

    The stability of food and water supplies is widely recognized as a global issue of fundamental importance. Sensor development for food and water safety by nonconventional assays continues to overcome technological challenges. The delicate balance between attaining adequate limits of detection, chemical fingerprinting of the target species, dealing with the complex food matrix, and operating in difficult environments are still the focus of current efforts. While the traditional pursuit of robust recognition methods remains important, emerging engineered nanomaterials and nanotechnology promise better sensor performance but also bring about new challenges. Both advanced receptor-based sensors and emerging non-receptor-based physical sensors are evaluated for their critical challenges toward out-of-laboratory applications.

  13. Explaining end-users' intentions to use innovative medical and food biotechnology products.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Bob C; Poortvliet, P Marijn; Lugtig, Peter; de Bruin, Marijn

    2014-08-01

    Low public acceptance hinders the successful introduction of biotechnological innovations, such as genetically modified foods or vaccinations against infectious diseases. Earlier studies indicated that a lack of knowledge is not a key barrier to acceptance. This was confirmed in the current study, which examined an integrated theoretical model tested among 579 participants from the Dutch public. The results suggest that communication strategies should instead target attitudes, social norms, and risk perceptions, and appeal to people's tendency (or lack thereof) to be innovative. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Social and individual risk determinants of HIV testing practices among noninjection drug users at high risk for HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    White, Kellee; Rudolph, Abby E; Jones, Kandice C; Latkin, Carl; Benjamin, Ebele O; Crawford, Natalie D; Fuller, Crystal M

    2013-01-01

    HIV testing services and research among drug users has largely focused on injection drug users (IDUs); yet noninjection drug users (NIDUs) are also at increased risk for HIV due to high-risk sexual behaviors and overlapping networks with IDUs. This study examined drug use, sexual risk, and social network characteristics associated with recent HIV testing (testing within past year) among NIDUs. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were conducted among 418 NIDUs and log-binomial regression models were used to identify correlates of recent HIV testing. Prevalence ratios (PR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported. Nearly 97% of NIDUs reported having ever been tested for HIV and most participants (85.7%) indicated testing for HIV within the past year. Factors independently associated with recent HIV testing were higher educational attainment (PR: 1.86; 95% CI: 1.03, 3.34) and networks to discuss health and medical services (PR: 1.84; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.20). A prior positive sexually transmitted infection was associated with decreased likelihood of recent HIV test (PR: 0.43; 95% CI 0.25, 0.74). Identifying specific social network characteristics may be effective in facilitating HIV testing and prevention strategies targeting NIDUs.

  15. Storage, preparation, and usage of fortified food aid among Guatemalan, Ugandan, and Malawian beneficiaries: a field study report.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Jonathan P; Brodegard, William C; Pike, Oscar A; Steele, Frost M; Dunn, Michael L

    2008-09-01

    An important consideration in determining the ability of fortified food-aid commodities to meet the nutritional needs of beneficiaries is the manner in which commodities are utilized and prepared and the degree to which micronutrient losses occur during handling and cooking by the beneficiaries. A field study was conducted in Uganda, Malawi, and Guatemala to obtain data on storage, preparation, and usage of fortified blended foods provided by the US Agency for International Development. Interview and observational data on the use of corn-soy blend, cornmeal, soy-fortified cornmeal, soy-fortified bulgur, and fortified vegetable oil were collected from more than 100 households and two wet-feeding sites (where food is prepared and served by staff on-site) in 32 villages. Storage practices by beneficiaries appeared to be appropriate, and all commodities observed were free from off-flavors and odors. Cooking water was typically obtained from boreholes or open wells with a pH range of 4.7 to 7.7 Food preparation usually took place in covered areas with the use of an aluminum or clay pot over a wood-fueled fire. Thin or thick porridges were the most common dishes prepared from cereal-based products, with concentration ranges of 10% to 31% (wt/ wt) in water. Cooking times for porridges ranged from 5 to 53 minutes, with a mean of 26 minutes. Tortillas and beverages were other preparations commonly observed in Guatemala. Vegetable oil was typically used for pan frying. Cooking fuel could be saved and nutritional quality probably improved if relief agencies emphasized shorter cooking times. These data can be used to simulate preparation methods in the laboratory for assessment of the nutritional impact of cooking.

  16. The effect of multimicrophone noise reduction systems on sound source localization by users of binaural hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Van den Bogaert, Tim; Doclo, Simon; Wouters, Jan; Moonen, Marc

    2008-07-01

    This paper evaluates the influence of three multimicrophone noise reduction algorithms on the ability to localize sound sources. Two recently developed noise reduction techniques for binaural hearing aids were evaluated, namely, the binaural multichannel Wiener filter (MWF) and the binaural multichannel Wiener filter with partial noise estimate (MWF-N), together with a dual-monaural adaptive directional microphone (ADM), which is a widely used noise reduction approach in commercial hearing aids. The influence of the different algorithms on perceived sound source localization and their noise reduction performance was evaluated. It is shown that noise reduction algorithms can have a large influence on localization and that (a) the ADM only preserves localization in the forward direction over azimuths where limited or no noise reduction is obtained; (b) the MWF preserves localization of the target speech component but may distort localization of the noise component. The latter is dependent on signal-to-noise ratio and masking effects; (c) the MWF-N enables correct localization of both the speech and the noise components; (d) the statistical Wiener filter approach introduces a better combination of sound source localization and noise reduction performance than the ADM approach.

  17. The Effectiveness of a Bioactive Food Compound in the Lipid Control of Individuals with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos Ferreira, Rosângela; de Cássia Avellaneda Guimarães, Rita; Jardim Cury Pontes, Elenir Rose; Aragão do Nascimento, Valter; Aiko Hiane, Priscila

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular events due to decompensated lipid metabolism are commonly found in Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients using anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the effect of a bioactive food compound (BFC) containing functional foods on individuals with HIV undergoing HAART. Particularly, this study aims to verify the clinical outcome in the change of the lipid profile due to the use of this compound. This study includes 115 individuals with HIV on HAART. All patients received dietary guidelines; however, sixty-one consumed BFC while fifty-one did not (NO BFC). Biochemical examinations and socio-demographic and clinical profiles were evaluated. As result, in patients using hypolipidemic and/or hypoglycemic drugs, there was 28.6% decrease in triglyceride levels (p < 0.001) in the NO BFC group, and 18.3% reduction in low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (p < 0.001) in the BFC group. In patients who did not use hypolipidemic and/or hypoglycemic drugs in the NO BFC group, there was 30.6% increase in triglycerides, 11.3% total cholesterol and 15.3% LDL-C levels (p < 0.001) while for the BFC group there was 4.5% reduction in total cholesterol (p < 0.001). In conclusion, this study evidenced that the dietary intervention containing BFC positively affected in lipid control, since these HIV/AIDS patients using HAART are more vulnerable to lipid disorders. PMID:27740592

  18. An Evaluation of Characteristics Contributing towards Ease of User- Computer Interface in a Computer-Aided Instruction Exercise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-31

    Kent E., Hamel, Cheryl J., and Shrestha, Lisa B. 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Year, Month, Day) 15 PAGE COUNT Final FROM...DTIC USERS UNCLASSIFIED 22a NAME OF RESPONSIBLE INDIVIDUAL 22b TELEPHONE (Include Area Code) 22c OFFICE SYMBOL Cheryl J. Hamel 407-380-4825 Code 712 DO...Lab ATTN: Dr Alva Bittner, Jr., P. 0. Box 29407 New Orleans, LA 70189 Commanding Officer NETPMSA ATTN: Mr Dennis Knott Pensacola, FL 32509-5000

  19. Complementarity in dietary supplements and foods: are supplement users vegetable eaters?

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyoung-Goo; Joo, Hailey Hayeon; Choi, Kyong Duk; Lee, Dongmin; Moon, Junghoon

    2017-01-01

    Background: The consumption of fruits, vegetables, and dietary supplements correlate. Most previous studies have aimed to identify the determinants of supplement uses or the distinct features of supplement users; this literature lacks a discussion on dietary supplement consumption as a predictor of fruit and vegetable consumption. Objective: This study examines how dietary supplement consumption correlates with fruit and vegetable consumption by combining scanner data and surveys of Korean household grocery shopping. Methods: Propensity score matching (PSM) is used to identify the relationship between dietary supplement consumption and fruit and vegetable consumption in a household. A logit regression using supplement consumption as the dependent variable is used. Then, the supplement takers (the treatment group) are matched with non-takers (the control group) based on the propensity scores estimated in the logit regression. The fruit and vegetable consumption levels of the groups are then compared. Results: We found that dietary supplement use is associated with higher fruit and vegetable consumption. This supports the health consciousness hypothesis based on attention bias, availability heuristics, the focusing effect, and the consumption episode effect. It rejects the health substitute hypothesis based on economic substitutes and mental accounting. Conclusions: Future research on the health benefits of dietary supplements should address the complementary consumption of fruits/vegetables and their health benefits to avoid misstating the health effects of supplements.

  20. Fragment-based docking: development of the CHARMMing Web user interface as a platform for computer-aided drug design.

    PubMed

    Pevzner, Yuri; Frugier, Emilie; Schalk, Vinushka; Caflisch, Amedeo; Woodcock, H Lee

    2014-09-22

    Web-based user interfaces to scientific applications are important tools that allow researchers to utilize a broad range of software packages with just an Internet connection and a browser. One such interface, CHARMMing (CHARMM interface and graphics), facilitates access to the powerful and widely used molecular software package CHARMM. CHARMMing incorporates tasks such as molecular structure analysis, dynamics, multiscale modeling, and other techniques commonly used by computational life scientists. We have extended CHARMMing's capabilities to include a fragment-based docking protocol that allows users to perform molecular docking and virtual screening calculations either directly via the CHARMMing Web server or on computing resources using the self-contained job scripts generated via the Web interface. The docking protocol was evaluated by performing a series of "re-dockings" with direct comparison to top commercial docking software. Results of this evaluation showed that CHARMMing's docking implementation is comparable to many widely used software packages and validates the use of the new CHARMM generalized force field for docking and virtual screening.

  1. User acceptance of HIV TIDES--Tailored Interventions for Management of Depressive Symptoms in persons living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Lai, Tsai-Ya; Larson, Elaine L; Rockoff, Maxine L; Bakken, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    The Tailored Interventions for management of DEpressive Symptoms (TIDES) program was designed based on social cognitive theory to provide tailored, computer-based education on key elements and self-care strategies for depressive symptoms in persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Based on an extension of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), a cross-sectional design was used to assess the acceptance of the HIV TIDES prototype and explore the relationships among system acceptance factors proposed in the conceptual model. Thirty-two PLWHAs were recruited from HIV/AIDS clinics. The majority were African American (68.8%), male (65.6%), with high school or lower education (68.7%), and in their 40s (62.5%). PARTICIPANTS spent an average of 10.4 minutes (SD = 5.6) using HIV TIDES. The PLWHAs rated the system as easy to use (Mean = 9.61, SD = 0.76) and useful (Mean = 9.50, SD = 1.16). The high ratings of behavior intention to use (Mean = 9.47, SD = 1.24) suggest that HIV TIDES has the potential to be accepted and used by PLWHAs. Four factors were positively correlated with behavioral intention to use: perceived usefulness (r = 0.61), perceived ease of use (r = 0.61), internal control (r = 0.59), and external control (r = 0.46). Computer anxiety (r = -0.80), tailoring path (r = 0-.35) and depressive symptoms (r = -0.49) were negatively correlated with behavioral intention to use. The results of this study provide evidence of the acceptability of HIV TIDES by PLWHAs. Individuals are expected to be empowered through participating in the interactive process to generate their self-care plan. HIV TIDES enables information sharing about depression prevention and health promotion and has the potential to reframe the traditional patient-provider relationship.

  2. User Acceptance of HIV TIDES—Tailored Interventions for Management of Depressive Symptoms in Persons Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Tsai-Ya; Larson, Elaine L.; Rockoff, Maxine L.; Bakken, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Objective The Tailored Interventions for management of DEpressive Symptoms (TIDES) program was designed based on social cognitive theory to provide tailored, computer-based education on key elements and self-care strategies for depressive symptoms in persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Design and Measurement Based on an extension of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), a cross-sectional design was used to assess the acceptance of the HIV TIDES prototype and explore the relationships among system acceptance factors proposed in the conceptual model. Results Thirty-two PLWHAs were recruited from HIV/AIDS clinics. The majority were African American (68.8%), male (65.6%), with high school or lower education (68.7%), and in their 40s (62.5%). Participants spent an average of 10.4 minutes (SD = 5.6) using HIV TIDES. The PLWHAs rated the system as easy to use (Mean = 9.61, SD = 0.76) and useful (Mean = 9.50, SD = 1.16). The high ratings of behavior intention to use (Mean = 9.47, SD = 1.24) suggest that HIV TIDES has the potential to be accepted and used by PLWHAs. Four factors were positively correlated with behavioral intention to use: perceived usefulness (r = 0.61), perceived ease of use (r = 0.61), internal control (r = 0.59), and external control (r = 0.46). Computer anxiety (r = −0.80), tailoring path (r = 0−.35) and depressive symptoms (r = −0.49) were negatively correlated with behavioral intention to use. Conclusion The results of this study provide evidence of the acceptability of HIV TIDES by PLWHAs. Individuals are expected to be empowered through participating in the interactive process to generate their self-care plan. HIV TIDES enables information sharing about depression prevention and health promotion and has the potential to reframe the traditional patient-provider relationship. PMID:18096915

  3. Effectiveness of HIV/AIDS interventions on drug use and needle risk behaviors for out-of-treatment injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Booth, R E; Kwiatkowski, C F; Stephens, R C

    1998-01-01

    Abstract-This study presents an evaluation of the effectiveness of the AIDS Community-Based Outreach/Intervention projects implemented as part of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Cooperative Agreement (CA), which began in 1990 and is currently ongoing. Participants in the CA were randomly assigned to one of two interventions: a NIDA/CA-developed standard intervention (SI); or the SI plus a site-specific enhanced intervention (EI). Analyses of drug use and needle-related risk behaviors were conducted among injection drug users (IDUs) in eight participating cities where follow-up rates of at least 60% were obtained (N=3,743). Results indicated that IDUs significantly reduced their needle-related risk behaviors following delivery of the interventions and that a substantial portion entered substance abuse treatment. However, there was relatively little to support the effectiveness of more expensive and involved enhanced interventions. A number of factors associated with increasing or maintaining high risk behaviors, including an HIV negative serostatus and a greater perceived chance of acquiring AIDS, were also observed. Continued outreach to drug injectors is recommended, as well as the development of new and creative interventions targeting individuals who are HIV negative and those who are aware of their high risk status but have not changed their behaviors in response to risk-reduction interventions.

  4. Hearing impairment, cognition and speech understanding: exploratory factor analyses of a comprehensive test battery for a group of hearing aid users, the n200 study

    PubMed Central

    Rönnberg, Jerker; Lunner, Thomas; Ng, Elaine Hoi Ning; Lidestam, Björn; Zekveld, Adriana Agatha; Sörqvist, Patrik; Lyxell, Björn; Träff, Ulf; Yumba, Wycliffe; Classon, Elisabet; Hällgren, Mathias; Larsby, Birgitta; Signoret, Carine; Pichora-Fuller, M. Kathleen; Rudner, Mary; Danielsson, Henrik; Stenfelt, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The aims of the current n200 study were to assess the structural relations between three classes of test variables (i.e. HEARING, COGNITION and aided speech-in-noise OUTCOMES) and to describe the theoretical implications of these relations for the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model. Study sample: Participants were 200 hard-of-hearing hearing-aid users, with a mean age of 60.8 years. Forty-three percent were females and the mean hearing threshold in the better ear was 37.4 dB HL. Design: LEVEL1 factor analyses extracted one factor per test and/or cognitive function based on a priori conceptualizations. The more abstract LEVEL 2 factor analyses were performed separately for the three classes of test variables. Results: The HEARING test variables resulted in two LEVEL 2 factors, which we labelled SENSITIVITY and TEMPORAL FINE STRUCTURE; the COGNITIVE variables in one COGNITION factor only, and OUTCOMES in two factors, NO CONTEXT and CONTEXT. COGNITION predicted the NO CONTEXT factor to a stronger extent than the CONTEXT outcome factor. TEMPORAL FINE STRUCTURE and SENSITIVITY were associated with COGNITION and all three contributed significantly and independently to especially the NO CONTEXT outcome scores (R2 = 0.40). Conclusions: All LEVEL 2 factors are important theoretically as well as for clinical assessment. PMID:27589015

  5. Agreement between prospective interactive voice response telephone reporting and structured recall reports of risk behaviors in rural substance users living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Cathy A; Xie, Lili; Blum, Elizabeth R; Tucker, Jalie A

    2011-03-01

    Sound measurement of risk behaviors is essential to guide tailored risk reduction strategies as HIV infection patterns shift toward rural minorities, particularly in the southeastern United States where HIV disease remains highly stigmatized. Interactive Voice Response (IVR) systems appear to enhance reports of sensitive behaviors and can support telehealth applications to extend the reach of care in rural, underserved areas. This study evaluated the feasibility and data quality of an IVR telephone reporting system with rural substance users living with HIV/AIDS. Community-dwelling patients were recruited from a nonprofit HIV medical clinic in rural Alabama (N = 35 men, 19 women). Participants engaged in daily IVR reporting of substance use and sexual practices for up to 10 weeks. IVR reports were compared with retrospective Timeline Followback (TLFB) interview reports for the same period. IVR and TLFB reports showed good to excellent agreement for summary measures of alcohol consumption and sexual activity. Agreements for illicit drug use reports were less satisfactory. Reports of monetary spending on alcohol and drugs were significantly higher on the IVR. Most individuals showed good agreements for reports of day-to-day alcohol and drug use and sexual practices. The study established the utility of IVR assessment with rural, disadvantaged adults living with HIV/AIDS who are priority targets for risk reduction interventions.

  6. Joining forces for food security - Linking earth observation and crowd-sourcing for improved decision-support to aid organizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enenkel, M.; Dorigo, W.; See, L. M.; Vinck, P.; Pham, P.

    2013-12-01

    Droughts statistically exceed all other natural disasters in spatio-temporal extent, number of people affected or financial loss. Triggered by crop failure, food insecurity is a major manifestation of agricultural drought and water scarcity. However, other socio-economic precursors, such as chronically low levels of disaster preparedness, hampered access to food security or a lack of social safety nets are equally important factors. Consequently, this study is focused on two complementary developments - a new satellite-derived agricultural drought index and a mobile phone application. The Combined Drought Index (CDI) is enhanced by replacing field measurements of temperature and rainfall modelled/assimilated data. The vegetation component is replaced by a smoothed NDVI dataset. A soil moisture component is introduced to close the gap between rainfall deficiencies and the first visible impacts of atmospheric anomalies on vegetation. The mobile phone application enables the validation of drought index outputs and gives aid organizations an opportunity to increase the speed of socio-economic vulnerability assessments. Supported by Doctors without Borders (MSF) this approach aims at decreasing uncertainties in decision-making via a more holistic risk framework.

  7. "My mother told me I must not cook anymore"--food, culture, and the context of HIV- and AIDS-related stigma in three communities in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Okoror, T A; Airhihenbuwa, C O; Zungu, M; Makofani, D; Brown, D C; Iwelunmor, J

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of food as an instrument in expressing and experiencing HIV/AIDS stigma by HIV-positive women and their families, with the goal of reducing discrimination. It goes beyond willingness to share utensils, which has been identified in HIV/AIDS research. As part of an ongoing capacity-building HIV/AIDS stigma project in South Africa, 25 focus groups and 15 key informant interviews were conducted among 195 women and 54 men in three Black communities. Participants were asked to discuss how they were treated in the family as women living with HIV and AIDS, and data was organized using the PEN-3 model. Findings highlight both the positive and negative experiences HIV-positive women encounter. Women would not disclose their HIV status to avoid being isolated from participating in the socio-cultural aspects of food preparation, while others that have disclosed their status have experienced alienation. The symbolic meanings of food should be a major consideration when addressing the elimination of HIV/AIDS stigma in South Africa.

  8. Fears about antiretroviral therapy among users of the internet forum for people living with HIV/AIDS in Russia.

    PubMed

    Dudina, Victoria I; Judina, Darja I; King, Elizabeth J

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify different types of fear related to starting and adhering to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Russia. Data were collected from the Russian-language internet forum for PLHIV (hivlife.info). Qualitative data analysis focused on the sections of the forum where users discussed health-related issues in order to identify fears related to HIV treatment. The following types of fear were revealed: fear of the illness, fear to learn negative information about one's health, fear of side effects, fear of therapy to be ineffective, fear that the appropriate medications will become unavailable, fear of lifestyle changes, and fear for the well-being of significant others. Efforts to increase the uptake of and adherence to ART should take into account the fears of PLHIV.

  9. A Combined One-Class SVM and Template-Matching Approach for User-Aided Human Fall Detection by Means of Floor Acoustic Features

    PubMed Central

    Ferretti, Daniele; Piazza, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    The primary cause of injury-related death for the elders is represented by falls. The scientific community devoted them particular attention, since injuries can be limited by an early detection of the event. The solution proposed in this paper is based on a combined One-Class SVM (OCSVM) and template-matching classifier that discriminate human falls from nonfalls in a semisupervised framework. Acoustic signals are captured by means of a Floor Acoustic Sensor; then Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients and Gaussian Mean Supervectors (GMSs) are extracted for the fall/nonfall discrimination. Here we propose a single-sensor two-stage user-aided approach: in the first stage, the OCSVM detects abnormal acoustic events. In the second, the template-matching classifier produces the final decision exploiting a set of template GMSs related to the events marked as false positives by the user. The performance of the algorithm has been evaluated on a corpus containing human falls and nonfall sounds. Compared to the OCSVM only approach, the proposed algorithm improves the performance by 10.14% in clean conditions and 4.84% in noisy conditions. Compared to Popescu and Mahnot (2009) the performance improvement is 19.96% in clean conditions and 8.08% in noisy conditions. PMID:28638405

  10. Participation, political economy and protection: food aid governance in Darfur, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Young, Helen; Maxwell, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    Humanitarian food assistance aims to meet short-term emergency needs, yet often it is sustained over many years and develops its own systems and infrastructure that interact with local governance and local communities. This paper explores the links between participation and local governance, as well as the implications for exclusion of certain groups, the dignity of those involved, and protection issues. The paper proposes a framework for reviewing the governance functions and capacities of local Food Relief Committees, based on the following criteria: accountability; gender equity; legitimacy and authority; representativeness; responsiveness; and transparency. A case study of the Darfur region reviews how local governance evolves as a result of both the wider conflict and of adapting to the international humanitarian system, itself a form of governance. The paper concludes by proposing three strategies for enhancing participation and applying lessons learned: improved analysis of participation; linking programming strategies and protection; and taking account of governance functions and capacities. © 2013 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.

  11. Simultaneous spectrophotometric kinetic determination of four flavor enhancers in foods with the aid of chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yongnian; Chen, Jinfeng; Kokot, Serge

    2011-01-01

    A sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of four flavor enhancers--maltol, ethyl maltol, vanillin, and ethyl vanillin--in food samples. The method was based on the reduction of iron(III) by the four analytes in a sulfuric acid medium (0.012 mol/L), and the subsequent interaction of iron(II) with hexacyanoferrate(III) to form the strongly colored Prussian blue complex, which exhibited an absorption maximum at 800 nm. The optimized method had linear calibrations over the concentration ranges of 0.2-2.8 mg/L for maltol, ethyl maltol, and vanillin, as well as 0.2-1.8 mg/L for ethyl vanillin; the corresponding detection limits were 0.07, 0.07, 0.06, and 0.06 mg/L, respectively. Calibration models were constructed from the original and first-derivative spectral data with the use of partial least-squares (PLS) and principal component regression chemometrics methods. Ultimately, the proposed analytical procedure was successively applied for the determination of the four compounds in commercial food samples with the use of a PLS calibration based on the first-derivative spectral data. The results were comparable with those from a reference HPLC method.

  12. Medical emergency aid through telematics: design, implementation guidelines and analysis of user requirements for the MERMAID project.

    PubMed

    Anogianakis, G; Maglavera, S; Pomportsis, A; Bountzioukas, S; Beltrame, F; Orsi, G

    1997-01-01

    MERMAID is an EU financed telemedicine project with global reach and 24-hour, multilingual capability. It aspires to provide a model for the provision of health care services based on the electronic transmission of medical information, via ISDN based videoconferencing. This model will not be limited to medical diagnostics but it will encompass all cases where the actual delivery of health care services involves a patient who is not located where the provider is. Its implementation requires the commissioning of an expensive telecommunications infrastructure and the exploration of a number of solutions. In fact, all categories of telemedical applications (audio and video conferencing, multimedia communications, flat file and image transfer with low, medium and high bandwidth data requirements) will be considered while the full range of network choices (Digital land lines, Cellular/Wireless, Satellite and Broadband) will be tested in terms of cost/performance tradeoffs that are inherent to them and the developmental stage each of these options occupies in their in its life cycle. Finally, out that MERMAID utilises advanced land based line transmission technologies to aid the remote patient by making available the specialist care that is best suited in the particular case.

  13. Medical emergency aid through telematics: design, implementation guidelines and analysis of user requirements for the MERMAID project.

    PubMed

    Anogianakis, G; Maglavera, S; Pomportsis, A; Bountzioukas, S; Beltrame, F; Orsi, G

    1998-01-01

    MERMAID is an EU financed telemedicine project with global reach and 24-h, multilingual capability. It aspires to provide a model for the provision of health care services based on the electronic transmission of medical information, via ISDN based videoconferencing. This model will not be limited to medical diagnostics but it will encompass all cases where the actual delivery of health care services involves a patient who is not located where the provider is. Its implementation requires the commissioning of an expensive telecommunications infrastructure and the exploration of a number of solutions. In fact, all categories of telemedical applications (audio and video conferencing, multimedia communications, flat file and image transfer with low, medium and high bandwidth data requirements) are considered while the full range of network choices (digital land lines, cellular/wireless, satellite and broadband) are being tested in terms of cost/performance tradeoffs that are inherent to them and the developmental stage each of these options occupies in their in its life cycle. Finally, out that MERMAID utilises advanced land based line transmission technologies to aid the remote patient by making available the specialist care that is best suited in the particular case.

  14. Performance enhancement of MC-CDMA system through novel sensitive bit algorithm aided turbo multi user detection.

    PubMed

    Kumaravel, Rasadurai; Narayanaswamy, Kumaratharan

    2015-01-01

    Multi carrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) system is a promising multi carrier modulation (MCM) technique for high data rate wireless communication over frequency selective fading channels. MC-CDMA system is a combination of code division multiple access (CDMA) and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). The OFDM parts reduce multipath fading and inter symbol interference (ISI) and the CDMA part increases spectrum utilization. Advantages of this technique are its robustness in case of multipath propagation and improve security with the minimize ISI. Nevertheless, due to the loss of orthogonality at the receiver in a mobile environment, the multiple access interference (MAI) appears. The MAI is one of the factors that degrade the bit error rate (BER) performance of MC-CDMA system. The multiuser detection (MUD) and turbo coding are the two dominant techniques for enhancing the performance of the MC-CDMA systems in terms of BER as a solution of overcome to MAI effects. In this paper a low complexity iterative soft sensitive bits algorithm (SBA) aided logarithmic-Maximum a-Posteriori algorithm (Log MAP) based turbo MUD is proposed. Simulation results show that the proposed method provides better BER performance with low complexity decoding, by mitigating the detrimental effects of MAI.

  15. Computer-aided learning--a solution for the training needs of users & maintainers of medical equipment.

    PubMed

    Fouladinejad, F; Roberts, J R

    1997-01-01

    It can be argued that the strategic role of training and assessment in the use and maintenance of medical equipment for the delivery of safe and efficient healthcare is underestimated. While there has been frequent comment on this issue, the resources provided for this activity are most often insufficient. New methods are required to deliver regular, cost-effective training within the working environment, at the time and place of need. Similarly, the administrative workload has to be automated--and thus reduced--if training is to improve in both frequency and content. Computer-aided learning has had increasing and diverse application in education and training over the past few decades. The sophistication of software tools and the reduced cost of the necessary hardware makes this a viable and appropriate method for application in the field of Clinical Engineering. However, this technology has not yet been fully exploited to provide instruction in the use and maintenance of equipment. In this paper, it is proposed that computer-based training packages should not only be a source of interactive instruction and assessment, but also act as rapidly accessible reference materials or simulators of the actual device for the purpose of fault finding or troubleshooting. Brief details of a sample package are given for training in the use and maintenance of the Siemens Elema Servo Ventilator 900C.

  16. Performance Enhancement of MC-CDMA System through Novel Sensitive Bit Algorithm Aided Turbo Multi User Detection

    PubMed Central

    Kumaravel, Rasadurai; Narayanaswamy, Kumaratharan

    2015-01-01

    Multi carrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) system is a promising multi carrier modulation (MCM) technique for high data rate wireless communication over frequency selective fading channels. MC-CDMA system is a combination of code division multiple access (CDMA) and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). The OFDM parts reduce multipath fading and inter symbol interference (ISI) and the CDMA part increases spectrum utilization. Advantages of this technique are its robustness in case of multipath propagation and improve security with the minimize ISI. Nevertheless, due to the loss of orthogonality at the receiver in a mobile environment, the multiple access interference (MAI) appears. The MAI is one of the factors that degrade the bit error rate (BER) performance of MC-CDMA system. The multiuser detection (MUD) and turbo coding are the two dominant techniques for enhancing the performance of the MC-CDMA systems in terms of BER as a solution of overcome to MAI effects. In this paper a low complexity iterative soft sensitive bits algorithm (SBA) aided logarithmic-Maximum a-Posteriori algorithm (Log MAP) based turbo MUD is proposed. Simulation results show that the proposed method provides better BER performance with low complexity decoding, by mitigating the detrimental effects of MAI. PMID:25714917

  17. Experiences with food insecurity and risky sex among low-income people living with HIV/AIDS in a resource-rich setting.

    PubMed

    Whittle, Henry J; Palar, Kartika; Napoles, Tessa; Hufstedler, Lee Lemus; Ching, Irene; Hecht, Frederick M; Frongillo, Edward A; Weiser, Sheri D

    2015-01-01

    Forty-nine million individuals are food insecure in the United States, where food insecurity and HIV/AIDS are prevalent among the urban poor. Food insecurity is associated with risky sexual behaviours among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). No qualitative studies, however, have investigated the mechanisms underlying this relationship either in a resource-rich setting or among populations that include men who have sex with men (MSM). Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 34 low-income PLHIV receiving food assistance in the San Francisco Bay Area. The interviews explored experiences with food insecurity and perceived associations with sexual risk behaviours. Interviews were conducted in English, audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded and analyzed according to content analysis methods using an inductive-deductive approach. Food insecurity was reported to be a strong contributor to risky sexual practices among MSM and female participants. Individuals described engaging in transactional sex for food or money to buy food, often during times of destitution. Participants also explained how food insecurity could lead to condomless sex despite knowledge of and desire to use safe sexual practices, largely because the need to obtain food in the short term was prioritized over the desire to use barrier protection. Our data extend previous research by demonstrating that food insecurity contributes to transactional and unprotected sex among urban poor individuals in a resource-rich setting, including among MSM. These findings underscore the importance of public health and social intervention efforts focused on structural inequalities.

  18. Experiences with food insecurity and risky sex among low-income people living with HIV/AIDS in a resource-rich setting

    PubMed Central

    Whittle, Henry J; Palar, Kartika; Napoles, Tessa; Hufstedler, Lee Lemus; Ching, Irene; Hecht, Frederick M; Frongillo, Edward A; Weiser, Sheri D

    2015-01-01

    Background Forty-nine million individuals are food insecure in the United States, where food insecurity and HIV/AIDS are prevalent among the urban poor. Food insecurity is associated with risky sexual behaviours among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). No qualitative studies, however, have investigated the mechanisms underlying this relationship either in a resource-rich setting or among populations that include men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 34 low-income PLHIV receiving food assistance in the San Francisco Bay Area. The interviews explored experiences with food insecurity and perceived associations with sexual risk behaviours. Interviews were conducted in English, audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded and analyzed according to content analysis methods using an inductive-deductive approach. Results Food insecurity was reported to be a strong contributor to risky sexual practices among MSM and female participants. Individuals described engaging in transactional sex for food or money to buy food, often during times of destitution. Participants also explained how food insecurity could lead to condomless sex despite knowledge of and desire to use safe sexual practices, largely because the need to obtain food in the short term was prioritized over the desire to use barrier protection. Conclusions Our data extend previous research by demonstrating that food insecurity contributes to transactional and unprotected sex among urban poor individuals in a resource-rich setting, including among MSM. These findings underscore the importance of public health and social intervention efforts focused on structural inequalities. PMID:26546789

  19. Simultaneous kinetic spectrophotometric analysis of five synthetic food colorants with the aid of chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yongnian; Wang, Yong; Kokot, Serge

    2009-04-30

    This paper describes a simple and sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method for the simultaneous determination of Amaranth, Ponceau 4R, Sunset Yellow, Tartrazine and Brilliant Blue in mixtures with the aid of chemometrics. The method involved two coupled reactions, viz. the reduction of iron(III) by the analytes to iron(II) in sodium acetate/hydrochloric acid solution (pH 1.71) and the chromogenic reaction between iron(II) and hexacyanoferrate(III) ions to yield a Prussian blue peak at 760 nm. The spectral data were recorded over the 500-1000 nm wavelength range every 2s for 600 s. The kinetic data were collected at 760 nm and 600 s, and linear calibration models were satisfactorily constructed for each of the dyes with detection limits in the range of 0.04-0.50 mg L(-1). Multivariate calibration models for kinetic data were established and verified for methods such as the Iterative target transform factor analysis (ITTFA), principal component regression (PCR), partial least squares (PLS), and principal component-radial basis function-artificial neural network (PC-RBF-ANN) with and without wavelet packet transform (WPT) pre-treatment. The PC-RBF-ANN with WPT calibration performed somewhat better than others on the basis of the %RPE(T) (approximately 9) and %Recovery parameters (approximately 108), although the effect of the WPT pre-treatment was marginal (approximately 0.5% RPE(T)). The proposed method was applied for the simultaneous determination of the five colorants in foodstuff samples, and the results were comparable with those from a reference HPLC method.

  20. Objective Voice Analysis of Pediatric Cochlear Implant Recipients and Comparison With Hearing Aids Users and Hearing Controls.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Narges; Izadi, Farzad; Salehi, Abolfazl; Dabirmoghaddam, Payman; Yadegari, Fariba; Ebadi, Abbas; Moghadam, Saeed Talebian

    2017-07-01

    Phonation is influenced by hearing as a feedback mechanism. The purpose of the present study was to compare selected acoustic parameters in children using cochlear implants (CIs), those using hearing aids (HA), and their normal-hearing (NH) peers. The participants were 15 children using CI (mean age: 72 months), 15 children using HA (mean age: 74 months), and 15 NH children (mean age: 77 months). The vowel /a/ was produced to measure perturbation and mean fundamental frequency. The six Persian vowels in /CbVCd/ were obtained to extract vowel duration. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance. Results revealed a statistically significant difference between the NH group and the HA group regarding fundamental frequency (F2,51 = 3.443, P < 0.05), jitter local (F2,51 = 1.629, P < 0.05), jitter local absolute (F2,51 = 6.519, P < 0.001), jitter rap (F2,51 = 7.151, P < 0.001), jitter ppq5 (F2,51 = 5.894, P < 0.001), shimmer local (%) (F2,51 = 8.070, P < 0.001), shimmer local (dB) (F2,51 = 3.884, P < 0.05), shimmer apq3 (F2,51 = 4.926, P < 0.05), shimmer apq5 (F2,51 = 8.442, P < 0.001), and harmonic-to-noise ratio (F2,51 = 4.117, P < 0.001). The mean values of the duration of all six vowels were significantly greater in children with CI and HA than in NH children (P < 0.001). It seems that after 8 months of using CI, auditory control of voice production would be enabled. Furthermore, children with hearing impairment potentially regard vowel sound duration as a distinguishing feature, whereas in NH speakers, the duration has the least effect in vowel identification. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of a web-based patient decision aid for initiating disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs using user-centred design methods.

    PubMed

    Nota, Ingrid; Drossaert, Constance H C; Melissant, Heleen C; Taal, Erik; Vonkeman, Harald E; Haagsma, Cees J; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2017-04-26

    A main element of patient-centred care, Patient Decision Aids (PtDAs) facilitate shared decision-making (SDM). A recent update of the International Patient Decision Aids Standards (IPDAS) emphasised patient involvement during PtDA development, but omitted a methodology for doing so. This article reports on the value of user-centred design (UCD) methods for the development of a PtDA that aims to support inflammatory arthritis patients in their choice between disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). The IPDAS development process model in combination with UCD methods were applied. The process was overseen by an eight-member multidisciplinary steering group. Patients and health professionals were iteratively consulted. Qualitative in-depth interviews combined with rapid prototyping were conducted with patients to assess their needs for specific functionality, content and design of the PtDA. Group meetings with health professionals were organized to assess patients' needs and to determine how the PtDA should be integrated into patient pathways. The current literature was reviewed to determine the clinical evidence to include in the PtDA. To evaluate usability among patients, they were observed using the PtDA while thinking aloud and then interviewed. The combination of patient interviews with rapid prototyping revealed that patients wanted to compare multiple DMARDs both for their clinical aspects and implications for daily life. Health professionals mainly wanted to refer patients to a reliable, easily adjustable source of information about DMARDs. A web-based PtDA was constructed consisting of four parts: 1) general information about SDM, inflammatory arthritis and DMARDs; 2) an application to compare particular DMARDs; 3) value clarification exercises; and 4) a printed summary of patients' notes, preferences, worries and questions that they could bring to discuss with their rheumatologist. The study demonstrated that UCD methods can be of great value for the

  2. Bayesian network as an aid for Food Chain Information use for meat inspection.

    PubMed

    Lupo, C; Le Bouquin, S; Balaine, L; Michel, V; Péraste, J; Petetin, I; Colin, P; Jouffe, L; Chauvin, C

    2013-04-01

    Current ante mortem inspection involves a check of relevant Food Chain Information (FCI) transmitted by the farmer to the slaughterhouse on a regulatory FCI document. Since 2000, a farm sanitary form with FCI data has been used for all consignments of broiler chickens in France. However, the FCI needs to be standardized for the collection and interpretation of data. A study was conducted to develop an expert system, undertaken to elaborate on a simple decision support system capable of predicting whether the flocks will present a high condemnation risk, based on FCI. For this, 'optimal' (i.e. on-farm survey data) and 'worthy' (i.e. farmers' declaration on existing farm sanitary form) data quality conditions were considered to estimate the lower and upper reference bounds of the confidence that the decision-makers could have in such a tool. Chicken broiler flocks (404) were randomly selected in 15 slaughterhouses located in Western France in 2005. Condemnation proportion and farm sanitary form were collected for each selected flock. Information about health history and technical performances were also specifically collected on farm. Condemnation risk category was modelled from the on-farm collected information, using a Bayesian network and assuming this represented the optimal data quality conditions. Corresponding information declared by the farmer on the existing farm sanitary form was secondly used in the network to evaluate the impact of the uncertainty of such information on the condemnation classification obtained with the expert system. The learnt Bayesian network had 16 explanatory variables pertaining to technical characteristics and sanitary features of the flock. Using a threshold of 1% of condemned carcases to define high risk, the network sensitivity and specificity were 55% and 93%, respectively, corresponding to positive and negative predictive values of 70% and 87%. When declared existing information was used in the network, the sensitivity and

  3. Relating hearing loss and executive functions to hearing aid users' preference for, and speech recognition with, different combinations of binaural noise reduction and microphone directionality.

    PubMed

    Neher, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of how executive functions relate to preferred hearing aid (HA) processing is sparse and seemingly inconsistent with related knowledge for speech recognition outcomes. This study thus aimed to find out if (1) performance on a measure of reading span (RS) is related to preferred binaural noise reduction (NR) strength, (2) similar relations exist for two different, non-verbal measures of executive function, (3) pure-tone average hearing loss (PTA), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and microphone directionality (DIR) also influence preferred NR strength, and (4) preference and speech recognition outcomes are similar. Sixty elderly HA users took part. Six HA conditions consisting of omnidirectional or cardioid microphones followed by inactive, moderate, or strong binaural NR as well as linear amplification were tested. Outcome was assessed at fixed SNRs using headphone simulations of a frontal target talker in a busy cafeteria. Analyses showed positive effects of active NR and DIR on preference, and negative and positive effects of, respectively, strong NR and DIR on speech recognition. Also, while moderate NR was the most preferred NR setting overall, preference for strong NR increased with SNR. No relation between RS and preference was found. However, larger PTA was related to weaker preference for inactive NR and stronger preference for strong NR for both microphone modes. Equivalent (but weaker) relations between worse performance on one non-verbal measure of executive function and the HA conditions without DIR were found. For speech recognition, there were relations between HA condition, PTA, and RS, but their pattern differed from that for preference. Altogether, these results indicate that, while moderate NR works well in general, a notable proportion of HA users prefer stronger NR. Furthermore, PTA and executive functions can account for some of the variability in preference for, and speech recognition with, different binaural NR and DIR settings.

  4. Relating hearing loss and executive functions to hearing aid users' preference for, and speech recognition with, different combinations of binaural noise reduction and microphone directionality

    PubMed Central

    Neher, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of how executive functions relate to preferred hearing aid (HA) processing is sparse and seemingly inconsistent with related knowledge for speech recognition outcomes. This study thus aimed to find out if (1) performance on a measure of reading span (RS) is related to preferred binaural noise reduction (NR) strength, (2) similar relations exist for two different, non-verbal measures of executive function, (3) pure-tone average hearing loss (PTA), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and microphone directionality (DIR) also influence preferred NR strength, and (4) preference and speech recognition outcomes are similar. Sixty elderly HA users took part. Six HA conditions consisting of omnidirectional or cardioid microphones followed by inactive, moderate, or strong binaural NR as well as linear amplification were tested. Outcome was assessed at fixed SNRs using headphone simulations of a frontal target talker in a busy cafeteria. Analyses showed positive effects of active NR and DIR on preference, and negative and positive effects of, respectively, strong NR and DIR on speech recognition. Also, while moderate NR was the most preferred NR setting overall, preference for strong NR increased with SNR. No relation between RS and preference was found. However, larger PTA was related to weaker preference for inactive NR and stronger preference for strong NR for both microphone modes. Equivalent (but weaker) relations between worse performance on one non-verbal measure of executive function and the HA conditions without DIR were found. For speech recognition, there were relations between HA condition, PTA, and RS, but their pattern differed from that for preference. Altogether, these results indicate that, while moderate NR works well in general, a notable proportion of HA users prefer stronger NR. Furthermore, PTA and executive functions can account for some of the variability in preference for, and speech recognition with, different binaural NR and DIR settings. PMID

  5. H2O[underscore]TREAT users' manual: An aid for evaluating water treatment requirements for aquifer thermal energy storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vail, L.W.; Jenne, E.A.; Zipperer, J.P.; McKinley, M.I.

    1993-02-01

    This manual addresses the use of a public-domain software package developed to aid engineers in the desip of water treatment systems for aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES). The software, H20[underscore]TREAT, which runs in the DOS or UNIX Environment, was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and targeted to engineers possessing limited or no experience in geochemistry. To do this, the software provides guidance on geochemical phenomena that can cause problems in ATES systems (i.e., the formation of scale in heat exchangers, clogging of wells, corrosion in piping and heat exchangers, and degradation of aquifer materials causing a reduction in permeability). Preventing such problems frequently requires the use of water treatment systems. Because individual water treatment methods vary in cost, effectiveness, environmental impact, corrosion potential, and acceptability to regulators, proper evaluation of treatment options is required to determine the feasibility of ATES systems. The software is available for DOS- and UNIX-based computers. It uses a recently revised geochemical model, MINTEQ, to calculate the saturation indices of selected carbonate, oxide, and hydroxide minerals based on water chemistry and temperature data provided by the user. The saturation index of a specific mineral defines the point at which that mineral is oversaturated and hence may precipitate at the specified temperature. Cost calculations are not performed by the software; however, treatment capacity requirements are provided. Treatments include Na and H ion exchanger, fluidized-bed heat exchanger or pellet reactors, and CO[sub 2] injection. The H2O[underscore]TREAT software also provides the user with warning of geochemical problems that must be addressed, such as Fe and Mn oxide precipitation, SiO[sub 2] precipitation at high temperatures, corrosion, and clay swelling and dispersion.

  6. H2O{underscore}TREAT users` manual: An aid for evaluating water treatment requirements for aquifer thermal energy storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vail, L.W.; Jenne, E.A.; Zipperer, J.P.; McKinley, M.I.

    1993-02-01

    This manual addresses the use of a public-domain software package developed to aid engineers in the desip of water treatment systems for aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES). The software, H20{underscore}TREAT, which runs in the DOS or UNIX Environment, was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and targeted to engineers possessing limited or no experience in geochemistry. To do this, the software provides guidance on geochemical phenomena that can cause problems in ATES systems (i.e., the formation of scale in heat exchangers, clogging of wells, corrosion in piping and heat exchangers, and degradation of aquifer materials causing a reduction in permeability). Preventing such problems frequently requires the use of water treatment systems. Because individual water treatment methods vary in cost, effectiveness, environmental impact, corrosion potential, and acceptability to regulators, proper evaluation of treatment options is required to determine the feasibility of ATES systems. The software is available for DOS- and UNIX-based computers. It uses a recently revised geochemical model, MINTEQ, to calculate the saturation indices of selected carbonate, oxide, and hydroxide minerals based on water chemistry and temperature data provided by the user. The saturation index of a specific mineral defines the point at which that mineral is oversaturated and hence may precipitate at the specified temperature. Cost calculations are not performed by the software; however, treatment capacity requirements are provided. Treatments include Na and H ion exchanger, fluidized-bed heat exchanger or pellet reactors, and CO{sub 2} injection. The H2O{underscore}TREAT software also provides the user with warning of geochemical problems that must be addressed, such as Fe and Mn oxide precipitation, SiO{sub 2} precipitation at high temperatures, corrosion, and clay swelling and dispersion.

  7. The social geography of AIDS and hepatitis risk: qualitative approaches for assessing local differences in sterile-syringe access among injection drug users.

    PubMed Central

    Singer, M; Stopka, T; Siano, C; Springer, K; Barton, G; Khoshnood, K; Gorry de Puga, A; Heimer, R

    2000-01-01

    While significant gains have been achieved in understanding and reducing AIDS and hepatitis risks among injection drug users (IDUs), it is necessary to move beyond individual-level characteristics to gain a fuller understanding of the impact of social context on risk. In this study, 6 qualitative methods were used in combination with more traditional epidemiologic survey approaches and laboratory bioassay procedures to examine neighborhood differences in access to sterile syringes among IDUs in 3 northeastern cities. These methods consisted of (1) neighborhood-based IDU focus groups to construct social maps of local equipment acquisition and drug use sites; (2) ethnographic descriptions of target neighborhoods; (3) IDU diary keeping on drug use and injection equipment acquisition; (4) ethnographic day visits with IDUs in natural settings; (5) interviews with IDUs about syringe acquisition and collection of syringes for laboratory analysis; and (6) focused field observation and processual interviewing during drug injection. Preliminary findings from each of these methods are reported to illustrate the methods' value in elucidating the impact of local and regional social factors on sterile syringe access. PMID:10897181

  8. Assessment of a handheld fluorescence imaging device as a visual-aid for detection of food residues on processing surfaces

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Contamination of food with pathogenic bacteria can lead to foodborne illnesses. Food processing surfaces can serve as a medium for cross-contamination if sanitization procedures are inadequate. Ensuring that food processing surfaces are correctly cleaned and sanitized is important in the food indust...

  9. Food Aid Reform Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Royce, Edward R. [R-CA-39

    2013-05-15

    House - 05/22/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Horticulture, Research, Biotechnology, and Foreign Agriculture. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Food Aid Reform Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Royce, Edward R. [R-CA-39

    2013-05-15

    05/22/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Horticulture, Research, Biotechnology, and Foreign Agriculture. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Food Retailers Help Teach Food Buying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornmann, Priscilla G.

    1973-01-01

    Kroger Food Stores conducted five training sessions for Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) aides. The series translated basic marketing principles, as they affect food prices, into axioms for thrifty food buying. (BL)

  12. Food Retailers Help Teach Food Buying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornmann, Priscilla G.

    1973-01-01

    Kroger Food Stores conducted five training sessions for Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) aides. The series translated basic marketing principles, as they affect food prices, into axioms for thrifty food buying. (BL)

  13. 'It's risky to walk in the city with syringes': understanding access to HIV/AIDS services for injecting drug users in the former Soviet Union countries of Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU) countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical studies of access to HIV/AIDS services in FSU countries, resulting in limited understanding and implementation of accessible HIV/AIDS interventions. This paper explores the multiple access barriers to HIV/AIDS services experienced by a key risk group-injecting drug users (IDUs). Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two FSU countries-Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan-with clients receiving Global Fund-supported services (Ukraine n = 118, Kyrgyzstan n = 84), service providers (Ukraine n = 138, Kyrgyzstan n = 58) and a purposive sample of national and subnational stakeholders (Ukraine n = 135, Kyrgyzstan n = 86). Systematic thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by country teams, and a comparative synthesis of findings undertaken by the authors. Results Stigmatisation of HIV/AIDS and drug use was an important barrier to IDUs accessing HIV/AIDS services in both countries. Other connected barriers included: criminalisation of drug use; discriminatory practices among government service providers; limited knowledge of HIV/AIDS, services and entitlements; shortages of commodities and human resources; and organisational, economic and geographical barriers. Conclusions Approaches to thinking about universal access frequently assume increased availability of services means increased accessibility of services. Our study demonstrates that while there is greater availability of HIV/AIDS services in Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, this does not equate with greater accessibility because

  14. Food Management System--Daily Production Reports: General Description and Users Guide. Project SIMU-School: Dallas Component.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronshey, Raymond W.; Dunklau, M. William

    This booklet describes the Daily Production Reports subsystem of the School Food Management System, a computer program package developed as one part of a family of educational management systems. The Daily Production Reports system produces two major types of reports on a daily basis. Business Analysis Reports display all food service costs, as…

  15. Food insecurity and other poverty indicators among people living with HIV/AIDS: effects on treatment and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, Seth C; Hernandez, Dominica; Cherry, Chauncey; Kalichman, Moira O; Washington, Christopher; Grebler, Tamar

    2014-12-01

    Health disparities in access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) as well as the demands of long-term medication adherence have meant the full benefits of HIV treatment are often not realized. In particular, food insecurity has emerged as a robust predictor of ART non-adherence. However, research is limited in determining whether food insecurity uniquely impedes HIV treatment or if food insecurity is merely a marker for poverty that interferes more broadly with treatment. This study examined indicators of poverty at multiple levels in a sample of 364 men and 157 women living with HIV recruited through an offering of a free holiday food basket. Results showed that 61 % (N = 321) of participants had experienced at least one indicator of food insecurity in the previous month. Multivariate analyses showed that food insecurity was closely tied to lack of transportation. In addition, food insecurity was associated with lacking access to ART and poor ART adherence after adjusting for neighbourhood poverty, living in an area without a supermarket (food desert), education, stable housing, and reliable transportation. Results therefore affirm previous research that has suggested food insecurity is uniquely associated with poor ART adherence and calls for structural interventions that address basic survival needs among people living with HIV, especially food security.

  16. Counselling in STD/HIV/AIDS in the context of rapid test: Perception of users and health professionals at a counselling and testing centre in Porto Alegre.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fernanda T; Both, Nalu S; Alnoch, Edi M; Conz, Jaqueline; Rocha, Katia B

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses the perceptions of professionals and users about counselling practices at a counselling and testing centre in Porto Alegre/RS based on interviews with 27 service users and 14 members of the staff. The following categories emerged from thematic analysis: professionals' perceptions on counselling, users' perceptions on counselling and changes in counselling due to the introduction of rapid test procedures. The results show that, although initially there were some imprecision and apparent contradictions in its use, rapid testing was considered an invitation to rethink practices, bringing service closer to users' needs. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. "I Want My Robot to Look for Food": Comparing Kindergartner's Programming Comprehension Using Tangible, Graphic, and Hybrid User Interfaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strawhacker, Amanda; Bers, Marina U.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, educational robotics has become an increasingly popular research area. However, limited studies have focused on differentiated learning outcomes based on type of programming interface. This study aims to explore how successfully young children master foundational programming concepts based on the robotics user interface (tangible,…

  18. "I Want My Robot to Look for Food": Comparing Kindergartner's Programming Comprehension Using Tangible, Graphic, and Hybrid User Interfaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strawhacker, Amanda; Bers, Marina U.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, educational robotics has become an increasingly popular research area. However, limited studies have focused on differentiated learning outcomes based on type of programming interface. This study aims to explore how successfully young children master foundational programming concepts based on the robotics user interface (tangible,…

  19. Evaluation of a digital food photography atlas used as portion size measurement aid in dietary surveys in Greece.

    PubMed

    Naska, Androniki; Valanou, Elisavet; Peppa, Eleni; Katsoulis, Michail; Barbouni, Anastasia; Trichopoulou, Antonia

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate how well respondents perceive digital images of food portions commonly consumed in Greece. The picture series was defined on the basis of usual dietary intakes assessed in earlier large-scale studies in Greece. The evaluation included 2218 pre-weighed actual portions shown to participants, who were subsequently asked to link each portion to a food picture. Mean differences between picture numbers selected and portions actually shown were compared using the Wilcoxon paired signed-rank test. The effect of personal characteristics on participants' selections was evaluated through unpaired t tests (sex and school years) or through Tukey-Kramer pairwise comparisons (age and food groups). Testing of participants' perception of digital food images used in the Greek national nutrition survey. Individuals (n 103, 61 % females) aged 12 years and over, selected on the basis of the target population of the Greek nutrition survey using convenience sampling. Individuals selected the correct or adjacent image in about 90 % of the assessments and tended to overestimate small and underestimate large quantities. Photographs of Greek traditional pies and meat-based pastry dishes led participants to perceive the amounts in the photos larger than they actually were. Adolescents were more prone to underestimating food quantities through the pictures. The digital food atlas appears generally suitable to be used for the estimation of average food intakes in large-scale dietary surveys in Greece. However, individuals who consistently consume only small or only large food portions may have biased perceptions in relation to others.

  20. Computer Aids to Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krollmann, Friedrich

    1981-01-01

    Describes the structure and modes of operation of the Bundessprachenamt's (BSprA: Federal Office of Languages of the Federal Republic of Germany) terminology data bank as an aid to translation. Analyzes advantages and disadvantages of each user mode, and discusses probable developments in the immediate future of machine-aided translation. (MES)

  1. A review of the role of food insecurity in adherence to care and treatment among adult and pediatric populations living with HIV and AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Young, Sera; Wheeler, Amanda; McCoy, Sandi; Weiser, Sheri D.

    2013-01-01

    Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is critical for reducing HIV/AIDS morbidity and mortality. Food insecurity (FI) is emerging as an important barrier to adherence to care and treatment recommendations for people living with HIV (PLHIV), but this relationship has not been comprehensively examined. Therefore, we reviewed the literature to explore how FI may impact ART adherence, retention in medical care, and adherence to health care recommendations among PLHIV. We found data to support FI as a critical barrier to adherence to ART and to other health care recommendations among HIV-infected adults, HIV-infected pregnant women and their HIV-exposed infants, and child and adolescent populations of PLHIV. Associations between FI and ART non-adherence were seen in qualitative and quantitative studies. We identified a number of mechanisms to explain how food insecurity and ART non-adherence may be causally linked, including the exacerbation of hunger or ART side effects in the absence of adequate food and competing resource demands. Interventions that address FI may improve adherence to care and treatment recommendations for PLHIV. PMID:23842717

  2. Assessing the Impact of Food Assistance on Stigma Among People Living with HIV in Uganda Using the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument-PLWA (HASI-P).

    PubMed

    Maluccio, John A; Wu, Fan; Rokon, Redwan B; Rawat, Rahul; Kadiyala, Suneetha

    2017-03-01

    HIV-related stigma among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) is prevalent throughout sub-Saharan Africa. There is limited evidence, however, on which interventions are effective in reducing it. We used data from a prospective impact evaluation of a 12-month food assistance intervention among 904 antiretroviral therapy (ART)- naïve PLHIV in Uganda to examine the program impact on stigma. Stigma was measured using the comprehensive HASI-P scale, which demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.87) and was correlated with several related constructs including physical and mental health-related quality of life, disclosure, and physical health symptoms in the sample. Using quasi-experimental difference-in-difference matching methods to better infer causality, we tested whether the intervention improved the overall stigma scale and its subscales. The food assistance intervention had a significant effect on reported internalized (but not external) stigma of approximately 0.2 SD (p < 0.01). The HASI-P stigma scale is a useful tool for measuring and tracking stigma. Food assistance interventions, embedded in an HIV care program, can reduce internalized stigma.

  3. Food security and nutritional status of children under-five in households affected by HIV and AIDS in Kiandutu informal settlement, Kiambu County, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Chege, Peter M; Ndungu, Zipporah W; Gitonga, Betty M

    2016-07-22

    HIV and AIDS affect most the productive people, leading to reduced capacity to either produce food or generate income. Children under-fives are the most vulnerable group in the affected households. There exists minimal information on food security status and its effect on nutritional status of children under-fives in households affected by HIV and AIDS. The aim of this study was to assess food security and nutritional status of children under-five in households affected by HIV and AIDS in Kiandutu informal settlement, Kiambu County. A cross-sectional analytical design was used. A formula by Fisher was used to calculate the desired sample size of 286. Systematic random sampling was used to select the children from a list of identified households affected by HIV. A questionnaire was used to collect data. Focus group discussion (FGD) guides were used to collect qualitative data. Nutri-survey software was used for analysis of nutrient intake while ENA for SMART software for nutritional status. Data were analyzed using SPSS computer software for frequency and means. Qualitative data was coded and summarized to capture the emerging themes Results show that HIV affected the occupation of people with majority being casual laborers (37.3 %), thus affecting the engagement in high income generating activities. Pearson correlation coefficient showed a significant relationship between dietary diversity score and energy intake (r = 0.54 p = 0.044) and intake of vitamin A, iron, and zinc (p < 0.05). A significant relationship was also noted on energy intake and nutritional status (r = 0.78 p = 0.038). Results from FGD noted that HIV status affected the occupation due to stigma and frequent episodes of illness. The main source of food was purchasing (52.7 %). With majority (54.1 %) of the households earning a monthly income less than US$ 65, and most of the income (25.7 %) being used for medication, there was food insecurity as indicated by a mean household

  4. Simultaneously bio treatment of textiles and food industries effluent at difference ratios with the aid of e-beam radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Selambakkannu, Sarala; Ting, Teo Ming; Shariff, Jamaliah

    2012-09-01

    The combination of irradiation and biological technique was used to study COD, BOD5 and colour removal of textiles effluent in the presence of food industry wastewater at two different ratios. Two biological treatment system, the first consisting a mix of unirradiated textile and food industry wastewater and the second a mix of irradiated textile wastewater and food industry wastewater were operated in parallel. The experiment was conducted by batch. For the first batch the ratio was use for textile wastewater and food industry wastewater in biological treatment was 1:1. Meanwhile, for the second batch the ratio used for textile wastewater and food industry wastewater in biological treatment was 1:2. The results obtained for the first and second batch varies from each other. After irradiation, COD reduce in textile wastewater for the both batches are roughly 29% - 33% from the unirradiated wastewater. But after undergoing the biological treatment the percentage of COD reduction for first batch and second batch was 62.1% and 80.7% respectively. After irradiation the BOD5 of textile wastewater reduced by 22.2% for the first batch and 55.1% for the second batch. But after biological treatment, the BOD5 value for the first batch was same as its initial, 36mg/l and 40.4mg/l for the second batch. Colour had decreased from 899.5 ADMI to 379.3 ADMI after irradiation and decrease to 109.3 after undergoes biological treatment for the first batch. Meantime for the batch two, colour had decreased from 1000.44 ADMI to 363.40 ADMI after irradiation and dropped to 79.20 ADMI after biological treatment. The experiment show that 1:2 ratio show better reduction on COD, BOD5 and colour, compared to the ratio of 1:1.

  5. Maize meal fortification is associated with improved vitamin A and iron status in adolescents and reduced childhood anaemia in a food aid-dependent refugee population.

    PubMed

    Seal, Andrew; Kafwembe, Emmanuel; Kassim, Ismail A R; Hong, Mei; Wesley, Annie; Wood, John; Abdalla, Fathia; van den Briel, Tina

    2008-07-01

    To assess changes in the Fe and vitamin A status of the population of Nangweshi refugee camp associated with the introduction of maize meal fortification. Pre- and post-intervention study using a longitudinal cohort. Nangweshi refugee camp, Zambia. Two hundred and twelve adolescents (10-19 years), 157 children (6-59 months) and 118 women (20-49 years) were selected at random by household survey in July 2003 and followed up after 12 months. Maize grain was milled and fortified in two custom-designed mills installed at a central location in the camp and a daily ration of 400 g per person was distributed twice monthly to households as part of the routine food aid ration. During the intervention period mean Hb increased in children (0.87 g/dl; P < 0.001) and adolescents (0.24 g/dl; P = 0.043) but did not increase in women. Anaemia decreased in children by 23.4% (P < 0.001) but there was no significant change in adolescents or women. Serum transferrin receptor (log10-transformed) decreased by -0.082 microg/ml (P = 0.036) indicating an improvement in the Fe status of adolescents but there was no significant decrease in the prevalence of deficiency (-8.5%; P = 0.079). In adolescents, serum retinol increased by 0.16 micromol/l (P < 0.001) and vitamin A deficiency decreased by 26.1% (P < 0.001). The introduction of fortified maize meal led to a decrease in anaemia in children and a decrease in vitamin A deficiency in adolescents. Centralised, camp-level milling and fortification of maize meal is a feasible and pertinent intervention in food aid operations.

  6. USER'S GUIDE: Strategic Waste Minimization Initiative (SWAMI) Version 2.0 - A Software Tool to Aid in Process Analysis for Pollution Prevention

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Strategic WAste Minimization Initiative (SWAMI) Software, Version 2.0 is a tool for using process analysis for identifying waste minimization opportunities within an industrial setting. The software requires user-supplied information for process definition, as well as materia...

  7. USER'S GUIDE: Strategic Waste Minimization Initiative (SWAMI) Version 2.0 - A Software Tool to Aid in Process Analysis for Pollution Prevention

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Strategic WAste Minimization Initiative (SWAMI) Software, Version 2.0 is a tool for using process analysis for identifying waste minimization opportunities within an industrial setting. The software requires user-supplied information for process definition, as well as materia...

  8. Sensitive quantitation of polyamines in plant foods by ultrasound-assisted benzoylation and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with the aid of experimental designs.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Edgar; Melo, Armindo; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2014-05-14

    A new method involving ultrasound-assisted benzoylation and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was optimized with the aid of chemometrics for the extraction, cleanup, and determination of polyamines in plant foods. Putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, and spermine were derivatized with 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl chloride and extracted by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction using acetonitrile and carbon tetrachloride as dispersive and extraction solvents, respectively. Two-level full factorial design and central composite design were applied to select the most appropriate derivatization and extraction conditions. The developed method was linear in the 0.5-10.0 mg/L range, with a R(2) ≥ 0.9989. Intra- and interday precisions ranged from 0.8 to 6.9% and from 3.0 to 10.3%, respectively, and the limit of detection ranged between 0.018 and 0.042 μg/g of fresh weight. This method was applied to the analyses of six different types of plant foods, presenting recoveries between 81.7 and 114.2%. The method is inexpensive, versatile, simple, and sensitive.

  9. “MY MOTHER TOLD ME I MUST NOT COOK ANYMORE”—FOOD, CULTURE, AND THE CONTEXT OF HIV- AND AIDS-RELATED STIGMA IN THREE COMMUNITIES IN SOUTH AFRICA*

    PubMed Central

    OKOROR, T. A.; AIRHIHENBUWA, C. O.; ZUNGU, M.; MAKOFANI, D.; BROWN, D. C.; IWELUNMOR, J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of food as an instrument in expressing and experiencing HIV/AIDS stigma by HIV-positive women and their families, with the goal of reducing discrimination. It goes beyond willingness to share utensils, which has been identified in HIV/AIDS research. As part of an ongoing capacity-building HIV/AIDS stigma project in South Africa, 25 focus groups and 15 key informant interviews were conducted among 195 women and 54 men in three Black communities. Participants were asked to discuss how they were treated in the family as women living with HIV and AIDS, and data was organized using the PEN-3 model. Findings highlight both the positive and negative experiences HIV-positive women encounter. Women would not disclose their HIV status to avoid being isolated from participating in the socio-cultural aspects of food preparation, while others that have disclosed their status have experienced alienation. The symbolic meanings of food should be a major consideration when addressing the elimination of HIV/AIDS stigma in South Africa. PMID:19095587

  10. Computer Applications in Geotechnical Engineering (CAGE) and Geotechnical Aspects of the Computer-Aided Structural Engineering (G-CASE) projects. User’s Guide: UTEXAS2 Slope-Stability Package. Volume 1. User’s Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    LIST command. The command to execute this on the Harris system are: »CORPS ARE YOU USING A PRINTER TERMINAL OR CRT? ENTER P OR C £ CORPS SYSTEM...inexpensive printers used in conjunction with microcomputers. An option has been added permitting the user to request a "Short-Form" of output when...surfaces; Input Lines 2D, 3D , and 4D - See Table 21. 75 iBMRinmiiH-MWJWii mnCFTBIT KF KTt Kn KM I ■i«^.anmnjin ■nun anvLnJuvannruviivi

  11. Music and hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-10-31

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Music and Hearing Aids

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brian C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  13. Food Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... liver disease or AIDS — or receiving chemotherapy or radiation therapy for cancer reduces your immune response. Complications The most common serious complication of food poisoning is dehydration — a severe loss of water and ...

  14. Gender and age disparities in adult undernutrition in northern Uganda: high-risk groups not targeted by food aid programmes.

    PubMed

    Schramm, Stine; Kaducu, Felix Ocaka; Smedemark, Siri Aas; Ovuga, Emilio; Sodemann, Morten

    2016-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of adult malnutrition and associated risk factors in a post-conflict area of northern Uganda. A cross-sectional community survey was performed from September 2011 to June 2013. All registered residents in Gulu Health and Demographic Surveillance System aged 15 years and older were considered eligible. Trained field assistants collected anthropometric measurements (weight and height) and administered questionnaires with information on sociodemographic characteristics, food security, smoking and alcohol. Nutritional status was classified by body mass index. In total, 2062 men and 2924 women participated and were included in the analyses. The prevalence of underweight was 22.3% for men and 16.0% for women, whereas the prevalence of overweight was 1.5% for men and 7.6% for women. In men, underweight was associated with younger (15-19 years) and older age (>55 years) (P < 0.001), being divorced/separated [odds ratio (OR) = 1.91 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.21-2.99] and smoking (OR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.67-2.73). For women, underweight was associated with older age (P < 0.001) and hungry-gap rainy season (May-July) (OR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.04-1.69). Widowed or divorced/separated women were not more likely to be underweight. No association was found between education, alcohol consumption or food security score and underweight. Our findings are not in line with the conventional target groups in nutritional programmes and highlight the importance of continuous health and nutritional assessments of all population groups that reflect local social determinants and family structures. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. HIV/AIDS and disability: a pilot survey of HIV/AIDS knowledge among a deaf population in Swaziland.

    PubMed

    Groce, Nora; Yousafzai, Aisha; Dlamini, Phindile; Zalud, Sarah; Wirz, Shelia

    2006-12-01

    This study sought to establish whether there were measurable differences in the level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS between hearing individuals and individuals who identified themselves as deaf sign language users in Swaziland. A cross-sectional survey of 191 rural and urban hearing and deaf adults was undertaken in Swaziland in December 2003. A structured questionnaire was administered, seeking to establish whether there were statistically significant differences between hearing and deaf populations in their level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS symptoms, transmission and prevention, as well as differences in sources of information about HIV/AIDS. Additional questions were asked regarding whether there were differences in accessibility of HIV testing services and HIV/AIDS-related healthcare for the two groups. Significant differences in levels of knowledge about HIV/AIDS were identified between the hearing and deaf respondents. The deaf population was significantly more likely (P<0.05) to believe in incorrect modes of HIV transmission (e.g. hugging and airborne transmission) and HIV prevention (e.g. avoiding sharing utensils and eating healthy foods). Almost all of the deaf respondents (99%) reported difficulties in communicating with healthcare facility staff, which may result in less use of HIV voluntary counseling and testing services. This paper reports the results of this study, and discusses the need for targeted HIV/AIDS education campaigns and improved accessibility in healthcare facilities for deaf sign language users in countries such as Swaziland.

  16. FoodSwitch: A Mobile Phone App to Enable Consumers to Make Healthier Food Choices and Crowdsourcing of National Food Composition Data

    PubMed Central

    Trevena, Helen; Goodsell, Chester; Ng, Ka Hung; Webster, Jacqui; Millis, Audra; Goldstein, Stan; Hugueniot, Orla; Neal, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Background Front-of-pack nutrition labeling (FoPL) schemes can help consumers understand the nutritional content of foods and may aid healthier food choices. However, most packaged foods in Australia carry no easily interpretable FoPL, and no standard FoPL system has yet been mandated. About two thirds of Australians now own a smartphone. Objective We sought to develop a mobile phone app that would provide consumers with easy-to-understand nutrition information and support the selection of healthier choices when shopping for food. Methods An existing branded food database including 17,000 Australian packaged foods underpinned the project. An iterative process of development, review, and testing was undertaken to define a user interface that could deliver nutritional information. A parallel process identified the best approach to rank foods based on nutritional content, so that healthier alternative products could be recommended. Results Barcode scanning technology was identified as the optimal mechanism for interaction of the mobile phone with the food database. Traffic light labels were chosen as the preferred format for presenting nutritional information, and the Food Standards Australia New Zealand nutrient profiling method as the best strategy for identifying healthier products. The resulting FoodSwitch mobile phone app was launched in Australia in January 2012 and was downloaded by about 400,000 users in the first 18 months. FoodSwitch has maintained a 4-plus star rating, and more than 2000 users have provided feedback about the functionality. Nutritional information for more than 30,000 additional products has been obtained from users through a crowdsourcing function integrated within the app. Conclusions FoodSwitch has empowered Australian consumers seeking to make better food choices. In parallel, the huge volume of crowdsourced data has provided a novel means for low-cost, real-time tracking of the nutritional composition of Australian foods. There appears

  17. Acoustic Analysis of Persian Vowels in Cochlear Implant Users: A Comparison With Hearing-impaired Children Using Hearing Aid and Normal-hearing Children.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Narges; Yadegari, Fariba; Jalaie, Shohreh

    2016-11-01

    Vowel production in essence is auditorily controlled; hence, the role of the auditory feedback in vowel production is very important. The purpose of this study was to compare formant frequencies and vowel space in Persian-speaking deaf children with cochlear implantation (CI), hearing-impaired children with hearing aid (HA), and their normal-hearing (NH) peers. A total of 40 prelingually children with hearing impairment and 20 NH groups participated in this study. Participants were native Persian speakers. The average of first formant frequency (F1) and second formant frequency (F2) of the six vowels were measured using Praat software (version 5.1.44). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the differences between the three3 groups. The mean value of F1 for vowel /i/ was significantly different (between CI and NH children and also between HA and NH groups) (F2, 57 = 9.229, P < 0.001). For vowel /a/, the mean value of F1 was significantly different (between HA and NH groups) (F2, 57 = 3.707, P < 0.05). Regarding the second formant frequency, a post hoc Tukey test revealed that the differences were between HA and NH children (P < 0.05). F2 for vowel /o/ was significantly different (F2, 57 = 4.572, P < 0.05). Also, the mean value of F2 for vowel /a/ was significantly different (F2, 57 = 3.184, P < 0.05). About 1 year after implantation, the formants shift closer to those of the NH listeners who tend to have more expanded vowel spaces than hearing-impaired listeners with hearing aids. Probably, this condition is because CI has a subtly positive impact on the place of articulation of vowels. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Garrett County Aids AID

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachia, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Garrett County, Maryland volunteered to act as a pre-overseas learning laboratory for AID (Agency for International Development) interns who practiced data collection and planning techniques with the help of local citizenry. (JC)

  19. Iterative Refinement of a Tailored System for Self-Care Management of Depressive Symptoms in People Living With HIV/AIDS through Heuristic Evaluation and End User Testing

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Tsai-Ya

    2007-01-01

    Background: HIV TIDES — tailored interventions for self-care management of depressive symptoms for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) — provides assessment of depression and tailored education on self-care strategies to decrease the risk of developing clinical depressive disorders. The iterative refinement of the prototype is an important process during system development to ensure that the design of the system is easy to use and useful. Methods: The heuristic evaluation and usability testing methodologies were used to guide the iteration of the HIV TIDES. Results: The system's compliance with the majority of usability concepts and current standards was confirmed by three experts on human-computer interaction in the heuristic evaluation. However, a number of usability problems were identified. Refinements were made based on experts' recommendations prior to the usability testing. The usability testing included six PLWHA with various levels of computer experience. Data from this iterative testing informed the refinement of key pages and the development of new features. Conclusions: The final version of HIV TIDES consists of 73 messages. The average readability level of the messages is 6.0 based on the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level and the average word count is 103. PMID:17616431

  20. HEMPDS user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, K.H.

    1983-02-01

    HEMPDS, the double-slide version of two-dimensional HEMP, allows the intersection of slide lines and slide lines in any direction, thus making use of triangular zones. this revised user's manual aids the physicist, computer scientist, and computer technician in using, maintaining, and coverting HEMPDS. Equations, EOS models, and sample problems are included.

  1. Sediment source fingerprinting as an aid to catchment management: A review of the current state of knowledge and a methodological decision-tree for end-users.

    PubMed

    Collins, A L; Pulley, S; Foster, I D L; Gellis, A; Porto, P; Horowitz, A J

    2017-06-01

    The growing awareness of the environmental significance of fine-grained sediment fluxes through catchment systems continues to underscore the need for reliable information on the principal sources of this material. Source estimates are difficult to obtain using traditional monitoring techniques, but sediment source fingerprinting or tracing procedures, have emerged as a potentially valuable alternative. Despite the rapidly increasing numbers of studies reporting the use of sediment source fingerprinting, several key challenges and uncertainties continue to hamper consensus among the international scientific community on key components of the existing methodological procedures. Accordingly, this contribution reviews and presents recent developments for several key aspects of fingerprinting, namely: sediment source classification, catchment source and target sediment sampling, tracer selection, grain size issues, tracer conservatism, source apportionment modelling, and assessment of source predictions using artificial mixtures. Finally, a decision-tree representing the current state of knowledge is presented, to guide end-users in applying the fingerprinting approach. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevention of HIV/AIDS among injecting drug users in Russia: opportunities and barriers to scaling-up of harm reduction programmes.

    PubMed

    Tkatchenko-Schmidt, Elena; Renton, Adrian; Gevorgyan, Ruzanna; Davydenko, Ludmila; Atun, Rifat

    2008-02-01

    to examine attitudes of Russian policy-makers and HIV stakeholders towards harm reduction (HR) scale up, focusing on the factors constraining the scale-up process. Semi-structured interviews with representatives of 58 government and non-governmental organisations involved in HIV policies and programmes in Volgograd Region, Russian Federation. We found a considerable diversity of opinion on HR scale-up and suggest that Russia is experiencing the situation of power parity between HR supporters and opponents with many stakeholders being indecisive or cautious to express their views. We identified six main factors which constrain policy decisions in favour of HR scale-up: insufficient financial resources; lack of information on HR effectiveness; perception of HR as being culturally unacceptable; reluctance of IDUs to use the services; opposition from law enforcement agencies and the Russian Church; and unclear legal regulations. We demonstrate a complex interplay between these factors, policy-makers' attitudes and their choices on HR scale-up. A number of actions are needed to achieve a successful scale-up of HR programmes in Russia and similar political contexts: (i) a strategic approach to HR advocacy, targeting neutral and indecisive stakeholders; (ii) more systematic evidence on HR effectiveness and cost-effectiveness in the local context; (iii) HR advocacy targeting law enforcement agencies and the Russian Church; and (iv) aligning best international HR practices with the objectives of local policy-makers, practitioners and service-users.

  3. The moral universe of injecting drug users in the era of AIDS: sharing injecting equipment and the protection of moral standing.

    PubMed

    Plumridge, E; Chetwynd, J

    1998-12-01

    Recent work on HIV counselling suggests that the protection of the moral status of the recipient is a key factor in the successful uptake of advice. This study suggests it may be equally important in the uptake of health promotion messages. A discourse analysis of the talk of 20 young injecting drug users (IDUs) identified a contradiction between their asserted self-identity as careful and socially responsible injectors, and their admission of risky lending and borrowing of injecting equipment. This contradiction was resolved by the production of discourses of exoneration, differentially tailored to the moral implications of lending and of borrowing. Lenders argued a form of 'market morality' wherein it was the duty of each to accept the consequences of his/her decisions. Lenders were therefore morally exonerated since moral failure was the 'borrowers'. Borrowing was usually depicted as 'desperate measures' for which moral culpability was disavowed because of 'powerlessness'. The exception of routine borrowing, acknowledged as risky and against community norms, was accounted for in a nihilistic discourse of indifference to infection and death. The need for a 'counter discourse' around notions of community is discussed.

  4. Effectiveness of an on-body lifting aid at reducing low back physical demands during an automotive assembly task: assessment of EMG response and user acceptability.

    PubMed

    Graham, Ryan B; Agnew, Michael J; Stevenson, Joan M

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and user acceptability of a Personal Lift-Assist Device (PLAD) at an automotive manufacturing facility, with operators who perform an on-line assembly process requiring forward bending and static holding. Surface EMG data were collected at six sites on the low back and abdomen, and an accelerometer was used to measure trunk inclination. Use of the PLAD significantly reduced the thoracic and lumbar erector spinae activity and EMG-predicted compression at the 10th, 50th, and 90th APDF percentile levels (p < or = 0.05), without significantly increasing rectus abdominus activity or trunk flexion. Similarly, ratings of perceived exertion were found to be significantly lower when wearing the PLAD (p = 0.006). Subjective opinions were positive, with 8/10 subjects indicating they would wear the device everyday. With slight changes, workers felt that the PLAD could be beneficial at reducing forces and discomfort in similar industrial or manual materials handling tasks that place excessive physical demands on the low back.

  5. Methodology and User Guide for the Food Intakes Converted to Retail Commodities Databases: CSFII 1994-1996 and 1998; NHANES 1999-2000; WWEIA, NHANES 2001-2002

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose for developing the Food Intakes Converted to Retail Commodities Database (FICRCD) is to convert foods consumed in the national dietary surveys, 1994-2002, to respective amounts of retail-level food commodities. Food commodities are defined as those available for purchase in retail store...

  6. The impact of integrating food supplementation, nutritional education and HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy) on the nutritional status of patients living with HIV/AIDS in Mozambique: results from the DREAM Programme.

    PubMed

    Scarcella, P; Buonomo, E; Zimba, I; Doro Altan, A M; Germano, P; Palombi, L; Marazzi, M C

    2011-01-01

    DREAM (Drug Resources Enhancement against AIDS and Malnutrition) is a multiregional health program active in Mozambique since 2002 and provides free of charge an integrating package of care consisting of peer to peer nutritional and health education, food supplementation, voluntary counseling and testing, immunological, virological, clinical assessment and HAART (Highly Active AntiRetroviral Treatment). The main goals of this paper are to describe the state of health and nutrition and the adequacy of the diet of a sample of HIV/AIDS patients in Mozambique on HAART and not. A single-arm retrospective cohort study was conducted. 106 HIV/AIDS adult patients (84 in HAART), all receiving food supplementation and peer-to-peer nutritional education, were randomly recruited in Mozambique in two public health centres where DREAM is running. The programme is characterized by: provision of HAART, clinical and laboratory monitoring, peer to peer health and nutritional education and food supplementation. We measured BMI, haemoglobin, viral load, CD4 count at baseline (T0) and after at least 1 year (T1). Dietary intake was estimated using 24h food recall and dietary diversity was assessed by using the Dietary Diversity Score (DDS) at T1. Overall, the patients'diet appeared to be quite balanced in nutrients. In the cohort not in HAART the mean BMI values showed an increases but not significant (initial value: 21.9 ± 2.9; final value: 22.5 ± 3.3 ) and the mean haemoglobin values (g/dl) showed a significant increases (initial value: 10.5+ 2.1; final value: 11.5 ± 1.7 p< 0.024) . In the cohort in HAART, both the mean of BMI value (initial value: 20.7 ± 3.9; final value: 21.9 ± 3.3 p< 0.001) and of haemoglobin (initial value: 9.9 ± 2.2; final value: 10.8 ± 1.7 p< 0.001) showed a higher significant increase. The increase in BMI was statistically associated with the DDS in HAART patients. In conclusion nutritional status improvement was observed in both cohorts. The improvement

  7. Usage and Users of Online Self-Management Programs for Adult Patients With Atopic Dermatitis and Food Allergy: An Explorative Study

    PubMed Central

    van Leent- de Wit, Ilse; de Bruin-Weller, Marjolein; Knulst, André

    2015-01-01

    Background Two online self-management programs for patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) or food allergy (FA) were developed with the aim of helping patients cope with their condition, follow the prescribed treatment regimen, and deal with the consequences of their illness in daily life. Both programs consist of several modules containing information, personal stories by fellow patients, videos, and exercises with feedback. Health care professionals can refer their patients to the programs. However, the use of the program in daily practice is unknown. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the use and characteristics of users of the online self-management programs “Living with eczema,” and “Living with food allergy,” and to investigate factors related to the use of the trainings. Methods A cross-sectional design was carried out in which the outcome parameters were the number of log-ins by patients, the number of hits on the system’s core features, disease severity, quality of life, and domains of self-management. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize sample characteristics and to describe number of log-ins and hits per module and per functionality. Correlation and regression analyses were used to explore the relation between the number of log-ins and patient characteristics. Results Since the start, 299 adult patients have been referred to the online AD program; 173 logged in for at least one occasion. Data from 75 AD patients were available for analyses. Mean number of log-ins was 3.1 (range 1-11). Linear regression with the number of log-ins as dependent variable showed that age and quality of life contributed most to the model, with betas of .35 ( P=.002) and .26 (P=.05), respectively, and an R 2 of .23. Two hundred fourteen adult FA patients were referred to the online FA training, 124 logged in for at least one occasion and data from 45 patients were available for analysis. Mean number of log-ins was 3.0 (range 1-11). Linear regression

  8. Multiple stressors in Southern Africa: the link between HIV/AIDS, food insecurity, poverty and children's vulnerability now and in the future

    PubMed Central

    Drimie, Scott; Casale, Marisa

    2009-01-01

    Several countries in Southern Africa now see large numbers of their population barely subsisting at poverty levels in years without shocks, and highly vulnerable to the vagaries of the weather, the economy and government policy. The combination of HIV/AIDS, food insecurity and a weakened capacity for governments to deliver basic social services has led to the region experiencing an acute phase of a long-term emergency. “Vulnerability” is a term commonly used by scientists and practitioners to describe these deteriorating conditions. There is particular concern about the “vulnerability” of children in this context and implications for children's future security. Through a review of literature and recent case studies, and using a widely accepted conceptualisation of vulnerability as a lens, we reflect on what the regional livelihoods crisis could mean for children's future wellbeing. We argue that an increase in factors determining the vulnerability of households — both through greater intensity and frequency of shocks and stresses (“external” vulnerability) and undermined resilience or ability to cope (“internal” vulnerability) — are threatening not only current welfare of children, but also their longer-term security. The two specific pathways we explore are (1) erosive coping strategies employed by families and individuals; and (2) their inability to plan for the future. We conclude that understanding and responding to this crisis requires looking at the complexity of these multiple stressors, to try to comprehend their interconnections and causal links. Policy and programme responses have, to date, largely failed to take into account the complex and multi-dimensional nature of this crisis. There is a misfit between the problem and the institutional response, as responses from national and international players have remained relatively static. Decisive, well-informed and holistic interventions are needed to break the potential negative cycle

  9. Multiple stressors in Southern Africa: the link between HIV/AIDS, food insecurity, poverty and children's vulnerability now and in the future.

    PubMed

    Drimie, Scott; Casale, Marisa

    2009-01-01

    Several countries in Southern Africa now see large numbers of their population barely subsisting at poverty levels in years without shocks, and highly vulnerable to the vagaries of the weather, the economy and government policy. The combination of HIV/AIDS, food insecurity and a weakened capacity for governments to deliver basic social services has led to the region experiencing an acute phase of a long-term emergency. "Vulnerability" is a term commonly used by scientists and practitioners to describe these deteriorating conditions. There is particular concern about the "vulnerability" of children in this context and implications for children's future security. Through a review of literature and recent case studies, and using a widely accepted conceptualisation of vulnerability as a lens, we reflect on what the regional livelihoods crisis could mean for children's future wellbeing. We argue that an increase in factors determining the vulnerability of households - both through greater intensity and frequency of shocks and stresses ("external" vulnerability) and undermined resilience or ability to cope ("internal" vulnerability) - are threatening not only current welfare of children, but also their longer-term security. The two specific pathways we explore are (1) erosive coping strategies employed by families and individuals; and (2) their inability to plan for the future. We conclude that understanding and responding to this crisis requires looking at the complexity of these multiple stressors, to try to comprehend their interconnections and causal links. Policy and programme responses have, to date, largely failed to take into account the complex and multi-dimensional nature of this crisis. There is a misfit between the problem and the institutional response, as responses from national and international players have remained relatively static. Decisive, well-informed and holistic interventions are needed to break the potential negative cycle that threatens the

  10. Evaluation of the effectiveness of stainless steel cooking pots in reducing iron-deficiency anaemia in food aid-dependent populations.

    PubMed

    Talley, Leisel; Woodruff, Bradley A; Seal, Andrew; Tripp, Kathryn; Mselle, Laurent Sadikiel; Abdalla, Fathia; Bhatia, Rita; Mirghani, Zhara

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of stainless steel (Fe alloy) cooking pots in reducing Fe-deficiency anaemia in food aid-dependent populations. Repeated cross-sectional surveys. Between December 2001 and January 2003, three surveys among children aged 6-59 months and their mothers were conducted in 110 households randomly selected from each camp. The primary outcomes were changes in Hb concentration and Fe status. Two long-term refugee camps in western Tanzania. Children (6-59 months) and their mothers were surveyed at 0, 6 and 12 months post-intervention. Stainless steel pots were distributed to all households in Nduta camp (intervention); households in Mtendeli camp (control) continued to cook with aluminium or clay pots. Among children, there was no change in Hb concentration at 1 year; however, Fe status was lower in the intervention camp than the control camp (serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) concentration: 6.8 v. 5.9 microg/ml; P < 0.001). There was no change in Hb concentration among non-pregnant mothers at 1 year. Subjects in the intervention camp had lower Fe status than those in the control camp (sTfR concentration: 5.8 v. 4.7 microg/ml; P = 0.003). Distribution of stainless steel pots did not increase Hb concentration or improve Fe status in children or their mothers. The use of stainless steel prevents rusting but may not provide sufficient amounts of Fe and strong educational campaigns may be required to maximize use. The distribution of stainless steel pots in refugee contexts is not recommended as a strategy to control Fe deficiency.

  11. The impact of food assistance on weight gain and disease progression among HIV-infected individuals accessing AIDS care and treatment services in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The evidence evaluating the benefits of programmatic nutrition interventions to HIV-infected individuals in developing countries, where there is a large overlap between HIV prevalence and malnutrition, is limited. This study evaluates the impact of food assistance (FA) on change in weight and disease progression as measured by WHO staging. Methods We utilize program data from The AIDS Support Organization (TASO) in Uganda to compare outcomes among FA recipients to a control group, using propensity score matching (PSM) methods among 14,481 HIV-infected TASO clients. Results FA resulted in a significant mean weight gain of 0.36 kg over one year period. This impact was conditional on anti-retroviral therapy (ART) receipt and disease stage at baseline. FA resulted in mean weight gain of 0.36 kg among individuals not receiving ART compared to their matched controls. HIV-infected individuals receiving FA with baseline WHO stage II and III had a significant weight gain (0.26 kg and 0.2 kg respectively) compared to their matched controls. Individuals with the most advanced disease at baseline (WHO stage IV) had the highest weight gain of 1.9 kg. The impact on disease progression was minimal. Individuals receiving FA were 2 percentage points less likely to progress by one or more WHO stage compared to their matched controls. There were no significant impacts on either outcome among individuals receiving ART. Conclusions Given the widespread overlap of HIV and malnutrition in sub-Saharan Africa, FA programs have the potential to improve weight and delay disease progression, especially among HIV-infected individuals not yet on ART. Additional well designed prospective studies evaluating the impact of FA are urgently needed. PMID:20529283

  12. The Pathogen-annotated Tracking Resource Network (PATRN) system: a web-based resource to aid food safety, regulatory science, and investigations of foodborne pathogens and disease.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, G; Hari, K; Jain, R; Mammel, M K; Kothary, M H; Franco, A A; Grim, C J; Jarvis, K G; Sathyamoorthy, V; Hu, L; Datta, A R; Patel, I R; Jackson, S A; Gangiredla, J; Kotewicz, M L; LeClerc, J E; Wekell, M; McCardell, B A; Solomotis, M D; Tall, B D

    2013-06-01

    Investigation of foodborne diseases requires the capture and analysis of time-sensitive information on microbial pathogens that is derived from multiple analytical methods and sources. The web-based Pathogen-annotated Tracking Resource Network (PATRN) system (www.patrn.net) was developed to address the data aggregation, analysis, and communication needs important to the global food safety community for the investigation of foodborne disease. PATRN incorporates a standard vocabulary for describing isolate metadata and provides a representational schema for a prototypic data exchange standard using a novel data loading wizard for aggregation of assay and attribution information. PATRN currently houses expert-curated, high-quality "foundational datasets" consisting of published experimental results from conventional assays and next generation analysis platforms for isolates of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio and Cronobacter species. A suite of computational tools for data mining, clustering, and graphical representation is available. Within PATRN, the public curated data repository is complemented by a secure private workspace for user-driven analyses, and for sharing data among collaborators. To demonstrate the data curation, loading wizard features, and analytical capabilities of PATRN, three use-case scenarios are presented. Use-case scenario one is a comparison of the distribution and prevalence of plasmid-encoded virulence factor genes among 249 Cronobacter strains with similar attributes to that of nine Cronobacter isolates from recent cases obtained between March and October, 2010-2011. To highlight PATRN's data management and trend finding tools, analysis of datasets, stored in PATRN as part of an ongoing surveillance project to identify the predominant molecular serogroups among Cronobacter sakazakii isolates observed in the USA is shown. Use-case scenario two demonstrates the secure workspace available for private

  13. Revisiting the Archival Finding Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    Archivists have been creating finding aids for generations, and in the last three decades they have done this work via a succession of standardized formats. However, like many other disciplines, they have carried out such work in violation of systems analysis. Although purporting to have the users of finding aids systems first and foremost in…

  14. FAO/INFOODS Guidelines for Checking Food Composition Data Prior to the Publication of a User Table/Database, Version 1.0

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Food composition data play an essential role in many sectors, including nutrition, health, agriculture, environment, food labeling and trade. Over the last 25 years, International Network of Food Data Systems (INFOODS) has developed many international standards, guidelines and tools to obtain harmo...

  15. Aid as Obstacle: Twenty Questions about Our Foreign Aid and the Hungry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappe, Frances Moore; And Others

    Reasons why U.S. foreign aid fails to alleviate hunger and poverty are discussed and a solution to the problem is presented. The United States now channels more foreign aid than ever to the world's poor and hungry through the Agency for International Development, food aid programs, the World Bank, and other multilateral aid agencies, which report…

  16. Kool-Aid Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Christie L.

    1986-01-01

    Offers guidelines and suggests activities that can introduce middle school students to the process and principles of chromatography in an inexpensive and safe manner. Proposes that experiences with Kool-aid and food coloring chromatography can provide insights into how scientists think, work, and communicate. (ML)

  17. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... hearing aid has three basic parts: a microphone, amplifier, and speaker. The hearing aid receives sound through ... to electrical signals and sends them to an amplifier. The amplifier increases the power of the signals ...

  18. AIDS (image)

    MedlinePlus

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medicine can suppress symptoms. ...

  19. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  20. Development of a Decision Aid for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Involving Intensive Care Unit Patients' and Health Professionals' Participation Using User-Centered Design and a Wiki Platform for Rapid Prototyping: A Research Protocol.

    PubMed

    Plaisance, Ariane; Witteman, Holly O; Heyland, Daren Keith; Ebell, Mark H; Dupuis, Audrey; Lavoie-Bérard, Carole-Anne; Légaré, France; Archambault, Patrick Michel

    2016-02-11

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an intervention used in cases of cardiac arrest to revive patients whose heart has stopped. Because cardiac arrest can have potentially devastating outcomes such as severe neurological deficits even if CPR is performed, patients must be involved in determining in advance if they want CPR in the case of an unexpected arrest. Shared decision making (SDM) facilitates discussions about goals of care regarding CPR in intensive care units (ICUs). Patient decision aids (DAs) are proven to support the implementation of SDM. Many patient DAs about CPR exist, but they are not universally implemented in ICUs in part due to lack of context and cultural adaptation. Adaptation to local context is an important phase of implementing any type of knowledge tool such as patient DAs. User-centered design supported by a wiki platform to perform rapid prototyping has previously been successful in creating knowledge tools adapted to the needs of patients and health professionals (eg, asthma action plans). This project aims to explore how user-centered design and a wiki platform can support the adaptation of an existing DA for CPR to the local context. The primary objective is to use an existing DA about CPR to create a wiki-based DA that is adapted to the context of a single ICU and tailorable to individual patient's risk factors while employing user-centered design. The secondary objective is to document the use of a wiki platform for the adaptation of patient DAs. This study will be conducted in a mixed surgical and medical ICU at Hôtel-Dieu de Lévis, Quebec, Canada. We plan to involve all 5 intensivists and recruit at least 20 alert and oriented patients admitted to the ICU and their family members if available. In the first phase of this study, we will observe 3 weeks of daily interactions between patients, families, intensivists, and other allied health professionals. We will specifically observe 5 dyads of attending intensivists and alert

  1. Development of a Decision Aid for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Involving Intensive Care Unit Patients' and Health Professionals' Participation Using User-Centered Design and a Wiki Platform for Rapid Prototyping: A Research Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Heyland, Daren Keith; Ebell, Mark H; Dupuis, Audrey; Lavoie-Bérard, Carole-Anne; Légaré, France; Archambault, Patrick Michel

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an intervention used in cases of cardiac arrest to revive patients whose heart has stopped. Because cardiac arrest can have potentially devastating outcomes such as severe neurological deficits even if CPR is performed, patients must be involved in determining in advance if they want CPR in the case of an unexpected arrest. Shared decision making (SDM) facilitates discussions about goals of care regarding CPR in intensive care units (ICUs). Patient decision aids (DAs) are proven to support the implementation of SDM. Many patient DAs about CPR exist, but they are not universally implemented in ICUs in part due to lack of context and cultural adaptation. Adaptation to local context is an important phase of implementing any type of knowledge tool such as patient DAs. User-centered design supported by a wiki platform to perform rapid prototyping has previously been successful in creating knowledge tools adapted to the needs of patients and health professionals (eg, asthma action plans). This project aims to explore how user-centered design and a wiki platform can support the adaptation of an existing DA for CPR to the local context. Objective The primary objective is to use an existing DA about CPR to create a wiki-based DA that is adapted to the context of a single ICU and tailorable to individual patient’s risk factors while employing user-centered design. The secondary objective is to document the use of a wiki platform for the adaptation of patient DAs. Methods This study will be conducted in a mixed surgical and medical ICU at Hôtel-Dieu de Lévis, Quebec, Canada. We plan to involve all 5 intensivists and recruit at least 20 alert and oriented patients admitted to the ICU and their family members if available. In the first phase of this study, we will observe 3 weeks of daily interactions between patients, families, intensivists, and other allied health professionals. We will specifically observe 5 dyads of

  2. Distribution of vitamin E intake among Japanese dietary supplement and fortified food users: a secondary analysis from the National Health and Nutrition Survey, 2003-2009.

    PubMed

    Tsubota-Utsugi, Megumi; Nakade, Makiko; Imai, Eri; Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Nozue, Miho; Umegaki, Keizo; Yoshizawa, Takeshi; Okuda, Nagako; Nishi, Nobuo; Takimoto, Hidemi

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to: (1) assess the prevalence of dietary supplement and fortified food use, (2) examine the differences in vitamin E intake with and without dietary supplementation and/or fortified food use, and (3) determine whether some individuals consume vitamin E above the tolerable upper intake level (UL). Data were obtained from 64,624 individuals (age, ≥1 y; 47.4% males) who completed a 1-d household dietary assessment that was part of the National Health and Nutrition Survey conducted in Japan, 2003-2009. The survey also obtained information on the brand or generic name of each dietary supplement or fortified food reported, including their ingredients, through dietary assessment. The prevalence of a potential risk of excess was estimated by the proportion of persons above the age-/sex-specific ULs provided by the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese 2010. Supplement use was reported by 5.8% of men and 7.7% of women, whereas fortified food consumption was reported by only 2.9% of men and 3.6% of women. Use of dietary supplements was most common among older women, whereas use of fortified foods was most common among younger women. Both dietary supplement and fortified food use accounted for maximum vitamin E intake; however, the use of dietary supplements and fortified foods had little effect on the median and 95th percentile intake values. None of the subjects consumed nutrients above the UL. The collected data confirm that the use of both dietary supplements and fortified foods contributes a small amount to nutrient intake in Japanese subjects.

  3. Evidence on Self-Fitting Hearing Aids

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The research on self-fitting hearing aids is reviewed using evidence-based principles. The evaluation begins with a definition of the research questions followed by a detailed search of the literature and then a review of the relevant studies. Four features of self-fitting hearing aids are reviewed: in-situ threshold measurement, whether an initial fitting prescribed using standard prescription formulae will approximate user preferences, outcomes with training of hearing aids for preferred responses, and assembly and use of the aids. There is at least good quality evidence suggesting that in-situ thresholds can be reliably obtained, that prescribed initial fittings approximate preferred responses, and that users are able to train the hearing aids and would prefer the trained responses. However, evidence on other outcomes and the ability of users to assemble and use such instruments is limited. Gaps in research with self-fitting hearing aids are identified. PMID:22528820

  4. Do Hearing Aids Improve Affect Perception?

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Juliane; Herzog, Diana; Scharenborg, Odette; Janse, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Normal-hearing listeners use acoustic cues in speech to interpret a speaker's emotional state. This study investigates the effect of hearing aids on the perception of the emotion dimensions arousal (aroused/calm) and valence (positive/negative attitude) in older adults with hearing loss. More specifically, we investigate whether wearing a hearing aid improves the correlation between affect ratings and affect-related acoustic parameters. To that end, affect ratings by 23 hearing-aid users were compared for aided and unaided listening. Moreover, these ratings were compared to the ratings by an age-matched group of 22 participants with age-normal hearing.For arousal, hearing-aid users rated utterances as generally more aroused in the aided than in the unaided condition. Intensity differences were the strongest indictor of degree of arousal. Among the hearing-aid users, those with poorer hearing used additional prosodic cues (i.e., tempo and pitch) for their arousal ratings, compared to those with relatively good hearing. For valence, pitch was the only acoustic cue that was associated with valence. Neither listening condition nor hearing loss severity (differences among the hearing-aid users) influenced affect ratings or the use of affect-related acoustic parameters. Compared to the normal-hearing reference group, ratings of hearing-aid users in the aided condition did not generally differ in both emotion dimensions. However, hearing-aid users were more sensitive to intensity differences in their arousal ratings than the normal-hearing participants.We conclude that the use of hearing aids is important for the rehabilitation of affect perception and particularly influences the interpretation of arousal.

  5. First aid advisor

    SciTech Connect

    Saffer, S.I.; Weng, Wen-Chang

    1996-12-31

    A knowledge-based system (KBS), First Aid Advisor (FAA), is developed to provide a guidance for either a trained or untrained person to take some emergent actions to rescue the victim from life-threatening hazard or to prevent from causing serious problem before the Emergency Medical Service System (EMS) personnels arrive the scene. The First Aid Advisor will collect victim`s information by interacting with the user through a sequence of questions, analyze the victim`s problem, and give instructions step by step before offering a final advice. Since all the possible conditions are taken into consideration, it will guide the user to perform first aid from the most to the least urgent step for the victim. Furthermore, it will offer a suitable first aid advice for victim and eliminate the possibility of wrong actions done by trained person due to carelessness or nervousness. Offering advice to handle problems involving life-threatening conditions is the main objective of this system. In this paper, we will describe six major components of FAA and their respective tasks. Decision tables and dependency diagrams used in FAA implementation will also be described. System performance issues will conclude the paper.

  6. 75 FR 12555 - Prescription Drug User Fee Act; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Prescription Drug User Fee Act; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug... FDA to continue collecting user fees for the prescription drug program. The Federal Food, Drug, and...

  7. Assessment of the accuracy of portion size reports using computer-based food photographs aids in the development of an automated self-administered 24-hour recall.

    PubMed

    Subar, Amy F; Crafts, Jennifer; Zimmerman, Thea Palmer; Wilson, Michael; Mittl, Beth; Islam, Noemi G; McNutt, Suzanne; Potischman, Nancy; Buday, Richard; Hull, Stephen G; Baranowski, Tom; Guenther, Patricia M; Willis, Gordon; Tapia, Ramsey; Thompson, Frances E

    2010-01-01

    To assess the accuracy of portion-size estimates and participant preferences using various presentations of digital images. Two observational feeding studies were conducted. In both, each participant selected and consumed foods for breakfast and lunch, buffet style, serving themselves portions of nine foods representing five forms (eg, amorphous, pieces). Serving containers were weighed unobtrusively before and after selection as was plate waste. The next day, participants used a computer software program to select photographs representing portion sizes of foods consumed the previous day. Preference information was also collected. In Study 1 (n=29), participants were presented with four different types of images (aerial photographs, angled photographs, images of mounds, and household measures) and two types of screen presentations (simultaneous images vs an empty plate that filled with images of food portions when clicked). In Study 2 (n=20), images were presented in two ways that varied by size (large vs small) and number (4 vs 8). Convenience sample of volunteers of varying background in an office setting. Repeated-measures analysis of variance of absolute differences between actual and reported portions sizes by presentation methods. Accuracy results were largely not statistically significant, indicating that no one image type was most accurate. Accuracy results indicated the use of eight vs four images was more accurate. Strong participant preferences supported presenting simultaneous vs sequential images. These findings support the use of aerial photographs in the automated self-administered 24-hour recall. For some food forms, images of mounds or household measures are as accurate as images of food and, therefore, are a cost-effective alternative to photographs of foods. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Predictors of Hearing-Aid Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Poveda, Enrique A; Johannesen, Peter T; Pérez-González, Patricia; Blanco, José L; Kalluri, Sridhar; Edwards, Brent

    2017-01-01

    Over 360 million people worldwide suffer from disabling hearing loss. Most of them can be treated with hearing aids. Unfortunately, performance with hearing aids and the benefit obtained from using them vary widely across users. Here, we investigate the reasons for such variability. Sixty-eight hearing-aid users or candidates were fitted bilaterally with nonlinear hearing aids using standard procedures. Treatment outcome was assessed by measuring aided speech intelligibility in a time-reversed two-talker background and self-reported improvement in hearing ability. Statistical predictive models of these outcomes were obtained using linear combinations of 19 predictors, including demographic and audiological data, indicators of cochlear mechanical dysfunction and auditory temporal processing skills, hearing-aid settings, working memory capacity, and pretreatment self-perceived hearing ability. Aided intelligibility tended to be better for younger hearing-aid users with good unaided intelligibility in quiet and with good temporal processing abilities. Intelligibility tended to improve by increasing amplification for low-intensity sounds and by using more linear amplification for high-intensity sounds. Self-reported improvement in hearing ability was hard to predict but tended to be smaller for users with better working memory capacity. Indicators of cochlear mechanical dysfunction, alone or in combination with hearing settings, did not affect outcome predictions. The results may be useful for improving hearing aids and setting patients' expectations.

  9. Predictors of Hearing-Aid Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Johannesen, Peter T.; Pérez-González, Patricia; Blanco, José L.; Kalluri, Sridhar; Edwards, Brent

    2017-01-01

    Over 360 million people worldwide suffer from disabling hearing loss. Most of them can be treated with hearing aids. Unfortunately, performance with hearing aids and the benefit obtained from using them vary widely across users. Here, we investigate the reasons for such variability. Sixty-eight hearing-aid users or candidates were fitted bilaterally with nonlinear hearing aids using standard procedures. Treatment outcome was assessed by measuring aided speech intelligibility in a time-reversed two-talker background and self-reported improvement in hearing ability. Statistical predictive models of these outcomes were obtained using linear combinations of 19 predictors, including demographic and audiological data, indicators of cochlear mechanical dysfunction and auditory temporal processing skills, hearing-aid settings, working memory capacity, and pretreatment self-perceived hearing ability. Aided intelligibility tended to be better for younger hearing-aid users with good unaided intelligibility in quiet and with good temporal processing abilities. Intelligibility tended to improve by increasing amplification for low-intensity sounds and by using more linear amplification for high-intensity sounds. Self-reported improvement in hearing ability was hard to predict but tended to be smaller for users with better working memory capacity. Indicators of cochlear mechanical dysfunction, alone or in combination with hearing settings, did not affect outcome predictions. The results may be useful for improving hearing aids and setting patients’ expectations. PMID:28929903

  10. 21 CFR 886.5915 - Optical vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Optical vision aid. 886.5915 Section 886.5915 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5915 Optical vision aid. (a) Identification. An optical vision aid is a device that consists of a magnifying lens with an accompanying AC-powered or...

  11. 21 CFR 886.5915 - Optical vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Optical vision aid. 886.5915 Section 886.5915 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5915 Optical vision aid. (a) Identification. An optical vision aid is a device that consists of a magnifying lens with an accompanying AC-powered or...

  12. 21 CFR 886.5915 - Optical vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Optical vision aid. 886.5915 Section 886.5915 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5915 Optical vision aid. (a) Identification. An optical vision aid is a device that consists of a magnifying lens with an accompanying AC-powered or...

  13. 21 CFR 886.5915 - Optical vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Optical vision aid. 886.5915 Section 886.5915 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5915 Optical vision aid. (a) Identification. An optical vision aid is a device that consists of a magnifying lens with an accompanying AC-powered or...

  14. Help: first aid issues.

    PubMed

    Granitoff, N; Whitaker, I Y; Diccini, S; Goncalves, V C; Marin, H F

    1995-01-01

    First aid is the initial and immediate care given to a victim outside the hospital environment, with the purpose of assuring life and avoiding worsening conditions until he/she receives qualified assistance. Providing immediate aid to someone requires tranquility and, above all, knowledge on what has to be done or not in each situation. In addition to being treated by health professionals, the chances that a victim will receive early treatment by others are large. However, in Brazil, access to information, and the possibility of reviewing it whenever necessary, may contribute greatly to the process of assimilation of this knowledge, in addition to exercises on simulated cases. Informatics has been shown as an extremely useful tool in the development of educational software, considering its multiplicity of resources and providing for the users: motivation for an interactive experience, an individualized teaching that takes into account his/her own rhythm and desired complexity level, besides making possible the user's capacity for solving problems through simulated situations. Considering that, the number of individuals of the population prepared to act as First Aid helpers in situations of life threatening accidents or sudden illness is still very scarce. The ever increasing use of the computer as a mean of spreading information in schools, enterprises, and even households and considering the advantages of an educational software for the users regarding storage and retrieval of information when needed, we proposed the creation of an interactive teaching software. This software is being developed using Storyboard live. The methodology is the following: literature review, selection of images, development of the program, application tests. The initial selected issues are: assessment of the victim, cardiorespiratory arrest and resuscitation, airway obstruction, wounds, and hemorrhages. After utilizing the program, the user should be able to solve hypothetical

  15. User Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamnejad, Vahraz; Cramer, Paul

    1990-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: (1) impact of frequency change of user and spacecraft antenna gain and size; (2) basic personal terminal antennas (impact of 20/30 GHz frequency separation; parametric studies - gain, size, weight; gain and figure of merit (G/T); design data for selected antenna concepts; critical technologies and development goals; and recommendations); and (3) user antenna radiation safety concerns.

  16. AIDS and society.

    PubMed

    Singh, N K

    1991-08-01

    Noting the hysteria caused by an outbreak of AIDS among intravenous drug users in the state of Manipur, India, the author discusses the social and emotional aspects of the epidemic. Local media has been Manipur's main source of information concerning the outbreak, but this information has often been misleading and has served to stir up fear and hatred of HIV carriers. Many have even begun talking about an Isolation Centre. The author, the director of a drug rehabilitation center, relates his experiences in counseling 50 intravenous drug users on the subject of AIDS. He discovered that the group had very poor knowledge about the disease. When told about AIDS, they became alarmed at the possibility of dying. 1/2 of the group swore to take revenge on those who had introduced them to drugs, but the other 1/2 showed a more positive attitude, saying that they would like to help other drug addicts. The author also describes the case history of a patient who had succeeded in staying off of drugs for 8 months. HIV screening, however, revealed that the young man was seropositive. Somehow, a local newspaper got a hold of this information and published his name as a seropositive along with the names of others. Distraught by this, the young man returned to drugs. The author stresses that revealing the names of HIV carriers serves no social purpose, and in fact, only makes the problem worse. He recommends the following for dealing with the outbreak of AIDS: 1) intensive public health education on AIDS with the aim or removing unwarranted fears; 2) education to prevent drug addiction; 3) counselling to parents of drug addicts; and 4) the establishment of Seropositive Anonymous, an organization designed to help carriers deal with their problems.

  17. Public knowledge about AIDS increasing.

    PubMed

    Campbell, M J; Waters, W E

    1987-04-04

    In response to concern over the perceived limited effectiveness of Department of Health and Social Security (UK) advertising campaigns to inform the public of the basic facts of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a prospective questionnaire study was undertaken in Southampton, England to test the effectiveness of government education prior to a January, 1987 government television/leaflet advertising campaign. 300 questionnaires about AIDS were mailed in December of 1986 to a sample drawn from electoral rolls. The response rate was 61%. Most of the questions were drawn from material covered in the campaign. The results seemed to indicate a small overall increase in knowledge about AIDS. Some changes from a June survey were noted, e.g.: more people were aware that AIDS is a virus for which there is no cure and that it is not readily transmitted by sharing washing, eating or drinking utensils; more people believed that the statement that women are at greater risk for catching AIDS is false. Respondents were generally favorable to the government's continued use of television, even with explicit language, and to its use of the schools, for AIDS education. Many were not aware of the dangers to intravenous drug users or of the symptoms of AIDS. Other surveys have shown an increasing knowledge of AIDS dangers. It is possible that television coverage of the problem will continue to be necessary, in order that less literate populations be reached. Further AIDS health education in general is needed.

  18. Short-term evaluation of the impact of a fortified food aid program on the micronutrient nutritional status of Argentinian pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Malpeli, Agustina; Ferrari, María Guillermina; Varea, Ana; Falivene, Mariana; Etchegoyen, Graciela; Vojkovic, María; Carmuega, Estéban; Disalvo, Liliana; Apezteguía, María; Pereyras, Silvia; Tournier, Andrea; Vogliolo, Daniel; Gonzalez, Horacio F

    2013-11-01

    We studied the impact of a food supplementation program (Plan Más Vida (PMV)) on the micronutrient nutritional condition of pregnant women from low-income families 1 year after its implementation. The food program provided supplementary diet (wheat and maize--fortified flour, rice or sugar, and fortified soup). We performed a prospective, nonexperimental, cross-sectional study in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, evaluating pregnant women at baseline (n = 164) and 1 year after PMV implementation (n = 108). Biochemical tests (hemogram, ferritin, vitamin A, zinc, and folic acid), anthropometric assessments (weight and height), and dietary surveys (24 h recall) were performed at the two study points. One year after PMV implementation, no significant changes in anthropometric values were observed. Folic acid deficiency and the risk of vitamin A deficiency (retinol, 20-30 μg/dl) decreased significantly (35.8 to 6.1 % and 64 to 41 %, respectively; p < 0.000). Anemia and prevalence of iron and zinc deficiency values did not change. Diet survey results showed that although nutrient intake increased significantly, it was still below recommendations. Implementation of the PMV and of the government nutritional strategies had a high impact on the prevalence of folic acid deficiency. We also observed a decrease in the risk of vitamin A deficiency, and no impact on iron and zinc nutritional status. Adherence to the specific fortified food (soup) was not good and intra-family dilution and distribution of food was high.

  19. Assessment of the accuracy of portion size reports using computer-based food photographs aids in the development of an automated self-administered 24-hour recall

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of the study is to assess the accuracy of portion-size estimates and participant preferences using various presentations of digital images. Two observational feeding studies were conducted. In both, each participant selected and consumed foods for breakfast and lunch, buffet style, se...

  20. Barriers to Participation in the Food Stamp Program Among Food Pantry Clients in Los Angeles

    PubMed Central

    Algert, Susan J.; Reibel, Michael; Renvall, Marian J.

    2006-01-01

    Substantial numbers of food pantry clients are eligible for food stamps but do not receive them. Background characteristics of 14317 food pantry users in Los Angeles were analyzed to provide information helpful in food stamp outreach programs. Ninety percent of food pantry users were living well below poverty level, 59% were Hispanic, and 44% were homeless. Only 15% of the food pantry clients received food stamps, with homelessness and limited English language skills acting as barriers to food stamp program participation. PMID:16571694

  1. STS ancillary equipment study. User reference book

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plough, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    A record of what is currently known about STS ancillary equipment is presented in this user-oriented design so that a potential user may evaluate whether he could use the described ancillary equipment or if he would need to design and fabricate a payload-unique item. References that the user can use to obtain additional details and requirements to aid in his evaluation and decision are included.

  2. 78 FR 66940 - Regulatory Requirements for Hearing Aid Devices and Personal Sound Amplification Products; Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Regulatory Requirements for Hearing Aid Devices and Personal Sound Amplification Products; Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and...

  3. 21 CFR 333.110 - First aid antibiotic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false First aid antibiotic active ingredients. 333.110 Section 333.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.110 First aid antibiotic active ingredients. The product consists of any...

  4. 21 CFR 333.110 - First aid antibiotic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false First aid antibiotic active ingredients. 333.110 Section 333.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.110 First aid antibiotic active ingredients. The product consists of any...

  5. 21 CFR 333.110 - First aid antibiotic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false First aid antibiotic active ingredients. 333.110 Section 333.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.110 First aid antibiotic active ingredients. The product consists of any...

  6. 21 CFR 333.110 - First aid antibiotic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false First aid antibiotic active ingredients. 333.110 Section 333.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.110 First aid antibiotic active ingredients. The product consists of any of...

  7. 21 CFR 333.110 - First aid antibiotic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false First aid antibiotic active ingredients. 333.110 Section 333.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.110 First aid antibiotic active ingredients. The product consists of any of...

  8. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  9. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  10. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  11. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  12. 21 CFR 874.3330 - Master hearing aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Master hearing aid. 874.3330 Section 874.3330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3330 Master hearing aid. (a)...

  13. 21 CFR 874.3330 - Master hearing aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Master hearing aid. 874.3330 Section 874.3330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3330 Master hearing aid. (a)...

  14. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  15. 21 CFR 874.3330 - Master hearing aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Master hearing aid. 874.3330 Section 874.3330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3330 Master hearing aid. (a)...

  16. Computer Aided Design in Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gobin, R.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) systems in an undergraduate engineering education program. Provides a rationale for CAD/CAM use in the already existing engineering program. Describes the methods used in choosing the systems, some initial results, and warnings for first-time users. (TW)

  17. Computer Aided Design in Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gobin, R.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) systems in an undergraduate engineering education program. Provides a rationale for CAD/CAM use in the already existing engineering program. Describes the methods used in choosing the systems, some initial results, and warnings for first-time users. (TW)

  18. AIDS, Alcohol & Health Care. Chapter 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acampora, Alfonso P., Ed.; Nebelkopf, Ethan, Ed.

    This document contains 10 papers from the ninth World Conference of Therapeutic Communities (TC) that deal with a variety of health-related subjects. Papers include: (1) "AIDS among IV Drug Users: Epidemiology, Natural History & TC Experiences" (Don C. Des Jarlais, et al.); (2) "AIDS and Therapeutic Communities: Policy Implications" (Don C. Des…

  19. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... hair cells (outer and inner rows). When the vibrations move through this fluid, the tiny outer hair ... ear to the brain. Hearing aids intensify sound vibrations that the damaged outer hair cells have trouble ...

  20. Teaching Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, W. Robert, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Provides evaluations of several aids for teaching chemistry. Included are The Use of Chemical Abstracts, Practical Technical Writing, Infrared Spectroscopy Programs, and a film titled "You Can't Go Back." (RH)

  1. Teaching Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, W. Robert, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Provides evaluations of several aids for teaching chemistry. Included are The Use of Chemical Abstracts, Practical Technical Writing, Infrared Spectroscopy Programs, and a film titled "You Can't Go Back." (RH)

  2. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... case goes behind the ear that holds the electronics that make up the actual hearing aid. It's ... there's a hard plastic case that holds the electronic components, but it's joined to the earmold itself, ...

  3. Low-cost, ready-to-use therapeutic foods can be designed using locally available commodities with the aid of linear programming.

    PubMed

    Dibari, Filippo; Diop, El Hadji I; Collins, Steven; Seal, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    According to the United Nations (UN), 25 million children <5 y of age are currently affected by severe acute malnutrition and need to be treated using special nutritional products such as ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTF). Improved formulations are in demand, but a standardized approach for RUTF design has not yet been described. A method relying on linear programming (LP) analysis was developed and piloted in the design of a RUTF prototype for the treatment of wasting in East African children and adults. The LP objective function and decision variables consisted of the lowest formulation price and the weights of the chosen commodities (soy, sorghum, maize, oil, and sugar), respectively. The LP constraints were based on current UN recommendations for the macronutrient content of therapeutic food and included palatability, texture, and maximum food ingredient weight criteria. Nonlinear constraints for nutrient ratios were converted to linear equations to allow their use in LP. The formulation was considered accurate if laboratory results confirmed an energy density difference <10% and a protein or lipid difference <5 g · 100 g(-1) compared to the LP formulation estimates. With this test prototype, the differences were 7%, and 2.3 and -1.0 g · 100 g(-1), respectively, and the formulation accuracy was considered good. LP can contribute to the design of ready-to-use foods (therapeutic, supplementary, or complementary), targeting different forms of malnutrition, while using commodities that are cheaper, regionally available, and meet local cultural preferences. However, as with all prototype feeding products for medical use, composition analysis, safety, acceptability, and clinical effectiveness trials must be conducted to validate the formulation.

  4. Data Mining for User Modeling and Personalization in Ubiquitous Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaimes, Alejandro

    User modeling (UM) has traditionally been concerned with analyzing a user's interaction with a system and with developing cognitive models that aid in the design of user interfaces and interaction mechanisms. Elements of a user model may include representation of goals, plans, preferences, tasks, and/or abilities about one or more types of users, classification of a user into subgroups or stereotypes, the formation of assumptions about the user based on the interaction history, and the generalization of the interaction histories of many users into groups, among many others.

  5. Simultaneous determination of nine preservatives in food by liquid chromatography with the aid of coagulant in the clean-up process.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Jun; Nakajima, Masahiro

    2017-05-01

    A simple HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of nine preservatives in food including benzoic acid, sorbic acid, dehydroacetic acid, methyl paraben, ethyl paraben, isopropyl paraben, propyl paraben, isobutyl paraben and butyl paraben. Samples were extracted with 60 v/v% methanol containing poly-aluminium chloride (PAC) and sodium hydroxide prior to analysis. PAC, which is normally used as a coagulant, was successfully applied to remove interfering substances from the samples. The method showed good linearity with coefficients of determination higher than 0.999 over the range of 0.2-5 µg ml(-1) for all target preservatives. LOQs of the method were in the range of 0.002-0.008 g kg(-1). Method performance was evaluated in a variety of foods demonstrated to have quantitative recoveries of 81.7-102.5% with satisfactory intra-day precision of < 3.7% and inter-day precision of < 6.5%. The method also demonstrated applicability to real foods containing preservatives.

  6. Epigenetic regulation of HIV, AIDS, and AIDS-related malignancies.

    PubMed

    Verma, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Although epigenetics is not a new field, its implications for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) research have not been explored fully. To develop therapeutic and preventive approaches against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of interaction between the virus and the host, involvement of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, characterization of viral reservoirs, and factors influencing the latency of the virus. Both methylation of viral genes and histone modifications contribute to initiating and maintaining latency and, depending on the context, triggering viral gene repression or expression. This chapter discusses progress made at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), recommendations from the International AIDS Society Scientific Working Group on HIV Cure, and underlying epigenetic regulation. A number of epigenetic inhibitors have shown potential in treating AIDS-related malignancies. Epigenetic drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and their implications for the eradication of HIV/AIDS and AIDS-related malignancies also are discussed.Past and current progress in developing treatments and understanding the molecular mechanisms of AIDS and HIV infection has greatly improved patient survival. However, increased survival has been coupled with the development of cancer at higher rates than those observed among the HIV/AIDS-negative population. During the early days of the AIDS epidemic, the most frequent AIDS-defining malignancies were Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Now, with increased survival as the result of widespread use in the developed world of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), non-AIDS defining cancers (i.e., anal, skin, and lung cancers, and Hodgkin disease) are on the increase in HIV-infected populations. The current status of AIDS-related malignancies also is discussed.

  7. Auditory Distraction and Acclimatization to Hearing Aids.

    PubMed

    Dawes, Piers; Munro, Kevin J

    It is widely recognized by hearing aid users and audiologists that a period of auditory acclimatization and adjustment is needed for new users to become accustomed to their devices. The aim of the present study was to test the idea that auditory acclimatization and adjustment to hearing aids involves a process of learning to "tune out" newly audible but undesirable sounds, which are described by new hearing aid users as annoying and distracting. It was hypothesized that (1) speech recognition thresholds in noise would improve over time for new hearing aid users, (2) distractibility to noise would reduce over time for new hearing aid users, (3) there would be a correlation between improved speech recognition in noise and reduced distractibility to background sounds, (4) improvements in speech recognition and distraction would be accompanied by self-report of reduced annoyance, and (5) improvements in speech recognition and distraction would be associated with higher general cognitive ability and more hearing aid use. New adult hearing aid users (n = 35) completed a test of aided speech recognition in noise (SIN) and a test of auditory distraction by background sound amplified by hearing aids on the day of fitting and 1, 7, 14, and 30 days post fitting. At day 30, participants completed self-ratings of the annoyance of amplified sounds. Daily hearing aid use was measured via hearing aid data logging, and cognitive ability was measured with the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence block design test. A control group of experienced hearing aid users (n = 20) completed the tests over a similar time frame. At day 30, there was no statistically significant improvement in SIN among new users versus experienced users. However, levels of hearing loss and hearing aid use varied widely among new users. A subset of new users with moderate hearing loss who wore their hearing aids at least 6 hr/day (n = 10) had significantly improved SIN (by ~3-dB signal to noise ratio

  8. Analysis of the US Food and Drug Administration Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience database for adverse events involving Amplatzer septal occluder devices and comparison with the Society of Thoracic Surgery congenital cardiac surgery database.

    PubMed

    DiBardino, Daniel J; McElhinney, Doff B; Kaza, Aditya K; Mayer, John E

    2009-06-01

    Amplatzer (AGA Medical Corporation, Plymouth, Minn) septal and vascular occluder devices have significantly altered the care of patients with congenital heart disease. The relative frequency and consequence of complications resulting from the attempted placement of such devices, however, have not been well assessed. The purpose of this study is to use large databases to assess the frequency and severity of such complications and compare them with those of surgical atrial septal defect closure. The US Food and Drug Administration Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience database was quarried for all adverse events for Amplatzer septal occluder devices, which were categorized and analyzed with particular emphasis on management and outcome. The Society of Thoracic Surgery database was likewise quarried for the same data regarding atrial septal defect closures over a contemporaneous time period. By using a literature-derived denominator for total Amplatzer implant numbers, the results of the 2 therapies were compared. Since July 1, 2002, 223 adverse events in patients undergoing Amplatzer atrial septal defect closure were submitted to the Food and Drug Administration, resulting in 17 deaths (7.6%) and 152 surgical rescue operations (68.2%). Society of Thoracic Surgery data demonstrated 1537 primary operations with 2 deaths (0.13%) and 6 reoperations (0.39%). By extrapolating on published estimates of Amplatzer implantation to provide an implant denominator (n = 18,333), there was no difference between overall mortality for surgical (0.13%) and device closure (0.093%, P = .649). Rescue operation for device adverse events (0.83%) was 2.1 times more likely than reoperation for surgical closure (0.39%, P = .063). Mortality per adverse event was higher for device closure (7.6%) than for surgical closure (1.2%, P = .004), and the need for surgery per adverse event was higher for device closure (68.2%) than for surgical closure (3.6%, P < .001). The mortality for

  9. After the forest. AIDs as ecological collapse in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Usher, A D

    1992-01-01

    Numerous parallels can be drawn between the systematic destruction of Thailand's forests and the emergence, in the same time period, of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) as an irreversible societal crisis. Both the disintegration of the body's defense system implicit in AIDS and the erosion of Thailand's ecosystem provoked by deforestation policies are examples of assaults by capitalist economic policies on previously self-regulating systems. Centralization and industrial development have driven a substantial proportion of young Thai villagers to the cities, where they sell their labor as sex workers (there may be as many as 2 million prostitutes in Thailand) or become heroin users. Conservative estimates project 1.6 million AIDS-infected Thais by the end of 1995. Just as generally benign conditions such as the common cold can annihilate a body ravaged by the AIDS virus, Thailand's ecosystem, degraded by unregulated logging and state-subsidized, for-profit rubber planting, is no longer able to absorb natural occurrences such as heavy rainfall. The loss of forestland--the traditional source of food, shelter, tools, and medicine and the repository of cultural icons--has forced villagers to obtain cash to meet their needs, and Thailand's sex industry offers one of the highest rates of remuneration. Legislation enacted in response to AIDS and deforestation shares an emphasis on the victims (e.g., the prostitutes and not their clients or the owners of sex establishments, and impoverished forest squatters rather than plantation companies and land speculators). A powerful, combative environmental movement is successfully resisting government attempts to destroy living communities. Needed as well is resistance on the part of women growing up in the age of AIDS to societal definitions that polarize females (virgins and prostitutes) and uphold one-sided monogamy.

  10. International Food Assistance: A U.S. Governmentwide Strategy Could Accelerate Progress Toward Global Food Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-29

    2009); and International Food Assistance: USAID Is Taking Actions to Improve Monitoring and Evaluation of Nonemergency Food Aid, but Weaknesses...International Food Assistance: USAID Is Taking Actions to Improve Monitoring and Evaluation of Nonemergency Food Aid, but Weaknesses in Planning

  11. Software For Computer-Aided Design Of Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    Computer Aided Engineering System (CAESY) software developed to provide means to evaluate methods for dealing with users' needs in computer-aided design of control systems. Interpreter program for performing engineering calculations. Incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. Designed to be flexible and powerful. Includes internally defined functions, procedures and provides for definition of functions and procedures by user. Written in C language.

  12. Software For Computer-Aided Design Of Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    Computer Aided Engineering System (CAESY) software developed to provide means to evaluate methods for dealing with users' needs in computer-aided design of control systems. Interpreter program for performing engineering calculations. Incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. Designed to be flexible and powerful. Includes internally defined functions, procedures and provides for definition of functions and procedures by user. Written in C language.

  13. QMRPACK user`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Freund, R.W.; Nachtigal, N.M.; Reeb, J.C.

    1994-10-01

    QMRPACK is a library of FORTRAN 77 subroutines that may be used to solve linear systems of equations with the quasi-minimal residual (QMR) method and to compute eigenvalue approximations. This User`s Guide is designed to be an overview of the codes contained in QMRPACK. Installation information is provided, and the example matrix format is discussed. The relative merits of each algorithm, as well as usage criterion are described. The authors also provide instructions for making the test drivers, as well as test output from several machines.

  14. CADCAM-009: VERTRAN user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Blackledge, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has been assigned Lead Lab responsibility by the Department of Energy (DOE) for integrating computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) activities throughout DOE's Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC). A primary objective is automating the exchange of product definition data within the NWC. It is essential that data integrity be preserved and verified following each such data exchange. VERTRAN (for VERification of TRANsferred data) is a software based method for detecting differences in the geometric data of a computer product definition file that has been transferred from one CAD system to another. Complete user instructions and program responses are provided.

  15. AIDPRF/PRFAID user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, C. H.

    1975-01-01

    The program documentation for the PRF ARTWORK/AIDS conversion program, which serves as the interface between the outputs of the PRF ARTWORK and AIDS programs, was presented. The document has a two-fold purpose, the first of which is a description of the software design including flowcharts of the design at the functional level. The second purpose is to provide the user with a detailed description of the input parameters and formats necessary to execute the program and a description of the output produced when the program is executed.

  16. 76 FR 79198 - Generic Drug User Fee; Public Meeting; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Generic Drug User Fee; Public Meeting; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug... (76 FR 76738). The document announced a public meeting entitled ``Generic Drug User Fee.'' The...

  17. Types of Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Types of Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... some features for hearing aids? What are hearing aids? Hearing aids are sound-amplifying devices designed to ...

  18. HIV/AIDS - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - HIV/AIDS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on AIDS : AIDS.gov -- www.aids.gov AIDS Info -- aidsinfo.nih.gov The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation -- www. ...

  19. News about AIDS.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    WHO estimates that the number of AIDS cases worldwide will grow from about 1.5 million to 12-18 million by 2000--a 10 fold increase. Further it expects the cumulative number of HIV infected individuals to increase from 9-11 million to 30-40 million by 2000--a 3-4 fold increase. Dr. Hiroshi Nakajima, the Director-General of WHO, points out that despite the rise in AIDS, there is something for which to be thankful--neither air, nor water, nor insects disseminate HIV and causal social contact does not transmit it. Further since AIDS is basically a sexually transmitted disease, health education can inform people of the need to make life style changes which in turn prevents its spread. In addition, Dr. Nakajima illustrates how frank health education and information campaigns in the homosexual community in developed countries have resulted in reduced infection rates. In fact, many of the people disseminating the safer sex message in the homosexual community were people living with HIV and AIDS. HIV has infected 7 million adults and children in Sub-Saharan Africa since the AIDS pandemic began. It is now spreading quickly in south and southeast Asia where at least 1 million people carry HIV. In fact, WHO believes that by the mid to late 1990s HIV will infect more Asians than Africans. Further Latin America is not HIV free and it can be easily spread there too. Heterosexual intercourse has replaced homosexual intercourse and needle sharing by intravenous drug users as the leading route of HIV transmission.

  20. 21 CFR 874.3320 - Group hearing aid or group auditory trainer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Group hearing aid or group auditory trainer. 874.3320 Section 874.3320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... hearing aid or group auditory trainer. (a) Identification. A group hearing aid or group auditory...

  1. 21 CFR 874.3320 - Group hearing aid or group auditory trainer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Group hearing aid or group auditory trainer. 874.3320 Section 874.3320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... hearing aid or group auditory trainer. (a) Identification. A group hearing aid or group auditory...

  2. 21 CFR 874.3310 - Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system. 874.3310 Section 874.3310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... aid calibrator and analysis system. (a) Identification. A hearing aid calibrator and analysis...

  3. 21 CFR 874.3310 - Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system. 874.3310 Section 874.3310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... aid calibrator and analysis system. (a) Identification. A hearing aid calibrator and analysis...

  4. 21 CFR 874.3310 - Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system. 874.3310 Section 874.3310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... aid calibrator and analysis system. (a) Identification. A hearing aid calibrator and analysis...

  5. 21 CFR 874.3320 - Group hearing aid or group auditory trainer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Group hearing aid or group auditory trainer. 874.3320 Section 874.3320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... hearing aid or group auditory trainer. (a) Identification. A group hearing aid or group auditory...

  6. ModSAF User Manual - Version 1.0

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-20

    110 C.4 Actions on-Contact Task ............................................ 111 C.5 Targeting...interface provides an extensive list of actions and options. Its graphics facilities aid the user in many ways, such as adjusting map resolution and...without further action from the user. However, the user can override or interrupt any automated behavior. When an object is simulated on the SAFsim it

  7. Classroom Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article describes 6 aids for science instruction, including (1) the use of fudge to represent lava; (2) the "Living by Chemistry" program, designed to make high school chemistry more accessible to a diverse pool of students without sacrificing content; (3) NOAA and NSTA's online coral reef teaching tool, a new web-based "science toolbox" for…

  8. Classroom Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article describes 6 aids for science instruction, including (1) the use of fudge to represent lava; (2) the "Living by Chemistry" program, designed to make high school chemistry more accessible to a diverse pool of students without sacrificing content; (3) NOAA and NSTA's online coral reef teaching tool, a new web-based "science toolbox" for…

  9. Floriculture Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce; Looney, Era

    Designed for use in a self-paced, open-entry/open-exit vocational training program for a floriculture aide, this program guide is one of six for teachers of adult women offenders from a correctional institution. Module topic outlines and sample lesson plans are presented on eleven topics: occupational opportunities in the retail florist industry;…

  10. Floriculture Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce; Looney, Era

    Designed for use in a self-paced, open-entry/open-exit vocational training program for a floriculture aide, this program guide is one of six for teachers of adult women offenders from a correctional institution. Module topic outlines and sample lesson plans are presented on eleven topics: occupational opportunities in the retail florist industry;…

  11. 21 CFR 874.3300 - Hearing Aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3300 Hearing Aid. (a) Identification. A hearing aid is wearable sound-amplifying device that is intended to compensate for impaired hearing....

  12. 21 CFR 874.3300 - Hearing Aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3300 Hearing Aid. (a) Identification. A hearing aid is wearable sound-amplifying device that is intended to compensate for impaired hearing....

  13. [HIV infection and AIDS in urology].

    PubMed

    Fischer, C; Miller, J; Gahr, M; Ringert, R H

    1994-05-01

    Up to December 1993, a total of 10858 AIDS cases were reported to the central AIDS registry at the Federal Health Office. Human immunodeficiency virus is acquired through needle sharing (i.v. drug users), contaminated blood transfusions, intercourse with infected persons and transplacentally by fetuses. In Germany, about seven people a day are estimated to acquire the HIV infection. Half the patients will develop systemic manifestations of AIDS within 12-13 years. Only a small percentage of these patients suffer from urological manifestations, e.g. urinary tract infection, prostatism or HIV-associated nephropathy. Nevertheless, knowledge of genitourinary pathology caused by HIV makes early diagnosis of AIDS possible.

  14. Use of sensitivity analysis to aid interpretation of a probabilistic Bacillus cereus spore lag time model applied to heat-treated chilled foods (REPFEDs).

    PubMed

    Membré, Jeanne-Marie; Kan-King-Yu, Denis; Blackburn, Clive de W

    2008-11-30

    The microbiological safety and quality of REfrigerated Processed Foods of Extended Durability (REPFEDs) relies on a combination of mild heat treatment and refrigeration, sometimes in combination with other inhibitory agents that are not effective when used alone. In this context, the output of a probabilistic model predicting the lag time of heat-treated Bacillus cereus spores under realistic heat-treatment profile and chilled supply-chain conditions, has been investigated using a sensitivity analysis technique. Indeed, knowing that there was uncertainty in the model (e.g. due to lack of data to build the model input probability density function), the objective of the analysis was to evaluate if the variability associated with some inputs (e.g. the consumers' refrigerator temperature values reported in Europe and US markets were different) had a significant impact on the model output, i.e. on the expected lag time of heat-treated B. cereus spores in REPFEDs. To do so, the uncertainty and variability associated with the various model inputs have been identified and then separated using a second order Monte Carlo decomposition. Concerning the variability, there was a significant difference between the chilled supply-chains (Europe, US) and between the raw material groups (low, medium or high contamination levels). For example, in the European market, after a heat treatment of 90 degrees C for 10 min, with a high raw material contamination level, the predicted 5th percentile of the lag time was 17 days, while it was 35 days with a low raw material contamination level. This was confirmed with an ANOVA. The impact of the uncertainty on the lag time has been illustrated graphically by building confidence intervals around its 5th percentile. A sensitivity analysis based upon uncertainty and variability decomposition is clearly a complex and time consuming exercise; however, it provides a greater confidence (greater transparency and better understanding) in the model

  15. Do Teacher Aides Aid American Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivero, James L.

    A far-reaching 1968 study on teacher aides revealed that very little was known about the aid that aides supposedly provide. It was found that there is some direct relationship between the use of aides and action programs to improve instruction. Some general points crop up regularly: 1) Teachers who have aides usually will not do without them. 2)…

  16. User's Manual for CoEAT Tool

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Co-EAT users manual is designed to help the anaerobic digestion system operators evaluate the costs and benefits of accepting and processing wasted food, fats, oils and greases (FOG) or other organic materials.

  17. ASTROP3 user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    August, Richard

    1991-01-01

    ASTROP3 (Aeroelastic Stability and Response of Propulsion Systems) is a FORTRAN computer code developed for calculating the performance and dynamic stability (classical flutter) of single rotation propfans. Three-dimensional, subsonic aerodynamics with constant pressure panel discretization and MSC/NASTRAN finite element analysis of the blade are used to calculate the steady and unsteady aerodynamic forces. The flutter analysis is a modal based technique using motion dependent aerodynamic forces based on in-vacuum frequencies and normal modes of the individual propfan blades. The execution of ASTROP3 is illustrated through the calculation of blade performance and blade aeroelastic stability for the SR7L rotor. These calculations are representative of applications for ASTROP3. All input and output files necessary for program execution are discussed, as well as other appropriate information to aid the user in applying the program.

  18. Development of a universally applicable household food insecurity measurement tool: process, current status, and outstanding issues.

    PubMed

    Swindale, Anne; Bilinsky, Paula

    2006-05-01

    The United States Public Law 480 Title II food aid program is the largest U.S. government program directed at reducing hunger, malnutrition, and food insecurity in the developing world. USAID and Title II implementing partners face challenges in measuring the success of Title II programs in reducing household food insecurity because of the technical difficulty and cost of collecting and analyzing data on traditional food security indicators, such as per capita income and caloric adequacy. The Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) holds promise as an easier and more user-friendly approach for measuring the access component of household food security. To support the consistent and comparable collection of the HFIAS, efforts are under way to develop a guide with a standardized questionnaire and data collection and analysis instructions. A set of domains have been identified that is deemed to capture the universal experience of the access component of household food insecurity across countries and cultures. Based on these domains, a set of questions has been developed with wording that is deemed to be universally appropriate, with minor adaptation to local contexts. These underlying suppositions, based on research in multiple countries, are being verified by potential users of the guide. The key remaining issue relates to the process for creating a categorical indicator of food insecurity status from the HFIAS.

  19. Food products for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cope, P. S.; Larson, R. W.

    1968-01-01

    Specially-prepared foodstuffs supply an astronaut with a diet containing his basic nutritional requirements in a form that is useful in his enironment. Several edible coatings preserve foods and give loose foods form and firmness. These coatings aid in packaging and give the food slip for easy removal from the package.

  20. Daily consumption of ready-to-use peanut-based therapeutic food increased fat free mass, improved anemic status but has no impact on the zinc status of people living with HIV/AIDS: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Diouf, Adama; Badiane, Abdou; Manga, Noël Magloire; Idohou-Dossou, Nicole; Sow, Papa Salif; Wade, Salimata

    2016-01-04

    Food insecurity in sub-Saharan Africa and malnutrition constitute the main obstacles for successful treatment of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of consuming daily 100 g RUTF (ready-to-use therapeutic food) as supplement, on body composition, anemia and zinc status of hospitalized PLWH in Senegal. A Controlled clinical trial was conducted in 65 PLWH randomly allocated to receive either standard hospital diet alone (Control group: n = 33), or the standard diet supplemented with 100 g RUTF/day (RUTF group: n = 32). Supplementation was continued at home during 9 weeks. Individual dietary intakes were measured and compared to the Recommended Dietary Allowances. Body composition was determined using Bio-Impedance Analysis. Hemoglobin was measured by HemoCue and plasma zinc (PZ) concentration by atomic absorption spectrometry. PZ was adjusted to infection (CRP and α1-AGP). All measures were conducted on admission, discharge and after 9 weeks home-based follow up. 34 and 24% of the patients in RUTF and Control groups were suffering from severe malnutrition (BMI < 16 kg/m(2)), respectively. In both groups, more than 90% were anemic and zinc deficiency affected over 50% of the patients. Food consumed by the Control group represented 75, 14 and 55% of their daily recommended intake (DRI) of energy, iron and zinc, respectively. When 100 g of RUTF was consumed with the standard diet, the DRI of energy and zinc were 100% covered (2147 kcal, 10.4 mg, respectively), but not iron (2.9 mg). After 9 weeks of supplementation, body weight, and fat-free mass increased significantly by +11% (p = 0.033), and +11.8% (p = 0.033) in the RUTF group, but not in the Control group, while percentage body fat was comparable between groups (p = 0.888). In the RUTF group, fat free mass gain is higher in the patients on ART (+11.7%, n = 14; p = 0.0001) than in those without ART (+6.2%, n = 6; p = 0.032). Anemia decreased significantly with the

  1. Electronic Commerce user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-10

    This User Manual supports the Electronic Commerce Standard System. The Electronic Commerce Standard System is being developed for the Department of Defense of the Technology Information Systems Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy. The Electronic Commerce Standard System, or EC as it is known, provides the capability for organizations to conduct business electronically instead of through paper transactions. Electronic Commerce and Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support, are two major projects under the DoD`s Corporate Information Management program, whose objective is to make DoD business transactions faster and less costly by using computer networks instead of paper forms and postage. EC runs on computers that use the UNIX operating system and provides a standard set of applications and tools that are bound together by a common command and menu system. These applications and tools may vary according to the requirements of the customer or location and may be customized to meet the specific needs of an organization. Local applications can be integrated into the menu system under the Special Databases & Applications option on the EC main menu. These local applications will be documented in the appendices of this manual. This integration capability provides users with a common environment of standard and customized applications.

  2. Electronic Commerce user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-10

    This User Manual supports the Electronic Commerce Standard System. The Electronic Commerce Standard System is being developed for the Department of Defense of the Technology Information Systems Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy. The Electronic Commerce Standard System, or EC as it is known, provides the capability for organizations to conduct business electronically instead of through paper transactions. Electronic Commerce and Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support, are two major projects under the DoD's Corporate Information Management program, whose objective is to make DoD business transactions faster and less costly by using computer networks instead of paper forms and postage. EC runs on computers that use the UNIX operating system and provides a standard set of applications and tools that are bound together by a common command and menu system. These applications and tools may vary according to the requirements of the customer or location and may be customized to meet the specific needs of an organization. Local applications can be integrated into the menu system under the Special Databases Applications option on the EC main menu. These local applications will be documented in the appendices of this manual. This integration capability provides users with a common environment of standard and customized applications.

  3. 21 CFR 886.5910 - Image intensification vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Image intensification vision aid. 886.5910 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5910 Image intensification vision aid. (a) Identification. An image intensification vision aid is a battery-powered device intended for...

  4. 21 CFR 886.5910 - Image intensification vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Image intensification vision aid. 886.5910 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5910 Image intensification vision aid. (a) Identification. An image intensification vision aid is a battery-powered device intended for...

  5. 21 CFR 874.3330 - Master hearing aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3330 Master hearing aid. (a) Identification. A master hearing aid is an electronic device intended to simulate a hearing aid during...

  6. 21 CFR 874.3330 - Master hearing aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3330 Master hearing aid. (a) Identification. A master hearing aid is an electronic device intended to simulate a hearing aid during...

  7. 21 CFR 886.5900 - Electronic vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic vision aid. 886.5900 Section 886.5900...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5900 Electronic vision aid. (a) Identification. An electronic vision aid is an AC-powered or battery-powered device that consists of an...

  8. 21 CFR 886.5900 - Electronic vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electronic vision aid. 886.5900 Section 886.5900...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5900 Electronic vision aid. (a) Identification. An electronic vision aid is an AC-powered or battery-powered device that consists of an...

  9. Transportable Applications Environment (TAE) Tenth Users' Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouff, Chris (Editor); Harris, Elfrieda (Editor); Yeager, Arleen (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Conference proceedings are represented in graphic visual-aid form. Presentation and panel discussion topics include user experiences with C++ and Ada; the design and interaction of the user interface; the history and goals of TAE; commercialization and testing of TAE Plus; Computer-Human Interaction Models (CHIMES); data driven objects; item-to-item connections and object dependencies; and integration with other software. There follows a list of conference attendees.

  10. Teaching AIDS.

    PubMed

    Short, R V

    1989-06-01

    This article reviews a peer group Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) educational program at a university in Australia. Studies in the US have shown that most adolescents, although sexually active, do not believe they are likely to become infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and therefore do not attempt to modify their sexual behavior. A 1st step in educating students is to introduce them to condoms and impress upon them the fact that condoms should be used at the beginning of all sexual relationships, whether homosexual or heterosexual. In this program 3rd year medical students were targeted, as they are effective communicators and disseminators of information to the rest of the student body. After class members blow up condoms, giving them a chance to handle various brands and observe the varying degrees of strength, statistical evidence about the contraceptive failure rate of condoms (0.6-14.7 per 100 women-years) is discussed. Spermicides, such as nonoxynol-9 used in conjunction with condoms, are also discussed, as are condoms for women, packaging and marketing of condoms, including those made from latex and from the caecum of sheep, the latter condoms being of questionable effectiveness in preventing transmission of the virus. The care of terminal AIDS cases and current global and national statistics on AIDS are presented. The program also includes cash prizes for the best student essays on condom use, the distribution of condoms, condom key rings and T-shirts, and a student-run safe sex stand during orientation week. All of these activities are intended to involve students and attract the interest of the undergraduate community. Questionnaires administered to students at the end of the course revealed that the lectures were received favorably. Questionnaires administered to new medical and English students attending orientation week revealed that 72% of students thought the stand was a good idea and 81% and 83%, respectively found it

  11. User instructions for the CIDER Dose Code

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, P.W.; Lessor, K.S.; Ouderkirk, S.J.

    1994-05-01

    This document provides user instructions for the CIDER (Calculation of Individual Doses from Environmental Radionuclides) computer code. The CIDER code computes estimates of annual doses estimated for both reference individuals with a known residence and food consumption history. This document also provides user instructions for four utility codes used to build input data libraries for CIDER. These utility codes are ENVFAC (environmental factors), FOOFAC (food factors), LIFFAC (lifestyle factors), and ORGFAC (organ factors). Finally, this document provides user instructions for the EXPAND utility code. The EXPAND code processes a result file from CIDER and extracts a summary of the dose information for reporting or plotting purposes.

  12. Justine user`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.R.

    1995-10-01

    Justine is the graphical user interface to the Los Alamos Radiation Modeling Interactive Environment (LARAMIE). It provides LARAMIE customers with a powerful, robust, easy-to-use, WYSIWYG interface that facilitates geometry construction and problem specification. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with LARAMIE, and the transport codes available, i.e., MCNPTM and DANTSYSTM. No attempt is made in this manual to describe these codes in detail. Information about LARAMIE, DANTSYS, and MCNP are available elsewhere. It i also assumed that the reader is familiar with the Unix operating system and with Motif widgets and their look and feel. However, a brief description of Motif and how one interacts with it can be found in Appendix A.

  13. AIDE - Advanced Intrusion Detection Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Cathy L.

    2013-04-28

    Would you like to know when someone has dropped an undesirable executable binary on our system? What about something less malicious such as a software installation by a user? What about the user who decides to install a newer version of mod_perl or PHP on your web server without letting you know beforehand? Or even something as simple as when an undocumented config file change is made by another member of the admin group? Do you even want to know about all the changes that happen on a daily basis on your server? The purpose of an intrusion detection system (IDS) is to detect unauthorized, possibly malicious activity. The purpose of a host-based IDS, or file integrity checker, is check for unauthorized changes to key system files, binaries, libraries, and directories on the system. AIDE is an Open Source file and directory integrity checker. AIDE will let you know when a file or directory has been added, deleted, modified. It is included with the Red Hat Enterprise 6. It is available for other Linux distros. This is a case study describing the process of configuring AIDE on an out of the box RHEL6 installation. Its goal is to illustrate the thinking and the process by which a useful AIDE configuration is built.

  14. A study of mercuric oxide and zinc-air battery life in hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Sparkes, C; Lacey, N K

    1997-09-01

    The requirement to phase out mercuric oxide (mercury) batteries on environmental grounds has led to the widespread introduction of zinc-air technology. The possibility arises that high drain hearing aids may not be adequately catered for by zinc-air cells, leading to poor performance. This study investigated the hearing aid user's ability to perceive differences between zinc-air and mercury cells in normal everyday usage. The data was collected for 100 experienced hearing aid users in field trials. Users report 50 per cent greater life for zinc-air cells in high power aids and 28 per cent in low power aids. The average life of the zinc-air cells range from 15 days in high power to 34 days in low power aids. Users are able to perceive a difference in sound quality in favour of zinc-air cells for low and medium power aids. The hearing aid population is not disadvantaged by phasing out mercury cells.

  15. 76 FR 20305 - Notice of Funding Availability: Inviting Applications for McGovern-Dole International Food for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program's Micronutrient-Fortified Food Aid Products Pilot... Micronutrient-Fortified Food Aid Products Pilot (MFFAPP). The notice stated that eligible applicants could...

  16. Does clinician continuity influence hearing aid outcomes?

    PubMed

    Bennett, Rebecca J; Meyer, Carly; Eikelboom, Robert H

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate whether clinician continuity is associated with successful hearing aid outcomes. A prospective cohort study. Clinician continuity was defined as occurring when a patient was cared for by the same clinician for the hearing assessment, hearing aid selection process, hearing aid fitting and programming, and subsequent hearing aid fine tuning appointments. The hearing aid outcome measures included self-reported hearing aid use, benefit and satisfaction as well as self-reported handling skills and problems experienced with hearing aids. Four hundred and sixty-eight adult hearing aid users (mean age 73.9 years ±10.9) and 26 qualified audiologists (mean age 34 years ±6.34) recruited from a single hearing clinic in Perth, Western Australia. There were no significant differences in hearing aid outcomes between participants who experienced clinician continuity and those who did not. Within a controlled practice setting, hearing aid outcomes may not be adversely effected if services are provided by more than one clinician.

  17. ServAR: An augmented reality tool to guide the serving of food.

    PubMed

    Rollo, Megan E; Bucher, Tamara; Smith, Shamus P; Collins, Clare E

    2017-05-12

    Accurate estimation of food portion size is a difficult task. Visual cues are important mediators of portion size and therefore technology-based aids may assist consumers when serving and estimating food portions. The current study evaluated the usability and impact on estimation error of standard food servings of a novel augmented reality food serving aid, ServAR. Participants were randomised into one of three groups: 1) no information/aid (control); 2) verbal information on standard serving sizes; or 3) ServAR, an aid which overlayed virtual food servings over a plate using a tablet computer. Participants were asked to estimate the standard serving sizes of nine foods (broccoli, carrots, cauliflower, green beans, kidney beans, potato, pasta, rice, and sweetcorn) using validated food replicas. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests compared median served weights of each food to reference standard serving size weights. Percentage error was used to compare the estimation of serving size accuracy between the three groups. All participants also performed a usability test using the ServAR tool to guide the serving of one randomly selected food. Ninety adults (78.9% female; a mean (95%CI) age 25.8 (24.9-26.7) years; BMI 24.2 (23.2-25.2) kg/m(2)) completed the study. The median servings were significantly different to the reference portions for five foods in the ServAR group, compared to eight foods in the information only group and seven foods for the control group. The cumulative proportion of total estimations per group within ±10%, ±25% and ±50% of the reference portion was greater for those using ServAR (30.7, 65.2 and 90.7%; respectively), compared to the information only group (19.6, 47.4 and 77.4%) and control group (10.0, 33.7 and 68.9%). Participants generally found the ServAR tool easy to use and agreed that it showed potential to support optimal portion size selection. However, some refinements to the ServAR tool are required to improve the user experience. Use of the

  18. Enhancing the User-Friendliness of Macintosh Foreign Character Fonts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Donald A.

    1988-01-01

    Suggests some ways to enhance the user-friendliness of many Macintosh (personal computer) foreign language character fonts with the aid of three commercial programs: MacKeymeleon; FONTastic Plus; and Tempo. (Author/CB)

  19. Enhancing the User-Friendliness of Macintosh Foreign Character Fonts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Donald A.

    1988-01-01

    Suggests some ways to enhance the user-friendliness of many Macintosh (personal computer) foreign language character fonts with the aid of three commercial programs: MacKeymeleon; FONTastic Plus; and Tempo. (Author/CB)

  20. 21 CFR 133.134 - Cream cheese with other foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized... other foods is the class of foods prepared by mixing, with or without the aid of heat, cream cheese with...

  1. 76 FR 45831 - Prescription Drug User Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Prescription Drug User Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2012 AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the rates for prescription drug user fees for fiscal year (FY) 2012. The Federal Food, Drug, and...

  2. 75 FR 46952 - Prescription Drug User Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Prescription Drug User Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2011 AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the rates for prescription drug user fees for fiscal year (FY) 2011. The Federal Food, Drug, and...

  3. 78 FR 46962 - Biosimilar User Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2014

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Biosimilar User Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2014 AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the rates for biosimilar user fees for fiscal year (FY) 2014. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic...

  4. 78 FR 46980 - Prescription Drug User Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2014

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Prescription Drug User Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2014 AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the rates for prescription drug user fees for ] fiscal year (FY) 2014. The Federal Food, Drug, and...

  5. 77 FR 65199 - Generic Drug User Fee-Backlog Fee Rate for Fiscal Year 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Generic Drug User Fee--Backlog Fee Rate for Fiscal Year 2013 AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA...) 2013. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), as amended by the Generic Drug User Fee...

  6. Manufacturing Aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    During a research program, MMTC/Textron invented a computer-aided automatic robotic system for spraying hot plasma onto a turbine blade. The need to control the thickness of the plasma deposit led to the development of advanced optical gaging techniques to monitor and control plasma spray build-up on blade surfaces. The techniques led to computerized optical gages for inspecting aircraft, industrial turbine blades, etc. MMTC offers 10 standard commercial robotic gages. The system also generates two dimensional profiles for assessing status and specifying repairs to the electromechanical cathodes used to make the parts. It is capable of accuracies to a ten-thousandth of an inch. An expanded product line is currently marketed. The gages offer multiple improvements in quality control and significant savings.

  7. 77 FR 14809 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Biosimilars User...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Biosimilars User Fee Cover Sheet; Form FDA 3792 AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing an...

  8. AWARE: User's Guide, Version 1.0.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    As part of an early awareness initiative, the United States Department of Education developed an interactive software package to provide early information to middle school and high school students about postsecondary education opportunities, costs of attendance, and availability of financial aid. This user's guide describes how to install and use…

  9. Hearing Aid Patient Education Materials: Is There Room for Improvement?

    PubMed

    Joseph, John; Svider, Peter F; Shaigany, Kevin; Eloy, Jean Anderson; McDonald, Paulette G; Folbe, Adam J; Hong, Robert S

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare the readability of patient education materials (PEMs) from leading manufacturers of behind-the-ear style hearing aids and popular hearing aid information Web sites to determine if they meet guidelines recommended by public health agencies. Analysis of hearing aid PEMs. Printed user guides from six of the leading manufacturers of BTE hearing aids and 15 of the most popular hearing aid-information Web sites were accessed online and analyzed for readability using the Gunning-Fog Index, New Fog Count, Raygor Estimate Graph, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook, and Flesch Reading Ease score. Overall average grade-level readability for all six printed manufacturer user manuals was calculated to be written at a 10th grade reading level. Overall average grade-level readabilities for all 15 popular online hearing aid-information Web sites representing professional organizations, suppliers, and health information services were calculated to be written at 10th, 10th, and 11th grade reading levels, respectively. Average Flesch Reading Ease scores for all printed guides and online patient information Web sites were calculated to fall within the fairly difficult category for readability. PEMs provided by top hearing aid manufactures and popular hearing aid Web sites are written well above the reading level recommended by the National Institutes of Health. Consideration should be given toward simplifying these materials in order to enhance user experience and increase compliance among behind-the-ear hearing aid users. American Academy of Audiology.

  10. Expectations, prefitting counseling, and hearing aid outcome.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Gabrielle H; Lewis, M Samantha; Forsline, Anna

    2009-05-01

    Data suggest that having high expectations about hearing aids results in better overall outcome. However, some have postulated that excessively high expectations will result in disappointment and thus poor outcome. It has been suggested that counseling patients with unrealistic expectations about hearing aids prior to fitting may be beneficial. Data, however, are mixed as to the effectiveness of such counseling, in terms of both changes in expectations and final outcome. The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether supplementing prefitting counseling with demonstration of real-world listening can (1) alter expectations of new hearing aid users and (2) increase satisfaction over verbal-only counseling. Secondary goals of the study were to examine (1) the relationship between prefitting expectations and postfitting outcome, and (2) the effect of hearing aid fine-tuning on hearing aid outcome. Sixty new hearing aid users were fitted binaurally with Beltone Oria behind-the-ear digital hearing aids. Forty participants received prefitting counseling and demonstration of listening situations with the Beltone AVE (Audio Verification Environment) system; 20 received prefitting counseling without a demonstration of listening situations. Hearing aid expectations were measured at initial contact and following prefitting counseling. Reported hearing aid outcome was measured after eight to ten weeks of hearing aid use. Sixty new hearing aid users aged between 55 and 81 years with symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups, between which the prefitting counseling and follow-up differed: Group 1 received prefitting counseling in combination with demonstration of listening situations. Additionally, if the participant had complaints about sound quality at the follow-up visit, the hearing aids were fine-tuned using the Beltone AVE system. Group 2 received prefitting counseling in combination with

  11. Hearing Aids and Personal Sound Amplifiers: Know the Difference

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumers Consumer Updates Hearing Aids and Personal Sound Amplifiers: Know the Difference Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... seen them advertised on television—small electronic sound amplifiers that allow users to enjoy nighttime TV without ...

  12. [AIDS prevention in Germany].

    PubMed

    Pott, E

    2007-04-01

    In 1987 the national AIDS prevention campaign "Gib AIDS keine Chance" (Don't give AIDS a chance) was started in Germany. After a very difficult and controversial political debate about a probably successful response to AIDS, in the end a political decision was made in favour of the implementation of a long term "social learning strategy". Thus, since then the Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung (Federal Centre for Health Education, BZgA) has been running the campaign on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Health. The result of this prevention program is a low rate of infections. In Germany there were 2600 newly diagnosed infections in 2005: 59 % in homosexual men, 16 % by heterosexual contacts, 17 % in people from high prevalence countries and 7 % in i.v. drug users. In comparison to the international situation Germany has a relatively low HIV-prevalence even nowadays. However, Germany has also been confronted with an increasing number of newly diagnosed infections in the last few years. When the prevention program was started it was very important to build new structures for a successful implementation of the campaign. That meant for instance to build up an effective infrastructure for cooperation between the governmental and the nongovernmental sector, including organising the coordinated action among the partners at the federal, regional and local levels. Likewise, international networking was of great importance. A key element, relevant for the success of the campaign was the close cooperation at the federal level between the BZgA and the Deutsche AIDS Hilfe (German AIDS Help, DAH), to combine the highreach intervention in low-prevalence populations with intensive interventions for high prevalence groups. An effective national AIDS prevention campaign must reach the whole population; inform the public about the main risks of infection, about methods of protection and about what is not infectious. Moreover groups with a higher level of risk of

  13. Comparing state-only expenditures for AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, M J; Ryan, C C

    1988-01-01

    The State AIDS Policy Center at the Inter-governmental Health Policy Project (IHPP) at George Washington University surveyed all 50 states to determine state AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) expenditures, without Medicaid or federal funds, for fiscal 1984-88. During this period, state-only expenditures increased 15-fold, to $156.3 million. Between fiscal 1986-1988, the distribution of state funding for AIDS patient care and support services doubled from 16 to 35 per cent and the number of states supplementing federal funds for testing and counseling increased from eight to 20. Five states continue to account for the largest AIDS appropriations. Of these, California leads in funding research; New York, Florida, and New Jersey have directed funds to provide care and services to IV (intravenous) drug users, prisoners, and children. The average state expenditure per diagnosed AIDS case is $3,323 and an increasing number of states with relatively low case loads are appropriating funds beyond this level. Across states, AIDS expenditures per person average $.65 and $.21 for education, testing and counseling--below the level recommended by the Institute of Medicine for AIDS prevention activities. Some jurisdictions support AIDS activities indirectly by shifting resources, often from their STD (sexually transmitted disease) programs--this trend deserves continuing review given the rise in STD cases and their relationship to diagnosed AIDS. PMID:3126674

  14. Adding a user and changing user roles

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Webmasters can add users to a web area, and assign or change roles, which define the actions a user is able to take in the web area. Non-webmasters must use a request form to add users and change roles.

  15. IDSE Version 1 User's Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, Richard

    1988-01-01

    The integrated development support environment (IDSE) is a suite of integrated software tools that provide intelligent support for information modelling. These tools assist in function, information, and process modeling. Additional tools exist to assist in gathering and analyzing information to be modeled. This is a user's guide to application of the IDSE. Sections covering the requirements and design of each of the tools are presented. There are currently three integrated computer aided manufacturing definition (IDEF) modeling methodologies: IDEF0, IDEF1, and IDEF2. Also, four appendices exist to describe hardware and software requirements, installation procedures, and basic hardware usage.

  16. Business Modeling System (BMS) users manual

    SciTech Connect

    Pennewell, W.J.; White, S.A.; Mott, T.B.

    1988-08-01

    The Business Modeling System (BMS) Users Manual was produced for the NAVMIPPS Project Office (CODE 5N) of the Navy Finance Center (NAVFINCEN) by members of the Martin Marietta Energy Systems Navy Military Integrated Personnel and Pay Strategy (NAVMIPPS) Project Team. The manual was developed to aid users of the Business Modeling System which was previously delivered to the NAVFINCEN Operations Directorate (CODE 6) by the NAVMIPPS Project Team. The BMS comprises CODE 6 data and a set of dBASE III PLUS programs which were developed to store the data in varying formats designed to aid in the formulation and evaluation of CODE 6 reorganization options. This user manual contains instructions for database installation, online query, and preformatted report program use. Appendix A is a list of the thirty-two CODE 6 suborganizations from which the BMS data were collected. Appendix B is BMS MENU/FUNCTION HIERARCHY. Appendix C is a compilation sample report output.

  17. Crawling Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Institute for the Achievement of Human Potential developed a device known as the Vehicle for Initial Crawling (VIC); the acronym is a tribute to the crawler's inventor, Hubert "Vic" Vykukal; is an effective crawling aid. The VIC is used by brain injured children who are unable to crawl due to the problems of weight-bearing and friction, caused by gravity. It is a rounded plywood frame large enough to support the child's torso, leaving arms and legs free to move. On its underside are three aluminum discs through which air is pumped to create an air-bearing surface that has less friction than a film of oil. Upper side contains the connection to the air supply and a pair of straps which restrain the child and cause the device to move with him. VIC is used with the intent to recreate the normal neurological connection between brain and muscles. Over repetitive use of the device the child develops his arm and leg muscles as well as coordination. Children are given alternating therapy, with and without the VIC until eventually the device is no longer needed.

  18. User Working Group Charter

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-29

    ... Amended 2010   The Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) User Working Group (UWG) is chartered by the Earth Observing ... of the ASDC user interface, development of the Information Management System (IMS), and ASDC user conferences requirements for and ...

  19. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... CPR: A Real Lifesaver Kids Talk About: Coaches HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Kids > HIV and AIDS ... actually the virus that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV ...

  20. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Kids > HIV and AIDS A A ... serious infection. continue How Many People Have HIV/AIDS? Since the discovery of the virus in 1983, ...

  1. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  2. 21 CFR 333.150 - Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products... First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.150 Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products. (a... identifies the product as a “first aid antibiotic.” (b) Indications. The labeling of the product...

  3. 21 CFR 333.150 - Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products... First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.150 Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products. (a... identifies the product as a “first aid antibiotic.” (b) Indications. The labeling of the product...

  4. 21 CFR 333.150 - Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products... First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.150 Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products. (a... identifies the product as a “first aid antibiotic.” (b) Indications. The labeling of the product...

  5. 21 CFR 333.150 - Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products... First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.150 Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products. (a... identifies the product as a “first aid antibiotic.” (b) Indications. The labeling of the product...

  6. 21 CFR 874.3305 - Wireless air-conduction hearing aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wireless air-conduction hearing aid. 874.3305...-conduction hearing aid. (a) Identification. A wireless air-conduction hearing aid is a wearable sound... notification. The wireless air-conduction hearing aid is exempt from the premarket notification procedures...

  7. 21 CFR 874.3950 - Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system... Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system. (a) Identification. A transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid... occluding the ear canal. The device consists of an air conduction hearing aid attached to a...

  8. 21 CFR 874.3950 - Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system... Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system. (a) Identification. A transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid... occluding the ear canal. The device consists of an air conduction hearing aid attached to a...

  9. 21 CFR 874.3950 - Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system... Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system. (a) Identification. A transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid... occluding the ear canal. The device consists of an air conduction hearing aid attached to a...

  10. Aides to Career Education: Instructional Aide Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles City Schools, CA. Div. of Career and Continuing Education.

    The handbook is designed for use by administrators, teachers, and instructional aides in the Aides to Career Education (ACE) Program. The program provides assistance to academically, socially, economically, and culturally disadvantaged students in secondary vocational programs by employing instructional aides who are subject field specialists to…

  11. Subjective ratings of noise-reduction hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Kuk, F K; Tyler, R S; Mims, L

    1990-01-01

    The effectiveness of seven commercially available noise-reduction hearing aids was evaluated using subjective ratings of continuous discourse. Subjective scales of listening comfort, speech quality, speech understanding, noise interference, and overall liking were used. Fifteen experienced hearing-aid users participated. Two hearing aids that used amplitude compression (Audiotone A-54 and Telex 363C), two hearing aids that used the Zeta Noise Blocker (two versions of a Maico SP147), and three hearing aids that proportionally attenuated the low-frequencies (Rion HB-69AS, Richards ASE-B, and Siemens 283 ASP) were evaluated. None of the noise-reduction hearing aids significantly altered group performance on any subjective scale. Individually, however, subjects responded differently to different noise-reduction hearing aids, indicating that some noise-reduction hearing aids may help some hearing-impaired individuals.

  12. Ergogenic aids.

    PubMed

    Coyle, E F

    1984-07-01

    The catabolism of bodily fuels provides the energy for muscular work. Work output can be limited by the size of fuel reserves, the rate of their catabolism, the build-up of by-products, or the neurologic activation of muscle. A substance that favorably affects a step that is normally limiting, and thus increases work output, can be considered an ergogenic aid. The maximal amount of muscular force generated during brief contractions can be acutely increased during hypnosis and with the ingestion of a placebo or psychomotor stimulant. This effect is most obvious in subjects under laboratory conditions and is less evident in athletes who are highly motivated prior to competition. Fatigue is associated with acidosis in the working musculature when attempts are made to maximize work output during a 4 to 15-minute period. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion may act to buffer the acid produced, provided that blood flow to the muscle is adequate. Prolonged intense exercise can be maintained for approximately two hours before carbohydrate stores become depleted. Carbohydrate feedings delay fatigue during prolonged exercise, especially in subjects who display a decline in blood glucose during exercise in the fasting state. Caffeine ingestion prior to an endurance bout has been reported to allow an individual to exercise somewhat more intensely than he or she would otherwise. Its effect may be mediated by augmenting fat metabolism or by altering the perception of effort. Amphetamines may act in a similar manner. Water ingestion during prolonged exercise that results in dehydration and hyperthermia can offset fluid losses and allow an individual to better maintain work output while substantially reducing the risk of heat-related injuries.

  13. 21 CFR 886.5910 - Image intensification vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Image intensification vision aid. 886.5910 Section 886.5910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... use by a patient who has limited dark adaptation or impaired vision to amplify ambient light. (b...

  14. 21 CFR 886.5910 - Image intensification vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Image intensification vision aid. 886.5910 Section 886.5910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... use by a patient who has limited dark adaptation or impaired vision to amplify ambient light. (b...

  15. 21 CFR 886.5910 - Image intensification vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Image intensification vision aid. 886.5910 Section 886.5910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... use by a patient who has limited dark adaptation or impaired vision to amplify ambient light. (b...

  16. 21 CFR 344.10 - Earwax removal aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Earwax removal aid active ingredient. 344.10 Section 344.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... carbamide peroxide 6.5 percent formulated in an anhydrous glycerin vehicle....

  17. Simulation as an Aid to Experimental Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazer, Jack W.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Discusses simulation program to aid in the design of enzyme kinetic experimentation (includes sample runs). Concentration versus time profiles of any subset or all nine states of reactions can be displayed with/without simulated instrumental noise, allowing the user to estimate the practicality of any proposed experiment given known instrument…

  18. 49 CFR 38.23 - Mobility aid accessibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Seat belt and shoulder harness. For each wheelchair or mobility aid securement device provided, a passenger seat belt and shoulder harness, complying with all applicable provisions of part 571 of this title, shall also be provided for use by wheelchair or mobility aid users. Such seat belts and...

  19. 76 FR 13598 - Notice of Funding Availability: Inviting Applications for McGovern-Dole International Food for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program's Micronutrient-Fortified Food Aid Products Pilot... Education and Child Nutrition (McGovern-Dole) Program Micronutrient- Fortified Food Aid Products Pilot... test new or improved micronutrient- fortified food aid products. FAS defines micronutrient-fortified...

  20. 76 FR 56201 - Prescription Drug User Fee Act; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Prescription Drug User Fee Act; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public meeting; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a public meeting to discuss proposed...