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Sample records for food availability snow

  1. Neighborhood fast food availability and fast food consumption

    PubMed Central

    Oexle, Nathalie; Barnes, Timothy L; Blake, Christine E; Bell, Bethany A; Liese, Angela D

    2015-01-01

    Recent nutritional and public health research has focused on how the availability of various types of food in a person’s immediate area or neighborhood influences his or her food choices and eating habits. It has been theorized that people living in areas with a wealth of unhealthy fast-food options may show higher levels of fast-food consumption, a factor that often coincides with being overweight or obese. However, measuring food availability in a particular area is difficult to achieve consistently: there may be differences in the strict physical locations of food options as compared to how individuals perceive their personal food availability, and various studies may use either one or both of these measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between weekly fast-food consumption and both a person’s perceived availability of fast-food and an objective measure of fast-food presence—Geographic Information Systems (GIS)—within that person’s neighborhood. A randomly selected population-based sample of eight counties in South Carolina was used to conduct a cross-sectional telephone survey assessing self-report fast-food consumption and perceived availability of fast food. GIS was used to determine the actual number of fast-food outlets within each participant’s neighborhood. Using multinomial logistic regression analyses, we found that neither perceived availability nor GIS-based presence of fast-food was significantly associated with weekly fast-food consumption. Our findings indicate that availability might not be the dominant factor influencing fast-food consumption. We recommend using subjective availability measures and considering individual characteristics that could influence both perceived availability of fast food and its impact on fast-food consumption. If replicated, our findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing fast-food consumption by limiting neighborhood fast-food availability might not be completely

  2. Neighborhood fast food availability and fast food consumption.

    PubMed

    Oexle, Nathalie; Barnes, Timothy L; Blake, Christine E; Bell, Bethany A; Liese, Angela D

    2015-09-01

    Recent nutritional and public health research has focused on how the availability of various types of food in a person's immediate area or neighborhood influences his or her food choices and eating habits. It has been theorized that people living in areas with a wealth of unhealthy fast-food options may show higher levels of fast-food consumption, a factor that often coincides with being overweight or obese. However, measuring food availability in a particular area is difficult to achieve consistently: there may be differences in the strict physical locations of food options as compared to how individuals perceive their personal food availability, and various studies may use either one or both of these measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between weekly fast-food consumption and both a person's perceived availability of fast-food and an objective measure of fast-food presence - Geographic Information Systems (GIS) - within that person's neighborhood. A randomly selected population-based sample of eight counties in South Carolina was used to conduct a cross-sectional telephone survey assessing self-report fast-food consumption and perceived availability of fast food. GIS was used to determine the actual number of fast-food outlets within each participant's neighborhood. Using multinomial logistic regression analyses, we found that neither perceived availability nor GIS-based presence of fast-food was significantly associated with weekly fast-food consumption. Our findings indicate that availability might not be the dominant factor influencing fast-food consumption. We recommend using subjective availability measures and considering individual characteristics that could influence both perceived availability of fast food and its impact on fast-food consumption. If replicated, our findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing fast-food consumption by limiting neighborhood fast-food availability might not be completely effective.

  3. Food production & availability - Essential prerequisites for sustainable food security

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, M.S.; Bhavani, R.V.

    2013-01-01

    Food and nutrition security are intimately interconnected, since only a food based approach can help in overcoming malnutrition in an economically and socially sustainable manner. Food production provides the base for food security as it is a key determinant of food availability. This paper deals with different aspects of ensuring high productivity and production without associated ecological harm for ensuring adequate food availability. By mainstreaming ecological considerations in technology development and dissemination, we can enter an era of evergreen revolution and sustainable food and nutrition security. Public policy support is crucial for enabling this. PMID:24135188

  4. Assessing the controls of the snow energy balance and water available for runoff in a rain-on-snow environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazurkiewicz, Adam B.; Callery, David G.; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.

    2008-06-01

    SummaryRain-on-snow (ROS) melt production and its contribution to water available for runoff is poorly understood. In the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the USA, ROS drives many runoff events with turbulent energy exchanges dominating the snow energy balance (EB). While previous experimental work in the PNW (most notably the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest (HJA)) has quantified these energy balance components for a handful of ROS events, little is known about the EB components of snowmelt at HJA on an annual basis and how the relative importance of each component changes with different time periods of analysis. Beyond the few measured events at HJA and elsewhere in the PNW, there is still a lack of understanding of the dominant components of the EB during high-frequency ROS events and how much annual snowmelt is produced during ROS events. A physically based snow energy balance model (SNOBAL) was applied to data from three climate stations in the HJA to address these questions. Measurements of all required forcing data except incoming longwave radiation were made at each site. We employ the largest ROS dataset ever amassed with SNOBAL to use the model as a learning tool to characterize the snowmelt regime in the HJA. The results show that radiation dominated the melt energy balance over the period 1996-2003 while net turbulent energy exchanges were much lower than expected. Annual variability in EB components reflected duration of snowpack (snow covered period) - where later season snowpack resulted in higher radiation as percentage of the total EB. Radiation was the largest contributor to melt during ROS. These results question the general perception of turbulent energy exchange dominance of ROS and seasonal melt in the PNW. Overall, melt from ROS events was a small percentage of annual melt - for the period 1996-2003 snow season, 80-90% of snowmelt comes from non-ROS days. These results prove the highly variable spatial and temporal controls on the snowmelt regime

  5. Food Availability/Convenience and Obesity12345

    PubMed Central

    Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2014-01-01

    Neighborhood environments have received considerable attention in recent local, state, and national obesity prevention initiatives, with a particular focus on food deserts, or areas with poor access to healthy foods. Yet, there are inconsistencies in the evidence base, suggesting a nuanced association between neighborhood environment, food availability, diet behaviors, and obesity. There is heterogeneity in associations between environmental exposures and health outcomes across race/ethnicity, gender, region, and urbanicity, which results in complexity in the interpretation of findings. There are several limitations in the literature, including a predominance of cross-sectional studies, reliance on commercial business listings, lack of attention to the process by which diet resources are established and expanded within neighborhoods and the potential for individuals to selectively migrate to locate near such facilities, a predominant focus on residential neighborhoods, and lack of information about the decision-making process underlying purchasing patterns. More research is needed to address the complexity of individual-level residential decision making as well as the purposeful placement of food environment resources across social and geographic space using longitudinal data and complex statistical approaches. In addition, improvements in data quality and depth related to food access and availability are needed, including behavioral data on purchase patterns and interactions with the food environment, and greater attention to heterogeneity across subpopulations. As policy changes to the food environment move forward, it is critical that there is rigorous and scientific evaluation of environmental changes and their impact on individual-level diet choices and behaviors, and their further influence on body weight. PMID:25398746

  6. Food availability/convenience and obesity.

    PubMed

    Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2014-11-01

    Neighborhood environments have received considerable attention in recent local, state, and national obesity prevention initiatives, with a particular focus on food deserts, or areas with poor access to healthy foods. Yet, there are inconsistencies in the evidence base, suggesting a nuanced association between neighborhood environment, food availability, diet behaviors, and obesity. There is heterogeneity in associations between environmental exposures and health outcomes across race/ethnicity, gender, region, and urbanicity, which results in complexity in the interpretation of findings. There are several limitations in the literature, including a predominance of cross-sectional studies, reliance on commercial business listings, lack of attention to the process by which diet resources are established and expanded within neighborhoods and the potential for individuals to selectively migrate to locate near such facilities, a predominant focus on residential neighborhoods, and lack of information about the decision-making process underlying purchasing patterns. More research is needed to address the complexity of individual-level residential decision making as well as the purposeful placement of food environment resources across social and geographic space using longitudinal data and complex statistical approaches. In addition, improvements in data quality and depth related to food access and availability are needed, including behavioral data on purchase patterns and interactions with the food environment, and greater attention to heterogeneity across subpopulations. As policy changes to the food environment move forward, it is critical that there is rigorous and scientific evaluation of environmental changes and their impact on individual-level diet choices and behaviors, and their further influence on body weight.

  7. Trends in food availability, 1909-2007.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Neal D

    2010-05-01

    The increase in childhood obesity mainly reflects increased energy intake. However, it is not clear which food categories are responsible for this increase. Food availability data, which are calculated from annual food production, imports, beginning stocks, subtracting exports, ending stocks, and nonfood uses, provide clues about which categories are the primary contributors. Data from 1909 to 2007 show increases in per capita availability of several product classes: added oils increased from 16.1 to 39.4 kg/y, meat increased from 56.3 to 91.2 kg/y, cheese increased from 1.7 to 14.9 kg/y, and frozen dairy products increased from 0.7 to 11.5 kg/y. From 1970 to 2007, per capita availability of sweeteners increased from 54.1 to 62.0 kg/y. Carbonated beverage availability has increased, partly at the expense of fluid milk. Flour and cereal availability decreased from 1909 until the late 1960s but rebounded thereafter. Availability of fruit, fruit juices, and vegetables has increased. We conclude that the major contributors to increased energy intake over the last century are oils, shortening, meat, cheese, and frozen desserts, with more recent increases in added sweeteners, fruit, fruit juices, and vegetables. These changes may have influenced the prevalence of childhood obesity.

  8. Use of supplemental food by breeding Ross's Geese and Lesser Snow Geese: Evidence for variable anorexia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gloutney, M.L.; Alisauskas, R.T.; Hobson, K.A.; Afton, A.D.

    1999-01-01

    Recent research suggests that foods eaten during laying and incubation play a greater role in supplying energy and nutrients to arctic-nesting geese than previously believed. We conducted food-supplementation experiments with Ross's Geese (Chen rossii) and Lesser Snow Geese (C. caerulescens) geese to evaluate: (1) if supplemental food was consumed by laying and incubating geese, (2) how food consumption influenced mass dynamics of somatic tissues of breeding geese, (3) if patterns of mass loss were consistent with fasting adaptations, and (4) whether energetic constraints would cause smaller Ross's Geese to consume more food relative to their body size than would larger Snow Geese. Quantity of supplemental food eaten by both species during laying and incubation was highly variable among individuals. Consumption of supplemental food during laying resulted in differences in overall body composition between control and treatment females. Treatment female Ross's Geese completed laying at a higher mass and with more abdominal fat than controls, whereas treatment female Snow Geese completed laying with heavier breast muscles and hearts. Overall body composition did not differ between control and treatment geese (both sexes and species) at the end of incubation, but treatment geese had heavier hearts than control geese. This suggests that treatment females did not rely to the same extent on metabolic adaptations associated with anorexia to meet energetic costs of incubation as did controls. Stable-nitrogen isotope analysis revealed patterns of protein maintenance during incubation consistent with metabolic adaptations to prolonged fasting. Our prediction that energetic constraints would cause smaller Ross's Geese to consume more food relative to their size than would Snow Geese was not supported. Mass-specific food consumption by Ross's Geese was 30% lower than that of Snow Geese during laying and 48% higher during incubation.

  9. Snow Leopard and Himalayan Wolf: Food Habits and Prey Selection in the Central Himalayas, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Odden, Morten; Wegge, Per

    2017-01-01

    Top carnivores play an important role in maintaining energy flow and functioning of the ecosystem, and a clear understanding of their diets and foraging strategies is essential for developing effective conservation strategies. In this paper, we compared diets and prey selection of snow leopards and wolves based on analyses of genotyped scats (snow leopards n = 182, wolves n = 57), collected within 26 sampling grid cells (5×5 km) that were distributed across a vast landscape of ca 5000 km2 in the Central Himalayas, Nepal. Within the grid cells, we sampled prey abundances using the double observer method. We found that interspecific differences in diet composition and prey selection reflected their respective habitat preferences, i.e. snow leopards significantly preferred cliff-dwelling wild ungulates (mainly bharal, 57% of identified material in scat samples), whereas wolves preferred typically plain-dwellers (Tibetan gazelle, kiang and argali, 31%). Livestock was consumed less frequently than their proportional availability by both predators (snow leopard = 27%; wolf = 24%), but significant avoidance was only detected among snow leopards. Among livestock species, snow leopards significantly preferred horses and goats, avoided yaks, and used sheep as available. We identified factors influencing diet composition using Generalized Linear Mixed Models. Wolves showed seasonal differences in the occurrence of small mammals/birds, probably due to the winter hibernation of an important prey, marmots. For snow leopard, occurrence of both wild ungulates and livestock in scats depended on sex and latitude. Wild ungulates occurrence increased while livestock decreased from south to north, probably due to a latitudinal gradient in prey availability. Livestock occurred more frequently in scats from male snow leopards (males: 47%, females: 21%), and wild ungulates more frequently in scats from females (males: 48%, females: 70%). The sexual difference agrees with previous

  10. Snow Leopard and Himalayan Wolf: Food Habits and Prey Selection in the Central Himalayas, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Chetri, Madhu; Odden, Morten; Wegge, Per

    2017-01-01

    Top carnivores play an important role in maintaining energy flow and functioning of the ecosystem, and a clear understanding of their diets and foraging strategies is essential for developing effective conservation strategies. In this paper, we compared diets and prey selection of snow leopards and wolves based on analyses of genotyped scats (snow leopards n = 182, wolves n = 57), collected within 26 sampling grid cells (5×5 km) that were distributed across a vast landscape of ca 5000 km2 in the Central Himalayas, Nepal. Within the grid cells, we sampled prey abundances using the double observer method. We found that interspecific differences in diet composition and prey selection reflected their respective habitat preferences, i.e. snow leopards significantly preferred cliff-dwelling wild ungulates (mainly bharal, 57% of identified material in scat samples), whereas wolves preferred typically plain-dwellers (Tibetan gazelle, kiang and argali, 31%). Livestock was consumed less frequently than their proportional availability by both predators (snow leopard = 27%; wolf = 24%), but significant avoidance was only detected among snow leopards. Among livestock species, snow leopards significantly preferred horses and goats, avoided yaks, and used sheep as available. We identified factors influencing diet composition using Generalized Linear Mixed Models. Wolves showed seasonal differences in the occurrence of small mammals/birds, probably due to the winter hibernation of an important prey, marmots. For snow leopard, occurrence of both wild ungulates and livestock in scats depended on sex and latitude. Wild ungulates occurrence increased while livestock decreased from south to north, probably due to a latitudinal gradient in prey availability. Livestock occurred more frequently in scats from male snow leopards (males: 47%, females: 21%), and wild ungulates more frequently in scats from females (males: 48%, females: 70%). The sexual difference agrees with previous

  11. Ecosystem water availability in juniper versus sagebrush snow-dominated rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western Juniper (J. occidentalis Hook.) now dominates over 3.6 million ha of rangeland in the Intermountain Western US. Critical ecological relationships among snow distribution, water budgets, plant community transitions, and habitat requirements for wildlife, such as sage grouse, remain poorly und...

  12. Retail Food Availability, Obesity, and Cigarette Smoking in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosler, Akiko S.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Disparities in the availability of nutritionally important foods and their influence on health have been studied in US urban communities. Purpose: To assess the availability of selected retail foods and cigarettes, and explore ecologic relationships of the availability with obesity and smoking in rural communities. Methods: Inventories of…

  13. Parents' perceptions of food availability: implications for childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Sealy, Yvette M

    2010-01-01

    Childhood obesity is an epidemic in the United States, with children experiencing chronic adult diseases and poor health outcomes. Focus groups were held with parents of children between 6-12 years of age in three different communities in Brooklyn and the Bronx, New York, to explore their attitudes and practices regarding food availability. Poor food quality and discrimination were the key themes affecting parents' food choices and perceptions of food availability in their neighborhoods. Social workers are in a position to decrease obesity prevalence by supporting childhood obesity policy legislation, designing interventions to increase parental awareness of childhood obesity and the importance of making healthy food choices, and working with parents to improve food quality and availability in their neighborhoods.

  14. #AskBerkeleyLab: Cost and Availability of Healthy Food

    ScienceCinema

    Buluswar, Shashi

    2016-07-12

    Shashi Buluswar, Executive Director at the LBNL Institute for Globally Transformative Technologies, answers a question from Ashley on why healthy food costs so much and is not available in low-income neighborhoods.

  15. #AskBerkeleyLab: Cost and Availability of Healthy Food

    SciTech Connect

    Buluswar, Shashi

    2014-10-22

    Shashi Buluswar, Executive Director at the LBNL Institute for Globally Transformative Technologies, answers a question from Ashley on why healthy food costs so much and is not available in low-income neighborhoods.

  16. Food availability and foraging near human developments by black bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merkle, Jerod A.; Robinson, Hugh S.; Krausman, Paul R.; Alaback, Paul B.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between foraging ecology and the presence of human-dominated landscapes is important, particularly for American black bears (Ursus americanus), which sometimes move between wildlands and urban areas to forage. The food-related factors influencing this movement have not been explored, but can be important for understanding the benefits and costs to black bear foraging behavior and the fundamental origins of bear conflicts. We tested whether the scarcity of wildland foods or the availability of urban foods can explain when black bears forage near houses, examined the extent to which male bears use urban areas in comparison to females, and identified the most important food items influencing bear movement into urban areas. We monitored 16 collared black bears in and around Missoula, Montana, during 2009 and 2010, while quantifying the rate of change in green vegetation and the availability of 5 native berry-producing species outside the urban area, the rate of change in green vegetation, and the availability of apples and garbage inside the urban area. We used parametric time-to-event models in which an event was a bear location collected within 100 m of a house. We also visited feeding sites located near houses and quantified food items bears had eaten. The probability of a bear being located near a house was 1.6 times higher for males, and increased during apple season and the urban green-up. Fruit trees accounted for most of the forage items at urban feeding sites (49%), whereas wildland foods composed <10%. Black bears foraged on human foods near houses even when wildland foods were available, suggesting that the absence of wildland foods may not influence the probability of bears foraging near houses. Additionally, other attractants, in this case fruit trees, appear to be more important than the availability of garbage in influencing when bears forage near houses.

  17. The value of data availability versus model complexity to estimate snow, glacier and rain water in mountain streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finger, David; Vis, Marc; Seibert, Jan

    2014-05-01

    various observational datasets in order to constrain model parameters and compute realistic discharge estimations. Finally, we postulate based on the comparison of model performance of HBV-light and the physically based, fully distributed model that the availability and use of different datasets to calibrate hydrological models might be more important than model complexity in regard to realistic predictions of runoff composition. REFERENCES: Finger, D., A. Hugentobler, M. Huss, A. Voinesco, H.R. Wernli, D. Fischer, E. Weber, P-Y. Jeannin, M. Kauzlaric, A. Wirz, T. Vennemann, F. Hüsler, B. Schädler, and R. Weingartner (2013). Identification of glacial melt water runoff in a karstic environment and its implication for present and future water availability. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss. 10, 1-45, doi: 10.5194/hessd-10-1-2013. Finger, D., Heinrich, G., Gobiet, A., and Bauder, A.: Projections of future water resources and their uncertainty in a glacierized catchment in the Swiss Alps and the subsequent effects on hydropower production during the 21st century, Water Resources Research, 48, doi: 10.1029/2011wr010733, W02521, 2012. Finger, D., Pellicciotti, F., Konz, M., Rimkus, S., and Burlando, P.: The value of glacier mass balance, satellite snow cover images, and hourly discharge for improving the performance of a physically based distributed hydrological model, Water Resources Research, 47, doi: W07519, 10.1029/2010wr009824, 2011. Huss, M.: Present and future contribution of glacier storage change to runoff from macroscale drainage basins in Europe, Water Resources Research, 47, doi: W07511, 10.1029/2010wr010299, 2011. Seibert, J., and Vis, M. J. P.: Teaching hydrological modeling with a user-friendly catchment-runoff-model software package, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 3315-3325, doi: 10.5194/hess-16-3315-2012, 2012.

  18. From food insufficiency towards trade dependency: a historical analysis of global food availability.

    PubMed

    Porkka, Miina; Kummu, Matti; Siebert, Stefan; Varis, Olli

    2013-01-01

    Achieving global food security is one of the major challenges of the coming decades. In order to tackle future food security challenges we must understand the past. This study presents a historical analysis of global food availability, one of the key elements of food security. By calculating national level dietary energy supply and production for nine time steps during 1965-2005 we classify countries based on their food availability, food self-sufficiency and food trade. We also look at how diets have changed during this period with regard to supply of animal based calories. Our results show that food availability has increased substantially both in absolute and relative terms. The percentage of population living in countries with sufficient food supply (>2500 kcal/cap/d) has almost doubled from 33% in 1965 to 61% in 2005. The population living with critically low food supply (<2000 kcal/cap/d) has dropped from 52% to 3%. Largest improvements are seen in the MENA region, Latin America, China and Southeast Asia. Besides, the composition of diets has changed considerably within the study period: the world population living with high supply of animal source food (>15% of dietary energy supply) increased from 33% to over 50%. While food supply has increased globally, food self-sufficiency (domestic production>2500 kcal/cap/d) has not changed remarkably. In the beginning of the study period insufficient domestic production meant insufficient food supply, but in recent years the deficit has been increasingly compensated by rising food imports. This highlights the growing importance of food trade, either for food supply in importing countries or as a source of income for exporters. Our results provide a basis for understanding past global food system dynamics which, in turn, can benefit research on future food security.

  19. From Food Insufficiency towards Trade Dependency: A Historical Analysis of Global Food Availability

    PubMed Central

    Porkka, Miina; Kummu, Matti; Siebert, Stefan; Varis, Olli

    2013-01-01

    Achieving global food security is one of the major challenges of the coming decades. In order to tackle future food security challenges we must understand the past. This study presents a historical analysis of global food availability, one of the key elements of food security. By calculating national level dietary energy supply and production for nine time steps during 1965–2005 we classify countries based on their food availability, food self-sufficiency and food trade. We also look at how diets have changed during this period with regard to supply of animal based calories. Our results show that food availability has increased substantially both in absolute and relative terms. The percentage of population living in countries with sufficient food supply (>2500 kcal/cap/d) has almost doubled from 33% in 1965 to 61% in 2005. The population living with critically low food supply (<2000 kcal/cap/d) has dropped from 52% to 3%. Largest improvements are seen in the MENA region, Latin America, China and Southeast Asia. Besides, the composition of diets has changed considerably within the study period: the world population living with high supply of animal source food (>15% of dietary energy supply) increased from 33% to over 50%. While food supply has increased globally, food self-sufficiency (domestic production>2500 kcal/cap/d) has not changed remarkably. In the beginning of the study period insufficient domestic production meant insufficient food supply, but in recent years the deficit has been increasingly compensated by rising food imports. This highlights the growing importance of food trade, either for food supply in importing countries or as a source of income for exporters. Our results provide a basis for understanding past global food system dynamics which, in turn, can benefit research on future food security. PMID:24367545

  20. Epinephrine autoinjector availability among children with food allergy.

    PubMed

    DeMuth, Karen A; Fitzpatrick, Anne M

    2011-01-01

    Epinephrine is the treatment of choice for anaphylaxis. Delay in administration of epinephrine is a known risk factor for food allergy reaction-related mortality; however, individuals with food allergy may not have epinephrine readily available. This study was designed to determine the percent of food-allergic children that have an epinephrine autoinjector readily available and factors associated with epinephrine autoinjector carriage rates. Parents completed a questionnaire on food allergy and food allergy preparedness. Staff recorded whether an epinephrine autoinjector and medical alert bracelet was immediately available in clinic. Parental responses from 63 food-allergic children were included. Fifty-nine percent (37/63) had an epinephrine autoinjector present in the clinic, and 79% (50/63) reported receiving training in epinephrine autoinjector use. There was no correlation between epinephrine autoinjector presence in the clinic and parental report of having an epinephrine autoinjector available at all times (phi = 0.21). Epinephrine autoinjector training was associated with increased odds of having an epinephrine autoinjector immediately available (adjusted odds ratio, 8.74 [1.69, 45.04]). Fewer school aged children (≥5 years old) reportedly had their epinephrine autoinjector with them when eating lunch (25% [8/32] versus 42% [13/31]; p = 0.002) or snacks (28% [9/32] versus 37% [13/31]; p = 0.005) when compared with those <5 years old. Many children do not have their epinephrine autoinjectors readily available despite parental report. Epinephrine autoinjector training improved the odds of having an epinephrine autoinjector readily available. Continued patient education on the importance of having an epinephrine autoinjector easily accessible, especially when eating, is important.

  1. Healthy food availability in small urban food stores: a comparison of four US cities

    PubMed Central

    Laska, Melissa Nelson; Borradaile, Kelley E; Tester, June; Foster, Gary D; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Objective Given that small food stores may be important retail food sources in low-income urban communities, our objective was to examine cross-city comparative data documenting healthy food availability within such facilities, particularly those located in low-income areas and nearby schools. Design Food stores in Baltimore, Maryland; Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota; Oakland, California; and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania were selected for assessment based on proximity to low-income schools. Stores were defined as: (i) single-aisle (n 45); (ii) small (2–5 aisles; n 52); and (iii) large (≥6 aisles; n 8). Staff conducted in-store audits to assess the presence/absence of twenty-eight healthy items, organized within five categories: (i) fresh fruits/vegetables, (ii) processed fruits/vegetables, (iii) healthy beverages/low-fat dairy, (iv) healthy snacks and (v) other healthy staple foods. Results The availability of healthy food items was low, particularly in single-aisle and small stores, and there was significant cross-site variability in the availability of healthy snacks (P < 0·0001) and other healthy staple foods (P < 0·0001). No cross-site differences existed for fruits/vegetables or healthy beverages/low-fat dairy availability. Healthy food availability scores increased significantly with store size for nearly all food/beverage categories (P < 0·01). Conclusions Overall, healthy food availability in these venues was limited. Region-specific factors may be important to consider in understanding factors influencing healthy food availability in small urban markets. Data suggest that efforts to promote healthy diets in low-income communities may be compromised by a lack of available healthy foods. Interventions targeting small stores need to be developed and tailored for use in urban areas across the USA. PMID:19968901

  2. Does the availability of snack foods in supermarkets vary internationally?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cross-country differences in dietary behaviours and obesity rates have been previously reported. Consumption of energy-dense snack foods and soft drinks are implicated as contributing to weight gain, however little is known about how the availability of these items within supermarkets varies internationally. This study assessed variations in the display of snack foods and soft drinks within a sample of supermarkets across eight countries. Methods Within-store audits were used to evaluate and compare the availability of potato chips (crisps), chocolate, confectionery and soft drinks. Displays measured included shelf length and the proportion of checkouts and end-of-aisle displays containing these products. Audits were conducted in a convenience sample of 170 supermarkets across eight developed nations (Australia, Canada, Denmark, Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden, United Kingdom (UK), and United States of America (US)). Results The mean total aisle length of snack foods (adjusted for store size) was greatest in supermarkets from the UK (56.4 m) and lowest in New Zealand (21.7 m). When assessed by individual item, the greatest aisle length devoted to chips, chocolate and confectionery was found in UK supermarkets while the greatest aisle length dedicated to soft drinks was in Australian supermarkets. Only stores from the Netherlands (41%) had less than 70% of checkouts featuring displays of snack foods or soft drinks. Conclusion Whilst between-country variations were observed, overall results indicate high levels of snack food and soft drinks displays within supermarkets across the eight countries. Exposure to snack foods is largely unavoidable within supermarkets, increasing the likelihood of purchases and particularly those made impulsively. PMID:23672409

  3. Profits, Commercial Food Supplier Involvement, and School Vending Machine Snack Food Availability: Implications for Implementing the New Competitive Foods Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; Hood, Nancy E.; Colabianchi, Natalie; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The 2013-2014 school year involved preparation for implementing the new US Department of Agriculture (USDA) competitive foods nutrition standards. An awareness of associations between commercial supplier involvement, food vending practices, and food vending item availability may assist schools in preparing for the new standards.…

  4. Seston Dynamics and Food Availability on Mussel and Cockle Beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smaal, A. C.; Haas, H. A.

    1997-08-01

    To provide a better understanding of seston dynamics in relation to food supply to the benthos, a series of 13-h tidal cycle sampling programmes was executed in the Oosterschelde estuary (The Netherlands). Samples were taken near the surface and near the bottom on two subtidal mussel cultivation plots and on two intertidal cockle beds. Long-term annual variablity of seston concentrations was lower than coefficients of variance of the short-term tidal cycle seston data at the intertidal stations, and higher than at the subtidal stations. Near-bottom relative to surface concentrations were highest for suspended particulate matter (SPM), followed by particulate organic carbon (POC), and chlorophyll. There was no food depletion near the bottom but food quality was lower, presumably due to re-suspension of sediment, including low-quality biodeposits. Chlorophyll concentrations were lower in ebb than flood water at all stations, which was ascribed to feeding activity of the bivalves. At the subtidal stations, SPM and POC concentrations were also lower during low water, owing to sedimentation. There was a positive correlation at the intertidal stations of seston quantity with wind speed and wave action. At a wave length exceeding twice the water depth, re-suspension of low quality bottom material was observed and seston quality decreased. It was concluded that food availability for benthic suspension feeders was lower than suggested by routine monitoring data. At the intertidal stations, food quality was further reduced during periods of increased wind velocities and wave action. The low near-bottom food quality can partly be considered as an effect of the feeding activity of the benthic suspension feeders.

  5. Dining Dovekies Demand, "When, Where and What's for Dinner?" The Impact of Seasonal Changes in Snow Melt and the Development of the Arctic Marine Food Web on Seabirds.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnovsky, N. J.; Harding, A.; Welcker, J.; Brown, Z. W.; Kitaysky, A.; Kwasniewski, S.; Walkusz, W.; Gremillet, D.

    2011-12-01

    The Atlantic sector of the Arctic is undergoing widespread climate change with increases in air and sea temperatures which impact the timing of ice retreat, snow melt and the development of the marine food web. Dovekies (Alle alle) are small seabirds that migrate to the Atlantic Sector of the Arctic to feed in ice free waters that have abundant lipid-rich zooplankton. In the Greenland Sea, the dovekies are largely dependent on the advection of Calanus copepods into the area. We hypothesized that dovekies breeding adjacent to water masses which bring smaller, less energy-rich prey into the region (Calanus finmarchicus), work harder to find food and have higher stress levels. We tested this hypothesis by attaching time-depth recorders to provisioning dovekies at three colonies adjacent to different water masses (the West Spistbergen Current, the East Greenland Current, and the Sorkapp Current). We determined the length of time dovekies at different colonies spent at-sea collecting food for themselves and their chicks. We measured circulating corticosteroid hormone levels in their blood to assess stress levels. We collected chick meals to determine the energetic content of prey fed chicks at the different colonies. We found that dovekies are sensitive to the quality of prey available to them. Dovekies exposed to less profitable prey made longer foraging trips and worked harder while at-sea to collect prey for themselves and their chicks. Furthermore, over the past 50 years, dovekies breeding along the western shores of Spitsbergen have initiated breeding earlier in spring as their nest sites have become snow-free at earlier dates. We evaluate the impact of earlier breeding and the timing of the development of the marine food web within different currents which advect and/or support Calanus copepods into the Greenland Sea. Future possible declines in dovekies may impact terrestrial food webs which are highly influenced by the annual input of nitrogen rich guano on the

  6. Availability of vitamin B6 from different food sources.

    PubMed

    Roth-Maier, Dora A; Kettler, Susanne I; Kirchgessner, Manfred

    2002-03-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the precaecal digestibility of vitamin B6 from selected food sources including eggs, bananas, white cabbage, corn, milk powder, fish, barley, soybeans, brown rice, wheat bran, brewer's yeast, rye and soybean meal. These foods were chosen for their relevance in human and animal nutrition and prepared as they are usually eaten by humans. As confirmed by further investigations the precaecal digestibility is a valuable measure for determining the availability of native B-vitamins. Therefore, pigs were fitted with an end-to-end ileo-rectal anastomosis for digesta passing straight from ileum to rectum, thus avoiding endogenous vitamin synthesis by the colon. Three weeks after surgery the digestibility experiments were carried out during which the animals were fed various experimental diets for a period of 12 days and digesta were collected quantitatively twice a day during the final 5 days of this period. The concentration of vitamin B6 in foods and chyme was determined by high pressure liquid chromatography. Precaecal digestibility of vitamin B6 from all tested food sources ranged from 51 to 91% in the following order: cabbage diet > banana diet > fish diet > milk powder diet > brewer's yeast diet > soybeans diet > soybean meal diet > egg diet/corn diet > barley diet > wheat bran diet > rye diet. Only boiled brown rice had a very low vitamin B6 availability of 16%. The digestibility of vitamin B6 from plant products (excluding the rice) was on average 10% lower when compared with animal products (71 versus 79%).

  7. Long-term trends in food availability, food prices, and obesity in Samoa

    PubMed Central

    Seiden, Andrew; Hawley, Nicola; Schulz, Dirk; Raifman, Sarah; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To describe long term food availability and prices from 1961 to 2007 and BMI trends from 1980–2010 in Samoa, and to contextualize these trends within political, economic, cultural, behavioral, and climatic influences. Methods National level data on food availability and pricing were obtained from the open access database FAO (http://faostat.fao.org). Data for Samoa were collected from annual food balance sheets available for the period 1961 to 2007. Mean BMI for Samoan men and women ages 35–44 years of age is reported from four different time periods, 1979–82, 1991, 2003, and 2010. Results Total energy availability increased substantially, by 47%, with more than 900 extra calories available per capita per day in 2007 than in 1961. Many of these extra calories are supplied by dietary fat, the availability of which rose by a proportionally greater amount, 73%. Availability of both meat and vegetable oils rose substantially. Poultry meat increased the most proportionally, from 10 to 117 kcal per capita per day. Coconut products, fruit and starchy root crops – all locally grown – showed little to no increase over this time. As import prices for poultry and mutton increased their availability decreased, but the availability of vegetable oils rose despite a rise in their price. Mean BMI for men and women ages 35–44 years rose 18% rise from 1980–2010. Conclusions These long-term trends in food availability and prices, and the temporal pattern of BMI provide national level data for understanding the process of the nutrition transition in Samoa. Further work on consumer food prices, diet, food security and health is needed to further contextualize the transformation of the local food system in Samoa. PMID:22371334

  8. Neighborhood impact on healthy food availability and pricing in food stores.

    PubMed

    Krukowski, Rebecca A; West, Delia Smith; Harvey-Berino, Jean; Elaine Prewitt, T

    2010-06-01

    Availability and price of healthy foods in food stores has the potential to influence purchasing patterns, dietary intake, and weight status of individuals. This study examined whether demographic factors of the store neighborhood or store size have an impact on the availability and price of healthy foods in sample of grocery stores and supermarkets. The Nutrition Environment Measures Study-Store (NEMS-S) instrument, a standardized observational survey, was utilized to evaluate food stores (N = 42) in a multi-site (Vermont and Arkansas) study in 2008. Census data associated with store census tract (median household income and proportion African-American) were used to characterize store neighborhood and number of cash registers was used to quantify store size. Median household income was significantly associated with the NEMS healthy food availability score (r = 0.36, P < 0.05); neither racial composition (r = -0.23, P = 0.14) nor store size (r = 0.27, P = 0.09) were significantly related to the Availability score. Larger store size (r = 0.40, P < 0.01) was significantly associated with the NEMS-S Price scores, indicating more favorable prices for healthier items; neither racial composition nor median household income were significantly related to the Price score (P's > 0.05). Even among supermarkets, healthier foods are less available in certain neighborhoods, although, when available, the quality of healthier options did not differ, suggesting that targeting availability may offer promise for policy initiatives. Furthermore, increasing access to larger stores that can offer lower prices for healthier foods may provide another avenue for enhancing food environments to lower disease risk.

  9. Food availability is expressed through physiological stress indicators in nestling white ibis: A food supplementation experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herring, G.; Cook, Mark I.; Gawlik, D.E.; Call, Erynn M.

    2011-01-01

    Physiological responses to environmental stress such as adrenocortical hormones and cellular stress proteins have recently emerged as potentially powerful tools for investigating physiological effects of avian food limitation. However, little is known about the physiological stress responses of free-living nestling birds to environmental variation in food availability. We experimentally tested how hydrologically mediated changes in food availability affect the physiological stress responses of juvenile white ibises Eudocimus albus in a fluctuating wetland. We provided supplementary food to free-living nestlings during 2years with contrasting hydrologic and food availability conditions, and used plasma (PCORT) and faecal (FCORT) corticosterone and heat shock proteins (HSP60 and HSP70) from first-hatched (A-nestlings) and second-hatched (B-nestlings) to detect relatively short- to long-term responses to food limitation. Nestling physiological stress responses were relatively low in all treatments during the year with optimal food availability, but PCORT, FCORT and HSP60 levels increased during the poor food year. FCORT and HSP60 responses were clearly due to nutritional condition as elevated concentrations were evident primarily in control nestlings. Significant year by hatch order interactions for both FCORT and HSP60 revealed that these increases were largely incurred by B-nestlings. FCORT and HSP60 responses were also well developed early in neonatal development and remained elevated for the duration of the experiment suggesting a chronic stress response. PCORT and HSP70 were less informative stress responses. The nutritionally mediated increases in FCORT and HSP60 provide compelling evidence that white ibis nestlings can be physiologically affected by environmental food levels. FCORT and HSP60 are effective indicators of nutritional mediated stress for nestling white ibises and potentially for other species prone to capture or handling stress. ?? 2010 The Authors

  10. Interactions between oxygen homeostasis, food availability, and hydrogen sulfide signaling

    PubMed Central

    Iranon, Nicole N.; Miller, Dana L.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to sense and respond to stressful conditions is essential to maintain organismal homeostasis. It has long been recognized that stress response factors that improve survival in changing conditions can also influence longevity. In this review, we discuss different strategies used by animals in response to decreased O2 (hypoxia) to maintain O2 homeostasis, and consider interactions between hypoxia responses, nutritional status, and H2S signaling. O2 is an essential environmental nutrient for almost all metazoans as it plays a fundamental role in development and cellular metabolism. However, the physiological response(s) to hypoxia depend greatly on the amount of O2 available. Animals must sense declining O2 availability to coordinate fundamental metabolic and signaling pathways. It is not surprising that factors involved in the response to hypoxia are also involved in responding to other key environmental signals, particularly food availability. Recent studies in mammals have also shown that the small gaseous signaling molecule hydrogen sulfide (H2S) protects against cellular damage and death in hypoxia. These results suggest that H2S signaling also integrates with hypoxia response(s). Many of the signaling pathways that mediate the effects of hypoxia, food deprivation, and H2S signaling have also been implicated in the control of lifespan. Understanding how these pathways are coordinated therefore has the potential to reveal new cellular and organismal homeostatic mechanisms that contribute to longevity assurance in animals. PMID:23233860

  11. 21 CFR 20.120 - Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. 20.120 Section 20.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....120 Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. (a) The Food and...

  12. 21 CFR 20.120 - Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. 20.120 Section 20.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....120 Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. (a) The Food and...

  13. 21 CFR 20.120 - Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. 20.120 Section 20.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....120 Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. (a) The Food and...

  14. 21 CFR 20.120 - Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. 20.120 Section 20.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....120 Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. (a) The Food and...

  15. 21 CFR 20.120 - Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. 20.120 Section 20.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....120 Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. (a) The Food and...

  16. Silver nanoparticle release from commercially available plastic food containers into food simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackevica, Aiga; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are currently being used in many different kinds of consumer products in order to take advantage of their antimicrobial properties. However, the potential migration of silver nanoparticles into food and subsequent consumer exposure has hardly been addressed. In the current study, we investigated four brands of commercially available plastic food storage containers and measured the total amount of silver, particle size and number concentration, and the migration rates into three different food simulants (Milli-Q grade water, 10 % ethanol, and 3 % acetic acid) for 10 days at 40 °C. The experimental setup was made according to the European Commission Directive (EU 10/2011) for articles intended to be in contact with food. The total amount of silver in plastic containers and migration solutions was quantified by ICP-MS analysis, and the size of the migrated particles was investigated by single particle ICP-MS and TEM-EDS. The total mass and median size of released particulate Ag were generally highest in 3 % acetic acid for three out of four food container brands. The total content of silver in the containers varied from 13 to 42 µg/g. The highest migration was observed in the 3 % acetic acid food simulant for all four brands of containers, with total silver release up to 3.1 ng/cm2 after 10 days. In conclusion, the experimental results show that silver has the potential of migrating into food, especially when in contact with more acidic substances.

  17. Food Expenditure and Nutrient Availability in Elderly Households.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hama, Mary Y.; Chern, Wen S.

    1988-01-01

    A model of food expenditure and nutrient consumption is developed and estimated using the data from the elderly supplemental survey to the 1977-78 USDA Nationwide Food Consumption Survey. Results provide strong evidence that elderly households make concurrent decisions on food budgets and nutritional needs. (Author)

  18. Molecular diversity of bacteria in commercially available "Spirulina" food supplements.

    PubMed

    Vardaka, Elisabeth; Kormas, Konstantinos A; Katsiapi, Matina; Genitsaris, Savvas; Moustaka-Gouni, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Arthrospira is among the most well-known food supplements worldwide known as "Spirulina." While it is a widely recognized health-promoting natural product, there are no reports on the molecular diversity of commercially available brands of "Spirulina" supplements and the occurrence of other cyanobacterial and heterotrophic bacterial microorganisms in these products. In this study, 454-pyrosequencing analysis of the total bacterial occurrence in 31 brands of "Spirulina" dietary supplements from the Greek market was applied for the first time. In all samples, operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of Arthrospira platensis were the predominant cyanobacteria. Some products contained additional cyanobacterial OTUs including a few known potentially toxic taxa. Moreover, 469 OTUs were detected in all 31 products collectively, with most of them being related to the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia. All samples included heterotrophic bacterial OTUs, ranging from 9-157 per product. Among the most common OTUs were ones closely related to taxa known for causing health issues (i.e., Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Vibrio, Aeromonas, Clostridium, Bacillus, Fusobacterium, Enterococcus). The observed high cyanobacterial and heterotrophic bacterial OTUs richness in the final product is a point for further research on the growth and processing of Arthrospira biomass for commercial purposes.

  19. Potential Impacts of Food Production on Freshwater Availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Shinjiro; Hanasaki, Naota; Itsubo, Norihiro; Kim, Hyungjun; Oki, Taikan

    2014-05-01

    The sustainability of freshwater use is often evaluated based on the total volume of water consumption or withdrawal. However, the renewable freshwater resource and potential impacts of water depletion differ with location and water source. In addition, most estimates of the environmental impacts of water use have focused on depletion from a single-source perspective without separating geographically different water sources. Therefore, comprehensive potential impacts from multiple water sources remain unclear. In this study, we quantified the potential impacts of the global food production on freshwater availability (water availability footprint), applying the Water Availability Factor (fwa). Each water source including rainfall, surface water, and groundwater had individual fwa, which is calculated based on the geophysical hydrological cycle, to reflect the differences among renewable freshwater resources by place and source. The fwa for each water source was estimated based on land area or time period required to obtain the reference volume of freshwater. The reference volume was regarded as 1 m3 of rainfall over an area of 1.0 m2 (1,000 mm/year), based on the global mean annual precipitation. This concept is consistent with the Ecological Footprint (EF), which measures how much biologically productive land area is required to provide the resources consumed. The EF concept is measured in global hectares, a standardized unit equal to one hectare with global average bioproductivity. We found that the current agriculture consumes freshwater resources at 1.3 times the rapid rate than sustainable water use. This rate can also indicate environmental water scarcity. Among environmentally water-scarce countries, well-financed countries tend to import cereal products as virtual water to compensate for their domestic water resources. Among water-abundant countries, well-financed countries tend to export cereal products by exploiting their freshwater availability. The fwa

  20. Stress hormones link food availability and population processes in seabirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Piatt, J.F.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Catastrophic population declines in marine top predators in the northern Pacific have been hypothesized to result from nutritional stress affecting reproduction and survival of individuals. However, empirical evidence for food-related stress in wild animals is frequently lacking or inconclusive. We used a field endocrinology approach to measure stress, identify its causes, and examine a link between stress and population processes in the common murre Uria aalge. We tested the empirical relationship between variations in the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) and food abundance, reproduction, and persistence of individuals at declining and increasing colonies in Cook Inlet, Alaska, from 1996 to 2001. We found that CORT secretion in murres is independent of colony, reproductive stage effects, and gender of individuals, but is directly negatively correlated with abundance of their food. Baseline CORT reflected current food abundance, whereas acute stress-induced CORT reflected food abundance in the previous month. As food supply diminished, increased CORT secretion predicted a decrease in reproductive performance. At a declining colony, increased baseline levels of CORT during reproduction predicted disappearance of individuals from the population. Persistence of individuals in a growing colony was independent of CORT during reproduction. The obtained results support the hypothesis that nutritional stress during reproduction affects reproduction and survival in seabirds. This study provides the first unequivocal evidence for CORT secretion as a mechanistic link between fluctuations in food abundance and population processes in seabirds. ?? Inter-Research 2007.

  1. 75 FR 59268 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Acidified Foods; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... and in employing appropriate quality control procedures. Under the draft guidance, processors of non... safe manufacturing, processing, and packing processes and in employing appropriate quality control... Establishment-Specific Written Quality Control Plans and Recordkeeping for Acidified Foods, and...

  2. 75 FR 73107 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Blood Lancet Labeling; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Blood Lancet Labeling; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of the guidance...

  3. Simulation of water available for runoff in clearcut forest openings during rain-on-snow events in the western Cascade Range of Oregon and Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Heeswijk, Marijke; Kimball, J.S.; Marks, Danny

    1996-01-01

    Rain-on-snow events are common on mountain slopes within the transient-snow zone of the Pacific Northwest. These events make more water available for runoff than does precipitation alone by melting the snowpack and by adding a small amount of condensate to the snowpack. In forest openings (such as those resulting from clearcut logging), the amount of snow that accumulates and the turbulent- energy input to the snowpack are greater than below forest stands. Both factors are believed to contribute to a greater amount of water available for runoff during rain-on-snow events in forest openings than forest stands. Because increased water available for runoff may lead to increased downstream flooding and erosion, knowledge of the amount of snowmelt that can occur during rain on snow and the processes that control snowmelt in forest openings is useful when making land-use decisions. Snow accumulation and melt were simulated for clearcut conditions only, using an enery- balance approach that accounts for the most important energy and mass exchanges between a snowpack and its environment. Meteorological measurements provided the input for the simulations. Snow accumulation and melt were not simulated in forest stands because interception of precipitation processes are too complex to simulate with a numerical model without making simplifying assumptions. Such a model, however, would need to be extensively tested against representative observations, which were not available for this study. Snowmelt simulated during three rain-on-snow events (measured in a previous study in a clearcut in the transient-snow zone of the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest in Oregon) demonstrated that melt generation is most sensitive to turbulent- energy exchanges between the air and the snowpack surface. As a result, the most important climate variable that controls snowmelt is wind speed. Air temperature, however, is a significant variable also. The wind speeds were light, with a maximum of 3

  4. Mapping Access to Community-Developed Healthy Food Baskets Including Cost and Availability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginn, Alison; Majumdar, Anne; Carr, Marimba; Eastwood, Ginny; Menger, Beth

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food security is a topical issue but one that can be difficult to measure. Objective: To develop a community-approved food basket tool and use this to investigate the availability and affordability of a healthy diet in a multicultural urban setting. Design: A 7-day healthy food basket (HFB) containing 96 foods for six household types…

  5. To eat or not to eat: Effects of food availability on reward system activity during food picture viewing.

    PubMed

    Blechert, Jens; Klackl, Johannes; Miedl, Stephan F; Wilhelm, Frank H

    2016-04-01

    Neuroimaging studies have started to explore the role of food characteristics (e.g., calorie-content) and psychological factors (e.g., restrained eating, craving) for the human appetitive system, motivated by the significant health implications of food-choice, overeating and overweight/obesity. However, one key aspect of modern food environments, food availability, especially of high energy foods, has not been adequately modeled in experimental research. Food that is immediately available for consumption could elicit stronger reward system activity and associated cognitive control than food that is not currently available for consumption and this could vary as a function of energy density. To examine this question, 32 healthy participants (16 women) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while passively viewing available foods - i.e. foods that could be eaten during and after the experiment - and unavailable foods of either high or low-caloric density in a 2 × 2 design. Available compared to unavailable foods elicited higher palatability ratings as well as stronger neural activation in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), amygdala, and left caudate nucleus as well as in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) - and thus structures implicated in reward and appetitive motivation as well as cognitive control, respectively. Availability effects in the caudate were mainly attributable to the high calorie condition (availability × calorie density interaction). These neuroimaging results support the contention that foods are particularly rewarding when immediately available and particularly so when high in caloric density. Thus, our results are consistent with health promoting interventions utilizing a nudging approach, i.e. aiming at decreasing accessibility of high calorie and increasing accessibility of low calorie foods in daily life. Results also imply that controlling/manipulating food availability may be an important methodological aspect in neuroscientific

  6. The impact of increased food availability on survival of a long-distance migratory bird.

    PubMed

    Seward, Adam M; Beale, Colin M; Gilbert, Lucy; Jones, T Hefin; Thomas, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Temperature-, rainfall- and habitat-driven change in food availability is one likely mechanism by which anthropogenic factors may affect animal population dynamics and species distributions. Long-distance migratory birds must synchronize their migrations with food availability at locations hundreds or thousands of kilometers apart, so changes in the overall abundance of food or the phenology of peaks in food availability may be critical factors influencing annual survival. In this study we used experimental food supplementation at a breeding site to examine and compare the impact of changing food supply on annual survival of adult migratory birds and their offspring. We provided supplemental food to Northern Wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe) breeding on Fair Isle, UK, to infer the sensitivity of annual survival to increases in natural food availability. Food-supplemented wheatears exhibited higher rates of annual survival than control wheatears, and the strength of this effect varied with age. Food supplementation led to 1.56 times higher annual survival of juveniles and 1.22 times higher survival of adults. Survival of juveniles was related to their own food availability as fledglings, but not to whether their parents were food-supplemented or unfed control adults. This increased survival, combined with increased breeding productivity associated with food supplementation, implies that an increase in natural food availability, of the magnitude simulated in our experiment, would increase the population growth rate of wheatears on Fair Isle from approximately lambda = 0.93 (a contracting population) to lambda = 1.14 (an expanding population).

  7. Assessing gull abundance and food availability in urban parking lots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Daniel E.; Whitney, Jillian J.; MacKenzie, Kenneth G.; Koenen, Kiana K. G.; DeStefano, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Feeding birds is a common activity throughout the world; yet, little is known about the extent of feeding gulls in urban areas. We monitored 8 parking lots in central Massachusetts, USA, during the fall and winter of 2011 to 2013 in 4 monitoring sessions to document the number of gulls present, the frequency of human–gull feeding interactions, and the effectiveness of signage and direct interaction in reducing human-provisioned food. Parking lots were divided between “education” and “no-education” lots. In education lots, we erected signs about problems caused when people feed birds and also asked people to stop feeding birds. We did not erect signs or ask people to stop feeding birds at no-education lots. We spent >1,200 hours in parking lots (range = 136 to 200 hours per parking lot), and gulls were counted every 20 minutes. We conducted >4,000 counts, and ring-billed gulls (Lorus delawarensis) accounted for 98% of all gulls. Our educational efforts were minimally effective. There were fewer feedings (P = 0.01) in education lots during one of the monitoring sessions but significantly more gulls (P = 0.008) in education lots during 2 monitoring sessions. While there was a marginal decrease (P = 0.055) in the number of feedings after no-education lots were transformed into education lots, there was no difference in gull numbers in these lots (P = 0.16). Education appears to have some influence in reducing the number of people feeding gulls, but our efforts were not able to reduce the number of human feeders or the amount of food enough to influence the number of gulls using parking lots.

  8. Associations of food preferences and household food availability with dietary intake and quality in youth with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lipsky, L M; Nansel, T R; Haynie, D L; Mehta, S N; Laffel, L M B

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine associations of food preferences and availability with dietary intake in youth with type 1 diabetes, for whom dietary intake and quality are essential to disease management. Youth (n=252, age 13.2±2.8 y, diabetes duration 6.3±3.4 y) reported preferences and parents reported household availability for 61 food items categorized as fruit, vegetables, whole grains, refined grains and fats/sweets. Youth energy-adjusted daily servings of food groups, Healthy Eating Index-2005 and Nutrient Rich Foods 9.3 scores were calculated from 3-day diet records. Associations of dietary intake and quality variables with preference and availability of all food groups were evaluated by linear regressions adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. Fruit and whole grain intake were positively related to corresponding preference and availability; whole grain intake and refined grain availability were inversely related. Vegetable, refined grain and fats/sweets intake were unrelated to preference and availability. Diet quality measures were related positively to fruit preference and whole grain availability and inversely to refined grains availability. Findings indicate associations of dietary intake with food preference and availability vary by food group in youth with type 1 diabetes. Measures of overall dietary quality were more consistently associated with food group availability than preferences.

  9. Associations of food preferences and household food availability with dietary intake and quality in youth with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lipsky, LM; Nansel, TR; Haynie, DL; Mehta, SN; Laffel, LMB

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine associations of food preferences and availability with dietary intake in youth with type 1 diabetes, for whom dietary intake and quality are essential to disease management. Youth (n=252, age 13.2±2.8y, diabetes duration 6.3±3.4y) reported preferences and parents reported household availability for 61 food items categorized as fruit, vegetables, whole grains, refined grains and fats/sweets. Youth energy-adjusted daily servings of food groups, Healthy Eating Index-2005 and Nutrient Rich Foods 9.3 scores were calculated from 3-day diet records. Associations of dietary intake and quality variables with preference and availability of all food groups were evaluated by linear regressions adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. Fruit and whole grain intake were positively related to corresponding preference and availability; whole grain intake and refined grain availability were inversely related. Vegetable, refined grain and fats/sweets intake were unrelated to preference and availability. Diet quality measures were related positively to fruit preference and whole grain availability and inversely to refined grains availability. Findings indicate associations of dietary intake with food preference and availability vary by food group in youth with type 1 diabetes. Measures of overall dietary quality were more consistently associated with food group availability than preferences. PMID:22595289

  10. Availability of healthier options in traditional and nontraditional rural fast-food outlets

    PubMed Central

    Creel, Jennifer S; Sharkey, Joseph R; McIntosh, Alex; Anding, Jenna; Huber, J Charles

    2008-01-01

    Background Food prepared away from home has become increasingly popular to U.S. families, and may contribute to obesity. Sales have been dominated by fast food outlets, where meals are purchased for dining away from home or in the home. Although national chain affiliated fast-food outlets are considered the main source for fast food, fast foods are increasingly available in convenience stores and supermarkets/grocery stores. In rural areas, these nontraditional fast-food outlets may provide most of the opportunities for procurement of fast foods. Methods Using all traditional and nontraditio nal fast-food outlets identified in six counties in rural Texas, the type and number of regular and healthiermenu options were surveyed using on-site observation in all food venues that were primarily fast food, supermarket/grocery store, and convenience store and compared with 2005 Dietary Guidelines. Results Traditional fast-food outlets represented 84 (41%) of the 205 opportunities for procurement of fast food; 109 (53.2%) were convenience stores and 12 (5.8%) supermarkets/grocery stores. Although a s imilar variety of regular breakfast and lunch/dinner entrées were available in traditional fast-food outlets and convenience stores, the variety of healthier breakfast and lunch/dinner entrées was significantly greater in fast food outlets. Compared with convenience stores, supermarkets/grocery stores provided a greater variety of regular and healthier entrées and lunch/dinner side dishes. Conclusion Convenience stores and supermarkets/grocery stores more than double the potential access to fast foods in this rural area than traditional fast-food outlets alone; however, traditional fast food outlets offer greater opportunity for healthier fast food options than convenience stores. A complete picture of fast food environment and the availability of healthier fast food options are essential to understand environmental influences on diet and health outcomes, and identify

  11. Regional variability in food availability for Arctic marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Bluhm, Bodil A; Gradinger, Rolf

    2008-03-01

    -feeding, ice-dependent AMM such as walrus would decrease. New pelagic feeding grounds may open up to AMM and subarctic marine mammal species in the High Arctic basins while nearshore waters might provide less abundant food in the future.

  12. BOREAS HYD-3 Snow Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, Janet P.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Davis, Robert E.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-3 team collected several data sets related to the hydrology of forested areas. This data set contains measurements of snow depth, snow density in three cm intervals, an integrated snow pack density and snow water equivalent (SWE), and snow pack physical properties from snow pit evaluation taken in 1994 and 1996. The data were collected from several sites in both the southern study area (SSA) and the northern study area (NSA). A variety of standard tools were used to measure the snow pack properties, including a meter stick (snow depth), a 100 cc snow density cutter, a dial stem thermometer, and the Canadian snow sampler as used by HYD-4 to obtain a snow pack-integrated measure of SWE. This study was undertaken to predict spatial distributions of snow properties important to the hydrology, remote sensing signatures, and the transmissivity of gases through the snow. The data are available in tabular ASCII files. The snow measurement data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  13. The potency of fluvoxamine to reduce ethanol self-administration decreases with concurrent availability of food.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, Brett C; Pinkston, Jonathan W; Lamb, Richard J

    2012-04-01

    The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluvoxamine reduces responding for ethanol at lower doses than responding for food when each is available in separate components or separate groups of rats. However, when both are available concurrently and deliveries earned per session are equal, this apparent selectivity inverts and food-maintained behavior is more sensitive than ethanol-maintained behavior to rate-decreasing effects of fluvoxamine. Here, we investigated further the impact that concurrent access to both food and ethanol has on the potency of fluvoxamine. Fluvoxamine (5.6-17.8 mg/kg) potency was assessed under conditions in which food and ethanol were available concurrently and response rates were equal [average variable intervals (VIs) 405 and 14 s for food and ethanol, respectively], as well as when density of food delivery was increased (average VI 60 s for food and VI 14 s for ethanol). The potency of fluvoxamine was also determined when only ethanol was available (food extinction and average VI 14 s for ethanol) and under multiple VIs (VI 30 s for food and ethanol) wherein either food or ethanol was the only programmed reinforcement available during each component. Fluvoxamine was less potent at decreasing ethanol self-administration when food was available concurrently {ED50 [95% confidence limit (CL): 8.2 (6.5-10.3) and 10.7 (7.9-14.4)]} versus when ethanol was available in isolation [ED50: 4.0 (2.7-5.9) and 5.1 (4.3-6.0)]. Effects on food were similar under each condition in which food was available. The results demonstrate that the potency of fluvoxamine in reducing ethanol-maintained behavior depends on whether ethanol is available in isolation or in the context of concurrently scheduled food reinforcement.

  14. Measuring food availability and accessibility among adolescents: Moving beyond the neighbourhood boundary.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Cindy; Rainham, Daniel; Blanchard, Chris; Dummer, Trevor; Lyons, Renee; Kirk, Sara

    2015-05-01

    Geographic methods have provided insight about food location availability and accessibility in understanding neighbourhood variations in health. However, quantifying exposure to food locations within a pre-defined range of an individual's residence ignores locations outside of the residential neighbourhood encountered in daily life. Global positioning system (GPS) data enables exploration of multiple contextual influences on health. This study defines place in relation to behaviour, employing GPS data to 1) describe adolescent food environments within and outside of the residential buffer, 2) quantify actual food location visits, and 3) explore associations between availability and accessibility of food locations and dietary intake. Adolescents (N = 380; ages 12-16), wore GPS loggers for up to seven days. Availability and accessibility of food locations were defined by counts and distances to food locations within a 15-min walk (1 km) of home, as well as within 50 m of an adolescent's GPS track. We compared the proportion of food locations within the residential buffer to the proportion outside but within the GPS buffer. These proportions were compared to counts and distances to food locations actually visited. We explored associations between food location availability and accessibility with dietary intake variables. Food location availability and accessibility was greater and visits occurred more commonly outside of the residential buffer than within it. Food location availability and accessibility was greater for urban than suburban and rural adolescents. There were no associations between home-based measures of availability and accessibility and dietary intake and only one for GPS-based measures, with greater distance to convenience stores associated with greater fruit and vegetable consumption. This study provides important descriptive information about adolescent exposure to food locations. Findings confirm that traditional home-based approaches

  15. Convenience stores are the key food environment influence on nutrients available from household food supplies in Texas Border Colonias

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies have focused on the relationship between the retail food environment and household food supplies. This study examines spatial access to retail food stores, food shopping habits, and nutrients available in household food supplies among 50 Mexican-origin families residing in Texas border colonias. Methods The design was cross-sectional; data were collected in the home March to June 2010 by promotora-researchers. Ground-truthed methods enumerated traditional (supercenters, supermarkets, grocery stores), convenience (convenience stores and food marts), and non-traditional (dollar stores, discount stores) retail food stores. Spatial access was computed using the network distance from each participant’s residence to each food store. Data included survey data and two household food inventories (HFI) of the presence and amount of food items in the home. The Spanish language interviewer-administered survey included demographics, transportation access, food purchasing, food and nutrition assistance program participation, and the 18-item Core Food Security Module. Nutrition Data Systems for Research (NDS-R) was used to calculate HFI nutrients. Adult equivalent adjustment constants (AE), based on age and gender calorie needs, were calculated based on the age- and gender composition of each household and used to adjust HFI nutrients for household composition. Data were analyzed using bivariate analysis and linear regression models to determine the association of independent variables with the availability of each AE-adjusted nutrient. Results Regression models showed that households in which the child independently purchased food from a convenience store at least once a week had foods and beverages with increased amounts of total energy, total fat, and saturated fat. A greater distance to the nearest convenience store was associated with reduced amounts of total energy, vitamin D, total sugar, added sugar, total fat, and saturated fat. Participation in

  16. Planning a Nutrition Curriculum: Assessing Availability, Affordability, and Cultural Appropriateness of Recommended Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Valeria L.; Harris, Mary B.

    1988-01-01

    The first step in planning a healthy heart nutrition program for a rural American Indian population involved surveying the foods available at local grocery stores. Some healthy foods were found to be unavailable or very expensive. Awareness of the cultural acceptability of foods is emphasized. (CB)

  17. Availability of Non-Nutritious Foods in Alberta Schools. Research Bulletin 77-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    School authorities in a total of 68 Alberta school jurisdictions (representing 82 percent of the student population of the province) responded to a request for details about the availability in schools of nonnutritious foods--defined as food that contains minimal nutrients in proportion to number of calories. Foods that are commonly consumed at…

  18. Food Insecurity is Related to Home Availability of Fruit, 100% Fruit Juice, and Vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Household food security is defined as access to enough food at all times for active, healthy living. Low food security may influence consumption because those households may lack sufficient resources to purchase more healthful items like fruit and vegetables. Because home availability is related to ...

  19. City Level of Income and Urbanization and Availability of Food Stores and Food Service Places in China

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chunxiao; Tan, Yayun; Wu, Chaoqun; Wang, Shengfeng; Yu, Canqing; Cao, Weihua; Gao, Wenjing; Lv, Jun; Li, Liming

    2016-01-01

    Objective The contribution of unhealthy dietary patterns to the epidemic of obesity has been well recognized. Differences in availability of foods may have an important influence on individual eating behaviors and health disparities. This study examined the availability of food stores and food service places by city characteristics on city level of income and urbanization. Methods The cross-sectional survey was comprised of two parts: (1) an on-site observation to measure availability of food stores and food service places in 12 cities of China; (2) an in-store survey to determine the presence of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits in all food stores. Trained investigators walked all the streets/roads within study tracts to identify all the food outlets. An observational survey questionnaire was used in all food stores to determine the presence of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits. Urbanization index was determined for each city using a principal components factor analysis. City level of income and urbanization and numbers of each type of food stores and food service places were examined using negative binomial regression models. Results Large-sized supermarkets and specialty retailers had higher number of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits sold compared to small/medium-sized markets. High-income versus low-income, high urbanized versus low urbanized areas had significantly more large-sized supermarkets and fewer small/medium-sized markets. In terms of restaurants, high urbanized cities had more western fast food restaurants and no statistically significant difference in the relative availability of any type of restaurants was found between high- and low-income areas. Conclusions The findings suggested food environment disparities did exist in different cities of China. PMID:26938866

  20. Agriculture and food availability -- remote sensing of agriculture for food security monitoring in the developing world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Budde, Michael E.; Rowland, James; Funk, Christopher C.

    2010-01-01

    For one-sixth of the world’s population - roughly 1 billion children, women and men - growing, buying or receiving adequate, affordable food to eat is a daily uncertainty. The World Monetary Fund reports that food prices worldwide increased 43 percent in 2007-2008, and unpredictable growing conditions make subsistence farming, on which many depend, a risky business. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are part of a network of both private and government institutions that monitor food security in many of the poorest nations in the world.

  1. Using a Household Food Inventory to Assess the Availability of Traditional Vegetables among Resettled African Refugees

    PubMed Central

    Gichunge, Catherine; Somerset, Shawn; Harris, Neil

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted among household food preparers to examine the association between home availability and consumption of traditional vegetables among resettled African refugees living in Queensland, Australia. Home availability of traditional African vegetables was associated with age, having a vegetable garden, employment status, and having a supermarket in the local neighborhood. Food preparers from homes with low vegetable availability were less likely to consume the recommended number of vegetable servings. Barriers faced in the food environment included language, lack of availability of traditional vegetables and lack of transport. All of these aspects contributed to the study findings that both individual and food environment characteristics may play a role in access to and availability of food and vegetable consumption of resettled refugees. Consumption of traditional foods among the resettled refugees continues post resettlement. PMID:26797623

  2. Using a Household Food Inventory to Assess the Availability of Traditional Vegetables among Resettled African Refugees.

    PubMed

    Gichunge, Catherine; Somerset, Shawn; Harris, Neil

    2016-01-18

    A cross-sectional sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted among household food preparers to examine the association between home availability and consumption of traditional vegetables among resettled African refugees living in Queensland, Australia. Home availability of traditional African vegetables was associated with age, having a vegetable garden, employment status, and having a supermarket in the local neighborhood. Food preparers from homes with low vegetable availability were less likely to consume the recommended number of vegetable servings. Barriers faced in the food environment included language, lack of availability of traditional vegetables and lack of transport. All of these aspects contributed to the study findings that both individual and food environment characteristics may play a role in access to and availability of food and vegetable consumption of resettled refugees. Consumption of traditional foods among the resettled refugees continues post resettlement.

  3. A farmers' market in a food desert: Evaluating impacts on the price and availability of healthy food.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Kristian; Gilliland, Jason

    2009-12-01

    Several studies have examined supermarket access for low-income residents, but few have explored how access to healthy food changes when a new food retailer such as a farmers' market opens in a place previously known as a 'food desert'. This paper uses a 'before and after' approach to examine the impact of the introduction of a farmers' market on the price and availability of healthy food in an underserved urban neighbourhood. The farmers' market had a major impact on grocery prices in the neighbourhood, which decreased by almost 12% in 3 years.

  4. Small Food Stores and Availability of Nutritious Foods: A Comparison of Database and In-Store Measures, Northern California, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Laraia, Barbara; Kelly, Maggi; Adler, Nancy; Yen, Irene H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Small food stores are prevalent in urban neighborhoods, but the availability of nutritious food at such stores is not well known. The objective of this study was to determine whether data from 3 sources would yield a single, homogenous, healthful food store category that can be used to accurately characterize community nutrition environments for public health research. Methods We conducted in-store surveys in 2009 on store type and the availability of nutritious food in a sample of nonchain food stores (n = 102) in 6 predominantly urban counties in Northern California (Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Sacramento, San Francisco, and Santa Clara). We compared survey results with commercial database information and neighborhood sociodemographic data by using independent sample t tests and classification and regression trees. Results Sampled small food stores yielded a heterogeneous group of stores in terms of store type and nutritious food options. Most stores were identified as convenience (54%) or specialty stores (22%); others were small grocery stores (19%) and large grocery stores (5%). Convenience and specialty stores were smaller and carried fewer nutritious and fresh food items. The availability of nutritious food and produce was better in stores in neighborhoods that had a higher percentage of white residents and a lower population density but did not differ significantly by neighborhood income. Conclusion Commercial databases alone may not adequately categorize small food stores and the availability of nutritious foods. Alternative measures are needed to more accurately inform research and policies that seek to address disparities in diet-related health conditions. PMID:22789445

  5. Baltimore City Stores Increased The Availability Of Healthy Food After WIC Policy Change.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Laura K; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Appel, Lawrence; Jones-Smith, Jessica; Bilal, Usama; Gittelsohn, Joel; Franco, Manuel

    2015-11-01

    As part of a 2009 revision to the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program, the Department of Agriculture required WIC-authorized stores to stock additional varieties of healthy food. The long-term effects of this policy on access to healthy food are unknown. Using surveys conducted in 118 Baltimore City, Maryland, food stores in 2006 and 2012, we examined associations of the change in healthy food availability with store type, neighborhood demographics, and the 2009 WIC policy change. Overall, healthy food availability improved significantly between 2006 and 2012, with the greatest increases in corner stores and in census tracts with more than 60 percent black residents. On an 11-point scale measuring availability of fruit (3 points), vegetables (4 points), bread (2 points), and milk (2 points), the WIC policy change was associated with a 0.72-point increase in WIC-relevant healthy food availability, while joining WIC was associated with a 0.99-point increase. Stores that carry a limited variety of food items may be more receptive to stocking healthier food than previously thought, particularly within neighborhoods with a majority of black residents. Policies targeting healthy food availability have the potential to increase availability and decrease health disparities.

  6. Food venue choice, consumer food environment, but not food venue availability within daily travel patterns are associated with dietary intake among adults, Lexington Kentucky 2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective The retail food environment may be one important determinant of dietary intake. However, limited research focuses on individuals’ food shopping behavior and activity within the retail food environment. This study’s aims were to determine the association between six various dietary indicators and 1) food venue availability; 2) food venue choice and frequency; and 3) availability of healthy food within food venue. Methods In Fall, 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among adults (n=121) age 18 years and over in Lexington, Kentucky. Participants wore a global position system (GPS) data logger for 3-days (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day) to track their daily activity space, which was used to assess food activity space. They completed a survey to assess demographics, food shopping behaviors, and dietary outcomes. Food store audits were conducted using the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey-Store Rudd (NEMS-S) in stores where respondents reported purchasing food (n=22). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between six dietary variables with food venue availability within activity space; food venue choice; frequency of shopping; and availability of food within food venue. Results 1) Food venue availability within activity space – no significant associations. 2) Food Venue Choice – Shopping at farmers’ markets or specialty grocery stores reported higher odds of consuming fruits and vegetables (OR 1.60 95% CI [1.21, 2.79]). Frequency of shopping - Shopping at a farmers’ markets and specialty stores at least once a week reported higher odds of consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR 1.55 95% CI [1.08, 2.23]). Yet, shopping frequently at a super market had higher odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 1.39 95% CI [1.03, 1.86]). 3) Availability of food within store – those who shop in supermarkets with high availability of healthy food has lower odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 0.65 95

  7. Functional responses to food diversity: the effect of seed availability on the feeding of facultative granivores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relative importance and availability of different foods to animals is critical in determining how they function within food webs. We examined how the diverse communities of carabid beetles and crickets in a perennial hayfield respond to seed availability numerically and in their feeding behavior...

  8. 76 FR 51935 - Availability to School Food Authorities of Nutrition Information and Ingredient Lists for Foods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... understanding of both the nutritional content of and ingredients contained in food offered to schools and ultimately served to students. In addition, as schools look to increase the nutritional quality of the meals... to reflect nutritional and ingredient needs of the program/students. m. The frequency with...

  9. An inexpensive food cup for use in a commercially available food monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Wellman, Paul J; Bellinger, Larry L; Cepeda-Benito, Antonio; Susabda, Agnes; Ho, Dao H; Davis, Kristina W

    2004-12-15

    The microstructure of feeding in rats can be probed using a variety of protocols that employ videotape-based ratings, pellet feeders, and/or laboratory balances. A recent commercial product (BioDAQ, Research Diets, New Brunswick, NJ) uses a metal food hopper placed on a load cell to monitor daily food pellet consumption. In this system, movements of the hopper during eating and the cessation of hopper movements after eating are combined with momentary hopper weights for subsequent analyses of daily meal patterns. Our laboratory has devised an improved food cup for the BioDAQ system that is easily balanced, minimizes spillage, and is compatible with either powdered chow diets or nonpelleted soft diets (e.g., a high-fat diet). In the present paper, we describe the methods used to fabricate this food cup and present data illustrating its use in meal pattern analyses for rats fed either a ground laboratory chow or a 33% high-fat diet.

  10. 75 FR 78674 - Emergency Food Assistance Program; Availability of Foods for Fiscal Year 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... in FY 2010 are being delivered to States in FY 2011. These foods include potatoes, cran-apple juice, apple juice, cranberry sauce, dried cranberries, dried cherries, strawberries, applesauce, wild..., blackeye beans, garbanzo beans, great northern beans, light red kidney beans, lentils, lima beans,...

  11. Relating trophic resources to community structure: a predictive index of food availability

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, Graham J.

    2017-01-01

    The abundance and the distribution of trophic resources available for consumers influence the productivity and the diversity of natural communities. Nevertheless, assessment of the actual abundance of food items available for individual trophic groups has been constrained by differences in methods and metrics used by various authors. Here we develop an index of food abundance, the framework of which can be adapted for different ecosystems. The relative available food index (RAFI) is computed by considering standard resource conditions of a habitat and the influence of various generalized anthropogenic and natural factors. RAFI was developed using published literature on food abundance and validated by comparison of predictions versus observed trophic resources across various marine sites. RAFI tables here proposed can be applied to a range of marine ecosystems for predictions of the potential abundance of food available for each trophic group, hence permitting exploration of ecological theories by focusing on the deviation from the observed to the expected. PMID:28386417

  12. Effects of food origin and availability on sea urchin condition and feeding behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livore, Juan P.; Connell, Sean D.

    2012-02-01

    The origin of food is recognised to be an important trait for sedentary consumers that have little control over the source of their food. Elevated herbivory in sea urchins is often linked to poor gonad condition as provoked by reduced food availability, but there is little recognition of the possibility that the origin of food may contribute to their poor condition and elevated feeding. This study assesses the possibility that variation in food availability and origin may together affect urchin condition and feeding rates such that they account for more intensive grazing (by Heliocidaris erythrogramma) on sheltered than exposed coasts (South Australia). We experimentally tested the hypothesis that reduced food availability from sheltered coasts would result in poor gonad condition and greater feeding rate; whilst enhanced food availability from exposed coasts would result in better condition and reduced feeding rates. We found that reduced food had negative effects on condition and positive effects on feeding rates independently of coastal source. Greater food availability did not equate to better condition, rather it was the delivery of more food from exposed than sheltered coasts that translated into the better gonad condition and lower feeding rates. These results suggest that plant origin and availability could help explain the greater impacts of these urchins on sheltered coasts. Whilst other factors such as water energy and sea urchin density may contribute to variation in herbivory our results suggest that origin of food may also play a role in sea urchin condition and behaviour. Understanding how such traits link to large scale features of the environment may improve models that account for variation in strength of consumer effects across landscapes.

  13. Competitive foods and beverages available for purchase in secondary schools--selected sites, United States, 2006.

    PubMed

    2008-08-29

    Schools are in a unique position to help improve youth dietary behaviors and prevent and reduce obesity. In most schools, foods and beverages are made available to students through the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) school meal programs and the sale of competitive foods, which are any foods and beverages sold at a school separately from the USDA school meal programs. Foods and beverages sold through the USDA school meal programs must meet federal nutrition requirements. Competitive foods are not subject to any federal nutrition standards unless they are sold inside the food service area during mealtimes. A 2007 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report concluded that schools should limit the availability of less nutritious competitive foods or include more nutritious foods and beverages if they make competitive foods available. To identify the types of competitive foods and beverages available for purchase from vending machines or at school stores, canteens, or snack bars, CDC analyzed data from the 2006 School Health Profiles for public secondary schools in 36 states and 12 large urban school districts. CDC also compared 2004 and 2006 data among 24 states and nine large urban school districts. This report summarizes the results of these analyses, which indicated that, from 2004 to 2006, the median percentage of secondary schools across states allowing students to purchase chocolate candy and salty snacks that are not low in fat decreased; however, in 2006, secondary schools still offered less nutritious foods and beverages that compete with school meals. School and public health officials should work together with families to provide foods and beverages at school that follow the IOM recommendations.

  14. Gluten detection in foods available in the United States - a market survey.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Girdhari M; Pereira, Marion; Williams, Kristina M

    2015-02-15

    Many gluten-free (GF) food choices are now available in supermarkets. However, the unintentional presence of gluten in these foods poses a serious health risk to wheat-allergic and celiac patients. Different GF labelled foods (275) and non-GF labelled foods, without wheat/rye/barley on the ingredient label (186), were analysed for gluten content by two different enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Considering the gluten threshold of 20ppm, GF labelled foods had 98.9% GF labelling compliance with 1.1% (3 out of 275) of foods being mislabelled/misbranded. Among the non-GF labelled foods, 19.4% (36 out of 186) of foods had >20ppm of gluten, as measured by at least one ELISA kit, of which 19 foods had >100ppm of gluten. The presence of oats in non-GF labelled foods was strongly correlated with a positive ELISA result. Gluten was also found in a significant number of foods with gluten/wheat-related advisory warnings.

  15. NOAA's National Snow Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, T. R.; Cline, D. W.; Olheiser, C. M.; Rost, A. A.; Nilsson, A. O.; Fall, G. M.; Li, L.; Bovitz, C. T.

    2005-12-01

    NOAA's National Operational Hydrologic Remote Sensing Center (NOHRSC) routinely ingests all of the electronically available, real-time, ground-based, snow data; airborne snow water equivalent data; satellite areal extent of snow cover information; and numerical weather prediction (NWP) model forcings for the coterminous U.S. The NWP model forcings are physically downscaled from their native 13 km2 spatial resolution to a 1 km2 resolution for the CONUS. The downscaled NWP forcings drive an energy-and-mass-balance snow accumulation and ablation model at a 1 km2 spatial resolution and at a 1 hour temporal resolution for the country. The ground-based, airborne, and satellite snow observations are assimilated into the snow model's simulated state variables using a Newtonian nudging technique. The principle advantages of the assimilation technique are: (1) approximate balance is maintained in the snow model, (2) physical processes are easily accommodated in the model, and (3) asynoptic data are incorporated at the appropriate times. The snow model is reinitialized with the assimilated snow observations to generate a variety of snow products that combine to form NOAA's NOHRSC National Snow Analyses (NSA). The NOHRSC NSA incorporate all of the available information necessary and available to produce a "best estimate" of real-time snow cover conditions at 1 km2 spatial resolution and 1 hour temporal resolution for the country. The NOHRSC NSA consist of a variety of daily, operational, products that characterize real-time snowpack conditions including: snow water equivalent, snow depth, surface and internal snowpack temperatures, surface and blowing snow sublimation, and snowmelt for the CONUS. The products are generated and distributed in a variety of formats including: interactive maps, time-series, alphanumeric products (e.g., mean areal snow water equivalent on a hydrologic basin-by-basin basis), text and map discussions, map animations, and quantitative gridded products

  16. Differential effects of food availability on minimum and maximum rates of metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Salin, Karine; Rudolf, Agata M.; Anderson, Graeme J.; Metcalfe, Neil B.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic rates reflect the energetic cost of living but exhibit remarkable variation among conspecifics, partly as a result of the constraints imposed by environmental conditions. Metabolic rates are sensitive to changes in temperature and oxygen availability, but effects of food availability, particularly on maximum metabolic rates, are not well understood. Here, we show in brown trout (Salmo trutta) that maximum metabolic rates are immutable but minimum metabolic rates increase as a positive function of food availability. As a result, aerobic scope (i.e. the capacity to elevate metabolism above baseline requirements) declines as food availability increases. These differential changes in metabolic rates likely have important consequences for how organisms partition available metabolic power to different functions under the constraints imposed by food availability. PMID:28120798

  17. [Changes in food availability in metropolitan Santiago Chile according to income (quintiles) 1988-1997].

    PubMed

    Crovetto, Mirta; Uauy, Ricardo

    2008-03-01

    Changes in household food availability from 1988-1997 obtained in a representative sample of Metropolitan Santiago were assessed; and related to observed changes in the epidemiological profile. We evaluated expenditures in food and beverages from the IV and V Household Expenditure Surveys conducted every 10 years by the National Institute of Statistics to calculate the Consumer Price Index. Food items were similarly grouped and expenditures from both surveys adjusted to concordance by assigning prices according to of food; the units consumed outside and at home were determined. Food expenditures increased, leading to greater food availability in all households and income categories; the increment was largest in the poorest quintiles. Apparent consumption of processed cereals, pastries and baked goods, poultry and pork, processed dairies, beverages and juices, dressings and mayonnaise, pre cooked meals and meals consumed "out of home" increased. Fish, vegetables and fruits increased slightly with a concomitant decrease in legumes. The present dietary pattern is also characterized by a greater availability of animal food products and processed foods; increased energy density, fat and saturated fat energy, sugars and high glycemic index foods; lower in phytochemicals, antioxidants, dietary fiber and omega-3 fatty acids. These changes are probably having a significant impact on the epidemiological and nutritional profile of the country; as manifested by an epidemic increase in obesity and chronic disease burden related to diet and physical inactivity.

  18. Developmental plasticity of growth and digestive efficiency in dependence of early-life food availability.

    PubMed

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Szidat, Sönke; Taborsky, Barbara

    2014-08-01

    Nutrition is a potent mediator of developmental plasticity. If food is scarce, developing organisms may invest into growth to outgrow size-dependent mortality (short-term benefit) and/or into an efficient digestion system (long-term benefit). We investigated this potential trade-off, by determining the influence of food availability on juvenile body and organ growth, and on adult digestive efficiency in the cichlid fish Simochromis pleurospilus. We reared two groups of fish at constant high or low food rations, and we switched four other groups between these two rations at an early and late juvenile period. We measured juvenile growth and organ sizes at different developmental stages and determined adult digestive efficiency. Fish kept at constant, high rations grew considerably faster than low-food fish. Nevertheless, S. pleurospilus partly buffered the negative effects of low food availability by developing heavier digestive organs, and they were therefore more efficient in digesting their food as adults. Results of fish exposed to a ration switch during either the early or late juvenile period suggest (i) that the ability to show compensatory growth after early exposure to low food availability persists during the juvenile period, (ii) that digestive efficiency is influenced by varying juvenile food availability during the late juvenile phase and (iii) that the efficiency of the adult digestive system is correlated with the growth rate during a narrow time window of juvenile period.

  19. 76 FR 55868 - Notice of Funding Availability: Inviting Applications for the Food for Progress Program; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Notice of Funding Availability: Inviting Applications for the Food for...) published a notice in the Federal Register on July 28, 2011, inviting proposals for the Food for Progress... to the application and review process, and provides updates to web links for helpful documents....

  20. Developmental plasticity of growth and digestive efficiency in dependence of early-life food availability

    PubMed Central

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Szidat, Sönke; Taborsky, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is a potent mediator of developmental plasticity. If food is scarce, developing organisms may invest into growth to outgrow size-dependent mortality (short-term benefit) and/or into an efficient digestion system (long-term benefit). We investigated this potential trade-off, by determining the influence of food availability on juvenile body and organ growth, and on adult digestive efficiency in the cichlid fish Simochromis pleurospilus. We reared two groups of fish at constant high or low food rations, and we switched four other groups between these two rations at an early and late juvenile period. We measured juvenile growth and organ sizes at different developmental stages and determined adult digestive efficiency. Fish kept at constant, high rations grew considerably faster than low-food fish. Nevertheless, S. pleurospilus partly buffered the negative effects of low food availability by developing heavier digestive organs, and they were therefore more efficient in digesting their food as adults. Results of fish exposed to a ration switch during either the early or late juvenile period suggest (i) that the ability to show compensatory growth after early exposure to low food availability persists during the juvenile period, (ii) that digestive efficiency is influenced by varying juvenile food availability during the late juvenile phase and (iii) that the efficiency of the adult digestive system is correlated with the growth rate during a narrow time window of juvenile period. PMID:25866430

  1. Inventory versus Checklist Approach to Assess Middle School a la Carte Food Availability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearst, Mary O.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Heitzler, Carrie D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this research is to evaluate 2 methods of assessing foods available on school a la carte lines for schools' ability to assess the proportion of foods that are healthful options. Methods: This observational study used data collected at 38 middle schools, October 2006-May 2007. An inventory method was used to collect…

  2. The availability of snack food displays that may trigger impulse purchases in Melbourne supermarkets

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Supermarkets play a major role in influencing the food purchasing behaviours of most households. Snack food exposures within these stores may contribute to higher levels of consumption and ultimately to increasing levels of obesity, particularly within socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. We aimed to examine the availability of snack food displays at checkouts, end-of-aisle displays and island displays in major supermarket chains in the least and most socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods of Melbourne. Methods Within-store audits of 35 Melbourne supermarkets. Supermarkets were sampled from the least and most socioeconomically disadvantaged suburbs within 30 km of the Melbourne CBD. We measured the availability of crisps, chocolate, confectionery, and soft drinks (diet and regular) at the checkouts, in end-of-aisle displays, and in island bin displays. Results Snack food displays were most prominent at checkouts with only five stores not having snack foods at 100% of their checkouts. Snack foods were also present at a number of end-of-aisle displays (at both the front (median 38%) and back (median 33%) of store), and in island bin displays (median number of island displays: 7; median total circumference of island displays: 19.4 metres). Chocolate items were the most common snack food item on display. There was no difference in the availability of these snack food displays by neighbourhood disadvantage. Conclusions As a result of the high availability of snack food displays, exposure to snack foods is almost unavoidable in Melbourne supermarkets, regardless of levels of neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage. Results of this study could promote awareness of the prominence of unhealthy food items in chain-brand supermarkets outlets. PMID:22420759

  3. Disparities of food availability and affordability within convenience stores in Bexar County, Texas.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Sunil, T S; Salazar, Camerino I; Rafique, Sadaf; Ory, Marcia G

    2013-01-01

    The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends healthful food choices; however, some geographic areas are limited in the types of foods they offer. Little is known about the role of convenience stores as viable channels to provide healthier foods in our "grab and go" society. The purposes of this study were to (1) identify foods offered within convenience stores located in two Bexar County, Texas, ZIP Codes and (2) compare the availability and cost of ADA-recommended foods including beverages, produce, grains, and oils/fats. Data were analyzed from 28 convenience store audits performed in two sociodemographically diverse ZIP Codes in Bexar County, Texas. Chi-squared tests were used to compare food availability, and t-tests were used to compare food cost in convenience stores between ZIP Codes. A significantly larger proportion of convenience stores in more affluent areas offered bananas (χ (2) = 4.17, P = 0.003), whole grain bread (χ (2) = 8.33, P = 0.004), and baked potato chips (χ (2) = 13.68, P < 0.001). On average, the price of diet cola (t = -2.12, P = 0.044) and certain produce items (e.g., bananas, oranges, tomatoes, broccoli, and cucumber) was significantly higher within convenience stores in more affluent areas. Convenience stores can play an important role to positively shape a community's food environment by stocking healthier foods at affordable prices.

  4. Disparities of Food Availability and Affordability within Convenience Stores in Bexar County, Texas

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Sunil, T. S.; Salazar, Camerino I.; Rafique, Sadaf; Ory, Marcia G.

    2013-01-01

    The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends healthful food choices; however, some geographic areas are limited in the types of foods they offer. Little is known about the role of convenience stores as viable channels to provide healthier foods in our “grab and go” society. The purposes of this study were to (1) identify foods offered within convenience stores located in two Bexar County, Texas, ZIP Codes and (2) compare the availability and cost of ADA-recommended foods including beverages, produce, grains, and oils/fats. Data were analyzed from 28 convenience store audits performed in two sociodemographically diverse ZIP Codes in Bexar County, Texas. Chi-squared tests were used to compare food availability, and t-tests were used to compare food cost in convenience stores between ZIP Codes. A significantly larger proportion of convenience stores in more affluent areas offered bananas (χ2 = 4.17, P = 0.003), whole grain bread (χ2 = 8.33, P = 0.004), and baked potato chips (χ2 = 13.68, P < 0.001). On average, the price of diet cola (t = −2.12, P = 0.044) and certain produce items (e.g., bananas, oranges, tomatoes, broccoli, and cucumber) was significantly higher within convenience stores in more affluent areas. Convenience stores can play an important role to positively shape a community's food environment by stocking healthier foods at affordable prices. PMID:23935645

  5. SPATIAL AND DIEL AVAILABILITY OF FLYING INSECTS AS POTENTIAL DUCKLING FOOD IN PRAIRIE WETLANDS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study examined spatial and diel availibility of flying insects that are a critical food resource to young duckings. Insects were sampled in three native prairie wetlands on the Woodworth Study Area of south-central North Dakota.

  6. Food availability en route to school and anthropometric change in urban children.

    PubMed

    Rossen, Lauren M; Curriero, Frank C; Cooley-Strickland, Michele; Pollack, Keshia M

    2013-08-01

    This study examined food availability along children's paths to and from elementary school, and associations with change in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference over 1 year. Secondary data from 319 children aged 8-13 years from the "Multiple Opportunities to Reach Excellence" Project was used. Child anthropometry and demographic variables were obtained at baseline (2007) and 1 year follow-up. Food outlet locations (n = 1,410) were obtained from the Baltimore City Health Department and validated by ground-truthing. Secondary data on healthy food availability within select food stores in Baltimore City in 2007 were obtained via a validated food environment assessment measure, the Nutrition Environments Measures Study. Multilevel models were used to examine associations between availability of healthy food and number of various food outlets along paths to school and child anthropometric change over 1 year. Controlling for individual-, neighborhood-, and school-level characteristics, results indicated that higher healthy food availability within a 100 m buffer of paths to school was associated with 0.15 kg/m(2) lower BMI gain (p = 0.015) and 0.47 cm smaller waist circumference gain (p = 0.037) over 1 year. Although prior research has illuminated the importance of healthy food choices within school and home environments, the current study suggests that exposure to the food environment along paths to school should be further explored in relation to child health outcomes.

  7. Inventory Versus Checklist Approach to Assess Middle School à la Carte Food Availability*

    PubMed Central

    Hearst, Mary O.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Heitzler, Carrie D.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND The purpose of this research is to evaluate 2 methods of assessing foods available on school à la carte lines for schools’ ability to assess the proportion of foods that are healthful options. METHODS This observational study used data collected at 38 middle schools, October 2006–May 2007. An inventory method was used to collect detailed information of items available on each school’s à la carte line, followed by a simplified checklist form. Using the detailed inventory method, the proportion of items meeting the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM) nutrition standards for foods available at each school was calculated. From the checklists, we calculated the proportion of categories representing more healthful foods. Schools were independently ranked according to the percentage of items meeting the IOM criteria, (inventory data) and the percentage of food categories considered “healthy” (checklist data). Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to compare school rankings. RESULTS The inventory and checklist approaches showed a good level of agreement when both methods were independently used to rank the level of healthy foods available on à la carte (Wilcoxon rank sum = 32.5, p = .62). CONCLUSION For purposes of ranking schools along a continuum of “healthfulness of foods on à la carte lines,” especially when resources are limited, a checklist approach appears to be satisfactory. This method may also be useful to school stakeholders needing an inexpensive à la carte assessment tool. PMID:19909423

  8. Snow Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    It was nearing the end of a very long, rough winter with a lot of snow and too little time to play outside. The snow had formed small hills and valleys over the bushes and this was at the perfect height for the students to paint. In this article, the author describes how her transitional first-grade students created snow art paintings. (Contains 1…

  9. Healthful food availability in stores and restaurants--American Samoa, 2014.

    PubMed

    Lee-Kwan, Seung Hee; Kumar, Gayathri; Ayscue, Patrick; Santos, Marjorie; McGuire, Lisa C; Blanck, Heidi M; Nua, Motusa Tuileama

    2015-03-20

    American Samoa, one of the U.S.-affiliated Pacific Islands, has documented the highest prevalence of adults with obesity (75%) in the world. The nutritionally poor food and beverage environment of food retail venues has been suspected to be a contributing factor, although an evaluation of these venues in American Samoa has not been conducted. In January 2014, American Samoa established an Obesity Task Force to develop policies and strategies to combat obesity. To inform the efforts of the task force, the American Samoa Department of Health and CDC conducted a baseline assessment of the availability, pricing, and promotion of healthful foods at retail food venues. Previously validated food environment assessment tools were modified to incorporate American Samoa foods and administered in a geographically representative sample of 70 stores (nine grocery stores and 61 convenience stores) and 20 restaurants. In convenience stores, healthful items were not found as available as less healthful counterparts, and some healthful items were more expensive than their less healthful counterparts. For restaurants, 70% offered at least one healthful entrée, whereas only 30% had healthful side dishes, such as vegetables. Actions to promote healthy eating, such as providing calorie information, were rare among restaurants. Improving availability, affordability, and the promotion of healthful foods in American Samoa stores and restaurants could support healthy eating among American Samoa residents.

  10. Influence of food availability on the spatial distribution of juvenile fish within soft sediment nursery habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tableau, A.; Brind'Amour, A.; Woillez, M.; Le Bris, H.

    2016-05-01

    Soft sediments in coastal shallow waters constitute nursery habitats for juveniles of several flatfishes. The quality of a nursery is defined by its capacity to optimize the growth and the survival of juvenile fish. The influence of biotic factors, such as food availability, is poorly studied at the scale of a nursery ground. Whether food availability limits juvenile survival is still uncertain. A spatial approach is used to understand the influence of food availability on the distribution of juvenile fish of various benthic and demersal species in the Bay of Vilaine (France), a productive nursery ground. We quantified the spatial overlap between benthic macro-invertebrates and their predators (juvenile fish) to assess if the latter were spatially covering the most productive areas of the Bay. Three scenarios describing the shapes of the predator-prey spatial relationship were tested to quantify the strength of the relationship and consequently the importance of food availability in determining fish distribution. Our results underline that both food availability and fish densities vary greatly over the nursery ground. When considering small organisational levels (e.g., a single fish species), the predator-prey spatial relationship was not clear, likely because of additional environmental effects not identified here; but at larger organisational level (the whole juvenile fish community), a strong overlap between the fish predators and their prey was identified. The evidence that fish concentrate in sectors with high food availability suggests that either food is the limiting factor in that nursery or/and fish display behavioural responses by optimising their energetic expenditures associated with foraging. Further investigations are needed to test the two hypotheses and to assess the impact of benthic and demersal juvenile fish in the food web of coastal nurseries.

  11. Available lysine and digestible amino acid contents of proteinaceous foods of India.

    PubMed

    Rutherfurd, Shane M; Bains, Kiran; Moughan, Paul J

    2012-08-01

    Cereals and legumes are staple foods in India and are limiting in lysine and sulphur amino acids, respectively. Available lysine loss, due to Maillard-type reactions that may occur during food preparation, exacerbates the problem of lysine deficiency particularly in cereals. Consequently, determining the contents of digestible essential amino acids, particularly lysine, is important. True ileal digestibilities of most amino acids (including total and reactive lysine) were determined for ten food ingredients and eleven foods commonly consumed in India. Semi-synthetic diets each containing either an ingredient or the prepared food as the sole protein source were formulated to contain 100 g kg(-1) protein (75 g kg(-1) for rice-based diets) and fed to growing rats. Titanium dioxide was included as an indigestible marker. Digesta were collected and the amino acid content (including reactive lysine) of diets and ileal digesta determined. Available (digestible reactive) lysine content ranged from 1·9-15·4 g kg(-1) and 1·8-12·7 g kg(-1) across the ingredients and prepared foods respectively. True ileal amino acid digestibility varied widely both across ingredients and prepared foods for each amino acid (on average 60-92 %) and across amino acids within each ingredient and prepared food (overall digestibility 31-96 %). Amino acid digestibility was low for many of the ingredients and prepared foods and consequently digestibility must be considered when assessing the protein quality of poorer quality foods. Given commonly encountered daily energy intakes for members of the Indian population, it is estimated that lysine is limiting for adults in many Indian diets.

  12. Flexibility in metabolic rate confers a growth advantage under changing food availability

    PubMed Central

    Auer, Sonya K; Salin, Karine; Rudolf, Agata M; Anderson, Graeme J; Metcalfe, Neil B; Ardia, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic flexibility in physiological, morphological and behavioural traits can allow organisms to cope with environmental challenges. Given recent climate change and the degree of habitat modification currently experienced by many organisms, it is therefore critical to quantify the degree of phenotypic variation present within populations, individual capacities to change and what their consequences are for fitness. Flexibility in standard metabolic rate (SMR) may be particularly important since SMR reflects the minimal energetic cost of living and is one of the primary traits underlying organismal performance. SMR can increase or decrease in response to food availability, but the consequences of these changes for growth rates and other fitness components are not well known. We examined individual variation in metabolic flexibility in response to changing food levels and its consequences for somatic growth in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta). SMR increased when individuals were switched to a high food ration and decreased when they were switched to a low food regime. These shifts in SMR, in turn, were linked with individual differences in somatic growth; those individuals that increased their SMR more in response to elevated food levels grew fastest, while growth at the low food level was fastest in those individuals that depressed their SMR most. Flexibility in energy metabolism is therefore a key mechanism to maximize growth rates under the challenges imposed by variability in food availability and is likely to be an important determinant of species’ resilience in the face of global change. PMID:25939669

  13. Flexibility in metabolic rate confers a growth advantage under changing food availability.

    PubMed

    Auer, Sonya K; Salin, Karine; Rudolf, Agata M; Anderson, Graeme J; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2015-09-01

    1. Phenotypic flexibility in physiological, morphological and behavioural traits can allow organisms to cope with environmental challenges. Given recent climate change and the degree of habitat modification currently experienced by many organisms, it is therefore critical to quantify the degree of phenotypic variation present within populations, individual capacities to change and what their consequences are for fitness. 2. Flexibility in standard metabolic rate (SMR) may be particularly important since SMR reflects the minimal energetic cost of living and is one of the primary traits underlying organismal performance. SMR can increase or decrease in response to food availability, but the consequences of these changes for growth rates and other fitness components are not well known. 3. We examined individual variation in metabolic flexibility in response to changing food levels and its consequences for somatic growth in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta). 4. SMR increased when individuals were switched to a high food ration and decreased when they were switched to a low food regime. These shifts in SMR, in turn, were linked with individual differences in somatic growth; those individuals that increased their SMR more in response to elevated food levels grew fastest, while growth at the low food level was fastest in those individuals that depressed their SMR most. 5. Flexibility in energy metabolism is therefore a key mechanism to maximize growth rates under the challenges imposed by variability in food availability and is likely to be an important determinant of species' resilience in the face of global change.

  14. Food availability as a determinant of weight gain among renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Bloodworth, Robin F; Ward, Kenneth D; Relyea, George E; Cashion, Ann K

    2014-06-01

    Excessive weight gain is common after renal transplantation, but it is unknown whether environmental factors, such as food availability, contribute to this important clinical problem. We evaluated the effects of food availability (fast food restaurants, convenience stores, and grocery stores within 1, 2, and 3 mile buffers of transplant recipients' residences) on body mass index (BMI) change during the first year post-transplant. Participants (n = 299) resided in Memphis, Tennessee. BMI increased by 1.42 units (p < .001) corresponding to an average weight gain of 9.25 lbs (5.43%) during the first year post-transplant. The number of grocery stores within 1 mile of recipient's residence was associated with an increase in BMI (p < .05), but fast food restaurants and convenience stores were not significantly associated with BMI change.

  15. Food Availability as a Determinant of Weight Gain Among Renal Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Bloodworth, Robin F.; Ward, Kenneth D.; Relyea, George E.; Cashion, Ann K.

    2014-01-01

    Excessive weight gain is common after renal transplantation, but it is unknown whether environmental factors, such as food availability, contribute to this important clinical problem. We evaluated the effects of food availability (fast food restaurants, convenience stores, and grocery stores within 1, 2, and 3 mile buffers of transplant recipients′ residences) on body mass index (BMI) change during the first year post-transplant. Participants (n = 299) resided in Memphis, Tennessee. BMI increased by 1.42 units (p<.001) corresponding to an average weight gain of 9.25 lbs (5.43%) during the first year post-transplant. The number of grocery stores within 1 mile of recipient's residence was associated with an increase in BMI (p<.05), but fast food restaurants and convenience stores were not significantly associated with BMI change. PMID:24805885

  16. Reliability of a store observation tool in measuring availability of alcohol and selected foods.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Deborah A; Schoeff, Diane; Farley, Thomas A; Bluthenthal, Ricky; Scribner, Richard; Overton, Adrian

    2007-11-01

    Alcohol and food items can compromise or contribute to health, depending on the quantity and frequency with which they are consumed. How much people consume may be influenced by product availability and promotion in local retail stores. We developed and tested an observational tool to objectively measure in-store availability and promotion of alcoholic beverages and selected food items that have an impact on health. Trained observers visited 51 alcohol outlets in Los Angeles and southeastern Louisiana. Using a standardized instrument, two independent observations were conducted documenting the type of outlet, the availability and shelf space for alcoholic beverages and selected food items, the purchase price of standard brands, the placement of beer and malt liquor, and the amount of in-store alcohol advertising. Reliability of the instrument was excellent for measures of item availability, shelf space, and placement of malt liquor. Reliability was lower for alcohol advertising, beer placement, and items that measured the "least price" of apples and oranges. The average kappa was 0.87 for categorical items and the average intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.83 for continuous items. Overall, systematic observation of the availability and promotion of alcoholic beverages and food items was feasible, acceptable, and reliable. Measurement tools such as the one we evaluated should be useful in studies of the impact of availability of food and beverages on consumption and on health outcomes.

  17. Effects of substrate differences on water availability for Arctic lichens during the snow-free summers in the High Arctic glacier foreland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Takeshi; Kudoh, Sakae; Uchida, Masaki; Tanabe, Yukiko; Inoue, Masakane; Kanda, Hiroshi

    2014-12-01

    We used observational and experimental analyses to investigate the photosynthetic activity and water relationships of five lichen species attached to different substrates in a glacier foreland in the High Arctic, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard (79°N) during the snow-free season in 2009 and 2010. After the rains ceased, lichens and their attached substrates quickly dried, whereas photosynthetic activity in the lichens decreased gradually. The in situ photosynthetic activity was estimated based on the relative electron transportation rate (rETR) in four fruticose lichens: Cetrariella delisei, Flavocetraria nivalis, Cladonia arbuscula ssp. mitis, and Cladonia pleurota. The rETR approached zero around noon, although the crustose lichen Ochrolechia frigida grown on biological soil crust (BSC) could acquire water from the BSC and retain its WC to perform positive photosynthesis. The light-rETR relationship curves of the five well-watered lichens were characterized into two types: shade-adapted with photoinhibition for the fruticose lichens, and light-adapted with no photoinhibition for O. frigida. The maximum rETR was expected to occur when they could acquire water from the surrounding air or from substrates during the desiccation period. Our results suggest that different species of Arctic lichens have different water availabilities due to their substrates and/or morphological characteristics, which affect their photosynthetic active periods during the summer.

  18. Availability and accessibility of healthier options and nutrition information at New Zealand fast food restaurants.

    PubMed

    Chand, Ashmita; Eyles, Helen; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the availability of healthier options and nutrition information at major New Zealand fast food chains. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken at 24 fast food stores (two from each of 12 major chains) using on-site visits, telephone calls, and website searches. Of available products, only 234/1126 (21%) were healthier options. Healthier options were generally cheaper and lower in energy, total fat, saturated fat, sugar, and sodium per serve than their regular counterparts. Regular options were commonly high in sugar or sodium per serve (mean sugar content of beverages=56 g (11 teaspoons) and sodium content of burgers and pasta=1095 mg and 1172 mg, respectively). Nutrition information was available at 11/12 (92%) restaurant chains (range=0% at Tank Juice to 99% at Domino's Pizza). However, <1% of this information was available at the point-of-purchase. Therefore, there is huge potential for improving nutrition in the New Zealand fast food restaurant setting. Implications of these findings for policy and food industry include: consideration of mandatory menu labelling, increasing the percentage of healthier options available, and improving the nutrient content of regular options at New Zealand fast food restaurants.

  19. Influence of food availability on demography and local population dynamics in a long-lived seabird.

    PubMed Central

    Oro, Daniel; Cam, Emmanuelle; Pradel, Roger; Martínez-Abraín, Alejandro

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have addressed the effects of food availability as a proximate factor affecting local adult survival in long-lived organisms and their consequences at local population dynamics. We used capture-recapture analysis of resightings of 10 birth cohorts of ringed Audouin's gulls, Larus audouinii, to estimate adult survival and dispersal (both emigration and immigration). For the first time, permanent emigration (the transient effect in capture-recapture analysis) was modelled for the whole population and not only for the newly marked birds. Gulls exploit to a large extent fishes discarded from trawlers, and a trawling moratorium established since 1991 has decreased food supply for the colony. This was used as a natural experiment of food availability to assess its effects on adult survival and emigration. These and other demographic parameters were used in a projection modelling to assess the probabilities of extinction of the colony under two scenarios of lower and higher food availability. Food availability (together with the age of individuals) influenced emigration probabilities, but not adult survival, which was estimated at 0.91 (s.e. = 0.02). When food was in shorter supply during the chick-rearing period, emigration was very high (ca. 65%) for younger breeders, although this rate decreased sharply with age. Probabilities of extinction were very high when food availability was low, and when environmental stochasticity was introduced, and only stochastic immigration from the outside seemed to prevent extinction. The results highlight the importance of dispersal processes in the population dynamics of long-lived organisms. PMID:15101698

  20. The climate sensitivity of food security in Mali - a historical perspective on availability and access dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannini, A.; Krishnamurthy, P. K.; Cousin, R.; Choularton, R. J.

    2011-12-01

    We present results based on an analysis of a 2005 livelihood survey of ~2000 rural households in ~200 villages scattered across Mali, a sparsely populated, large land-locked country in West Africa, to elucidate the role of climate variability and change in shaping availability and access dimensions of food security. The Comprehensive Food Security Vulnerability Analysis is a recurrent survey carried out by the World Food Programme and in-country partners to map out nutritional and socio-economic status during normal (~food secure) conditions in the hope of understanding underlying cause(s) and prevent the next food security crisis. We set the spatial characterization of food security that emerges from the CFSVA against the background of a varying climate, on intra-seasonal, interannual and multi-decadal time scales: through elucidation of the influence of climate on agricultural production we arrive at an interpretation of structural and conjunctural events affecting food security. We conclude with a discussion of possible interventions to reduce vulnerability.

  1. Food choice in hyperthyroidism: potential influence of the autonomic nervous system and brain serotonin precursor availability.

    PubMed

    Pijl, H; de Meijer, P H; Langius, J; Coenegracht, C I; van den Berk, A H; Chandie Shaw, P K; Boom, H; Schoemaker, R C; Cohen, A F; Burggraaf, J; Meinders, A E

    2001-12-01

    We explored energy and macronutrient intake in patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism. We specifically hypothesized that hyperthyroidism is associated with increased appetite for carbohydrates, because of enhanced sympathetic tone and diminished serotonin mediated neurotransmission in the brain. To test this hypothesis, we measured food intake by dietary history and food selected for lunch in the laboratory in 14 patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism. Twenty-four-hour catecholamine excretion was used as a measure of activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the plasma [Trp]/[NAA] ratio was measured to estimate (rate limiting) precursor availability for brain 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesis. All measurements were repeated after the subjects had been treated to establish euthyroidism. In addition, the effects of nonselective beta-adrenoceptor blockade upon these parameters were studied to evaluate the influence of beta-adrenergic hyperactivity on food intake. Hyperthyroidism was marked by increased SNS activity and reduced plasma [Trp]/[NAA] ratio. Accordingly, energy intake was considerably and significantly increased in hyper vs. euthyroidism, which was fully attributable to enhanced carbohydrate consumption, as protein and fat intake were not affected. These results suggest that hyperthyroidism alters the neurophysiology of food intake regulation. Increased SNS activity and reduced Trp precursor availability for 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesis in the brain may drive the marked hyperphagia and craving for carbohydrates that appears to characterize hyperthyroid patients. Because propranolol did not affect food intake in hyperthyroidism, the potential effect of catecholamines on food intake might be mediated by alpha-adrenoceptors.

  2. Investigations on the intestinal availability of native thiamin in selected foods and feedstuffs.

    PubMed

    Roth-Maier, D A; Wild, S I; Erhardt, W; Henke, J; Kirchgessner, M

    1999-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the precaecal digestibility as a quantitative measure for the intestinal availability of naturally occurring thiamin from selected foods and feedstuffs. Therefore, three experiments were conducted to examine the following foods and feedstuffs: Eggs, bananas, white cabbage, corn, milk, fish, barley, soybeans, rice, wheat bran, brewer's yeast, rye and soybean meal. The foods and food processing procedures were made with regard to their relevance in human and animal nutrition. For all experiments male pigs with an initial live weight between 33 and 40 kg were fitted with an end-to-end ileo-rectal anastomosis with preserved ileo-caeco-colicvalve. Three weeks after surgery, the digestibility trials were carried out from week 4 to week 9 and week 12 to week 17 after surgery. The animals were fed the individual experimental diets for a period of 12 days while digesta were collected twice a day quantitatively during the final 5 days of this period. Precaecal digestibility for thiamin from all tested foods and feedstuffs was within a range from 73% to 94% with the highest values from boiled soybeans, boiled rice and barley, and the lowest value from steamed fish. In comparison with the animal products the plant products show on average a nearly equal precaecal digestibility for thiamin (87.3% versus 83.5%). Moreover, all tested foods and feedstuffs exhibit a relatively good intestinal availability of thiamin.

  3. Food availability affects the maternal transfer of androgens and antibodies into eggs of a colonial seabird

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gasparini, J.; Boulinier, T.; Gill, V.A.; Gil, D.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Roulin, A.

    2007-01-01

    Mothers can improve the quality of their offspring by increasing the level of certain components in their eggs. To examine whether or not mothers increase deposition of such components in eggs as a function of food availability, we food-supplemented black-legged kittiwake females (Rissa tridactyla) before and during egg laying and compared deposition of androgens and antibodies into eggs of first and experimentally induced replacement clutches. Food-supplemented females transferred lower amounts of androgens and antibodies into eggs of induced replacement clutches than did non-food-supplemented mothers, whereas first clutches presented no differences between treatments. Our results suggest that when females are in lower condition, they transfer more androgens and antibodies into eggs to facilitate chick development despite potential long-term costs for juveniles. Females in prime condition may avoid these potential long-term costs because they can provide their chicks with more and higher quality resources. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  4. Mercury distribution, partitioning and speciation in coastal vs. inland High Arctic snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulain, Alexandre J.; Garcia, Edenise; Amyot, Marc; Campbell, Peter G. C.; Ariya, Parisa A.

    2007-07-01

    Atmospheric mercury deposition on snow at springtime has been reported in polar regions, potentially posing a threat to coastal and inland ecosystems receiving meltwaters. However, the post-depositional fate of Hg in snow is not well known, and no data are available on Hg partitioning in polar snow. During snowmelt, we conducted a survey of Hg concentrations, partitioning and speciation in surface snow and at depth, over sea ice and over land along a 100 km transect across Cornwallis Island, NU, Canada. Total Hg concentrations [THg] in surface snow were low (less than 20 pmol L -1) and were significantly higher in marine vs. inland environments. Particulate Hg in surface snow represented up to 90% of total Hg over sea ice and up to 59% over land. At depth, [THg] at the snow/sea ice interface (up to 300 pmol L -1) were two orders of magnitude higher than at the snow/lake ice interface (ca. 2.5 pmol L -1). Integrated snow columns, sampled over sea-ice and over land, showed that particulate Hg was mostly bound to particles ranging from 0.45 to 2.7 μm. Moreover, melting snowpacks over sea ice and over lake ice contribute to increase [THg] at the water/ice interfaces. This study indicates that, at the onset of snowmelt, most of the Hg in snow is in particulate form, particularly over sea ice. Low Hg levels in surface snow suggest that Hg deposited through early spring deposition events is partly lost to the atmosphere from the snowpack before snowmelt. The sea ice/snow interface may constitute a site for Hg accumulation, however. Further understanding of the cycling of mercury at the sea ice/snow and sea ice/seawater interfaces is thus warranted to fully understand how mercury enters the arctic food webs.

  5. [Impacts of technological knowledge of small indigenous farmers on food availability in the Mexican southeast].

    PubMed

    Cirilo Sergio, Orozco; Bautista Juan, Antonio; Miguel Angel, Damián Huato; Moreno Finlandia, Barbosa; Vásquez Benito, Gutiérrez; Flores Rafael, Ariza

    2011-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of technological knowledge (acquired in Farmer Field Schools) on the availability of food for poor indigenous farmers, who are mainly dedicated to the production of maize for home consumption in the Cuicateca regi6n, Oaxaca, Mexico. The variables analyzed were 1) Level of technological knowledge, 2) maize yield, and 3) time that the last maize harvest supplied the food needs of the farmers in question (a proxy indicator of food availability). A random sample of 36 participants in the rural training schools and a control group of the same size were given questionnaires at the beginning and end of their study. The statistical analysis was done using the Pearson chi-2 contrast test and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. After finding that there was no normal distribution, the Wilcoxon test to contrast paired data was used, and finally, correlations were obtained. It was found that the increase in technological knowledge of 7.29 +/- 1.01 to 46.64 +/- 18.40 did not correlate (P > or = 0.05) with the time that the last maize harvest lasted in providing food. The results show that the increase in technological knowledge does not increase availability of maize as food.

  6. Development and acceptability testing of ready-to-use supplementary food made from locally available food ingredients in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Inadequate energy and micronutrient intake during childhood is a major public health problem in developing countries. Ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF) made of locally available food ingredients can improve micronutrient status and growth of children. The objective of this study was to develop RUSF using locally available food ingredients and test their acceptability. Methods A checklist was prepared of food ingredients available and commonly consumed in Bangladesh that have the potential of being used for preparing RUSF. Linear programming was used to determine possible combinations of ingredients and micronutrient premix. To test the acceptability of the RUSF compared to Pushti packet (a cereal based food-supplement) in terms of amount taken by children, a clinical trial was conducted among 90 children aged 6–18 months in a slum of Dhaka city. The mothers were also asked to rate the color, flavor, mouth-feel, and overall liking of the RUSF by using a 7-point Hedonic Scale (1 = dislike extremely, 7 = like extremely). Results Two RUSFs were developed, one based on rice-lentil and the other on chickpea. The total energy obtained from 50 g of rice-lentil, chickpea-based RUSF and Pushti packet were 264, 267 and 188 kcal respectively. Children were offered 50 g of RUSF and they consumed (mean ± SD) 23.8 ± 14 g rice-lentil RUSF, 28.4 ± 15 g chickpea based RUSF. Pushti packet was also offered 50 g but mothers were allowed to add water, and children consumed 17.1 ± 14 g. Mean feeding time for two RUSFs and Pushti packet was 20.9 minutes. Although the two RUSFs did not differ in the amount consumed, there was a significant difference in consumption between chickpea-based RUSF and Pushti packet (p = 0.012). Using the Hedonic Scale the two RUSFs were more liked by mothers compared to Pushti packet. Conclusions Recipes of RUSF were developed using locally available food ingredients. The study results suggest that rice

  7. MODIS Snow-Cover Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.; Salomonson, Vinvent V.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo; Bayr, Klaus J.; Houser, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    On December 18, 1999, the Terra satellite was launched with a complement of five instruments including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Many geophysical products are derived from MODIS data including global snow-cover products. These products have been available through the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) since September 13, 2000. MODIS snow-cover products represent potential improvement to the currently available operation products mainly because the MODIS products are global and 500-m resolution, and have the capability to separate most snow and clouds. Also the snow-mapping algorithms are automated which means that a consistent data set is generated for long-term climates studies that require snow-cover information. Extensive quality assurance (QA) information is stored with the product. The snow product suite starts with a 500-m resolution swath snow-cover map which is gridded to the Integerized Sinusoidal Grid to produce daily and eight-day composite tile products. The sequence then proceeds to a climate-modeling grid product at 5-km spatial resolution, with both daily and eight-day composite products. A case study from March 6, 2000, involving MODIS data and field and aircraft measurements, is presented. Near-term enhancements include daily snow albedo and fractional snow cover.

  8. Competing pressures on populations: long-term dynamics of food availability, food quality, disease, stress and animal abundance.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Colin A; Schoof, Valérie A M; Bonnell, Tyler R; Gogarten, Jan F; Calmé, Sophie

    2015-05-26

    Despite strong links between sociality and fitness that ultimately affect the size of animal populations, the particular social and ecological factors that lead to endangerment are not well understood. Here, we synthesize approximately 25 years of data and present new analyses that highlight dynamics in forest composition, food availability, the nutritional quality of food, disease, physiological stress and population size of endangered folivorous red colobus monkeys (Procolobus rufomitratus). There is a decline in the quality of leaves 15 and 30 years following two previous studies in an undisturbed area of forest. The consumption of a low-quality diet in one month was associated with higher glucocorticoid levels in the subsequent month and stress levels in groups living in degraded forest fragments where diet was poor was more than twice those in forest groups. In contrast, forest composition has changed and when red colobus food availability was weighted by the protein-to-fibre ratio, which we have shown positively predicts folivore biomass, there was an increase in the availability of high-quality trees. Despite these changing social and ecological factors, the abundance of red colobus has remained stable, possibly through a combination of increasing group size and behavioural flexibility.

  9. Competing pressures on populations: long-term dynamics of food availability, food quality, disease, stress and animal abundance

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Colin A.; Schoof, Valérie A. M.; Bonnell, Tyler R.; Gogarten, Jan F.; Calmé, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Despite strong links between sociality and fitness that ultimately affect the size of animal populations, the particular social and ecological factors that lead to endangerment are not well understood. Here, we synthesize approximately 25 years of data and present new analyses that highlight dynamics in forest composition, food availability, the nutritional quality of food, disease, physiological stress and population size of endangered folivorous red colobus monkeys (Procolobus rufomitratus). There is a decline in the quality of leaves 15 and 30 years following two previous studies in an undisturbed area of forest. The consumption of a low-quality diet in one month was associated with higher glucocorticoid levels in the subsequent month and stress levels in groups living in degraded forest fragments where diet was poor was more than twice those in forest groups. In contrast, forest composition has changed and when red colobus food availability was weighted by the protein-to-fibre ratio, which we have shown positively predicts folivore biomass, there was an increase in the availability of high-quality trees. Despite these changing social and ecological factors, the abundance of red colobus has remained stable, possibly through a combination of increasing group size and behavioural flexibility. PMID:25870398

  10. The effect of energy reserves and food availability on optimal immune defence.

    PubMed

    Houston, Alasdair I; McNamara, John M; Barta, Zoltán; Klasing, Kirk C

    2007-11-22

    In order to avoid both starvation and disease, animals must allocate resources between energy reserves and immune defence. We investigate the optimal allocation. We find that animals with low reserves choose to allocate less to defence than animals with higher reserves because when reserves are low it is more important to increase reserves to reduce the risk of starvation in the future. In general, investment in immune defence increases monotonically with energy reserves. An exception is when the animal can reduce its probability of death from disease by reducing its foraging rate. In this case, allocation to immune defence can peak at intermediate reserves. When food changes over time, the optimal response depends on the frequency of changes. If the environment is relatively stable, animals forage most intensively when the food is scarce and invest more in immune defence when the food is abundant than when it is scarce. If the environment changes quickly, animals forage at low intensity when the food is scarce, but at high intensity when the food is abundant. As the rate of environmental change increases, immune defence becomes less dependent on food availability. We show that the strength of selection on reserve-dependent immune defence depends on how foraging intensity and immune defence determine the probability of death from disease.

  11. The effect of energy reserves and food availability on optimal immune defence

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Alasdair I; McNamara, John M; Barta, Zoltán; Klasing, Kirk C

    2007-01-01

    In order to avoid both starvation and disease, animals must allocate resources between energy reserves and immune defence. We investigate the optimal allocation. We find that animals with low reserves choose to allocate less to defence than animals with higher reserves because when reserves are low it is more important to increase reserves to reduce the risk of starvation in the future. In general, investment in immune defence increases monotonically with energy reserves. An exception is when the animal can reduce its probability of death from disease by reducing its foraging rate. In this case, allocation to immune defence can peak at intermediate reserves. When food changes over time, the optimal response depends on the frequency of changes. If the environment is relatively stable, animals forage most intensively when the food is scarce and invest more in immune defence when the food is abundant than when it is scarce. If the environment changes quickly, animals forage at low intensity when the food is scarce, but at high intensity when the food is abundant. As the rate of environmental change increases, immune defence becomes less dependent on food availability. We show that the strength of selection on reserve-dependent immune defence depends on how foraging intensity and immune defence determine the probability of death from disease. PMID:17848371

  12. Appalachia Snow

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... by the Blue Ridge mountain belt along the east and the Appalachian Plateau along the west. Valleys and ridges between the higher ... Snow location:  United States region:  Eastern United States Order:  4 ...

  13. Limiting resources in sessile systems: food enhances diversity and growth of suspension feeders despite available space.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Robin J; Marshall, Dustin J

    2015-03-01

    Much of our understanding of competition comes trom onservations in sessue systems, such as rainforests and marine invertebrate communities. In terrestrial systems, sessile species often compete for multiple limiting resources (i.e., space, light, and nutrients), but in marine systems, space is viewed as the primary or sole limiting resource. Competition theory, on the other hand, suggests that competition for a single limiting resource is unlikely to maintain high species diversity, but manipulative tests of competition for other resources in marine benthic systems are exceedingly rare. Here, we manipulate the availability of food for a classic system, marine sessile invertebrate communities, and investigate the effects on species diversity, abundance, and composition during early succession as well as on the growth of bryozoan populations in the field. We found the number of species to be greater, available space to be lower, and the community composition to be different in assemblages subjected to increased food availability compared to controls. Similarly, laboratory-settled bryozoans deployed into the field grew more in the presence of enhanced food. Our results suggest that food can act as a limiting resource, affecting both diversity and abundance, even when bare space is still available in hard-substratum communities. Consequently, broadening the view of resource limitation beyond solely space may increase our understanding and predictability of marine sessile systems.

  14. Short-term effects of hurricane disturbance on food availability for migrant songbirds during autumn stopover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dobbs, R.C.; Barrow, W.C.; Jeske, C.W.; Dimiceli, J.; Michot, T.C.; Beck, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the consequences of hurricanes on the food resources available to neotropical-nearctic migrant songbirds may provide important insight into the effects of hurricanes on migratory populations. During autumn migration 2006 we investigated the foraging ecology of two species of insectivorous migrants, Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea) and Yellow Warbler (Dendroica petechia), and the availability of their foraging substrates and arthropod food resources in two coastal forests in western Louisiana, which were impacted to different degrees by Hurricane Rita in autumn 2005. Both migrant species attacked prey on bark substrates significantly more frequently, and on live foliage less frequently, in severely damaged forest than in lightly damaged forest (??2 tests, P < 0.05). However, both species attacked prey on bark less than expected given its availability (i.e., migrants avoided bark), and attacked prey on live foliage more than expected given its availability (i.e., migrants selected live foliage), in severely damaged forest (??2 tests, P < 0.03). Branch-clipping revealed that arthropod biomass on live hackberry (Celtis laevigata) and sweet acacia (Acacia farnesiana) branches was significantly higher in severely damaged forest than in lightly damaged forest (Mann-Whitney test, P < 0.01). However, because live foliage was significantly less available in severely damaged forest, overall food availability for migrants was lower in severely damaged forest than in lightly damaged forest. Migrant use of, and arthropod biomass on, bark and live-foliage substrates were thus dependent on the availability of those substrates, which differed between sites as a result of hurricane-related habitat disturbance. These results demonstrate that severe hurricane disturbance reduces food availability for insectivorous songbirds during migratory stopover by reducing the availability of preferred foraging substrates. ?? 2009 The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  15. MODIS Snow and Ice Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorthoy K.; Hoser, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Daily, global snow cover maps, and sea ice cover and sea ice surface temperature (IST) maps are derived from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), are available at no cost through the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Included on this CD-ROM are samples of the MODIS snow and ice products. In addition, an animation, done by the Scientific Visualization studio at Goddard Space Flight Center, is also included.

  16. Feeding Strategies of Brown Howler Monkeys in Response to Variations in Food Availability

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Óscar M.; Bicca-Marques, Júlio César

    2016-01-01

    Primates display varying degrees of behavioral flexibility that allow them to adjust their diet to temporal changes in food availability. This trait might be critical for the survival of folivorous-frugivorous species inhabiting small forest fragments, where the availability of food resources tends to be lower than in large fragments and continuous forests. However, the scarcity of studies addressing this issue hampers our understanding of the adaptive behaviors that favor the survival of these primates in low-quality habitats. We conducted a 36-mo study testing the hypothesis that brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans) are able to adjust their diet in response to local and seasonal changes in resource availability. We compared the diet of six free-ranging groups inhabiting three small (<10 ha) and three large (>90 ha) Atlantic forest fragments in southern Brazil and estimated the temporal availability of their top food species (i.e., those species that together contribute ≥80% of total feeding records). We found that brown howlers exploited similarly rich diets in small (45, 54, and 57 plant species) and large (48, 51, and 56 species) fragments. However, intermonth diet similarity was higher for groups in small fragments, where howlers also fed on plant items from nine alien species. Fruits and leaves were the most consumed plant items in both small (42% and 49% of feeding records, respectively) and large (51% and 41%, respectively) fragments. The consumption of young leaves was higher in small than in large fragments, whereas the consumption of other plant items did not show a pattern related to fragment size. Regarding the contribution of growth forms as food sources, only the exploitation of palms showed a pattern related to fragment size. Palms contributed more to the diet of groups inhabiting large fragments. The availability of seasonal food items–ripe fruits and young leaves–influenced their consumption in both habitat types. Therefore

  17. Feeding Strategies of Brown Howler Monkeys in Response to Variations in Food Availability.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Óscar M; Bicca-Marques, Júlio César

    2016-01-01

    Primates display varying degrees of behavioral flexibility that allow them to adjust their diet to temporal changes in food availability. This trait might be critical for the survival of folivorous-frugivorous species inhabiting small forest fragments, where the availability of food resources tends to be lower than in large fragments and continuous forests. However, the scarcity of studies addressing this issue hampers our understanding of the adaptive behaviors that favor the survival of these primates in low-quality habitats. We conducted a 36-mo study testing the hypothesis that brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans) are able to adjust their diet in response to local and seasonal changes in resource availability. We compared the diet of six free-ranging groups inhabiting three small (<10 ha) and three large (>90 ha) Atlantic forest fragments in southern Brazil and estimated the temporal availability of their top food species (i.e., those species that together contribute ≥80% of total feeding records). We found that brown howlers exploited similarly rich diets in small (45, 54, and 57 plant species) and large (48, 51, and 56 species) fragments. However, intermonth diet similarity was higher for groups in small fragments, where howlers also fed on plant items from nine alien species. Fruits and leaves were the most consumed plant items in both small (42% and 49% of feeding records, respectively) and large (51% and 41%, respectively) fragments. The consumption of young leaves was higher in small than in large fragments, whereas the consumption of other plant items did not show a pattern related to fragment size. Regarding the contribution of growth forms as food sources, only the exploitation of palms showed a pattern related to fragment size. Palms contributed more to the diet of groups inhabiting large fragments. The availability of seasonal food items-ripe fruits and young leaves-influenced their consumption in both habitat types. Therefore, brown

  18. A model for the development of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti as a function of the available food.

    PubMed

    Romeo Aznar, Victoria; De Majo, María Sol; Fischer, Sylvia; Francisco, Diego; Natiello, Mario A; Solari, Hernán G

    2015-01-21

    We discuss the preimaginal development of the mosquito Aedes aegypti from the point of view of the statistics of developmental times and the final body-size of the pupae and adults. We begin the discussion studying existing models in relation to published data for the mosquito. The data suggest a developmental process that is described by exponentially distributed random times. The existing data show as well that the idea of cohorts emerging synchronously is verified only in optimal situations created at the laboratory but it is not verified in field experiments. We propose a model in which immature individuals progress in successive stages, all of them with exponentially distributed times, according to two different rates (one food-dependent and the other food-independent). This phenomenological model, coupled with a general model for growing, can explain the existing observations and new results produced in this work. The emerging picture is that the development of the larvae proceeds through a sequence of steps. Some of the steps depend on the available food. While food is in abundance, all steps can be thought as having equal duration, but when food is scarce, those steps that depend on food take considerably longer times. For insufficient levels of food, increase in larval mortality sets in. As a consequence of the smaller rates, the average pupation time increases and the cohort disperses in time. Dispersion, as measured by standard deviation, becomes a quadratic function of the average time indicating that cohort dispersion responds to the same causes than delays in pupation and adult emergence. During the whole developmental process the larva grows monotonically, initially at an exponential rate but later at decreasing rates, approaching a final body-size. Growth is stopped by maturation when it is already slow. As a consequence of this process, there is a slight bias favoring small individuals: Small individuals are born before larger individuals, although

  19. Stress hormones suggest opposite trends of food availability for planktivorous and piscivorous seabirds in 2 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benowitz-Fredericks, Z. Morgan; Shultz, Michael T.; Kitaysky, Alexander S.

    2008-08-01

    Apex predators can provide valuable information about effects of climate variability on trophodynamics in the Bering Sea. We used corticosterone (the primary avian stress hormone, "CORT") as a proxy of changes in prey availability for planktivorous and piscivorous seabirds. CORT secretion reflects energy balance in breeding individuals and can be used to monitor changes in the marine environment that alter food availability. We tested whether CORT in planktivorous least auklets ( Aethia pusilla) and piscivorous thick-billed murres ( Uria lomvia) on two Pribilof Islands differed spatially or temporally in 2003 and 2004. During June-September of each year, we sampled birds breeding on St. Paul and St. George Islands. We found that seasonal dynamics of CORT varied between years. Although the seasonal dynamics were similar between islands in a year, in 2004 there were inter-island differences in CORT levels for both species. In 2003, CORT in murres was low throughout the season, suggesting that their prey availability (primarily forage fishes) was consistently good. In 2004, CORT levels suggested that overall food availability was poor for murres and declined as the season progressed. For auklets, inter-annual variability was associated with contrasting intra-seasonal patterns in the availability of zooplankton prey (primarily Neocalanus spp.). In 2003, high early-season (June) CORT indicated that auklets were food-limited, but CORT decreased in July, suggesting that the availability of zooplankton improved as the season progressed. In 2004, CORT was low early in the season (June), but an abrupt increase late in the season (July) suggests that food became scarce. Our data indicate that environmental differences between 2003 and 2004 affected prey availability for planktivorous and piscivorous alcids in opposite ways. These results suggest that in the shelf regions of the Bering Sea, the populations of apex predators feeding on zooplankton may be affected by

  20. Field Assessment of the Predation Risk - Food Availability Trade-Off in Crab Megalopae Settlement

    PubMed Central

    Tapia-Lewin, Sebastián; Pardo, Luis Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Settlement is a key process for meroplanktonic organisms as it determines distribution of adult populations. Starvation and predation are two of the main mortality causes during this period; therefore, settlement tends to be optimized in microhabitats with high food availability and low predator density. Furthermore, brachyuran megalopae actively select favorable habitats for settlement, via chemical, visual and/or tactile cues. The main objective in this study was to assess the settlement of Metacarcinus edwardsii and Cancer plebejus under different combinations of food availability levels and predator presence. We determined, in the field, which factor is of greater relative importance when choosing a suitable microhabitat for settling. Passive larval collectors were deployed, crossing different scenarios of food availability and predator presence. We also explore if megalopae actively choose predator-free substrates in response to visual and/or chemical cues. We tested the response to combined visual and chemical cues and to each individually. Data was tested using a two-way factorial design ANOVA. In both species, food did not cause significant effect on settlement success, but predator presence did, therefore there was not trade-off in this case and megalopae respond strongly to predation risk by active aversion. Larvae of M. edwardsii responded to chemical and visual cues simultaneously, but there was no response to either cue by itself. Statistically, C. plebejus did not exhibit a differential response to cues, but reacted with a strong similar tendency as M. edwardsii. We concluded that crab megalopae actively select predator-free microhabitat, independently of food availability, using chemical and visual cues combined. The findings in this study highlight the great relevance of predation on the settlement process and recruitment of marine invertebrates with complex life cycles. PMID:24748151

  1. Field assessment of the predation risk-food availability trade-off in crab megalopae settlement.

    PubMed

    Tapia-Lewin, Sebastián; Pardo, Luis Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Settlement is a key process for meroplanktonic organisms as it determines distribution of adult populations. Starvation and predation are two of the main mortality causes during this period; therefore, settlement tends to be optimized in microhabitats with high food availability and low predator density. Furthermore, brachyuran megalopae actively select favorable habitats for settlement, via chemical, visual and/or tactile cues. The main objective in this study was to assess the settlement of Metacarcinus edwardsii and Cancer plebejus under different combinations of food availability levels and predator presence. We determined, in the field, which factor is of greater relative importance when choosing a suitable microhabitat for settling. Passive larval collectors were deployed, crossing different scenarios of food availability and predator presence. We also explore if megalopae actively choose predator-free substrates in response to visual and/or chemical cues. We tested the response to combined visual and chemical cues and to each individually. Data was tested using a two-way factorial design ANOVA. In both species, food did not cause significant effect on settlement success, but predator presence did, therefore there was not trade-off in this case and megalopae respond strongly to predation risk by active aversion. Larvae of M. edwardsii responded to chemical and visual cues simultaneously, but there was no response to either cue by itself. Statistically, C. plebejus did not exhibit a differential response to cues, but reacted with a strong similar tendency as M. edwardsii. We concluded that crab megalopae actively select predator-free microhabitat, independently of food availability, using chemical and visual cues combined. The findings in this study highlight the great relevance of predation on the settlement process and recruitment of marine invertebrates with complex life cycles.

  2. Convenience stores surrounding urban schools: an assessment of healthy food availability, advertising, and product placement.

    PubMed

    Gebauer, Hilary; Laska, Melissa Nelson

    2011-08-01

    Adolescent obesity is a national public health problem, particularly among urban populations. Recent evidence has linked neighborhood food environments to health and nutrition status, with easier access to convenience stores being associated with increased risk for obesity. Little is known about the availability of healthy purchasing options within small, urban food stores, or the extent to which these factors are relevant to youth. The objective of this research was to characterize various features of the food environment within small convenience stores located nearby urban junior high and high schools. In-store audits were conducted in 63 stores located within 800 m of 36 urban Minnesota public secondary schools. Results indicated that a limited number of healthier beverages (i.e., water and 100% fruit juice) and snack options (i.e., nuts and pretzels) were available at most stores (≥85%). However, a wide range of healthy snack options were typically not available, with many specific items stocked in less than half of stores (e.g., low-fat yogurt in 27% of stores and low-fat granola bars in 43%). Overall, 51% of stores had fresh fruit and 49% had fresh vegetables. Few stores carried a range of healthier snack alternatives in single-serving packages. All stores had less healthful impulse purchase items available (e.g., candy) while only 46% carried healthier impulse items (e.g., fruit). Most stores (97%) had food/beverage advertising. Overall, convenience stores located in close proximity to secondary schools represent an important and understudied component of the youth food environment.

  3. Characterisation and potential migration of silver nanoparticles from commercially available polymeric food contact materials.

    PubMed

    Addo Ntim, Susana; Thomas, Treye A; Begley, Timothy H; Noonan, Gregory O

    2015-01-01

    The potential for consumer exposure to nano-components in food contact materials (FCMs) is dependent on the migration of nanomaterials into food. Therefore, characterising the physico-chemical properties and potential for migration of constituents is an important step in assessing the safety of FCMs. A number of commercially available food storage products, purchased domestically within the United States and internationally, that claim to contain nanosilver were evaluated. The products were made of polyethylene, polypropylene and polyphenylene ether sulfone and all contained silver (0.001-36 mg kg(-1) of polymer). Silver migration was measured under various conditions, including using 3% acetic acid and water as food simulants. Low concentrations (sub-ppb levels) of silver were detected in the migration studies generally following a trend characterised by a surface desorption phenomenon, where the majority of the silver migration occurred in the first of three consecutive exposures. Silver nanoparticles were not detected in food simulants, suggesting that the silver migration may be due solely to ionic silver released into solution from oxidation of the silver nanoparticle surface. The absence of detectable silver nanoparticles was consistent with expectations from a physico-chemical view point. For the products tested, current USFDA guidance for evaluating migration from FCMs was applicable.

  4. Monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in community and consumer retail food environments globally.

    PubMed

    Ni Mhurchu, C; Vandevijvere, S; Waterlander, W; Thornton, L E; Kelly, B; Cameron, A J; Snowdon, W; Swinburn, B

    2013-10-01

    Retail food environments are increasingly considered influential in determining dietary behaviours and health outcomes. We reviewed the available evidence on associations between community (type, availability and accessibility of food outlets) and consumer (product availability, prices, promotions and nutritional quality within stores) food environments and dietary outcomes in order to develop an evidence-based framework for monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in retail food environments. Current evidence is suggestive of an association between community and consumer food environments and dietary outcomes; however, substantial heterogeneity in study designs, methods and measurement tools makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions. The use of standardized tools to monitor local food environments within and across countries may help to validate this relationship. We propose a step-wise framework to monitor and benchmark community and consumer retail food environments that can be used to assess density of healthy and unhealthy food outlets; measure proximity of healthy and unhealthy food outlets to homes/schools; evaluate availability of healthy and unhealthy foods in-store; compare food environments over time and between regions and countries; evaluate compliance with local policies, guidelines or voluntary codes of practice; and determine the impact of changes to retail food environments on health outcomes, such as obesity.

  5. Food availability controls seasonal cycle of growth in Macoma balthica (L.) in San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, J.K.; Nichols, F.H.

    1988-01-01

    A 2-yr field study of growth in the bivalve Macoma balthica (L.) at four locations in San Francisco Bay, California, U.S., showed that the timing and rate of growth (increase in shell length) were related to food supply. This clam feeds on both planktonic and benthic microalgae, depending on availability. Growth was apparently food-limited during some months, during one year more than the other, and at some locations more than others. Tissue-weight changes were also related to food availability. The heaviest animals were found in that year and at those locations with the highest chl a concentrations. Tissue-weight gains usually coincided with increased shell-growth rate or with reproductive development, although some large animals showed weight gain independent of both of these factors during periods with mid-range chl a levels. Weight losses coincided with spawning or periods of low growth rate, except at one station where, during a period when most animals were reproductively ripe, food concentrations were high, and shell growth was rapid, animals lost weight. This study failed to show a relation between salinity and the timing or rate of change of either shell length or tissue weight. The mild temperatures (10-23 ??C water temperature) of the area studied resulted in no growth inhibition due to low temperature, but there was some indication that the high air temperatures found in these intertidal areas limited growth rates. ?? 1988.

  6. Obesity by choice revisited: effects of food availability, flavor variety and nutrient composition on energy intake.

    PubMed

    Ackroff, Karen; Bonacchi, Kristine; Magee, Michael; Yiin, Yeh-Min; Graves, Jonathan V; Sclafani, Anthony

    2007-10-22

    Recent work suggested that the energy intake and weight gain of rats maintained on chow and 32% sucrose solution could be increased by simply offering more sources of sucrose [Tordoff M.G. Obesity by choice: the powerful influence of nutrient availability on nutrient intake. Am J Physiol 2002;282:R1536-R1539.]. In Experiment 1 this procedure was replicated but the effect was not: rats given one bottle of sucrose and five bottles of water consumed as much sucrose as those given five bottles of sucrose and one of water. Adding different flavors to the sucrose did not increase intakes further in Experiment 2. The relative potency of sucrose and other optional foods was studied in Experiment 3. Sucrose solution stimulated more overeating and weight gain than fat (vegetable shortening), and offering both sucrose and shortening did not generate further increases in energy intake. Finally, foods commonly used to produce overeating and weight gain were compared. Sucrose was less effective than a high-fat milk diet, and offering cookies in addition to the milk did not increase energy intake further. The nature of optional foods (nutrient composition and physical form) was markedly more important than the number of food sources available to the animals, and is a better contender as the reason for "obesity by choice".

  7. MODIS Snow-Cover Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.; Salomonson, Vincent V.; DiGirolamo, Nicole E.; Bayr, Klaus J.; Houser, Paul R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    On December 18, 1999, the Terra satellite was launched with a complement of five instruments including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Many geophysical products are derived from MODIS data including global snow-cover products. MODIS snow and ice products have been available through the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) since September 13, 2000. MODIS snow-cover products represent potential improvement to or enhancement of the currently-available operational products mainly because the MODIS products are global and 500-m resolution, and have the capability to separate most snow and clouds. Also the snow-mapping algorithms are automated which means that a consistent data set may be generated for long-term climate studies that require snow-cover information. Extensive quality assurance (QA) information is stored with the products. The MODIS snow product suite begins with a 500-m resolution, 2330-km swath snow-cover map which is then gridded to an integerized sinusoidal grid to produce daily and 8-day composite tile products. The sequence proceeds to a climate-modeling grid (CMG) product at about 5.6-km spatial resolution, with both daily and 8-day composite products. Each pixel of the CMG contains fraction of snow cover from 40 - 100%. Measured errors of commission in the CMG are low, for example, on the continent of Australia in the spring, they vary from 0.02 - 0.10%. Near-term enhancements include daily snow albedo and fractional snow cover. A case study from March 6, 2000, involving MODIS data and field and aircraft measurements, is presented to show some early validation work.

  8. Intraspecific competition and high food availability are associated with insular gigantism in a lizard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pafilis, Panayiotis; Meiri, Shai; Foufopoulos, Johannes; Valakos, Efstratios

    2009-09-01

    Resource availability, competition, and predation commonly drive body size evolution. We assess the impact of high food availability and the consequent increased intraspecific competition, as expressed by tail injuries and cannibalism, on body size in Skyros wall lizards ( Podarcis gaigeae). Lizard populations on islets surrounding Skyros (Aegean Sea) all have fewer predators and competitors than on Skyros but differ in the numbers of nesting seabirds. We predicted the following: (1) the presence of breeding seabirds (providing nutrients) will increase lizard population densities; (2) dense lizard populations will experience stronger intraspecific competition; and (3) such aggression, will be associated with larger average body size. We found a positive correlation between seabird and lizard densities. Cannibalism and tail injuries were considerably higher in dense populations. Increases in cannibalism and tail loss were associated with large body sizes. Adult cannibalism on juveniles may select for rapid growth, fuelled by high food abundance, setting thus the stage for the evolution of gigantism.

  9. Intraspecific competition and high food availability are associated with insular gigantism in a lizard.

    PubMed

    Pafilis, Panayiotis; Meiri, Shai; Foufopoulos, Johannes; Valakos, Efstratios

    2009-09-01

    Resource availability, competition, and predation commonly drive body size evolution. We assess the impact of high food availability and the consequent increased intraspecific competition, as expressed by tail injuries and cannibalism, on body size in Skyros wall lizards (Podarcis gaigeae). Lizard populations on islets surrounding Skyros (Aegean Sea) all have fewer predators and competitors than on Skyros but differ in the numbers of nesting seabirds. We predicted the following: (1) the presence of breeding seabirds (providing nutrients) will increase lizard population densities; (2) dense lizard populations will experience stronger intraspecific competition; and (3) such aggression, will be associated with larger average body size. We found a positive correlation between seabird and lizard densities. Cannibalism and tail injuries were considerably higher in dense populations. Increases in cannibalism and tail loss were associated with large body sizes. Adult cannibalism on juveniles may select for rapid growth, fuelled by high food abundance, setting thus the stage for the evolution of gigantism.

  10. Food availability during migratory stopover affects testis growth and reproductive behaviour in a migratory passerine.

    PubMed

    Bauchinger, Ulf; Van't Hof, Thomas; Biebach, Herbert

    2009-03-01

    Long-distance migratory passerines initiate testicular recrudescence during spring migration to meet the demands of timely reproduction upon immediate arrival on the breeding grounds. The degree of testicular development is known to depend on environmental factors like stopover habitat quality; reproductive performance may be strongly impacted by testicular maturation upon arrival on the breeding grounds. We investigated the effect of stopover food availability on subsequent reproductive performance in garden warblers (Sylvia borin). Spring migration was simulated by repeated food deprivation and re-feeding to imitate the alternation of flight and stopover periods. During the two final stopover periods, males were either kept under ad libitum food (ad libitum males) or under limited food conditions (limited males). After simulated arrival in the breeding area, manipulation of previous stopover food availability resulted in significantly slower testicular recrudescence (p<0.001) and decreased plasma testosterone (p<0.01) in limited males compared to ad libitum males. Body mass change was not significantly different between the two groups (p=0.38). Limited males also exhibited reduced performance in reproductive behaviours employed in territorial and sexual contexts. Limited males had a longer 'freezing' interval (p<0.05) and decreased activity (p<0.01) when challenged with a live male decoy. In direct confrontation between limited and ad libitum males in the presence of a female, limited males exhibited significantly fewer behavioural traits in sexual context, i.e. directed to the female (p<0.001). Therefore, we suggest that conditions encountered during previous migratory stopover may affect subsequent annual reproductive success by influencing key reproductive behaviours.

  11. Food availability and animal space use both determine cache density of Eurasian red squirrels.

    PubMed

    Rong, Ke; Yang, Hui; Ma, Jianzhang; Zong, Cheng; Cai, Tijiu

    2013-01-01

    Scatter hoarders are not able to defend their caches. A longer hoarding distance combined with lower cache density can reduce cache losses but increase the costs of hoarding and retrieving. Scatter hoarders arrange their cache density to achieve an optimal balance between hoarding costs and main cache losses. We conducted systematic cache sampling investigations to estimate the effects of food availability on cache patterns of Eurasian red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris). This study was conducted over a five-year period at two sample plots in a Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis)-dominated forest with contrasting seed production patterns. During these investigations, the locations of nest trees were treated as indicators of squirrel space use to explore how space use affected cache pattern. The squirrels selectively hoarded heavier pine seeds farther away from seed-bearing trees. The heaviest seeds were placed in caches around nest trees regardless of the nest tree location, and this placement was not in response to decreased food availability. The cache density declined with the hoarding distance. Cache density was lower at sites with lower seed production and during poor seed years. During seed mast years, the cache density around nest trees was higher and invariant. The pine seeds were dispersed over a larger distance when seed availability was lower. Our results suggest that 1) animal space use is an important factor that affects food hoarding distance and associated cache densities, 2) animals employ different hoarding strategies based on food availability, and 3) seed dispersal outside the original stand is stimulated in poor seed years.

  12. Food Availability and Animal Space Use Both Determine Cache Density of Eurasian Red Squirrels

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Ke; Yang, Hui; Ma, Jianzhang; Zong, Cheng; Cai, Tijiu

    2013-01-01

    Scatter hoarders are not able to defend their caches. A longer hoarding distance combined with lower cache density can reduce cache losses but increase the costs of hoarding and retrieving. Scatter hoarders arrange their cache density to achieve an optimal balance between hoarding costs and main cache losses. We conducted systematic cache sampling investigations to estimate the effects of food availability on cache patterns of Eurasian red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris). This study was conducted over a five-year period at two sample plots in a Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis)-dominated forest with contrasting seed production patterns. During these investigations, the locations of nest trees were treated as indicators of squirrel space use to explore how space use affected cache pattern. The squirrels selectively hoarded heavier pine seeds farther away from seed-bearing trees. The heaviest seeds were placed in caches around nest trees regardless of the nest tree location, and this placement was not in response to decreased food availability. The cache density declined with the hoarding distance. Cache density was lower at sites with lower seed production and during poor seed years. During seed mast years, the cache density around nest trees was higher and invariant. The pine seeds were dispersed over a larger distance when seed availability was lower. Our results suggest that 1) animal space use is an important factor that affects food hoarding distance and associated cache densities, 2) animals employ different hoarding strategies based on food availability, and 3) seed dispersal outside the original stand is stimulated in poor seed years. PMID:24265833

  13. Dynamics of food availability, body condition and physiological stress response in breeding Black-legged Kittiwakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Wingfield, J.C.; Piatt, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    1. The seasonal dynamics of body condition (BC), circulating corticosterone levels (baseline, BL) and the adrenocortical response to acute stress (SR) were examined in long-lived Black-legged Kittiwakes, Rissa tridactyla, breeding at Duck (food-poor colony) and Gull (food-rich colony) Islands in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska. It was tested whether the dynamics of corticosterone levels reflect a seasonal change in bird physiological condition due to reproduction and/or variation in foraging conditions. 2. BC declined seasonally, and the decline was more pronounced in birds at the food-poor colony. BL and SR levels of corticosterone rose steadily through the reproductive season, and BL levels were significantly higher in birds on Duck island compared with those on Gull Island. During the egg-laying and chick-rearing stages, birds had lower SR on Duck Island than on Gull Island. 3. The results suggest that, in addition to a seasonal change in bird physiology during reproduction, local ecological factors such as food availability affect circulating levels of corticosterone and adrenal response to acute stress.

  14. Food availability affects the strength of mutualistic host-microbiota interactions in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Callens, Martijn; Macke, Emilie; Muylaert, Koenraad; Bossier, Peter; Lievens, Bart; Waud, Michael; Decaestecker, Ellen

    2016-04-01

    The symbiotic gut microbial community is generally known to have a strong impact on the fitness of its host. Nevertheless, it is less clear how the impact of symbiotic interactions on the hosts' fitness varies according to environmental circumstances such as changes in the diet. This study aims to get a better understanding of host-microbiota interactions under different levels of food availability. We conducted experiments with the invertebrate, experimental model organism Daphnia magna and compared growth, survival and reproduction of conventionalized symbiotic Daphnia with germ-free individuals given varying quantities of food. Our experiments revealed that the relative importance of the microbiota for the hosts' fitness varied according to dietary conditions. The presence of the microbiota had strong positive effects on Daphnia when food was sufficient or abundant, but had weaker effects under food limitation. Our results indicate that the microbiota can be a potentially important factor in determining host responses to changes in dietary conditions. Characterization of the host-associated microbiota further showed that Aeromonas sp. was the most prevalent taxon in the digestive tract of Daphnia.

  15. Assessing the applicability of currently available methods for attributing foodborne disease to sources, including food and food commodities.

    PubMed

    Pires, Sara M

    2013-03-01

    A variety of approaches to attribute foodborne diseases to specific sources are available, including hazard occurrence analysis, epidemiological methods, intervention studies, and expert elicitations. The usefulness of each method to attribute disease caused by a foodborne hazard depends on the public health question being addressed, on the data requirements, on advantages and limitations of the method, and on the data availability of the country or region in question. Previous articles have described available methods for source attribution, but have focused only on foodborne microbiological hazards. These articles have described strengths and weaknesses of each method, but no guidance on how to choose the most appropriate tool to address different public health questions has thus far been provided. We reviewed available source attribution methods; assessed their applicability to attribute illness caused by enteric, parasitic, and chemical foodborne hazards to the responsible sources; and renamed some of the approaches. The main objective was to make recommendations on the most appropriate method(s) to attribute human disease caused by different foodborne hazards. We concluded that the proportion of disease that can be attributed to specific foods items or transmission routes may be estimated for the majority of the evaluated hazards by applying one or more of the source attribution methods assessed. It was also recognized that the use of source attribution methods may be limited to specific countries, reflecting the data availability.

  16. Hatching asynchrony vs. foraging efficiency: the response to food availability in specialist vs. generalist tit species.

    PubMed

    Barrientos, R; Bueno-Enciso, J; Sanz, J J

    2016-11-28

    Breeding mistiming is increasingly frequent in several ecosystems in the face of current climate change. Species belonging to higher trophic levels must employ mechanisms to reduce it. One of these mechanisms is hatching asynchrony, with the eggs in a clutch hatching over a period of several days. Some authors have suggested it to be adaptive when food is unpredictable. However, these birds can also suffer associated costs. We tested whether a species with higher foraging efficiency avoid hatching asynchrony compared to its sister species. We studied hatching asynchrony and nestling provisioning in relation to food availability in sympatric populations of blue and great tits. For the first time, we show that sister species respond to food availability with different strategies. Blue tit feeding rates readily responded to the abundance of their main prey, and also reduced the impact of nestling size hierarchy on mean nestling weight, consequently increasing fledging rate. Our results suggest that levels of hatching asynchrony seem to be influenced by species-specific life history traits, as generalist foragers rely less on it. They also highlight the importance of multi-species approaches when studying the response of organisms to environmental unpredictability.

  17. Quantifying Impacts of Food Trade on Water Availability Considering Water Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oki, T.; Yano, S.; Hanasaki, N.

    2012-12-01

    Food production requires a lot of water, and traded food potentially has external impacts on environment through reducing the water availability in the producing region. Water footprint is supposed to be an indicator to reflect the impacts of water use. However, impacts of water use on environment, resource, and sustainability are different in place and time, and according to the sources of water withdrawals. Therefore it is preferable to characterize the water withdrawals or consumptions rather than just accumulate the total amount of water use when estimating water footprint. In this study, a new methodology, global green-water equivalent method, is proposed in which regional characterization factors are determined based on the estimates of natural hydrological cycles, such as precipitation, total runoff, and sub-surface runoff, and applied for green-water, river(+reservoir) water, and non-renewable ground water uses. Water footprint of the world associated with the production of 19 major crops was estimated using an integrated hydrological and water resources modeling system (H08), with atmospheric forcing data for 1991-2000 with spatial resolution of 0.5 by 0.5 longitudinal and latitudinal degrees. The impacts is estimated to be 6 times larger than the simple summation of green and blue water uses, and reflect the climatological water scarcity conditions geographically. The results can be used to compare the possible impacts of food trade associated with various crops from various regions on environment through reducing the availability of water resources in the cropping area.

  18. Hatching asynchrony vs. foraging efficiency: the response to food availability in specialist vs. generalist tit species

    PubMed Central

    Barrientos, R.; Bueno-Enciso, J.; Sanz, J. J.

    2016-01-01

    Breeding mistiming is increasingly frequent in several ecosystems in the face of current climate change. Species belonging to higher trophic levels must employ mechanisms to reduce it. One of these mechanisms is hatching asynchrony, with the eggs in a clutch hatching over a period of several days. Some authors have suggested it to be adaptive when food is unpredictable. However, these birds can also suffer associated costs. We tested whether a species with higher foraging efficiency avoid hatching asynchrony compared to its sister species. We studied hatching asynchrony and nestling provisioning in relation to food availability in sympatric populations of blue and great tits. For the first time, we show that sister species respond to food availability with different strategies. Blue tit feeding rates readily responded to the abundance of their main prey, and also reduced the impact of nestling size hierarchy on mean nestling weight, consequently increasing fledging rate. Our results suggest that levels of hatching asynchrony seem to be influenced by species-specific life history traits, as generalist foragers rely less on it. They also highlight the importance of multi-species approaches when studying the response of organisms to environmental unpredictability. PMID:27892941

  19. Autumn diet of lesser snow geese staging in northeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brackney, Alan W.; Hupp, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    The coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) is used by lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) in autumn for premigratory staging. To better understand the potential impacts of human disturbance on snow geese, we investigated species composition of, and temporal and age-related variation in, their diet during staging. Depending on age and time of collection, between 35.2 and 94.1% of the diet (aggregate percent wet mass, n = 75) consisted of 2 species of plants; underground stems of tall cotton-grass (Eriophorum angustifolium), and aerial shoots of northern scouring rush (Equisetum variegatum). The diet varied between August and September (P = 0.0089), morning and afternoon (P < 0.0001), but not between age classes (P = 0.066). Throughout staging, snow geese consumed more tall cotton-grass during the afternoon than during the morning (P < 0.05). Tall cotton-grass was a larger component of the afternoon diet in September than in August (P < 0.05). In September, snow geese consumed more northern scouring rush in the mornings than in the afternoon (P < 0.05). Nighttime freezing, interspecific differences in nutritional quality, and plant senescence likely constrained the diet of snow geese to a small number of food items. Because alternative foods may not be available, human disturbance should be minimized in areas that provide these forage species.

  20. Habitat traits and food availability determine the response of marine invertebrates to ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Pansch, Christian; Schaub, Iris; Havenhand, Jonathan; Wahl, Martin

    2014-03-01

    Energy availability and local adaptation are major components in mediating the effects of ocean acidification (OA) on marine species. In a long-term study, we investigated the effects of food availability and elevated pCO2 (ca. 400, 1000 and 3000 μatm) on growth of newly settled Amphibalanus (Balanus) improvisus to reproduction, and on their offspring. We also compared two different populations, which were presumed to differ in their sensitivity to pCO2 due to differing habitat conditions: Kiel Fjord, Germany (Western Baltic Sea) with naturally strong pCO2 fluctuations, and the Tjärnö Archipelago, Sweden (Skagerrak) with far lower fluctuations. Over 20 weeks, survival, growth, reproduction and shell strength of Kiel barnacles were all unaffected by elevated pCO2 , regardless of food availability. Moulting frequency and shell corrosion increased with increasing pCO2 in adults. Larval development and juvenile growth of the F1 generation were tolerant to increased pCO2 , irrespective of parental treatment. In contrast, elevated pCO2 had a strong negative impact on survival of Tjärnö barnacles. Specimens from this population were able to withstand moderate levels of elevated pCO2 over 5 weeks when food was plentiful but showed reduced growth under food limitation. Severe levels of elevated pCO2 negatively impacted growth of Tjärnö barnacles in both food treatments. We demonstrate a conspicuously higher tolerance to elevated pCO2 in Kiel barnacles than in Tjärnö barnacles. This tolerance was carried over from adults to their offspring. Our findings indicate that populations from fluctuating pCO2 environments are more tolerant to elevated pCO2 than populations from more stable pCO2 habitats. We furthermore provide evidence that energy availability can mediate the ability of barnacles to withstand moderate CO2 stress. Considering the high tolerance of Kiel specimens and the possibility to adapt over many generations, near future OA alone does not seem to

  1. Amygdalin content of seeds, kernels and food products commercially-available in the UK.

    PubMed

    Bolarinwa, Islamiyat F; Orfila, Caroline; Morgan, Michael R A

    2014-01-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides are a large group of secondary metabolites that are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, including many plants that are commonly consumed by humans. The diverse chemical nature of cyanogenic glycosides means that extraction and analysis of individual compounds can be difficult. In addition, degradation can be rapid under appropriate conditions. Amygdalin is one of the cyanogenic glycosides found, for example, in apples, apricots and almonds. We have developed and applied a high performance liquid chromatographic procedure for amygdalin quantification to investigate extraction efficiency and to determine levels in a range of commercially-available foods for the first time. Our results show that seed from Rosaceae species contained relatively high amounts (range 0.1-17.5 mg g(-1)) of amygdalin compared to seed from non-Rosaceae species (range 0.01-0.2 mg g(-1)). The amygdalin content of processed food products was very low.

  2. Snow cover and snow goose Anser caerulescens caerulescens distribution during spring migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, Jerry W.; Zacheis, Amy B.; Anthony, R. Michael; Robertson, Donna G.; Erickson, Wallace P.; Palacios, Kelly C.

    2001-01-01

    Arctic geese often use spring migration stopover areas when feeding habitats are partially snow covered. Melting of snow during the stopover period causes spatial and temporal variability in distribution and abundance of feeding habitat. We recorded changes in snow cover and lesser snow goose Anser caerulescens caerulescens distribution on a spring migration stopover area in south-central Alaska during aerial surveys in 1993-1994. Our objectives were to determine whether geese selected among areas with different amounts of snow cover and to assess how temporal changes in snow cover affected goose distribution. We also measured temporal changes in chemical composition of forage species after snow melt. We divided an Arc/Info coverage of the approximately 210 km2 coastal stopover area into 2-km2 cells, and measured snow cover and snow goose use of cells. Cells that had 10-49.9% snow cover were selected by snow geese, whereas cells that lacked snow cover were avoided. In both years, snow cover diminished along the coast between mid-April and early May. Flock distribution changed as snow geese abandoned snow-free areas in favour of cells where snow patches were interspersed with bare ground. Snow-free areas may have been less attractive to geese because available forage had been quickly exploited as bare ground was exposed, and because soils became drier making extraction of underground forage more difficult. Fiber content of two forage species increased whereas non-structural carbohydrate concentrations of forage plants appeared to diminish after snow melt, but changes in nutrient concentrations likely occurred too slowly to account for abandonment of snow-free areas by snow geese.

  3. Food availability promotes rapid recovery from thermal stress in a scleractinian coral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, S. R.; Lopez-Yglesias, M. A.; Anthony, K. R. N.

    2012-12-01

    Bleaching in corals due to environmental stress represents a loss of energy intake often leading to an increase in mortality risk. Successful coral recovery from severe bleaching events may depend on the rate of replenishment of algal symbiont populations following the period of thermal stress, the supply of an alternative food source, or both. Here, we explore the role of food availability in promoting the survival and recovery of a common coral ( Acropora intermedia) following acute experimentally induced thermal stress. Fed corals were provided with live rotifers daily, to maintain densities of zooplankton in tanks that are typical of coral reefs. After a 6-week acclimation phase, heated corals were subjected to a +4 °C thermal anomaly for a 7-day period (bleaching phase) then temperatures were returned to normal for a further 2 weeks (recovery phase). Results demonstrated that heated corals had higher survival when they were provided with heterotrophic food. Fed corals experienced reduced loss of chlorophyll a, relative to unfed corals. During the recovery phase, both fed and unfed corals recovered within a few days; however, fed corals recovered to pre-bleaching phase levels of chlorophyll a, whereas unfed corals stabilized approximately one-third below this level. Protein levels of fed corals declined markedly during the bleaching phase, but recovered all of their losses by the end of the recovery phase. In contrast, unfed corals had low protein levels that were maintained throughout the experiment. To the extent that these results are representative of corals' responses to thermal anomalies in nature, the findings imply that availability of particulate food matter has the potential to increase corals' capacity to survive thermally induced bleaching and to ameliorate its sub-lethal effects. They also support the hypothesis that different rates of heterotrophy are an important determinant of variation in resilience to thermal stress among reef environments.

  4. Nordic Snow Radar Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmetyinen, Juha; Kontu, Anna; Pulliainen, Jouni; Vehviläinen, Juho; Rautiainen, Kimmo; Wiesmann, Andreas; Mätzler, Christian; Werner, Charles; Rott, Helmut; Nagler, Thomas; Schneebeli, Martin; Proksch, Martin; Schüttemeyer, Dirk; Kern, Michael; Davidson, Malcolm W. J.

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the Nordic Snow Radar Experiment (NoSREx) campaign was to provide a continuous time series of active and passive microwave observations of snow cover at a representative location of the Arctic boreal forest area, covering a whole winter season. The activity was a part of Phase A studies for the ESA Earth Explorer 7 candidate mission CoReH2O (Cold Regions Hydrology High-resolution Observatory). The NoSREx campaign, conducted at the Finnish Meteorological Institute Arctic Research Centre (FMI-ARC) in Sodankylä, Finland, hosted a frequency scanning scatterometer operating at frequencies from X- to Ku-band. The radar observations were complemented by a microwave dual-polarization radiometer system operating from X- to W-bands. In situ measurements consisted of manual snow pit measurements at the main test site as well as extensive automated measurements on snow, ground and meteorological parameters. This study provides a summary of the obtained data, detailing measurement protocols for each microwave instrument and in situ reference data. A first analysis of the microwave signatures against snow parameters is given, also comparing observed radar backscattering and microwave emission to predictions of an active/passive forward model. All data, including the raw data observations, are available for research purposes through the European Space Agency and the Finnish Meteorological Institute. A consolidated dataset of observations, comprising the key microwave and in situ observations, is provided through the ESA campaign data portal to enable easy access to the data.

  5. In vitro availability of zinc from infant foods with increasing phytic acid contents.

    PubMed

    Bosscher, D; Lu, Z; Janssens, G; Van Caillie-Bertrand, M; Robberecht, H; De Rycke, H; De Wilde, R; Deelstra, H

    2001-08-01

    An in vitro method was used to determine the availability of Zn from infant foods containing increasing amounts of phytate, and to quantify the effect of the phytate:Zn molar ratio on the availability. During the in vitro assay, digestive conditions of infants, younger and older than 4 months of age, were carefully simulated since the solubility of phytate-Zn complexes during digestion is pH dependent. Availability was measured with a continuous flow dialysis in vitro procedure with previous intralumen digestive stage. Zn concentrations were determined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Phytic acid content was measured with HPLC. Adding phytate to infant formula lowered Zn availability to 2.84 (sd 0.17) % when the phytate:Zn molar ratio increased to 2.2 as compared with cows' milk-based formula (6.65 (sd 0.55) %). Availability from vegetables (23.83 (sd 2.17) %) significantly decreased at a ratio > 7.9 (15.12 (sd 1.63) %). Zn availability from soyabean-based formula (2.26 (sd 0.36) %) was lower compared with cows' milk-based formula (6.65 (sd 0.55) %). Availability between soyabean- and cows' milk-based formula was similar when a phytate:Zn ratio of 2.2 (2.84 (sd 0.17) %) was obtained in the cows' milk formula. The negative effect of phytic acid on Zn availability was dependent on the type of the food and the phytate content, and should be considered when using soyabean-based formulas during early infancy.

  6. Iodisation of Salt in Slovenia: Increased Availability of Non-Iodised Salt in the Food Supply

    PubMed Central

    Žmitek, Katja; Pravst, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Salt iodisation is considered a key public health measure for assuring adequate iodine intake in iodine-deficient countries. In Slovenia, the iodisation of all salt was made mandatory in 1953. A considerable regulatory change came in 2003 with the mandatory iodisation of rock and evaporated salt only. In addition, joining the European Union’s free single market in 2004 enabled the import of non-iodised salt. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of salt iodising in the food supply. We examined both the availability and sale of (non-)iodised salt. Average sales-weighted iodine levels in salt were calculated using the results of a national monitoring of salt quality. Data on the availability and sales of salts were collected in major food retailers in 2014. Iodised salt represented 59.2% of the salt samples, and 95.9% of salt sales, with an average (sales-weighted) level of 24.2 mg KI/kg of salt. The average sales-weighted KI level in non-iodised salts was 3.5 mg KI/kg. We may conclude that the sales-weighted average iodine levels in iodised salt are in line with the regulatory requirements. However, the regulatory changes and the EU single market have considerably affected the availability of non-iodised salt. While sales of non-iodised salt are still low, non-iodised salt represented 33.7% of the salts in our sample. This indicates the existence of a niche market which could pose a risk of inadequate iodine intake in those who deliberately decide to consume non-iodised salt only. Policymakers need to provide efficient salt iodisation intervention to assure sufficient iodine supply in the future. The reported sales-weighting approach enables cost-efficient monitoring of the iodisation of salt in the food supply. PMID:27438852

  7. Unusually high food availability in Kaikoura Canyon linked to distinct deep-sea nematode community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leduc, D.; Rowden, A. A.; Nodder, S. D.; Berkenbusch, K.; Probert, P. K.; Hadfield, M. G.

    2014-06-01

    Kaikoura Canyon, on the eastern New Zealand continental margin, is the most productive, non-chemosynthetic deep-sea habitat described to date, with megafaunal biomass 100-fold higher than those of other deep-sea habitats. The present study, which focused on free-living nematodes, provides the first comparison of faunal community structure and diversity between Kaikoura Canyon and nearby open slope habitats. Results show substantially higher food availability in the canyon relative to open slope sediments, which probably reflects greater levels of primary productivity above the canyon, coupled with downwelling and/or topographically-induced channelling, which serves to concentrate surface-derived organic matter along the canyon axis. This high food availability appears to be responsible for the elevated nematode biomass in Kaikoura Canyon, with values exceeding all published nematode biomass data from canyons elsewhere. There was also markedly lower local species diversity of nematodes inside the canyon relative to the open slope habitat, as well as a distinct community structure. The canyon community was dominated by species, such as Sabateria pulchra, which were absent from the open slope and are typically associated with highly eutrophic and/or disturbed environments. The presence of these taxa, as well as the low observed diversity, is likely to reflect the high food availability, and potentially the high levels of physically and biologically induced disturbance within the canyon. Kaikoura Canyon is a relatively small habitat characterised by different environmental conditions that makes a disproportionate contribution to deep-sea diversity in the region, despite its low species richness.

  8. Food availability and maternal immunization affect transfer and persistence of maternal antibodies in nestling pigeons.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Ahmad; Jacquin, Lisa; Haussy, Claudy; Legoupi, Julie; Perret, Samuel; Gasparini, Julien

    2013-01-01

    The ability of mothers to transfer antibodies (Abs) to their young and the temporal persistence of maternal Abs in offspring constitute important life-history traits that can impact the evolution of host-parasite interactions. Here, we examined the effects of food availability and parental immunization on the transfer and persistence of maternal antibodies in nestling pigeons (Columba livia). This species can transmit maternal Abs to offspring before hatching through the egg yolk and potentially after hatching through crop milk. However, the role of this postnatal substance in immunity remains elusive. We used a full cross-fostering design to disentangle the effects of food limitation and parental immunization both before and after hatching on the levels and persistence of maternal Abs in chicks. Parents were immunized via injection with keyhole limpet hemocyanin antigens. Using an immunoassay that specifically detected the IgY antibodies that are known to be transmitted via the yolk, we found that the levels of anti-KLH Abs in newly hatched chicks were positively correlated with the levels of anti-KLH Abs in the blood of their biological mothers. However, this correlation was not present between chicks and their foster parents, suggesting limited IgY transfer via crop milk to the chick's bloodstream. Interestingly, biological mothers subjected to food limitation during egg laying transferred significantly fewer specific maternal Abs, which suggests that the transfer of antibodies might be costly for them. In addition, the persistence of maternal Abs in a chick's bloodstream was not affected by food limitation or the foster parents' anti-KLH Ab levels; it was only affected by the initial level of maternal anti-KLH Abs that were present in newly hatched chicks. These results suggest that the maternal transfer of Abs could be costly but that their persistence in an offspring's bloodstream may not necessarily be affected by environmental conditions.

  9. Factors triggering floodplain fish emigration: Importance of fish density and food availability

    PubMed Central

    Louca, Vasilis; Lindsay, Steve W.; Lucas, Martyn C.

    2009-01-01

    Emigration is a widespread phenomenon among fish species in seasonal habitats, but little is known about the factors which trigger this behaviour. In controlled experiments using Tilapia guineensis, a species widely occurring in the seasonal floodplains of West Africa, density of fish played a significant role in triggering fish migration, whereas a lack of food available caused an increase in exploratory behaviour but with no impact on successful emigration. The impact of fish density and subsequently interactions between individuals on emigration suggests that this may be an important causal factor of emigration in fish species exhibiting social interactions. PMID:20161114

  10. Food availability and nest predation influence life history traits in Audouin's gull, Larus audouinii.

    PubMed

    Oro, Daniel; Pradel, Roger; Lebreton, Jean-Dominique

    1999-03-01

    The effects of food availability and nest predation on several life history traits such as adult survival, dispersal, and reproductive performance were assessed in an Audouin's gull (Larus audouinii) colony during the period 1992-1997. The amounts of fish discarded from trawlers were used as a measure of food availability, and a trawling moratorium which partially overlapped with the breeding season of the gulls was taken into account. The effects of nest predation were assessed in 1994, when a terrestrial predator entered the colony and remained for the whole breeding season preying on both eggs and chicks. Using the moratorium and the predatory event as natural experiments, several hypotheses were tested: (a) food supply would affect breeding performance but not adult survival (independently of age and sex), since gulls are long-lived and adult survival is the most sensitive demographic parameter in their population dynamics; (b) the predator would trigger breeding dispersal (although gulls are mostly philopatric, they are known to abandon their natal colony after breeding failure instigated by events such as this). If breeding dispersal occurs, the rate is expected to be higher in females than in males, and higher in new breeders than in more experienced breeding birds, as is usually recorded in colonial seabirds. Probabilities of resighting and survival were estimated separately, using capture-recapture models. As expected, changes in food availability did not affect adult survival, whereas they influenced egg volume, clutch size, and breeding success. Local adult survival was estimated to be 0.908 (SD = 0.007) for males and females, and it did not change significantly with the age of individuals (range 3-8 years). The predator significantly decreased breeding success, and caused the dispersal of a number of adults probably to breed in another colony; this rate was estimated at an average of 0.10 (SD = 0.02). As expected, inexperienced breeders

  11. Effects of food availability on growth and reproduction of the deep-sea pedunculate barnacle Heteralepas canci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Natsumi; Miyamoto, Norio; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Tomoko; Yusa, Yoichi

    2016-02-01

    Sessile animals living on continental shelves or slopes may adjust their growth and reproduction according to temporally and spatially variable food availability, but little information is available on these animals to date. We collected the pedunculate barnacle Heteralepas canci on a continental slope at a depth of 229 m off Cape Nomamisaki in southern Japan. We developed a rearing method for the barnacles and studied their growth and reproduction at different food levels in the laboratory. A total of 136 individual H. canci were fed with Artemia salina larvae and brewer's yeast at three different food levels for 100 days. Both the growth and the ovary development were delayed when food availability was low, whereas the survival rate was lower at the high food level. In addition, an individual survived under complete starvation for 167 days. We concluded that H. canci has plastic life history traits that are adaptive for variable food availability.

  12. Drivers of household food availability in sub-Saharan Africa based on big data from small farms.

    PubMed

    Frelat, Romain; Lopez-Ridaura, Santiago; Giller, Ken E; Herrero, Mario; Douxchamps, Sabine; Andersson Djurfeldt, Agnes; Erenstein, Olaf; Henderson, Ben; Kassie, Menale; Paul, Birthe K; Rigolot, Cyrille; Ritzema, Randall S; Rodriguez, Daniel; van Asten, Piet J A; van Wijk, Mark T

    2016-01-12

    We calculated a simple indicator of food availability using data from 93 sites in 17 countries across contrasted agroecologies in sub-Saharan Africa (>13,000 farm households) and analyzed the drivers of variations in food availability. Crop production was the major source of energy, contributing 60% of food availability. The off-farm income contribution to food availability ranged from 12% for households without enough food available (18% of the total sample) to 27% for the 58% of households with sufficient food available. Using only three explanatory variables (household size, number of livestock, and land area), we were able to predict correctly the agricultural determined status of food availability for 72% of the households, but the relationships were strongly influenced by the degree of market access. Our analyses suggest that targeting poverty through improving market access and off-farm opportunities is a better strategy to increase food security than focusing on agricultural production and closing yield gaps. This calls for multisectoral policy harmonization, incentives, and diversification of employment sources rather than a singular focus on agricultural development. Recognizing and understanding diversity among smallholder farm households in sub-Saharan Africa is key for the design of policies that aim to improve food security.

  13. Drivers of household food availability in sub-Saharan Africa based on big data from small farms

    PubMed Central

    Frelat, Romain; Lopez-Ridaura, Santiago; Herrero, Mario; Douxchamps, Sabine; Djurfeldt, Agnes Andersson; Erenstein, Olaf; Henderson, Ben; Kassie, Menale; Paul, Birthe K.; Rigolot, Cyrille; Ritzema, Randall S.; Rodriguez, Daniel; van Asten, Piet J. A.; van Wijk, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    We calculated a simple indicator of food availability using data from 93 sites in 17 countries across contrasted agroecologies in sub-Saharan Africa (>13,000 farm households) and analyzed the drivers of variations in food availability. Crop production was the major source of energy, contributing 60% of food availability. The off-farm income contribution to food availability ranged from 12% for households without enough food available (18% of the total sample) to 27% for the 58% of households with sufficient food available. Using only three explanatory variables (household size, number of livestock, and land area), we were able to predict correctly the agricultural determined status of food availability for 72% of the households, but the relationships were strongly influenced by the degree of market access. Our analyses suggest that targeting poverty through improving market access and off-farm opportunities is a better strategy to increase food security than focusing on agricultural production and closing yield gaps. This calls for multisectoral policy harmonization, incentives, and diversification of employment sources rather than a singular focus on agricultural development. Recognizing and understanding diversity among smallholder farm households in sub-Saharan Africa is key for the design of policies that aim to improve food security. PMID:26712016

  14. Food availability in exotic grasslands: a potential mechanism for depauperate breeding assemblages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Andrew D.; O'Connell, Timothy J.; Hickman, Karen R.; Leslie,, David M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the influence of Old World bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum; OWB) monocultures on grassland bird abundance through analysis of vegetation structure and food availability. We compared breeding bird density, vegetation structure and composition, and arthropod biomass between six native grass and six OWB fields in the southern Great Plains. The OWB fields supported 1.70 ± 0.27 (mean ± SE) Grasshopper Sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum) per ha compared to 0.95 ± 0.25 in native grass fields, but total species richness was greater in native grass fields (40 versus 28 species). Density of some bird species was correlated with vegetation structure regardless of field type, suggesting that management practices may be more influential than plant species composition. Mean arthropod biomass was 3.39× greater in native grass fields than in OWB monocultures. Native grass fields provided habitat for a larger complement of birds than did OWB monocultures, and reduced food availability in OWB fields suggests a mechanism for that difference.

  15. NASA’s Sense of Snow: the Airborne Snow Observatory

    NASA Video Gallery

    Water is a critical resource in the western U.S. NASA’s Airborne Snow Observatory is giving California water agencies the first complete measurements of the water available in the Sierra snowpack ...

  16. Snow-Cover Variability in North America in the 2000-2001 Winter as Determined from MODIS Snow Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Salomonson, Vincent V.; Riggs, George A.; Chien, Janet Y. L.; Houser, Paul R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow-cover maps have been available since September 13, 2000. These products, at 500 m spatial resolution, are available through the National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center in Boulder, Colorado. By the 2001-02 winter, 5 km climate-modeling grid (CMG) products will be available for presentation of global views of snow cover and for use in climate models. All MODIS snow-cover products are produced from automated algorithms that map snow in an objective manner. In this paper, we describe the MODIS snow products, and show snow maps from the fall of 2000 in North America.

  17. The effect of fast-food availability on fast-food consumption and obesity among rural residents: an analysis by race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Richard A; Sharkey, Joseph R; Horel, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Rural areas of the United States tend to have higher obesity rates than urban areas, particularly in regions with high proportions of non-white residents. This paper analyzes the effect of fast-food availability on the level of fast-food consumption and obesity risk among both white and non-white residents of central Texas. Potential endogeneity of fast-food availability is addressed through instrumental variables regression using distance to the nearest major highway as an instrument. We find that non-whites tend to exhibit higher obesity rates, greater access to fast-food establishments and higher consumption of fast-food meals compared to their white counterparts. In addition, we found that whites and non-whites respond differently to the availability of fast-food in rural environments. Greater availability is not associated with either greater consumption of fast-food meals or a higher obesity risk among the sample of whites. In contrast, greater availability of fast-food is positively associated with both the number of meals consumed for non-white rural residents and their obesity. While our results are robust to specification, the effect of availability on weight outcomes is notably weaker when indirectly calculated from the implied relationship between consumption and caloric intake. This highlights the importance of directly examining the proposed mechanism through which an environmental factor influences weight outcomes.

  18. Effect of food availability and leptin on the physiology and hypothalamic gene expression of the golden spiny mouse: a desert rodent that does not hoard food.

    PubMed

    Gutman, Roee; Hacmon-Keren, Ronit; Choshniak, Itzhak; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga

    2008-12-01

    Food availability and quality in desert habitats are spatially and temporally unpredictable, and animals face periods of food shortage. The golden spiny mouse (Acomys russatus) is an omnivorous desert rodent that does not hoard food, requiring it to withstand such periods by physiological means alone. In response to food restriction, plasma leptin concentrations, core body temperature, and energy expenditure of the spiny mouse decrease significantly after 24 h, and most spiny mice are able to maintain their body mass to approximately 85% of ad libitum for a prolonged period of time. Both 1-day food deprivation and long-term food restriction had a significant effect on body mass and plasma leptin concentrations, which decreased significantly with a high correlation, as well as on the orexigenic agouti-related protein, which increased significantly as a result of the 24-h food deprivation; and on neuropeptide Y (NPY), in which the increase was more pronounced under long-term food restriction. Food restriction and food deprivation had no effect, however, on the anorexigenic pro-opiomelanocortin and cocaine and amphetamine-related transcript. Leptin administration to food-restricted spiny mice did not affect food intake or the rate of decrease in body mass, indicating that it cannot overcome the drive to eat when food is scarce. However, it did result in a significant decrease in NPY levels, and the spiny mice spent less time at low body temperatures compared with PBS-treated golden spiny mice. These results show that in food-restricted golden spiny mice, leptin affects thermogenesis, but not food consumption, and suggest that the thermoregulatory effects of leptin are mediated by NPY.

  19. Distributions of Competing Container Mosquitoes Depend on Detritus Types, Nutrient Ratios, and Food Availability

    PubMed Central

    Murrell, Ebony G.; Damal, Kavitha; Lounibos, L. P.; Juliano, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    Coexistence of competitors may result if resources are sufficiently abundant to render competition unimportant, or if species differ in resource requirements. Detritus type has been shown to affect interspecific competitive outcomes between Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (L.) larvae under controlled conditions. We assessed the relationships among spatial distributions of detritus types, nutrients, and aquatic larvae of these species in nature. We collected mosquitoes, water, and detritus from artificial containers across 24 Florida cemeteries that varied in relative abundances of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus.We measured nutrient content of fine particulate organic matter in water samples as total N, P, and C and ratios of these nutrients. We quantified food availability via a bioassay, raising individual Aedes larvae in the laboratory in standard volumes of field-collected, particulate-containing water from each cemetery. Quantities of detritus types collected in standard containers were significant predictors of nutrients and nutrient ratios. Nutrient abundances were significant predictors of relative abundance of Ae. aegypti, and of larval survival and development by both species in the bioassay. Survival and development of larvae reared in particulate-containing water from sites decreased with decreasing relative abundance of Ae. aegypti. These data suggest that N, P, and C availabilities are determined by detritus inputs to containers and that these nutrients in turn determine the feeding environment encountered by larvae, the intensity of interspecific competition among larvae, and subsequent relative abundances of species at sites. Detritus inputs, nutrients, and food availability thus seem to contribute to distributions of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in cemetery containers throughout Florida. PMID:22707761

  20. Utilizing Multiple Datasets for Snow Cover Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tait, Andrew B.; Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; Armstrong, Richard L.

    1999-01-01

    Snow-cover maps generated from surface data are based on direct measurements, however they are prone to interpolation errors where climate stations are sparsely distributed. Snow cover is clearly discernable using satellite-attained optical data because of the high albedo of snow, yet the surface is often obscured by cloud cover. Passive microwave (PM) data is unaffected by clouds, however, the snow-cover signature is significantly affected by melting snow and the microwaves may be transparent to thin snow (less than 3cm). Both optical and microwave sensors have problems discerning snow beneath forest canopies. This paper describes a method that combines ground and satellite data to produce a Multiple-Dataset Snow-Cover Product (MDSCP). Comparisons with current snow-cover products show that the MDSCP draws together the advantages of each of its component products while minimizing their potential errors. Improved estimates of the snow-covered area are derived through the addition of two snow-cover classes ("thin or patchy" and "high elevation" snow cover) and from the analysis of the climate station data within each class. The compatibility of this method for use with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, which will be available in 2000, is also discussed. With the assimilation of these data, the resolution of the MDSCP would be improved both spatially and temporally and the analysis would become completely automated.

  1. In kittiwakes food availability partially explains the seasonal decline in humoral immunocompetence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gasparini, J.; Roulin, A.; Gill, V.A.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Boulinier, T.

    2006-01-01

    1. The immune system plays an important role in fitness, and interindividual variation in immunocompetence is due to several factors including food supply. 2. Seasonal variation in food resources may therefore explain why immunocompetence in bird nestlings usually declines throughout the breeding season, with chicks born early in the season receiving more food than chicks born later, and thereby possibly developing a more potent immune system. Although there are studies supporting this hypothesis, none has been experimental. 3. We performed an experiment in the kittiwake Rissa tridactyla by manipulating the food supply of pairs that were left to produce a first brood, and of pairs that were induced to produce a late replacement brood. 4. If food supply mediates, at least partially, seasonal variations in chick immunocompetence, non-food-supplemented chicks would show a stronger seasonal decline in immunocompetence than food-supplemented chicks. 5. Food supplementation improved humoral immunocompetence (the production of immunoglobulins Y), but not T-cell immunocompetence (phytohaemagglutinin, PHA response). T-cell immunocompetence of food-supplemented and non-food- supplemented chicks decreased through the season but to a similar extent, whereas the humoral immunocompetence of non-food-supplemented chicks decreased more strongly than that of food-supplemented chicks. 6. Our results suggest that the seasonal decline in humoral immunocompetence can be explained, at least partly, by variations in food supply throughout the breeding season. ?? 2006 British Ecological Society.

  2. Food availability outweighs ocean acidification effects in juvenile Mytilus edulis: laboratory and field experiments.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Jörn; Casties, Isabel; Pansch, Christian; Körtzinger, Arne; Melzner, Frank

    2013-04-01

    Ocean acidification is expected to decrease calcification rates of bivalves. Nevertheless, in many coastal areas high pCO2 variability is encountered already today. Kiel Fjord (Western Baltic Sea) is a brackish (12-20 g kg(-1) ) and CO2 enriched habitat, but the blue mussel Mytilus edulis dominates the benthic community. In a coupled field and laboratory study we examined the annual pCO2 variability in this habitat and the combined effects of elevated pCO2 and food availability on juvenile M. edulis growth and calcification. In the laboratory experiment, mussel growth and calcification were found to chiefly depend on food supply, with only minor impacts of pCO2 up to 3350 μatm. Kiel Fjord was characterized by strong seasonal pCO2 variability. During summer, maximal pCO2 values of 2500 μatm were observed at the surface and >3000 μatm at the bottom. However, the field growth experiment revealed seven times higher growth and calcification rates of M. edulis at a high pCO2 inner fjord field station (mean pCO2 ca. 1000 μatm) in comparison to a low pCO2 outer fjord station (ca. 600 μatm). In addition, mussels were able to out-compete the barnacle Amphibalanus improvisus at the high pCO2 site. High mussel productivity at the inner fjord site was enabled by higher particulate organic carbon concentrations. Kiel Fjord is highly impacted by eutrophication, which causes bottom water hypoxia and consequently high seawater pCO2 . At the same time, elevated nutrient concentrations increase the energy availability for filter feeding organisms such as mussels. Thus, M. edulis can dominate over a seemingly more acidification resistant species such as A. improvisus. We conclude that benthic stages of M. edulis tolerate high ambient pCO2 when food supply is abundant and that important habitat characteristics such as species interactions and energy availability need to be considered to predict species vulnerability to ocean acidification.

  3. Food availability and competition do not modulate the costs of Plasmodium infection in dominant male canaries.

    PubMed

    Larcombe, Stephen; Bichet, Coraline; Cornet, Stéphane; Faivre, Bruno; Sorci, Gabriele

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the different factors that may influence parasite virulence is of fundamental interest to ecologists and evolutionary biologists. It has recently been demonstrated that parasite virulence may occur partly through manipulation of host competitive ability. Differences in competitive ability associated with the social status (dominant or subordinate) of a host may determine the extent of this competition-mediated parasite virulence. We proposed that differences between subordinate and dominant birds in the physiological costs of infection may change depending on the level of competition in social groups. We observed flocks of domestic canaries to determine dominant or subordinate birds, and modified competition by providing restricted (high competition) or ad libitum food (low competition). Entire flocks were then infected with either the avian malaria parasite, Plasmodium relictum or a control. Contrary to our predictions we found that the level of competition had no effect on the outcome of infection for dominant or subordinate birds. We found that dominant birds appeared to suffer greater infection mediated morbidity in both dietary treatments, with a higher and more sustained reduction in haematocrit, and higher parasitaemia, than subordinates. Our results show that dominance status in birds can certainly alter parasite virulence, though the links between food availability, competition, nutrition and virulence are likely to be complex and multifaceted.

  4. Basking behaviour in relation to energy use and food availability in one of the smallest marsupials.

    PubMed

    Warnecke, Lisa; Schleucher, Elke; Geiser, Fritz

    2010-10-05

    Although several mammals have been observed to bask in the sun, little is known about this behaviour or its energetic consequences. We investigated the importance of basking behaviour for one of the smallest marsupials, Planigale gilesi (9g). Metabolic rates of captive planigales (n=6) exposed to simulated natural conditions with access to a radiant heat source were measured. Basking behaviour as a function of food availability was quantified using a video camera installed within the planigales' home cages (n=7). All planigales basked during respirometry measurements, reducing resting energy expenditure by 58% at an ambient temperature of 15 degrees C, which reflects conditions in their nesting sites in the wild during winter. Basking behaviour in home cages was displayed by all but one planigale; food withdrawal either triggered basking or it caused a significant increase in basking duration. Our study demonstrates the effectiveness of basking for reducing energy expenditure in one of the smallest marsupials, supporting recent findings on the importance of behavioural thermoregulation in small mammals in general.

  5. Drepanidine movements in relation to food availability in subalpine woodland on Mauna Kea, Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Steven C.; Banko, Paul C.; Reynolds, Michelle H.; Brenner, Gregory J.; Laniawe, Leona P.; Jacobi, James D.

    2001-01-01

    Flowers of the mamane tree (Sophoru chrysophylla) are the primary nectar source for Hawaiian honeycreepers in subalpine woodland on Mauna Kea Volcano on the island of Hawai‘i. Mamane seeds are the primary food resource of the endangered Palila (Loxioides bailleui), which is now restricted to subalpine woodland on Mauna Kea. The objectives of this study were to determine the patterns and relative scales of movements of the drepanidine community in relationship to food availability and tree density on leeward Mauna Kea. ‘I‘iwi (Vestiaria coccinea) and ‘Apapane (Himatione sanguinea) densities were related to mamane flower abundance. Palila densities were related to mamane pod abundance. These species also had higher densities in mamane woodland than in naiomamane woodland, unlike the more insectivorous Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) whose densities did not differ between woodland types. Palila and Hawai’i ‘Amakihi do not make movements on the same scale as ‘I‘iwi and ‘Apapane, whose densities changed by more than an order of magnitude. Ungulate eradication, grass reduction, tire management, and restored corridors of mamane woodland would benefit all drepanidines on Mauna Kea, particularly the Palila.

  6. 78 FR 68852 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Acrylamide in Foods; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... form in some foods during certain types of high-temperature cooking. The draft guidance is intended to.... Acrylamide is a chemical that can form in some foods during certain types of high-temperature cooking, and...

  7. ESA SnowLab project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesmann, Andreas; Caduff, Rafael; Frey, Othmar; Werner, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Retrieval of the snow water equivalaent (SWE) from passive microwave observations dates back over three decades to initial studies made using the first operational radiometers in space. However, coarse spatial resolution (25 km) is an acknowledged limitation for the application of passive microwave measurements. The natural variability of snow cover itself is also notable; properties such as stratigraphy and snow microstructure change both spatially and over time, affecting the microwave signature. To overcome this deficit, the satellite mission COld REgions Hydrology High-resolution Observatory (CoReH2O) was proposed to the European Space Agency (ESA) in 2005 in response to the call for Earth Explorer 7 candidate missions. CoReH2O was a dual frequency (X- and Ku-band) SAR mission aimed to provide maps of SWE over land and snow accumulation on glaciers at a spatial resolution of 200 to 500 meters with an unprecedented accuracy. Within the frame of preparatory studies for CoReH2O Phase A, ESA undertook several research initiatives from 2009 to 2013 to study the mission concept and capabilities of the proposed sensor. These studies provided a wealth of information on emission and backscattering signatures of natural snow cover, which can be exploited to study new potential mission concepts for retrieval of snow cover properties and other elements of the cryosphere. Currently data related to multi-frequency, multi-polarisation, multitemporal of active and passive microwave measurements are still not available. In addition, new methods related to e.g. tomography are currently under development and need to be tested with real data. Also, the potential of interferometric and polarimetric measurements of the snow cover and its possible impact for novel mission/retrieval concepts must be assessed. . The objective of the SnowLab activity is to fill this gap and complement these datasets from earlier campaigns by acquiring a comprehensive multi-frequency, multi

  8. Evaluating the Impact of a Connecticut Program to Reduce Availability of Unhealthy Competitive Food in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Michael W.; Henderson, Kathryn E.; Schwartz, Marlene B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: This article seeks to inform state and local school food policies by evaluating the impact of Connecticut's Healthy Food Certification (HFC), a program which provides monetary incentives to school districts that choose to implement state nutrition standards for all foods sold to students outside reimbursable school meals. Methods: Food…

  9. Analysis for availability of amino acid supplements in foods and feeds: biochemical and nutritional implications.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, H T

    1978-01-01

    In formulated diets based on cereal grains, lysine and/or methionine are usually deficient as well as often being the first amino acids limiting the nutritional value of such diets. Deficiency of these two amino acids in nutritional practice is compensated by synthetic L-lysine and DL-methionine supplementation or by the introduction of various protein sources - rich in lysine and methionine. Among all essential amino acids lysine is most liable and subject to damage during the processing of foods and feeds which can cause the "deepening" of the lysine deficiency not on the total but on the physiologically-available lysine basis. Hence, the simultaneous lysine deficiency and biological "sufficiency" problem is discussed using examples of practical diets in which a balance of biologically-active substances was achieved by the formulation and optimalisation according to the needs of animals, taking into account physiological lysine "accessibility" - "availability". Growth rate, nitrogen balance data and chemical composition of the tissue in long term trials are the most valid indication justifying the quantity of amino acid supplements to the practical diets. Prediction of the practical results of dietary amino acid balance from various short-term chemical and biological tests can give misleading results. Their application in nutritional practice is restricted to particular types of foods/feeds, and to specific processing systems and test conditions. Observations of the appearances of most limiting, dietary amino acids in the blood after the meal do not provide a complete nutritional characteristics of practical rations due to complex regulatory mechanisms in protein and amino acid metabolism much of which are not yet fully understood.

  10. City snow's physicochemical property affects snow disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dovbysh, V. O.; Sharukha, A. V.; Evtin, P. V.; Vershinina, S. V.

    2015-10-01

    At the present day the industrial cities run into severe problem: fallen snow in a city it's a concentrator of pollutants and their quantity is constantly increasing by technology development. Pollution of snow increases because of emission of gases to the atmosphere by cars and factories. Large accumulation of polluted snow engenders many vexed ecological problems. That's why we need a new, non-polluting, scientifically based method of snow disposal. This paper investigates polluted snow's physicochemical property effects on snow melting. A distinctive feature of the ion accelerators with self-magnetically insulated diode is that there.

  11. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Economically Depressed Areas Strand: Foods and Nutrition. Module III-C-1: Food Availability in Economically Depressed Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Fresno. Dept. of Home Economics.

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on food availability in economically depressed areas (EDA) is the first in a set of three modules on foods and nutrition in economically depressed areas. (This set is part of a larger set of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking…

  12. Food outlet availability, deprivation and obesity in a multi-ethnic sample of pregnant women in Bradford, UK.

    PubMed

    Fraser, L K; Edwards, K L; Tominitz, M; Clarke, G P; Hill, A J

    2012-09-01

    The obesogenic environment model would suggest that increased availability or access to energy dense foods which are high in saturated fat may be related to obesity. The association between food outlet location, deprivation, weight status and ethnicity was analysed using individual level data on a sample of 1198 pregnant women in the UK Born in Bradford cohort using geographic information systems (GIS) methodology. In the non South Asian group 24% were obese as were 17% of the South Asian group (BMI > 30). Food outlet identification methods revealed 886 outlets that were allocated into 5 categories of food shops. More than 95% of all participants lived within 500 m of a fast food outlet. Women in higher areas of deprivation had greater access to fast food outlets and to other forms of food shops. Contrary to hypotheses, there was a negative association between BMI and fast food outlet density in close (250 m) proximity in the South Asian group. Overall, these women had greater access to all food stores including fast food outlets compared to the non South Asian group. The stronger association between area level deprivation and fast food density than with area level deprivation and obesity argues for more detailed accounts of the obesogenic environment that include measures of individual behaviour.

  13. Fat Tissue Accretion in Children and Adolescents: Interplay between Food Responsiveness, Gender, and the Home Availability of Snacks

    PubMed Central

    De Decker, Annelies; Verbeken, Sandra; Sioen, Isabelle; Moens, Ellen; Braet, Caroline; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2017-01-01

    The appetitive trait “food responsiveness” is assumed to be a risk factor for adiposity gain primarily in obesogenic environments. So far, the reported results are inconsistent in school-aged children, possibly because these studies did not take into account important moderators such as gender and the food-environment. In order to better inform caregivers, clinicians and the developers of targeted obesity-prevention interventions on the conditions in which food responsiveness precedes adiposity gain, the current study investigated if this relationship is stronger in girls and in children exposed to a higher home availability of energy-dense snacks. Age- and sex-independent Fat and Lean Mass Index z-scores were computed based on air-displacement plethysmography at baseline and after 2 years in a community sample of 129 children (48.8% boys) aged 7.5–14 years at baseline. Parents reported at baseline on children's food responsiveness and the home availability of energy-dense snacks. Food responsiveness was a significant predictor of increases in Fat Mass Index z-scores over 2 years in girls but not boys. The home availability of energy-dense snacks did not significantly moderate the relation of food responsiveness with Fat Mass Index z-score changes. The results suggest that food responsiveness precedes accelerated fat tissue accretion in girls, and may inform targeted obesity-prevention interventions. Further, future research should investigate to which food-environmental parameters children high in food responsiveness mainly respond. PMID:28101078

  14. Transitions at CpG Dinucleotides, Geographic Clustering of TP53 Mutations and Food Availability Patterns in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Verginelli, Fabio; Bishehsari, Faraz; Napolitano, Francesco; Mahdavinia, Mahboobeh; Cama, Alessandro; Malekzadeh, Reza; Miele, Gennaro; Raiconi, Giancarlo; Tagliaferri, Roberto; Mariani-Costantini, Renato

    2009-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is mainly attributed to diet, but the role exerted by foods remains unclear because involved factors are extremely complex. Geography substantially impacts on foods. Correlations between international variation in colorectal cancer-associated mutation patterns and food availabilities could highlight the influence of foods on colorectal mutagenesis. Methodology To test such hypothesis, we applied techniques based on hierarchical clustering, feature extraction and selection, and statistical pattern recognition to the analysis of 2,572 colorectal cancer-associated TP53 mutations from 12 countries/geographic areas. For food availabilities, we relied on data extracted from the Food Balance Sheets of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Dendrograms for mutation sites, mutation types and food patterns were constructed through Ward's hierarchical clustering algorithm and their stability was assessed evaluating silhouette values. Feature selection used entropy-based measures for similarity between clusterings, combined with principal component analysis by exhaustive and heuristic approaches. Conclusion/Significance Mutations clustered in two major geographic groups, one including only Western countries, the other Asia and parts of Europe. This was determined by variation in the frequency of transitions at CpGs, the most common mutation type. Higher frequencies of transitions at CpGs in the cluster that included only Western countries mainly reflected higher frequencies of mutations at CpG codons 175, 248 and 273, the three major TP53 hotspots. Pearson's correlation scores, computed between the principal components of the datamatrices for mutation types, food availability and mutation sites, demonstrated statistically significant correlations between transitions at CpGs and both mutation sites and availabilities of meat, milk, sweeteners and animal fats, the energy-dense foods at the basis of “Western” diets. This is

  15. MODIS Snow and Sea Ice Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.; Salomonson, Vincent V.

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe the suite of Earth Observing System (EOS) Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra and Aqua snow and sea ice products. Global, daily products, developed at Goddard Space Flight Center, are archived and distributed through the National Snow and Ice Data Center at various resolutions and on different grids useful for different communities Snow products include binary snow cover, snow albedo, and in the near future, fraction of snow in a 5OO-m pixel. Sea ice products include ice extent determined with two different algorithms, and sea ice surface temperature. The algorithms used to develop these products are described. Both the snow and sea ice products, available since February 24,2000, are useful for modelers. Validation of the products is also discussed.

  16. Storing snow for the next winter: Two case studies on the application of snow farming.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünewald, Thomas; Wolfsperger, Fabian

    2016-04-01

    Snow farming is the conservation of snow during the warm half-year. This means that large piles of snow are formed in spring in order to be conserved over the summer season. Well-insulating materials such as chipped wood are added as surface cover to reduce melting. The aim of snow farming is to provide a "snow guaranty" for autumn or early winter - this means that a specific amount of snow will definitively be available, independent of the weather conditions. The conserved snow can then be used as basis for the preparation of winter sports grounds such as cross-country tracks or ski runs. This helps in the organization of early winter season sport events such as World Cup races or to provide appropriate training conditions for athletes. We present a study on two snow farming projects, one in Davos (Switzerland) and one in the Martell valley of South Tyrol. At both places snow farming has been used for several years. For the summer season 2015, we monitored both snow piles in order to assess the amount of snow conserved. High resolution terrestrial laser scanning was performed to measure snow volumes of the piles at the beginning and at the end of the summer period. Results showed that only 20% to 30 % of the snow mass was lost due to ablation. This mass loss was surprisingly low considering the extremely warm and dry summer. In order to identify the most relevant drivers of snow melt we also present simulations with the sophisticated snow cover models SNOWPACK and Alpine3D. The simulations are driven by meteorological input data recorded in the vicinity of the piles and enable a detailed analysis of the relevant processes controlling the energy balance. The models can be applied to optimize settings for snow farming and to examine the suitability of new locations, configurations or cover material for future snow farming projects.

  17. Effect of food availability on the growth and thermal physiology of juvenile Dungeness crabs (Metacarcinus magister).

    PubMed

    McLean, Katherine M; Todgham, Anne E

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile Dungeness crabs spend ~1 year in the San Francisco Estuary, where they undergo considerable growth before returning to the coastal ocean. Previous studies suggest that competition, food scarcity and avoidance of conspecifics may cause some juvenile Dungeness crabs in the San Francisco Estuary to become food limited. Food limitation may force these crabs to forage in higher temperature intertidal environments in the estuary, exposing them to stressful conditions in order to sustain growth and, potentially, necessitating physiological trade-offs in energy allocation between growth and stress tolerance. To investigate the effects of food limitation on aerobic metabolism and physiological performance of crabs, we assessed growth, moulting frequency, metabolic rate, citrate synthase and malate dehydrogenase enzyme activity and cardiac performance, as an index of temperature sensitivity and upper temperature tolerance. Summer- and winter-caught crabs were acclimated to either a high- or a low-food ration for 5 weeks. Overall, our results demonstrated that while food limitation had a negative effect on growth of juvenile Dungeness crabs in both the summer and the winter feeding trials, crabs in the low-food group maintained both metabolic rate at ambient San Francisco Estuary temperatures (15°C; summer trial only) and upper temperature tolerance as determined by failure of cardiac function when compared with crabs in the high-food group (summer and winter trials). Therefore, the ability to maintain stress tolerance when food is limited appears to come as a physiological trade-off to growth. Food-limited crabs were unable to increase their metabolic rate to the same level as that achieved by well-fed crabs; therefore, if exposure to elevated temperatures persists and requires more energy than can be met by crabs in their food-limited state, physiological performance may be compromised.

  18. Effect of food availability on the growth and thermal physiology of juvenile Dungeness crabs (Metacarcinus magister)

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Katherine M.; Todgham, Anne E.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile Dungeness crabs spend ~1 year in the San Francisco Estuary, where they undergo considerable growth before returning to the coastal ocean. Previous studies suggest that competition, food scarcity and avoidance of conspecifics may cause some juvenile Dungeness crabs in the San Francisco Estuary to become food limited. Food limitation may force these crabs to forage in higher temperature intertidal environments in the estuary, exposing them to stressful conditions in order to sustain growth and, potentially, necessitating physiological trade-offs in energy allocation between growth and stress tolerance. To investigate the effects of food limitation on aerobic metabolism and physiological performance of crabs, we assessed growth, moulting frequency, metabolic rate, citrate synthase and malate dehydrogenase enzyme activity and cardiac performance, as an index of temperature sensitivity and upper temperature tolerance. Summer- and winter-caught crabs were acclimated to either a high- or a low-food ration for 5 weeks. Overall, our results demonstrated that while food limitation had a negative effect on growth of juvenile Dungeness crabs in both the summer and the winter feeding trials, crabs in the low-food group maintained both metabolic rate at ambient San Francisco Estuary temperatures (15°C; summer trial only) and upper temperature tolerance as determined by failure of cardiac function when compared with crabs in the high-food group (summer and winter trials). Therefore, the ability to maintain stress tolerance when food is limited appears to come as a physiological trade-off to growth. Food-limited crabs were unable to increase their metabolic rate to the same level as that achieved by well-fed crabs; therefore, if exposure to elevated temperatures persists and requires more energy than can be met by crabs in their food-limited state, physiological performance may be compromised. PMID:27293698

  19. Added sugar in the packaged foods and beverages available at a major Canadian retailer in 2015: a descriptive analysis

    PubMed Central

    Acton, Rachel B.; Vanderlee, Lana; Hobin, Erin P.; Hammond, David

    2017-01-01

    Background: Excess consumption of added sugars has been associated with a variety of health problems, but there is little information available characterizing added sugar in the Canadian food supply. This study examined the presence and types of added sugars in the packaged food and beverage products available at a major Canadian grocery retailer. Methods: We searched the ingredients lists of over 40 000 packaged food products available for sale in March 2015 for a variety of added sugar terms. Proportions of food products containing added sugar were identified overall and within food product categories. Differences in total sugar content were identified between food products with and without added sugar. Results: Overall, 66% of the packaged food products analyzed contained at least 1 added sugar. The added sugar term "sugar" (and its variations) appeared the most frequently, followed by "dextrose." Added sugar presence and total sugar content varied within many product categories but were consistently higher in expected categories such as "beverages." Mean total sugar content was significantly higher in products with added sugar than in those without, both overall (p < 0.001) and within most product subcategories (p < 0.02). Interpretation: About two-thirds of the packaged foods and beverages available at a major Canadian grocery retailer contain added sugar, similar to recent patterns estimated for the US food supply. The results provide an estimation of the baseline characterization of added sugar in the Canadian food supply, which can be used to assess outcomes of future changes to sugar labelling policies in Canada.

  20. 77 FR 45329 - Availability of Microbial Risk Assessment Guideline: Pathogenic Microorganisms With Focus on Food...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... Microorganisms With Focus on Food and in Water AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice....usda.gov ; phone: (202) 690-6451; or, Michael Broder, Office of the Science Advisor, Mail Code 8105-R...: broder.michael@epa.gov ; phone: (202) 564- 3393. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background Risk...

  1. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay gliadin assessment in processed food products available for persons with celiac disease: a feasibility study for developing a gluten-free food database.

    PubMed

    Agakidis, Charalampos; Karagiozoglou-Lampoudi, Thomais; Kalaitsidou, Marina; Papadopoulos, Theodoros; Savvidou, Afroditi; Daskalou, Efstratia; Dimitrios, Triantafyllou

    2011-12-01

    Inappropriate food labeling and unwillingness of food companies to officially register their own gluten-free products in the Greek National Food Intolerance Database (NFID) result in a limited range of processed food products available for persons with celiac disease (CDP). The objective of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of developing a gluten-free food product database based on the assessment of the gluten content in processed foods available for CDP. Gluten was assessed in 41 processed food products available for CDP. Group A consisted of 26 products for CDP included in the NFID, and group B contained 15 food products for CDP not registered in the NFID but listed in the safe lists of the local Celiac Association (CA). High-sensitivity ω-gliadin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for analysis. Gluten was lower than 20 ppm in 37 of 41 analyzed products (90.2%): in 24 of 26 (92.3%) products in group A and in 13 of 15 (86.7%) products in group B (P = .61). No significant difference was found between the 2 groups regarding gluten content. No product in either group contained gluten in excess of 100 ppm. Most of the analyzed products included in the Greek NFID or listed in the lists of the local CA, even those not officially labeled "gluten free," can be safely consumed by CDP. The use of commercially available ω-gliadin ELISA is able to identify those products that contain inappropriate levels of gluten, making feasible it to develop an integrated gluten-free processed food database.

  2. Population effects of growth hormone transgenic coho salmon depend on food availability and genotype by environment interactions.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Robert H; D'Andrade, Mark; Uh, Mitchell; Biagi, Carlo A

    2004-06-22

    Environmental risk assessment of genetically modified organisms requires determination of their fitness and invasiveness relative to conspecifics and other ecosystem members. Cultured growth hormone transgenic coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) have enhanced feeding capacity and growth, which can result in large enhancements in body size (>7-fold) relative to nontransgenic salmon, but in nature, the ability to compete for available food is a key factor determining survival fitness and invasiveness of a genotype. When transgenic and nontransgenic salmon were cohabitated and competed for different levels of food, transgenic salmon consistently outgrew nontransgenic fish and could affect the growth of nontransgenic cohorts except when food availability was high. When food abundance was low, dominant individuals emerged, invariably transgenic, that directed strong agonistic and cannibalistic behavior to cohorts and dominated the acquisition of limited food resources. When food availability was low, all groups containing transgenic salmon experienced population crashes or complete extinctions, whereas groups containing only nontransgenic salmon had good (72.0 +/- 4.3% SE) survival, and their population biomass continued to increase. Thus, effects of growth hormone transgenic salmon on experimental populations were primarily mediated by an interaction between food availability and population structure. These data, while indicative of forces which may act on natural populations, also underscore the importance of genotype by environment interactions in influencing risk assessment data for genetically modified organisms and suggest that, for species such as salmon which are derived from large complex ecosystems, considerable caution is warranted in applying data from individual studies.

  3. Using direct observations on multiple occasions to measure household food availability among low-income Mexicano residents in Texas colonias

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It has been recognized that the availability of foods in the home are important to nutritional health, and may influence the dietary behavior of children, adolescents, and adults. It is therefore important to understand food choices in the context of the household setting. Considering their importance, the measurement of household food resources becomes critical. Because most studies use a single point of data collection to determine the types of foods that are present in the home, which can miss the change in availability within a month and when resources are not available, the primary objective of this pilot study was to examine the feasibility and value of conducting weekly in-home assessments of household food resources over the course of one month among low-income Mexicano families in Texas colonias. Methods We conducted five in-home household food inventories over a thirty-day period in a small convenience sample; determined the frequency that food items were present in the participating households; and compared a one-time measurement with multiple measurements. After the development and pre-testing of the 252-item culturally and linguistically- appropriate household food inventory instrument that used direct observation to determine the presence and amount of food and beverage items in the home (refrigerator, freezer, pantry, elsewhere), two trained promotoras recruited a convenience sample of 6 households; administered a baseline questionnaire (personal info, shopping habits, and food security); conducted 5 in-home assessments (7-day interval) over a 30-day period; and documented grocery shopping and other food-related activities within the previous week of each in-home assessment. All data were collected in Spanish. Descriptive statistics were calculated for mean and frequency of sample characteristics, food-related activities, food security, and the presence of individual food items. Due to the small sample size of the pilot data, the Friedman

  4. Molecular diversity of bacteria in commercially available “Spirulina” food supplements

    PubMed Central

    Kormas, Konstantinos A.; Katsiapi, Matina; Genitsaris, Savvas; Moustaka-Gouni, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Arthrospira is among the most well-known food supplements worldwide known as “Spirulina.” While it is a widely recognized health-promoting natural product, there are no reports on the molecular diversity of commercially available brands of “Spirulina” supplements and the occurrence of other cyanobacterial and heterotrophic bacterial microorganisms in these products. In this study, 454-pyrosequencing analysis of the total bacterial occurrence in 31 brands of “Spirulina” dietary supplements from the Greek market was applied for the first time. In all samples, operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of Arthrospira platensis were the predominant cyanobacteria. Some products contained additional cyanobacterial OTUs including a few known potentially toxic taxa. Moreover, 469 OTUs were detected in all 31 products collectively, with most of them being related to the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia. All samples included heterotrophic bacterial OTUs, ranging from 9–157 per product. Among the most common OTUs were ones closely related to taxa known for causing health issues (i.e., Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Vibrio, Aeromonas, Clostridium, Bacillus, Fusobacterium, Enterococcus). The observed high cyanobacterial and heterotrophic bacterial OTUs richness in the final product is a point for further research on the growth and processing of Arthrospira biomass for commercial purposes. PMID:26819852

  5. Effects of fluctuating temperature and food availability on reproduction and lifespan.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Tonia S; Pearson, Phillip; Dawson, John; Allison, David B; Gohlke, Julia M

    2016-12-15

    Experimental studies on energetics and aging often remove two major factors that in part regulate the energy budget in a normal healthy individual: reproduction and fluctuating environmental conditions that challenge homeostasis. Here we use the cyclical parthenogenetic Daphnia pulex to evaluate the role of a fluctuating thermal environment on both reproduction and lifespan across six food concentrations. We test the hypotheses that (1) caloric restriction extends lifespan; (2) maximal reproduction will come with a cost of shortened lifespan; and (3) at a given food concentration, relative to a metabolically equivalent constant temperature environment a diel fluctuating thermal environment will alter the allocation of energy to reproduction and lifespan to maintain homeostasis. We did not identify a level of food concentration that extended lifespan in response to caloric restriction, and we found no cost of reproduction in terms of lifespan. Rather, the individuals at the highest food levels generally had the highest reproductive output and the longest lifespans, the individuals at the intermediate food level decreased reproduction and maintained lifespan, and the individuals at the three lower food concentrations had a decrease in reproduction and lifespan as would be predicted with increasing levels of starvation. Fluctuating temperature had no effect on lifespan at any food concentration, but delayed time to reproductive maturity and decreased early reproductive output at all food concentrations. This suggests that a fluctuating temperature regimen activates molecular pathways that alter energy allocation. The costs of fluctuating temperature on reproduction were not consistent across the lifespan. Statistical interactions for age of peak reproduction and lifetime fecundity suggest that senescence of the reproductive system may vary between temperature regimens at the different food concentrations.

  6. Determinants of variation in food cost and availability in two socioeconomically contrasting neighbourhoods of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Latham, Jim; Moffat, Tina

    2007-03-01

    This study addresses links between economic and nutritional variation in an urban North American setting. We employed a mixed-methods approach including mapping, semi-structured interviews, and food outlet surveys to investigate the public health impact of variation in the cost and availability of food between two socioeconomically distinct neighbourhoods of the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Food cost in supermarkets was not found to be higher in the low-income neighbourhood, though it was much higher in the variety stores that predominate in the low-income neighbourhood. Moreover, there was a very low availability of produce in the variety stores. Reduced fresh produce availability and lower incomes have the potential to negatively influence public health in the less-affluent study area by increasing the difficulty of acquiring healthy foods.

  7. Larval food plants of Australian Larentiinae (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) - a review of available data

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background In Australia, the subfamily Larentiinae (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) comprises over 45 genera with about 270 species described so far. However, life histories of the Australian larentiine moths have barely been studied. New information The current paper presents a list of larval food plants of 51 Australian larentiine species based on literature references, data from specimen labels and own observations. Some Australian habitats are shown. Possible relationships among the taxa based on food preference of the larvae are discussed. Additionally, a list of Australasian larentiine species from the genera occurring in Australia and their food plants is presented. PMID:27099558

  8. Snow economics and the NOHRSC Snow Information System (SNOW-INFO) for the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, T.; Cline, D.; Berkowitz, E.; Savage, D.

    2003-04-01

    .7 trillion (16%) of the Nation's GDP related to the water contained in seasonal snowpacks, reliable snow information is critical to the management of the U.S. economy. In addition to helping improve river and flood forecasts and water supply forecasts, NOHRSC snow information has the potential also to support better decision making and improved efficiency in manufacturing, mining, agriculture, and thermo- and hydroelectric power generation. A 0.1% improvement in revenue resulting from reliable snow information results in an economic benefit to the Nation of 1.7 billion each year (in 2002 dollars). In an effort to provide snow information to support hydrologic forecasting operations in the NWS as well as to enhance the national economy, the NOHRSC has developed and implemented a Snow Information System (SNOW-INFO) that generates and distributes a variety of snow cover products in a variety of formats for the coterminous U.S. SNOW-INFO provides several new products that include: modeled snowpack characteristics such as snow ripeness, melt rates, mean snowpack temperature, and sublimation losses in a variety of alphanumeric, gridded, map, and time-series representations. SNOW-INFO products and data sets are available in near real-time to end-users from the NOHRSC web site (www.nohrsc.nws.gov) and FTP. A variety of SNOW-INFO products and maps from the 2003 snow season depicting simulated and assimilated snow model state variables for the coterminous U.S. are presented.

  9. Yeah!!! A Snow Day!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cone, Theresa Purcell; Cone, Stephen L.

    2006-01-01

    As children see the first snowflake fall from the sky, they are filled with anticipation of playing in the snow. The snowy environment presents a wonderful opportunity for presenting interdisciplinary activities that connect snow play, snow formation, and snow stories with manipulative activities, gymnastic balances, and dance sequences. In this…

  10. The Impact of Increased Food Availability on Reproduction in a Long-Distance Migratory Songbird: Implications for Environmental Change?

    PubMed Central

    Seward, Adam M.; Beale, Colin M.; Gilbert, Lucy; Jones, T. Hefin; Thomas, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Many populations of migratory songbirds are declining or shifting in distribution. This is likely due to environmental changes that alter factors such as food availability that may have an impact on survival and/or breeding success. We tested the impact of experimentally supplemented food on the breeding success over three years of northern wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe), a species in decline over much of Europe. The number of offspring fledged over the season was higher for food-supplemented birds than for control birds. The mechanisms for this effect were that food supplementation advanced breeding date, which, together with increased resources, allowed further breeding attempts. While food supplementation did not increase the clutch size, hatching success or number of chicks fledged per breeding attempt, it did increase chick size in one year of the study. The increased breeding success was greater for males than females; males could attempt to rear simultaneous broods with multiple females as well as attempting second broods, whereas females could only increase their breeding effort via second broods. Multiple brooding is rare in the study population, but this study demonstrates the potential for changes in food availability to affect wheatear breeding productivity, primarily via phenotypic flexibility in the number of breeding attempts. Our results have implications for our understanding of how wheatears may respond to natural changes in food availability due to climate changes or changes in habitat management. PMID:25333485

  11. Operational snow mapping with simplified data assimilation using the seNorge snow model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saloranta, Tuomo M.

    2016-07-01

    Frequently updated maps of snow conditions are useful for many applications, e.g., for avalanche and flood forecasting services, hydropower energy situation analysis, as well as for the general public. Numerical snow models are often applied in snow map production for operational hydrological services. However, inaccuracies in the simulated snow maps due to model uncertainties and the lack of suitable data assimilation techniques to correct them in near-real time may often reduce the usefulness of the snow maps in operational use. In this paper the revised seNorge snow model (v.1.1.1) for snow mapping is described, and a simplified data assimilation procedure is introduced to correct detected snow model biases in near real-time. The data assimilation procedure is theoretically based on the Bayesian updating paradigm and is meant to be pragmatic with modest computational and input data requirements. Moreover, it is flexible and can utilize both point-based snow depth and satellite-based areal snow-covered area observations, which are generally the most common data-sources of snow observations. The model and analysis codes as well as the "R" statistical software are freely available. All these features should help to lower the challenges and hurdles hampering the application of data-assimilation techniques in operational hydrological modeling. The steps of the data assimilation procedure (evaluation, sensitivity analysis, optimization) and their contribution to significantly increased accuracy of the snow maps are demonstrated with a case from eastern Norway in winter 2013/2014.

  12. Black bear habitat use in relation to food availability in the Interior Highlands of Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Joseph D.; Clapp, Daniel L.; Smith, Kimberly G.; Ederington, Belinda

    1994-01-01

    A black bear (Ursus americanus) food value index (FVI) was developed and calculated for forest cover type classifications on Ozark Mountain (White Rock) and Ouachita Mountain (Dry Creek) study areas in western Arkansas. FVIs are estimates of bear food production capabilities of the major forest cover types and were calculated using percent cover, mean fruit production scorings, and the dietary percentage of each major plant food species as variables. Goodness-of-fit analyses were used to determine use of forest cover types by 23 radio-collared female bears. Habitat selection by forest cover type was not detected on White Rock but was detected on Dry Creek. Use of habitats on Dry Creek appeared to be related to food production with the exception of regeneration areas, which were used less than expected but had a high FVI ranking. In general, pine cover types had low FVI rankings and were used less than expected by bears. Forest management implications are discussed. 

  13. Group-Living Herbivores Weigh Up Food Availability and Dominance Status when Making Patch-Joining Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Stears, Keenan; Kerley, Graham I. H.; Shrader, Adrian M.

    2014-01-01

    Two key factors that influence the foraging behaviour of group-living herbivores are food availability and individual dominance status. Yet, how the combination of these factors influences the patch-joining decisions of individuals foraging within groups has scarcely been explored. To address this, we focused on the patch-joining decisions of group-living domestic goats (Capra hircus). When individuals were tested against the top four ranked goats of the herd, we found that at patches with low food availability they avoided these dominant patch-holders and only joined subordinates (i.e. costs outweighed benefits). However, as the amount of food increased, the avoidance of the top ranked individuals declined. Specifically, goats shifted and joined the patch of an individual one dominance rank higher than the previous dominant patch holder when the initial quantity of food in the new patch was twice that of the lower ranking individual’s patch (i.e. benefits outweighed costs). In contrast, when individuals chose between patches held by dominant goats, other than the top four ranked goats, and subordinate individuals, we found that they equally joined the dominant and subordinate patch-holders. This joining was irrespective of the dominance gap, absolute rank of the dominant patch-holder, sex or food availability (i.e. benefits outweighed costs). Ultimately, our results highlight that herbivores weigh up the costs and benefits of both food availability and patch-holder dominance status when making patch-joining decisions. Furthermore, as the initial quantity of food increases, food availability becomes more important than dominance with regard to influencing patch-joining decisions. PMID:25271889

  14. Neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics and differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Duran, Ana Clara; Diez Roux, Ana V; Latorre, Maria do Rosario D O; Jaime, Patricia Constante

    2013-09-01

    Differential access to healthy foods has been hypothesized to contribute to health disparities, but evidence from low and middle-income countries is still scarce. This study examines whether the access of healthy foods varies across store types and neighborhoods of different socioeconomic statuses (SES) in a large Brazilian city. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010-2011 across 52 census tracts. Healthy food access was measured by a comprehensive in-store data collection, summarized into two indexes developed for retail food stores (HFSI) and restaurants (HMRI). Descriptive analyses and multilevel models were used to examine associations of store type and neighborhood SES with healthy food access. Fast food restaurants were more likely to be located in low SES neighborhoods whereas supermarkets and full service restaurants were more likely to be found in higher SES neighborhoods. Multilevel analyses showed that both store type and neighborhood SES were independently associated with in-store food measures. We found differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo city favoring middle and high SES neighborhoods.

  15. Effects of agri-environmental schemes on farmland birds: do food availability measurements improve patterns obtained from simple habitat models?

    PubMed

    Ponce, Carlos; Bravo, Carolina; Alonso, Juan Carlos

    2014-07-01

    Studies evaluating agri-environmental schemes (AES) usually focus on responses of single species or functional groups. Analyses are generally based on simple habitat measurements but ignore food availability and other important factors. This can limit our understanding of the ultimate causes determining the reactions of birds to AES. We investigated these issues in detail and throughout the main seasons of a bird's annual cycle (mating, postfledging and wintering) in a dry cereal farmland in a Special Protection Area for farmland birds in central Spain. First, we modeled four bird response parameters (abundance, species richness, diversity and "Species of European Conservation Concern" [SPEC]-score), using detailed food availability and vegetation structure measurements (food models). Second, we fitted new models, built using only substrate composition variables (habitat models). Whereas habitat models revealed that both, fields included and not included in the AES benefited birds, food models went a step further and included seed and arthropod biomass as important predictors, respectively, in winter and during the postfledging season. The validation process showed that food models were on average 13% better (up to 20% in some variables) in predicting bird responses. However, the cost of obtaining data for food models was five times higher than for habitat models. This novel approach highlighted the importance of food availability-related causal processes involved in bird responses to AES, which remained undetected when using conventional substrate composition assessment models. Despite their higher costs, measurements of food availability add important details to interpret the reactions of the bird community to AES interventions and thus facilitate evaluating the real efficiency of AES programs.

  16. Effects of agri-environmental schemes on farmland birds: do food availability measurements improve patterns obtained from simple habitat models?

    PubMed Central

    Ponce, Carlos; Bravo, Carolina; Alonso, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Studies evaluating agri-environmental schemes (AES) usually focus on responses of single species or functional groups. Analyses are generally based on simple habitat measurements but ignore food availability and other important factors. This can limit our understanding of the ultimate causes determining the reactions of birds to AES. We investigated these issues in detail and throughout the main seasons of a bird's annual cycle (mating, postfledging and wintering) in a dry cereal farmland in a Special Protection Area for farmland birds in central Spain. First, we modeled four bird response parameters (abundance, species richness, diversity and “Species of European Conservation Concern” [SPEC]-score), using detailed food availability and vegetation structure measurements (food models). Second, we fitted new models, built using only substrate composition variables (habitat models). Whereas habitat models revealed that both, fields included and not included in the AES benefited birds, food models went a step further and included seed and arthropod biomass as important predictors, respectively, in winter and during the postfledging season. The validation process showed that food models were on average 13% better (up to 20% in some variables) in predicting bird responses. However, the cost of obtaining data for food models was five times higher than for habitat models. This novel approach highlighted the importance of food availability-related causal processes involved in bird responses to AES, which remained undetected when using conventional substrate composition assessment models. Despite their higher costs, measurements of food availability add important details to interpret the reactions of the bird community to AES interventions and thus facilitate evaluating the real efficiency of AES programs. PMID:25165523

  17. Home food availability is associated with multiple socio-economic indicators in 50 year olds from Canterbury, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Renée; Gearry, Richard B; Grant, Emily; Pearson, John; Skidmore, Paula Ml

    2014-01-01

    Financial restraints and poverty lead to poor diets and poor health outcomes. Limited research shows that socioeconomic status is related to home availability of certain foods. However, studies in this area have used different socio-economic indicators, which may not equally influence eating-related behaviors. Using multiple indicators of socio-economic status may provide a more accurate picture of these relationships. The aim of this study was to investigate whether several socio-economic indicators are independently associated with home availability of selected foods known to influence chronic disease risk in 50 year olds from Canterbury, New Zealand, participating in the CHALICE study. Participants were selected randomly from health research extracts from Canterbury. Data from 216 participants (110 females, 106 males) were included. The presence (but not quantity) of foods/beverages in the home was measured by a validated home food inventory. Linear regression analyses were performed for the following home food inventory scores: fruit, vegetables, lower fat dairy, obesogenic foods and sweetened beverages with household income, standard of living and education using multivariate models. Higher household income and standard of living were individually associated with a 2% to 3% higher fruit and vegetables (3 to 5 types/forms) and total food scores (6 to 9 types/forms) (p<0.03). Higher education level was associated with a 2.5% increase in fruit and vegetables score (4 types/forms) and an 8% decrease in sweetened beverages score (0.4 beverages) (p<0.02). These results suggest that using only one measure of socio-economic status cannot accurately capture the effects of social inequalities in food availability. Those experiencing the most social disadvantage had a lesser availability of fruit and vegetables which may be detrimental to good health.

  18. Measuring food availability and access in African-American communities: implications for intervention and policy.

    PubMed

    Odoms-Young, Angela M; Zenk, Shannon; Mason, Maryann

    2009-04-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern in the U.S. As compared to whites, minority populations are disproportionately at risk, with the highest prevalence rates of overweight and obesity occurring among African American women. Although researchers and policymakers argue that environmental approaches have the greatest potential to reverse the rising prevalence of obesity, critical gaps remain in our understanding of the complex mechanisms that underlie the associations between neighborhood food environments and weight status. A major challenge has been the need for reliable and valid measures to assess aspects of the neighborhood food environment that encourage or inhibit healthful eating behaviors and weight management. Investigators have made considerable gains in the development of tools and approaches to measure neighborhood food environments overall, but few studies focus on the specific challenges and issues associated with characterizing neighborhood food environments in communities of color. This paper highlights important considerations for measuring food environments in African-American neighborhoods and their implications for developing programmatic and policy solutions to reduce racial disparities in overweight.

  19. Macroeconomic adjustment, food availability and nutrition status in Nigeria. A look at the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Igbedioh, S O

    1990-12-01

    Faced with balance of payment problems, declining commodity prices, and a corresponding reduction in foreign exchange earnings, Nigeria implemented a structural adjustment program in 1986. This step was taken in response to encouragement from the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, and was aimed to accomplish the following: find the true value of the official currency; overcome public sector inefficiency through improved public expenditure and parastatal rationalization; reschedule medium- and long-term debt to relieve debt burden; and encourage net foreign capital inflow while limiting foreign loans. Implementing and adhering to these macroeconomic adjustment policies has brought unprecedented inflation, lower real earnings, and increased malnutrition among lower income sectors of the population. The poor have suffered diminishing access to nutritious foods. Conscribed access to food and compromised nutritional status will most likely persist into the 1990s unless corrective policies are adopted. Appropriate policy would aim to increase the poor's access to food and limit population growth.

  20. Snow water equivalent mapping in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tveito, O. E.; Udnæs, H.-C.; Engeset, R.; Førland, E. J.; Isaksen, K.; Mengistu, Z.

    2003-04-01

    In high latitude area snow covers the ground large parts of the year. Information about the water volume as snow is of major importance in many respects. Flood forecasters at NVE need it in order to assess possible flood risks. Hydropower producers need it to plan the most efficient production of the water in their reservoirs, traders to estimate the potential energy available for the market. Meteorologists on their side use the information as boundary conditions in weather forecasting models. The Norwegian meteorological institute has provided snow accumulation maps for Norway for more than 50 years. These maps are now produced twice a month in the winter season. They show the accumulated precipitation in the winter season from the day the permanent snow cover is established. They do however not take melting into account, and do therefore not give a good description of the actual snow amounts during and after periods with snowmelt. Due to an increased need for a direct measure of water volumes as snow cover, met.no and NVE initialized a joint project in order to establish maps of the actual snow cover expressed in water equivalents. The project utilizes recent developments in the use of GIS in spatial modeling. Daily precipitation and temperature are distributed in space by using objective spatial interpolation methods. The interpolation considers topographical and other geographical parameters as well as weather type information. A degree-day model is used at each modeling point to calculate snow-accumulation and snowmelt. The maps represent a spatial scale of 1x1 km2. The modeled snow reservoir is validated by snow pillow values as well traditional snow depth observations. Preliminary results show that the new snow modeling approach reproduces the snow water equivalent well. The spatial approach also opens for a wide use in the terms of areal analysis.

  1. Timed food availability affects circadian behavior but not the neuropeptide Y expression in Indian weaverbirds exposed to atypical light environment.

    PubMed

    Singh, Devraj; Trivedi, Neerja; Malik, Shalie; Rani, Sangeeta; Kumar, Vinod

    2016-07-01

    We tested the hypothesis whether daily food availability period would restore rhythmicity in individuals with disrupted circadian behavior with no effect on appetite regulation. Particularly, we investigated the effects of timed food availability on activity behavior, and Fos and neuropeptide Y expressions in Indian weaverbirds (Ploceus philippinus) under atypical light conditions. Initially, weaverbirds in 3 groups of 7-8 each were entrained to 7L:17D (25: <0.3lx) with food ad libitum. Thereafter, food availability was restricted for 7h such that it overlapped with the light period. After a week, 7L:17D was replaced with 3.5L: 3.5D (T7, group 1), 3.5L: 20.5D (T24, group 2) or constant dim light, LLdim (<0.3lx, group 3) for 5weeks. Food cycles synchronized the circadian activity behavior, albeit with group differences, but did not affect body mass, blood glucose levels or testis size. Further, Fos, not NPY mRNA or peptide, expression measured at ZT2 and ZT14 (ZT0=time of food given) showed significant group differences in the hippocampus, dorsomedial hypothalamus and infundibular nuclear complex. Another identical experiment examined after-effects of the 3 light conditions on persistence of the circadian rhythms. Weaverbirds exposed for 4weeks to identical food but different light conditions, as above, were released into the free-running condition of food ad libitum and LLdim. Circadian rhythms were decayed in birds previously exposed to T7 LD cycle. Overall, these results show that timed meal restores rhythmicity in individuals with circadian rhythm disruptions without involving neuropeptide Y, the key appetite regulatory molecule.

  2. Sharing, Trading, Stealing: Exploring the Role of Peers in Shaping Foods Available at Lunchtime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutter, Carolyn; Nishina, Adrienne; Scherr, Rachel E.; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri; Ontai, Lenna L.

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity continues to be a major concern in the United States, warranting a comprehensive approach. However, the majority of research studies continue to neglect the influence of peers on dietary behaviors. The present descriptive study aimed to provide information about the ways peers directly shape dietary choices via food exchanges…

  3. Scattering optics of snow.

    PubMed

    Kokhanovsky, Alexander A; Zege, Eleonora P

    2004-03-01

    Permanent snow and ice cover great portions of the Arctic and the Antarctic. It appears in winter months in northern parts of America, Asia, and Europe. Therefore snow is an important component of the hydrological cycle. Also, it is a main regulator of the seasonal variation of the planetary albedo. This seasonal change in albedo is determined largely by the snow cover. However, the presence of pollutants and the microstructure of snow (e.g., the size and shape of grains, which depend also on temperature and on the age of the snow) are also of importance in the variation of the snow's spectral albedo. The snow's spectral albedo and its bidirectional reflectance are studied theoretically. The albedo also determines the spectral absorptance of snow, which is of importance, e.g., in studies of the heating regime in snow. We investigate the influence of the nonspherical shape of grains and of close-packed effects on snow's reflectance in the visible and the near-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The rate of the spectral transition from highly reflective snow in the visible to almost totally absorbing black snow in the infrared is governed largely by the snow's grain sizes and by the load of pollutants. Therefore both the characteristics of snow and its concentration of impurities can be monitored on a global scale by use of spectrometers and radiometers placed on orbiting satellites.

  4. A blending snow cover data base on MODIS and AMSR-E snow cover in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaohua, H.; Wang, J.; Che, T.; Dai, L. Y.

    2012-04-01

    The algorithms of MODIS Terra and MODIS Aqua versions of the snow products have been developed by the NASA National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). The MODIS global snow-cover products have been available through the NSIDC Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) since February 24, 2000 to Terra and July 4, 2002 to Aqua. The MODIS snow-cover maps represent a potential improvement relative to hemispheric-scale snow maps that are available today mainly because of the improved spatial resolution and snow/cloud discrimination capabilities of MODIS, and the frequent global coverage. In China, the snow distribution is different to other regions. Their accuracy on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP), however, has not yet been established. There are some drawbacks about NSIDC global snow cover products on QTP: 1. The characteristics of snow depth distribution on QTP: Thin, discontinuous. Our research indicated the MODIS snow-cover products underestimated the snow cover area in QTP. 2. The daily snow cover product from MODIS-Terra and Aqua can include the data gaps. 3. The snow products can separate snow from most obscuring clouds. However, there are still many cloud pixels in daily snow cover products. The study developed a new blending daily snow cover algorithm through improving the NSIDC snow algorithms and combining MODIS and AMSR-E data in QTP. The new snow cover products will provide daily snow cover at 500-m resolution in QTP. The new snow cover algorithm employs a grouped-criteria technique using the Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI) and other spectral threshold tests and image fusion technology to identify and classify snow on a pixel-by-pixel basis. The usefulness of the NDSI is based on the fact that snow and ice are considerably more reflective in the visible than in the shortwave IR part of the spectrum, and the reflectance of most clouds remains high in the short-wave IR, while the reflectance of snow is low. We propose a set of three steps, based on a

  5. Modeling the spatial variability of snow instability with the snow cover model SNOWPACK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Bettina; Reuter, Benjamin; Gaume, Johan; Fierz, Charles; Bavay, Mathias; van Herwijnen, Alec; Schweizer, Jürg

    2016-04-01

    Snow stratigraphy - key information for avalanche forecasting - can be obtained using numerical snow cover models driven by meteorological data. Simulations are typically performed for the locations of automatic weather station or for virtual slopes of varying aspect. However, it is unclear to which extent these simulations can represent the snowpack properties in the surrounding terrain, in particular snow instability, which is known to vary in space. To address this issue, we implemented two newly developed snow instability criteria in SNOWPACK relating to failure initiation and crack propagation, two fundamental processes for dry-snow slab avalanche release. Snow cover simulations were performed for the Steintälli field site above Davos (Eastern Swiss Alps), where snowpack data from several field campaigns are available. In each campaign, about 150 vertical snow penetration resistance profiles were sampled with the snow micro-penetrometer (SMP). For each profile, SMP and SNOWPACK- based instability criteria were compared. In addition, we carried out SNOWPACK simulations for multiple aspects and slope angles, allowing to obtain statistical distributions of the snow instability at the basin scale. Comparing the modeled to the observed distributions of snow instability suggests that it is feasible to obtain an adequate spatial representation of snow instability without high resolution distributed modeling. Hence, for the purpose of regional avalanche forecasting, simulations for a selection of virtual slopes seems sufficient to assess the influence of basic terrain features such as aspect and elevation.

  6. Cyanogenic glycosides in plant-based foods available in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Cressey, Peter; Saunders, Darren; Goodman, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides occur in a wide range of plant species. The potential toxicity of cyanogenic glycosides arises from enzymatic degradation to produce hydrogen cyanide, which may result in acute cyanide poisoning and has also been implicated in the aetiology of several chronic diseases. One hundred retail foods were sampled and analysed for the presence of total hydrocyanic acid using an acid hydrolysis-isonicotinic/barbituric acid colourimetric method. Food samples included cassava, bamboo shoots, almonds and almond products, pome fruit products, flaxseed/linseed, stone fruit products, lima beans, and various seeds and miscellaneous products, including taro leaves, passion fruit, spinach and canned stuffed vine leaves. The concentrations of total hydrocyanic acid (the hydrocyanic acid equivalents of all cyanogenic compounds) found were consistent with or lower than concentrations reported in the scientific literature. Linseed/flaxseed contained the highest concentrations of total hydrocyanic acid of any of the analysed foods (91-178 mg kg(-1)). Linseed-containing breads were found to contain total hydrocyanic acid at concentrations expected from their linseed content, indicating little impact of processing on the total hydrocyanic acid content. Simulation modelling was used to assess the risk due to the total hydrocyanic acid in fruit juice and linseed-containing bread. 

  7. Foraging strategies of black-fronted titi monkeys (Callicebus nigrifrons) in relation to food availability in a seasonal tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Nagy-Reis, Mariana B; Setz, Eleonore Z F

    2017-01-01

    Many primates have to cope with a temporal scarcity in food availability that shapes their foraging strategies. Here we investigated the changes in diet, activity, and ranging behavior of a group of black-fronted titi monkeys (Callicebus nigrifrons) according to the availability of the main high-nutritional-density item in their diet and the foraging strategy adopted when this food is scarce. We monitored one habituated group using instantaneous scan sampling over 1 year (533 h of observation, 61 days) in a seasonal tropical forest fragment (245 ha). We simultaneously collected data on food availability with fruit traps. The titi monkeys consumed fleshy fruits, the main high-nutritional-density item of their diet, in accordance with its availability, and the availability of this item modulated the ingestion of vegetative plant parts, a relatively low-nutritional-density food. During high fleshy fruit availability, the titi monkeys consumed more fleshy fruits, flowers, and invertebrates. They also traveled more, but concentrated their activity in a central area of their home range. Conversely, during fleshy fruit scarcity, they increased the breadth of their diet, switching to one richer in seeds and vegetative plant parts, and with greater plant diversity. At the same time, they reduced most energy-demanding activities, traveling less and over shorter distances, but using their home range more broadly. Corroborating the optimal foraging theory, titi monkeys altered foraging strategies according to temporal food fluctuations and responded to low fleshy fruit availability by changing their diet, activity, and ranging behavior. The adoption of a low-cost/low-yield strategy allowed us to classify them as energy minimizers.

  8. Evaluating the impact of climate policies on regional food availability and accessibility using an Integrated Assessment Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, E.; Cui, Y. R.; Waldhoff, S.

    2015-12-01

    Beyond 2015, eradicating hunger will remain a critical part of the global development agenda through the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). Efforts to limit climate change through both mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and land use policies may interact with food availability and accessibility in complex and unanticipated ways. Here, we develop projections of regional food accessibility to 2050 under the alternative futures outlined by the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) and under different climate policy targets and structures. We use the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model (IAM), for our projections. We calculate food access as the weighted average of consumption of five staples and the portion of income spend on those commodities and extend the GCAM calculated universal global producer price to regional consumer prices drawing on historical relationships of these prices. Along the SSPs, food access depends largely on expectations of increases in population and economic status. Under a more optimistic scenario, the pressures on food access from increasing demand and rising prices can be counterbalanced by faster economic development. Stringent climate policies that increase commodity prices, however, may hinder vulnerable regions, namely Sub-Saharan Africa, from achieving greater food accessibility.

  9. Influence of Seasonal Food Availability on the Dynamics of Seabird Feeding Flocks at a Coastal Upwelling Area

    PubMed Central

    Anguita, Cristóbal; Simeone, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The formation of multi-species feeding flocks (MSFFs) through visual recruitment is considered an important strategy for obtaining food in seabirds and its functionality has been ascribed to enhanced foraging efficiency. Its use has been demonstrated in much of the world's oceans and includes numerous species. However, there is scant information on the temporal stability of the composition and abundance of MSFFs as well as the effect of seasonal food availability on their dynamics. Between July 2006 and September 2014, we conducted monthly at-sea seabird counts at Valparaiso Bay (32°56′ to 33°01′S, 71°36′ to 71°46′W) within the area of influence of the Humboldt Current in central Chile. This area is characterized by a marked seasonality in primary and secondary production associated with upwelling, mainly during austral spring-summer. Based on studies that provide evidence that flocking is most frequent when food is both scarce and patchy, we hypothesized that seabird MSFF attributes (i.e. frequency of occurrence, abundance and composition) will be modified according to the seasonal availability of food. Using generalized linear models (GLMs), our results show that the contrasting seasonality in food availability of the study area (using chlorophyll-a concentration as a proxy) had no significant influence on MSFF attributes, sparsely explaining their variations (P>0.05). Rather than seasonal food availability, the observed pattern for MSFF attributes at Valparaiso Bay suggests a substantial influence of reproductive and migratory (boreal and austral migrants) habits of birds that modulates MSFF dynamics consistently throughout the whole year in this highly variable and patchy environment. We highlight the importance of visual recruitment as a mechanism by which migratory and resident birds interact. This would allow them to reduce resource unpredictability, which in turn has a major impact on structuring seabird’s MSFF dynamics. PMID:26125630

  10. Food web structure and seasonality of slope megafauna in the NW Mediterranean elucidated by stable isotopes: Relationship with available food sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papiol, V.; Cartes, J. E.; Fanelli, E.; Rumolo, P.

    2013-03-01

    Boundary Layer (BBL). δ15N enrichment was detected in periods of water column stratification, particularly amongst benthic feeder fishes. Megafauna relied on a single source of nutrition after peaks in surface production, presumably marine snow. Conversely, a larger array of food sources, probably from advection, sustained the community in periods of water column stratification. Benthic feeder δ13C values of both taxa were positively correlated with fluorescence measured 5 m above the seabed and negatively correlated with total organic carbon in the sediments, both being food sources for deposit feeding macroinfauna. Macroplankton feeder δ13C values were linked to environmental variables related to vertical transport from surface production, i.e. lipids and chlorophyll and their degradation products, likely due to their stronger reliance on sinking phytodetritus through consumption of planktonic prey.

  11. Evaluating snow models for hydrological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonas, T.; Magnusson, J.; Wever, N.; Essery, R.; Helbig, N.

    2014-12-01

    Much effort has been invested in developing snow models over several decades, resulting in a wide variety of empirical and physically-based snow models. Within the two categories, models are built on the same principles but mainly differ in choices of model simplifications and parameterizations describing individual processes. In this study, we demonstrate an informative method for evaluating a large range of snow model structures for hydrological applications using an existing multi-model energy-balance framework and data from two well-instrumented sites with a seasonal snow cover. We also include two temperature-index snow models and one physically-based multi-layer snow model in our analyses. Our results show that the ability of models to predict snowpack runoff is strongly related to the agreement of observed and modelled snow water equivalent whereas such relationship is not present for snow depth or snow surface temperature measurements. For snow water equivalent and runoff, the models seem transferable between our two study sites, a behaviour which is not observed for snow surface temperature predictions due to site-specificity of turbulent heat transfer formulations. Uncertainties in the input and validation data, rather than model formulation, appear to contribute most to low model performances in some winters. More importantly, we find that model complexity is not a determinant for predicting daily snow water equivalent and runoff reliably, but choosing an appropriate model structure is. Our study shows the usefulness of the multi-model framework for identifying appropriate models under given constraints such as data availability, properties of interest and computational cost.

  12. Bioenergetics of torpor in the microbiotherid marsupial, monito del monte (Dromiciops gliroides): the role of temperature and food availability.

    PubMed

    Nespolo, Roberto F; Verdugo, Claudio; Cortés, Pablo A; Bacigalupe, Leonardo D

    2010-06-01

    Torpor is the physiologically controlled reduction of metabolic rate and body temperature experienced by small birds and mammals when facing periods of low temperature and/or food shortage. In this study, we provide a first quantitative description of torpor in the relict marsupial Dromiciops gliroides by: (1) characterizing body temperature (T (B)) and torpor patterns, (2) evaluating the combined effects of ambient temperature and different levels of food restriction on torpor incidence and (3) exploring the metabolic depression during torpor. D. gliroides exhibited short bouts of torpor on a daily basis, during which T (B) decreased close to ambient temperature. During the active phase, T (B) also exhibited pronounced variation (range 34-38 degrees C). In order to evaluate the consistency of torpor, we computed the repeatability of T (B). Using the whole dataset, repeatability was significant (tau = 0.28). However, when torpid individuals were excluded from the analysis, repeatability was non-significant: some individuals were more prone to experience torpor than others. Our results indicate that this species also exhibits short bouts of daily torpor, whose depth and duration depends on the joint effects of T (A) and food availability. At T (A) = 20 degrees C, the maximum torpor incidence was found at 70-80% food reduction, while at both extremes of the food continuum (100 and 0-10% food reduction) individuals were completely active, although considerable variation in T (B) was recorded. At T (A) = 10 degrees C, individuals developed a deep form of torpor that was independent of the amount of food provided. On average, torpid D. gliroides reduced their metabolic rate up to 92% of their active values. In general, our results suggest that T (A) was the most immediate determinant of torpor, followed by energy availability.

  13. Camping in the Snow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Constance

    1979-01-01

    Describes the experience of winter snow camping. Provides suggestions for shelter, snow kitchens, fires and stoves, cooking, latrines, sleeping warm, dehydration prevention, and clothing. Illustrated with full color photographs. (MA)

  14. Effects of food availability on the acute and chronic toxicity of the insecticide methomyl to Daphnia spp.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Joana Luísa; Gonçalves, Fernando

    2007-11-01

    The widespread increase of pesticides application in crops threats vicinal freshwater lentic ecosystems, frequently leading to their contamination. Due to their position in the aquatic food web, the responses to these pesticide inputs of freshwater filter-feeding zooplankters, as daphnids, provide relevant information the general risk to the ecosystem of xenobiotics. Moreover, cladoceran grazers often face fluctuations in food availability due to the phytoplankton dynamics in lentic water bodies, and food acquisition naturally conditions their fitness. In this study, the responses of Daphnia magna, and of three genotypes within the Daphnia longispina complex, to acute and chronic exposures of methomyl, were assessed. In addition, we focused on whether the food level can model the Daphnia life-history responses to the insecticide. Results showed that methomyl was acutely and chronically toxic to both D. magna and the D. cf longispina populations at very low concentrations, and remarkable differences in sensitivity were noticed when comparing the responses to the toxic among taxa/genotypes. Furthermore, food availability conditioned the overall fitness of the species although not interacting specifically on the response to the toxicant stress.

  15. 76 FR 55869 - Notice of Funding Availability: Inviting Applications for the McGovern-Dole International Food...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Notice of Funding Availability: Inviting Applications for the McGovern-Dole..., inviting proposals for the McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition (McGovern...: Compliance With 2 CFR 25.200 For eligibility requirements, see the McGovern-Dole Program regulations (7...

  16. Fast food price, diet behavior, and cardiometabolic health: Differential associations by neighborhood SES and neighborhood fast food restaurant availability in the CARDIA study.

    PubMed

    Rummo, Pasquale E; Meyer, Katie A; Green Howard, Annie; Shikany, James M; Guilkey, David K; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2015-09-01

    Little research has addressed whether neighborhood context influences associations between fast food price, diet, and cardiometabolic health. We investigated these associations using 25 years of Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study data (n=4,469, observations=21,134). We found a negative association between fast food price and consumption, with stronger inverse associations in more (vs. less) deprived neighborhoods [3rd tertile: β=-0.68 (95% CI: (-0.85, -0.51); 1st tertile: β=-0.22 (95% CI: -0.42, -0.02); p-interaction-0.002], and a similar association for BMI [3rd tertile: β=-1.34 (95% CI: -1.54, -1.14); 1st tertile: β=-0.45 (95% CI: -0.66, -0.25); p-interaction<0.001], but not insulin resistance [3rd tertile: β=-0.07 (95% CI: -0.24, 0.09); 1st tertile: β=0.09 (95% CI: -0.08, 0.26); p-interaction=0.40]. We observed no modification of fast food price by fast food availability. Future research on obesity disparities should consider potential differences in the association between fast food prices and health outcomes across neighborhood socioeconomic levels.

  17. Availability, brands, labelling and Salmonella contamination of raw pet food in the Minneapolis/St. Paul area.

    PubMed

    Mehlenbacher, S; Churchill, J; Olsen, K E; Bender, J B

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to characterize the commercially available raw meat pet food diets in the Minneapolis/St. Paul area by (i) determining the number and types of available diets; (ii) assessing pet food stores and brand labels for the provision of precautionary statements regarding the risk of foodborne illness from raw meat; (ii) assessing the labels for Food and Drug Administration (FDA)/American Association of Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) required content and nutrient-related information; and (iv) culturing purchased diets for the presence of Salmonella. Sixty raw meat diets were purchased, representing 11 different brands from eight different stores. Diets were readily available in the form of raw-frozen, dehydrated or freeze-dried varieties from different protein sources, such as lamb, beef, chicken or duck. All stores promoted raw meat diets; however, none provided foodborne illness warnings. Brands varied greatly in their precautionary statements; none of the diets underwent feeding trials; and nutritional adequacy substantiation was through formulation only. The first five ingredients tended to consist of meat, organ meat (by-products), vegetables, grains and ground bones. Currently, it is required that pet foods have an AAFCO nutritional adequacy statement and provide a guaranteed analysis table. Three brands did not meet these FDA requirements. Thirty-one (51.7%) of the 60 raw meat diets underwent some degree of processing including dehydration, freeze-drying or high-pressure pasteurization. Four of the 60 raw diets (7%) tested positive for Salmonella. Analysis of raw meat pet food labels indicated a lack of foodborne illness warnings. Based on these findings, we recommend that warning statements similar to those required by the United States Department of Agriculture and placed on labels of raw meat intended for human consumption be provided on the labels of raw meat pet food diets.

  18. Price, Promotion, and Availability of Nutrition Information: A Descriptive Study of a Popular Fast Food Chain in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Basch, Corey Hannah; Ethan, Danna; Rajan, Sonali

    2013-01-01

    Legislation in NYC requires chain restaurants to post calorie information on menu boards in an effort to help consumers make more informed decisions about food and beverage items they are purchasing. While this is a step in the right direction in light of the current obesity epidemic, there are other issues that warrant attention in a fast food setting, namely the pricing of healthy food options, promotional strategies, and access to comprehensive nutrition information. This study focused on a popular fast-food chain in NYC. The study’s aims were threefold: (1) to determine the cost differential between the healthiest meal item on the chain’s general menu and meal items available specifically on a reduced cost menu for one dollar (US$1.00); (2) to identify and describe the promotions advertised in the windows of these restaurants, as well as the nutrition content of promoted items; and (3) to ascertain availability of comprehensive nutrition information to consumers within the restaurants. We found the healthiest meal item to be significantly higher in price than less nutritious meal items available for $1.00 (t = 146.9, p < .001), with the mean cost differential equal to $4.33 (95% CI $4.27, $4.39). Window promotions generally advertised less healthful menu items, which may aid in priming customers to purchase these versus more healthful options. Comprehensive nutrition information beyond calorie counts was not readily accessible prior to purchasing. In addition to improving access to comprehensive nutrition information, advertising more of and lowering the prices of nutritious options may encourage consumers to purchase healthier foods in a fast food setting. Additional research in this area is needed in other geographic locations and restaurant chains. PMID:24171876

  19. Price, promotion, and availability of nutrition information: a descriptive study of a popular fast food chain in New York City.

    PubMed

    Basch, Corey Hannah; Ethan, Danna; Rajan, Sonali

    2013-08-25

    Legislation in NYC requires chain restaurants to post calorie information on menu boards in an effort to help consumers make more informed decisions about food and beverage items they are purchasing. While this is a step in the right direction in light of the current obesity epidemic, there are other issues that warrant attention in a fast food setting, namely the pricing of healthy food options, promotional strategies, and access to comprehensive nutrition information. This study focused on a popular fast-food chain in NYC. The study's aims were threefold: (1) to determine the cost differential between the healthiest meal item on the chain's general menu and meal items available specifically on a reduced cost menu for one dollar (US$1.00); (2) to identify and describe the promotions advertised in the windows of these restaurants, as well as the nutrition content of promoted items; and (3) to ascertain availability of comprehensive nutrition information to consumers within the restaurants. We found the healthiest meal item to be significantly higher in price than less nutritious meal items available for $1.00 (t=146.9, p<.001), with the mean cost differential equal to $4.33 (95% CI: $4.27, $4.39). Window promotions generally advertised less healthful menu items, which may aid in priming customers to purchase these versus more healthful options. Comprehensive nutrition information beyond calorie counts was not readily accessible prior to purchasing. In addition to improving access to comprehensive nutrition information, advertising more of and lowering the prices of nutritious options may encourage consumers to purchase healthier foods in a fast food setting. Additional research in this area is needed in other geographic locations and restaurant chains. 

  20. Neighbourhood food store availability in relation to 24 h urinary sodium and potassium excretion in young Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2010-10-01

    Previous studies on the relationship of local food environment with residents' diets have relied exclusively on self-reported information on diet, producing inconsistent results. Evaluation of dietary intake using biomarkers may obviate the biases inherent to the use of self-reported dietary information. This cross-sectional study examined the association between neighbourhood food store availability and 24 h urinary Na and K excretion. The subjects were 904 female Japanese dietetic students aged 18-22 years. Neighbourhood food store availability was defined as the number of food stores within a 0.5-mile (0.8-km) radius of residence. Urinary Na and K excretion and the ratio of urinary Na to K were estimated from a single 24 h urine sample. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, neighbourhood availability of confectionery stores/bakeries was inversely associated with urinary K, and was positively associated with the ratio of Na to K (P for trend = 0.008 and 0.03, respectively). Neighbourhood availability of rice stores showed an independent inverse association with urinary K (P for trend = 0.03), whereas neighbourhood availability of supermarkets/grocery stores conversely showed an independent positive association with this variable (P for trend = 0.03). Furthermore, neighbourhood availability of fruit/vegetable stores showed an independent inverse association with the ratio of Na to K (P for trend = 0.049). In a group of young Japanese women, increasing neighbourhood availability of supermarkets/grocery stores and fruit/vegetable stores and decreasing availability of confectionery stores/bakeries and rice stores were associated with favourable profiles of 24 h urinary K (and Na) excretion.

  1. Nonexercise muscle tension and behavioral fidgeting are positively correlated with food availability/palatability and body weight in rats.

    PubMed

    Heinrichs, Stephen C

    2003-07-01

    While certain measures of energy expenditure such as respiratory quotient and thermogenesis are readily quantifiable using existing animal models, the mechanism for and measurement of energy expenditure via nonexercise activity have not been thoroughly characterized. This low intensity form of physical exertion, associated with involuntary fidgeting and postural changes in man, was quantified in the present studies using passive measurement of muscle tension in rats. In particular, long-term weight loss and gain were induced using diet yoking and feeding of preferred foods in order to assess corresponding changes in locomotor activity and radiotelemetered measures of muscle tension, temperature and global activity. Hind limb muscle tension, but not body temperature, was increased 30-60% by enhancing the availability or palatability of food relative to the decreased muscle tension resulting from limited food availability. Enhancing food availability or palatability also produced a relative 5-15% increase in the amount of telemetered global activity. Importantly, neither diet yoking nor provision of a highly preferred diet altered a precise measure of behavioral locomotor activity. These results suggest that muscle tension and activity-in-place are positively correlated with weight change in the present studies and that these mechanisms of energy expenditure are mobilized by environmental changes in diet composition and meal pattern.

  2. Rainfall-induced changes in food availability modify the spring departure programme of a migratory bird

    PubMed Central

    Studds, Colin E.; Marra, Peter P.

    2011-01-01

    Climatic warming has intensified selection for earlier reproduction in many organisms, but potential constraints imposed by climate change outside the breeding period have received little attention. Migratory birds provide an ideal model for exploring such constraints because they face warming temperatures on temperate breeding grounds and declining rainfall on many tropical non-breeding areas. Here, we use longitudinal data on spring departure dates of American redstarts (Setophaga ruticilla) to show that annual variation in tropical rainfall and food resources are associated with marked change in the timing of spring departure of the same individuals among years. This finding challenges the idea that photoperiod alone regulates the onset of migration, providing evidence that intensifying drought in the tropical winter could hinder adaptive responses to climatic warming in the temperate zone. PMID:21450737

  3. Silver migration from nanosilver and a commercially available zeolite filler polyethylene composites to food simulants.

    PubMed

    Cushen, M; Kerry, J; Morris, M; Cruz-Romero, M; Cummins, E

    2014-01-01

    Polyethylene composites containing Agion(TM) commercial silver ion filler at three different percentage fill rates (0.5, 1.0 and 2% w/w) and polyethylene composites containing laboratory produced silver nanoparticles (Agnps) at two different percentage fill rates (0.1 and 0.5% w/w) underwent migration tests according to Commission Regulation (EU) No. 10/2011. Migrated silver in the two simulants (acidified water with 3% acetic acid and distilled water) was quantified using two techniques: inductively coupled atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES) and Hach Lange spectroscopy. The former had higher sensitivity with mean silver migration from Agion composites (n = 12) ranging from < 0.001 to 1.50 × 10(-2) mg l(-1). Mean silver migration from Agnps composites ranged from 4.65 × 10(-2) to 0.38 mg l(-1) and 8.92 × 10(-2) and 5.15 × 10(-2) mg l(-1) for Hach Lange spectrophotometry and ICPAES, respectively. Both percentage fill rate in the composite and the simulant type, as factors, were found to be significant in both silver migration from Agion (p < 0.0001 and < 0.01, respectively) and Agnps (p < 0.05 and < 0.01, respectively). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imagery showed differences in size distributions and morphology of particles (shape and degree of agglomeration) before and after migration. PE composites containing 0.5% Agion, simulating contact with non-acidic foods, was the only scenario that did not exceed the permitted migration level of non-authorised substances given in EU 10/2011. This study illustrates the need for careful engineering of the composite filler system to conform to limits with cognisance of food pH and percentage fill rate.

  4. Influence of food and water availability on undirected singing and energetic status in adult male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

    PubMed

    Rashotte, M E; Sedunova, E V; Johnson, F; Pastukhov, I F

    2001-01-01

    The songs of adult male zebra finches are termed "directed" and "undirected," depending on the social context in which they occur. Females elicit directed song, whereas undirected song is not addressed to a particular conspecific and even occurs at high levels in social isolation. We tested the hypothesis that the production of undirected song is more sensitive to a brief period of food deprivation than a comparable period of water deprivation. The hypothesis was based on prior findings suggesting that song production is energetically expensive and that food deprivation constitutes a more serious energetic challenge to zebra finches than does water deprivation. Two days of food or water deprivation were imposed on several groups of birds that provided song production data and a variety of energetic measures; normative data obtained in a baseline period when food and water were available ad libitum provided a standard for comparison. Singing, which occurred exclusively in the light phase of the day, was reduced at the onset of food deprivation, ceased completely within 4 h, and did not occur at all on the second day. When water was removed, the birds showed a slower and less substantial reduction in daily song production across the 2 days of deprivation. Energetic measures indicated that food deprivation was a greater energetic challenge than water deprivation. Our results demonstrate that undirected song in zebra finches is sensitive to nonsocial environmental factors that pose an energetic challenge and raise new questions about how birds calibrate their level of song production to the availability of nutrients in the environment.

  5. Simulation of Snow Cover Evolution by means of the model SNOW4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhm, Uwe; Reich, Thomas; Schneider, Gerold

    2014-05-01

    SNOW 4 is a model to simulate accumulation and depletion of snow cover on a regular grid. The physical core of the model consists of modules to compute snow cover energy and mass balance. Available melting heat is calculated as the balance of the energy fluxes between snow cover, atmosphere and soil considering radiation and heat fluxes as well as heat conduction in the snow pack. Depending on the resulting melting heat, melting of snow or freezing of liquid water within the snow layer takes place. Retention, aging and regeneration are taken into account. SNOW 4 is forced by observation in an analysis phase which covers the last 30 hours and by numerical weather prediction model results in the forecast phase for 72 hours ahead. The model computes snow cover water equivalent and precipitation supply formed by melting water and precipitation not retained in the snow pack. The internal time step and the output interval is one hour. Grid resolution is on square kilometer. Model simulations are updated every six hours. Model evaluation demonstrates the ability of the model to provide high-quality results for use in flood warning and water management in most of the German federal states and surrounding countries.

  6. Food availability and offspring sex in a monogamous seabird: insights from an experimental approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merkling, Thomas; Leclaire, Sarah; Danchin, Etienne; Lhuillier, Emeline; Wagner, Richard H.; White, Joël; Hatch, Scott A.; Blanchard, Pierrick

    2012-01-01

    Sex allocation theory predicts that parents should favor offspring of the sex that provides the greatest fitness return. Despite growing evidence suggesting that vertebrates are able to overcome the constraint of chromosomal sex determination, the general pattern remains equivocal, indicating a need for experimental investigations. We used an experimental feeding design to study sex allocation during 3 years in black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla). Intense male–male competition for securing a breeding site is common in this species in which males are heavier and larger than females. Hence, we hypothesized that parents producing fledglings in better than average condition, as supplementarily fed pairs do, would increase their fitness return by producing sons. Conversely, producing daughters would be a better tactic for Unfed parents. Hence, we predicted that Fed parents produce more sons than Unfed parents. This prediction is particularly expected if sexual dimorphism arises as early as during chick rearing, suggesting strong selective pressures for optimal male development. Our results showed that 1) males were heavier and larger than females prior to fledging and that 2) Fed parents produced relatively more male hatchlings than Unfed parents. We interpret this result in terms of a Trivers–Willard-type process. Furthermore, our data revealed that Unfed parents significantly overproduced female hatchlings, whereas offspring sex ratio was balanced among Fed parents. Because the 3 reproductive seasons we considered were particularly poor food years, Unfed parents may have overproduced daughters to avoid the apparent higher reproductive costs of raising sons.

  7. Snow depth on Arctic and Antarctic sea ice derived from autonomous (Snow Buoy) measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaus, Marcel; Arndt, Stefanie; Hendricks, Stefan; Heygster, Georg; Huntemann, Marcus; Katlein, Christian; Langevin, Danielle; Rossmann, Leonard; Schwegmann, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    The snow cover on sea ice received more and more attention in recent sea ice studies and model simulations, because its physical properties dominate many sea ice and upper ocean processes. In particular; the temporal and spatial distribution of snow depth is of crucial importance for the energy and mass budgets of sea ice, as well as for the interaction with the atmosphere and the oceanic freshwater budget. Snow depth is also a crucial parameter for sea ice thickness retrieval algorithms from satellite altimetry data. Recent time series of Arctic sea ice volume only use monthly snow depth climatology, which cannot take into account annual changes of the snow depth and its properties. For Antarctic sea ice, no such climatology is available. With a few exceptions, snow depth on sea ice is determined from manual in-situ measurements with very limited coverage of space and time. Hence the need for more consistent observational data sets of snow depth on sea ice is frequently highlighted. Here, we present time series measurements of snow depths on Antarctic and Arctic sea ice, recorded by an innovative and affordable platform. This Snow Buoy is optimized to autonomously monitor the evolution of snow depth on sea ice and will allow new insights into its seasonality. In addition, the instruments report air temperature and atmospheric pressure directly into different international networks, e.g. the Global Telecommunication System (GTS) and the International Arctic Buoy Programme (IABP). We introduce the Snow Buoy concept together with technical specifications and results on data quality, reliability, and performance of the units. We highlight the findings from four buoys, which simultaneously drifted through the Weddell Sea for more than 1.5 years, revealing unique information on characteristic regional and seasonal differences. Finally, results from seven snow buoys co-deployed on Arctic sea ice throughout the winter season 2015/16 suggest the great importance of local

  8. Climate change and the performance of larval coral reef fishes: the interaction between temperature and food availability

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Ian M.; Rummer, Jodie L.; Clark, Timothy D.; Jones, Geoffrey P.; McCormick, Mark I.; Wenger, Amelia S.; Munday, Philip L.

    2013-01-01

    Climate-change models predict that tropical ocean temperatures will increase by 2–3°C this century and affect plankton communities that are food for marine fish larvae. Both temperature and food supply can influence development time, growth, and metabolism of marine fishes, particularly during larval stages. However, little is known of the relative importance and potential interacting effects of ocean warming and changes to food supply on the performance of larval fishes. We tested this for larvae of the coral reef anemonefish, Amphiprion percula, in an orthogonal experiment comprising three temperatures and three feeding schedules. Temperatures were chosen to represent present-day summer averages (29.2°C) and end-of-century climate change projections of +1.5°C (30.7°C) and +3°C (32.2°C). Feeding schedules were chosen to represent a reduction in access to food (fed daily, every 2 days, or every 3 days). Overall, larvae took longer to settle at higher temperatures and with less frequent feeding, and there was a significant interaction between these factors. Time to metamorphosis was fastest in the 30.7oC and high food availability treatment (10.5 ± 0.2 days) and slowest in the 32.2oC and low food availability treatment (15.6 ± 0.5 days; i.e. 50% faster). Fish from the lower feeding regimens had a lower body condition and decreased survivorship to metamorphosis. Routine oxygen consumption rates were highest for fish raised at 32.2°C and fed every third day (162 ± 107 mg O2  kg−1 h−1) and lowest for fish raised at 29.2°C and fed daily (122 ± 101 mg O2 kg−1 h−1; i.e. 35% lower). The elevated routine oxygen consumption rate, and therefore greater energy use at higher temperatures, may leave less energy available for growth and development, resulting in the longer time to metamorphosis. Overall, these results suggest that larval fishes will be severely impacted by climate-change scenarios that predict both

  9. 76 FR 66073 - Guidance for Industry on What You Need to Know About Administrative Detention of Foods; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... consumption under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act), as amended by the FDA Food Safety and... (HFS-009), Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint... Compliance (HFS-607), Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, 5100...

  10. Effects of parental age and food availability on the reproductive success of Heermann's gulls in the Gulf of California.

    PubMed

    Vieyra, Leticia; Velarde, Enriqueta; Ezcurra, Exequiel

    2009-04-01

    Parental age, body condition, and food availability have been found to influence breeding parameters in seabirds, such as clutch size, number of chicks hatched and fledged, hatching, fledging, and reproductive success. In this paper we analyze the influence of parental age and body condition estimated by body mass, and food availability estimated from catch per unit effort (CPUE) statistics for Pacific sardine (Sardinops caeruleus) + northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax) by the local fishing fleet, on the breeding parameters of the Heermann's Gull (Larus heermanni; a vulnerable species according to Mexican federal law) nesting in Isla Rasa, Gulf of California, Mexico. Results are based on data from 1123 recaptures of known-age individuals, ranging from 4 to 13 years of age, during seven observation years between 1989 and 1997. Ages of mated male and female gulls were positively correlated. Breeding parameters showed their lowest values in 1992, an El Niño year in which the birds also showed significantly lower individual masses for both males and females, and in which the local CPUE of sardine + anchovies was lowest. All breeding parameters increased significantly with parental age and were highest at 10-12 years. No significant statistical interactions were found between food availability and parental age on the breeding parameters. Through a path analysis we found that there is a strong chained relationship between variables: food availability, which is strongly driven by oceanographic conditions, affects both the survival of eggs into hatchlings and the survival of hatchlings into fledglings. This external factor and parental age, a biological factor intrinsic to each nesting couple, explain 41% of the observed between-nest variation in fledgling success.

  11. Demand for food on fixed-ratio schedules as a function of the quality of concurrently available reinforcement1

    PubMed Central

    Lea, S. E. G.; Roper, T. J.

    1977-01-01

    Six rats lever pressed for food on concurrent fixed-ratio schedules, in a two-compartment chamber. In one compartment, mixed diet pellets were delivered on fixed-ratio schedules of 1, 6, 11, and 16; in the other, either no food was delivered, or sucrose or mixed diet pellets were delivered on fixed-ratio 8. The number of pellets obtained in the first compartment declined as a function of fixed-ratio size in that compartment in all three conditions, but the decline was greatest overall with mixed diet pellets concurrently available in the other compartment, and least with no food concurrently available. The result is discussed in terms of economic demand theory, and is consistent with the prediction that elasticity of demand for a commodity (defined in operant terms as the ratio of the proportionate change in number of reinforcements per session to the proportionate change in fixed-ratio size) is greater the more substitutable for that commodity are any concurrently available commodities. PMID:16811999

  12. Distributed calibrating snow models using remotely sensed snow cover information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.

    2015-12-01

    Distributed calibrating snow models using remotely sensed snow cover information Hongyi Li1, Tao Che1, Xin Li1, Jian Wang11. Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China For improving the simulation accuracy of snow model, remotely sensed snow cover data are used to calibrate spatial parameters of snow model. A physically based snow model is developed and snow parameters including snow surface roughness, new snow density and critical threshold temperature distinguishing snowfall from precipitation, are spatially calibrated in this study. The study region, Babaohe basin, located in northwestern China, have seasonal snow cover and with complex terrain. The results indicates that the spatially calibration of snow model parameters make the simulation results more reasonable, and the simulated snow accumulation days, plot-scale snow depth are more better than lumped calibration.

  13. Basal blood glucose concentration in free-living striped mice is influenced by food availability, ambient temperature and social tactic.

    PubMed

    Schradin, Carsten; Pillay, Neville; Kondratyeva, Anna; Yuen, Chi-Hang; Schoepf, Ivana; Krackow, Sven

    2015-05-01

    Vertebrates obtain most of their energy through food, which they store mainly as body fat or glycogen, with glucose being the main energy source circulating in the blood. Basal blood glucose concentration (bBGC) is expected to remain in a narrow homeostatic range. We studied the extent to which bBGC in free-living African striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio) is influenced by ecological factors with a bearing on energy regulation, i.e. food availability, abiotic environmental variation and social tactic. Striped mice typically form extended family groups that huddle together at night, reducing energetic costs of thermoregulation, but solitary individuals also occur in the population. We analysed 2827 blood samples from 1008 individuals of seven different social categories that experienced considerable variation in food supply and abiotic condition. Blood samples were taken from mice in the morning after the overnight fast and before foraging. bBGC increased significantly with food plant abundance and decreased significantly with minimum daily ambient temperature. Solitary striped mice had significantly higher bBGC than group-living striped mice. Our results suggest that adaptive responses of bBGC occur and we found large natural variation, indicating that bBGC spans a far greater homeostatic range than previously thought.

  14. Do Food Availability and Microclimate Determine Bird Use of Forest Canopy Gaps?

    SciTech Connect

    CHAMPLIN, TRACEY BERNICE

    2007-07-01

    We investigated the influence of arthropod availability and microclimate on avian use of forest canopy gaps in 2002 and 2003. We used mist netting and observation of foraging effort (attack rates) to determine the influence of arthropod abundance on avian habitat use of three sizes (0.13, 0.26, and 0.50 ha) of 2- to 3-year-old group-selection timber harvest openings during four periods (spring migration, breeding, post-breeding, and fall migration).

  15. [In vitro availability of minerals in infant foods with different protein source].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Llamas, F; Larqué, E; Marín, J F; Zamora, S

    2001-01-01

    As the result of the digestion process, it is produced at gastrointestinal level interactions between proteins-minerals and minerals-minerals that might modify the bioavailability of the nutrients initially designed for an adequate nutrition in infant formulas. The aim of the present study is to compare the in vitro availability of some minerals and trace elements (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron and zinc) in infant formulas of initiation elaborated with different protein sources: formulas based on cow milk protein (whey-casein) versus vegetal protein (soy-based infant formulas). Also, for evaluating the effects of the different mineral supplementation in the availability of minerals, it was used infant formulas from two different manufacturers. Milk-protein based infant formulas showed for both manufacturers higher dialysis percentage (%) of phosphorus and zinc than the soy-protein based formulas. The availability of iron in the soy formula of the manufacturer A lowered significantly (P < 0.05) respect to the whey-casein based formula (9.6 +/- 2.3 versus 4.6 +/- 0.8), but not respect to the whey-casein formula of manufacturer B (9.6 +/- 1.1 versus 9.0 +/- 0.7), which might be due to the lowest proportion of phytic acid in this last commercial formula. Dialysability of all the minerals analysed from soy-protein based formulas showed significant differences depending on the manufacturer. The purification processes of the soy protein have a high repercussion in the mineral availability of soy-based infant formulas. It could be more interesting to use soy proteins more purified, with low level of phytic acid, in the elaboration of soy infants formulas, than the supplementation them with high amounts of minerals.

  16. Effect of compositional alteration of food matrices and processing on availability of selected nutrients and bioactive components in rice products.

    PubMed

    Oghbaei, Morteza; Prakash, Jamuna

    2011-05-01

    The aim was to determine the influence of compositional alteration and processing on the digestibility/availability of nutrients and bioactive components [protein (IVPD), starch (IVSD), iron, calcium, polyphenols, flavonoids] in rice products. The compositional changes representing fortified foods in 'wafers' and 'noodles' were addition of iron, rice bran, onion and cabbage. The moisture content of wafer and noodles ranged from 4.1 to 4.8% and from 73.3 to 82.1%, respectively. Wafer control (73.9-75.9%) and noodle with iron and control (85.4-87.0%) showed the highest IVPD and IVSD. Addition of rice bran decreased nutrient digestibility. The control and iron-added products exhibited least and highest available iron (2.50-2.69% and 5.99-7.07%). Total and available bioactive components increased in proportion to added external source. Overall availability of all components was better in noodles than in wafers, indicating high moisture supported higher availability. In conclusion, it can be said that both composition of the food matrix and processing influenced the availability of analyzed components.

  17. A Look at Seasonal Snow Cover and Snow Mass in the Southern Hemisphere from 1979-2006 Using SMMR and SSM/I Passive Microwave Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, James

    2009-01-01

    Seasonal snow cover in extra-tropical areas of South America was examined in this study using passive microwave satellite data from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) on board the Nimbus-7 satellite and from the Special Sensor Microwave Imagers (SSM/I) on board the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites. For the period from 1979-2006, both snow cover extent and snow mass were estimated for the months of May-September. Most of the seasonal snow in South America occurs in the Patagonia region of Argentina. The average snow cover extent for July, the month with the greatest average extent during the 28-year period of record, is 321,674 sq km. The seasonal (May-September) 2 average snow cover extent was greatest in 1984 (464,250 sq km) and least in 1990 (69,875 sq km). In terms of snow mass, 1984 was also the biggest year (1.19 x 10(exp 13) kg) and 1990 was the smallest year (0.12 X 10(exp 13) kg). A strong relationship exists between the snow cover area and snow mass, correlated at 0.95, though no significant trend was found over the 28 year record for either snow cover extent or snow mass. For this long term climatology, snow mass and snow cover extent are shown to vary considerably from month to month and season to season. This analysis presents a consistent approach to mapping and measuring snow in South America utilizing an appropriate and readily available long term snow satellite dataset. This is the optimal dataset available, thus far, for deriving seasonal snow cover and snow mass in this region. Nonetheless, shallow snow, wet snow, snow beneath forests, as well as snow along coastal areas all may confound interpretation using passive microwave approaches. More work needs to be done to reduce the uncertainties in the data and hence, increase the confidence of the interpretation

  18. Availability of food resources, distribution of invasive species, and conservation of a Hawaiian bird along a gradient of elevation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banko, P.C.; Oboyski, P.T.; Slotterback, J.W.; Dougill, Steve J.; Goltz, Dan M.; Johnson, L.; Laut, M.E.; Murray, T.C.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: We evaluated how an elevation gradient affects: (1) the availability of food required by a specialist seed-eater, Loxioides bailleui Oustalet (Drepanidinae), or pallia, and hence the distribution of this endangered Hawaiian bird, and (2) the distribution of alien threats to Loxioides populations, their primary foods, and their dry-forest habitat, and hence strategies for their conservation. Location: We worked throughout the subalpine forest that encircles Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawai'i Island, but we focused our studies mainly on the western slope between 2000 and 3000 m elevation, where the gradient of elevation was greatest and palila were most abundant. Methods: We determined phenology and productivity patterns of the endemic dry-forest tree species, Sophora chrysophylla (Salisb.) Seem. (Fabaceae), or ma??mane, which provides Loxioides with most of their food, and another common endemic tree, Myoporum sandwicense A. Gray (Myoporaceae), or naio, which provides some resources, along a 786-m elevation gradient at monthly intervals for 10 years (Sophora only). We also determined the availability each month of moth larvae (Lepidoptera) for that were important in the diet of nestling and adult palila. In addition, we documented the incidence of parasitism on moth larvae by several wasp (Hymenoptera) and fly (Diptera) species, and we determined the distribution of predatory wasps and ants (Hymenoptera), which potentially threaten insect prey of birds. Percentage cover of alien grass species that pose fire threats in palila habitat and other weeds were assessed during one survey. Small mammal abundance and distribution were determined by trapping during three (rodent) or five (carnivore) surveys. Results: Sophora flower and seed (pod) availability varied predictably along the elevation gradient, with about 4 months separating peaks in reproduction at high and low elevations. This, together with highly variable production of flowers and pods within elevation strata

  19. Using snowboards and lysimeters to constrain snow model choices in a rain-snow transitional environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wayand, N. E.; Massmann, A.; Clark, M. P.; Lundquist, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Physically based models of the hydrological cycle are critical for testing our understanding of the natural world and enabling forecasting of extreme events. Previous intercomparison studies (i.e. SNOWMIP I & II, PILPS) of existing snow models that vary in complexity have been hampered by multiple differences in model structure. Recent efforts to encompass multiple model hypothesizes into a single framework (i.e. the Structure for Understanding Multiple Modeling Alternatives [SUMMA] model), have provided the tools necessary for a more rigorous validation of process representation. However, there exist few snow observatories that measure sufficient physical states and fluxes to fully constrain the possible combinations within these multiple model frameworks. In practice, observations of bulk snow states, such as the snow water equivalent (SWE) or snow depth, are most commonly available. The downfall of calibrating a snow model using such single bulk variables can lead to parameter equanimity and compensatory errors, which ultimately impacts the skill of a model as a predictive tool. This study provides two examples of diagnosing modeled snow processes through novel error source identification. Simulations were performed at a recently upgraded (Oct. 2012) snow study site located at Snoqualmie Pass (917 m), in the Washington Cascades, USA. We focused on two physical processes, new snow accumulation and snowpack outflow during mid-winter rain-on-snow events, for their importance towards controlling runoff and flooding in this rain-snow transitional basin. Main results were: 1) modifying the snow model structure to match what was actually observed (i.e. a snow board), allowed the attribution of daily errors in model new snow accumulation to either partitioning, new snow density, or compaction. 2) Observed snow pit temperature profiles from infrared cameras and manual thermometers found that cold biases in the model snowpack temperature prior to rain-on-snow events could

  20. Responses of squirrel monkeys to seasonal changes in food availability in an eastern Amazonian forest.

    PubMed

    Stone, Anita I

    2007-02-01

    Tropical forests are characterized by marked temporal and spatial variation in productivity, and many primates face foraging problems associated with seasonal shifts in fruit availability. In this study, I examined seasonal changes in diet and foraging behaviors of two groups of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), studied for 12 months in Eastern Brazilian Amazonia, an area characterized by seasonal rainfall. Squirrel monkeys were primarily insectivorous (79% of feeding and foraging time), with fruit consumption highest during the rainy season. Although monkeys fed from 68 plant species, fruit of Attalea maripa palms accounted for 28% of annual fruit-feeding records. Dietary shifts in the dry season were correlated with a decline in ripe A. maripa fruits. Despite pronounced seasonal variation in rainfall and fruit abundance, foraging efficiency, travel time, and distance traveled remained stable between seasons. Instead, squirrel monkeys at this Eastern Amazonian site primarily dealt with the seasonal decline in fruit by showing dietary flexibility. Consumption of insects, flowers, and exudates increased during the dry season. In particular, their foraging behavior at this time strongly resembled that of tamarins (Saguinus sp.) and consisted of heavy use of seed-pod exudates and specialized foraging on large-bodied orthopterans near the forest floor. Comparisons with squirrel monkeys at other locations indicate that, across their geographic range, Saimiri use a variety of behavioral tactics during reduced periods of fruit availability.

  1. Microwave emissions from snow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. T. C.

    1984-01-01

    The radiation emitted from dry and wet snowpack in the microwave region (1 to 100 GHz) is discussed and related to ground observations. Results from theoretical model calculations match the brightness temperatures obtained by truck mounted, airborne and spaceborne microwave sensor systems. Snow wetness and internal layer structure complicate the snow parameter retrieval algorithm. Further understanding of electromagnetic interaction with snowpack may eventually provide a technique to probe the internal snow properties

  2. Dry Snow Metamorphism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-19

    REPORT Dry Snow Metamorphism Final Report Grant: 51065-EV 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The goal of this project was to characterize the...structural evolution of dry snow as it underwent metamorphism under either quasi-isothermal conditions or a temperature gradient, and to determine...Z39.18 - 5-Aug-2011 Dry Snow Metamorphism Final Report Grant: 51065-EV Report Title ABSTRACT The goal of this project was to characterize the structural

  3. Data sets for snow cover monitoring and modelling from the National Snow and Ice Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, M.; Daniels, K.; Scott, D.; McLean, B.; Weaver, R.

    2003-04-01

    A wide range of snow cover monitoring and modelling data sets are pending or are currently available from the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). In-situ observations support validation experiments that enhance the accuracy of remote sensing data. In addition, remote sensing data are available in near-real time, providing coarse-resolution snow monitoring capability. Time series data beginning in 1966 are valuable for modelling efforts. NSIDC holdings include SMMR and SSM/I snow cover data, MODIS snow cover extent products, in-situ and satellite data collected for NASA's recent Cold Land Processes Experiment, and soon-to-be-released ASMR-E passive microwave products. The AMSR-E and MODIS sensors are part of NASA's Earth Observing System flying on the Terra and Aqua satellites Characteristics of these NSIDC-held data sets, appropriateness of products for specific applications, and data set access and availability will be presented.

  4. Long-term temporal and spatial dynamics of food availability for endangered mountain gorillas in Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Grueter, Cyril C; Ndamiyabo, Ferdinand; Plumptre, Andrew J; Abavandimwe, Didier; Mundry, Roger; Fawcett, Katie A; Robbins, Martha M

    2013-03-01

    Monitoring temporal and spatial changes in the resource availability of endangered species contributes to their conservation. The number of critically endangered mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in the Virunga Volcano population has doubled over the past three decades, but no studies have examined how food availability has changed during that period. First, we assessed if the plant species consumed by the gorillas have changed in abundance and distribution during the past two decades. In 2009-2010, we replicated a study conducted in 1988-1989 by measuring the frequency, density, and biomass of plant species consumed by the gorillas in 496 plots (ca. 6 km(2)) in the Karisoke study area in Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda. We expected to observe a decreased presence of major gorilla food plants as a likely result of density-dependent overharvesting by gorillas. Among the five most frequently consumed species (composing approximately 70% of the gorilla's diet, excluding bamboo), two have decreased in availability and abundance, while three have increased. Some species have undergone shifts in their altitudinal distribution, possibly due to regional climatic changes. Second, we made baseline measurements of food availability in a larger area currently utilized by the gorillas. In the extended sampling (n = 473 plots) area (ca. 25 km(2) ), of the five most frequently consumed species, two were not significantly different in frequency from the re-sampled area, while two occurred significantly less frequently, and one occurred significantly more frequently. We discuss the potential impact of gorilla-induced herbivory on changes of vegetation abundance. The changes in the species most commonly consumed by the gorillas could affect their nutrient intake and stresses the importance of monitoring the interrelation among plant population dynamics, species density, and resource use.

  5. 76 FR 20305 - Notice of Funding Availability: Inviting Applications for McGovern-Dole International Food for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program's Micronutrient-Fortified Food Aid Products Pilot... Micronutrient-Fortified Food Aid Products Pilot (MFFAPP). The notice stated that eligible applicants...

  6. Modelling high-resolution snow cover precipitation supply for German river catchments with SNOW 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhm, Uwe; Reich, Thomas; Schneider, Gerold; Fiedler, Anett

    2013-04-01

    Formation of snow cover causes a delayed response of surface to precipitation. Both melting of snow and release of liquid water retained within the snow cover form precipitation supply which contributes to runoff and infiltration. The model SNOW 4 is developed to simulate snow cover accumulation and depletion and the resulting precipitation supply on a regular grid. The core of the model is formed by a set of equations which describe the snow cover energy and mass balance. The snow surface energy balance is calculated as a result of the radiation balance and the heat fluxes between atmosphere, soil and snow cover. The available melting heat enters the mass balance computation part of the model and melting of snow or freezing of liquid water within the snow layer takes place depending on its sign. Retention, aging and snow cover regeneration are taken into consideration. The model runs operationally 4 times a day and provides both a snow cover and precipitation supply analysis for the last 30 hours and a forecast for up to 72 hours. For the 30-hour analysis, regionalised observations are used both to define the initial state and force the model. Hourly measurements of air temperature, water vapour pressure, wind speed, global radiation or sunshine duration and precipitation are interpolated to the model grid. For the forecast period, SNOW 4 obtains the required input data from the operational products of the COSMO-EU weather forecast model. The size of a grid box is 1km2. The model area covers a region of 1100x1000km2 and includes the catchments of the German rivers completely. The internal time step is set to 1 hour. Once a day, the compliance between model and regionalized snow cover data is assessed. If discrepancies exceed certain thresholds, the model must be adjusted by a weighted approach towards the observations. The model simulations are updated every six hours based on the most recent observations and weather forecasts. The model works operationally since

  7. The occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of salmonellae isolated from commercially available canine raw food diets in three Canadian cities.

    PubMed

    Finley, R; Reid-Smith, R; Ribble, C; Popa, M; Vandermeer, M; Aramini, J

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella isolated from commercially available canine raw food diets in Canada. A total of 166 commercial frozen raw food diet samples were purchased from randomly selected local pet stores in three Canadian cities for a period of 8 months. All samples were evaluated for the presence of Salmonella, serotyped and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. There was an overall Salmonella prevalence of 21%; chicken was an ingredient for 67% of the Salmonella-positive diets. Eighteen different Salmonella serotypes were recovered, and resistance was observed to 12 of the 16 antimicrobials tested, with the majority of Ontario isolates exhibiting resistance to ampicillin and Calgary isolates to tetracycline. This study demonstrates the potential risk of raw food diets, especially for immunocompromised individuals, and stresses the need for implementing regulatory guidelines for the production of these diets in order to help control and ideally eliminate the bacterial risks associated with their use and consumption.

  8. Body mass of prefledging Emperor Geese Chen canagica: Large-scale effects of interspecific densities and food availability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lake, B.C.; Schmutz, J.A.; Lindberg, M.S.; Ely, C.R.; Eldridge, W.D.; Broerman, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    We studied body mass of prefledging Emperor Geese Chen canagica at three locations across the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, during 1990-2004 to investigate whether large-scale variation in body mass was related to interspecific competition for food. From 1990 to 2004, densities of Cackling Geese Branta hutchinsii minima more than doubled and were c. 2-5?? greater than densities of Emperor Geese, which were relatively constant over time. Body mass of prefledging Emperor Geese was strongly related (negatively) to interspecific densities of geese (combined density of Cackling and Emperor Geese) and positively related to measures of food availability (grazing lawn extent and net above-ground primary productivity (NAPP)). Grazing by geese resulted in consumption of ??? 90% of the NAPP that occurred in grazing lawns during the brood-rearing period, suggesting that density-dependent interspecific competition was from exploitation of common food resources. Efforts to increase the population size of Emperor Geese would benefit from considering competitive interactions among goose species and with forage plants. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  9. Effects of forest structure and composition on food availability for Varecia variegata at Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balko, E.A.; Underwood, H.B.

    2005-01-01

    We present a summary of a long-term field study that examined the effects of forest disturbance on the availability of palatable fruit and its utilization by V. variegata. Forest structure and tree species composition were measured in three adjacent study areas, with different histories of disturbance, in Ranomafana National Park (RNP), Madagascar. V. variegata abundance was monitored by frequent encounters with resident groups and periodic censuses conducted along trails. Finally, the abundance of mature fruit in species used by V. variegata was scored monthly at representative trees at several locations. V. variegata abundance was most consistent in the least anthropogenically disturbed site, while no established lemur groups were observed in the heavily logged site for over a decade post-harvest. Lemur abundance was variable in the selectively logged site. The presence of select food trees, particularly specimens with voluminous crowns capable of producing abundant fruit crops, appears to be key to the establishment and expansion of V variegata groups. Our analysis of year-long fruit utilization revealed a high degree of preference for several species of trees. Two species exhibited mature fruit in a low percentage of stems but were available for a protracted period of time, while two additional species showed high intraspecific fruiting synchrony and were available for a shorter period of time. These contrasting phenologies, rather than the individual tree species, may be most important to V. variegata due to their coincident timing of fruit maturation with key lemur life-history events. Any disturbance-natural or anthropogenic-that disrupts the phenology cycles of food trees has the potential to impact lemur abundance and dispersion. Intense disturbances, such as heavy logging or severe cyclones, have long-lasting impacts on fruit production, while selective logging or moderate cyclonic windthrow cause more transient impacts. V. variegata is adapted to deal

  10. Comparison of commercially available kits with standard methods for the detection of coliforms and Escherichia coli in foods.

    PubMed Central

    Venkateswaran, K; Murakoshi, A; Satake, M

    1996-01-01

    Three commercially available kits that were supplemented with substrates for enzyme reactions were evaluated to determine their abilities to detect coliforms and fecal coliforms in foods. Japanese and U.S. Food and Drug Administration standard methods, as well as two agar plate methods, were compared with the three commercial kits. A total of 50 food samples from various retailers were examined. The levels of detection of coliforms were high with the commercial kits (78 to 98%) compared with the levels of detection with the standard methods (80 to 83%) and the agar plate methods (56 to 83%). Among the kits tested, the Colilert kit had highest level of recovery of coliforms (98%), and the level of recovery of Escherichia coli as determined by beta-glucuronidase activity with the Colilert kit (83%) was comparable to the level of recovery obtained by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration method (87%). Isolation of E. coli on the basis of the beta-glucuronidase enzyme reaction was found to be good. Levine's eosine methylene blue agar, which has been widely used in various laboratories to isolate E. coli was compared with 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide (MUG)-supplemented agar for isolation of E. coli. Only 47% of the E. coli was detected when eosine methylene blue agar was used; however, when violet red bile (VRB)-MUG agar was used, the E. coli detection rate was twice as high. Of the 200 E. coli strains isolated, only 2 were found to be MUG negative, and the gene responsible for beta-glucuronidase activity (uidA gene) was detected by the PCR method in these 2 strains. Of the 90 false-positive strains isolated that exhibited various E. coli characteristic features, only 2 non-E.coli strains hydrolyzed MUG and produced fluorescent substrate in VRB-MUG agar. However, the PCR did not amplify uidA gene products in these VRB-MUG fluorescence-positive strains. PMID:8779561

  11. "Let It Snow, Let It Snow, Let It Snow!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pangbourne, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Winter in the UK has, in recent years, brought a significant amount of snow and cold weather. This was the case while the author was a trainee teacher on placement at a rural primary school in Dartmoor early in 2010. The day started promisingly with the class looking at the weather forecast on the interactive whiteboard and having a short…

  12. Body size changes among otters, Lutra lutra, in Norway: the possible effects of food availability and global warming.

    PubMed

    Yom-Tov, Yoram; Heggberget, Thrine Moen; Wiig, Oystein; Yom-Tov, Shlomith

    2006-11-01

    Using museum data of adult specimens whose sex, age, and locality are known, we studied temporal and geographical body size trends among the otter, Lutra lutra, in Norway. We found that body size of the otters increased during the last quarter of the twentieth century, and suggest that this trend is related to increased food availability from fish farming and possibly also to energy saving due to elevated sea temperatures. Birth year and death year explained 38.8 and 43.5%, respectively, of the variation in body size. Body size of otters was positively related to latitude, thus conforming to Bergmann's rule.

  13. Influence of heavy snow on the feeding behavior of Japanese macaques (macaca fuscata) in northern Japan.

    PubMed

    Enari, Hiroto; Sakamaki-Enari, Haruka

    2013-06-01

    Natural disasters can degrade primate habitat and alter feeding behavior. Here, we examined the influence of unusually heavy snow on diet and feeding-site use by Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in northern Japan. To compare the winter-feeding behavior under different snow conditions, we recorded the plant species foraged on by macaques in multiple transects of the Shirakami Mountains from 2008 to 2012 (excluding 2011). We used cluster analysis to describe foraged plant assemblages, and applied multiple dimensional scaling and decision tree modeling to evaluate annual variation in feeding-site use by macaques. Our cluster analysis revealed five types of foraged plant assemblages. The proportion of each type present in transects varied considerably across the years, indicating that the diet of macaques in heavy snow conditions was influenced more by resource accessibility than by preference. Multiple dimensional scaling and decision tree modeling demonstrated that heavy snow conditions restricted feeding-site use. Moreover, the distribution of refuges relative to severe external ambient environments was a stronger limiting factor for feeding-site use than was the availability of food resources. While most primate species facing unexpected starvation employ risk-prone foraging tactics (i.e., choosing the option with higher pay-off by accepting risk), Japanese macaques have a tendency to adopt risk-averse foraging behavior (i.e., minimizing energy loss when searching for preferred diet items under long-lasting heavy snow conditions), because winters with temperatures below freezing have higher thermoregulatory costs.

  14. BOREAS HYD-4 Standard Snow Course Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metcalfe, John R.; Goodison, Barry E.; Walker, Anne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-4 work was focused on collecting data during the winter focused field campaign (FFC-W) to improve the understanding of winter processes within the boreal forest. Knowledge of snow cover and its variability in the boreal forest is fundamental if BOREAS is to achieve its goals of understanding the processes and states involved in the exchange of energy and water. The development and validation of remote sensing algorithms will provide the means to extend the knowledge of these processes and states from the local to the regional scale. A specific thrust of the research is the development and validation of snow cover algorithms from airborne passive microwave measurements. Snow surveys were conducted at special snow courses throughout the 1993/94, 1994/95, 1995/96, and 1996/97 winter seasons. These snow courses were located in different boreal forest land cover types (i.e., old aspen, old black spruce, young jack pine, forest clearing, etc.) to document snow cover variations throughout the season as a function of different land cover. Measurements of snow depth, density, and water equivalent were acquired on or near the first and fifteenth of each month during the snow cover season. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files. The HYD-4 standard snow course data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  15. Habitat manipulation of Exposed Riverine Sediments (ERS) how does microhabitat, microclimate and food availability influence beetle distributions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henshall, S. E.; Sadler, J. P.; Hannah, D. M.

    2009-04-01

    Exposed riverine sediments (ERS) are frequently inundated areas of relatively un-vegetated, fluvially deposited sediment (sand, silt, gravel and pebble). These habitats provide an important interface allowing the interaction of aquatic and terrestrial habitats and species. ERS are highly valuable for many rare and specialist invertebrates particularly beetles. Within an area of ERS, beetle species richness tends to be highest along the water's edge. This higher species richness may be linked to: (1) the availability of food items in the form of emerging and stranded aquatic invertebrates and (2) favourable physical microhabitat conditions in terms of temperature and moisture. This paper explores the role of microclimate and food availability by creating areas of ‘water's edge' habitat in the centre of a gravel bar. Typically these areas are drier, reach higher temperatures and devoid of emerging aquatic invertebrate prey. Four 2m x 2m experimental plots were created: one wet plot, one wet- fed plot, one dry-fed plot and one dry plot (control). These plots were each replicated on three separate areas of ERS. Sixty colour marked ERS specialist ground beetles (Bembidion atrocaeruleum) were released into each plot to monitor beetle persistence and movement on and between plots. The plots were maintained wet using a capillary pump system, and fed with dried blood worms for 30 days. Sediment temperature (0.05 m depth) was measured at 15 minute intervals and spot measurements of surface temperature were taken daily. A hand search was carried out on 25% of each plot after 7, 14, 21 and 30 days. Significant temperature differences were observed between the wet and dry sediment and air temperature. The wet plots on average were 1.8oC cooler than the dry plots and had a reduced temperature range. Both wet and dry sediments remained significantly warmer than air temperature. The wet and wet-fed plots yielded significantly greater numbers of beetles and marked beetles than

  16. 76 FR 13598 - Notice of Funding Availability: Inviting Applications for McGovern-Dole International Food for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... food aid products as foods used for direct feeding that are nutritionally enhanced with vitamin or mineral additions to address the micronutrient deficiencies of a population or group. The food aid...' health or nutritional deficiencies that could be alleviated by the micronutrient-fortified food...

  17. Exploring snow information content of interferometric SAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaeily Gazkohani, Ali

    topography distorts the snow information, just as the snow cover distorts the topographic information. The analysis is therefore mostly qualitative, focusing on particular terrain situations. At Schefferville, where the SRTM was adjusted to known lake levels, the expected dry-snow signal is seen near such lakes. Mine pits and waste dumps not included in the CDEM are depicted and there is also a strong signal related to the spatial variations in SWE produced by wind redistribution of snow near lakes and on the alpine tundra. In Colorado, cross-sections across ploughed roads support the hypothesis that in dry snow the SWE is measurable by differential InSAR. They also support the hypothesis that snow depth may be measured when the snow cover is wet. Difference maps were also extracted for a 1 km2 Intensive Study Area (ISA) for which intensive ground truth was available. Initial comparison between estimated and observed snow properties yielded low correlations which improved after stratification of the data set. In conclusion, the study shows that snow-related signals are measurable. For operational applications satellite-borne cross-track InSAR would be necessary. The processing needs to be snow-specific with appropriate filtering routines to account for influences by terrain factors other than snow. Key words. Interferometry, InSAR, Snow Water Equivalent, SWE, Snow depth, Dry Snow, Wet Snow, AIRSAR, CLPX, SRTM, Schefferville.

  18. Snow Bank Detectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Eric A.; Rule, Audrey C.; Dehm, Janet

    2005-01-01

    In the city where the authors live, located on the shore of Lake Ontario, children have ample opportunity to interact with snow. Water vapor rising from the relatively warm lake surface produces tremendous "lake effect" snowfalls when frigid winter winds blow. Snow piles along roadways after each passing storm, creating impressive snow…

  19. Loropetalum chinense 'Snow Panda'

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new Loropetalum chinense, ‘Snow Panda’, developed at the U.S. National Arboretum is described. ‘Snow Panda’ (NA75507, PI660659) originated from seeds collected near Yan Chi He, Hubei, China in 1994 by the North America-China Plant Exploration Consortium (NACPEC). Several seedlings from this trip w...

  20. Snow and Ice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Independent School District 275, Minn.

    This experimental edition provides a number of activities useful for investigating snow and ice with elementary school children. Commencing with games with ice cubes, the activities lead through studies of snowflakes, snowdrifts, effects of wind and obstacles on the shape and formation of drifts, to a study of animals living under snow. The…

  1. GulfSnow Peach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GulfSnow peach is jointly released for grower trial by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (Byron, GA), Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station and Florida Agricultural Experiment Station. GulfSnow was previously tested as AP06-09W and originated from a cross of AP98-3...

  2. Metabolic Physiology of the Invasive Clam, Potamocorbula amurensis: The Interactive Role of Temperature, Salinity, and Food Availability

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Nathan A.; Chen, Xi; Stillman, Jonathon H.

    2014-01-01

    In biological systems energy serves as the ultimate commodity, often determining species distributions, abundances, and interactions including the potential impact of invasive species on native communities. The Asian clam Potamocorbula amurensis invaded the San Francisco Estuary (SFE) in 1986 and is implicated in the decline of native fish species through resource competition. Using a combined laboratory/field study we examined how energy expenditure in this clam is influenced by salinity, temperature and food availability. Measures of metabolism were made at whole organism (metabolic rate) and biochemical (pyruvate kinase (PK) and citrate synthase (CS) enzyme activities) levels. We found in the field, over the course of a year, the ratio of PK to CS was typically 1.0 suggesting that aerobic and fermentative metabolism were roughly equivalent, except for particular periods characterized by low salinity, higher temperatures, and intermediate food availabilities. In a 30-day laboratory acclimation experiment, however, neither metabolic rate nor PK:CS ratio was consistently influenced by the same variables, though the potential for fermentative pathways did predominate. We conclude that in field collected animals, the addition of biochemical measures of energetic state provide little additional information to the previously measured whole organism metabolic rate. In addition, much of the variation in the laboratory remained unexplained and additional variables, including reproductive stage or body condition may influence laboratory-based results. Further study of adult clams must consider the role of organismal condition, especially reproductive state, in comparisons of laboratory experiments and field observations. PMID:24599347

  3. Availability of cadmium and zinc from sewage sludge to the flounder, Platichthys flesus, via a marine food chain.

    PubMed

    Burgos, M G; Rainbow, P S

    2001-06-01

    This paper examines the potential availability to a demersal fish of cadmium and zinc associated with digested sewage sludge, via a food chain as well as directly from the sludge, and the tissue distribution and possible excretion of any accumulated cadmium and zinc. Radioactive tracer techniques were used in order to follow the food chain transfer of the metals. Flounder (Platichthys flesus) accumulated cadmium both directly from sludge (delivered in newly ingested unassimilated gutfuls in the amphipods) and in assimilated form from the tissues of the amphipod crustacean Corophium volutator that had been feeding on a sludge-sediment mixture. Cadmium from both sources could be excreted by the fish. The concentration of cadmium within the whole fish increased as the input of cadmium in the diet increased. Zinc, similarly, is available to the flounder both directly from sludge and from zinc accumulated in C. volutator. Only a limited increase in net accumulation of zinc by the flounder was observed upon increased inputs of zinc through the diet, perhaps indicating some regulation of body zinc concentration by the flounder.

  4. Theoretical life history responses of juvenile Oncorhynchus mykiss to changes in food availability using a dynamic state-dependent approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Romine, Jason G.; Benjamin, Joseph R.; Perry, Russell W.; Casal, Lynne; Connolly, Patrick J.; Sauter, Sally S.

    2013-01-01

    Marine subsidies can play an important role in the growth, survival, and migratory behavior of rearing juvenile salmonids. Availability of high-energy, marine-derived food sources during critical decision windows may influence the timing of emigration or the decision to forego emigration completely and remain in the freshwater environment. Increasing growth and growth rate during these decision windows may result in an altered juvenile population structure, which will ultimately affect the adult population age-structure. We used a state dependent model to understand how the juvenile Oncorhynchus mykiss population structure may respond to increased availability of salmon eggs in their diet during critical decision windows. Our models predicted an increase in smolt production until coho salmon eggs comprised more than 50 percent of juvenile O. mykiss diet at the peak of the spawning run. At higher-than intermediate levels of egg consumption, smolt production decreased owing to increasing numbers of fish adopting a resident life-history strategy. Additionally, greater growth rates decreased the number of age-3 smolts and increased the number of age-2 smolts. Increased growth rates with higher egg consumption also decreased the age at which fish adopted the resident pathway. Our models suggest that the introduction of a high-energy food source during critical periods of the year could be sufficient to increase smolt production.

  5. Effects of shifts in food reinforcement context on rats' consumption of concurrently available water or sucrose solution.

    PubMed

    Galuska, Chad M; Sawyer, Leslie E

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of signaled transitions from relatively rich to lean conditions of food reinforcement on drinking concurrently available water or sucrose-sweetened water in rats. Past research demonstrated that these negative incentive shifts produce behavioral disruption in the form of extended pausing on fixed-ratio schedules. Four male Long-Evans rats operated on a two-component multiple fixed-ratio fixed-ratio schedule. In one manipulation, the ratio was held constant and the components arranged either a large six-pellet reinforcer (rich) or small one-pellet reinforcer (lean). In a second manipulation, the components both produced a one-pellet reinforcer but differed in terms of the ratio requirement, with the rich and lean conditions corresponding to relatively small and large ratios. In both manipulations, components were pseudorandomly presented to arrange four transitions signaled by retractable levers: lean-to-lean, lean-to-rich, rich-to-rich, and rich-to-lean (the negative incentive shift). During experimental conditions, a bottle with lickometer was inserted in the chamber, providing concurrent access either to tap water or a 10% sucrose solution. The negative incentive shift produced considerably more drinking than the other transitions in all rats during both manipulations. The level of drinking was not polydipsic; rather, it appears that the negative incentive shift enhanced the value of concurrently available reinforcers relative to food reinforcement.

  6. The frequency of hippocampal theta rhythm is modulated on a circadian period and is entrained by food availability

    PubMed Central

    Munn, Robert G. K.; Tyree, Susan M.; McNaughton, Neil; Bilkey, David K.

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampal formation plays a critical role in the generation of episodic memory. While the encoding of the spatial and contextual components of memory have been extensively studied, how the hippocampus encodes temporal information, especially at long time intervals, is less well understood. The activity of place cells in hippocampus has previously been shown to be modulated at a circadian time-scale, entrained by a behavioral stimulus, but not entrained by light. The experimental procedures used in the previous study of this phenomenon, however, necessarily conflated two alternative entraining stimuli, the exposure to the recording environment and the availability of food, making it impossible to distinguish between these possibilities. Here we demonstrate that the frequency of theta-band hippocampal EEG varies with a circadian period in freely moving animals and that this periodicity mirrors changes in the firing rate of hippocampal neurons. Theta activity serves, therefore, as a proxy of circadian-modulated hippocampal neuronal activity. We then demonstrate that the frequency of hippocampal theta driven by stimulation of the reticular formation also varies with a circadian period. Because this effect can be observed without having to feed the animal to encourage movement we were able to identify what stimulus entrains the circadian oscillation. We show that with reticular-activated recordings started at various times of the day the frequency of theta varies quasi-sinusoidally with a 25 h period and phase-aligned when referenced to the animal’s regular feeding time, but not the recording start time. Furthermore, we show that theta frequency consistently varied with a circadian period when the data obtained from repeated recordings started at various times of the day were referenced to the start of food availability in the recording chamber. This pattern did not occur when data were referenced to the start of the recording session or to the actual time of

  7. Longitudinal Trends in Tobacco Availability, Tobacco Advertising, and Ownership Changes of Food Stores, Albany, New York, 2003–2015

    PubMed Central

    Done, Douglas H.; Michaels, Isaac H.; Guarasi, Diana C.; Kammer, Jamie R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Frequency of visiting convenience and corner grocery stores that sell tobacco is positively associated with the odds of ever smoking and the risk of smoking initiation among youth. We assessed 12-year trends of tobacco availability, tobacco advertising, and ownership changes in various food stores in Albany, New York. Methods Eligible stores were identified by multiple government lists and community canvassing in 2003 (n = 107), 2009 (n = 117), 2012 (n = 135), and 2015 (n = 137). Tobacco availability (all years) and advertising (2009, 2012, and 2015) were directly measured; electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) were included in 2015. Results Percentage of stores selling tobacco peaked at 83.8% in 2009 and declined to 74.5% in 2015 (P for trend = .11). E-cigarettes were sold by 63.7% of tobacco retailers. The largest decline in tobacco availability came from convenience stores that went out of business (n = 11), followed by pharmacies that dropped tobacco sales (n = 4). The gain of tobacco availability mostly came from new convenience stores (n = 24) and new dollar stores (n = 8). Significant declining trends (P < .01) were found in tobacco availability and any tobacco advertising in pharmacies and in low (<3 feet) tobacco advertising in convenience stores and stores overall. Only one-third of stores that sold tobacco in 2003 continued to sell tobacco with the same owner in 2015. Conclusion The observed subtle declines in tobacco availability and advertising were explained in part by local tobacco control efforts, the pharmacy industry’s self-regulation of tobacco sales, and an increase in the state’s tobacco retailer registration fee. Nonetheless, overall tobacco availability remained high (>16 retailers per 10,000 population) in this community. The high store ownership turnover rate suggests that a moratorium of new tobacco retailer registrations would be an integral part of a multi-prong policy strategy to reduce tobacco availability and

  8. Long-term changes in food availability mediate the effects of temperature on growth, development and survival in striped marsh frog larvae: implications for captive breeding programmes.

    PubMed

    Courtney Jones, Stephanie K; Munn, Adam J; Penman, Trent D; Byrne, Phillip G

    2015-01-01

    Food availability and temperature are known to trigger phenotypic change, but the interactive effects between these factors are only beginning to be considered. The aim of this study was to examine the independent and interactive effects of long-term stochastic food availability and water temperature on larval survivorship, growth and development of the striped marsh frog, Limnodynastes peronii. Larval L. peronii were reared in conditions of either constant or stochastic food availability and in water at three different temperatures (18, 22 and 26°C), and effects on survival, growth and development were quantified. Over the experimental period, larval growth rate was highest and survivorship lowest at the warmest temperature. However, changes in food availability mediated the effects of temperature, with slower larval growth and higher survivorship in stochastic food availability treatments. Tadpoles in the stochastic food availability treatments did not reach metamorphosis during the experimental period, suggesting that developmental stasis may have been induced by food restriction. Overall, these results demonstrate that changes in food availability alter the effects of water temperature on survival, growth and development. From an applied perspective, understanding how environmental factors interact to cause phenotypic change may assist with amphibian conservation by improving the number of tadpoles generated in captive breeding programmes.

  9. Long-term changes in food availability mediate the effects of temperature on growth, development and survival in striped marsh frog larvae: implications for captive breeding programmes

    PubMed Central

    Courtney Jones, Stephanie K.; Munn, Adam J.; Penman, Trent D.; Byrne, Phillip G.

    2015-01-01

    Food availability and temperature are known to trigger phenotypic change, but the interactive effects between these factors are only beginning to be considered. The aim of this study was to examine the independent and interactive effects of long-term stochastic food availability and water temperature on larval survivorship, growth and development of the striped marsh frog, Limnodynastes peronii. Larval L. peronii were reared in conditions of either constant or stochastic food availability and in water at three different temperatures (18, 22 and 26°C), and effects on survival, growth and development were quantified. Over the experimental period, larval growth rate was highest and survivorship lowest at the warmest temperature. However, changes in food availability mediated the effects of temperature, with slower larval growth and higher survivorship in stochastic food availability treatments. Tadpoles in the stochastic food availability treatments did not reach metamorphosis during the experimental period, suggesting that developmental stasis may have been induced by food restriction. Overall, these results demonstrate that changes in food availability alter the effects of water temperature on survival, growth and development. From an applied perspective, understanding how environmental factors interact to cause phenotypic change may assist with amphibian conservation by improving the number of tadpoles generated in captive breeding programmes. PMID:27293714

  10. Snow Cover and Snow Mass Intercomparisons of General Circulation Models and Remotely Sensed Datasets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, James; Liston, Glen; Koster, Randy; Essery, Richard; Behr, Helga; Dumenil, Lydia; Verseghy, Diana; Thompson, Starly; Pollard, David; Cohen, Judah

    1996-02-01

    Confirmation of the ability of general circulation models (GCMs) to accurately represent snow cover and snow mass distributions is vital for climate studies. There must be a high degree of confidence that what is being predicted by the models is reliable, since realistic results cannot be assured unless they are tested against results from observed data or other available datasets. In this study, snow output from seven GCMs and passive-microwave snow data derived from the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) are intercompared. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration satellite data are used as the standard of reference for snow extent observations and the U.S. Air Force snow depth climatology is used as the standard for snow mass. The reliability of the SMMR snow data needs to be verified, as well, because currently this is the only available dataset that allows for yearly and monthly variations in snow depth. [The GCMs employed in this investigation are the United Kingdom Meteorological Office, Hadley Centre GCM, the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology/University of Hamburg (ECHAM) GCM, the Canadian Climate Centre GCM, the National Center for Atmospheric Research (GENESIS) GCM, the Goddard Institute for Space Studies GCM, the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres GCM and the Goddard Coupled Climate Dynamics Group (AIRES) GCM.] Data for both North America and Eurasia are examined in an effort to assess the magnitude of spatial and temporal variations that exist between the standards of reference, the models, and the passive microwave data. Results indicate that both the models and SMMR represent seasonal and year-to-year snow distributions fairly well. The passive microwave data and several of the models, however, consistently underestimate snow mass, but other models overestimate the mass of snow on the ground. The models do a better job simulating winter and summer snow conditions than in the transition months. In general, the

  11. Assessment of the Particulate Food Supply Available for Mussel ( Mytilus spp.) Farming in a Semi-enclosed, Northern Inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penney, R. W.; McKenzie, C. H.; Mills, T. J.

    2001-07-01

    Temporal variability in the quantity, organic content, and phytoplankton composition of the particulate food supply available to a cultured mussel population was assessed for a 3-year period in a small inlet of Notre Dame Bay, Newfoundland, Canada. The study site had a restricted flushing rate estimated at 1-2·75 times wk -1for a complete water exchange. The quantity of both total (TPM) and organic (POM) seston varied temporally from 0·7-23·7 mg l -1and 0·05-1·97 mg l -1respectively during the 3-year sampling period. TPM typically remained relatively high (>10 mg l -1) through the winter and spring period. Most of the seasonal variation in total seston was due to seasonal variability in the PIM component. Both PIM and POM concentrations were seasonally lowest during summer. The organic fraction of the seston (POM/TPM ratio) was seasonally low in winter and increased steadily through spring and summer to reach its maximum in the autumn. The living phytoplankton component of the seston was typically dominated, both numerically and in biomass, by a variety of diatom and autotrophic nanoflagellate species in the 2- 20-μm diameter size range. Discrete diatom population blooms occurred in the autumn of all three years and largely consisted of a single species, Skeletonema costatum. Phytoplankton:detritus ratios were significantly lower during winter. Total phytoplankton biomass levels were seasonally low during winter and summer and were associated with seasonal variation in diatom biomass. We conducted modelling simulations of relationships among seston organic food levels, their temporal variability, tidal flushing rates, cultured mussel biomass and production indices, and estimates of mussel maintenance ration requirements to predict the adequacy of northern inlets to sustain commercial-scale mussel farm development. We conclude from these simulations that small, semi-enclosed, northern inlets likely frequently experience periods when naturally occurring organic

  12. Phylogeny and biogeography of an uncultured clade of snow chytrids.

    PubMed

    Naff, C S; Darcy, J L; Schmidt, S K

    2013-10-01

    Numerous studies have shown that snow can contain a diverse array of algae known as 'snow algae'. Some reports also indicate that parasites of algae (e.g. chytrids) are also found in snow, but efforts to phylogenetically identify 'snow chytrids' have not been successful. We used culture-independent molecular approaches to phylogenetically identify chytrids that are common in long-lived snowpacks of Colorado and Europe. The most remarkable finding of the present study was the discovery of a new clade of chytrids that has representatives in snowpacks of Colorado and Switzerland and cold sites in Nepal and France, but no representatives from warmer ecosystems. This new clade ('Snow Clade 1' or SC1) is as deeply divergent as its sister clade, the Lobulomycetales, and phylotypes of SC1 show significant (P < 0.003) genetic-isolation by geographic distance patterns, perhaps indicating a long evolutionary history in the cryosphere. In addition to SC1, other snow chytrids were phylogenetically shown to be in the order Rhizophydiales, a group with known algal parasites and saprotrophs. We suggest that these newly discovered snow chytrids are important components of snow ecosystems where they contribute to snow food-web dynamics and the release of nutrients due to their parasitic and saprotrophic activities.

  13. Improved Snow Mapping Accuracy with Revised MODIS Snow Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riggs, George; Hall, Dorothy K.

    2012-01-01

    The MODIS snow cover products have been used in over 225 published studies. From those reports, and our ongoing analysis, we have learned about the accuracy and errors in the snow products. Revisions have been made in the algorithms to improve the accuracy of snow cover detection in Collection 6 (C6), the next processing/reprocessing of the MODIS data archive planned to start in September 2012. Our objective in the C6 revision of the MODIS snow-cover algorithms and products is to maximize the capability to detect snow cover while minimizing snow detection errors of commission and omission. While the basic snow detection algorithm will not change, new screens will be applied to alleviate snow detection commission and omission errors, and only the fractional snow cover (FSC) will be output (the binary snow cover area (SCA) map will no longer be included).

  14. The Availability of Competitive Foods and Beverages to Middle School Students in Appalachian Virginia Before Implementation of the 2014 Smart Snacks in School Standards

    PubMed Central

    Kraak, Vivica; Serrano, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The study objective was to examine the nutritional quality of competitive foods and beverages (foods and beverages from vending machines and à la carte foods) available to rural middle school students, before implementation of the US Department of Agriculture’s Smart Snacks in School standards in July 2014. In spring 2014, we audited vending machines and à la carte cafeteria foods and beverages in 8 rural Appalachian middle schools in Virginia. Few schools had vending machines. Few à la carte and vending machine foods met Smart Snacks in School standards (36.6%); however, most beverages did (78.2%). The major challenges to meeting standards were fat and sodium content of foods. Most competitive foods (63.4%) did not meet new standards, and rural schools with limited resources will likely require assistance to fully comply. PMID:26378899

  15. The Availability of Competitive Foods and Beverages to Middle School Students in Appalachian Virginia Before Implementation of the 2014 Smart Snacks in School Standards.

    PubMed

    Mann, Georgianna; Kraak, Vivica; Serrano, Elena

    2015-09-17

    The study objective was to examine the nutritional quality of competitive foods and beverages (foods and beverages from vending machines and à la carte foods) available to rural middle school students, before implementation of the US Department of Agriculture's Smart Snacks in School standards in July 2014. In spring 2014, we audited vending machines and à la carte cafeteria foods and beverages in 8 rural Appalachian middle schools in Virginia. Few schools had vending machines. Few à la carte and vending machine foods met Smart Snacks in School standards (36.5%); however, most beverages did (78.2%). The major challenges to meeting standards were fat and sodium content of foods. Most competitive foods (62.2%) did not meet new standards, and rural schools with limited resources will likely require assistance to fully comply.

  16. Quantification of uncertainties in snow accumulation, snowmelt, and snow disappearance dates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raleigh, Mark S.

    high resolution (15m) remote sensing, and then used to test daily 500 m canopy-adjusted MODIS snow cover data. Relative to the ground sensors, MODIS underestimated snow cover by 10-20% in meadows and 10-40% in forests, and showed snow disappearing 12 to 30 days too early in the forested sites. These errors were not detected with operational snow sensors, which have seen frequent use in MODIS validation studies. The link between model forcing and snow model uncertainty is assessed in two studies using measurements at energy balance stations in different snow climates. First, representation of snow surface temperature (T s) with temperature and humidity is examined because Ts tracks variations in the snowmelt energy balance. At all sites analyzed, the dew point temperature (Td) represented Ts with lower bias than the dry and wet-bulb temperatures. The potential usefulness of this approximation was demonstrated in a case study where detection of model bias was achieved by comparing daily Tdand modeled Ts. Second, the impact of forcing data availability and empirical data estimation is addressed to understand which types of data most impact physically-based snow modeling and need improved representation. An experiment is conducted at four well-instrumented sites with a series of hypothetical weather stations to determine which measurements (beyond temperature and precipitation) most impact snow model behavior. Radiative forcings had the largest impact on model behavior, but these are typically the least often measured.

  17. Assessment of Northern Hemisphere Snow Water Equivalent Datasets in ESA SnowPEx project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luojus, Kari; Pulliainen, Jouni; Cohen, Juval; Ikonen, Jaakko; Derksen, Chris; Mudryk, Lawrence; Nagler, Thomas; Bojkov, Bojan

    2016-04-01

    Reliable information on snow cover across the Northern Hemisphere and Arctic and sub-Arctic regions is needed for climate monitoring, for understanding the Arctic climate system, and for the evaluation of the role of snow cover and its feedback in climate models. In addition to being of significant interest for climatological investigations, reliable information on snow cover is of high value for the purpose of hydrological forecasting and numerical weather prediction. Terrestrial snow covers up to 50 million km² of the Northern Hemisphere in winter and is characterized by high spatial and temporal variability. Therefore satellite observations provide the best means for timely and complete observations of the global snow cover. There are a number of independent SWE products available that describe the snow conditions on multi-decadal and global scales. Some products are derived using satellite-based information while others rely on meteorological observations and modelling. What is common to practically all the existing hemispheric SWE products, is that their retrieval performance on hemispherical and multi-decadal scales are not accurately known. The purpose of the ESA funded SnowPEx project is to obtain a quantitative understanding of the uncertainty in satellite- as well as model-based SWE products through an internationally coordinated and consistent evaluation exercise. The currently available Northern Hemisphere wide satellite-based SWE datasets which were assessed include 1) the GlobSnow SWE, 2) the NASA Standard SWE, 3) NASA prototype and 4) NSIDC-SSM/I SWE products. The model-based datasets include: 5) the Global Land Data Assimilation System Version 2 (GLDAS-2) product 6) the European Centre for Medium-Range Forecasts Interim Land Reanalysis (ERA-I-Land) which uses a simple snow scheme 7) the Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) which uses an intermediate complexity snow scheme; and 8) SWE from the Crocus snow scheme, a

  18. Make Your Own Snow Day!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robeck, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Children love snow days, even when they come during the warmest weather. In this lesson the snow isn't falling outside, it's in the classroom--thanks to "Snowflake Bentley" (Briggs Martin 1998) and several models of snowflakes. A lesson on snow demonstrates several principles of practice for using models in elementary science. Focusing on snow was…

  19. Enhancing the retrieval methodology for GlobSnow long-term snow water equivalent record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luojus, K.; Pulliainen, J.; Lemmetyinen, J.; Takala, M.; Smolander, T.; Derksen, C.

    2012-04-01

    The efforts of the European Space Agency (ESA) GlobSnow project has resulted in a daily hemisphere-scale satellite-based snow water equivalent (SWE) data record spanning more than 30-years. The previous existing daily SWE records have spanned a shorter time period or described the snow conditions on a monthly basis for a similar period. The GlobSnow SWE record, based on methodology by Pulliainen [1] utilizes a data-assimilation based approach for the estimation of SWE which was shown to be superior to the approaches depending solely on satellite-based data [2]. The GlobSnow SWE data record is based on the time-series of measurements by two different space-borne passive radiometers (SMMR and SSM/I) measuring in the microwave region, spanning from 1979 to present day. The utilized sensors provide data at K- and Ka-bands (19 GHz and 37 GHz respectively) at a spatial resolution of approximately 25 km. The GlobSnow SWE data record has been released and is available through the GlobSnow web-pages (www.globsnow.info). We briefly presents the validation carried out for GlobSnow SWE data with ground-based reference data and the lessons learned from processing a 30-years daily hemispheric record on SWE. Additionally, we present the efforts taking place for the continuous development of the methodology to enhance the satellite-based SWE retrieval and the way this transfers to the reliability of the long-term SWE climate record. The development of SWE retrieval are focused on application of a new HUT multi-layer snow emission model for the retrieval procedure, application of novel techniques to account for lake contamination and mixed pixel effects and efforts carried out to create a homogenized long-term record of weather station-based snow depth observations that are applied within the SWE retrieval scheme.

  20. Chemistry of small organic molecules on snow grains: the applicability of artificial snow for environmental studies.

    PubMed

    Kurková, Romana; Ray, Debajyoti; Nachtigallová, Dana; Klán, Petr

    2011-04-15

    The utilization of artificial snow for environmentally relevant (photo)chemical studies was systematically investigated. Contaminated snow samples were prepared by various methods: by shock freezing of the aqueous solutions sprayed into liquid nitrogen or inside a large walk-in cold chamber at -35 °C, or by adsorption of gaseous contaminants on the surface of artificially prepared pure or natural urban snow. The specific surface area of artificial snow grains produced in liquid nitrogen was determined using valerophenone photochemistry (400-440 cm(2) g(-1)) to estimate the surface coverage by small hydrophobic organic contaminants. The dynamics of recombination/dissociation (cage effect) of benzyl radical pairs, photochemically produced from 4-methyldibenzyl ketone on the snow surface, was investigated. The initial ketone loading, c = 10(-6)-10(-8) mol kg(-1), only about 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than the contaminant concentrations commonly found in nature, was already well below monolayer coverage. We found that the efficiency of out-of-cage reactions decreased at much higher temperatures than those previously determined for frozen solutions; however, the cage effect was essentially the same no matter what technique of snow production or ketone deposition/uptake was used, including the experiments with collected natural snow. The experimental observation that the contaminant molecules are initially self-associated even at the lowest concentrations was supported by DFT calculations. We conclude that, contrary to frozen aqueous solutions, in which the impurities reside in a 3D cage (micropocket), contaminant molecules located on the artificial snow grain surface at low concentrations can be visualized in terms of a 2D cage. Artificial snow thus represents a readily available study matrix that can be used to emulate the natural chemical processes of trace contaminants occurring in natural snow.

  1. Interactions between Seagrass Complexity, Hydrodynamic Flow and Biomixing Alter Food Availability for Associated Filter-Feeding Organisms

    PubMed Central

    González-Ortiz, Vanessa; Egea, Luis G.; Jiménez-Ramos, Rocio; Moreno-Marín, Francisco; Pérez-Lloréns, José L.; Bouma, Tjeed J.; Brun, Fernando G.

    2014-01-01

    Seagrass shoots interact with hydrodynamic forces and thereby a positively or negatively influence the survival of associated species. The modification of these forces indirectly alters the physical transport and flux of edible particles within seagrass meadows, which will influence the growth and survivorship of associated filter-feeding organisms. The present work contributes to gaining insight into the mechanisms controlling the availability of resources for filter feeders inhabiting seagrass canopies, both from physical (influenced by seagrass density and patchiness) and biological (regulated by filter feeder density) perspectives. A factorial experiment was conducted in a large racetrack flume, which combined changes in hydrodynamic conditions, chlorophyll a concentration in the water and food intake rate (FIR) in a model active filter-feeding organism (the cockle). Results showed that seagrass density and patchiness modified both hydrodynamic forces and availability of resources for filter feeders. Chlorophyll a water content decreased to 50% of the initial value when densities of both seagrass shoots and cockles were high. Also, filter feeder density controlled resource availability within seagrass patches, depending on its spatial position within the racetrack flume. Under high density of filter-feeding organisms, chlorophyll a levels were lower between patches. This suggests that the pumping activity of cockles (i.e. biomixing) is an emergent key factor affecting both resource availability and FIR for filter feeders in dense canopies. Applying our results to natural conditions, we suggest the existence of a direct correlation between habitat complexity (i.e. shoot density and degree of patchiness) and filter feeders density. Fragmented and low-density patches seem to offer both greater protection from hydrodynamic forces and higher resource availability. In denser patches, however, resources are allocated mostly within the canopy, which would benefit

  2. Interactions between seagrass complexity, hydrodynamic flow and biomixing alter food availability for associated filter-feeding organisms.

    PubMed

    González-Ortiz, Vanessa; Egea, Luis G; Jiménez-Ramos, Rocio; Moreno-Marín, Francisco; Pérez-Lloréns, José L; Bouma, Tjeed J; Brun, Fernando G

    2014-01-01

    Seagrass shoots interact with hydrodynamic forces and thereby a positively or negatively influence the survival of associated species. The modification of these forces indirectly alters the physical transport and flux of edible particles within seagrass meadows, which will influence the growth and survivorship of associated filter-feeding organisms. The present work contributes to gaining insight into the mechanisms controlling the availability of resources for filter feeders inhabiting seagrass canopies, both from physical (influenced by seagrass density and patchiness) and biological (regulated by filter feeder density) perspectives. A factorial experiment was conducted in a large racetrack flume, which combined changes in hydrodynamic conditions, chlorophyll a concentration in the water and food intake rate (FIR) in a model active filter-feeding organism (the cockle). Results showed that seagrass density and patchiness modified both hydrodynamic forces and availability of resources for filter feeders. Chlorophyll a water content decreased to 50% of the initial value when densities of both seagrass shoots and cockles were high. Also, filter feeder density controlled resource availability within seagrass patches, depending on its spatial position within the racetrack flume. Under high density of filter-feeding organisms, chlorophyll a levels were lower between patches. This suggests that the pumping activity of cockles (i.e. biomixing) is an emergent key factor affecting both resource availability and FIR for filter feeders in dense canopies. Applying our results to natural conditions, we suggest the existence of a direct correlation between habitat complexity (i.e. shoot density and degree of patchiness) and filter feeders density. Fragmented and low-density patches seem to offer both greater protection from hydrodynamic forces and higher resource availability. In denser patches, however, resources are allocated mostly within the canopy, which would benefit

  3. Investigation of the available technologies and their feasibility for the conversion of food waste into fish feed in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jack Y K; Lo, Irene M C

    2016-04-01

    Food waste is the largest constituent of municipal solid waste in Hong Kong, but food waste recycling is still in its infancy. With the imminent saturation of all landfill sites by 2020, multiple technologies are needed to boost up the food waste recycling rate in Hong Kong. Conversion of food waste into animal feeds is prevalent in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan, treating over 40 % of their recycled food waste. This direction is worth exploring in Hong Kong once concerns over food safety are resolved. Fortunately, while feeding food waste to pigs and chickens poses threats to public health, feeding it to fish is considered low risk. In order to examine the feasibility of converting food waste into fish feed in Hong Kong, this paper investigates the market demand, technical viability, feed quality, regulatory hurdles, and potential contribution. The results show that a significant amount of food waste can be recycled by converting it into fish feed due to the enormous demand from feed factories in mainland China. Two conversion technologies, heat drying and black soldier fly bioconversion, are studied extensively. Black soldier fly bioconversion is preferable because the end-product, insect powder, is anticipated to gain import approval from mainland China. The authors suggest further research efforts to speed up its application for food waste recycling in urban cities.

  4. The association of binge eating and neighbourhood fast-food restaurant availability on diet and weight status

    PubMed Central

    Ledoux, Tracey; Adamus-Leach, Heather; O’Connor, Daniel P; Mama, Scherezade; Lee, Rebecca E

    2015-01-01

    Objective Fast-food restaurants (FFR) are prevalent. Binge eating is common among overweight and obese women. For women prone to binge eating, neighbourhood FFR availability (i.e. the neighbourhood around one’s home) may promote poor diet and overweight/obesity. The present study tested the effects of binge eating and neighbourhood FFR availability on diet (fat and total energy intake) and BMI among African American and Hispanic/Latino women. Design All measures represent baseline data from the Health is Power randomized clinical trial. The numbers of FFR in participants’ neighbourhoods were counted and dichotomized (0 or ≥1 neighbourhood FFR). Participants completed measures of binge eating status and diet. Weight and height were measured and BMI calculated. 2 (binge eating status) × 2 (neighbourhood FFR availability) ANCOVA tested effects on diet and BMI while controlling for demographics. Setting Houston and Austin, TX, USA. Subjects African American and Hispanic/Latino women aged 25–60 years. Results Of the total sample (n 162), 48% had 1–15 neighbourhood FFR and 29% were binge eaters. There was an interaction effect on BMI (P=0·05). Binge eaters with ≥1 neighbourhood FFR had higher BMI than non-binge eaters or binge eaters with no neighbourhood FFR. There were no significant interactions or neighbourhood FFR main effects on total energy or fat intake (P>0·05). A main effect of binge eating showed that binge eaters consumed more total energy (P=0·005) and fat (P=0·005) than non-binge eaters. Conclusions Binge eaters represented a substantial proportion of this predominantly overweight and obese sample of African American and Hispanic/ Latino women. The association between neighbourhood FFR availability and weight status is complicated by binge eating status, which is related to diet. PMID:24476972

  5. 76 FR 45223 - Notice of Funding Availability: Inviting Applications for McGovern-Dole International Food for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program Announcement Type: New. Catalog of Federal Domestic... applications for the McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition program (McGovern-Dole... education and nutrition plans; and (e) Demonstrated cooperation with other USG agencies doing...

  6. Satellite sensor estimates of Northern Hemisphere snow volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. T. C.; Foster, J. L.; Hall, D. K.

    1990-01-01

    In the Northern Hemisphere the mean monthly snow-covered area ranges from about 7 percent of the land area in summer to over 40 percent in winter, thus making snow one of the most rapidly varying natural surface features. The mean monthly snow volume ranges from about 1.5 x 10 to the 16th g in summer to about 3.0 x 10 to the 18th g in winter. Currently several algorithms utilizing passive microwave brightness temperatures are available to estimate snow cover and depth. The algorithm presented here uses the difference between the 37-GHz channel and the 18-GHz channel of the SMMR on the Nimbus-7 satellite to derive estimates of snow volume. Even though satellite sensor snow records are currently too short to reveal trends, continued monitoring over about the next 10 years should make it possible to establish whether incipient or current trends are significant in the context of global climate change.

  7. Community Perspectives on Access to and Availability of Healthy Food in Rural, Low-Resource, Latino Communities

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, A. Susana; Estrada, Erendira; Grassi, Kathleen; Nathan, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Attention has focused on the food environment as a result of the growing concern with obesity rates among Latinos in rural areas. Researchers have observed associations between a lack of physical access to affordable produce in areas where supermarkets and grocery stores are limited and poor dietary intake and obesity; these associations are high in rural, low-resource neighborhoods with a high population of Latino residents. We aimed to engage residents of low-resource, Latino-majority neighborhoods in discussions of food access in a rural yet agricultural community setting, which is typically described as a “food desert.” Methods We used a mixed-methods approach and conducted 3 focus groups (n = 20) and in-depth interviews (n = 59) and surveys (n = 79) with residents of a rural yet agricultural community. We used thematic analysis to explore residents’ perceptions of access to healthy foods. Results Residents (n = 79; mean age, 41.6 y; 72% female; 79% Latino; 53% Spanish-speaking) reported that dollar and discount stores in this agricultural area provided access to produce; however, produce at retail stores was less affordable than produce at nonretail outlets such as fruit and vegetable stands. Gifts and trades of fruits and vegetables from neighbors and community organizations supplied no-cost or low-cost healthy foods. Residents’ suggestions to improve food access centered on lowering the cost of produce in existing retail outlets and seeking out nonretail outlets. Conclusion Our findings contribute to understanding of the food environment in low-resource, rural yet agricultural areas. Although such areas are characterized as “food deserts,” residents identified nonretail outlets as a viable source of affordable produce, while indicating that the cost of retail produce was a concern. Innovative policy solutions to increase healthy food consumption must focus on affordability as well as accessibility, and consider alternate, nonretail

  8. The paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus is differentially recruited by stimuli conditioned to the availability of cocaine versus palatable food.

    PubMed

    Matzeu, Alessandra; Cauvi, Gabrielle; Kerr, Tony M; Weiss, Friedbert; Martin-Fardon, Rémi

    2017-01-01

    The paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) is not traditionally considered part of the brain addiction neurocircuitry but has received growing attention with regard to a role in the modulation of drug-seeking behavior. This study sought to establish the pattern of neural activation induced by a response-reinstating discriminative stimulus (S(D) ) conditioned to either cocaine (COC) or a conventional reinforcer using a palatable food substance, sweetened condensed milk (SCM). Male Wistar rats were trained to associate one S(D) (S(+) ; COC or SCM availability) and a distinctly different S(D) (S(-) ; non-reward; i.e. the availability of saline or the absence of SCM). Following extinction of COC- and SCM-reinforced responding, rats were presented with the respective S(+) or S(-) alone and tested for the reinstatement of reward seeking. The COC S(+) and SCM S(+) elicited identical reinstatement, whereas the non-reward S(-) was behaviorally ineffective. PVT sections were obtained following completion of the reinstatement tests and labeled for Fos. The number of Fos(+) neurons was compared among rats that were presented with the COC S(+) , SCM S(+) or S(-) . Rats that were presented with the COC S(+) exhibited a significant increase in Fos expression compared with rats that were presented with the S(-) . Moreover, Fos expression was significantly correlated with the number of reinstatement responses that were induced by the COC S(+) . In contrast, the SCM S(+) and S(-) produced identical increases in Fos expression, without behaviorally relevant correlations. The findings implicate the PVT as an important site that is selectively recruited during COC-seeking behavior.

  9. Differences in diet and activity pattern between two groups of Alouatta palliata associated with the availability of big trees and fruit of top food taxa.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Jacob C; Cristóbal-Azkarate, Jurgi; Veà, Joaquím J

    2009-08-01

    The threat that forest fragmentation and habitat loss presents for several Alouatta taxa requires us to determine the key elements that may promote the persistence of howler monkeys in forest fragments and to evaluate how changes in the availability of these elements may affect their future conservation prospects. In this study we analyzed the relationship between the availability of both big trees of top food taxa (BTTFT) (diameter at breast height>60) and fruit of top food taxa (FrTFT) in the home ranges of two groups of Alouatta palliata mexicana occupying different forest fragments in Los Tuxtlas, Mexico, and their diet and activity pattern. Both study groups preferred big trees for feeding and the group with lower availability of BTTFT in their home range fed from more, smaller food sources. Furthermore, both study groups also increased the number of food sources when their consumption of fruit decreased, and the group with lower availability of FrTFT in their home range fed from more food sources. The increase in the number of food sources used under such conditions, in turn, set up a process of higher foraging effort and lower rest. In summary, our results support other studies that suggest that the availability of big trees and fruit may be two important elements influencing the persistence of howler monkeys in forest fragments.

  10. Responses of Javan Gibbon (Hylobates moloch) groups in submontane forest to monthly variation in food availability: evidence for variation on a fine spatial scale.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanha; Lappan, Susan; Choe, Jae C

    2012-12-01

    Primates tend to prefer specific plant foods, and primate home ranges may contain only a subset of food species present in an area. Thus, primate feeding strategies should be sensitive to the phenology of specific species encountered within the home range in addition to responding to larger scale phenomena such as seasonal changes in rainfall or temperature. We studied three groups of Javan gibbons (Hylobates moloch) in the Gunung Halimun-Salak National Park, Indonesia from April 2008 to March 2009 and used general linear mixed models (GLMM) and a model selection procedure to investigate the effects of variation in fruit and flower availability on gibbon behavior. Preferred foods were defined as foods that are overselected relative to their abundance, while important food species were those that comprised >5% of feeding time. All important species were also preferred. Season and measurements of flower and fruit availability affected fruit-feeding time, daily path lengths (DPL), and dietary breadth. Models that included the availability of preferred foods as independent variables generally showed better explanatory power than models that used overall fruit or flower availability. For one group, fruit and preferred fruit abundance had the strongest effects on diets and DPL in the models selected, while another group was more responsive to changes in flower availability. Temporal variation in plant part consumption was not correlated in neighboring groups. Our results suggest that fine-scale local factors are important determinants of gibbon foraging strategies.

  11. Testing a bioenergetics-based habitat choice model: bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) responses to food availability and temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2011-01-01

    Using an automated shuttlebox system, we conducted patch choice experiments with 32, 8–12 g bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) to test a behavioral energetics hypothesis of habitat choice. When patch temperature and food levels were held constant within patches but different between patches, we expected bluegill to choose patches that maximized growth based on the bioenergetic integration of food and temperature as predicted by a bioenergetics model. Alternative hypotheses were that bluegill may choose patches based only on food (optimal foraging) or temperature (behavioral thermoregulation). The behavioral energetics hypothesis was not a good predictor of short-term (from minutes to weeks) patch choice by bluegill; the behavioral thermoregulation hypothesis was the best predictor. In the short-term, food and temperature appeared to affect patch choice hierarchically; temperature was more important, although food can alter temperature preference during feeding periods. Over a 19-d experiment, mean temperatures occupied by fish offered low rations did decline as predicted by the behavioral energetics hypothesis, but the decline was less than 1.0 °C as opposed to a possible 5 °C decline. A short-term, bioenergetic response to food and temperature may be precluded by physiological costs of acclimation not considered explicitly in the behavioral energetics hypothesis.

  12. The Validity of US Nutritional Surveillance: USDA's Loss-Adjusted Food Availability Data Series 1971-2010.

    PubMed

    Archer, Edward; Thomas, Diana M; McDonald, Samantha M; Pavela, Gregory; Lavie, Carl J; Hill, James O; Blair, Steven N

    The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of the 1971-2010 United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) loss-adjusted food availability (LAFA) per capita caloric consumption estimates. Estimated total daily energy expenditure (TEE) was calculated for nationally representative samples of US adults, 20-74 years, using the Institute of Medicine's predictive equations with "low-active" (TEE L-ACT) and "sedentary" (TEE SED) physical activity values. TEE estimates were subtracted from LAFA estimates to create disparity values (kcal/d). A validated mathematical model was applied to calculate expected weight change in reference individuals resulting from the disparity. From 1971-2010, the disparity between LAFA and TEE L-ACT varied by 394kcal/d-(P < 0.001), from -205kcal/d (95% CI: -214, -196) to +189kcal/d (95% CI: 168, 209). The disparity between LAFA and TEE SED varied by 412kcal/d (P < 0.001), from -84kcal/d (95% CI: -93, -76) to +328kcal/d (95% CI: 309, 348). Our model suggests that if LAFA estimates were actually consumed, reference individuals would have lost ~1-4kg/y from 1971-1980 (an accumulated loss of ~12 to ~36kg), and gained ~3-7kg/y from 1988-2010 (an accumulated gain of ~42 to ~98kg). These estimates differed from the actual measured increments of 10kg and 9kg in reference men and women, respectively, over the 39-year period. The USDA LAFA data provided inconsistent, divergent estimates of per capita caloric consumption over its 39-year history. The large, variable misestimation suggests that the USDA LAFA per capita caloric intake estimates lack validity and should not be used to inform public policy.

  13. An Intervention to Increase Availability of Healthy Foods and Beverages in New York City Hospitals: The Healthy Hospital Food Initiative, 2010–2014

    PubMed Central

    Krepp, Erica M.; Johnson Curtis, Christine; Lederer, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Background Hospitals serve millions of meals and snacks each year; however, hospital food is often unhealthy. Hospitals are ideal settings for modeling healthy eating, but few programs have sought to improve nutrition in all venues where food is served. Community Context The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene created the Healthy Hospital Food Initiative (HHFI) to improve the healthfulness of food served in hospitals. The HHFI built on prior work implementing mandatory nutrition standards for patient meals and vending in public hospitals. Public hospitals joined the HHFI by voluntarily adopting standards for cafeterias and cafés. Private hospitals joined by implementing nutrition standards for patient meals, food and beverage vending machines, and cafeterias and cafés. Methods Hospitals were recruited from 2010 through 2014 and provided technical assistance from health department staff. Implementation in each of the 4 areas was monitored through on-site assessments and menu review. Twenty-eight hospital cafeterias and cafés were evaluated at baseline and at the end of the HHFI to assess changes. Outcome Sixteen public hospitals and 24 private hospitals joined the HHFI. Most (n = 18) private hospitals implemented standards in at least 2 areas. In cafeterias, most hospitals introduced a healthy value meal (n = 19), removed unhealthy items from the entrance and checkout (n = 18), increased whole grains to at least half of all grains served (n = 17), and reduced calories in pastries and desserts (n = 15). Interpretation Most New York City hospitals joined the HHFI and voluntarily adopted rigorous nutrition standards. Partnerships between hospitals and local government are feasible and can lead to significant improvements in hospital food environments. PMID:27281392

  14. Improving the snow physics of WEB-DHM and its point evaluation at the SnowMIP sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, M.; Wang, L.; Koike, T.; Xue, Y.; Hirabayashi, Y.

    2010-12-01

    In this study, the snow physics of a distributed biosphere hydrological model, referred to as the Water and Energy Budget based Distributed Hydrological Model (WEB-DHM) is significantly improved by incorporating the three-layer physically based energy balance snowmelt model of Simplified Simple Biosphere 3 (SSiB3) and the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) albedo scheme. WEB-DHM with improved snow physics is hereafter termed WEB-DHM-S. Since the in-situ observations of spatially-distributed snow variables with high resolution are currently not available over large regions, the new distributed system (WEB-DHM-S) is at first rigorously tested with comprehensive point measurements. The stations used for evaluation comprise the four open sites of the Snow Model Intercomparison Project (SnowMIP) phase 1 with different climate characteristics (Col de Porte in France, Weissfluhjoch in Switzerland, Goose Bay in Canada and Sleepers River in USA) and one open/forest site of the SnowMIP phase 2 (Hitsujigaoka in Japan). The comparisons of the snow depth, snow water equivalent, surface temperature, snow albedo and snowmelt runoff at the SnowMIP1 sites reveal that WEB-DHM-S, in general, is capable of simulating the internal snow process better than the original WEB-DHM. Sensitivity tests (through incremental addition of model processes) are performed to illustrate the necessity of improvements over WEB-DHM and indicate that both the 3-layer snow module and the new albedo scheme are essential. The canopy effects on snow processes are studied at the Hitsujigaoka site of the SnowMIP2 showing that the snow holding capacity of the canopy plays a vital role in simulating the snow depth on ground. Through these point evaluations and sensitivity studies, WEB-DHM-S has demonstrated the potential to address basin-scale snow processes (e.g., the snowmelt runoff), since it inherits the distributed hydrological framework from the WEB-DHM (e.g., the slope-driven runoff generation

  15. Snow Water Equivalent estimation based on satellite observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macchiavello, G.; Pesce, F.; Boni, G.; Gabellani, S.

    2009-09-01

    The availability of remotely sensed images and them analysis is a powerful tool for monitoring the extension and typology of snow cover over territory where the in situ measurements are often difficult. Information on snow are fundamental for monitoring and forecasting the available water above all in regions at mid latitudes as Mediterranean where snowmelt may cause floods. The hydrological model requirements and the daily acquisitions of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), drove, in previous research activities, to the development of a method to automatically map the snow cover from multi-spectral images. But, the major hydrological parameter related to the snow pack is the Snow Water Equivalent (SWE). This represents a direct measure of stored water in the basin. Because of it, the work was focused to the daily estimation of SWE from MODIS images. But, the complexity of this aim, based only on optical data, doesn’t find any information in literature. Since, from the spectral range of MODIS data it is not possible to extract a direct relation between spectral information and the SWE. Then a new method, respectful of the physic of the snow, was defined and developed. Reminding that the snow water equivalent is the product of the three factors as snow density, snow depth and the snow covered areas, the proposed approach works separately on each of these physical behaviors. Referring to the physical characteristic of snow, the snow density is function of the snow age, then it was studied a new method to evaluate this. Where, a module for snow age simulation from albedo information was developed. It activates an age counter updated by new snow information set to estimate snow age from zero accumulation status to the end of melting season. The height of the snow pack, can be retrieved by adopting relation between vegetation and snow depth distributions. This computes snow height distribution by the relation between snow cover fraction and the

  16. Secrets of Snow Liveshot Recap

    NASA Video Gallery

    Research Physical Scientist and Deputy Project Scientist for GPM Gail Skofronick-Jackson answers questions about the importance of studying snow from space, the impact of not enough snow, and the f...

  17. Impacts of climate and land use change on ecosystem hydrology and net primary productivity: Linking water availability to food security in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dangal, S. R. S.; Tian, H.; Pan, S.; Zhang, B.; Yang, J.

    2015-12-01

    The nexus approach to food, water and energy security in Asia is extremely important and relevant as the region has to feed two-third of the world's population and accounts for 59% of the global water consumption. The distribution pattern of food, water and energy resources have been shaped by the legacy effect of both natural and anthropogenic disturbances and therefore are vulnerable to climate change and human activities including land use/cover change (LUCC) and land management (irrigation and nitrogen fertilization). In this study, we used the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM) to examine the effects of climate change, land use/cover change, and land management practices (irrigation and nitrogen fertilization) on the spatiotemporal trends and variability in water availability and its role in limiting net primary productivity (NPP) and food security in the 20th and early 21st centuries. Our specific objectives are to quantify how climate change, LUCC and other environmental changes have interactively affected carbon and water dynamics across the Asian region. In particular, we separated the Asian region into several sub-region based on the primary limiting factor - water, food and energy. We then quantified how changes in environmental factors have altered the water and food resources during the past century. We particularly focused on Net Primary Productivity (NPP) and water cycle (Evapotranspiration, discharge, and runoff) as a measure of available food and water resources, respectively while understanding the linkage between food and water resources in Asia.

  18. Snow cover changes in the Hindu-Kush Karakoram Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terzago, Silvia; Von Hardenberg, Jost; Palazzi, Elisa; Provenzale, Antonello

    2013-04-01

    Snow cover plays a key role in high-altitude environments, and changes in the snow spatial/temporal distribution and thickness affect energy, radiation and water budgets at the Earth's surface. In particular, a reduction in the snow amount has a direct effect on the availability and seasonal distribution of water resources. This is especially true in areas such as the Hindu-Kush Karakoram Himalaya (HKKH) region, which provides water to about 1.5 Billion peoples in India, Nepal, Pakistan and China. Despite its importance, knowledge on snow dynamics in the HKKH region is still incomplete, owing also to sparse and sporadic surface observations. In this work, we used simulations from Global Climate Models (GCMs) to gain information on snowpack characteristics and climatology in the HKKH region. We selected a set of GCM snow depth datasets from the CMIP5 ensemble, esploring snow abundance and distribution at monthly scale. In order to investigate how well Global Climate Models represent the snow climatology, we compared the results with the ERA-Interim reanalysis, used as an approximation to the real conditions. After exploring the average snow conditions in the last decades, we analyzed the effects of climate change in the HKKH region by using an ensemble of future snow projections obtained from different GCMs and in different climate change scenarios.

  19. Capturing Wind Speed and Snow Accumulation Gradients across Complex Terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winstral, A. H.; Marks, D. G.; Gurney, R. J.

    2009-12-01

    Wind speeds vary dramatically over short distances in mountain settings. Snow distribution is strongly affected by these disparate winds with drifts containing meters of snow-water-equivalence (SWE) often found adjacent to windward slopes containing minimal amounts of SWE. The heterogeneous snow distribution effects runoff, soil moisture, and vegetation patterns. Capturing these gradients in models is difficult due to the inherent complexity of wind fields and a general lack of data from high elevation, wind-exposed locations. This study was conducted in the Reynolds Mountain East research basin in southwest Idaho, USA. The basin is uniquely instrumented with a network of automated wind and snow depth sensors that capture a large range of variability. Additional manual snow surveys were conducted twice a year that captured the full gradient of snow distribution present in the basin. This unique dataset formed the foundation for establishing relationships between the variables of interest and readily available terrain and vegetation data. A significant relationship between upwind terrain structure and wind speed was established and further validated at two other sites. Snow accumulation rates were related to wind speed and terrain structure. Computationally efficient methods for distributing wind speed and snow accumulation from single point measurements were established from these findings. The algorithms were used to derive the spatial forcing fields for a distributed mass and energy balance snow model with effective results.

  20. Snow as Field-Teaching Medium for Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Custer, Stephan Gregory

    1991-01-01

    Snow is a widely available earth-science teaching medium which can be used to explore scientific concepts in the field, either directly or by analogy. Snow can be considered a mineral, sediment, sedimentary rock, or metamorphic rock. Natural processes such as crystal growth, melting, sedimentation, and metamorphism can be studied in practical time…

  1. A Blended Global Snow Product using Visible, Passive Microwave and Scatterometer Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, James L.; Hall, Dorothy K.; Eylander, John B.; Riggs, George A.; Nghiem, Son V.; Tedesco, Marco; Kim, Edward; Montesano, Paul M.; Kelly, Richard E. J.; Casey, Kimberly A.; Choudhury, Bhaskar

    2009-01-01

    A joint U.S. Air Force/NASA blended, global snow product that utilizes Earth Observation System (EOS) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) and QuikSCAT (Quick Scatterometer) (QSCAT) data has been developed. Existing snow products derived from these sensors have been blended into a single, global, daily, user-friendly product by employing a newly-developed Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Snow Algorithm (ANSA). This initial blended-snow product uses minimal modeling to expeditiously yield improved snow products, which include snow cover extent, fractional snow cover, snow water equivalent (SWE), onset of snowmelt, and identification of actively melting snow cover. The blended snow products are currently 25-km resolution. These products are validated with data from the lower Great Lakes region of the U.S., from Colorado during the Cold Lands Processes Experiment (CLPX), and from Finland. The AMSR-E product is especially useful in detecting snow through clouds; however, passive microwave data miss snow in those regions where the snow cover is thin, along the margins of the continental snowline, and on the lee side of the Rocky Mountains, for instance. In these regions, the MODIS product can map shallow snow cover under cloud-free conditions. The confidence for mapping snow cover extent is greater with the MODIS product than with the microwave product when cloud-free MODIS observations are available. Therefore, the MODIS product is used as the default for detecting snow cover. The passive microwave product is used as the default only in those areas where MODIS data are not applicable due to the presence of clouds and darkness. The AMSR-E snow product is used in association with the difference between ascending and descending satellite passes or Diurnal Amplitude Variations (DAV) to detect the onset of melt, and a QSCAT product will be used to

  2. Georectification and snow classification of webcam images: potential for complementing satellite-derrived snow maps over Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dizerens, Céline; Hüsler, Fabia; Wunderle, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    The spatial and temporal variability of snow cover has a significant impact on climate and environment and is of great socio-economic importance for the European Alps. Satellite remote sensing data is widely used to study snow cover variability and can provide spatially comprehensive information on snow cover extent. However, cloud cover strongly impedes the surface view and hence limits the number of useful snow observations. Outdoor webcam images not only offer unique potential for complementing satellite-derived snow retrieval under cloudy conditions but could also serve as a reference for improved validation of satellite-based approaches. Thousands of webcams are currently connected to the Internet and deliver freely available images with high temporal and spatial resolutions. To exploit the untapped potential of these webcams, a semi-automatic procedure was developed to generate snow cover maps based on webcam images. We used daily webcam images of the Swiss alpine region to apply, improve, and extend existing approaches dealing with the positioning of photographs within a terrain model, appropriate georectification, and the automatic snow classification of such photographs. In this presentation, we provide an overview of the implemented procedure and demonstrate how our registration approach automatically resolves the orientation of a webcam by using a high-resolution digital elevation model and the webcam's position. This allows snow-classified pixels of webcam images to be related to their real-world coordinates. We present several examples of resulting snow cover maps, which have the same resolution as the digital elevation model and indicate whether each grid cell is snow-covered, snow-free, or not visible from webcams' positions. The procedure is expected to work under almost any weather condition and demonstrates the feasibility of using webcams for the retrieval of high-resolution snow cover information.

  3. Lead contamination of urban snow.

    PubMed

    Grandstaff, D E; Myer, G H

    1979-01-01

    Lead content of newly fallen snow in an urban area ranges from 34 to 56 ppb. After falling, snow may incorporate major additional amounts of lead by dry deposition of lead aerosols from local sources. The highest concentration found was 2,700 ppb. Ingestion of lead-contaminated snow might pose a health hazard to inner city children.

  4. Serotonin-dependent kinetics of feeding bursts underlie a graded response to food availability in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Suk; Iwanir, Shachar; Kopito, Ronen B; Scholz, Monika; Calarco, John A; Biron, David; Levine, Erel

    2017-02-01

    Animals integrate physiological and environmental signals to modulate their food uptake. The nematode C. elegans, whose food uptake consists of pumping bacteria from the environment into the gut, provides excellent opportunities for discovering principles of conserved regulatory mechanisms. Here we show that worms implement a graded feeding response to the concentration of environmental bacteria by modulating a commitment to bursts of fast pumping. Using long-term, high-resolution, longitudinal recordings of feeding dynamics under defined conditions, we find that the frequency and duration of pumping bursts increase and the duration of long pauses diminishes in environments richer in bacteria. The bioamine serotonin is required for food-dependent induction of bursts as well as for maintaining their high rate of pumping through two distinct mechanisms. We identify the differential roles of distinct families of serotonin receptors in this process and propose that regulation of bursts is a conserved mechanism of behaviour and motor control.

  5. Serotonin-dependent kinetics of feeding bursts underlie a graded response to food availability in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Suk; Iwanir, Shachar; Kopito, Ronen B.; Scholz, Monika; Calarco, John A.; Biron, David; Levine, Erel

    2017-01-01

    Animals integrate physiological and environmental signals to modulate their food uptake. The nematode C. elegans, whose food uptake consists of pumping bacteria from the environment into the gut, provides excellent opportunities for discovering principles of conserved regulatory mechanisms. Here we show that worms implement a graded feeding response to the concentration of environmental bacteria by modulating a commitment to bursts of fast pumping. Using long-term, high-resolution, longitudinal recordings of feeding dynamics under defined conditions, we find that the frequency and duration of pumping bursts increase and the duration of long pauses diminishes in environments richer in bacteria. The bioamine serotonin is required for food-dependent induction of bursts as well as for maintaining their high rate of pumping through two distinct mechanisms. We identify the differential roles of distinct families of serotonin receptors in this process and propose that regulation of bursts is a conserved mechanism of behaviour and motor control. PMID:28145493

  6. Global snow cover: comparison of modeling results with satellite-derived snow cover maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolini, E.; Adam, J. C.; Claps, P.

    2010-12-01

    Snow processes play an important role in the hydrologic cycle. Snowpack accumulation and depletion not only influence annual water availability and runoff seasonality, but also the functioning of ecosystems and the interactions between human activities and surface water systems. Moreover, at the large scale, snow cover influences the climate system due to its high albedo which affects the surface energy balance. Therefore, a global-scale hydrologic model that is able to predict snow cover extent (SCE) and snow water equivalent (SWE) in response to changes in climate can provide crucial information that is needed to plan for changes in water resources availability but also on potential feedbacks to the climate system. In this study, snow depth time series are simulated for the period 1950-1999 using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. In order to evaluate the performance of the VIC model in simulating SCE, results from the VIC model over the northern hemisphere (NH) are compared with satellite-derived SCE from the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) NH EASE-Grid Weekly Snow Cover and Sea Ice Extent database. The comparison is focused on both temporal and spatial agreement between model and satellite-derived SCE. Temporal agreement is assessed by comparing the number of days with snow cover for both annual and seasonal periods. Spatial agreement is assessed by comparing SCE for a few large river basins. We demonstrate that there is a reasonable agreement between model and satellite-derived SCE, particularly if a 1 cm snow depth threshold is used when designating each VIC grid cell as "snow covered". However, some consistent biases are evident, particularly during the snowmelt season when the VIC model predicts a faster ablation period than the satellite data. It is possible that biases may also be attributed to the satellite-data, particularly in regards to a coarser spatial resolution than the VIC model results as well as the processing of the

  7. Niche shifts and energetic condition of songbirds in response to phenology of food-resource availability in a high-elevation sagebrush ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cutting, Kyle A.; Anderson, Michelle L.; Beever, Erik; Schroff, Sean; Korb, Nathan; Klaphake, Eric; McWilliams, Scott R.

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal fluctuations in food availability can affect diets of consumers, which in turn may influence the physiological state of individuals and shape intra- and inter-specific patterns of resource use. High-elevation ecosystems often exhibit a pronounced seasonal “pulse” in productivity, although few studies document how resource use and energetic condition by avian consumers change in relation to food-resource availability in these ecosystems. We tested the hypothesis that seasonal increases (pulses) in food resources in high-elevation sagebrush ecosystems result in 2 changes after the pulse, relative to the before-pulse period: (1) reduced diet breadth of, and overlap between, 2 sympatric sparrow species; and (2) enhanced energetic condition in both species. We tracked breeding-season diets using stable isotopes and energetic condition using plasma metabolites of Brewer's Sparrows (Spizella breweri), Vesper Sparrows (Pooecetes gramineus), and their food resources during 2011, and of only Brewer's Sparrows and their food resources during 2013. We quantify diet breadth and overlap between both species, along with coincident physiological consequences of temporal changes in resource use. After invertebrate biomass increased following periods of rainfall in 2011, dietary breadth decreased by 35% in Brewer's Sparrows and by 48% in Vesper Sparrows, while dietary overlap decreased by 88%. Energetic condition of both species increased when dietary overlap was lower and diet breadth decreased, after the rapid rise of food-resource availability. However, energetic condition of Brewer's Sparrows remained constant in 2013, a year with low precipitation and lack of a strong pulse in food resources, even though the species' dietary breadth again decreased that year. Our results indicate that diet breadth and overlap in these sparrow species inhabiting sagebrush ecosystems generally varied as predicted in relation to intra- and interannual changes in food resources, and

  8. Snow White 5 Trench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image was acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm Camera on the 35th Martian day of the mission, or Sol 34 (June 29, 2008), after the May 25, 2008, landing. This image shows the trench informally called 'Snow White 5.' The trench is 4-to-5 centimeters (about 1.5-to-1.9 inches) deep, 24 centimeters (about 9 inches) wide and 33 centimeters (13 inches) long.

    Snow White 5 is Phoenix's current active digging area after additional trenching, grooming, and scraping by Phoenix's Robotic Arm in the last few sols to trenches informally called Snow White 1, 2, 3, and 4. Near the top center of the image is the Robotic Arm's Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe.

    Snow White 5 is located in a patch of Martian soil near the center of a polygonal surface feature, nicknamed 'Cheshire Cat.' The digging site has been named 'Wonderland.'

    This image has been enhanced to brighten shaded areas.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. Snow and ice ecosystems: not so extreme.

    PubMed

    Maccario, Lorrie; Sanguino, Laura; Vogel, Timothy M; Larose, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    Snow and ice environments cover up to 21% of the Earth's surface. They have been regarded as extreme environments because of their low temperatures, high UV irradiation, low nutrients and low water availability, and thus, their microbial activity has not been considered relevant from a global microbial ecology viewpoint. In this review, we focus on why snow and ice habitats might not be extreme from a microbiological perspective. Microorganisms interact closely with the abiotic conditions imposed by snow and ice habitats by having diverse adaptations, that include genetic resistance mechanisms, to different types of stresses in addition to inhabiting various niches where these potential stresses might be reduced. The microbial communities inhabiting snow and ice are not only abundant and taxonomically diverse, but complex in terms of their interactions. Altogether, snow and ice seem to be true ecosystems with a role in global biogeochemical cycles that has likely been underestimated. Future work should expand past resistance studies to understanding the function of these ecosystems.

  10. Longitudinal Associations between Observed and Perceived Neighborhood Food Availability and Body Mass Index in a Multiethnic Urban Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Mentz, Graciela; Schulz, Amy J.; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki; Gaines, Causandra R.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Blacks, Hispanics, and women of lower socioeconomic status tend to have a higher risk of obesity. Numerous studies over the past decade examined the role of the neighborhood food environment in body weight. However, few were longitudinal. Purpose: This longitudinal study examined whether multiple measures of neighborhood food…

  11. Nutrition Services and Foods and Beverages Available at School: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Toole, Terrence P.; Anderson, Susan; Miller, Clare; Guthrie, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    Background: Schools are in a unique position to promote healthy dietary behaviors and help ensure appropriate nutrient intake. This article describes the characteristics of both school nutrition services and the foods and beverages sold outside of the school meals program in the United States, including state- and district-level policies and…

  12. Evaluation of calcium, phosphorus, and selected trace mineral status in commercially available dry foods formulated for dogs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective – To evaluate the mineral content including calcium, phosphorus, zinc, iron, copper, manganese, and selenium of canine commercial pet foods and compare them to current AAFCO recommendations for adult maintenance. Design - Descriptive study. Sample – Forty-five over the counter dry canine p...

  13. 'Snow Queen' Animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This animation consists of two close-up images of 'Snow Queen,' taken several days apart, by the Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) aboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander.

    Snow Queen is the informal name for a patch of bright-toned material underneath the lander.

    Thruster exhaust blew away surface soil covering Snow Queen when Phoenix landed on May 25, 2008, exposing this hard layer comprising several smooth rounded cavities beneath the lander. The RAC images show how Snow Queen visibly changed between June 15, 2008, the 21st Martian day, or sol, of the mission and July 9, 2008, the 44th sol.

    Cracks as long as 10 centimeters (about four inches) appeared. One such crack is visible at the left third and the upper third of the Sol 44 image. A seven millimeter (one-third inch) pebble or clod appears just above and slightly to the right of the crack in the Sol 44 image. Cracks also appear in the lower part of the left third of the image. Other pieces noticeably shift, and some smooth texture has subtly roughened.

    The Phoenix team carefully positioned and focused RAC the same way in both images. Each image is about 60 centimeters, or about two feet, wide. The object protruding in from the top on the right half of the images is Phoenix's thermal and electrical conductivity probe.

    Snow Queen and other ice exposed by Phoenix landing and trenching operations on northern polar Mars is the first time scientists have been able to monitor Martian ice at a place where temperatures are cold enough that the ice doesn't immediately sublimate, or vaporize, away.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. Climate sensitivity of snow regimes simulated by physically based snow models (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomeroy, J. W.; Fang, X.; Sabourin, A.; Ellis, C. R.

    2009-12-01

    Seasonal snow regimes consist of snowfall, snow redistribution by wind, snow interception and snowmelt. Sublimation can be an important ablation mechanism under highly ventilated conditions. All of these processes are strongly controlled by the energy inputs and energy state of the snowpack. Warmer winter temperatures have been observed and are predicted for many cold regions environments. The Cold Regions Hydrological Model (CRHM) has the capability to successfully model the major snow processes in a physically based manner. It is used here to explore the sensitivity of snow regimes in three environments to warmer winter temperatures. The windswept alpine and mountain spruce forest environments use baseline data from Marmot Creek Research Basin in the Rocky Mountains of Alberta, Canada and the prairie cropland environments use data from Bad Lake Research Basin in the semi-arid prairies of Saskatchewan, Canada. Under current conditions blowing snow in both alpine and prairie environments redistributes most snowfall from wind exposed ridge and fallow-field surfaces and deposits transported snow in drifts on lee slopes, gullies and treed or shrub areas. Sublimation losses are substantial. Melt occurs in May-June in the alpine and in March-April on the Prairie. Currently, snow interception and sublimation are major losses of seasonal snowpack in mountain forest environments due to high sublimation losses. Forest melt occurs in April-May. Warming is shown to reduce sublimation losses - its restriction of wind redistribution and interception overcomes the additional energy available for sublimation. Warming also advances the timing of snowmelt initiation to varying degrees, but its effects on the rate and duration of melt are equivocal. In certain environments melt is faster and shorter in duration as warming occurs, but in others the rate diminishes with warming and so duration is not strongly affected. These results have important implications for determining the

  15. Effects of Juvenile Host Density and Food Availability on Adult Immune Response, Parasite Resistance and Virulence in a Daphnia-Parasite System

    PubMed Central

    Schoebel, Corine N.; Auld, Stuart K. J. R.; Spaak, Piet; Little, Tom J.

    2014-01-01

    Host density can increase infection rates and reduce host fitness as increasing population density enhances the risk of becoming infected either through increased encounter rate or because host condition may decline. Conceivably, potential hosts could take high host density as a cue to up-regulate their defence systems. However, as host density usually covaries with food availability, it is difficult to examine the importance of host density in isolation. Thus, we performed two full-factorial experiments that varied juvenile densities of Daphnia magna (a freshwater crustacean) and food availability independently. We also included a simulated high-density treatment, where juvenile experimental animals were kept in filtered media that previously maintained Daphnia at high-density. Upon reaching adulthood, we exposed the Daphnia to their sterilizing bacterial parasite, Pasteuria ramosa, and examined how the juvenile treatments influenced the likelihood and severity of infection (Experiment I) and host immune investment (Experiment II). Neither juvenile density nor food treatments affected the likelihood of infection; however, well-fed hosts that were well-fed as juveniles produced more offspring prior to sterilization than their less well-fed counterparts. By contrast, parasite growth was independent of host juvenile resources or host density. Parasite-exposed hosts had a greater number of circulating haemocytes than controls (i.e., there was a cellular immune response), but the magnitude of immune response was not mediated by food availability or host density. These results suggest that density dependent effects on disease arise primarily through correlated changes in food availability: low food could limit parasitism and potentially curtail epidemics by reducing both the host’s and parasite’s reproduction as both depend on the same food. PMID:24736707

  16. Snow on Antarctic sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massom, Robert A.; Eicken, Hajo; Hass, Christian; Jeffries, Martin O.; Drinkwater, Mark R.; Sturm, Matthew; Worby, Anthony P.; Wu, Xingren; Lytle, Victoria I.; Ushio, Shuki; Morris, Kim; Reid, Phillip A.; Warren, Stephen G.; Allison, Ian

    2001-08-01

    Snow on Antarctic sea ice plays a complex and highly variable role in air-sea-ice interaction processes and the Earth's climate system. Using data collected mostly during the past 10 years, this paper reviews the following topics: snow thickness and snow type and their geographical and seasonal variations; snow grain size, density, and salinity; frequency of occurrence of slush; thermal conductivity, snow surface temperature, and temperature gradients within snow; and the effect of snow thickness on albedo. Major findings include large regional and seasonal differences in snow properties and thicknesses; the consequences of thicker snow and thinner ice in the Antarctic relative to the Arctic (e.g., the importance of flooding and snow-ice formation); the potential impact of increasing snowfall resulting from global climate change; lower observed values of snow thermal conductivity than those typically used in models; periodic large-scale melt in winter; and the contrast in summer melt processes between the Arctic and the Antarctic. Both climate modeling and remote sensing would benefit by taking account of the differences between the two polar regions.

  17. Evaluating snow models with varying process representations for hydrological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnusson, Jan; Wever, Nander; Essery, Richard; Helbig, Nora; Winstral, Adam; Jonas, Tobias

    2015-04-01

    Much effort has been invested in developing snow models over several decades, resulting in a wide variety of empirical and physically based snow models. For the most part, these models are built on similar principles. The greatest differences are found in how each model parameterizes individual processes (e.g., surface albedo and snow compaction). Parameterization choices naturally span a wide range of complexities. In this study, we evaluate the performance of different snow model parameterizations for hydrological applications using an existing multimodel energy-balance framework and data from two well-instrumented alpine sites with seasonal snow cover. We also include two temperature-index snow models and an intensive, physically based multilayer snow model in our analyses. Our results show that snow mass observations provide useful information for evaluating the ability of a model to predict snowpack runoff, whereas snow depth data alone are not. For snow mass and runoff, the energy-balance models appear transferable between our two study sites, a behavior which is not observed for snow surface temperature predictions due to site-specificity of turbulent heat transfer formulations. Errors in the input and validation data, rather than model formulation, seem to be the greatest factor affecting model performance. The three model types provide similar ability to reproduce daily observed snowpack runoff when appropriate model structures are chosen. Model complexity was not a determinant for predicting daily snowpack mass and runoff reliably. Our study shows the usefulness of the multimodel framework for identifying appropriate models under given constraints such as data availability, properties of interest and computational cost.

  18. A proposed approach to systematically identify and monitor the corporate political activity of the food industry with respect to public health using publicly available information.

    PubMed

    Mialon, M; Swinburn, B; Sacks, G

    2015-07-01

    Unhealthy diets represent one of the major risk factors for non-communicable diseases. There is currently a risk that the political influence of the food industry results in public health policies that do not adequately balance public and commercial interests. This paper aims to develop a framework for categorizing the corporate political activity of the food industry with respect to public health and proposes an approach to systematically identify and monitor it. The proposed framework includes six strategies used by the food industry to influence public health policies and outcomes: information and messaging; financial incentive; constituency building; legal; policy substitution; opposition fragmentation and destabilization. The corporate political activity of the food industry could be identified and monitored through publicly available data sourced from the industry itself, governments, the media and other sources. Steps for country-level monitoring include identification of key food industry actors and related sources of information, followed by systematic data collection and analysis of relevant documents, using the proposed framework as a basis for classification of results. The proposed monitoring approach should be pilot tested in different countries as part of efforts to increase the transparency and accountability of the food industry. This approach has the potential to help redress any imbalance of interests and thereby contribute to the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases.

  19. NASA Airborne Snow Observatory: Measuring Spatial Distribution of Snow Water Equivalent and Snow Albedo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, M.; Painter, T. H.; Mattmann, C. A.; Ramirez, P.; Laidlaw, R.; Bormann, K. J.; Skiles, M.; Richardson, M.; Berisford, D. F.

    2015-12-01

    The two most critical properties for understanding snowmelt runoff and timing are the spatial and temporal distributions of snow water equivalent (SWE) and snow albedo. Despite their importance in controlling volume and timing of runoff, snowpack albedo and SWE are still largely unquantified in the US and not at all in most of the globe, leaving runoff models poorly constrained. NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, in partnership with the California Department of Water Resources, has developed the Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO), an imaging spectrometer and scanning LiDAR system, to quantify SWE and snow albedo, generate unprecedented knowledge of snow properties for cutting edge cryospheric science, and provide complete, robust inputs to water management models and systems of the future. This poster will describe the NASA Airborne Snow Observatory, its outputs and their uses and applications, along with recent advancements to the system and plans for the project's future. Specifically, we will look at how ASO uses its imaging spectrometer to quantify spectral albedo, broadband albedo, and radiative forcing by dust and black carbon in snow. Additionally, we'll see how the scanning LiDAR is used to determine snow depth against snow-free acquisitions and to quantify snow water equivalent when combined with in-situ constrained modeling of snow density.

  20. Multidecadal climate and seasonal snow conditions in Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelt, W. J. J.; Kohler, J.; Liston, G. E.; Hagen, J. O.; Luks, B.; Reijmer, C. H.; Pohjola, V. A.

    2016-11-01

    Svalbard climate is undergoing amplified change with respect to the global mean. Changing climate conditions directly affect the evolution of the seasonal snowpack, through its impact on accumulation, melt, and moisture exchange. We analyze long-term trends and spatial patterns of seasonal snow conditions in Svalbard between 1961 and 2012. Downscaled regional climate model output is used to drive a snow modeling system (SnowModel), with coupled modules simulating the surface energy balance and snowpack evolution. The precipitation forcing is calibrated and validated against snow depth data on a set of glaciers around Svalbard. Climate trends reveal seasonally inhomogeneous warming and a weakly positive precipitation trend, with strongest changes in the north. In response to autumn warming the date of snow onset increased (2 days decade-1), whereas in spring/summer opposing effects cause a nonsignificant trend in the snow disappearance date. Maximum snow water equivalent (SWE) in winter/spring shows a modest increase (+0.01 meters water equivalent (mwe) decade-1), while the end-of-summer minimum snow area fraction declined strongly (from 48% to 36%). The equilibrium line altitude is highest in relatively dry inland regions, and time series show a clear positive trend (25 m decade-1) as a result of summer warming. Finally, rain-on-snow in the core winter season, affecting ground ice formation and limiting access of grazing animals to food supplies, peaks during specific years (1994, 1996, 2000, and 2012) and is found to be concentrated in the lower lying coastal regions in southwestern Svalbard.

  1. The effect of Eurasian snow cover on the Indian monsoon

    SciTech Connect

    Vernekar, A.D.; Zhou, J.; Shukla, J.

    1995-02-01

    More than a century ago, Blanford suggested the inverse relation between Himalayan winter and spring snow accumulation and subsequent summer monsoon rainfall over India. This relation was later substantiated with additional data by Walker. Because of an inadequate observational network to obtain the spatial variation of snow cover over the Himalayan region, little progress was made until the availability of satellite measurements. Snow cover data derived from satellite observations was used to show that the correlation between winter Eurasian snow cover south of 52{degrees}N and the following Indian summer monsoon rainfall is negative and statistically significant. This result was further supported by additional research. The relationship between snow cover and monsoon circulation is consistent with a suggestion that the Indian monsoon circulation is a dynamically stable system and its interannual variations are largely determined by slowly varying surface boundary conditions. 64 refs., 22 figs.

  2. Development of a Community-Sensitive Strategy to Increase Availability of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables in Nashville’s Urban Food Deserts, 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Haushalter, Alisa; Buck, Tracy; Campbell, David; Henderson, Trevor; Schlundt, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Food deserts, areas that lack full-service grocery stores, may contribute to rising rates of obesity and chronic diseases among low-income and racial/ethnic minority residents. Our corner store project, part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Communities Putting Prevention to Work initiative, aimed to increase availability of healthful foods in food deserts in Nashville, Tennessee. Community Context We identified 4 food deserts in which most residents are low-income and racially and ethnically diverse. Our objectives were to develop an approach to increase availability of fresh fruits and vegetables, low-fat or nonfat milk, and 100% whole-wheat bread in Nashville’s food deserts and to engage community members to inform our strategy. Methods Five corner stores located in food deserts met inclusion criteria for our intervention. We then conducted community listening sessions, proprietor surveys, store audits, and customer-intercept surveys to identify needs, challenges to retailing the products, and potential intervention strategies. Outcome Few stores offered fresh fruits, fresh vegetables, low-fat or nonfat milk, or 100% whole-wheat bread, and none stocked items from all 4 categories. Major barriers to retailing healthful options identified by community members are mistrust of store owners, history of poor-quality produce, and limited familiarity with healthful options. Store owners identified neighborhood crime as the major barrier. We used community input to develop strategies. Interpretation Engaging community residents and understanding neighborhood context is critical to developing strategies that increase access to healthful foods in corner stores. PMID:23886044

  3. Gridded snow maps supporting avalanche forecasting in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, K.; Humstad, T.; Engeset, R. V.; Andersen, J.

    2012-04-01

    We present gridded maps indicating key parameters for avalanche forecasting with a 1 km x 1 km resolution. Based on the HBV hydrology model, snow parameters are modeled based on observed and interpolated precipitation and temperature data. Modeled parameters include for example new snow accumulated the last 24 and 72 hours, snow-water equivalent, and snow-water content. In addition we use meteorological parameters from the UK weather prediction model "Unified Model" such as wind and radiation to model snow-pack properties. Additional loading in lee-slopes by wind-transport is modeled based on prevailing wind conditions, snow-water content and snow age. A depth hoar index accounts for days with considerable negative temperature gradients in the snow pack. A surface hoar index based on radiation and humidity is currently under development. The maps are tested against field reports from avalanche observers throughout Norway. All data is available via a web-platform that combines maps for geo-hazards such as floods, landslides and avalanches. The maps are used by the Norwegian avalanche forecasting service, which is currently in a test phase. The service will be operational by winter 2012/2013.

  4. 'Snow White' Trench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image was acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 43, the 43rd Martian day after landing (July 8, 2008). This image shows the trench informally called 'Snow White.'

    Two samples were delivered to the Wet Chemistry Laboratory, which is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA). The first sample was taken from the surface area just left of the trench and informally named 'Rosy Red.' It was delivered to the Wet Chemistry Laboratory on Sol 30 (June 25, 2008). The second sample, informally named 'Sorceress,' was taken from the center of the 'Snow White' trench and delivered to the Wet Chemistry Laboratory on Sol 41 (July 6, 2008).

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Snow Roads and Runways

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    soil compression test frame) UPPER HEADN N N N - "J 2 CM SNOW SAMPLE:;: CONFINING COREi , CYLINDER 10 3 dio. X 3" longi Io LOWER HEAD & To StripLOAD...Russian). 152. Department of the Army (1962) Arctic Construction. Fuchs , A. (1942) Experiments on consolidation of loose Technical Manual TM 5-349...removal and compaction procedures for airfields. GG- German). ES 200/I. Fuchs , A. (1960) Structure of age hardening disaggre- Directorate of Engineering

  6. Producing Snow Extent and Snow Water Equivalent Information for Climate Research Purposes - ESA DUE Globsnow Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luojus, Kari; Pulliainen, Jouni; Rott, Helmut; Nagler, Thomas; Solberg, Rune; Wiesmann, Andreas; Derksen, Chris; Metsämäki, Sari; Malnes, Eirik; Bojkov, Bojan

    2010-05-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) Data User Element (DUE) funded GlobSnow project aims at creating a global database of snow parameters for climate research purposes. The main objective is to create a long term dataset on two essential snow parameters. The project will provide information concerning the areal extent of snow (SE) on a global scale and snow water equivalent (SWE) for the Northern Hemisphere. Both products will include the end product derived from the satellite data along with accuracy information for each snow parameter. The temporal span of the SE product will be 15 years and the span for the SWE product will be 30 years. A key improvement of the snow products, when compared with the currently available data sets, will be the inclusion of a statistically derived accuracy estimate accompanying each SE or SWE estimate (on a pixel level). In addition to the SE and SWE time-series, an operational near-real time (NRT) snow information service will be implemented. The service will provide daily snow maps for hydrological, meteorological, and climate research purposes. The snow products will be based on data acquired from optical and passive microwave-based spaceborne sensors combined with ground-based weather station observations. The work was initiated in November 2008, and is being coordinated by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). Other project partners involved are NR (Norwegian Computing Centre), ENVEO IT GmbH, GAMMA Remote Sensing AG, Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE), Environment Canada (EC) and Northern Research Institute (Norut). Extensive algorithm evaluation efforts were carried out for the candidate SWE and SE algorithms during 2009 using ground truth data gathered from Canada, Scandinavia, Russia and the Alps. The acquired evaluation results have enabled the selection of the algorithms to be utilized for the GlobSnow SE and SWE products. The SWE product is derived using the FMI Algorithm and the SE product is a combination of NR and

  7. Snow White Trenches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image was acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on the 25th Martian day of the mission, or Sol 24 (June 19, 2008), after the May 25, 2008, landing. This image shows the trenches informally called 'Snow White 1' (left) and 'Snow White 2' (right). The trench is about 5 centimeters (2 inches) deep and 30 centimeters (12 inches) long.

    'Snow White' is located in a patch of Martian soil near the center of a polygonal surface feature, nicknamed 'Cheshire Cat.' The 'dump pile' is located at the top of the trench, the side farthest away from the lander, and has been dubbed 'Croquet Ground.' The digging site has been named 'Wonderland.'

    This image has been enhanced to brighten shaded areas.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. Earth Observing System (EOS) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Global Snow-Cover Maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.; Salomonson, Vincent V.; Scharfen, Greg R.

    2000-01-01

    Following the 1999 launch of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the capability exists to produce global snow-cover maps on a daily basis at 500-m resolution. Eight-day composite snow-cover maps will also be available. MODIS snow-cover products are produced at Goddard Space Flight Center and archived and distributed by the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) in Boulder, Colorado. The products are available in both orbital and gridded formats. An online search and order tool and user-services staff will be available at NSIDC to assist users with the snow products. The snow maps are available at a spatial resolution of 500 m, and 1/4 degree x 1/4 degree spatial resolution, and provide information on sub-pixel (fractional) snow cover. Pre-launch validation work has shown that the MODIS snow-mapping algorithms perform best under conditions of continuous snow cover in low vegetation areas, but can also map snow cover in dense forests. Post-launch validation activities will be performed using field and aircraft measurements from a February 2000 validation mission, as well as from existing satellite-derived snow-cover maps from NOAA and Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+).

  9. Isothermal densification and metamorphism of new snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleef, S.; Loewe, H.; Schneebeli, M.

    2012-12-01

    The interplay between overburden stress and surface energy induced growth and coarsening is relevant for the densification of snow and porous ice at all densities. The densification of new snow is amenable to high precision experiments on short time scales. To this end we investigate the coupling of densification and metamorphism of new snow via time-lapse tomography experiments in the laboratory. We compare the evolution of density, strain, and specific surface area to previous long-time metamorphism experiments of snow and creep of polycrystalline ice. Experimental conditions are tailored to the requirements of time-lapse tomography and the measurements are conducted under nearly isothermal conditions at -20°C with a duration of two days. Images were taken with temporal resolution of a few hours which reveal precise details of the microstructure evolution due to sintering and compaction. We used different crystal shapes of natural new snow and snow samples obtained by sieving crystals grown in a snowmaker in the laboratory. To simulate the effect of overburden stress due to an overlying snowpack additional weights were applied to the sample. As expected we find an influence of the densification rate on initial density and overburden stress. We calculated strain rates and identified a transient creep behavior with a similar power law for all crystal types which substantially differs from the Andrade creep of polycrystalline ice. As a main result we found that the evolution of the specific surface area is independent of the density and follows a unique decay form for all measurements of each crystal type. The accuracy of the measurements allows to obtain a decay exponent for the SSA which is the same as previously obtained from the long-time regime during isothermal metamorphism after several months. Our preliminary results for all available types of new snow suggest a correlation between the initial density and SSA. We also find snow samples which coincide in

  10. BOREAS HYD-4 Areal Snow Course Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Metcalfe, John R.; Goodison, Barry E.; Walker, Anne; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-4 team focused on collecting data during the 1994 winter focused field campaign (FFCW) to improve the understanding of winter processes within the boreal forest. Knowledge of snow cover and its variability in the boreal forest is fundamental if BOREAS is to achieve its goals of understanding the processes and states involved in the exchange of energy and water. The development and validation of remote sensing algorithms will provide the means to extend the knowledge of these processes and states from the local to the regional scale. A specific thrust of the hydrology research is the development and validation of snow cover algorithms from airborne passive microwave measurements. Airborne remote sensing data (gamma, passive microwave) were acquired along a series of flight lines established in the vicinity of the BOREAS study areas. Ground snow surveys were conducted along selected sections of these aircraft flight lines. These calibration segments were typically 10-20 km in length, and ground data were collected at one to two kilometer intervals. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files. The HYD-04 areal snow course data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  11. Energy compensation in the real world: good compensation for small portions of chocolate and biscuits over short time periods in complicit consumers using commercially available foods.

    PubMed

    Appleton, Katherine M; McKeown, Pascal P; Woodside, Jayne V

    2015-02-01

    While investigations using covert food manipulations tend to suggest that individuals are poor at adjusting for previous energy intake, in the real world adults rarely consume foods of which they are ill-informed. This study investigated the impact in fully complicit consumers of consuming commercially available dark chocolate, milk chocolate, sweet biscuits and fruit bars on subsequent appetite. Using a repeated measures design, participants received four small portions (4 × 10-11 g) of either dark chocolate, milk chocolate, sweet biscuits, fruit bars or no food throughout five separate study days (counterbalanced in order), and test meal intake, hunger, liking and acceptability were measured. Participants consumed significantly less at lunch following dark chocolate, milk chocolate and sweet biscuits compared to no food (smallest t(19) = 2.47, p = 0.02), demonstrating very good energy compensation (269-334%). No effects were found for fruit bars (t(19) = 1.76, p = 0.09), in evening meal intakes (F(4,72) = 0.62, p = 0.65) or in total intake (lunch + evening meal + food portions) (F(4,72) = 0.40, p = 0.69). No differences between conditions were found in measures of hunger (largest F(4,76) = 1.26, p = 0.29), but fruit bars were significantly less familiar than all other foods (smallest t(19) = 3.14, p = 0.01). These findings demonstrate good compensation over the short term for small portions of familiar foods in complicit consumers. Findings are most plausibly explained as a result of participant awareness and cognitions, although the nature of these cognitions cannot be discerned from this study. These findings however, also suggest that covert manipulations may have limited transfer to real world scenarios.

  12. Gene expression changes associated with the developmental plasticity of sea urchin larvae in response to food availability

    PubMed Central

    Carrier, Tyler J.; King, Benjamin L.; Coffman, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Planktotrophic sea urchin larvae are developmentally plastic: in response to food scarcity, development of the juvenile rudiment is suspended and larvae instead develop elongated arms, increasing feeding capacity and extending larval life. Here, data are presented on the effect of different feeding regimes on gene expression in larvae of the green sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis. These data indicate that during periods of starvation, larvae down-regulate genes involved in growth and metabolic activity while up-regulating genes involved in lipid transport, environmental sensing and defense. Additionally, we show that starvation increases FoxO activity, and that in well-fed larvae rapamycin treatment impedes rudiment growth, indicating that the latter requires TOR activity. These results suggest that the developmental plasticity of echinoplutei is regulated by genes known to control aging and longevity in other animals. PMID:26124444

  13. Regulation of progastricsin mRNA levels in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) in response to fluctuations in food availability.

    PubMed

    Terova, Genciana; Rimoldi, Simona; Larghi, Stefano; Bernardini, Giovanni; Gornati, Rosalba; Saroglia, Marco

    2007-11-23

    In this study the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) pepsinogen C gene was isolated. The nucleotide sequences of all exons are presented. The organization of the gene is compatible with that of other aspartic proteinases. The predicted 388-residue amino acid (aa) sequence of sea bass pepsinogen C consists of a signal sequence of 16 amino acid residues, an activation peptide of 43 residues, and the mature pepsin of 329 residues containing the two characteristic active-site aspartic acids. We also analyzed fasting-induced changes in the expression of progastricsin mRNA, using real-time RT-PCR absolute quantification. Progastricsin mRNA copy number was downregulated under conditions of negative energy balance, such as starvation, and upregulated during positive energy balance, such as refeeding. These findings offer new information about the sea bass progastricsin gene and support a role of this gastric digestive enzyme in the regulation of food intake in sea bass.

  14. Changes in agriculture and abundance of snow geese affect carrying capacity of sandhill cranes in Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearse, A.T.; Krapu, G.L.; Brandt, D.A.; Kinzel, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    The central Platte River valley (CPRV) in Nebraska, USA, is a key spring-staging area for approximately 80 of the midcontinent population of sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis; hereafter cranes). Evidence that staging cranes acquired less lipid reserves during the 1990s compared to the late 1970s and increases in use of the CPRV by snow geese (Chen caerulescens) prompted us to investigate availability of waste corn and quantify spatial and temporal patterns of crane and waterfowl use of the region. We developed a predictive model to assess impacts of changes in availability of corn and snow goose abundance under past, present, and potential future conditions. Over a hypothetical 60-day staging period, predicted energy demand of cranes and waterfowl increased 87 between the late 1970s and 19982007, primarily because peak abundances of snow geese increased by 650,000 and cranes by 110,000. Compared to spring 1979, corn available when cranes arrived was 20 less in 1998 and 68 less in 1999; consequently, the area of cornfields required to meet crane needs increased from 14,464 ha in 1979 to 32,751 ha in 1998 and 90,559 ha in 1999. Using a pooled estimate of 88 kg/ha from springs 19981999 and 20052007, the area of cornfields needed to supply food requirements of cranes and waterfowl increased to 65,587 ha and was greatest in the eastern region of the CPRV, where an estimated 54 of cranes, 47 of Canada geese (Branta canadensis), 45 of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons), and 46 of snow geese occurred during ground surveys. We estimated that a future reduction of 25 in available corn or cornfields would increase daily foraging flight distances of cranes by 2738. Crane use and ability of cranes to store lipid reserves in the CPRV could be reduced substantially if flight distance required to locate adequate corn exceeded a physiological maximum distance cranes could fly in search of food. Options to increase carrying capacity for cranes include increasing

  15. Utilization and environmental availability of food outlets and overweight/obesity among schoolchildren in a city in the south of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Elizabeth Nappi; Rossi, Camila Elizandra; das Neves, Janaina; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; de Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes

    2017-03-02

    Among the causes of obesity, environmental factors have also been studied, in addition to genetic, social, psychological, and hormonal factors. The distribution of food outlets, facilitating or hindering food acquisition, can promote body weight control by encouraging healthier food habits. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between environmental availability and utilization of food outlets and overweight/obesity in 7 to 14-year-old schoolchildren in Florianópolis, in the South of Brazil. A logistic regression analysis identified a positive association between overweight/obesity in 2195 schoolchildren and the presence of restaurants in the vicinity of their homes (buffer = 400 meters). Being a member of a family that utilizes public markets/greengrocers was also positively associated with overweight/obesity in the sample investigated. Identifying the distribution of these establishments in the vicinity of the homes of schoolchildren in middle-income countries is an important element in understanding the role played by the food environment in weight gain in a variety of different settings.

  16. Study of Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Escherichia coli contamination in raw food available in factories, schools, and hospital canteens in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Ha, Thi Anh Dao; Pham, Thanh Yen

    2006-10-01

    This study on the contamination rates of raw foods available in factory, school, and hospital canteens in Hanoi, Vietnam, with the bacteria of Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Escherichia coli (E. coli) was carried out between 2003 and 2004. A total of 177 raw food samples of vegetables, meat (beef and pork), fish, and poultry were examined to provide baseline data for evaluation of microbiological risks in general, and identification of potential vehicles for pathogenic cross-contamination in canteens. The study confirmed that unprocessed fish and poultry are likely to be contaminated with Salmonella and in the absence of proper kitchen hygiene and may contaminate processed foods. Raw poultry samples were highly contaminated with E. coli (45%), Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) (28.3%), and Salmonella (8.3%) and classified as high-risk food. E. coli was also detected in raw meat, fish, and vegetables with the rate of 21.3%, 6.6%, and 18.5%, respectively. This article confirmed the importance of hygienic working practices when preparing food.

  17. Snow and glacier monitoring service using Earth Observation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagler, T.; Heidinger, M.; Rott, H.; Bippus, G.; Hetzenecker, M.; Scharrer, K.

    2012-04-01

    Snow cover and glaciers, storing large amounts of fresh water, respond sensitively to climate change. Accurate inventories and monitoring of these resources is therefore important for climate impact assessment, water resources management, and hydrology. The Project "ASaG - Preparation for a GMES Downstream service for snow and glacier Monitoring in Alpine Regions", supported by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG), aims at the implementation of a satellite-based services for spatially detailed monitoring of snow cover and glaciers over extended area. Algorithms and processing lines for retrieval of snow extent from medium resolution optical and SAR satellite imagery are further improved in the project in order to optimally match the needs of users. The snow cover products are generated using data of the MODIS sensor operating on the Terra platform of NASA. The products are made available in near real time and are used in pre-operational tests for initialization and validation of hydrological models and distributed snow process models. Statistical snow information like snow area - elevation curves are generated for user specified basins using this information for runoff simulation and forecasting and for water management tasks. For mountain glaciers a processing line has been implemented for satellite-based products on glacier area, outlines, glacier zones (snow, ice) and ice velocity maps to be used for updating glacier inventories. The glacier products are generated for major Austrian glacier regions using new high resolution optical satellite data (SPOT-5) and SAR (TerraSAR-X, Cosmo-Skymed). The products comply with the European rules for geospatial information according to the INSPIRE directive in order to ensure interoperability of the data sets and are made accessible to users via internet. Project results are also exploited in wider within the EC-FP7 project "CryoLand - GMES Service Snow and Land Ice", a GMES Downstream Service developed under the

  18. Remote Sensing of Snow Cover. Section; Snow Extent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Frei, Allan; Drey, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Snow was easily identified in the first image obtained from the Television Infrared Operational Satellite-1 (TIROS-1) weather satellite in 1960 because the high albedo of snow presents a good contrast with most other natural surfaces. Subsequently, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) began to map snow using satellite-borne instruments in 1966. Snow plays an important role in the Earth s energy balance, causing more solar radiation to be reflected back into space as compared to most snow-free surfaces. Seasonal snow cover also provides a critical water resource through meltwater emanating from rivers that originate from high-mountain areas such as the Tibetan Plateau. Meltwater from mountain snow packs flows to some of the world s most densely-populated areas such as Southeast Asia, benefiting over 1 billion people (Immerzeel et al., 2010). In this section, we provide a brief overview of the remote sensing of snow cover using visible and near-infrared (VNIR) and passive-microwave (PM) data. Snow can be mapped using the microwave part of the electromagnetic spectrum, even in darkness and through cloud cover, but at a coarser spatial resolution than when using VNIR data. Fusing VNIR and PM algorithms to produce a blended product offers synergistic benefits. Snow-water equivalent (SWE), snow extent, and melt onset are important parameters for climate models and for the initialization of atmospheric forecasts at daily and seasonal time scales. Snowmelt data are also needed as input to hydrological models to improve flood control and irrigation management.

  19. Effects of Food Availability on Yolk Androgen Deposition in the Black-Legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), a Seabird with Facultative Brood Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Benowitz-Fredericks, Z M.; Kitaysky, Alexander S.; Welcker, Jorg; Hatch, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    In birds with facultative brood reduction, survival of the junior chick is thought to be regulated primarily by food availability. In black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) where parents and chicks are provided with unlimited access to supplemental food during the breeding season, brood reduction still occurs and varies interannually. Survival of the junior chick is therefore affected by factors in addition to the amount of food directly available to them. Maternally deposited yolk androgens affect competitive dynamics within a brood, and may be one of the mechanisms by which mothers mediate brood reduction in response to a suite of environmental and physiological cues. The goal of this study was to determine whether food supplementation during the pre-lay period affected patterns of yolk androgen deposition in free-living kittiwakes in two years (2003 and 2004) that varied in natural food availability. Chick survival was measured concurrently in other nests where eggs were not collected. In both years, supplemental feeding increased female investment in eggs by increasing egg mass. First-laid (“A”) eggs were heavier but contained less testosterone and androstenedione than second-laid (“B”) eggs across years and treatments. Yolk testosterone was higher in 2003 (the year with higher B chick survival) across treatments. The difference in yolk testosterone levels between eggs within a clutch varied among years and treatments such that it was relatively small when B chick experienced the lowest and the highest survival probabilities, and increased with intermediate B chick survival probabilities. The magnitude of testosterone asymmetry in a clutch may allow females to optimize fitness by either predisposing a brood for reduction or facilitating survival of younger chicks. PMID:23675443

  20. The Airborne Snow Observatory: fusion of imaging spectrometer and scanning lidar for studies of mountain snow cover (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painter, T. H.; Andreadis, K.; Berisford, D. F.; Goodale, C. E.; Hart, A. F.; Heneghan, C.; Deems, J. S.; Gehrke, F.; Marks, D. G.; Mattmann, C. A.; McGurk, B. J.; Ramirez, P.; Seidel, F. C.; Skiles, M.; Trangsrud, A.; Winstral, A. H.; Kirchner, P.; Zimdars, P. A.; Yaghoobi, R.; Boustani, M.; Khudikyan, S.; Richardson, M.; Atwater, R.; Horn, J.; Goods, D.; Verma, R.; Boardman, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    Snow cover and its melt dominate regional climate and water resources in many of the world's mountainous regions. However, we face significant water resource challenges due to the intersection of increasing demand from population growth and changes in runoff total and timing due to climate change. Moreover, increasing temperatures in desert systems will increase dust loading to mountain snow cover, thus reducing the snow cover albedo and accelerating snowmelt runoff. The two most critical properties for understanding snowmelt runoff and timing are the spatial and temporal distributions of snow water equivalent (SWE) and snow albedo. Despite their importance in controlling volume and timing of runoff, snowpack albedo and SWE are still poorly quantified in the US and not at all in most of the globe, leaving runoff models poorly constrained. Recognizing this need, JPL developed the Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO), an imaging spectrometer and imaging LiDAR system, to quantify snow water equivalent and snow albedo, provide unprecedented knowledge of snow properties, and provide complete, robust inputs to snowmelt runoff models, water management models, and systems of the future. Critical in the design of the ASO system is the availability of snow water equivalent and albedo products within 24 hours of acquisition for timely constraint of snowmelt runoff forecast models. In spring 2013, ASO was deployed for its first year of a multi-year Demonstration Mission of weekly acquisitions in the Tuolumne River Basin (Sierra Nevada) and monthly acquisitions in the Uncompahgre River Basin (Colorado). The ASO data were used to constrain spatially distributed models of varying complexities and integrated into the operations of the O'Shaughnessy Dam on the Hetch Hetchy reservoir on the Tuolumne River. Here we present the first results from the ASO Demonstration Mission 1 along with modeling results with and without the constraint by the ASO's high spatial resolution and spatially

  1. Validation of snow characteristics and snow albedo feedback in the Canadian Regional Climate Model simulations over North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, B.; Sushama, L.; Diro, G. T.

    2015-12-01

    Snow characteristics and snow albedo feedback (SAF) over North America, as simulated by the fifth-generation Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5), when driven by ERA-40/ERA-Interim, CanESM2 and MPI-ESM-LR at the lateral boundaries, are analyzed in this study. Validation of snow characteristics is performed by comparing simulations against available observations from MODIS, ISCCP and CMC. Results show that the model is able to represent the main spatial distribution of snow characteristics with some overestimation in snow mass and snow depth over the Canadian high Arctic. Some overestimation in surface albedo is also noted for the boreal region which is believed to be related to the snow unloading parameterization, as well as the overestimation of snow albedo. SAF is assessed both in seasonal and climate change contexts when possible. The strength of SAF is quantified as the amount of additional net shortwave radiation at the top of the atmosphere as surface albedo decreases in association with a 1°C increase in surface temperature. Following Qu and Hall (2007), this is expressed as the product of the variation in planetary albedo with surface albedo and the change in surface albedo for 1°C change in surface air temperature during the season, which in turn is determined by the strength of the snow cover and snowpack metamorphosis feedback loops. Analysis of the latter term in the seasonal cycle suggests that for CRCM5 simulations, the snow cover feedback loop is more dominant compared to the snowpack metamorphosis feedback loop, whereas for MODIS, the two feedback loops have more or less similar strength. Moreover, the SAF strength in the climate change context appears to be weaker than in the seasonal cycle and is sensitive to the driving GCM and the RCP scenario.

  2. Triple monoamine inhibitor tesofensine decreases food intake, body weight, and striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability in diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    van de Giessen, Elsmarieke; de Bruin, Kora; la Fleur, Susanne E; van den Brink, Wim; Booij, Jan

    2012-04-01

    The novel triple monoamine inhibitor tesofensine blocks dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine re-uptake and is a promising candidate for the treatment of obesity. Obesity is associated with lower striatal dopamine D2 receptor availability, which may be related to disturbed regulation of food intake. This study assesses the effects of chronic tesofensine treatment on food intake and body weight in association with changes in striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2/3R) availability of diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. Four groups of 15 DIO rats were randomized to one of the following treatments for 28 days: 1. tesofensine (2.0 mg/kg), 2. vehicle, 3. vehicle+restricted diet isocaloric to caloric intake of group 1, and 4. tesofensine (2.0 mg/kg)+ a treatment-free period of 28 days. Caloric intake and weight gain decreased significantly more in the tesofensine-treated rats compared to vehicle-treated rats, which confirms previous findings. After treatment discontinuation, caloric intake and body weight gain gradually increased again. Tesofensine-treated rats showed significantly lower D2/3R availability in nucleus accumbens and dorsal striatum than both vehicle-treated rats and vehicle-treated rats on restricted isocaloric diet. No correlations were observed between food intake or body weight and D2/3R availability. Thus, chronic tesofensine treatment leads to decreased food intake and weight gain. However, this appears not to be directly related to the decreased striatal D2/3R availability, which is mainly a pharmacological effect.

  3. Continuity of MODIS and VIIRS Snow-Cover Maps during Snowmelt in the Catskill Mountains in New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, D. K.; Riggs, G. A., Jr.; Roman, M. O.; DiGirolamo, N. E.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the local and regional differences and possible biases between the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Visible-Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) snow-cover maps in the winter of 2012 during snowmelt conditions in the Catskill Mountains in New York using a time series of cloud-gap filled daily snow-cover maps. The MODIS Terra instrument has been providing daily global snow-cover maps since February 2000 (Riggs and Hall, 2015). Using the VIIRS instrument, launched in 2011, NASA snow products are being developed based on the heritage MODIS snow-mapping algorithms, and will soon be available to the science community. Continuity of the standard NASA MODIS and VIIRS snow-cover maps is essential to enable environmental-data records (EDR) to be developed for analysis of snow-cover trends using a consistent data record. For this work, we compare daily MODIS and VIIRS snow-cover maps of the Catskill Mountains from 29 February through 14 March 2012. The entire region was snow covered on 29 February and by 14 March the snow had melted; we therefore have a daily time series available to compare normalized difference snow index (NDSI), as an indicator of snow-cover fraction. The MODIS and VIIRS snow-cover maps have different spatial resolutions (500 m for MODIS and 375 m for VIIRS) and different nominal overpass times (10:30 AM for MODIS Terra and 2:30 PM for VIIRS) as well as different cloud masks. The results of this work will provide a quantitative assessment of the continuity of the snow-cover data records for use in development of an EDR of snow cover.http://modis-snow-ice.gsfc.nasa.gov/Riggs, G.A. and D.K. Hall, 2015: MODIS Snow Products User Guide to Collection 6, http://modis-snow-ice.gsfc.nasa.gov/?c=userguides

  4. Research relative to angular distribution of snow reflectance/snow cover characterization and microwave emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, Jeff; Davis, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    Remote sensing has been applied in recent years to monitoring snow cover properties for applications in hydrologic and energy balance modeling. In addition, snow cover has been recently shown to exert a considerable local influence on weather variables. Of particular importance is the potential of sensors to provide data on the physical properties of snow with high spatial and temporal resolution. Visible and near-infrared measurements of upwelling radiance can be used to infer near-surface properties through the calculation of albedo. Microwave signals usually come from deeper within the snow pack and thus provide depth-integrated information, which can be measured through clouds and does not relay on solar illumination.Fundamental studies examining the influence of snow properties on signals from various parts of the electromagnetic spectrum continue in part because of the promise of new remote sensors with higher spectral and spatial accuracy. Information in the visible and near-infrared parts of the spectrum comprise nearly all available data with high spatial resolution. Current passive microwave sensors have poor spatial resolution and the data are problematic where the scenes consist of mixed landscape features, but they offer timely observations that are independent of cloud cover and solar illumination.

  5. An Evaluation of Snow Initializations for NCEP Global and Regional Forecasting Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, N.; Broxton, P. D.; Zeng, X.; Leuthold, M.; Barlage, M. J.; Holbrook, V. P.

    2015-12-01

    Snow plays a major role in land-atmosphere interactions, affecting the forecasting of weather, climate, and water resources. At the same time, the strong spatial heterogeneity in snow depth and snow water equivalent (SWE) makes it challenging to evaluate gridded snow quantities using in situ point measurements. First, we have developed a new method to upscale point measurements into gridded datasets. This method is found to be superior to three other methods. It is then used to generate daily snow depth and SWE datasets for water years 2012-2014 at eight 2° X 2° areas using in situ measurements from the COOP and SNOTEL networks. These areas encompass a variety of terrain characteristics over North America. These datasets are used to quantify the performance of daily snow depth and SWE initialization in the NCEP global forecasting models (GFS and CFS) and regional models (NAM and RAP). Model initializations which utilize AFWA snow depths (GFS, CFS, and NAM) are found to have a too shallow snow depth compared to our area averaged method. Across all areas and water years, our method averaged 0.58m (0.57m) of snow while the models averaged 0.18m (0.19m) with a mean absolute error of 0.42m (0.47m) for the global (regional) models utilizing AFWA data. These models also ended the snow season much too early on average (by more than a month). The RAP model, which cycles snow instead of initializing with AFWA snow depths, underestimates snow depth to a lesser degree and has a mean absolute error of 0.26m while ending the snow season about two weeks early on average. Compared with snow depth errors, SWE errors from GFS, CFS, and NAM are even larger because of their use of globally constant snow densities. Furthermore, we have evaluated the daily snow depth gridded data produced by the Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC), which has been utilized as the best available ground truth in multiple studies. It is found that the CMC product underestimates snow depth and has a mean

  6. Snow White Trench (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This animation shows the evolution of the trench called 'Snow White' that NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander began digging on the 22nd Martian day of the mission after the May 25, 2008, landing.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Phoenix's Snow White Trench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    A soil sample taken from the informally named 'Snow White' trench at NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander work site produced minerals that indicate evidence of past interaction between the minerals and liquid water.

    This image was taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 103, the 103rd day since landing (Sept. 8, 2008).

    The trench is approximately 23 centimeters (9 inches) long.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. Optical Properties of Snow

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    basalt, and the most common volcanic ash is andesite (R. Cadle, personal communication, 1980). Both of these rocks have very similar optical proper...giving no color to the snow; but in order to mimic a given ties for short waves: mi., - I x 10-1, constant across the concentration of soot, the andesite ...refractive v.o8 0. r~soo, 02.o5 % •%•, "index is taken as that of andesite (mt = 1.47) from Pollack et 0o..o al. [1973]. The imaginary index mim (k) was

  9. Effect of temperature, food availability, and estradiol injection on gametogenesis and gender in the pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera.

    PubMed

    Teaniniuraitemoana, Vaihiti; Leprêtre, Maxime; Levy, Peva; Vanaa, Vincent; Parrad, Sophie; Gaertner-Mazouni, Nabila; Gueguen, Yannick; Huvet, Arnaud; Le Moullac, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    The black-lip pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera is a protandrous hermaphrodite species. Its economic value has led to the development of controlled hatchery reproduction techniques, although many aspects remain to be optimized. In order to understand reproductive mechanisms and their controlling factors, two independent experiments were designed to test hypotheses of gametogenesis and sex ratio control by environmental and hormonal factors. In one, pearl oysters were exposed under controlled conditions at different combinations of temperature (24 and 28°C) and food level (10,000 and 40,000 cells mL(-1) ); whereas in the other, pearl oysters were conditioned under natural conditions into the lagoon and subjected to successive 17β-estradiol injections (100 μg per injection). Gametogenesis and sex ratio were assessed by histology for each treatment. In parallel, mRNA expressions of nine marker genes of the sexual pathway (pmarg-foxl2, pmarg-c43476, pmarg-c45042, pmarg-c19309, pmarg-c54338, pmarg-vit6, pmarg-zglp1, pmarg-dmrt, and pmarg-fem1-like) were investigated. Maximum maturation was observed in the treatment combining the highest temperature (28°C) and the highest microalgae concentration (40,000 cells mL(-1) ), where the female sex tended to be maintained. Injection of 17β-estradiol induced a significant increase of undetermined stage proportion 2 weeks after the final injection. These results suggest that gametogenesis and gender in adult pearl oysters can be controlled by environmental factors and estrogens. While there were no significant effects on relative gene expression, the 3-gene-pair expression ratio model of the sexual pathway of P. margaritifera, suggest a probable dominance of genetic sex determinism without excluding a mixed sex determination mode (genetic + environmental). J. Exp. Zool. 325A:13-24, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Does food availability affect energy expenditure rates of nesting seabirds? A supplemental-feeding experiment with Black-Legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jodice, Patrick G.; Roby, Daniel D.; Hatch, Scott A.; Gill, Verena A.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Visser, G. Henk

    2002-01-01

    We used a supplemental-feeding experiment, the doubly labeled water technique, and a model-selection approach based upon the Akaike Information Criterion to examine effects of food availability on energy expenditure rates of Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) raising young. Energy expenditure rates of supplementally fed females (n = 14) and males (n = 16) were 34 and 20% lower than those of control females (n = 14) and males (n = 18), respectively. Energy expenditure rates of females were more responsive to fluctuations in food availability than those of males. Fed males likely expended more energy while off the nest than fed females, possibly because of nest defense. Energy expenditure rates of fed kittiwakes were similar to values reported for kittiwakes that were either not raising young or not foraging. Parent kittiwakes, therefore, adjusted parental effort in response to variation in breeding conditions due to changes in food availability. Adjustments in reproductive effort in response to variable foraging conditions may have significant effects on the survival and productivity of individuals, and thus provide substantial fitness benefits for long-lived seabirds such as Black-legged Kittiwakes.

  11. Bioaccumulation and food-chain analysis for evaluating ecological risks in terrestrial and wetland habitats: Availability-transfer factors (ATFs) in soil {r_arrow} soil macroinvertebrate {r_arrow} amphibian food chains

    SciTech Connect

    Linder, G.; Bollman, M.; Callahan, C.; Gillette, C.; Nebeker, A.; Wilborn, D.

    1998-12-31

    As part of the ecological risk assessment process for terrestrial and wetland habitats, the evaluation of bioaccumulative chemicals of concern (BCCs) is frequently pursued through food-chain analysis with a subsequent comparison of daily doses to benchmark toxicity reference values, when available. Food-chain analysis has frequently been applied to the analysis of exposure to BCCs identified as chemicals of potential ecological concern (COPECs) in the ecological risk assessment process. Here, designed studies focused on wetland food-chains such as hydric soil {r_arrow} soil macroinvertebrate {r_arrow} amphibian and terrestrial food-chains such as soil {r_arrow} plant {r_arrow} small mammal illustrate an approach for the derivation and validation of trophic transfer factors for metals considered as COPECs such as cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc. The results clearly indicate that the transfer of chemicals between trophic levels is critical in the bioaccumulation process in wetland and terrestrial food-chains and is influenced by numerous interacting abiotic and biotic factors, including physicochemical properties of soil, and the role, if any, that the metal has in the receptor as a required trace element.

  12. Free availability of high-energy foods led to energy over-ingestion and protein under-ingestion in choice-fed broilers.

    PubMed

    Catanese, Francisco; Rodriguez Ganduglia, Héctor; Villalba, Juan J; Distel, Roberto A

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare energy and protein content of the diet selected by choice-fed broilers with that of broilers fed a balanced diet. One hundred and eighty 1-day-old male broilers were randomly assigned in groups of 10 to one of three experimental treatments (n = 6). Control broilers were fed a standard balanced diet, whereas choice-fed broilers were fed three foods which were more concentrated (Choice C+ treatment) or less concentrated (Choice C- treatment) in protein, carbohydrate or fat. We evaluated food intake behavior, nutrient intake, and performance parameters of broilers from 2 to 7 weeks of age. Choice C+ broilers showed enhanced preference for the high-fat food, which led to higher energy intake and lower protein intake than those of control broilers at 2 to 4 weeks of age. Body weight, weight gain and feed conversion efficiency were negatively affected by diet selection of Choice C+ broilers. Choice C- broilers selected a balanced diet, and showed performance parameters similar to those of control broilers. Our results supported the hypothesis that free availability of high-energy foods bias ingestive behavior of choice-fed broilers toward selecting a diet with higher energy and lower protein than needed for normal growth.

  13. Tyzzer's disease in snow leopards.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, R E; Eisenbrandt, D L; Hubbard, G B

    1984-01-01

    Tyzzer's disease was diagnosed histologically in 2 litters of newborn snow leopard kittens. The gross and histological lesions were similar to those reported in domestic cats and other animals. No signs of illness was noted in either of the snow leopard dams.

  14. Facilitating the exploitation of ERTS imagery using snow enhancement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wobber, F. J. (Principal Investigator); Martin, K. R.; Sheffield, C.; Russell, O.; Amato, R. V.

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Analysis of all available (Gemini, Apollo, Nimbus, NASA aircraft) small scale snow covered imagery has been conducted to develop and refine snow enhancement techniques. A detailed photographic interpretation of ERTS-simulation imagery covering the Feather River/Lake Tahoe area was completed and the 580-680nm. band was determined to be the optimum band for fracture detection. ERTS-1 MSS bands 5 and 7 are best suited for detailed fracture mapping. The two bands should provide more complete fracture detail when utilized in combination. Analysis of early ERTS-1 data along with U-2 ERTS simulation imagery indicates that snow enhancement is a viable technique for geological fracture mapping. A wealth of fracture detail on snow-free terrain was noted during preliminary analysis of ERTS-1 images 1077-15005-6 and 7, 1077-15011-5 and 7, and 1079-15124-5 and 7. A direct comparison of data yield on snow-free versus snow-covered terrain will be conducted within these areas following receipt of snow-covered ERTS-1 imagery.

  15. Canopy Effects on Macroscale Snow Sublimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoma, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    Sublimation of snow cover directly affects snow accumulation, impacting ecosystem processes, soil moisture, soil porosity, biogeochemical processes, wildfire, and water resources. Available energy, the exposed surface area of a snow cover, and exposure time with the atmosphere vary greatly in complex terrain (e.g., aspect, elevation, forest cover), with latitude, and with continentality. It is therefore difficult to scale up results from site specific short term studies. Using the 32-km NARR, the 4-km PRISM, with 30-m terrain and forest cover data, meteorological variables are downscaled to simulate sublimation from canopy intercepted snow and from the snowpack over the Salt River Basin in Arizona for a wet and dry year. Simulations indicate that: (1) total sublimation is highly variable in response to variability in both sublimation rate and snow cover duration; (2) total canopy sublimation is similar for both years while ground sublimation is considerably greater during the wet year; (3) sublimation is a relatively greater contribution to the snow water budget during the dry year (28% vs. 20% of total snowfall); (4) at high elevations, ground sublimation is less in open areas than forested areas during the dry year, while the reverse is evident during the wet year as snowpack lasted longer into spring. While a reduction in leaf area index leads to a reduction of total sublimation due to less interception in both years, ground sublimation increases during the dry year, possibly due to less sheltering from solar radiation and wind. This reduction in sheltering results in a large decrease in snowpack duration (i.e., ten days in spring) at mid-elevations for the wet year, leading to a decrease in ground sublimation. This results in a 500 meter difference in the elevation of maximum sublimation reduction upon reduced leaf area index between the two years. Forest cover properties can vary considerably on short and long time scales through natural (wildfire, bark beetle

  16. The value of snow cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokratov, S. A.

    2009-04-01

    Snow is the natural resource, like soil and water. It has specific properties which allow its use not just for skiing but also for houses cooling in summer (Swedish experience), for air fields construction (Arctic and Antarctic), for dams (north of Russia), for buildings (not only snow-houses of some Polar peoples but artistic hotel attracting tourists in Sweden), and as art material (Sapporo snow festival, Finnish events), etc. "Adjustment" of snow distribution and amount is not only rather common practice (avalanche-protection constructions keeping snow on slopes) but also the practice with long history. So-called "snow irrigation" was used in Russia since XIX century to protect winter crop. What is now named "artificial snow production", is part of much larger pattern. What makes it special—it is unavoidable in present climate and economy situation. 5% of national income in Austria is winter tourism. 50% of the economy in Savoy relay on winter tourism. In terms of money this can be less, but in terms of jobs and income involved this would be even more considerable in Switzerland. As an example—the population of Davos is 14000 in Summer and 50000 in Winter. Skiing is growing business. In present time you can find ski slopes in Turkey and Lebanon. To keep a cite suitable for attracting tourists you need certain amount of sunny days and certain amount of snow. The snow cannons are often the only way to keep a place running. On the other hand, more artificial snow does not necessary attract more tourists, while heavy natural snowfall does attract them. Artificial snow making is costly and requires infrastructure (ponds and electric lines) with very narrow range of weather conditions. Related companies are searching for alternatives and one of them can be "weather regulation" by distribution of some chemical components in clouds. It did not happen yet, but can happen soon. The consequences of such interference in Nature is hardly known. The ski tourism is not the

  17. The Goddard Snow Radiance Assimilation Project: An Integrated Snow Radiance and Snow Physics Modeling Framework for Snow/cold Land Surface Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, E.; Tedesco, M.; Reichle, R.; Choudhury, B.; Peters-Lidard C.; Foster, J.; Hall, D.; Riggs, G.

    2006-01-01

    Microwave-based retrievals of snow parameters from satellite observations have a long heritage and have so far been generated primarily by regression-based empirical "inversion" methods based on snapshots in time. Direct assimilation of microwave radiance into physical land surface models can be used to avoid errors associated with such retrieval/inversion methods, instead utilizing more straightforward forward models and temporal information. This approach has been used for years for atmospheric parameters by the operational weather forecasting community with great success. Recent developments in forward radiative transfer modeling, physical land surface modeling, and land data assimilation are converging to allow the assembly of an integrated framework for snow/cold lands modeling and radiance assimilation. The objective of the Goddard snow radiance assimilation project is to develop such a framework and explore its capabilities. The key elements of this framework include: a forward radiative transfer model (FRTM) for snow, a snowpack physical model, a land surface water/energy cycle model, and a data assimilation scheme. In fact, multiple models are available for each element enabling optimization to match the needs of a particular study. Together these form a modular and flexible framework for self-consistent, physically-based remote sensing and water/energy cycle studies. In this paper we will describe the elements and the integration plan. All modules will operate within the framework of the Land Information System (LIS), a land surface modeling framework with data assimilation capabilities running on a parallel-node computing cluster. Capabilities for assimilation of snow retrieval products are already under development for LIS. We will describe plans to add radiance-based assimilation capabilities. Plans for validation activities using field measurements will also be discussed.

  18. Snow reflectance from thematic mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, J.

    1983-01-01

    Calculations of snow reflectance in all 6 TM reflective bands (i.e., 1,2,3,4,5, and 7) using a delta Eddington model show that snow reflectance in bands 4,5, and 7 is sensitive to grain size. Efforts to interpret the surface optical grain size for the spectral extension of albedo are described. Results show the TM data include spectral channels suitable for snow/cloud discrimination and for snow albedo measurements that can be extended throughout the solar spectrum. Except for band 1, the dynamic range is large enough that saturation occurs only occasionally. The finer resolution gives much better detail on the snowcovered area and might make it possible to use textural information instead of the snowline as an index to the amount of snow melt runoff.

  19. Family Meal Frequency and Association with Household Food Availability in United States Multi-Person Households: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Sarah L.; Tumin, Rachel; Andridge, Rebecca; Anderson, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Family meals are associated with a healthier diet among children and adolescents, but how family meal frequency varies in the U.S. population overall by household food availability and sociodemographic characteristics is not well characterized. Design The U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010 assessed the frequency of family meals eaten at home in the past week and the household availability of fruits, dark green vegetables, salty snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages. Setting Computer-assisted face-to-face interviews with a selected adult (≥18 years) who owned or rented the home (i.e., the household reference person). Subjects We analyzed information on family meal frequency for 18,031 participants living in multi-person households in relation to sociodemographic characteristics and food availability. Results Among the U.S. population living in households of two or more individuals, the prevalence (95% confidence interval) of having 0–2, 3–6 and ≥7 family meals/week was 18.0% (16.6–19.3), 32.4% (31.0–33.9), and 49.6% (47.8–51.4), respectively. Greater household availability of fruits and dark green vegetables and less availability of salty snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages was associated with more frequent family meals. Family meals were more prevalent in low-income households and those in which the reference person was ≥65 years, married, or had less than high school education. Conclusions About half of the US population living in households of 2 or more people shares meals frequently with their family at home. Family meal frequency was positively associated with a healthier pattern of household food availability. PMID:26636976

  20. Invertebrate response to snow goose herbivory on moist-soil vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherfy, M.H.; Kirkpatrick, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    Foraging activity by snow geese (Chen caerulescens) often creates large areas devoid of vegetation ("eat-outs") in moist-soil impoundments and coastal wetlands. Open-water habitats that result from eat-outs may be valuable foraging areas for other wetland-dependent birds (i.e., waterfowl and shorebirds). However, few studies have examined the effects of goose-induced habitat changes on invertebrates, an important food source for both waterfowl and shorebirds. We quantified changes in abundance and composition of benthic invertebrates in response to snow goose herbivory in moist-soil impoundments at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Delaware, USA. We found invertebrate taxon richness and diversity and abundance of Chironomidae, Coleoptera, and Total Invertebrates to be higher in goose-excluded sites than in adjacent eat-outs. These effects were most pronounced during January, February, and early April. We also measured invertebrate abundance in shorebird exclosures in eat-outs but found few detectable effects of shorebird predation on invertebrates. Our study demonstrated that abundant snow geese may negatively influence availability of invertebrates for other nonbreeding waterbirds, suggesting that management actions to reduce local goose populations or deter feeding in impoundments may be warranted.

  1. Validating growth and development of a seabird as an indicator of food availability: captive-reared Caspian Tern chicks fed ad libitum and restricted diets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyons, Donald E.; Roby, Daniel D.

    2011-01-01

    For seabirds raising young under conditions of limited food availability, reducing chick provisioning and chick growth rates are the primary means available to avoid abandonment of a breeding effort. For most seabirds, however, baseline data characterizing chick growth and development under known feeding conditions are unavailable, so it is difficult to evaluate chick nutritional status as it relates to foraging conditions near breeding colonies. To address this need, we examined the growth and development of young Caspian Terns (Hydroprogne caspia), a cosmopolitan, generalist piscivore, reared in captivity and fed ad libitum and restricted (ca. one-third lower caloric intake) diets. Ad libitum-fed chicks grew at similar rates and achieved a similar size at fledging as previously documented for chicks in the wild and had energetic demands that closely matched allometric predictions. We identified three general characteristics of food-restricted Caspian Tern chicks compared to ad libitum chicks: (1) lower age-specific body mass, (2) lower age-specific skeletal and feather size, such as wing chord length, and (3) heightened levels of corticosterone in blood, both for baseline levels and in response to acute stress. Effects of diet restriction on feather growth (10-11% slower growth in diet-restricted chicks) were less pronounced than effects on structural growth (37-52% slower growth) and body mass (24% lower at fledging age), apparently due to preferential allocation of food resources to maintain plumage growth. Our results suggest that measurements of chick body mass and feather development (e.g., wing chord or primary length) or measurement of corticosterone levels in the blood would allow useful evaluation of the nutritional status of chicks reared in the wild and of food availability in the foraging range of adults. Such evaluations could also inform demography studies (e.g., predict future recruitment) and assist in evaluating designated piscivorous waterbird

  2. Satellite and Surface Perspectives of Snow Extent in the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugg, Johnathan W.; Perry, Baker L.; Hall, Dorothy K.

    2012-01-01

    Assessing snow cover patterns in mountain regions remains a challenge for a variety of reasons. Topography (e.g., elevation, exposure, aspect, and slope) strongly influences snowfall accumulation and subsequent ablation processes, leading to pronounced spatial variability of snow cover. In-situ observations are typically limited to open areas at lower elevations (<1000 m). In this paper, we use several products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to assess snow cover extent in the Southern Appalachian Mountains (SAM). MODIS daily snow cover maps and true color imagery are analyzed after selected snow events (e.g., Gulf/Atlantic Lows, Alberta Clippers, and Northwest Upslope Flow) from 2006 to 2012 to assess the spatial patterns of snowfall across the SAM. For each event, we calculate snow cover area across the SAM using MODIS data and compare with the Interactive Multi-sensor Snow and ice mapping system (IMS) and available in-situ observations. Results indicate that Gulf/Atlantic Lows are typically responsible for greater snow extent across the entire SAM region due to intensified cyclogenesis associated with these events. Northwest Upslope Flow events result in snow cover extent that is limited to higher elevations (>1000 m) across the SAM, but also more pronounced along NW aspects. Despite some limitations related to the presence of ephemeral snow or cloud cover immediately after each event, we conclude that MODIS products are useful for assessing the spatial variability of snow cover in heavily forested mountain regions such as the SAM.

  3. Monitoring Food Security Indicators from Remote Sensing and Predicting Cereal Production in Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pervez, M. S.; Budde, M. E.; Rowland, J.

    2015-12-01

    We extract percent of basin snow covered areas above 2500m elevation from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 500-meter 8-day snow cover composites to monitor accumulation and depletion of snow in the basin. While the accumulation and depletion of snow cover extent provides an indication of the temporal progression of the snow pack, it does not provide insight into available water for irrigation. Therefore, we use snow model results from the National Operational Hydrologic Remote Sensing Center to quantify snow water equivalent and volume of water available within the snowpack for irrigation. In an effort to understand how water availability, along with its inter-annual variability, relates to the food security of the country, we develop a simple, effective, and easy-to-implement model to identify irrigated areas across the country on both annual and mid-season basis. The model is based on applying thresholds to peak growing season vegetation indices—derived from 250-meter MODIS images—in a decision-tree classifier to separate irrigated crops from non-irrigated vegetation. The spatial distribution and areal estimates of irrigated areas from these maps compare well with irrigated areas classified from multiple snap shots of the landscape from Landsat 5 optical and thermal images over selected locations. We observed that the extents of irrigated areas varied depending on the availability of snowmelt and can be between 1.35 million hectares in a year with significant water deficit and 2.4 million hectares in a year with significant water surplus. The changes in the amount of available water generally can contribute up to a 30% change in irrigated areas. We also observed that the strong correlation between inter-annual variability of irrigated areas and the variability in the country's cereal production could be utilized to predict an annual estimate of cereal production, providing early indication of food security scenarios for the country.

  4. Analysis of ingredient lists of commercially available gluten-free and gluten-containing food products using the text mining technique.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Amanda Bagolin; Fiates, Giovanna Medeiros Rataichesck; Dos Anjos, Adilson; Teixeira, Evanilda

    2013-03-01

    Ingredients mentioned on the labels of commercially available packaged gluten-free and similar gluten-containing food products were analyzed and compared, using the text mining technique. A total of 324 products' labels were analyzed for content (162 from gluten-free products), and ingredient diversity in gluten-free products was 28% lower. Raw materials used as ingredients of gluten-free products were limited to five varieties: rice, cassava, corn, soy, and potato. Sugar was the most frequently mentioned ingredient on both types of products' labels. Salt and sodium also were among these ingredients. Presence of hydrocolloids, enzymes or raw materials of high nutritional content such as pseudocereals, suggested by academic studies as alternatives to improve nutritional and sensorial quality of gluten-free food products, was not identified in the present study. Nutritional quality of gluten-free diets and health of celiac patients may be compromised.

  5. Improving the Terrain-Based Parameter for the Assessment of Snow Redistribution in the Col du Lac Blanc Area and Comparisons with TLS Snow Depth Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schön, Peter; Prokop, Alexander; Naaim-Bouvet, Florence; Nishimura, Kouichi; Vionnet, Vincent; Guyomarc'h, Gilbert

    2014-05-01

    Wind and the associated snow drift are dominating factors determining the snow distribution and accumulation in alpine areas, resulting in a high spatial variability of snow depth that is difficult to evaluate and quantify. The terrain-based parameter Sx characterizes the degree of shelter or exposure of a grid point provided by the upwind terrain, without the computational complexity of numerical wind field models. The parameter has shown to qualitatively predict snow redistribution with good reproduction of spatial patterns, but has failed to quantitatively describe the snow redistribution, and correlations with measured snow heights were poor. The objective of our research was to a) identify the sources of poor correlations between predicted and measured snow re-distribution and b) improve the parameters ability to qualitatively and quantitatively describe snow redistribution in our research area, the Col du Lac Blanc in the French Alps. The area is at an elevation of 2700 m and particularly suited for our study due to its constant wind direction and the availability of data from a meteorological station. Our work focused on areas with terrain edges of approximately 10 m height, and we worked with 1-2 m resolution digital terrain and snow surface data. We first compared the results of the terrain-based parameter calculations to measured snow-depths, obtained by high-accuracy terrestrial laser scan measurements. The results were similar to previous studies: The parameter was able to reproduce observed patterns in snow distribution, but regression analyses showed poor correlations between terrain-based parameter and measured snow-depths. We demonstrate how the correlations between measured and calculated snow heights improve if the parameter is calculated based on a snow surface model instead of a digital terrain model. We show how changing the parameter's search distance and how raster re-sampling and raster smoothing improve the results. To improve the parameter

  6. Snow Cover Changes over Northern Eurasia from in Situ Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulygina, O. N.; Razuvaev, V. N.; Groisman, P. Ya; Korshunova, N. N.

    2012-04-01

    Data. In addition to a standard suite of synoptic snow observations (snow depth, snow type, state of the ground at the meteorological site and its surroundings), we used in our study the national snow survey data set archived at the Russian Institute for Hydrometeorological Information. This dataset has routine snow surveys run throughout the cold season each decade (during the intense snowmelt, each 5 days) at all meteorological stations of the former USSR, thereafter in Russia, since 1966. Prior to 1966 snow surveys are also available but the methodology of observations has substantially changed at that year and our analysis includes data of 958 Russian stations from 1966 to 2011 with a minimal number of missing observations. Surveys run separately along all types of environment typical for the site for 1 to 2 km, describing the current snow cover properties such as snow density, depth, water equivalent, and characteristics of snow and ice crust. Background. During the period of widespread instrumental observations in Northern Eurasia (since 1881), the annual surface air temperature has increased by 1.5°C (in the winter season by 3°C. Close to the north in the Arctic Ocean, the late summer sea ice extent has decreased by 40% providing a near-infinite source of water vapor for the dry Arctic atmosphere in the early cold season months. There is also evidence of more frequent thaw days over northern latitudes of western Eurasia. All these factors affect the state of snow cover. Methods. Regional analysis of snow cover data was carried out using quasi-homogeneous climatic regions. Maps (climatology, trends) are presented mostly for visualization purposes. The area-averaging technique using station values converted to anomalies with respect to a common reference period (in this study, 1966-2011). Anomalies were arithmetically averaged first within 1°N x 2°E grid cells and thereafter by a weighted average value derived over the quasi-homogeneous climatic regions

  7. Applications systems verification and transfer project. Volume 1: Operational applications of satellite snow cover observations: Executive summary. [usefulness of satellite snow-cover data for water yield prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A.

    1981-01-01

    Both LANDSAT and NOAA satellite data were used in improving snowmelt runoff forecasts. When the satellite snow cover data were tested in both empirical seasonal runoff estimation and short term modeling approaches, a definite potential for reducing forecast error was evident. A cost benefit analysis run in conjunction with the snow mapping indicated a $36.5 million annual benefit accruing from a one percent improvement in forecast accuracy using the snow cover data for the western United States. The annual cost of employing the system would be $505,000. The snow mapping has proven that satellite snow cover data can be used to reduce snowmelt runoff forecast error in a cost effective manner once all operational satellite data are available within 72 hours after acquisition. Executive summaries of the individual snow mapping projects are presented.

  8. Application of snow models to snow removal operations on the Going-to-the-Sun Road, Glacier National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fagre, Daniel B.; Klasner, Frederick L.

    2000-01-01

    Snow removal, and the attendant avalanche risk for road crews, is a major issue on mountain highways worldwide. The Going-to-the-Sun Road is the only road that crosses Glacier National Park, Montana. This 80-km highway ascends over 1200m along the wall of a glaciated basin and crosses the continental divide. The annual opening of the road is critical to the regional economy and there is public pressure to open the road as early as possible. Despite the 67-year history of snow removal activities, few stat on snow conditions at upper elevations were available to guide annual planning for the raod opening. We examined statistical relationships between the opening date and nearby SNOTEL data on snow water equivalence (WE) for 30 years. Early spring SWE (first Monday in April) accounted for only 33% of the variance in road opening dates. Because avalanche spotters, used to warn heavy equipment operators of danger, are ineffective during spring storms or low-visibility conditions, we incorporated the percentage of days with precipitation during plowing as a proxy for visibility. This improved the model's predictive power to 69%/ A mountain snow simulator (MTSNOW) was used to calculate the depth and density of snow at various points along the road and field data were collected for comparison. MTSNOW underestimated the observed snow conditions, in part because it does not yet account for wind redistribution of snow. The severe topography of the upper reaches of the road are subjected to extensive wind redistribution of snow as evidence by the formation of "The Big Drift" on the lee side of Logan Pass.

  9. GALE improves snow forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scientific results from an intensive study of winter storms on the U.S. East Coast last year contributed to improved weather forecasts of two successive snowstorms that virtually closed down Washington, D.C., for several days in January 1987.In the Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment (GALE) field project, scientists took detailed measurements simultaneously from the atmosphere and the ocean to study how these features interact at various stages of an East Coast winter storm, according to project director Richard Dirks, who is with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder, Colo. “It's interesting that we actually had four storms [in the GALE study] that were of similar intensity to the two East Coast storms” in January 1987, Dirks said. “However, last year the temperatures were warmer, and the storm tracks were located somewhat further offshore and therefore did not significantly affect the northeast corridor with heavy snows.”

  10. Snow metamorphism: A fractal approach.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Anna; Chiaia, Bernardino M; Frigo, Barbara; Türk, Christian

    2010-09-01

    Snow is a porous disordered medium consisting of air and three water phases: ice, vapor, and liquid. The ice phase consists of an assemblage of grains, ice matrix, initially arranged over a random load bearing skeleton. The quantitative relationship between density and morphological characteristics of different snow microstructures is still an open issue. In this work, a three-dimensional fractal description of density corresponding to different snow microstructure is put forward. First, snow density is simulated in terms of a generalized Menger sponge model. Then, a fully three-dimensional compact stochastic fractal model is adopted. The latter approach yields a quantitative map of the randomness of the snow texture, which is described as a three-dimensional fractional Brownian field with the Hurst exponent H varying as continuous parameters. The Hurst exponent is found to be strongly dependent on snow morphology and density. The approach might be applied to all those cases where the morphological evolution of snow cover or ice sheets should be conveniently described at a quantitative level.

  11. Influence of wet conditions on snow temperature diurnal variations: An East Antarctic sea-ice case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecomte, O.; Toyota, T.

    2016-09-01

    A one-dimensional snow-sea-ice model is used to simulate the evolution of temperature profiles in dry and wet snow over a diurnal cycle, at locations where associated observations collected during the Sea Ice Physics and Ecosystem eXperiment (SIPEX-II) are available. The model is used at two sites, corresponding to two of the field campaign's sea-ice stations (2 and 6), and under two configurations: dry and wet snow conditions. In the wet snow model setups, liquid water may refreeze internally into the snow. At station 6, this releases latent heat to the snow and results in temperature changes at the base of the snow pack of a magnitude comparing to the model-observation difference (1 - 2 ° C). As the temperature gradient across the snow is in turn weakened, the associated conductive heat flux through snow decreases. At station 2, internal refreezing also occurs but colder air temperatures and the competing process of strengthened heat conduction in snow concurrent to snow densification maintain a steady temperature profile. However, both situations share a common feature and show that the conductive heat flux through the snow may significantly be affected (by 10-20% in our simulations) as a result of the liquid water refreezing in snow, either through thermal conductivity enhancement or direct temperature gradient alteration. This ultimately gives motivation for further investigating the impacts of these processes on the sea-ice mass balance in the framework of global scale model simulations.

  12. Influence of temperature and precipitation variability on near-term snow trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankin, Justin S.; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.

    2015-08-01

    Snow is a vital resource for a host of natural and human systems. Global warming is projected to drive widespread decreases in snow accumulation by the end of the century, potentially affecting water, food, and energy supplies, seasonal heat extremes, and wildfire risk. However, over the next few decades, when the planning and implementation of current adaptation responses are most relevant, the snow response is more uncertain, largely because of uncertainty in regional and local precipitation trends. We use a large (40-member) single-model ensemble climate model experiment to examine the influence of precipitation variability on the direction and magnitude of near-term Northern Hemisphere snow trends. We find that near-term uncertainty in the sign of regional precipitation change does not cascade into uncertainty in the sign of regional snow accumulation change. Rather, temperature increases drive statistically robust consistency in the sign of future near-term snow accumulation trends, with all regions exhibiting reductions in the fraction of precipitation falling as snow, along with mean decreases in late-season snow accumulation. However, internal variability does create uncertainty in the magnitude of hemispheric and regional snow changes, including uncertainty as large as 33 % of the baseline mean. In addition, within the 40-member ensemble, many mid-latitude grid points exhibit at least one realization with a statistically significant positive trend in net snow accumulation, and at least one realization with a statistically significant negative trend. These results suggest that the direction of near-term snow accumulation change is robust at the regional scale, but that internal variability can influence the magnitude and direction of snow accumulation changes at the local scale, even in areas that exhibit a high signal-to-noise ratio.

  13. Combining snowpack modeling and terrestrial laser scanner observations improves the simulation of small scale snow dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revuelto, Jesús; Vionnet, Vincent; López-Moreno, Juan-Ignacio; Lafaysse, Matthieu; Morin, Samuel

    2016-02-01

    Accurately determining the snowpack distribution in mountain areas is complex because of the difficulty of establishing over large areas the spatial distribution of all variables that define the state of the snowpack at any particular time. In this study we used distributed snowpack simulations that were corrected throughout the snow season using snow depth distributions measured using a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS). This enabled us to obtain a more realistic view of the small scale spatial evolution of the mass and depth of the snowpack. Several TLS snow depth data acquisitions were made during the 2012, 2013 and 2014 snow seasons in a small catchment (55 ha) located in the central Spanish Pyrenees. The Crocus snowpack model was used to simulate the snowpack evolution on a 5-m grid, based on downscaled meteorological variables obtained using SAFRAN reanalysis. The simulation was stopped when a snow depth distribution map measured using the TLS was available, and the modeled snow depth distribution was adjusted to match the observed snow depth. The snow simulation was then restarted and run until the next TLS acquisition was available. Prior to matching the simulation and observational data, both snowpack distributions were compared. The results for the three snow seasons showed an improvement in the snowpack simulation, especially with respect to simulating the influence of small scale topographic effects on the observed snowpack distribution, and also the timing of snow melt dynamics.

  14. Levels and temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Svalbard in relation to dietary habits and food availability.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Martin S; Fuglei, Eva; König, Max; Lipasti, Inka; Pedersen, Åshild Ø; Polder, Anuschka; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Routti, Heli

    2015-04-01

    Temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Svalbard, Norway, were investigated in relation to feeding habits and seasonal food availability. Arctic foxes from Svalbard forage in both marine and terrestrial ecosystems and the availability of their food items are impacted by climatic variability. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and brominated flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers [PBDEs] and hexabromocyclododecane [HBCDD]) were analyzed in the liver of 141 arctic foxes collected between 1997 and 2013. Stable carbon isotope values (δ13C) were used as a proxy for feeding on marine versus terrestrial prey. The annual number of recovered reindeer carcasses and sea ice cover were used as proxies for climate influenced food availability (reindeers, seals). Linear models revealed that concentrations of PCBs, chlordanes, p,p'-DDE, mirex and PBDEs decreased 4-11% per year, while no trends were observed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB) or β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH). Positive relationships between POP concentrations and δ13C indicate that concentrations of all compounds increase with increasing marine dietary input. Increasing reindeer mortality was related to lower HCB concentrations in the foxes based on the linear models. This suggests that concentrations of HCB in arctic foxes may be influenced by high mortality levels of Svalbard reindeer. Further, β-HCH concentrations showed a positive association with sea ice cover. These results in addition to the strong effect of δ13C on all POP concentrations suggest that climate-related changes in arctic fox diet are likely to influence contaminant concentrations in arctic foxes from Svalbard.

  15. An improved snow hydrology for GCMS. Part 1: Snow cover fraction, albedo, grain size, and age

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, S.; Oglesby, R.J.

    1994-07-01

    A new, physically-based snow hydrology has been implemented into the NCAR CCM1. The snow albedo is based on snow depth, solar zenith angle, snow cover pollutants, cloudiness, and a new parameter, the snow grain size. Snow grain size in turn depends on temperature and snow age. An improved expression is used for fractional snow cover which relates it to surface roughness and to snow depth. Each component of the new snow hydrology was implemented separately and then combined to make a new control run integrated for ten seasonal cycles. With the new snow hydrology, springtime snow melt occurs more rapidly, leading to a more reasonable late spring and summer distribution of snow cover. Little impact is seen on winter snow cover, since the new hydrology affects snow melt directly, but snowfall only indirectly, if at all. The influence of the variable grain size appears more important when snow packs are relatively deep while variable fractional snow cover becomes increasingly important as the snow pack thins. Variable surface roughness affects the snow cover fraction directly, but shows little effect on the seasonal cycle of the snow line. As an application of the new snow hydrology, we have rerun simulations involving Antarctic and Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Relatively little difference is seen for Antarctica, but a profound difference occurs for the Northern Hemisphere. In particular, ice sheets computed using new snow accumulations from the GCM are more numerous and larger in extent with the new snow hydrology. The new snow hydrology leads to a better simulation of the seasonal cycle of snow cover, however, our primary goal in implementing it into the GCM is to improve the predictive capabilities of the model. Since the snow hydrology is based on fundamental physical processes, and has well-defined parameters. it should enable model simulations of climatic change in which we have increased confidence. 37 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Remotely Sensed Snow Data Assimilation within Distributed Snow 17 Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dechant, C. M.; Leisenring, M.; Moradkhani, H.

    2009-12-01

    Accurate estimation of the quantity of water stored in seasonal snow cover, particularly in the mountainous Western United States, is an important tool for water resources management. Challenges in the estimation of Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) arise from uncertain model forcing data, model structure/parameter error, poor spatial resolution of in-situ measurements and uncertainties in remotely sensed observations. Currently, the best method for quantifying SWE is to integrate both modeled and remotely sensed estimates of snow by accounting for the relative uncertainties associated with each estimate. Data assimilation techniques account for observed and modeled errors by treating them as a stochastic variable and sequentially updating/resampling the state values. This study examines the effectiveness of three snow data assimilation techniques for creating a more accurate estimate of SWE. In this study, SWE, modeled with a distributed version of the National Weather Service’s SNOW-17 model, and model parameters in the Snow-17 model are updated with remotely sensed snow cover area (SCA). The SNOW-17 model takes precipitation and temperature as an input and estimates both SWE and SCA. Model forcing data was gathered from the North-American Land Data Assimilation (NLDAS) dataset. The SCA information used in this study is produced by the MODIS instrument flown on the NASA Terra satellite. The model runs at 1/8th degree and MODIS data is aggregated to this resolution from a 500m resolution. Remotely sensed SCA is used as the observation in three different data assimilation schemes: Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF), Ensemble Kalman Smoother (EnKS) and the Particle Filter. The EnKF and EnKS both use the same update equation, which assumes normally distributed errors. The Particle Filter takes a different approach that does not require an assumption about the error distribution. The accuracy and uncertainties associated with each of these assimilation techniques are compared

  17. Low-cost, ready-to-use therapeutic foods can be designed using locally available commodities with the aid of linear programming.

    PubMed

    Dibari, Filippo; Diop, El Hadji I; Collins, Steven; Seal, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    According to the United Nations (UN), 25 million children <5 y of age are currently affected by severe acute malnutrition and need to be treated using special nutritional products such as ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTF). Improved formulations are in demand, but a standardized approach for RUTF design has not yet been described. A method relying on linear programming (LP) analysis was developed and piloted in the design of a RUTF prototype for the treatment of wasting in East African children and adults. The LP objective function and decision variables consisted of the lowest formulation price and the weights of the chosen commodities (soy, sorghum, maize, oil, and sugar), respectively. The LP constraints were based on current UN recommendations for the macronutrient content of therapeutic food and included palatability, texture, and maximum food ingredient weight criteria. Nonlinear constraints for nutrient ratios were converted to linear equations to allow their use in LP. The formulation was considered accurate if laboratory results confirmed an energy density difference <10% and a protein or lipid difference <5 g · 100 g(-1) compared to the LP formulation estimates. With this test prototype, the differences were 7%, and 2.3 and -1.0 g · 100 g(-1), respectively, and the formulation accuracy was considered good. LP can contribute to the design of ready-to-use foods (therapeutic, supplementary, or complementary), targeting different forms of malnutrition, while using commodities that are cheaper, regionally available, and meet local cultural preferences. However, as with all prototype feeding products for medical use, composition analysis, safety, acceptability, and clinical effectiveness trials must be conducted to validate the formulation.

  18. Soil, snow, weather, and sub-surface storage data from a mountain catchment in the rain-snow transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormos, P. R.; Marks, D.; Williams, C. J.; Marshall, H. P.; Aishlin, P.; Chandler, D. G.; McNamara, J. P.

    2014-04-01

    (energy balance snow modeling, soil capacitance parametric modeling, etc.) and descriptive studies. Data is available at doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.819837.

  19. An Integrated Snow Radiance and Snow Physics Modeling Framework for Cold Land Surface Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward J.; Tedesco, Marco

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments in forward radiative transfer modeling and physical land surface modeling are converging to allow the assembly of an integrated snow/cold lands modeling framework for land surface modeling and data assimilation applications. The key elements of this framework include: a forward radiative transfer model (FRTM) for snow, a snowpack physical model, a land surface water/energy cycle model, and a data assimilation scheme. Together these form a flexible framework for self-consistent remote sensing and water/energy cycle studies. In this paper we will describe the elements and the integration plan. Each element of this framework is modular so the choice of element can be tailored to match the emphasis of a particular study. For example, within our framework, four choices of a FRTM are available to simulate the brightness temperature of snow: Two models are available to model the physical evolution of the snowpack and underlying soil, and two models are available to handle the water/energy balance at the land surface. Since the framework is modular, other models-physical or statistical--can be accommodated, too. All modules will operate within the framework of the Land Information System (LIS), a land surface modeling framework with data assimilation capabilities running on a parallel-node computing cluster at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The advantages of such an integrated modular framework built on the LIS will be described through examples-e.g., studies to analyze snow field experiment observations, and simulations of future satellite missions for snow and cold land processes.

  20. Changes in the snow water equivalent in mountainous basins in Slovakia over recent decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlavčová, K.; Kotríková, K.; Kohnová, S.; Valent, P.

    2015-06-01

    Changes in snowpack and duration of snow cover can cause changes in the regime of snow and rain-snow induced floods. The recent IPCC report suggests that, in snow-dominated regions such as the Alps, the Carpathian Mountains and the northern parts of Europe, spring snowmelt floods may occur earlier in a future climate because of warmer winters, and flood hazards may increase during wetter and warmer winters, with more frequent rain and less frequent snowfall. The monitoring and modelling of snow accumulation and snow melting in mountainous catchments is rather complicated, especially due to the high spatial variability of snow characteristics and the limited availability of terrestrial hydrological data. An evaluation of changes in the snow water equivalent (SWE) during the period of 1961-2010 in the Upper Hron river basin, which is representative of the mountainous regions in Central Slovakia, is provided in this paper. An analysis of the snow cover was performed using simulated values of the snow water equivalent by a conceptual semi-distributed hydrological rainfall-runoff model. Due to the poor availability of the measured snow water equivalent data, the analysis was performed using its simulated values. Modelling of the SWE was performed in different altitude zones by a conceptual semi-distributed hydrological rainfall-runoff model. The evaluation of the results over the past five decades indicates a decrease in the simulated snow water equivalent and the snow duration in each altitude zone and in all months of the winter season. Significant decreasing trends were found for December, January and February, especially in the highest altitude zone.

  1. Snow density climatology across the former USSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, X.; Zhang, T.; Wang, K.

    2014-04-01

    Snow density is one of the basic properties used to describe snow cover characteristics, and it is a key factor for linking snow depth and snow water equivalent, which are critical for water resources assessment and modeling inputs. In this study, we used long-term data from ground-based measurements to investigate snow density (bulk density) climatology and its spatiotemporal variations across the former Soviet Union (USSR) from 1966 to 2008. The results showed that the long-term monthly mean snow density was approximately 0.22 ± 0.05 g cm-3 over the study area. The maximum and minimum monthly mean snow density was about 0.33 g cm-3 in June, and 0.14 g cm-3 in October, respectively. Maritime and ephemeral snow had the highest monthly mean snow density, while taiga snow had the lowest. The higher values of monthly snow density were mainly located in the European regions of the former USSR, on the coast of Arctic Russia, and the Kamchatka Peninsula, while the lower snow density occurred in central Siberia. Significant increasing trends of snow density from September through June of the next year were observed, however, the rate of the increase varied with different snow classes. The long-term (1966-2008) monthly and annual mean snow densities had significant decreasing trends, especially during the autumn months. Spatially, significant positive trends in monthly mean snow density lay in the southwestern areas of the former USSR in November and December and gradually expanded in Russia from February through April. Significant negative trends mainly lay in the European Russia and the southern Russia. There was a high correlation of snow density with elevation for tundra snow and snow density was highly correlated with latitude for prairie snow.

  2. Using Snow to Teach Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Charles

    1991-01-01

    A lesson plan, directed at middle school students and older, describes using snow to study the geological processes of solidification of molten material, sedimentation, and metamorphosis. Provides background information on these geological processes. (MCO)

  3. Fracture mechanics of snow avalanches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åström, J. A.; Timonen, J.

    2001-07-01

    Dense snow avalanches are analyzed by modeling the snow slab as an elastic and brittle plate, attached by static friction to the underlying ground. The grade of heterogeneity in the local fracture (slip) thresholds, and the ratio of the average substrate slip threshold to the average slab fracture threshold, are the decisive parameters for avalanche dynamics. For a strong pack of snow there appears a stable precursor of local slips when the frictional contacts are weakened (equivalent to rising temperature), which eventually trigger a catastrophic crack growth that suddenly releases the entire slab. In the opposite limit of very high slip thresholds, the slab simply melts when the temperature is increased. In the intermediate regime, and for a homogeneous slab, the model display features typical of real snow avalanches. The model also suggests an explanation to why avalanches are impossible to forecast reliably based on precursor observations. This explanation may as well be applicable to other catastrophic rupture phenomena such as earthquakes.

  4. Food availability and predation risk, rather than intrinsic attributes, are the main factors shaping the reproductive decisions of a long-lived predator.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Sarah R; Millon, Alexandre; Petty, Steve J; Whitfield, D Philip; Lambin, Xavier

    2016-07-01

    Deciphering the causes of variation in reproductive success is a fundamental issue in ecology, as the number of offspring produced is an important driver of individual fitness and population dynamics. Little is known, however, about how different factors interact to drive variation in reproduction, such as whether an individual's response to extrinsic conditions (e.g. food availability or predation) varies according to its intrinsic attributes (e.g. age, previous allocation of resources towards reproduction). We used 29 years of reproductive data from marked female tawny owls and natural variation in food availability (field vole) and predator abundance (northern goshawk) to quantify the extent to which extrinsic and intrinsic factors interact to influence owl reproductive traits (breeding propensity, clutch size and nest abandonment). Extrinsic and intrinsic factors appeared to interact to affect breeding propensity (which accounted for 83% of the variation in owl reproductive success). Breeding propensity increased with vole density, although increasing goshawk abundance reduced the strength of this relationship. Owls became slightly more likely to breed as they aged, although this was only apparent for individuals who had fledged chicks the year before. Owls laid larger clutches when food was more abundant. When owls were breeding in territories less exposed to goshawk predation, 99·5% of all breeding attempts reached the fledging stage. In contrast, the probability of breeding attempts reaching the fledging stage in territories more exposed to goshawk predation depended on the amount of resources an owl had already allocated towards reproduction (averaging 87·7% for owls with clutches of 1-2 eggs compared to 97·5% for owls with clutches of 4-6 eggs). Overall, our results suggested that changes in extrinsic conditions (predominantly food availability, but also predator abundance) had the greatest influence on owl reproduction. In response to deteriorating

  5. School Meal Programs: Competitive Foods Are Widely Available and Generate Substantial Revenues for Schools. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-05-563

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellis, David B.

    2005-01-01

    Recent increases in child obesity have sparked concerns about competitive foods--foods sold to students at school that are not part of federally reimbursable school meals. The nutritional value of these foods is largely unregulated, and students can often purchase these foods in addition to or instead of school meals. Nearly 9 out of 10 schools…

  6. School Meal Programs: Competitive Foods Are Available in Many Schools; Actions Taken To Restrict Them Differ by State and Locality. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-04-673

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellis, David D.

    2004-01-01

    Because of concerns about trends in children's health and eating habits and interest in further understanding issues related to competitive foods in schools, this study addressed: which foods and school food practices fell under the term "competitive foods" and what federal restrictions existed on their sale; what was known about the types of…

  7. Seasonal variation of diet and food availability in a group of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys in Shennongjia Nature Reserve, China.

    PubMed

    Yiming, Li

    2006-03-01

    We studied the diet and food availability of a group of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys for 14 months (July 2003 to September 2004, except for February) in the Shennongjia Nature Reserve, China. This species is primarily a lichen eater, with lichens (Usneaceae) accounting for 43.28% of feeding records (n=3,452). Other food types in the diet were young leaves (28.71%), fruits or seeds (14.57%), buds (5.36%), mature leaves (3.51%), herbs (2.09%), bark (1.36%), and flowers (1.13%). The monkeys used 23 plant species. Their diet showed a complicated seasonal variation: the monthly diet varied from primarily lichens in November-April, to a mixture of leaves and lichens in May-July, to a mixture of fruits or seeds and lichens in August-October (the latter depended on annual fruit and seed availability). The proportion of fruits or seeds in the diet was negatively correlated with that of lichens, which suggests that the monkeys prefer fruits or seeds to lichens when all of these items are available. The fruit or seed availability varied greatly between the two study years. The proportion of lichens, young leaves, flowers, and fruits or seeds in the diet was positively associated with their availability. The monkeys appeared to be selective feeders. They preferred 10 tree species for plant parts, and nine tree species for lichens. The selection index of tree species for lichens was positively related to lichen coverage per branch on tree species, demonstrating that the monkeys preferred tree species with abundant lichens, as well as dead trees for lichens. The results suggest that dead-tree harvesting in the reserve could significantly reduce the quality of habitat for these monkeys, and should therefore be prohibited. Connus controversa, Cerasus discadenia, Salix willichiana, and Malus halliana should be conserved as top priority species because the monkeys preferred them for both their vegetative parts and the lichens that grow on them.

  8. Deceleration of Projectiles in Snow,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    contents of this report are not to be used for advertising or promotional purposes. Citation of brand names does not constitute an official endorsement or...projectile are directly wired els were used in these tests. The snow targets were to recording equipment, and the target is not accel- prepared by sifting...the snow target are identified in The target box was placed in a rigid stand located the figure. The travel times between these impacts on a tangent to

  9. MODIS Snow Cover Mapping Decision Tree Technique: Snow and Cloud Discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riggs, George A.; Hall, Dorothy K.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate mapping of snow cover continues to challenge cryospheric scientists and modelers. The Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow data products have been used since 2000 by many investigators to map and monitor snow cover extent for various applications. Users have reported on the utility of the products and also on problems encountered. Three problems or hindrances in the use of the MODIS snow data products that have been reported in the literature are: cloud obscuration, snow/cloud confusion, and snow omission errors in thin or sparse snow cover conditions. Implementation of the MODIS snow algorithm in a decision tree technique using surface reflectance input to mitigate those problems is being investigated. The objective of this work is to use a decision tree structure for the snow algorithm. This should alleviate snow/cloud confusion and omission errors and provide a snow map with classes that convey information on how snow was detected, e.g. snow under clear sky, snow tinder cloud, to enable users' flexibility in interpreting and deriving a snow map. Results of a snow cover decision tree algorithm are compared to the standard MODIS snow map and found to exhibit improved ability to alleviate snow/cloud confusion in some situations allowing up to about 5% increase in mapped snow cover extent, thus accuracy, in some scenes.

  10. Zooplankton taxonomic and size diversity in Mediterranean coastal lagoons (NE Iberian Peninsula): Influence of hydrology, nutrient composition, food resource availability and predation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badosa, Anna; Boix, Dani; Brucet, Sandra; López-Flores, Rocío; Gascón, Stéphanie; Quintana, Xavier D.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of hydrology, nutrient composition, food resource availability and predation on zooplankton taxonomic and size diversity was analyzed in several shallow lagoons of a Mediterranean salt marsh (Baix Ter Wetlands, NE Iberian Peninsula). Taxonomic diversity correlated better with variables related to the trophic state, such as nutrient concentrations, whereas size diversity was more sensitive to fish predation. However, the fish predation influence on the size diversity was only significant when fishes reached high densities. Under low fish densities no predation effects were observed and the food resource availability (FR a) appeared to be more important in structuring the zooplankton community. Nevertheless, the two diversity indexes showed opposite responses to this factor. With increasing FR a the taxonomic diversity increased and the size diversity decreased. Neither taxonomic nor size diversity of the zooplankton community correlated with other physical or biotic factors such as hydrological variability or macroinvertebrate predation. The relationships found suggest that the size diversity is mainly related to biotic interactions, such as fish predation or inter/intraspecific competition, while the taxonomic diversity appears to be more sensitive to abiotic factors such as the nutrient composition.

  11. The effect of socio-economic status and food availability on first birth interval in a pre-industrial human population.

    PubMed

    Nenko, Ilona; Hayward, Adam D; Lummaa, Virpi

    2014-01-22

    Individual variation in nutritional status has direct implications for fitness and thus is crucial in shaping patterns of life-history variation. Nevertheless, it is difficult to measure in natural populations, especially in humans. Here, we used longitudinal data on individual life-histories and annual crop yield variation collected from pre-industrial Finnish populations experiencing natural mortality and fertility to test the validity of first birth interval (FBI; time between marriage and first birth) as a surrogate measure of nutritional status. We evaluated whether women with different socio-economic groups differ in length of FBI, whether women of poorer socio-economic status and experiencing lower crop yields conceive slower following marriage, and whether shorter FBI is associated with higher lifetime breeding success. We found that poorer women had longer FBI and reduced probability of giving birth in months with low food availability, while the FBI of richer women was not affected by variation in food availability. Women with shorter FBI achieved higher lifetime breeding success and a faster reproductive rate. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to show a direct relationship between environmental conditions and speed of childbirth following marriage, highlighting the value of FBI as an indicator of nutritional status when direct data are lacking.

  12. Statistical methods to study variation in associations between food store availability and body mass in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Baek, Jonggyu; Hirsch, Jana A; Moore, Kari; Tabb, Loni Philip; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Lisabeth, Lynda D; Diez-Roux, Ana V; Sánchez, Brisa N

    2017-01-31

    Research linking characteristics of the neighborhood environment to health has relied on traditional regression methods where pre-specified distances from participant's locations or areas are used to operationalize neighborhood-level measures. Since the relevant spatial scale of neighborhood environment measures may differ across places or individuals, using pre-specified distances could result in biased association estimates or efficiency losses. We use novel hierarchical distributed lag models and data from the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) to: 1) examine whether and how the association between the availability of favorable food stores and body mass index (BMI) depends on continuous distance from participant locations (instead of traditional buffers), thus allowing us to indirectly infer the spatial scale at which this association operates; 2) examine if the spatial scale and magnitude of the association differs across six MESA sites and 3) across individuals. As expected, we found that the association between higher availability of favorable food stores within closer distances from participant's residential location was stronger than at farther distances, and that the magnitude of the adjusted association declined quickly from zero to two miles. Furthermore, between-individual heterogeneity in the scale and magnitude of the association was present; the extent of this heterogeneity was different across the MESA sites. Individual heterogeneity was partially explained by sex. This study illustrated novel methods to examine how neighborhood environmental factors may be differentially associated with health at different scales, providing nuance to previous research that ignored the heterogeneity found across individuals and contexts.

  13. The Fallacy of Drifting Snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreas, Edgar L.

    2011-12-01

    A common parametrization over snow-covered surfaces that are undergoing saltation is that the aerodynamic roughness length for wind speed ( z 0) scales as {α u_ast^2/g}, where u * is the friction velocity, g is the acceleration of gravity, and α is an empirical constant. Data analyses seem to support this scaling: many published plots of z 0 measured over snow demonstrate proportionality to {u_ast^2 }. In fact, I show similar plots here that are based on two large eddy-covariance datasets: one collected over snow-covered Arctic sea ice; another collected over snow-covered Antarctic sea ice. But in these and in most such plots from the literature, the independent variable, u *, was used to compute z 0 in the first place; the plots thus suffer from fictitious correlation that causes z 0 to unavoidably increase with u * without any intervening physics. For these two datasets, when I plot z 0 against u * derived from a bulk flux algorithm—and thus minimize the fictitious correlation— z 0 is independent of u * in the drifting snow region, u * ≥ 0.30 ms-1. I conclude that the relation {z_0 = α u_ast^2/g} when snow is drifting is a fallacy fostered by analyses that suffer from fictitious correlation.

  14. Aerosol Characterization and New Instrumentation for Better Understanding Snow Radiative Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beres, N. D.

    2015-12-01

    Snow albedo is determined by snowpack thickness and grain size, but also affected by contamination with light-absorbing, microscopic (e.g., mineral dust, combustion aerosols, bio-aerosols) and macroscopic (e.g., microalgae, plant debris, sand, organisms) compounds. Most currently available instruments for measuring snow albedo utilize the natural, downward flux of solar radiation and the reflected upward flux. This reliance on solar radiation (and, thus, large zenith angles and clear-sky conditions) leads to severe constraints, preventing characterization of detailed diurnal snow albedo cycles. Here, we describe instrumentation and methodologies to address these limitations with the development and deployment of new snow radiation sensors for measuring surface spectral and in-snow radiative properties. This novel instrumentation will be tested at the CRREL/UCSB Eastern Sierra (CUES) Snow Study Site at Mammoth Mountain, which is extensively instrumented for characterizing snow properties including snow albedo and surface morphology. However, it has been lacking instrumentation for the characterization of aerosols that can be deposited on the snow surface through dry and wet deposition. Currently, we are installing aerosol instrumentation at the CUES site, which are also described. This includes instruments for the multi-wavelength measurement of aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients and for the characterization of aerosol size distribution. Knowledge of aerosol concentration and physical and optical properties will allow for the study of aerosol deposition and modification of snow albedo and for establishing an aerosol climatology for the CUES site.

  15. Snow: a reliable indicator for global warming in the future?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, H.-W.

    2012-03-01

    The cryosphere consists of water in the solid form at the Earth's surface and includes, among others, snow, sea ice, glaciers and ice sheets. Since the 1990s the cryosphere and its components have often been considered as indicators of global warming because rising temperatures can enhance the melting of solid water (e.g. Barry et al 1993, Goodison and Walker 1993, Armstrong and Brun 2008). Changes in the cryosphere are often easier to recognize than a global temperature rise of a couple of degrees: many locals and tourists have hands-on experience in changes in the extent of glaciers or the duration of winter snow cover on the Eurasian and North American continents. On a more scientific basis, the last IPCC report left no doubt: the amount of snow and ice on Earth is decreasing (Lemke et al 2007). Available data showed clearly decreasing trends in the sea ice and frozen ground extent of the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and the global glacier mass balance. However, the trend in the snow cover extent (SCE) of the NH was much more ambiguous; a result that has since been confirmed by the online available up-to-date analysis of the SCE performed by the Rutgers University Global Snow Lab (climate.rutgers.edu/snowcover/). The behavior of snow is not the result of a simple cause-and-effect relationship between air temperature and snow. It is instead related to a rather complex interplay between external meteorological parameters and internal processes in the snowpack. While air temperature is of course a crucial parameter for snow and its melting, precipitation and radiation are also important. Further physical properties like snow grain size and the amount of absorbing impurities in the snow determine the fraction of absorbed radiation. While all these parameters affect the energy budget of the snowpack, each of these variables can dominate depending on the season or, more generally, on environmental conditions. As a result, the reduction in SCE in spring and summer in the

  16. A new perspective on John Snow's communicable disease theory.

    PubMed

    Winkelstein, W

    1995-11-01

    When John Snow undertook the studies of the cholera epidemic of 1854 in London, he was testing his theory of communicable disease, which had been enunciated in an oration delivered at the 80th anniversary of the Medical Society of London. Snow had been elected orator of the year for 1853 and, according to his biographer, had spent the better part of a year in preparation. The oration was titled, "On Continuous Molecular Changes, More Particularly in Their Relation to Epidemic Diseases." Although the text of this oration is readily available in the 1936 Commonwealth Fund facsimile reprint of Snow's more famous cholera studies, few modern epidemiologists are familiar with the work. In it, Snow lays out a theory which includes recognition that for each communicable disease there is a distinct and specific cause, that the causal agent is a living organism which is stable over many generations of propagation, that infection is necessary for communication to occur, and that the quantity of infectious material transmitted is increased by multiplication after infection to produce disease manifestations. Although Snow's theory is similar to Jacob Henle's formulations of a decade earlier, it is more precise, more comprehensive, and more explicit. On the basis of this work alone, Snow deserves broader recognition than he has received.

  17. Snow density climatology across the former USSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, X.; Zhang, T.; Wang, K.

    2013-07-01

    Snow density is one of the basic properties used to describe snow cover characteristics, and it is a key factor for retrieving snow depth and snow water equivalent, which are critical for water resources assessment and modeling inputs. In this study, we used long-term data from ground-based measurements to investigate snow density climatology and its spatiotemporal variations across the former Soviet Union (USSR) from 1966 to 2008. The results showed that the long-term monthly mean snow density was approximately 0.194 ± 0.046 g cm-3 over the study area. The maximum and minimum monthly mean snow density was ˜ 0.295 g cm-3 in June, and 0.135 g cm-3 in October, respectively. Maritime snow had the highest monthly mean snow density, while taiga snow had the lowest. The higher values of monthly snow density were mainly located in the European regions of the former USSR, in Arctic Russia, and in some regions of the Russian Far East, and the lower snow density occurred in central Siberia. Significant increasing trends of snow density from September through June of the next year were observed, however, the rate of the increase varied with different snow classes. The long-term (1966-2008) monthly and annual mean snow densities had significant decreasing trends, especially during the autumn months. Spatially, significant positive trends in monthly mean snow density lay in the southwestern areas of the former USSR in November and December and gradually expanded in Russia from February through April. Significant negative trends mainly lay in the European Russia and the southern Russia. Snow density decreased with elevation, at about 0.004 g cm-3 per 100 m increase in elevation. This same relationship existed for all snow classes except for maritime and ephemeral snow.

  18. Changes in Snow Cover Characteristics over Northern Eurasia since 1966

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulygina, Olga; Groisman, Pavel; Razuvaev, Vyacheslav; Korshunova, Natalia

    2010-05-01

    Data. In addition to a standard suite of snow observations across Northern Eurasia and its surroundings, we used in our study the national snow survey data set archived at the Russian Institute for Hydrometeorological Information. The last dataset has routine snow surveys run throughout the cold season each decade (during the intense snowmelt, each 5 days) at all meteorological stations of the former USSR, thereafter, in Russia since 1966. Prior to 1966 snow surveys are also available but the methodology of observations has substantially changed at that year. Therefore, this analysis includes only data of more than1000 Russian stations from 1966 to 2009 that have a minimal number of missing observations. Surveys run separately along all types of environment typical for the site for 1 to 2 km, describing the current snow cover properties such as snow density, depth, water equivalent, and characteristics of snow and ice crust. Background. During the past 128 years (since 1881), the annual surface air temperature in Northern Eurasia has increased by 1.5° C and in the winter season by 3° C. Nearby to the north in the Arctic Ocean, the late summer sea ice extent decreased by 40% exposing a near-infinite source of water vapor for the dry Arctic atmosphere in early cold season months. As a result of these processes the following changes in snow cover characteristics have been observed: (a) in autumn the dates of the onset of snow cover have not changed noticeably despite the strong temperature increase in this season; (b) in late spring, snow cover extent has decreased, retreating by 1 to 2 weeks earlier during the past 40 years; and (c) in the cold season maximum snow depth and SWE (at open areas) have increased over most of Russia. In the western half of Eurasian continent days with thaw became more frequent. Snowmelt duration and ice crust changes. Over Northern Eurasia, the snowmelt process can be lengthy but even the first such melt initiates a process of snow

  19. Soil, snow, weather, and sub-surface storage data from a mountain catchment in the rain-snow transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormos, P. R.; Marks, D.; Williams, C. J.; Marshall, H. P.; Aishlin, P.; Chandler, D. G.; McNamara, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    A comprehensive hydroclimatic data set is presented for the 2011 water year to improve understanding of hydrologic processes in the rain-snow transition zone. This type of dataset is extremely rare in scientific literature because of the quality and quantity of soil depth, soil texture, soil moisture, and soil temperature data. Standard meteorological and snow cover data for the entire 2011 water year are included, which include several rain-on-snow events. Surface soil textures and soil depths from 57 points are presented as well as soil texture profiles from 14 points. Meteorological data include continuous hourly shielded, unshielded, and wind corrected precipitation, wind speed, air temperature, relative humidity, dew point temperature, and incoming solar and thermal radiation data. Sub-surface data included are hourly soil moisture data from multiple depths from 7 soil profiles within the catchment, and soil temperatures from multiple depths from 2 soil profiles. Hydrologic response data include hourly stream discharge from the catchment outlet weir, continuous snow depths from one location, intermittent snow depths from 5 locations, and snow depth and density data from ten weekly snow surveys. Though it represents only a single water year, the presentation of both above and below ground hydrologic condition makes it one of the most detailed and complete hydro-climatic datasets from the climatically sensitive rain-snow transition zone for a wide range of modeling and descriptive studies. Data are available at doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.819837.

  20. Black carbon aerosol size in snow.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, J P; Gao, R S; Perring, A E; Spackman, J R; Fahey, D W

    2013-01-01

    The effect of anthropogenic black carbon (BC) aerosol on snow is of enduring interest due to its consequences for climate forcing. Until now, too little attention has been focused on BC's size in snow, an important parameter affecting BC light absorption in snow. Here we present first observations of this parameter, revealing that BC can be shifted to larger sizes in snow than are typically seen in the atmosphere, in part due to the processes associated with BC removal from the atmosphere. Mie theory analysis indicates a corresponding reduction in BC absorption in snow of 40%, making BC size in snow the dominant source of uncertainty in BC's absorption properties for calculations of BC's snow albedo climate forcing. The shift reduces estimated BC global mean snow forcing by 30%, and has scientific implications for our understanding of snow albedo and the processing of atmospheric BC aerosol in snowfall.

  1. Wind tunnel observations of drifting snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterna, Enrico; Crivelli, Philip; Lehning, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Drifting snow has a significant impact on snow redistribution in mountains, prairies as well as on glaciers, ice shelves, and sea ice. In all these environments, the local mass balance is highly influenced by drifting snow. Understanding the dynamic of snow saltation is crucial to the accurate description of the process. We applied digital shadowgraphy in a cold wind tunnel to measure drifting snow over natural snow covers. The acquisition and evaluation of time-resolved shadowgraphy images allowed us to resolve a large part of the saltation layer. The technique has been successfully compared to the measurements obtained from a Snow Particle Counter, considered the most robust technique for snow mass-flux measurements so far. The streamwise snow transport is dominated by large-scale events. The vertical snow transport has a more equal distribution of energy across the scales, similarly to what is observed for the flow turbulence velocities. It is hypothesized that the vertical snow transport is a quantity that reflects the local entrainment of the snow crystals into the saltation layer while the streamwise snow transport results from the streamwise development of the trajectories of the snow particles once entrained, and therefore is rather a non-local quantity.

  2. Sodankylä manual snow survey program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leppänen, L.; Kontu, A.; Hannula, H.-R.; Sjöblom, H.; Pulliainen, J.

    2015-12-01

    The manual snow survey program of the Arctic Research Centre of Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI-ARC) consists of numerous observations of natural seasonal taiga snowpack in Sodankylä, northern Finland. The easily accessible measurement areas represent the typical forest and soil types in the boreal forest zone. Systematic snow measurements began in 1909 with snow depth (SD) and snow water equivalent (SWE); however some older records of the snow and ice cover exists. In 2006 the manual snow survey program expanded to cover snow macro- and microstructure from regular snow pits at several sites using both traditional and novel measurement techniques. Present-day measurements include observations of SD, SWE, temperature, density, horizontal layers of snow, grain size, specific surface area (SSA), and liquid water content (LWC). Regular snow pit measurements are performed weekly during the snow season. Extensive time series of manual snow measurements are important for the monitoring of temporal and spatial changes in seasonal snowpack. This snow survey program is an excellent base for the future research of snow properties.

  3. Methods for Assessing the Impact of Fog Oil Smoke on Availability, Palatability, & Food Quality of Relevant Life Stages of Insects for Threatened and Endangered Species

    SciTech Connect

    Driver, Crystal J.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Su, Yin-Fong; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Herrington, Ricky S.; Saunders, Danielle L.; Rogers, Lee E.

    2007-04-01

    A methodology for quantifying population dynamics and food source value of insect fauna in areas subjected to fog oil smoke was developed. Our approach employed an environmentally controlled re-circulating wind tunnel outfitted with a high-heat vaporization and re-condensation fog oil generator that has been shown to produce aerosols of comparable chemistry and droplet-size distribution as those of field releases of the smoke. This method provides reproducible exposures of insects under realistic climatic and environmental conditions to fog oil aerosols that duplicate chemical and droplet-size characteristics of field releases of the smoke. The responses measured take into account reduction in food sources due to death and to changes in availability of relevant life stages of insects that form the prey base for the listed Threatened and Endangered Species. The influence of key environmental factors, wind speed and canopy structure on these responses were characterized. Data generated using this method was used to develop response functions related to particle size, concentration, wind speed, and canopy structure that will allow military personnel to assess and manage impacts to endangered species from fog oil smoke used in military training.

  4. Detecting Falling Snow from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Gail Skofronick; Johnson, Ben; Munchak, Joe

    2012-01-01

    There is an increased interest in detecting and estimating the amount of falling snow reaching the Earth's surface in order to fully capture the atmospheric water cycle. An initial step toward global spaceborne falling snow algorithms includes determining the thresholds of detection for various active and passive sensor channel configurations, snow event cloud structures and microphysics, snowflake particle electromagnetic properties, and surface types. In this work, cloud resolving model simulations of a lake effect and synoptic snow event were used to determine the minimum amount of snow (threshold) that could be detected by the following instruments: the W -band radar of CloudSat, Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) Ku and Ka band, and the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) channels from 10 to 183 plus or minus 7 GHz. Eleven different snowflake shapes were used to compute radar reflectivities and passive brightness temperatures. Notable results include: (1) the W-Band radar has detection thresholds more than an order of magnitude lower than the future GPM sensors, (2) the cloud structure macrophysics influences the thresholds of detection for passive channels, (3) the snowflake microphysics plays a large role in the detection threshold for active and passive instruments, (4) with reasonable assumptions, "the passive 166 GHz channel has detection threshold values comparable to the GPM DPR Ku and Ka band radars with approximately 0.05 g per cubic meter detected at the surface, or an approximately 0.5-1 millimeter per hr. melted snow rate (equivalent to 0.5-2 centimeters per hr. solid fluffy snowflake rate). With detection levels of falling snow known, we can focus current and future retrieval efforts on detectable storms and concentrate advances on achievable results. We will also have an understanding of the light snowfall events missed by the sensors and not captured in the global estimates.

  5. Metagenomic and satellite analyses of red snow in the Russian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Hisakawa, Nao; Quistad, Steven D; Hester, Eric R; Martynova, Daria; Maughan, Heather; Sala, Enric; Gavrilo, Maria V; Rohwer, Forest

    2015-01-01

    Cryophilic algae thrive in liquid water within snow and ice in alpine and polar regions worldwide. Blooms of these algae lower albedo (reflection of sunlight), thereby altering melting patterns (Kohshima, Seko & Yoshimura, 1993; Lutz et al., 2014; Thomas & Duval, 1995). Here metagenomic DNA analysis and satellite imaging were used to investigate red snow in Franz Josef Land in the Russian Arctic. Franz Josef Land red snow metagenomes confirmed that the communities are composed of the autotroph Chlamydomonas nivalis that is supporting a complex viral and heterotrophic bacterial community. Comparisons with white snow communities from other sites suggest that white snow and ice are initially colonized by fungal-dominated communities and then succeeded by the more complex C. nivalis-heterotroph red snow. Satellite image analysis showed that red snow covers up to 80% of the surface of snow and ice fields in Franz Josef Land and globally. Together these results show that C. nivalis supports a local food web that is on the rise as temperatures warm, with potential widespread impacts on alpine and polar environments worldwide.

  6. Metagenomic and satellite analyses of red snow in the Russian Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Hisakawa, Nao; Quistad, Steven D.; Hester, Eric R.; Martynova, Daria; Sala, Enric; Gavrilo, Maria V.

    2015-01-01

    Cryophilic algae thrive in liquid water within snow and ice in alpine and polar regions worldwide. Blooms of these algae lower albedo (reflection of sunlight), thereby altering melting patterns (Kohshima, Seko & Yoshimura, 1993; Lutz et al., 2014; Thomas & Duval, 1995). Here metagenomic DNA analysis and satellite imaging were used to investigate red snow in Franz Josef Land in the Russian Arctic. Franz Josef Land red snow metagenomes confirmed that the communities are composed of the autotroph Chlamydomonas nivalis that is supporting a complex viral and heterotrophic bacterial community. Comparisons with white snow communities from other sites suggest that white snow and ice are initially colonized by fungal-dominated communities and then succeeded by the more complex C. nivalis-heterotroph red snow. Satellite image analysis showed that red snow covers up to 80% of the surface of snow and ice fields in Franz Josef Land and globally. Together these results show that C. nivalis supports a local food web that is on the rise as temperatures warm, with potential widespread impacts on alpine and polar environments worldwide. PMID:26713242

  7. Community structure and dynamics of deep-water decapod assemblages from Le Danois Bank (Cantabrian Sea, NE Atlantic): Influence of environmental variables and food availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartes, Joan E.; Serrano, Alberto; Velasco, Francisco; Parra, Santiago; Sánchez, Francisco

    2007-12-01

    of Biscay (44-46°N). The dominance of certain species on the summit of submarine mounts can probably be related to their biology and feeding ecology. For example, pagurids are deposit feeders, even consuming marine snow (e.g. Chl- a identified in guts of Pagurus alatus), and they have low gut fullness (probably indicating a capacity to withstand long periods under starvation), that would favour their adaptability to a rather unpredictable habitat such as Le Danois Bank summit. Regarding prey availability, zooplankton/micronekton and infauna distributed around Le Danois Bank showed different depth-related patterns. Among zooplankton, mesopelagic decapods, mysids, and fishes were absent at the bank summit, while euphausiids exhibited high abundances over the summit. No significant trends with depth were found for infauna abundance, and for instance polychaete densities were similar both at the summit and the inner basin. Therefore, prey availability was lower for summit assemblages regarding zooplankton/micronekton. Patterns in mean size vs. depth were species specific for decapods, and the possible role of the bank summit as a recruitment area was not general for the whole decapod assemblage.

  8. Snow and Dust over Inner Mongolia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A severe snow-and-sand storm hit an 80,000 square-mile (205,000-square-km) stretch of the Chinese province of Mongolia on New Year's Eve, killing 21 people and leaving thousands of people to face possible starvation. The affected area is located about 250 miles (400 km) northwest of Beijing. It is the worst snowstorm to hit the region in more than 50 years. Lasting about 3 days, the storm dumped 24 inches (60 cm) of snow mixed with sand from the Gobi Desert, stranding many residents in deep drifts. The Chinese Red Cross reports that almost 1 million people were affected by the storm and at least 10,000 head of livestock are confirmed dead. As many as 120,000 residents are in need of food and other supplies. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, acquired this image of the storm on January 2, 2001, as it approached China's eastern provinces. You can see storm clouds (white pixels) and windblown dust (brownish pixels) crossing the Yellow Sea and East China Sea toward Japan and the western Pacific. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  9. Politics of Snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burko, D.

    2012-12-01

    In a 2010 catalog introduction for my exhibition titled: POLITICS OF SNOW, Eileen Claussen, President of the Pew Center on Global Climate Change wrote the following: "Climate change has been taken over by politics…We are awash in talking points, briefing papers, scientific studies, and communiqués from national governments… Diane Burko's paintings remind us that all these words can often obscure or even obstruct our view of what is truly happening …..There is only so much you can do with words. People need to see that the world is changing before our eyes. When we look at Diane's images of the effects of climate change, we connect to something much deeper and more profound (and more moving) than the latest political pitch from one side or another in this debate…These paintings also connect us to something else. Even as Diane documents how things are changing, she also reminds us of the stunning beauty of nature - and, in turn, the urgency of doing everything in our power to protect it." The creation of this body of work was made possible because of the collaboration of many glacial geologists and scientists who continually share their visual data with me. Since 2006 I've been gathering repeats from people like Bruce Molnia (USGS) and Tad Pfeffer of Alaskan glaciers, from Daniel Fagre (USGS) of Glacier National Park and Lonnie Thompson and Jason Box (Ohio University's Byrd Polar Center) about Kilimanjaro, Qori Kalis and Petermann glaciers as well as from photographer David Breashears on the disappearing Himalayan glaciers. In my practice, I acknowledge the photographers, or archive agencies, such as USGS, NASA or Snow and Ice Center, in the title and all printed material. As a landscape painter and photographer my intent is to not reproduce those images but rather use them as inspiration. At first I used the documentary evidence in sets of diptychs or triptychs. Since 2010 I have incorporated geological charts of recessional lines, graphs, symbols and

  10. Highway Snow Control Research in Japan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    to 0.50 g/ ci11" . Packed snow-A network texture of crains 0.05 to0.3 mll in diameter: p = 0.45 to 0.75 g/cm’. hardness H = 20 to 170 kg/cm-. Ice... textures . Base on the results, it was proposed that snow and ice on roads should be divided into seven types: new snow, powdery snow, grainy snow, packed...compression due to the natural weight of the snow cover. The main features of these results, such as the appearance of the saw-toothed curve of resistance

  11. The spatial and seasonal variations in mineral particle composition on the snow surface and their possible effect on snow algae in the Tateyama Mountains, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umino, T.; Takeuchi, N.

    2012-12-01

    Snow algae are autotrophic microbes and play an important role as primary producers in food chain of glaciers and snowfield. Although their reproduction requires nutrients, snow and ice is extreamly poor in nutrients. One of the possible sources of nutrients is mineral particles blown by wind and deposited on the snow. They may contain variable elements and provide nutrients for snow algae. However, we scarcely know about the relationship between mineral particles and snow algae. In this study, we described spatial and seasonal variations in mineral particle composition and also snow algae on the snow surface in the Tateyama Mountains, Japan. We discussed the possible effect of mineral particles on snow algae. Tateyama Mountains are located in middle-north part of Japan ranging from 2000 - 3000 m above sea level and have heavy snow fall in winter due to strong monsoon wind from Siberia. The snow starts to thaw in April and remains until late summer as perennial snow patches in some valleys. Kosa eolian dust is known to be blown from Chinese deserts and deposited on the snow every spring. Also, snow algal bloom is often observed as red-colored snow in summer. Samples were collected from the snow surface during summer in 2008 - 2011 at four different sites (A - D) in this area. We examined them by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and microscope to obtain composition of mineral particles and structure of snow algae community. XRD analysis revealed mineral particles on the snow surface were mainly composed of quartz, plagioclase, hornblende, mica, chlorite, and amorphous. In April, mineral compositions of all sites were almost similar to that of Kosa eolian dust, indicating that these mineral particles were derived from Chinese arid regions. After May, the mineral compositions changed according to sites. The proportion of hornblende at the site C significantly increased whereas that of mica increased at the site D. Since the site C was located near geological features mainly

  12. Snow Micro-Structure Model

    SciTech Connect

    Micah Johnson, Andrew Slaughter

    2014-06-25

    PIKA is a MOOSE-based application for modeling micro-structure evolution of seasonal snow. The model will be useful for environmental, atmospheric, and climate scientists. Possible applications include application to energy balance models, ice sheet modeling, and avalanche forecasting. The model implements physics from published, peer-reviewed articles. The main purpose is to foster university and laboratory collaboration to build a larger multi-scale snow model using MOOSE. The main feature of the code is that it is implemented using the MOOSE framework, thus making features such as multiphysics coupling, adaptive mesh refinement, and parallel scalability native to the application. PIKA implements three equations: the phase-field equation for tracking the evolution of the ice-air interface within seasonal snow at the grain-scale; the heat equation for computing the temperature of both the ice and air within the snow; and the mass transport equation for monitoring the diffusion of water vapor in the pore space of the snow.

  13. Physically based modelling of alpine snow hydrology in the Canadian Rockies (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomeroy, J. W.; Debeer, C.; MacDonald, M. K.; Fang, X.; Hopkinson, C.

    2010-12-01

    of field technology have been used to update a modular, object-oriented computer simulation of the cold regions hydrological cycle, the Cold Regions Hydrological Model, CRHM. CRHM can be easily and frequently updated as improved algorithms become available and used to predict both snow dynamics and streamflow from high mountain areas.

  14. Macroinvertebrate diets reflect tributary inputs and turbidity-driven changes in food availability in the Colorado River downstream of Glen Canyon Dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wellard Kelly, Holly A.; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Hall, Robert O.; Cross, Wyatt F.; Baxter, Colden V.

    2013-01-01

    Physical changes to rivers associated with large dams (e.g., water temperature) directly alter macroinvertebrate assemblages. Large dams also may indirectly alter these assemblages by changing the food resources available to support macroinvertebrate production. We examined the diets of the 4 most common macroinvertebrate taxa in the Colorado River through Glen and Grand Canyons, seasonally, at 6 sites for 2.5 y. We compared macroinvertebrate diet composition to the composition of epilithon (rock and cliff faces) communities and suspended organic seston to evaluate the degree to which macroinvertebrate diets tracked downstream changes in resource availability. Diets contained greater proportions of algal resources in the tailwater of Glen Canyon Dam and more terrestrial-based resources at sites downstream of the 1st major tributary. As predicted, macroinvertebrate diets tracked turbidity-driven changes in resource availability, and river turbidity partially explained variability in macroinvertebrate diets. The relative proportions of resources assimilated by macroinvertebrates ranged from dominance by algae to terrestrial-based resources, despite greater assimilation efficiencies for algal than terrestrial C. Terrestrial resources were most important during high turbidity conditions, which occurred during the late-summer monsoon season (July–October) when tributaries contributed large amounts of organic matter to the mainstem and suspended sediments reduced algal production. Macroinvertebrate diets were influenced by seasonal changes in tributary inputs and turbidity, a result suggesting macroinvertebrate diets in regulated rivers may be temporally dynamic and driven by tributary inputs.

  15. Sodankylä manual snow survey program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leppänen, Leena; Kontu, Anna; Hannula, Henna-Reetta; Sjöblom, Heidi; Pulliainen, Jouni

    2016-05-01

    The manual snow survey program of the Arctic Research Centre of the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI-ARC) consists of numerous observations of natural seasonal taiga snowpack in Sodankylä, northern Finland. The easily accessible measurement areas represent the typical forest and soil types in the boreal forest zone. Systematic snow measurements began in 1909 with snow depth (HS) and snow water equivalent (SWE). In 2006 the manual snow survey program expanded to cover snow macro- and microstructure from regular snow pits at several sites using both traditional and novel measurement techniques. Present-day snow pit measurements include observations of HS, SWE, temperature, density, stratigraphy, grain size, specific surface area (SSA) and liquid water content (LWC). Regular snow pit measurements are performed weekly during the snow season. Extensive time series of manual snow measurements are important for the monitoring of temporal and spatial changes in seasonal snowpack. This snow survey program is an excellent base for the future research of snow properties.

  16. Estimation of daily Snow Cover Area combining MODIS and LANDSAT information by using cellular automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardo-Iguzquiza, Eulogio; Juan Collados Lara, Antonio; Pulido-Velazquez, David

    2016-04-01

    The snow availability in Alpine catchments is essential for the economy of these areas. It plays an important role in tourist development but also in the management of the Water Resources Snow is an important water resource in many river basins with mountains in the catchment area. The determination of the snow water equivalent requires the estimation of the evolution of the snow pack (cover area, thickness and snow density) along the time. Although there are complex physical models of the dynamics of the snow pack, sometimes the data available are scarce and a stochastic model like the cellular automata (CA) can be of great practical interest. CA can be used to model the dynamics of growth and wane of the snow pack. The CA is calibrated with historical data. This requires the determination of transition rules that are capable of modeling the evolution of the spatial pattern of snow cover area. Furthermore, CA requires the definition of states and neighborhoods. We have included topographical variables and climatological variables in order to define the state of each pixel. The evolution of snow cover in a pixel depends on its state, the state of the neighboring pixels and the transition rules. The calibration of the CA is done using daily MODIS data, available for the period 24/02/2002 to present with a spatial resolution of 500 m, and the LANDSAT information available with a sixteen-day periodicity from 1984 to the present and with spatial resolution of 30 m. The methodology has been applied to estimation of the snow cover area of Sierra Nevada mountain range in the Southern of Spain to obtain snow cover area daily information with 500 m spatial resolution for the period 1980-2014. Acknowledgments: This research has been partially supported by the GESINHIMPADAPT project (CGL2013-48424-C2-2-R) with Spanish MINECO funds. We would also like to thank NASA DAAC and LANDSAT project for the data provided for this study.

  17. Contrasting responses of root morphology and root-exuded organic acids to low phosphorus availability in three important food crops with divergent root traits

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan-Liang; Almvik, Marit; Clarke, Nicholas; Eich-Greatorex, Susanne; Øgaard, Anne Falk; Krogstad, Tore; Lambers, Hans; Clarke, Jihong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an important element for crop productivity and is widely applied in fertilizers. Most P fertilizers applied to land are sorbed onto soil particles, so research on improving plant uptake of less easily available P is important. In the current study, we investigated the responses in root morphology and root-exuded organic acids (OAs) to low available P (1 μM P) and sufficient P (50 μM P) in barley, canola and micropropagated seedlings of potato—three important food crops with divergent root traits, using a hydroponic plant growth system. We hypothesized that the dicots canola and tuber-producing potato and the monocot barley would respond differently under various P availabilities. WinRHIZO and liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry results suggested that under low P availability, canola developed longer roots and exhibited the fastest root exudation rate for citric acid. Barley showed a reduction in root length and root surface area and an increase in root-exuded malic acid under low-P conditions. Potato exuded relatively small amounts of OAs under low P, while there was a marked increase in root tips. Based on the results, we conclude that different crops show divergent morphological and physiological responses to low P availability, having evolved specific traits of root morphology and root exudation that enhance their P-uptake capacity under low-P conditions. These results could underpin future efforts to improve P uptake of the three crops that are of importance for future sustainable crop production. PMID:26286222

  18. Lake Effect Snow Covers Buffalo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    An average of one foot of snow per day has fallen on Buffalo, New York, since Christmas Eve, resulting in a total of up to 5 feet from December 24-28. The snow fell very heavily, with accumulations of up to 3 inches per hour. Cold winds blowing along the surface of Lake Erie pick up warmth and moisture, which falls as snow as the warm air rises. This image was acquired by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), operated by NOAA, on December 27, 2001, at 12:32 p.m. EST. The scene shows thick bands of clouds extending from the eastern tip of Lake Erie and over Buffalo. The arrows show the wind direction, which is blowing down the length of the lake. Image and animation by Robert Simmon, based on data from the NASA GOES Project Science Office.

  19. Radar spectral observations of snow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiles, W. H.; Ulaby, F. T.; Fung, A. K.; Aslam, A.

    1981-01-01

    Radar remote sensing experiments have been conducted at test sites in Kansas, Colorado, and South Dakota over the last six years to examine backscatter coefficient response to snowcovered terrain. Truck-mounted 1-35 GHz scatterometers were employed in conjunction with detailed ground-truth measurements. From these experiments and associated modeling efforts, most of the fundamental questions concerning backscatter behavior in response to important snow parameters have been, at least qualitatively, answered. The optimum angular range seems to be between 20 and 50 deg and, for these angles, the results indicate that the radar backscatter generally: (1) increases with increasing water equivalent, (2) decreases with increasing liquid water, (3) increases with increasing crystal size, (4) is insensitive to surface roughness for dry snow conditions, and (5) can be sensitive to soil state if the snowcover is dry. This paper gives a summary of these results, along with empirical and theoretical models for describing the backscatter from snow.

  20. Modeling bulk density and snow water equivalent using daily snow depth observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCreight, J. L.; Small, E. E.

    2014-03-01

    Bulk density is a fundamental property of snow relating its depth and mass. Previously, two simple models of bulk density (depending on snow depth, date, and location) have been developed to convert snow depth observations to snow water equivalent (SWE) estimates. However, these models were not intended for application at the daily time step. We develop a new model of bulk density for the daily time step and demonstrate its improved skill over the existing models. Snow depth and density are negatively correlated at short (10 days) timescales while positively correlated at longer (90 days) timescales. We separate these scales of variability by modeling smoothed, daily snow depth (long timescales) and the observed positive and negative anomalies from the smoothed time series (short timescales) as separate terms. A climatology of fit is also included as a predictor variable. Over half a million daily observations of depth and SWE at 345 snowpack telemetry (SNOTEL) sites are used to fit models and evaluate their performance. For each location, we train the three models to the neighboring stations within 70 km, transfer the parameters to the location to be modeled, and evaluate modeled time series against the observations at that site. Our model exhibits improved statistics and qualitatively more-realistic behavior at the daily time step when sufficient local training data are available. We reduce density root mean square error (RMSE) by 9.9 and 4.5% compared to previous models while increasing R2 from 0.46 to 0.52 to 0.56 across models. Focusing on the 21-day window around peak SWE in each water year, our model reduces density RMSE by 24 and 17.4% relative to the previous models, with R2 increasing from 0.55 to 0.58 to 0.71 across models. Removing the challenge of parameter transfer over the full observational record increases R2 scores for both the existing and new models, but the gain is greatest for the new model (R2 = 0.75). Our model shows general improvement over

  1. Snow Mass Quantification and Avalanche Victim Search by Ground Penetrating Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaedicke, Christian

    2003-11-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems can be used in many applications of snow and ice research. The information from the GPR is used to identify and interpret layers, objects and different structures in the snow. A commercially available GPR system was further developed to work in the rough environment of snow and ice. The applied GPR is a 900 MHz system that easily reaches snow depths of up to 10 meters. The system was calibrated in the course of several manual snow depth measurements during each survey. The depth resolution depends on the snow type and is around +/-0.1 m. The GPR system is carried alongside a line of interest and is triggered by an odometer wheel at regular adjustable steps. All equipment is mounted in a sledge and is pulled by a snowmobile over the snow surface. This setup allows for an efficient coverage of several kilometers of terrain profiles. The radar profiles give a real time two-dimensional impression of structures and objects and the interface between snow and the underlying ground. The actual radar profile is shown on a screen on the sledge allowing the immediate marking of objects and structures. During the past three years the instrument was successfully used for the study of snow distributions, for the detection of glacier crevasses under the snow cover, and for the search of avalanche victims in avalanche debris. The results show the capability of the instrument to detect persons and objects in the snow cover. In the future, this device may be a new tool for avalanche rescue operations. Today, the size and weight of the system prevents the accessing of very steep slopes and areas not accessible to snowmobiles. Further developments will decrease the size of the system and make it a valuable tool to quantify snow masses in avalanche release zones and run-out areas.

  2. Snow Mass Quantification and Avalanche Victim Search By Ground Penetrating Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaedicke, C.

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems can be used in many applications of snow and ice research. The information from the GPR is interpreted to identify layers, ob- ject and different structures in the snow. A commercially available GPR system was further developed to work in the rough environment of snow and ice. The applied GPR is a 900 MHz system that easily reaches snow depths of ten meters. The system is cal- ibrated by several manual snow depth measurements during each survey. The depth resolution is depending on the snow type and ranges around +/- 0.1 m. The GPR sys- tem carried along a line of interest and is triggered by an odometer wheel at regular adjustable steps. All equipment is mounted in a sledge and is moved by a snow mo- bile over the surface. This setup allows the efficient coverage of several kilometers of profiles. The radar profiles give a real time two-dimensional impression of structures and objects and the interface between snow and underlying ground. The actual radar profile is shown on a screen on the sledge allowing the immediate marking of objects and structures. During the past three years the instrument was successfully used for the study of snow distributions, for the detection of glacier crevasses under the snow cover and for the search of avalanche victims in avalanche debris. The results show the capability of the instrument to detect persons and objects in the snow cover. In the future this could be new tool for avalanche rescue operations. Today the size and weight of the system prevents the access to very steep slopes and areas not accessible for snowmobile. Further development will decrease the size of the system and make it a valuable tool to quantify the snow mass in avalanche release zones and run out areas.

  3. Tracking Forest and Open Area Effects on Snow Accumulation by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lendzioch, T.; Langhammer, J.; Jenicek, M.

    2016-06-01

    Airborne digital photogrammetry is undergoing a renaissance. The availability of low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platforms well adopted for digital photography and progress in software development now gives rise to apply this technique to different areas of research. Especially in determining snow depth spatial distributions, where repetitive mapping of cryosphere dynamics is crucial. Here, we introduce UAV-based digital photogrammetry as a rapid and robust approach for evaluating snow accumulation over small local areas (e.g., dead forest, open areas) and to reveal impacts related to changes in forest and snowpack. Due to the advancement of the technique, snow depth of selected study areas such as of healthy forest, disturbed forest, succession, dead forest, and of open areas can be estimated at a 1 cm spatial resolution. The approach is performed in two steps: 1) developing a high resolution Digital Elevation Model during snow-free and 2) during snow-covered conditions. By substracting these two models the snow depth can be accurately retrieved and volumetric changes of snow depth distribution can be achieved. This is a first proof-of-concept study combining snow depth determination and Leaf Area Index (LAI) retrieval to monitor the impact of forest canopy metrics on snow accumulation in coniferous forest within the Šumava National Park, Czech Republic. Both, downward-looking UAV images and upward-looking LAI-2200 canopy analyser measurements were applied to reveal the LAI, controlling interception and transmitting radiation. For the performance of downward-looking images the snow background instead of the sky fraction was used. In contrast to the classical determination of LAI by hemispherical photography or by LAI plant canopy analyser, our approach will also test the accuracy of LAI measurements by UAV that are taken simultaneously during the snow cover mapping campaigns. Since the LAI parameter is important for snowpack modelling, this method presents

  4. Snow wetness measurements for melt forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linlor, W. I.; Clapp, F. D.; Meier, M. F.; Smith, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    A microwave technique for directly measuring snow pack wetness in remote installations is described. The technique, which uses satellite telemetry for data gathering, is based on the attenuation of a microwave beam in transmission through snow.

  5. Putting humans in the loop: Using crowdsourced snow information to inform water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, Roman; Giuliani, Matteo; Castelletti, Andrea; Fraternali, Piero

    2016-04-01

    The unprecedented availability of user generated data on the Web due to the advent of online services, social networks, and crowdsourcing, is opening new opportunities for enhancing real-time monitoring and modeling of environmental systems based on data that are public, low-cost, and spatio-temporally dense, possibly contributing to our ability of making better decisions. In this work, we contribute a novel crowdsourcing procedure for computing virtual snow indexes from public web images, either produced by users or generated by touristic webcams, which is based on a complex architecture designed for automatically crawling content from multiple web data sources. The procedure retains only geo-tagged images containing a mountain skyline, identifies the visible peaks in each image using a public online digital terrain model, and classifies the mountain image pixels as snow or no-snow. This operation yields a snow mask per image, from which it is possible to extract time series of virtual snow indexes representing a proxy of the snow covered area. The value of the obtained virtual snow indexes is estimated in a real world water management problem. We consider the snow-dominated catchment of Lake Como, a regulated lake in Northern Italy, where snowmelt represents the most important contribution to seasonal lake storage, and we used the virtual snow indexes for informing the daily operation of the lake's dam. Numerical results show that such information is effective in extending the anticipation capacity of the lake operations, ultimately improving the system performance.

  6. Global Snow-Cover Evolution from Twenty Years of Satellite Passive Microwave Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mognard, N.M.; Kouraev, A.V.; Josberger, E.G.

    2003-01-01

    Starting in 1979 with the SMMR (Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer) instrument onboard the satellite NIMBUS-7 and continuing since 1987 with the SSMI (Special Sensor Microwave Imager) instrument on board the DMSP (Defence Meteorological Satellite Program) series, more then twenty years of satellite passive microwave data are now available. This dataset has been processed to analyse the evolution of the global snow cover. This work is part of the AICSEX project from the 5th Framework Programme of the European Community. The spatio-temporal evolution of the satellite-derived yearly snow maximum extent and the timing of the spring snow melt were estimated and analysed over the Northern Hemisphere. Significant differences between the evolution of the yearly maximum snow extent in Eurasia and in North America were found. A positive correlation between the maximum yearly snow cover extent and the ENSO index was obtained. High interannual spatio-temporal variability characterises the timing of snow melt in the spring. Twenty-year trends in the timing of spring snow melt have been computed and compared with spring air temperature trends for the same period and the same area. In most parts of Eurasia and in the central and western parts of North America the tendency has been for earlier snow melt. In northeastern Canada, a large area of positive trends, where snow melt timing starts later than in the early 1980s, corresponds to a region of positive trends of spring air temperature observed over the same period.

  7. A meteorological and snow observational data set from Snoqualmie Pass (921 m), Washington Cascades, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wayand, Nicholas E.; Massmann, Adam; Butler, Colin; Keenan, Eric; Stimberis, John; Lundquist, Jessica D.

    2015-12-01

    We introduce a quality controlled observational atmospheric, snow, and soil data set from Snoqualmie Pass, Washington, USA, to enable testing of hydrometeorological and snow process representations within a rain-snow transitional climate where existing observations are sparse and limited. Continuous meteorological forcing (including air temperature, total precipitation, wind speed, specific humidity, air pressure, and short and longwave irradiance) are provided at hourly intervals for a 24 year historical period (water years 1989-2012) and at half-hourly intervals for a more recent period (water years 2013-2015), separated based on the availability of observations. The majority of missing data were filled with biased-corrected reanalysis model values (using NLDAS). Additional observations include 40 years of snow board new snow accumulation, multiple measurements of total snow depth, and manual snow pits, while more recent years include subdaily surface temperature, snowpack drainage, soil moisture and temperature profiles, and eddy covariance-derived turbulent heat flux. This data set is ideal for testing hypotheses about energy balance, soil, and snow processes in the rain-snow transition zone.

  8. Periodontal status in snow leopards.

    PubMed

    Cook, R A; Stoller, N H

    1986-11-01

    Periodontal examinations were performed on ten 1- to 22-year-old snow leopards (6 males and 4 females), using dentistry methods for determining the plaque and gingival indices. All tooth surfaces were probed, and alveolar bone attachment loss was determined. After subgingival plaque removal, plaque specimens were examined for differential bacterial morphotypes. The small number of leopards evaluated precluded definitive statistical analysis. However, the progression from gingival health to gingivitis to periodontitis was similar to that seen in man. Therefore, the use of plaque index, gingival index, alveolar bone attachment loss, and differential bacterial morphotypes can be used to determine the dental health of snow leopards.

  9. Creation of an Empirical Energy-Balance Based Snow Module Simulating Both Snowmelt and Snow Accumulation for Mountain Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riboust, P.; Le Moine, N.; Thirel, G.; Ribstein, P.

    2015-12-01

    In Nordic and mountainous regions, hydrological processes are more complex than for regular rainfall-driven watersheds. Snow accumulates in winter, acting as a reservoir, and melts during late spring and summer. In order to take into account these additional natural processes present in mountainous watersheds, snow modules have been created in order to help rainfall-runoff models to simulate river discharge. Many empirical degree-day snow models have been designed to simulate snowmelt and river discharge when coupled to a rainfall runoff model, but few of them simulate correctly the amount of snow water equivalent (SWE) at point scale. Simulating correctly not only the amount of snowmelt but also the water content of the snowpack has several potential advantages: it allows improving the model reliability and performance for short-term and long-term prediction, spatial regionalization, and it makes it possible to perform data assimilation using observed snow measurements. The objective of our study is to create a new simple empirical snow module, with a structure allowing the use of snow data for calibration or assimilation. We used a model structure close to the snow model defined by M.T. Walter (2005) where each of the processes of the energy balance is parameterized using only temperature and precipitation data. The conductive fluxes into the snowpack have been modeled using analyticalsolutions to the heat equation with phase change. This model which is in-between the degree-day and the physical energy-balance approaches. It has the advantages to use only temperature and precipitation which arewidely available data and to take account of energy balance processes without being computationally intensive. Another advantage is that all state variables of the model should be comparable with observable measurements.For the moment, the snow module has been parameterized at point scale and has been tested over Switzerland and the US, using MeteoSwiss and SNOTEL USGS

  10. BOREAS RSS-8 Snow Maps Derived from Landsat TM Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy; Chang, Alfred T. C.; Foster, James L.; Chien, Janeet Y. L.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Remote Sensing Science (RSS)-8 team utilized Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images to perform mapping of snow extent over the Southern Study Area (SSA). This data set consists of two Landsat TM images that were used to determine the snow-covered pixels over the BOREAS SSA on 18 Jan 1993 and on 06 Feb 1994. The data are stored in binary image format files. The RSS-08 snow map data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  11. Seasonal evolution of the effective thermal conductivity of the snow and the soil in high Arctic herb tundra at Bylot Island, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domine, Florent; Barrere, Mathieu; Sarrazin, Denis

    2016-11-01

    The values of the snow and soil thermal conductivity, ksnow and ksoil, strongly impact the thermal regime of the ground in the Arctic, but very few data are available to test model predictions for these variables. We have monitored ksnow and ksoil using heated needle probes at Bylot Island in the Canadian High Arctic (73° N, 80° W) between July 2013 and July 2015. Few ksnow data were obtained during the 2013-2014 winter, because little snow was present. During the 2014-2015 winter ksnow monitoring at 2, 12 and 22 cm heights and field observations show that a depth hoar layer with ksnow around 0.02 W m-1 K-1 rapidly formed. At 12 and 22 cm, wind slabs with ksnow around 0.2 to 0.3 W m-1 K-1 formed. The monitoring of ksoil at 10 cm depth shows that in thawed soil ksoil was around 0.7 W m-1 K-1, while in frozen soil it was around 1.9 W m-1 K-1. The transition between both values took place within a few days, with faster thawing than freezing and a hysteresis effect evidenced in the thermal conductivity-liquid water content relationship. The fast transitions suggest that the use of a bimodal distribution of ksoil for modelling may be an interesting option that deserves further testing. Simulations of ksnow using the snow physics model Crocus were performed. Contrary to observations, Crocus predicts high ksnow values at the base of the snowpack (0.12-0.27 W m-1 K-1) and low ones in its upper parts (0.02-0.12 W m-1 K-1). We diagnose that this is because Crocus does not describe the large upward water vapour fluxes caused by the temperature gradient in the snow and soil. These fluxes produce mass transfer between the soil and lower snow layers to the upper snow layers and the atmosphere. Finally, we discuss the importance of the structure and properties of the Arctic snowpack on subnivean life, as species such as lemmings live under the snow most of the year and must travel in the lower snow layer in search of food.

  12. Lipid-load in peripheral blood mononuclear cells: Impact of food-consumption, dietary-macronutrients, extracellular lipid availability and demographic factors.

    PubMed

    Ameer, Fatima; Munir, Rimsha; Usman, Hina; Rashid, Rida; Shahjahan, Muhammad; Hasnain, Shahida; Zaidi, Nousheen

    2017-04-01

    Lipid-load in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) has recently gained attention of the researchers working on nutritional regulation of metabolic health. Previous works have indicated that the metabolic circuitries in the circulating PBMCs are influenced by dietary-intake and macronutrient composition of diet. In the present work, we analyzed the impact of diet and dietary macronutrients on PBMCs' lipid-load. The overall analyses revealed that dietary carbohydrates and fats combinatorially induce triglyceride accumulation in PBMCs. On the other hand, dietary fats were shown to induce significant decrease in PBMCs' cholesterol-load. The effects of various demographic factors -including age, gender and body-weight- on PBMCs' lipid-load were also examined. Body-weight and age were both shown to affect PBMC's lipid-load. Our study fails to provide any direct association between extracellular lipid availability and cholesterol-load in both, freshly isolated and cultured PBMCs. The presented work significantly contributes to the current understanding of the impact of food-consumption, dietary macronutrients, extracellular lipid availability and demographic factors on lipid-load in PBMCs.

  13. [Snow cover pollution monitoring in Ufa].

    PubMed

    Daukaev, R A; Suleĭmanov, R A

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the results of examining the snow cover polluted with heavy metals in the large industrial town of Ufa. The level of man-caused burden on the snow cover of the conventional parts of the town was estimated and compared upon exposure to a wide range of snow cover pollutants. The priority snow cover pollutants were identified among the test heavy metals.

  14. Snow and Ice Crust Changes over Northern Eurasia since 1966

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulygina, O.; Groisman, P. Y.; Razuvaev, V.; Radionov, V.

    2009-12-01

    When temperature of snow cover reaches zero Celsius first time since its establishment, snowmelt starts. In many parts of the world this process can be lengthy. The initial amount of heat that “arrives” to the snowpack might be insufficient for complete snowmelt, during the colder nights re-freeze of the melted snow may occur (thus creating the ice crust layers), and a new cold front (or the departure of the warm front that initiated melt) can decrease temperatures below the freezing point again and stop the snowmelt completely. It well can be that first such snowmelt occurs in winter (thaw day) and for several months thereafter snowpack stays on the ground. However, even the first such melt initiates a process of snow metamorphosis on its surface changing snow albedo and generating snow crust as well as on its bottom generating ice crust. Once emerged, the crusts will not disappear until the complete snowmelt. Furthermore, these crusts have numerous pathways of impact on the wild birds and animals in the Arctic environment as well as on domesticated reindeers. In extreme cases, the crusts may kill some wild species and prevent reindeers’ migration and feeding. Ongoing warming in high latitudes created situations when in the western half of Eurasian continent days with thaw became more frequent. Keeping in mind potential detrimental impacts of winter thaws and associated with them snow/ice crust development, it is worthwhile to study directly what are the major features of snow and ice crust over Eurasia and what is their dynamics. For the purpose of this study, we employed the national snow survey data set archived at the Russian Institute for Hydrometeorological Information. The dataset has routine snow surveys run throughout the cold season each decade (during the intense snowmelt, each 5 days) at all meteorological stations of the former USSR, thereafter, in Russia since 1966. Prior to 1966 snow surveys are also available but the methodology of

  15. Variation in food availability mediate the impact of density on cannibalism, growth, and survival in larval yellow spotted mountain newts (Neurergus microspilotus): Implications for captive breeding programs.

    PubMed

    Vaissi, Somaye; Sharifi, Mozafar

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we examined cannibalistic behavior, growth, metamorphosis, and survival in larval and post-metamorph endangered yellow spotted mountain newts Neurergus microspilotus hatched and reared in a captive breeding facility. We designed a 2 × 2 factorial experiment, crossing two levels of food with two levels of density including high food/high density, high food/low density, low food/high density, and low food/low density. The level of cannibalistic behavior (including the loss of fore and hind limbs, missing toes, tail, gills, body damage, and whole body consumption) changed as the larvae grew, from a low level during the first 4 weeks, peaking from weeks 7 to 12, and then dropped during weeks 14-52. Both food level and density had a significant effect on cannibalism. The highest frequency of cannibalism was recorded for larvae reared in the low food/high density and lowest in high food/low density treatments. Growth, percent of larval metamorphosed, and survival were all highest in the high food/low density and lowest in low food/high density treatment. Food level had a significant effect on growth, metamorphosis, and survival. However, the two levels of density did not influence growth and metamorphosis but showed a significant effect on survival. Similarly, combined effects of food level and density showed significant effects on growth, metamorphosis, and survival over time. Information obtained from current experiment could improve productivity of captive breeding facilities to ensure the release of adequate numbers of individuals for reintroduction programs. Zoo Biol. 35:513-521, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Zoo Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Shallow Snow Model for Predicting Vehicle Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    promotional purposes. Cita - tion of brand names does not constitute an official endorsement or approval of the use of such commercial products. Ac eeson...vehicles. 18 ’A I I Table 7. Mechanical properties of shallow snow. Snow A ir p Snow temp temp p ca c W co (critical) type (SC) ( 0C) (g/cm 3) ( APa

  17. 44 CFR 206.227 - Snow assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Snow assistance. 206.227 Section 206.227 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Snow assistance. Emergency or major disaster declarations based on snow or blizzard conditions will...

  18. 44 CFR 206.227 - Snow assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Snow assistance. 206.227 Section 206.227 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Snow assistance. Emergency or major disaster declarations based on snow or blizzard conditions will...

  19. 44 CFR 206.227 - Snow assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Snow assistance. 206.227 Section 206.227 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Snow assistance. Emergency or major disaster declarations based on snow or blizzard conditions will...

  20. 44 CFR 206.227 - Snow assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Snow assistance. 206.227 Section 206.227 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Snow assistance. Emergency or major disaster declarations based on snow or blizzard conditions will...