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  1. Assessing the controls of the snow energy balance and water available for runoff in a rain-an-snow environment

    Treesearch

    Adam B. Mazurkiewicz; David G. Callery; Jeffrey J. McDonnell

    2008-01-01

    Rain-on-snow (ROS) melt production and its contribution to water available for runoff is poorly understood. In the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the USA, ROS drives many runoff events with turbulent energy exchanges dominating the snow energy balance (EB). While previous experimental work in the PNW (most notably the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest (HJA» has quantified...

  2. Neighborhood fast food availability and fast food consumption.

    PubMed

    Oexle, Nathalie; Barnes, Timothy L; Blake, Christine E; Bell, Bethany A; Liese, Angela D

    2015-09-01

    Recent nutritional and public health research has focused on how the availability of various types of food in a person's immediate area or neighborhood influences his or her food choices and eating habits. It has been theorized that people living in areas with a wealth of unhealthy fast-food options may show higher levels of fast-food consumption, a factor that often coincides with being overweight or obese. However, measuring food availability in a particular area is difficult to achieve consistently: there may be differences in the strict physical locations of food options as compared to how individuals perceive their personal food availability, and various studies may use either one or both of these measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between weekly fast-food consumption and both a person's perceived availability of fast-food and an objective measure of fast-food presence - Geographic Information Systems (GIS) - within that person's neighborhood. A randomly selected population-based sample of eight counties in South Carolina was used to conduct a cross-sectional telephone survey assessing self-report fast-food consumption and perceived availability of fast food. GIS was used to determine the actual number of fast-food outlets within each participant's neighborhood. Using multinomial logistic regression analyses, we found that neither perceived availability nor GIS-based presence of fast-food was significantly associated with weekly fast-food consumption. Our findings indicate that availability might not be the dominant factor influencing fast-food consumption. We recommend using subjective availability measures and considering individual characteristics that could influence both perceived availability of fast food and its impact on fast-food consumption. If replicated, our findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing fast-food consumption by limiting neighborhood fast-food availability might not be completely effective.

  3. Neighborhood fast food availability and fast food consumption

    PubMed Central

    Oexle, Nathalie; Barnes, Timothy L; Blake, Christine E; Bell, Bethany A; Liese, Angela D

    2015-01-01

    Recent nutritional and public health research has focused on how the availability of various types of food in a person’s immediate area or neighborhood influences his or her food choices and eating habits. It has been theorized that people living in areas with a wealth of unhealthy fast-food options may show higher levels of fast-food consumption, a factor that often coincides with being overweight or obese. However, measuring food availability in a particular area is difficult to achieve consistently: there may be differences in the strict physical locations of food options as compared to how individuals perceive their personal food availability, and various studies may use either one or both of these measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between weekly fast-food consumption and both a person’s perceived availability of fast-food and an objective measure of fast-food presence—Geographic Information Systems (GIS)—within that person’s neighborhood. A randomly selected population-based sample of eight counties in South Carolina was used to conduct a cross-sectional telephone survey assessing self-report fast-food consumption and perceived availability of fast food. GIS was used to determine the actual number of fast-food outlets within each participant’s neighborhood. Using multinomial logistic regression analyses, we found that neither perceived availability nor GIS-based presence of fast-food was significantly associated with weekly fast-food consumption. Our findings indicate that availability might not be the dominant factor influencing fast-food consumption. We recommend using subjective availability measures and considering individual characteristics that could influence both perceived availability of fast food and its impact on fast-food consumption. If replicated, our findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing fast-food consumption by limiting neighborhood fast-food availability might not be completely

  4. Impact of wild prey availability on livestock predation by snow leopards

    PubMed Central

    Redpath, Stephen M.; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer; Ramakrishnan, Uma; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Smout, Sophie C.; Mishra, Charudutt

    2017-01-01

    An increasing proportion of the world's poor is rearing livestock today, and the global livestock population is growing. Livestock predation by large carnivores and their retaliatory killing is becoming an economic and conservation concern. A common recommendation for carnivore conservation and for reducing predation on livestock is to increase wild prey populations based on the assumption that the carnivores will consume this alternative food. Livestock predation, however, could either reduce or intensify with increases in wild prey depending on prey choice and trends in carnivore abundance. We show that the extent of livestock predation by the endangered snow leopard Panthera uncia intensifies with increases in the density of wild ungulate prey, and subsequently stabilizes. We found that snow leopard density, estimated at seven sites, was a positive linear function of the density of wild ungulates—the preferred prey—and showed no discernible relationship with livestock density. We also found that modelled livestock predation increased with livestock density. Our results suggest that snow leopard conservation would benefit from an increase in wild ungulates, but that would intensify the problem of livestock predation for pastoralists. The potential benefits of increased wild prey abundance in reducing livestock predation can be overwhelmed by a resultant increase in snow leopard populations. Snow leopard conservation efforts aimed at facilitating increases in wild prey must be accompanied by greater assistance for better livestock protection and offsetting the economic damage caused by carnivores. PMID:28680665

  5. Food production & availability - Essential prerequisites for sustainable food security

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, M.S.; Bhavani, R.V.

    2013-01-01

    Food and nutrition security are intimately interconnected, since only a food based approach can help in overcoming malnutrition in an economically and socially sustainable manner. Food production provides the base for food security as it is a key determinant of food availability. This paper deals with different aspects of ensuring high productivity and production without associated ecological harm for ensuring adequate food availability. By mainstreaming ecological considerations in technology development and dissemination, we can enter an era of evergreen revolution and sustainable food and nutrition security. Public policy support is crucial for enabling this. PMID:24135188

  6. Food production & availability--essential prerequisites for sustainable food security.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, M S; Bhavani, R V

    2013-09-01

    Food and nutrition security are intimately interconnected, since only a food based approach can help in overcoming malnutrition in an economically and socially sustainable manner. Food production provides the base for food security as it is a key determinant of food availability. This paper deals with different aspects of ensuring high productivity and production without associated ecological harm for ensuring adequate food availability. By mainstreaming ecological considerations in technology development and dissemination, we can enter an era of evergreen revolution and sustainable food and nutrition security. Public policy support is crucial for enabling this.

  7. Assessing the controls of the snow energy balance and water available for runoff in a rain-on-snow environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazurkiewicz, Adam B.; Callery, David G.; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.

    2008-06-01

    SummaryRain-on-snow (ROS) melt production and its contribution to water available for runoff is poorly understood. In the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the USA, ROS drives many runoff events with turbulent energy exchanges dominating the snow energy balance (EB). While previous experimental work in the PNW (most notably the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest (HJA)) has quantified these energy balance components for a handful of ROS events, little is known about the EB components of snowmelt at HJA on an annual basis and how the relative importance of each component changes with different time periods of analysis. Beyond the few measured events at HJA and elsewhere in the PNW, there is still a lack of understanding of the dominant components of the EB during high-frequency ROS events and how much annual snowmelt is produced during ROS events. A physically based snow energy balance model (SNOBAL) was applied to data from three climate stations in the HJA to address these questions. Measurements of all required forcing data except incoming longwave radiation were made at each site. We employ the largest ROS dataset ever amassed with SNOBAL to use the model as a learning tool to characterize the snowmelt regime in the HJA. The results show that radiation dominated the melt energy balance over the period 1996-2003 while net turbulent energy exchanges were much lower than expected. Annual variability in EB components reflected duration of snowpack (snow covered period) - where later season snowpack resulted in higher radiation as percentage of the total EB. Radiation was the largest contributor to melt during ROS. These results question the general perception of turbulent energy exchange dominance of ROS and seasonal melt in the PNW. Overall, melt from ROS events was a small percentage of annual melt - for the period 1996-2003 snow season, 80-90% of snowmelt comes from non-ROS days. These results prove the highly variable spatial and temporal controls on the snowmelt regime

  8. Global trade network affects availability of food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-11-01

    Because the Earth's population is slated to hit 9 billion in the next century, food scarcity has become an increasingly important topic of study. Food availability is widely examined, but D'Odorico et al. point out that reliance on trade to distribute food has not been sufficiently quantified.

  9. Water availability and management for food security

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Food security is directly linked to water security for food production. Water availability for crop production will be dependent upon precipitation or irrigation, soil water holding capacity, and crop water demand. The linkages among these components in rainfed agricultural systems shows the impact ...

  10. Potential impacts of a warming climate on water availability in snow-dominated regions.

    PubMed

    Barnett, T P; Adam, J C; Lettenmaier, D P

    2005-11-17

    All currently available climate models predict a near-surface warming trend under the influence of rising levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. In addition to the direct effects on climate--for example, on the frequency of heatwaves--this increase in surface temperatures has important consequences for the hydrological cycle, particularly in regions where water supply is currently dominated by melting snow or ice. In a warmer world, less winter precipitation falls as snow and the melting of winter snow occurs earlier in spring. Even without any changes in precipitation intensity, both of these effects lead to a shift in peak river runoff to winter and early spring, away from summer and autumn when demand is highest. Where storage capacities are not sufficient, much of the winter runoff will immediately be lost to the oceans. With more than one-sixth of the Earth's population relying on glaciers and seasonal snow packs for their water supply, the consequences of these hydrological changes for future water availability--predicted with high confidence and already diagnosed in some regions--are likely to be severe.

  11. Seasonal variation in growth of greater snow goose goslings: the role of food supply.

    PubMed

    Lepage, Denis; Gauthier, Gilles; Reed, Austin

    1998-04-01

    Even though growth rate is an important fitness component, it is still controversial to what extent parent birds adjust the timing of offspring hatch to natural variations in food supply to maximize offspring growth. We studied the role of food availability in explaining inter- and intra-seasonal variation of growth rate in goslings of greater snow geese over 5 years. The peak of hatching generally coincided with the peak of food availability. However, early-hatched goslings usually grew faster than birds hatched at the peak, which in␣turn grew faster than late-hatched goslings, although this phenomenon was not observed in all years. There was considerable variation in growth rate among the five years, the smallest goslings produced in the best year (1991) being larger than the largest goslings of the poorest year (1994). We developed three indices of food availability, based on the cumulative availability of plant biomass and nitrogen content during the growth period, and showed that the cumulative exposure to nitrogen biomass explained up to 43% of variation (intra- and inter-annual) in body size just before fledging. In years with good feeding conditions, early-hatched goslings had access to more nitrogen during their growing period than those hatching on or after the peak and they grew faster. In years of lower food availability, early-hatched goslings had no detectable advantage over peak- or late-hatched birds for access to protein-rich food and no seasonal decline in growth rate was observed. These results confirm the critical role of food supply in the seasonal variation of growth rate in Arctic-nesting geese.

  12. Food Availability/Convenience and Obesity12345

    PubMed Central

    Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2014-01-01

    Neighborhood environments have received considerable attention in recent local, state, and national obesity prevention initiatives, with a particular focus on food deserts, or areas with poor access to healthy foods. Yet, there are inconsistencies in the evidence base, suggesting a nuanced association between neighborhood environment, food availability, diet behaviors, and obesity. There is heterogeneity in associations between environmental exposures and health outcomes across race/ethnicity, gender, region, and urbanicity, which results in complexity in the interpretation of findings. There are several limitations in the literature, including a predominance of cross-sectional studies, reliance on commercial business listings, lack of attention to the process by which diet resources are established and expanded within neighborhoods and the potential for individuals to selectively migrate to locate near such facilities, a predominant focus on residential neighborhoods, and lack of information about the decision-making process underlying purchasing patterns. More research is needed to address the complexity of individual-level residential decision making as well as the purposeful placement of food environment resources across social and geographic space using longitudinal data and complex statistical approaches. In addition, improvements in data quality and depth related to food access and availability are needed, including behavioral data on purchase patterns and interactions with the food environment, and greater attention to heterogeneity across subpopulations. As policy changes to the food environment move forward, it is critical that there is rigorous and scientific evaluation of environmental changes and their impact on individual-level diet choices and behaviors, and their further influence on body weight. PMID:25398746

  13. Food availability/convenience and obesity.

    PubMed

    Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2014-11-01

    Neighborhood environments have received considerable attention in recent local, state, and national obesity prevention initiatives, with a particular focus on food deserts, or areas with poor access to healthy foods. Yet, there are inconsistencies in the evidence base, suggesting a nuanced association between neighborhood environment, food availability, diet behaviors, and obesity. There is heterogeneity in associations between environmental exposures and health outcomes across race/ethnicity, gender, region, and urbanicity, which results in complexity in the interpretation of findings. There are several limitations in the literature, including a predominance of cross-sectional studies, reliance on commercial business listings, lack of attention to the process by which diet resources are established and expanded within neighborhoods and the potential for individuals to selectively migrate to locate near such facilities, a predominant focus on residential neighborhoods, and lack of information about the decision-making process underlying purchasing patterns. More research is needed to address the complexity of individual-level residential decision making as well as the purposeful placement of food environment resources across social and geographic space using longitudinal data and complex statistical approaches. In addition, improvements in data quality and depth related to food access and availability are needed, including behavioral data on purchase patterns and interactions with the food environment, and greater attention to heterogeneity across subpopulations. As policy changes to the food environment move forward, it is critical that there is rigorous and scientific evaluation of environmental changes and their impact on individual-level diet choices and behaviors, and their further influence on body weight. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Use of supplemental food by breeding Ross's Geese and Lesser Snow Geese: Evidence for variable anorexia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gloutney, M.L.; Alisauskas, R.T.; Hobson, K.A.; Afton, A.D.

    1999-01-01

    Recent research suggests that foods eaten during laying and incubation play a greater role in supplying energy and nutrients to arctic-nesting geese than previously believed. We conducted food-supplementation experiments with Ross's Geese (Chen rossii) and Lesser Snow Geese (C. caerulescens) geese to evaluate: (1) if supplemental food was consumed by laying and incubating geese, (2) how food consumption influenced mass dynamics of somatic tissues of breeding geese, (3) if patterns of mass loss were consistent with fasting adaptations, and (4) whether energetic constraints would cause smaller Ross's Geese to consume more food relative to their body size than would larger Snow Geese. Quantity of supplemental food eaten by both species during laying and incubation was highly variable among individuals. Consumption of supplemental food during laying resulted in differences in overall body composition between control and treatment females. Treatment female Ross's Geese completed laying at a higher mass and with more abdominal fat than controls, whereas treatment female Snow Geese completed laying with heavier breast muscles and hearts. Overall body composition did not differ between control and treatment geese (both sexes and species) at the end of incubation, but treatment geese had heavier hearts than control geese. This suggests that treatment females did not rely to the same extent on metabolic adaptations associated with anorexia to meet energetic costs of incubation as did controls. Stable-nitrogen isotope analysis revealed patterns of protein maintenance during incubation consistent with metabolic adaptations to prolonged fasting. Our prediction that energetic constraints would cause smaller Ross's Geese to consume more food relative to their size than would Snow Geese was not supported. Mass-specific food consumption by Ross's Geese was 30% lower than that of Snow Geese during laying and 48% higher during incubation.

  15. Trends in food availability, 1909-2007.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Neal D

    2010-05-01

    The increase in childhood obesity mainly reflects increased energy intake. However, it is not clear which food categories are responsible for this increase. Food availability data, which are calculated from annual food production, imports, beginning stocks, subtracting exports, ending stocks, and nonfood uses, provide clues about which categories are the primary contributors. Data from 1909 to 2007 show increases in per capita availability of several product classes: added oils increased from 16.1 to 39.4 kg/y, meat increased from 56.3 to 91.2 kg/y, cheese increased from 1.7 to 14.9 kg/y, and frozen dairy products increased from 0.7 to 11.5 kg/y. From 1970 to 2007, per capita availability of sweeteners increased from 54.1 to 62.0 kg/y. Carbonated beverage availability has increased, partly at the expense of fluid milk. Flour and cereal availability decreased from 1909 until the late 1960s but rebounded thereafter. Availability of fruit, fruit juices, and vegetables has increased. We conclude that the major contributors to increased energy intake over the last century are oils, shortening, meat, cheese, and frozen desserts, with more recent increases in added sweeteners, fruit, fruit juices, and vegetables. These changes may have influenced the prevalence of childhood obesity.

  16. Snow Leopard and Himalayan Wolf: Food Habits and Prey Selection in the Central Himalayas, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Odden, Morten; Wegge, Per

    2017-01-01

    Top carnivores play an important role in maintaining energy flow and functioning of the ecosystem, and a clear understanding of their diets and foraging strategies is essential for developing effective conservation strategies. In this paper, we compared diets and prey selection of snow leopards and wolves based on analyses of genotyped scats (snow leopards n = 182, wolves n = 57), collected within 26 sampling grid cells (5×5 km) that were distributed across a vast landscape of ca 5000 km2 in the Central Himalayas, Nepal. Within the grid cells, we sampled prey abundances using the double observer method. We found that interspecific differences in diet composition and prey selection reflected their respective habitat preferences, i.e. snow leopards significantly preferred cliff-dwelling wild ungulates (mainly bharal, 57% of identified material in scat samples), whereas wolves preferred typically plain-dwellers (Tibetan gazelle, kiang and argali, 31%). Livestock was consumed less frequently than their proportional availability by both predators (snow leopard = 27%; wolf = 24%), but significant avoidance was only detected among snow leopards. Among livestock species, snow leopards significantly preferred horses and goats, avoided yaks, and used sheep as available. We identified factors influencing diet composition using Generalized Linear Mixed Models. Wolves showed seasonal differences in the occurrence of small mammals/birds, probably due to the winter hibernation of an important prey, marmots. For snow leopard, occurrence of both wild ungulates and livestock in scats depended on sex and latitude. Wild ungulates occurrence increased while livestock decreased from south to north, probably due to a latitudinal gradient in prey availability. Livestock occurred more frequently in scats from male snow leopards (males: 47%, females: 21%), and wild ungulates more frequently in scats from females (males: 48%, females: 70%). The sexual difference agrees with previous

  17. Snow Leopard and Himalayan Wolf: Food Habits and Prey Selection in the Central Himalayas, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Chetri, Madhu; Odden, Morten; Wegge, Per

    2017-01-01

    Top carnivores play an important role in maintaining energy flow and functioning of the ecosystem, and a clear understanding of their diets and foraging strategies is essential for developing effective conservation strategies. In this paper, we compared diets and prey selection of snow leopards and wolves based on analyses of genotyped scats (snow leopards n = 182, wolves n = 57), collected within 26 sampling grid cells (5×5 km) that were distributed across a vast landscape of ca 5000 km2 in the Central Himalayas, Nepal. Within the grid cells, we sampled prey abundances using the double observer method. We found that interspecific differences in diet composition and prey selection reflected their respective habitat preferences, i.e. snow leopards significantly preferred cliff-dwelling wild ungulates (mainly bharal, 57% of identified material in scat samples), whereas wolves preferred typically plain-dwellers (Tibetan gazelle, kiang and argali, 31%). Livestock was consumed less frequently than their proportional availability by both predators (snow leopard = 27%; wolf = 24%), but significant avoidance was only detected among snow leopards. Among livestock species, snow leopards significantly preferred horses and goats, avoided yaks, and used sheep as available. We identified factors influencing diet composition using Generalized Linear Mixed Models. Wolves showed seasonal differences in the occurrence of small mammals/birds, probably due to the winter hibernation of an important prey, marmots. For snow leopard, occurrence of both wild ungulates and livestock in scats depended on sex and latitude. Wild ungulates occurrence increased while livestock decreased from south to north, probably due to a latitudinal gradient in prey availability. Livestock occurred more frequently in scats from male snow leopards (males: 47%, females: 21%), and wild ungulates more frequently in scats from females (males: 48%, females: 70%). The sexual difference agrees with previous

  18. 75 FR 59268 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Acidified Foods; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry: Acidified Foods; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Acidified Foods...

  19. 75 FR 17145 - Food Additives; Bisphenol A; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... Memorandum from: Chemistry Review Group 1, 22, 2009 Division of Food Contact Notifications and Chemistry Team, HFS-275 and Chemistry Review Team, Division of Biotechnology and GRAS Notice Review, Office of Food... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food Additives; Bisphenol A; Availability AGENCY: Food and...

  20. 76 FR 51935 - Availability to School Food Authorities of Nutrition Information and Ingredient Lists for Foods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... lists for USDA Foods as well as commercially selected foods. A better understanding of what nutrition... Food and Nutrition Service Availability to School Food Authorities of Nutrition Information and Ingredient Lists for Foods Used in School Food Service: Request for Information AGENCY: Food and...

  1. Ecosystem water availability in juniper versus sagebrush snow-dominated rangelands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Western Juniper (J. occidentalis Hook.) now dominates over 3.6 million ha of rangeland in the Intermountain Western US. Critical ecological relationships among snow distribution, water budgets, plant community transitions, and habitat requirements for wildlife, such as sage grouse, remain poorly und...

  2. 75 FR 78674 - Emergency Food Assistance Program; Availability of Foods for Fiscal Year 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Emergency Food Assistance Program; Availability of Foods for Fiscal Year 2011 AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces the surplus and purchased foods that the Department expects to make available for donation to States for use...

  3. 78 FR 7750 - Emergency Food Assistance Program; Availability of Foods for Fiscal Year 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Emergency Food Assistance Program; Availability of Foods for Fiscal Year 2013 AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces the surplus and purchased foods that the Department expects to make available for donation to States for use...

  4. Retail Food Availability, Obesity, and Cigarette Smoking in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosler, Akiko S.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Disparities in the availability of nutritionally important foods and their influence on health have been studied in US urban communities. Purpose: To assess the availability of selected retail foods and cigarettes, and explore ecologic relationships of the availability with obesity and smoking in rural communities. Methods: Inventories of…

  5. Retail Food Availability, Obesity, and Cigarette Smoking in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosler, Akiko S.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Disparities in the availability of nutritionally important foods and their influence on health have been studied in US urban communities. Purpose: To assess the availability of selected retail foods and cigarettes, and explore ecologic relationships of the availability with obesity and smoking in rural communities. Methods: Inventories of…

  6. Availability and consumption of competitive foods in US public schools.

    PubMed

    Fox, Mary Kay; Gordon, Anne; Nogales, Renée; Wilson, Ander

    2009-02-01

    With ongoing efforts to develop and implement school wellness policies, there is a need for information about the availability and consumption of competitive foods in schools. To describe the availability of competitive foods in US public schools, consumption of competitive foods by children, and contributions of competitive foods to energy intakes. The study used data from the third School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study, a cross-sectional study that included a national sample of public school districts, schools, and children in the 2004-2005 school year. On-site observations were used to document the availability of competitive foods and a 24-hour recall was used to assess children's consumption of competitive foods. The study included 287 schools and 2,314 children in grades 1 through 12. Most analyses were limited to estimation of means and proportions. Two-tailed t tests were used to test the significance of differences between children who did and did not eat a school lunch. In school year 2004-2005, competitive foods were widely available in public schools. Overall, 40% of children consumed one or more competitive foods on a typical school day. The most commonly consumed competitive foods were foods and beverages that were low in nutrients and energy-dense. Children who ate a school lunch were significantly less likely than children who did not eat a school lunch to consume competitive foods (36% vs 45%; P<0.01); however, the leading competitive food choices for both groups of children were foods that were low in nutrients and energy-dense. On average, competitive food consumers who ate school lunches obtained 159 calories from competitive foods that were low in nutrients and energy-dense, compared with 201 calories for competitive food consumers who did not eat school lunches (P<0.05). In school year 2004-2005, competitive foods were widely available and consumed in US public schools and the most commonly consumed competitive foods were low in nutrients

  7. Parents' perceptions of food availability: implications for childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Sealy, Yvette M

    2010-01-01

    Childhood obesity is an epidemic in the United States, with children experiencing chronic adult diseases and poor health outcomes. Focus groups were held with parents of children between 6-12 years of age in three different communities in Brooklyn and the Bronx, New York, to explore their attitudes and practices regarding food availability. Poor food quality and discrimination were the key themes affecting parents' food choices and perceptions of food availability in their neighborhoods. Social workers are in a position to decrease obesity prevalence by supporting childhood obesity policy legislation, designing interventions to increase parental awareness of childhood obesity and the importance of making healthy food choices, and working with parents to improve food quality and availability in their neighborhoods.

  8. Neighborhood Characteristics and Availability of Healthy Foods in Baltimore

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Manuel; Diez Roux, Ana V.; Glass, Thomas A.; Caballero, Benjamín; Brancati, Frederick L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Differential access to healthy foods may contribute to racial and economic health disparities. The availability of healthy foods has rarely been directly measured in a systematic fashion. This study examines the associations among the availability of healthy foods and racial and income neighborhood composition. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2006 to determine differences in the availability of healthy foods across 159 contiguous neighborhoods (census tracts) in Baltimore City and Baltimore County and in the 226 food stores within them. A healthy food availability index (HFAI) was determined for each store, using a validated instrument ranging from 0 points to 27 points. Neighborhood healthy food availability was summarized by the mean HFAI for the stores within the neighborhood. Descriptive analyses and multilevel models were used to examine associations of store type and neighborhood characteristics with healthy food availability. Results Forty-three percent of predominantly black neighborhoods and 46% of lower-income neighborhoods were in the lowest tertile of healthy food availability versus 4% and 13%, respectively, in predominantly white and higher-income neighborhoods (p<0.001). Mean differences in HFAI comparing predominantly black neighborhoods to white ones, and lower-income neighborhoods to higher-income neighborhoods, were −7.6 and −8.1, respectively. Supermarkets in predominantly black and lower-income neighborhoods had lower HFAI scores than supermarkets in predominantly white and higher-income neighborhoods (mean differences −3.7 and −4.9, respectively). Regression analyses showed that both store type and neighborhood characteristics were independently associated with the HFAI score. Conclusions Predominantly black and lower-income neighborhoods have a lower availability of healthy foods than white and higher-income neighborhoods due to the differential placement of types of stores as well as differential offerings

  9. The value of data availability versus model complexity to estimate snow, glacier and rain water in mountain streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finger, David; Vis, Marc; Seibert, Jan

    2014-05-01

    various observational datasets in order to constrain model parameters and compute realistic discharge estimations. Finally, we postulate based on the comparison of model performance of HBV-light and the physically based, fully distributed model that the availability and use of different datasets to calibrate hydrological models might be more important than model complexity in regard to realistic predictions of runoff composition. REFERENCES: Finger, D., A. Hugentobler, M. Huss, A. Voinesco, H.R. Wernli, D. Fischer, E. Weber, P-Y. Jeannin, M. Kauzlaric, A. Wirz, T. Vennemann, F. Hüsler, B. Schädler, and R. Weingartner (2013). Identification of glacial melt water runoff in a karstic environment and its implication for present and future water availability. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss. 10, 1-45, doi: 10.5194/hessd-10-1-2013. Finger, D., Heinrich, G., Gobiet, A., and Bauder, A.: Projections of future water resources and their uncertainty in a glacierized catchment in the Swiss Alps and the subsequent effects on hydropower production during the 21st century, Water Resources Research, 48, doi: 10.1029/2011wr010733, W02521, 2012. Finger, D., Pellicciotti, F., Konz, M., Rimkus, S., and Burlando, P.: The value of glacier mass balance, satellite snow cover images, and hourly discharge for improving the performance of a physically based distributed hydrological model, Water Resources Research, 47, doi: W07519, 10.1029/2010wr009824, 2011. Huss, M.: Present and future contribution of glacier storage change to runoff from macroscale drainage basins in Europe, Water Resources Research, 47, doi: W07511, 10.1029/2010wr010299, 2011. Seibert, J., and Vis, M. J. P.: Teaching hydrological modeling with a user-friendly catchment-runoff-model software package, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 3315-3325, doi: 10.5194/hess-16-3315-2012, 2012.

  10. Cannibalism and food availability in the talitrid amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, C.; Jaramillo, E.; Contreras, H.; Acuña, K.

    2010-10-01

    The availability of limiting resources can potentially influence the intensity of intra- and interspecific interactions. Stranded macroalgae exported from adjacent coastal ecosystems supports abundant intertidal consumers on oceanic sandy beaches, including talitrid amphipods, which can be one of the numerically dominant invertebrates of the upper shore. The allochthonous nature of this donor-controlled food subsidy and its unpredictable delivery by waves and currents, results in highly variable and potentially limiting resource availability for these consumers. In Chile, adults of the talitrid amphipod, Orchestoidea tuberculata Nicolet, can influence the survival of juvenile conspecifics through cannibalism, a type of intraspecific interaction we hypothesized could be affected by the availability of macroalgal resources. We experimentally investigated the potential influence of food availability on cannibalism between age classes in O. tuberculata in laboratory mesocosms. Juvenile mortality in presence of conspecific adults was significantly higher when juveniles and adults were maintained without food. However, adult mortality was neither density dependent or food dependent. Further, juveniles did not influence adult mortality, either with or without food. The strong effect of food limitation on juvenile mortality from cannibalism by adults of O. tuberculata found here, supports our hypothesis that food resource availability on beaches can affect this intraspecific interactions. In addition these results provide evidence of the potential importance of biological interaction in the population dynamics of intertidal consumers on oceanic sandy beaches.

  11. Complementary feeding recommendations based on locally available foods in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Fahmida, Umi; Santika, Otte; Kolopaking, Risatianti; Ferguson, Elaine

    2014-12-01

    Affordable, locally contextual complementary feeding recommendations (CFRs) that take into account cultural diversity and differences in food availability will be more likely to result in long-term improvements in complementary feeding practices than general recommendations. More objective approaches, such as linear programming (LP), have been recommended to identify optimal but CFRs to meet nutrient requirements given local food availability, food patterns, food portions, and cost. To present results of our previous studies in which we developed CFRs using LP and to provide an example of how these CFRs can be put into practice in a community intervention trial in Indonesia. Dietary data were obtained using single 24-hour dietary recall or 1-day weighed diet record combined with 1-day 24-hour recall and 5-day food intake tally. With the use of the LP approach, nutrient intakes were optimized while ensuring that a realistic diet was selected by using constraints such as the diet's energy content, food patterns, food portions, and cost. The price per 100 g of edible portion was obtained from market surveys in two or three local markets in each study area. LP analysis was performed using Super Solver in MS Excel or Optifood software. Iron, zinc, calcium, and niacin were problem nutrients in all age groups of children (6 to 8, 9 to 11, and 12 to 23 months) in both rural and periurban areas, except among children of higher socioeconomic status in urban areas. Thiamin and folate were also problem nutrients found in some settings. Animal-source foods (meat, fish, poultry, and eggs [MFPE] and fortified foods were the nutrient-dense foods identified by LP to fill the nutrient gaps of these problem nutrients. Iron, calcium, zinc, niacin, and potentially folate and thiamine are typical "problem nutrients" in complementary foods of Indonesian children. However, the extent of dietary inadequacy varies across age groups, area, and socioeconomic level. MFPE and fortified foods

  12. #AskBerkeleyLab: Cost and Availability of Healthy Food

    ScienceCinema

    Buluswar, Shashi

    2016-07-12

    Shashi Buluswar, Executive Director at the LBNL Institute for Globally Transformative Technologies, answers a question from Ashley on why healthy food costs so much and is not available in low-income neighborhoods.

  13. #AskBerkeleyLab: Cost and Availability of Healthy Food

    SciTech Connect

    Buluswar, Shashi

    2014-10-22

    Shashi Buluswar, Executive Director at the LBNL Institute for Globally Transformative Technologies, answers a question from Ashley on why healthy food costs so much and is not available in low-income neighborhoods.

  14. The role of phenolic compounds and nutrients in determining food preference in greater snow geese.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Gilles; Bédard, Jean

    1990-10-01

    We tested Buchsbaum's hypothesis that food palatability in geese is determined by a hierarchy of feeding cues among which deterrent secondary metabolites (mostly phenols) have a primary role (Buchsbaum et al. 1984). In preference tests, greater snow goose feeding was slightly depressed when grass was sprayed with ferulic acid but not when grass was sprayed with p-coumaric and tannic acids. Extracts of Timothy grass, red clover or alfalfa sprayed on grass also failed to depress goose feeding. In a multifactor experiment, phenol and protein content and height of grass were manipulated simultaneously. When ferulic acid was sprayed, protein and phenol content interacted in determining goose feeding preferences; protein content had no effect in the absence of phenol but did have an effect when phenol was added. When tannic acid was used in a similar experiment, results were inconclusive because of a significant and complex interaction between protein content and height of grass. Our results generally failed to support Buchsbaum's hypothesis that phenol content of plants has a primary role in determining food preference in geese. Protein content of plants seemed to be a more important factor.

  15. Food availability and foraging near human developments by black bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merkle, Jerod A.; Robinson, Hugh S.; Krausman, Paul R.; Alaback, Paul B.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between foraging ecology and the presence of human-dominated landscapes is important, particularly for American black bears (Ursus americanus), which sometimes move between wildlands and urban areas to forage. The food-related factors influencing this movement have not been explored, but can be important for understanding the benefits and costs to black bear foraging behavior and the fundamental origins of bear conflicts. We tested whether the scarcity of wildland foods or the availability of urban foods can explain when black bears forage near houses, examined the extent to which male bears use urban areas in comparison to females, and identified the most important food items influencing bear movement into urban areas. We monitored 16 collared black bears in and around Missoula, Montana, during 2009 and 2010, while quantifying the rate of change in green vegetation and the availability of 5 native berry-producing species outside the urban area, the rate of change in green vegetation, and the availability of apples and garbage inside the urban area. We used parametric time-to-event models in which an event was a bear location collected within 100 m of a house. We also visited feeding sites located near houses and quantified food items bears had eaten. The probability of a bear being located near a house was 1.6 times higher for males, and increased during apple season and the urban green-up. Fruit trees accounted for most of the forage items at urban feeding sites (49%), whereas wildland foods composed <10%. Black bears foraged on human foods near houses even when wildland foods were available, suggesting that the absence of wildland foods may not influence the probability of bears foraging near houses. Additionally, other attractants, in this case fruit trees, appear to be more important than the availability of garbage in influencing when bears forage near houses.

  16. Geographic measures of retail food outlets and perceived availability of healthy foods in neighbourhoods.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Timothy L; Freedman, Darcy A; Bell, Bethany A; Colabianchi, Natalie; Liese, Angela D

    2016-06-01

    To examine associations between geographic measures of retail food outlets and perceived availability of healthy foods. Cross-sectional. A predominantly rural, eight-county region of South Carolina, USA. Data from 705 household shoppers were analysed using ordinary least-squares regression to examine relationships between geographic measures (presence and distance) of food outlets obtained via a geographic information system and perceived availability of healthy foods (fresh fruits and vegetables and low-fat foods). The presence of a supermarket within an 8·05 km (5-mile) buffer area was significantly associated with perceived availability of healthy foods (β=1·09, P=0·025) when controlling for all other food outlet types. However, no other derived geographic presence measures were significant predictors of perceived availability of healthy foods. Distances to the nearest supermarket (β=-0·16, P=0·003), dollar and variety store (β=-0·15, P=0·005) and fast-food restaurant (β=0·11, P=0·015) were all significantly associated with perceptions of healthy food availability. Our results suggest that distance to food outlets is a significant predictor of healthy food perceptions, although presence is sensitive to boundary size. Our study contributes to the understanding and improvement of techniques that characterize individuals' food options in their community.

  17. Pre-incubation feeding activities and energy budgets of Snow Geese: can food on the breeding grounds influence fecundity?

    PubMed

    Ganter, Barbara; Cooke, Fred

    1996-04-01

    The potential contribution of early spring feeding conditions in the Arctic to clutch size variation was examined in a population of Lesser Snow Geese Anser caerulescens caerulescens. Behavioural observations were combined with energetic analyses of food material to derive an estimate of the energy budgets of pre-laying and laying females. Food intake of females between arrival on the breeding grounds and incubation was considerable; estimated energy gains in this period were in the same magnitude as the cost of one or several eggs. The pre-laying period spent on the breeding grounds can thus be energetically beneficial rather than costly. Accumulation of resources for reproduction in Snow Geese is a continual process including the breeding grounds, and nutrient limitation after arrival in the Arctic cannot sufficiently explain the environmental component of clutch size variation. The timing of migration and follicle development is such that clutch size decisions are sometimes made during the late stages of migration and some-times after arrival. In the latter case food conditions on the breeding grounds may greatly influence clutch size; in the former case they may still influence readjustments of clutch size after the initial decision. The universal negative correlation between clutch size and laying date in Snow Geese can be explained by negative fitness consequences of late hatching, which outweigh the benefits of delayed laying and further nutrient accumulation. Food shortage on the breeding grounds may sometimes be a secondary factor contributing to seasonal clutch size decline.

  18. School wellness policies and foods and beverages available in schools.

    PubMed

    Hood, Nancy E; Colabianchi, Natalie; Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2013-08-01

    Since 2006-2007, education agencies (e.g., school districts) participating in U.S. federal meal programs are required to have wellness policies. To date, this is the only federal policy that addresses foods and beverages sold outside of school meals (in competitive venues). To examine the extent to which federally required components of school wellness policies are associated with availability of foods and beverages in competitive venues. Questionnaire data were collected in 2007-2008 through 2010-2011 school years from 892 middle and 1019 high schools in nationally representative samples. School administrators reported the extent to which schools had required wellness policy components (goals, nutrition guidelines, implementation plan/person responsible, stakeholder involvement) and healthier and less-healthy foods and beverages available in competitive venues. Analyses were conducted in 2012. About one third of students (31.8%) were in schools with all four wellness policy components. Predominantly white schools had higher wellness policy scores than other schools. After controlling for school characteristics, higher wellness policy scores were associated with higher availability of low-fat and whole-grain foods and lower availability of regular-fat/sugared foods in middle and high schools. In middle schools, higher scores also were associated with lower availability of 2%/whole milk. High schools with higher scores also had lower sugar-sweetened beverage availability and higher availability of 1%/nonfat milk, fruits/vegetables, and salad bars. Because they are associated with lower availability of less-healthy and higher availability of healthier foods and beverages in competitive venues, federally required components of school wellness policies should be encouraged in all schools. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. From food insufficiency towards trade dependency: a historical analysis of global food availability.

    PubMed

    Porkka, Miina; Kummu, Matti; Siebert, Stefan; Varis, Olli

    2013-01-01

    Achieving global food security is one of the major challenges of the coming decades. In order to tackle future food security challenges we must understand the past. This study presents a historical analysis of global food availability, one of the key elements of food security. By calculating national level dietary energy supply and production for nine time steps during 1965-2005 we classify countries based on their food availability, food self-sufficiency and food trade. We also look at how diets have changed during this period with regard to supply of animal based calories. Our results show that food availability has increased substantially both in absolute and relative terms. The percentage of population living in countries with sufficient food supply (>2500 kcal/cap/d) has almost doubled from 33% in 1965 to 61% in 2005. The population living with critically low food supply (<2000 kcal/cap/d) has dropped from 52% to 3%. Largest improvements are seen in the MENA region, Latin America, China and Southeast Asia. Besides, the composition of diets has changed considerably within the study period: the world population living with high supply of animal source food (>15% of dietary energy supply) increased from 33% to over 50%. While food supply has increased globally, food self-sufficiency (domestic production>2500 kcal/cap/d) has not changed remarkably. In the beginning of the study period insufficient domestic production meant insufficient food supply, but in recent years the deficit has been increasingly compensated by rising food imports. This highlights the growing importance of food trade, either for food supply in importing countries or as a source of income for exporters. Our results provide a basis for understanding past global food system dynamics which, in turn, can benefit research on future food security.

  20. From Food Insufficiency towards Trade Dependency: A Historical Analysis of Global Food Availability

    PubMed Central

    Porkka, Miina; Kummu, Matti; Siebert, Stefan; Varis, Olli

    2013-01-01

    Achieving global food security is one of the major challenges of the coming decades. In order to tackle future food security challenges we must understand the past. This study presents a historical analysis of global food availability, one of the key elements of food security. By calculating national level dietary energy supply and production for nine time steps during 1965–2005 we classify countries based on their food availability, food self-sufficiency and food trade. We also look at how diets have changed during this period with regard to supply of animal based calories. Our results show that food availability has increased substantially both in absolute and relative terms. The percentage of population living in countries with sufficient food supply (>2500 kcal/cap/d) has almost doubled from 33% in 1965 to 61% in 2005. The population living with critically low food supply (<2000 kcal/cap/d) has dropped from 52% to 3%. Largest improvements are seen in the MENA region, Latin America, China and Southeast Asia. Besides, the composition of diets has changed considerably within the study period: the world population living with high supply of animal source food (>15% of dietary energy supply) increased from 33% to over 50%. While food supply has increased globally, food self-sufficiency (domestic production>2500 kcal/cap/d) has not changed remarkably. In the beginning of the study period insufficient domestic production meant insufficient food supply, but in recent years the deficit has been increasingly compensated by rising food imports. This highlights the growing importance of food trade, either for food supply in importing countries or as a source of income for exporters. Our results provide a basis for understanding past global food system dynamics which, in turn, can benefit research on future food security. PMID:24367545

  1. Epinephrine autoinjector availability among children with food allergy.

    PubMed

    DeMuth, Karen A; Fitzpatrick, Anne M

    2011-01-01

    Epinephrine is the treatment of choice for anaphylaxis. Delay in administration of epinephrine is a known risk factor for food allergy reaction-related mortality; however, individuals with food allergy may not have epinephrine readily available. This study was designed to determine the percent of food-allergic children that have an epinephrine autoinjector readily available and factors associated with epinephrine autoinjector carriage rates. Parents completed a questionnaire on food allergy and food allergy preparedness. Staff recorded whether an epinephrine autoinjector and medical alert bracelet was immediately available in clinic. Parental responses from 63 food-allergic children were included. Fifty-nine percent (37/63) had an epinephrine autoinjector present in the clinic, and 79% (50/63) reported receiving training in epinephrine autoinjector use. There was no correlation between epinephrine autoinjector presence in the clinic and parental report of having an epinephrine autoinjector available at all times (phi = 0.21). Epinephrine autoinjector training was associated with increased odds of having an epinephrine autoinjector immediately available (adjusted odds ratio, 8.74 [1.69, 45.04]). Fewer school aged children (≥5 years old) reportedly had their epinephrine autoinjector with them when eating lunch (25% [8/32] versus 42% [13/31]; p = 0.002) or snacks (28% [9/32] versus 37% [13/31]; p = 0.005) when compared with those <5 years old. Many children do not have their epinephrine autoinjectors readily available despite parental report. Epinephrine autoinjector training improved the odds of having an epinephrine autoinjector readily available. Continued patient education on the importance of having an epinephrine autoinjector easily accessible, especially when eating, is important.

  2. An area-wide snow climatology for Austria since 1961 based on newly available daily precipitation and air temperature grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olefs, Marc; Girstmair, Anna; Hiebl, Johann; Koch, Roland; Schoener, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    We use the spatially distributed snow cover model SNOWGRID (Olefs et al., 2013) that is run in an operational now- and forecasting mode at the Austrian weather service ZAMG (Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik). A climate version of SNOWGRID is used to derive daily grids of snow depth (sd) and snow water equivalent (swe) at a spatial resolution of 1x1 km for Austria since the year 1961 using recently created gridded datasets of air temperature and precipitation at same temporal and spatial resolution that take into account the high variability of these variables in complex terrain (Hiebl and Frei, 2016). The model accounts for the shortwave radiation balance and uses a simple 2-layer scheme, considering settling, the heat and liquid water content of the snow cover and the energy added by rain. In a next step so called snow indicators (e.g. snow cover duration, max. 72-H snow amounts) are derived that allow a climatic characterization of the snow cover to finally calculate area-wide changes and long-term trends. Calibration and validation of the model results are realized using homogenized long-term time-series of total snow depth and new snow amounts, recent operational snow depth measurements using laser sensors, winter glacier mass balance measurements, cumulative runoff data and satellite products (MODIS fractional snow cover). Uncertainty of the final results compared to homogenized long-term time-series can be split into the effect coming from uncertain input data and from the model itself (using different model versions and parameterizations). The final product provides a great potential to further investigate past climate change in the Austrian hydroclimate for a broad community of scientists.

  3. Competitive foods available in Pennsylvania public high schools.

    PubMed

    Probart, Claudia; McDonnell, Elaine; Weirich, J Elaine; Hartman, Terryl; Bailey-Davis, Lisa; Prabhakher, Vaheedha

    2005-08-01

    This study examined the types and extent of competitive foods available in public high schools in Pennsylvania. We developed, pilot tested, and distributed surveys to school foodservice directors in a random sample of 271 high schools in Pennsylvania. Two hundred twenty-eight surveys were returned, for a response rate of 84%. Statistical analyses were performed: Descriptive statistics were used to examine the extent of competitive food sales in Pennsylvania public high schools. The survey data were analyzed using SPSS software version 11.5.1 (2002, SPSS base 11.0 for Windows, SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL). A la carte sales provide almost dollar 700/day to school foodservice programs, almost 85% of which receive no financial support from their school districts. The top-selling a la carte items are "hamburgers, pizza, and sandwiches." Ninety-four percent of respondents indicated that vending machines are accessible to students. The item most commonly offered in vending machines is bottled water (71.5%). While food items are less often available through school stores and club fund-raisers, candy is the item most commonly offered through these sources. Competitive foods are widely available in high schools. Although many of the items available are low in nutritional value, we found several of the top-selling a la carte options to be nutritious and bottled water the item most often identified as available through vending machines.

  4. Healthy food availability in small urban food stores: a comparison of four US cities

    PubMed Central

    Laska, Melissa Nelson; Borradaile, Kelley E; Tester, June; Foster, Gary D; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Objective Given that small food stores may be important retail food sources in low-income urban communities, our objective was to examine cross-city comparative data documenting healthy food availability within such facilities, particularly those located in low-income areas and nearby schools. Design Food stores in Baltimore, Maryland; Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota; Oakland, California; and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania were selected for assessment based on proximity to low-income schools. Stores were defined as: (i) single-aisle (n 45); (ii) small (2–5 aisles; n 52); and (iii) large (≥6 aisles; n 8). Staff conducted in-store audits to assess the presence/absence of twenty-eight healthy items, organized within five categories: (i) fresh fruits/vegetables, (ii) processed fruits/vegetables, (iii) healthy beverages/low-fat dairy, (iv) healthy snacks and (v) other healthy staple foods. Results The availability of healthy food items was low, particularly in single-aisle and small stores, and there was significant cross-site variability in the availability of healthy snacks (P < 0·0001) and other healthy staple foods (P < 0·0001). No cross-site differences existed for fruits/vegetables or healthy beverages/low-fat dairy availability. Healthy food availability scores increased significantly with store size for nearly all food/beverage categories (P < 0·01). Conclusions Overall, healthy food availability in these venues was limited. Region-specific factors may be important to consider in understanding factors influencing healthy food availability in small urban markets. Data suggest that efforts to promote healthy diets in low-income communities may be compromised by a lack of available healthy foods. Interventions targeting small stores need to be developed and tailored for use in urban areas across the USA. PMID:19968901

  5. Healthy food availability in small urban food stores: a comparison of four US cities.

    PubMed

    Laska, Melissa Nelson; Borradaile, Kelley E; Tester, June; Foster, Gary D; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2010-07-01

    Given that small food stores may be important retail food sources in low-income urban communities, our objective was to examine cross-city comparative data documenting healthy food availability within such facilities, particularly those located in low-income areas and nearby schools. Food stores in Baltimore, Maryland; Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota; Oakland, California; and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania were selected for assessment based on proximity to low-income schools. Stores were defined as: (i) single-aisle (n 45); (ii) small (2-5 aisles; n 52); and (iii) large (> or = 6 aisles; n 8). Staff conducted in-store audits to assess the presence/absence of twenty-eight healthy items, organized within five categories: (i) fresh fruits/vegetables, (ii) processed fruits/vegetables, (iii) healthy beverages/low-fat dairy, (iv) healthy snacks and (v) other healthy staple foods. The availability of healthy food items was low, particularly in single-aisle and small stores, and there was significant cross-site variability in the availability of healthy snacks (P < 0.0001) and other healthy staple foods (P < 0.0001). No cross-site differences existed for fruits/vegetables or healthy beverages/low-fat dairy availability. Healthy food availability scores increased significantly with store size for nearly all food/beverage categories (P < 0.01). Overall, healthy food availability in these venues was limited. Region-specific factors may be important to consider in understanding factors influencing healthy food availability in small urban markets. Data suggest that efforts to promote healthy diets in low-income communities may be compromised by a lack of available healthy foods. Interventions targeting small stores need to be developed and tailored for use in urban areas across the USA.

  6. The availability and cost of healthier food alternatives.

    PubMed

    Jetter, Karen M; Cassady, Diana L

    2006-01-01

    Many people, especially low-income consumers, do not successfully follow dietary recommendations to eat more whole grains and less fat and added sugar. The food environment may have a significant impact on the choice by low-income consumers to eat healthier foods, as both the availability and price of healthier food items may limit their ability to eat a healthier diet. We investigated the cost and availability of a standard market basket of foods, and a healthier basket that included low-fat meat and dairy and whole grain products. Market-basket surveys were conducted in 25 stores in Los Angeles and Sacramento. Stores were selected from neighborhoods that were varied by income and surveyed three times from September 2003 to June 2004. The average cost of a standard market basket (based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Thrifty Food Plan [TFP]) and a healthier market basket was calculated from these prices and compared using a standard t-test to determine if they were significantly different from each other. The analysis was conducted in 2005. In neighborhoods served by smaller grocery stores, access to whole-grain products, low-fat cheeses, and ground meat with <10% fat is limited. Among all items that were unavailable, 64% were in small grocery stores. For the 2-week shopping list, the average TFP market-basket cost was $194, and the healthier market-basket cost was $230. The average cost of the healthier market basket was more expensive by $36 due to higher costs of whole grains, lean ground beef, and skinless poultry. The higher cost of the healthier basket is equal to about 35% to 40% of low-income consumers' food budgets of $2410 a year. The lack of availability in small grocery stores located in low-income neighborhoods, and the higher cost of the healthier market basket may be a deterrent to eating healthier among very low-income consumers. Public policies should take the food environment into account in order to develop successful strategies to

  7. Does the availability of snack foods in supermarkets vary internationally?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cross-country differences in dietary behaviours and obesity rates have been previously reported. Consumption of energy-dense snack foods and soft drinks are implicated as contributing to weight gain, however little is known about how the availability of these items within supermarkets varies internationally. This study assessed variations in the display of snack foods and soft drinks within a sample of supermarkets across eight countries. Methods Within-store audits were used to evaluate and compare the availability of potato chips (crisps), chocolate, confectionery and soft drinks. Displays measured included shelf length and the proportion of checkouts and end-of-aisle displays containing these products. Audits were conducted in a convenience sample of 170 supermarkets across eight developed nations (Australia, Canada, Denmark, Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden, United Kingdom (UK), and United States of America (US)). Results The mean total aisle length of snack foods (adjusted for store size) was greatest in supermarkets from the UK (56.4 m) and lowest in New Zealand (21.7 m). When assessed by individual item, the greatest aisle length devoted to chips, chocolate and confectionery was found in UK supermarkets while the greatest aisle length dedicated to soft drinks was in Australian supermarkets. Only stores from the Netherlands (41%) had less than 70% of checkouts featuring displays of snack foods or soft drinks. Conclusion Whilst between-country variations were observed, overall results indicate high levels of snack food and soft drinks displays within supermarkets across the eight countries. Exposure to snack foods is largely unavoidable within supermarkets, increasing the likelihood of purchases and particularly those made impulsively. PMID:23672409

  8. Does the availability of snack foods in supermarkets vary internationally?

    PubMed

    Thornton, Lukar E; Cameron, Adrian J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Waterlander, Wilma E; Sodergren, Marita; Svastisalee, Chalida; Blanchard, Laurence; Liese, Angela D; Battersby, Sarah; Carter, Mary-Ann; Sheeshka, Judy; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Sherman, Sandy; Cowburn, Gill; Foster, Charlie; Crawford, David A

    2013-05-14

    Cross-country differences in dietary behaviours and obesity rates have been previously reported. Consumption of energy-dense snack foods and soft drinks are implicated as contributing to weight gain, however little is known about how the availability of these items within supermarkets varies internationally. This study assessed variations in the display of snack foods and soft drinks within a sample of supermarkets across eight countries. Within-store audits were used to evaluate and compare the availability of potato chips (crisps), chocolate, confectionery and soft drinks. Displays measured included shelf length and the proportion of checkouts and end-of-aisle displays containing these products. Audits were conducted in a convenience sample of 170 supermarkets across eight developed nations (Australia, Canada, Denmark, Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden, United Kingdom (UK), and United States of America (US)). The mean total aisle length of snack foods (adjusted for store size) was greatest in supermarkets from the UK (56.4 m) and lowest in New Zealand (21.7 m). When assessed by individual item, the greatest aisle length devoted to chips, chocolate and confectionery was found in UK supermarkets while the greatest aisle length dedicated to soft drinks was in Australian supermarkets. Only stores from the Netherlands (41%) had less than 70% of checkouts featuring displays of snack foods or soft drinks. Whilst between-country variations were observed, overall results indicate high levels of snack food and soft drinks displays within supermarkets across the eight countries. Exposure to snack foods is largely unavoidable within supermarkets, increasing the likelihood of purchases and particularly those made impulsively.

  9. Profits, Commercial Food Supplier Involvement, and School Vending Machine Snack Food Availability: Implications for Implementing the New Competitive Foods Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; Hood, Nancy E.; Colabianchi, Natalie; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The 2013-2014 school year involved preparation for implementing the new US Department of Agriculture (USDA) competitive foods nutrition standards. An awareness of associations between commercial supplier involvement, food vending practices, and food vending item availability may assist schools in preparing for the new standards.…

  10. Profits, Commercial Food Supplier Involvement, and School Vending Machine Snack Food Availability: Implications for Implementing the New Competitive Foods Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; Hood, Nancy E.; Colabianchi, Natalie; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The 2013-2014 school year involved preparation for implementing the new US Department of Agriculture (USDA) competitive foods nutrition standards. An awareness of associations between commercial supplier involvement, food vending practices, and food vending item availability may assist schools in preparing for the new standards.…

  11. Profits, commercial food supplier involvement, and school vending machine snack food availability: implications for implementing the new competitive foods rule.

    PubMed

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; Hood, Nancy E; Colabianchi, Natalie; O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2014-07-01

    The 2013-2014 school year involved preparation for implementing the new US Department of Agriculture (USDA) competitive foods nutrition standards. An awareness of associations between commercial supplier involvement, food vending practices, and food vending item availability may assist schools in preparing for the new standards. Analyses used 2007-2012 questionnaire data from administrators of 814 middle and 801 high schools in the nationally representative Youth, Education, and Society study to examine prevalence of profit from and commercial involvement with vending machine food sales, and associations between such measures and food availability. Profits for the school district were associated with decreased low-nutrient, energy-dense (LNED) food availability and increased fruit/vegetable availability. Profits for the school and use of company suppliers were associated with increased LNED availability; company suppliers also were associated with decreased fruit/vegetable availability. Supplier "say" in vending food selection was associated with increased LNED availability and decreased fruit/vegetable availability. Results support (1) increased district involvement with school vending policies and practices, and (2) limited supplier "say" as to what items are made available in student-accessed vending machines. Schools and districts should pay close attention to which food items replace vending machine LNED foods following implementation of the new nutrition standards. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  12. Seston Dynamics and Food Availability on Mussel and Cockle Beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smaal, A. C.; Haas, H. A.

    1997-08-01

    To provide a better understanding of seston dynamics in relation to food supply to the benthos, a series of 13-h tidal cycle sampling programmes was executed in the Oosterschelde estuary (The Netherlands). Samples were taken near the surface and near the bottom on two subtidal mussel cultivation plots and on two intertidal cockle beds. Long-term annual variablity of seston concentrations was lower than coefficients of variance of the short-term tidal cycle seston data at the intertidal stations, and higher than at the subtidal stations. Near-bottom relative to surface concentrations were highest for suspended particulate matter (SPM), followed by particulate organic carbon (POC), and chlorophyll. There was no food depletion near the bottom but food quality was lower, presumably due to re-suspension of sediment, including low-quality biodeposits. Chlorophyll concentrations were lower in ebb than flood water at all stations, which was ascribed to feeding activity of the bivalves. At the subtidal stations, SPM and POC concentrations were also lower during low water, owing to sedimentation. There was a positive correlation at the intertidal stations of seston quantity with wind speed and wave action. At a wave length exceeding twice the water depth, re-suspension of low quality bottom material was observed and seston quality decreased. It was concluded that food availability for benthic suspension feeders was lower than suggested by routine monitoring data. At the intertidal stations, food quality was further reduced during periods of increased wind velocities and wave action. The low near-bottom food quality can partly be considered as an effect of the feeding activity of the benthic suspension feeders.

  13. Dining Dovekies Demand, "When, Where and What's for Dinner?" The Impact of Seasonal Changes in Snow Melt and the Development of the Arctic Marine Food Web on Seabirds.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnovsky, N. J.; Harding, A.; Welcker, J.; Brown, Z. W.; Kitaysky, A.; Kwasniewski, S.; Walkusz, W.; Gremillet, D.

    2011-12-01

    The Atlantic sector of the Arctic is undergoing widespread climate change with increases in air and sea temperatures which impact the timing of ice retreat, snow melt and the development of the marine food web. Dovekies (Alle alle) are small seabirds that migrate to the Atlantic Sector of the Arctic to feed in ice free waters that have abundant lipid-rich zooplankton. In the Greenland Sea, the dovekies are largely dependent on the advection of Calanus copepods into the area. We hypothesized that dovekies breeding adjacent to water masses which bring smaller, less energy-rich prey into the region (Calanus finmarchicus), work harder to find food and have higher stress levels. We tested this hypothesis by attaching time-depth recorders to provisioning dovekies at three colonies adjacent to different water masses (the West Spistbergen Current, the East Greenland Current, and the Sorkapp Current). We determined the length of time dovekies at different colonies spent at-sea collecting food for themselves and their chicks. We measured circulating corticosteroid hormone levels in their blood to assess stress levels. We collected chick meals to determine the energetic content of prey fed chicks at the different colonies. We found that dovekies are sensitive to the quality of prey available to them. Dovekies exposed to less profitable prey made longer foraging trips and worked harder while at-sea to collect prey for themselves and their chicks. Furthermore, over the past 50 years, dovekies breeding along the western shores of Spitsbergen have initiated breeding earlier in spring as their nest sites have become snow-free at earlier dates. We evaluate the impact of earlier breeding and the timing of the development of the marine food web within different currents which advect and/or support Calanus copepods into the Greenland Sea. Future possible declines in dovekies may impact terrestrial food webs which are highly influenced by the annual input of nitrogen rich guano on the

  14. Food store availability and neighborhood characteristics in the United States.

    PubMed

    Powell, Lisa M; Slater, Sandy; Mirtcheva, Donka; Bao, Yanjun; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2007-03-01

    This study provides a multivariate analysis of the availability of food store outlets in the US and associations with neighborhood characteristics on race, ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES). Commercial food store outlet data are linked across 28,050 zip codes to Census 2000 data. Multivariate regression analyses are used to examine associations between the availability of chain supermarkets, non-chain supermarkets, grocery stores and convenience stores and neighborhood characteristics on race, ethnicity and SES including additional controls for population size, urbanization and region. Low-income neighborhoods have fewer chain supermarkets with only 75% (p<0.01) of that available in middle-income neighborhoods. Even after controlling for income and other covariates, the availability of chain supermarkets in African American neighborhoods is only 52% (p<0.01) of that in White neighborhoods with even less relative availability in urban areas. Hispanic neighborhoods have only 32% (p<0.01) as many chain supermarkets compared to non-Hispanic neighborhoods. Non-chain supermarkets and grocery stores are more prevalent in low-income and minority neighborhoods. The study results highlight the importance of various potential public policy measures for improving access to supermarkets that may serve to reduce systematic local area barriers that are shown to exist by race, ethnicity and income.

  15. A Survey of Commercially Available Isomaltooligosaccharide-Based Food Ingredients.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Lee R; Stanley, Sarah; Swann, Peter; Oswald, Jack

    2017-02-01

    Isomaltooligosaccharides (IMOs) are included in many commercially available food products including protein/fiber bars, shakes, and other dietary supplements. Marketed as "high fiber," "prebiotic soluble fiber," and/or as a "low-calorie, low glycemic sweetener," IMO may be present in significant amounts, for example, more than 15 g/item or serving. Herein, high-pressure anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection and high-pressure liquid chromatography with differential refractive index detection are used to compare 7 commercially available IMO-containing bulk food ingredients. The ingredients are typical of those produced either (a) via bacterial fermentation ("fermented" IMO or MIMO) of sucrose in the presence of a maltose acceptor mediated by a glucosyltransferase enzyme (dextransucrase), or (b) via transglycosylation of hydrolyzed starch with α-glucosidase ("industrial" IMO). Analysis of the results with respect to digestibility suggests that the potential glycemic impact of the ingredients and products containing "industrial" IMO may be inconsistent with the product labeling and/or certificates of analysis with respect to overall fiber content, prebiotic fiber content, and glycemic response and are thus inappropriate for diabetic patients and those on low-carbohydrate (for example, ketogenic) diets. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. Availability of vitamin B6 from different food sources.

    PubMed

    Roth-Maier, Dora A; Kettler, Susanne I; Kirchgessner, Manfred

    2002-03-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the precaecal digestibility of vitamin B6 from selected food sources including eggs, bananas, white cabbage, corn, milk powder, fish, barley, soybeans, brown rice, wheat bran, brewer's yeast, rye and soybean meal. These foods were chosen for their relevance in human and animal nutrition and prepared as they are usually eaten by humans. As confirmed by further investigations the precaecal digestibility is a valuable measure for determining the availability of native B-vitamins. Therefore, pigs were fitted with an end-to-end ileo-rectal anastomosis for digesta passing straight from ileum to rectum, thus avoiding endogenous vitamin synthesis by the colon. Three weeks after surgery the digestibility experiments were carried out during which the animals were fed various experimental diets for a period of 12 days and digesta were collected quantitatively twice a day during the final 5 days of this period. The concentration of vitamin B6 in foods and chyme was determined by high pressure liquid chromatography. Precaecal digestibility of vitamin B6 from all tested food sources ranged from 51 to 91% in the following order: cabbage diet > banana diet > fish diet > milk powder diet > brewer's yeast diet > soybeans diet > soybean meal diet > egg diet/corn diet > barley diet > wheat bran diet > rye diet. Only boiled brown rice had a very low vitamin B6 availability of 16%. The digestibility of vitamin B6 from plant products (excluding the rice) was on average 10% lower when compared with animal products (71 versus 79%).

  17. Long-term trends in food availability, food prices, and obesity in Samoa.

    PubMed

    Seiden, Andrew; Hawley, Nicola L; Schulz, Dirk; Raifman, Sarah; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2012-01-01

    To describe long-term food availability and prices from 1961 to 2007 and body mass index (BMI) trends from 1980 to 2010 in Samoa, and to contextualize these trends within political, economic, cultural, behavioral, and climatic influences. National level data on food availability and pricing were obtained from the open access database FAO (http://faostat.fao.org). Data for Samoa were collected from annual food balance sheets available for the period 1961-2007. Mean BMI for Samoan men and women aged 35-44 years of age is reported from four different time periods, 1979-1982, 1991, 2003, and 2010. Total energy availability increased substantially, by 47%, with more than 900 extra calories available per capita per day in 2007 than in 1961. Many of these extra calories are supplied by dietary fat, the availability of which rose by a proportionally greater amount, 73%. Availability of both meat and vegetable oils rose substantially. Poultry meat increased the most proportionally, from 10 to 117 kcal per capita per day. Coconut products, fruits, and starchy root crops-all locally grown-showed little to no increase over this time. As import prices for poultry and mutton increased their availability decreased, but the availability of vegetable oils rose despite a rise in their price. Mean BMI for men and women aged 35-44 years rose 18% rise from 1980 to 2010. These long-term trends in food availability and prices, and the temporal pattern of BMI provide national level data for understanding the process of the nutritional transition in Samoa. Further work on consumer food prices, diet, food security, and health is needed to further contextualize the transformation of the local food system in Samoa. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Long-term trends in food availability, food prices, and obesity in Samoa

    PubMed Central

    Seiden, Andrew; Hawley, Nicola; Schulz, Dirk; Raifman, Sarah; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To describe long term food availability and prices from 1961 to 2007 and BMI trends from 1980–2010 in Samoa, and to contextualize these trends within political, economic, cultural, behavioral, and climatic influences. Methods National level data on food availability and pricing were obtained from the open access database FAO (http://faostat.fao.org). Data for Samoa were collected from annual food balance sheets available for the period 1961 to 2007. Mean BMI for Samoan men and women ages 35–44 years of age is reported from four different time periods, 1979–82, 1991, 2003, and 2010. Results Total energy availability increased substantially, by 47%, with more than 900 extra calories available per capita per day in 2007 than in 1961. Many of these extra calories are supplied by dietary fat, the availability of which rose by a proportionally greater amount, 73%. Availability of both meat and vegetable oils rose substantially. Poultry meat increased the most proportionally, from 10 to 117 kcal per capita per day. Coconut products, fruit and starchy root crops – all locally grown – showed little to no increase over this time. As import prices for poultry and mutton increased their availability decreased, but the availability of vegetable oils rose despite a rise in their price. Mean BMI for men and women ages 35–44 years rose 18% rise from 1980–2010. Conclusions These long-term trends in food availability and prices, and the temporal pattern of BMI provide national level data for understanding the process of the nutrition transition in Samoa. Further work on consumer food prices, diet, food security and health is needed to further contextualize the transformation of the local food system in Samoa. PMID:22371334

  19. Neighborhood impact on healthy food availability and pricing in food stores.

    PubMed

    Krukowski, Rebecca A; West, Delia Smith; Harvey-Berino, Jean; Elaine Prewitt, T

    2010-06-01

    Availability and price of healthy foods in food stores has the potential to influence purchasing patterns, dietary intake, and weight status of individuals. This study examined whether demographic factors of the store neighborhood or store size have an impact on the availability and price of healthy foods in sample of grocery stores and supermarkets. The Nutrition Environment Measures Study-Store (NEMS-S) instrument, a standardized observational survey, was utilized to evaluate food stores (N = 42) in a multi-site (Vermont and Arkansas) study in 2008. Census data associated with store census tract (median household income and proportion African-American) were used to characterize store neighborhood and number of cash registers was used to quantify store size. Median household income was significantly associated with the NEMS healthy food availability score (r = 0.36, P < 0.05); neither racial composition (r = -0.23, P = 0.14) nor store size (r = 0.27, P = 0.09) were significantly related to the Availability score. Larger store size (r = 0.40, P < 0.01) was significantly associated with the NEMS-S Price scores, indicating more favorable prices for healthier items; neither racial composition nor median household income were significantly related to the Price score (P's > 0.05). Even among supermarkets, healthier foods are less available in certain neighborhoods, although, when available, the quality of healthier options did not differ, suggesting that targeting availability may offer promise for policy initiatives. Furthermore, increasing access to larger stores that can offer lower prices for healthier foods may provide another avenue for enhancing food environments to lower disease risk.

  20. Prepared Food Availability in U.S. Food Stores: A National Study.

    PubMed

    Zenk, Shannon N; Powell, Lisa M; Isgor, Zeynep; Rimkus, Leah; Barker, Dianne C; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2015-10-01

    Prepared, ready-to-eat foods comprise a significant part of Americans' diets and are increasingly obtained from food stores. Yet, little is known about the availability and healthfulness of prepared, ready-to-eat food offerings at stores. This study examines associations among community characteristics (racial/ethnic composition, poverty level, urbanicity) and availability of both healthier and less-healthy prepared foods in U.S. supermarkets, grocery stores, and convenience stores. Observational data were collected from 4,361 stores in 317 communities spanning 42 states in 2011 and 2012. Prepared food availability was assessed via one healthier food (salads or salad bar), three less-healthy items (pizza, hot dog/hamburger, taco/burrito/taquito), and one cold sandwich item. In 2014, multivariable generalized linear models were used to test associations with community characteristics. Overall, 63.6% of stores sold prepared foods, with 20.0% offering prepared salads and 36.4% offering at least one less-healthy item. Rural stores were 26% less likely to carry prepared salads (prevalence ratio [PR]=0.74, 95% CI=0.62, 0.88) and 14% more likely to carry at least one less-healthy prepared food item (PR=1.14, 95% CI=1.00, 1.30). Convenience stores in high-poverty communities were less likely to carry prepared salads than those in low-poverty communities (PR=0.64, 95% CI=0.47, 0.87). Among supermarkets, prepared salads were more likely to be carried in majority-white, low-poverty communities than in non-white, high-poverty communities. Increasing the healthfulness of prepared foods within stores may offer an important opportunity to improve the food environment. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Interactions between oxygen homeostasis, food availability, and hydrogen sulfide signaling

    PubMed Central

    Iranon, Nicole N.; Miller, Dana L.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to sense and respond to stressful conditions is essential to maintain organismal homeostasis. It has long been recognized that stress response factors that improve survival in changing conditions can also influence longevity. In this review, we discuss different strategies used by animals in response to decreased O2 (hypoxia) to maintain O2 homeostasis, and consider interactions between hypoxia responses, nutritional status, and H2S signaling. O2 is an essential environmental nutrient for almost all metazoans as it plays a fundamental role in development and cellular metabolism. However, the physiological response(s) to hypoxia depend greatly on the amount of O2 available. Animals must sense declining O2 availability to coordinate fundamental metabolic and signaling pathways. It is not surprising that factors involved in the response to hypoxia are also involved in responding to other key environmental signals, particularly food availability. Recent studies in mammals have also shown that the small gaseous signaling molecule hydrogen sulfide (H2S) protects against cellular damage and death in hypoxia. These results suggest that H2S signaling also integrates with hypoxia response(s). Many of the signaling pathways that mediate the effects of hypoxia, food deprivation, and H2S signaling have also been implicated in the control of lifespan. Understanding how these pathways are coordinated therefore has the potential to reveal new cellular and organismal homeostatic mechanisms that contribute to longevity assurance in animals. PMID:23233860

  2. Food availability is expressed through physiological stress indicators in nestling white ibis: A food supplementation experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herring, G.; Cook, Mark I.; Gawlik, D.E.; Call, Erynn M.

    2011-01-01

    Physiological responses to environmental stress such as adrenocortical hormones and cellular stress proteins have recently emerged as potentially powerful tools for investigating physiological effects of avian food limitation. However, little is known about the physiological stress responses of free-living nestling birds to environmental variation in food availability. We experimentally tested how hydrologically mediated changes in food availability affect the physiological stress responses of juvenile white ibises Eudocimus albus in a fluctuating wetland. We provided supplementary food to free-living nestlings during 2years with contrasting hydrologic and food availability conditions, and used plasma (PCORT) and faecal (FCORT) corticosterone and heat shock proteins (HSP60 and HSP70) from first-hatched (A-nestlings) and second-hatched (B-nestlings) to detect relatively short- to long-term responses to food limitation. Nestling physiological stress responses were relatively low in all treatments during the year with optimal food availability, but PCORT, FCORT and HSP60 levels increased during the poor food year. FCORT and HSP60 responses were clearly due to nutritional condition as elevated concentrations were evident primarily in control nestlings. Significant year by hatch order interactions for both FCORT and HSP60 revealed that these increases were largely incurred by B-nestlings. FCORT and HSP60 responses were also well developed early in neonatal development and remained elevated for the duration of the experiment suggesting a chronic stress response. PCORT and HSP70 were less informative stress responses. The nutritionally mediated increases in FCORT and HSP60 provide compelling evidence that white ibis nestlings can be physiologically affected by environmental food levels. FCORT and HSP60 are effective indicators of nutritional mediated stress for nestling white ibises and potentially for other species prone to capture or handling stress. ?? 2010 The Authors

  3. 21 CFR 20.120 - Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. 20.120 Section 20.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....120 Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. (a) The Food and...

  4. 21 CFR 20.120 - Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. 20.120 Section 20.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....120 Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. (a) The Food and...

  5. 21 CFR 20.120 - Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. 20.120 Section 20.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....120 Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. (a) The Food and...

  6. 21 CFR 20.120 - Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. 20.120 Section 20.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....120 Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. (a) The Food and...

  7. 21 CFR 20.120 - Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. 20.120 Section 20.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....120 Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. (a) The Food and...

  8. Silver nanoparticle release from commercially available plastic food containers into food simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackevica, Aiga; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are currently being used in many different kinds of consumer products in order to take advantage of their antimicrobial properties. However, the potential migration of silver nanoparticles into food and subsequent consumer exposure has hardly been addressed. In the current study, we investigated four brands of commercially available plastic food storage containers and measured the total amount of silver, particle size and number concentration, and the migration rates into three different food simulants (Milli-Q grade water, 10 % ethanol, and 3 % acetic acid) for 10 days at 40 °C. The experimental setup was made according to the European Commission Directive (EU 10/2011) for articles intended to be in contact with food. The total amount of silver in plastic containers and migration solutions was quantified by ICP-MS analysis, and the size of the migrated particles was investigated by single particle ICP-MS and TEM-EDS. The total mass and median size of released particulate Ag were generally highest in 3 % acetic acid for three out of four food container brands. The total content of silver in the containers varied from 13 to 42 µg/g. The highest migration was observed in the 3 % acetic acid food simulant for all four brands of containers, with total silver release up to 3.1 ng/cm2 after 10 days. In conclusion, the experimental results show that silver has the potential of migrating into food, especially when in contact with more acidic substances.

  9. Food Expenditure and Nutrient Availability in Elderly Households.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hama, Mary Y.; Chern, Wen S.

    1988-01-01

    A model of food expenditure and nutrient consumption is developed and estimated using the data from the elderly supplemental survey to the 1977-78 USDA Nationwide Food Consumption Survey. Results provide strong evidence that elderly households make concurrent decisions on food budgets and nutritional needs. (Author)

  10. Food Expenditure and Nutrient Availability in Elderly Households.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hama, Mary Y.; Chern, Wen S.

    1988-01-01

    A model of food expenditure and nutrient consumption is developed and estimated using the data from the elderly supplemental survey to the 1977-78 USDA Nationwide Food Consumption Survey. Results provide strong evidence that elderly households make concurrent decisions on food budgets and nutritional needs. (Author)

  11. Warming and Resource Availability Shift Food Web Structure and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Mary I.; Piehler, Michael F.; Leech, Dina M.; Anton, Andrea; Bruno, John F.

    2009-01-01

    Climate change disrupts ecological systems in many ways. Many documented responses depend on species' life histories, contributing to the view that climate change effects are important but difficult to characterize generally. However, systematic variation in metabolic effects of temperature across trophic levels suggests that warming may lead to predictable shifts in food web structure and productivity. We experimentally tested the effects of warming on food web structure and productivity under two resource supply scenarios. Consistent with predictions based on universal metabolic responses to temperature, we found that warming strengthened consumer control of primary production when resources were augmented. Warming shifted food web structure and reduced total biomass despite increases in primary productivity in a marine food web. In contrast, at lower resource levels, food web production was constrained at all temperatures. These results demonstrate that small temperature changes could dramatically shift food web dynamics and provide a general, species-independent mechanism for ecological response to environmental temperature change. PMID:19707271

  12. Molecular diversity of bacteria in commercially available "Spirulina" food supplements.

    PubMed

    Vardaka, Elisabeth; Kormas, Konstantinos A; Katsiapi, Matina; Genitsaris, Savvas; Moustaka-Gouni, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Arthrospira is among the most well-known food supplements worldwide known as "Spirulina." While it is a widely recognized health-promoting natural product, there are no reports on the molecular diversity of commercially available brands of "Spirulina" supplements and the occurrence of other cyanobacterial and heterotrophic bacterial microorganisms in these products. In this study, 454-pyrosequencing analysis of the total bacterial occurrence in 31 brands of "Spirulina" dietary supplements from the Greek market was applied for the first time. In all samples, operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of Arthrospira platensis were the predominant cyanobacteria. Some products contained additional cyanobacterial OTUs including a few known potentially toxic taxa. Moreover, 469 OTUs were detected in all 31 products collectively, with most of them being related to the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia. All samples included heterotrophic bacterial OTUs, ranging from 9-157 per product. Among the most common OTUs were ones closely related to taxa known for causing health issues (i.e., Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Vibrio, Aeromonas, Clostridium, Bacillus, Fusobacterium, Enterococcus). The observed high cyanobacterial and heterotrophic bacterial OTUs richness in the final product is a point for further research on the growth and processing of Arthrospira biomass for commercial purposes.

  13. Potential Impacts of Food Production on Freshwater Availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Shinjiro; Hanasaki, Naota; Itsubo, Norihiro; Kim, Hyungjun; Oki, Taikan

    2014-05-01

    The sustainability of freshwater use is often evaluated based on the total volume of water consumption or withdrawal. However, the renewable freshwater resource and potential impacts of water depletion differ with location and water source. In addition, most estimates of the environmental impacts of water use have focused on depletion from a single-source perspective without separating geographically different water sources. Therefore, comprehensive potential impacts from multiple water sources remain unclear. In this study, we quantified the potential impacts of the global food production on freshwater availability (water availability footprint), applying the Water Availability Factor (fwa). Each water source including rainfall, surface water, and groundwater had individual fwa, which is calculated based on the geophysical hydrological cycle, to reflect the differences among renewable freshwater resources by place and source. The fwa for each water source was estimated based on land area or time period required to obtain the reference volume of freshwater. The reference volume was regarded as 1 m3 of rainfall over an area of 1.0 m2 (1,000 mm/year), based on the global mean annual precipitation. This concept is consistent with the Ecological Footprint (EF), which measures how much biologically productive land area is required to provide the resources consumed. The EF concept is measured in global hectares, a standardized unit equal to one hectare with global average bioproductivity. We found that the current agriculture consumes freshwater resources at 1.3 times the rapid rate than sustainable water use. This rate can also indicate environmental water scarcity. Among environmentally water-scarce countries, well-financed countries tend to import cereal products as virtual water to compensate for their domestic water resources. Among water-abundant countries, well-financed countries tend to export cereal products by exploiting their freshwater availability. The fwa

  14. Stress hormones link food availability and population processes in seabirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Piatt, John F.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Catastrophic population declines in marine top predators in the northern Pacific have been hypothesized to result from nutritional stress affecting reproduction and survival of individuals. However, empirical evidence for food-related stress in wild animals is frequently lacking or inconclusive. We used a field endocrinology approach to measure stress, identify its causes, and examine a link between stress and population processes in the common murre Uria aalge. We tested the empirical relationship between variations in the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) and food abundance, reproduction, and persistence of individuals at declining and increasing colonies in Cook Inlet, Alaska, from 1996 to 2001. We found that CORT secretion in murres is independent of colony, reproductive stage effects, and gender of individuals, but is directly negatively correlated with abundance of their food. Baseline CORT reflected current food abundance, whereas acute stress-induced CORT reflected food abundance in the previous month. As food supply diminished, increased CORT secretion predicted a decrease in reproductive performance. At a declining colony, increased baseline levels of CORT during reproduction predicted disappearance of individuals from the population. Persistence of individuals in a growing colony was independent of CORT during reproduction. The obtained results support the hypothesis that nutritional stress during reproduction affects reproduction and survival in seabirds. This study provides the first unequivocal evidence for CORT secretion as a mechanistic link between fluctuations in food abundance and population processes in seabirds. ?? Inter-Research 2007.

  15. Simulation of water available for runoff in clearcut forest openings during rain-on-snow events in the western Cascade Range of Oregon and Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Heeswijk, Marijke; Kimball, J.S.; Marks, Danny

    1996-01-01

    Rain-on-snow events are common on mountain slopes within the transient-snow zone of the Pacific Northwest. These events make more water available for runoff than does precipitation alone by melting the snowpack and by adding a small amount of condensate to the snowpack. In forest openings (such as those resulting from clearcut logging), the amount of snow that accumulates and the turbulent- energy input to the snowpack are greater than below forest stands. Both factors are believed to contribute to a greater amount of water available for runoff during rain-on-snow events in forest openings than forest stands. Because increased water available for runoff may lead to increased downstream flooding and erosion, knowledge of the amount of snowmelt that can occur during rain on snow and the processes that control snowmelt in forest openings is useful when making land-use decisions. Snow accumulation and melt were simulated for clearcut conditions only, using an enery- balance approach that accounts for the most important energy and mass exchanges between a snowpack and its environment. Meteorological measurements provided the input for the simulations. Snow accumulation and melt were not simulated in forest stands because interception of precipitation processes are too complex to simulate with a numerical model without making simplifying assumptions. Such a model, however, would need to be extensively tested against representative observations, which were not available for this study. Snowmelt simulated during three rain-on-snow events (measured in a previous study in a clearcut in the transient-snow zone of the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest in Oregon) demonstrated that melt generation is most sensitive to turbulent- energy exchanges between the air and the snowpack surface. As a result, the most important climate variable that controls snowmelt is wind speed. Air temperature, however, is a significant variable also. The wind speeds were light, with a maximum of 3

  16. 78 FR 68852 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Acrylamide in Foods; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Acrylamide in Foods; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug...: Acrylamide in Foods.'' The draft guidance is intended to provide information that may help growers...

  17. Cronobacter spp. in commercially available dried food in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ogihara, Hirokazu; Kiribe, Nami; Fukuda, Noriko; Furukawa, Soichi; Morinaga, Yasushi; Igimi, Shizunobu

    2014-01-01

    A total of 140 samples of dried food sold in Japan were surveyed and tested for the presence of viable bacteria, distribution of coliform bacteria, and contamination with Cronobacter spp. The samples were purchased from retail stores in Tokyo and Kanagawa Prefecture. Out of the 140 samples tested, viable bacteria were found in 135 samples and coliform bacteria were found in 23 samples. Qualitative and quantitative testing revealed the presence of Cronobacter spp. in 35 (25.0%) and 11 samples (7.9%), respectively. The most commonly found Cronobacter species were C. sakazakii, with the next most common, in order, being C. muytjensii and C. turicensis. The actual numbers of Cronobacter species in the tested dried foods were low, but the widespread contamination particularly in dried herbs and vegetables was confirmed.

  18. Food Availability in School Stores in Seoul, South Korea After Implementation of Food- and Nutrient-Based Policies.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seul Ki; Frongillo, Edward A; Blake, Christine E; Thrasher, James F

    2017-07-01

    To improve school store food environments, the South Korean government implemented 2 policies restricting unhealthy food sales in school stores. A food-based policy enacted in 2007 restricts specific food sales (soft drinks); and a nutrient-based policy enacted in 2009 restricts energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) food sales. The purpose of the study was to assess how the 2 policies have changed the school store food environment. Foods sold in school stores in Seoul, South Korea were observed before (2006, 15 stores) and after (2013, 12 stores) implementation of the school store policies. Food availability in school stores in 2006 and 2013 was compared and EDNP food availability in 2013 was examined. When controlling the total number of foods sold in school stores and school characteristics, the mean number of soft drinks sold in a school store in 2013 (0.3 items) was significantly lower than in 2006 (1.9 items, p = .032). Soft drinks were still available in 50% of school stores observed in 2013, with all school stores selling EDNP foods in 2013. South Korean policies have had a modest influence on availability of unhealthy school store foods. Alternative strategies to improve school store food environments are needed. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  19. Availability of more healthful food alternatives in traditional, convenience, and nontraditional types of food stores in two rural Texas counties.

    PubMed

    Bustillos, Brenda; Sharkey, Joseph R; Anding, Jenna; McIntosh, Alex

    2009-05-01

    Limited research has focused on the availability of more healthful food alternatives in traditional food stores (supermarkets and grocery stores) in rural areas. Current market trends suggest that food items may be available for purchase in stores other than traditional food stores. An observational survey was developed and used on-site to document the availability and variety of fruit and vegetables (fresh, canned, and frozen), meats (meat, poultry, fish, and eggs), dairy (milk, yogurt, and cheese), and grains (whole grains and refined grains) in all traditional food stores, convenience stores, and nontraditional food stores (dollar stores and mass merchandisers) in two rural Texas counties. Descriptive statistics and t tests identified that although the widest selection of more healthful food items was available in supermarkets, not all supermarkets carried all items. Grocery stores carried less variety of fresh fruits (8+/-0.7 vs 4.7+/-0.3; P<0.01) and vegetables (10.7+/-0.2 vs 6+/-0; P<0.001) than supermarkets. Fresh fruits and vegetables were not readily available in convenience or nontraditional food stores. Among convenience and nontraditional food stores, "dollar" stores offered the best variety of more healthful canned fruits and vegetables, whole-wheat bread, and whole-grain cereal. Mass merchandisers and dollar stores offered a greater variety of more healthful types of canned tuna and poultry, reduced-fat and skim milk, and low-fat tortillas. In these rural counties, traditional food stores offered greater availability of more healthful food choices across food groups. More healthful food choices in canned fruits and vegetables, canned meat and fish, milk, and grains were also available in dollar stores, mass merchandisers, and convenience stores. Results suggest that a complete understanding of the food environment, especially in rural areas, requires knowledge of the availability and variety of healthful food in all types of stores that are accessible

  20. Mapping Access to Community-Developed Healthy Food Baskets Including Cost and Availability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginn, Alison; Majumdar, Anne; Carr, Marimba; Eastwood, Ginny; Menger, Beth

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food security is a topical issue but one that can be difficult to measure. Objective: To develop a community-approved food basket tool and use this to investigate the availability and affordability of a healthy diet in a multicultural urban setting. Design: A 7-day healthy food basket (HFB) containing 96 foods for six household types…

  1. Mapping Access to Community-Developed Healthy Food Baskets Including Cost and Availability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginn, Alison; Majumdar, Anne; Carr, Marimba; Eastwood, Ginny; Menger, Beth

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food security is a topical issue but one that can be difficult to measure. Objective: To develop a community-approved food basket tool and use this to investigate the availability and affordability of a healthy diet in a multicultural urban setting. Design: A 7-day healthy food basket (HFB) containing 96 foods for six household types…

  2. To eat or not to eat: Effects of food availability on reward system activity during food picture viewing.

    PubMed

    Blechert, Jens; Klackl, Johannes; Miedl, Stephan F; Wilhelm, Frank H

    2016-04-01

    Neuroimaging studies have started to explore the role of food characteristics (e.g., calorie-content) and psychological factors (e.g., restrained eating, craving) for the human appetitive system, motivated by the significant health implications of food-choice, overeating and overweight/obesity. However, one key aspect of modern food environments, food availability, especially of high energy foods, has not been adequately modeled in experimental research. Food that is immediately available for consumption could elicit stronger reward system activity and associated cognitive control than food that is not currently available for consumption and this could vary as a function of energy density. To examine this question, 32 healthy participants (16 women) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while passively viewing available foods - i.e. foods that could be eaten during and after the experiment - and unavailable foods of either high or low-caloric density in a 2 × 2 design. Available compared to unavailable foods elicited higher palatability ratings as well as stronger neural activation in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), amygdala, and left caudate nucleus as well as in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) - and thus structures implicated in reward and appetitive motivation as well as cognitive control, respectively. Availability effects in the caudate were mainly attributable to the high calorie condition (availability × calorie density interaction). These neuroimaging results support the contention that foods are particularly rewarding when immediately available and particularly so when high in caloric density. Thus, our results are consistent with health promoting interventions utilizing a nudging approach, i.e. aiming at decreasing accessibility of high calorie and increasing accessibility of low calorie foods in daily life. Results also imply that controlling/manipulating food availability may be an important methodological aspect in neuroscientific

  3. The impact of increased food availability on survival of a long-distance migratory bird.

    PubMed

    Seward, Adam M; Beale, Colin M; Gilbert, Lucy; Jones, T Hefin; Thomas, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Temperature-, rainfall- and habitat-driven change in food availability is one likely mechanism by which anthropogenic factors may affect animal population dynamics and species distributions. Long-distance migratory birds must synchronize their migrations with food availability at locations hundreds or thousands of kilometers apart, so changes in the overall abundance of food or the phenology of peaks in food availability may be critical factors influencing annual survival. In this study we used experimental food supplementation at a breeding site to examine and compare the impact of changing food supply on annual survival of adult migratory birds and their offspring. We provided supplemental food to Northern Wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe) breeding on Fair Isle, UK, to infer the sensitivity of annual survival to increases in natural food availability. Food-supplemented wheatears exhibited higher rates of annual survival than control wheatears, and the strength of this effect varied with age. Food supplementation led to 1.56 times higher annual survival of juveniles and 1.22 times higher survival of adults. Survival of juveniles was related to their own food availability as fledglings, but not to whether their parents were food-supplemented or unfed control adults. This increased survival, combined with increased breeding productivity associated with food supplementation, implies that an increase in natural food availability, of the magnitude simulated in our experiment, would increase the population growth rate of wheatears on Fair Isle from approximately lambda = 0.93 (a contracting population) to lambda = 1.14 (an expanding population).

  4. Availability of limited service food outlets surrounding schools in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Black, Jennifer L; Day, Meghan

    2012-06-05

    The purpose of this study was to provide a descriptive profile of the availability of limited service food outlets surrounding public schools in British Columbia, Canada. Data from the 2010 Canadian Business Data Files were used to identify limited service food outlets including fast food outlets, beverage and snack food stores, delis and convenience stores. The number of food outlets within 800 metres of 1,392 public schools and the distance from schools to the nearest food outlets were assessed. Multivariate regression models examined the associations between food outlet availability and school-level characteristics. In 2010, over half of the public schools in BC (54%) were located within a 10-12 minute walk from at least one limited service food outlet. The median closest distance to a food outlet was just over 1 km (1016 m). Schools comprised of students living in densely populated urban neighbourhoods and neighbourhoods characterized by lower socio-economic status were more likely to have access to limited service food outlets within walking distance. After adjusting for school-level median family income and population density, larger schools had higher odds of exposure to food vendors compared to schools with fewer students. The availability of and proximity to limited service food outlets vary widely across schools in British Columbia and school-level characteristics are significantly associated with food outlet availability. Additional research is needed to understand how food environment exposures inside and surrounding schools impact students' attitudes, food choices and dietary quality.

  5. BOREAS HYD-3 Snow Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, Janet P.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Davis, Robert E.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-3 team collected several data sets related to the hydrology of forested areas. This data set contains measurements of snow depth, snow density in three cm intervals, an integrated snow pack density and snow water equivalent (SWE), and snow pack physical properties from snow pit evaluation taken in 1994 and 1996. The data were collected from several sites in both the southern study area (SSA) and the northern study area (NSA). A variety of standard tools were used to measure the snow pack properties, including a meter stick (snow depth), a 100 cc snow density cutter, a dial stem thermometer, and the Canadian snow sampler as used by HYD-4 to obtain a snow pack-integrated measure of SWE. This study was undertaken to predict spatial distributions of snow properties important to the hydrology, remote sensing signatures, and the transmissivity of gases through the snow. The data are available in tabular ASCII files. The snow measurement data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  6. Small food stores and availability of nutritious foods: a comparison of database and in-store measures, Northern California, 2009.

    PubMed

    Kersten, Ellen; Laraia, Barbara; Kelly, Maggi; Adler, Nancy; Yen, Irene H

    2012-01-01

    Small food stores are prevalent in urban neighborhoods, but the availability of nutritious food at such stores is not well known. The objective of this study was to determine whether data from 3 sources would yield a single, homogenous, healthful food store category that can be used to accurately characterize community nutrition environments for public health research. We conducted in-store surveys in 2009 on store type and the availability of nutritious food in a sample of nonchain food stores (n = 102) in 6 predominantly urban counties in Northern California (Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Sacramento, San Francisco, and Santa Clara). We compared survey results with commercial database information and neighborhood sociodemographic data by using independent sample t tests and classification and regression trees. Sampled small food stores yielded a heterogeneous group of stores in terms of store type and nutritious food options. Most stores were identified as convenience (54%) or specialty stores (22%); others were small grocery stores (19%) and large grocery stores (5%). Convenience and specialty stores were smaller and carried fewer nutritious and fresh food items. The availability of nutritious food and produce was better in stores in neighborhoods that had a higher percentage of white residents and a lower population density but did not differ significantly by neighborhood income. Commercial databases alone may not adequately categorize small food stores and the availability of nutritious foods. Alternative measures are needed to more accurately inform research and policies that seek to address disparities in diet-related health conditions.

  7. Associations of food preferences and household food availability with dietary intake and quality in youth with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lipsky, LM; Nansel, TR; Haynie, DL; Mehta, SN; Laffel, LMB

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine associations of food preferences and availability with dietary intake in youth with type 1 diabetes, for whom dietary intake and quality are essential to disease management. Youth (n=252, age 13.2±2.8y, diabetes duration 6.3±3.4y) reported preferences and parents reported household availability for 61 food items categorized as fruit, vegetables, whole grains, refined grains and fats/sweets. Youth energy-adjusted daily servings of food groups, Healthy Eating Index-2005 and Nutrient Rich Foods 9.3 scores were calculated from 3-day diet records. Associations of dietary intake and quality variables with preference and availability of all food groups were evaluated by linear regressions adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. Fruit and whole grain intake were positively related to corresponding preference and availability; whole grain intake and refined grain availability were inversely related. Vegetable, refined grain and fats/sweets intake were unrelated to preference and availability. Diet quality measures were related positively to fruit preference and whole grain availability and inversely to refined grains availability. Findings indicate associations of dietary intake with food preference and availability vary by food group in youth with type 1 diabetes. Measures of overall dietary quality were more consistently associated with food group availability than preferences. PMID:22595289

  8. Associations of food preferences and household food availability with dietary intake and quality in youth with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lipsky, L M; Nansel, T R; Haynie, D L; Mehta, S N; Laffel, L M B

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine associations of food preferences and availability with dietary intake in youth with type 1 diabetes, for whom dietary intake and quality are essential to disease management. Youth (n=252, age 13.2±2.8 y, diabetes duration 6.3±3.4 y) reported preferences and parents reported household availability for 61 food items categorized as fruit, vegetables, whole grains, refined grains and fats/sweets. Youth energy-adjusted daily servings of food groups, Healthy Eating Index-2005 and Nutrient Rich Foods 9.3 scores were calculated from 3-day diet records. Associations of dietary intake and quality variables with preference and availability of all food groups were evaluated by linear regressions adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. Fruit and whole grain intake were positively related to corresponding preference and availability; whole grain intake and refined grain availability were inversely related. Vegetable, refined grain and fats/sweets intake were unrelated to preference and availability. Diet quality measures were related positively to fruit preference and whole grain availability and inversely to refined grains availability. Findings indicate associations of dietary intake with food preference and availability vary by food group in youth with type 1 diabetes. Measures of overall dietary quality were more consistently associated with food group availability than preferences.

  9. Availability of healthier options in traditional and nontraditional rural fast-food outlets

    PubMed Central

    Creel, Jennifer S; Sharkey, Joseph R; McIntosh, Alex; Anding, Jenna; Huber, J Charles

    2008-01-01

    Background Food prepared away from home has become increasingly popular to U.S. families, and may contribute to obesity. Sales have been dominated by fast food outlets, where meals are purchased for dining away from home or in the home. Although national chain affiliated fast-food outlets are considered the main source for fast food, fast foods are increasingly available in convenience stores and supermarkets/grocery stores. In rural areas, these nontraditional fast-food outlets may provide most of the opportunities for procurement of fast foods. Methods Using all traditional and nontraditio nal fast-food outlets identified in six counties in rural Texas, the type and number of regular and healthiermenu options were surveyed using on-site observation in all food venues that were primarily fast food, supermarket/grocery store, and convenience store and compared with 2005 Dietary Guidelines. Results Traditional fast-food outlets represented 84 (41%) of the 205 opportunities for procurement of fast food; 109 (53.2%) were convenience stores and 12 (5.8%) supermarkets/grocery stores. Although a s imilar variety of regular breakfast and lunch/dinner entrées were available in traditional fast-food outlets and convenience stores, the variety of healthier breakfast and lunch/dinner entrées was significantly greater in fast food outlets. Compared with convenience stores, supermarkets/grocery stores provided a greater variety of regular and healthier entrées and lunch/dinner side dishes. Conclusion Convenience stores and supermarkets/grocery stores more than double the potential access to fast foods in this rural area than traditional fast-food outlets alone; however, traditional fast food outlets offer greater opportunity for healthier fast food options than convenience stores. A complete picture of fast food environment and the availability of healthier fast food options are essential to understand environmental influences on diet and health outcomes, and identify

  10. Available amino acid score for evaluating protein quality of foods.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, G

    1984-01-01

    Amino acid scores corrected for true digestibility of individual amino acids (as determined by rat balance method) were termed "available amino acid scores" in the present investigation. Available amino acid scores were calculated for 7 protein sources and their 10 supplementary or complementary mixtures which have been tested in collaborative amino acid and rat growth assays for evaluating protein quality. The available amino acid scores were as follows: casein + methionine (100); egg white (100); rapeseed protein concentrate, RPC (94); casein (93); beef (89); soya assay protein, SAP (62); pea flour (61); whole wheat flour, WW (38); SAP + methionine (88); pea flour + methionine (72); WW + lysine (67); WW + casein (84); WW + egg white (79); WW + RPC (65); WW + beef (77); WW + SAP (70); and WW + pea flour (75). These scores were similar to the collaborative relative NPR values; the differences were less than 10 units (2-9 units) in most cases. The positive correlation (r = 0.92) between available amino acid scores and relative net protein ratio (RNPR, a rat growth method) values was highly significant (P less than 0.01) and the origin of the regression line (y = 0.92x + 1.88) was not significantly different from zero. Amino acid bioavailability has previously been a problem, preventing widespread acceptance of amino acid score. Available amino acid score solves this problem.

  11. Water-soluble organic carbon in snow and ice deposited at Alpine, Greenland, and Antarctic sites: a critical review of available data and their atmospheric relevance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legrand, M.; Preunkert, S.; Jourdain, B.; Guilhermet, J.; Fa{ï}n, X.; Alekhina, I.; Petit, J. R.

    2013-09-01

    While it is now recognized that organic matter dominates the present-day atmospheric aerosol load over continents, its sources remain poorly known. The studies of organic species or organic fractions trapped in ice cores may help to overcome this lack of knowledge. Available data on the dissolved (or total) organic carbon (DOC or TOC) content of snow and ice often appear largely inconsistent, and, until now, no critical review has been conducted to understand the causes of these inconsistencies. To draw a more consistent picture of the organic carbon amount present in solid precipitation that accumulates on cold glaciers, we here review available data and, when needed, complete the data set with analyses of selected samples. The different data sets are then discussed by considering the age (modern versus pre-industrial, Holocene versus Last glacial Maximum) and type (surface snow, firn, or ice) of investigated samples, the deployed method, and the applied contamination control. Finally, the OC (DOC or TOC) levels of Antarctic, Greenland, and Alpine ice cores are compared and discussed with respect to natural (biomass burning, vegetation emissions) and anthropogenic sources (fossil fuel combustion) contributing to atmospheric OC aerosol.

  12. Water-soluble organic carbon in snow and ice deposited at Alpine, Greenland, and Antarctic sites: a critical review of available data and their atmospheric relevance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legrand, M.; Preunkert, S.; Jourdain, B.; Guilhermet, J.; Fain, X.; Alekhina, I.; Petit, J. R.

    2013-05-01

    While it is now recognized that organic matter dominates the present-day atmospheric aerosol load over continents, its sources remain poorly known. The studies of organic species or organic fractions trapped in ice cores may help to overcome this lack of knowledge. Available data on the dissolved (or total) organic carbon (DOC or TOC) content of snow and ice often appear largely inconsistent and until now no critical review was conducted to understand the causes of these inconsistencies. To draw a more consistent picture of the organic carbon amount present in solid precipitation that accumulates on cold glaciers, we here review available data and, when needed, complete the data set with analyses of selected samples. The different data sets are then discussed by considering the age (modern versus pre-industrial, Holocene versus last glacial maximum) and type (surface snow, firn, or ice) of investigated samples, the deployed method (DOC, TOC) and the applied contamination control. Finally, the OC levels of Antarctic, Greenland and Alpine ice cores are compared and discussed with respect to natural (biomass burning, vegetation emissions) and anthropogenic source (fossil fuel combustion) contributions to atmospheric OC aerosol.

  13. Regional variability in food availability for Arctic marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Bluhm, Bodil A; Gradinger, Rolf

    2008-03-01

    -feeding, ice-dependent AMM such as walrus would decrease. New pelagic feeding grounds may open up to AMM and subarctic marine mammal species in the High Arctic basins while nearshore waters might provide less abundant food in the future.

  14. Phytochemical profile of commercially available food plant powders: their potential role in healthier food reformulations.

    PubMed

    Neacsu, M; Vaughan, N; Raikos, V; Multari, S; Duncan, G J; Duthie, G G; Russell, W R

    2015-07-15

    Reformulation of existing processed food or formulation of new foods using natural products (plant-based) will inherently confer to new products with less calories, fat, salt, phosphates and other synthetic components, and higher amounts of fibre, antioxidants, vitamins and other beneficial components. Plant ingredients, such as food plant powders, are currently being used in food manufacturing, predominantly for flavouring and colouring purposes. To expand their use as a food ingredient, freeze-dried powders representing major vegetable groups were characterised by targeted LC-MS/MS analysis of their phytochemicals. All the plant powders were found to be rich in flavonoids, phenolic acids and derivatives; total content in these compounds varied from around 130 mg kg(-1) (green pea) to around 930 mg kg(-1) (spinach). The food plant powders' phytochemical content represents valuable information for the food industry in the development of healthier novel foods and for the reformulation of existing food products in relation to antioxidants, food preservatives and alternatives to nitrite use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Using multiple household food inventories to measure food availability in the home over 30 days: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The consumption of foods, especially by children, may be determined by the types of foods that are available in the home. Because most studies use a single point of data collection to determine the types of foods in the home, which can miss the change in availability when resources are not available, the primary objective of this study was to determine the extent to which the weekly availability of household food items changed over one month by 1) developing the methodology for the direct observation of the presence and amount of food items in the home; 2) conducting five in-home household food inventories over a thirty-day period in a small convenience sample; and 3) determining the frequency that food items were present in the participating households. Methods After the development and pre-testing of the 251-item home observation guide that used direct observation to determine the presence and amount of food items in the home (refrigerator, freezer, pantry, elsewhere), two trained researchers recruited a convenience sample of 9 households (44.4% minority); administered a baseline questionnaire (personal info, shopping habits, food resources, and food security); and conducted 5 in-home assessments (7-day interval) over a 30-day period. Each in-home assessment included food-related activities since the last assessment, and an observational survey of types and amounts of foods present. Results Complete data were collected from all 9 women (32.8 y ± 6.0; 3 married; 4 ± 1.6 adults/children in household; 4 received food assistance; and 6 had very low food security) and their households. Weekly grocery purchases (place, amount, and purpose) varied from once (n = 1) to every week (n = 5); 4 used fast food 2-3 times/wk for 4 weeks. The weekly presence and amounts of fresh and processed fruits and vegetables and dairy varied. Conclusions The feasibility of conducting multiple in-home assessments was confirmed with 100% retention of participants through 5 in

  16. The potency of fluvoxamine to reduce ethanol self-administration decreases with concurrent availability of food.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, Brett C; Pinkston, Jonathan W; Lamb, Richard J

    2012-04-01

    The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluvoxamine reduces responding for ethanol at lower doses than responding for food when each is available in separate components or separate groups of rats. However, when both are available concurrently and deliveries earned per session are equal, this apparent selectivity inverts and food-maintained behavior is more sensitive than ethanol-maintained behavior to rate-decreasing effects of fluvoxamine. Here, we investigated further the impact that concurrent access to both food and ethanol has on the potency of fluvoxamine. Fluvoxamine (5.6-17.8 mg/kg) potency was assessed under conditions in which food and ethanol were available concurrently and response rates were equal [average variable intervals (VIs) 405 and 14 s for food and ethanol, respectively], as well as when density of food delivery was increased (average VI 60 s for food and VI 14 s for ethanol). The potency of fluvoxamine was also determined when only ethanol was available (food extinction and average VI 14 s for ethanol) and under multiple VIs (VI 30 s for food and ethanol) wherein either food or ethanol was the only programmed reinforcement available during each component. Fluvoxamine was less potent at decreasing ethanol self-administration when food was available concurrently {ED50 [95% confidence limit (CL): 8.2 (6.5-10.3) and 10.7 (7.9-14.4)]} versus when ethanol was available in isolation [ED50: 4.0 (2.7-5.9) and 5.1 (4.3-6.0)]. Effects on food were similar under each condition in which food was available. The results demonstrate that the potency of fluvoxamine in reducing ethanol-maintained behavior depends on whether ethanol is available in isolation or in the context of concurrently scheduled food reinforcement.

  17. Measuring food availability and accessibility among adolescents: Moving beyond the neighbourhood boundary.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Cindy; Rainham, Daniel; Blanchard, Chris; Dummer, Trevor; Lyons, Renee; Kirk, Sara

    2015-05-01

    Geographic methods have provided insight about food location availability and accessibility in understanding neighbourhood variations in health. However, quantifying exposure to food locations within a pre-defined range of an individual's residence ignores locations outside of the residential neighbourhood encountered in daily life. Global positioning system (GPS) data enables exploration of multiple contextual influences on health. This study defines place in relation to behaviour, employing GPS data to 1) describe adolescent food environments within and outside of the residential buffer, 2) quantify actual food location visits, and 3) explore associations between availability and accessibility of food locations and dietary intake. Adolescents (N = 380; ages 12-16), wore GPS loggers for up to seven days. Availability and accessibility of food locations were defined by counts and distances to food locations within a 15-min walk (1 km) of home, as well as within 50 m of an adolescent's GPS track. We compared the proportion of food locations within the residential buffer to the proportion outside but within the GPS buffer. These proportions were compared to counts and distances to food locations actually visited. We explored associations between food location availability and accessibility with dietary intake variables. Food location availability and accessibility was greater and visits occurred more commonly outside of the residential buffer than within it. Food location availability and accessibility was greater for urban than suburban and rural adolescents. There were no associations between home-based measures of availability and accessibility and dietary intake and only one for GPS-based measures, with greater distance to convenience stores associated with greater fruit and vegetable consumption. This study provides important descriptive information about adolescent exposure to food locations. Findings confirm that traditional home-based approaches

  18. Food access, availability, and affordability in 3 Los Angeles communities, Project CAFE, 2004-2006.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Andrea Misako; Gilliland, Susan; Vallianatos, Mark; Gottlieb, Robert

    2010-03-01

    Racial/ethnic minority communities are at increasingly high risk for chronic diseases related to obesity. Access to stores that sell affordable, nutritious food is a prerequisite for adopting a healthful diet. The objective of this study was to evaluate food access, availability, and affordability in 3 nonoverlapping but similar low-income communities in urban Los Angeles, California. Using a community-based participatory research approach, we trained community members to conduct a food assessment to 1) map the number and type of retail food outlets in a defined area and 2) survey a sample of stores to determine whether they sold selected healthful foods and how much those foods cost. We used descriptive statistics to summarize findings. Of the 1,273 food establishments mapped in the 3 neighborhoods, 1,023 met the criteria of "retail food outlet." The most common types of retail food outlets were fast-food restaurants (30%) and convenience/liquor/corner stores (22%). Supermarkets made up less than 2% of the total. Convenience/liquor/corner stores offered fewer than half of the selected healthful foods and sold healthful foods at higher prices than did supermarkets. Access to stores that sell affordable healthful food is a problem in urban Los Angeles communities. Healthful food strategies should focus on changing food environments to improve overall community health.

  19. Food Insecurity is Related to Home Availability of Fruit, 100% Fruit Juice, and Vegetables

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Household food security is defined as access to enough food at all times for active, healthy living. Low food security may influence consumption because those households may lack sufficient resources to purchase more healthful items like fruit and vegetables. Because home availability is related to ...

  20. Availability of Non-Nutritious Foods in Alberta Schools. Research Bulletin 77-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    School authorities in a total of 68 Alberta school jurisdictions (representing 82 percent of the student population of the province) responded to a request for details about the availability in schools of nonnutritious foods--defined as food that contains minimal nutrients in proportion to number of calories. Foods that are commonly consumed at…

  1. Planning a Nutrition Curriculum: Assessing Availability, Affordability, and Cultural Appropriateness of Recommended Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Valeria L.; Harris, Mary B.

    1988-01-01

    The first step in planning a healthy heart nutrition program for a rural American Indian population involved surveying the foods available at local grocery stores. Some healthy foods were found to be unavailable or very expensive. Awareness of the cultural acceptability of foods is emphasized. (CB)

  2. Convenience stores are the key food environment influence on nutrients available from household food supplies in Texas Border Colonias.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Dean, Wesley R; Nalty, Courtney C; Xu, Jin

    2013-01-17

    Few studies have focused on the relationship between the retail food environment and household food supplies. This study examines spatial access to retail food stores, food shopping habits, and nutrients available in household food supplies among 50 Mexican-origin families residing in Texas border colonias. The design was cross-sectional; data were collected in the home March to June 2010 by promotora-researchers. Ground-truthed methods enumerated traditional (supercenters, supermarkets, grocery stores), convenience (convenience stores and food marts), and non-traditional (dollar stores, discount stores) retail food stores. Spatial access was computed using the network distance from each participant's residence to each food store. Data included survey data and two household food inventories (HFI) of the presence and amount of food items in the home. The Spanish language interviewer-administered survey included demographics, transportation access, food purchasing, food and nutrition assistance program participation, and the 18-item Core Food Security Module. Nutrition Data Systems for Research (NDS-R) was used to calculate HFI nutrients. Adult equivalent adjustment constants (AE), based on age and gender calorie needs, were calculated based on the age- and gender composition of each household and used to adjust HFI nutrients for household composition. Data were analyzed using bivariate analysis and linear regression models to determine the association of independent variables with the availability of each AE-adjusted nutrient. Regression models showed that households in which the child independently purchased food from a convenience store at least once a week had foods and beverages with increased amounts of total energy, total fat, and saturated fat. A greater distance to the nearest convenience store was associated with reduced amounts of total energy, vitamin D, total sugar, added sugar, total fat, and saturated fat. Participation in the National School Lunch

  3. Convenience stores are the key food environment influence on nutrients available from household food supplies in Texas Border Colonias

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies have focused on the relationship between the retail food environment and household food supplies. This study examines spatial access to retail food stores, food shopping habits, and nutrients available in household food supplies among 50 Mexican-origin families residing in Texas border colonias. Methods The design was cross-sectional; data were collected in the home March to June 2010 by promotora-researchers. Ground-truthed methods enumerated traditional (supercenters, supermarkets, grocery stores), convenience (convenience stores and food marts), and non-traditional (dollar stores, discount stores) retail food stores. Spatial access was computed using the network distance from each participant’s residence to each food store. Data included survey data and two household food inventories (HFI) of the presence and amount of food items in the home. The Spanish language interviewer-administered survey included demographics, transportation access, food purchasing, food and nutrition assistance program participation, and the 18-item Core Food Security Module. Nutrition Data Systems for Research (NDS-R) was used to calculate HFI nutrients. Adult equivalent adjustment constants (AE), based on age and gender calorie needs, were calculated based on the age- and gender composition of each household and used to adjust HFI nutrients for household composition. Data were analyzed using bivariate analysis and linear regression models to determine the association of independent variables with the availability of each AE-adjusted nutrient. Results Regression models showed that households in which the child independently purchased food from a convenience store at least once a week had foods and beverages with increased amounts of total energy, total fat, and saturated fat. A greater distance to the nearest convenience store was associated with reduced amounts of total energy, vitamin D, total sugar, added sugar, total fat, and saturated fat. Participation in

  4. University students' on-campus food purchasing behaviors, preferences, and opinions on food availability.

    PubMed

    Tam, Ryan; Yassa, Barbara; Parker, Helen; O'Connor, Helen; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2017-05-01

    Emerging adulthood (18-24 y) where >50% of young adults attend tertiary education, is a transitional period that may provide an opportunity to influence future eating behaviors. The aim of this study was to identify possible strategies for encouraging healthy eating in university food environments. Over 4 wk, students from a large university completed an anonymous researcher-designed survey with both closed (n = 41) and open-ended (n = 3) questions assessing food purchasing, food choice behaviors, and opinions of the campus food environment. Results were reported as proportions (%) or mean ± SD. Chi-square analysis was used to determine differences between sex and campuses. The study took place at an Australian urban university with seven campuses. We recruited 653 currently enrolled students by convenience sampling. Respondents were mostly women (77%), aged <25 y (83%), and enrolled full time (96%). Almost all participants purchased food or beverages on campus (93%), with the most frequently purchased items being hot beverages and sandwiches. The greatest determinants of food choice were taste, value, convenience, and cost. Female students placed more importance on health-related factors and followed more special dietary behaviors than male students. The most common improvements suggested were lowering the cost and increasing the variety of food. As most students purchase food on campus, there are opportunities to intervene to improve diet quality. Our results indicate demand for healthy food and that price manipulation is an important lever for change. This information will be used for changing the local university food environment but may be useful for planning interventions at other universities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. City Level of Income and Urbanization and Availability of Food Stores and Food Service Places in China

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chunxiao; Tan, Yayun; Wu, Chaoqun; Wang, Shengfeng; Yu, Canqing; Cao, Weihua; Gao, Wenjing; Lv, Jun; Li, Liming

    2016-01-01

    Objective The contribution of unhealthy dietary patterns to the epidemic of obesity has been well recognized. Differences in availability of foods may have an important influence on individual eating behaviors and health disparities. This study examined the availability of food stores and food service places by city characteristics on city level of income and urbanization. Methods The cross-sectional survey was comprised of two parts: (1) an on-site observation to measure availability of food stores and food service places in 12 cities of China; (2) an in-store survey to determine the presence of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits in all food stores. Trained investigators walked all the streets/roads within study tracts to identify all the food outlets. An observational survey questionnaire was used in all food stores to determine the presence of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits. Urbanization index was determined for each city using a principal components factor analysis. City level of income and urbanization and numbers of each type of food stores and food service places were examined using negative binomial regression models. Results Large-sized supermarkets and specialty retailers had higher number of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits sold compared to small/medium-sized markets. High-income versus low-income, high urbanized versus low urbanized areas had significantly more large-sized supermarkets and fewer small/medium-sized markets. In terms of restaurants, high urbanized cities had more western fast food restaurants and no statistically significant difference in the relative availability of any type of restaurants was found between high- and low-income areas. Conclusions The findings suggested food environment disparities did exist in different cities of China. PMID:26938866

  6. City Level of Income and Urbanization and Availability of Food Stores and Food Service Places in China.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chunxiao; Tan, Yayun; Wu, Chaoqun; Wang, Shengfeng; Yu, Canqing; Cao, Weihua; Gao, Wenjing; Lv, Jun; Li, Liming

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of unhealthy dietary patterns to the epidemic of obesity has been well recognized. Differences in availability of foods may have an important influence on individual eating behaviors and health disparities. This study examined the availability of food stores and food service places by city characteristics on city level of income and urbanization. The cross-sectional survey was comprised of two parts: (1) an on-site observation to measure availability of food stores and food service places in 12 cities of China; (2) an in-store survey to determine the presence of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits in all food stores. Trained investigators walked all the streets/roads within study tracts to identify all the food outlets. An observational survey questionnaire was used in all food stores to determine the presence of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits. Urbanization index was determined for each city using a principal components factor analysis. City level of income and urbanization and numbers of each type of food stores and food service places were examined using negative binomial regression models. Large-sized supermarkets and specialty retailers had higher number of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits sold compared to small/medium-sized markets. High-income versus low-income, high urbanized versus low urbanized areas had significantly more large-sized supermarkets and fewer small/medium-sized markets. In terms of restaurants, high urbanized cities had more western fast food restaurants and no statistically significant difference in the relative availability of any type of restaurants was found between high- and low-income areas. The findings suggested food environment disparities did exist in different cities of China.

  7. Using a Household Food Inventory to Assess the Availability of Traditional Vegetables among Resettled African Refugees

    PubMed Central

    Gichunge, Catherine; Somerset, Shawn; Harris, Neil

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted among household food preparers to examine the association between home availability and consumption of traditional vegetables among resettled African refugees living in Queensland, Australia. Home availability of traditional African vegetables was associated with age, having a vegetable garden, employment status, and having a supermarket in the local neighborhood. Food preparers from homes with low vegetable availability were less likely to consume the recommended number of vegetable servings. Barriers faced in the food environment included language, lack of availability of traditional vegetables and lack of transport. All of these aspects contributed to the study findings that both individual and food environment characteristics may play a role in access to and availability of food and vegetable consumption of resettled refugees. Consumption of traditional foods among the resettled refugees continues post resettlement. PMID:26797623

  8. Using a Household Food Inventory to Assess the Availability of Traditional Vegetables among Resettled African Refugees.

    PubMed

    Gichunge, Catherine; Somerset, Shawn; Harris, Neil

    2016-01-18

    A cross-sectional sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted among household food preparers to examine the association between home availability and consumption of traditional vegetables among resettled African refugees living in Queensland, Australia. Home availability of traditional African vegetables was associated with age, having a vegetable garden, employment status, and having a supermarket in the local neighborhood. Food preparers from homes with low vegetable availability were less likely to consume the recommended number of vegetable servings. Barriers faced in the food environment included language, lack of availability of traditional vegetables and lack of transport. All of these aspects contributed to the study findings that both individual and food environment characteristics may play a role in access to and availability of food and vegetable consumption of resettled refugees. Consumption of traditional foods among the resettled refugees continues post resettlement.

  9. Household availability of ultra-processed foods and obesity in nineteen European countries.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Carlos Augusto; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Canella, Daniela Silva; Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Cannon, Geoffrey

    2017-07-17

    To assess household availability of NOVA food groups in nineteen European countries and to analyse the association between availability of ultra-processed foods and prevalence of obesity. Ecological, cross-sectional study. Europe. Estimates of ultra-processed foods calculated from national household budget surveys conducted between 1991 and 2008. Estimates of obesity prevalence obtained from national surveys undertaken near the budget survey time. Across the nineteen countries, median average household availability amounted to 33·9 % of total purchased dietary energy for unprocessed or minimally processed foods, 20·3 % for processed culinary ingredients, 19·6 % for processed foods and 26·4 % for ultra-processed foods. The average household availability of ultra-processed foods ranged from 10·2 % in Portugal and 13·4 % in Italy to 46·2 % in Germany and 50·4 % in the UK. A significant positive association was found between national household availability of ultra-processed foods and national prevalence of obesity among adults. After adjustment for national income, prevalence of physical inactivity, prevalence of smoking, measured or self-reported prevalence of obesity, and time lag between estimates on household food availability and obesity, each percentage point increase in the household availability of ultra-processed foods resulted in an increase of 0·25 percentage points in obesity prevalence. The study contributes to a growing literature showing that the consumption of ultra-processed foods is associated with an increased risk of diet-related non-communicable diseases. Its findings reinforce the need for public policies and actions that promote consumption of unprocessed or minimally processed foods and make ultra-processed foods less available and affordable.

  10. Agriculture and food availability -- remote sensing of agriculture for food security monitoring in the developing world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Budde, Michael E.; Rowland, James; Funk, Christopher C.

    2010-01-01

    For one-sixth of the world’s population - roughly 1 billion children, women and men - growing, buying or receiving adequate, affordable food to eat is a daily uncertainty. The World Monetary Fund reports that food prices worldwide increased 43 percent in 2007-2008, and unpredictable growing conditions make subsistence farming, on which many depend, a risky business. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are part of a network of both private and government institutions that monitor food security in many of the poorest nations in the world.

  11. Healthy food availability and the association with body mass index in Baltimore City, Maryland

    PubMed Central

    Casagrande, Sarah Stark; Franco, Manuel; Gittelsohn, Joel; Zonderman, Alan B.; Evans, Michele K.; Kuczmarski, Marie Fanelli; Gary-Webb, Tiffany

    2011-01-01

    Objective Previous literature has shown that the availability of healthy food in neighborhoods is associated with area characteristics and dietary quality. This study investigated the association between the availability of healthy foods and body mass index (BMI) among 2,616 participants living in Baltimore City. Method Trained staff collected demographic information, height, weight and 24-hr dietary recalls between 2004 and 2008. Healthy food availability was determined in 34 census tracts of varying racial and SES composition using the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey- Stores in 2007. Multilevel linear regression was used to estimate associations between healthy food availability and BMI. Results Among individuals living in predominately white neighborhoods, high availability of healthy foods was associated with significantly higher BMI compared to individuals living in low healthy food availability neighborhoods after adjustment for demographic variables (β=3.22, p=0.001). Associations were attenuated but remained significant after controlling for dietary intake (β=2.81, p=0.012). Conclusion Contrary to expectations, there was a positive association between the availability of healthy food and higher BMI among individuals living in predominately white neighborhoods. This result could be due to individuals in low healthy food availability areas traveling outside their neighborhood to obtain healthy food. PMID:21272422

  12. Food availability affects adult survival trajectories depending on early developmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Briga, Michael; Koetsier, Egbert; Boonekamp, Jelle J; Jimeno, Blanca; Verhulst, Simon

    2017-01-11

    Food availability modulates survival in interaction with (for example) competition, disease and predators, but to what extent food availability in natural populations affects survival independent of these factors is not well known. We tested the effect of food availability on lifespan and actuarial senescence in a large population of captive zebra finches by increasing the effort required to obtain food, reflecting natural contrasts in food availability. Food availability may not affect all individuals equally and we therefore created heterogeneity in phenotypic quality by raising birds with different numbers of siblings. Low food availability had no effect on lifespan for individuals from benign developmental conditions (raised in small broods), but shortened lifespan for individuals from harsh developmental conditions. The lifespan difference arose through higher baseline mortality rate of individuals from harsh developmental conditions, despite a decrease in the rate of actuarial senescence. We found no evidence for sex-specific environmental sensitivity, but females lived shorter than males due to increased actuarial senescence. Thus, low food availability by itself shortens lifespan, but only in individuals from harsh developmental conditions. Our food availability manipulation resembles dietary restriction as applied to invertebrates, where it extends lifespan in model organisms and we discuss possible reasons for the contrasting results. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. 77 FR 471 - Emergency Food Assistance Program; Availability of Foods for Fiscal Year 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ..., fish, vegetables, dry beans, juices, and fruits. Approximately $37.5 million in surplus foods acquired..., vegetable oil, ultra high temperature fluid 1 percent milk, bran flakes, corn flakes, oat cereal, rice...

  14. Small Food Stores and Availability of Nutritious Foods: A Comparison of Database and In-Store Measures, Northern California, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Laraia, Barbara; Kelly, Maggi; Adler, Nancy; Yen, Irene H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Small food stores are prevalent in urban neighborhoods, but the availability of nutritious food at such stores is not well known. The objective of this study was to determine whether data from 3 sources would yield a single, homogenous, healthful food store category that can be used to accurately characterize community nutrition environments for public health research. Methods We conducted in-store surveys in 2009 on store type and the availability of nutritious food in a sample of nonchain food stores (n = 102) in 6 predominantly urban counties in Northern California (Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Sacramento, San Francisco, and Santa Clara). We compared survey results with commercial database information and neighborhood sociodemographic data by using independent sample t tests and classification and regression trees. Results Sampled small food stores yielded a heterogeneous group of stores in terms of store type and nutritious food options. Most stores were identified as convenience (54%) or specialty stores (22%); others were small grocery stores (19%) and large grocery stores (5%). Convenience and specialty stores were smaller and carried fewer nutritious and fresh food items. The availability of nutritious food and produce was better in stores in neighborhoods that had a higher percentage of white residents and a lower population density but did not differ significantly by neighborhood income. Conclusion Commercial databases alone may not adequately categorize small food stores and the availability of nutritious foods. Alternative measures are needed to more accurately inform research and policies that seek to address disparities in diet-related health conditions. PMID:22789445

  15. A farmers' market in a food desert: Evaluating impacts on the price and availability of healthy food.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Kristian; Gilliland, Jason

    2009-12-01

    Several studies have examined supermarket access for low-income residents, but few have explored how access to healthy food changes when a new food retailer such as a farmers' market opens in a place previously known as a 'food desert'. This paper uses a 'before and after' approach to examine the impact of the introduction of a farmers' market on the price and availability of healthy food in an underserved urban neighbourhood. The farmers' market had a major impact on grocery prices in the neighbourhood, which decreased by almost 12% in 3 years.

  16. Healthfulness, Modernity, and Availability of Food and Beverages: Adolescents' Perceptions in Southern India.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Nida I; Maxfield, Amanda; Patil, Shailaja S; Cunningham, Solveig A

    2017-07-20

    This study uses freelists to document perceptions of healthfulness, modernity, and availability of foods and beverages among adolescents ages 13-18 years (n = 26) in urbanizing India. Among the 10 foods and beverages adolescents perceived as "new," half were also seen as modern and unhealthy, 4 as traditional and unhealthy, and 3 as modern and healthy. Of those 10 "new" foods, 4 were reported as available only in supermarkets, 4 only in kiraana (local) stores, and 6 in both. Adolescents ascribed healthfulness and modernity to food and beverage items and were aware of their availability across stores.

  17. Baltimore City Stores Increased The Availability Of Healthy Food After WIC Policy Change.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Laura K; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Appel, Lawrence; Jones-Smith, Jessica; Bilal, Usama; Gittelsohn, Joel; Franco, Manuel

    2015-11-01

    As part of a 2009 revision to the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program, the Department of Agriculture required WIC-authorized stores to stock additional varieties of healthy food. The long-term effects of this policy on access to healthy food are unknown. Using surveys conducted in 118 Baltimore City, Maryland, food stores in 2006 and 2012, we examined associations of the change in healthy food availability with store type, neighborhood demographics, and the 2009 WIC policy change. Overall, healthy food availability improved significantly between 2006 and 2012, with the greatest increases in corner stores and in census tracts with more than 60 percent black residents. On an 11-point scale measuring availability of fruit (3 points), vegetables (4 points), bread (2 points), and milk (2 points), the WIC policy change was associated with a 0.72-point increase in WIC-relevant healthy food availability, while joining WIC was associated with a 0.99-point increase. Stores that carry a limited variety of food items may be more receptive to stocking healthier food than previously thought, particularly within neighborhoods with a majority of black residents. Policies targeting healthy food availability have the potential to increase availability and decrease health disparities.

  18. NOAA's National Snow Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, T. R.; Cline, D. W.; Olheiser, C. M.; Rost, A. A.; Nilsson, A. O.; Fall, G. M.; Li, L.; Bovitz, C. T.

    2005-12-01

    NOAA's National Operational Hydrologic Remote Sensing Center (NOHRSC) routinely ingests all of the electronically available, real-time, ground-based, snow data; airborne snow water equivalent data; satellite areal extent of snow cover information; and numerical weather prediction (NWP) model forcings for the coterminous U.S. The NWP model forcings are physically downscaled from their native 13 km2 spatial resolution to a 1 km2 resolution for the CONUS. The downscaled NWP forcings drive an energy-and-mass-balance snow accumulation and ablation model at a 1 km2 spatial resolution and at a 1 hour temporal resolution for the country. The ground-based, airborne, and satellite snow observations are assimilated into the snow model's simulated state variables using a Newtonian nudging technique. The principle advantages of the assimilation technique are: (1) approximate balance is maintained in the snow model, (2) physical processes are easily accommodated in the model, and (3) asynoptic data are incorporated at the appropriate times. The snow model is reinitialized with the assimilated snow observations to generate a variety of snow products that combine to form NOAA's NOHRSC National Snow Analyses (NSA). The NOHRSC NSA incorporate all of the available information necessary and available to produce a "best estimate" of real-time snow cover conditions at 1 km2 spatial resolution and 1 hour temporal resolution for the country. The NOHRSC NSA consist of a variety of daily, operational, products that characterize real-time snowpack conditions including: snow water equivalent, snow depth, surface and internal snowpack temperatures, surface and blowing snow sublimation, and snowmelt for the CONUS. The products are generated and distributed in a variety of formats including: interactive maps, time-series, alphanumeric products (e.g., mean areal snow water equivalent on a hydrologic basin-by-basin basis), text and map discussions, map animations, and quantitative gridded products

  19. Functional responses to food diversity: the effect of seed availability on the feeding of facultative granivores

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The relative importance and availability of different foods to animals is critical in determining how they function within food webs. We examined how the diverse communities of carabid beetles and crickets in a perennial hayfield respond to seed availability numerically and in their feeding behavior...

  20. Availability and marketing of food and beverages to children through sports settings: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Carter, Mary-Ann; Edwards, R; Signal, L; Hoek, J

    2012-08-01

    The current systematic review aimed to identify and critically appraise research on food environments in sports settings, including research into the types of food and beverages available, the extent and impact of food and beverage sponsorship and marketing, and views about food environments among key stakeholders. A systematic review. Fourteen English-language studies (two were papers describing different facets of the same study), published between 1985 and 2011, were identified from searches of electronic databases and bibliographies of primary studies. Most studies originated from Australia (n 10), with the remaining studies originating in the UK (n 1), New Zealand (n 1), the USA (n 1) and Canada (n 1). Data were collected from observations in stadia, websites and televised sports events, through in-depth interviews, focus groups and surveys with sports club members, parents and quick serve restaurant managers. Literature exploring food environments in sports settings was limited and had some important methodological limitations. No studies comprehensively described foods available at clubs or stadia, and only one explored the association between food and beverage sponsorship and club incomes. Club policies focused on the impact of health promotion funding rather than the impact of sponsorship or food availability in sports settings. Further research, including comprehensive studies of the food environment in sports settings, is required to document the availability, sponsorship and marketing of food and beverages at national, regional and club levels and to estimate how sports settings may influence children's diets.

  1. Food venue choice, consumer food environment, but not food venue availability within daily travel patterns are associated with dietary intake among adults, Lexington Kentucky 2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective The retail food environment may be one important determinant of dietary intake. However, limited research focuses on individuals’ food shopping behavior and activity within the retail food environment. This study’s aims were to determine the association between six various dietary indicators and 1) food venue availability; 2) food venue choice and frequency; and 3) availability of healthy food within food venue. Methods In Fall, 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among adults (n=121) age 18 years and over in Lexington, Kentucky. Participants wore a global position system (GPS) data logger for 3-days (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day) to track their daily activity space, which was used to assess food activity space. They completed a survey to assess demographics, food shopping behaviors, and dietary outcomes. Food store audits were conducted using the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey-Store Rudd (NEMS-S) in stores where respondents reported purchasing food (n=22). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between six dietary variables with food venue availability within activity space; food venue choice; frequency of shopping; and availability of food within food venue. Results 1) Food venue availability within activity space – no significant associations. 2) Food Venue Choice – Shopping at farmers’ markets or specialty grocery stores reported higher odds of consuming fruits and vegetables (OR 1.60 95% CI [1.21, 2.79]). Frequency of shopping - Shopping at a farmers’ markets and specialty stores at least once a week reported higher odds of consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR 1.55 95% CI [1.08, 2.23]). Yet, shopping frequently at a super market had higher odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 1.39 95% CI [1.03, 1.86]). 3) Availability of food within store – those who shop in supermarkets with high availability of healthy food has lower odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 0.65 95

  2. Food venue choice, consumer food environment, but not food venue availability within daily travel patterns are associated with dietary intake among adults, Lexington Kentucky 2011.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, Alison; Christian, Jay W; Lewis, Sarah; Moore, Kate; Jilcott, Stephanie

    2013-01-29

    The retail food environment may be one important determinant of dietary intake. However, limited research focuses on individuals' food shopping behavior and activity within the retail food environment. This study's aims were to determine the association between six various dietary indicators and 1) food venue availability; 2) food venue choice and frequency; and 3) availability of healthy food within food venue. In Fall, 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among adults (n=121) age 18 years and over in Lexington, Kentucky. Participants wore a global position system (GPS) data logger for 3-days (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day) to track their daily activity space, which was used to assess food activity space. They completed a survey to assess demographics, food shopping behaviors, and dietary outcomes. Food store audits were conducted using the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey-Store Rudd (NEMS-S) in stores where respondents reported purchasing food (n=22). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between six dietary variables with food venue availability within activity space; food venue choice; frequency of shopping; and availability of food within food venue. 1) Food venue availability within activity space - no significant associations. 2) Food Venue Choice - Shopping at farmers' markets or specialty grocery stores reported higher odds of consuming fruits and vegetables (OR 1.60 95% CI [1.21, 2.79]). Frequency of shopping - Shopping at a farmers' markets and specialty stores at least once a week reported higher odds of consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR 1.55 95% CI [1.08, 2.23]). Yet, shopping frequently at a super market had higher odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 1.39 95% CI [1.03, 1.86]). 3) Availability of food within store - those who shop in supermarkets with high availability of healthy food has lower odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 0.65 95% CI [0.14, 0.83]). Interventions aimed at

  3. Adaptive thermoregulation in golden spiny mice: the influence of season and food availability on body temperature.

    PubMed

    Levy, Ofir; Dayan, Tamar; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga

    2011-01-01

    We studied the effect of food supplementation during summer and winter in seminatural field conditions on thermoregulation of a desert rodent, the golden spiny mouse Acomys russatus. We hypothesized that (a) under natural food availability (control conditions), mice will use less precise thermoregulation (i.e., an increase in the variance of body temperature [T(b)]) during winter because of low ambient temperatures (T(a)'s) and low food availability and during summer because of low food and water availability; (b) food supplementation will result in more precise thermoregulation during winter, but the effect will be smaller during summer because variation in T(b) in summer is also driven by water availability during that period. We found that under natural food availability, spiny mice thermoregulated more precisely during summer than during winter. They spent more time torpid during summer than during winter even when food was supplemented (although summer nights are shorter), allowing them to conserve water. Supplementing food resulted in more precise thermoregulation in both seasons, and mice spent less time torpid. In summer, thermoregulation at high T(a)'s was less precise, resulting in higher maximum T(b)'s in summer than in winter and when food was supplemented, in accord with the expected effect of water shortage on thermoregulation. Our results suggest that as expected, precise thermoregulation is beneficial when possible and is abandoned only when the costs of homeothermy outweigh the benefits.

  4. Effect of sociodemographic variables and time on food group contribution to total food availability in Portuguese elderly households.

    PubMed

    Santos, D M; Oliveira, B M P M; Rodrigues, S S P; de Almeida, M D V

    2014-05-01

    To analyze the simultaneous effects of sociodemographic variables and time on each food group contribution to total Portuguese elderly household food availability. Four cross sectional Portuguese Household Budget Surveys were used. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), using a general linear model (GLM), was applied to analyze the simultaneous effects of sociodemographic variables and time. Portuguese population. Nationally representative samples of households with members aged ≥ 65 years were selected and categorized as solitary elderly female, solitary elderly male, or couple (one elderly female and one elderly male). Samples included 1,967 households in 1989-1990, 2,219 households in 1994-1995, 2,533 households in 2000-2001 and 2,441 households in 2005-2006. The simultaneous effects of sociodemographic variables and time were significant for all food groups (P<0.001). The highest contribution for the total household food availability was found for cereals, potatoes, alcoholic beverages, non-alcoholic beverages and fruits. The effects were large for "household food availability" and medium for "elderly household type", "urbanization degree", "income", "food expenses" and "eating out expenses". Solitary elderly male households had the highest proportion of cereals and alcoholic beverages, whilst solitary elderly female households had higher availability of milk/milk products and fruits. Households located in urban areas had higher contribution of milk/milk products while rural, had higher contribution of potatoes. The simultaneous effect of the studied variables on food group contribution to total household food availability can be considered when addressing dietary recommendation for providing an insight into the motivations associated with food purchases.

  5. Food sales outlets, food availability, and the extent of nutrition policy implementation in schools in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Rideout, Karen; Levy-Milne, Ryna; Martin, Carla; Ostry, Aleck S

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the number and types of different food sales outlets, the types of foods offered for sale in all school food outlets, and the extent of nutrition policy implementation in schools in British Columbia. We also directly measured the number and types of snack foods available for sale in each vending machine at each school. Based on a thorough literature review and guided by an expert panel of nutritionists, we developed an instrument to measure the quantity and types of foods offered for sale in vending machines, the types of food for sale in all school food outlets, and the extent of nutrition policy development. The survey response rate was approximately 70%. Approximately 60% of surveyed schools had a permanent food sales outlet. Snack and beverage vending machines were most common in secondary schools, while tuck shops and food-based fundraisers were more common in elementary schools. While few snack vending machines were present in elementary schools, tuck shops stocked items commonly found in snack machines. Approximately 25% of schools had a formal group responsible for nutrition. These schools were more likely to have nutrition policies in place. "Junk" foods were widely available in elementary, middle, and secondary schools through a variety of outlets. Although snack machines are virtually absent in elementary schools, tuck shops and school fundraisers sell foods usually found in snack machines, largely cancelling the positive effect of the absence of snack machines in these schools. Schools with a group responsible for nutrition appear to have a positive impact on nutrition policy implementation.

  6. An inexpensive food cup for use in a commercially available food monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Wellman, Paul J; Bellinger, Larry L; Cepeda-Benito, Antonio; Susabda, Agnes; Ho, Dao H; Davis, Kristina W

    2004-12-15

    The microstructure of feeding in rats can be probed using a variety of protocols that employ videotape-based ratings, pellet feeders, and/or laboratory balances. A recent commercial product (BioDAQ, Research Diets, New Brunswick, NJ) uses a metal food hopper placed on a load cell to monitor daily food pellet consumption. In this system, movements of the hopper during eating and the cessation of hopper movements after eating are combined with momentary hopper weights for subsequent analyses of daily meal patterns. Our laboratory has devised an improved food cup for the BioDAQ system that is easily balanced, minimizes spillage, and is compatible with either powdered chow diets or nonpelleted soft diets (e.g., a high-fat diet). In the present paper, we describe the methods used to fabricate this food cup and present data illustrating its use in meal pattern analyses for rats fed either a ground laboratory chow or a 33% high-fat diet.

  7. Relating trophic resources to community structure: a predictive index of food availability

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, Graham J.

    2017-01-01

    The abundance and the distribution of trophic resources available for consumers influence the productivity and the diversity of natural communities. Nevertheless, assessment of the actual abundance of food items available for individual trophic groups has been constrained by differences in methods and metrics used by various authors. Here we develop an index of food abundance, the framework of which can be adapted for different ecosystems. The relative available food index (RAFI) is computed by considering standard resource conditions of a habitat and the influence of various generalized anthropogenic and natural factors. RAFI was developed using published literature on food abundance and validated by comparison of predictions versus observed trophic resources across various marine sites. RAFI tables here proposed can be applied to a range of marine ecosystems for predictions of the potential abundance of food available for each trophic group, hence permitting exploration of ecological theories by focusing on the deviation from the observed to the expected. PMID:28386417

  8. Effects of food origin and availability on sea urchin condition and feeding behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livore, Juan P.; Connell, Sean D.

    2012-02-01

    The origin of food is recognised to be an important trait for sedentary consumers that have little control over the source of their food. Elevated herbivory in sea urchins is often linked to poor gonad condition as provoked by reduced food availability, but there is little recognition of the possibility that the origin of food may contribute to their poor condition and elevated feeding. This study assesses the possibility that variation in food availability and origin may together affect urchin condition and feeding rates such that they account for more intensive grazing (by Heliocidaris erythrogramma) on sheltered than exposed coasts (South Australia). We experimentally tested the hypothesis that reduced food availability from sheltered coasts would result in poor gonad condition and greater feeding rate; whilst enhanced food availability from exposed coasts would result in better condition and reduced feeding rates. We found that reduced food had negative effects on condition and positive effects on feeding rates independently of coastal source. Greater food availability did not equate to better condition, rather it was the delivery of more food from exposed than sheltered coasts that translated into the better gonad condition and lower feeding rates. These results suggest that plant origin and availability could help explain the greater impacts of these urchins on sheltered coasts. Whilst other factors such as water energy and sea urchin density may contribute to variation in herbivory our results suggest that origin of food may also play a role in sea urchin condition and behaviour. Understanding how such traits link to large scale features of the environment may improve models that account for variation in strength of consumer effects across landscapes.

  9. Competitive foods and beverages available for purchase in secondary schools--selected sites, United States, 2006.

    PubMed

    2008-08-29

    Schools are in a unique position to help improve youth dietary behaviors and prevent and reduce obesity. In most schools, foods and beverages are made available to students through the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) school meal programs and the sale of competitive foods, which are any foods and beverages sold at a school separately from the USDA school meal programs. Foods and beverages sold through the USDA school meal programs must meet federal nutrition requirements. Competitive foods are not subject to any federal nutrition standards unless they are sold inside the food service area during mealtimes. A 2007 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report concluded that schools should limit the availability of less nutritious competitive foods or include more nutritious foods and beverages if they make competitive foods available. To identify the types of competitive foods and beverages available for purchase from vending machines or at school stores, canteens, or snack bars, CDC analyzed data from the 2006 School Health Profiles for public secondary schools in 36 states and 12 large urban school districts. CDC also compared 2004 and 2006 data among 24 states and nine large urban school districts. This report summarizes the results of these analyses, which indicated that, from 2004 to 2006, the median percentage of secondary schools across states allowing students to purchase chocolate candy and salty snacks that are not low in fat decreased; however, in 2006, secondary schools still offered less nutritious foods and beverages that compete with school meals. School and public health officials should work together with families to provide foods and beverages at school that follow the IOM recommendations.

  10. Differential effects of food availability on minimum and maximum rates of metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Salin, Karine; Rudolf, Agata M.; Anderson, Graeme J.; Metcalfe, Neil B.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic rates reflect the energetic cost of living but exhibit remarkable variation among conspecifics, partly as a result of the constraints imposed by environmental conditions. Metabolic rates are sensitive to changes in temperature and oxygen availability, but effects of food availability, particularly on maximum metabolic rates, are not well understood. Here, we show in brown trout (Salmo trutta) that maximum metabolic rates are immutable but minimum metabolic rates increase as a positive function of food availability. As a result, aerobic scope (i.e. the capacity to elevate metabolism above baseline requirements) declines as food availability increases. These differential changes in metabolic rates likely have important consequences for how organisms partition available metabolic power to different functions under the constraints imposed by food availability. PMID:28120798

  11. Gluten detection in foods available in the United States - a market survey.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Girdhari M; Pereira, Marion; Williams, Kristina M

    2015-02-15

    Many gluten-free (GF) food choices are now available in supermarkets. However, the unintentional presence of gluten in these foods poses a serious health risk to wheat-allergic and celiac patients. Different GF labelled foods (275) and non-GF labelled foods, without wheat/rye/barley on the ingredient label (186), were analysed for gluten content by two different enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Considering the gluten threshold of 20ppm, GF labelled foods had 98.9% GF labelling compliance with 1.1% (3 out of 275) of foods being mislabelled/misbranded. Among the non-GF labelled foods, 19.4% (36 out of 186) of foods had >20ppm of gluten, as measured by at least one ELISA kit, of which 19 foods had >100ppm of gluten. The presence of oats in non-GF labelled foods was strongly correlated with a positive ELISA result. Gluten was also found in a significant number of foods with gluten/wheat-related advisory warnings.

  12. Traditional food availability and consumption in remote Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Megan; Brown, Clare; Georga, Claire; Miles, Edward; Wilson, Alyce; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2017-06-01

    To explore availability, variety and frequency consumption of traditional foods and their role in alleviating food insecurity in remote Aboriginal Australia. Availability was assessed through repeated semi-structured interviews and consumption via a survey. Quantitative data were described and qualitative data classified. Aboriginal and non-Indigenous key informants (n=30 in 2013; n=19 in 2014) from 20 Northern Territory (NT) communities participated in interviews. Aboriginal primary household shoppers (n=73 in 2014) in five of these communities participated in a survey. Traditional foods were reported to be available year-round in all 20 communities. Most participants (89%) reported consuming a variety of traditional foods at least fortnightly and 71% at least weekly. Seventy-six per cent reported being food insecure, with 40% obtaining traditional food during these times. Traditional food is consumed frequently by Aboriginal people living in remote NT. Implications for public health: Quantifying dietary contribution of traditional food would complement estimated population dietary intake. It would contribute evidence of nutrition transition and differences in intakes across age groups and inform dietary, environmental and social interventions and policy. Designing and conducting assessment of traditional food intake in conjunction with Aboriginal leaders warrants consideration. © 2017 The Authors.

  13. [Changes in food availability in metropolitan Santiago Chile according to income (quintiles) 1988-1997].

    PubMed

    Crovetto, Mirta; Uauy, Ricardo

    2008-03-01

    Changes in household food availability from 1988-1997 obtained in a representative sample of Metropolitan Santiago were assessed; and related to observed changes in the epidemiological profile. We evaluated expenditures in food and beverages from the IV and V Household Expenditure Surveys conducted every 10 years by the National Institute of Statistics to calculate the Consumer Price Index. Food items were similarly grouped and expenditures from both surveys adjusted to concordance by assigning prices according to of food; the units consumed outside and at home were determined. Food expenditures increased, leading to greater food availability in all households and income categories; the increment was largest in the poorest quintiles. Apparent consumption of processed cereals, pastries and baked goods, poultry and pork, processed dairies, beverages and juices, dressings and mayonnaise, pre cooked meals and meals consumed "out of home" increased. Fish, vegetables and fruits increased slightly with a concomitant decrease in legumes. The present dietary pattern is also characterized by a greater availability of animal food products and processed foods; increased energy density, fat and saturated fat energy, sugars and high glycemic index foods; lower in phytochemicals, antioxidants, dietary fiber and omega-3 fatty acids. These changes are probably having a significant impact on the epidemiological and nutritional profile of the country; as manifested by an epidemic increase in obesity and chronic disease burden related to diet and physical inactivity.

  14. Snow Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    It was nearing the end of a very long, rough winter with a lot of snow and too little time to play outside. The snow had formed small hills and valleys over the bushes and this was at the perfect height for the students to paint. In this article, the author describes how her transitional first-grade students created snow art paintings. (Contains 1…

  15. Snow Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    It was nearing the end of a very long, rough winter with a lot of snow and too little time to play outside. The snow had formed small hills and valleys over the bushes and this was at the perfect height for the students to paint. In this article, the author describes how her transitional first-grade students created snow art paintings. (Contains 1…

  16. Stockpiles and food availability in feeding facilities after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Nozue, Miho; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Sarukura, Nobuko; Sako, Kazuko; Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo

    2014-01-01

    Food stockpiles and methods of ensuring food availability after the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011 have been studied. Questionnaires were sent to 1911 registered dietitians and general dietitians who were members of the Japan Dietetic Association in August 2012. Four hundred thirty-five dietitians (22.8%) completed the questionnaire about work involved in feeding facilities, types and administration of meals, and food stockpiles. Methods of ensuring food availability, preparation, and accommodating food for special dietary uses were recorded for the three-day period immediately following the earthquake, and the period from 4 days to one month after the earthquake. Three days after the earthquake, differences in administration of meals at feeding facilities providing three meals daily, food stockpiles, organization, contactable facilities, and how to contact them for food items were assessed. Sixty-nine percent of all feeding facilities in this study had stockpiles of food before the Great East Japan Earthquake. Administration of meals in feeding facilities and the possibility of contact with cooperative feeding facilities were found to correlate positively with ensuring the availability of food groups. Food scores were higher in facilities providing three meals daily by direct administration of meals and with accessible public administrators, cooperative facilities and suppliers, and facilities that were contactable by landline telephone, mobile phone, fax or email. The necessity for natural disaster-readiness through continuous stockpiling food at feeding facilities is confirmed. Each prospective feeding facility must be required to plan its stockpiles, their turnover and replaceability to maximise food security in the face of disaster.

  17. Developmental plasticity of growth and digestive efficiency in dependence of early-life food availability.

    PubMed

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Szidat, Sönke; Taborsky, Barbara

    2014-08-01

    Nutrition is a potent mediator of developmental plasticity. If food is scarce, developing organisms may invest into growth to outgrow size-dependent mortality (short-term benefit) and/or into an efficient digestion system (long-term benefit). We investigated this potential trade-off, by determining the influence of food availability on juvenile body and organ growth, and on adult digestive efficiency in the cichlid fish Simochromis pleurospilus. We reared two groups of fish at constant high or low food rations, and we switched four other groups between these two rations at an early and late juvenile period. We measured juvenile growth and organ sizes at different developmental stages and determined adult digestive efficiency. Fish kept at constant, high rations grew considerably faster than low-food fish. Nevertheless, S. pleurospilus partly buffered the negative effects of low food availability by developing heavier digestive organs, and they were therefore more efficient in digesting their food as adults. Results of fish exposed to a ration switch during either the early or late juvenile period suggest (i) that the ability to show compensatory growth after early exposure to low food availability persists during the juvenile period, (ii) that digestive efficiency is influenced by varying juvenile food availability during the late juvenile phase and (iii) that the efficiency of the adult digestive system is correlated with the growth rate during a narrow time window of juvenile period.

  18. 76 FR 55868 - Notice of Funding Availability: Inviting Applications for the Food for Progress Program; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Notice of Funding Availability: Inviting Applications for the Food for...) published a notice in the Federal Register on July 28, 2011, inviting proposals for the Food for Progress... to the application and review process, and provides updates to web links for helpful documents....

  19. Developmental plasticity of growth and digestive efficiency in dependence of early-life food availability

    PubMed Central

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Szidat, Sönke; Taborsky, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is a potent mediator of developmental plasticity. If food is scarce, developing organisms may invest into growth to outgrow size-dependent mortality (short-term benefit) and/or into an efficient digestion system (long-term benefit). We investigated this potential trade-off, by determining the influence of food availability on juvenile body and organ growth, and on adult digestive efficiency in the cichlid fish Simochromis pleurospilus. We reared two groups of fish at constant high or low food rations, and we switched four other groups between these two rations at an early and late juvenile period. We measured juvenile growth and organ sizes at different developmental stages and determined adult digestive efficiency. Fish kept at constant, high rations grew considerably faster than low-food fish. Nevertheless, S. pleurospilus partly buffered the negative effects of low food availability by developing heavier digestive organs, and they were therefore more efficient in digesting their food as adults. Results of fish exposed to a ration switch during either the early or late juvenile period suggest (i) that the ability to show compensatory growth after early exposure to low food availability persists during the juvenile period, (ii) that digestive efficiency is influenced by varying juvenile food availability during the late juvenile phase and (iii) that the efficiency of the adult digestive system is correlated with the growth rate during a narrow time window of juvenile period. PMID:25866430

  20. Inventory versus Checklist Approach to Assess Middle School a la Carte Food Availability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearst, Mary O.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Heitzler, Carrie D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this research is to evaluate 2 methods of assessing foods available on school a la carte lines for schools' ability to assess the proportion of foods that are healthful options. Methods: This observational study used data collected at 38 middle schools, October 2006-May 2007. An inventory method was used to collect…

  1. Inventory versus Checklist Approach to Assess Middle School a la Carte Food Availability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearst, Mary O.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Heitzler, Carrie D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this research is to evaluate 2 methods of assessing foods available on school a la carte lines for schools' ability to assess the proportion of foods that are healthful options. Methods: This observational study used data collected at 38 middle schools, October 2006-May 2007. An inventory method was used to collect…

  2. The availability of snack food displays that may trigger impulse purchases in Melbourne supermarkets

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Supermarkets play a major role in influencing the food purchasing behaviours of most households. Snack food exposures within these stores may contribute to higher levels of consumption and ultimately to increasing levels of obesity, particularly within socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. We aimed to examine the availability of snack food displays at checkouts, end-of-aisle displays and island displays in major supermarket chains in the least and most socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods of Melbourne. Methods Within-store audits of 35 Melbourne supermarkets. Supermarkets were sampled from the least and most socioeconomically disadvantaged suburbs within 30 km of the Melbourne CBD. We measured the availability of crisps, chocolate, confectionery, and soft drinks (diet and regular) at the checkouts, in end-of-aisle displays, and in island bin displays. Results Snack food displays were most prominent at checkouts with only five stores not having snack foods at 100% of their checkouts. Snack foods were also present at a number of end-of-aisle displays (at both the front (median 38%) and back (median 33%) of store), and in island bin displays (median number of island displays: 7; median total circumference of island displays: 19.4 metres). Chocolate items were the most common snack food item on display. There was no difference in the availability of these snack food displays by neighbourhood disadvantage. Conclusions As a result of the high availability of snack food displays, exposure to snack foods is almost unavoidable in Melbourne supermarkets, regardless of levels of neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage. Results of this study could promote awareness of the prominence of unhealthy food items in chain-brand supermarkets outlets. PMID:22420759

  3. Disparities of Food Availability and Affordability within Convenience Stores in Bexar County, Texas

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Sunil, T. S.; Salazar, Camerino I.; Rafique, Sadaf; Ory, Marcia G.

    2013-01-01

    The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends healthful food choices; however, some geographic areas are limited in the types of foods they offer. Little is known about the role of convenience stores as viable channels to provide healthier foods in our “grab and go” society. The purposes of this study were to (1) identify foods offered within convenience stores located in two Bexar County, Texas, ZIP Codes and (2) compare the availability and cost of ADA-recommended foods including beverages, produce, grains, and oils/fats. Data were analyzed from 28 convenience store audits performed in two sociodemographically diverse ZIP Codes in Bexar County, Texas. Chi-squared tests were used to compare food availability, and t-tests were used to compare food cost in convenience stores between ZIP Codes. A significantly larger proportion of convenience stores in more affluent areas offered bananas (χ 2 = 4.17, P = 0.003), whole grain bread (χ 2 = 8.33, P = 0.004), and baked potato chips (χ 2 = 13.68, P < 0.001). On average, the price of diet cola (t = −2.12, P = 0.044) and certain produce items (e.g., bananas, oranges, tomatoes, broccoli, and cucumber) was significantly higher within convenience stores in more affluent areas. Convenience stores can play an important role to positively shape a community's food environment by stocking healthier foods at affordable prices. PMID:23935645

  4. Disparities of food availability and affordability within convenience stores in Bexar County, Texas.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Sunil, T S; Salazar, Camerino I; Rafique, Sadaf; Ory, Marcia G

    2013-01-01

    The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends healthful food choices; however, some geographic areas are limited in the types of foods they offer. Little is known about the role of convenience stores as viable channels to provide healthier foods in our "grab and go" society. The purposes of this study were to (1) identify foods offered within convenience stores located in two Bexar County, Texas, ZIP Codes and (2) compare the availability and cost of ADA-recommended foods including beverages, produce, grains, and oils/fats. Data were analyzed from 28 convenience store audits performed in two sociodemographically diverse ZIP Codes in Bexar County, Texas. Chi-squared tests were used to compare food availability, and t-tests were used to compare food cost in convenience stores between ZIP Codes. A significantly larger proportion of convenience stores in more affluent areas offered bananas (χ (2) = 4.17, P = 0.003), whole grain bread (χ (2) = 8.33, P = 0.004), and baked potato chips (χ (2) = 13.68, P < 0.001). On average, the price of diet cola (t = -2.12, P = 0.044) and certain produce items (e.g., bananas, oranges, tomatoes, broccoli, and cucumber) was significantly higher within convenience stores in more affluent areas. Convenience stores can play an important role to positively shape a community's food environment by stocking healthier foods at affordable prices.

  5. Rapid Adaptation to Food Availability by a Dopamine-Mediated Morphogenetic Response

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Diane K.; Sewell, Mary A.; Angerer, Robert C.; Angerer, Lynne M.

    2014-01-01

    Food can act as a powerful stimulus, eliciting metabolic, behavioral and developmental responses. These phenotypic changes can alter ecological and evolutionary processes; yet, the molecular mechanisms underlying many plastic phenotypic responses remain unknown. Here we show that dopamine signaling through a type-D2 receptor mediates developmental plasticity by regulating arm length in pre-feeding sea urchin larvae in response to food availability. While prey-induced traits are often thought to improve food acquisition, the mechanism underlying this plastic response acts to reduce feeding structure size and subsequent feeding rate. Consequently, the developmental program and/or maternal provisioning predetermine the maximum possible feeding rate, and food-induced dopamine signaling reduces food acquisition potential during periods of abundant resources to preserve maternal energetic reserves. Sea urchin larvae may have co-opted the widespread use of food-induced dopamine signaling from behavioral responses to instead alter their development. PMID:22186888

  6. Healthful Nutrition of Foods in Navajo Nation Stores: Availability and Pricing.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gayathri; Jim-Martin, Sonlatsa; Piltch, Emily; Onufrak, Stephen; McNeil, Carrie; Adams, Laura; Williams, Nancy; Blanck, Heidi M; Curley, Larry

    2016-09-01

    Low availability and affordability of healthier foods in food stores on the Navajo Nation (NN) may be a community-level risk factor for the high prevalence of obesity among the Navajo people. This study assessed the availability and pricing of foods and beverages in supermarkets and convenience stores throughout the NN. Descriptive study design using the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey in Stores audit tool. Supermarkets (n = 13) and convenience stores (n = 50) on NN and border-town supermarkets (n = 9). Not applicable. Availability and pricing of healthy and less-healthy foods. Descriptive and χ(2) analyses. Navajo convenience stores offered fewer healthier food options compared to Navajo supermarkets. In Navajo convenience stores, 100% whole grain products, reduced-fat cheese, lean meats, reduced-fat chips, and fat-free or light hot dogs were available in fewer stores than their corresponding less-healthy versions (all with p < .05). In both Navajo supermarkets and convenience stores, 100% whole wheat bread, lean cold cuts, and reduced-fat cheese were all more expensive per unit than their corresponding less-healthy versions (all with p < .05). According to this study, healthier foods are not as readily available in Navajo convenience stores as they are in Navajo supermarkets. Improving access to and affordability of healthier foods in reservation stores of all sizes may support healthy eating among Navajo residents. © 2016 by American Journal of Health Promotion, Inc.

  7. Suppression of ethanol-reinforced lever pressing by delaying food availability.

    PubMed Central

    Poling, A; Thompson, T

    1977-01-01

    When food was initially available to rats under a fixed-interval 26-second schedule and each liquid-reinforced lever press delayed food availability 8 seconds, suppression of liquid-reinforced lever pressing and liquid consumption occurred when the liquid presented was 4, 8, 16, 32, and 0% ethanol. Suppression did not occur in yoked-control animals, which received food coincidentally with experimental animals but were not directly exposed to the delay dependency. After exposure to the food schedule, each ethanol solution served as a reinforcer in the absence of food presentation. Delaying food availability for increasingly long periods (8 to 2048 seconds) suppressed ethanol-reinforced lever pressing and consumption relative to baseline levels, with the maximum decrease being below the level maintained in the absence of food. However, degree of suppression did not increase monotonically with delay length. Liquid-reinforced performance of yoked-control animals indicated that suppression did not result from changes in the sequencing of food presentation alone. PMID:925591

  8. SPATIAL AND DIEL AVAILABILITY OF FLYING INSECTS AS POTENTIAL DUCKLING FOOD IN PRAIRIE WETLANDS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study examined spatial and diel availibility of flying insects that are a critical food resource to young duckings. Insects were sampled in three native prairie wetlands on the Woodworth Study Area of south-central North Dakota.

  9. SPATIAL AND DIEL AVAILABILITY OF FLYING INSECTS AS POTENTIAL DUCKLING FOOD IN PRAIRIE WETLANDS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study examined spatial and diel availibility of flying insects that are a critical food resource to young duckings. Insects were sampled in three native prairie wetlands on the Woodworth Study Area of south-central North Dakota.

  10. Evaluating the impact of a Connecticut program to reduce availability of unhealthy competitive food in schools.

    PubMed

    Long, Michael W; Henderson, Kathryn E; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2010-10-01

    This article seeks to inform state and local school food policies by evaluating the impact of Connecticut's Healthy Food Certification (HFC), a program which provides monetary incentives to school districts that choose to implement state nutrition standards for all foods sold to students outside reimbursable school meals. Food service directors from all school districts participating in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) (N = 151) in Connecticut were surveyed about the availability of competitive foods before and after the 2006-2007 implementation of HFC. Food categories were coded as healthy or unhealthy based on whether they met the Connecticut Nutrition Standards. Data on NSLP participation were provided by the State Department of Education. Changes in NSLP participation and availability of unhealthy competitive foods in elementary, middle, and high schools were compared pre- and post-HFC across districts participating (n = 74) versus not participating (n = 77) in HFC. On average, all districts in Connecticut reduced the availability of unhealthy competitive foods, with a significantly greater reduction among HFC districts. Average NSLP participation also increased across the state. Participating in HFC was associated with significantly greater NSLP participation for paid meals in middle school; however, implementing HFC did not increase overall NSLP participation beyond the statewide upward trend. The 2006-2007 school year was marked by a significant decrease in unhealthy competitive foods and an increase in NSLP participation across the state. Participation in Connecticut's voluntary HFC further reduced the availability of unhealthy competitive foods in local school districts, and had either a positive or neutral effect on NSLP participation. © 2010, American School Health Association.

  11. Food availability en route to school and anthropometric change in urban children.

    PubMed

    Rossen, Lauren M; Curriero, Frank C; Cooley-Strickland, Michele; Pollack, Keshia M

    2013-08-01

    This study examined food availability along children's paths to and from elementary school, and associations with change in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference over 1 year. Secondary data from 319 children aged 8-13 years from the "Multiple Opportunities to Reach Excellence" Project was used. Child anthropometry and demographic variables were obtained at baseline (2007) and 1 year follow-up. Food outlet locations (n = 1,410) were obtained from the Baltimore City Health Department and validated by ground-truthing. Secondary data on healthy food availability within select food stores in Baltimore City in 2007 were obtained via a validated food environment assessment measure, the Nutrition Environments Measures Study. Multilevel models were used to examine associations between availability of healthy food and number of various food outlets along paths to school and child anthropometric change over 1 year. Controlling for individual-, neighborhood-, and school-level characteristics, results indicated that higher healthy food availability within a 100 m buffer of paths to school was associated with 0.15 kg/m(2) lower BMI gain (p = 0.015) and 0.47 cm smaller waist circumference gain (p = 0.037) over 1 year. Although prior research has illuminated the importance of healthy food choices within school and home environments, the current study suggests that exposure to the food environment along paths to school should be further explored in relation to child health outcomes.

  12. Inventory Versus Checklist Approach to Assess Middle School à la Carte Food Availability*

    PubMed Central

    Hearst, Mary O.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Heitzler, Carrie D.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND The purpose of this research is to evaluate 2 methods of assessing foods available on school à la carte lines for schools’ ability to assess the proportion of foods that are healthful options. METHODS This observational study used data collected at 38 middle schools, October 2006–May 2007. An inventory method was used to collect detailed information of items available on each school’s à la carte line, followed by a simplified checklist form. Using the detailed inventory method, the proportion of items meeting the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM) nutrition standards for foods available at each school was calculated. From the checklists, we calculated the proportion of categories representing more healthful foods. Schools were independently ranked according to the percentage of items meeting the IOM criteria, (inventory data) and the percentage of food categories considered “healthy” (checklist data). Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to compare school rankings. RESULTS The inventory and checklist approaches showed a good level of agreement when both methods were independently used to rank the level of healthy foods available on à la carte (Wilcoxon rank sum = 32.5, p = .62). CONCLUSION For purposes of ranking schools along a continuum of “healthfulness of foods on à la carte lines,” especially when resources are limited, a checklist approach appears to be satisfactory. This method may also be useful to school stakeholders needing an inexpensive à la carte assessment tool. PMID:19909423

  13. Comparison of two indices of availability of fruits/vegetable and fast food outlets.

    PubMed

    Mercille, Geneviève; Richard, Lucie; Gauvin, Lise; Kestens, Yan; Payette, Hélène; Daniel, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Studies of food environment often examine single dimensions of areas that may not account for complexity of exposure to all food sources. With respect to the deprivation amplification hypothesis, particular needs are to assess whether relative or absolute measures of the food environment are related to characteristics of social environment. The objective of this study was to compare absolute availability (AA) of fast food outlets (FFO) and stores selling fresh fruits and vegetables (FVS) with the relative availability (RA) of the same food sources in relation to area-level poverty and ethnic diversity in 248 selected census tracts (CT) in Montreal, Canada. AA of FFO and FVS were expressed as areal densities of food sources within CTs. RA indices were calculated as the proportion of FVSs relative to total food stores and the proportion of FFOs relative to all restaurants within CTs, respectively. Whereas the AA of FFO was positively associated with area-level poverty and ethnic diversity, the RA of FFO was inversely associated with area-level poverty and not associated with ethnic diversity. Both measures of FVS were positively associated with area-level poverty and ethnic diversity. These findings do not support a model of deprivation amplification. Furthermore, results of FFO suggest that the alternate measure of RA can complement information based on AA indicators of the food environment, with potential utility in predicting eating practices.

  14. Socioeconomic differences in the cost, availability and quality of healthy food in Sydney.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Belinda; Byun, Roy; Mitchell, Emily; Thompson, Susan; Jalaludin, Bin; Torvaldsen, Siranda

    2017-07-16

    To compare the cost of a basket of staple foods, together with the availability and quality of fresh fruit and vegetables, by supermarket store type in high and low socioeconomic suburbs of Sydney. A food basket survey was undertaken in 100 supermarkets in the 20 highest and 20 lowest socioeconomic suburbs of Sydney. We assessed the cost of 46 foods, the range of 30 fresh fruit and vegetables and the quality of ten fresh fruit and vegetables. Two major supermarket retailers, a discount supermarket chain and independent grocery stores were surveyed. The food basket was significantly cheaper in low compared to high socioeconomic suburbs ($177 vs $189, p<0.01). Discount supermarkets were at least 30% cheaper than other supermarket stores. There were fewer varieties and poorer quality fruit and vegetables in stores in low socioeconomic suburbs. Food basket prices and the availability and quality of fruit and vegetables varied significantly by store type and socioeconomic status of suburb. Implications for public health: A nationwide food and nutrition surveillance system is required to inform public health policy and practice initiatives. In addition to the food retail environment, these initiatives must address the underlying contributors to inequity and food insecurity for disadvantaged groups. © 2017 The Authors.

  15. Effects of substrate differences on water availability for Arctic lichens during the snow-free summers in the High Arctic glacier foreland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Takeshi; Kudoh, Sakae; Uchida, Masaki; Tanabe, Yukiko; Inoue, Masakane; Kanda, Hiroshi

    2014-12-01

    We used observational and experimental analyses to investigate the photosynthetic activity and water relationships of five lichen species attached to different substrates in a glacier foreland in the High Arctic, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard (79°N) during the snow-free season in 2009 and 2010. After the rains ceased, lichens and their attached substrates quickly dried, whereas photosynthetic activity in the lichens decreased gradually. The in situ photosynthetic activity was estimated based on the relative electron transportation rate (rETR) in four fruticose lichens: Cetrariella delisei, Flavocetraria nivalis, Cladonia arbuscula ssp. mitis, and Cladonia pleurota. The rETR approached zero around noon, although the crustose lichen Ochrolechia frigida grown on biological soil crust (BSC) could acquire water from the BSC and retain its WC to perform positive photosynthesis. The light-rETR relationship curves of the five well-watered lichens were characterized into two types: shade-adapted with photoinhibition for the fruticose lichens, and light-adapted with no photoinhibition for O. frigida. The maximum rETR was expected to occur when they could acquire water from the surrounding air or from substrates during the desiccation period. Our results suggest that different species of Arctic lichens have different water availabilities due to their substrates and/or morphological characteristics, which affect their photosynthetic active periods during the summer.

  16. Healthful food availability in stores and restaurants--American Samoa, 2014.

    PubMed

    Lee-Kwan, Seung Hee; Kumar, Gayathri; Ayscue, Patrick; Santos, Marjorie; McGuire, Lisa C; Blanck, Heidi M; Nua, Motusa Tuileama

    2015-03-20

    American Samoa, one of the U.S.-affiliated Pacific Islands, has documented the highest prevalence of adults with obesity (75%) in the world. The nutritionally poor food and beverage environment of food retail venues has been suspected to be a contributing factor, although an evaluation of these venues in American Samoa has not been conducted. In January 2014, American Samoa established an Obesity Task Force to develop policies and strategies to combat obesity. To inform the efforts of the task force, the American Samoa Department of Health and CDC conducted a baseline assessment of the availability, pricing, and promotion of healthful foods at retail food venues. Previously validated food environment assessment tools were modified to incorporate American Samoa foods and administered in a geographically representative sample of 70 stores (nine grocery stores and 61 convenience stores) and 20 restaurants. In convenience stores, healthful items were not found as available as less healthful counterparts, and some healthful items were more expensive than their less healthful counterparts. For restaurants, 70% offered at least one healthful entrée, whereas only 30% had healthful side dishes, such as vegetables. Actions to promote healthy eating, such as providing calorie information, were rare among restaurants. Improving availability, affordability, and the promotion of healthful foods in American Samoa stores and restaurants could support healthy eating among American Samoa residents.

  17. Influence of food availability on the spatial distribution of juvenile fish within soft sediment nursery habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tableau, A.; Brind'Amour, A.; Woillez, M.; Le Bris, H.

    2016-05-01

    Soft sediments in coastal shallow waters constitute nursery habitats for juveniles of several flatfishes. The quality of a nursery is defined by its capacity to optimize the growth and the survival of juvenile fish. The influence of biotic factors, such as food availability, is poorly studied at the scale of a nursery ground. Whether food availability limits juvenile survival is still uncertain. A spatial approach is used to understand the influence of food availability on the distribution of juvenile fish of various benthic and demersal species in the Bay of Vilaine (France), a productive nursery ground. We quantified the spatial overlap between benthic macro-invertebrates and their predators (juvenile fish) to assess if the latter were spatially covering the most productive areas of the Bay. Three scenarios describing the shapes of the predator-prey spatial relationship were tested to quantify the strength of the relationship and consequently the importance of food availability in determining fish distribution. Our results underline that both food availability and fish densities vary greatly over the nursery ground. When considering small organisational levels (e.g., a single fish species), the predator-prey spatial relationship was not clear, likely because of additional environmental effects not identified here; but at larger organisational level (the whole juvenile fish community), a strong overlap between the fish predators and their prey was identified. The evidence that fish concentrate in sectors with high food availability suggests that either food is the limiting factor in that nursery or/and fish display behavioural responses by optimising their energetic expenditures associated with foraging. Further investigations are needed to test the two hypotheses and to assess the impact of benthic and demersal juvenile fish in the food web of coastal nurseries.

  18. [Household food availability in Brazil: distribution and trends (1974-2003)].

    PubMed

    Levy-Costa, Renata Bertazzi; Sichieri, Rosely; Pontes, Nézio dos Santos; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2005-08-01

    Data from household food budget surveys were examined in order to describe the regional and socio-economic distribution of household food availability in Brazil in 2002-2003 and trends from 1974 to 2003. The study uses data from the "Pesquisa de Orçamento Familiar 2002-2003" budget survey conducted by the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística) from July 2002 to June 2003, including a national sample of 48,470 households. In each household, during seven consecutive days, all monetary and non-monetary expenses with food and beverages for family consumption were registered. Crude weights of purchased foods were transformed into calories and nutrients with the use of food composition tables. Adequate protein content and a high proportion of animal protein were found in all regions and income strata. These were the most important positive aspects identified in the household food availability in Brazil. On the other hand, all regions and socio-economic strata showed excess calories from sugar and little availability of fruits and vegetables. An excessive proportion of calories came from total and saturated fat in the more economically developed regions and in the urban milieu, as well as among higher-income families. Time-trends in metropolitan areas indicated a decline in the consumption of basic, traditional foods, such as rice and beans; notable increases (up to 400%) in the consumption of processed food items, such as cookies and soft drinks; maintenance of the excessive consumption of sugar; and a continuous increase in total fat and saturated fat content in the diet. Patterns and trends regarding household food availability in Brazil are consistent with the increasing participation of chronic non-communicable diseases in morbidity and mortality and with the continuous increase in the prevalence of obesity.

  19. Available lysine and digestible amino acid contents of proteinaceous foods of India.

    PubMed

    Rutherfurd, Shane M; Bains, Kiran; Moughan, Paul J

    2012-08-01

    Cereals and legumes are staple foods in India and are limiting in lysine and sulphur amino acids, respectively. Available lysine loss, due to Maillard-type reactions that may occur during food preparation, exacerbates the problem of lysine deficiency particularly in cereals. Consequently, determining the contents of digestible essential amino acids, particularly lysine, is important. True ileal digestibilities of most amino acids (including total and reactive lysine) were determined for ten food ingredients and eleven foods commonly consumed in India. Semi-synthetic diets each containing either an ingredient or the prepared food as the sole protein source were formulated to contain 100 g kg(-1) protein (75 g kg(-1) for rice-based diets) and fed to growing rats. Titanium dioxide was included as an indigestible marker. Digesta were collected and the amino acid content (including reactive lysine) of diets and ileal digesta determined. Available (digestible reactive) lysine content ranged from 1·9-15·4 g kg(-1) and 1·8-12·7 g kg(-1) across the ingredients and prepared foods respectively. True ileal amino acid digestibility varied widely both across ingredients and prepared foods for each amino acid (on average 60-92 %) and across amino acids within each ingredient and prepared food (overall digestibility 31-96 %). Amino acid digestibility was low for many of the ingredients and prepared foods and consequently digestibility must be considered when assessing the protein quality of poorer quality foods. Given commonly encountered daily energy intakes for members of the Indian population, it is estimated that lysine is limiting for adults in many Indian diets.

  20. Competitive foods in schools: availability and purchasing in predominately rural small and large high schools.

    PubMed

    Nollen, Nicole L; Befort, Christie; Davis, Ann McGrath; Snow, Tricia; Mahnken, Jonathan; Hou, Qingjiang; Story, Mary; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2009-05-01

    Schools have an important role to play in obesity prevention, but little is known about the food environment in small, predominately rural schools. The primary purpose of this study was to compare the availability and student purchasing of foods sold outside of the reimbursable meals program through à la carte or vending (ie, competitive foods) in small (n=7) and large (n=6) Kansas high schools. A cross-sectional observational study design was used to capture the number of à la carte and vending items available and purchased, and the fat and energy content of all available and purchased items on a single school day between January and May 2005. Small schools had significantly fewer vending machines than large schools (median 3.0 [range 2.0 to 5.0] vs 6.5 [range 4.0 to 8.0], P<0.01]. Vending and à la carte items at small schools contained a median of 2.3 fewer fat grams per item (P< or =0.05), whereas vending products contained a median of 25 kcal fewer per item (P< or =0.05) than at large schools. Significantly less fat (median -15.4 g/student) and less energy (median -306.8 kcal/student) were purchased per student from all competitive food sources and from à la carte (median -12.9 g fat and -323.3 kcal/student) by students in small schools compared to students in large schools (P< or =0.05). The findings, which highlight less availability and lower energy content from competitive foods at small compared to large schools, have implications for understanding how small schools support their foodservice programs with limited dependence on competitive foods and the influence that food and nutrition professionals can have on school environments by providing more oversight into the nutritional quality of foods available.

  1. Advances in Food Composition Tables of Japan--Amino Acid, Fatty Acid and Available Carbohydrate Tables.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    The new revised version of the Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan (STFCJ 2015) will be published in 2015. The aim of the present paper is to share information on issues we have encountered during the revision. New analytical data on amino acid composition will be provided for approximately 230 foods, fatty acid composition for approximately 140 foods, and available carbohydrate (starch, glucose, fructose, sucrose, maltose, and lactose) composition for approximately 340 foods. These data will be published separately as three supplements to the STFCJ 2015: amino acid tables, fatty acid tables, and available carbohydrate tables. Available carbohydrate tables will also provide polyol (sorbitol and mannitol) and organic acid (acetic acid, lactic acid, citric acid, etc.) data. In the supplements, amino acid content will be adjusted for protein content calculated as reference nitrogen multiplied by a nitrogen to protein conversion factor, and fatty acid content adjusted for extractable lipid content, as in previous revisions. Available carbohydrate content, however, will be adjusted for water content. Values of protein content calculated as the sum of amino acid residues , lipid content expressed as triacylglycerol equivalents of fatty acids , and available carbohydrate content will appear in the main tables of the STFCJ 2015. Protein, fat and available carbohydrate contents were significantly decreased when the preferred analytical methods of FAO were applied instead of the acceptable methods. Online publication of Japanese and English versions of these tables, reference materials, and a retrievable food composition database is planned.

  2. Reliability of a store observation tool in measuring availability of alcohol and selected foods.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Deborah A; Schoeff, Diane; Farley, Thomas A; Bluthenthal, Ricky; Scribner, Richard; Overton, Adrian

    2007-11-01

    Alcohol and food items can compromise or contribute to health, depending on the quantity and frequency with which they are consumed. How much people consume may be influenced by product availability and promotion in local retail stores. We developed and tested an observational tool to objectively measure in-store availability and promotion of alcoholic beverages and selected food items that have an impact on health. Trained observers visited 51 alcohol outlets in Los Angeles and southeastern Louisiana. Using a standardized instrument, two independent observations were conducted documenting the type of outlet, the availability and shelf space for alcoholic beverages and selected food items, the purchase price of standard brands, the placement of beer and malt liquor, and the amount of in-store alcohol advertising. Reliability of the instrument was excellent for measures of item availability, shelf space, and placement of malt liquor. Reliability was lower for alcohol advertising, beer placement, and items that measured the "least price" of apples and oranges. The average kappa was 0.87 for categorical items and the average intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.83 for continuous items. Overall, systematic observation of the availability and promotion of alcoholic beverages and food items was feasible, acceptable, and reliable. Measurement tools such as the one we evaluated should be useful in studies of the impact of availability of food and beverages on consumption and on health outcomes.

  3. Flexibility in metabolic rate confers a growth advantage under changing food availability

    PubMed Central

    Auer, Sonya K; Salin, Karine; Rudolf, Agata M; Anderson, Graeme J; Metcalfe, Neil B; Ardia, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic flexibility in physiological, morphological and behavioural traits can allow organisms to cope with environmental challenges. Given recent climate change and the degree of habitat modification currently experienced by many organisms, it is therefore critical to quantify the degree of phenotypic variation present within populations, individual capacities to change and what their consequences are for fitness. Flexibility in standard metabolic rate (SMR) may be particularly important since SMR reflects the minimal energetic cost of living and is one of the primary traits underlying organismal performance. SMR can increase or decrease in response to food availability, but the consequences of these changes for growth rates and other fitness components are not well known. We examined individual variation in metabolic flexibility in response to changing food levels and its consequences for somatic growth in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta). SMR increased when individuals were switched to a high food ration and decreased when they were switched to a low food regime. These shifts in SMR, in turn, were linked with individual differences in somatic growth; those individuals that increased their SMR more in response to elevated food levels grew fastest, while growth at the low food level was fastest in those individuals that depressed their SMR most. Flexibility in energy metabolism is therefore a key mechanism to maximize growth rates under the challenges imposed by variability in food availability and is likely to be an important determinant of species’ resilience in the face of global change. PMID:25939669

  4. Flexibility in metabolic rate confers a growth advantage under changing food availability.

    PubMed

    Auer, Sonya K; Salin, Karine; Rudolf, Agata M; Anderson, Graeme J; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2015-09-01

    1. Phenotypic flexibility in physiological, morphological and behavioural traits can allow organisms to cope with environmental challenges. Given recent climate change and the degree of habitat modification currently experienced by many organisms, it is therefore critical to quantify the degree of phenotypic variation present within populations, individual capacities to change and what their consequences are for fitness. 2. Flexibility in standard metabolic rate (SMR) may be particularly important since SMR reflects the minimal energetic cost of living and is one of the primary traits underlying organismal performance. SMR can increase or decrease in response to food availability, but the consequences of these changes for growth rates and other fitness components are not well known. 3. We examined individual variation in metabolic flexibility in response to changing food levels and its consequences for somatic growth in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta). 4. SMR increased when individuals were switched to a high food ration and decreased when they were switched to a low food regime. These shifts in SMR, in turn, were linked with individual differences in somatic growth; those individuals that increased their SMR more in response to elevated food levels grew fastest, while growth at the low food level was fastest in those individuals that depressed their SMR most. 5. Flexibility in energy metabolism is therefore a key mechanism to maximize growth rates under the challenges imposed by variability in food availability and is likely to be an important determinant of species' resilience in the face of global change.

  5. Food Availability as a Determinant of Weight Gain Among Renal Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Bloodworth, Robin F.; Ward, Kenneth D.; Relyea, George E.; Cashion, Ann K.

    2014-01-01

    Excessive weight gain is common after renal transplantation, but it is unknown whether environmental factors, such as food availability, contribute to this important clinical problem. We evaluated the effects of food availability (fast food restaurants, convenience stores, and grocery stores within 1, 2, and 3 mile buffers of transplant recipients′ residences) on body mass index (BMI) change during the first year post-transplant. Participants (n = 299) resided in Memphis, Tennessee. BMI increased by 1.42 units (p<.001) corresponding to an average weight gain of 9.25 lbs (5.43%) during the first year post-transplant. The number of grocery stores within 1 mile of recipient's residence was associated with an increase in BMI (p<.05), but fast food restaurants and convenience stores were not significantly associated with BMI change. PMID:24805885

  6. Food availability as a determinant of weight gain among renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Bloodworth, Robin F; Ward, Kenneth D; Relyea, George E; Cashion, Ann K

    2014-06-01

    Excessive weight gain is common after renal transplantation, but it is unknown whether environmental factors, such as food availability, contribute to this important clinical problem. We evaluated the effects of food availability (fast food restaurants, convenience stores, and grocery stores within 1, 2, and 3 mile buffers of transplant recipients' residences) on body mass index (BMI) change during the first year post-transplant. Participants (n = 299) resided in Memphis, Tennessee. BMI increased by 1.42 units (p < .001) corresponding to an average weight gain of 9.25 lbs (5.43%) during the first year post-transplant. The number of grocery stores within 1 mile of recipient's residence was associated with an increase in BMI (p < .05), but fast food restaurants and convenience stores were not significantly associated with BMI change.

  7. MODIS Snow-Cover Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.; Salomonson, Vinvent V.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo; Bayr, Klaus J.; Houser, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    On December 18, 1999, the Terra satellite was launched with a complement of five instruments including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Many geophysical products are derived from MODIS data including global snow-cover products. These products have been available through the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) since September 13, 2000. MODIS snow-cover products represent potential improvement to the currently available operation products mainly because the MODIS products are global and 500-m resolution, and have the capability to separate most snow and clouds. Also the snow-mapping algorithms are automated which means that a consistent data set is generated for long-term climates studies that require snow-cover information. Extensive quality assurance (QA) information is stored with the product. The snow product suite starts with a 500-m resolution swath snow-cover map which is gridded to the Integerized Sinusoidal Grid to produce daily and eight-day composite tile products. The sequence then proceeds to a climate-modeling grid product at 5-km spatial resolution, with both daily and eight-day composite products. A case study from March 6, 2000, involving MODIS data and field and aircraft measurements, is presented. Near-term enhancements include daily snow albedo and fractional snow cover.

  8. Mercury distribution, partitioning and speciation in coastal vs. inland High Arctic snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulain, Alexandre J.; Garcia, Edenise; Amyot, Marc; Campbell, Peter G. C.; Ariya, Parisa A.

    2007-07-01

    Atmospheric mercury deposition on snow at springtime has been reported in polar regions, potentially posing a threat to coastal and inland ecosystems receiving meltwaters. However, the post-depositional fate of Hg in snow is not well known, and no data are available on Hg partitioning in polar snow. During snowmelt, we conducted a survey of Hg concentrations, partitioning and speciation in surface snow and at depth, over sea ice and over land along a 100 km transect across Cornwallis Island, NU, Canada. Total Hg concentrations [THg] in surface snow were low (less than 20 pmol L -1) and were significantly higher in marine vs. inland environments. Particulate Hg in surface snow represented up to 90% of total Hg over sea ice and up to 59% over land. At depth, [THg] at the snow/sea ice interface (up to 300 pmol L -1) were two orders of magnitude higher than at the snow/lake ice interface (ca. 2.5 pmol L -1). Integrated snow columns, sampled over sea-ice and over land, showed that particulate Hg was mostly bound to particles ranging from 0.45 to 2.7 μm. Moreover, melting snowpacks over sea ice and over lake ice contribute to increase [THg] at the water/ice interfaces. This study indicates that, at the onset of snowmelt, most of the Hg in snow is in particulate form, particularly over sea ice. Low Hg levels in surface snow suggest that Hg deposited through early spring deposition events is partly lost to the atmosphere from the snowpack before snowmelt. The sea ice/snow interface may constitute a site for Hg accumulation, however. Further understanding of the cycling of mercury at the sea ice/snow and sea ice/seawater interfaces is thus warranted to fully understand how mercury enters the arctic food webs.

  9. Availability and accessibility of healthier options and nutrition information at New Zealand fast food restaurants.

    PubMed

    Chand, Ashmita; Eyles, Helen; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the availability of healthier options and nutrition information at major New Zealand fast food chains. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken at 24 fast food stores (two from each of 12 major chains) using on-site visits, telephone calls, and website searches. Of available products, only 234/1126 (21%) were healthier options. Healthier options were generally cheaper and lower in energy, total fat, saturated fat, sugar, and sodium per serve than their regular counterparts. Regular options were commonly high in sugar or sodium per serve (mean sugar content of beverages=56 g (11 teaspoons) and sodium content of burgers and pasta=1095 mg and 1172 mg, respectively). Nutrition information was available at 11/12 (92%) restaurant chains (range=0% at Tank Juice to 99% at Domino's Pizza). However, <1% of this information was available at the point-of-purchase. Therefore, there is huge potential for improving nutrition in the New Zealand fast food restaurant setting. Implications of these findings for policy and food industry include: consideration of mandatory menu labelling, increasing the percentage of healthier options available, and improving the nutrient content of regular options at New Zealand fast food restaurants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of food availability on demography and local population dynamics in a long-lived seabird.

    PubMed Central

    Oro, Daniel; Cam, Emmanuelle; Pradel, Roger; Martínez-Abraín, Alejandro

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have addressed the effects of food availability as a proximate factor affecting local adult survival in long-lived organisms and their consequences at local population dynamics. We used capture-recapture analysis of resightings of 10 birth cohorts of ringed Audouin's gulls, Larus audouinii, to estimate adult survival and dispersal (both emigration and immigration). For the first time, permanent emigration (the transient effect in capture-recapture analysis) was modelled for the whole population and not only for the newly marked birds. Gulls exploit to a large extent fishes discarded from trawlers, and a trawling moratorium established since 1991 has decreased food supply for the colony. This was used as a natural experiment of food availability to assess its effects on adult survival and emigration. These and other demographic parameters were used in a projection modelling to assess the probabilities of extinction of the colony under two scenarios of lower and higher food availability. Food availability (together with the age of individuals) influenced emigration probabilities, but not adult survival, which was estimated at 0.91 (s.e. = 0.02). When food was in shorter supply during the chick-rearing period, emigration was very high (ca. 65%) for younger breeders, although this rate decreased sharply with age. Probabilities of extinction were very high when food availability was low, and when environmental stochasticity was introduced, and only stochastic immigration from the outside seemed to prevent extinction. The results highlight the importance of dispersal processes in the population dynamics of long-lived organisms. PMID:15101698

  11. Appalachia Snow

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... by the Blue Ridge mountain belt along the east and the Appalachian Plateau along the west. Valleys and ridges between the higher ... Snow location:  United States region:  Eastern United States Order:  4 ...

  12. Review of availability of food composition data for fish and shellfish.

    PubMed

    Rittenschober, Doris; Nowak, Verena; Charrondiere, U Ruth

    2013-12-15

    The FAO/INFOODS database on fish and shellfish (aFiSh) is a collection of analytical data from primary sources and holds values for 2,277 entries on raw and processed food with sufficient quality. Most data were entered on fatty acids (60%), followed by macronutrients and their fractions (16%), minerals (10%), amino acids (7%), (pro)vitamins (2%), heavy metals (2%) and other components (3%). Information on several factors that contribute to the variation of compositional data (e.g., biodiversity, catch season, habitat, size and part of fish/shellfish analysed) as well as the bibliographic references are presented alongside with each food entry. The data were published in the FAO/INFOODS Food Composition Database for Biodiversity (BioFoodComp2.0) and in the FAO/INFOODS Analytical Food Composition Database (AnFooD1.0), freely available at the INFOODS webpage http://www.fao.org/infoods/biodiversity/index_en.stm. The provision of easy accessible, analytical compositional data should be seen as stimulation for researchers and compilers to incorporate more analytical and detailed data of fish and shellfish into future food composition tables and databases and to improve dietary assessment tools. Copyright © 2013 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. The climate sensitivity of food security in Mali - a historical perspective on availability and access dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannini, A.; Krishnamurthy, P. K.; Cousin, R.; Choularton, R. J.

    2011-12-01

    We present results based on an analysis of a 2005 livelihood survey of ~2000 rural households in ~200 villages scattered across Mali, a sparsely populated, large land-locked country in West Africa, to elucidate the role of climate variability and change in shaping availability and access dimensions of food security. The Comprehensive Food Security Vulnerability Analysis is a recurrent survey carried out by the World Food Programme and in-country partners to map out nutritional and socio-economic status during normal (~food secure) conditions in the hope of understanding underlying cause(s) and prevent the next food security crisis. We set the spatial characterization of food security that emerges from the CFSVA against the background of a varying climate, on intra-seasonal, interannual and multi-decadal time scales: through elucidation of the influence of climate on agricultural production we arrive at an interpretation of structural and conjunctural events affecting food security. We conclude with a discussion of possible interventions to reduce vulnerability.

  14. Food choice in hyperthyroidism: potential influence of the autonomic nervous system and brain serotonin precursor availability.

    PubMed

    Pijl, H; de Meijer, P H; Langius, J; Coenegracht, C I; van den Berk, A H; Chandie Shaw, P K; Boom, H; Schoemaker, R C; Cohen, A F; Burggraaf, J; Meinders, A E

    2001-12-01

    We explored energy and macronutrient intake in patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism. We specifically hypothesized that hyperthyroidism is associated with increased appetite for carbohydrates, because of enhanced sympathetic tone and diminished serotonin mediated neurotransmission in the brain. To test this hypothesis, we measured food intake by dietary history and food selected for lunch in the laboratory in 14 patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism. Twenty-four-hour catecholamine excretion was used as a measure of activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the plasma [Trp]/[NAA] ratio was measured to estimate (rate limiting) precursor availability for brain 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesis. All measurements were repeated after the subjects had been treated to establish euthyroidism. In addition, the effects of nonselective beta-adrenoceptor blockade upon these parameters were studied to evaluate the influence of beta-adrenergic hyperactivity on food intake. Hyperthyroidism was marked by increased SNS activity and reduced plasma [Trp]/[NAA] ratio. Accordingly, energy intake was considerably and significantly increased in hyper vs. euthyroidism, which was fully attributable to enhanced carbohydrate consumption, as protein and fat intake were not affected. These results suggest that hyperthyroidism alters the neurophysiology of food intake regulation. Increased SNS activity and reduced Trp precursor availability for 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesis in the brain may drive the marked hyperphagia and craving for carbohydrates that appears to characterize hyperthyroid patients. Because propranolol did not affect food intake in hyperthyroidism, the potential effect of catecholamines on food intake might be mediated by alpha-adrenoceptors.

  15. Investigations on the intestinal availability of native thiamin in selected foods and feedstuffs.

    PubMed

    Roth-Maier, D A; Wild, S I; Erhardt, W; Henke, J; Kirchgessner, M

    1999-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the precaecal digestibility as a quantitative measure for the intestinal availability of naturally occurring thiamin from selected foods and feedstuffs. Therefore, three experiments were conducted to examine the following foods and feedstuffs: Eggs, bananas, white cabbage, corn, milk, fish, barley, soybeans, rice, wheat bran, brewer's yeast, rye and soybean meal. The foods and food processing procedures were made with regard to their relevance in human and animal nutrition. For all experiments male pigs with an initial live weight between 33 and 40 kg were fitted with an end-to-end ileo-rectal anastomosis with preserved ileo-caeco-colicvalve. Three weeks after surgery, the digestibility trials were carried out from week 4 to week 9 and week 12 to week 17 after surgery. The animals were fed the individual experimental diets for a period of 12 days while digesta were collected twice a day quantitatively during the final 5 days of this period. Precaecal digestibility for thiamin from all tested foods and feedstuffs was within a range from 73% to 94% with the highest values from boiled soybeans, boiled rice and barley, and the lowest value from steamed fish. In comparison with the animal products the plant products show on average a nearly equal precaecal digestibility for thiamin (87.3% versus 83.5%). Moreover, all tested foods and feedstuffs exhibit a relatively good intestinal availability of thiamin.

  16. Food availability affects the maternal transfer of androgens and antibodies into eggs of a colonial seabird

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gasparini, J.; Boulinier, T.; Gill, V.A.; Gil, D.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Roulin, A.

    2007-01-01

    Mothers can improve the quality of their offspring by increasing the level of certain components in their eggs. To examine whether or not mothers increase deposition of such components in eggs as a function of food availability, we food-supplemented black-legged kittiwake females (Rissa tridactyla) before and during egg laying and compared deposition of androgens and antibodies into eggs of first and experimentally induced replacement clutches. Food-supplemented females transferred lower amounts of androgens and antibodies into eggs of induced replacement clutches than did non-food-supplemented mothers, whereas first clutches presented no differences between treatments. Our results suggest that when females are in lower condition, they transfer more androgens and antibodies into eggs to facilitate chick development despite potential long-term costs for juveniles. Females in prime condition may avoid these potential long-term costs because they can provide their chicks with more and higher quality resources. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  17. MODIS Snow and Ice Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorthoy K.; Hoser, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Daily, global snow cover maps, and sea ice cover and sea ice surface temperature (IST) maps are derived from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), are available at no cost through the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Included on this CD-ROM are samples of the MODIS snow and ice products. In addition, an animation, done by the Scientific Visualization studio at Goddard Space Flight Center, is also included.

  18. [Impacts of technological knowledge of small indigenous farmers on food availability in the Mexican southeast].

    PubMed

    Cirilo Sergio, Orozco; Bautista Juan, Antonio; Miguel Angel, Damián Huato; Moreno Finlandia, Barbosa; Vásquez Benito, Gutiérrez; Flores Rafael, Ariza

    2011-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of technological knowledge (acquired in Farmer Field Schools) on the availability of food for poor indigenous farmers, who are mainly dedicated to the production of maize for home consumption in the Cuicateca regi6n, Oaxaca, Mexico. The variables analyzed were 1) Level of technological knowledge, 2) maize yield, and 3) time that the last maize harvest supplied the food needs of the farmers in question (a proxy indicator of food availability). A random sample of 36 participants in the rural training schools and a control group of the same size were given questionnaires at the beginning and end of their study. The statistical analysis was done using the Pearson chi-2 contrast test and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. After finding that there was no normal distribution, the Wilcoxon test to contrast paired data was used, and finally, correlations were obtained. It was found that the increase in technological knowledge of 7.29 +/- 1.01 to 46.64 +/- 18.40 did not correlate (P > or = 0.05) with the time that the last maize harvest lasted in providing food. The results show that the increase in technological knowledge does not increase availability of maize as food.

  19. Development and acceptability testing of ready-to-use supplementary food made from locally available food ingredients in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Inadequate energy and micronutrient intake during childhood is a major public health problem in developing countries. Ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF) made of locally available food ingredients can improve micronutrient status and growth of children. The objective of this study was to develop RUSF using locally available food ingredients and test their acceptability. Methods A checklist was prepared of food ingredients available and commonly consumed in Bangladesh that have the potential of being used for preparing RUSF. Linear programming was used to determine possible combinations of ingredients and micronutrient premix. To test the acceptability of the RUSF compared to Pushti packet (a cereal based food-supplement) in terms of amount taken by children, a clinical trial was conducted among 90 children aged 6–18 months in a slum of Dhaka city. The mothers were also asked to rate the color, flavor, mouth-feel, and overall liking of the RUSF by using a 7-point Hedonic Scale (1 = dislike extremely, 7 = like extremely). Results Two RUSFs were developed, one based on rice-lentil and the other on chickpea. The total energy obtained from 50 g of rice-lentil, chickpea-based RUSF and Pushti packet were 264, 267 and 188 kcal respectively. Children were offered 50 g of RUSF and they consumed (mean ± SD) 23.8 ± 14 g rice-lentil RUSF, 28.4 ± 15 g chickpea based RUSF. Pushti packet was also offered 50 g but mothers were allowed to add water, and children consumed 17.1 ± 14 g. Mean feeding time for two RUSFs and Pushti packet was 20.9 minutes. Although the two RUSFs did not differ in the amount consumed, there was a significant difference in consumption between chickpea-based RUSF and Pushti packet (p = 0.012). Using the Hedonic Scale the two RUSFs were more liked by mothers compared to Pushti packet. Conclusions Recipes of RUSF were developed using locally available food ingredients. The study results suggest that rice

  20. Development and acceptability testing of ready-to-use supplementary food made from locally available food ingredients in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Tahmeed; Choudhury, Nuzhat; Hossain, M Iqbal; Tangsuphoom, Nattapol; Islam, M Munirul; de Pee, Saskia; Steiger, Georg; Fuli, Rachel; Sarker, Shafiqul A M; Parveen, Monira; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul

    2014-06-27

    Inadequate energy and micronutrient intake during childhood is a major public health problem in developing countries. Ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF) made of locally available food ingredients can improve micronutrient status and growth of children. The objective of this study was to develop RUSF using locally available food ingredients and test their acceptability. A checklist was prepared of food ingredients available and commonly consumed in Bangladesh that have the potential of being used for preparing RUSF. Linear programming was used to determine possible combinations of ingredients and micronutrient premix. To test the acceptability of the RUSF compared to Pushti packet (a cereal based food-supplement) in terms of amount taken by children, a clinical trial was conducted among 90 children aged 6-18 months in a slum of Dhaka city. The mothers were also asked to rate the color, flavor, mouth-feel, and overall liking of the RUSF by using a 7-point Hedonic Scale (1 = dislike extremely, 7 = like extremely). Two RUSFs were developed, one based on rice-lentil and the other on chickpea. The total energy obtained from 50 g of rice-lentil, chickpea-based RUSF and Pushti packet were 264, 267 and 188 kcal respectively. Children were offered 50 g of RUSF and they consumed (mean ± SD) 23.8 ± 14 g rice-lentil RUSF, 28.4 ± 15 g chickpea based RUSF. Pushti packet was also offered 50 g but mothers were allowed to add water, and children consumed 17.1 ± 14 g. Mean feeding time for two RUSFs and Pushti packet was 20.9 minutes. Although the two RUSFs did not differ in the amount consumed, there was a significant difference in consumption between chickpea-based RUSF and Pushti packet (p = 0.012). Using the Hedonic Scale the two RUSFs were more liked by mothers compared to Pushti packet. Recipes of RUSF were developed using locally available food ingredients. The study results suggest that rice-lentil and chickpea-based RUSF are well accepted

  1. Competing pressures on populations: long-term dynamics of food availability, food quality, disease, stress and animal abundance.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Colin A; Schoof, Valérie A M; Bonnell, Tyler R; Gogarten, Jan F; Calmé, Sophie

    2015-05-26

    Despite strong links between sociality and fitness that ultimately affect the size of animal populations, the particular social and ecological factors that lead to endangerment are not well understood. Here, we synthesize approximately 25 years of data and present new analyses that highlight dynamics in forest composition, food availability, the nutritional quality of food, disease, physiological stress and population size of endangered folivorous red colobus monkeys (Procolobus rufomitratus). There is a decline in the quality of leaves 15 and 30 years following two previous studies in an undisturbed area of forest. The consumption of a low-quality diet in one month was associated with higher glucocorticoid levels in the subsequent month and stress levels in groups living in degraded forest fragments where diet was poor was more than twice those in forest groups. In contrast, forest composition has changed and when red colobus food availability was weighted by the protein-to-fibre ratio, which we have shown positively predicts folivore biomass, there was an increase in the availability of high-quality trees. Despite these changing social and ecological factors, the abundance of red colobus has remained stable, possibly through a combination of increasing group size and behavioural flexibility. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Competing pressures on populations: long-term dynamics of food availability, food quality, disease, stress and animal abundance

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Colin A.; Schoof, Valérie A. M.; Bonnell, Tyler R.; Gogarten, Jan F.; Calmé, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Despite strong links between sociality and fitness that ultimately affect the size of animal populations, the particular social and ecological factors that lead to endangerment are not well understood. Here, we synthesize approximately 25 years of data and present new analyses that highlight dynamics in forest composition, food availability, the nutritional quality of food, disease, physiological stress and population size of endangered folivorous red colobus monkeys (Procolobus rufomitratus). There is a decline in the quality of leaves 15 and 30 years following two previous studies in an undisturbed area of forest. The consumption of a low-quality diet in one month was associated with higher glucocorticoid levels in the subsequent month and stress levels in groups living in degraded forest fragments where diet was poor was more than twice those in forest groups. In contrast, forest composition has changed and when red colobus food availability was weighted by the protein-to-fibre ratio, which we have shown positively predicts folivore biomass, there was an increase in the availability of high-quality trees. Despite these changing social and ecological factors, the abundance of red colobus has remained stable, possibly through a combination of increasing group size and behavioural flexibility. PMID:25870398

  3. The effect of energy reserves and food availability on optimal immune defence.

    PubMed

    Houston, Alasdair I; McNamara, John M; Barta, Zoltán; Klasing, Kirk C

    2007-11-22

    In order to avoid both starvation and disease, animals must allocate resources between energy reserves and immune defence. We investigate the optimal allocation. We find that animals with low reserves choose to allocate less to defence than animals with higher reserves because when reserves are low it is more important to increase reserves to reduce the risk of starvation in the future. In general, investment in immune defence increases monotonically with energy reserves. An exception is when the animal can reduce its probability of death from disease by reducing its foraging rate. In this case, allocation to immune defence can peak at intermediate reserves. When food changes over time, the optimal response depends on the frequency of changes. If the environment is relatively stable, animals forage most intensively when the food is scarce and invest more in immune defence when the food is abundant than when it is scarce. If the environment changes quickly, animals forage at low intensity when the food is scarce, but at high intensity when the food is abundant. As the rate of environmental change increases, immune defence becomes less dependent on food availability. We show that the strength of selection on reserve-dependent immune defence depends on how foraging intensity and immune defence determine the probability of death from disease.

  4. The effect of energy reserves and food availability on optimal immune defence

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Alasdair I; McNamara, John M; Barta, Zoltán; Klasing, Kirk C

    2007-01-01

    In order to avoid both starvation and disease, animals must allocate resources between energy reserves and immune defence. We investigate the optimal allocation. We find that animals with low reserves choose to allocate less to defence than animals with higher reserves because when reserves are low it is more important to increase reserves to reduce the risk of starvation in the future. In general, investment in immune defence increases monotonically with energy reserves. An exception is when the animal can reduce its probability of death from disease by reducing its foraging rate. In this case, allocation to immune defence can peak at intermediate reserves. When food changes over time, the optimal response depends on the frequency of changes. If the environment is relatively stable, animals forage most intensively when the food is scarce and invest more in immune defence when the food is abundant than when it is scarce. If the environment changes quickly, animals forage at low intensity when the food is scarce, but at high intensity when the food is abundant. As the rate of environmental change increases, immune defence becomes less dependent on food availability. We show that the strength of selection on reserve-dependent immune defence depends on how foraging intensity and immune defence determine the probability of death from disease. PMID:17848371

  5. Food availability, neighborhood socioeconomic status, and dietary patterns among blacks with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Millstein, Rachel A; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Brancati, Frederick L; Batts-Turner, Marian; Gary, Tiffany L

    2009-01-01

    High diabetes prevalence among low-income and urban African American populations. OBJECTIVES & MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: This study aimed to determine associations between neighborhood-level food sources and socioeconomic status (SES), and dietary patterns and body-mass index (BMI). The hypotheses were that the presence of food stores in neighborhoods would be associated with better dietary habits and BMI, and that the presence of convenience stores, and lower neighborhood SES, would be associated with poorer dietary habits and BMI. DESIGN, SETTING, & PATIENTS: Black adults (n = 132) with type 2 diabetes in Project Sugar 2 (Baltimore, Maryland) underwent the Ammerman dietary assessment: total dietary risk score and subscores for meat, dairy, starches, and added fat. Food source availability (food stores, convenience stores, other food stores, restaurants, and other food service places) and SES data from the 2000 US census at the tract-level were linked to individual-level data. Linear mixed-effects regression models with random intercepts were used to account for neighborhood clustering and for individual-level SES and potential confounders. The presence of restaurants and other food service places in census tracts were associated with better dietary patterns (adjusted added fat subscore beta = -1.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -1.8, -0.4, and beta = -1.0, 95% CI = -1.7, -0.3, respectively). The presence of convenience stores and lower neighborhood SES was not significantly associated with worse dietary patterns or body-mass index, although trends were in the hypothesized direction. These findings provide some evidence for structural improvements to food environments in urban and low-income black neighborhoods.

  6. Indonesian CPO availability analysis to support food and energy security: a system dynamic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, T.; Arkeman, Y.; Setyaningsih, D.; Saparita, R.

    2017-05-01

    The development of biofuels could be a solution to overcome the energy problem. One of biofuel that has the potential to be developed, namely palm oil biodiesel that is also the raw material for food. As a provider of CPO raw materials, the production of palm biodiesel could trigger competitions, from biofuels demand growth and utilization of agricultural resources. Thus, it needs to be analyzed to determine the adequency of CPO supply to fulfill the need of food and policy recomendation which sets the development of palm oil biodiesel can be synergies with food need especially for the supply of raw material CPO. To obtain the optimal policy in the synergy between the raw material of CPO for food and energy is a need to establish some policy scenarios that allow to be applied and then chosen the best policy alternative of all scenarios. The purpose of this research were to : 1) analysis the availability of CPO to meet the needs of food and energy, 2) provide policy recommendation with regard biodiesel development of food security. The model made used system dynamic method. Several scenarios that used in the model are: 1) existing condition, 2) The scenario increase biodiesel production capacity and increase land productivity, 3) reduction scenario CPO export by 30%, 4) scenario use othe raw material for biodiesel by 20%. The simulation results showed the availability of CPO raw materials would answer all needs of both food and biodiesel when there was an increase in productivity, diversification of raw materials, and also a reduction in palm oil exports. It was needed an integrated policy from upstream to downstream along with the consistency of implementation. Policy suggestions that could be considered were increased productivity through agricultural intensification, enforcement disincentive policies of CPO to exports, and development of non-CPO biodiesel raw materials and development of renewable energy.

  7. Short-term effects of hurricane disturbance on food availability for migrant songbirds during autumn stopover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dobbs, R.C.; Barrow, W.C.; Jeske, C.W.; Dimiceli, J.; Michot, T.C.; Beck, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the consequences of hurricanes on the food resources available to neotropical-nearctic migrant songbirds may provide important insight into the effects of hurricanes on migratory populations. During autumn migration 2006 we investigated the foraging ecology of two species of insectivorous migrants, Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea) and Yellow Warbler (Dendroica petechia), and the availability of their foraging substrates and arthropod food resources in two coastal forests in western Louisiana, which were impacted to different degrees by Hurricane Rita in autumn 2005. Both migrant species attacked prey on bark substrates significantly more frequently, and on live foliage less frequently, in severely damaged forest than in lightly damaged forest (??2 tests, P < 0.05). However, both species attacked prey on bark less than expected given its availability (i.e., migrants avoided bark), and attacked prey on live foliage more than expected given its availability (i.e., migrants selected live foliage), in severely damaged forest (??2 tests, P < 0.03). Branch-clipping revealed that arthropod biomass on live hackberry (Celtis laevigata) and sweet acacia (Acacia farnesiana) branches was significantly higher in severely damaged forest than in lightly damaged forest (Mann-Whitney test, P < 0.01). However, because live foliage was significantly less available in severely damaged forest, overall food availability for migrants was lower in severely damaged forest than in lightly damaged forest. Migrant use of, and arthropod biomass on, bark and live-foliage substrates were thus dependent on the availability of those substrates, which differed between sites as a result of hurricane-related habitat disturbance. These results demonstrate that severe hurricane disturbance reduces food availability for insectivorous songbirds during migratory stopover by reducing the availability of preferred foraging substrates. ?? 2009 The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  8. Limiting resources in sessile systems: food enhances diversity and growth of suspension feeders despite available space.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Robin J; Marshall, Dustin J

    2015-03-01

    Much of our understanding of competition comes trom onservations in sessue systems, such as rainforests and marine invertebrate communities. In terrestrial systems, sessile species often compete for multiple limiting resources (i.e., space, light, and nutrients), but in marine systems, space is viewed as the primary or sole limiting resource. Competition theory, on the other hand, suggests that competition for a single limiting resource is unlikely to maintain high species diversity, but manipulative tests of competition for other resources in marine benthic systems are exceedingly rare. Here, we manipulate the availability of food for a classic system, marine sessile invertebrate communities, and investigate the effects on species diversity, abundance, and composition during early succession as well as on the growth of bryozoan populations in the field. We found the number of species to be greater, available space to be lower, and the community composition to be different in assemblages subjected to increased food availability compared to controls. Similarly, laboratory-settled bryozoans deployed into the field grew more in the presence of enhanced food. Our results suggest that food can act as a limiting resource, affecting both diversity and abundance, even when bare space is still available in hard-substratum communities. Consequently, broadening the view of resource limitation beyond solely space may increase our understanding and predictability of marine sessile systems.

  9. MODIS Snow-Cover Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.; Salomonson, Vincent V.; DiGirolamo, Nicole E.; Bayr, Klaus J.; Houser, Paul R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    On December 18, 1999, the Terra satellite was launched with a complement of five instruments including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Many geophysical products are derived from MODIS data including global snow-cover products. MODIS snow and ice products have been available through the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) since September 13, 2000. MODIS snow-cover products represent potential improvement to or enhancement of the currently-available operational products mainly because the MODIS products are global and 500-m resolution, and have the capability to separate most snow and clouds. Also the snow-mapping algorithms are automated which means that a consistent data set may be generated for long-term climate studies that require snow-cover information. Extensive quality assurance (QA) information is stored with the products. The MODIS snow product suite begins with a 500-m resolution, 2330-km swath snow-cover map which is then gridded to an integerized sinusoidal grid to produce daily and 8-day composite tile products. The sequence proceeds to a climate-modeling grid (CMG) product at about 5.6-km spatial resolution, with both daily and 8-day composite products. Each pixel of the CMG contains fraction of snow cover from 40 - 100%. Measured errors of commission in the CMG are low, for example, on the continent of Australia in the spring, they vary from 0.02 - 0.10%. Near-term enhancements include daily snow albedo and fractional snow cover. A case study from March 6, 2000, involving MODIS data and field and aircraft measurements, is presented to show some early validation work.

  10. Special low protein foods for phenylketonuria: availability in Europe and an examination of their nutritional profile.

    PubMed

    Pena, Maria João; Almeida, Manuela Ferreira; van Dam, Esther; Ahring, Kirsten; Bélanger-Quintana, Amaya; Dokoupil, Katharina; Gokmen-Ozel, Hulya; Lammardo, Anna Maria; MacDonald, Anita; Robert, Martine; Rocha, Júlio César

    2015-12-22

    Special low protein foods (SLPF) are essential in the nutritional management of patients with phenylketonuria (PKU). The study objectives were to: 1) identify the number of SLPF available for use in eight European countries and Turkey and 2) analyse the nutritional composition of SLPF available in one of these countries. European Nutritionist Expert Panel on PKU (ENEP) members (Portugal, Spain, Belgium, Italy, Germany, Netherlands, UK, Denmark and Turkey) provided data on SPLF available in each country. The nutritional composition of Portuguese SLPF was compared with regular food products. The number of different SLPF available in each country varied widely with a median of 107 [ranging from 73 (Portugal) and 256 (Italy)]. Food analysis of SLPF available from a single country (Portugal) indicated that the mean phenylalanine content was higher in low protein baby cereals (mean 48 mg/100 g) and chocolate/energy bars/jelly (mean 41 mg/100 g). The energy content of different foods from a sub-group of SLPF (cookies) varied widely between 23 and 96 kcal/cookie. Low protein bread had a high fat content [mean 5.8 g/100 g (range 3.7 to 10)] compared with 1.6 g/100 g in regular bread. Seven of the 12 SLPF sub-groups (58 %) did not declare any vitamin content, and only 4 (33 %) identified a limited number of minerals. Whilst equal and free access to all SLPF is desirable, the widely variable nutritional composition requires careful nutritional knowledge of all products when prescribed for individual patients with PKU. There is a need for more specific nutritional standards for special low protein foods.

  11. MODIS Snow-Cover Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, D. K.; Riggs, G. A.; Salomonson, V. V.; Barton, J. S.

    2001-12-01

    On December 18, 1999, the Terra satellite was launched with a complement of five instruments including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Many geophysical products are derived from MODIS data including global snow-cover products. MODIS snow and ice products have been available through the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) since September 13, 2000. MODIS snow-cover products, available globally and at up to 500-m resolution, are derived from automated algorithms. This means that a consistent data set is generated for long-term climate studies that require snow-cover information. Extensive quality assurance (QA) information is stored with the product. The snow product suite starts with a 500-m resolution swath snow-cover map which is gridded to the Integerized Sinusoidal Grid to produce daily and eight-day composite tile products. The sequence then proceeds to a climate-modeling grid product at ~5.6-km spatial resolution, with both daily and eight-day composite products. Recent improvements to the algorithm include the addition of a "thermal mask" that eliminates pixels from the snow maps that had contained "false snow" in the original algorithm. The origin of the false snow detection is from a variety of sources, including some clouds, large cities and atmospheric aerosols. The thermal mask reduces the snow-mapping errors associated with the MODIS snow-cover products. Cloud masking had been done using the 'cloud obscuration flag' from the cloud mask. However, that technique resulted in a cloud mask that was too conservative. Selective use of the cloud spectral tests from the MODIS cloud mask will be used to allow an improved determination of snow-covered area. Algorithm improvements will be implemented during the 2001-02 snow year in the Northern Hemisphere, however it is anticipated that in the future, all MODIS snow and ice products will be reprocessed so that consistent products will be

  12. Feeding Strategies of Brown Howler Monkeys in Response to Variations in Food Availability

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Óscar M.; Bicca-Marques, Júlio César

    2016-01-01

    Primates display varying degrees of behavioral flexibility that allow them to adjust their diet to temporal changes in food availability. This trait might be critical for the survival of folivorous-frugivorous species inhabiting small forest fragments, where the availability of food resources tends to be lower than in large fragments and continuous forests. However, the scarcity of studies addressing this issue hampers our understanding of the adaptive behaviors that favor the survival of these primates in low-quality habitats. We conducted a 36-mo study testing the hypothesis that brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans) are able to adjust their diet in response to local and seasonal changes in resource availability. We compared the diet of six free-ranging groups inhabiting three small (<10 ha) and three large (>90 ha) Atlantic forest fragments in southern Brazil and estimated the temporal availability of their top food species (i.e., those species that together contribute ≥80% of total feeding records). We found that brown howlers exploited similarly rich diets in small (45, 54, and 57 plant species) and large (48, 51, and 56 species) fragments. However, intermonth diet similarity was higher for groups in small fragments, where howlers also fed on plant items from nine alien species. Fruits and leaves were the most consumed plant items in both small (42% and 49% of feeding records, respectively) and large (51% and 41%, respectively) fragments. The consumption of young leaves was higher in small than in large fragments, whereas the consumption of other plant items did not show a pattern related to fragment size. Regarding the contribution of growth forms as food sources, only the exploitation of palms showed a pattern related to fragment size. Palms contributed more to the diet of groups inhabiting large fragments. The availability of seasonal food items–ripe fruits and young leaves–influenced their consumption in both habitat types. Therefore

  13. Feeding Strategies of Brown Howler Monkeys in Response to Variations in Food Availability.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Óscar M; Bicca-Marques, Júlio César

    2016-01-01

    Primates display varying degrees of behavioral flexibility that allow them to adjust their diet to temporal changes in food availability. This trait might be critical for the survival of folivorous-frugivorous species inhabiting small forest fragments, where the availability of food resources tends to be lower than in large fragments and continuous forests. However, the scarcity of studies addressing this issue hampers our understanding of the adaptive behaviors that favor the survival of these primates in low-quality habitats. We conducted a 36-mo study testing the hypothesis that brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans) are able to adjust their diet in response to local and seasonal changes in resource availability. We compared the diet of six free-ranging groups inhabiting three small (<10 ha) and three large (>90 ha) Atlantic forest fragments in southern Brazil and estimated the temporal availability of their top food species (i.e., those species that together contribute ≥80% of total feeding records). We found that brown howlers exploited similarly rich diets in small (45, 54, and 57 plant species) and large (48, 51, and 56 species) fragments. However, intermonth diet similarity was higher for groups in small fragments, where howlers also fed on plant items from nine alien species. Fruits and leaves were the most consumed plant items in both small (42% and 49% of feeding records, respectively) and large (51% and 41%, respectively) fragments. The consumption of young leaves was higher in small than in large fragments, whereas the consumption of other plant items did not show a pattern related to fragment size. Regarding the contribution of growth forms as food sources, only the exploitation of palms showed a pattern related to fragment size. Palms contributed more to the diet of groups inhabiting large fragments. The availability of seasonal food items-ripe fruits and young leaves-influenced their consumption in both habitat types. Therefore, brown

  14. Food Availability in School Stores in Seoul, South Korea after Implementation of Food- and Nutrient-Based Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Seul Ki; Frongillo, Edward A.; Blake, Christine E.; Thrasher, James F.

    2017-01-01

    Background: To improve school store food environments, the South Korean government implemented 2 policies restricting unhealthy food sales in school stores. A food-based policy enacted in 2007 restricts specific food sales (soft drinks); and a nutrient-based policy enacted in 2009 restricts energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) food sales. The…

  15. Stress hormones suggest opposite trends of food availability for planktivorous and piscivorous seabirds in 2 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benowitz-Fredericks, Z. Morgan; Shultz, Michael T.; Kitaysky, Alexander S.

    2008-08-01

    Apex predators can provide valuable information about effects of climate variability on trophodynamics in the Bering Sea. We used corticosterone (the primary avian stress hormone, "CORT") as a proxy of changes in prey availability for planktivorous and piscivorous seabirds. CORT secretion reflects energy balance in breeding individuals and can be used to monitor changes in the marine environment that alter food availability. We tested whether CORT in planktivorous least auklets ( Aethia pusilla) and piscivorous thick-billed murres ( Uria lomvia) on two Pribilof Islands differed spatially or temporally in 2003 and 2004. During June-September of each year, we sampled birds breeding on St. Paul and St. George Islands. We found that seasonal dynamics of CORT varied between years. Although the seasonal dynamics were similar between islands in a year, in 2004 there were inter-island differences in CORT levels for both species. In 2003, CORT in murres was low throughout the season, suggesting that their prey availability (primarily forage fishes) was consistently good. In 2004, CORT levels suggested that overall food availability was poor for murres and declined as the season progressed. For auklets, inter-annual variability was associated with contrasting intra-seasonal patterns in the availability of zooplankton prey (primarily Neocalanus spp.). In 2003, high early-season (June) CORT indicated that auklets were food-limited, but CORT decreased in July, suggesting that the availability of zooplankton improved as the season progressed. In 2004, CORT was low early in the season (June), but an abrupt increase late in the season (July) suggests that food became scarce. Our data indicate that environmental differences between 2003 and 2004 affected prey availability for planktivorous and piscivorous alcids in opposite ways. These results suggest that in the shelf regions of the Bering Sea, the populations of apex predators feeding on zooplankton may be affected by

  16. A model for the development of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti as a function of the available food.

    PubMed

    Romeo Aznar, Victoria; De Majo, María Sol; Fischer, Sylvia; Francisco, Diego; Natiello, Mario A; Solari, Hernán G

    2015-01-21

    We discuss the preimaginal development of the mosquito Aedes aegypti from the point of view of the statistics of developmental times and the final body-size of the pupae and adults. We begin the discussion studying existing models in relation to published data for the mosquito. The data suggest a developmental process that is described by exponentially distributed random times. The existing data show as well that the idea of cohorts emerging synchronously is verified only in optimal situations created at the laboratory but it is not verified in field experiments. We propose a model in which immature individuals progress in successive stages, all of them with exponentially distributed times, according to two different rates (one food-dependent and the other food-independent). This phenomenological model, coupled with a general model for growing, can explain the existing observations and new results produced in this work. The emerging picture is that the development of the larvae proceeds through a sequence of steps. Some of the steps depend on the available food. While food is in abundance, all steps can be thought as having equal duration, but when food is scarce, those steps that depend on food take considerably longer times. For insufficient levels of food, increase in larval mortality sets in. As a consequence of the smaller rates, the average pupation time increases and the cohort disperses in time. Dispersion, as measured by standard deviation, becomes a quadratic function of the average time indicating that cohort dispersion responds to the same causes than delays in pupation and adult emergence. During the whole developmental process the larva grows monotonically, initially at an exponential rate but later at decreasing rates, approaching a final body-size. Growth is stopped by maturation when it is already slow. As a consequence of this process, there is a slight bias favoring small individuals: Small individuals are born before larger individuals, although

  17. Field assessment of the predation risk-food availability trade-off in crab megalopae settlement.

    PubMed

    Tapia-Lewin, Sebastián; Pardo, Luis Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Settlement is a key process for meroplanktonic organisms as it determines distribution of adult populations. Starvation and predation are two of the main mortality causes during this period; therefore, settlement tends to be optimized in microhabitats with high food availability and low predator density. Furthermore, brachyuran megalopae actively select favorable habitats for settlement, via chemical, visual and/or tactile cues. The main objective in this study was to assess the settlement of Metacarcinus edwardsii and Cancer plebejus under different combinations of food availability levels and predator presence. We determined, in the field, which factor is of greater relative importance when choosing a suitable microhabitat for settling. Passive larval collectors were deployed, crossing different scenarios of food availability and predator presence. We also explore if megalopae actively choose predator-free substrates in response to visual and/or chemical cues. We tested the response to combined visual and chemical cues and to each individually. Data was tested using a two-way factorial design ANOVA. In both species, food did not cause significant effect on settlement success, but predator presence did, therefore there was not trade-off in this case and megalopae respond strongly to predation risk by active aversion. Larvae of M. edwardsii responded to chemical and visual cues simultaneously, but there was no response to either cue by itself. Statistically, C. plebejus did not exhibit a differential response to cues, but reacted with a strong similar tendency as M. edwardsii. We concluded that crab megalopae actively select predator-free microhabitat, independently of food availability, using chemical and visual cues combined. The findings in this study highlight the great relevance of predation on the settlement process and recruitment of marine invertebrates with complex life cycles.

  18. Field Assessment of the Predation Risk - Food Availability Trade-Off in Crab Megalopae Settlement

    PubMed Central

    Tapia-Lewin, Sebastián; Pardo, Luis Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Settlement is a key process for meroplanktonic organisms as it determines distribution of adult populations. Starvation and predation are two of the main mortality causes during this period; therefore, settlement tends to be optimized in microhabitats with high food availability and low predator density. Furthermore, brachyuran megalopae actively select favorable habitats for settlement, via chemical, visual and/or tactile cues. The main objective in this study was to assess the settlement of Metacarcinus edwardsii and Cancer plebejus under different combinations of food availability levels and predator presence. We determined, in the field, which factor is of greater relative importance when choosing a suitable microhabitat for settling. Passive larval collectors were deployed, crossing different scenarios of food availability and predator presence. We also explore if megalopae actively choose predator-free substrates in response to visual and/or chemical cues. We tested the response to combined visual and chemical cues and to each individually. Data was tested using a two-way factorial design ANOVA. In both species, food did not cause significant effect on settlement success, but predator presence did, therefore there was not trade-off in this case and megalopae respond strongly to predation risk by active aversion. Larvae of M. edwardsii responded to chemical and visual cues simultaneously, but there was no response to either cue by itself. Statistically, C. plebejus did not exhibit a differential response to cues, but reacted with a strong similar tendency as M. edwardsii. We concluded that crab megalopae actively select predator-free microhabitat, independently of food availability, using chemical and visual cues combined. The findings in this study highlight the great relevance of predation on the settlement process and recruitment of marine invertebrates with complex life cycles. PMID:24748151

  19. Convenience stores surrounding urban schools: an assessment of healthy food availability, advertising, and product placement.

    PubMed

    Gebauer, Hilary; Laska, Melissa Nelson

    2011-08-01

    Adolescent obesity is a national public health problem, particularly among urban populations. Recent evidence has linked neighborhood food environments to health and nutrition status, with easier access to convenience stores being associated with increased risk for obesity. Little is known about the availability of healthy purchasing options within small, urban food stores, or the extent to which these factors are relevant to youth. The objective of this research was to characterize various features of the food environment within small convenience stores located nearby urban junior high and high schools. In-store audits were conducted in 63 stores located within 800 m of 36 urban Minnesota public secondary schools. Results indicated that a limited number of healthier beverages (i.e., water and 100% fruit juice) and snack options (i.e., nuts and pretzels) were available at most stores (≥85%). However, a wide range of healthy snack options were typically not available, with many specific items stocked in less than half of stores (e.g., low-fat yogurt in 27% of stores and low-fat granola bars in 43%). Overall, 51% of stores had fresh fruit and 49% had fresh vegetables. Few stores carried a range of healthier snack alternatives in single-serving packages. All stores had less healthful impulse purchase items available (e.g., candy) while only 46% carried healthier impulse items (e.g., fruit). Most stores (97%) had food/beverage advertising. Overall, convenience stores located in close proximity to secondary schools represent an important and understudied component of the youth food environment.

  20. Characterisation and potential migration of silver nanoparticles from commercially available polymeric food contact materials.

    PubMed

    Addo Ntim, Susana; Thomas, Treye A; Begley, Timothy H; Noonan, Gregory O

    2015-01-01

    The potential for consumer exposure to nano-components in food contact materials (FCMs) is dependent on the migration of nanomaterials into food. Therefore, characterising the physico-chemical properties and potential for migration of constituents is an important step in assessing the safety of FCMs. A number of commercially available food storage products, purchased domestically within the United States and internationally, that claim to contain nanosilver were evaluated. The products were made of polyethylene, polypropylene and polyphenylene ether sulfone and all contained silver (0.001-36 mg kg(-1) of polymer). Silver migration was measured under various conditions, including using 3% acetic acid and water as food simulants. Low concentrations (sub-ppb levels) of silver were detected in the migration studies generally following a trend characterised by a surface desorption phenomenon, where the majority of the silver migration occurred in the first of three consecutive exposures. Silver nanoparticles were not detected in food simulants, suggesting that the silver migration may be due solely to ionic silver released into solution from oxidation of the silver nanoparticle surface. The absence of detectable silver nanoparticles was consistent with expectations from a physico-chemical view point. For the products tested, current USFDA guidance for evaluating migration from FCMs was applicable.

  1. Volcanic Snow

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-04

    Remember this? Since its first observation in 2009, the volcanic vent complex to the northeast of Rachmaninoff basin has rewarded us with remarkable views of its explosive history. Portions of the vent are blanketed in a layer of very fine-grained material thought to be composed of pyroclastic particles, and when we last saw this landform at very high resolution we could appreciate just how fine that texture is. Now, with a resolution almost four times greater than that last image, we can see how the pyroclastic deposit softens the form of adjacent impact craters - almost like snow. Fiery, hot, angry snow. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19230

  2. Monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in community and consumer retail food environments globally.

    PubMed

    Ni Mhurchu, C; Vandevijvere, S; Waterlander, W; Thornton, L E; Kelly, B; Cameron, A J; Snowdon, W; Swinburn, B

    2013-10-01

    Retail food environments are increasingly considered influential in determining dietary behaviours and health outcomes. We reviewed the available evidence on associations between community (type, availability and accessibility of food outlets) and consumer (product availability, prices, promotions and nutritional quality within stores) food environments and dietary outcomes in order to develop an evidence-based framework for monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in retail food environments. Current evidence is suggestive of an association between community and consumer food environments and dietary outcomes; however, substantial heterogeneity in study designs, methods and measurement tools makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions. The use of standardized tools to monitor local food environments within and across countries may help to validate this relationship. We propose a step-wise framework to monitor and benchmark community and consumer retail food environments that can be used to assess density of healthy and unhealthy food outlets; measure proximity of healthy and unhealthy food outlets to homes/schools; evaluate availability of healthy and unhealthy foods in-store; compare food environments over time and between regions and countries; evaluate compliance with local policies, guidelines or voluntary codes of practice; and determine the impact of changes to retail food environments on health outcomes, such as obesity.

  3. Obesity by choice revisited: effects of food availability, flavor variety and nutrient composition on energy intake.

    PubMed

    Ackroff, Karen; Bonacchi, Kristine; Magee, Michael; Yiin, Yeh-Min; Graves, Jonathan V; Sclafani, Anthony

    2007-10-22

    Recent work suggested that the energy intake and weight gain of rats maintained on chow and 32% sucrose solution could be increased by simply offering more sources of sucrose [Tordoff M.G. Obesity by choice: the powerful influence of nutrient availability on nutrient intake. Am J Physiol 2002;282:R1536-R1539.]. In Experiment 1 this procedure was replicated but the effect was not: rats given one bottle of sucrose and five bottles of water consumed as much sucrose as those given five bottles of sucrose and one of water. Adding different flavors to the sucrose did not increase intakes further in Experiment 2. The relative potency of sucrose and other optional foods was studied in Experiment 3. Sucrose solution stimulated more overeating and weight gain than fat (vegetable shortening), and offering both sucrose and shortening did not generate further increases in energy intake. Finally, foods commonly used to produce overeating and weight gain were compared. Sucrose was less effective than a high-fat milk diet, and offering cookies in addition to the milk did not increase energy intake further. The nature of optional foods (nutrient composition and physical form) was markedly more important than the number of food sources available to the animals, and is a better contender as the reason for "obesity by choice".

  4. Food availability controls seasonal cycle of growth in Macoma balthica (L.) in San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, J.K.; Nichols, F.H.

    1988-01-01

    A 2-yr field study of growth in the bivalve Macoma balthica (L.) at four locations in San Francisco Bay, California, U.S., showed that the timing and rate of growth (increase in shell length) were related to food supply. This clam feeds on both planktonic and benthic microalgae, depending on availability. Growth was apparently food-limited during some months, during one year more than the other, and at some locations more than others. Tissue-weight changes were also related to food availability. The heaviest animals were found in that year and at those locations with the highest chl a concentrations. Tissue-weight gains usually coincided with increased shell-growth rate or with reproductive development, although some large animals showed weight gain independent of both of these factors during periods with mid-range chl a levels. Weight losses coincided with spawning or periods of low growth rate, except at one station where, during a period when most animals were reproductively ripe, food concentrations were high, and shell growth was rapid, animals lost weight. This study failed to show a relation between salinity and the timing or rate of change of either shell length or tissue weight. The mild temperatures (10-23 ??C water temperature) of the area studied resulted in no growth inhibition due to low temperature, but there was some indication that the high air temperatures found in these intertidal areas limited growth rates. ?? 1988.

  5. Food availability determines the response to pond desiccation in anuran tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Enriquez-Urzelai, Urtzi; San Sebastián, Olatz; Garriga, Núria; Llorente, Gustavo A

    2013-09-01

    Food availability and pond desiccation are two of the most studied factors that condition amphibian metamorphosis. It is well known that, when food is abundant, organisms undergo metamorphosis early and when they are relatively large. The capability of anurans to accelerate their developmental rate in response to desiccation is also common knowledge. These two variables must act together in nature, since we know that, as a pond dries, the per capita resources decrease. We conduct an experiment to evaluate the effects of desiccation and food availability separately and in combination in tadpoles of the painted frog (Discoglossus pictus). We demonstrate that food deprivation leads to slow growth rates, which delay metamorphosis and produce smaller size and weight. The capability to accelerate metamorphosis when facing a drying pond is also confirmed, but, nevertheless, with factor interaction (when the pool is drying and resources are scarce) the capacity to respond to desiccation is lost. In addition, slow drying rates are shown to be stressful situations, but not enough to provoke a shortening of the larval period; in fact, the larval period becomes longer. We also demonstrate that the interaction of these factors changes the allometric relationship of different parts of the hind limb, which has implications for the biomechanics of jumping. Due to low mortality rates and an adequate response to both environmental factors, we expect D. pictus to have a great invasive potential in its new Mediterranean distribution area, where lots of temporary and ephemeral ponds are present.

  6. Regional and socioeconomic distribution of household food availability in Brazil, in 2008-2009.

    PubMed

    Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Mondini, Lenise; Sichieri, Rosely; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2012-02-01

    To describe the regional and socioeconomic distribution of household food availability in Brazil. Data from the 2008-2009 Household Budget Survey on food and beverage acquisition for household consumption, conducted by the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics), were analyzed. The amounts of foods, recorded during seven consecutive days in the 55,970 sample households, were converted into calories and nutrients. Food quality indicators were constructed and analyzed according to the regional and socioeconomic strata of the Brazilian population. The amount of energy from protein was adequate in all regional and socioeconomic strata. On the other hand, an excess of free sugars and fats was observed in all regions of the country, especially in the Southern and Southeastern regions. The proportion of saturated fats was high in urban areas and consistent with the greater contribution of animal-derived products. Limited availability of fruits and vegetables was found in all regions. An increase in the fat content and reduction in carbohydrate content of the diet were observed with the increase in income. The negative characteristics of the Brazilian diet observed at the end of the first decade of the 21st century indicate the need to prioritize public policies for the promotion of healthy eating.

  7. Differences in home food availability of high- and low-fat foods after a behavioral weight control program are regional not racial.

    PubMed

    Krukowski, Rebecca A; Harvey-Berino, Jean; West, Delia Smith

    2010-09-24

    Few studies, if any, have examined the impact of a weight control program on the home food environment in a diverse sample of adults. Understanding and changing the availability of certain foods in the home and food storage practices may be important for creating healthier home food environments and supporting effective weight management. Overweight adults (n = 90; 27% African American) enrolled in a 6-month behavioral weight loss program in Vermont and Arkansas. Participants were weighed and completed measures of household food availability and food storage practices at baseline and post-treatment. We examined baseline differences and changes in high-fat food availability, low-fat food availability and the storage of foods in easily visible locations, overall and by race (African American or white participants) and region (Arkansas or Vermont). At post-treatment, the sample as a whole reported storing significantly fewer foods in visible locations around the house (-0.5 ± 2.3 foods), with no significant group differences. Both Arkansas African Americans (-1.8 ± 2.4 foods) and Arkansas white participants (-1.8 ± 2.6 foods) reported significantly greater reductions in the mean number of high-fat food items available in their homes post-treatment compared to Vermont white participants (-0.5 ± 1.3 foods), likely reflecting fewer high-fat foods reported in Vermont households at baseline. Arkansas African Americans lost significantly less weight (-3.6 ± 4.1 kg) than Vermont white participants (-8.3 ± 6.8 kg), while Arkansas white participants did not differ significantly from either group in weight loss (-6.2 ± 6.0 kg). However, home food environment changes were not associated with weight changes in this study. Understanding the home food environment and how best to measure it may be useful for both obesity treatment and understanding patterns of obesity prevalence and health disparity.

  8. Accessibility Over Availability: Associations Between the School Food Environment and Student Fruit and Green Vegetable Consumption

    PubMed Central

    O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: No national studies have examined associations between (1) school food availability and accessibility and (2) secondary student fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption. This article uses 5 years of nationally representative data from secondary school students to examine associations between the school food environment and student fruit and green vegetable consumption. Methods: From 2008 to 2012, cross-sectional, nationally representative data from US middle and high school students were collected annually on self-reported fruit and green vegetable consumption. Each year, data from administrators at each relevant school were collected on food item availability (any venue) and accessibility (total number of school sources). Data were obtained from 10,254 eighth-grade students in 317 schools and 18,898 tenth- and 12th-grade students in 518 schools. Associations were estimated by multi-level models controlling for student- and school-level characteristics. Results: Availability showed minimal association with student consumption. Candy/regular-fat snack accessibility was associated negatively with middle school fruit consumption. Salad bar availability and accessibility were positively associated with middle school green vegetable consumption; FV accessibility was associated positively with high school fruit and green vegetable consumption. Significant associations were consistent across student racial/ethnic and socioeconomic groups. Conclusions: Forthcoming USDA nutrition standards for school foods and beverages sold outside of reimbursable meal programs should result in the removal of school candy/regular-fat snacks. In deciding which items to make available under the new standards, schools should consider increasing the number of FV sources—including salad bars—thereby potentially increasing student FV consumption. PMID:24872011

  9. Accessibility over availability: associations between the school food environment and student fruit and green vegetable consumption.

    PubMed

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2014-06-01

    No national studies have examined associations between (1) school food availability and accessibility and (2) secondary student fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption. This article uses 5 years of nationally representative data from secondary school students to examine associations between the school food environment and student fruit and green vegetable consumption. From 2008 to 2012, cross-sectional, nationally representative data from US middle and high school students were collected annually on self-reported fruit and green vegetable consumption. Each year, data from administrators at each relevant school were collected on food item availability (any venue) and accessibility (total number of school sources). Data were obtained from 10,254 eighth-grade students in 317 schools and 18,898 tenth- and 12th-grade students in 518 schools. Associations were estimated by multi-level models controlling for student- and school-level characteristics. Availability showed minimal association with student consumption. Candy/regular-fat snack accessibility was associated negatively with middle school fruit consumption. Salad bar availability and accessibility were positively associated with middle school green vegetable consumption; FV accessibility was associated positively with high school fruit and green vegetable consumption. Significant associations were consistent across student racial/ethnic and socioeconomic groups. Forthcoming USDA nutrition standards for school foods and beverages sold outside of reimbursable meal programs should result in the removal of school candy/regular-fat snacks. In deciding which items to make available under the new standards, schools should consider increasing the number of FV sources-including salad bars-thereby potentially increasing student FV consumption.

  10. Snow cover and snow goose Anser caerulescens caerulescens distribution during spring migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, Jerry W.; Zacheis, Amy B.; Anthony, R. Michael; Robertson, Donna G.; Erickson, Wallace P.; Palacios, Kelly C.

    2001-01-01

    Arctic geese often use spring migration stopover areas when feeding habitats are partially snow covered. Melting of snow during the stopover period causes spatial and temporal variability in distribution and abundance of feeding habitat. We recorded changes in snow cover and lesser snow goose Anser caerulescens caerulescens distribution on a spring migration stopover area in south-central Alaska during aerial surveys in 1993-1994. Our objectives were to determine whether geese selected among areas with different amounts of snow cover and to assess how temporal changes in snow cover affected goose distribution. We also measured temporal changes in chemical composition of forage species after snow melt. We divided an Arc/Info coverage of the approximately 210 km2 coastal stopover area into 2-km2 cells, and measured snow cover and snow goose use of cells. Cells that had 10-49.9% snow cover were selected by snow geese, whereas cells that lacked snow cover were avoided. In both years, snow cover diminished along the coast between mid-April and early May. Flock distribution changed as snow geese abandoned snow-free areas in favour of cells where snow patches were interspersed with bare ground. Snow-free areas may have been less attractive to geese because available forage had been quickly exploited as bare ground was exposed, and because soils became drier making extraction of underground forage more difficult. Fiber content of two forage species increased whereas non-structural carbohydrate concentrations of forage plants appeared to diminish after snow melt, but changes in nutrient concentrations likely occurred too slowly to account for abandonment of snow-free areas by snow geese.

  11. Snow geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, Jerry W.; Robertson, Donna G.; Brackney, Alan W.; Douglas, David C.; Reynolds, Patricia E.; Rhode, E.B.

    2002-01-01

    Part of the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, is used as an autumn staging area by lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) from the Western Canadian Arctic population (hereafter called the Western Arctic population). There were approximately 200,000 breeding adults in the Western Arctic population through the mid-1980s (Johnson and Herter 1989), but the population has recently increased to about 500,000 breeding adults (Kerbes et al. 1999).Early in their autumn migration, adult and juvenile snow geese from the Western Arctic population feed intensively while staging on the Beaufort Sea coastal plain in Canada and Alaska to build fat reserves needed for migration. Aerial censuses from 1973 to 1985 indicated that up to 600,000 adult and juvenile snow geese used the coastal plain for 2-4 weeks in late August until mid-September (Oates et al. 1987).We studied annual variation in numbers and spatial distribution of snow geese that staged on the coastal plain of the Arctic Refuge.

  12. Nordic Snow Radar Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmetyinen, Juha; Kontu, Anna; Pulliainen, Jouni; Vehviläinen, Juho; Rautiainen, Kimmo; Wiesmann, Andreas; Mätzler, Christian; Werner, Charles; Rott, Helmut; Nagler, Thomas; Schneebeli, Martin; Proksch, Martin; Schüttemeyer, Dirk; Kern, Michael; Davidson, Malcolm W. J.

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the Nordic Snow Radar Experiment (NoSREx) campaign was to provide a continuous time series of active and passive microwave observations of snow cover at a representative location of the Arctic boreal forest area, covering a whole winter season. The activity was a part of Phase A studies for the ESA Earth Explorer 7 candidate mission CoReH2O (Cold Regions Hydrology High-resolution Observatory). The NoSREx campaign, conducted at the Finnish Meteorological Institute Arctic Research Centre (FMI-ARC) in Sodankylä, Finland, hosted a frequency scanning scatterometer operating at frequencies from X- to Ku-band. The radar observations were complemented by a microwave dual-polarization radiometer system operating from X- to W-bands. In situ measurements consisted of manual snow pit measurements at the main test site as well as extensive automated measurements on snow, ground and meteorological parameters. This study provides a summary of the obtained data, detailing measurement protocols for each microwave instrument and in situ reference data. A first analysis of the microwave signatures against snow parameters is given, also comparing observed radar backscattering and microwave emission to predictions of an active/passive forward model. All data, including the raw data observations, are available for research purposes through the European Space Agency and the Finnish Meteorological Institute. A consolidated dataset of observations, comprising the key microwave and in situ observations, is provided through the ESA campaign data portal to enable easy access to the data.

  13. Autumn diet of lesser snow geese staging in northeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brackney, Alan W.; Hupp, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    The coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) is used by lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) in autumn for premigratory staging. To better understand the potential impacts of human disturbance on snow geese, we investigated species composition of, and temporal and age-related variation in, their diet during staging. Depending on age and time of collection, between 35.2 and 94.1% of the diet (aggregate percent wet mass, n = 75) consisted of 2 species of plants; underground stems of tall cotton-grass (Eriophorum angustifolium), and aerial shoots of northern scouring rush (Equisetum variegatum). The diet varied between August and September (P = 0.0089), morning and afternoon (P < 0.0001), but not between age classes (P = 0.066). Throughout staging, snow geese consumed more tall cotton-grass during the afternoon than during the morning (P < 0.05). Tall cotton-grass was a larger component of the afternoon diet in September than in August (P < 0.05). In September, snow geese consumed more northern scouring rush in the mornings than in the afternoon (P < 0.05). Nighttime freezing, interspecific differences in nutritional quality, and plant senescence likely constrained the diet of snow geese to a small number of food items. Because alternative foods may not be available, human disturbance should be minimized in areas that provide these forage species.

  14. Intraspecific competition and high food availability are associated with insular gigantism in a lizard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pafilis, Panayiotis; Meiri, Shai; Foufopoulos, Johannes; Valakos, Efstratios

    2009-09-01

    Resource availability, competition, and predation commonly drive body size evolution. We assess the impact of high food availability and the consequent increased intraspecific competition, as expressed by tail injuries and cannibalism, on body size in Skyros wall lizards ( Podarcis gaigeae). Lizard populations on islets surrounding Skyros (Aegean Sea) all have fewer predators and competitors than on Skyros but differ in the numbers of nesting seabirds. We predicted the following: (1) the presence of breeding seabirds (providing nutrients) will increase lizard population densities; (2) dense lizard populations will experience stronger intraspecific competition; and (3) such aggression, will be associated with larger average body size. We found a positive correlation between seabird and lizard densities. Cannibalism and tail injuries were considerably higher in dense populations. Increases in cannibalism and tail loss were associated with large body sizes. Adult cannibalism on juveniles may select for rapid growth, fuelled by high food abundance, setting thus the stage for the evolution of gigantism.

  15. Intraspecific competition and high food availability are associated with insular gigantism in a lizard.

    PubMed

    Pafilis, Panayiotis; Meiri, Shai; Foufopoulos, Johannes; Valakos, Efstratios

    2009-09-01

    Resource availability, competition, and predation commonly drive body size evolution. We assess the impact of high food availability and the consequent increased intraspecific competition, as expressed by tail injuries and cannibalism, on body size in Skyros wall lizards (Podarcis gaigeae). Lizard populations on islets surrounding Skyros (Aegean Sea) all have fewer predators and competitors than on Skyros but differ in the numbers of nesting seabirds. We predicted the following: (1) the presence of breeding seabirds (providing nutrients) will increase lizard population densities; (2) dense lizard populations will experience stronger intraspecific competition; and (3) such aggression, will be associated with larger average body size. We found a positive correlation between seabird and lizard densities. Cannibalism and tail injuries were considerably higher in dense populations. Increases in cannibalism and tail loss were associated with large body sizes. Adult cannibalism on juveniles may select for rapid growth, fuelled by high food abundance, setting thus the stage for the evolution of gigantism.

  16. Food Availability and Animal Space Use Both Determine Cache Density of Eurasian Red Squirrels

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Ke; Yang, Hui; Ma, Jianzhang; Zong, Cheng; Cai, Tijiu

    2013-01-01

    Scatter hoarders are not able to defend their caches. A longer hoarding distance combined with lower cache density can reduce cache losses but increase the costs of hoarding and retrieving. Scatter hoarders arrange their cache density to achieve an optimal balance between hoarding costs and main cache losses. We conducted systematic cache sampling investigations to estimate the effects of food availability on cache patterns of Eurasian red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris). This study was conducted over a five-year period at two sample plots in a Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis)-dominated forest with contrasting seed production patterns. During these investigations, the locations of nest trees were treated as indicators of squirrel space use to explore how space use affected cache pattern. The squirrels selectively hoarded heavier pine seeds farther away from seed-bearing trees. The heaviest seeds were placed in caches around nest trees regardless of the nest tree location, and this placement was not in response to decreased food availability. The cache density declined with the hoarding distance. Cache density was lower at sites with lower seed production and during poor seed years. During seed mast years, the cache density around nest trees was higher and invariant. The pine seeds were dispersed over a larger distance when seed availability was lower. Our results suggest that 1) animal space use is an important factor that affects food hoarding distance and associated cache densities, 2) animals employ different hoarding strategies based on food availability, and 3) seed dispersal outside the original stand is stimulated in poor seed years. PMID:24265833

  17. Food availability during migratory stopover affects testis growth and reproductive behaviour in a migratory passerine.

    PubMed

    Bauchinger, Ulf; Van't Hof, Thomas; Biebach, Herbert

    2009-03-01

    Long-distance migratory passerines initiate testicular recrudescence during spring migration to meet the demands of timely reproduction upon immediate arrival on the breeding grounds. The degree of testicular development is known to depend on environmental factors like stopover habitat quality; reproductive performance may be strongly impacted by testicular maturation upon arrival on the breeding grounds. We investigated the effect of stopover food availability on subsequent reproductive performance in garden warblers (Sylvia borin). Spring migration was simulated by repeated food deprivation and re-feeding to imitate the alternation of flight and stopover periods. During the two final stopover periods, males were either kept under ad libitum food (ad libitum males) or under limited food conditions (limited males). After simulated arrival in the breeding area, manipulation of previous stopover food availability resulted in significantly slower testicular recrudescence (p<0.001) and decreased plasma testosterone (p<0.01) in limited males compared to ad libitum males. Body mass change was not significantly different between the two groups (p=0.38). Limited males also exhibited reduced performance in reproductive behaviours employed in territorial and sexual contexts. Limited males had a longer 'freezing' interval (p<0.05) and decreased activity (p<0.01) when challenged with a live male decoy. In direct confrontation between limited and ad libitum males in the presence of a female, limited males exhibited significantly fewer behavioural traits in sexual context, i.e. directed to the female (p<0.001). Therefore, we suggest that conditions encountered during previous migratory stopover may affect subsequent annual reproductive success by influencing key reproductive behaviours.

  18. Availability, Location, and Format of Nutrition Information in Fast-food Chain Restaurants in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hobin, Erin; Lebenbaum, Michael; Rosella, Laura; Hammond, David

    2015-03-01

    To assess the availability, location, and format of nutrition information in fast-food chain restaurants in Ontario. Nutrition information in restaurants was assessed using an adapted version of the Nutrition Environment Measures Study for Restaurants (NEMS-R). Two raters independently visited 50 restaurants, 5 outlets of each of the top-10 fast-food chain restaurants in Canada. The locations of the restaurants were randomly selected within the Waterloo, Wellington, and Peel regions in Ontario, Canada. Descriptive results are presented for the proportion of restaurants presenting nutrition information by location (e.g., brochure), format (e.g., use of symbols), and then by type of restaurant (e.g., quick take-away, full-service). Overall, 96.0% (n = 48) of the restaurants had at least some nutrition information available in the restaurant. However, no restaurant listed calorie information for all items on menu boards or menus, and only 14.0% (n = 7) of the restaurants posted calorie information and 26.0% (n = 13) of restaurants posted other nutrients (e.g., total fat) for at least some items on menus boards or menus. The majority of the fast-food chain restaurants included in our study provided at least some nutrition information in restaurants; however, very few restaurants made nutrition information readily available for consumers on menu boards and menus.

  19. Reducing the availability of food to control feral pigeons: changes in population size and composition.

    PubMed

    Senar, Juan C; Montalvo, Tomás; Pascual, Jordi; Peracho, Victor

    2017-02-01

    As feeding by humans is one of the main food resources to pigeons (Columba livia), there is general agreement that public education that aims to reduce the food base may be the most feasible way to reduce pigeon abundance. However, except for the classic example of Basel, the method has rarely been tested or implemented. We provide results from a 1 year study in the city of Barcelona where we tested the effect of public education on pigeon population abundance and composition. The quantity of food provided by people to pigeons was significantly reduced during the study. Feral pigeon density was reduced by 40% in the two experimental districts, but no variation was detected in the control district. Detailed analyses in one of the districts showed that the reduction was mainly related to the reduction in food availability but not to culling. Pigeons captured at the end of the experiment were larger than at the start of the study, but body condition was reduced. Results show the effectiveness of public information to manage feral pigeon populations in a large city, and that control operations can exert important selection pressure on the population, leading to changes in population composition. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Dynamics of food availability, body condition and physiological stress response in breeding Black-legged Kittiwakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Wingfield, J.C.; Piatt, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    1. The seasonal dynamics of body condition (BC), circulating corticosterone levels (baseline, BL) and the adrenocortical response to acute stress (SR) were examined in long-lived Black-legged Kittiwakes, Rissa tridactyla, breeding at Duck (food-poor colony) and Gull (food-rich colony) Islands in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska. It was tested whether the dynamics of corticosterone levels reflect a seasonal change in bird physiological condition due to reproduction and/or variation in foraging conditions. 2. BC declined seasonally, and the decline was more pronounced in birds at the food-poor colony. BL and SR levels of corticosterone rose steadily through the reproductive season, and BL levels were significantly higher in birds on Duck island compared with those on Gull Island. During the egg-laying and chick-rearing stages, birds had lower SR on Duck Island than on Gull Island. 3. The results suggest that, in addition to a seasonal change in bird physiology during reproduction, local ecological factors such as food availability affect circulating levels of corticosterone and adrenal response to acute stress.

  1. Food availability affects the strength of mutualistic host–microbiota interactions in Daphnia magna

    PubMed Central

    Callens, Martijn; Macke, Emilie; Muylaert, Koenraad; Bossier, Peter; Lievens, Bart; Waud, Michael; Decaestecker, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    The symbiotic gut microbial community is generally known to have a strong impact on the fitness of its host. Nevertheless, it is less clear how the impact of symbiotic interactions on the hosts' fitness varies according to environmental circumstances such as changes in the diet. This study aims to get a better understanding of host–microbiota interactions under different levels of food availability. We conducted experiments with the invertebrate, experimental model organism Daphnia magna and compared growth, survival and reproduction of conventionalized symbiotic Daphnia with germ-free individuals given varying quantities of food. Our experiments revealed that the relative importance of the microbiota for the hosts' fitness varied according to dietary conditions. The presence of the microbiota had strong positive effects on Daphnia when food was sufficient or abundant, but had weaker effects under food limitation. Our results indicate that the microbiota can be a potentially important factor in determining host responses to changes in dietary conditions. Characterization of the host-associated microbiota further showed that Aeromonas sp. was the most prevalent taxon in the digestive tract of Daphnia. PMID:26405832

  2. Effects of food availability on serum insulin and lipid concentrations in free-ranging baboons.

    PubMed

    Kemnitz, Joseph W; Sapolsky, Robert M; Altmann, Jeanne; Muruthi, Philip; Mott, Glen E; Stefanick, Marcia L

    2002-05-01

    The relationship between food availability and metabolic physiology was studied in groups of free-ranging baboons (Papio spp.) living in the Amboseli National Park and the Masai Mara National Reserve of Kenya. Three groups subsisted entirely on natural forage, while two other groups lived near tourist facilities and often consumed food wastes from these lodges. The refuse provided a very accessible food source with relatively high caloric density. Consumption of the refuse was associated with reduced locomotion. Sexually mature individuals from all five groups were sedated surreptitiously in the early morning and blood samples were collected. Compared to animals foraging exclusively in the wild, animals that supplemented their diet with the refuse items had two- to threefold elevations in serum insulin concentrations, as well as increased total cholesterol (C), HDL-C, and VLDL+LDL-C levels. No sex differences in physiological measures were observed except in body mass. Elevated serum insulin, and cholesterol and lipoprotein concentrations influence the development of cardiovascular disease and have been shown to be subject to dietary manipulation and exercise under controlled conditions. The present results suggest potentially deleterious effects of a highly accessible, calorically dense food source, and associated reduction of physical activity for baboons living in an otherwise natural environment. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Food availability affects the strength of mutualistic host-microbiota interactions in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Callens, Martijn; Macke, Emilie; Muylaert, Koenraad; Bossier, Peter; Lievens, Bart; Waud, Michael; Decaestecker, Ellen

    2016-04-01

    The symbiotic gut microbial community is generally known to have a strong impact on the fitness of its host. Nevertheless, it is less clear how the impact of symbiotic interactions on the hosts' fitness varies according to environmental circumstances such as changes in the diet. This study aims to get a better understanding of host-microbiota interactions under different levels of food availability. We conducted experiments with the invertebrate, experimental model organism Daphnia magna and compared growth, survival and reproduction of conventionalized symbiotic Daphnia with germ-free individuals given varying quantities of food. Our experiments revealed that the relative importance of the microbiota for the hosts' fitness varied according to dietary conditions. The presence of the microbiota had strong positive effects on Daphnia when food was sufficient or abundant, but had weaker effects under food limitation. Our results indicate that the microbiota can be a potentially important factor in determining host responses to changes in dietary conditions. Characterization of the host-associated microbiota further showed that Aeromonas sp. was the most prevalent taxon in the digestive tract of Daphnia.

  4. Assessing the applicability of currently available methods for attributing foodborne disease to sources, including food and food commodities.

    PubMed

    Pires, Sara M

    2013-03-01

    A variety of approaches to attribute foodborne diseases to specific sources are available, including hazard occurrence analysis, epidemiological methods, intervention studies, and expert elicitations. The usefulness of each method to attribute disease caused by a foodborne hazard depends on the public health question being addressed, on the data requirements, on advantages and limitations of the method, and on the data availability of the country or region in question. Previous articles have described available methods for source attribution, but have focused only on foodborne microbiological hazards. These articles have described strengths and weaknesses of each method, but no guidance on how to choose the most appropriate tool to address different public health questions has thus far been provided. We reviewed available source attribution methods; assessed their applicability to attribute illness caused by enteric, parasitic, and chemical foodborne hazards to the responsible sources; and renamed some of the approaches. The main objective was to make recommendations on the most appropriate method(s) to attribute human disease caused by different foodborne hazards. We concluded that the proportion of disease that can be attributed to specific foods items or transmission routes may be estimated for the majority of the evaluated hazards by applying one or more of the source attribution methods assessed. It was also recognized that the use of source attribution methods may be limited to specific countries, reflecting the data availability.

  5. Availability and Promotion of Healthful Foods in Stores and Restaurants ― Guam, 2015

    PubMed Central

    VanFrank, Brenna K.; Jackson, Sandra L.; Harmon, Brittani; Uncangco, Alyssa; Luces, Patrick; Dooyema, Carrie; Park, Sohyun

    2017-01-01

    Chronic disease, which is linked to unhealthy nutrition environments, is highly prevalent in Guam. The nutrition environment was assessed in 114 stores and 63 restaurants in Guam. Stores had limited availability of some healthier foods such as lean ground meat (7.5%) and 100% whole-wheat bread (11.4%), while fruits (81.0%) and vegetables (94.8%) were more commonly available; 43.7% of restaurants offered a healthy entrée or main dish salad, 4.1% provided calorie information, and 15.7% denoted healthier choices on menus. Improving the nutrition environment could help customers make healthier choices. PMID:28704176

  6. Determination of lysine damage and calculation of lysine bio-availability in several processed foods.

    PubMed

    Erbersdobler, H F; Hupe, A

    1991-02-01

    By analyzing lysine and furosine the amount of inactivated lysine in several food systems was determined and the values for available lysine and total lysine were calculated. Considerable heat damage was found in heated cereal products, and in heated milk products, including several formula for children and hospitalized patients. Some products contained more inactivated lysine than available lysine. This may have consequences for the nutrition in low protein consuming populations and leads to errors in predicting the protein quality, e.g., by the recently proposed "Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score".

  7. Quantifying Impacts of Food Trade on Water Availability Considering Water Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oki, T.; Yano, S.; Hanasaki, N.

    2012-12-01

    Food production requires a lot of water, and traded food potentially has external impacts on environment through reducing the water availability in the producing region. Water footprint is supposed to be an indicator to reflect the impacts of water use. However, impacts of water use on environment, resource, and sustainability are different in place and time, and according to the sources of water withdrawals. Therefore it is preferable to characterize the water withdrawals or consumptions rather than just accumulate the total amount of water use when estimating water footprint. In this study, a new methodology, global green-water equivalent method, is proposed in which regional characterization factors are determined based on the estimates of natural hydrological cycles, such as precipitation, total runoff, and sub-surface runoff, and applied for green-water, river(+reservoir) water, and non-renewable ground water uses. Water footprint of the world associated with the production of 19 major crops was estimated using an integrated hydrological and water resources modeling system (H08), with atmospheric forcing data for 1991-2000 with spatial resolution of 0.5 by 0.5 longitudinal and latitudinal degrees. The impacts is estimated to be 6 times larger than the simple summation of green and blue water uses, and reflect the climatological water scarcity conditions geographically. The results can be used to compare the possible impacts of food trade associated with various crops from various regions on environment through reducing the availability of water resources in the cropping area.

  8. Hatching asynchrony vs. foraging efficiency: the response to food availability in specialist vs. generalist tit species.

    PubMed

    Barrientos, R; Bueno-Enciso, J; Sanz, J J

    2016-11-28

    Breeding mistiming is increasingly frequent in several ecosystems in the face of current climate change. Species belonging to higher trophic levels must employ mechanisms to reduce it. One of these mechanisms is hatching asynchrony, with the eggs in a clutch hatching over a period of several days. Some authors have suggested it to be adaptive when food is unpredictable. However, these birds can also suffer associated costs. We tested whether a species with higher foraging efficiency avoid hatching asynchrony compared to its sister species. We studied hatching asynchrony and nestling provisioning in relation to food availability in sympatric populations of blue and great tits. For the first time, we show that sister species respond to food availability with different strategies. Blue tit feeding rates readily responded to the abundance of their main prey, and also reduced the impact of nestling size hierarchy on mean nestling weight, consequently increasing fledging rate. Our results suggest that levels of hatching asynchrony seem to be influenced by species-specific life history traits, as generalist foragers rely less on it. They also highlight the importance of multi-species approaches when studying the response of organisms to environmental unpredictability.

  9. Dietary patterns and home food availability during emerging adulthood: do they differ by living situation?

    PubMed

    Nelson Laska, Melissa; Larson, Nicole I; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary

    2010-02-01

    The objective of the present work was to cross-sectionally examine and compare dietary behaviours and home food environments by young adults' living situation. Using data from Project EAT (Eating Among Teens)-II, a large diverse youth cohort originally sampled in Minnesota, linear regression was used to examine self-reported meal frequency, dietary intake and home food availability outcomes by living situation (i.e. living with parents, renting an apartment/house or living on a college campus). Young adults (n 1687), mean age 20.5 years. Results suggested that young adults living with their parents or in rented apartments/houses had less frequent meals, poorer dietary intake and less healthy home food availability compared with those living on campus. These findings were evident even after controlling for sociodemographic factors (e.g. race/ethnicity, socio-economic status), particularly among females. Although few emerging adults consume diets that are consistent with national recommendations, those living with parents and in rented apartments/houses may represent particularly at-risk groups. These differences in dietary factors across living situations appear to exist beyond the sociodemographic differences in these populations. Effective nutrition and healthy eating promotion strategies are needed for young adults.

  10. Hatching asynchrony vs. foraging efficiency: the response to food availability in specialist vs. generalist tit species

    PubMed Central

    Barrientos, R.; Bueno-Enciso, J.; Sanz, J. J.

    2016-01-01

    Breeding mistiming is increasingly frequent in several ecosystems in the face of current climate change. Species belonging to higher trophic levels must employ mechanisms to reduce it. One of these mechanisms is hatching asynchrony, with the eggs in a clutch hatching over a period of several days. Some authors have suggested it to be adaptive when food is unpredictable. However, these birds can also suffer associated costs. We tested whether a species with higher foraging efficiency avoid hatching asynchrony compared to its sister species. We studied hatching asynchrony and nestling provisioning in relation to food availability in sympatric populations of blue and great tits. For the first time, we show that sister species respond to food availability with different strategies. Blue tit feeding rates readily responded to the abundance of their main prey, and also reduced the impact of nestling size hierarchy on mean nestling weight, consequently increasing fledging rate. Our results suggest that levels of hatching asynchrony seem to be influenced by species-specific life history traits, as generalist foragers rely less on it. They also highlight the importance of multi-species approaches when studying the response of organisms to environmental unpredictability. PMID:27892941

  11. Influence of school competitive food and beverage policies on obesity, consumption, and availability: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Pickel, Margaret; Story, Mary

    2014-03-01

    The US Department of Agriculture recently issued an interim final rule governing the sale of foods and beverages sold outside of the school meal programs ("competitive foods and beverages" [CF&Bs]). To examine the potential influence that the federal rule may have based on peer-reviewed published studies examining the relationship between state laws and/or school district policies and student body mass index (BMI) and weight outcomes, consumption, and availability of CF&Bs. Keyword searches of peer-reviewed literature published between January 2005 and March 2013 were conducted using multiple databases. Titles and abstracts for 1160 nonduplicate articles were reviewed, with a full review conducted on 64 of those articles to determine their relevancy. Qualitative studies, studies of self-reported policies, or studies examining broad policies without a specific CF&B element were excluded. Twenty-four studies were selected for inclusion. Studies focused on state laws (n = 14), district policies (n = 8), or both (n = 2), with the majority of studies (n = 18) examining foods and beverages (as opposed to food-only or beverage-only policies). Sixteen studies examined prepolicy/postpolicy changes, and 8 studies examined postpolicy changes. Study designs were cross-sectional (n = 20), longitudinal (n = 3), or a combination (n = 1). Outcomes examined included change in BMI, weight, probability of overweight or obesity (n = 4), consumption (n = 10), and availability (n = 13); 3 studies examined more than 1 outcome. The majority of studies primarily reported results in the expected direction (n = 15), with the remaining studies (n = 9) reporting primarily mixed or nonsignificant results. In most cases, CF&B policies are associated with changes in consumption and/or availability in the expected direction; however, caution should be exercised, given that nearly all were cross-sectional. The influence of such policies on overall

  12. Habitat traits and food availability determine the response of marine invertebrates to ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Pansch, Christian; Schaub, Iris; Havenhand, Jonathan; Wahl, Martin

    2014-03-01

    Energy availability and local adaptation are major components in mediating the effects of ocean acidification (OA) on marine species. In a long-term study, we investigated the effects of food availability and elevated pCO2 (ca. 400, 1000 and 3000 μatm) on growth of newly settled Amphibalanus (Balanus) improvisus to reproduction, and on their offspring. We also compared two different populations, which were presumed to differ in their sensitivity to pCO2 due to differing habitat conditions: Kiel Fjord, Germany (Western Baltic Sea) with naturally strong pCO2 fluctuations, and the Tjärnö Archipelago, Sweden (Skagerrak) with far lower fluctuations. Over 20 weeks, survival, growth, reproduction and shell strength of Kiel barnacles were all unaffected by elevated pCO2 , regardless of food availability. Moulting frequency and shell corrosion increased with increasing pCO2 in adults. Larval development and juvenile growth of the F1 generation were tolerant to increased pCO2 , irrespective of parental treatment. In contrast, elevated pCO2 had a strong negative impact on survival of Tjärnö barnacles. Specimens from this population were able to withstand moderate levels of elevated pCO2 over 5 weeks when food was plentiful but showed reduced growth under food limitation. Severe levels of elevated pCO2 negatively impacted growth of Tjärnö barnacles in both food treatments. We demonstrate a conspicuously higher tolerance to elevated pCO2 in Kiel barnacles than in Tjärnö barnacles. This tolerance was carried over from adults to their offspring. Our findings indicate that populations from fluctuating pCO2 environments are more tolerant to elevated pCO2 than populations from more stable pCO2 habitats. We furthermore provide evidence that energy availability can mediate the ability of barnacles to withstand moderate CO2 stress. Considering the high tolerance of Kiel specimens and the possibility to adapt over many generations, near future OA alone does not seem to

  13. Amygdalin content of seeds, kernels and food products commercially-available in the UK.

    PubMed

    Bolarinwa, Islamiyat F; Orfila, Caroline; Morgan, Michael R A

    2014-01-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides are a large group of secondary metabolites that are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, including many plants that are commonly consumed by humans. The diverse chemical nature of cyanogenic glycosides means that extraction and analysis of individual compounds can be difficult. In addition, degradation can be rapid under appropriate conditions. Amygdalin is one of the cyanogenic glycosides found, for example, in apples, apricots and almonds. We have developed and applied a high performance liquid chromatographic procedure for amygdalin quantification to investigate extraction efficiency and to determine levels in a range of commercially-available foods for the first time. Our results show that seed from Rosaceae species contained relatively high amounts (range 0.1-17.5 mg g(-1)) of amygdalin compared to seed from non-Rosaceae species (range 0.01-0.2 mg g(-1)). The amygdalin content of processed food products was very low.

  14. Application of a distributed snow model for the assessment of past snow cover changes in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marke, Thomas; Hanzer, Florian; Siegmann, Marcel; Strasser, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    Snow depth and snow cover duration in mountain regions are subject to high spatial and temporal variability. Information on this natural variability and climate change induced modifications in snow conditions is a prerequisite for science and stakeholders to understand past and present snow conditions, but also for the interpretation of future snow projections. While instrumental time series of the relevant meteorological and snow cover variables are essential for climate studies, only few long-term climate and snow observation time series are available, and their spatial representativity is strongly limited. This study applies the hydroclimatological model AMUNDSEN to improve the spatial density of snow information in Austria by continuously simulating daily snow accumulation and ablation at a spatial resolution of 1 x 1 km for all of Austria and the period 1948-2009. The model is driven with homogenized and quality-checked meteorological station observations of daily temperature (minimum and maximum) and precipitation. Model output comprises daily maps of snow water equivalent, snow depth, and freshly fallen snow. Following a thorough validation of the snow model through comparison of simulations to snow observations (point scale) as well as to remotely sensed snow cover patterns, changes in the Austrian snow cover are elaborated and presented in this study. Beside the illustration of changes in the spatial distribution of snow in Austria for the 1 x 1 km raster, temporal trends are elaborated by statistical analyses of mean snow cover change for different elevation ranges providing more detailed insights in the temporal variability and changes in snow cover conditions.

  15. Food availability promotes rapid recovery from thermal stress in a scleractinian coral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, S. R.; Lopez-Yglesias, M. A.; Anthony, K. R. N.

    2012-12-01

    Bleaching in corals due to environmental stress represents a loss of energy intake often leading to an increase in mortality risk. Successful coral recovery from severe bleaching events may depend on the rate of replenishment of algal symbiont populations following the period of thermal stress, the supply of an alternative food source, or both. Here, we explore the role of food availability in promoting the survival and recovery of a common coral ( Acropora intermedia) following acute experimentally induced thermal stress. Fed corals were provided with live rotifers daily, to maintain densities of zooplankton in tanks that are typical of coral reefs. After a 6-week acclimation phase, heated corals were subjected to a +4 °C thermal anomaly for a 7-day period (bleaching phase) then temperatures were returned to normal for a further 2 weeks (recovery phase). Results demonstrated that heated corals had higher survival when they were provided with heterotrophic food. Fed corals experienced reduced loss of chlorophyll a, relative to unfed corals. During the recovery phase, both fed and unfed corals recovered within a few days; however, fed corals recovered to pre-bleaching phase levels of chlorophyll a, whereas unfed corals stabilized approximately one-third below this level. Protein levels of fed corals declined markedly during the bleaching phase, but recovered all of their losses by the end of the recovery phase. In contrast, unfed corals had low protein levels that were maintained throughout the experiment. To the extent that these results are representative of corals' responses to thermal anomalies in nature, the findings imply that availability of particulate food matter has the potential to increase corals' capacity to survive thermally induced bleaching and to ameliorate its sub-lethal effects. They also support the hypothesis that different rates of heterotrophy are an important determinant of variation in resilience to thermal stress among reef environments.

  16. In vitro availability of zinc from infant foods with increasing phytic acid contents.

    PubMed

    Bosscher, D; Lu, Z; Janssens, G; Van Caillie-Bertrand, M; Robberecht, H; De Rycke, H; De Wilde, R; Deelstra, H

    2001-08-01

    An in vitro method was used to determine the availability of Zn from infant foods containing increasing amounts of phytate, and to quantify the effect of the phytate:Zn molar ratio on the availability. During the in vitro assay, digestive conditions of infants, younger and older than 4 months of age, were carefully simulated since the solubility of phytate-Zn complexes during digestion is pH dependent. Availability was measured with a continuous flow dialysis in vitro procedure with previous intralumen digestive stage. Zn concentrations were determined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Phytic acid content was measured with HPLC. Adding phytate to infant formula lowered Zn availability to 2.84 (sd 0.17) % when the phytate:Zn molar ratio increased to 2.2 as compared with cows' milk-based formula (6.65 (sd 0.55) %). Availability from vegetables (23.83 (sd 2.17) %) significantly decreased at a ratio > 7.9 (15.12 (sd 1.63) %). Zn availability from soyabean-based formula (2.26 (sd 0.36) %) was lower compared with cows' milk-based formula (6.65 (sd 0.55) %). Availability between soyabean- and cows' milk-based formula was similar when a phytate:Zn ratio of 2.2 (2.84 (sd 0.17) %) was obtained in the cows' milk formula. The negative effect of phytic acid on Zn availability was dependent on the type of the food and the phytate content, and should be considered when using soyabean-based formulas during early infancy.

  17. Trends in food availability in Portugal in 1966-2003: comparison with other Mediterranean countries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiaoqiao; Marques-Vidal, Pedro

    2007-10-01

    Dietary intake has changed considerably in South European countries, but whether those changes were similar between countries is currently unknown. To assess the trends in food availability in Portugal and four other Mediterranean countries from 1966 to 2003. Food and Agricultural Organization food balance sheets from Portugal, France, Italy, Greece and Spain. Trends were assessed by linear regression. The per capita availability of calories has increased in Portugal, France, Greece, Italy and Spain in the past 40 years. Portugal presented the most rapid growth with an annual increase of 28.5 +/- 2.2 kcal (slope +/- standard error), or +1000 kcal overall. In animal products, Portugal had an annual increase of 20.7 +/- 0.9 kcal, much higher than the other four countries. Conversely, the availabilities of vegetable and fruit only showed a slight growth of 1.0 +/- 0.1 kcal/year and 2.5 +/- 0.4 kcal/year, respectively, thus increasing the ration of animal to vegetable products. Olive oil availability increased in all countries with the notable exception of Portugal, where a significant decrease was noted. Wine supply decreased in all five countries; in contrast, beer supply started to take up more alcohol share. Percentage of total calories from fat increased from nearly 25% to almost 35% in Portugal during the study period, mainly at the expenses of calories from carbohydrates, whereas the share of protein showed just a slight increase. Furthermore, fat and protein were increasingly provided by animal products. Portugal is gradually moving away from the traditional Mediterranean diet to a more Westernized diet as well as France, Greece, Italy and Spain. Noticeably, the trends of diet transition were observed relatively faster in Portugal than in the other four Mediterranean countries.

  18. Linking food availability, body growth and survival in the black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincenzi, Simone; Mangel, Marc

    2013-10-01

    Population dynamics of black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla in Bering Sea colonies are likely to increasingly experience climate-induced changes in the physical environment. Since adult kittiwakes are central place foragers with high energy requirements, increased variability of forage patch dynamics, as predicted for polar regions, may influence both quantity and quality of food available and consequently alter the population dynamics of kittiwake colonies. Here, we describe, conceptualize, and model the effects of environment and energy resources on kittiwake growth, fledging age (from 35 to 50 days) and survival from hatching up to first breeding (post-hatching productivity). For our life-history model, we use a von Bertalanffy growth function for body growth in mass. We model nestling mortality as a function of somatic growth, in order to account for oxidative damage and trade-offs in the allocation of resources, and energy available, since low food availability increases the risk of chicks' starvation and predation risk. In the case of a good environment (i.e., high food availability), the best strategy (i.e., highest post-hatching productivity) is to grow fast (about 18.6 g d-1) and to spend a moderately long time in the nest (up to 45 days), while in the case of a poor environment the best strategy is to grow fast (about 18 g d-1) and leave the nest soon (35-40 days). Different ages at first breeding do not change the optimal strategies. We discuss the implications of optimal growth strategy in terms of evolution of life histories in kittiwakes and how our work, coupled with models of post-breeding survival and reproductive dynamics, could lead to the development of a full life-history model and the exploration of future evolutionary trajectories for traits like body growth and age at first breeding.

  19. Food Service and Foods and Beverages Available at School: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Howell; Brener, Nancy D.; Kuester, Sarah; Miller, Clare

    2001-01-01

    Presents School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000 findings about state- and district-level policies and practices regarding various school food service issues, e.g., organization and staffing, food service and child nutrition requirements and recommendations, menu planning and food preparation, and collaboration. Also addressed are food…

  20. NASA’s Sense of Snow: the Airborne Snow Observatory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Water is a critical resource in the western U.S. NASA’s Airborne Snow Observatory is giving California water agencies the first complete measurements of the water available in the Sierra snowpack ...

  1. Snow-Cover Variability in North America in the 2000-2001 Winter as Determined from MODIS Snow Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Salomonson, Vincent V.; Riggs, George A.; Chien, Janet Y. L.; Houser, Paul R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow-cover maps have been available since September 13, 2000. These products, at 500 m spatial resolution, are available through the National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center in Boulder, Colorado. By the 2001-02 winter, 5 km climate-modeling grid (CMG) products will be available for presentation of global views of snow cover and for use in climate models. All MODIS snow-cover products are produced from automated algorithms that map snow in an objective manner. In this paper, we describe the MODIS snow products, and show snow maps from the fall of 2000 in North America.

  2. Snow-Cover Variability in North America in the 2000-2001 Winter as Determined from MODIS Snow Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Salomonson, Vincent V.; Riggs, George A.; Chien, Y. L.; Houser, Paul R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow-cover maps have been available since September 13, 2000. These products, at 500-m spatial resolution, are available through the National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center in Boulder, Colorado. By the 2001-02 winter, 5-km climate-modeling grid (CMG) products will be available for presentation of global views of snow cover and for use in climate models. All MODIS snow-cover products are produced from automated algorithms that map snow in an objective manner. In this paper, we describe the MODIS snow products, and show snow maps from the fall of 2000 in North America.

  3. Measurement of chemically-available iron in foods by incubation with human gastric juice in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lock, S; Bender, A E

    1980-05-01

    1. The proportion of iron liberated from twenty foods was measured after incubation in vitro with human gastric juice. 2. Results with samples of gastric juice obtained from one subject on ten occasions and from sixteen subjects on a single occasion showed good agreement, the proportions of Fe liberated covering the entire range from zero for egg to 1.0 for wine. 3. Where there was small variations between the results obtained with different samples of gastric juice attempts were made to correlate these with peptic activity, various proteins and mucoproteins, pH and total and free acid; the only factors that varied with the proportions of Fe solubilized were the various measures of acidity. 4. The results correlated highly with those of Layrisse et al. (1969) for the in vivo absorption of Fe from similar foods, although the samples used were not the same. 5. The amounts of Fe solubilized when the foods were mixed with bran, oats or egg (known to reduce the in vivo absorption of Fe from foods) were less than calculated from the sum of each, with two exceptions. 6. The results obtained with human gastric juice differed from those obtained with in vitro methods previously reported, namely treatment with dilute hydrochloric acid and double incubation with pepsin plus HCl at pH 2.5 followed by adjustment to pH 7.5. 7. The amount of Fe solubilized from soya-bean flour by gastric juice was compared with that solubilized by pepsin plus HCl; both systems were shown to be pH dependent but the amount of Fe liberated with pepsin-HCl was much greater than that known to be absorbed by man in invo. 8. It is suggested that incubation with human gastric juice may permit in vitro analyses of 'chemically-available' Fe in foods and thus be of value in food composition tables of terms of 'Fe equivalents' even though the amounts absorbed in vivo are subsequently influenced by other ingredients of the diet and by the Fe status of the individual.

  4. Iodisation of Salt in Slovenia: Increased Availability of Non-Iodised Salt in the Food Supply.

    PubMed

    Žmitek, Katja; Pravst, Igor

    2016-07-16

    Salt iodisation is considered a key public health measure for assuring adequate iodine intake in iodine-deficient countries. In Slovenia, the iodisation of all salt was made mandatory in 1953. A considerable regulatory change came in 2003 with the mandatory iodisation of rock and evaporated salt only. In addition, joining the European Union's free single market in 2004 enabled the import of non-iodised salt. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of salt iodising in the food supply. We examined both the availability and sale of (non-)iodised salt. Average sales-weighted iodine levels in salt were calculated using the results of a national monitoring of salt quality. Data on the availability and sales of salts were collected in major food retailers in 2014. Iodised salt represented 59.2% of the salt samples, and 95.9% of salt sales, with an average (sales-weighted) level of 24.2 mg KI/kg of salt. The average sales-weighted KI level in non-iodised salts was 3.5 mg KI/kg. We may conclude that the sales-weighted average iodine levels in iodised salt are in line with the regulatory requirements. However, the regulatory changes and the EU single market have considerably affected the availability of non-iodised salt. While sales of non-iodised salt are still low, non-iodised salt represented 33.7% of the salts in our sample. This indicates the existence of a niche market which could pose a risk of inadequate iodine intake in those who deliberately decide to consume non-iodised salt only. Policymakers need to provide efficient salt iodisation intervention to assure sufficient iodine supply in the future. The reported sales-weighting approach enables cost-efficient monitoring of the iodisation of salt in the food supply.

  5. Unusually high food availability in Kaikoura Canyon linked to distinct deep-sea nematode community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leduc, D.; Rowden, A. A.; Nodder, S. D.; Berkenbusch, K.; Probert, P. K.; Hadfield, M. G.

    2014-06-01

    Kaikoura Canyon, on the eastern New Zealand continental margin, is the most productive, non-chemosynthetic deep-sea habitat described to date, with megafaunal biomass 100-fold higher than those of other deep-sea habitats. The present study, which focused on free-living nematodes, provides the first comparison of faunal community structure and diversity between Kaikoura Canyon and nearby open slope habitats. Results show substantially higher food availability in the canyon relative to open slope sediments, which probably reflects greater levels of primary productivity above the canyon, coupled with downwelling and/or topographically-induced channelling, which serves to concentrate surface-derived organic matter along the canyon axis. This high food availability appears to be responsible for the elevated nematode biomass in Kaikoura Canyon, with values exceeding all published nematode biomass data from canyons elsewhere. There was also markedly lower local species diversity of nematodes inside the canyon relative to the open slope habitat, as well as a distinct community structure. The canyon community was dominated by species, such as Sabateria pulchra, which were absent from the open slope and are typically associated with highly eutrophic and/or disturbed environments. The presence of these taxa, as well as the low observed diversity, is likely to reflect the high food availability, and potentially the high levels of physically and biologically induced disturbance within the canyon. Kaikoura Canyon is a relatively small habitat characterised by different environmental conditions that makes a disproportionate contribution to deep-sea diversity in the region, despite its low species richness.

  6. Iodisation of Salt in Slovenia: Increased Availability of Non-Iodised Salt in the Food Supply

    PubMed Central

    Žmitek, Katja; Pravst, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Salt iodisation is considered a key public health measure for assuring adequate iodine intake in iodine-deficient countries. In Slovenia, the iodisation of all salt was made mandatory in 1953. A considerable regulatory change came in 2003 with the mandatory iodisation of rock and evaporated salt only. In addition, joining the European Union’s free single market in 2004 enabled the import of non-iodised salt. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of salt iodising in the food supply. We examined both the availability and sale of (non-)iodised salt. Average sales-weighted iodine levels in salt were calculated using the results of a national monitoring of salt quality. Data on the availability and sales of salts were collected in major food retailers in 2014. Iodised salt represented 59.2% of the salt samples, and 95.9% of salt sales, with an average (sales-weighted) level of 24.2 mg KI/kg of salt. The average sales-weighted KI level in non-iodised salts was 3.5 mg KI/kg. We may conclude that the sales-weighted average iodine levels in iodised salt are in line with the regulatory requirements. However, the regulatory changes and the EU single market have considerably affected the availability of non-iodised salt. While sales of non-iodised salt are still low, non-iodised salt represented 33.7% of the salts in our sample. This indicates the existence of a niche market which could pose a risk of inadequate iodine intake in those who deliberately decide to consume non-iodised salt only. Policymakers need to provide efficient salt iodisation intervention to assure sufficient iodine supply in the future. The reported sales-weighting approach enables cost-efficient monitoring of the iodisation of salt in the food supply. PMID:27438852

  7. The gluten-free basic food basket: a problem of availability, cost and nutritional composition.

    PubMed

    Estévez, V; Ayala, J; Vespa, C; Araya, M

    2016-10-01

    The basic food basket (BFB), formed by the more economical products available, is used by less-affluent countries to establish the minimum daily food consumption to satisfy nutritional requirements in less-privileged individuals. There is no information about groups that depend on the BFB and in addition follow gluten-free diet (GF/BFB). We measured availability, cost, main ingredients and nutritional composition of GF/BFB. Data were collected in the area that was first in the social priority list in the capital city, matching BFB components with gluten-free equivalents (GF/BFB). GF/BFB characterized by being 42% less available, three times more costly (>500% higher for bread), with up to 69% lower protein content and with no fortifications, leaving at nutritional risk celiac individuals that depend on GF/BFB. Results raise concerns on the capacity of the GF/BFB to encourage adherence, maintain adequate nutritional status and quality of life in celiac patients.

  8. Factors triggering floodplain fish emigration: Importance of fish density and food availability

    PubMed Central

    Louca, Vasilis; Lindsay, Steve W.; Lucas, Martyn C.

    2009-01-01

    Emigration is a widespread phenomenon among fish species in seasonal habitats, but little is known about the factors which trigger this behaviour. In controlled experiments using Tilapia guineensis, a species widely occurring in the seasonal floodplains of West Africa, density of fish played a significant role in triggering fish migration, whereas a lack of food available caused an increase in exploratory behaviour but with no impact on successful emigration. The impact of fish density and subsequently interactions between individuals on emigration suggests that this may be an important causal factor of emigration in fish species exhibiting social interactions. PMID:20161114

  9. Food availability and maternal immunization affect transfer and persistence of maternal antibodies in nestling pigeons.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Ahmad; Jacquin, Lisa; Haussy, Claudy; Legoupi, Julie; Perret, Samuel; Gasparini, Julien

    2013-01-01

    The ability of mothers to transfer antibodies (Abs) to their young and the temporal persistence of maternal Abs in offspring constitute important life-history traits that can impact the evolution of host-parasite interactions. Here, we examined the effects of food availability and parental immunization on the transfer and persistence of maternal antibodies in nestling pigeons (Columba livia). This species can transmit maternal Abs to offspring before hatching through the egg yolk and potentially after hatching through crop milk. However, the role of this postnatal substance in immunity remains elusive. We used a full cross-fostering design to disentangle the effects of food limitation and parental immunization both before and after hatching on the levels and persistence of maternal Abs in chicks. Parents were immunized via injection with keyhole limpet hemocyanin antigens. Using an immunoassay that specifically detected the IgY antibodies that are known to be transmitted via the yolk, we found that the levels of anti-KLH Abs in newly hatched chicks were positively correlated with the levels of anti-KLH Abs in the blood of their biological mothers. However, this correlation was not present between chicks and their foster parents, suggesting limited IgY transfer via crop milk to the chick's bloodstream. Interestingly, biological mothers subjected to food limitation during egg laying transferred significantly fewer specific maternal Abs, which suggests that the transfer of antibodies might be costly for them. In addition, the persistence of maternal Abs in a chick's bloodstream was not affected by food limitation or the foster parents' anti-KLH Ab levels; it was only affected by the initial level of maternal anti-KLH Abs that were present in newly hatched chicks. These results suggest that the maternal transfer of Abs could be costly but that their persistence in an offspring's bloodstream may not necessarily be affected by environmental conditions.

  10. Estimating snow load in California for three recurrence intervals

    Treesearch

    David L. Azuma

    1985-01-01

    A key to designing facilities in snowbound areas is knowing what the expected snow load levels are for given recurrence intervals. In California, information about snow load is available only for the Lake Tahoe Basin. About 280 snow courses in the State were analyzed, and snow load estimated and related to elevation on a river basin and statewide level. The tabulated...

  11. Utilizing Multiple Datasets for Snow Cover Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tait, Andrew B.; Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; Armstrong, Richard L.

    1999-01-01

    Snow-cover maps generated from surface data are based on direct measurements, however they are prone to interpolation errors where climate stations are sparsely distributed. Snow cover is clearly discernable using satellite-attained optical data because of the high albedo of snow, yet the surface is often obscured by cloud cover. Passive microwave (PM) data is unaffected by clouds, however, the snow-cover signature is significantly affected by melting snow and the microwaves may be transparent to thin snow (less than 3cm). Both optical and microwave sensors have problems discerning snow beneath forest canopies. This paper describes a method that combines ground and satellite data to produce a Multiple-Dataset Snow-Cover Product (MDSCP). Comparisons with current snow-cover products show that the MDSCP draws together the advantages of each of its component products while minimizing their potential errors. Improved estimates of the snow-covered area are derived through the addition of two snow-cover classes ("thin or patchy" and "high elevation" snow cover) and from the analysis of the climate station data within each class. The compatibility of this method for use with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, which will be available in 2000, is also discussed. With the assimilation of these data, the resolution of the MDSCP would be improved both spatially and temporally and the analysis would become completely automated.

  12. Effects of food availability on growth and reproduction of the deep-sea pedunculate barnacle Heteralepas canci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Natsumi; Miyamoto, Norio; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Tomoko; Yusa, Yoichi

    2016-02-01

    Sessile animals living on continental shelves or slopes may adjust their growth and reproduction according to temporally and spatially variable food availability, but little information is available on these animals to date. We collected the pedunculate barnacle Heteralepas canci on a continental slope at a depth of 229 m off Cape Nomamisaki in southern Japan. We developed a rearing method for the barnacles and studied their growth and reproduction at different food levels in the laboratory. A total of 136 individual H. canci were fed with Artemia salina larvae and brewer's yeast at three different food levels for 100 days. Both the growth and the ovary development were delayed when food availability was low, whereas the survival rate was lower at the high food level. In addition, an individual survived under complete starvation for 167 days. We concluded that H. canci has plastic life history traits that are adaptive for variable food availability.

  13. Drivers of household food availability in sub-Saharan Africa based on big data from small farms

    PubMed Central

    Frelat, Romain; Lopez-Ridaura, Santiago; Herrero, Mario; Douxchamps, Sabine; Djurfeldt, Agnes Andersson; Erenstein, Olaf; Henderson, Ben; Kassie, Menale; Paul, Birthe K.; Rigolot, Cyrille; Ritzema, Randall S.; Rodriguez, Daniel; van Asten, Piet J. A.; van Wijk, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    We calculated a simple indicator of food availability using data from 93 sites in 17 countries across contrasted agroecologies in sub-Saharan Africa (>13,000 farm households) and analyzed the drivers of variations in food availability. Crop production was the major source of energy, contributing 60% of food availability. The off-farm income contribution to food availability ranged from 12% for households without enough food available (18% of the total sample) to 27% for the 58% of households with sufficient food available. Using only three explanatory variables (household size, number of livestock, and land area), we were able to predict correctly the agricultural determined status of food availability for 72% of the households, but the relationships were strongly influenced by the degree of market access. Our analyses suggest that targeting poverty through improving market access and off-farm opportunities is a better strategy to increase food security than focusing on agricultural production and closing yield gaps. This calls for multisectoral policy harmonization, incentives, and diversification of employment sources rather than a singular focus on agricultural development. Recognizing and understanding diversity among smallholder farm households in sub-Saharan Africa is key for the design of policies that aim to improve food security. PMID:26712016

  14. Drivers of household food availability in sub-Saharan Africa based on big data from small farms.

    PubMed

    Frelat, Romain; Lopez-Ridaura, Santiago; Giller, Ken E; Herrero, Mario; Douxchamps, Sabine; Andersson Djurfeldt, Agnes; Erenstein, Olaf; Henderson, Ben; Kassie, Menale; Paul, Birthe K; Rigolot, Cyrille; Ritzema, Randall S; Rodriguez, Daniel; van Asten, Piet J A; van Wijk, Mark T

    2016-01-12

    We calculated a simple indicator of food availability using data from 93 sites in 17 countries across contrasted agroecologies in sub-Saharan Africa (>13,000 farm households) and analyzed the drivers of variations in food availability. Crop production was the major source of energy, contributing 60% of food availability. The off-farm income contribution to food availability ranged from 12% for households without enough food available (18% of the total sample) to 27% for the 58% of households with sufficient food available. Using only three explanatory variables (household size, number of livestock, and land area), we were able to predict correctly the agricultural determined status of food availability for 72% of the households, but the relationships were strongly influenced by the degree of market access. Our analyses suggest that targeting poverty through improving market access and off-farm opportunities is a better strategy to increase food security than focusing on agricultural production and closing yield gaps. This calls for multisectoral policy harmonization, incentives, and diversification of employment sources rather than a singular focus on agricultural development. Recognizing and understanding diversity among smallholder farm households in sub-Saharan Africa is key for the design of policies that aim to improve food security.

  15. Food availability and nest predation influence life history traits in Audouin's gull, Larus audouinii.

    PubMed

    Oro, Daniel; Pradel, Roger; Lebreton, Jean-Dominique

    1999-03-01

    The effects of food availability and nest predation on several life history traits such as adult survival, dispersal, and reproductive performance were assessed in an Audouin's gull (Larus audouinii) colony during the period 1992-1997. The amounts of fish discarded from trawlers were used as a measure of food availability, and a trawling moratorium which partially overlapped with the breeding season of the gulls was taken into account. The effects of nest predation were assessed in 1994, when a terrestrial predator entered the colony and remained for the whole breeding season preying on both eggs and chicks. Using the moratorium and the predatory event as natural experiments, several hypotheses were tested: (a) food supply would affect breeding performance but not adult survival (independently of age and sex), since gulls are long-lived and adult survival is the most sensitive demographic parameter in their population dynamics; (b) the predator would trigger breeding dispersal (although gulls are mostly philopatric, they are known to abandon their natal colony after breeding failure instigated by events such as this). If breeding dispersal occurs, the rate is expected to be higher in females than in males, and higher in new breeders than in more experienced breeding birds, as is usually recorded in colonial seabirds. Probabilities of resighting and survival were estimated separately, using capture-recapture models. As expected, changes in food availability did not affect adult survival, whereas they influenced egg volume, clutch size, and breeding success. Local adult survival was estimated to be 0.908 (SD = 0.007) for males and females, and it did not change significantly with the age of individuals (range 3-8 years). The predator significantly decreased breeding success, and caused the dispersal of a number of adults probably to breed in another colony; this rate was estimated at an average of 0.10 (SD = 0.02). As expected, inexperienced breeders

  16. ESA SnowLab project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesmann, Andreas; Caduff, Rafael; Frey, Othmar; Werner, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Retrieval of the snow water equivalaent (SWE) from passive microwave observations dates back over three decades to initial studies made using the first operational radiometers in space. However, coarse spatial resolution (25 km) is an acknowledged limitation for the application of passive microwave measurements. The natural variability of snow cover itself is also notable; properties such as stratigraphy and snow microstructure change both spatially and over time, affecting the microwave signature. To overcome this deficit, the satellite mission COld REgions Hydrology High-resolution Observatory (CoReH2O) was proposed to the European Space Agency (ESA) in 2005 in response to the call for Earth Explorer 7 candidate missions. CoReH2O was a dual frequency (X- and Ku-band) SAR mission aimed to provide maps of SWE over land and snow accumulation on glaciers at a spatial resolution of 200 to 500 meters with an unprecedented accuracy. Within the frame of preparatory studies for CoReH2O Phase A, ESA undertook several research initiatives from 2009 to 2013 to study the mission concept and capabilities of the proposed sensor. These studies provided a wealth of information on emission and backscattering signatures of natural snow cover, which can be exploited to study new potential mission concepts for retrieval of snow cover properties and other elements of the cryosphere. Currently data related to multi-frequency, multi-polarisation, multitemporal of active and passive microwave measurements are still not available. In addition, new methods related to e.g. tomography are currently under development and need to be tested with real data. Also, the potential of interferometric and polarimetric measurements of the snow cover and its possible impact for novel mission/retrieval concepts must be assessed. . The objective of the SnowLab activity is to fill this gap and complement these datasets from earlier campaigns by acquiring a comprehensive multi-frequency, multi

  17. Food availability in exotic grasslands: a potential mechanism for depauperate breeding assemblages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Andrew D.; O'Connell, Timothy J.; Hickman, Karen R.; Leslie,, David M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the influence of Old World bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum; OWB) monocultures on grassland bird abundance through analysis of vegetation structure and food availability. We compared breeding bird density, vegetation structure and composition, and arthropod biomass between six native grass and six OWB fields in the southern Great Plains. The OWB fields supported 1.70 ± 0.27 (mean ± SE) Grasshopper Sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum) per ha compared to 0.95 ± 0.25 in native grass fields, but total species richness was greater in native grass fields (40 versus 28 species). Density of some bird species was correlated with vegetation structure regardless of field type, suggesting that management practices may be more influential than plant species composition. Mean arthropod biomass was 3.39× greater in native grass fields than in OWB monocultures. Native grass fields provided habitat for a larger complement of birds than did OWB monocultures, and reduced food availability in OWB fields suggests a mechanism for that difference.

  18. City snow's physicochemical property affects snow disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dovbysh, V. O.; Sharukha, A. V.; Evtin, P. V.; Vershinina, S. V.

    2015-10-01

    At the present day the industrial cities run into severe problem: fallen snow in a city it's a concentrator of pollutants and their quantity is constantly increasing by technology development. Pollution of snow increases because of emission of gases to the atmosphere by cars and factories. Large accumulation of polluted snow engenders many vexed ecological problems. That's why we need a new, non-polluting, scientifically based method of snow disposal. This paper investigates polluted snow's physicochemical property effects on snow melting. A distinctive feature of the ion accelerators with self-magnetically insulated diode is that there.

  19. Food availability, modeling and restriction: How are these different aspects of the family eating environment related to adolescent dietary intake?

    PubMed Central

    Loth, Katie A; MacLehose, Richard F; Larson, Nicole; Berge, Jerica M; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine individual associations between aspects of the family eating environment (home food availability, parental modeling, and food restriction) and adolescent dietary intake and explore the combined relationship (i.e., environment profiles) between these aspects of the family eating environment and adolescent dietary intake. Methods Adolescents [14.4 years old (SD = 2.0)] and their parents (N=2383 parent-adolescent pairs] participated in 2 coordinated, population-based studies. Adolescent surveys were completed at school and parent surveys were conducted via mail or phone. Results Healthy home food availability was positively associated with fruit/vegetable intake and negatively associated with soda and snack food intake in adolescents. Healthy parental modeling was negatively associated with adolescent soda consumption. Food restriction was positively associated with fruit/vegetable consumption and snack food intake. Examination of family eating environment profiles revealed that it was the home food availability component of the profiles that was associated with observed differences in fruits/vegetable consumption, whereas the parental modeling and food restriction components contributed to differences in soda and snack foods consumption. Conclusions Findings indicate that among the three aspects of the family eating environment explored, making healthy food available at home was most consistently associated with healthy dietary intake in adolescents. PMID:26327222

  20. The effect of fast-food availability on fast-food consumption and obesity among rural residents: an analysis by race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Richard A; Sharkey, Joseph R; Horel, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Rural areas of the United States tend to have higher obesity rates than urban areas, particularly in regions with high proportions of non-white residents. This paper analyzes the effect of fast-food availability on the level of fast-food consumption and obesity risk among both white and non-white residents of central Texas. Potential endogeneity of fast-food availability is addressed through instrumental variables regression using distance to the nearest major highway as an instrument. We find that non-whites tend to exhibit higher obesity rates, greater access to fast-food establishments and higher consumption of fast-food meals compared to their white counterparts. In addition, we found that whites and non-whites respond differently to the availability of fast-food in rural environments. Greater availability is not associated with either greater consumption of fast-food meals or a higher obesity risk among the sample of whites. In contrast, greater availability of fast-food is positively associated with both the number of meals consumed for non-white rural residents and their obesity. While our results are robust to specification, the effect of availability on weight outcomes is notably weaker when indirectly calculated from the implied relationship between consumption and caloric intake. This highlights the importance of directly examining the proposed mechanism through which an environmental factor influences weight outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Distributions of Competing Container Mosquitoes Depend on Detritus Types, Nutrient Ratios, and Food Availability

    PubMed Central

    Murrell, Ebony G.; Damal, Kavitha; Lounibos, L. P.; Juliano, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    Coexistence of competitors may result if resources are sufficiently abundant to render competition unimportant, or if species differ in resource requirements. Detritus type has been shown to affect interspecific competitive outcomes between Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (L.) larvae under controlled conditions. We assessed the relationships among spatial distributions of detritus types, nutrients, and aquatic larvae of these species in nature. We collected mosquitoes, water, and detritus from artificial containers across 24 Florida cemeteries that varied in relative abundances of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus.We measured nutrient content of fine particulate organic matter in water samples as total N, P, and C and ratios of these nutrients. We quantified food availability via a bioassay, raising individual Aedes larvae in the laboratory in standard volumes of field-collected, particulate-containing water from each cemetery. Quantities of detritus types collected in standard containers were significant predictors of nutrients and nutrient ratios. Nutrient abundances were significant predictors of relative abundance of Ae. aegypti, and of larval survival and development by both species in the bioassay. Survival and development of larvae reared in particulate-containing water from sites decreased with decreasing relative abundance of Ae. aegypti. These data suggest that N, P, and C availabilities are determined by detritus inputs to containers and that these nutrients in turn determine the feeding environment encountered by larvae, the intensity of interspecific competition among larvae, and subsequent relative abundances of species at sites. Detritus inputs, nutrients, and food availability thus seem to contribute to distributions of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in cemetery containers throughout Florida. PMID:22707761

  2. Association of neighbourhood food availability with the consumption of processed and ultra-processed food products by children in a city of Brazil: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Leite, Fernanda Helena Marrocos; de Carvalho Cremm, Elena; de Abreu, Débora Silva Costa; Oliveira, Maria Aparecida de; Budd, Nadine; Martins, Paula Andrea

    2017-01-18

    To investigate the association between neighbourhood food availability and the consumption of ready-to-consume products (RCP), either processed or ultra-processed, and unprocessed/minimally processed foods (UF-MPF) by children. Cross-sectional. 24 h Dietary recalls were collected from children from January 2010 to June 2011. Neighbourhood food availability data were collected from 672 food stores located within 500 m of participants' homes, using an adapted and validated instrument. Neighbourhood-level socio-economic status (SES) was obtained by calculating the mean years of household head's education level in each census tract covered by 500 m buffers. Foods that were consumed by children and/or available in the food stores were classified based on their degree of industrial processing. Multilevel random-effect models examined the association between neighbourhood food availability and children's diets. Santos, Brazil. Children (n 513) under 10 years old (292 aged <6 years, 221 aged ≥6 years). The availability of RCP in food stores was associated with increased RCP consumption (P<0·001) and decreased UF-MPF consumption (P<0·001). The consumption of UF-MPF was positively associated with neighbourhood-level SES (P<0·01), but not with the availability of UF-MPF in the neighbourhood. Results suggest that food policies and interventions that aim to reduce RCP consumption in Santos and similar settings should focus on reducing the availability in food stores. The results also suggest that interventions should not only increase the availability of UF-MPF in lower-SES neighbourhoods, but should strive to make UF-MPF accessible within these environments.

  3. Food availability outweighs ocean acidification effects in juvenile Mytilus edulis: laboratory and field experiments.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Jörn; Casties, Isabel; Pansch, Christian; Körtzinger, Arne; Melzner, Frank

    2013-04-01

    Ocean acidification is expected to decrease calcification rates of bivalves. Nevertheless, in many coastal areas high pCO2 variability is encountered already today. Kiel Fjord (Western Baltic Sea) is a brackish (12-20 g kg(-1) ) and CO2 enriched habitat, but the blue mussel Mytilus edulis dominates the benthic community. In a coupled field and laboratory study we examined the annual pCO2 variability in this habitat and the combined effects of elevated pCO2 and food availability on juvenile M. edulis growth and calcification. In the laboratory experiment, mussel growth and calcification were found to chiefly depend on food supply, with only minor impacts of pCO2 up to 3350 μatm. Kiel Fjord was characterized by strong seasonal pCO2 variability. During summer, maximal pCO2 values of 2500 μatm were observed at the surface and >3000 μatm at the bottom. However, the field growth experiment revealed seven times higher growth and calcification rates of M. edulis at a high pCO2 inner fjord field station (mean pCO2 ca. 1000 μatm) in comparison to a low pCO2 outer fjord station (ca. 600 μatm). In addition, mussels were able to out-compete the barnacle Amphibalanus improvisus at the high pCO2 site. High mussel productivity at the inner fjord site was enabled by higher particulate organic carbon concentrations. Kiel Fjord is highly impacted by eutrophication, which causes bottom water hypoxia and consequently high seawater pCO2 . At the same time, elevated nutrient concentrations increase the energy availability for filter feeding organisms such as mussels. Thus, M. edulis can dominate over a seemingly more acidification resistant species such as A. improvisus. We conclude that benthic stages of M. edulis tolerate high ambient pCO2 when food supply is abundant and that important habitat characteristics such as species interactions and energy availability need to be considered to predict species vulnerability to ocean acidification.

  4. Drepanidine movements in relation to food availability in subalpine woodland on Mauna Kea, Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Steven C.; Banko, Paul C.; Reynolds, Michelle H.; Brenner, Gregory J.; Laniawe, Leona P.; Jacobi, James D.

    2001-01-01

    Flowers of the mamane tree (Sophoru chrysophylla) are the primary nectar source for Hawaiian honeycreepers in subalpine woodland on Mauna Kea Volcano on the island of Hawai‘i. Mamane seeds are the primary food resource of the endangered Palila (Loxioides bailleui), which is now restricted to subalpine woodland on Mauna Kea. The objectives of this study were to determine the patterns and relative scales of movements of the drepanidine community in relationship to food availability and tree density on leeward Mauna Kea. ‘I‘iwi (Vestiaria coccinea) and ‘Apapane (Himatione sanguinea) densities were related to mamane flower abundance. Palila densities were related to mamane pod abundance. These species also had higher densities in mamane woodland than in naiomamane woodland, unlike the more insectivorous Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) whose densities did not differ between woodland types. Palila and Hawai’i ‘Amakihi do not make movements on the same scale as ‘I‘iwi and ‘Apapane, whose densities changed by more than an order of magnitude. Ungulate eradication, grass reduction, tire management, and restored corridors of mamane woodland would benefit all drepanidines on Mauna Kea, particularly the Palila.

  5. Food availability and competition do not modulate the costs of Plasmodium infection in dominant male canaries.

    PubMed

    Larcombe, Stephen; Bichet, Coraline; Cornet, Stéphane; Faivre, Bruno; Sorci, Gabriele

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the different factors that may influence parasite virulence is of fundamental interest to ecologists and evolutionary biologists. It has recently been demonstrated that parasite virulence may occur partly through manipulation of host competitive ability. Differences in competitive ability associated with the social status (dominant or subordinate) of a host may determine the extent of this competition-mediated parasite virulence. We proposed that differences between subordinate and dominant birds in the physiological costs of infection may change depending on the level of competition in social groups. We observed flocks of domestic canaries to determine dominant or subordinate birds, and modified competition by providing restricted (high competition) or ad libitum food (low competition). Entire flocks were then infected with either the avian malaria parasite, Plasmodium relictum or a control. Contrary to our predictions we found that the level of competition had no effect on the outcome of infection for dominant or subordinate birds. We found that dominant birds appeared to suffer greater infection mediated morbidity in both dietary treatments, with a higher and more sustained reduction in haematocrit, and higher parasitaemia, than subordinates. Our results show that dominance status in birds can certainly alter parasite virulence, though the links between food availability, competition, nutrition and virulence are likely to be complex and multifaceted.

  6. Basking behaviour in relation to energy use and food availability in one of the smallest marsupials.

    PubMed

    Warnecke, Lisa; Schleucher, Elke; Geiser, Fritz

    2010-10-05

    Although several mammals have been observed to bask in the sun, little is known about this behaviour or its energetic consequences. We investigated the importance of basking behaviour for one of the smallest marsupials, Planigale gilesi (9g). Metabolic rates of captive planigales (n=6) exposed to simulated natural conditions with access to a radiant heat source were measured. Basking behaviour as a function of food availability was quantified using a video camera installed within the planigales' home cages (n=7). All planigales basked during respirometry measurements, reducing resting energy expenditure by 58% at an ambient temperature of 15 degrees C, which reflects conditions in their nesting sites in the wild during winter. Basking behaviour in home cages was displayed by all but one planigale; food withdrawal either triggered basking or it caused a significant increase in basking duration. Our study demonstrates the effectiveness of basking for reducing energy expenditure in one of the smallest marsupials, supporting recent findings on the importance of behavioural thermoregulation in small mammals in general. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of food availability and leptin on the physiology and hypothalamic gene expression of the golden spiny mouse: a desert rodent that does not hoard food.

    PubMed

    Gutman, Roee; Hacmon-Keren, Ronit; Choshniak, Itzhak; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga

    2008-12-01

    Food availability and quality in desert habitats are spatially and temporally unpredictable, and animals face periods of food shortage. The golden spiny mouse (Acomys russatus) is an omnivorous desert rodent that does not hoard food, requiring it to withstand such periods by physiological means alone. In response to food restriction, plasma leptin concentrations, core body temperature, and energy expenditure of the spiny mouse decrease significantly after 24 h, and most spiny mice are able to maintain their body mass to approximately 85% of ad libitum for a prolonged period of time. Both 1-day food deprivation and long-term food restriction had a significant effect on body mass and plasma leptin concentrations, which decreased significantly with a high correlation, as well as on the orexigenic agouti-related protein, which increased significantly as a result of the 24-h food deprivation; and on neuropeptide Y (NPY), in which the increase was more pronounced under long-term food restriction. Food restriction and food deprivation had no effect, however, on the anorexigenic pro-opiomelanocortin and cocaine and amphetamine-related transcript. Leptin administration to food-restricted spiny mice did not affect food intake or the rate of decrease in body mass, indicating that it cannot overcome the drive to eat when food is scarce. However, it did result in a significant decrease in NPY levels, and the spiny mice spent less time at low body temperatures compared with PBS-treated golden spiny mice. These results show that in food-restricted golden spiny mice, leptin affects thermogenesis, but not food consumption, and suggest that the thermoregulatory effects of leptin are mediated by NPY.

  8. In kittiwakes food availability partially explains the seasonal decline in humoral immunocompetence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gasparini, J.; Roulin, A.; Gill, V.A.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Boulinier, T.

    2006-01-01

    1. The immune system plays an important role in fitness, and interindividual variation in immunocompetence is due to several factors including food supply. 2. Seasonal variation in food resources may therefore explain why immunocompetence in bird nestlings usually declines throughout the breeding season, with chicks born early in the season receiving more food than chicks born later, and thereby possibly developing a more potent immune system. Although there are studies supporting this hypothesis, none has been experimental. 3. We performed an experiment in the kittiwake Rissa tridactyla by manipulating the food supply of pairs that were left to produce a first brood, and of pairs that were induced to produce a late replacement brood. 4. If food supply mediates, at least partially, seasonal variations in chick immunocompetence, non-food-supplemented chicks would show a stronger seasonal decline in immunocompetence than food-supplemented chicks. 5. Food supplementation improved humoral immunocompetence (the production of immunoglobulins Y), but not T-cell immunocompetence (phytohaemagglutinin, PHA response). T-cell immunocompetence of food-supplemented and non-food- supplemented chicks decreased through the season but to a similar extent, whereas the humoral immunocompetence of non-food-supplemented chicks decreased more strongly than that of food-supplemented chicks. 6. Our results suggest that the seasonal decline in humoral immunocompetence can be explained, at least partly, by variations in food supply throughout the breeding season. ?? 2006 British Ecological Society.

  9. MODIS Snow and Sea Ice Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.; Salomonson, Vincent V.

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe the suite of Earth Observing System (EOS) Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra and Aqua snow and sea ice products. Global, daily products, developed at Goddard Space Flight Center, are archived and distributed through the National Snow and Ice Data Center at various resolutions and on different grids useful for different communities Snow products include binary snow cover, snow albedo, and in the near future, fraction of snow in a 5OO-m pixel. Sea ice products include ice extent determined with two different algorithms, and sea ice surface temperature. The algorithms used to develop these products are described. Both the snow and sea ice products, available since February 24,2000, are useful for modelers. Validation of the products is also discussed.

  10. Storing snow for the next winter: Two case studies on the application of snow farming.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünewald, Thomas; Wolfsperger, Fabian

    2016-04-01

    Snow farming is the conservation of snow during the warm half-year. This means that large piles of snow are formed in spring in order to be conserved over the summer season. Well-insulating materials such as chipped wood are added as surface cover to reduce melting. The aim of snow farming is to provide a "snow guaranty" for autumn or early winter - this means that a specific amount of snow will definitively be available, independent of the weather conditions. The conserved snow can then be used as basis for the preparation of winter sports grounds such as cross-country tracks or ski runs. This helps in the organization of early winter season sport events such as World Cup races or to provide appropriate training conditions for athletes. We present a study on two snow farming projects, one in Davos (Switzerland) and one in the Martell valley of South Tyrol. At both places snow farming has been used for several years. For the summer season 2015, we monitored both snow piles in order to assess the amount of snow conserved. High resolution terrestrial laser scanning was performed to measure snow volumes of the piles at the beginning and at the end of the summer period. Results showed that only 20% to 30 % of the snow mass was lost due to ablation. This mass loss was surprisingly low considering the extremely warm and dry summer. In order to identify the most relevant drivers of snow melt we also present simulations with the sophisticated snow cover models SNOWPACK and Alpine3D. The simulations are driven by meteorological input data recorded in the vicinity of the piles and enable a detailed analysis of the relevant processes controlling the energy balance. The models can be applied to optimize settings for snow farming and to examine the suitability of new locations, configurations or cover material for future snow farming projects.

  11. Analysis for availability of amino acid supplements in foods and feeds: biochemical and nutritional implications.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, H T

    1978-01-01

    In formulated diets based on cereal grains, lysine and/or methionine are usually deficient as well as often being the first amino acids limiting the nutritional value of such diets. Deficiency of these two amino acids in nutritional practice is compensated by synthetic L-lysine and DL-methionine supplementation or by the introduction of various protein sources - rich in lysine and methionine. Among all essential amino acids lysine is most liable and subject to damage during the processing of foods and feeds which can cause the "deepening" of the lysine deficiency not on the total but on the physiologically-available lysine basis. Hence, the simultaneous lysine deficiency and biological "sufficiency" problem is discussed using examples of practical diets in which a balance of biologically-active substances was achieved by the formulation and optimalisation according to the needs of animals, taking into account physiological lysine "accessibility" - "availability". Growth rate, nitrogen balance data and chemical composition of the tissue in long term trials are the most valid indication justifying the quantity of amino acid supplements to the practical diets. Prediction of the practical results of dietary amino acid balance from various short-term chemical and biological tests can give misleading results. Their application in nutritional practice is restricted to particular types of foods/feeds, and to specific processing systems and test conditions. Observations of the appearances of most limiting, dietary amino acids in the blood after the meal do not provide a complete nutritional characteristics of practical rations due to complex regulatory mechanisms in protein and amino acid metabolism much of which are not yet fully understood.

  12. Availability of Foods and Beverages in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Authorized Dollar Stores in a Region of North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Racine, Elizabeth F; Batada, Ameena; Solomon, Corliss A; Story, Mary

    2016-10-01

    There are >25,000 Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)-authorized dollar stores throughout the United States; many are located in lower-income neighborhoods and provide an accessible food and beverage source for area residents. The purpose of this research was to determine the percent of food deserts within 16 counties in North Carolina that include a SNAP dollar store; examine the types of foods and beverages at SNAP dollar stores in these counties; test whether the foods and beverages offered vary by SNAP dollar store chain; and test whether the foods and beverages available differ by rural and urban location. This cross-sectional study used a combination of publicly available data and primary data to investigate the research questions. Secondary data sources were obtained from the US Department of Agriculture's SNAP retailer locator, the US Census, and the US Department of Agriculture's Food Access Research Atlas. Availability of foods and beverages was assessed among a sample of 90 SNAP dollar stores in 16 counties in southern and western sections of North Carolina. Data were collected in June 2014. About half (52%) of the food deserts in the research area included a SNAP dollar store. Most of the sampled stores sold healthier food staples, such as frozen meats, brown rice, 100% whole-wheat bread, and dried beans. None of the stores sold fresh fruits or vegetables. Some of the foods and beverages offered (eg, frozen fruit, frozen unseasoned vegetables, nonfat or low-fat milk, frozen ground beef) varied by SNAP dollar store chain. The foods and beverages offered did not differ by rural or urban county location. SNAP dollar stores offer a number of healthy food staples; however, they do not sell fresh fruits or vegetables. Further food environment research should include dollar stores. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluating the Impact of a Connecticut Program to Reduce Availability of Unhealthy Competitive Food in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Michael W.; Henderson, Kathryn E.; Schwartz, Marlene B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: This article seeks to inform state and local school food policies by evaluating the impact of Connecticut's Healthy Food Certification (HFC), a program which provides monetary incentives to school districts that choose to implement state nutrition standards for all foods sold to students outside reimbursable school meals. Methods: Food…

  14. Evaluating the Impact of a Connecticut Program to Reduce Availability of Unhealthy Competitive Food in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Michael W.; Henderson, Kathryn E.; Schwartz, Marlene B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: This article seeks to inform state and local school food policies by evaluating the impact of Connecticut's Healthy Food Certification (HFC), a program which provides monetary incentives to school districts that choose to implement state nutrition standards for all foods sold to students outside reimbursable school meals. Methods: Food…

  15. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Economically Depressed Areas Strand: Foods and Nutrition. Module III-C-1: Food Availability in Economically Depressed Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Fresno. Dept. of Home Economics.

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on food availability in economically depressed areas (EDA) is the first in a set of three modules on foods and nutrition in economically depressed areas. (This set is part of a larger set of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking…

  16. Foods and Beverages Available at SNAP-Authorized Drugstores in Sections of North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Racine, Elizabeth F; Kennedy, Ashley; Batada, Ameena; Story, Mary

    2017-09-01

    To assess healthy food availability in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-authorized drugstores by store chain and neighborhood income level in 3 regions of North Carolina. Cross-sectional, descriptive study. Twenty-five counties in North Carolina. A total of 108 drugstores (36 CVS Health, 36 Rite Aid, and 36 Walgreens). Fifty foods and beverages offered at drugstores, categorized as healthier and less healthy. Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to test differences in the availability of foods and beverages by chain and neighborhood income. Of the 50 foods/beverages observed, 11 were available at all drugstores. Three of the 36 (8%) healthier items were available at all stores (100% fruit juice, water, and high-fiber cereal) whereas 8 of the 14 less healthy items (57%) were available at all stores (chips, sports drinks, energy drinks, regular soda, diet soda, sugar-sweetened beverages, beer, and wine). Only 3% of drugstores offered fresh vegetables and 4% offered fresh fruits. Less than 20% offered frozen chicken or beef. For 36 healthier foods, 11 differed by chain (28%); for less healthy foods 2 of 14 differed by chain (7%). Foods and beverages offered did not vary by neighborhood income. Although drugstores offer some healthier items, few offer fresh produce. As the drugstore industry changes, it is important for the nutrition community to study the impact of these changes on food purchasing behavior and ultimately health. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Food outlet availability, deprivation and obesity in a multi-ethnic sample of pregnant women in Bradford, UK.

    PubMed

    Fraser, L K; Edwards, K L; Tominitz, M; Clarke, G P; Hill, A J

    2012-09-01

    The obesogenic environment model would suggest that increased availability or access to energy dense foods which are high in saturated fat may be related to obesity. The association between food outlet location, deprivation, weight status and ethnicity was analysed using individual level data on a sample of 1198 pregnant women in the UK Born in Bradford cohort using geographic information systems (GIS) methodology. In the non South Asian group 24% were obese as were 17% of the South Asian group (BMI > 30). Food outlet identification methods revealed 886 outlets that were allocated into 5 categories of food shops. More than 95% of all participants lived within 500 m of a fast food outlet. Women in higher areas of deprivation had greater access to fast food outlets and to other forms of food shops. Contrary to hypotheses, there was a negative association between BMI and fast food outlet density in close (250 m) proximity in the South Asian group. Overall, these women had greater access to all food stores including fast food outlets compared to the non South Asian group. The stronger association between area level deprivation and fast food density than with area level deprivation and obesity argues for more detailed accounts of the obesogenic environment that include measures of individual behaviour. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fat Tissue Accretion in Children and Adolescents: Interplay between Food Responsiveness, Gender, and the Home Availability of Snacks.

    PubMed

    De Decker, Annelies; Verbeken, Sandra; Sioen, Isabelle; Moens, Ellen; Braet, Caroline; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2016-01-01

    The appetitive trait "food responsiveness" is assumed to be a risk factor for adiposity gain primarily in obesogenic environments. So far, the reported results are inconsistent in school-aged children, possibly because these studies did not take into account important moderators such as gender and the food-environment. In order to better inform caregivers, clinicians and the developers of targeted obesity-prevention interventions on the conditions in which food responsiveness precedes adiposity gain, the current study investigated if this relationship is stronger in girls and in children exposed to a higher home availability of energy-dense snacks. Age- and sex-independent Fat and Lean Mass Index z-scores were computed based on air-displacement plethysmography at baseline and after 2 years in a community sample of 129 children (48.8% boys) aged 7.5-14 years at baseline. Parents reported at baseline on children's food responsiveness and the home availability of energy-dense snacks. Food responsiveness was a significant predictor of increases in Fat Mass Index z-scores over 2 years in girls but not boys. The home availability of energy-dense snacks did not significantly moderate the relation of food responsiveness with Fat Mass Index z-score changes. The results suggest that food responsiveness precedes accelerated fat tissue accretion in girls, and may inform targeted obesity-prevention interventions. Further, future research should investigate to which food-environmental parameters children high in food responsiveness mainly respond.

  19. Fat Tissue Accretion in Children and Adolescents: Interplay between Food Responsiveness, Gender, and the Home Availability of Snacks

    PubMed Central

    De Decker, Annelies; Verbeken, Sandra; Sioen, Isabelle; Moens, Ellen; Braet, Caroline; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2017-01-01

    The appetitive trait “food responsiveness” is assumed to be a risk factor for adiposity gain primarily in obesogenic environments. So far, the reported results are inconsistent in school-aged children, possibly because these studies did not take into account important moderators such as gender and the food-environment. In order to better inform caregivers, clinicians and the developers of targeted obesity-prevention interventions on the conditions in which food responsiveness precedes adiposity gain, the current study investigated if this relationship is stronger in girls and in children exposed to a higher home availability of energy-dense snacks. Age- and sex-independent Fat and Lean Mass Index z-scores were computed based on air-displacement plethysmography at baseline and after 2 years in a community sample of 129 children (48.8% boys) aged 7.5–14 years at baseline. Parents reported at baseline on children's food responsiveness and the home availability of energy-dense snacks. Food responsiveness was a significant predictor of increases in Fat Mass Index z-scores over 2 years in girls but not boys. The home availability of energy-dense snacks did not significantly moderate the relation of food responsiveness with Fat Mass Index z-score changes. The results suggest that food responsiveness precedes accelerated fat tissue accretion in girls, and may inform targeted obesity-prevention interventions. Further, future research should investigate to which food-environmental parameters children high in food responsiveness mainly respond. PMID:28101078

  20. Healthy food availability and participation in WIC (Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children) in food stores around lower- and higher-income elementary schools

    PubMed Central

    Tester, June M.; Yen, Irene H.; Pallis, Lauren C.; Laraia, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The nutritional intake of schoolchildren is affected not only by what is consumed at school but also by what is available in food outlets near schools. The present study surveys the range of food outlets around schools and examines how the availability of healthy food in the food stores encountered varies by income status of the school and by store participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) food assistance programme. Design Network buffer zones were created to reflect a quarter-mile (400m) walk from elementary schools with lower- and higher-income student populations in Oakland, CA, USA. All food outlets within these zones were categorised by type, and audits were conducted within food stores using a checklist to assess for the presence or absence of twenty-eight healthy items (in five domains). Setting Mid-sized city in the USA. Subjects Food outlets near public elementary schools. Results There were considerably more food outlets around lower-income schools. Food stores near higher-income schools had higher scores in two of the five domains (healthy beverages/low-fat dairy and healthy snacks). However, there were more food stores near lower-income schools that accepted WIC vouchers. Stratification showed that WIC stores scored higher than non-WIC stores on four of the five domains. Conclusions Although higher-income students have more access to healthy food in the environment surrounding their school, this disparity appears to be mitigated by stores that accept WIC and offer more healthy snacking options. Federal programmes such as this may be particularly valuable for children in lower-income areas. PMID:21205402

  1. Transitions at CpG Dinucleotides, Geographic Clustering of TP53 Mutations and Food Availability Patterns in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Verginelli, Fabio; Bishehsari, Faraz; Napolitano, Francesco; Mahdavinia, Mahboobeh; Cama, Alessandro; Malekzadeh, Reza; Miele, Gennaro; Raiconi, Giancarlo; Tagliaferri, Roberto; Mariani-Costantini, Renato

    2009-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is mainly attributed to diet, but the role exerted by foods remains unclear because involved factors are extremely complex. Geography substantially impacts on foods. Correlations between international variation in colorectal cancer-associated mutation patterns and food availabilities could highlight the influence of foods on colorectal mutagenesis. Methodology To test such hypothesis, we applied techniques based on hierarchical clustering, feature extraction and selection, and statistical pattern recognition to the analysis of 2,572 colorectal cancer-associated TP53 mutations from 12 countries/geographic areas. For food availabilities, we relied on data extracted from the Food Balance Sheets of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Dendrograms for mutation sites, mutation types and food patterns were constructed through Ward's hierarchical clustering algorithm and their stability was assessed evaluating silhouette values. Feature selection used entropy-based measures for similarity between clusterings, combined with principal component analysis by exhaustive and heuristic approaches. Conclusion/Significance Mutations clustered in two major geographic groups, one including only Western countries, the other Asia and parts of Europe. This was determined by variation in the frequency of transitions at CpGs, the most common mutation type. Higher frequencies of transitions at CpGs in the cluster that included only Western countries mainly reflected higher frequencies of mutations at CpG codons 175, 248 and 273, the three major TP53 hotspots. Pearson's correlation scores, computed between the principal components of the datamatrices for mutation types, food availability and mutation sites, demonstrated statistically significant correlations between transitions at CpGs and both mutation sites and availabilities of meat, milk, sweeteners and animal fats, the energy-dense foods at the basis of “Western” diets. This is

  2. Snow economics and the NOHRSC Snow Information System (SNOW-INFO) for the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, T.; Cline, D.; Berkowitz, E.; Savage, D.

    2003-04-01

    .7 trillion (16%) of the Nation's GDP related to the water contained in seasonal snowpacks, reliable snow information is critical to the management of the U.S. economy. In addition to helping improve river and flood forecasts and water supply forecasts, NOHRSC snow information has the potential also to support better decision making and improved efficiency in manufacturing, mining, agriculture, and thermo- and hydroelectric power generation. A 0.1% improvement in revenue resulting from reliable snow information results in an economic benefit to the Nation of 1.7 billion each year (in 2002 dollars). In an effort to provide snow information to support hydrologic forecasting operations in the NWS as well as to enhance the national economy, the NOHRSC has developed and implemented a Snow Information System (SNOW-INFO) that generates and distributes a variety of snow cover products in a variety of formats for the coterminous U.S. SNOW-INFO provides several new products that include: modeled snowpack characteristics such as snow ripeness, melt rates, mean snowpack temperature, and sublimation losses in a variety of alphanumeric, gridded, map, and time-series representations. SNOW-INFO products and data sets are available in near real-time to end-users from the NOHRSC web site (www.nohrsc.nws.gov) and FTP. A variety of SNOW-INFO products and maps from the 2003 snow season depicting simulated and assimilated snow model state variables for the coterminous U.S. are presented.

  3. Standard metabolic rate predicts growth trajectory of juvenile Chinese crucian carp (Carassius auratus) under changing food availability.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ling-Qing; Zhang, An-Jie; Killen, Shaun S; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Wang, Yu-Xiang; Fu, Shi-Jian

    2017-09-15

    Phenotypic traits vary greatly within populations and can have a significant influence on aspects of performance. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of individual variation in standard metabolic rate (SMR) on growth rate and tolerance to food deprivation in juvenile Chinese crucian carp (Carassius auratus) under varying levels of food availability. To address this issue, 19 high and 16 low SMR individuals were randomly assigned to a satiation diet for 3 weeks, whereas another 20 high and 16 low SMR individuals were assigned to a restricted diet (approximately 50% of satiation) for the same period. Then, all fish were completely food-deprived for another 3 weeks. High SMR individuals showed a higher growth rate when fed to satiation, but this advantage of SMR did not exist in food-restricted fish. This result was related to improved feeding efficiency with decreased food intake in low SMR individuals, due to their low food processing capacity and maintenance costs. High SMR individuals experienced more mass loss during food deprivation as compared to low SMR individuals. Our results here illustrate context-dependent costs and benefits of intraspecific variation in SMR whereby high SMR individuals show increased growth performance under high food availability but had a cost under stressful environments (i.e. food shortage). © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Yeah!!! A Snow Day!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cone, Theresa Purcell; Cone, Stephen L.

    2006-01-01

    As children see the first snowflake fall from the sky, they are filled with anticipation of playing in the snow. The snowy environment presents a wonderful opportunity for presenting interdisciplinary activities that connect snow play, snow formation, and snow stories with manipulative activities, gymnastic balances, and dance sequences. In this…

  5. Yeah!!! A Snow Day!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cone, Theresa Purcell; Cone, Stephen L.

    2006-01-01

    As children see the first snowflake fall from the sky, they are filled with anticipation of playing in the snow. The snowy environment presents a wonderful opportunity for presenting interdisciplinary activities that connect snow play, snow formation, and snow stories with manipulative activities, gymnastic balances, and dance sequences. In this…

  6. A new tool for converting food frequency questionnaire data into nutrient and food group values: FETA research methods and availability.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Angela A; Luben, Robert N; Bhaniani, Amit; Parry-Smith, David J; O'Connor, Laura; Khawaja, Anthony P; Forouhi, Nita G; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2014-03-27

    To describe the research methods for the development of a new open source, cross-platform tool which processes data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Norfolk Food Frequency Questionnaire (EPIC-Norfolk FFQ). A further aim was to compare nutrient and food group values derived from the current tool (FETA, FFQ EPIC Tool for Analysis) with the previously validated but less accessible tool, CAFÉ (Compositional Analyses from Frequency Estimates). The effect of text matching on intake data was also investigated. Cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort study-EPIC-Norfolk. East England population (city of Norwich and its surrounding small towns and rural areas). Complete FFQ data from 11 250 men and 13 602 women (mean age 59 years; range 40-79 years). Nutrient and food group intakes derived from FETA and CAFÉ analyses of EPIC-Norfolk FFQ data. Nutrient outputs from FETA and CAFÉ were similar; mean (SD) energy intake from FETA was 9222 kJ (2633) in men, 8113 kJ (2296) in women, compared with CAFÉ intakes of 9175 kJ (2630) in men, 8091 kJ (2298) in women. The majority of differences resulted in one or less quintile change (98.7%). Only mean daily fruit and vegetable food group intakes were higher in women than in men (278 vs 212 and 284 vs 255 g, respectively). Quintile changes were evident for all nutrients, with the exception of alcohol, when text matching was not executed; however, only the cereals food group was affected. FETA produces similar nutrient and food group values to the previously validated CAFÉ but has the advantages of being open source, cross-platform and complete with a data-entry form directly compatible with the software. The tool will facilitate research using the EPIC-Norfolk FFQ, and can be customised for different study populations.

  7. Store type and demographic influence on the availability and price of healthful foods, Leon County, Florida, 2008.

    PubMed

    Leone, Angela F; Rigby, Samantha; Betterley, Connie; Park, Sohyun; Kurtz, Hilda; Johnson, Mary Ann; Lee, Jung Sun

    2011-11-01

    The availability of healthful foods varies by neighborhood. We examined the availability and price of more healthful foods by store type, neighborhood income level, and racial composition in a community with high rates of diet-related illness and death. We used the modified Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores to conduct this cross-sectional study in 2008. We surveyed 73 stores (29% supermarkets, 11% grocery stores, and 60% convenience stores) in Leon County, Florida. We analyzed the price and availability of foods defined by the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans as "food groups to encourage." We used descriptive statistics, t tests, analysis of variance, and χ(2) tests in the analysis. Measures of availability for all more healthful foods differed by store type (P < .001). Overall, supermarkets provided the lowest price for most fresh fruits and vegetables, low-fat milk, and whole-wheat bread. Availability of 10 of the 20 fruits and vegetables surveyed, shelf space devoted to low-fat milk, and varieties of whole-wheat bread differed by neighborhood income level (P < .05), but no trends were seen for the availability or price of more healthful foods by neighborhood racial composition. Store type affects the availability and price of more healthful foods. In particular, people without access to supermarkets may have limited ability to purchase healthful foods. Nutrition environment studies such as this one can be used to encourage improvements in neighborhoods that lack adequate access to affordable, healthful food, such as advocating for large retail stores, farmer's markets, and community gardens in disadvantaged neighborhoods.

  8. Operational snow mapping with simplified data assimilation using the seNorge snow model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saloranta, Tuomo M.

    2016-07-01

    Frequently updated maps of snow conditions are useful for many applications, e.g., for avalanche and flood forecasting services, hydropower energy situation analysis, as well as for the general public. Numerical snow models are often applied in snow map production for operational hydrological services. However, inaccuracies in the simulated snow maps due to model uncertainties and the lack of suitable data assimilation techniques to correct them in near-real time may often reduce the usefulness of the snow maps in operational use. In this paper the revised seNorge snow model (v.1.1.1) for snow mapping is described, and a simplified data assimilation procedure is introduced to correct detected snow model biases in near real-time. The data assimilation procedure is theoretically based on the Bayesian updating paradigm and is meant to be pragmatic with modest computational and input data requirements. Moreover, it is flexible and can utilize both point-based snow depth and satellite-based areal snow-covered area observations, which are generally the most common data-sources of snow observations. The model and analysis codes as well as the "R" statistical software are freely available. All these features should help to lower the challenges and hurdles hampering the application of data-assimilation techniques in operational hydrological modeling. The steps of the data assimilation procedure (evaluation, sensitivity analysis, optimization) and their contribution to significantly increased accuracy of the snow maps are demonstrated with a case from eastern Norway in winter 2013/2014.

  9. Do environmental factors affect male fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) response to estrone? Part 2. Temperature and food availability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In nature, fish are subject to constantly changing environmental conditions and limitations on food availability, potentially impacting their response to endocrine disruptors. Outcome discrepancies between field studies and laboratory exposures of endocrine disruptors may be a result of these condi...

  10. Effect of food availability on the growth and thermal physiology of juvenile Dungeness crabs (Metacarcinus magister).

    PubMed

    McLean, Katherine M; Todgham, Anne E

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile Dungeness crabs spend ~1 year in the San Francisco Estuary, where they undergo considerable growth before returning to the coastal ocean. Previous studies suggest that competition, food scarcity and avoidance of conspecifics may cause some juvenile Dungeness crabs in the San Francisco Estuary to become food limited. Food limitation may force these crabs to forage in higher temperature intertidal environments in the estuary, exposing them to stressful conditions in order to sustain growth and, potentially, necessitating physiological trade-offs in energy allocation between growth and stress tolerance. To investigate the effects of food limitation on aerobic metabolism and physiological performance of crabs, we assessed growth, moulting frequency, metabolic rate, citrate synthase and malate dehydrogenase enzyme activity and cardiac performance, as an index of temperature sensitivity and upper temperature tolerance. Summer- and winter-caught crabs were acclimated to either a high- or a low-food ration for 5 weeks. Overall, our results demonstrated that while food limitation had a negative effect on growth of juvenile Dungeness crabs in both the summer and the winter feeding trials, crabs in the low-food group maintained both metabolic rate at ambient San Francisco Estuary temperatures (15°C; summer trial only) and upper temperature tolerance as determined by failure of cardiac function when compared with crabs in the high-food group (summer and winter trials). Therefore, the ability to maintain stress tolerance when food is limited appears to come as a physiological trade-off to growth. Food-limited crabs were unable to increase their metabolic rate to the same level as that achieved by well-fed crabs; therefore, if exposure to elevated temperatures persists and requires more energy than can be met by crabs in their food-limited state, physiological performance may be compromised.

  11. Effect of food availability on the growth and thermal physiology of juvenile Dungeness crabs (Metacarcinus magister)

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Katherine M.; Todgham, Anne E.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile Dungeness crabs spend ~1 year in the San Francisco Estuary, where they undergo considerable growth before returning to the coastal ocean. Previous studies suggest that competition, food scarcity and avoidance of conspecifics may cause some juvenile Dungeness crabs in the San Francisco Estuary to become food limited. Food limitation may force these crabs to forage in higher temperature intertidal environments in the estuary, exposing them to stressful conditions in order to sustain growth and, potentially, necessitating physiological trade-offs in energy allocation between growth and stress tolerance. To investigate the effects of food limitation on aerobic metabolism and physiological performance of crabs, we assessed growth, moulting frequency, metabolic rate, citrate synthase and malate dehydrogenase enzyme activity and cardiac performance, as an index of temperature sensitivity and upper temperature tolerance. Summer- and winter-caught crabs were acclimated to either a high- or a low-food ration for 5 weeks. Overall, our results demonstrated that while food limitation had a negative effect on growth of juvenile Dungeness crabs in both the summer and the winter feeding trials, crabs in the low-food group maintained both metabolic rate at ambient San Francisco Estuary temperatures (15°C; summer trial only) and upper temperature tolerance as determined by failure of cardiac function when compared with crabs in the high-food group (summer and winter trials). Therefore, the ability to maintain stress tolerance when food is limited appears to come as a physiological trade-off to growth. Food-limited crabs were unable to increase their metabolic rate to the same level as that achieved by well-fed crabs; therefore, if exposure to elevated temperatures persists and requires more energy than can be met by crabs in their food-limited state, physiological performance may be compromised. PMID:27293698

  12. Added sugar in the packaged foods and beverages available at a major Canadian retailer in 2015: a descriptive analysis

    PubMed Central

    Acton, Rachel B.; Vanderlee, Lana; Hobin, Erin P.; Hammond, David

    2017-01-01

    Background: Excess consumption of added sugars has been associated with a variety of health problems, but there is little information available characterizing added sugar in the Canadian food supply. This study examined the presence and types of added sugars in the packaged food and beverage products available at a major Canadian grocery retailer. Methods: We searched the ingredients lists of over 40 000 packaged food products available for sale in March 2015 for a variety of added sugar terms. Proportions of food products containing added sugar were identified overall and within food product categories. Differences in total sugar content were identified between food products with and without added sugar. Results: Overall, 66% of the packaged food products analyzed contained at least 1 added sugar. The added sugar term "sugar" (and its variations) appeared the most frequently, followed by "dextrose." Added sugar presence and total sugar content varied within many product categories but were consistently higher in expected categories such as "beverages." Mean total sugar content was significantly higher in products with added sugar than in those without, both overall (p < 0.001) and within most product subcategories (p < 0.02). Interpretation: About two-thirds of the packaged foods and beverages available at a major Canadian grocery retailer contain added sugar, similar to recent patterns estimated for the US food supply. The results provide an estimation of the baseline characterization of added sugar in the Canadian food supply, which can be used to assess outcomes of future changes to sugar labelling policies in Canada. PMID:28401111

  13. Population effects of growth hormone transgenic coho salmon depend on food availability and genotype by environment interactions.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Robert H; D'Andrade, Mark; Uh, Mitchell; Biagi, Carlo A

    2004-06-22

    Environmental risk assessment of genetically modified organisms requires determination of their fitness and invasiveness relative to conspecifics and other ecosystem members. Cultured growth hormone transgenic coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) have enhanced feeding capacity and growth, which can result in large enhancements in body size (>7-fold) relative to nontransgenic salmon, but in nature, the ability to compete for available food is a key factor determining survival fitness and invasiveness of a genotype. When transgenic and nontransgenic salmon were cohabitated and competed for different levels of food, transgenic salmon consistently outgrew nontransgenic fish and could affect the growth of nontransgenic cohorts except when food availability was high. When food abundance was low, dominant individuals emerged, invariably transgenic, that directed strong agonistic and cannibalistic behavior to cohorts and dominated the acquisition of limited food resources. When food availability was low, all groups containing transgenic salmon experienced population crashes or complete extinctions, whereas groups containing only nontransgenic salmon had good (72.0 +/- 4.3% SE) survival, and their population biomass continued to increase. Thus, effects of growth hormone transgenic salmon on experimental populations were primarily mediated by an interaction between food availability and population structure. These data, while indicative of forces which may act on natural populations, also underscore the importance of genotype by environment interactions in influencing risk assessment data for genetically modified organisms and suggest that, for species such as salmon which are derived from large complex ecosystems, considerable caution is warranted in applying data from individual studies.

  14. Molecular diversity of bacteria in commercially available “Spirulina” food supplements

    PubMed Central

    Kormas, Konstantinos A.; Katsiapi, Matina; Genitsaris, Savvas; Moustaka-Gouni, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Arthrospira is among the most well-known food supplements worldwide known as “Spirulina.” While it is a widely recognized health-promoting natural product, there are no reports on the molecular diversity of commercially available brands of “Spirulina” supplements and the occurrence of other cyanobacterial and heterotrophic bacterial microorganisms in these products. In this study, 454-pyrosequencing analysis of the total bacterial occurrence in 31 brands of “Spirulina” dietary supplements from the Greek market was applied for the first time. In all samples, operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of Arthrospira platensis were the predominant cyanobacteria. Some products contained additional cyanobacterial OTUs including a few known potentially toxic taxa. Moreover, 469 OTUs were detected in all 31 products collectively, with most of them being related to the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia. All samples included heterotrophic bacterial OTUs, ranging from 9–157 per product. Among the most common OTUs were ones closely related to taxa known for causing health issues (i.e., Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Vibrio, Aeromonas, Clostridium, Bacillus, Fusobacterium, Enterococcus). The observed high cyanobacterial and heterotrophic bacterial OTUs richness in the final product is a point for further research on the growth and processing of Arthrospira biomass for commercial purposes. PMID:26819852

  15. Using direct observations on multiple occasions to measure household food availability among low-income Mexicano residents in Texas colonias

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It has been recognized that the availability of foods in the home are important to nutritional health, and may influence the dietary behavior of children, adolescents, and adults. It is therefore important to understand food choices in the context of the household setting. Considering their importance, the measurement of household food resources becomes critical. Because most studies use a single point of data collection to determine the types of foods that are present in the home, which can miss the change in availability within a month and when resources are not available, the primary objective of this pilot study was to examine the feasibility and value of conducting weekly in-home assessments of household food resources over the course of one month among low-income Mexicano families in Texas colonias. Methods We conducted five in-home household food inventories over a thirty-day period in a small convenience sample; determined the frequency that food items were present in the participating households; and compared a one-time measurement with multiple measurements. After the development and pre-testing of the 252-item culturally and linguistically- appropriate household food inventory instrument that used direct observation to determine the presence and amount of food and beverage items in the home (refrigerator, freezer, pantry, elsewhere), two trained promotoras recruited a convenience sample of 6 households; administered a baseline questionnaire (personal info, shopping habits, and food security); conducted 5 in-home assessments (7-day interval) over a 30-day period; and documented grocery shopping and other food-related activities within the previous week of each in-home assessment. All data were collected in Spanish. Descriptive statistics were calculated for mean and frequency of sample characteristics, food-related activities, food security, and the presence of individual food items. Due to the small sample size of the pilot data, the Friedman

  16. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay gliadin assessment in processed food products available for persons with celiac disease: a feasibility study for developing a gluten-free food database.

    PubMed

    Agakidis, Charalampos; Karagiozoglou-Lampoudi, Thomais; Kalaitsidou, Marina; Papadopoulos, Theodoros; Savvidou, Afroditi; Daskalou, Efstratia; Dimitrios, Triantafyllou

    2011-12-01

    Inappropriate food labeling and unwillingness of food companies to officially register their own gluten-free products in the Greek National Food Intolerance Database (NFID) result in a limited range of processed food products available for persons with celiac disease (CDP). The objective of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of developing a gluten-free food product database based on the assessment of the gluten content in processed foods available for CDP. Gluten was assessed in 41 processed food products available for CDP. Group A consisted of 26 products for CDP included in the NFID, and group B contained 15 food products for CDP not registered in the NFID but listed in the safe lists of the local Celiac Association (CA). High-sensitivity ω-gliadin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for analysis. Gluten was lower than 20 ppm in 37 of 41 analyzed products (90.2%): in 24 of 26 (92.3%) products in group A and in 13 of 15 (86.7%) products in group B (P = .61). No significant difference was found between the 2 groups regarding gluten content. No product in either group contained gluten in excess of 100 ppm. Most of the analyzed products included in the Greek NFID or listed in the lists of the local CA, even those not officially labeled "gluten free," can be safely consumed by CDP. The use of commercially available ω-gliadin ELISA is able to identify those products that contain inappropriate levels of gluten, making feasible it to develop an integrated gluten-free processed food database.

  17. A new tool for converting food frequency questionnaire data into nutrient and food group values: FETA research methods and availability

    PubMed Central

    Mulligan, Angela A; Luben, Robert N; Bhaniani, Amit; Parry-Smith, David J; O'Connor, Laura; Khawaja, Anthony P; Forouhi, Nita G; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To describe the research methods for the development of a new open source, cross-platform tool which processes data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Norfolk Food Frequency Questionnaire (EPIC-Norfolk FFQ). A further aim was to compare nutrient and food group values derived from the current tool (FETA, FFQ EPIC Tool for Analysis) with the previously validated but less accessible tool, CAFÉ (Compositional Analyses from Frequency Estimates). The effect of text matching on intake data was also investigated. Design Cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort study—EPIC-Norfolk. Setting East England population (city of Norwich and its surrounding small towns and rural areas). Participants Complete FFQ data from 11 250 men and 13 602 women (mean age 59 years; range 40–79 years). Outcome measures Nutrient and food group intakes derived from FETA and CAFÉ analyses of EPIC-Norfolk FFQ data. Results Nutrient outputs from FETA and CAFÉ were similar; mean (SD) energy intake from FETA was 9222 kJ (2633) in men, 8113 kJ (2296) in women, compared with CAFÉ intakes of 9175 kJ (2630) in men, 8091 kJ (2298) in women. The majority of differences resulted in one or less quintile change (98.7%). Only mean daily fruit and vegetable food group intakes were higher in women than in men (278 vs 212 and 284 vs 255 g, respectively). Quintile changes were evident for all nutrients, with the exception of alcohol, when text matching was not executed; however, only the cereals food group was affected. Conclusions FETA produces similar nutrient and food group values to the previously validated CAFÉ but has the advantages of being open source, cross-platform and complete with a data-entry form directly compatible with the software. The tool will facilitate research using the EPIC-Norfolk FFQ, and can be customised for different study populations. PMID:24674997

  18. Effects of antinutritional factors on protein digestibility and amino acid availability in foods.

    PubMed

    Gilani, G Sarwar; Cockell, Kevin A; Sepehr, Estatira

    2005-01-01

    Digestibility of protein in traditional diets from developing countries such as India, Guatemala, and Brazil is considerably lower compared to that of protein in typical North American diets (54-78 versus 88-94%). The presence of less digestible protein fractions, high levels of insoluble fiber, and high concentrations of antinutritional factors in the diets of developing countries, which are based on less refined cereals and grain legumes as major sources of protein, are responsible for poor digestibility of protein. The effects of the presence of some of the important antinutritional factors on protein and amino digestibilities of food and feed products are reviewed in this chapter. Food and feed products may contain a number of antinutritional factors that may adversely affect protein digestibility and amino acid availability. Antinutritional factors may occur naturally, such as glucosinolates in mustard and rapeseed protein products, trypsin inhibitors and hemagglutinins in legumes, tannins in legumes and cereals, phytates in cereals and oilseeds, and gossypol in cottonseed protein products. Antinutritional factors may also be formed during heat/alkaline processing of protein products, yielding Maillard compounds, oxidized forms of sulfur amino acids, D-amino acids, and lysinoalanine (LAL, an unnatural amino acid derivative). The presence of high levels of dietary trypsin inhibitors from soybeans, kidney beans, or other grain legumes can cause substantial reductions in protein and amino acid digestibilities (up to 50%) in rats and pigs. Similarly, the presence of high levels of tannins in cereals, such as sorghum, and grain legumes, such as fababean (Vicia faba L.), can result in significantly reduced protein and amino acid digestibilities (up to 23%) in rats, poultry, and pigs. Studies involving phytase supplementation of production rations for swine or poultry have provided indirect evidence that normally encountered levels of phytates in cereals and legumes

  19. Determinants of variation in food cost and availability in two socioeconomically contrasting neighbourhoods of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Latham, Jim; Moffat, Tina

    2007-03-01

    This study addresses links between economic and nutritional variation in an urban North American setting. We employed a mixed-methods approach including mapping, semi-structured interviews, and food outlet surveys to investigate the public health impact of variation in the cost and availability of food between two socioeconomically distinct neighbourhoods of the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Food cost in supermarkets was not found to be higher in the low-income neighbourhood, though it was much higher in the variety stores that predominate in the low-income neighbourhood. Moreover, there was a very low availability of produce in the variety stores. Reduced fresh produce availability and lower incomes have the potential to negatively influence public health in the less-affluent study area by increasing the difficulty of acquiring healthy foods.

  20. Effects of fluctuating temperature and food availability on reproduction and lifespan.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Tonia S; Pearson, Phillip; Dawson, John; Allison, David B; Gohlke, Julia M

    2016-12-15

    Experimental studies on energetics and aging often remove two major factors that in part regulate the energy budget in a normal healthy individual: reproduction and fluctuating environmental conditions that challenge homeostasis. Here we use the cyclical parthenogenetic Daphnia pulex to evaluate the role of a fluctuating thermal environment on both reproduction and lifespan across six food concentrations. We test the hypotheses that (1) caloric restriction extends lifespan; (2) maximal reproduction will come with a cost of shortened lifespan; and (3) at a given food concentration, relative to a metabolically equivalent constant temperature environment a diel fluctuating thermal environment will alter the allocation of energy to reproduction and lifespan to maintain homeostasis. We did not identify a level of food concentration that extended lifespan in response to caloric restriction, and we found no cost of reproduction in terms of lifespan. Rather, the individuals at the highest food levels generally had the highest reproductive output and the longest lifespans, the individuals at the intermediate food level decreased reproduction and maintained lifespan, and the individuals at the three lower food concentrations had a decrease in reproduction and lifespan as would be predicted with increasing levels of starvation. Fluctuating temperature had no effect on lifespan at any food concentration, but delayed time to reproductive maturity and decreased early reproductive output at all food concentrations. This suggests that a fluctuating temperature regimen activates molecular pathways that alter energy allocation. The costs of fluctuating temperature on reproduction were not consistent across the lifespan. Statistical interactions for age of peak reproduction and lifetime fecundity suggest that senescence of the reproductive system may vary between temperature regimens at the different food concentrations.

  1. The Impact of Increased Food Availability on Reproduction in a Long-Distance Migratory Songbird: Implications for Environmental Change?

    PubMed Central

    Seward, Adam M.; Beale, Colin M.; Gilbert, Lucy; Jones, T. Hefin; Thomas, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Many populations of migratory songbirds are declining or shifting in distribution. This is likely due to environmental changes that alter factors such as food availability that may have an impact on survival and/or breeding success. We tested the impact of experimentally supplemented food on the breeding success over three years of northern wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe), a species in decline over much of Europe. The number of offspring fledged over the season was higher for food-supplemented birds than for control birds. The mechanisms for this effect were that food supplementation advanced breeding date, which, together with increased resources, allowed further breeding attempts. While food supplementation did not increase the clutch size, hatching success or number of chicks fledged per breeding attempt, it did increase chick size in one year of the study. The increased breeding success was greater for males than females; males could attempt to rear simultaneous broods with multiple females as well as attempting second broods, whereas females could only increase their breeding effort via second broods. Multiple brooding is rare in the study population, but this study demonstrates the potential for changes in food availability to affect wheatear breeding productivity, primarily via phenotypic flexibility in the number of breeding attempts. Our results have implications for our understanding of how wheatears may respond to natural changes in food availability due to climate changes or changes in habitat management. PMID:25333485

  2. The impact of increased food availability on reproduction in a long-distance migratory songbird: implications for environmental change?

    PubMed

    Seward, Adam M; Beale, Colin M; Gilbert, Lucy; Jones, T Hefin; Thomas, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Many populations of migratory songbirds are declining or shifting in distribution. This is likely due to environmental changes that alter factors such as food availability that may have an impact on survival and/or breeding success. We tested the impact of experimentally supplemented food on the breeding success over three years of northern wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe), a species in decline over much of Europe. The number of offspring fledged over the season was higher for food-supplemented birds than for control birds. The mechanisms for this effect were that food supplementation advanced breeding date, which, together with increased resources, allowed further breeding attempts. While food supplementation did not increase the clutch size, hatching success or number of chicks fledged per breeding attempt, it did increase chick size in one year of the study. The increased breeding success was greater for males than females; males could attempt to rear simultaneous broods with multiple females as well as attempting second broods, whereas females could only increase their breeding effort via second broods. Multiple brooding is rare in the study population, but this study demonstrates the potential for changes in food availability to affect wheatear breeding productivity, primarily via phenotypic flexibility in the number of breeding attempts. Our results have implications for our understanding of how wheatears may respond to natural changes in food availability due to climate changes or changes in habitat management.

  3. Larval food plants of Australian Larentiinae (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) - a review of available data

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background In Australia, the subfamily Larentiinae (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) comprises over 45 genera with about 270 species described so far. However, life histories of the Australian larentiine moths have barely been studied. New information The current paper presents a list of larval food plants of 51 Australian larentiine species based on literature references, data from specimen labels and own observations. Some Australian habitats are shown. Possible relationships among the taxa based on food preference of the larvae are discussed. Additionally, a list of Australasian larentiine species from the genera occurring in Australia and their food plants is presented. PMID:27099558

  4. Phenotypic plasticity of reproductive traits in response to food availability and photoperiod in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus).

    PubMed

    Reilly, Sarah J; Oum, Robert; Heideman, Paul D

    2006-12-01

    Although most temperate-zone mammals are seasonal breeders, many populations display variation in winter reproductive phenotype. For most mammals, the primary environmental cues regulating reproductive status are food availability and photoperiod, and these two factors can interact in their effect. Low food availability is primarily thought to suppress reproduction by reducing body mass and thereby forcing energy allocations to survival alone. However, because most small mammals rely on an increase in food intake rather than stored nutrients for reproduction, we hypothesized that food availability could act as a signal for low resource availability and affect reproduction even when body condition was not affected. We tested the prediction that restricted food access, without reduced body mass, could alter reproductive responses to short photoperiod. We used genetically distinct lines of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) derived from a wild population with genetic variation in the neuroendocrine pathway that regulates reproduction in response to environmental cues. The lines were created by artificial selection on gonad size in short photoperiods. Individuals from one line strongly suppress gonadal development in response to short photoperiods, while individuals from the other line suppress gonadal development weakly or not at all. Unresponsive individuals from the selected and an unselected control line were exposed to an intermittent food access protocol that did not affect body mass and only slightly reduced total food intake. We found that restricting food access caused reproductive suppression in short photoperiods but not long photoperiods, with no decrease in body mass. These results provide evidence for an interaction between food and photoperiod that is not dependent upon body condition or energy balance. The results also demonstrate plasticity in the reproductive response to photoperiod of otherwise reproductively nonphotoperiodic white-footed mice.

  5. Snow water equivalent mapping in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tveito, O. E.; Udnæs, H.-C.; Engeset, R.; Førland, E. J.; Isaksen, K.; Mengistu, Z.

    2003-04-01

    In high latitude area snow covers the ground large parts of the year. Information about the water volume as snow is of major importance in many respects. Flood forecasters at NVE need it in order to assess possible flood risks. Hydropower producers need it to plan the most efficient production of the water in their reservoirs, traders to estimate the potential energy available for the market. Meteorologists on their side use the information as boundary conditions in weather forecasting models. The Norwegian meteorological institute has provided snow accumulation maps for Norway for more than 50 years. These maps are now produced twice a month in the winter season. They show the accumulated precipitation in the winter season from the day the permanent snow cover is established. They do however not take melting into account, and do therefore not give a good description of the actual snow amounts during and after periods with snowmelt. Due to an increased need for a direct measure of water volumes as snow cover, met.no and NVE initialized a joint project in order to establish maps of the actual snow cover expressed in water equivalents. The project utilizes recent developments in the use of GIS in spatial modeling. Daily precipitation and temperature are distributed in space by using objective spatial interpolation methods. The interpolation considers topographical and other geographical parameters as well as weather type information. A degree-day model is used at each modeling point to calculate snow-accumulation and snowmelt. The maps represent a spatial scale of 1x1 km2. The modeled snow reservoir is validated by snow pillow values as well traditional snow depth observations. Preliminary results show that the new snow modeling approach reproduces the snow water equivalent well. The spatial approach also opens for a wide use in the terms of areal analysis.

  6. Black bear habitat use in relation to food availability in the Interior Highlands of Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Joseph D.; Clapp, Daniel L.; Smith, Kimberly G.; Ederington, Belinda

    1994-01-01

    A black bear (Ursus americanus) food value index (FVI) was developed and calculated for forest cover type classifications on Ozark Mountain (White Rock) and Ouachita Mountain (Dry Creek) study areas in western Arkansas. FVIs are estimates of bear food production capabilities of the major forest cover types and were calculated using percent cover, mean fruit production scorings, and the dietary percentage of each major plant food species as variables. Goodness-of-fit analyses were used to determine use of forest cover types by 23 radio-collared female bears. Habitat selection by forest cover type was not detected on White Rock but was detected on Dry Creek. Use of habitats on Dry Creek appeared to be related to food production with the exception of regeneration areas, which were used less than expected but had a high FVI ranking. In general, pine cover types had low FVI rankings and were used less than expected by bears. Forest management implications are discussed. 

  7. Snow Radiance Assimilation Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, E. J.; Durand, M. T.; Toure, A.; Margulis, S. A.; Goita, K.; Royer, A.; Lu, H.

    2009-12-01

    Passive microwave-based retrievals of terrestrial snow parameters from satellite observations form a 30-year global record which will continue for the forseeable future. So far, these snow retrievals have been generated primarily by regression-based empirical “inversion” methods based on snapshots in time, and are limited to footprints around 25 km in diameter. Assimilation of microwave radiances into physical land surface models may be used to create a retrieval framework that is inherently self-consistent with respect to model physics as well as a more physically-based approach vs. legacy retrieval/inversion methods. This radiance assimilation approach has been used for years for atmospheric parameters by the operational weather forecasting community with great success, and represents one motivation for our work. A radiance assimilation scheme for snow requires a snowpack land surface model (LSM) coupled to a radiative transfer model (RTM). In previous local-scale studies, Durand, Kim, & Margulis (2008) explored the requirements on LSM model fidelity (i.e., snowpack state information) required in order for the RTM to produce brightness temperatures suitable for radiance assimilation purposes at a local scale, using the well-known Microwave Emission Model for Layered Snowpacks (MEMLS) as the RTM and a combination of Simple SIB (SSiB) and Snow Atmosphere (SAST) as the LSM. They also demonstrated improvement of simulated snow depth through the use of an ensemble Kalman filter scheme at this local scale (2009). This modeling framework reflects another motivation—namely, possibilities for downscaling. Our focus at this stage has been at the local scale where high-quality ground truth data is available in order to evaluate radiance assimilation under a “best case scenario.” The quantitative results then form a benchmark for future assessment of effects such as sparse forcing data, upscaling/downscaling, forest attenuation, and model details. Field data from

  8. Scattering optics of snow.

    PubMed

    Kokhanovsky, Alexander A; Zege, Eleonora P

    2004-03-01

    Permanent snow and ice cover great portions of the Arctic and the Antarctic. It appears in winter months in northern parts of America, Asia, and Europe. Therefore snow is an important component of the hydrological cycle. Also, it is a main regulator of the seasonal variation of the planetary albedo. This seasonal change in albedo is determined largely by the snow cover. However, the presence of pollutants and the microstructure of snow (e.g., the size and shape of grains, which depend also on temperature and on the age of the snow) are also of importance in the variation of the snow's spectral albedo. The snow's spectral albedo and its bidirectional reflectance are studied theoretically. The albedo also determines the spectral absorptance of snow, which is of importance, e.g., in studies of the heating regime in snow. We investigate the influence of the nonspherical shape of grains and of close-packed effects on snow's reflectance in the visible and the near-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The rate of the spectral transition from highly reflective snow in the visible to almost totally absorbing black snow in the infrared is governed largely by the snow's grain sizes and by the load of pollutants. Therefore both the characteristics of snow and its concentration of impurities can be monitored on a global scale by use of spectrometers and radiometers placed on orbiting satellites.

  9. Group-Living Herbivores Weigh Up Food Availability and Dominance Status when Making Patch-Joining Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Stears, Keenan; Kerley, Graham I. H.; Shrader, Adrian M.

    2014-01-01

    Two key factors that influence the foraging behaviour of group-living herbivores are food availability and individual dominance status. Yet, how the combination of these factors influences the patch-joining decisions of individuals foraging within groups has scarcely been explored. To address this, we focused on the patch-joining decisions of group-living domestic goats (Capra hircus). When individuals were tested against the top four ranked goats of the herd, we found that at patches with low food availability they avoided these dominant patch-holders and only joined subordinates (i.e. costs outweighed benefits). However, as the amount of food increased, the avoidance of the top ranked individuals declined. Specifically, goats shifted and joined the patch of an individual one dominance rank higher than the previous dominant patch holder when the initial quantity of food in the new patch was twice that of the lower ranking individual’s patch (i.e. benefits outweighed costs). In contrast, when individuals chose between patches held by dominant goats, other than the top four ranked goats, and subordinate individuals, we found that they equally joined the dominant and subordinate patch-holders. This joining was irrespective of the dominance gap, absolute rank of the dominant patch-holder, sex or food availability (i.e. benefits outweighed costs). Ultimately, our results highlight that herbivores weigh up the costs and benefits of both food availability and patch-holder dominance status when making patch-joining decisions. Furthermore, as the initial quantity of food increases, food availability becomes more important than dominance with regard to influencing patch-joining decisions. PMID:25271889

  10. Mental imagery interventions reduce subsequent food intake only when self-regulatory resources are available

    PubMed Central

    Missbach, Benjamin; Florack, Arnd; Weissmann, Lukas; König, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that imagining food consumption leads to food-specific habituation effects. In the present research, we replicated these effects and further examined whether the depletion of self-regulatory resources would reduce the habituation effects of imagined food consumption. Since self-regulatory resources have been shown to reduce habituation effects during the perception of emotional stimuli, we expected a reduction in habituation effects from imagined food consumption when self-regulatory resources were depleted. In Study 1, we replicated habituation effects as a response to imagining gummy bear consumption with a high (36) and medium number (18) of repetitions in a camouflaged taste test. Participants imagining gummy bear intake showed decreased food intake compared with participants who imagined putting a coin into a laundry machine. The number of repetitions did not significantly moderate the observed habituation effect. In Study 2, we investigated whether self-regulatory depletion would impede habituation effects evoked by the imagination of walnut consumption. Participants in a depleted state did not show a reduction in food intake after imagining walnut intake compared with participants in a non-depleted state. We discuss directions for future research and processes that might underlie the observed moderating effect of self-regulatory resources. PMID:25506337

  11. Environmental barriers to and availability of healthy foods for people with mobility disabilities living in urban and suburban neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Mojtahedi, Mina C; Boblick, Patty; Rimmer, James H; Rowland, Jennifer L; Jones, Robin A; Braunschweig, Carol L

    2008-11-01

    To assess the impact of the built environment on access to healthy foods for people with mobility disabilities by measuring wheelchair accessibility of grocery stores and availability of healthy affordable foods. A survey consisting of 87 questions. A low-income, multiracial urban Chicago neighborhood with a 3-mile radius was compared with a suburban neighborhood of the same size in which the population is similar in income level and racial distribution. Not applicable. Not applicable. Accessibility issues outside and within grocery stores and the availability of healthy affordable food items in these grocery stores. The urban area had more stores (n=48) than the suburban area (n=34); however, only 46% of urban stores had an entrance that would allow an individual requiring a ramp or level entrance to gain access compared with 88% of suburban stores (P<.001). Wheelchair accessibility characteristics of grocery and convenience stores did not differ between the urban and suburban areas. The availability of healthy affordable foods in urban and suburban stores was relatively low, with only 33% to 40% of the 18 items available, and did not differ between urban and suburban stores. People with mobility impairments are at a disadvantage in maintaining healthy food choices because of limited access to stores and healthy foods.

  12. A blending snow cover data base on MODIS and AMSR-E snow cover in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaohua, H.; Wang, J.; Che, T.; Dai, L. Y.

    2012-04-01

    The algorithms of MODIS Terra and MODIS Aqua versions of the snow products have been developed by the NASA National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). The MODIS global snow-cover products have been available through the NSIDC Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) since February 24, 2000 to Terra and July 4, 2002 to Aqua. The MODIS snow-cover maps represent a potential improvement relative to hemispheric-scale snow maps that are available today mainly because of the improved spatial resolution and snow/cloud discrimination capabilities of MODIS, and the frequent global coverage. In China, the snow distribution is different to other regions. Their accuracy on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP), however, has not yet been established. There are some drawbacks about NSIDC global snow cover products on QTP: 1. The characteristics of snow depth distribution on QTP: Thin, discontinuous. Our research indicated the MODIS snow-cover products underestimated the snow cover area in QTP. 2. The daily snow cover product from MODIS-Terra and Aqua can include the data gaps. 3. The snow products can separate snow from most obscuring clouds. However, there are still many cloud pixels in daily snow cover products. The study developed a new blending daily snow cover algorithm through improving the NSIDC snow algorithms and combining MODIS and AMSR-E data in QTP. The new snow cover products will provide daily snow cover at 500-m resolution in QTP. The new snow cover algorithm employs a grouped-criteria technique using the Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI) and other spectral threshold tests and image fusion technology to identify and classify snow on a pixel-by-pixel basis. The usefulness of the NDSI is based on the fact that snow and ice are considerably more reflective in the visible than in the shortwave IR part of the spectrum, and the reflectance of most clouds remains high in the short-wave IR, while the reflectance of snow is low. We propose a set of three steps, based on a

  13. Neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics and differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Duran, Ana Clara; Diez Roux, Ana V; Latorre, Maria do Rosario D O; Jaime, Patricia Constante

    2013-09-01

    Differential access to healthy foods has been hypothesized to contribute to health disparities, but evidence from low and middle-income countries is still scarce. This study examines whether the access of healthy foods varies across store types and neighborhoods of different socioeconomic statuses (SES) in a large Brazilian city. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010-2011 across 52 census tracts. Healthy food access was measured by a comprehensive in-store data collection, summarized into two indexes developed for retail food stores (HFSI) and restaurants (HMRI). Descriptive analyses and multilevel models were used to examine associations of store type and neighborhood SES with healthy food access. Fast food restaurants were more likely to be located in low SES neighborhoods whereas supermarkets and full service restaurants were more likely to be found in higher SES neighborhoods. Multilevel analyses showed that both store type and neighborhood SES were independently associated with in-store food measures. We found differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo city favoring middle and high SES neighborhoods.

  14. Neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics and differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Ana Clara; Diez Roux, Ana V; do Rosario DO Latorre, Maria; Jaime, Patricia C

    2013-01-01

    Differential access to healthy foods has been hypothesized to contribute to health disparities, but evidence from low and middle-income countries is still scarce. This study examines whether the access of healthy foods varies across store types and neighborhoods of different socioeconomic statuses (SES) in a large Brazilian city. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010–2011 across 52 census tracts. Healthy food access was measured by a comprehensive in-store data collection, summarized into two indexes developed for retail food stores (HFSI) and restaurants (HMRI). Descriptive analyses and multilevel models were used to examine associations of store type and neighborhood SES with healthy food access. Fast food restaurants were more likely to be located in low SES neighborhoods whereas supermarkets and full service restaurants were more likely to be found in higher SES neighborhoods. Multilevel analyses showed that both store type and neighborhood SES were independently associated with in-store food measures. We found differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo city favoring middle and high SES neighborhoods. PMID:23747923

  15. When to initiate torpor use? Food availability times the transition to winter phenotype in a tropical heterotherm.

    PubMed

    Vuarin, Pauline; Dammhahn, Melanie; Kappeler, Peter M; Henry, Pierre-Yves

    2015-09-01

    Timing of winter phenotype expression determines individual chances of survival until the next reproductive season. Environmental cues triggering this seasonal phenotypic transition have rarely been investigated, although they play a central role in the compensation of climatic fluctuations via plastic phenotypic adjustments. Initiation of winter daily torpor use-a widespread energy-saving phenotype-could be primarily timed according to anticipatory seasonal cues (anticipatory cues hypothesis), or flexibly fine-tuned according to actual energy availability (food shortage hypothesis). We conducted a food supplementation experiment on wild heterothermic primates (grey mouse lemurs, Microcebus murinus) at the transition to the food-limited dry season, i.e. the austral winter. As expected under the food shortage hypothesis, food-supplemented individuals postponed the seasonal transition to normal torpor use by 1-2 month(s), spent four times less torpid, and exhibited minimal skin temperature 6 °C higher than control animals. This study provides the first in situ experimental evidence that food availability, rather than abiotic cues, times the launching of torpor use. Fine-tuning of the timing of seasonal phenotypic transitions according to actual food shortage should provide heterotherms with a flexible adaptive mechanism to survive unexpected environmental fluctuations.

  16. Modeling the spatial variability of snow instability with the snow cover model SNOWPACK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Bettina; Reuter, Benjamin; Gaume, Johan; Fierz, Charles; Bavay, Mathias; van Herwijnen, Alec; Schweizer, Jürg

    2016-04-01

    Snow stratigraphy - key information for avalanche forecasting - can be obtained using numerical snow cover models driven by meteorological data. Simulations are typically performed for the locations of automatic weather station or for virtual slopes of varying aspect. However, it is unclear to which extent these simulations can represent the snowpack properties in the surrounding terrain, in particular snow instability, which is known to vary in space. To address this issue, we implemented two newly developed snow instability criteria in SNOWPACK relating to failure initiation and crack propagation, two fundamental processes for dry-snow slab avalanche release. Snow cover simulations were performed for the Steintälli field site above Davos (Eastern Swiss Alps), where snowpack data from several field campaigns are available. In each campaign, about 150 vertical snow penetration resistance profiles were sampled with the snow micro-penetrometer (SMP). For each profile, SMP and SNOWPACK- based instability criteria were compared. In addition, we carried out SNOWPACK simulations for multiple aspects and slope angles, allowing to obtain statistical distributions of the snow instability at the basin scale. Comparing the modeled to the observed distributions of snow instability suggests that it is feasible to obtain an adequate spatial representation of snow instability without high resolution distributed modeling. Hence, for the purpose of regional avalanche forecasting, simulations for a selection of virtual slopes seems sufficient to assess the influence of basic terrain features such as aspect and elevation.

  17. Effects of agri-environmental schemes on farmland birds: do food availability measurements improve patterns obtained from simple habitat models?

    PubMed Central

    Ponce, Carlos; Bravo, Carolina; Alonso, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Studies evaluating agri-environmental schemes (AES) usually focus on responses of single species or functional groups. Analyses are generally based on simple habitat measurements but ignore food availability and other important factors. This can limit our understanding of the ultimate causes determining the reactions of birds to AES. We investigated these issues in detail and throughout the main seasons of a bird's annual cycle (mating, postfledging and wintering) in a dry cereal farmland in a Special Protection Area for farmland birds in central Spain. First, we modeled four bird response parameters (abundance, species richness, diversity and “Species of European Conservation Concern” [SPEC]-score), using detailed food availability and vegetation structure measurements (food models). Second, we fitted new models, built using only substrate composition variables (habitat models). Whereas habitat models revealed that both, fields included and not included in the AES benefited birds, food models went a step further and included seed and arthropod biomass as important predictors, respectively, in winter and during the postfledging season. The validation process showed that food models were on average 13% better (up to 20% in some variables) in predicting bird responses. However, the cost of obtaining data for food models was five times higher than for habitat models. This novel approach highlighted the importance of food availability-related causal processes involved in bird responses to AES, which remained undetected when using conventional substrate composition assessment models. Despite their higher costs, measurements of food availability add important details to interpret the reactions of the bird community to AES interventions and thus facilitate evaluating the real efficiency of AES programs. PMID:25165523

  18. Effects of agri-environmental schemes on farmland birds: do food availability measurements improve patterns obtained from simple habitat models?

    PubMed

    Ponce, Carlos; Bravo, Carolina; Alonso, Juan Carlos

    2014-07-01

    Studies evaluating agri-environmental schemes (AES) usually focus on responses of single species or functional groups. Analyses are generally based on simple habitat measurements but ignore food availability and other important factors. This can limit our understanding of the ultimate causes determining the reactions of birds to AES. We investigated these issues in detail and throughout the main seasons of a bird's annual cycle (mating, postfledging and wintering) in a dry cereal farmland in a Special Protection Area for farmland birds in central Spain. First, we modeled four bird response parameters (abundance, species richness, diversity and "Species of European Conservation Concern" [SPEC]-score), using detailed food availability and vegetation structure measurements (food models). Second, we fitted new models, built using only substrate composition variables (habitat models). Whereas habitat models revealed that both, fields included and not included in the AES benefited birds, food models went a step further and included seed and arthropod biomass as important predictors, respectively, in winter and during the postfledging season. The validation process showed that food models were on average 13% better (up to 20% in some variables) in predicting bird responses. However, the cost of obtaining data for food models was five times higher than for habitat models. This novel approach highlighted the importance of food availability-related causal processes involved in bird responses to AES, which remained undetected when using conventional substrate composition assessment models. Despite their higher costs, measurements of food availability add important details to interpret the reactions of the bird community to AES interventions and thus facilitate evaluating the real efficiency of AES programs.

  19. Effects of food availability on proceptivity: a test of the reproduction at all costs and metabolic fuels hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Nicholas J; Finger, Antedra A; Ferkin, Michael H

    2012-10-01

    Proceptive behaviours are used by animals to indicate interest in opposite-sex conspecifics. These behaviours can be affected by an individual's nutritional status. Two mutually exclusive hypotheses have been proposed to account for the effects of food availability on reproduction. These are the metabolic fuels hypothesis and the reproduction at all costs hypothesis. It is not known if food availability affects proceptive behaviours such as scent marking, over-marking, and self-grooming. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that food-deprived and nonfood-deprived meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, differ in the number of scent marks they deposit, the proportion of over-marks they deposit, and the amount of time they spend self-grooming when they encounter the scent marks of opposite-sex conspecifics. We tested this hypothesis by exposing meadow voles that either had continuous access to food or were food-deprived for either 6 hours or 24 hours to the scent marks of an opposite-sex conspecific. Due to differences in the natural history of male and female meadow voles, we predicted that female voles' behaviour will best be explained by the metabolic fuels hypothesis whereas males' behaviour will best be explained by the reproduction at all costs hypothesis. We found that both male and female voles deprived of food for either 6 hours or 24 hours spent less time self-grooming compared to nonfood-deprived voles. However, food availability did not affect the scent marking and over-marking behaviour of male and female voles. Differences in the effects of food availability on these proceptive behaviours are discussed within the context of the natural history of meadow voles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Home food availability is associated with multiple socio-economic indicators in 50 year olds from Canterbury, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Renée; Gearry, Richard B; Grant, Emily; Pearson, John; Skidmore, Paula Ml

    2014-01-01

    Financial restraints and poverty lead to poor diets and poor health outcomes. Limited research shows that socioeconomic status is related to home availability of certain foods. However, studies in this area have used different socio-economic indicators, which may not equally influence eating-related behaviors. Using multiple indicators of socio-economic status may provide a more accurate picture of these relationships. The aim of this study was to investigate whether several socio-economic indicators are independently associated with home availability of selected foods known to influence chronic disease risk in 50 year olds from Canterbury, New Zealand, participating in the CHALICE study. Participants were selected randomly from health research extracts from Canterbury. Data from 216 participants (110 females, 106 males) were included. The presence (but not quantity) of foods/beverages in the home was measured by a validated home food inventory. Linear regression analyses were performed for the following home food inventory scores: fruit, vegetables, lower fat dairy, obesogenic foods and sweetened beverages with household income, standard of living and education using multivariate models. Higher household income and standard of living were individually associated with a 2% to 3% higher fruit and vegetables (3 to 5 types/forms) and total food scores (6 to 9 types/forms) (p<0.03). Higher education level was associated with a 2.5% increase in fruit and vegetables score (4 types/forms) and an 8% decrease in sweetened beverages score (0.4 beverages) (p<0.02). These results suggest that using only one measure of socio-economic status cannot accurately capture the effects of social inequalities in food availability. Those experiencing the most social disadvantage had a lesser availability of fruit and vegetables which may be detrimental to good health.

  1. [Infant food diversification: Is the information available on the Internet valid?].

    PubMed

    Banti, T; Carsin, A; Chabrol, B; Fabre, A

    2016-07-01

    The Internet provides easy access to information on health, but the quality and validity of this information are variable. To evaluate the quality of websites and the information provided on the timing and consequences of food diversification for infants. We analyzed the websites addressing infant food diversification that appeared on the first two pages of the search engines Google, Yahoo, and Bing. The websites were selected from four different queries. We initially assessed (a) the structure of the websites with two instruments (the Criteria for Assessing the Quality of Health Information on the Internet (HITI) and NetScoring) and (b) the presence of certification (quality label Health on the Net [HON] Code). Secondly, we evaluated the content of the websites concerning the time of introducing five classes of foods (gluten, fat, allergenic foods, solid foods, and animal protein), the duration of breastfeeding, and four potential consequences of food diversification (allergy, nutritional, autoimmune, and cardiovascular). Our repository was based on the most recent recommendations of the French Society of Pediatrics published in 2008. In all, 19 websites were included. Six of 19 websites scored above average on the two instruments (average: 131.26/312 with NetScoring and 46.73/104 with HITI). No correlation was observed between the referencing of websites analyzed and the notes obtained with both instruments. A majority of the websites analyzed were consistent with the recommendation favoring breast milk (100%), the age of introducing meat proteins (74%), and the age of introducing gluten (63%). A majority of the websites disagreed on the age of introducing solid foods (16%). As four consequences, only the risk of allergy (63%) was cited by a majority of the sites. There was a small nonsignificant correlation between the results obtained for the website about introducing solid foods and the results obtained for the websites analyzed with the NetScoring and HITI

  2. Measuring food availability and access in African-American communities: implications for intervention and policy.

    PubMed

    Odoms-Young, Angela M; Zenk, Shannon; Mason, Maryann

    2009-04-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern in the U.S. As compared to whites, minority populations are disproportionately at risk, with the highest prevalence rates of overweight and obesity occurring among African American women. Although researchers and policymakers argue that environmental approaches have the greatest potential to reverse the rising prevalence of obesity, critical gaps remain in our understanding of the complex mechanisms that underlie the associations between neighborhood food environments and weight status. A major challenge has been the need for reliable and valid measures to assess aspects of the neighborhood food environment that encourage or inhibit healthful eating behaviors and weight management. Investigators have made considerable gains in the development of tools and approaches to measure neighborhood food environments overall, but few studies focus on the specific challenges and issues associated with characterizing neighborhood food environments in communities of color. This paper highlights important considerations for measuring food environments in African-American neighborhoods and their implications for developing programmatic and policy solutions to reduce racial disparities in overweight.

  3. Determinants of seasonal changes in availability of food patches for elephants (Loxodonta africana) in a semi-arid African savanna.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Bruce W; O'Connor, Timothy G

    2017-01-01

    Loss of biodiversity caused by impact of elephants (Loxodonta africana) on African woodlands may require a management response, but any action should be based on an understanding of why elephants choose to utilise trees destructively. Comprehension of elephant feeding behaviour requires consideration of the relative value of the plant groups they may potentially consume. Profitability of available food is partly determined by the time to locate a food patch and, therefore, as a foundation for understanding the influence of food availability on diet selection, key controls on the density of grass, forb, and browse patches were investigated across space and time in a semi-arid African savanna. Density of food patches changed seasonally because plant life-forms required different volumes of soil water to produce green forage; and woody plants and forbs responded to long-term changes in soil moisture, while grasses responded to short-term moisture pulses. Soil texture, structure of woody vegetation and fire added further complexity by altering the soil water thresholds required for production of green forage. Interpolating between regularly-timed, ground-based measurements of food density by using modelled soil water as the predictor in regression equations may be a feasible method of quantifying food available to elephants in complex savanna environments.

  4. Evaluating the Influence of the Revised Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Food Allocation Package on Healthy Food Availability, Accessibility, and Affordability in Texas.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wenhua; McKyer, E Lisako J; Dowdy, Diane; Evans, Alexandra; Ory, Marcia; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Wang, Suojin; Miao, Jingang

    2016-02-01

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) was implemented to improve the health of pregnant women and children of low socioeconomic status. In 2009, the program was revised to provide a wider variety of healthy food choices (eg, fresh fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain items). The purpose of this study was to evaluate (1) the impact of the revised WIC Nutrition Program's food allocation package on the availability, accessibility, and affordability of healthy foods in WIC-authorized grocery stores in Texas; and (2) how the impact of the policy change differed by store types and between rural and urban regions. WIC-approved stores (n=105) across Texas were assessed using a validated instrument (88 items). Pre- (June-September 2009) and post-new WIC package implementation (June-September 2012) audits were conducted. Paired-sample t tests were conducted to compare the differences between pre- and post-implementation audits on shelf width and number of varieties (ie, availability), visibility (ie, accessibility), and inflation-adjusted price (ie, affordability). Across the 105 stores, post-implementation audits showed increased availability in terms of shelf space for most key healthy food options, including fruit (P<0.001), vegetables (P<0.01), cereal (P<0.001), and varieties of vegetables (P<0.001). Food visibility increased for fresh juices (P<0.001). Visibility of WIC labeling improved for foods such as fruits (P<0.05), WIC cereal (P<0.05), and whole-grain or whole-wheat bread (P<0.01). Inflation-adjusted prices decreased only for bread (P<0.001) and dry grain beans (P<0.001). The positive effects of the policy change on food availability and visibility were observed in stores of different types and in different locations, although smaller or fewer effects were noted in small stores and stores in rural regions. Implementation of the revised WIC food package has generally improved availability and accessibility, but not

  5. Macroeconomic adjustment, food availability and nutrition status in Nigeria. A look at the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Igbedioh, S O

    1990-12-01

    Faced with balance of payment problems, declining commodity prices, and a corresponding reduction in foreign exchange earnings, Nigeria implemented a structural adjustment program in 1986. This step was taken in response to encouragement from the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, and was aimed to accomplish the following: find the true value of the official currency; overcome public sector inefficiency through improved public expenditure and parastatal rationalization; reschedule medium- and long-term debt to relieve debt burden; and encourage net foreign capital inflow while limiting foreign loans. Implementing and adhering to these macroeconomic adjustment policies has brought unprecedented inflation, lower real earnings, and increased malnutrition among lower income sectors of the population. The poor have suffered diminishing access to nutritious foods. Conscribed access to food and compromised nutritional status will most likely persist into the 1990s unless corrective policies are adopted. Appropriate policy would aim to increase the poor's access to food and limit population growth.

  6. Both thyroid hormone levels and resting metabolic rate decrease in African striped mice when food availability decreases.

    PubMed

    Rimbach, Rebecca; Pillay, Neville; Schradin, Carsten

    2017-03-01

    In response to variation in food availability and ambient temperature (Ta), many animals show seasonal adaptations in their physiology. Laboratory studies showed that thyroid hormones are involved in the regulation of metabolism, and their regulatory function is especially important when the energy balance of an individual is compromised. However, little is known about the relationship between thyroid hormones and metabolism in free-living animals and animals inhabiting seasonal environments. Here, we studied seasonal changes in triiodothyronine (T3) levels, resting metabolic rate (RMR) and two physiological markers of energy balance (blood glucose and ketone bodies) in 61 free-living African striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio) that live in an semi-arid environment with food shortage during the dry season. We predicted a positive relationship between T3 levels and RMR. Further, we predicted higher T3 levels, blood glucose levels and RMR, but lower ketone body concentrations, during the moist season when food availability is high compared with summer when food availability is low. RMR and T3 levels were negatively related in the moist season but not in the dry season. Both RMR and T3 levels were higher in the moist than in the dry season, and T3 levels increased with increasing food availability. In the dry season, blood glucose levels were lower but ketone body concentrations were higher, indicating a change in substrate use. Seasonal adjustments in RMR and T3 levels permit a reduction of energy expenditure when food is scarce, and reflect an adaptive response to reduced food availability in the dry season. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. A distributed snow-evolution modeling system (SnowModel)

    Treesearch

    Glen E. Liston; Kelly. Elder

    2006-01-01

    SnowModel is a spatially distributed snow-evolution modeling system designed for application in landscapes, climates, and conditions where snow occurs. It is an aggregation of four submodels: MicroMet defines meteorological forcing conditions, EnBal calculates surface energy exchanges, SnowPack simulates snow depth and water-equivalent evolution, and SnowTran-3D...

  8. Timed food availability affects circadian behavior but not the neuropeptide Y expression in Indian weaverbirds exposed to atypical light environment.

    PubMed

    Singh, Devraj; Trivedi, Neerja; Malik, Shalie; Rani, Sangeeta; Kumar, Vinod

    2016-07-01

    We tested the hypothesis whether daily food availability period would restore rhythmicity in individuals with disrupted circadian behavior with no effect on appetite regulation. Particularly, we investigated the effects of timed food availability on activity behavior, and Fos and neuropeptide Y expressions in Indian weaverbirds (Ploceus philippinus) under atypical light conditions. Initially, weaverbirds in 3 groups of 7-8 each were entrained to 7L:17D (25: <0.3lx) with food ad libitum. Thereafter, food availability was restricted for 7h such that it overlapped with the light period. After a week, 7L:17D was replaced with 3.5L: 3.5D (T7, group 1), 3.5L: 20.5D (T24, group 2) or constant dim light, LLdim (<0.3lx, group 3) for 5weeks. Food cycles synchronized the circadian activity behavior, albeit with group differences, but did not affect body mass, blood glucose levels or testis size. Further, Fos, not NPY mRNA or peptide, expression measured at ZT2 and ZT14 (ZT0=time of food given) showed significant group differences in the hippocampus, dorsomedial hypothalamus and infundibular nuclear complex. Another identical experiment examined after-effects of the 3 light conditions on persistence of the circadian rhythms. Weaverbirds exposed for 4weeks to identical food but different light conditions, as above, were released into the free-running condition of food ad libitum and LLdim. Circadian rhythms were decayed in birds previously exposed to T7 LD cycle. Overall, these results show that timed meal restores rhythmicity in individuals with circadian rhythm disruptions without involving neuropeptide Y, the key appetite regulatory molecule. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluating snow models for hydrological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonas, T.; Magnusson, J.; Wever, N.; Essery, R.; Helbig, N.

    2014-12-01

    Much effort has been invested in developing snow models over several decades, resulting in a wide variety of empirical and physically-based snow models. Within the two categories, models are built on the same principles but mainly differ in choices of model simplifications and parameterizations describing individual processes. In this study, we demonstrate an informative method for evaluating a large range of snow model structures for hydrological applications using an existing multi-model energy-balance framework and data from two well-instrumented sites with a seasonal snow cover. We also include two temperature-index snow models and one physically-based multi-layer snow model in our analyses. Our results show that the ability of models to predict snowpack runoff is strongly related to the agreement of observed and modelled snow water equivalent whereas such relationship is not present for snow depth or snow surface temperature measurements. For snow water equivalent and runoff, the models seem transferable between our two study sites, a behaviour which is not observed for snow surface temperature predictions due to site-specificity of turbulent heat transfer formulations. Uncertainties in the input and validation data, rather than model formulation, appear to contribute most to low model performances in some winters. More importantly, we find that model complexity is not a determinant for predicting daily snow water equivalent and runoff reliably, but choosing an appropriate model structure is. Our study shows the usefulness of the multi-model framework for identifying appropriate models under given constraints such as data availability, properties of interest and computational cost.

  10. Sharing, Trading, Stealing: Exploring the Role of Peers in Shaping Foods Available at Lunchtime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutter, Carolyn; Nishina, Adrienne; Scherr, Rachel E.; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri; Ontai, Lenna L.

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity continues to be a major concern in the United States, warranting a comprehensive approach. However, the majority of research studies continue to neglect the influence of peers on dietary behaviors. The present descriptive study aimed to provide information about the ways peers directly shape dietary choices via food exchanges…

  11. 76 FR 45221 - Notice of Funding Availability: Inviting Applications for the Food for Progress Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ...'' (or sold on the local market), and the proceeds are used ] to fund agricultural development activities... budget can be found in the proposal entry module of the Food Aid Information System (FAIS) at the... package must be submitted electronically to FAS's online proposal entry system, the FAIS, located at...

  12. Sharing, Trading, Stealing: Exploring the Role of Peers in Shaping Foods Available at Lunchtime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutter, Carolyn; Nishina, Adrienne; Scherr, Rachel E.; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri; Ontai, Lenna L.

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity continues to be a major concern in the United States, warranting a comprehensive approach. However, the majority of research studies continue to neglect the influence of peers on dietary behaviors. The present descriptive study aimed to provide information about the ways peers directly shape dietary choices via food exchanges…

  13. The Winter Environment: Snow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, James E.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the structure and formation of snow crystals, outlines the history of snow removal, and describes techniques that can be used by students for studying snowflakes and relating their structure to the conditions under which they were formed. (JR)

  14. Camping in the Snow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Constance

    1979-01-01

    Describes the experience of winter snow camping. Provides suggestions for shelter, snow kitchens, fires and stoves, cooking, latrines, sleeping warm, dehydration prevention, and clothing. Illustrated with full color photographs. (MA)

  15. Food availability affects orexin a/ hypocretin-1-induced inhibition of pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion in female rats.

    PubMed

    Furuta, Miyako; Mitsushima, Dai; Shinohara, Kazuyuki; Kimura, Fukuko; Funabashi, Toshiya

    2010-01-01

    Orexin A/hypocretin-1 inhibits pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in female rats. In this study, we investigated whether this inhibition was tied to the fasting state, as suggested by our previous study. We first examined whether orexin A inhibited pulsatile LH secretion when food was available ad libitumduring blood sampling. Next, we investigated the effect of intravenous administration of glucose (400 mg/kg) or lactic acid (negative control; 400 mg/kg) on orexin A-induced inhibition of pulsatile LH secretion. We found that orexin A did not affect pulsatile LH secretion in the presence of food, although it increased feeding behavior. Injection of orexin A significantly inhibited pulsatile LH secretion when food was withheld during blood sampling (p < 0.05); this inhibitory effect was rapidly reversed by intravenous injection of glucose but not lactic acid. Because orexin A did not seem to affect pulsatile LH secretion when food was available ad libitum, we speculate that orexin A has an effect on LH secretion when orexin A-induced hunger is accompanied by stress, such as the absence of food. Furthermore, glucose as well as food may act as a satiety factor in gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulse generation. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Availability of local food outlets is associated with weight status and dietary intake in 9-10 year olds

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Amy; Welch, Ailsa; Jones, Andy P; Harrison, Flo; Bentham, Graham; van Sluijs, Esther MF; Griffin, Simon J; Cassidy, Aedín

    2013-01-01

    Background The rising rate of childhood obesity is a key public health issue worldwide. Limited evidence suggests that there may be interactions between environmental factors at a neighbourhood level and the development of obesity, with the availability and accessibility of foods outlets being potentially important. Purpose To examine how the weight status and dietary intake of 1669 9-10 year-olds was associated with neighbourhood food-outlets in a cross-sectional study. Methods Availability of food outlets was computed from GIS data for each child’s unique neighbourhood. Outlets were grouped into BMI-healthy, BMI-unhealthy or BMI-intermediate categories according to food-type sold. Weight status measurements were objectively collected and food intake was recorded using four-day food-diaries. Data was collected in 2007 and analysed in 2009. Results Availability of BMI-healthy outlets in neighbourhoods was associated with lower body weight (1.3kg; p=0.03), BMI (0.5kg/m2; p=0.02), BMI z-score (0.20; p=0.02), waist circumference (1.3cm; p=0.02), and percentage body fat (1.1%; p=0.03) compared to no availability. In contrast, neighbourhood availability of BMI-unhealthy outlets was inversely associated with body weight (1.3kg; p=0.02), BMI (0.4kg/m2; p=0.05), BMI z-score (0.15; p=0.05), waist circumference (1.1cm; p=0.04), and percentage body fat (1.0%; p=0.03). Unhealthy food intake (fizzy drinks 15.3%; p=0.04, and non-carbonated ‘fruit’ drinks 11.8%; p=0.03) was also associated with availability of BMI-unhealthy food outlets. Conclusions This study suggests that features of the built environment relating to food purchasing opportunities are independent significant correlates of weight status in children. PMID:21406273

  17. MISAWA Snow Accumulation Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    3 1.6 The Snow Forecasting Decision Tree ..................................................................... ...4 2. D AT A AN D...3 Figure 4. Snow Forecasting Decision Tree for Use as a Guide at...Calculation for the Best Misawa Snow Forecast Decision Tree ................................................................................... 11 Fi.gure 8

  18. Modelling of snow exceedances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordanova, Pavlina K.; Sadovský, Zoltán; Stehlík, Milan

    2017-07-01

    Modelling of snow exceedances is of great importance and interest for ecology, civil engineering and general public. We suggest the favorable fit for exceedances related to the exceptional snow loads from Slovakia, assuming that the data is driven by Generalised Pareto Distribution or Generalized Extreme Value Distribution. Further, the statistical dependence between the maximal snow loads and the corresponding altitudes is studied.

  19. Snow Roads and Runways

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    9 Effect of time and tem perature...ice strength .......................................................................... 13 19. Effect of time on the strength of processed snow as a...function of temperature ......... 14 20. Effect of time on the strength of processed snow as a function of snow density ........ 14 21. Combined

  20. Home food availability, parental dietary intake, and familial eating habits influence the diet quality of urban Hispanic children.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Torres, Margarita; Adams, Alexandra K; Carrel, Aaron L; LaRowe, Tara L; Schoeller, Dale A

    2014-10-01

    The home food environment influences children's eating behaviors and potentially affects overall diet quality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the home food environment and Hispanic children's diet quality. Hispanic children, 10-14 years of age (n=187), and their parents participated in this cross-sectional study. The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) was used to determine diet quality based on reported dietary intake obtained through a food frequency questionnaire administered to the children. Parents self-reported home food availability, familial eating habits, and their own habitual diet through a home environment survey. The children's HEI total score was 59.4±8.8. Reported diets did not adhere to the dietary recommendations for total vegetables, greens and beans, whole grains, seafood and plant proteins, fatty acids, refined grains, sodium, solid fats, and added sugars. None of the participants had "good" scores (HEI, >80), 86% had scores that "need improvement" (HEI, 51-80), and 14% had "poor" scores (HEI, <50). Children with lower HEI scores had sugar-sweetened beverages available at home and participated in family meals while watching television more frequently, when compared with children with higher HEI scores. Home food availability, parental diet, and familial eating habits seem to play an important role in the diet quality of children. Interventions targeting family education on healthful dietary habits at home could have a positive impact on children's diet quality and overall health.

  1. Effects of predation environment and food availability on somatic growth in the Livebearing Fish Brachyrhaphis rhabdophora (Pisces: Poeciliidae).

    PubMed

    Gale, Brittany H; Johnson, Jerald B; Bruce Schaalje, G; Belk, Mark C

    2013-02-01

    Variation in somatic growth rates is of great interest to biologists because of the relationship between growth and other fitness-determining traits, and it results from both genetic and environmentally induced variation (i.e. plasticity). Theoretical predictions suggest that mean somatic growth rates and the shape of the reaction norm for growth can be influenced by variation in predator-induced mortality rates. Few studies have focused on variation in reaction norms for growth in response to resource availability between high-predation and low-predation environments. We used juvenile Brachyrhaphis rhabdophora from high-predation and low-predation environments to test for variation in mean growth rates and for variation in reaction norms for growth at two levels of food availability in a common-environment experiment. To test for variation in growth rates in the field, we compared somatic growth rates in juveniles in high-predation and low-predation environments. In the common-environment experiment, mean growth rates did not differ between fish from differing predation environments, but the interaction between predation environment and food level took the form of a crossing reaction norm for both growth in length and mass. Fish from low-predation environments exhibited no significant difference in growth rate between high and low food treatments. In contrast, fish from high-predation environments exhibited variation in growth rates between high and low food treatments, with higher food availability resulting in higher growth rates. In the field, individuals in the high-predation environment grow at a faster rate than those in low-predation environments at the smallest sizes (comparable to sizes in the common-environment experiment). These data provide no evidence for evolved differences in mean growth rates between predation environments. However, fish from high-predation environments exhibited greater plasticity in growth rates in response to resource

  2. Trace element concentrations of some pet foods commercially available in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Duran, Ali; Tuzen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa

    2010-10-01

    Trace element levels in different types of cat and dog foods consumed in Turkey were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry after wet digestion method. Data, expressed on a dry weight basis, were analyzed according to food type (cat or dog, and dry or wet), predominant flavour (beef, fish, chicken), and manufacturer country. Good accuracy was ensured by the analysis of standard reference material (NIST-SRM 8418 Wheat Gluten). The levels of investigated trace elements in the samples were determined in the range of 3.33-16.6, 5.78-19.7, 1.66-15.5, 23.9-71.1, 3.28-24.4, 0.58-3.73, and 0.60-2.47 μg/g for Cu, Ni, Pb, Fe, Mn, Cr, and Cd, respectively. The correlation test was also performed to investigate correlations between the metal contents in samples. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cyanogenic glycosides in plant-based foods available in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Cressey, Peter; Saunders, Darren; Goodman, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides occur in a wide range of plant species. The potential toxicity of cyanogenic glycosides arises from enzymatic degradation to produce hydrogen cyanide, which may result in acute cyanide poisoning and has also been implicated in the aetiology of several chronic diseases. One hundred retail foods were sampled and analysed for the presence of total hydrocyanic acid using an acid hydrolysis-isonicotinic/barbituric acid colourimetric method. Food samples included cassava, bamboo shoots, almonds and almond products, pome fruit products, flaxseed/linseed, stone fruit products, lima beans, and various seeds and miscellaneous products, including taro leaves, passion fruit, spinach and canned stuffed vine leaves. The concentrations of total hydrocyanic acid (the hydrocyanic acid equivalents of all cyanogenic compounds) found were consistent with or lower than concentrations reported in the scientific literature. Linseed/flaxseed contained the highest concentrations of total hydrocyanic acid of any of the analysed foods (91-178 mg kg(-1)). Linseed-containing breads were found to contain total hydrocyanic acid at concentrations expected from their linseed content, indicating little impact of processing on the total hydrocyanic acid content. Simulation modelling was used to assess the risk due to the total hydrocyanic acid in fruit juice and linseed-containing bread. 

  4. Foraging strategies of black-fronted titi monkeys (Callicebus nigrifrons) in relation to food availability in a seasonal tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Nagy-Reis, Mariana B; Setz, Eleonore Z F

    2017-01-01

    Many primates have to cope with a temporal scarcity in food availability that shapes their foraging strategies. Here we investigated the changes in diet, activity, and ranging behavior of a group of black-fronted titi monkeys (Callicebus nigrifrons) according to the availability of the main high-nutritional-density item in their diet and the foraging strategy adopted when this food is scarce. We monitored one habituated group using instantaneous scan sampling over 1 year (533 h of observation, 61 days) in a seasonal tropical forest fragment (245 ha). We simultaneously collected data on food availability with fruit traps. The titi monkeys consumed fleshy fruits, the main high-nutritional-density item of their diet, in accordance with its availability, and the availability of this item modulated the ingestion of vegetative plant parts, a relatively low-nutritional-density food. During high fleshy fruit availability, the titi monkeys consumed more fleshy fruits, flowers, and invertebrates. They also traveled more, but concentrated their activity in a central area of their home range. Conversely, during fleshy fruit scarcity, they increased the breadth of their diet, switching to one richer in seeds and vegetative plant parts, and with greater plant diversity. At the same time, they reduced most energy-demanding activities, traveling less and over shorter distances, but using their home range more broadly. Corroborating the optimal foraging theory, titi monkeys altered foraging strategies according to temporal food fluctuations and responded to low fleshy fruit availability by changing their diet, activity, and ranging behavior. The adoption of a low-cost/low-yield strategy allowed us to classify them as energy minimizers.

  5. Evaluating the impact of climate policies on regional food availability and accessibility using an Integrated Assessment Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, E.; Cui, Y. R.; Waldhoff, S.

    2015-12-01

    Beyond 2015, eradicating hunger will remain a critical part of the global development agenda through the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). Efforts to limit climate change through both mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and land use policies may interact with food availability and accessibility in complex and unanticipated ways. Here, we develop projections of regional food accessibility to 2050 under the alternative futures outlined by the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) and under different climate policy targets and structures. We use the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model (IAM), for our projections. We calculate food access as the weighted average of consumption of five staples and the portion of income spend on those commodities and extend the GCAM calculated universal global producer price to regional consumer prices drawing on historical relationships of these prices. Along the SSPs, food access depends largely on expectations of increases in population and economic status. Under a more optimistic scenario, the pressures on food access from increasing demand and rising prices can be counterbalanced by faster economic development. Stringent climate policies that increase commodity prices, however, may hinder vulnerable regions, namely Sub-Saharan Africa, from achieving greater food accessibility.

  6. Influence of Seasonal Food Availability on the Dynamics of Seabird Feeding Flocks at a Coastal Upwelling Area

    PubMed Central

    Anguita, Cristóbal; Simeone, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The formation of multi-species feeding flocks (MSFFs) through visual recruitment is considered an important strategy for obtaining food in seabirds and its functionality has been ascribed to enhanced foraging efficiency. Its use has been demonstrated in much of the world's oceans and includes numerous species. However, there is scant information on the temporal stability of the composition and abundance of MSFFs as well as the effect of seasonal food availability on their dynamics. Between July 2006 and September 2014, we conducted monthly at-sea seabird counts at Valparaiso Bay (32°56′ to 33°01′S, 71°36′ to 71°46′W) within the area of influence of the Humboldt Current in central Chile. This area is characterized by a marked seasonality in primary and secondary production associated with upwelling, mainly during austral spring-summer. Based on studies that provide evidence that flocking is most frequent when food is both scarce and patchy, we hypothesized that seabird MSFF attributes (i.e. frequency of occurrence, abundance and composition) will be modified according to the seasonal availability of food. Using generalized linear models (GLMs), our results show that the contrasting seasonality in food availability of the study area (using chlorophyll-a concentration as a proxy) had no significant influence on MSFF attributes, sparsely explaining their variations (P>0.05). Rather than seasonal food availability, the observed pattern for MSFF attributes at Valparaiso Bay suggests a substantial influence of reproductive and migratory (boreal and austral migrants) habits of birds that modulates MSFF dynamics consistently throughout the whole year in this highly variable and patchy environment. We highlight the importance of visual recruitment as a mechanism by which migratory and resident birds interact. This would allow them to reduce resource unpredictability, which in turn has a major impact on structuring seabird’s MSFF dynamics. PMID:26125630

  7. Simulation of Snow Cover Evolution by means of the model SNOW4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhm, Uwe; Reich, Thomas; Schneider, Gerold

    2014-05-01

    SNOW 4 is a model to simulate accumulation and depletion of snow cover on a regular grid. The physical core of the model consists of modules to compute snow cover energy and mass balance. Available melting heat is calculated as the balance of the energy fluxes between snow cover, atmosphere and soil considering radiation and heat fluxes as well as heat conduction in the snow pack. Depending on the resulting melting heat, melting of snow or freezing of liquid water within the snow layer takes place. Retention, aging and regeneration are taken into account. SNOW 4 is forced by observation in an analysis phase which covers the last 30 hours and by numerical weather prediction model results in the forecast phase for 72 hours ahead. The model computes snow cover water equivalent and precipitation supply formed by melting water and precipitation not retained in the snow pack. The internal time step and the output interval is one hour. Grid resolution is on square kilometer. Model simulations are updated every six hours. Model evaluation demonstrates the ability of the model to provide high-quality results for use in flood warning and water management in most of the German federal states and surrounding countries.

  8. [Household availability of ready-to-consume food and drink products in Chile: impact on nutritional quality of the diet].

    PubMed

    Crovetto M, Mirta; Uauy, Ricardo; Martins, Ana Paula; Moubarac, Jean Claude; Monteiro, Carlos

    2014-07-01

    Processed foodstuff may have a lower nutritional value than natural products. To analyze the impact of ready-to-consume products on diet quality of Chilean households. A national representative sample of 10,096 households, based on the 6th Survey on Household Budget and Expenses (VI Encuesta de Presupuestos y Gastos Familiares, 2006-2007), was studied. Foodstuffs were classified as follows: 1) Unprocessed foods or minimally processed foods (G1); 2) Processed culinary ingredients (G2); and 3) Ready-to-consume products (G3). Calorie contribution and energy availability of each household food group, was calculated. The nutritional profile of the national food basket was calculated and compared with two simulated baskets (G3 vs G1+G2), based on international nutritional recommendations. Overall energy availability was of 1,885 kcal per capita/ day; 24% derived from unprocessed foods (G1), 21% from processed culinary ingredients (G2) and 55% from ready-to-consume products (G3), whose proportion increased along with income level. The 2007 national food basket contained an excess of total fat (34% vs 30%), free sugars (16% vs 10%), energy density (2.1 vs 1.3 kcal/gram) and a low amount of fiber (8.4 vs 12.5 g/1,000 kcal). The basket consisting in ready-to-consume products (G3) had a higher percentage of carbohydrates (61% vs 46%) than the basket consisting in unprocessed foods and ingredients (G1+G2). It also had a higher percentage of free sugars (17% vs 15%), less dietary fiber (7 vs. 10 g/1,000 kcal) and, above all, a higher energy density (2.6 vs 1.6 kcal/g). The Chilean dietary pattern, based on ready-to-consume products (G3), is affecting the nutritional quality of the diet.

  9. Multiple excitatory and inhibitory neural signals converge to fine-tune Caenorhabditis elegans feeding to food availability

    PubMed Central

    Dallière, Nicolas; Bhatla, Nikhil; Luedtke, Zara; Ma, Dengke K.; Woolman, Jonathan; Walker, Robert J.; Holden-Dye, Lindy; O’Connor, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    How an animal matches feeding to food availability is a key question for energy homeostasis. We addressed this in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which couples feeding to the presence of its food (bacteria) by regulating pharyngeal activity (pumping). We scored pumping in the presence of food and over an extended time course of food deprivation in wild-type and mutant worms to determine the neural substrates of adaptive behavior. Removal of food initially suppressed pumping but after 2 h this was accompanied by intermittent periods of high activity. We show pumping is fine-tuned by context-specific neural mechanisms and highlight a key role for inhibitory glutamatergic and excitatory cholinergic/peptidergic drives in the absence of food. Additionally, the synaptic protein UNC-31 [calcium-activated protein for secretion (CAPS)] acts through an inhibitory pathway not explained by previously identified contributions of UNC-31/CAPS to neuropeptide or glutamate transmission. Pumping was unaffected by laser ablation of connectivity between the pharyngeal and central nervous system indicating signals are either humoral or intrinsic to the enteric system. This framework in which control is mediated through finely tuned excitatory and inhibitory drives resonates with mammalian hypothalamic control of feeding and suggests that fundamental regulation of this basic animal behavior may be conserved through evolution from nematode to human.—Dallière, N., Bhatla, N., Luedtke, Z., Ma, D. K., Woolman, J., Walker, R. J., Holden-Dye, L., O’Connor, V. Multiple excitatory and inhibitory neural signals converge to fine-tune Caenorhabditis elegans feeding to food availability. PMID:26514165

  10. Bioenergetics of torpor in the microbiotherid marsupial, monito del monte (Dromiciops gliroides): the role of temperature and food availability.

    PubMed

    Nespolo, Roberto F; Verdugo, Claudio; Cortés, Pablo A; Bacigalupe, Leonardo D

    2010-06-01

    Torpor is the physiologically controlled reduction of metabolic rate and body temperature experienced by small birds and mammals when facing periods of low temperature and/or food shortage. In this study, we provide a first quantitative description of torpor in the relict marsupial Dromiciops gliroides by: (1) characterizing body temperature (T (B)) and torpor patterns, (2) evaluating the combined effects of ambient temperature and different levels of food restriction on torpor incidence and (3) exploring the metabolic depression during torpor. D. gliroides exhibited short bouts of torpor on a daily basis, during which T (B) decreased close to ambient temperature. During the active phase, T (B) also exhibited pronounced variation (range 34-38 degrees C). In order to evaluate the consistency of torpor, we computed the repeatability of T (B). Using the whole dataset, repeatability was significant (tau = 0.28). However, when torpid individuals were excluded from the analysis, repeatability was non-significant: some individuals were more prone to experience torpor than others. Our results indicate that this species also exhibits short bouts of daily torpor, whose depth and duration depends on the joint effects of T (A) and food availability. At T (A) = 20 degrees C, the maximum torpor incidence was found at 70-80% food reduction, while at both extremes of the food continuum (100 and 0-10% food reduction) individuals were completely active, although considerable variation in T (B) was recorded. At T (A) = 10 degrees C, individuals developed a deep form of torpor that was independent of the amount of food provided. On average, torpid D. gliroides reduced their metabolic rate up to 92% of their active values. In general, our results suggest that T (A) was the most immediate determinant of torpor, followed by energy availability.

  11. Diet and food availability: implications for foraging and dispersal of Prince of Wales northern flying squirrels across managed landscapes

    Treesearch

    Elizabeth A. Flaherty; Merav Ben-David; Winston P. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Where dispersal is energetically expensive, feeding and food availability can influence dispersal success. The endemic Prince of Wales northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus griseifrons) inhabits a landscape mosaic of old-growth, second-growth, and clearcut stands, with the latter two representing energetically expensive habitats. We...

  12. Relative host body condition and food availability influence epidemic dynamics: a Poecilia reticulata-Gyrodactylus turnbulli host-parasite model.

    PubMed

    Tadiri, Christina P; Dargent, Felipe; Scott, Marilyn E

    2013-03-01

    Understanding disease transmission is important to species management and human health. Host body condition, nutrition and disease susceptibility interact in a complex manner, and while the individual effects of these variables are well known, our understanding of how they interact and translate to population dynamics is limited. Our objective was to determine whether host relative body condition influences epidemic dynamics, and how this relationship is affected by food availability. Poecilia reticulata (guppies) of roughly similar size were selected and assembled randomly into populations of 10 guppies assigned to 3 different food availability treatments, and the relative condition index (Kn) of each fish was calculated. We infected 1 individual per group ('source' fish) with Gyrodactyus turnbulli and counted parasites on each fish every other day for 10 days. Epidemic parameters for each population were analysed using generalized linear models. High host Kn-particularly that of the 'source' fish-exerted a positive effect on incidence, peak parasite burden, and the degree of parasite aggregation. Low food availability increased the strength of the associations with peak burden and aggregation. Our findings suggest that host Kn and food availability interact to influence epidemic dynamics, and that the condition of the individual that brings the parasite into the host population has a profound impact on the spread of infection.

  13. Effects of food availability on the acute and chronic toxicity of the insecticide methomyl to Daphnia spp.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Joana Luísa; Gonçalves, Fernando

    2007-11-01

    The widespread increase of pesticides application in crops threats vicinal freshwater lentic ecosystems, frequently leading to their contamination. Due to their position in the aquatic food web, the responses to these pesticide inputs of freshwater filter-feeding zooplankters, as daphnids, provide relevant information the general risk to the ecosystem of xenobiotics. Moreover, cladoceran grazers often face fluctuations in food availability due to the phytoplankton dynamics in lentic water bodies, and food acquisition naturally conditions their fitness. In this study, the responses of Daphnia magna, and of three genotypes within the Daphnia longispina complex, to acute and chronic exposures of methomyl, were assessed. In addition, we focused on whether the food level can model the Daphnia life-history responses to the insecticide. Results showed that methomyl was acutely and chronically toxic to both D. magna and the D. cf longispina populations at very low concentrations, and remarkable differences in sensitivity were noticed when comparing the responses to the toxic among taxa/genotypes. Furthermore, food availability conditioned the overall fitness of the species although not interacting specifically on the response to the toxicant stress.

  14. Food web structure and seasonality of slope megafauna in the NW Mediterranean elucidated by stable isotopes: Relationship with available food sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papiol, V.; Cartes, J. E.; Fanelli, E.; Rumolo, P.

    2013-03-01

    Boundary Layer (BBL). δ15N enrichment was detected in periods of water column stratification, particularly amongst benthic feeder fishes. Megafauna relied on a single source of nutrition after peaks in surface production, presumably marine snow. Conversely, a larger array of food sources, probably from advection, sustained the community in periods of water column stratification. Benthic feeder δ13C values of both taxa were positively correlated with fluorescence measured 5 m above the seabed and negatively correlated with total organic carbon in the sediments, both being food sources for deposit feeding macroinfauna. Macroplankton feeder δ13C values were linked to environmental variables related to vertical transport from surface production, i.e. lipids and chlorophyll and their degradation products, likely due to their stronger reliance on sinking phytodetritus through consumption of planktonic prey.

  15. Snow depth on Arctic and Antarctic sea ice derived from autonomous (Snow Buoy) measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaus, Marcel; Arndt, Stefanie; Hendricks, Stefan; Heygster, Georg; Huntemann, Marcus; Katlein, Christian; Langevin, Danielle; Rossmann, Leonard; Schwegmann, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    The snow cover on sea ice received more and more attention in recent sea ice studies and model simulations, because its physical properties dominate many sea ice and upper ocean processes. In particular; the temporal and spatial distribution of snow depth is of crucial importance for the energy and mass budgets of sea ice, as well as for the interaction with the atmosphere and the oceanic freshwater budget. Snow depth is also a crucial parameter for sea ice thickness retrieval algorithms from satellite altimetry data. Recent time series of Arctic sea ice volume only use monthly snow depth climatology, which cannot take into account annual changes of the snow depth and its properties. For Antarctic sea ice, no such climatology is available. With a few exceptions, snow depth on sea ice is determined from manual in-situ measurements with very limited coverage of space and time. Hence the need for more consistent observational data sets of snow depth on sea ice is frequently highlighted. Here, we present time series measurements of snow depths on Antarctic and Arctic sea ice, recorded by an innovative and affordable platform. This Snow Buoy is optimized to autonomously monitor the evolution of snow depth on sea ice and will allow new insights into its seasonality. In addition, the instruments report air temperature and atmospheric pressure directly into different international networks, e.g. the Global Telecommunication System (GTS) and the International Arctic Buoy Programme (IABP). We introduce the Snow Buoy concept together with technical specifications and results on data quality, reliability, and performance of the units. We highlight the findings from four buoys, which simultaneously drifted through the Weddell Sea for more than 1.5 years, revealing unique information on characteristic regional and seasonal differences. Finally, results from seven snow buoys co-deployed on Arctic sea ice throughout the winter season 2015/16 suggest the great importance of local

  16. Availability, brands, labelling and Salmonella contamination of raw pet food in the Minneapolis/St. Paul area.

    PubMed

    Mehlenbacher, S; Churchill, J; Olsen, K E; Bender, J B

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to characterize the commercially available raw meat pet food diets in the Minneapolis/St. Paul area by (i) determining the number and types of available diets; (ii) assessing pet food stores and brand labels for the provision of precautionary statements regarding the risk of foodborne illness from raw meat; (ii) assessing the labels for Food and Drug Administration (FDA)/American Association of Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) required content and nutrient-related information; and (iv) culturing purchased diets for the presence of Salmonella. Sixty raw meat diets were purchased, representing 11 different brands from eight different stores. Diets were readily available in the form of raw-frozen, dehydrated or freeze-dried varieties from different protein sources, such as lamb, beef, chicken or duck. All stores promoted raw meat diets; however, none provided foodborne illness warnings. Brands varied greatly in their precautionary statements; none of the diets underwent feeding trials; and nutritional adequacy substantiation was through formulation only. The first five ingredients tended to consist of meat, organ meat (by-products), vegetables, grains and ground bones. Currently, it is required that pet foods have an AAFCO nutritional adequacy statement and provide a guaranteed analysis table. Three brands did not meet these FDA requirements. Thirty-one (51.7%) of the 60 raw meat diets underwent some degree of processing including dehydration, freeze-drying or high-pressure pasteurization. Four of the 60 raw diets (7%) tested positive for Salmonella. Analysis of raw meat pet food labels indicated a lack of foodborne illness warnings. Based on these findings, we recommend that warning statements similar to those required by the United States Department of Agriculture and placed on labels of raw meat intended for human consumption be provided on the labels of raw meat pet food diets. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Quantifying trade-offs between future yield levels, food availability and forest and woodland conservation in Benin.

    PubMed

    Duku, Confidence; Zwart, Sander J; van Bussel, Lenny G J; Hein, Lars

    2017-06-21

    Meeting the dual objectives of food security and ecosystem protection is a major challenge in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). To this end agricultural intensification is considered desirable, yet, there remain uncertainties regarding the impact of climate change on opportunities for agricultural intensification and the adequacy of intensification options given the rapid population growth. We quantify trade-offs between levels of yield gap closure, food availability and forest and woodland conservation under different scenarios. Each scenario is made up of a combination of variants of four parameters i.e. (1) climate change based on Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs); (2) population growth based on Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs); (3) cropland expansion with varying degrees of deforestation; and (4) different degrees of yield gap closure. We carry out these analyses for three major food crops, i.e. maize, cassava and yam, in Benin. Our analyses show that in most of the scenarios, the required levels of yield gap closures required to maintain the current levels of food availability can be achieved by 2050 by maintaining the average rate of yield increases recorded over the past two and half decades in addition to the current cropping intensity. However, yields will have to increase at a faster rate than has been recorded over the past two and half decades in order to achieve the required levels of yield gap closures by 2100. Our analyses also show that without the stated levels of yield gap closure, the areas under maize, cassava and yam cultivation will have to increase by 95%, 102% and 250% respectively in order to maintain the current levels of per capita food availability. Our study shows that food security outcomes and forest and woodland conservation goals in Benin and likely the larger SSA region are inextricably linked together and require holistic management strategies that considers trade-offs and co-benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  18. Price, promotion, and availability of nutrition information: a descriptive study of a popular fast food chain in New York City.

    PubMed

    Basch, Corey Hannah; Ethan, Danna; Rajan, Sonali

    2013-08-25

    Legislation in NYC requires chain restaurants to post calorie information on menu boards in an effort to help consumers make more informed decisions about food and beverage items they are purchasing. While this is a step in the right direction in light of the current obesity epidemic, there are other issues that warrant attention in a fast food setting, namely the pricing of healthy food options, promotional strategies, and access to comprehensive nutrition information. This study focused on a popular fast-food chain in NYC. The study's aims were threefold: (1) to determine the cost differential between the healthiest meal item on the chain's general menu and meal items available specifically on a reduced cost menu for one dollar (US$1.00); (2) to identify and describe the promotions advertised in the windows of these restaurants, as well as the nutrition content of promoted items; and (3) to ascertain availability of comprehensive nutrition information to consumers within the restaurants. We found the healthiest meal item to be significantly higher in price than less nutritious meal items available for $1.00 (t=146.9, p<.001), with the mean cost differential equal to $4.33 (95% CI: $4.27, $4.39). Window promotions generally advertised less healthful menu items, which may aid in priming customers to purchase these versus more healthful options. Comprehensive nutrition information beyond calorie counts was not readily accessible prior to purchasing. In addition to improving access to comprehensive nutrition information, advertising more of and lowering the prices of nutritious options may encourage consumers to purchase healthier foods in a fast food setting. Additional research in this area is needed in other geographic locations and restaurant chains. 

  19. Price, Promotion, and Availability of Nutrition Information: A Descriptive Study of a Popular Fast Food Chain in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Basch, Corey Hannah; Ethan, Danna; Rajan, Sonali

    2013-01-01

    Legislation in NYC requires chain restaurants to post calorie information on menu boards in an effort to help consumers make more informed decisions about food and beverage items they are purchasing. While this is a step in the right direction in light of the current obesity epidemic, there are other issues that warrant attention in a fast food setting, namely the pricing of healthy food options, promotional strategies, and access to comprehensive nutrition information. This study focused on a popular fast-food chain in NYC. The study’s aims were threefold: (1) to determine the cost differential between the healthiest meal item on the chain’s general menu and meal items available specifically on a reduced cost menu for one dollar (US$1.00); (2) to identify and describe the promotions advertised in the windows of these restaurants, as well as the nutrition content of promoted items; and (3) to ascertain availability of comprehensive nutrition information to consumers within the restaurants. We found the healthiest meal item to be significantly higher in price than less nutritious meal items available for $1.00 (t = 146.9, p < .001), with the mean cost differential equal to $4.33 (95% CI $4.27, $4.39). Window promotions generally advertised less healthful menu items, which may aid in priming customers to purchase these versus more healthful options. Comprehensive nutrition information beyond calorie counts was not readily accessible prior to purchasing. In addition to improving access to comprehensive nutrition information, advertising more of and lowering the prices of nutritious options may encourage consumers to purchase healthier foods in a fast food setting. Additional research in this area is needed in other geographic locations and restaurant chains. PMID:24171876

  20. Neighbourhood food store availability in relation to 24 h urinary sodium and potassium excretion in young Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2010-10-01

    Previous studies on the relationship of local food environment with residents' diets have relied exclusively on self-reported information on diet, producing inconsistent results. Evaluation of dietary intake using biomarkers may obviate the biases inherent to the use of self-reported dietary information. This cross-sectional study examined the association between neighbourhood food store availability and 24 h urinary Na and K excretion. The subjects were 904 female Japanese dietetic students aged 18-22 years. Neighbourhood food store availability was defined as the number of food stores within a 0.5-mile (0.8-km) radius of residence. Urinary Na and K excretion and the ratio of urinary Na to K were estimated from a single 24 h urine sample. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, neighbourhood availability of confectionery stores/bakeries was inversely associated with urinary K, and was positively associated with the ratio of Na to K (P for trend = 0.008 and 0.03, respectively). Neighbourhood availability of rice stores showed an independent inverse association with urinary K (P for trend = 0.03), whereas neighbourhood availability of supermarkets/grocery stores conversely showed an independent positive association with this variable (P for trend = 0.03). Furthermore, neighbourhood availability of fruit/vegetable stores showed an independent inverse association with the ratio of Na to K (P for trend = 0.049). In a group of young Japanese women, increasing neighbourhood availability of supermarkets/grocery stores and fruit/vegetable stores and decreasing availability of confectionery stores/bakeries and rice stores were associated with favourable profiles of 24 h urinary K (and Na) excretion.

  1. School nutritional capacity, resources and practices are associated with availability of food/beverage items in schools

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The school food environment is important to target as less healthful food and beverages are widely available at schools. This study examined whether the availability of specific food/beverage items was associated with a number of school environmental factors. Methods Principals from elementary (n = 369) and middle/high schools (n = 118) in British Columbia (BC), Canada completed a survey measuring characteristics of the school environment. Our measurement framework integrated constructs from the Theories of Organizational Change and elements from Stillman’s Tobacco Policy Framework adapted for obesity prevention. Our measurement framework included assessment of policy institutionalization of nutritional guidelines at the district and school levels, climate, nutritional capacity and resources (nutritional resources and participation in nutritional programs), nutritional practices, and school community support for enacting stricter nutritional guidelines. We used hierarchical mixed-effects logistic regression analyses to examine associations with the availability of fruit, vegetables, pizza/hamburgers/hot dogs, chocolate candy, sugar-sweetened beverages, and french fried potatoes. Results In elementary schools, fruit and vegetable availability was more likely among schools that have more nutritional resources (OR = 6.74 and 5.23, respectively). In addition, fruit availability in elementary schools was highest in schools that participated in the BC School Fruit and Vegetable Nutritional Program and the BC Milk program (OR = 4.54 and OR = 3.05, respectively). In middle/high schools, having more nutritional resources was associated with vegetable availability only (OR = 5.78). Finally, middle/high schools that have healthier nutritional practices (i.e., which align with upcoming provincial/state guidelines) were less likely to have the following food/beverage items available at school: chocolate candy (OR = .80) and sugar

  2. School nutritional capacity, resources and practices are associated with availability of food/beverage items in schools.

    PubMed

    Mâsse, Louise C; de Niet, Judith E

    2013-02-19

    The school food environment is important to target as less healthful food and beverages are widely available at schools. This study examined whether the availability of specific food/beverage items was associated with a number of school environmental factors. Principals from elementary (n=369) and middle/high schools (n=118) in British Columbia (BC), Canada completed a survey measuring characteristics of the school environment. Our measurement framework integrated constructs from the Theories of Organizational Change and elements from Stillman's Tobacco Policy Framework adapted for obesity prevention. Our measurement framework included assessment of policy institutionalization of nutritional guidelines at the district and school levels, climate, nutritional capacity and resources (nutritional resources and participation in nutritional programs), nutritional practices, and school community support for enacting stricter nutritional guidelines. We used hierarchical mixed-effects logistic regression analyses to examine associations with the availability of fruit, vegetables, pizza/hamburgers/hot dogs, chocolate candy, sugar-sweetened beverages, and french fried potatoes. In elementary schools, fruit and vegetable availability was more likely among schools that have more nutritional resources (OR=6.74 and 5.23, respectively). In addition, fruit availability in elementary schools was highest in schools that participated in the BC School Fruit and Vegetable Nutritional Program and the BC Milk program (OR=4.54 and OR=3.05, respectively). In middle/high schools, having more nutritional resources was associated with vegetable availability only (OR=5.78). Finally, middle/high schools that have healthier nutritional practices (i.e., which align with upcoming provincial/state guidelines) were less likely to have the following food/beverage items available at school: chocolate candy (OR= .80) and sugar-sweetened beverages (OR= .76). School nutritional capacity, resources

  3. Fast food price, diet behavior, and cardiometabolic health: Differential associations by neighborhood SES and neighborhood fast food restaurant availability in the CARDIA study.

    PubMed

    Rummo, Pasquale E; Meyer, Katie A; Green Howard, Annie; Shikany, James M; Guilkey, David K; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2015-09-01

    Little research has addressed whether neighborhood context influences associations between fast food price, diet, and cardiometabolic health. We investigated these associations using 25 years of Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study data (n=4,469, observations=21,134). We found a negative association between fast food price and consumption, with stronger inverse associations in more (vs. less) deprived neighborhoods [3rd tertile: β=-0.68 (95% CI: (-0.85, -0.51); 1st tertile: β=-0.22 (95% CI: -0.42, -0.02); p-interaction-0.002], and a similar association for BMI [3rd tertile: β=-1.34 (95% CI: -1.54, -1.14); 1st tertile: β=-0.45 (95% CI: -0.66, -0.25); p-interaction<0.001], but not insulin resistance [3rd tertile: β=-0.07 (95% CI: -0.24, 0.09); 1st tertile: β=0.09 (95% CI: -0.08, 0.26); p-interaction=0.40]. We observed no modification of fast food price by fast food availability. Future research on obesity disparities should consider potential differences in the association between fast food prices and health outcomes across neighborhood socioeconomic levels.

  4. The content of high-intensity sweeteners in different categories of foods available on the Polish market.

    PubMed

    Zygler, Agata; Wasik, Andrzej; Kot-Wasik, Agata; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the concentrations of nine high-intensity sweeteners (acesulfame-K, aspartame, alitame, cyclamate, dulcin, neohesperidin DC, neotame, saccharin and sucralose) in different categories of food available on the Polish market. Over 170 samples of different brands of beverages, yoghurts, fruit preparations, vegetable preserves and fish products were analysed using an analytical procedure based on SPE and LC/MS. The results indicated that foodstuffs under the study generally comply with European Union legislation in terms of sweetener content. However, a few cases of food product mislabelling were detected, i.e. the use of cyclamate for non-approved applications.

  5. Nonexercise muscle tension and behavioral fidgeting are positively correlated with food availability/palatability and body weight in rats.

    PubMed

    Heinrichs, Stephen C

    2003-07-01

    While certain measures of energy expenditure such as respiratory quotient and thermogenesis are readily quantifiable using existing animal models, the mechanism for and measurement of energy expenditure via nonexercise activity have not been thoroughly characterized. This low intensity form of physical exertion, associated with involuntary fidgeting and postural changes in man, was quantified in the present studies using passive measurement of muscle tension in rats. In particular, long-term weight loss and gain were induced using diet yoking and feeding of preferred foods in order to assess corresponding changes in locomotor activity and radiotelemetered measures of muscle tension, temperature and global activity. Hind limb muscle tension, but not body temperature, was increased 30-60% by enhancing the availability or palatability of food relative to the decreased muscle tension resulting from limited food availability. Enhancing food availability or palatability also produced a relative 5-15% increase in the amount of telemetered global activity. Importantly, neither diet yoking nor provision of a highly preferred diet altered a precise measure of behavioral locomotor activity. These results suggest that muscle tension and activity-in-place are positively correlated with weight change in the present studies and that these mechanisms of energy expenditure are mobilized by environmental changes in diet composition and meal pattern.

  6. Rainfall-induced changes in food availability modify the spring departure programme of a migratory bird

    PubMed Central

    Studds, Colin E.; Marra, Peter P.

    2011-01-01

    Climatic warming has intensified selection for earlier reproduction in many organisms, but potential constraints imposed by climate change outside the breeding period have received little attention. Migratory birds provide an ideal model for exploring such constraints because they face warming temperatures on temperate breeding grounds and declining rainfall on many tropical non-breeding areas. Here, we use longitudinal data on spring departure dates of American redstarts (Setophaga ruticilla) to show that annual variation in tropical rainfall and food resources are associated with marked change in the timing of spring departure of the same individuals among years. This finding challenges the idea that photoperiod alone regulates the onset of migration, providing evidence that intensifying drought in the tropical winter could hinder adaptive responses to climatic warming in the temperate zone. PMID:21450737

  7. Silver migration from nanosilver and a commercially available zeolite filler polyethylene composites to food simulants.

    PubMed

    Cushen, M; Kerry, J; Morris, M; Cruz-Romero, M; Cummins, E

    2014-01-01

    Polyethylene composites containing Agion(TM) commercial silver ion filler at three different percentage fill rates (0.5, 1.0 and 2% w/w) and polyethylene composites containing laboratory produced silver nanoparticles (Agnps) at two different percentage fill rates (0.1 and 0.5% w/w) underwent migration tests according to Commission Regulation (EU) No. 10/2011. Migrated silver in the two simulants (acidified water with 3% acetic acid and distilled water) was quantified using two techniques: inductively coupled atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES) and Hach Lange spectroscopy. The former had higher sensitivity with mean silver migration from Agion composites (n = 12) ranging from < 0.001 to 1.50 × 10(-2) mg l(-1). Mean silver migration from Agnps composites ranged from 4.65 × 10(-2) to 0.38 mg l(-1) and 8.92 × 10(-2) and 5.15 × 10(-2) mg l(-1) for Hach Lange spectrophotometry and ICPAES, respectively. Both percentage fill rate in the composite and the simulant type, as factors, were found to be significant in both silver migration from Agion (p < 0.0001 and < 0.01, respectively) and Agnps (p < 0.05 and < 0.01, respectively). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imagery showed differences in size distributions and morphology of particles (shape and degree of agglomeration) before and after migration. PE composites containing 0.5% Agion, simulating contact with non-acidic foods, was the only scenario that did not exceed the permitted migration level of non-authorised substances given in EU 10/2011. This study illustrates the need for careful engineering of the composite filler system to conform to limits with cognisance of food pH and percentage fill rate.

  8. How Often Are Drugs Made Available Under the Food and Drug Administration's Expanded Access Process Approved?

    PubMed

    McKee, Amy E; Markon, André O; Chan-Tack, Kirk M; Lurie, Peter

    2017-10-01

    In this review of individual patient expanded-access requests to the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research for the period Fiscal Year 2010 to Fiscal Year 2014, we evaluated the number of applications received and the number allowed to proceed. We also evaluated whether drugs and certain biologics obtained under expanded access went on to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Finally, we considered concerns that adverse events occurring during expanded access might place sponsors at risk for legal liability. Overall, 98% of individual patient expanded-access requests were allowed to proceed. During the study period, among drugs without a previous approval for any indication or dosage form, 24% of unique drugs (ie, multiple applications for access to the same drug were considered to relate to 1 unique drug), and 20% of expanded-access applications received marketing approval by 1 year after initial submission; 43% and 33%, respectively, were approved by 5 years after initial submission. A search of 3 legal databases and a database of news articles did not appear to identify any product liability cases arising from the use of a product in expanded access. Our analyses seek to give physicians and patients a realistic perspective on the likelihood of a drug's approval as well as certain information regarding the product liability risks for commercial sponsors when providing expanded access to investigational drugs. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s expanded-access program maintains a careful balance between authorizing patient access to potentially beneficial drugs and protecting them from drugs that may have unknown risks. At the same time, the agency wishes to maintain the integrity of the clinical trials process, ultimately the best way to get safe and effective drugs to patients. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  9. Influence of food and water availability on undirected singing and energetic status in adult male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

    PubMed

    Rashotte, M E; Sedunova, E V; Johnson, F; Pastukhov, I F

    2001-01-01

    The songs of adult male zebra finches are termed "directed" and "undirected," depending on the social context in which they occur. Females elicit directed song, whereas undirected song is not addressed to a particular conspecific and even occurs at high levels in social isolation. We tested the hypothesis that the production of undirected song is more sensitive to a brief period of food deprivation than a comparable period of water deprivation. The hypothesis was based on prior findings suggesting that song production is energetically expensive and that food deprivation constitutes a more serious energetic challenge to zebra finches than does water deprivation. Two days of food or water deprivation were imposed on several groups of birds that provided song production data and a variety of energetic measures; normative data obtained in a baseline period when food and water were available ad libitum provided a standard for comparison. Singing, which occurred exclusively in the light phase of the day, was reduced at the onset of food deprivation, ceased completely within 4 h, and did not occur at all on the second day. When water was removed, the birds showed a slower and less substantial reduction in daily song production across the 2 days of deprivation. Energetic measures indicated that food deprivation was a greater energetic challenge than water deprivation. Our results demonstrate that undirected song in zebra finches is sensitive to nonsocial environmental factors that pose an energetic challenge and raise new questions about how birds calibrate their level of song production to the availability of nutrients in the environment.

  10. Distributed calibrating snow models using remotely sensed snow cover information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.

    2015-12-01

    Distributed calibrating snow models using remotely sensed snow cover information Hongyi Li1, Tao Che1, Xin Li1, Jian Wang11. Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China For improving the simulation accuracy of snow model, remotely sensed snow cover data are used to calibrate spatial parameters of snow model. A physically based snow model is developed and snow parameters including snow surface roughness, new snow density and critical threshold temperature distinguishing snowfall from precipitation, are spatially calibrated in this study. The study region, Babaohe basin, located in northwestern China, have seasonal snow cover and with complex terrain. The results indicates that the spatially calibration of snow model parameters make the simulation results more reasonable, and the simulated snow accumulation days, plot-scale snow depth are more better than lumped calibration.

  11. Reduced Salinity Improves Marine Food Availability With Positive Feedbacks on pH in a Tidally-Dominated Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, A. T.; Roberts, E. A.; Galloway, A. W. E.

    2016-02-01

    Coastal regions around the world are changing rapidly, generating many physiological stressors for marine organisms. Food availability, a major factor determining physiological condition of marine organisms, in these systems reflects the influence of biological and environmental factors, and will likely respond dramatically to long-term changes. Using observations of phytoplankton, detritus, and their corresponding fatty acids and stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur, we identified environmental drivers of pelagic food availability and quality along a salinity gradient in a large tidally influenced estuary (San Juan Archipelago, Salish Sea, USA). Variation in chlorophyll a (Chl a), biomarkers and environmental conditions exhibited a similar range at both tidal and seasonal scales, highlighting a tide-related mechanism controlling productivity that is important to consider for long-term monitoring. Multiple parameters of food availability were inversely and non-linearly correlated to salinity, such that availability of high-quality (based on abundance, essential fatty acid concentration and C:N) seston increased below a salinity threshold of 30. The increased marine productivity was associated with increased pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) at lower salinity. Based on this observation we predicted that a decrease of salinity to below the threshold would result in higher Chl a, temperature, DO and pH across a range of temporal and spatial scales, and tested the prediction with a meta-analysis of available data. At all scales, these variables showed significant and consistent increases related to the salinity threshold. This finding provides important context to the increased frequency of below-threshold salinity over the last 71 years in this region, suggesting greater food availability with positive feedbacks on DO and pH. Together, these findings indicate that many of the environmental factors predicted to increase physiological stress to benthic suspension

  12. Transport of intercepted snow from trees during snow storms

    Treesearch

    David H. Miller

    1966-01-01

    Five principal processes by which intercepted snow in trees is removed during snow storms are described and evaluated as far as data permit: vapor flux from melt water, vapor flux from bodies of snow, stem flow and dripping of melt water, sliding of bodies of intercepted snow from branches, and wind erosion and transport of intercepted snow. Further research is...

  13. A Look at Seasonal Snow Cover and Snow Mass in the Southern Hemisphere from 1979-2006 Using SMMR and SSM/I Passive Microwave Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, James

    2009-01-01

    Seasonal snow cover in extra-tropical areas of South America was examined in this study using passive microwave satellite data from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) on board the Nimbus-7 satellite and from the Special Sensor Microwave Imagers (SSM/I) on board the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites. For the period from 1979-2006, both snow cover extent and snow mass were estimated for the months of May-September. Most of the seasonal snow in South America occurs in the Patagonia region of Argentina. The average snow cover extent for July, the month with the greatest average extent during the 28-year period of record, is 321,674 sq km. The seasonal (May-September) 2 average snow cover extent was greatest in 1984 (464,250 sq km) and least in 1990 (69,875 sq km). In terms of snow mass, 1984 was also the biggest year (1.19 x 10(exp 13) kg) and 1990 was the smallest year (0.12 X 10(exp 13) kg). A strong relationship exists between the snow cover area and snow mass, correlated at 0.95, though no significant trend was found over the 28 year record for either snow cover extent or snow mass. For this long term climatology, snow mass and snow cover extent are shown to vary considerably from month to month and season to season. This analysis presents a consistent approach to mapping and measuring snow in South America utilizing an appropriate and readily available long term snow satellite dataset. This is the optimal dataset available, thus far, for deriving seasonal snow cover and snow mass in this region. Nonetheless, shallow snow, wet snow, snow beneath forests, as well as snow along coastal areas all may confound interpretation using passive microwave approaches. More work needs to be done to reduce the uncertainties in the data and hence, increase the confidence of the interpretation

  14. Snow algae-microbe-mineral interactions and implications for snow algae growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschauner, O. D.; Harrold, Z.; Hausrath, E.; Garcia, A. H.; Murray, A. E.; Raymond, J. A.; Bartlett, C. L.

    2016-12-01

    Snow algae, which can reach densities of millions of cells per mL [1], can accelerate the melting of snow and ice fields by significantly lowering their albedo [2-4]. Studies have even suggested the effect of snow algae on albedo should be considered in quantitative albedo models. One of the factors controlling snow algae growth is nutrient availability. Previous observations of minerals and microbes attached to the cell walls of snow algae, and the preferential growth of snow algae in dusty snow, have suggested that snow algae-microbe-mineral interactions may help snow algae meet their trace nutrient needs. Understanding how snow algae are able to reach such high concentrations in a low nutrient snow environment is critical for predicting the extent to which snow algae blooms can impact snow albedo, snow and ice melt rate, and global climate change. We use synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) to study the interactions between snow algae, microbes and minerals in both field and laboratory samples. Field samples were collected from Mt. Anderson Ridge, CA, and prepared using a Percoll density separation technique to isolate algae cells from bulk dust. Cell and mineral fractions were analyzed using synchrotron micro-XRF, micro-XRD and XANES. Results show the presence of ferric material similar to ferrihydrite surrounding snow alga. Growth experiments of xenic Chloromonas brevispina cultures incubated with Fe-bearing minerals, including nontronite, goethite, pyrite and olivine, suggest Fe-bearing minerals can support snow algae growth. Synchrotron XRF, XRD and XANES analyses of Cr. brevispinaalgae cell communities indicate the formation of cell-associated Fe-bearing mineral phases not present in the unreacted minerals. The sample preparation and synchrotron techniques described herein provide an approach for investigating a wide range of microbe-mineral interactions and their impacts on microbial

  15. Using snowboards and lysimeters to constrain snow model choices in a rain-snow transitional environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wayand, N. E.; Massmann, A.; Clark, M. P.; Lundquist, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Physically based models of the hydrological cycle are critical for testing our understanding of the natural world and enabling forecasting of extreme events. Previous intercomparison studies (i.e. SNOWMIP I & II, PILPS) of existing snow models that vary in complexity have been hampered by multiple differences in model structure. Recent efforts to encompass multiple model hypothesizes into a single framework (i.e. the Structure for Understanding Multiple Modeling Alternatives [SUMMA] model), have provided the tools necessary for a more rigorous validation of process representation. However, there exist few snow observatories that measure sufficient physical states and fluxes to fully constrain the possible combinations within these multiple model frameworks. In practice, observations of bulk snow states, such as the snow water equivalent (SWE) or snow depth, are most commonly available. The downfall of calibrating a snow model using such single bulk variables can lead to parameter equanimity and compensatory errors, which ultimately impacts the skill of a model as a predictive tool. This study provides two examples of diagnosing modeled snow processes through novel error source identification. Simulations were performed at a recently upgraded (Oct. 2012) snow study site located at Snoqualmie Pass (917 m), in the Washington Cascades, USA. We focused on two physical processes, new snow accumulation and snowpack outflow during mid-winter rain-on-snow events, for their importance towards controlling runoff and flooding in this rain-snow transitional basin. Main results were: 1) modifying the snow model structure to match what was actually observed (i.e. a snow board), allowed the attribution of daily errors in model new snow accumulation to either partitioning, new snow density, or compaction. 2) Observed snow pit temperature profiles from infrared cameras and manual thermometers found that cold biases in the model snowpack temperature prior to rain-on-snow events could

  16. The influence of different food components on the in vitro availability of iron, zinc and calcium from a composed meal.

    PubMed

    Van Dyck, K; Tas, S; Robberecht, H; Deelstra, H

    1996-11-01

    The availability of iron, zinc and calcium from a composed meal was studied by an in vitro method using equilibrium dialysis after simulated gastric digestion. Four different concentrations of four influencing factors (coffee, vitamin C, wheat bran and pectin) were added to the mixed meal and their effect on the relative index of availability was studied after elemental analysis by atomic absorption spectrometry. Apart from ascorbic acid, all other factors had a negative effect on availability of minerals and trace elements. Most pronounced effect, and for all three elements, was observed for the addition of wheat bran. Zinc was the trace element, which was most sensitive to increased spiking of food constituents.

  17. Food availability and offspring sex in a monogamous seabird: insights from an experimental approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merkling, Thomas; Leclaire, Sarah; Danchin, Etienne; Lhuillier, Emeline; Wagner, Richard H.; White, Joël; Hatch, Scott A.; Blanchard, Pierrick

    2012-01-01

    Sex allocation theory predicts that parents should favor offspring of the sex that provides the greatest fitness return. Despite growing evidence suggesting that vertebrates are able to overcome the constraint of chromosomal sex determination, the general pattern remains equivocal, indicating a need for experimental investigations. We used an experimental feeding design to study sex allocation during 3 years in black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla). Intense male–male competition for securing a breeding site is common in this species in which males are heavier and larger than females. Hence, we hypothesized that parents producing fledglings in better than average condition, as supplementarily fed pairs do, would increase their fitness return by producing sons. Conversely, producing daughters would be a better tactic for Unfed parents. Hence, we predicted that Fed parents produce more sons than Unfed parents. This prediction is particularly expected if sexual dimorphism arises as early as during chick rearing, suggesting strong selective pressures for optimal male development. Our results showed that 1) males were heavier and larger than females prior to fledging and that 2) Fed parents produced relatively more male hatchlings than Unfed parents. We interpret this result in terms of a Trivers–Willard-type process. Furthermore, our data revealed that Unfed parents significantly overproduced female hatchlings, whereas offspring sex ratio was balanced among Fed parents. Because the 3 reproductive seasons we considered were particularly poor food years, Unfed parents may have overproduced daughters to avoid the apparent higher reproductive costs of raising sons.

  18. Increased food availability raises eviction rate in a cooperative breeding mammal.

    PubMed

    Dubuc, C; English, S; Thavarajah, N; Dantzer, B; Sharp, S P; Spence-Jones, H C; Gaynor, D; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2017-04-01

    In group-living mammals, the eviction of subordinate females from breeding groups by dominants may serve to reduce feeding competition or to reduce breeding competition. Here, we combined both correlational and experimental approaches to investigate whether increases in food intake by dominant females reduces their tendency to evict subordinate females in wild meerkats (Suricata suricatta). We used 20 years of long-term data to examine the association between foraging success and eviction rate, and provisioned dominant females during the second half of their pregnancy, when they most commonly evict subordinates. We show that rather than reducing the tendency for dominants to evict subordinates, foraging success of dominant females is positively associated with the probability that pregnant dominant females will evict subordinate females and that experimental feeding increased their rates of eviction. Our results suggest that it is unlikely that the eviction of subordinate females serves to reduce feeding competition and that its principal function may be to reduce reproductive competition. The increase in eviction rates following experimental feeding also suggests that rather than feeding competition, energetic constraints may normally constrain eviction rates. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Increased food availability raises eviction rate in a cooperative breeding mammal

    PubMed Central

    Thavarajah, N.; Sharp, S. P.; Spence-Jones, H. C.; Gaynor, D.

    2017-01-01

    In group-living mammals, the eviction of subordinate females from breeding groups by dominants may serve to reduce feeding competition or to reduce breeding competition. Here, we combined both correlational and experimental approaches to investigate whether increases in food intake by dominant females reduces their tendency to evict subordinate females in wild meerkats (Suricata suricatta). We used 20 years of long-term data to examine the association between foraging success and eviction rate, and provisioned dominant females during the second half of their pregnancy, when they most commonly evict subordinates. We show that rather than reducing the tendency for dominants to evict subordinates, foraging success of dominant females is positively associated with the probability that pregnant dominant females will evict subordinate females and that experimental feeding increased their rates of eviction. Our results suggest that it is unlikely that the eviction of subordinate females serves to reduce feeding competition and that its principal function may be to reduce reproductive competition. The increase in eviction rates following experimental feeding also suggests that rather than feeding competition, energetic constraints may normally constrain eviction rates. PMID:28404820

  20. Influence of food quality and salinity on dietary cadmium availability in Mytilus trossulus.

    PubMed

    Widmeyer, Joline R; Bendell-Young, Leah I

    2007-02-28

    Surficial sediments (a combination of re-suspended and suspended sediments denoted as RSS) were collected from two distinct marine intertidal habitats. The two habitats differed with respect to salinity (25ppt versus 15ppt) and RSS % organic carbon content (24% versus 15%). Feeding experiments were conducted simulating the conditions in the two habitats to determine if salinity and RSS % organic carbon content affected cadmium accumulation in the pacific blue mussel Mytilus trossulus. Eleven different treatments including pure phytoplankton, collected RSS and control clay were radiolabeled with (109)Cd and pulse-fed to M. trossulus under both high (25ppt) and low salinities (15ppt). Metal uptake and accumulation was determined using the DYMBAM biodynamic metal bioaccumulation model. Although M. trossulus ingestion rates (IR) were significantly higher at 25ppt as compared to 15ppt, assimilation efficiencies (AEs) and [(109)Cd] tissue levels were significantly lower at high as compared to low salinity exposures. Of the abiotic and biotic parameters examined and in contrast to other studies, differences in salinity rather than ingestion rate or food quality (as defined by % organic carbon content) seemed to best define the observed differences in (109)Cd AE by M. trossulus.

  1. Climate change and the performance of larval coral reef fishes: the interaction between temperature and food availability

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Ian M.; Rummer, Jodie L.; Clark, Timothy D.; Jones, Geoffrey P.; McCormick, Mark I.; Wenger, Amelia S.; Munday, Philip L.

    2013-01-01

    Climate-change models predict that tropical ocean temperatures will increase by 2–3°C this century and affect plankton communities that are food for marine fish larvae. Both temperature and food supply can influence development time, growth, and metabolism of marine fishes, particularly during larval stages. However, little is known of the relative importance and potential interacting effects of ocean warming and changes to food supply on the performance of larval fishes. We tested this for larvae of the coral reef anemonefish, Amphiprion percula, in an orthogonal experiment comprising three temperatures and three feeding schedules. Temperatures were chosen to represent present-day summer averages (29.2°C) and end-of-century climate change projections of +1.5°C (30.7°C) and +3°C (32.2°C). Feeding schedules were chosen to represent a reduction in access to food (fed daily, every 2 days, or every 3 days). Overall, larvae took longer to settle at higher temperatures and with less frequent feeding, and there was a significant interaction between these factors. Time to metamorphosis was fastest in the 30.7oC and high food availability treatment (10.5 ± 0.2 days) and slowest in the 32.2oC and low food availability treatment (15.6 ± 0.5 days; i.e. 50% faster). Fish from the lower feeding regimens had a lower body condition and decreased survivorship to metamorphosis. Routine oxygen consumption rates were highest for fish raised at 32.2°C and fed every third day (162 ± 107 mg O2  kg−1 h−1) and lowest for fish raised at 29.2°C and fed daily (122 ± 101 mg O2 kg−1 h−1; i.e. 35% lower). The elevated routine oxygen consumption rate, and therefore greater energy use at higher temperatures, may leave less energy available for growth and development, resulting in the longer time to metamorphosis. Overall, these results suggest that larval fishes will be severely impacted by climate-change scenarios that predict both

  2. Sensitivity of Passive Microwave Snow Depth Retrievals to Weather Effects and Snow Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markus, Thorsten; Powell, Dylan C.; Wang, James R.

    2006-01-01

    Snow fall and snow accumulation are key climate parameters due to the snow's high albedo, its thermal insulation, and its importance to the global water cycle. Satellite passive microwave radiometers currently provide the only means for the retrieval of snow depth and/or snow water equivalent (SWE) over land as well as over sea ice from space. All algorithms make use of the frequency-dependent amount of scattering of snow over a high-emissivity surface. Specifically, the difference between 37- and 19-GHz brightness temperatures is used to determine the depth of the snow or the SWE. With the availability of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Earth Observing System Aqua satellite (launched in May 2002), a wider range of frequencies can be utilized. In this study we investigate, using model simulations, how snow depth retrievals are affected by the evolution of the physical properties of the snow (mainly grain size growth and densification), how they are affected by variations in atmospheric conditions and, finally, how the additional channels may help to reduce errors in passive microwave snow retrievals. The sensitivity of snow depth retrievals to atmospheric water vapor is confirmed through the comparison with precipitable water retrievals from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-B). The results suggest that a combination of the 10-, 19-, 37-, and 89-GHz channels may significantly improve retrieval accuracy. Additionally, the development of a multisensor algorithm utilizing AMSR-E and AMSU-B data may help to obtain weather-corrected snow retrievals.

  3. Effects of parental age and food availability on the reproductive success of Heermann's gulls in the Gulf of California.

    PubMed

    Vieyra, Leticia; Velarde, Enriqueta; Ezcurra, Exequiel

    2009-04-01

    Parental age, body condition, and food availability have been found to influence breeding parameters in seabirds, such as clutch size, number of chicks hatched and fledged, hatching, fledging, and reproductive success. In this paper we analyze the influence of parental age and body condition estimated by body mass, and food availability estimated from catch per unit effort (CPUE) statistics for Pacific sardine (Sardinops caeruleus) + northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax) by the local fishing fleet, on the breeding parameters of the Heermann's Gull (Larus heermanni; a vulnerable species according to Mexican federal law) nesting in Isla Rasa, Gulf of California, Mexico. Results are based on data from 1123 recaptures of known-age individuals, ranging from 4 to 13 years of age, during seven observation years between 1989 and 1997. Ages of mated male and female gulls were positively correlated. Breeding parameters showed their lowest values in 1992, an El Niño year in which the birds also showed significantly lower individual masses for both males and females, and in which the local CPUE of sardine + anchovies was lowest. All breeding parameters increased significantly with parental age and were highest at 10-12 years. No significant statistical interactions were found between food availability and parental age on the breeding parameters. Through a path analysis we found that there is a strong chained relationship between variables: food availability, which is strongly driven by oceanographic conditions, affects both the survival of eggs into hatchlings and the survival of hatchlings into fledglings. This external factor and parental age, a biological factor intrinsic to each nesting couple, explain 41% of the observed between-nest variation in fledgling success.

  4. Demographic and urban form correlates of healthful and unhealthful food availability in Montréal, Canada.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Mark; Kestens, Yan; Paquet, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to extend previous analyses of food insecurity in Montreal by examining the relationship between neighbourhood sociodemographic and urban form variables and sources of food both unhealthful (fast-food outlets, FFO) and healthful (stores selling fruits and vegetables, FVS). Densities of FFO and FVS were computed for 862 Census tract areas (CTA) (defined as census tract with a 1-km buffer around its limits) for the Montréal Census Metropolitan Area (CMA). Predictor variables included CTA socio-demographic characteristics reflecting income, household structure, language, and education, and urban form measures, specifically, densities of local roads, main roads, expressways and highways. Food source densities were regressed on CTA characteristics using stepwise regression. Socio-demographic and urban form measures explained 60% and 73% of the variance in densities of FFO and FVS, respectively. FFO were more prevalent in CTA with higher proportions of full-time students and households speaking neither French nor English; lower proportions of married individuals, children and older adults; and more high-traffic roads. FVS were more prevalent in CTA with higher proportions of single residents, university-educated residents and households speaking neither French nor English; lower proportion of French-speakers; and more local roads. Median household income was not related to the density of FFO or FVS. The availability of healthful and unhealthful food varies across the Montréal CMA. Areas with lower education and more French-speaking households have a lesser availability of FVS. The association of FFO with high-traffic roadways and areas with high school attendance suggests a point for intervention via commercial zoning changes.

  5. 76 FR 66073 - Guidance for Industry on What You Need to Know About Administrative Detention of Foods; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... consumption under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act), as amended by the FDA Food Safety and... (HFS-009), Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint... Compliance (HFS-607), Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, 5100...

  6. Data sets for snow cover monitoring and modelling from the National Snow and Ice Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, M.; Daniels, K.; Scott, D.; McLean, B.; Weaver, R.

    2003-04-01

    A wide range of snow cover monitoring and modelling data sets are pending or are currently available from the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). In-situ observations support validation experiments that enhance the accuracy of remote sensing data. In addition, remote sensing data are available in near-real time, providing coarse-resolution snow monitoring capability. Time series data beginning in 1966 are valuable for modelling efforts. NSIDC holdings include SMMR and SSM/I snow cover data, MODIS snow cover extent products, in-situ and satellite data collected for NASA's recent Cold Land Processes Experiment, and soon-to-be-released ASMR-E passive microwave products. The AMSR-E and MODIS sensors are part of NASA's Earth Observing System flying on the Terra and Aqua satellites Characteristics of these NSIDC-held data sets, appropriateness of products for specific applications, and data set access and availability will be presented.

  7. Microwave emissions from snow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. T. C.

    1984-01-01

    The radiation emitted from dry and wet snowpack in the microwave region (1 to 100 GHz) is discussed and related to ground observations. Results from theoretical model calculations match the brightness temperatures obtained by truck mounted, airborne and spaceborne microwave sensor systems. Snow wetness and internal layer structure complicate the snow parameter retrieval algorithm. Further understanding of electromagnetic interaction with snowpack may eventually provide a technique to probe the internal snow properties

  8. Snow [Chapter 10

    Treesearch

    R. A. Sommerfeld

    1994-01-01

    Generally, the annual snowpack at GLEES is established in November and lasts into July. Figure 10.1 is the 1987-91 recession curve of the snow-covered area fraction versus degree days. About 20% of the area consists of rocks, which are usually blown clear of snow, and trees. The trees may hide some of the snow in the aerial photographs that were used to develop the...

  9. Associations of home food availability, dietary intake, screen time and physical activity with BMI in young American-Indian children.

    PubMed

    Arcan, Chrisa; Hannan, Peter J; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Himes, John H; Rock, Bonnie Holy; Smyth, Mary; Story, Mary

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate associations between home environmental factors and BMI of young American-Indian children. Cross-sectional and prospective study. School-based obesity prevention trial (Bright Start) on a Northern Plains Indian reservation in South Dakota. Mixed model multivariable analysis was used to examine associations between child BMI categories (normal, overweight and obese) and home food availability, children's dietary intake and physical activity. Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, socio-economic status, parent BMI and school; prospective analyses also adjusted for study condition and baseline predictor and outcome variables. Kindergarten children (n = 424, 51 % male; mean age = 5.8 years, 30 % overweight/obese) and parents/caregivers (89 % female; 86 % overweight/obese) had their height and weight measured and parents/caregivers completed surveys on home environmental factors (baseline and 2 years later). Higher fast-food intake and parent-perceived barriers to physical activity were marginally associated with higher probabilities of a child being overweight and obese. Vegetable availability was marginally associated with lower probabilities of being overweight and obese. The associations between home environmental factors and child weight status at follow-up were not significant. Findings indicate that selected aspects of the home environment are associated with weight status of American-Indian children. Obesity interventions with this population should consider helping parents to engage and model healthful behaviours and to increase availability of healthful foods at home.

  10. Demand for food on fixed-ratio schedules as a function of the quality of concurrently available reinforcement1

    PubMed Central

    Lea, S. E. G.; Roper, T. J.

    1977-01-01

    Six rats lever pressed for food on concurrent fixed-ratio schedules, in a two-compartment chamber. In one compartment, mixed diet pellets were delivered on fixed-ratio schedules of 1, 6, 11, and 16; in the other, either no food was delivered, or sucrose or mixed diet pellets were delivered on fixed-ratio 8. The number of pellets obtained in the first compartment declined as a function of fixed-ratio size in that compartment in all three conditions, but the decline was greatest overall with mixed diet pellets concurrently available in the other compartment, and least with no food concurrently available. The result is discussed in terms of economic demand theory, and is consistent with the prediction that elasticity of demand for a commodity (defined in operant terms as the ratio of the proportionate change in number of reinforcements per session to the proportionate change in fixed-ratio size) is greater the more substitutable for that commodity are any concurrently available commodities. PMID:16811999

  11. Basal blood glucose concentration in free-living striped mice is influenced by food availability, ambient temperature and social tactic.

    PubMed

    Schradin, Carsten; Pillay, Neville; Kondratyeva, Anna; Yuen, Chi-Hang; Schoepf, Ivana; Krackow, Sven

    2015-05-01

    Vertebrates obtain most of their energy through food, which they store mainly as body fat or glycogen, with glucose being the main energy source circulating in the blood. Basal blood glucose concentration (bBGC) is expected to remain in a narrow homeostatic range. We studied the extent to which bBGC in free-living African striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio) is influenced by ecological factors with a bearing on energy regulation, i.e. food availability, abiotic environmental variation and social tactic. Striped mice typically form extended family groups that huddle together at night, reducing energetic costs of thermoregulation, but solitary individuals also occur in the population. We analysed 2827 blood samples from 1008 individuals of seven different social categories that experienced considerable variation in food supply and abiotic condition. Blood samples were taken from mice in the morning after the overnight fast and before foraging. bBGC increased significantly with food plant abundance and decreased significantly with minimum daily ambient temperature. Solitary striped mice had significantly higher bBGC than group-living striped mice. Our results suggest that adaptive responses of bBGC occur and we found large natural variation, indicating that bBGC spans a far greater homeostatic range than previously thought.

  12. Effect of compositional alteration of food matrices and processing on availability of selected nutrients and bioactive components in rice products.

    PubMed

    Oghbaei, Morteza; Prakash, Jamuna

    2011-05-01

    The aim was to determine the influence of compositional alteration and processing on the digestibility/availability of nutrients and bioactive components [protein (IVPD), starch (IVSD), iron, calcium, polyphenols, flavonoids] in rice products. The compositional changes representing fortified foods in 'wafers' and 'noodles' were addition of iron, rice bran, onion and cabbage. The moisture content of wafer and noodles ranged from 4.1 to 4.8% and from 73.3 to 82.1%, respectively. Wafer control (73.9-75.9%) and noodle with iron and control (85.4-87.0%) showed the highest IVPD and IVSD. Addition of rice bran decreased nutrient digestibility. The control and iron-added products exhibited least and highest available iron (2.50-2.69% and 5.99-7.07%). Total and available bioactive components increased in proportion to added external source. Overall availability of all components was better in noodles than in wafers, indicating high moisture supported higher availability. In conclusion, it can be said that both composition of the food matrix and processing influenced the availability of analyzed components.

  13. [In vitro availability of minerals in infant foods with different protein source].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Llamas, F; Larqué, E; Marín, J F; Zamora, S

    2001-01-01

    As the result of the digestion process, it is produced at gastrointestinal level interactions between proteins-minerals and minerals-minerals that might modify the bioavailability of the nutrients initially designed for an adequate nutrition in infant formulas. The aim of the present study is to compare the in vitro availability of some minerals and trace elements (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron and zinc) in infant formulas of initiation elaborated with different protein sources: formulas based on cow milk protein (whey-casein) versus vegetal protein (soy-based infant formulas). Also, for evaluating the effects of the different mineral supplementation in the availability of minerals, it was used infant formulas from two different manufacturers. Milk-protein based infant formulas showed for both manufacturers higher dialysis percentage (%) of phosphorus and zinc than the soy-protein based formulas. The availability of iron in the soy formula of the manufacturer A lowered significantly (P < 0.05) respect to the whey-casein based formula (9.6 +/- 2.3 versus 4.6 +/- 0.8), but not respect to the whey-casein formula of manufacturer B (9.6 +/- 1.1 versus 9.0 +/- 0.7), which might be due to the lowest proportion of phytic acid in this last commercial formula. Dialysability of all the minerals analysed from soy-protein based formulas showed significant differences depending on the manufacturer. The purification processes of the soy protein have a high repercussion in the mineral availability of soy-based infant formulas. It could be more interesting to use soy proteins more purified, with low level of phytic acid, in the elaboration of soy infants formulas, than the supplementation them with high amounts of minerals.

  14. Do Food Availability and Microclimate Determine Bird Use of Forest Canopy Gaps?

    SciTech Connect

    CHAMPLIN, TRACEY BERNICE

    2007-07-01

    We investigated the influence of arthropod availability and microclimate on avian use of forest canopy gaps in 2002 and 2003. We used mist netting and observation of foraging effort (attack rates) to determine the influence of arthropod abundance on avian habitat use of three sizes (0.13, 0.26, and 0.50 ha) of 2- to 3-year-old group-selection timber harvest openings during four periods (spring migration, breeding, post-breeding, and fall migration).

  15. Availability of food resources, distribution of invasive species, and conservation of a Hawaiian bird along a gradient of elevation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banko, P.C.; Oboyski, P.T.; Slotterback, J.W.; Dougill, Steve J.; Goltz, Dan M.; Johnson, L.; Laut, M.E.; Murray, T.C.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: We evaluated how an elevation gradient affects: (1) the availability of food required by a specialist seed-eater, Loxioides bailleui Oustalet (Drepanidinae), or pallia, and hence the distribution of this endangered Hawaiian bird, and (2) the distribution of alien threats to Loxioides populations, their primary foods, and their dry-forest habitat, and hence strategies for their conservation. Location: We worked throughout the subalpine forest that encircles Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawai'i Island, but we focused our studies mainly on the western slope between 2000 and 3000 m elevation, where the gradient of elevation was greatest and palila were most abundant. Methods: We determined phenology and productivity patterns of the endemic dry-forest tree species, Sophora chrysophylla (Salisb.) Seem. (Fabaceae), or ma??mane, which provides Loxioides with most of their food, and another common endemic tree, Myoporum sandwicense A. Gray (Myoporaceae), or naio, which provides some resources, along a 786-m elevation gradient at monthly intervals for 10 years (Sophora only). We also determined the availability each month of moth larvae (Lepidoptera) for that were important in the diet of nestling and adult palila. In addition, we documented the incidence of parasitism on moth larvae by several wasp (Hymenoptera) and fly (Diptera) species, and we determined the distribution of predatory wasps and ants (Hymenoptera), which potentially threaten insect prey of birds. Percentage cover of alien grass species that pose fire threats in palila habitat and other weeds were assessed during one survey. Small mammal abundance and distribution were determined by trapping during three (rodent) or five (carnivore) surveys. Results: Sophora flower and seed (pod) availability varied predictably along the elevation gradient, with about 4 months separating peaks in reproduction at high and low elevations. This, together with highly variable production of flowers and pods within elevation strata

  16. Modelling high-resolution snow cover precipitation supply for German river catchments with SNOW 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhm, Uwe; Reich, Thomas; Schneider, Gerold; Fiedler, Anett

    2013-04-01

    Formation of snow cover causes a delayed response of surface to precipitation. Both melting of snow and release of liquid water retained within the snow cover form precipitation supply which contributes to runoff and infiltration. The model SNOW 4 is developed to simulate snow cover accumulation and depletion and the resulting precipitation supply on a regular grid. The core of the model is formed by a set of equations which describe the snow cover energy and mass balance. The snow surface energy balance is calculated as a result of the radiation balance and the heat fluxes between atmosphere, soil and snow cover. The available melting heat enters the mass balance computation part of the model and melting of snow or freezing of liquid water within the snow layer takes place depending on its sign. Retention, aging and snow cover regeneration are taken into consideration. The model runs operationally 4 times a day and provides both a snow cover and precipitation supply analysis for the last 30 hours and a forecast for up to 72 hours. For the 30-hour analysis, regionalised observations are used both to define the initial state and force the model. Hourly measurements of air temperature, water vapour pressure, wind speed, global radiation or sunshine duration and precipitation are interpolated to the model grid. For the forecast period, SNOW 4 obtains the required input data from the operational products of the COSMO-EU weather forecast model. The size of a grid box is 1km2. The model area covers a region of 1100x1000km2 and includes the catchments of the German rivers completely. The internal time step is set to 1 hour. Once a day, the compliance between model and regionalized snow cover data is assessed. If discrepancies exceed certain thresholds, the model must be adjusted by a weighted approach towards the observations. The model simulations are updated every six hours based on the most recent observations and weather forecasts. The model works operationally since

  17. "Let It Snow, Let It Snow, Let It Snow!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pangbourne, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Winter in the UK has, in recent years, brought a significant amount of snow and cold weather. This was the case while the author was a trainee teacher on placement at a rural primary school in Dartmoor early in 2010. The day started promisingly with the class looking at the weather forecast on the interactive whiteboard and having a short…

  18. "Let It Snow, Let It Snow, Let It Snow!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pangbourne, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Winter in the UK has, in recent years, brought a significant amount of snow and cold weather. This was the case while the author was a trainee teacher on placement at a rural primary school in Dartmoor early in 2010. The day started promisingly with the class looking at the weather forecast on the interactive whiteboard and having a short…

  19. Responses of squirrel monkeys to seasonal changes in food availability in an eastern Amazonian forest.

    PubMed

    Stone, Anita I

    2007-02-01

    Tropical forests are characterized by marked temporal and spatial variation in productivity, and many primates face foraging problems associated with seasonal shifts in fruit availability. In this study, I examined seasonal changes in diet and foraging behaviors of two groups of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), studied for 12 months in Eastern Brazilian Amazonia, an area characterized by seasonal rainfall. Squirrel monkeys were primarily insectivorous (79% of feeding and foraging time), with fruit consumption highest during the rainy season. Although monkeys fed from 68 plant species, fruit of Attalea maripa palms accounted for 28% of annual fruit-feeding records. Dietary shifts in the dry season were correlated with a decline in ripe A. maripa fruits. Despite pronounced seasonal variation in rainfall and fruit abundance, foraging efficiency, travel time, and distance traveled remained stable between seasons. Instead, squirrel monkeys at this Eastern Amazonian site primarily dealt with the seasonal decline in fruit by showing dietary flexibility. Consumption of insects, flowers, and exudates increased during the dry season. In particular, their foraging behavior at this time strongly resembled that of tamarins (Saguinus sp.) and consisted of heavy use of seed-pod exudates and specialized foraging on large-bodied orthopterans near the forest floor. Comparisons with squirrel monkeys at other locations indicate that, across their geographic range, Saimiri use a variety of behavioral tactics during reduced periods of fruit availability.

  20. Impacts of Change in Irrigation Water Availability on Food Production in the Yellow River Basin under Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Y. Y.; Tang, Q.

    2014-12-01

    Approximately 9 percent of China's population and 17 percent of its agricultural area are settled in the Yellow River Basins. Irrigation, which plays an important role in agricultural production, occupies the largest share of human consumptive water use in the basin. Given increasing water demands, the basin faces acute water scarcity. Previous studies have suggested that decrease in irrigation water availability under climate change might have an overall adverse impact on the food production of the basin. The timing and area that would face severe water stress are yet to be identified. We used a land surface hydrological model forced with the bias-corrected climatic variables from 5 climate models under 4 Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) to estimate total water availability in the sub-basins of the Yellow River basin. The future socioeconomic conditions, the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs), were used to estimate the water requirement in the nonagricultural water use sectors. The irrigation water availability was estimated from the total water availability and nonagricultural water use, and the irrigation water demands were estimated based on the current irrigation project efficiencies. The timing and area of irrigation water shortage were shown and the implication of change in irrigation water availability on food production was assessed. The results show that the sub-basins with high population density and gross domestic product (GDP) are likely to confront severe water stress and reduction in food production earlier because irrigation water was to be appropriated by the rapid increase in nonagricultural water use sectors. The study stresses the need for adaptive management of water to balance agriculture and nonagricultural demands in northern China.

  1. Snow avalanche formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweizer, Jürg; Bruce Jamieson, J.; Schneebeli, Martin

    2003-12-01

    Snow avalanches are a major natural hazard, endangering human life and infrastructure in mountainous areas throughout the world. In many countries with seasonally snow-covered mountains, avalanche-forecasting services reliably warn the public by issuing occurrence probabilities for a certain region. However, at present, a single avalanche event cannot be predicted in time and space. Much about the release process remains unknown, mainly because of the highly variable, layered character of the snowpack, a highly porous material that exists close to its melting point. The complex interaction between terrain, snowpack, and meteorological conditions leading to avalanche release is commonly described as avalanche formation. It is relevant to hazard mapping and essential to short-term forecasting, which involves weighting many contributory factors. Alternatively, the release process can be studied and modeled. This approach relies heavily on snow mechanics and snow properties, including texture. While the effect of meteorological conditions or changes on the deformational behavior of snow is known in qualitative or semiquantitative manner, the knowledge of the quantitative relation between snow texture and mechanical properties is limited, but promising developments are under way. Fracture mechanical models have been applied to explain the fracture propagation, and micromechanical models including the two competing processes (damage and sintering) have been applied to explain snow failure. There are knowledge gaps between the sequence of processes that lead to the release of the snow slab: snow deformation and failure, damage accumulation, fracture initiation, and fracture propagation. Simultaneously, the spatial variability that affects damage, fracture initiation, and fracture propagation has to be considered. This review focuses on dry snow slab avalanches and shows that dealing with a highly porous media close to its melting point and processes covering several

  2. Influence of heavy snow on the feeding behavior of Japanese macaques (macaca fuscata) in northern Japan.

    PubMed

    Enari, Hiroto; Sakamaki-Enari, Haruka

    2013-06-01

    Natural disasters can degrade primate habitat and alter feeding behavior. Here, we examined the influence of unusually heavy snow on diet and feeding-site use by Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in northern Japan. To compare the winter-feeding behavior under different snow conditions, we recorded the plant species foraged on by macaques in multiple transects of the Shirakami Mountains from 2008 to 2012 (excluding 2011). We used cluster analysis to describe foraged plant assemblages, and applied multiple dimensional scaling and decision tree modeling to evaluate annual variation in feeding-site use by macaques. Our cluster analysis revealed five types of foraged plant assemblages. The proportion of each type present in transects varied considerably across the years, indicating that the diet of macaques in heavy snow conditions was influenced more by resource accessibility than by preference. Multiple dimensional scaling and decision tree modeling demonstrated that heavy snow conditions restricted feeding-site use. Moreover, the distribution of refuges relative to severe external ambient environments was a stronger limiting factor for feeding-site use than was the availability of food resources. While most primate species facing unexpected starvation employ risk-prone foraging tactics (i.e., choosing the option with higher pay-off by accepting risk), Japanese macaques have a tendency to adopt risk-averse foraging behavior (i.e., minimizing energy loss when searching for preferred diet items under long-lasting heavy snow conditions), because winters with temperatures below freezing have higher thermoregulatory costs.

  3. Early nutrition transition in Haiti: linking food purchasing and availability to overweight status in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Morshed, Alexandra B; Becker, Haley V; Delnatus, Jacques Raymond; Wolff, Patricia B; Iannotti, Lora L

    2016-12-01

    The primary aim was to examine the association of socio-economic factors and diet with overweight (including obesity) among school-aged children in Haiti. The secondary aim was to describe food availability and the physical activity built environment in participating schools. This cross-sectional study examined baseline data from the intervention Mamba study assessing the effectiveness of a fortified peanut butter paste in school-aged children. Logistic regression modelling was used to test hypothesized factors in association with overweight status. Six primary schools in Cap-Haitien, the second largest city in Haiti. Children (n 968) aged 3-13 years, in good health and enrolled in a participating school for the 2012/13 school year. Child age (adjusted OR (AOR); 95 % CI=0·25; 0·12, 0·56), child age squared (1·08; 1·03, 1·13), always purchasing food at school (3·52; 1·12, 11·08), mother's BMI (1·10; 1·04, 1·16) and household ownership of a bicycle (0·28; 0·11, 0·71) were significantly associated with overweight (likelihood ratio=36, P<0·0001). Consumption of fish was significantly lower in overweight children in the binary analysis (P=0·033) and improved the fit of the model. Schools had limited time and space for physical activity and foods sold by vendors were predominantly high in sugar or fat. To our knowledge the present study is the first to examine the covariates of childhood overweight or describe school food availability and physical activity built environments in Haiti. Further research is necessary to identify intervention targets and feasible, cost-effective approaches for prevention of obesity in Haiti children.

  4. BOREAS HYD-4 Standard Snow Course Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metcalfe, John R.; Goodison, Barry E.; Walker, Anne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-4 work was focused on collecting data during the winter focused field campaign (FFC-W) to improve the understanding of winter processes within the boreal forest. Knowledge of snow cover and its variability in the boreal forest is fundamental if BOREAS is to achieve its goals of understanding the processes and states involved in the exchange of energy and water. The development and validation of remote sensing algorithms will provide the means to extend the knowledge of these processes and states from the local to the regional scale. A specific thrust of the research is the development and validation of snow cover algorithms from airborne passive microwave measurements. Snow surveys were conducted at special snow courses throughout the 1993/94, 1994/95, 1995/96, and 1996/97 winter seasons. These snow courses were located in different boreal forest land cover types (i.e., old aspen, old black spruce, young jack pine, forest clearing, etc.) to document snow cover variations throughout the season as a function of different land cover. Measurements of snow depth, density, and water equivalent were acquired on or near the first and fifteenth of each month during the snow cover season. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files. The HYD-4 standard snow course data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  5. Long-term temporal and spatial dynamics of food availability for endangered mountain gorillas in Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Grueter, Cyril C; Ndamiyabo, Ferdinand; Plumptre, Andrew J; Abavandimwe, Didier; Mundry, Roger; Fawcett, Katie A; Robbins, Martha M

    2013-03-01

    Monitoring temporal and spatial changes in the resource availability of endangered species contributes to their conservation. The number of critically endangered mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in the Virunga Volcano population has doubled over the past three decades, but no studies have examined how food availability has changed during that period. First, we assessed if the plant species consumed by the gorillas have changed in abundance and distribution during the past two decades. In 2009-2010, we replicated a study conducted in 1988-1989 by measuring the frequency, density, and biomass of plant species consumed by the gorillas in 496 plots (ca. 6 km(2)) in the Karisoke study area in Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda. We expected to observe a decreased presence of major gorilla food plants as a likely result of density-dependent overharvesting by gorillas. Among the five most frequently consumed species (composing approximately 70% of the gorilla's diet, excluding bamboo), two have decreased in availability and abundance, while three have increased. Some species have undergone shifts in their altitudinal distribution, possibly due to regional climatic changes. Second, we made baseline measurements of food availability in a larger area currently utilized by the gorillas. In the extended sampling (n = 473 plots) area (ca. 25 km(2) ), of the five most frequently consumed species, two were not significantly different in frequency from the re-sampled area, while two occurred significantly less frequently, and one occurred significantly more frequently. We discuss the potential impact of gorilla-induced herbivory on changes of vegetation abundance. The changes in the species most commonly consumed by the gorillas could affect their nutrient intake and stresses the importance of monitoring the interrelation among plant population dynamics, species density, and resource use. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Exploring snow information content of interferometric SAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaeily Gazkohani, Ali

    topography distorts the snow information, just as the snow cover distorts the topographic information. The analysis is therefore mostly qualitative, focusing on particular terrain situations. At Schefferville, where the SRTM was adjusted to known lake levels, the expected dry-snow signal is seen near such lakes. Mine pits and waste dumps not included in the CDEM are depicted and there is also a strong signal related to the spatial variations in SWE produced by wind redistribution of snow near lakes and on the alpine tundra. In Colorado, cross-sections across ploughed roads support the hypothesis that in dry snow the SWE is measurable by differential InSAR. They also support the hypothesis that snow depth may be measured when the snow cover is wet. Difference maps were also extracted for a 1 km2 Intensive Study Area (ISA) for which intensive ground truth was available. Initial comparison between estimated and observed snow properties yielded low correlations which improved after stratification of the data set. In conclusion, the study shows that snow-related signals are measurable. For operational applications satellite-borne cross-track InSAR would be necessary. The processing needs to be snow-specific with appropriate filtering routines to account for influences by terrain factors other than snow. Key words. Interferometry, InSAR, Snow Water Equivalent, SWE, Snow depth, Dry Snow, Wet Snow, AIRSAR, CLPX, SRTM, Schefferville.

  7. Loropetalum chinense 'Snow Panda'

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new Loropetalum chinense, ‘Snow Panda’, developed at the U.S. National Arboretum is described. ‘Snow Panda’ (NA75507, PI660659) originated from seeds collected near Yan Chi He, Hubei, China in 1994 by the North America-China Plant Exploration Consortium (NACPEC). Several seedlings from this trip w...

  8. Snow and Ice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Independent School District 275, Minn.

    This experimental edition provides a number of activities useful for investigating snow and ice with elementary school children. Commencing with games with ice cubes, the activities lead through studies of snowflakes, snowdrifts, effects of wind and obstacles on the shape and formation of drifts, to a study of animals living under snow. The…

  9. Snow Bank Detectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Eric A.; Rule, Audrey C.; Dehm, Janet

    2005-01-01

    In the city where the authors live, located on the shore of Lake Ontario, children have ample opportunity to interact with snow. Water vapor rising from the relatively warm lake surface produces tremendous "lake effect" snowfalls when frigid winter winds blow. Snow piles along roadways after each passing storm, creating impressive snow…

  10. Snow Bank Detectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Eric A.; Rule, Audrey C.; Dehm, Janet

    2005-01-01

    In the city where the authors live, located on the shore of Lake Ontario, children have ample opportunity to interact with snow. Water vapor rising from the relatively warm lake surface produces tremendous "lake effect" snowfalls when frigid winter winds blow. Snow piles along roadways after each passing storm, creating impressive snow…

  11. Let It Snow!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Kathryn R.

    2000-02-01

    The February 1930 issue of JCE contains an article, "Calcium Chloride for Snow Removal", by Lionel Richardson. The author presents a photograph and personal observations of an experimental truck/trailer combination for spreading CaCl2 on Brooklyn's streets after a heavy snowstorm. The From Past Issues story summarizes the 1930 paper and directs readers to additional library resources on snow removal.

  12. GulfSnow Peach

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    GulfSnow peach is jointly released for grower trial by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (Byron, GA), Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station and Florida Agricultural Experiment Station. GulfSnow was previously tested as AP06-09W and originated from a cross of AP98-3...

  13. Ultra-processed foods have the worst nutrient profile, yet they are the most available packaged products in a sample of New Zealand supermarkets.

    PubMed

    Luiten, Claire M; Steenhuis, Ingrid Hm; Eyles, Helen; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Waterlander, Wilma E

    2016-02-01

    To examine the availability of packaged food products in New Zealand supermarkets by level of industrial processing, nutrient profiling score (NPSC), price (energy, unit and serving costs) and brand variety. Secondary analysis of cross-sectional survey data on packaged supermarket food and non-alcoholic beverages. Products were classified according to level of industrial processing (minimally, culinary and ultra-processed) and their NPSC. Packaged foods available in four major supermarkets in Auckland, New Zealand. Packaged supermarket food products for the years 2011 and 2013. The majority (84% in 2011 and 83% in 2013) of packaged foods were classified as ultra-processed. A significant positive association was found between the level of industrial processing and NPSC, i.e., ultra-processed foods had a worse nutrient profile (NPSC=11.63) than culinary processed foods (NPSC=7.95), which in turn had a worse nutrient profile than minimally processed foods (NPSC=3.27), P<0.001. No clear associations were observed between the three price measures and level of processing. The study observed many variations of virtually the same product. The ten largest food manufacturers produced 35% of all packaged foods available. In New Zealand supermarkets, ultra-processed foods comprise the largest proportion of packaged foods and are less healthy than less processed foods. The lack of significant price difference between ultra- and less processed foods suggests ultra-processed foods might provide time-poor consumers with more value for money. These findings highlight the need to improve the supermarket food supply by reducing numbers of ultra-processed foods and by reformulating products to improve their nutritional profile.

  14. 76 FR 20305 - Notice of Funding Availability: Inviting Applications for McGovern-Dole International Food for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program's Micronutrient-Fortified Food Aid Products Pilot... Micronutrient-Fortified Food Aid Products Pilot (MFFAPP). The notice stated that eligible applicants could...

  15. Body mass of prefledging Emperor Geese Chen canagica: Large-scale effects of interspecific densities and food availability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lake, B.C.; Schmutz, J.A.; Lindberg, M.S.; Ely, C.R.; Eldridge, W.D.; Broerman, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    We studied body mass of prefledging Emperor Geese Chen canagica at three locations across the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, during 1990-2004 to investigate whether large-scale variation in body mass was related to interspecific competition for food. From 1990 to 2004, densities of Cackling Geese Branta hutchinsii minima more than doubled and were c. 2-5?? greater than densities of Emperor Geese, which were relatively constant over time. Body mass of prefledging Emperor Geese was strongly related (negatively) to interspecific densities of geese (combined density of Cackling and Emperor Geese) and positively related to measures of food availability (grazing lawn extent and net above-ground primary productivity (NAPP)). Grazing by geese resulted in consumption of ??? 90% of the NAPP that occurred in grazing lawns during the brood-rearing period, suggesting that density-dependent interspecific competition was from exploitation of common food resources. Efforts to increase the population size of Emperor Geese would benefit from considering competitive interactions among goose species and with forage plants. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  16. The occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of salmonellae isolated from commercially available canine raw food diets in three Canadian cities.

    PubMed

    Finley, R; Reid-Smith, R; Ribble, C; Popa, M; Vandermeer, M; Aramini, J

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella isolated from commercially available canine raw food diets in Canada. A total of 166 commercial frozen raw food diet samples were purchased from randomly selected local pet stores in three Canadian cities for a period of 8 months. All samples were evaluated for the presence of Salmonella, serotyped and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. There was an overall Salmonella prevalence of 21%; chicken was an ingredient for 67% of the Salmonella-positive diets. Eighteen different Salmonella serotypes were recovered, and resistance was observed to 12 of the 16 antimicrobials tested, with the majority of Ontario isolates exhibiting resistance to ampicillin and Calgary isolates to tetracycline. This study demonstrates the potential risk of raw food diets, especially for immunocompromised individuals, and stresses the need for implementing regulatory guidelines for the production of these diets in order to help control and ideally eliminate the bacterial risks associated with their use and consumption.

  17. Effects of forest structure and composition on food availability for Varecia variegata at Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balko, E.A.; Underwood, H.B.

    2005-01-01

    We present a summary of a long-term field study that examined the effects of forest disturbance on the availability of palatable fruit and its utilization by V. variegata. Forest structure and tree species composition were measured in three adjacent study areas, with different histories of disturbance, in Ranomafana National Park (RNP), Madagascar. V. variegata abundance was monitored by frequent encounters with resident groups and periodic censuses conducted along trails. Finally, the abundance of mature fruit in species used by V. variegata was scored monthly at representative trees at several locations. V. variegata abundance was most consistent in the least anthropogenically disturbed site, while no established lemur groups were observed in the heavily logged site for over a decade post-harvest. Lemur abundance was variable in the selectively logged site. The presence of select food trees, particularly specimens with voluminous crowns capable of producing abundant fruit crops, appears to be key to the establishment and expansion of V variegata groups. Our analysis of year-long fruit utilization revealed a high degree of preference for several species of trees. Two species exhibited mature fruit in a low percentage of stems but were available for a protracted period of time, while two additional species showed high intraspecific fruiting synchrony and were available for a shorter period of time. These contrasting phenologies, rather than the individual tree species, may be most important to V. variegata due to their coincident timing of fruit maturation with key lemur life-history events. Any disturbance-natural or anthropogenic-that disrupts the phenology cycles of food trees has the potential to impact lemur abundance and dispersion. Intense disturbances, such as heavy logging or severe cyclones, have long-lasting impacts on fruit production, while selective logging or moderate cyclonic windthrow cause more transient impacts. V. variegata is adapted to deal

  18. Hungarian cancer mortality and food availability data in the last four decades of the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Rodler, I; Zajkás, G

    2002-01-01

    To identify the dietary risk factors present in the nutrition of the Hungarian population. We evaluated Hungarian cancer mortality data, and carried out a comparative analysis of the Hungarian National Food Balance Sheets (food availability) and dietary surveys (energy and nutrient intake). The cancer mortality rate in Hungary is the highest in Europe and an analysis of the past 40 years has revealed a worsening trend. Assessment of the Hungarian dietary pattern suggests that the high fat intake could be a possible risk factor in the development of lung, colon, rectum, female breast and prostate cancer. The availability of fats in Hungary was found to be the highest in a European comparison in the second half of the 1990s, while the average fat energy percentage in the diet of the male and female population was 38.0% (SD 5.7) between 1992 and 1994. Apart from the high fat consumption, the insufficient intake of vegetables and fruits could be identified as a major, convincing risk factor present in the nutrition of Hungarians, and plays a role in the development of mouth and pharynx, esophagus, lung, stomach, colon and rectum cancers, and is a probable risk factor in the development of pancreatic tumors. The availability of vegetables and fruits in the Hungarian population is one of the lowest in Europe and, in addition, the intake of dietary fiber, carotenoids, and ascorbic acid is also inadequate. Hungary has the highest cancer mortality rate in Europe, and the death rate associated with this disease is increasing. Our analysis of food balance sheets and dietary survey data clearly demonstrate the presence of certain known dietary risk factors in the nutrition of the Hungarian population. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. Body size changes among otters, Lutra lutra, in Norway: the possible effects of food availability and global warming.

    PubMed

    Yom-Tov, Yoram; Heggberget, Thrine Moen; Wiig, Oystein; Yom-Tov, Shlomith

    2006-11-01

    Using museum data of adult specimens whose sex, age, and locality are known, we studied temporal and geographical body size trends among the otter, Lutra lutra, in Norway. We found that body size of the otters increased during the last quarter of the twentieth century, and suggest that this trend is related to increased food availability from fish farming and possibly also to energy saving due to elevated sea temperatures. Birth year and death year explained 38.8 and 43.5%, respectively, of the variation in body size. Body size of otters was positively related to latitude, thus conforming to Bergmann's rule.

  20. Comparison of commercially available kits with standard methods for the detection of coliforms and Escherichia coli in foods.

    PubMed Central

    Venkateswaran, K; Murakoshi, A; Satake, M

    1996-01-01

    Three commercially available kits that were supplemented with substrates for enzyme reactions were evaluated to determine their abilities to detect coliforms and fecal coliforms in foods. Japanese and U.S. Food and Drug Administration standard methods, as well as two agar plate methods, were compared with the three commercial kits. A total of 50 food samples from various retailers were examined. The levels of detection of coliforms were high with the commercial kits (78 to 98%) compared with the levels of detection with the standard methods (80 to 83%) and the agar plate methods (56 to 83%). Among the kits tested, the Colilert kit had highest level of recovery of coliforms (98%), and the level of recovery of Escherichia coli as determined by beta-glucuronidase activity with the Colilert kit (83%) was comparable to the level of recovery obtained by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration method (87%). Isolation of E. coli on the basis of the beta-glucuronidase enzyme reaction was found to be good. Levine's eosine methylene blue agar, which has been widely used in various laboratories to isolate E. coli was compared with 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide (MUG)-supplemented agar for isolation of E. coli. Only 47% of the E. coli was detected when eosine methylene blue agar was used; however, when violet red bile (VRB)-MUG agar was used, the E. coli detection rate was twice as high. Of the 200 E. coli strains isolated, only 2 were found to be MUG negative, and the gene responsible for beta-glucuronidase activity (uidA gene) was detected by the PCR method in these 2 strains. Of the 90 false-positive strains isolated that exhibited various E. coli characteristic features, only 2 non-E.coli strains hydrolyzed MUG and produced fluorescent substrate in VRB-MUG agar. However, the PCR did not amplify uidA gene products in these VRB-MUG fluorescence-positive strains. PMID:8779561

  1. Snow mapping from space platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Itten, K. I.

    1980-01-01

    The paper considers problems of optimum resolution, periodicity, and wavelength bands used for snow mapping. Analog and digital methods were used for application of satellite data; techniques were developed for producing steamflow forecasts, hydroelectric power generation regulation data, irrigation potentials, and information on the availability of drinking water supplies. Future systems will utilize improved spectral band selection, new spectral regions, higher repetition rates, and more rapid access to satellite data.

  2. North American Land Data Assimiliation (NLDAS) Data: 30 Years of Hourly Gridded Precipitation, Surface Meteorology and Fluxes, Soil Moisture, Runoff, and Snow Cover Available at the NASA Goddard GES DISC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocko, D. M.; Cosgrove, B.; Xia, Y.; Ek, M. B.; Mitchell, K.; Fang, H.; Vollmer, B.; Teng, W. L.; Lei, G.; Wood, E. F.; Luo, L.; Sheffield, J.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Livneh, B.; Alonge, C. J.; Meng, C. J.; Wei, H.; Koren, V.; Schaake, J. C.; Mo, K. C.; Robock, A.

    2009-12-01

    The North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) has produced 30-years (1979 to present in near real-time) of hourly 1/8th-degree surface meteorology and hydrology datasets over CONUS and parts of Canada and Mexico. The NLDAS project has many government and university partners involved in producing and using these datasets, many funded under the Climate Prediction Program of the Americas (CPPA). NLDAS combines observations from many different sources (rain gauges, radar, satellite, model reanalysis) to generate a surface forcing dataset, which is used to drive several different land-surface models. Hourly datasets of gridded precipitation, surface meteorology and surface fluxes, soil moisture at multiple depths, surface runoff and baseflow, and snow cover are produced and available to users. This presentation will describe NLDAS forcing and land-surface model output datasets, and provide an example or two of the many applications of NLDAS data already in use. One such application is the NLDAS Drought Monitor, which updates in near real-time using several different drought indices. All 30-plus years of hourly data are now available at the NASA Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). Users can access the data by searching and downloading via anonymous ftp or Mirador. Mirador, a Spanish word for a window offering an extensive view, uses keywords to find data quickly in a Google-like interface. The NLDAS data are also provided via a GrADS Data Server (GDS). GDS users can access the data and perform subsetting and analysis operations online. More advanced tools will be provided in later releases, such as spatial and parameter subsetting, data format transformation, and an online visualization and analysis tool (Giovanni). Giovanni is a Web-based application developed by the GES DISC that provides a simple and intuitive way to visualize, analyze, and access vast amounts of Earth science remote sensing data without having to download

  3. Habitat manipulation of Exposed Riverine Sediments (ERS) how does microhabitat, microclimate and food availability influence beetle distributions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henshall, S. E.; Sadler, J. P.; Hannah, D. M.

    2009-04-01

    Exposed riverine sediments (ERS) are frequently inundated areas of relatively un-vegetated, fluvially deposited sediment (sand, silt, gravel and pebble). These habitats provide an important interface allowing the interaction of aquatic and terrestrial habitats and species. ERS are highly valuable for many rare and specialist invertebrates particularly beetles. Within an area of ERS, beetle species richness tends to be highest along the water's edge. This higher species richness may be linked to: (1) the availability of food items in the form of emerging and stranded aquatic invertebrates and (2) favourable physical microhabitat conditions in terms of temperature and moisture. This paper explores the role of microclimate and food availability by creating areas of ‘water's edge' habitat in the centre of a gravel bar. Typically these areas are drier, reach higher temperatures and devoid of emerging aquatic invertebrate prey. Four 2m x 2m experimental plots were created: one wet plot, one wet- fed plot, one dry-fed plot and one dry plot (control). These plots were each replicated on three separate areas of ERS. Sixty colour marked ERS specialist ground beetles (Bembidion atrocaeruleum) were released into each plot to monitor beetle persistence and movement on and between plots. The plots were maintained wet using a capillary pump system, and fed with dried blood worms for 30 days. Sediment temperature (0.05 m depth) was measured at 15 minute intervals and spot measurements of surface temperature were taken daily. A hand search was carried out on 25% of each plot after 7, 14, 21 and 30 days. Significant temperature differences were observed between the wet and dry sediment and air temperature. The wet plots on average were 1.8oC cooler than the dry plots and had a reduced temperature range. Both wet and dry sediments remained significantly warmer than air temperature. The wet and wet-fed plots yielded significantly greater numbers of beetles and marked beetles than

  4. Snow Cover and Snow Mass Intercomparisons of General Circulation Models and Remotely Sensed Datasets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, James; Liston, Glen; Koster, Randy; Essery, Richard; Behr, Helga; Dumenil, Lydia; Verseghy, Diana; Thompson, Starly; Pollard, David; Cohen, Judah

    1996-02-01

    Confirmation of the ability of general circulation models (GCMs) to accurately represent snow cover and snow mass distributions is vital for climate studies. There must be a high degree of confidence that what is being predicted by the models is reliable, since realistic results cannot be assured unless they are tested against results from observed data or other available datasets. In this study, snow output from seven GCMs and passive-microwave snow data derived from the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) are intercompared. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration satellite data are used as the standard of reference for snow extent observations and the U.S. Air Force snow depth climatology is used as the standard for snow mass. The reliability of the SMMR snow data needs to be verified, as well, because currently this is the only available dataset that allows for yearly and monthly variations in snow depth. [The GCMs employed in this investigation are the United Kingdom Meteorological Office, Hadley Centre GCM, the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology/University of Hamburg (ECHAM) GCM, the Canadian Climate Centre GCM, the National Center for Atmospheric Research (GENESIS) GCM, the Goddard Institute for Space Studies GCM, the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres GCM and the Goddard Coupled Climate Dynamics Group (AIRES) GCM.] Data for both North America and Eurasia are examined in an effort to assess the magnitude of spatial and temporal variations that exist between the standards of reference, the models, and the passive microwave data. Results indicate that both the models and SMMR represent seasonal and year-to-year snow distributions fairly well. The passive microwave data and several of the models, however, consistently underestimate snow mass, but other models overestimate the mass of snow on the ground. The models do a better job simulating winter and summer snow conditions than in the transition months. In general, the

  5. 76 FR 13598 - Notice of Funding Availability: Inviting Applications for McGovern-Dole International Food for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program's Micronutrient-Fortified Food Aid Products Pilot... Education and Child Nutrition (McGovern-Dole) Program Micronutrient- Fortified Food Aid Products Pilot... test new or improved micronutrient- fortified food aid products. FAS defines micronutrient-fortified...

  6. Improved Snow Mapping Accuracy with Revised MODIS Snow Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riggs, George; Hall, Dorothy K.

    2012-01-01

    The MODIS snow cover products have been used in over 225 published studies. From those reports, and our ongoing analysis, we have learned about the accuracy and errors in the snow products. Revisions have been made in the algorithms to improve the accuracy of snow cover detection in Collection 6 (C6), the next processing/reprocessing of the MODIS data archive planned to start in September 2012. Our objective in the C6 revision of the MODIS snow-cover algorithms and products is to maximize the capability to detect snow cover while minimizing snow detection errors of commission and omission. While the basic snow detection algorithm will not change, new screens will be applied to alleviate snow detection commission and omission errors, and only the fractional snow cover (FSC) will be output (the binary snow cover area (SCA) map will no longer be included).

  7. Effects of shifts in food reinforcement context on rats' consumption of concurrently available water or sucrose solution.

    PubMed

    Galuska, Chad M; Sawyer, Leslie E

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of signaled transitions from relatively rich to lean conditions of food reinforcement on drinking concurrently available water or sucrose-sweetened water in rats. Past research demonstrated that these negative incentive shifts produce behavioral disruption in the form of extended pausing on fixed-ratio schedules. Four male Long-Evans rats operated on a two-component multiple fixed-ratio fixed-ratio schedule. In one manipulation, the ratio was held constant and the components arranged either a large six-pellet reinforcer (rich) or small one-pellet reinforcer (lean). In a second manipulation, the components both produced a one-pellet reinforcer but differed in terms of the ratio requirement, with the rich and lean conditions corresponding to relatively small and large ratios. In both manipulations, components were pseudorandomly presented to arrange four transitions signaled by retractable levers: lean-to-lean, lean-to-rich, rich-to-rich, and rich-to-lean (the negative incentive shift). During experimental conditions, a bottle with lickometer was inserted in the chamber, providing concurrent access either to tap water or a 10% sucrose solution. The negative incentive shift produced considerably more drinking than the other transitions in all rats during both manipulations. The level of drinking was not polydipsic; rather, it appears that the negative incentive shift enhanced the value of concurrently available reinforcers relative to food reinforcement.

  8. Theoretical life history responses of juvenile Oncorhynchus mykiss to changes in food availability using a dynamic state-dependent approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Romine, Jason G.; Benjamin, Joseph R.; Perry, Russell W.; Casal, Lynne; Connolly, Patrick J.; Sauter, Sally S.

    2013-01-01

    Marine subsidies can play an important role in the growth, survival, and migratory behavior of rearing juvenile salmonids. Availability of high-energy, marine-derived food sources during critical decision windows may influence the timing of emigration or the decision to forego emigration completely and remain in the freshwater environment. Increasing growth and growth rate during these decision windows may result in an altered juvenile population structure, which will ultimately affect the adult population age-structure. We used a state dependent model to understand how the juvenile Oncorhynchus mykiss population structure may respond to increased availability of salmon eggs in their diet during critical decision windows. Our models predicted an increase in smolt production until coho salmon eggs comprised more than 50 percent of juvenile O. mykiss diet at the peak of the spawning run. At higher-than intermediate levels of egg consumption, smolt production decreased owing to increasing numbers of fish adopting a resident life-history strategy. Additionally, greater growth rates decreased the number of age-3 smolts and increased the number of age-2 smolts. Increased growth rates with higher egg consumption also decreased the age at which fish adopted the resident pathway. Our models suggest that the introduction of a high-energy food source during critical periods of the year could be sufficient to increase smolt production.

  9. Availability of cadmium and zinc from sewage sludge to the flounder, Platichthys flesus, via a marine food chain.

    PubMed

    Burgos, M G; Rainbow, P S

    2001-06-01

    This paper examines the potential availability to a demersal fish of cadmium and zinc associated with digested sewage sludge, via a food chain as well as directly from the sludge, and the tissue distribution and possible excretion of any accumulated cadmium and zinc. Radioactive tracer techniques were used in order to follow the food chain transfer of the metals. Flounder (Platichthys flesus) accumulated cadmium both directly from sludge (delivered in newly ingested unassimilated gutfuls in the amphipods) and in assimilated form from the tissues of the amphipod crustacean Corophium volutator that had been feeding on a sludge-sediment mixture. Cadmium from both sources could be excreted by the fish. The concentration of cadmium within the whole fish increased as the input of cadmium in the diet increased. Zinc, similarly, is available to the flounder both directly from sludge and from zinc accumulated in C. volutator. Only a limited increase in net accumulation of zinc by the flounder was observed upon increased inputs of zinc through the diet, perhaps indicating some regulation of body zinc concentration by the flounder.

  10. Quantification of uncertainties in snow accumulation, snowmelt, and snow disappearance dates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raleigh, Mark S.

    high resolution (15m) remote sensing, and then used to test daily 500 m canopy-adjusted MODIS snow cover data. Relative to the ground sensors, MODIS underestimated snow cover by 10-20% in meadows and 10-40% in forests, and showed snow disappearing 12 to 30 days too early in the forested sites. These errors were not detected with operational snow sensors, which have seen frequent use in MODIS validation studies. The link between model forcing and snow model uncertainty is assessed in two studies using measurements at energy balance stations in different snow climates. First, representation of snow surface temperature (T s) with temperature and humidity is examined because Ts tracks variations in the snowmelt energy balance. At all sites analyzed, the dew point temperature (Td) represented Ts with lower bias than the dry and wet-bulb temperatures. The potential usefulness of this approximation was demonstrated in a case study where detection of model bias was achieved by comparing daily Tdand modeled Ts. Second, the impact of forcing data availability and empirical data estimation is addressed to understand which types of data most impact physically-based snow modeling and need improved representation. An experiment is conducted at four well-instrumented sites with a series of hypothetical weather stations to determine which measurements (beyond temperature and precipitation) most impact snow model behavior. Radiative forcings had the largest impact on model behavior, but these are typically the least often measured.

  11. Phylogeny and biogeography of an uncultured clade of snow chytrids.

    PubMed

    Naff, C S; Darcy, J L; Schmidt, S K

    2013-10-01

    Numerous studies have shown that snow can contain a diverse array of algae known as 'snow algae'. Some reports also indicate that parasites of algae (e.g. chytrids) are also found in snow, but efforts to phylogenetically identify 'snow chytrids' have not been successful. We used culture-independent molecular approaches to phylogenetically identify chytrids that are common in long-lived snowpacks of Colorado and Europe. The most remarkable finding of the present study was the discovery of a new clade of chytrids that has representatives in snowpacks of Colorado and Switzerland and cold sites in Nepal and France, but no representatives from warmer ecosystems. This new clade ('Snow Clade 1' or SC1) is as deeply divergent as its sister clade, the Lobulomycetales, and phylotypes of SC1 show significant (P < 0.003) genetic-isolation by geographic distance patterns, perhaps indicating a long evolutionary history in the cryosphere. In addition to SC1, other snow chytrids were phylogenetically shown to be in the order Rhizophydiales, a group with known algal parasites and saprotrophs. We suggest that these newly discovered snow chytrids are important components of snow ecosystems where they contribute to snow food-web dynamics and the release of nutrients due to their parasitic and saprotrophic activities.

  12. Assessment of Northern Hemisphere Snow Water Equivalent Datasets in ESA SnowPEx project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luojus, Kari; Pulliainen, Jouni; Cohen, Juval; Ikonen, Jaakko; Derksen, Chris; Mudryk, Lawrence; Nagler, Thomas; Bojkov, Bojan

    2016-04-01

    Reliable information on snow cover across the Northern Hemisphere and Arctic and sub-Arctic regions is needed for climate monitoring, for understanding the Arctic climate system, and for the evaluation of the role of snow cover and its feedback in climate models. In addition to being of significant interest for climatological investigations, reliable information on snow cover is of high value for the purpose of hydrological forecasting and numerical weather prediction. Terrestrial snow covers up to 50 million km² of the Northern Hemisphere in winter and is characterized by high spatial and temporal variability. Therefore satellite observations provide the best means for timely and complete observations of the global snow cover. There are a number of independent SWE products available that describe the snow conditions on multi-decadal and global scales. Some products are derived using satellite-based information while others rely on meteorological observations and modelling. What is common to practically all the existing hemispheric SWE products, is that their retrieval performance on hemispherical and multi-decadal scales are not accurately known. The purpose of the ESA funded SnowPEx project is to obtain a quantitative understanding of the uncertainty in satellite- as well as model-based SWE products through an internationally coordinated and consistent evaluation exercise. The currently available Northern Hemisphere wide satellite-based SWE datasets which were assessed include 1) the GlobSnow SWE, 2) the NASA Standard SWE, 3) NASA prototype and 4) NSIDC-SSM/I SWE products. The model-based datasets include: 5) the Global Land Data Assimilation System Version 2 (GLDAS-2) product 6) the European Centre for Medium-Range Forecasts Interim Land Reanalysis (ERA-I-Land) which uses a simple snow scheme 7) the Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) which uses an intermediate complexity snow scheme; and 8) SWE from the Crocus snow scheme, a

  13. An exploration and comparison of food and drink availability in homes in a sample of families of White and Pakistani origin within the UK.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Maria; Sahota, Pinki; Santorelli, Gillian; Hill, Andrew

    2015-05-01

    Knowledge of the types and quantities of foods and drinks available in family homes supports the development of targeted intervention programmes for obesity prevention or management, or for overall diet improvement. In the UK, contemporary data on foods that are available within family homes are lacking. The present study aimed to explore home food and drink availability in UK homes. An exploratory study using researcher-conducted home food availability inventories, measuring all foods and drinks within the categories of fruits, vegetables, snack foods and beverages. Bradford, a town in the north of the UK. Opportunistic sample of mixed ethnicity families with infants approximately 18 months old from the Born in Bradford birth cohort. All homes had at least one type of fruit, vegetable and snack available. Fresh fruits commonly available were oranges, bananas, apples, satsumas and grapes. Commonly available fresh vegetables included potatoes, cucumber, tomatoes and carrots. The single greatest non-fresh fruit available in homes was raisins. Non-fresh vegetables contributing the most were frozen mixed vegetables, tinned tomatoes and tinned peas. Ethnic differences were found for the availability of fresh fruits and sugar-sweetened beverages, which were both found in higher amounts in Pakistani homes compared with White homes. These data contribute to international data on availability and provide an insight into food availability within family homes in the UK. They have also supported a needs assessment of the development of a culturally specific obesity prevention intervention in which fruits and vegetables and sugar-sweetened beverages are targeted.

  14. Direct and socially-mediated effects of food availability late in life on life-history variation in a short-lived lizard.

    PubMed

    Mugabo, Marianne; Marquis, Olivier; Perret, Samuel; Le Galliard, Jean-François

    2011-08-01

    Food availability is a major environmental factor that can influence life history within and across generations through direct effects on individual quality and indirect effects on the intensity of intra- and intercohort competition. Here, we investigated in yearling and adult common lizards (Zootoca vivipara) the immediate and delayed life-history effects of a prolonged food deprivation in the laboratory. We generated groups of fully fed or food-deprived yearlings and adults at the end of one breeding season. These lizards were released in 16 outdoor enclosures together with yearlings and adults from the same food treatment and with food-deprived or fully fed juveniles, creating four types of experimental populations. Experimental populations were then monitored during 2 years, which revealed complex effects of food on life-history trajectories. Food availability had immediate direct effects on morphology and delayed direct effects on immunocompetence and female body condition at winter emergence. Also, male annual survival rate and female growth rate and body size were affected by an interaction between direct effects of food availability and indirect effects on asymmetric competition with juveniles. Reproductive outputs were insensitive to past food availability, suggesting that female common lizards do not solely rely on stored energy to fuel reproduction. Finally, food conditions had socially-mediated intergenerational effects on early growth and survival of offspring through their effects on the intensity of competition. This study highlights the importance of social interactions among cohorts for life-history trajectories and population dynamics in stage-structured populations.

  15. The frequency of hippocampal theta rhythm is modulated on a circadian period and is entrained by food availability.

    PubMed

    Munn, Robert G K; Tyree, Susan M; McNaughton, Neil; Bilkey, David K

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampal formation plays a critical role in the generation of episodic memory. While the encoding of the spatial and contextual components of memory have been extensively studied, how the hippocampus encodes temporal information, especially at long time intervals, is less well understood. The activity of place cells in hippocampus has previously been shown to be modulated at a circadian time-scale, entrained by a behavioral stimulus, but not entrained by light. The experimental procedures used in the previous study of this phenomenon, however, necessarily conflated two alternative entraining stimuli, the exposure to the recording environment and the availability of food, making it impossible to distinguish between these possibilities. Here we demonstrate that the frequency of theta-band hippocampal EEG varies with a circadian period in freely moving animals and that this periodicity mirrors changes in the firing rate of hippocampal neurons. Theta activity serves, therefore, as a proxy of circadian-modulated hippocampal neuronal activity. We then demonstrate that the frequency of hippocampal theta driven by stimulation of the reticular formation also varies with a circadian period. Because this effect can be observed without having to feed the animal to encourage movement we were able to identify what stimulus entrains the circadian oscillation. We show that with reticular-activated recordings started at various times of the day the frequency of theta varies quasi-sinusoidally with a 25 h period and phase-aligned when referenced to the animal's regular feedi