Science.gov

Sample records for food exchange system

  1. Closed and continuous algae cultivation system for food production and gas exchange in CELSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguchi, Mitsuo; Otsubo, Koji; Nitta, Keiji; Shimada, Atsuhiro; Fujii, Shigeo; Koyano, Takashi; Miki, Keizaburo

    In CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support System), utilization of photosynthetic algae is an effective means for obtaining food and oxygen at the same time. We have chosen Spirulina, a blue-green alga, and have studied possibilities of algae utilization. We have developed an advanced algae cultivation system, which is able to produce algae continuously in a closed condition. Major features of the new system are as follows. o (1)In order to maintain homogeneous culture conditions, the cultivator was designed so as to cause a swirl on medium circulation. (2)Oxygen gas separation and carbon dioxide supply are conducted by a newly designed membrane module. (3)Algae mass and medium are separated by a specially designed harvester. (4)Cultivation conditions, such as pH, temperature, algae growth rate, light intensity and quanlity of generated oxygen gas are controlled by a computer system and the data are automatically recorded. This equipment is a primary model for ground experiments in order to obtain some design data for space use. A feasibility of algae cultivation in a closed condition is discussed on the basis of data obtained by use of this new system.

  2. Food production and gas exchange system using blue-green alga (Spirulina) for CELSS.

    PubMed

    Oguchi, M; Otsubo, K; Nitta, K; Hatayama, S

    1987-01-01

    In order to reduce the cultivation area required for the growth of higher plants in space adoption of algae, which have a higher photosynthetic ability, seems very suitable for obtaining oxygen and food as a useful source of high quality protein. The preliminary cultivation experiment for determining optimum cultivation conditions and for obtaining the critical design parameters of the cultivator itself has been conducted. Spirulina was cultivated in the 6-liter medium containing sodium hydrogen carbonate solution and a cultivation temperature controlled using a thermostat. Generated oxygen gas was separated using a polypropyrene porous hollow fiber membrane module. Through this experiment, oxygen gas (at a concentration of more than 46%) at a rate of 100-150 ml per minute could be obtained.

  3. Food production and gas exchange system using blue-green alga (Spirulina) for CELSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguchi, Mitsuo; Otsubo, Koji; Nitta, Keiji; Hatayama, Shigeki

    In order to reduce the cultivation area required for the growth of higher plants in space adoption of algae, which have a higher photosynthetic ability, seems very suitable for obtaining oxygen and food as a useful source of high quality protein. The preliminary cultivation experiment for determining optimum cultivation conditions and for obtaining the critical design parameters of the cultivator itself has been conducted. Spirulina was cultivated in the 6-liter medium containing a sodium hydrogen carbonate solution and a cultivation temperature controlled using a thermostat. Generated oxygen gas was separated using a polypropyrene porous hollow fiber membrane module. Through this experiment, oxygen gas (at a concentration of more than 46%) at a rate of 100 ~ 150 ml per minute could be obtained.

  4. Food production and gas exchange system using blue-green alga (spirulina) for CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oguchi, Mitsuo; Otsubo, Koji; Nitta, Keiji; Hatayama, Shigeki

    1987-01-01

    In order to reduce the cultivation area required for the growth of higher plants in space adoption of algae, which have a higher photosynthetic ability, seems very suitable for obtaining oxygen and food as a useful source of high quality protein. The preliminary cultivation experiment for determining optimum cultivation conditions and for obtaining the critical design parameters of the cultivator itself was conducted. Spirulina was cultivated in the 6 liter medium containing a sodium hydrogen carbonate solution and a cultivation temperature controlled using a thermostat. Generated oxygen gas was separated using a polypropyrene porous hollow fiber membrane module. Through this experiment, oxygen gas (at a concentration of more than 46 percent) at a rate of 100 to approx. 150 ml per minute could be obtained.

  5. Charge exchange system

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Oscar A.

    1978-01-01

    An improved charge exchange system for substantially reducing pumping requirements of excess gas in a controlled thermonuclear reactor high energy neutral beam injector. The charge exchange system utilizes a jet-type blanket which acts simultaneously as the charge exchange medium and as a shield for reflecting excess gas.

  6. Nonsurvivable momentum exchange system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roder, Russell (Inventor); Ahronovich, Eliezer (Inventor); Davis, III, Milton C. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A demiseable momentum exchange system includes a base and a flywheel rotatably supported on the base. The flywheel includes a web portion defining a plurality of web openings and a rim portion. The momentum exchange system further includes a motor for driving the flywheel and a cover for engaging the base to substantially enclose the flywheel. The system may also include components having a melting temperature below 1500 degrees Celsius. The momentum exchange system is configured to demise on reentry.

  7. Text Exchange System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, W. V.; Hanson, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Text Exchange System (TES) exchanges and maintains organized textual information including source code, documentation, data, and listings. System consists of two computer programs and definition of format for information storage. Comprehensive program used to create, read, and maintain TES files. TES developed to meet three goals: First, easy and efficient exchange of programs and other textual data between similar and dissimilar computer systems via magnetic tape. Second, provide transportable management system for textual information. Third, provide common user interface, over wide variety of computing systems, for all activities associated with text exchange.

  8. Space Food Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Russo, Dane M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Food Systems Laboratory (SFSL) is a multipurpose laboratory responsible for space food and package research and development. It is located on-site at Johnson Space Center in Building 17. The facility supports the development of flight food, menus, packaging and food related hardware for Shuttle, International Space Station, and Advanced Life Support food systems. All foods used to support NASA ground tests and/or missions must meet the highest standards before they are 'accepted' for use on actual space flights. The foods are evaluated for nutritional content, sensory acceptability, safety, storage and shelf life, and suitability for use in micro-gravity. The food packaging is also tested to determine its functionality and suitability for use in space. Food Scientist, Registered Dieticians, Packaging Engineers, Food Systems Engineers, and Technicians staff the Space Food Systems Laboratory.

  9. Food Service System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The 3M Food Service System 2 employs a "cook/chill" concept for serving food in hospitals. The system allows staff to prepare food well in advance, maintain heat, visual appeal and nutritional value as well as reducing operating costs. The integral heating method, which keeps hot foods hot and cold foods cold, was developed by 3M for the Apollo Program. In the 1970s, the company commercialized the original system and in 1991, introduced Food Service System 2. Dishes are designed to resemble those used at home, and patient satisfaction has been high.

  10. Personal Food System Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilsey, David; Dover, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Personal food system mapping is a practical means to engage community participants and educators in individualized and shared learning about food systems, decisions, and behaviors. Moreover, it is a useful approach for introducing the food system concept, which is somewhat abstract. We developed the approach to capture diversity of personal food…

  11. Space Station Food System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurmond, Beverly A.; Gillan, Douglas J.; Perchonok, Michele G.; Marcus, Beth A.; Bourland, Charles T.

    1986-01-01

    A team of engineers and food scientists from NASA, the aerospace industry, food companies, and academia are defining the Space Station Food System. The team identified the system requirements based on an analysis of past and current space food systems, food systems from isolated environment communities that resemble Space Station, and the projected Space Station parameters. The team is resolving conflicts among requirements through the use of trade-off analyses. The requirements will give rise to a set of specifications which, in turn, will be used to produce concepts. Concept verification will include testing of prototypes, both in 1-g and microgravity. The end-item specification provides an overall guide for assembling a functional food system for Space Station.

  12. Modeling Sustainable Food Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Thomas; Prosperi, Paolo

    2016-05-01

    The processes underlying environmental, economic, and social unsustainability derive in part from the food system. Building sustainable food systems has become a predominating endeavor aiming to redirect our food systems and policies towards better-adjusted goals and improved societal welfare. Food systems are complex social-ecological systems involving multiple interactions between human and natural components. Policy needs to encourage public perception of humanity and nature as interdependent and interacting. The systemic nature of these interdependencies and interactions calls for systems approaches and integrated assessment tools. Identifying and modeling the intrinsic properties of the food system that will ensure its essential outcomes are maintained or enhanced over time and across generations, will help organizations and governmental institutions to track progress towards sustainability, and set policies that encourage positive transformations. This paper proposes a conceptual model that articulates crucial vulnerability and resilience factors to global environmental and socio-economic changes, postulating specific food and nutrition security issues as priority outcomes of food systems. By acknowledging the systemic nature of sustainability, this approach allows consideration of causal factor dynamics. In a stepwise approach, a logical application is schematized for three Mediterranean countries, namely Spain, France, and Italy.

  13. Reciprocity on Demand : Sharing and Exchanging Food in Northwestern Namibia.

    PubMed

    Schnegg, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Two competing models concerning food transfers prominent in the anthropological literature conceptualize such transfers either as sharing or as exchange. Sharing is understood as situational transactions formed through demands and unconditional giving, whereas reciprocal exchange is understood in terms of networking and keeping score. I propose that the picture is more complicated than these classifications suggests. Drawing on data collected in Northwestern Namibia, I show that sharing and reciprocal exchange are dynamically interrelated in actual food transfers. As a local norm, people can demand food from anyone, and they are typically given food in response to a demand. However, in practice, food transfer networks emerge (N = 62) that are highly reciprocal and fit the exchange model much better. Although the sharing norm makes no restrictions on whom to ask, in practice people often turn to their neighbors. Interpersonal dynamics account for why some of those ties become strongly reciprocal and others do not. Under these circumstances, unconditional sharing, a norm that has been viewed as an alternative to exchange, can lead to reciprocity via reciprocity on demand.

  14. Food exchange list based on 80-kilocalorie rice unit.

    PubMed

    Hung, C T

    1989-06-01

    The conventional food exchange list which has been used in most hospitals and nutrition related institutes in Taiwan is derived from that published by a Joint Committee of the American Diabetes Association, American Dietetic Association, and the Diabetes Section, U.S. Public Health Services in 1950. There are several disadvantages of using this conventional table as an educational tool for Chinese patients in Taiwan. Those disadvantages include ignorance of macronutrients, nonnutritional classification of food and variance in calories between food categories. Our food exchange list aimed to classify food items into carbohydrate, protein and fat-rich food groups isocalorically. First of all, a "rice-unit" is defined as a 1/4 bowl of cooked rice, which contains approximately 80 kcal. Second, 80 kcal derived from the "rice unit" was used as a basic calorie unit in this study for definition of carbohydrate-rich, protein-rich, and fat-rich food items. All of the following items contain approximately 80 kcal: 1/2 bowl of gruel, a small banana, two medium sized oranges, a slice of bread (carbohydrate-rich items), an egg, 38g of pork (protein-rich items) and two teaspoons of soybean oil (a fat-rich item). There are several benefits of using this recommended food exchange list: (1) Rice is the most important staple in the Chinese family. The recommended food exchange list is derived from rice to enhance practicality and compliance of the Chinese people in Taiwan. Moreover, the theory of a high carbohydrate, high-fiber diet recommended by the ADA in 1987 has been stressed in this study.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Food systems veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Hurd, H Scott

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of this review are to suggest the use of the systems thinking framework to improve how veterinary medicine is applied to food production. It applies the eight essential skills of systems thinking to a few selected veterinary examples. Two of the skills determine how we approach or define a problem, and are (i) dynamic thinking (taking a longer term perspective) and (ii) the 30,000 foot view (expanding the boundary of analysis beyond the animal, farm, or even country). The other skills are (iii) system-as-cause, (iv) operational thinking, (v) closed-loop (feedback) thinking, (vi) non-linear thinking, (vii) scientific thinking and (viii) generic thinking. The challenge is to adopt and apply this systems framework to veterinary medicine and food production. The result will be a rigorous new approach to solving the complex food and health problems of the 21st century.

  16. Skylab food system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, T. R.; Sanford, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    A review of the Skylab food system requirements, package designs, and launch configurations was presented. In-flight anomalies were discussed, and between-mission changes in design were described. A discussion of support for Skylab 3 and Skylab 4 mission extensions and of new items launched on these missions is included.

  17. Heat exchanger expert system logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cormier, R.

    1988-01-01

    The reduction is described of the operation and fault diagnostics of a Deep Space Network heat exchanger to a rule base by the application of propositional calculus to a set of logic statements. The value of this approach lies in the ease of converting the logic and subsequently implementing it on a computer as an expert system. The rule base was written in Process Intelligent Control software.

  18. 40 CFR 63.654 - Heat exchange systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... section. (1) All heat exchangers that are in organic HAP service within the heat exchange system that...., the heat exchange system does not contain any heat exchangers that are in organic HAP service as... exchange system in organic HAP service or from each heat exchanger exit line for each heat exchanger...

  19. Skylab food system laboratory support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanford, D.

    1974-01-01

    A summary of support activities performed to ensure the quality and reliability of the Skylab food system design is reported. The qualification test program was conducted to verify crew compartment compatibility, and to certify compliance of the food system with nutrition, preparation, and container requirements. Preflight storage requirements and handling procedures were also determined. Information on Skylab food items was compiled including matters pertaining to serving size, preparation information, and mineral, calorie, and protein content. Accessory hardware and the engraving of food utensils were also considered, and a stowage and orientation list was constructed which takes into account menu use sequences, menu items, and hardware stowage restrictions. A food inventory system was established and food thermal storage tests were conducted. Problems and comments pertaining to specific food items carried onboard the Skylab Workshop were compiled.

  20. [Phylogeny of gas exchange systems].

    PubMed

    Jürgens, K D; Gros, G

    2002-04-01

    Several systems of gas transport have developed during evolution, all of which are able to sufficiently supply oxygen to the tissues and eliminate the CO2 produced by the metabolism, in spite of great distances between the environment and the individual cells of the tissues. Almost all these systems utilize a combination of convection and diffusion steps. Convection achieves an efficient transport of gas over large distances, but requires energy and cannot occur across tissue barriers. Diffusion, on the other hand, achieves gas transport across barriers, but requires optimization of diffusion paths and diffusion areas. When two convectional gas flows are linked via a diffusional barrier (gas/fluid in the case of the avian lung, fluid/fluid in the case of gills), the directions in which the respective convectional movements pass each other are important determinants of gas exchange efficiency (concurrent, countercurrent and cross-current systems). The tracheal respiration found in insects has the advantage of circumventing the convective gas transport step in the blood, thereby avoiding the high energy expenditure of circulatory systems. This is made possible by a system of tracheae, ending in tracheoles, that reaches from the body surface to every cell within the body. The last step of gas transfer in these animals occurs by diffusion from the tracheoles ("air capillaries") to the mitochondria of cells. The disadvantage is that the tracheal system occupies a substantial fraction of body volume and that, due to limited mechanical stability of tracheal walls, this system would not be able to operate under conditions of high hydrostatic pressures, i. e. in large animals. Respiration in an "open" system, i. e. direct exposure of the diffusional barrier to the environmental air, eliminates the problem of bringing the oxygen to the barrier by convection, as is necessary in the avian and mammalian lung, in the insects' tracheal system and in the gills. An open system is

  1. Entropy exchange for infinite-dimensional systems

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Zhoubo; Hou, Jinchuan

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the entropy exchange for channels and states in infinite-dimensional systems are defined and studied. It is shown that, this entropy exchange depends only on the given channel and the state. An explicit expression of the entropy exchange in terms of the state and the channel is proposed. The generalized Klein’s inequality, the subadditivity and the triangle inequality about the entropy including infinite entropy for the infinite-dimensional systems are established, and then, applied to compare the entropy exchange with the entropy change. PMID:28164995

  2. 21 CFR 26.50 - Alert system and exchange of postmarket vigilance reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alert system and exchange of postmarket vigilance reports. 26.50 Section 26.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL...

  3. 21 CFR 26.41 - Exchange and endorsement of quality system evaluation reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exchange and endorsement of quality system evaluation reports. 26.41 Section 26.41 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS,...

  4. 21 CFR 26.50 - Alert system and exchange of postmarket vigilance reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alert system and exchange of postmarket vigilance reports. 26.50 Section 26.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL...

  5. 21 CFR 26.41 - Exchange and endorsement of quality system evaluation reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exchange and endorsement of quality system evaluation reports. 26.41 Section 26.41 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS,...

  6. 21 CFR 26.50 - Alert system and exchange of postmarket vigilance reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alert system and exchange of postmarket vigilance reports. 26.50 Section 26.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL...

  7. 21 CFR 26.50 - Alert system and exchange of postmarket vigilance reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alert system and exchange of postmarket vigilance reports. 26.50 Section 26.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL...

  8. 21 CFR 26.41 - Exchange and endorsement of quality system evaluation reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exchange and endorsement of quality system evaluation reports. 26.41 Section 26.41 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS,...

  9. 21 CFR 26.50 - Alert system and exchange of postmarket vigilance reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alert system and exchange of postmarket vigilance reports. 26.50 Section 26.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL...

  10. Food-System Botany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rop, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    This set of inquiry lessons is adaptable for middle school through high school life science or biology classrooms and will help meet the NSTA scientific inquiry position statement (2004) and the AAAS benchmarks (1993) and NRC standards (1996; 2000) related to health and food literacy. The standards require adolescents to examine their own diet and…

  11. Isotopic exchange of uranium. II. Exchange kinetics in solution-organic-ion exchanger systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ryzhinskii, M.V.; Bronzov, P.A.; Vitinskii, M.Yu.

    1987-07-01

    The results of a study of the sorption of uranium and the kinetics of isotopic exchange between uranium(IV) and uranium(VI) in systems consisting of a hydrochloric acid solution and the KU-2-8P and AV-17-10P ion-exchange resins have been studied. It has been shown that the sorption of uranium is limited by diffusion in the sorbent grains and that isotopic exchange is limited by the reaction between uranium(IV) and uranium(VI).

  12. Apollo experience report: Food systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. C., Jr.; Rapp, R. M.; Huber, C. S.; Rambaut, P. C.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.

    1974-01-01

    Development, delivery, and use of food systems in support of the Apollo 7 to 14 missions are discussed. Changes in design criteria for this unique program as mission requirements varied are traced from the baseline system that was established before the completion of the Gemini Program. Problems and progress in subsystem management, material selection, food packaging, development of new food items, menu design, and food-consumption methods under zero-gravity conditions are described. The effectiveness of various approaches in meeting food system objectives of providing flight crews with safe, nutritious, easy to prepare, and highly acceptable foods is considered. Nutritional quality and adequacy in maintaining crew health are discussed in relation to the establishment of nutritional criteria for future missions. Technological advances that have resulted from the design of separate food systems for the command module, the lunar module, The Mobile Quarantine Facility, and the Lunar Receiving Laboratory are presented for application to future manned spacecraft and to unique populations in earthbound situations.

  13. On exchangeable continuous variable systems

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, Robert; Wolf, Michael M.

    2009-01-15

    We investigate permutation-invariant continuous variable quantum states and their covariance matrices. We provide a complete characterization of the latter with respect to permutation invariance and exchangeability and representing convex combinations of tensor power states. On the level of the respective density operators this leads to necessary criteria for all these properties which become necessary and sufficient for Gaussian states. For these we use the derived results to provide de Finetti-type theorems for various distance measures.

  14. Developing a food exchange list for Middle Eastern appetizers and desserts commonly consumed in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    BAWADI, Hiba A.; AL-SHWAIYAT, Naseem M.; TAYYEM, Reema F.; MEKARY, Rania; TUURI, Georgianna

    2011-01-01

    Aim This study was conducted to develop a meal-planning exchange list for Middle Eastern foods commonly included in the Jordanian cuisine. Forty types of appetizers and another 40 types of desserts were selected; with five different recipes for each item. Recipes were collected from different housewives and Arabic cookbooks. Ingredients’ weight and dish net weight were recorded based on an average recipe, and dishes were prepared accordingly. Dishes were proximately analyzed following the AOAC procedures. Proximate analysis was compared to the WHO-food composition tables (FCT) for the use in the Middle East, and with food analysis software (ESHA). Results Significant correlations (P < 0.001) were found between macronutrient content obtained from proximate analysis and those obtained from ESHA. The correlation coefficients (r) were 0.92 for carbohydrate, 0.86 for protein, and 0.86 for fat. Strong correlations were also detected between proximate analysis FCT for carbohydrate (r=0.91, P<0.001) and protein (r=0.81; P<0.001) contents. However, this significant correlation was not found as strong, yet significant for fat (r=0. 62, P<0.001). Conclusion A valid exchange system for traditional desserts and appetizers is now available and ready to be used by dietitians and health care providers in Jordan and Arab World. PMID:21841913

  15. Food control systems in Canada.

    PubMed

    Smith, T M; Jukes, D J

    1997-04-01

    This paper provides an overview of the responsibilities and jurisdictional boundaries of Health Canada (HC) and Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) with regard to food regulation in Canada. It examines their interagency coordination within the federal structure and with other levels of government, industry, and the consumer. The international developments are considered with the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the Canada, United States Trade Agreement (CUSTA) being regarded as likely to have a significant future impact. The federal food safety and quality system is complex and fragmented. Federal food regulation comes under the jurisdiction of four federal departments: HC, AAFC, Industry Canada (IC), and Fisheries and Oceans Canada (FOC). All four departments are involved with inspection, surveillance, and the analysis of food sold in Canada. In addition, Canada's ten provincial and two territorial governments have provincial-, regional-, municipal-, and local-level governments that also have jurisdiction over food safety and quality. Consideration is first given to the main legislative provision covering food--the Federal Food and Drugs Act. This Act is administered by several of the Federal Government departments. The role of these departments is examined individually along with additional, more specific legal provisions for which responsibility is not divided (in particular, the Canada Agricultural Products [CAP] Act administered by AAFC, and the Consumer Packaging and Labeling Act [CPLA] administered by IC). The various reviews that have taken place in the recent past and those still in progress are considered, and the final part of this paper looks at the international developments that are likely to have a major impact on the future development of the Canadian food control system.

  16. Fuel delivery system including heat exchanger means

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffinberry, G. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A fuel delivery system is presented wherein first and second heat exchanger means are each adapted to provide the transfer of heat between the fuel and a second fluid such as lubricating oil associated with the gas turbine engine. Valve means are included which are operative in a first mode to provide for flow of the second fluid through both first and second heat exchange means and further operative in a second mode for bypassing the second fluid around the second heat exchanger means.

  17. National food control systems: lessons from Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Neeliah, S A; Goburdhun, D; Neeliah, H

    2009-01-01

    Food control systems are being established or revamped in many countries because of problems occurring along the food chain and the obligations of governments towards the World Trade Organization. The main components of an ideal food control system are food legislation, administration, enforcement and supporting bodies like analytical services and consumer organizations. Mauritius introduced modern legal instruments in 1998 in an attempt to reinvigorate food control. This article describes the components of the Mauritian Food Control System (MFCS). An appraisal of these components is then made. The methodology comprised a literature review and in-depth interviews with key informants and stakeholders of the local food control system. Although much progress was made with the introduction of new food legislation in 1998, other components of the local system like enforcement and various supporting bodies did not receive appropriate support. Other countries could use the lessons drawn from the Mauritian experience while setting up or upgrading their food control systems.

  18. Gas exchange measurements in natural systems

    SciTech Connect

    Broecker, W.S.; Peng, T.H.

    1983-01-01

    Direct knowledge of the rates of gas exchange in lakes and the ocean is based almost entirely on measurements of the isotopes /sup 14/C, /sup 222/Rn and /sup 3/He. The distribution of natural radiocarbon has yielded the average rate of CO/sub 2/ exchange for the ocean and for several closed basin lakes. That of bomb produced radiocarbon has been used in the same systems. The /sup 222/Rn to /sup 226/Ra ratio in open ocean surface water has been used to give local short term gas exchange rates. The radon method generally cannot be used in lakes, rivers, estuaries or shelf areas because of the input of radon from sediments. A few attempts have been made to use the excess /sup 3/He produced by decay of bomb produced tritium in lakes to give gas transfer rates. The uncertainty in the molecular diffusivity of helium and in the diffusivity dependence of the rate of gas transfer holds back the application of this method. A few attempts have been made to enrich the surface waters of small lakes with /sup 226/Ra and /sup 3/H in order to allow the use of the /sup 222/Rn and /sup 3/He methods. While these studies give broadly concordant results, many questions remain unanswered. The wind velocity dependence of gas exchange rate has yet to be established in field studies. The dependence of gas exchange rate on molecular diffusivity also remains in limbo. Finally, the degree of enhancement of CO/sub 2/ exchange through chemical reactions has been only partially explored. 49 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  19. Food safety performance indicators to benchmark food safety output of food safety management systems.

    PubMed

    Jacxsens, L; Uyttendaele, M; Devlieghere, F; Rovira, J; Gomez, S Oses; Luning, P A

    2010-07-31

    There is a need to measure the food safety performance in the agri-food chain without performing actual microbiological analysis. A food safety performance diagnosis, based on seven indicators and corresponding assessment grids have been developed and validated in nine European food businesses. Validation was conducted on the basis of an extensive microbiological assessment scheme (MAS). The assumption behind the food safety performance diagnosis is that food businesses which evaluate the performance of their food safety management system in a more structured way and according to very strict and specific criteria will have a better insight in their actual microbiological food safety performance, because food safety problems will be more systematically detected. The diagnosis can be a useful tool to have a first indication about the microbiological performance of a food safety management system present in a food business. Moreover, the diagnosis can be used in quantitative studies to get insight in the effect of interventions on sector or governmental level.

  20. Automated Information System for School Food Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazarika, Panna; Galligan, Stephen

    1982-01-01

    Controlling warehousing operations and food inventory, administering school cafeteria activity, and measuring the profitability of food service operations are identified as food service administrative problems. A comprehensive school food services information system developed to address these problems is described. (Author/MLF)

  1. Carbon nanotube heat-exchange systems

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, Terry Joseph; Heben, Michael J.

    2008-11-11

    A carbon nanotube heat-exchange system (10) and method for producing the same. One embodiment of the carbon nanotube heat-exchange system (10) comprises a microchannel structure (24) having an inlet end (30) and an outlet end (32), the inlet end (30) providing a cooling fluid into the microchannel structure (24) and the outlet end (32) discharging the cooling fluid from the microchannel structure (24). At least one flow path (28) is defined in the microchannel structure (24), fluidically connecting the inlet end (30) to the outlet end (32) of the microchannel structure (24). A carbon nanotube structure (26) is provided in thermal contact with the microchannel structure (24), the carbon nanotube structure (26) receiving heat from the cooling fluid in the microchannel structure (24) and dissipating the heat into an external medium (19).

  2. Energy and the food system

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Jeremy; Williams, Adrian; Hughes, John K.; Black, Mairi; Murphy, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Modern agriculture is heavily dependent on fossil resources. Both direct energy use for crop management and indirect energy use for fertilizers, pesticides and machinery production have contributed to the major increases in food production seen since the 1960s. However, the relationship between energy inputs and yields is not linear. Low-energy inputs can lead to lower yields and perversely to higher energy demands per tonne of harvested product. At the other extreme, increasing energy inputs can lead to ever-smaller yield gains. Although fossil fuels remain the dominant source of energy for agriculture, the mix of fuels used differs owing to the different fertilization and cultivation requirements of individual crops. Nitrogen fertilizer production uses large amounts of natural gas and some coal, and can account for more than 50 per cent of total energy use in commercial agriculture. Oil accounts for between 30 and 75 per cent of energy inputs of UK agriculture, depending on the cropping system. While agriculture remains dependent on fossil sources of energy, food prices will couple to fossil energy prices and food production will remain a significant contributor to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Technological developments, changes in crop management, and renewable energy will all play important roles in increasing the energy efficiency of agriculture and reducing its reliance of fossil resources. PMID:20713398

  3. Climate Change and Global Food Security: Food Access, Utilization, and the US Food System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M. E.; Antle, J. M.; Backlund, P. W.; Carr, E. R.; Easterling, W. E.; Walsh, M.; Ammann, C. M.; Attavanich, W.; Barrett, C. B.; Bellemare, M. F.; Dancheck, V.; Funk, C.; Grace, K.; Ingram, J. S. I.; Jiang, H.; Maletta, H.; Mata, T.; Murray, A.; Ngugi, M.; Ojima, D. S.; O'Neill, B. C.; Tebaldi, C.

    2015-12-01

    This paper will summarize results from the USDA report entitled 'Climate change, Global Food Security and the U.S. Food system'. The report focuses on the impact of climate change on global food security, defined as "when all people at all times have physical, social, and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life". The assessment brought together authors and contributors from twenty federal, academic, nongovernmental, intergovernmental, and private organizations in four countries to identify climate change effects on food security through 2100, and analyze the U.S.'s likely connections with that world. This talk will describe how climate change will likely affect food access and food utilization, and summarize how the U.S. food system contributes to global food security, and will be affected by climate change.

  4. The Alginate Demonstration: Polymers, Food Science, and Ion Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldman, Amy Sue; Schechinger, Linda; Govindarajoo, Geeta; Nowick, James S.; Pignolet, Louis H.

    1998-11-01

    We have recently devised a polymer demonstration involving the crosslinking and decrosslinking of alginate, a polysaccharide isolated from seaweed. The polymer is composed of D-mannuronic acid and L-guluronic acid subunits and is a component of cell walls. It is commonly used as a thickener in foods such as ice cream and fruit-filled snacks. For the demonstration, a 2% solution of sodium alginate is poured into a 1% solution of calcium chloride. Nontoxic calcium alginate "worms" form due to crosslinking of the polymer. Alternatively, the commercially available antacid Gaviscon can be used as a source of sodium alginate. The crosslinks can then be broken by shaking the worms in brine. The demonstration is a fine addition to any chemical educator's repertoire of polymer experiments.

  5. 40 CFR 63.1409 - Heat exchange system provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Heat exchange system provisions. 63... exchange system provisions. (a) Unless one or more of the conditions specified in paragraphs (a)(1) through... each heat exchange system used to cool process equipment in an affected source, according to...

  6. Triple loop heat exchanger for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1984-01-01

    A triple loop heat exchanger for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. The triple loop heat exchanger comprises portions of a strong solution line for conducting relatively hot, strong solution from a generator to a solution heat exchanger of the absorption refrigeration system, conduit means for conducting relatively cool, weak solution from the solution heat exchanger to the generator, and a bypass system for conducting strong solution from the generator around the strong solution line and around the solution heat exchanger to an absorber of the refrigeration system when strong solution builds up in the generator to an undesirable level. The strong solution line and the conduit means are in heat exchange relationship with each other in the triple loop heat exchanger so that, during normal operation of the refrigeration system, heat is exchanged between the relatively hot, strong solution flowing through the strong solution line and the relatively cool, weak solution flowing through the conduit means. Also, the strong solution line and the bypass system are in heat exchange relationship in the triple loop heat exchanger so that if the normal flow path of relatively hot, strong solution flowing from the generator to an absorber is blocked, then this relatively, hot strong solution which will then be flowing through the bypass system in the triple loop heat exchanger, is brought into heat exchange relationship with any strong solution which may have solidified in the strong solution line in the triple loop heat exchanger to thereby aid in desolidifying any such solidified strong solution.

  7. Supporting Equitable Food Systems Through Food Assistance at Farmers' Markets

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Rajiv

    2011-01-01

    The failure to consider access to food resources in an integrated way may lead to inequalities in nutritional opportunities among populations. Working with community groups and other public agencies, the San Francisco Department of Public Health has led interagency food system planning in San Francisco, California, since 2002. We report on one of the interventions within that initiative—a partnership between a public health agency, a local nonprofit organization, and the local food stamp program to institutionalize improved access to farmers' markets for federal food assistance beneficiaries. We further report on monitoring data collected at farmers' markets that documents significant and sustained increases of utilization by food stamp recipients since the initial intervention. PMID:21421954

  8. 21 CFR 26.41 - Exchange and endorsement of quality system evaluation reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... bodies (CAB's) will provide FDA with reports of quality system evaluations, as follows: (1) For... EC Notified Body of the manufacturer's choice: (1) Full reports of initial quality system evaluations... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exchange and endorsement of quality...

  9. 21 CFR 26.41 - Exchange and endorsement of quality system evaluation reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... bodies (CAB's) will provide FDA with reports of quality system evaluations, as follows: (1) For... EC Notified Body of the manufacturer's choice: (1) Full reports of initial quality system evaluations... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exchange and endorsement of quality...

  10. Heat exchanger with auxiliary cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Coleman, John H.

    1980-01-01

    A heat exchanger with an auxiliary cooling system capable of cooling a nuclear reactor should the normal cooling mechanism become inoperable. A cooling coil is disposed around vertical heat transfer tubes that carry secondary coolant therethrough and is located in a downward flow of primary coolant that passes in heat transfer relationship with both the cooling coil and the vertical heat transfer tubes. A third coolant is pumped through the cooling coil which absorbs heat from the primary coolant which increases the downward flow of the primary coolant thereby increasing the natural circulation of the primary coolant through the nuclear reactor.

  11. The future of the global food system.

    PubMed

    Godfray, H Charles J; Crute, Ian R; Haddad, Lawrence; Lawrence, David; Muir, James F; Nisbett, Nicholas; Pretty, Jules; Robinson, Sherman; Toulmin, Camilla; Whiteley, Rosalind

    2010-09-27

    Although food prices in major world markets are at or near a historical low, there is increasing concern about food security-the ability of the world to provide healthy and environmentally sustainable diets for all its peoples. This article is an introduction to a collection of reviews whose authors were asked to explore the major drivers affecting the food system between now and 2050. A first set of papers explores the main factors affecting the demand for food (population growth, changes in consumption patterns, the effects on the food system of urbanization and the importance of understanding income distributions) with a second examining trends in future food supply (crops, livestock, fisheries and aquaculture, and 'wild food'). A third set explores exogenous factors affecting the food system (climate change, competition for water, energy and land, and how agriculture depends on and provides ecosystem services), while the final set explores cross-cutting themes (food system economics, food wastage and links with health). Two of the clearest conclusions that emerge from the collected papers are that major advances in sustainable food production and availability can be achieved with the concerted application of current technologies (given sufficient political will), and the importance of investing in research sooner rather than later to enable the food system to cope with both known and unknown challenges in the coming decades.

  12. 40 CFR 63.1328 - Heat exchange systems provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Heat exchange systems provisions. 63... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1328 Heat exchange... of this subpart. (h) The compliance date for heat exchange systems subject to the provisions of...

  13. The future of the global food system

    PubMed Central

    Godfray, H. Charles J.; Crute, Ian R.; Haddad, Lawrence; Lawrence, David; Muir, James F.; Nisbett, Nicholas; Pretty, Jules; Robinson, Sherman; Toulmin, Camilla; Whiteley, Rosalind

    2010-01-01

    Although food prices in major world markets are at or near a historical low, there is increasing concern about food security—the ability of the world to provide healthy and environmentally sustainable diets for all its peoples. This article is an introduction to a collection of reviews whose authors were asked to explore the major drivers affecting the food system between now and 2050. A first set of papers explores the main factors affecting the demand for food (population growth, changes in consumption patterns, the effects on the food system of urbanization and the importance of understanding income distributions) with a second examining trends in future food supply (crops, livestock, fisheries and aquaculture, and ‘wild food’). A third set explores exogenous factors affecting the food system (climate change, competition for water, energy and land, and how agriculture depends on and provides ecosystem services), while the final set explores cross-cutting themes (food system economics, food wastage and links with health). Two of the clearest conclusions that emerge from the collected papers are that major advances in sustainable food production and availability can be achieved with the concerted application of current technologies (given sufficient political will), and the importance of investing in research sooner rather than later to enable the food system to cope with both known and unknown challenges in the coming decades. PMID:20713383

  14. Peak oil, food systems, and public health.

    PubMed

    Neff, Roni A; Parker, Cindy L; Kirschenmann, Frederick L; Tinch, Jennifer; Lawrence, Robert S

    2011-09-01

    Peak oil is the phenomenon whereby global oil supplies will peak, then decline, with extraction growing increasingly costly. Today's globalized industrial food system depends on oil for fueling farm machinery, producing pesticides, and transporting goods. Biofuels production links oil prices to food prices. We examined food system vulnerability to rising oil prices and the public health consequences. In the short term, high food prices harm food security and equity. Over time, high prices will force the entire food system to adapt. Strong preparation and advance investment may mitigate the extent of dislocation and hunger. Certain social and policy changes could smooth adaptation; public health has an essential role in promoting a proactive, smart, and equitable transition that increases resilience and enables adequate food for all.

  15. Peak Oil, Food Systems, and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Cindy L.; Kirschenmann, Frederick L.; Tinch, Jennifer; Lawrence, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Peak oil is the phenomenon whereby global oil supplies will peak, then decline, with extraction growing increasingly costly. Today's globalized industrial food system depends on oil for fueling farm machinery, producing pesticides, and transporting goods. Biofuels production links oil prices to food prices. We examined food system vulnerability to rising oil prices and the public health consequences. In the short term, high food prices harm food security and equity. Over time, high prices will force the entire food system to adapt. Strong preparation and advance investment may mitigate the extent of dislocation and hunger. Certain social and policy changes could smooth adaptation; public health has an essential role in promoting a proactive, smart, and equitable transition that increases resilience and enables adequate food for all. PMID:21778492

  16. Thermal Propulsion Capture System Heat Exchanger Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, Evan M.

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges of manned spaceflight beyond low earth orbit and the moon is harmful radiation that astronauts would be exposed to on their long journey to Mars and further destinations. Using nuclear energy has the potential to be a more effective means of propulsion compared to traditional chemical engines (higher specific impulse). An upper stage nuclear engine would allow astronauts to reach their destination faster and more fuel efficiently. Testing these engines poses engineering challenges due to the need to totally capture the engine exhaust. The Thermal Propulsion Capture System is a concept for cost effectively and safely testing Nuclear Thermal Engines. Nominally, hydrogen exhausted from the engine is not radioactive, but is treated as such in case of fuel element failure. The Thermal Propulsion Capture System involves injecting liquid oxygen to convert the hydrogen exhaust into steam. The steam is then cooled and condensed into liquid water to allow for storage. The Thermal Propulsion Capture System concept for ground testing of a nuclear powered engine involves capturing the engine exhaust to be cooled and condensed before being stored. The hydrogen exhaust is injected with liquid oxygen and burned to form steam. That steam must be cooled to saturation temperatures before being condensed into liquid water. A crossflow heat exchanger using water as a working fluid will be designed to accomplish this goal. Design a cross flow heat exchanger for the Thermal Propulsion Capture System testing which: Eliminates the need for water injection cooling, Cools steam from 5800 F to saturation temperature, and Is efficient and minimizes water requirement.

  17. A Food Systems Approach To Healthy Food And Agriculture Policy.

    PubMed

    Neff, Roni A; Merrigan, Kathleen; Wallinga, David

    2015-11-01

    Food has become a prominent focus of US public health policy. The emphasis has been almost exclusively on what Americans eat, not what is grown or how it is grown. A field of research, policy, and practice activities addresses the food-health-agriculture nexus, yet the work is still often considered "alternative" to the mainstream. This article outlines the diverse ways in which agriculture affects public health. It then describes three policy issues: farm-to-school programming, sustainability recommendations in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and antibiotic use in animal agriculture. These issues illustrate the progress, challenges, and public health benefits of taking a food systems approach that brings together the food, agriculture, and public health fields.

  18. Food Systems and Public Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Neff, Roni A.; Palmer, Anne M.; Mckenzie, Shawn E.; Lawrence, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    The United States has set a national goal to eliminate health disparities. This article emphasizes the importance of food systems in generating and exacerbating health disparities in the United States and suggests avenues for reducing them. It presents a conceptual model showing how broad food system conditions interplay with community food environments—and how these relationships are filtered and refracted through prisms of social disparities to generate and exacerbate health disparities. Interactions with demand factors in the social environment are described. The article also highlights the separate food systems pathway to health disparities via environmental and occupational health effects of agriculture. PMID:23173027

  19. Orbital Propagation of Momentum Exchange Tether Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westerhoff, John

    2002-01-01

    An advanced concept in in-space transportation currently being studied is the Momentum-Exchange/Electrodynamic Reboost Tether System (MXER). The system acts as a large momentum wheel, imparting a Av to a payload in low earth orbit (LEO) at the expense of its own orbital energy. After throwing a payload, the system reboosts itself using an electrodynamic tether to push against Earth's magnetic field and brings itself back up to an operational orbit to prepare for the next payload. The ability to reboost itself allows for continued reuse of the system without the expenditure of propellants. Considering the cost of lifting propellant from the ,ground to LEO to do the same Av boost at $10000 per pound, the system cuts the launch cost of the payload dramatically, and subsequently, the MXER system pays for itself after a small number of missions.1 One of the technical hurdles to be overcome with the MXER concept is the rendezvous maneuver. The rendezvous window for the capture of the payload is on the order of a few seconds, as opposed to traditional docking maneuvers, which can take as long ets necessary to complete a precise docking. The payload, therefore, must be able to match its orbit to meet up with the capture device on the end of the tether at a specific time and location in the future. In order to be able to determine that location, the MXER system must be numerically propagated forward in time to predict where the capture device will be at that instant. It should be kept in mind that the propagation computation must be done faster than real-time. This study focuses on the efforts to find and/or build the tools necessary to numerically propagate the motion of the MXER system as accurately as possible.

  20. RiverHeath: Neighborhood Loop Geothermal Exchange System

    SciTech Connect

    Geall, Mark

    2016-07-11

    The goal of the RiverHeath project is to develop a geothermal exchange system at lower capital infrastructure cost than current geothermal exchange systems. The RiverHeath system features an innovative design that incorporates use of the adjacent river through river-based heat exchange plates. The flowing water provides a tremendous amount of heat transfer. As a result, the installation cost of this geothermal exchange system is lower than more traditional vertical bore systems. Many urban areas are located along rivers and other waterways. RiverHeath will serve as a template for other projects adjacent to the water.

  1. Food consumption and food exchange of caged honey bees using a radioactive labelled sugar solution

    PubMed Central

    Libor, Anika; Kupelwieser, Vera; Crailsheim, Karl

    2017-01-01

    We measured the distribution of sugar solution within groups of caged honey bees (Apis mellifera) under standard in vitro laboratory conditions using 14C polyethylene glycol as a radioactive marker to analyze ingestion by individual bees after group feeding. We studied the impact of different experimental setups by varying the number of bees, age of bees, origin of bees, duration of experiment, the amount of available diet, and the influence of the neurotoxic pesticide imidacloprid in the diet on the feeding and food sharing behavior (trophallaxis). Sugar solution was non-uniformly distributed in bees in 36 out of 135 cages. As a measure of the extent to which the sugar diet was equally distributed between caged bees, we calculated the (inner 80%) intake ratio by dividing the intake of the 90th percentile bee by the intake of the 10th percentile bee. This intake ratio ranged from 1.3 to 94.8 in 133 individual cages, further supporting a non-uniform distribution of food among caged bees. We can expect a cage with 10 or 30 bees containing one bee that ingests, on average, the 8.8-fold of the bee in the same cage ingesting the smallest quantity of food. Inner 80% intake ratios were lower in experiments with a permanent or chronic offering of labelled sugar solution compared to temporary or acute feedings. After pooling the data of replicates to achieve a higher statistical power we compared different experimental setups. We found that uniform food distribution is best approached with 10 newly emerged bees per cage, which originate from a brood comb from a single colony. We also investigated the trophallaxis between caged honey bees which originally consumed the diet and newly added bees. Color marked bees were starved and added to the cages in a ratio of 10:5 or 20:20 after the initial set of bees consumed all the labelled sugar solution. The distribution of the labelled sugar solution by trophallaxis within 48 hours to added bees was 25% (10:5) or 45% (20:20) of the

  2. Food consumption and food exchange of caged honey bees using a radioactive labelled sugar solution.

    PubMed

    Brodschneider, Robert; Libor, Anika; Kupelwieser, Vera; Crailsheim, Karl

    2017-01-01

    We measured the distribution of sugar solution within groups of caged honey bees (Apis mellifera) under standard in vitro laboratory conditions using 14C polyethylene glycol as a radioactive marker to analyze ingestion by individual bees after group feeding. We studied the impact of different experimental setups by varying the number of bees, age of bees, origin of bees, duration of experiment, the amount of available diet, and the influence of the neurotoxic pesticide imidacloprid in the diet on the feeding and food sharing behavior (trophallaxis). Sugar solution was non-uniformly distributed in bees in 36 out of 135 cages. As a measure of the extent to which the sugar diet was equally distributed between caged bees, we calculated the (inner 80%) intake ratio by dividing the intake of the 90th percentile bee by the intake of the 10th percentile bee. This intake ratio ranged from 1.3 to 94.8 in 133 individual cages, further supporting a non-uniform distribution of food among caged bees. We can expect a cage with 10 or 30 bees containing one bee that ingests, on average, the 8.8-fold of the bee in the same cage ingesting the smallest quantity of food. Inner 80% intake ratios were lower in experiments with a permanent or chronic offering of labelled sugar solution compared to temporary or acute feedings. After pooling the data of replicates to achieve a higher statistical power we compared different experimental setups. We found that uniform food distribution is best approached with 10 newly emerged bees per cage, which originate from a brood comb from a single colony. We also investigated the trophallaxis between caged honey bees which originally consumed the diet and newly added bees. Color marked bees were starved and added to the cages in a ratio of 10:5 or 20:20 after the initial set of bees consumed all the labelled sugar solution. The distribution of the labelled sugar solution by trophallaxis within 48 hours to added bees was 25% (10:5) or 45% (20:20) of the

  3. Heat exchanger bypass system for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1984-01-01

    A heat exchanger bypass system for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. The bypass system operates to pass strong solution from the generator around the heat exchanger to the absorber of the absorption refrigeration system when strong solution builds up in the generator above a selected level indicative of solidification of strong solution in the heat exchanger or other such blockage. The bypass system includes a bypass line with a gooseneck located in the generator for controlling flow of strong solution into the bypass line and for preventing refrigerant vapor in the generator from entering the bypass line during normal operation of the refrigeration system. Also, the bypass line includes a trap section filled with liquid for providing a barrier to maintain the normal pressure difference between the generator and the absorber even when the gooseneck of the bypass line is exposed to refrigerant vapor in the generator. Strong solution, which may accumulate in the trap section of the bypass line, is diluted, to prevent solidification, by supplying weak solution to the trap section from a purge system for the absorption refrigeration system.

  4. Ion-exchange chromatography separation applied to mineral recycle in closed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballou, E.; Spitze, L. A.; Wong, F. W.; Wydeven, T.; Johnson, C. C.

    1981-01-01

    As part of the controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) program, a study is being made of mineral separation on ion-exchange columns. The purpose of the mineral separation step is to allow minerals to be recycled from the oxidized waste products of plants, man, and animals for hydroponic food production. In the CELSS application, relatively large quantities of minerals in a broad concentration range must be recovered by the desired system, rather than the trace quantities and very low concentrations treated in analytical applications of ion-exchange chromatography. Experiments have been carried out to assess the parameters pertinent to the scale-up of ion-exchange chromatography and to determine feasibility. Preliminary conclusions are that the column scale-up is in a reasonable size range for the CELSS application. The recycling of a suitable eluent, however, remains a major challenge to the suitability of using ion exchange chromatography in closed systems.

  5. Soy protein utilization in food systems.

    PubMed

    Bookwalter, G N

    1978-01-01

    Soy protein products are utilized in food systems as whole beans, flours and grits, concentrates and isolates, and textured products. Soy proteins play a significant role in food systems as a source of supplementary and complementary protein and contribute functional properties such as solubility, water absorption, viscosity, emulsification, texture, and antioxidation. Whole soybeans are processed into snack foods, beverages, and fermented foods. Soy protein is an ideal supplement for cereal protein because it corrects lysine and other amino acid deficiencies. Blends of soy flour or grits with cereals such as corn, wheat, or sorghum are widely used in world feeding programs. The blends are also valuable in domestic food systems such as breakfast cereals and baked foods. Concentrates and isolates are utilized in processed meats and baby foods. Isolates are utilized in processed meats and baby foods. Isolates are employed as whipping agents and coffee whiteners. Thermoplastic extrusion of defatted flours or protein concentrates produces an expanded type of textured protein. Isolated soy protein is converted to meat analogs by a spun fiber process. Textured soy protein products are used to extend or replace meat products in food systems.

  6. Resilience in the global food system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seekell, David; Carr, Joel; Dell’Angelo, Jampel; D’Odorico, Paolo; Fader, Marianela; Gephart, Jessica; Kummu, Matti; Magliocca, Nicholas; Porkka, Miina; Puma, Michael; Ratajczak, Zak; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Suweis, Samir; Tavoni, Alessandro

    2017-02-01

    Ensuring food security requires food production and distribution systems function throughout disruptions. Understanding the factors that contribute to the global food system’s ability to respond and adapt to such disruptions (i.e. resilience) is critical for understanding the long-term sustainability of human populations. Variable impacts of production shocks on food supply between countries indicate a need for national-scale resilience indicators that can provide global comparisons. However, methods for tracking changes in resilience have had limited application to food systems. We developed an indicator-based analysis of food systems resilience for the years 1992–2011. Our approach is based on three dimensions of resilience: socio-economic access to food in terms of income of the poorest quintile relative to food prices, biophysical capacity to intensify or extensify food production, and the magnitude and diversity of current domestic food production. The socio-economic indicator has a large variability, but with low values concentrated in Africa and Asia. The biophysical capacity indicator is highest in Africa and Eastern Europe, in part because of a high potential for extensification of cropland and for yield gap closure in cultivated areas. However, the biophysical capacity indicator has declined globally in recent years. The production diversity indicator has increased slightly, with a relatively even geographic distribution. Few countries had exclusively high or low values for all indicators. Collectively, these results are the basis for global comparisons of resilience between countries, and provide necessary context for developing generalizations about resilience in the global food system.

  7. Unbiased isotope equilibrium factors from partial isotope exchange experiments in 3-exchange site systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrinier, Pierre; Javoy, Marc

    2016-09-01

    Two methods are available in order to evaluate the equilibrium isotope fractionation factors between exchange sites or phases from partial isotope exchange experiments. The first one developed by Northrop and Clayton (1966) is designed for isotope exchanges between two exchange sites (hereafter, the N&C method), the second one from Zheng et al. (1994) is a refinement of the first one to account for a third isotope exchanging site (hereafter, the Z method). In this paper, we use a simple model of isotope kinetic exchange for a 3-exchange site system (such as hydroxysilicates where oxygen occurs as OH and non-OH groups like in muscovite, chlorite, serpentine, or water or calcite) to explore the behavior of the N&C and Z methods. We show that these two methods lead to significant biases that cannot be detected with the usual graphical tests proposed by the authors. Our model shows that biases originate because isotopes are fractionated between all these exchanging sites. Actually, we point out that the variable mobility (or exchangeability) of isotopes in and between the exchange sites only controls the amplitude of the bias, but is not essential to the production of this bias as previously suggested. Setting a priori two of the three exchange sites at isotopic equilibrium remove the bias and thus is required for future partial exchange experiments to produce accurate and unbiased extrapolated equilibrium fractionation factors. Our modeling applied to published partial oxygen isotope exchange experiments for 3-exchange site systems (the muscovite-calcite (Chacko et al., 1996), the chlorite-water (Cole and Ripley, 1998) and the serpentine-water (Saccocia et al., 2009)) shows that the extrapolated equilibrium fractionation factors (reported as 1000 ln(α)) using either the N&C or the Z methods lead to bias that may reach several δ per mil in a few cases. These problematic cases, may be because experiments were conducted at low temperature and did not reach high

  8. Feeding and Stocking Up: Radio-Labelled Food Reveals Exchange Patterns in Ants

    PubMed Central

    Buffin, Aurélie; Denis, Damien; Van Simaeys, Gaetan; Goldman, Serge; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis

    2009-01-01

    Food sharing is vital for a large number of species, either solitary or social, and is of particular importance within highly integrated societies, such as in colonial organisms and in social insects. Nevertheless, the mechanisms that govern the distribution of food inside a complex organizational system remain unknown. Using scintigraphy, a method developed for medical imaging, we were able to describe the dynamics of food-flow inside an ant colony. We monitored the sharing process of a radio-labelled sucrose solution inside a nest of Formica fusca. Our results show that, from the very first load that enters the nest, food present within the colony acts as negative feedback to entering food. After one hour of the experiments, 70% of the final harvest has already entered the nest. The total foraged quantity is almost four times smaller than the expected storage capacity. A finer study of the spatial distribution of food shows that although all ants have been fed rapidly (within 30 minutes), a small area representing on average 8% of the radioactive surface holds more than 25% of the stored food. Even in rather homogeneous nests, we observed a strong concentration of food in few workers. Examining the position of these workers inside the nest, we found heavily loaded ants in the centre of the aggregate. The position of the centre of this high-intensity radioactive surface remained stable for the three consecutive hours of the experiments. We demonstrate that the colony simultaneously managed to rapidly feed all workers (200 ants fed within 30 minutes) and build up food stocks to prevent food shortage, something that occurs rather often in changing environments. Though we expected the colony to forage to its maximum capacity, the flow of food entering the colony is finely tuned to the colony's needs. Indeed the food-flow decreases proportionally to the food that has already been harvested, liberating the work-force for other tasks. PMID:19536275

  9. 40 CFR 63.654 - Heat exchange systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Heat exchange systems. 63.654 Section... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.654 Heat exchange systems. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, the owner or operator of a heat...

  10. Cockroaches that exchange respiratory gases discontinuously survive food and water restriction.

    PubMed

    Schimpf, Natalie G; Matthews, Philip G D; White, Craig R

    2012-02-01

    Metabolic rate and respiratory gas exchange patterns vary significantly both between and within species, even after a number of biotic and abiotic factors are taken into account. This suggests that such variation is of evolutionary importance, but the life history implications of this variation remain relatively poorly characterized. In the present study, we examine the effect of metabolic variation on starvation and desiccation resistance in the speckled cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea. We also compare the starvation and desiccation resistance of individuals that exchange respiratory gases continuously with those that breathe discontinuously. We show that metabolic rate has no effect on survival during food and water restriction, but cockroaches exhibiting discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs) live longer than those that do not and those provisioned with water lived longer than those that were not. This finding represents the first demonstration that DGCs confer a fitness benefit, and supports the oldest hypothesis for the evolution of DGCs (which suggests that DGCs arose or are maintained to reduce respiratory water loss) as we also reveal reduced water loss (both respiratory and total) in cockroaches exhibiting discontinuous gas exchange.

  11. Isotope effects of neodymium in different ligands exchange systems studied by ion exchange displacement chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Ibrahim; Fawzy, Ahmed S; Ahmad, Mohammad I; Aly, Hisham F; Nomura, Masao; Fujii, Yasuhiko

    2013-03-01

    The isotope effects of neodymium in Nd-glycolate ligand exchange system were studied by using ion exchange chromatography. The separation coefficients of neodymium isotopes, ε's, were calculated from the observed isotopic ratios at the front and rear boundaries of the neodymium adsorption band. The values of separation coefficients of neodymium isotopes, ε's, for the Nd-glycolate ligand exchange system were compared with those of Nd-malate and Nd-citrate, which indicated that the isotope effects of neodymium as studied by the three ligands takes the following direction Malate > Citrate > Glycolate. This order agrees with the number of available sites for complexation of each ligand. The values of the plate height, HETP of Nd in Nd-ligand exchange systems were also calculated.

  12. Isotope effects of neodymium in different ligands exchange systems studied by ion exchange displacement chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Ibrahim; Fawzy, Ahmed S.; Ahmad, Mohammad I.; Aly, Hisham F.; Nomura, Masao; Fujii, Yasuhiko

    2012-01-01

    The isotope effects of neodymium in Nd-glycolate ligand exchange system were studied by using ion exchange chromatography. The separation coefficients of neodymium isotopes, ε’s, were calculated from the observed isotopic ratios at the front and rear boundaries of the neodymium adsorption band. The values of separation coefficients of neodymium isotopes, ε’s, for the Nd-glycolate ligand exchange system were compared with those of Nd-malate and Nd-citrate, which indicated that the isotope effects of neodymium as studied by the three ligands takes the following direction Malate > Citrate > Glycolate. This order agrees with the number of available sites for complexation of each ligand. The values of the plate height, HETP of Nd in Nd-ligand exchange systems were also calculated. PMID:25685410

  13. Shuttle and ISS Food Systems Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kloeris, Vickie

    2000-01-01

    Russia and the U.S. provide the current International Space Station (ISS) food system. Each country contributes half of the food supply in their respective flight food packaging. All of the packaged flight food is stowed in Russian provided containers, which interface with the Service Module galley. Each country accepts the other's flight worthiness inspections and qualifications. Some of the food for the first ISS crew was launched to ISS inside the Service Module in July of 2000, and STS-106 in September 2000 delivered more food to the ISS. All subsequent food deliveries will be made by Progress, the Russian re-supply vehicle. The U.S. will ship their portion of food to Moscow for loading onto the Progress. Delivery schedules vary, but the goal is to maintain at least a 45-day supply onboard ISS at all times. The shelf life for ISS food must be at least one year, in order to accommodate the long delivery cycle and onboard storage. Preservation techniques utilized in the US food system include dehydration, thermo stabilization, intermediate moisture, and irradiation. Additional fresh fruits and vegetables will be sent with each Progress and Shuttle flights as permitted by volume allotments. There is limited refrigeration available on the Service Module to store fresh fruits and vegetables. Astronauts and cosmonauts eat half U.S. and half Russian food. Menu planning begins 1 year before a planned launch. The flight crews taste food in the U.S. and in Russia and rate the acceptability. A preliminary menu is planned, based on these ratings and the nutritional requirements. The preliminary menu is then evaluated by the crews while training in Russia. Inputs from this evaluation are used to finalize the menu and flight packaging is initiated. Flight food is delivered 6 weeks before launch. The current challenge for the food system is meeting the nutritional requirements, especially no more than 10 mg iron, and 3500 mg sodium. Experience from Shuttle[Mir also indicated

  14. Interface mixing and its impact on exchange coupling in exchange biased systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manna, P. K.; Skoropata, E.; Ting, Y.-W.; Lin, K.-W.; Freeland, J. W.; van Lierop, J.

    2016-12-01

    Exchange bias and interlayer exchange coupling are interface driven phenomena. Since an ideal interface is very challenging to achieve, a clear understanding of the chemical and magnetic natures of interfaces is pivotal to identify their influence on the magnetism. We have chosen Ni80Fe20/CoO(t CoO)/Co trilayers as a model system, and identified non-stoichiometric Ni-ferrite and Co-ferrite at the surface and interface, respectively. These ferrites, being ferrimagnets typically, should influence the exchange coupling. However, in our trilayers the interface ferrites were found not to be ferro- or ferri-magnetic; thus having no observable influence on the exchange coupling. Our analysis also revealed that (i) interlayer exchange coupling was present between Ni80Fe20 and Co even though the interlayer thickness was significantly larger than expected for this phenomenon to happen, and (ii) the majority of the CoO layer (except some portion near the interface) did not contribute to the observed exchange bias. We also identified that the interlayer exchange coupling and the exchange bias properties were not interdependent.

  15. Interface mixing and its impact on exchange coupling in exchange biased systems.

    PubMed

    Manna, P K; Skoropata, E; Ting, Y-W; Lin, K-W; Freeland, J W; van Lierop, J

    2016-12-07

    Exchange bias and interlayer exchange coupling are interface driven phenomena. Since an ideal interface is very challenging to achieve, a clear understanding of the chemical and magnetic natures of interfaces is pivotal to identify their influence on the magnetism. We have chosen Ni80Fe20/CoO(t CoO)/Co trilayers as a model system, and identified non-stoichiometric Ni-ferrite and Co-ferrite at the surface and interface, respectively. These ferrites, being ferrimagnets typically, should influence the exchange coupling. However, in our trilayers the interface ferrites were found not to be ferro- or ferri-magnetic; thus having no observable influence on the exchange coupling. Our analysis also revealed that (i) interlayer exchange coupling was present between Ni80Fe20 and Co even though the interlayer thickness was significantly larger than expected for this phenomenon to happen, and (ii) the majority of the CoO layer (except some portion near the interface) did not contribute to the observed exchange bias. We also identified that the interlayer exchange coupling and the exchange bias properties were not interdependent.

  16. Governance Challenges in Telecoupled Food Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eakin, H.; Mahanti, A.; Rueda, X.

    2015-12-01

    Distal connections increasingly influence food systems' governance: social actors in one geographic context produce intended and unintended consequences in distant locations, coupling the dynamics of socio-ecological systems. While these linkages are not new, economic globalization, urbanization and the dynamics of consumer preferences have accentuated these 'telecoupled' relationships in food systems. Telecoupling refers to the unexpected causal interactions among human-environment systems that were otherwise not linked. This paper presents a framework for evaluating telecoupling processes and outcomes in food systems, focusing on how the disparate scales of drivers and outcomes, diverse values of actors involved, and spatial and social distance combine to challenge socio-ecological system governance. We draw from two examples of food systems (coffee and maize) to argue that telecoupling, as a challenge for food systems, emerges when the institutions and mechanisms of governance acting over one system do not account for the consequences and interactions involving a different system. Telecoupling can stimulate new forms of governance, such as the development of codes of conduct and certification schemes, with positive impacts on food and livelihood security. Our cases suggest that the emergence of new governance arrangements is at least partially contingent on the prior existence of alternative social networks, which cultivate shared values, meanings and goals in food systems, as well as the capacity of affected actors to mobilize political influence and demonstrate plausible causal links. In the absence of such networks and associated capacities, the prior governance arrangements, although poorly adjusted to the new circumstances, are likely to persist, reinforcing existing power relations and the probability of undesirable social and ecological outcomes.

  17. Transforming Food Systems through Food Sovereignty: An Australian Urban Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davila, Federico; Dyball, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on La Via Campesina's definition of food sovereignty and its potential for reconceptualising food as a basic human right within the dominant Australian food discourse. We argue that the educative value that emerges from urban food production in Australia stems from the action of growing food and its capacity to transform…

  18. Sustainable diets within sustainable food systems.

    PubMed

    Meybeck, Alexandre; Gitz, Vincent

    2017-02-01

    Sustainable diets and sustainable food systems are increasingly explored by diverse scientific disciplines. They are also recognised by the international community and called upon to orient action towards the eradication of hunger and malnutrition and the fulfilment of sustainable development goals. The aim of the present paper is to briefly consider some of the links between these two notions in order to facilitate the operationalisation of the concept of sustainable diet. The concept of sustainable diet was defined in 2010 combining two totally different perspectives: a nutrition perspective, focused on individuals, and a global sustainability perspective, in all its dimensions: environmental, economic and social. The nutrition perspective can be easily related to health outcomes. The global sustainability perspective is more difficult to analyse directly. We propose that it be measured as the contribution of a diet to the sustainability of food systems. Such an approach, covering the three dimensions of sustainability, enables identification of interactions and interrelations between food systems and diets. It provides opportunities to find levers of change towards sustainability. Diets are both the results and the drivers of food systems. The drivers of change for those variously involved, consumers and private individuals, are different, and can be triggered by different dimensions (heath, environment, social and cultural). Combining different dimensions and reasons for change can help facilitate the transition to sustainable diets, recognising the food system's specificities. The adoption of sustainable diets can be facilitated and enabled by food systems, and by appropriate policies and incentives.

  19. Suzaku Observations of Charge Exchange Emission from Solar System Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ezoe, Y.; Fujimoto, R.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Mitsuda, K.; Ohashi, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Oishi, S.; Miyoshi, Y; Terada, N.; Futaana, Y.; Porter, F. S.; Brown, G. V.

    2012-01-01

    Recent results of charge exchange emission from solar system objects observed with the Japanese Suzaku satellite are reviewed. Suzaku is of great importance to investigate diffuse X-ray emission like the charge exchange from planetary exospheres and comets. The Suzaku studies of Earth's exosphere, Martian exosphere, Jupiter's aurorae, and comets are overviewed.

  20. Food Systems: Modern Technology, Transnationalization, Regional and National Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Social Science Journal, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Topics discussed include: the emergence of biotechnology; modern food technology; strategies of transnational food companies; transnational agribusiness firms and Mexican agriculture; food production in Western Europe; the agro-industrial system of the USSR; food systems in India; food production systems of the Senegal River; and production modes…

  1. Space food systems - Mercury through Apollo.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, N. G.; Smith, M. C.

    1972-01-01

    Major achievements which characterized the development of food systems used by American astronauts in manned space flight are reviewed throughout a period spanning the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo programs up to and including the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. Lists of food types are accompanied by information on packaging, storage, preparation, consumption, and quality of particular products. Experience gained from development efforts for the Manned Orbiting Laboratory Program is also discussed.

  2. Sunlight supply and gas exchange systems in microalgal bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mori, K.; Ohya, H.; Matsumoto, K.; Furune, H.

    1987-01-01

    The bioreactor with sunlight supply system and gas exchange systems presented has proved feasible in ground tests and shows much promise for space use as a closed ecological life support system device. The chief conclusions concerning the specification of total system needed for a life support system for a man in a space station are the following: (1) Sunlight supply system - compactness and low electrical consumption; (2) Bioreactor system - high density and growth rate of chlorella; and (3) Gas exchange system - enough for O2 production and CO2 assimilation.

  3. EXCHANGE

    SciTech Connect

    Boltz, J.C.

    1992-09-01

    EXCHANGE is published monthly by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), a multidisciplinary facility operated for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of EXCHANGE is to inform computer users about about recent changes and innovations in both the mainframe and personal computer environments and how these changes can affect work being performed at DOE facilities.

  4. Wireless health data exchange for home healthcare monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, Malrey; Gatton, Thomas M

    2010-01-01

    Ubiquitous home healthcare systems have been playing an increasingly significant role in the treatment and management of chronic diseases, such as diabetes and hypertension, but progress has been hampered by the lack of standardization in the exchange of medical health care information. In an effort to establish standardization, this paper proposes a home healthcare monitoring system data exchange scheme between the HL7 standard and the IEEE1451 standard. IEEE1451 is a standard for special sensor networks, such as industrial control and smart homes, and defines a suite of interfaces that communicate among heterogeneous networks. HL7 is the standard for medical information exchange among medical organizations and medical personnel. While it provides a flexible data exchange in health care domains, it does not provide for data exchange with sensors. Thus, it is necessary to develop a data exchange schema to convert data between the HL7 and the IEEE1451 standard. This paper proposes a schema that can exchange data between HL7 devices and the monitoring device, and conforms to the IEEE 1451 standard. The experimental results and conclusions of this approach are presented and show the feasibility of the proposed exchange schema.

  5. System for exchanging tools and end effectors on a robot

    DOEpatents

    Burry, D.B.; Williams, P.M.

    1991-02-19

    A system and method for exchanging tools and end effectors on a robot permits exchange during a programmed task. The exchange mechanism is located off the robot, thus reducing the mass of the robot arm and permitting smaller robots to perform designated tasks. A simple spring/collet mechanism mounted on the robot is used which permits the engagement and disengagement of the tool or end effector without the need for a rotational orientation of the tool to the end effector/collet interface. As the tool changing system is not located on the robot arm no umbilical cords are located on robot. 12 figures.

  6. System for exchanging tools and end effectors on a robot

    DOEpatents

    Burry, David B.; Williams, Paul M.

    1991-02-19

    A system and method for exchanging tools and end effectors on a robot permits exchange during a programmed task. The exchange mechanism is located off the robot, thus reducing the mass of the robot arm and permitting smaller robots to perform designated tasks. A simple spring/collet mechanism mounted on the robot is used which permits the engagement and disengagement of the tool or end effector without the need for a rotational orientation of the tool to the end effector/collet interface. As the tool changing system is not located on the robot arm no umbilical cords are located on robot.

  7. Information systems in food safety management.

    PubMed

    McMeekin, T A; Baranyi, J; Bowman, J; Dalgaard, P; Kirk, M; Ross, T; Schmid, S; Zwietering, M H

    2006-12-01

    Information systems are concerned with data capture, storage, analysis and retrieval. In the context of food safety management they are vital to assist decision making in a short time frame, potentially allowing decisions to be made and practices to be actioned in real time. Databases with information on microorganisms pertinent to the identification of foodborne pathogens, response of microbial populations to the environment and characteristics of foods and processing conditions are the cornerstone of food safety management systems. Such databases find application in: Identifying pathogens in food at the genus or species level using applied systematics in automated ways. Identifying pathogens below the species level by molecular subtyping, an approach successfully applied in epidemiological investigations of foodborne disease and the basis for national surveillance programs. Predictive modelling software, such as the Pathogen Modeling Program and Growth Predictor (that took over the main functions of Food Micromodel) the raw data of which were combined as the genesis of an international web based searchable database (ComBase). Expert systems combining databases on microbial characteristics, food composition and processing information with the resulting "pattern match" indicating problems that may arise from changes in product formulation or processing conditions. Computer software packages to aid the practical application of HACCP and risk assessment and decision trees to bring logical sequences to establishing and modifying food safety management practices. In addition there are many other uses of information systems that benefit food safety more globally, including: Rapid dissemination of information on foodborne disease outbreaks via websites or list servers carrying commentary from many sources, including the press and interest groups, on the reasons for and consequences of foodborne disease incidents. Active surveillance networks allowing rapid dissemination

  8. Biocentrifuge system capable of exchanging specimen cages while in operational mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belew, R. R. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    The centrifuge comprises a generally circular, rotatably mounted frame carrying a plurality of removable and replaceable cages for the animal specimens. Pairs of opposing cages may be removed from the frame while it is rotating by means of a cage exchanger which rotates concentrically within the centrifuge and the speed of which is controlled independently of the frame speed. An image rotator is provided for selective observation of the rotating animals. The system further includes a waste conveyor system, a food supply system, and a water supply system for each cage for creating a life sustaining environment so that the animals can live in the rotating centrifuge for extended periods.

  9. Biotechnology and food systems in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Timmer, C Peter

    2003-11-01

    Even in a world with adequate food supplies in global markets, which is the situation today, biotechnology offers important opportunities to developing countries in four domains. First, many agronomically hostile or degraded environments require major scientific breakthroughs to become productive agricultural systems. Few of these breakthroughs are likely to be achieved through traditional breeding approaches. Second, biofortification offers the promise of greater quantities and human availabilities of micronutrients from traditional staple foods, with obvious nutritional gains for poor consumers, especially their children. Third, many high yielding agricultural systems are approaching their agronomic potential. Radically new technologies will be required to sustain productivity growth in these systems, and only modern genetic technology offers this hope. Finally, many cropping systems use large quantities of chemical inputs, such as herbicides, pesticides and fertilizers that can be unhealthy for people and soils alike. Biotechnology offers the potential to reduce the need for these inputs in economically and environmentally sustainable ways. Applying these new technologies to society's basic foods raises obvious concerns for both human and ecological health. For some, these concerns have become outright fear, and this has mobilized a backlash against genetically modified foods in any form. These concerns (and fears) must be addressed carefully and rationally so that the public understands the risks (which are not zero) and benefits (which might be enormous). Only the scientific community has the expertise and credibility to build this public understanding.

  10. Climate change impacts on food system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Cai, X.; Zhu, T.

    2014-12-01

    Food system includes biophysical factors (climate, land and water), human environments (production technologies and food consumption, distribution and marketing), as well as the dynamic interactions within them. Climate change affects agriculture and food systems in various ways. Agricultural production can be influenced directly by climatic factors such as mean temperature rising, change in rainfall patterns, and more frequent extreme events. Eventually, climate change could cause shift of arable land, alteration of water availability, abnormal fluctuation of food prices, and increase of people at risk of malnutrition. This work aims to evaluate how climate change would affect agricultural production biophysically and how these effects would propagate to social factors at the global level. In order to model the complex interactions between the natural and social components, a Global Optimization model of Agricultural Land and Water resources (GOALW) is applied to the analysis. GOALW includes various demands of human society (food, feed, other), explicit production module, and irrigation water availability constraint. The objective of GOALW is to maximize global social welfare (consumers' surplus and producers' surplus).Crop-wise irrigation water use in different regions around the world are determined by the model; marginal value of water (MVW) can be obtained from the model, which implies how much additional welfare benefit could be gained with one unit increase in local water availability. Using GOALW, we will analyze two questions in this presentation: 1) how climate change will alter irrigation requirements and how the social system would buffer that by price/demand adjustment; 2) how will the MVW be affected by climate change and what are the controlling factors. These results facilitate meaningful insights for investment and adaptation strategies in sustaining world's food security under climate change.

  11. The Picture Exchange Communication System: Digital Photographs versus Picture Symbols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonaitis, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an augmentative and alternative system (AAC) used to improve and increase communication for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and other developmental disorders. Research addressing the efficacy of this system is increasing; however, there is limited information published that evaluates…

  12. Today's Food System: How Healthy Is It?

    PubMed Central

    Wallinga, David

    2009-01-01

    With its focus on the quantity of production, often to the exclusion of other goals, today's food system is on an unsustainable course. The problem begins with and is driven by industrialized production of both crops and animals. Industrialization is a product of technological change, public policy, and, most recently, globalized trade. The lack of sustainability derives from reliance on the intensive use of nonrenewable and hard-to-renew resources—soil, antibiotics, fresh water, and fossil fuels, for example—but also from the waste and pollution created by the industrial model. For at least 50 years, American agriculture policies have promoted production of, and ultimately lower market prices for, commodity crops like corn, wheat, and soybeans. Over the last 3 decades in particular, these “cheap food” policies have exacerbated the negative impacts of an industrialized agriculture on the health of the agro-ecosystem, as well as on the health of the humans who must share and be sustained by it. Sustainability and health are two sides of the same food system coin. Policies that put US food production on more sustainable footing can help aid in public efforts to address the myriad crises confronting both the food and health systems. PMID:23173026

  13. Integral collector storage system with heat exchange apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, Richard O.

    2004-04-20

    The present invention relates to an integral solar energy collector storage systems. Generally, an integral collector storage system includes a tank system, a plurality of heat exchange tubes with at least some of the heat exchange tubes arranged within the tank system, a first glazing layer positioned over the tank system and a base plate positioned under the tank system. In one aspect of the invention, the tank system, the first glazing layer an the base plate each include protrusions and a clip is provided to hold the layers together. In another aspect of the invention, the first glazing layer and the base plate are ribbed to provide structural support. This arrangement is particularly useful when these components are formed from plastic. In yet another aspect of the invention, the tank system has a plurality of interconnected tank chambers formed from tubes. In this aspect, a supply header pipe and a fluid return header pipe are provided at a first end of the tank system. The heat exchange tubes have inlets coupled to the supply header pipe and outlets coupled to the return header pipe. With this arrangement, the heat exchange tubes may be inserted into the tank chambers from the first end of the tank system.

  14. Information system equality for food security--implementation of the food safety control system in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaun C; Hsu, Guoo-Shyng Wang; Chiu, Chihwei P

    2009-01-01

    Food security plays a central role in governing agricultural policies in Taiwan. In addition to overuse or the illegal use of pesticide, meat leanness promoters, animal drugs and melamine in the food supply; as well as foodborne illness draws the greatest public concern due to incidents that occur every year in Taiwan. The present report demonstrates the implementation of a food safety control system in Taiwan. In order to control foodborne outbreaks effectively, the central government of the Department of Health of Taiwan launched the food safety control system which includes both the good hygienic practice (GHP) and the HACCP plan, in the last decade. From 1998 to the present, 302 food affiliations that implemented the system have been validated and accredited by a well-established audit system. The implementation of a food safety control system in compliance with international standards is of crucial importance to ensure complete safety and the high quality of foods, not only for domestic markets, but also for international trade.

  15. Space shuttle/food system study. Volume 2, Appendix F: Flight food and primary packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The analysis and selection of food items and primary packaging, the development of menus, the nutritional analysis of diet, and the analyses of alternate food mixes and contingency foods is reported in terms of the overall food system design for space shuttle flight. Stowage weights and cubic volumes associated with each alternate mix were also evaluated.

  16. Systemic Change in Higher Education. Western Policy Exchange Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Richard C., Jr.

    The Western Policy Exchange Project is designed to help states assess the implications of environmental changes on their own higher education system. In roundtables and policy workshops, six Western states--Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, South Dakota, Arizona, and Washington--looked for evidence of systemic change and proposed the following five…

  17. Consumer trust in the Australian food system - The everyday erosive impact of food labelling.

    PubMed

    Tonkin, Emma; Webb, Trevor; Coveney, John; Meyer, Samantha B; Wilson, Annabelle M

    2016-08-01

    Consumer trust in food system actors is foundational for ensuring consumer confidence in food safety. As food labelling is a direct communication between consumers and food system actors, it may influence consumer perceptions of actor trustworthiness. This study explores the judgements formed about the trustworthiness of the food system and its actors through labelling, and the expectations these judgements are based on. In-depth, semi-structured interviews with 24 Australian consumers were conducted. Theoretical sampling focussed on shopping location, dietary requirements, rurality, gender, age and educational background. The methodological approach used (adaptive theory) enabled emerging data to be examined through the lens of a set of guiding theoretical concepts, and theory reconsidered in light of emerging data. Food labelling acted as a surrogate for personal interaction with industry and government for participants. Judgements about the trustworthiness of these actors and the broader food system were formed through interaction with food labelling and were based on expectations of both competence and goodwill. Interaction with labelling primarily reduced trust in actors within the food system, undermining trust in the system as a whole. Labelling has a role as an access point to the food system. Access points are points of vulnerability for systems, where trust can be developed, reinforced or broken down. For the participants in this study, in general labelling demonstrates food system actors lack goodwill and violate their fiduciary responsibility. This paper provides crucial insights for industry and policy actors to use this access point to build, rather than undermine, trust in food systems.

  18. Internal dust recirculation system for a fluidized bed heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Gamble, Robert L.; Garcia-Mallol, Juan A.

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed heat exchanger in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel disposed in a housing. A steam/water natural circulation system is provided in a heat exchange relation to the bed and includes a steam drum disposed adjacent the bed and a tube bank extending between the steam drum and a water drum. The tube bank is located in the path of the effluent gases exiting from the bed and a baffle system is provided to separate the solid particulate matter from the effluent gases. The particulate matter is collected and injected back into the fluidized bed.

  19. The Contribution of Food Safety Management Systems to the Prevention of Deliberate Food Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Madeleine

    Food Safety Management systems such as HACCP can help to prevent deliberate contamination of food. These systems are widely used already by the food industry to prevent accidental contamination. This makes them an attractive and cost effective way to address the issue of deliberate contamination.

  20. Review of Food Grouping Systems in Nutrition Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahlstrom, Antti; Rasanen, Leena

    1973-01-01

    Although there are many different approaches to teaching nutrition, food grouping systems have become an almost universal tool. This article is a detailed comparison of food grouping systems in use in 47 countries. (BL)

  1. Food Safety and Quality. Uniform, Risk-Based Inspection System Needed to Ensure Safe Food Supply,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    Concerned about the effectiveness of the federal food safety inspection system, the Chairman, Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, House...federal resources for inspection, and (3) agencies are effectively coordinating their food safety and quality inspection efforts.

  2. U.S. Food System Working Conditions as an Issue of Food Safety.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Megan L; Smith, Katherine C; Pollack, Keshia M; Neff, Roni A; Rutkow, Lainie

    2017-02-01

    Food workers' health and hygiene are common pathways to foodborne disease outbreaks. Improving food system jobs is important to food safety because working conditions impact workers' health, hygiene, and safe food handling. Stakeholders from key industries have advanced working conditions as an issue of public safety in the United States. Yet, for the food industry, stakeholder engagement with this topic is seemingly limited. To understand this lack of action, we interviewed key informants from organizations recognized for their agenda-setting role on food-worker issues. Findings suggest that participants recognize the work standards/food safety connection, yet perceived barriers limit adoption of a food safety frame, including more pressing priorities (e.g., occupational safety); poor fit with organizational strategies and mission; and questionable utility, including potential negative consequences. Using these findings, we consider how public health advocates may connect food working conditions to food and public safety and elevate it to the public policy agenda.

  3. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Requirements for Heat Exchange Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirements for Heat Exchange Systems... Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. HHHHH, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart HHHHH of Part 63—Requirements for Heat Exchange... your heat exchange systems. For each . . . You must . . . Heat exchange system, as defined in §...

  4. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Requirements for Heat Exchange Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for Heat Exchange Systems... Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. HHHHH, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart HHHHH of Part 63—Requirements for Heat Exchange... your heat exchange systems. For each . . . You must . . . Heat exchange system, as defined in §...

  5. Laser metrology in food-related systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Sanchez, Patricia; Lopez, Daniel; Kongraksawech, Teepakorn; Vazquez, Pedro; Torres, J. Antonio; Ramirez, Jose A.; Huerta-Ruelas, Jorge

    2005-02-01

    An optical system was developed using a low-cost semiconductor laser and commercial optical and electronic components, to monitor food processes by measuring changes in optical rotation (OR) of chiral compounds. The OR signal as a function of processing time and sample temperature were collected and recorded using a computer data acquisition system. System has been tested during two different processes: sugar-protein interaction and, beer fermentation process. To study sugar-protein interaction, the following sugars were used: sorbitol, trehalose and sucrose, and in the place of Protein, Serum Albumin Bovine (BSA, A-7906 Sigma-Aldrich). In some food processes, different sugars are added to protect damage of proteins during their processing, storage and/or distribution. Different sugar/protein solutions were prepared and heated above critical temperature of protein denaturation. OR measurements were performed during heating process and effect of different sugars in protein denaturation was measured. Higher sensitivity of these measurements was found compared with Differential Scanning Calorimetry, which needs higher protein concentration to study these interactions. The brewing fermentation process was monitored in-situ using this OR system and validated by correlation with specific density measurements and gas chromatography. This instrument can be implemented to monitor fermentation on-line, thereby determining end of process and optimizing process conditions in an industrial setting. The high sensitivity of developed OR system has no mobile parts and is more flexible than commercial polarimeters providing the capability of implementation in harsh environments, signifying the potential of this method as an in-line technique for quality control in food processing and for experimentation with optically active solutions.

  6. Food Traceability System Tending to Maturation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fengyun; Zhu, Jianhua; Shang, Minghua; Zhao, Yimin; Liu, Shuyun

    The study on food safety traceability system in China started from 2002. During the study and implementation, some related standards and guides have been gradually made, many traceable foods and traceable enterprises were created and a series of traceability subsystems were developed. This paper introduces the importance of food safety traceability system construction, the present construction situation in China and the food safety traceability platform by bar code, deeply analyzes the existing problems and puts forward some advices. It shows that a sound food traceability system has been built in China and tends to maturate. It provides the reference for food safety traceability system construction in developing countries.

  7. Training Paraprofessionals to Implement the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloman, Glenn Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Based on Skinner's "Verbal Behavior" (1957), the picture exchange communication system (PECS) was designed to teach children with autism functional verbal behavior. Much research has demonstrated the effectiveness and efficiency of PECS in building verbal behavior. However, because PECS training is typically presented in a group format and later…

  8. Child Language Data Exchange System Tools for Clinical Analysis.

    PubMed

    MacWhinney, Brian; Fromm, Davida

    2016-05-01

    The Child Language Data Exchange System Project has developed methods for analyzing many aspects of child language development, including grammar, lexicon, discourse, gesture, phonology, and fluency. This article will describe the methods available for each of these six fields, and how they can be used for assessment in the clinical setting.

  9. 40 CFR 63.1409 - Heat exchange system provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) of this section by monitoring using a surrogate indicator of heat exchange system leaks shall comply with the requirements specified in paragraphs (c)(1) through (3) of this section. Surrogate indicators... fluids into cooling water. The plan shall require monitoring of one or more surrogate indicators...

  10. Heat exchange mediated by a quantum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panasyuk, George Y.; Levin, George A.; Yerkes, Kirk L.

    2012-08-01

    We consider heat transfer between two thermal reservoirs mediated by a quantum system using the generalized quantum Langevin equation. The thermal reservoirs are treated as ensembles of oscillators within the framework of the Drude-Ullersma model. General expressions for the heat current and thermal conductance are obtained for arbitrary coupling strength between the reservoirs and the mediator and for different temperature regimes. As an application of these results we discuss the origin of Fourier's law in a chain of large but finite subsystems coupled to each other by the quantum mediators. We also address a question of anomalously large heat current between the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip and substrate found in a recent experiment. The question of minimum thermal conductivity is revisited in the framework of scaling theory as a potential application of the developed approach.

  11. Heat exchange mediated by a quantum system.

    PubMed

    Panasyuk, George Y; Levin, George A; Yerkes, Kirk L

    2012-08-01

    We consider heat transfer between two thermal reservoirs mediated by a quantum system using the generalized quantum Langevin equation. The thermal reservoirs are treated as ensembles of oscillators within the framework of the Drude-Ullersma model. General expressions for the heat current and thermal conductance are obtained for arbitrary coupling strength between the reservoirs and the mediator and for different temperature regimes. As an application of these results we discuss the origin of Fourier's law in a chain of large but finite subsystems coupled to each other by the quantum mediators. We also address a question of anomalously large heat current between the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip and substrate found in a recent experiment. The question of minimum thermal conductivity is revisited in the framework of scaling theory as a potential application of the developed approach.

  12. Life Cycle Thinking, Measurement and Management for Food System Sustainability.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Nathan

    2015-07-07

    Food systems critically contribute to our collective sustainability outcomes. Improving food system sustainability requires life cycle thinking, measurement and management strategies. This article reviews the status quo and future prospects for bringing life cycle approaches to food system sustainability to the fore.

  13. Interfacial spin cluster effects in exchange bias systems

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, R. Vallejo-Fernandez, G.; O'Grady, K.

    2014-05-07

    In this work, the effect of exchange bias on the hysteresis loop of CoFe is observed. The evolution of the coercivities and the shift of the hysteresis loop during the annealing process has been measured for films deposited on NiCr and Cu seed layers. Through comparison of the as deposited and field annealed loops, it is clear that for an exchange biased material, the two coercivities are due to different reversal processes. This behaviour is attributed to spin clusters at the ferromagnet/antiferromagnet interface, which behave in a similar manner to a fine particle system.

  14. Exchange of information between system and environment: Facts and myths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wudarski, Filip A.; Petruccione, F.

    2016-03-01

    The exchange of “information” between a system and its environment based on the reduced dynamics is investigated. The association of trace distance with information cannot be stated, because of lack of symmetry between leakage from the system and absorbability by the environment. A measure of loss for the reduced dynamics is established, which may be seen as a deviation from exact unitary dynamics.

  15. Avenues into Food Planning: A Review of Scholarly Food System Research

    PubMed Central

    Brinkley, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes several avenues of planning inquiry into food systems research, revealing gaps in the literature, allied fields of study and mismatches between scholarly disciplines and the food system life cycle. Planners and scholars in associated fields have identified and defined problems in the food system as ‘wicked’ problems, complex environmental issues that require systemic solutions at the community scale. While food justice scholars have contextualized problem areas, planning scholars have made a broad case for planning involvement in solving these wicked problems while ensuring that the functional and beneficial parts of the food system continue to thrive. This review maps the entry points of scholarly interest in food systems and planning’s contributions to its study, charting a research agenda for the future. PMID:24932131

  16. Avenues into Food Planning: A Review of Scholarly Food System Research.

    PubMed

    Brinkley, Catherine

    2013-04-01

    This review summarizes several avenues of planning inquiry into food systems research, revealing gaps in the literature, allied fields of study and mismatches between scholarly disciplines and the food system life cycle. Planners and scholars in associated fields have identified and defined problems in the food system as 'wicked' problems, complex environmental issues that require systemic solutions at the community scale. While food justice scholars have contextualized problem areas, planning scholars have made a broad case for planning involvement in solving these wicked problems while ensuring that the functional and beneficial parts of the food system continue to thrive. This review maps the entry points of scholarly interest in food systems and planning's contributions to its study, charting a research agenda for the future.

  17. Space shuttle food system study. Volume 1: System design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Data were assembled which define the optimum food system to support the space shuttle program, and which provide sufficient engineering data to support necessary requests for proposals towards final development and installment of the system. The study approach used is outlined, along with technical data and sketches for each functional area. Logistic support analysis, system assurance, and recommendations and conclusions based on the study results are also presented.

  18. Thermal energy storage systems using fluidized bed heat exchangers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramanathan, V.; Weast, T. E.; Ananth, K. P.

    1980-01-01

    The viability of using fluidized bed heat exchangers (FBHX) for thermal energy storage (TES) in applications with potential for waste heat recovery was investigated. Of the candidate applications screened, cement plant rotary kilns and steel plant electric arc furnaces were identified, via the chosen selection criteria, as having the best potential for successful use of FBHX/TES system. A computer model of the FBHX/TES systems was developed and the technical feasibility of the two selected applications was verified. Economic and tradeoff evaluations in progress for final optimization of the systems and selection of the most promising system for further concept validation are described.

  19. Materials, Turbomachinery and Heat Exchangers for Supercritical CO2 Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Mark; Nellis, Greg; Corradini, Michael

    2012-10-19

    The objective of this project is to produce the necessary data to evaluate the performance of the supercritical carbon dioxide cycle. The activities include a study of materials compatibility of various alloys at high temperatures, the heat transfer and pressure drop in compact heat exchanger units, and turbomachinery issues, primarily leakage rates through dynamic seals. This experimental work will serve as a test bed for model development and design calculations, and will help define further tests necessary to develop high-efficiency power conversion cycles for use on a variety of reactor designs, including the sodium fast reactor (SFR) and very high-temperature gas reactor (VHTR). The research will be broken into three separate tasks. The first task deals with the analysis of materials related to the high-temperature S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle. The most taxing materials issues with regard to the cycle are associated with the high temperatures in the reactor side heat exchanger and in the high-temperature turbine. The system could experience pressures as high as 20MPa and temperatures as high as 650°C. The second task deals with optimization of the heat exchangers required by the S-CO{sub 2} cycle; the S-CO{sub 2} flow passages in these heat exchangers are required whether the cycle is coupled with a VHTR or an SFR. At least three heat exchangers will be required: the pre-cooler before compression, the recuperator, and the heat exchanger that interfaces with the reactor coolant. Each of these heat exchangers is unique and must be optimized separately. The most challenging heat exchanger is likely the pre-cooler, as there is only about a 40°C temperature change but it operates close to the CO{sub 2} critical point, therefore inducing substantial changes in properties. The proposed research will focus on this most challenging component. The third task examines seal leakage through various dynamic seal designs under the conditions expected in the S-CO{sub 2} cycle

  20. Update on Modular Laser Launch System and Heat Exchanger Thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kare, Jordin T.

    2011-11-01

    The heat-exchanger (HX) thruster and modular laser array provide a comparatively low-risk route to a ground-to-orbit laser launch system. Recently, the reference designs for the propulsion system, laser array, and overall launch system have evolved significantly. By combining a variable flow of dense propellant with the primary hydrogen propellant, the heat exchanger thruster can trade reduced Isp for increased thrust at liftoff, with minimal increase in tank mass. Single-mode CW fiber lasers up to 10 kW power allow a beam module to be built with off-the-shelf commercial lasers. Low-cost high-radiance laser diode arrays can deliver launch-level fluxes of 5-10 MW/m2 over tens of kilometers, sufficient to power a vehicle through the atmosphere, and high enough to hand off propulsion to a main laser array several hundred kilometers downrange. These and other enhancements enable a system design with a true single-stage vehicle in which the only component not yet demonstrated is the silicon-carbide heat exchanger itself.

  1. Hazard analysis of Clostridium perfringens in the Skylab Food System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourland, C. T.; Huber, C. S.; Kiser, P. R.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Rowley, D. B.

    1974-01-01

    The Skylab Food System presented unique microbiological problems because food was warmed in null-gravity and because the heat source was limited to 69.4 C (to prevent boiling in null-gravity). For these reasons, the foods were manufactured using critical control point techniques of quality control coupled with appropriate hazard analyses. One of these hazard analyses evaluated the threat from Clostridium perfringens. Samples of food were inoculated with C. perfringens and incubated for 2 h at temperatures ranging from 25 to 55 C. Generation times were determined for the foods at various temperatures. Results of these tests were evaluated taking into consideration: food-borne disease epidemiology, the Skylab food manufacturing procedures, and the performance requirements of the Skylab Food System. Based on this hazard analysis, a limit for C. perfringens of 100/g was established for Skylab foods.

  2. Thermal Analysis for Ion-Exchange Column System

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Si Y.; King, William D.

    2012-12-20

    Models have been developed to simulate the thermal characteristics of crystalline silicotitanate ion exchange media fully loaded with radioactive cesium either in a column configuration or distributed within a waste storage tank. This work was conducted to support the design and operation of a waste treatment process focused on treating dissolved, high-sodium salt waste solutions for the removal of specific radionuclides. The ion exchange column will be installed inside a high level waste storage tank at the Savannah River Site. After cesium loading, the ion exchange media may be transferred to the waste tank floor for interim storage. Models were used to predict temperature profiles in these areas of the system where the cesium-loaded media is expected to lead to localized regions of elevated temperature due to radiolytic decay. Normal operating conditions and accident scenarios (including loss of solution flow, inadvertent drainage, and loss of active cooling) were evaluated for the ion exchange column using bounding conditions to establish the design safety basis. The modeling results demonstrate that the baseline design using one central and four outer cooling tubes provides a highly efficient cooling mechanism for reducing the maximum column temperature. In-tank modeling results revealed that an idealized hemispherical mound shape leads to the highest tank floor temperatures. In contrast, even large volumes of CST distributed in a flat layer with a cylindrical shape do not result in significant floor heating.

  3. Exchange Bias Effects in Iron Oxide-Based Nanoparticle Systems

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Manh-Huong; Alonso, Javier; Khurshid, Hafsa; Lampen-Kelley, Paula; Chandra, Sayan; Stojak Repa, Kristen; Nemati, Zohreh; Das, Raja; Iglesias, Óscar; Srikanth, Hariharan

    2016-01-01

    The exploration of exchange bias (EB) on the nanoscale provides a novel approach to improving the anisotropic properties of magnetic nanoparticles for prospective applications in nanospintronics and nanomedicine. However, the physical origin of EB is not fully understood. Recent advances in chemical synthesis provide a unique opportunity to explore EB in a variety of iron oxide-based nanostructures ranging from core/shell to hollow and hybrid composite nanoparticles. Experimental and atomistic Monte Carlo studies have shed light on the roles of interface and surface spins in these nanosystems. This review paper aims to provide a thorough understanding of the EB and related phenomena in iron oxide-based nanoparticle systems, knowledge of which is essential to tune the anisotropic magnetic properties of exchange-coupled nanoparticle systems for potential applications. PMID:28335349

  4. Condensing Heat Exchanger Concept Developed for Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasan, Mohammad M.; Nayagam, Vedha

    2005-01-01

    The current system for moisture removal and humidity control for the space shuttles and the International Space Station uses a two-stage process. Water first condenses onto fins and is pulled through "slurper bars." These bars take in a two-phase mixture of air and water that is then separated by the rotary separator. A more efficient design would remove the water directly from the air without the need of an additional water separator downstream. For the Condensing Heat Exchanger for Space Systems (CHESS) project, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center in collaboration with NASA Johnson Space Center are designing a condensing heat exchanger that utilizes capillary forces to collect and remove water and that can operate in varying gravitational conditions including microgravity, lunar gravity, and Martian gravity.

  5. The Food System in the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molitor, Graham T. T.

    1980-01-01

    The composition of food in the 1980s is discussed as it relates to national nutrition goals and world problems. The data reviewed here related to food consumption, its calories, nutrients, and fat content. (SA)

  6. A proposed food breakdown classification system to predict food behavior during gastric digestion.

    PubMed

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Ferrua, Maria J; Singh, R Paul

    2015-05-01

    The pharmaceutical industry has implemented the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), which is used to classify drug products based on their solubility and intestinal permeability. The BCS can help predict drug behavior in vivo, the rate-limiting mechanism of absorption, and the likelihood of an in vitro-in vivo correlation. Based on this analysis, we have proposed a Food Breakdown Classification System (FBCS) framework that can be used to classify solid foods according to their initial hardness and their rate of softening during physiological gastric conditions. The proposed FBCS will allow for prediction of food behavior during gastric digestion. The applicability of the FBCS framework in differentiating between dissimilar solid foods was demonstrated using four example foods: raw carrot, boiled potato, white rice, and brown rice. The initial hardness and rate of softening parameter (softening half time) were determined for these foods as well as their hypothesized FBCS class. In addition, we have provided future suggestions as to the methodological and analytical challenges that need to be overcome prior to widespread use and adoption of this classification system. The FBCS gives a framework that may be used to classify food products based on their material properties and their behavior during in vitro gastric digestion, and may also be used to predict in vivo food behavior. As consumer demand increases for functional and "pharma" food products, the food industry will need widespread testing of food products for their structural and functional performance during digestion.

  7. Application of the British Food Standards Agency nutrient profiling system in a French food composition database.

    PubMed

    Julia, Chantal; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Touvier, Mathilde; Méjean, Caroline; Fezeu, Léopold; Hercberg, Serge

    2014-11-28

    Nutrient profiling systems are powerful tools for public health initiatives, as they aim at categorising foods according to their nutritional quality. The British Food Standards Agency (FSA) nutrient profiling system (FSA score) has been validated in a British food database, but the application of the model in other contexts has not yet been evaluated. The objective of the present study was to assess the application of the British FSA score in a French food composition database. Foods from the French NutriNet-Santé study food composition table were categorised according to their FSA score using the Office of Communication (OfCom) cut-off value ('healthier' ≤ 4 for foods and ≤ 1 for beverages; 'less healthy' >4 for foods and >1 for beverages) and distribution cut-offs (quintiles for foods, quartiles for beverages). Foods were also categorised according to the food groups used for the French Programme National Nutrition Santé (PNNS) recommendations. Foods were weighted according to their relative consumption in a sample drawn from the NutriNet-Santé study (n 4225), representative of the French population. Classification of foods according to the OfCom cut-offs was consistent with food groups described in the PNNS: 97·8 % of fruit and vegetables, 90·4 % of cereals and potatoes and only 3·8 % of sugary snacks were considered as 'healthier'. Moreover, variability in the FSA score allowed for a discrimination between subcategories in the same food group, confirming the possibility of using the FSA score as a multiple category system, for example as a basis for front-of-pack nutrition labelling. Application of the FSA score in the French context would adequately complement current public health recommendations.

  8. 40 CFR 63.1084 - What heat exchange systems are exempt from the requirements of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What heat exchange systems are exempt... Units: Heat Exchange Systems and Waste Operations Applicability for Heat Exchange Systems § 63.1084 What heat exchange systems are exempt from the requirements of this subpart? Your heat exchange system...

  9. NASA food systems: past, present, and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Bourland, Charles

    2002-01-01

    The development of space food has been evolving since the Soviet cosmonaut, German Titov, became the first human to eat in space in August 1961. John Glenn was the first American to consume food, applesauce, on the third manned Mercury mission in August 1962. Before these events, there was no knowledge that humans would be able to swallow and, hence, eat in weightlessness. Space food development began with highly engineered foods that met rigid requirements imposed by spacecraft design and short mission durations. Improvements in the habitability of the spacecraft have permitted improvements in the quality of space food. As the missions became longer, the need for better nutrition, more variety, and easily consumable foods also became more important. Currently, the International Space Station astronauts have a wide variety of foods. The goal is to provide acceptable foods that taste similar to foods we eat here on Earth. Extended planetary stays will require even more variety and more technologic advances. Plants will be grown to recycle the air and water and will provide food for the crew. These harvested crops will need to be processed into safe, healthy, and acceptable food ingredients that can then be prepared into menu items.

  10. Next generation of food allergen quantification using mass spectrometric systems.

    PubMed

    Koeberl, Martina; Clarke, Dean; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-08-01

    Food allergies are increasing worldwide and becoming a public health concern. Food legislation requires detailed declarations of potential allergens in food products and therefore an increased capability to analyze for the presence of food allergens. Currently, antibody-based methods are mainly utilized to quantify allergens; however, these methods have several disadvantages. Recently, mass spectrometry (MS) techniques have been developed and applied to food allergen analysis. At present, 46 allergens from 11 different food sources have been characterized using different MS approaches and some specific signature peptides have been published. However, quantification of allergens using MS is not routinely employed. This review compares the different aspects of food allergen quantification using advanced MS techniques including multiple reaction monitoring. The latter provides low limits of quantification for multiple allergens in simple or complex food matrices, while being robust and reproducible. This review provides an overview of current approaches to analyze food allergens, with specific focus on MS systems and applications.

  11. Food reward system: current perspectives and future research needs

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Stephen C.; Pelchat, Marcia; Grigson, Patricia Sue; Stice, Eric; Farooqi, Sadaf; Khoo, Chor San; Mattes, Richard D.; Beauchamp, Gary K.

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews current research and cross-disciplinary perspectives on the neuroscience of food reward in animals and humans, examines the scientific hypothesis of food addiction, discusses methodological and terminology challenges, and identifies knowledge gaps and future research needs. Topics addressed herein include the role of reward and hedonic aspects in the regulation of food intake, neuroanatomy and neurobiology of the reward system in animals and humans, responsivity of the brain reward system to palatable foods and drugs, translation of craving versus addiction, and cognitive control of food reward. The content is based on a workshop held in 2013 by the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute. PMID:26011903

  12. Food reward system: current perspectives and future research needs.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Alonso, Miguel; Woods, Stephen C; Pelchat, Marcia; Grigson, Patricia Sue; Stice, Eric; Farooqi, Sadaf; Khoo, Chor San; Mattes, Richard D; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2015-05-01

    This article reviews current research and cross-disciplinary perspectives on the neuroscience of food reward in animals and humans, examines the scientific hypothesis of food addiction, discusses methodological and terminology challenges, and identifies knowledge gaps and future research needs. Topics addressed herein include the role of reward and hedonic aspects in the regulation of food intake, neuroanatomy and neurobiology of the reward system in animals and humans, responsivity of the brain reward system to palatable foods and drugs, translation of craving versus addiction, and cognitive control of food reward. The content is based on a workshop held in 2013 by the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute.

  13. 40 CFR 63.1085 - What are the general requirements for heat exchange systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Ethylene Manufacturing Process Units: Heat Exchange Systems and Waste Operations Heat Exchange System Requirements § 63.1085 What are the general... heat exchange systems? 63.1085 Section 63.1085 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  14. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Heat Exchange Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Requirements for Heat Exchange Systems 8 Table 8 to Subpart VVVVVV of Part 63 Protection of Environment... of Part 63—Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Heat Exchange Systems As required in § 63.11499, you must comply with the requirements for heat exchange systems as shown in the following...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1085 - What are the general requirements for heat exchange systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... heat exchange systems? 63.1085 Section 63.1085 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Ethylene Manufacturing Process Units: Heat Exchange Systems and Waste Operations Heat Exchange System Requirements § 63.1085 What are the...

  16. EXCHANGE

    SciTech Connect

    Boltz, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    This report contains the following news headlines: ADPE acquisition process made easy with SRP; scientific reference material available; ORPS WordPerfect macro setup procedure; system managed storage is here; LIBSPOOL for MVS mainframe end-users; training center course schedule for February 1993; enjoy NJOY; scientific user services staff decreased; new release of Forwarn, a static source code analysis tool for FORTRAN programs; out of the cold with HEAT; coping cells from one table to another in word perfect; used PC equipment pool; and video training.

  17. Simplified enzymatic high-performance anion exchange chromatographic determination of total fructans in food and pet food-limitations and measurement uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Stöber, Paul; Bénet, Sylvie; Hischenhuber, Claudia

    2004-04-21

    A simplified method to determine total fructans in food and pet food has been developed and validated. It follows the principle of AOAC method 997.08, i.e., high-performance anion exchange chromatographic (HPAEC) determination of total fructose released from fructans (F(f)) and total glucose released from fructans (G(f)) after enzymatic fructan hydrolysis. Unlike AOAC method 997.08, calculation of total fructans is based on the determination of F(f) alone. This is motivated by the inherent difficulty to accurately determine low amounts of G(f) since many food and pet food products contain other sources of total glucose (e.g., starch and sucrose). In this case, a correction factor g can be used (1.05 by default) to take into account the theoretical contribution of G(f). At levels >5% of total fructans and in commercial fructan ingredients, both F(f) and G(f) can and should be accurately determined; hence, no correction factor g is required. The method is suitable to quantify total fructans in various food and pet food products at concentrations >or=0.2% providing that the product does not contain other significant sources of total fructose such as free fructose or sucrose. Recovery rates in commercial fructan ingredients and in selected food and pet food ranged from 97 to 102%. As part of a measurement uncertainty estimation study, individual contributions to the total uncertainty (u) of the total fructan content were identified and quantified by using the validation data available. As a result, a correlation between the sucrose content and the total uncertainty of the total fructan content was established allowing us to define a limit of quantitation as a function of the sucrose content. One can conclude that this method is limited to food products where the sucrose content does not exceed about three times the total fructan content. Despite this limitation, which is inherent to any total fructan method based on the same approach, this procedure represents an

  18. Aligning Food Systems Policies to Advance Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Mark; Tagtow, Angie; Roberts, Susan L.; MacDougall, Erin

    2009-01-01

    The involvement of public health professionals in food and agricultural policy provides tremendous opportunities for advancing the public's health. It is particularly challenging, however, for professionals to understand and consider the numerous policy drivers that impact the food system, which range from agricultural commodity policies to local food safety ordinances. Confronted with this complexity in the food system, policy advocates often focus on narrow objectives with disregard for the larger system. This commentary contends that, in order to be most effective, public health professionals need to consider the full range of interdependent policies that affect the system. Food policy councils have proven to be an effective tool, particularly at the local and state level, for developing comprehensive food systems policies that can improve public health. PMID:23144671

  19. The Organic Foods System: Its Discursive Achievements and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowacek, David M.; Nowacek, Rebecca S.

    2008-01-01

    Taking the emergence of the organic foods system as a case study, the authors aim to demonstrate both how the discursive richness of the organic foods system offers a challenge to the traditional operations of the market and how activity systems theory as understood in English studies can productively be tied to and enriched by theories of social…

  20. Role of anisotropy configuration in exchange-biased systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, E.; Camarero, J.; Perna, P.; Mikuszeit, N.; Teran, F. J.; Sort, J.; Nogues, J.; Garcia-Martin, J. M.; Hoffmann, A.; Dieny, B.; Miranda, R.

    2011-01-01

    We present a systematic study of the anisotropy configuration effects on the magnetic properties of exchange-biased ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic (FM/AFM) Co/IrMn bilayers. The interfacial unidirectional anisotropy is set extrinsically via a field cooling procedure with the magnetic field misaligned by an angle {beta}{sub FC} with respect to the intrinsic FM uniaxial anisotropy. High resolution angular dependence in-plane resolved Kerr magnetometry measurements have been performed for three different anisotropy arrangements, including collinear {beta}{sub FC} = 0 and two opposite noncollinear cases. The symmetry breaking of the induced noncollinear configurations results in a peculiar nonsymmetric magnetic behavior of the angular dependence of magnetization reversal, coercivity, and exchange bias. The experimental results are well reproduced without any fitting parameter by using a simple model including the induced anisotropy configuration. Our finding highlights the importance of the relative angle between anisotropies in order to properly account for the magnetic properties of exchange-biased FM/AFM systems.

  1. Developing the NASA food system for long-duration missions.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Maya; Douglas, Grace; Perchonok, Michele

    2011-03-01

    Even though significant development has transformed the space food system over the last 5 decades to attain more appealing dietary fare for low-orbit space crews, the advances do not meet the need for crews that might travel to Mars and beyond. It is estimated that a food system for a long-duration mission must maintain organoleptic acceptability, nutritional efficacy, and safety for a 3- to 5-y period to be viable. In addition, the current mass and subsequent waste of the food system must decrease significantly to accord with the allowable volume and payload limits of the proposed future space vehicles. Failure to provide the appropriate food or to optimize resource utilization introduces the risk that an inadequate food system will hamper mission success and/or threaten crew performance. Investigators for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Advanced Food Technology (AFT) consider identified concerns and work to mitigate the risks to ensure that any new food system is adequate for the mission. Yet, even with carefully planned research, some technological gaps remain. NASA needs research advances to develop food that is nutrient-dense and long-lasting at ambient conditions, partial gravity cooking processes, methods to deliver prescribed nutrients over time, and food packaging that meets the mass, barrier, and processing requirements of NASA. This article provides a brief review of research in each area, details the past AFT research efforts, and describes the remaining gaps that present barriers to achieving a food system for long exploration missions.

  2. A Freezable Heat Exchanger for Space Suit Radiator Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nabity, James A.; Mason, Georgia R.; Copeland, Robert J.; Trevino, Luis a.

    2008-01-01

    During an ExtraVehicular Activity (EVA), both the heat generated by the astronaut s metabolism and that produced by the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) must be rejected to space. The heat sources include the heat of adsorption of metabolic CO2, the heat of condensation of water, the heat removed from the body by the liquid cooling garment and the load from the electrical components. Although the sublimator hardware to reject this load weighs only 1.58 kg (3.48 lbm), an additional 3.6 kg (8 lbm) of water are loaded into the unit, most of which is sublimated and lost to space, thus becoming the single largest expendable during an eight-hour EVA. Using a radiator to reject heat from the astronaut during an EVA can reduce the amount of expendable water consumed in the sublimator. Radiators have no moving parts and are thus highly reliable. Past freezable radiators have been too heavy, but the weight can be greatly reduced by placing a small and freeze tolerant heat exchanger between the astronaut and radiator, instead of making the very large radiator freeze tolerant. Therefore, the key technological innovation to improve space suit radiator performance was the development of a lightweight and freezable heat exchanger that accommodates the variable heat load generated by the astronaut. Herein, we present the heat transfer performance of a newly designed heat exchanger that endured several freeze / thaw cycles without any apparent damage. The heat exchanger was also able to continuously turn down or turn up the heat rejection to follow the variable load.

  3. A new strategy for exploiting ion exchange in sequential injection analysis: in-line phytic acid separation/determination in foods as an example.

    PubMed

    Sartini, Raquel P; Oliveira, Cláudio C

    2002-06-01

    A novel strategy for exploiting ion exchange in sequential injection systems is proposed. The procedure is based on the selection of a defined volume of a resin suspension, which is introduced and packed in the analytical path, establishing a resin mini-column in the system. The passage of a selected sample volume through the resin mini-column leads to the retention of the analyte, while the sample matrix is discarded. The analyte is eluted during the passage of the eluant/reagent by the packed beads, being the analytical signal monitored (absorbance) in the liquid phase. The beads are then aspirated back to the holding coil and directed to a recovery flask, linked at the selection valve; then the system is ready to begin a new cycle. With the proposed strategy, the main characteristics of the sequential injection system are kept as any new artifact is added to the manifold and system reconfiguration is not required. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated by the phytic acid determination in food samples. For this specific application, AG1-X8 was selected as ion exchanger, and a solution containing Cl- and Fe(III)-salicylate complex was used as eluant and spectrophotometric reagent.

  4. Anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography with conductivity detection for the analysis of phytic acid in food.

    PubMed

    Talamond, P; Doulbeau, S; Rochette, I; Guyot, J P

    2000-02-25

    A sensitive method for the accurate determination of phytic acid in food samples is described. The proposed procedure involves the anion-exchange liquid chromatography with conductivity detection. Initially, two methods of determination of phytic acid were compared: absorptiometry and high-performance ion chromatography (HPIC) with chemically suppressed conductivity detector. Unlike most conventional methods involving precipitation by FeCl3, the simpler and more reliable HPIC assay avoids the numerous assumptions inherent in the iron precipitation and the accuracy is independent of the phytate content. The protocol was also applied to a survey of phytic acid concentration in some cereal, oil and legume seeds.

  5. Advanced Manufacturing Systems in Food Processing and Packaging Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafie Sani, Mohd; Aziz, Faieza Abdul

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, several advanced manufacturing systems in food processing and packaging industry are reviewed, including: biodegradable smart packaging and Nano composites, advanced automation control system consists of fieldbus technology, distributed control system and food safety inspection features. The main purpose of current technology in food processing and packaging industry is discussed due to major concern on efficiency of the plant process, productivity, quality, as well as safety. These application were chosen because they are robust, flexible, reconfigurable, preserve the quality of the food, and efficient.

  6. 47 CFR 22.757 - Channels for basic exchange telephone radio systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Channels for basic exchange telephone radio... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Rural Radiotelephone Service Basic Exchange Telephone Radio Systems § 22.757 Channels for basic exchange telephone radio systems. The channels listed in § 22.725...

  7. 47 CFR 22.757 - Channels for basic exchange telephone radio systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Channels for basic exchange telephone radio... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Rural Radiotelephone Service Basic Exchange Telephone Radio Systems § 22.757 Channels for basic exchange telephone radio systems. The channels listed in § 22.725...

  8. 47 CFR 22.757 - Channels for basic exchange telephone radio systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Channels for basic exchange telephone radio... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Rural Radiotelephone Service Basic Exchange Telephone Radio Systems § 22.757 Channels for basic exchange telephone radio systems. The channels listed in § 22.725...

  9. 47 CFR 22.757 - Channels for basic exchange telephone radio systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channels for basic exchange telephone radio... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Rural Radiotelephone Service Basic Exchange Telephone Radio Systems § 22.757 Channels for basic exchange telephone radio systems. The channels listed in § 22.725...

  10. 47 CFR 22.757 - Channels for basic exchange telephone radio systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Channels for basic exchange telephone radio... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Rural Radiotelephone Service Basic Exchange Telephone Radio Systems § 22.757 Channels for basic exchange telephone radio systems. The channels listed in § 22.725...

  11. FoodWiki: Ontology-Driven Mobile Safe Food Consumption System.

    PubMed

    Çelik, Duygu

    2015-01-01

    An ontology-driven safe food consumption mobile system is considered. Over 3,000 compounds are being added to processed food, with numerous effects on the food: to add color, stabilize, texturize, preserve, sweeten, thicken, add flavor, soften, emulsify, and so forth. According to World Health Organization, governments have lately focused on legislation to reduce such ingredients or compounds in manufactured foods as they may have side effects causing health risks such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, allergens, and obesity. By supervising what and how much to eat as well as what not to eat, we can maximize a patient's life quality through avoidance of unhealthy ingredients. Smart e-health systems with powerful knowledge bases can provide suggestions of appropriate foods to individuals. Next-generation smart knowledgebase systems will not only include traditional syntactic-based search, which limits the utility of the search results, but will also provide semantics for rich searching. In this paper, performance of concept matching of food ingredients is semantic-based, meaning that it runs its own semantic based rule set to infer meaningful results through the proposed Ontology-Driven Mobile Safe Food Consumption System (FoodWiki).

  12. FoodWiki: Ontology-Driven Mobile Safe Food Consumption System

    PubMed Central

    Çelik, Duygu

    2015-01-01

    An ontology-driven safe food consumption mobile system is considered. Over 3,000 compounds are being added to processed food, with numerous effects on the food: to add color, stabilize, texturize, preserve, sweeten, thicken, add flavor, soften, emulsify, and so forth. According to World Health Organization, governments have lately focused on legislation to reduce such ingredients or compounds in manufactured foods as they may have side effects causing health risks such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, allergens, and obesity. By supervising what and how much to eat as well as what not to eat, we can maximize a patient's life quality through avoidance of unhealthy ingredients. Smart e-health systems with powerful knowledge bases can provide suggestions of appropriate foods to individuals. Next-generation smart knowledgebase systems will not only include traditional syntactic-based search, which limits the utility of the search results, but will also provide semantics for rich searching. In this paper, performance of concept matching of food ingredients is semantic-based, meaning that it runs its own semantic based rule set to infer meaningful results through the proposed Ontology-Driven Mobile Safe Food Consumption System (FoodWiki). PMID:26221624

  13. Modelling system level health information exchange: an ontological approach.

    PubMed

    McMurray, J; Zhu, L; McKillop, I; Chen, H

    2015-01-01

    Investment of resources to purposively improve the movement of information between health system providers is currently made with imperfect information. No inventories of system-level digital information flows currently exist, nor do measures of inter-organizational electronic information. exchange (HIE). Using Protégé 4, an open-source OWL Web ontology language editor and knowledge-based framework we formalized a model that decomposes inter-organizational electronic health information flow into derivative concepts such as diversity, breadth, volume, structure, standardization and connectivity. Self-reported data from a regional health system is used to measure HIE; the ontology identifies providers with low and high HIE, useful for planners, and using a related database is used to monitor data quality.

  14. Countercurrent direct contact heat exchange process and system

    DOEpatents

    Wahl, III, Edward F.; Boucher, Frederic B.

    1979-01-01

    Recovery of energy from geothermal brines and other hot water sources by direct contact heat exchange with a working fluid, such as a hydrocarbon working fluid, e.g. isobutane. The process and system consists of a plurality of stages, each stage including mixing and settling units. In the first stage, hot brine and arm working fluid are intimately mixed and passed into a settler wherein the brine settles to the bottom of the settler and the hot working fluid rises to the top. The hot working fluid is passed to a heat engine or turbine to produce work and the working fluid is then recycled back into the system. The system is comprised of a series of stages each containing a settler and mixer, and wherein the working fluid and the brine flow in a countercurrent manner through the stages to recover the heat from the brine in increments and raise the temperature of the working fluid in increments.

  15. New System of Food Control in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakova, Irina V.

    Food safety is quite important for human health in all countries. Humanity has the uniform space and must take care about all parts of it. Pollution of one region leads to the same state of others regions through water, land, air, living organisms. The poor-quality or poisoned food products can pollute the territory and influence negatively on the environment. The food security is important, especially, in connection with the possibility of terrorist attacks. The Federal Service of control in sphere of protection of the rights of consumers was formed in Russia in 2004. This Service carries out the activity directly and through the territorial organizations in interaction with administrative structures in food control and inspection, namely in sanitary-epidemiological service, veterinary service, grain service, inspection of trade connections and standardization and certification. The control is carried out on the basis of laws. The law № 29-FZ concerns the quality and safety of foodstuff and how to control it. The law 134-FZ attracted the protection of the rights of legal persons and individual businessmen. The modification of the law №234-FZ about protection of the rights of consumers is connected with new food - GMOs. Great attention is paid to the safety of new food. Private companies also perform analysis of heavy metals, mycotoxins, radiation and the presence of bacteria, virus or genetically modified organisms. We would like to thank the group Pilot Study "Food chain security" for very important work concerning food safety in different countries. They help us to understand internal problems in Russia and to create the cooperation with other countries. All these steps are very important for the protection population from toxic food.

  16. Exchange of meteorites (and life?) between stellar systems.

    PubMed

    Melosh, H J

    2003-01-01

    It is now generally accepted that meteorite-size fragments of rock can be ejected from planetary bodies. Numerical studies of the orbital evolution of such planetary ejecta are consistent with the observed cosmic ray exposure times and infall rates of these meteorites. All of these numerical studies agree that a substantial fraction (up to one-third) of the ejecta from any planet in our Solar System is eventually thrown out of the Solar System during encounters with the giant planets Jupiter and Saturn. In this paper I examine the probability that such interstellar meteorites might be captured into a distant solar system and fall onto a terrestrial planet in that system within a given interval of time. The overall conclusion is that it is very unlikely that even a single meteorite originating on a terrestrial planet in our solar system has fallen onto a terrestrial planet in another stellar system, over the entire period of our Solar System's existence. Although viable microorganisms may be readily exchanged between planets in our solar system through the interplanetary transfer of meteoritic material, it seems that the origin of life on Earth must be sought within the confines of the Solar System, not abroad in the galaxy.

  17. Accessing the Food Systems in Urban and Rural Minnesotan Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Chery; Miller, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Explore how urban and rural Minnesotans access the food system and to investigate whether community infrastructure supports a healthful food system. Design: Eight (4 urban and 4 rural) focus groups were conducted. Setting and Participants: Eight counties with urban influence codes of 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, and 10. Fifty-nine (urban, n = 27;…

  18. Modifying bitterness in functional food systems.

    PubMed

    Gaudette, Nicole J; Pickering, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    The functional foods sector represents a significant and growing portion of the food industry, yet formulation of these products often involves the use of ingredients that elicit less than desirable oral sensations, including bitterness. Promising new functional ingredients, including polyphenolics, may be more widely and readily employed in the creation of novel functional foods if their aversive bitter taste can be significantly reduced. A number of approaches are used by the industry to improve the taste properties and thus the acceptance of conventional foods that elicit excessive bitterness. This article reviews the most commonly employed techniques, including the use of bitter-modifying additives, which may prove useful for successfully introducing new functional ingredients into this rapidly growing sector.

  19. Acid preservation systems for food products

    SciTech Connect

    Tiberio, J. E.; Cirigiano, M. C.

    1984-10-16

    Fumaric acid is used in combination with critical amounts of acetic acid to preserve acid containing food products from microbiological spoilage in the absence of or at reduced levels of chemical preservative.

  20. A Spacebased Ocean Surface Exchange Data Analysis System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Wenqing; Liu, W. Timothy

    2000-01-01

    Emerging technologies have provided unprecedented opportunities to transform information into knowledge and disseminate them in a much faster, cheaper, and userfriendly mode. We have set up a system to produce and disseminate high level (gridded) ocean surface wind data from the NASA Scatterometer and European Remote Sensing missions. The data system is being expanded to produce real-time gridded ocean surface winds from an improved sensor SeaWinds on the Quikscat Mission. The wind field will be combined with hydrologic parameters from the Tropical Rain Measuring Mission to monitor evolving weather systems and natural hazard in real time. It will form the basis for spacebased Ocean Surface Exchange Data Analysis System (SOSEDAS) which will include the production of ocean surface momentum, heat, and water fluxes needed for interdisciplinary studies of ocean-atmosphere interaction. Various commercial or non-commercial software tools have been compared and selected in terms of their ability in database management, remote data accessing, graphical interface, data quality, storage needs and transfer speed, etc. Issues regarding system security and user authentication, distributed data archiving and accessing, strategy to compress large-volume geophysical and satellite data/image. and increasing transferring speed are being addressed. A simple and easy way to access information and derive knowledge from spacebased data of multiple missions is being provided. The evolving 'knowledge system' will provide relevant infrastructure to address Earth System Science, make inroads in educating an informed populace, and illuminate decision and policy making.

  1. Automatic tube cleaning systems for condensers and heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, M.J.

    1996-11-01

    Automatic On-Line Tube Cleaning Systems (ATCS) have been proven as a reliably positive means of maximizing heat transfer coefficients (ceterus paribas) in condensers and heat exchangers. The maintenance of maximum heat transfer rates result in the operational improvement of plant heat rate and a consequent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. In the case of air conditioning machines the ATCS acts to maximize and maintain capacity while minimizing power consumption. It has been estimated that over $300 billion a year is currently wasted in the world`s consumption of energy. Significant reductions in fuel costs, power costs and greenhouse gas emissions can be achieved through the employment of automatic on-line mechanical tube cleaning systems.

  2. Advanced integrated solvent extraction and ion exchange systems

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, P.

    1996-10-01

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction (SX) and ion exchange (IX) systems are a series of novel SX and IX processes that extract and recover uranium and transuranics (TRUs) (neptunium, plutonium, americium) and fission products {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 137}Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste and that sorb and recover {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 137}Cs from alkaline supernatant high-level waste. Each system is based on the use of new selective liquid extractants or chromatographic materials. The purpose of the integrated SX and IX processes is to minimize the quantity of waste that must be vitrified and buried in a deep geologic repository by producing raffinates (from SX) and effluent streams (from IX) that will meet the specifications of Class A low-level waste.

  3. 21 CFR 870.4240 - Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger. 870.4240... bypass heat exchanger. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger is a device, consisting of a heat exchange system used in extracorporeal circulation to warm or cool the blood...

  4. 21 CFR 870.4240 - Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger. 870.4240... bypass heat exchanger. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger is a device, consisting of a heat exchange system used in extracorporeal circulation to warm or cool the blood...

  5. Personal food systems of male college hockey players.

    PubMed

    Smart, L R; Bisogni, C A

    2001-08-01

    This study sought to improve the understanding of processes involved in food choice and dietary change by examining how members of a college men's ice hockey team experienced the multiple factors influencing their food choices. The study employed a theory-guided, grounded-theory approach, participant observation, and open-ended interviews with ten team members. Field notes and transcripts were analysed using the constant comparative method. Going to college and playing hockey involved adjusting to new food and athletic environments, increased personal responsibility for food choices, and new meanings for food and eating. Players viewed hockey, health, and taste as major determinants of their food practices. Hockey meant structured schedules, a social network, and performance expectations. Health meant "feeling good" for hockey, having a lean body composition, and a desirable body image. Low-fat foods were viewed generally as healthy, but as not providing taste satisfaction or reward. Players' food practices cycled through four phases over the year according to the changing meanings and importance of hockey, health, and taste. The findings advance the concept of personal food system to represent the way that a person constructs the options, barriers, trade-offs, rules, and routines in food choice in response to how s/he views his/her relationships with food and the environment.

  6. The Health Equity Dimensions of Urban Food Systems

    PubMed Central

    Omwega, Abiud M.; Friel, Sharon; Burns, Cate; Donati, Kelly; Carlisle, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that the nutrition transition sweeping the world’s cities is multifaceted. Urban food and nutrition systems are beginning to share similar features, including an increase in dietary diversity, a convergence toward “Western-style” diets rich in fat and refined carbohydrate and within-country bifurcation of food supplies and dietary conventions. Unequal access to the available dietary diversity, calories, and gastronomically satisfying eating experience leads to nutritional inequalities and diet-related health inequities in rich and poor cities alike. Understanding the determinants of inequalities in food security and nutritional quality is a precondition for developing preventive policy responses. Finding common solutions to under- and overnutrition is required, the first step of which is poverty eradication through creating livelihood strategies. In many cities, thousands of positions of paid employment could be created through the establishment of sustainable and self-sufficient local food systems, including urban agriculture and food processing initiatives, food distribution centers, healthy food market services, and urban planning that provides for multiple modes of transport to food outlets. Greater engagement with the food supply may dispel many of the food anxieties affluent consumers are experiencing. PMID:17401697

  7. Engineering concepts for food processing in bioregenerative life support systems.

    PubMed

    Hunter, J B

    1999-01-01

    Long-duration manned missions, such as Mars exploration, will require development of new and cost-effective food production and delivery systems. Requirements for both carry-on preserved food and food processed from on-board crops exceed the capabilities of existing food processing and preservation technologies. For the transit phase, new food products, preservation methods, and processing technologies for ground-based food processing are required. The bioregenerative surface phase requires methods for processing of in situ-grown crops, treatment of food wastes, preparation of daily meals, and design of nutritious and appealing plant-based menus, all within severe cost and labor constraints. In design of the food supply for a long-term mission, the designers must select and apply both the packaged food and in situ processing technologies most appropriate for the specific mission requirements. This study aims to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of different food system strategies in the context of different types of mission, and to point out the most important areas for future technology development.

  8. Exchanging large data object in multi-agent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Yaseen, Wathiq Laftah; Othman, Zulaiha Ali; Nazri, Mohd Zakree Ahmad

    2016-08-01

    One of the Business Intelligent solutions that is currently in use is the Multi-Agent System (MAS). Communication is one of the most important elements in MAS, especially for exchanging large low level data between distributed agents (physically). The Agent Communication Language in JADE has been offered as a secure method for sending data, whereby the data is defined as an object. However, the object cannot be used to send data to another agent in a different location. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to propose a method for the exchange of large low level data as an object by creating a proxy agent known as a Delivery Agent, which temporarily imitates the Receiver Agent. The results showed that the proposed method is able to send large-sized data. The experiments were conducted using 16 datasets ranging from 100,000 to 7 million instances. However, for the proposed method, the RAM and the CPU machine had to be slightly increased for the Receiver Agent, but the latency time was not significantly different compared to the use of the Java Socket method (non-agent and less secure). With such results, it was concluded that the proposed method can be used to securely send large data between agents.

  9. Food system galley for Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, R. W.; Hunt, S. R.; Sauer, R. L.; Turner, T. R.

    1979-01-01

    The Galley, a 42 man-day meal preparation facility (with flexibility to accomodate 210 man-days) is described. The facility is designed for minimum meal preparation and clean-up time in zero g and ease of servicing, maintenance, and removal in one gravity. The Galley provides a centralized location for performing all of the food-related functions (except dining) within the orbiter. Consideration is given to the oven-water heater, personal hygiene station, water dispensers, and water supply subsystem. The Galley is positioned in the orbiting mid deck, interfacing with rehydratable food packages and the waste collector subsystem.

  10. Movers and Doers: International Exchange, the International Knowledge System, and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzberg, Irving J., Jr.

    The relationship between international knowledge exchange and the international exchange of persons, particularly through and to higher education systems, is examined. Higher education policy is discussed as one case of international knowledge exchange. Attention is directed to the following policy areas: immigration policy (particularly the…

  11. The Imagery Exchange (TIE): Open Source Imagery Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alarcon, C.; Huang, T.; Thompson, C. K.; Roberts, J. T.; Hall, J. R.; Cechini, M.; Schmaltz, J. E.; McGann, J. M.; Boller, R. A.; Murphy, K. J.; Bingham, A. W.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA's Global Imagery Browse Service (GIBS) is the Earth Observation System (EOS) imagery solution for delivering global, full-resolution satellite imagery in a highly responsive manner. GIBS consists of two major subsystems, OnEarth and The Imagery Exchange (TIE). TIE is the GIBS horizontally scaled imagery workflow manager component, an Open Archival Information System (OAIS) responsible for orchestrating the acquisition, preparation, generation, and archiving of imagery to be served by OnEarth. TIE is an extension of the Data Management and Archive System (DMAS), a high performance data management system developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory by leveraging open source tools and frameworks, which includes Groovy/Grails, Restlet, Apache ZooKeeper, Apache Solr, and other open source solutions. This presentation focuses on the application of Open Source technologies in developing a horizontally scaled data system like DMAS and TIE. As part of our commitment in contributing back to the open source community, TIE is in the process of being open sourced. This presentation will also cover our current effort in getting TIE in to the hands of the community from which we benefited from.

  12. High-throughput charge exchange recombination spectroscopy system on MAST

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, N. J.; Carolan, P. G.; McCone, J.; Walsh, M. J.; Wisse, M.

    2006-10-15

    A major upgrade to the charge exchange recombination spectroscopy system on MAST has recently been implemented. The new system consists of a high-throughput spectrometer coupled to a total of 224 spatial channels, including toroidal and poloidal views of both neutral heating beams on MAST. Radial resolution is {approx}1 cm, comparable to the ion Larmor radius. The toroidal views are configured with 64 channels per beam, while the poloidal views have 32 channels per beam. Background channels for both poloidal and toroidal views are also provided. A large transmission grating is at the heart of the new spectrometer, with high quality single lens reflex lenses providing excellent imaging performance and permitting the full exploitation of the available etendue of the camera sensor. The charge-coupled device camera chosen has four-tap readout at a maximum aggregate speed of 8.8 MHz, and it is capable of reading out the full set of 224 channels in less than 4 ms. The system normally operates at 529 nm, viewing the C{sup 5+} emission line, but can operate at any wavelength in the range of 400-700 nm. Results from operating the system on MAST are shown, including impurity ion temperature and velocity profiles. The system's excellent spatial resolution is ideal for the study of transport barrier phenomena on MAST, an activity which has already been advanced significantly by data from the new diagnostic.

  13. Chinese American Family Food Systems: Impact of Western Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lv, Nan; Brown, J. Lynne

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the family food system in first-generation Chinese American families. Design: Qualitative interviews using reciprocal determinism constructs to understand influences on food choices. Setting: Weekend Chinese schools in Pennsylvania. Participants: Twenty couples with at least 1 child aged 5 or older enrolled in a Chinese…

  14. 40 CFR 63.1084 - What heat exchange systems are exempt from the requirements of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Units: Heat Exchange Systems and Waste Operations Applicability for Heat Exchange Systems § 63.1084 What... (a) through (e) of this section. (a) Your heat exchange system operates with the minimum pressure on... normal range. (e) Your recirculating or once-through heat exchange system cools process fluids...

  15. Food systems: the relationship between health and food science/technology.

    PubMed Central

    Levine, A S; Labuza, T P

    1990-01-01

    Changes in our understanding of diet and health drive changes in the way foods are processed. Conversely, what is available on the shelf will have an impact on the choices consumers make, thereby affecting their health. Historical examples of industrial manipulation of the diet include fortification and enrichment of cereal grains with vitamins; increased production of unsaturated vegetable oils and margarine as substitutions for hydrogenated fat, lard, and butter; lowered cholesterol content foods; reduced sugar content foods; lower sodium foods; decreased portion sizes or caloric density in prepackaged foods for use in weight loss or maintenance; and increased calcium levels to prevent osteoporosis. However, degenerative diseases such as cancer, atherosclerosis, bone disease, arthritis, and dementia will continue to be prevalent in the future. Whether or not the food systems available on the shelf can influence all of these disease states is not clear; however, studies have indicated that nutritional factors do contribute to the development of some of these diseases. Patterns in food consumption have changed and will continue to change as recommendations such as decreased consumption of saturated fats, salt, and cholesterol continue to be made. Increased ingestion of fish and/or fish oil is one recommendation that has been suggested because of the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on platelet aggregability and circulating levels of lipids. Wildly speculating from preliminary studies, fish oil has also been recommended for disease states including arthritis, cancer, and diseases of the immune system.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2401259

  16. Recipe for a Better Tomorrow: A Food Industry Perspective on Sustainability and Our Food System.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, Arlin

    2009-07-01

    The food and agriculture sector is central to efforts to improve public health today and protect and restore natural systems necessary to support good health in the future. The sector has a greater direct impact on land and water resources, employment, and economic activity than any other. And, from a finite resource base, it is underpinning not only food and fiber production but is increasingly relied upon to provide the raw materials for energy, building materials, packaging, and nonfood consumable products. This commentary reviews consumer attitudes and the transformational changes required in the food and agriculture sector to meet today's needs and ensure a better tomorrow.

  17. Assessing the evolving fragility of the global food system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puma, Michael J.; Bose, Satyajit; Chon, So Young; Cook, Benjamin I.

    2015-02-01

    The world food crisis in 2008 highlighted the susceptibility of the global food system to price shocks. Here we use annual staple food production and trade data from 1992-2009 to analyse the changing properties of the global food system. Over the 18 year study period, we show that the global food system is relatively homogeneous (85% of countries have low or marginal food self-sufficiency) and increases in complexity, with the number of global wheat and rice trade connections doubling and trade flows increasing by 42 and 90%, respectively. The increased connectivity and flows within these global trade networks suggest that the global food system is vulnerable to systemic disruptions, especially considering the tendency for exporting countries to switch to non-exporting states during times of food scarcity in the global markets. To test this hypothesis, we superimpose continental-scale disruptions on the wheat and rice trade networks. We find greater absolute reductions in global wheat and rice exports along with larger losses in network connectivity as the networks evolve due to disruptions in European wheat and Asian rice production. Importantly, our findings indicate that least developed countries suffer greater import losses in more connected networks through their increased dependence on imports for staple foods (due to these large-scale disturbances): mean (median) wheat losses as percentages of staple food supply are 8.9% (3.8%) for 1992-1996, increasing to 11% (5.7%) for 2005-2009. Over the same intervals, rice losses increase from 8.2% (2.2%) to 14% (5.2%). Our work indicates that policy efforts should focus on balancing the efficiency of international trade (and its associated specialization) with increased resilience of domestic production and global demand diversity.

  18. Assessing the Evolving Fragility of the Global Food System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puma, Michael Joseph; Bose, Satyajit; Chon, So Young; Cook, Benjamin I.

    2015-01-01

    The world food crisis in 2008 highlighted the susceptibility of the global food system to price shocks. Here we use annual staple food production and trade data from 1992-2009 to analyse the changing properties of the global food system. Over the 18-year study period, we show that the global food system is relatively homogeneous (85 of countries have low or marginal food self-sufficiency) and increases in complexity, with the number of global wheat and rice trade connections doubling and trade flows increasing by 42 and 90, respectively. The increased connectivity and flows within these global trade networks suggest that the global food system is vulnerable to systemic disruptions, especially considering the tendency for exporting countries to switch to non-exporting states during times of food scarcity in the global markets. To test this hypothesis, we superimpose continental-scale disruptions on the wheat and rice trade networks. We find greater absolute reductions in global wheat and rice exports along with larger losses in network connectivity as the networks evolve due to disruptions in European wheat and Asian rice production. Importantly, our findings indicate that least developed countries suffer greater import losses in more connected networks through their increased dependence on imports for staple foods (due to these large-scale disturbances): mean (median) wheat losses as percentages of staple food supply are 8.9 (3.8) for 1992-1996, increasing to 11 (5.7) for 20052009. Over the same intervals, rice losses increase from 8.2 (2.2) to 14 (5.2). Our work indicates that policy efforts should focus on balancing the efficiency of international trade (and its associated specialization) with increased resilience of domestic production and global demand diversity.

  19. Prevalence of the main food-borne pathogens in retail food under the national food surveillance system in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hara-Kudo, Y; Konuma, H; Kamata, Y; Miyahara, M; Takatori, K; Onoue, Y; Sugita-Konishi, Y; Ohnishi, T

    2013-01-01

    The National Food Surveillance System in Japan was formed in 1998 to monitor the contamination of retail foods with bacterial pathogens. Approximately 2000-3000 samples were tested annually, and the data from food categories that had more than 400 samples collected during 1998-2008 were analysed. With regard to meat, the frequency of positive samples for Salmonella in chicken for raw consumption and ground chicken was 12.7% and 33.5%, respectively. Moreover, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 was found in ground meat, organ meat and processed meat, although at a low frequency (0.1%). The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni/coli was 13.3% and 20.9% in chicken for raw consumption and ground chicken, respectively. In vegetables and fruit, Salmonella was detected in cucumber, lettuce, sprout and tomato samples at a frequency of around 0.1-0.2%. With regard to seafood, Salmonella was found in 0.5% of oysters for raw consumption. Seafood was not contaminated with STEC O157 or Shigella. Serotype Infantis was the most frequently detected serotype of Salmonella in seafood, followed by the serotypes Typhimurium, Schwarzengrund and Manhattan. In ground chicken, 72.2% of the strains were identified as the serotype Infantis. E. coli, as an indicator of food hygiene, was detected in all food categories. The results show the prevalence of the above-mentioned pathogens in the retail food supplied in Japan; further, they indicate that consumption of raw food carries the risk of contracting food-borne infections.

  20. Anion-exchange method for determination of phytate in foods: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Harland, B F; Oberleas, D

    1986-01-01

    Phytate, a naturally occurring organic compound found in plant seeds, roots, and tubers, was determined in a collaborative study using a modified anion-exchange method. Seven samples (peanut flour, oats, rice, isolated soybean protein, a vegetarian diet composite, wheat bran, and whole wheat bread), supplied as blind duplicate samples, were analyzed in triplicate by 7 collaborators. Phytate concentrations in the samples ranged from 2.38 to 46.70 mg/g. Relative standard deviations (RSD = CV) for repeatability ranged from 2.5 to 10.1%, and for reproducibility, from 4.5 to 11.0%. The method has been adopted official first action.

  1. Fuels from Biomass: Integration with Food and Materials Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipinsky, E. S.

    1978-01-01

    The development of fuels from biomass can lead naturally to dispersed facilities that incorporate food or materials production (or both) with fuel production. The author analyzes possible systems based on sugarcane, corn, and guayule. (Author/MA)

  2. Compact Water Vapor Exchanger for Regenerative Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Anderson, Molly; Hodgson, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Thermal and environmental control systems for future exploration spacecraft must meet challenging requirements for efficient operation and conservation of resources. Regenerative CO2 removal systems are attractive for these missions because they do not use consumable CO2 absorbers. However, these systems also absorb and vent water to space along with carbon dioxide. This paper describes an innovative device designed to minimize water lost from regenerative CO2 control systems. Design studies and proof-of-concept testing have shown the feasibility of a compact, efficient membrane water vapor exchanger (WVX) that will conserve water while meeting challenging requirements for operation on future spacecraft. Compared to conventional WVX designs, the innovative membrane WVX described here has the potential for high water recovery efficiency, compact size, and very low pressure losses. The key innovation is a method for maintaining highly uniform flow channels in a WVX core built from water-permeable membranes. The proof-of-concept WVX incorporates all the key design features of a prototypical unit, except that it is relatively small scale (1/23 relative to a unit sized for a crew of six) and some components were fabricated using non-prototypical methods. The proof-of-concept WVX achieved over 90% water recovery efficiency in a compact core in good agreement with analysis models. Furthermore the overall pressure drop is very small (less than 0.5 in. H2O, total for both flow streams) and meets requirements for service in environmental control and life support systems on future spacecraft. These results show that the WVX provides very uniform flow through flow channels for both the humid and dry streams. Measurements also show that CO2 diffusion through the water-permeable membranes will have negligible effect on the CO2 partial pressure in the spacecraft atmosphere.

  3. Learning from Listservs: Collaboration, Knowledge Exchange, and the Formation of Distributed Leadership for Farmers' Markets and the Food Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quintana, Maclovia; Morales, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Computer-mediated communications, in particular listservs, can be powerful tools for creating social change--namely, shifting our food system to a more healthy, just, and localised model. They do this by creating the conditions--collaborations, interaction, self-reflection, and personal empowerment--that cultivate distributed leadership. In this…

  4. Enhancing Food and Nutrition Curricula in Higher Education by Assigning Collaborative Food System Assessment Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, June

    2013-01-01

    Student engagement in higher education is important. Some professional healthcare programs, however, can become quite focused and competitive, limiting the potential for positive student engagement and for students to see how their field of study fits within larger systems. Food system assessments are an ideal way to see the interconnectedness of…

  5. The endocannabinoid system and appetite: relevance for food reward.

    PubMed

    Jager, Gerry; Witkamp, Renger F

    2014-06-01

    Mounting evidence substantiates the central role of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the modulation of both homeostatic and hedonic elements of appetite and food intake. Conversely, feeding status and dietary patterns directly influence activity of the ECS. Following a general introduction on the functioning of the ECS, the present review specifically addresses its role in the modulation of hedonic eating. Humans possess strong motivational systems triggered by rewarding aspects of food. Food reward is comprised of two components: one appetitive (orienting towards food); the other consummatory (hedonic evaluation), also referred to as 'wanting' and 'liking', respectively. Endocannabinoid tone seems to influence both the motivation to feed and the hedonic value of foods, probably by modifying palatability. Human physiology underlying hedonic eating is still not fully understood. A better understanding of the role of the ECS in the rewarding value of specific foods or diets could offer new possibilities to optimise the balance between energy and nutrient intake for different target groups. These groups include the obese and overweight, and potentially individuals suffering from malnutrition. Examples for the latter group are patients with disease-related anorexia, as well as the growing population of frail elderly suffering from persistent loss of food enjoyment and appetite resulting in malnutrition and involuntary weight loss. It has become clear that the psychobiology of food hedonics is extremely complex and the clinical failure of CB1 inverse agonists including rimonabant (Accomplia®) has shown that 'quick wins' in this field are unlikely.

  6. [Safety of food contact articles in RASFF system].

    PubMed

    Cwiek-Ludwicka, Kazimiera; Stelmach, Agnieszka; Półtorak, Hanna

    2007-01-01

    Materials and articles intended for contact with food must comply with the requirements set in the Regulation EC No 1935/2007. According to article 3 of this Regulation in normal conditions of use they could not transfer their components into food in the amounts which could endanger human health, cause unacceptable changes in the composition of food or cause a deterioration in the organoleptic characteristics. The Regulation EC No 178/2002 related to the food law provides the legal basis for the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF). RASFF, besides food and feed, deals with materials and articles intended to contact with food. The structure of RASFF system in the EU is functioning as a network of the official contact points in the Member States. In Poland the General Sanitary Inspectorate as a national contact point coordinates the activity of RASFF system. The products, which do not comply with the specific regulation and on the base of the risk assessment can pose the hazard to human health, are notified to this system. The notifications are classified as: alert notification, information notification and news. The notifications are published as weekly and annual reports. The majority of notifications in 2002-2006 concerned non-compliance of food contact articles with the allowed limits of overall and specific migration of the following substances: primary aromatic amines (PAA), formaldehyde, plasticizers, semicarbazide, isoprophylthioxanthone and metals. The number of notifications systematically grows up from 5 notifications in 2002 to 189 notifications in 2006. Majority of notified articles were made in China. Including of food contact materials into RASFF system allows for rapid withdrawal of non-complying products from the market.

  7. Fault tolerance control for proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaojuan; Zhou, Boyang

    2016-08-01

    Fault diagnosis and controller design are two important aspects to improve proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system durability. However, the two tasks are often separately performed. For example, many pressure and voltage controllers have been successfully built. However, these controllers are designed based on the normal operation of PEMFC. When PEMFC faces problems such as flooding or membrane drying, a controller with a specific design must be used. This paper proposes a unique scheme that simultaneously performs fault diagnosis and tolerance control for the PEMFC system. The proposed control strategy consists of a fault diagnosis, a reconfiguration mechanism and adjustable controllers. Using a back-propagation neural network, a model-based fault detection method is employed to detect the PEMFC current fault type (flooding, membrane drying or normal). According to the diagnosis results, the reconfiguration mechanism determines which backup controllers to be selected. Three nonlinear controllers based on feedback linearization approaches are respectively built to adjust the voltage and pressure difference in the case of normal, membrane drying and flooding conditions. The simulation results illustrate that the proposed fault tolerance control strategy can track the voltage and keep the pressure difference at desired levels in faulty conditions.

  8. Engineered magnetic domain textures in exchange bias bilayer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaul, Alexander; Hankemeier, Sebastian; Holzinger, Dennis; Müglich, Nicolas David; Staeck, Philipp; Frömter, Robert; Oepen, Hans Peter; Ehresmann, Arno

    2016-07-01

    A magnetic domain texture has been deterministically engineered in a topographically flat exchange-biased (EB) thin film system. The texture consists of long-range periodically arranged unit cells of four individual domains, characterized by individual anisotropies, individual geometry, and with non-collinear remanent magnetizations. The texture has been engineered by a sequence of light-ion bombardment induced magnetic patterning of the EB layer system. The magnetic texture's in-plane spatial magnetization distribution and the corresponding domain walls have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis (SEMPA). The influence of magnetic stray fields emerging from neighboring domain walls and the influence of the different anisotropies of the adjacent domains on the Néel type domain wall core's magnetization rotation sense and widths were investigated. It is shown that the usual energy degeneracy of clockwise and counterclockwise rotating magnetization through the walls is revoked, suppressing Bloch lines along the domain wall. Estimates of the domain wall widths for different domain configurations based on material parameters determined by vibrating sample magnetometry were quantitatively compared to the SEMPA data.

  9. Thermal energy storage systems using fluidized bed heat exchangers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weast, T.; Shannon, L.

    1980-01-01

    A rotary cement kiln and an electric arc furnace were chosen for evaluation to determine the applicability of a fluid bed heat exchanger (FBHX) for thermal energy storage (TES). Multistage shallow bed FBHX's operating with high temperature differences were identified as the most suitable for TES applications. Analysis of the two selected conceptual systems included establishing a plant process flow configuration, an operational scenario, a preliminary FBHX/TES design, and parametric analysis. A computer model was developed to determine the effects of the number of stages, gas temperatures, gas flows, bed materials, charge and discharge time, and parasitic power required for operation. The maximum national energy conservation potential of the cement plant application with TES is 15.4 million barrels of oil or 3.9 million tons of coal per year. For the electric arc furnance application the maximum national conservation potential with TES is 4.5 million barrels of oil or 1.1 million tons of coal per year. Present time of day utility rates are near the breakeven point required for the TES system. Escalation of on-peak energy due to critical fuel shortages could make the FBHX/TES applications economically attractive in the future.

  10. Extraction of food consumption systems by nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) for the assessment of food choices.

    PubMed

    Zetlaoui, Mélanie; Feinberg, Max; Verger, Philippe; Clémençon, Stephan

    2011-12-01

    In Western countries where food supply is satisfactory, consumers organize their diets around a large combination of foods. It is the purpose of this article to examine how recent nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) techniques can be applied to food consumption data to understand these combinations. Such data are nonnegative by nature and of high dimension. The NMF model provides a representation of consumption data through latent vectors with nonnegative coefficients, that we call consumption systems (CS), in a small number. As the NMF approach may encourage sparsity of the data representation produced, the resulting CS are easily interpretable. Beyond the illustration of its properties we provide through a simple simulation result, the NMF method is applied to data issued from a French consumption survey. The numerical results thus obtained are displayed and thoroughly discussed. A clustering based on the k-means method is also achieved in the resulting latent consumption space, to recover food consumption patterns easily usable for nutritionists.

  11. Food systems transition and disruptive low carbon innovation: implications for a food security research agenda.

    PubMed

    Tyfield, David

    2011-07-01

    There is a growing consensus that we are facing epochal challenges in global food security. Moreover, these challenges are multiple and complex. Meeting these challenges will involve nothing less than a wholesale socio-technical transition of the agri-food system. Optimizing the efficacy of the contribution of research to such a food security agenda will probably also need new institutional mechanisms and career structures to facilitate new kinds of collaborations and ongoing, longer-term projects. In short, the multiple challenges of food security demand a different political economy of research for effective intervention by science. In making this argument, the paper summarizes the major findings of a recent report regarding the potential impact of so-called 'disruptive' low-carbon innovations in China.

  12. Bioregenerative Life Support Systems Test Complex (Bio-Plex) Food Processing System: A Dual System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Vittadini, Elena; Peterson, Laurie J.; Swango, Beverly E.; Toerne, Mary E.; Russo, Dane M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A Bioregenerative Life Support Test Complex, BIO-Plex, is currently being constructed at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, TX. This facility will attempt to answer the questions involved in developing a lunar or planetary base. The Food Processing System (FPS) of the BIO-Plex is responsible for supplying food to the crew in coordination with the chosen mission scenario. Long duration space missions require development of both a Transit Food System and of a Lunar or Planetary Food System. These two systems are intrinsically different since the first one will be utilized in the transit vehicle in microgravity conditions with mostly resupplied foods, while the second will be used in conditions of partial gravity (hypogravity) to process foods from crops grown in the facility. The Transit Food System will consist of prepackaged food of extended shelf life. It will be supplemented with salad crops that will be consumed fresh. Microgravity imposes significant limitation on the ability to handle food and allows only for minimal processing. The challenge is to develop food systems similar to the International Space Station or Shuttle Food Systems but with a shelf life of 3 - 5 years. The Lunar or Planetary Food System will allow for food processing of crops due to the presence of some gravitational force (1/6 to 1/3 that of Earth). Crops such as wheat, soybean, rice, potato, peanut, and salad crops, will be processed to final products to provide a nutritious and acceptable diet for the crew. Not only are constraints imposed on the FPS from the crops (e.g., crop variation, availability, storage and shelf-life) but also significant requirements are present for the crew meals (e.g., RDA, high quality, safety, variety). The FPS becomes a fulcrum creating the right connection from crops to crew meals while dealing with issues of integration within a closed self-regenerative system (e.g., safe processing, waste production, volumes, air contaminations, water usage, etc

  13. Tactile 3D microprobe system with exchangeable styli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzer, Felix G.; Hausotte, Tino; Dorozhovets, Nataliya; Manske, Eberhard; Jäger, Gerd

    2011-09-01

    Over the past decade a trend of component miniaturization can be observed both in industry and in the laboratory, which involves an increasing demand for nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machines as well as for miniature tactile probes for measuring complex three-dimensional objects. The challenge is that these components—for example, diesel injectors, microgears and small optics—feature dimensions in the micrometre range with associated dimensional tolerances below 100 nm. For this reason, a significant number of research projects have dealt with microprobes for performing the dimensional measurements of microstructures with the goal of achieving measurement uncertainties in the nanometre range. This paper introduces an updated version of a 3D microprobe with an optical detection system developed at the Institute of Process Measurement and Sensor Technology. It consists of a measuring head and a separate probe system. The mechanical design of the probe system has been completely overhauled to enable the exchange of the stylus separately from the flexure elements. This is very important for the determination of the probing sphere's roundness deviations. The silicon membranes used in the first system design are therefore replaced by metal membranes. A new design of these membranes, optimized for isotropic probing forces and locking parasitic movements, is presented. Regarding the measuring head, the optical design has been redesigned to eliminate disruptive interference on the quadrant photodiode used for deflection measurement and to improve adjustment. Its dimensioning is discussed, especially the influence of the laser beam diameter on the interference contrast due to the parallel misalignment of the collimated laser beam. Initial measurement results are presented to prove functionality.

  14. Mechanistic model coupling gas exchange dynamics and Listeria monocytogenes growth in modified atmosphere packaging of non respiring food.

    PubMed

    Chaix, E; Broyart, B; Couvert, O; Guillaume, C; Gontard, N; Guillard, V

    2015-10-01

    A mechanistic model coupling O2 and CO2 mass transfer (namely diffusion and solubilisation in the food itself and permeation through the packaging material) to microbial growth models was developed aiming at predicting the shelf life of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) systems. It was experimentally validated on a non-respiring food by investigating concomitantly the O2/CO2 partial pressure in packaging headspace and the growth of Listeria monocytogenes (average microbial count) within the food sample. A sensitivity analysis has revealed that the reliability of the prediction by this "super-parametrized" model (no less than 47 parameters were required for running one simulation) was strongly dependent on the accuracy of the microbial input parameters. Once validated, this model was used to decipher the role of O2/CO2 mass transfer on microbial growth and as a MAP design tool: an example of MAP dimensioning was provided in this paper as a proof of concept.

  15. Observations on gas exchange and element recycle within a gas-closed algal-mouse system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smernoff, D. T.; Wharton, R. A., Jr.; Averner, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    Life support systems based on bioregeneration rely on the control and manipulation of organisms. Algae are potentially useful for a variety of Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) functions including the revitalization of atmospheres, production of food and for nitrogen fixation. The results of experiments conducted with a gas-closed algal-mouse system designed to investigate gas exchange phenomena under varying algal environmental conditions, and the ability of algae to utilize oxidized mouse solid waste are reported. Inherent instabilities exist between the uptake and release of carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) by the mouse and algae in a gas-closed system. Variations in light intensity and cell density alter the photosynthetic rate of the algae and enable short-term steady-state concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and O2. Different nitrogen sources (urea and nitrate) result in different algal assimilatory quotients (AQ). Combinations of photosynthetic rate and AQ ratio manipulations were examined for their potential in stabilizing atmospheric gas concentrations in the gas-closed algal-mouse system.

  16. Heat exchanger and water tank arrangement for passive cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Gillett, J.E.; Johnson, F.T.; Orr, R.S.; Schulz, T.L.

    1993-11-30

    A water storage tank in the coolant water loop of a nuclear reactor contains a tubular heat exchanger. The heat exchanger has tube sheets mounted to the tank connections so that the tube sheets and tubes may be readily inspected and repaired. Preferably, the tubes extend from the tube sheets on a square pitch and then on a rectangular pitch there between. Also, the heat exchanger is supported by a frame so that the tank wall is not required to support all of its weight. 6 figures.

  17. 75 FR 56112 - Integrated Food Safety System Online Collaboration Development-Cooperative Agreement With the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Integrated Food Safety System Online Collaboration... information sharing in the development of an integrated food safety system, and the development and... House Food Safety Working Group Objectives to integrate the food safety system at all levels....

  18. Space shuttle/food system study. Volume 2, appendix E: Alternate flight systems analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The functional requirements of stowage, preparation, serving, consumption, and cleanup were applied to each of the five food mixes selected for study in terms of the overall design of the space shuttle food system. The analysis led to a definition of performance requirements for each food mix, along with a definition of equipment to meet those requirements. Weight and volume data for all five systems, in terms of food and packaging, support equipment, and galley installation penalties, are presented.

  19. The role of pulses in sustainable and healthy food systems.

    PubMed

    McDermott, John; Wyatt, Amanda J

    2017-03-01

    Improving nutrition is a development priority, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in Africa and South Asia, in which there is a persistent burden of undernutrition and increasing obesity. Healthy food systems can play a necessary role, aligned with other multisectoral actions, in addressing this challenge. Contributing to improved nutrition and health outcomes through food-based solutions is complex. In considering the role that pulses can play in addressing this challenge, there are useful conceptual frameworks and emerging lessons. National food systems in LMICs provide limited diet quality. Foods for a healthy diet may be produced locally, but they increasingly rely on improved markets and trade. What might be done to transform food systems for healthier diets, and what role can pulses play? Food systems innovations will require a convergence of technical innovation with smarter institutional arrangements and more effective policies and regulations. In many countries in Africa and South Asia, pulses can make important contributions to healthier diets. Options for supporting pulses to make a greater contribution to healthier diets include increasing the efficiency of pulse supply chains, creating more effective public-private institutional arrangements for innovation, and establishing policies, regulations, and investments that are nutrition sensitive.

  20. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Heat Exchange Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Requirements for Heat Exchange Systems 8 Table 8 to Subpart VVVVVV of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources Pt. 63, Subpt. VVVVVV, Table 8 Table 8 to Subpart VVVVVV....11499, you must comply with the requirements for heat exchange systems as shown in the following...

  1. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Heat Exchange Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Requirements for Heat Exchange Systems 8 Table 8 to Subpart VVVVVV of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources Pt. 63, Subpt. VVVVVV, Table 8 Table 8 to Subpart VVVVVV....11499, you must comply with the requirements for heat exchange systems as shown in the following...

  2. 40 CFR 63.11499 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for heat exchange systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements for heat exchange systems? 63.11499 Section 63.11499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... and compliance requirements for heat exchange systems? (a) If the cooling water flow rate in your heat... part 211, you may use the physical integrity of the reactor as the surrogate indicator of...

  3. 40 CFR 63.11499 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for heat exchange systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for heat exchange systems? 63.11499 Section 63.11499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... and compliance requirements for heat exchange systems? (a) If the cooling water flow rate in your heat... part 211, you may use the physical integrity of the reactor as the surrogate indicator of...

  4. 40 CFR 63.2490 - What requirements must I meet for heat exchange systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true What requirements must I meet for heat... must I meet for heat exchange systems? (a) You must comply with each requirement in Table 10 to this subpart that applies to your heat exchange systems, except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of...

  5. 40 CFR 63.8030 - What requirements apply to my heat exchange systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What requirements apply to my heat... apply to my heat exchange systems? (a) You must comply with the requirements specified in Table 6 to this subpart that apply to your heat exchange systems, except as specified in paragraphs (b) through...

  6. 40 CFR 63.2490 - What requirements must I meet for heat exchange systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What requirements must I meet for heat... must I meet for heat exchange systems? (a) You must comply with each requirement in Table 10 to this subpart that applies to your heat exchange systems, except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of...

  7. 40 CFR 63.8030 - What requirements apply to my heat exchange systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What requirements apply to my heat... apply to my heat exchange systems? (a) You must comply with the requirements specified in Table 6 to this subpart that apply to your heat exchange systems, except as specified in paragraphs (b) through...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1328 - Heat exchange systems provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1328 Heat exchange... part, the owner or operator is only required to consider organic HAP listed on Table 6 of this...

  9. 40 CFR 63.1409 - Heat exchange system provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... that could be used to develop an acceptable monitoring program are ion specific electrode monitoring, p... associated with the leaking heat exchanger. The owner or operator shall document the basis for...

  10. 40 CFR 63.1409 - Heat exchange system provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... section. Surrogate indicators that could be used to develop an acceptable monitoring program are ion... associated with the leaking heat exchanger. The owner or operator shall document the basis for...

  11. 40 CFR 63.1409 - Heat exchange system provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... section. Surrogate indicators that could be used to develop an acceptable monitoring program are ion... associated with the leaking heat exchanger. The owner or operator shall document the basis for...

  12. Development of a contact heat exchanger for a constructable radiator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, H. R.

    1983-01-01

    A development program for a contact heat exchanger to be used to transfer heat from a spacecraft coolant loop to a heat pipe radiator is described. The contact heat exchanger provides for a connectable/disconnectable joint which allows for on-orbit assembly of the radiator system and replacement or exchange of radiator panels for repair and maintenance. The contact heat exchanger does not require the transfer of fluid across the joint; the spacecraft coolant loop remains contained in an all welded system with no static or dynamic fluid seals. The contact interface is also "dry' with no conductive grease or interstitial material required.

  13. LIPGENE food-exchange model for alteration of dietary fat quantity and quality in free-living participants from eight European countries.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Danielle I; Tierney, Audrey C; McCarthy, Sinead; Upritchard, Jane; Vermunt, Susan; Gulseth, Hanne L; Drevon, Christian A; Blaak, Ellen E; Saris, Wim H M; Karlström, Brita; Helal, Olfa; Defoort, Catherine; Gallego, Raquel; López-Miranda, José; Siedlecka, Dominika; Malczewska-Malec, Małgorzata; Roche, Helen M; Lovegrove, Julie A

    2009-03-01

    Controlled human intervention trials are required to confirm the hypothesis that dietary fat quality may influence insulin action. The aim was to develop a food-exchange model, suitable for use in free-living volunteers, to investigate the effects of four experimental diets distinct in fat quantity and quality: high SFA (HSFA); high MUFA (HMUFA) and two low-fat (LF) diets, one supplemented with 1.24 g EPA and DHA/d (LFn-3). A theoretical food-exchange model was developed. The average quantity of exchangeable fat was calculated as the sum of fat provided by added fats (spreads and oils), milk, cheese, biscuits, cakes, buns and pastries using data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of UK adults. Most of the exchangeable fat was replaced by specifically designed study foods. Also critical to the model was the use of carbohydrate exchanges to ensure the diets were isoenergetic. Volunteers from eight centres across Europe completed the dietary intervention. Results indicated that compositional targets were largely achieved with significant differences in fat quantity between the high-fat diets (39.9 (sem 0.6) and 38.9 (sem 0.51) percentage energy (%E) from fat for the HSFA and HMUFA diets respectively) and the low-fat diets (29.6 (sem 0.6) and 29.1 (sem 0.5) %E from fat for the LF and LFn-3 diets respectively) and fat quality (17.5 (sem 0.3) and 10.4 (sem 0.2) %E from SFA and 12.7 (sem 0.3) and 18.7 (sem 0.4) %E MUFA for the HSFA and HMUFA diets respectively). In conclusion, a robust, flexible food-exchange model was developed and implemented successfully in the LIPGENE dietary intervention trial.

  14. Space shuttle/food system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    This document establishes the Functional, physical and performance interface requirements are studied between the space shuttle orbiter and the galley water system, the orbiter and the galley electrical system, and the orbiter and the galley structural system. Control of the configuration and design of the applicable interfacing items is intended to maintain compatibility between co-functioning and physically mating items and to assure those performance criteria that are dependent upon the interfacing items.

  15. Concept of "One Window" Data Exchange System Fulfilling the Recommendation for e-Navigation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipkowski, Damian; Wawruch, Ryszard

    The implementation in maritime radio-communication of so called "One window concept" for exchange of information between a ship and a port and coastal state authorities requires designation of one contact point on shore for these purposes, e.g. harbour master or ships' monitoring or traffic control centre. In Poland, as contact points regional and local centres of the Polish National Maritime Safety System will be designated. Paper describes the proposal for system of data exchange between a ship and a shore contact point, containing definition, functions and architecture of proposed system, possible directions of information flow and levels of access, fulfilling requirements of this concept and recommendation for e-navigation system developed on the basis of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation and Lighthouse Authorities (IALA) working papers.

  16. Dynamics in a three species food-web system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, K.; Gakkhar, S.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the dynamics of a three species food-web system is discussed. The food-web comprises of one predator and two logistically growing competing species. The predator species is taking food from one of the competitors with Holling type II functional response. Another competitor is the amensal species for the predator of first species. The system is shown to be positive and bounded. The stability of various axial points, boundary points and interior point has been investigated. The persistence of the system has been studied. Numerical simulation has been performed to show the occurrence of Hopf bifurcation and stable limit cycle about the interior point. The presence of second competitor and its interaction with predator gives more complex dynamics than the simple prey-predator system. The existence of transcritical bifurcation has been established about two axial points. The existence of periodic attractor having period-2 solution has been shown, when amensal coefficient is chosen as bifurcation parameter.

  17. New technology for food systems and security.

    PubMed

    Yau, N J Newton

    2009-01-01

    In addition to product trade, technology trade has become one of the alternatives for globalization action around the world. Although not all technologies employed on the technology trade platform are innovative technologies, the data base of international technology trade still is a good indicator for observing innovative technologies around world. The technology trade data base from Sinew Consulting Group (SCG) Ltd. was employed as an example to lead the discussion on security or safety issues that may be caused by these innovative technologies. More technologies related to processing, functional ingredients and quality control technology of food were found in the data base of international technology trade platform. The review was conducted by categorizing technologies into the following subcategories in terms of safety and security issues: (1) agricultural materials/ingredients, (2) processing/engineering, (3) additives, (4) packaging/logistics, (5) functional ingredients, (6) miscellaneous (include detection technology). The author discusses examples listed for each subcategory, including GMO technology, nanotechnology, Chinese medicine based functional ingredients, as well as several innovative technologies. Currently, generation of innovative technology advance at a greater pace due to cross-area research and development activities. At the same time, more attention needs to be placed on the employment of these innovative technologies.

  18. Using a health information exchange system for imaging information: patterns and predictors.

    PubMed

    Vest, Joshua R; Grinspan, Zachary M; Kern, Lisa M; Campion, Thomas R; Kaushal, Rainu

    2013-01-01

    Health information exchange (HIE) systems may address the challenges that prevent easy access to patients' existing radiological information at the point of care. However, little is known about the factors associated with usage of HIE for radiology reports, nor about how reports are shared with an exchange network. We analyzed the system log files from a regional health information organization in upstate New York matched with insurance claims files using network analysis and regression modeling. The exchange network was dominated by a few key information sources. Outpatient users overall accessed 17 times more radiology reports than inpatient and ED users combined. Additionally, as the number of exchange partners increased per organization, the average number of reports exchanged by that organization also increased. Radiology reports were most likely to be accessed by physicians and other clinical users. These findings have implications for those operating and fostering exchange activity.

  19. Fast food, central nervous system insulin resistance, and obesity.

    PubMed

    Isganaitis, Elvira; Lustig, Robert H

    2005-12-01

    Rates of obesity and insulin resistance have climbed sharply over the past 30 years. These epidemics are temporally related to a dramatic rise in consumption of fast food; until recently, it was not known whether the fast food was driving the obesity, or vice versa. We review the unique properties of fast food that make it the ideal obesigenic foodstuff, and elucidate the mechanisms by which fast food intake contributes to obesity, emphasizing its effects on energy metabolism and on the central regulation of appetite. After examining the epidemiology of fast food consumption, obesity, and insulin resistance, we review insulin's role in the central nervous system's (CNS) regulation of energy balance, and demonstrate the role of CNS insulin resistance as a cause of leptin resistance and in the promotion of the pleasurable or "hedonic" responses to food. Finally, we analyze the characteristics of fast food, including high-energy density, high fat, high fructose, low fiber, and low dairy intake, which favor the development of CNS insulin resistance and obesity.

  20. Microscopic nature of ferro- and antiferromagnetic interface coupling of uncompensated magnetic moments in exchange bias systems.

    PubMed

    Gruyters, M; Schmitz, D

    2008-02-22

    Exchange bias in layered CoO/Fe structures is investigated by x-ray resonant magnetic reflectivity (XRMR) measurements. Element-specific hysteresis loops are obtained from x-ray magnetic circular dichroism effects in the XRMR spectra. Evidence is provided for the existence of different types of uncompensated moments in the antiferromagnetic material. Explanations are given for the microscopic nature of these moments and the complex exchange interactions that determine the magnetization reversal in exchange bias systems.

  1. Testing of heat exchanger systems for reheating flue gases from wet scrubbing desulfurization plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Than, K.

    1982-09-01

    Two heat exchanger systems: the cyclic process of GEA and, the plate heat exchanger of Kablitz/Thyssen, for reheating flue gases, which have been cooled to about 50 to 55 C due to wet scrubbing, to the required temperature at the outlet of the stack by extracting the sensible heat of the hot flue gases were tested. The problem of building materials and on keeping clean the heat exchanger surface are emphasized.

  2. Spatio-temporal assessment of food safety risks in Canadian food distribution systems using GIS.

    PubMed

    Hashemi Beni, Leila; Villeneuve, Sébastien; LeBlanc, Denyse I; Côté, Kevin; Fazil, Aamir; Otten, Ainsley; McKellar, Robin; Delaquis, Pascal

    2012-09-01

    While the value of geographic information systems (GIS) is widely applied in public health there have been comparatively few examples of applications that extend to the assessment of risks in food distribution systems. GIS can provide decision makers with strong computing platforms for spatial data management, integration, analysis, querying and visualization. The present report addresses some spatio-analyses in a complex food distribution system and defines influence areas as travel time zones generated through road network analysis on a national scale rather than on a community scale. In addition, a dynamic risk index is defined to translate a contamination event into a public health risk as time progresses. More specifically, in this research, GIS is used to map the Canadian produce distribution system, analyze accessibility to contaminated product by consumers, and estimate the level of risk associated with a contamination event over time, as illustrated in a scenario.

  3. Food systems change and the environment: local and global connections.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Darcy A; Bess, Kimberly D

    2011-06-01

    Making changes to the way food is produced, distributed, and processed is one strategy for addressing global climate change. In this case study, we examine the "forming" stage of an emergent and locally-based coalition that is both participatory and focused on promoting food security by creating food systems change. Social network analysis is used to compare network density, centrality, and centralization among coalition partners before the formation of the coalition and at its one-year anniversary. Findings reveal that the coalition facilitated information seeking, assistance seeking, and collaborative efforts related to food security among a group of organizational stakeholders that were relatively disconnected pre-coalition. Results also illuminate tensions related to increased centralization of the network, coalition efficiency, and the goals of democratic decision-making. This study highlights the utility of social network analysis as a tool for evaluating the aims and trajectory of locally-based coalitions focused on global concerns.

  4. Proton exchange membrane fuel cell conductivity and system analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Qian

    A fuel cell converts chemical energy to electrical energy. It is a device that uses the electrochemical reaction of hydrogen and an oxidant, to produce electrical energy silently, without combustion. The role of the electrolyte in a PEM fuel cell is played by a proton exchange membrane. NafionRTM and its derivatives are the most widely used and studied polymers. Percolation theory holds a key to understanding the behavior of these polymers. In this dissertation, the percolation phenomenon was first simulated for the thermal conductivity of a representative polymer material. The simulation program was based on the finite element method, using Ansys software, which not only simplifies the method of calculation, but also increases the accuracy of the result. Ansys programs were developed to study the effects of matrix thickness, filler particle volume percentage, and various conductivities of the base material and filler particles. Comparison with existing experimental results and other models showed that the results from the finite element method were more accurate than the other models, especially the three-dimensional model. A similar Ansys program was utilized to predict the percolation threshold for the polymer electric conductivity, and its relationship with extra water content over the studied temperature range. The result showed that the percolation threshold varied with temperature and is in the range of 22% to 26% at room temperature, and matches the experimental data within 10% error margin. A natural gas fuel cell (NGFC) is a direct-energy conversion system which uses natural gas as the hydrogen carrier. A parametric model was developed to predict the overall system performance of a natural-gas-fueled PEM fuel cell system sized for a residential or small commercial building. The model accounts for interactions between various operating parameters: fuel consumption, air and water requirements, power produced, and heat and waste water discharge. For example

  5. Forecasting the Future Food Service World of Work. Final Report. Volume II. Centralized Food Service Systems. Service Management Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Thomas F., Ed.; Swinton, John R., Ed.

    Volume II of a three-volume study on the future of the food service industry considers the effects that centralized food production will have on the future of food production systems. Based on information from the Fair Acres Project and the Michigan State University Vegetable Processing Center, the authors describe the operations of a centralized…

  6. An inexpensive food cup for use in a commercially available food monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Wellman, Paul J; Bellinger, Larry L; Cepeda-Benito, Antonio; Susabda, Agnes; Ho, Dao H; Davis, Kristina W

    2004-12-15

    The microstructure of feeding in rats can be probed using a variety of protocols that employ videotape-based ratings, pellet feeders, and/or laboratory balances. A recent commercial product (BioDAQ, Research Diets, New Brunswick, NJ) uses a metal food hopper placed on a load cell to monitor daily food pellet consumption. In this system, movements of the hopper during eating and the cessation of hopper movements after eating are combined with momentary hopper weights for subsequent analyses of daily meal patterns. Our laboratory has devised an improved food cup for the BioDAQ system that is easily balanced, minimizes spillage, and is compatible with either powdered chow diets or nonpelleted soft diets (e.g., a high-fat diet). In the present paper, we describe the methods used to fabricate this food cup and present data illustrating its use in meal pattern analyses for rats fed either a ground laboratory chow or a 33% high-fat diet.

  7. Temperature control system for a J-module heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Basdekas, Demetrios L.; Macrae, George; Walsh, Joseph M.

    1978-01-01

    The level of primary fluid is controlled to change the effective heat transfer area of a heat exchanger utilized in a liquid metal nuclear power plant to eliminate the need for liquid metal control valves to regulate the flow of primary fluid and the temperature of the effluent secondary fluid.

  8. System and Structure: Essays in Communication and Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilden, Anthony

    This book ranges widely over the fields of communication theory, Freudian and Lacanian psychology, and Levi-Straussian anthropology. The primary goal of the book is an examination of the structural and analogic patterns within human communication and exchange. This examination involves discourses upon the computer compared to the human nervous…

  9. Space shuttle food system summary, 1981-1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stadler, Connie R.; Rapp, Rita M.; Bourland, Charles T.; Fohey, Michael F.

    1988-01-01

    All food in the Space Shuttle food system was precooked and processed so it required no refrigeration and was either ready-to-eat or could be prepared for consumption by simply adding water and/or heating. A gun-type water dispenser and a portable, suitcase-type heater were used to support this food system during the first four missions. On STS-5, new rehydratable packages were introduced along with a needle-injection water dispenser that measured the water as it was dispensed into the packages. A modular galley was developed to facilitate the meal preparation process aboard the Space Shuttle. The galley initially flew on STS-9. A personal hygiene station, a hot or cold water dispenser, a convection oven, and meal assembly areas were included in the galley.

  10. Monitoring Foreign Students in the United States: The Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-14

    Students in the United States: The Student and Exchange Visitor Information System ( SEVIS ) Updated January 14, 2005 Alison Siskin Analyst in Social...Students in the United States: The Student and Exchange Visitor Information System ( SEVIS ) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Visitor Information System ( SEVIS ) Summary There has been increased interest in monitoring foreign students while maintaining the long tradition of

  11. Design and study of the mask exchange system based on Delta parallel mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Feifan; Wang, Jianping; Zhou, Hongfei; Zhou, Zengxiang; Chu, Jiaru

    2016-07-01

    Mask exchange system is the main part of Multi-Object Broadband Imaging Echellette (MOBIE) on the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). The robot is one of the key parts in the mask exchange process. In view of the facts that the scheme the on-board robot is hard to meet the requirements of TMT and the traditional industrial robot is difficult to use in the Mask Exchange System (MEX). The delta parallel mechanism has much advantages such as good dynamic performance, high speed and could integrate a vision recognition system to identify the masks. The design for MEX based on off-board Delta parallel mechanism was proposed in the paper.

  12. Raman spectroscopy for monitoring protein structure in muscle food systems.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Ana M

    2008-06-01

    Raman spectroscopy offers structural information about complex solid systems such as muscle food proteins. This spectroscopic technique is a powerful and a non-invasive method for the study of protein changes in secondary structure, mainly quantified, analysing the amide I (1650-1680 cm(- 1)) and amide III (1200-1300 cm(- 1)) regions and C-C stretching band (940 cm(- 1)), as well as modifications in protein local environments (tryptophan residues, tyrosil doublet, aliphatic aminoacids bands) of muscle food systems. Raman spectroscopy has been used to determine structural changes in isolated myofibrillar and connective tissue proteins by the addition of different compounds and by the effect of the conservation process such as freezing and frozen storage. It has been also shown that Raman spectroscopy is particularly useful for monitoring in situ protein structural changes in muscle food during frozen storage. Besides, the possibilities of using protein structural changes of intact muscle to predict the protein functional properties and the sensory attributes of muscle foods have been also investigated. In addition, the application of Raman spectroscopy to study changes in the protein structure during the elaboration of muscle food products has been demonstrated.

  13. Evaluation of engineering foods for Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karel, M.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of developing acceptable and reliable engineered foods for use in controlled ecological support systems (CELSS) was evaluated. Food resupply and regeneration are calculated, flow charts of food processes in a multipurpose food pilot plant are presented, and equipment for a multipurpose food pilot plant and potential simplification of processes are discussed. Food-waste treatment and water usage in food processing and preparation are also considered.

  14. The determination of nutritional requirements for Safe Haven Food Supply System (emergency/survival foods)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, Selina

    1987-01-01

    The Space Station Safe Haven Food System must sustain 8 crew members under emergency conditions for 45 days. Emergency Survival Foods are defined as a nutritionally balanced collection of high density food and beverages selected to provide for the survival of Space Station flight crews in contingency situations. Since storage volume is limited, the foods should be highly concentrated. A careful study of different research findings regarding starvation and calorie restricted diets indicates that a minimum nutritional need close to RDA is an important factor for sustaining an individual's life in a stressful environment. Fat, protein, and carbohydrates are 3 energy producing nutrients which play a vital role in the growth and maintenance process of human life. A lower intake of protein can minimize the water intake, but it causes a negative nitrogen balance and a lower performance level. Other macro and micro nutrients are also required for nutritional interrelationships to metabolize the other 3 nutrients to their optimum level. The various options for longer duration than 45 days are under investigation.

  15. EXFOR systems manual: Nuclear reaction data exchange format

    SciTech Connect

    McLane, V.

    1996-07-01

    This document describes EXFOR, the exchange format designed to allow transmission of nuclear reaction data between the members of the Nuclear Data Centers Network. In addition to storing the data and its bibliographic information, experimental information, including source of uncertainties, is also compiled. The status and history of the data set is also included, e.g., the source of the data, any updates which have been made, and correlations to other data sets. The exchange format, as outlined, is designed to allow a large variety of numerical data tables with explanatory and bibliographic information to be transmitted in an easily machine-readable format (for checking and indicating possible errors) and a format that can be read by personnel (for passing judgment on and correcting any errors indicated by the machine).

  16. Measuring and Modeling Component and Whole-System Carbon Exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Bolstad

    2006-11-01

    We measured ecosystem/atmospheric carbon exchange through a range of methods covering a range of scales. We measured carbon (C) pool and flux for a number of previously poorly quantified ecosystems, developed measurement and modeling methods, and applied these to substantially increase the accuracy and reduce uncertainty in ecosystem/atmospheric C exchange at a range of scales. It appears most upland forests are weak to strong carbon sinks, and status depends largely on disturbance history and age. Net flux from wetland ecosystems appears to be from weak sinks to moderate sources of C to the atmosphere. We found limited evidence for a positive feedback of warming/drying to increased ecosystem C emissions. We further developed multi-source integration and modeling methods, including multiple towers, to scale estimates to landscapes and larger regions.

  17. 40 CFR 63.11920 - What are my initial and continuous compliance requirements for heat exchange systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... compliance requirements for heat exchange systems? 63.11920 Section 63.11920 Protection of Environment... § 63.11920 What are my initial and continuous compliance requirements for heat exchange systems? (a... volatile organic compounds from each heat exchange system in HAP service subject to the requirements...

  18. 8 CFR 214.12 - Preliminary enrollment of schools in the Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS). 214.12 Section 214.12 Aliens and Nationality... of schools in the Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS). (a) Private elementary and... schools are eligible for preliminary enrollment in Student and Exchange Visitor Information System...

  19. 8 CFR 214.12 - Preliminary enrollment of schools in the Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS). 214.12 Section 214.12 Aliens and Nationality... of schools in the Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS). (a) Private elementary and... schools are eligible for preliminary enrollment in Student and Exchange Visitor Information System...

  20. 8 CFR 214.12 - Preliminary enrollment of schools in the Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS). 214.12 Section 214.12 Aliens and Nationality... of schools in the Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS). (a) Private elementary and... schools are eligible for preliminary enrollment in Student and Exchange Visitor Information System...

  1. 8 CFR 214.12 - Preliminary enrollment of schools in the Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS). 214.12 Section 214.12 Aliens and Nationality... of schools in the Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS). (a) Private elementary and... schools are eligible for preliminary enrollment in Student and Exchange Visitor Information System...

  2. 8 CFR 214.12 - Preliminary enrollment of schools in the Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS). 214.12 Section 214.12 Aliens and Nationality... of schools in the Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS). (a) Private elementary and... schools are eligible for preliminary enrollment in Student and Exchange Visitor Information System...

  3. 40 CFR 63.11920 - What are my initial and continuous compliance requirements for heat exchange systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... volatile organic compounds from each heat exchange system in HAP service subject to the requirements of...) Monitoring locations for closed-loop recirculation heat exchange systems. For each closed loop recirculating heat exchange system, you must collect and analyze a sample from the location(s) described in...

  4. EXFOR SYSTEMS MANUAL NUCLEAR REACTION DATA EXCHANGE FORMAT.

    SciTech Connect

    MCLANE,V.; NUCLEAR DATA CENTER NETWORK

    2000-05-19

    EXFOR is an exchange format designed to allow transmission of nuclear reaction data between the members of the Nuclear Data Centers Network. This document has been written for use by the members of the Network and includes matters of procedure and protocol, as well as detailed rules for the compilation of data. Users may prefer to consult EXFOR Basics' for a brief description of the format.

  5. Thermal analysis for ion-exchange column system

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S. Y.; King, W. D.

    2012-07-01

    Models have been developed to simulate the thermal characteristics of Crystalline Silico-titanate (CST) ion exchange media fully loaded with radioactive cesium in a column configuration and distributed within a waste storage tank. This work was conducted to support the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) program which is focused on processing dissolved, high-sodium salt waste for the removal of specific radionuclides (including Cs-137, Sr-90, and actinides) within a High Level Waste (HLW) storage tank at the Savannah River Site. A two-dimensional computational modeling approach for the in-column ion-exchange domain was taken to include conservative, bounding estimates for key parameters such that the results would provide the maximum centerline temperatures achievable under the design configurations using a feed composition known to promote high cesium loading on CST. A primary objective of these calculations was to estimate temperature distributions across packed CST beds immersed in waste supernate or filled with dry air under various accident scenarios. Accident scenarios evaluated included loss of salt solution flow through the bed, inadvertent column drainage, and loss of active cooling in the column. The modeling results demonstrate that the baseline design using one central and four outer cooling tubes provides a highly efficient cooling mechanism for reducing the maximum column temperature. (authors)

  6. Fluctuations, exchange processes, and water diffusion in aqueous protein systems

    PubMed Central

    Kimmich, R.; Gneiting, T.; Kotitschke, K.; Schnur, G.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental frequency, concentration, and temperature dependences of the deuteron relaxation times T1 and T2 of D2O solutions of bovine serum albumin are reported and theoretically described in a closed form without formal parameters. Crucial processes of the theoretical concept are material exchange, translational diffusion of water molecules on the rugged surfaces of proteins, and tumbling of the macromolecules. It is also concluded that, apart from averaging of the relaxation rates in the diverse deuteron phases, material exchange contributes to transverse relaxation by exchange modulation of the Larmor frequency. The rate limiting factor of macromolecular tumbling is determined by the free water content. In a certain analogy to the classical free-volume theory, a “free-water-volume theory” is presented. There are two characteristic water mass fractions indicating the saturation of the hydration shells (Cs ≈ 0.3) and the onset of protein tumbling (C0 ≈ 0.6). The existence of the translational degrees of freedom of water molecules in the hydration shells has been verified by direct measurement of the diffusion coefficient using an NMR field-gradient technique. The concentration and temperature dependences show phenomena indicating a percolation transition of clusters of free water. The threshold water content was found to be Ccw ≈ 0.43. PMID:19431772

  7. Phosphorus cycling in Montreal's food and urban agriculture systems.

    PubMed

    Metson, Geneviève S; Bennett, Elena M

    2015-01-01

    Cities are a key system in anthropogenic phosphorus (P) cycling because they concentrate both P demand and waste production. Urban agriculture (UA) has been proposed as a means to improve P management by recycling cities' P-rich waste back into local food production. However, we have a limited understanding of the role UA currently plays in the P cycle of cities or its potential to recycle local P waste. Using existing data combined with surveys of local UA practitioners, we quantified the role of UA in the P cycle of Montreal, Canada to explore the potential for UA to recycle local P waste. We also used existing data to complete a substance flow analysis of P flows in the overall food system of Montreal. In 2012, Montreal imported 3.5 Gg of P in food, of which 2.63 Gg ultimately accumulated in landfills, 0.36 Gg were discharged to local waters, and only 0.09 Gg were recycled through composting. We found that UA is only a small sub-system in the overall P cycle of the city, contributing just 0.44% of the P consumed as food in the city. However, within the UA system, the rate of recycling is high: 73% of inputs applied to soil were from recycled sources. While a Quebec mandate to recycle 100% of all organic waste by 2020 might increase the role of UA in P recycling, the area of land in UA is too small to accommodate all P waste produced on the island. UA may, however, be a valuable pathway to improve urban P sustainability by acting as an activity that changes residents' relationship to, and understanding of, the food system and increases their acceptance of composting.

  8. Testing and analysis of load-side immersed heat exchangers for solar domestic hot water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Farrington, R.B.; Bingham, C.E.

    1987-10-01

    This report describes work to determine the performance of load-side heat exchangers for use in residential solar domestic hot water systems. We measured the performance of four heat exchangers: a smooth coil and a finned coil having heat transfer areas of 2.5 m/sup 2/ (26 ft/sup 2/) and those having areas of 1.7 m/sup 2/ (19 ft/sup 2/). A numerical model using the thermal network program MITAS was constructed, and results were compared to the experimental results. Research showed a smooth coil with only 70% of the surface area of a finned coil performed better than the finned coil. Also, load-side heat exchangers can maintain and enhance stratification in storage tanks, permitting the use of control strategies that take advantage of stratified storage tanks to increase system performance. The analytical model, which agreed reasonably well with the experimental results, was used to vary heat exchanger flow rate and area and initial tank temperature for both a smooth- and a finned-coil heat exchanger. Increasing the heat exchanger flow rate and area results in higher heat transfer rates but not necessarily optimal performance. Lower initial tank temperatures resulted in reduced tank stratification. The smooth heat exchanger outperformed the finned heat exchanger with the same outside surface area. 15 refs., 37 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. Reproducible analyses of microbial food for advanced life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Gene R.

    1988-01-01

    The use of yeasts in controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS) for microbial food regeneration in space required the accurate and reproducible analysis of intracellular carbohydrate and protein levels. The reproducible analysis of glycogen was a key element in estimating overall content of edibles in candidate yeast strains. Typical analytical methods for estimating glycogen in Saccharomyces were not found to be entirely aplicable to other candidate strains. Rigorous cell lysis coupled with acid/base fractionation followed by specific enzymatic glycogen analyses were required to obtain accurate results in two strains of Candida. A profile of edible fractions of these strains was then determined. The suitability of yeasts as food sources in CELSS food production processes is discussed.

  10. [Development of food supply quality assurance system for armed forces].

    PubMed

    Plaksin, E I

    2012-01-01

    To study a serviceman's satisfaction with how nutrition was organized, the author elaborated a questionnaire containing the sections "nutrition organization quality assessment" and "mess food intake condition quality assessment". Different categories of military men taking food were inquired in a mess. The affirmation "I have no after-meal heartburn" became evidence that the sample was heterogeneous. For detailed analysis, the total sample was divided into two subgroups: those who had (Subgroup 1) and had not (Subgroup 2) a burning sensation after eating. Subgroup II servicemen gave lower scores on the questions about the comfort of food intake, the quality of dishes, a general attitude towards nutrition organization in the mess than did Subgroup I. The study has verified that the developed subsistence quality assurance system is of importance. The questionnaire has provided a valid assessment of the quality of the services given by the mess and revealed a reason for low scores.

  11. Heat and moisture exchanger: importance of humidification in anaesthesia and ventilatory breathing system.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Vandana

    2008-08-01

    Adequate humidification is vital to maintain homeostasis of the airway. Heat and moisture exchangers conserve some of the exhaled water, heat and return them to inspired gases. Many heat and moisture exchangers also perfom bacterial/viral filtration and prevent inhalation of small particles. Heat and moisture exchangers are also called condenser humidifier, artificial nose, etc. Most of them are disposable devices with exchanging medium enclosed in a plastic housing. For adult and paediatric age group different dead space types are available. Heat and moisture exchangers are helpful during anaesthesia and ventilatory breathing system. To reduce the damage of the upper respiratory tract through cooling and dehydration inspiratory air can be heated and humidified, thus preventing the serious complications.

  12. HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS FOR ION-EXCHANGE COLUMN SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.; King, W.

    2011-05-23

    Models have been developed to simulate the thermal characteristics of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) ion exchange media fully loaded with radioactive cesium in a column configuration and distributed within a waste storage tank. This work was conducted to support the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) program which is focused on processing dissolved, high-sodium salt waste for the removal of specific radionuclides (including Cs-137, Sr-90, and actinides) within a High Level Waste (HLW) storage tank at the Savannah River Site. The SCIX design includes CST columns inserted and supported in the tank top risers for cesium removal. Temperature distributions and maximum temperatures across the column were calculated with a focus on process upset conditions. A two-dimensional computational modeling approach for the in-column ion-exchange domain was taken to include conservative, bounding estimates for key parameters such that the results would provide the maximum centerline temperatures achievable under the design configurations using a feed composition known to promote high cesium loading on CST. The current full-scale design for the CST column includes one central cooling pipe and four outer cooling tubes. Most calculations assumed that the fluid within the column was stagnant (i.e. no buoyancy-induced flow) for a conservative estimate. A primary objective of these calculations was to estimate temperature distributions across packed CST beds immersed in waste supernate or filled with dry air under various accident scenarios. Accident scenarios evaluated included loss of salt solution flow through the bed, inadvertent column drainage, and loss of active cooling in the column. The modeling results demonstrate that the baseline design using one central and four outer cooling tubes provides a highly efficient cooling mechanism for reducing the maximum column temperature.

  13. Exchanging a few commercial, regularly consumed food items with improved fat quality reduces total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ulven, Stine M; Leder, Lena; Elind, Elisabeth; Ottestad, Inger; Christensen, Jacob J; Telle-Hansen, Vibeke H; Skjetne, Anne J; Raael, Ellen; Sheikh, Navida A; Holck, Marianne; Torvik, Kristin; Lamglait, Amandine; Thyholt, Kari; Byfuglien, Marte G; Granlund, Linda; Andersen, Lene F; Holven, Kirsten B

    2016-10-01

    The healthy Nordic diet has been previously shown to have health beneficial effects among subjects at risk of CVD. However, the extent of food changes needed to achieve these effects is less explored. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of exchanging a few commercially available, regularly consumed key food items (e.g. spread on bread, fat for cooking, cheese, bread and cereals) with improved fat quality on total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and inflammatory markers in a double-blind randomised, controlled trial. In total, 115 moderately hypercholesterolaemic, non-statin-treated adults (25-70 years) were randomly assigned to an experimental diet group (Ex-diet group) or control diet group (C-diet group) for 8 weeks with commercially available food items with different fatty acid composition (replacing SFA with mostly n-6 PUFA). In the Ex-diet group, serum total cholesterol (P<0·001) and LDL-cholesterol (P<0·001) were reduced after 8 weeks, compared with the C-diet group. The difference in change between the two groups at the end of the study was -9 and -11 % in total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, respectively. No difference in change in plasma levels of inflammatory markers (high-sensitive C-reactive protein, IL-6, soluble TNF receptor 1 and interferon-γ) was observed between the groups. In conclusion, exchanging a few regularly consumed food items with improved fat quality reduces total cholesterol, with no negative effect on levels of inflammatory markers. This shows that an exchange of a few commercially available food items was easy and manageable and led to clinically relevant cholesterol reduction, potentially affecting future CVD risk.

  14. Heat exchanger. [rocket combustion chambers and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokolowski, D. E. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A heat exchanger, as exemplified by a rocket combustion chamber, is constructed by stacking thin metal rings having microsized openings therein at selective locations to form cooling passages defined by an inner wall, an outer wall and fins. Suitable manifolds are provided at each end of the rocket chamber. In addition to the cooling channel openings, coolant feed openings may be formed in each of rings. The coolant feed openings may be nested or positioned within generally U-shaped cooling channel openings. Compression on the stacked rings may be maintained by welds or the like or by bolts extending through the stacked rings.

  15. Ion-exchange polymer artificial muscle and actuating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vial, Dominique; Tondu, Bertrand; Lopez, Pierre; Aurelle, Yves; Ricard, Alain

    1996-04-01

    Chemomechanical transformations are used to produce a mechanical force from a reversible chemical reaction in order to generate artificial muscular contraction, on the model of the biological muscle. The design and experimentation of an original artificial muscle using an ion-exchange polymer which reacts inside a soft envelope, derived from research on pneumatic artificial McKibben muscle, is presented. Then a chemomechanical actuator constituted of two artificial muscles has been conceived: first results are shown on position control in open-loop mode.

  16. Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?

    PubMed

    Troell, Max; Naylor, Rosamond L; Metian, Marc; Beveridge, Malcolm; Tyedmers, Peter H; Folke, Carl; Arrow, Kenneth J; Barrett, Scott; Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Ehrlich, Paul R; Gren, Asa; Kautsky, Nils; Levin, Simon A; Nyborg, Karine; Österblom, Henrik; Polasky, Stephen; Scheffer, Marten; Walker, Brian H; Xepapadeas, Tasos; de Zeeuw, Aart

    2014-09-16

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity and climate change. Aquaculture can potentially enhance resilience through improved resource use efficiencies and increased diversification of farmed species, locales of production, and feeding strategies. However, aquaculture's reliance on terrestrial crops and wild fish for feeds, its dependence on freshwater and land for culture sites, and its broad array of environmental impacts diminishes its ability to add resilience. Feeds for livestock and farmed fish that are fed rely largely on the same crops, although the fraction destined for aquaculture is presently small (∼4%). As demand for high-value fed aquaculture products grows, competition for these crops will also rise, as will the demand for wild fish as feed inputs. Many of these crops and forage fish are also consumed directly by humans and provide essential nutrition for low-income households. Their rising use in aquafeeds has the potential to increase price levels and volatility, worsening food insecurity among the most vulnerable populations. Although the diversification of global food production systems that includes aquaculture offers promise for enhanced resilience, such promise will not be realized if government policies fail to provide adequate incentives for resource efficiency, equity, and environmental protection.

  17. Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?

    PubMed Central

    Troell, Max; Naylor, Rosamond L.; Metian, Marc; Beveridge, Malcolm; Tyedmers, Peter H.; Folke, Carl; Arrow, Kenneth J.; Barrett, Scott; Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Gren, Åsa; Kautsky, Nils; Levin, Simon A.; Nyborg, Karine; Österblom, Henrik; Polasky, Stephen; Scheffer, Marten; Walker, Brian H.; Xepapadeas, Tasos; de Zeeuw, Aart

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity and climate change. Aquaculture can potentially enhance resilience through improved resource use efficiencies and increased diversification of farmed species, locales of production, and feeding strategies. However, aquaculture’s reliance on terrestrial crops and wild fish for feeds, its dependence on freshwater and land for culture sites, and its broad array of environmental impacts diminishes its ability to add resilience. Feeds for livestock and farmed fish that are fed rely largely on the same crops, although the fraction destined for aquaculture is presently small (∼4%). As demand for high-value fed aquaculture products grows, competition for these crops will also rise, as will the demand for wild fish as feed inputs. Many of these crops and forage fish are also consumed directly by humans and provide essential nutrition for low-income households. Their rising use in aquafeeds has the potential to increase price levels and volatility, worsening food insecurity among the most vulnerable populations. Although the diversification of global food production systems that includes aquaculture offers promise for enhanced resilience, such promise will not be realized if government policies fail to provide adequate incentives for resource efficiency, equity, and environmental protection. PMID:25136111

  18. A transportable system for management and exchange of programs and other text

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, W. V.

    1978-01-01

    A system is presented for exchanging information on tape, that allows information about the data to be included with the data. The system is designed for portability, but requires a few simple machine dependent modules. These modules are available for a variety of machines, and a bootstrapping procedure is provided. The system allows content selected reading of the tape, and a simple text editing facility is provided. Although the system recognizes 30 commands, information may be extracted from the tape by using as few as three commands. In addition to its use for information exchange, the system is expected to find use in maintaining large libraries of text.

  19. Consumers and Workers Opinions of A Proposed Cash Food System: NAS Alameda

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-08-01

    attitudes toward the current food system and a proposed system under which all personnel would receive a monetary food allowance and would pay for food in...the dining hall on an item-by-item basis. The results indicated a clear preference by the consumer for a monetary food allowance, although...Data: Food Features , 19 C7. Survey Data: Summary 24 D. Attitudes Toward the Proposed System 24 Dl. Interview Data: CCMRATS Policy 26 D2

  20. To eat or not to eat: Effects of food availability on reward system activity during food picture viewing.

    PubMed

    Blechert, Jens; Klackl, Johannes; Miedl, Stephan F; Wilhelm, Frank H

    2016-04-01

    Neuroimaging studies have started to explore the role of food characteristics (e.g., calorie-content) and psychological factors (e.g., restrained eating, craving) for the human appetitive system, motivated by the significant health implications of food-choice, overeating and overweight/obesity. However, one key aspect of modern food environments, food availability, especially of high energy foods, has not been adequately modeled in experimental research. Food that is immediately available for consumption could elicit stronger reward system activity and associated cognitive control than food that is not currently available for consumption and this could vary as a function of energy density. To examine this question, 32 healthy participants (16 women) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while passively viewing available foods - i.e. foods that could be eaten during and after the experiment - and unavailable foods of either high or low-caloric density in a 2 × 2 design. Available compared to unavailable foods elicited higher palatability ratings as well as stronger neural activation in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), amygdala, and left caudate nucleus as well as in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) - and thus structures implicated in reward and appetitive motivation as well as cognitive control, respectively. Availability effects in the caudate were mainly attributable to the high calorie condition (availability × calorie density interaction). These neuroimaging results support the contention that foods are particularly rewarding when immediately available and particularly so when high in caloric density. Thus, our results are consistent with health promoting interventions utilizing a nudging approach, i.e. aiming at decreasing accessibility of high calorie and increasing accessibility of low calorie foods in daily life. Results also imply that controlling/manipulating food availability may be an important methodological aspect in neuroscientific

  1. Integrated Food-Energy Systems: Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerst, M.; Cox, M. E.; Locke, K. A.; Laser, M.; Raker, M.; Gooch, C.; Kapuscinski, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Predominant forms of food and energy systems pose multiple challenges to the environment as current configurations tend to be structured around centralized one-way through-put of materials and energy. One proposed form of system transformation involves locally integrating "unclosed" material and energy loops from food and energy systems. Such systems, which have been termed integrated food-energy systems (IFES), have existed in diverse niche forms but have not been systematically studied with respect to technological, governance, and environmental differences. This is likely because IFES can have widely different configurations, from co-located renewable energy production on cropland to agroforestry. As a first step in creating a synthesis of IFES, our research team constructed a taxonomy using exploratory data analysis of diverse IFES cases (Gerst et al., 2015, ES&T 49:734-741). It was found that IFES may be categorized by type of primary product produced (plant- or animal-based food or energy) and the degree and direction of vertical supply chain coordination. To further explore these implications, we have begun a study of a highly-coordinated, animal-driven IFES: dairy farms with biogas production from anaerobic digestion of manure. The objectives of the research are to understand the barriers to adoption and the potential benefits to the farms financial resilience and to the environment. To address these objectives, we are interviewing 50 farms across New York and Vermont, collecting information on farmer decision-making and farm operation. These results will be used to calibrate biophysical and economic models of the farm in order understand the future conditions under which adoption of an IFES is beneficial.

  2. Flight feeding systems design and evaluation. Supplement 1: Production guides. [for the Apollo food system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The requirements for processing, packaging, testing, and shipment of foods selected for use in the Apollo food system are presented. Specific foodstuffs chosen from the following categories are discussed: (1) soups; (2) juices; (3) breads; (4) meat and poultry products; (5) fruits and nuts; (6) desserts; and (7) beverages. Food procurement for the mobile quarantine facility and for Apollo preflight and postflight activities is also discussed.

  3. Food and Beverage Environment Analysis and Monitoring System (FoodBEAMS™): A Reliability Study in the School Food and Beverage Environment

    PubMed Central

    Bullock, Sally Lawrence; Craypo, Lisa; Clark, Sarah E.; Barry, Jason; Samuels, Sarah E.

    2010-01-01

    States and school districts around the country are developing policies that set nutrition standards for competitive foods and beverages sold outside of the United States Department of Agriculture reimbursable school lunch program. However, few tools exist for monitoring the implementation of these new policies. The objective of this research was to develop a computerized assessment tool, the Food and Beverage Environment Analysis and Monitoring System (FoodBEAMS™), to collect data on the competitive school food environment and to test the inter-rater reliability of the tool among research and non-research professionals. FoodBEAMS was used to collect data in spring 2007, on the competitive foods and beverages sold in 21 California high schools. Adherence of the foods and beverages to California's competitive food and beverage nutrition policies for schools (Senate Bills 12 and 965) was determined using the data collected by both research and non-research professionals. The inter-rater reliability between the data collectors was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Researcher versus researcher and researcher versus non-researcher inter-rater reliability was high for both foods and beverages, with ICCs ranging from .972 to .987. The results of this study provide evidence that FoodBEAMS is a promising tool for assessing and monitoring adherence to nutrition standards for competitive foods sold on school campuses and can be used reliably by both research and non-research professionals. PMID:20630167

  4. Evaluation of a Passive Heat Exchanger Based Cooling System for Fuel Cell Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Burke, Kenneth A.

    2011-01-01

    Fuel cell cooling is conventionally performed with an actively controlled, dedicated coolant loop that exchanges heat with a separate external cooling loop. To simplify this system the concept of directly cooling a fuel cell utilizing a coolant loop with a regenerative heat exchanger to preheat the coolant entering the fuel cell with the coolant exiting the fuel cell was analyzed. The preheating is necessary to minimize the temperature difference across the fuel cell stack. This type of coolant system would minimize the controls needed on the coolant loop and provide a mostly passive means of cooling the fuel cell. The results indicate that an operating temperature of near or greater than 70 C is achievable with a heat exchanger effectiveness of around 90 percent. Of the heat exchanger types evaluated with the same type of fluid on the hot and cold side, a counter flow type heat exchanger would be required which has the possibility of achieving the required effectiveness. The number of heat transfer units required by the heat exchanger would be around 9 or greater. Although the analysis indicates the concept is feasible, the heat exchanger design would need to be developed and optimized for a specific fuel cell operation in order to achieve the high effectiveness value required.

  5. Food Delivery System with the Utilization of Vehicle Using Geographical Information System (GIS) and A Star Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siregar, B.; Gunawan, D.; Andayani, U.; Sari Lubis, Elita; Fahmi, F.

    2017-01-01

    Food delivery system is one kind of geographical information systems (GIS) that can be applied through digitation process. The main case in food delivery system is the way to determine the shortest path and food delivery vehicle movement tracking. Therefore, to make sure that the digitation process of food delivery system can be applied efficiently, it is needed to add shortest path determination facility and food delivery vehicle tracking. This research uses A Star (A*) algorithm for determining shortest path and location-based system (LBS) programming for moving food delivery vehicle object tracking. According to this research, it is generated the integrated system that can be used by food delivery driver, customer, and administrator in terms of simplifying the food delivery system. Through the application of shortest path and the tracking of moving vehicle, thus the application of food delivery system in the scope of geographical information system (GIS) can be executed.

  6. A Review of the Role of Food and the Food System in the Transmission and Spread of Ebolavirus.

    PubMed

    Mann, Erin; Streng, Stephen; Bergeron, Justin; Kircher, Amy

    2015-12-01

    The current outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) centered in West Africa is the largest in history, with nearly ten times more individuals contracting the disease than all previous outbreaks combined. The details of human-to-human and zoonotic ebolavirus transmission have justifiably received the largest share of research attention, and much information exists on these topics. However, although food processing-in the form of slaughtering and preparing wildlife for consumption (referred to as bushmeat)-has been implicated in EVD outbreaks, the full role of food in EVD spread is poorly understood and has been little studied. A literature search was undertaken to assess the current state of knowledge regarding how food can or may transmit ebolaviruses and how the food system contributes to EVD outbreak and spread. The literature reveals surprising preliminary evidence that food and the food system may be more implicated in ebolavirus transmission than expected and that further research is urgently needed.

  7. A Review of the Role of Food and the Food System in the Transmission and Spread of Ebolavirus

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Erin; Streng, Stephen; Bergeron, Justin; Kircher, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The current outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) centered in West Africa is the largest in history, with nearly ten times more individuals contracting the disease than all previous outbreaks combined. The details of human-to-human and zoonotic ebolavirus transmission have justifiably received the largest share of research attention, and much information exists on these topics. However, although food processing—in the form of slaughtering and preparing wildlife for consumption (referred to as bushmeat)—has been implicated in EVD outbreaks, the full role of food in EVD spread is poorly understood and has been little studied. A literature search was undertaken to assess the current state of knowledge regarding how food can or may transmit ebolaviruses and how the food system contributes to EVD outbreak and spread. The literature reveals surprising preliminary evidence that food and the food system may be more implicated in ebolavirus transmission than expected and that further research is urgently needed. PMID:26633305

  8. Do entrepreneurial food systems innovations impact rural economies and health? Evidence and gaps

    PubMed Central

    Sitaker, Marilyn; Kolodinsky, Jane; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B.; Seguin, Rebecca A.

    2015-01-01

    A potential solution for weakened rural economies is the development of local food systems, which include affordable foods sources for consumers and economically feasible structures for producers. Local food systems are purported to promote sustainability, improve local economies, increase access to healthy foods, and improve the local diets. Four entrepreneurial food systems innovations that support local economies include farmers’ markets, community supported agriculture, farm to institution programs and food hubs. We review current literature to determine whether innovations for aggregation, processing, distribution and marketing in local food systems: 1) enable producers to make a living; 2) improve local economies; 3) provide local residents with greater access to affordable, healthy food; and 4) contribute to greater consumption of healthy food among residents. While there is some evidence for each, more transdisciplinary research is needed to determine whether entrepreneurial food systems innovations provide economic and public health benefits. PMID:26613066

  9. Do entrepreneurial food systems innovations impact rural economies and health? Evidence and gaps.

    PubMed

    Sitaker, Marilyn; Kolodinsky, Jane; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; Seguin, Rebecca A

    A potential solution for weakened rural economies is the development of local food systems, which include affordable foods sources for consumers and economically feasible structures for producers. Local food systems are purported to promote sustainability, improve local economies, increase access to healthy foods, and improve the local diets. Four entrepreneurial food systems innovations that support local economies include farmers' markets, community supported agriculture, farm to institution programs and food hubs. We review current literature to determine whether innovations for aggregation, processing, distribution and marketing in local food systems: 1) enable producers to make a living; 2) improve local economies; 3) provide local residents with greater access to affordable, healthy food; and 4) contribute to greater consumption of healthy food among residents. While there is some evidence for each, more transdisciplinary research is needed to determine whether entrepreneurial food systems innovations provide economic and public health benefits.

  10. Food and beverage environment analysis and monitoring system: a reliability study in the school food and beverage environment.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Sally Lawrence; Craypo, Lisa; Clark, Sarah E; Barry, Jason; Samuels, Sarah E

    2010-07-01

    States and school districts around the country are developing policies that set nutrition standards for competitive foods and beverages sold outside of the US Department of Agriculture's reimbursable school lunch program. However, few tools exist for monitoring the implementation of these new policies. The objective of this research was to develop a computerized assessment tool, the Food and Beverage Environment Analysis and Monitoring System (FoodBEAMS), to collect data on the competitive school food environment and to test the inter-rater reliability of the tool among research and nonresearch professionals. FoodBEAMS was used to collect data in spring 2007 on the competitive foods and beverages sold in 21 California high schools. Adherence of the foods and beverages to California's competitive food and beverage nutrition policies for schools (Senate Bills 12 and 965) was determined using the data collected by both research and nonresearch professionals. The inter-rater reliability between the data collectors was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient. Researcher vs researcher and researcher vs nonresearcher inter-rater reliability was high for both foods and beverages, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from .972 to .987. Results of this study provide evidence that FoodBEAMS is a promising tool for assessing and monitoring adherence to nutrition standards for competitive foods sold on school campuses and can be used reliably by both research and nonresearch professionals.

  11. The AMPATH Nutritional Information System: Designing a Food Distribution Electronic Record System in Rural Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jason LitJeh; Yih, Yuehwern; Gichunge, Catherine; Tierney, William M.; Le, Tung H.; Zhang, Jun; Lawley, Mark A.; Petersen, Tomeka J.; Mamlin, Joseph J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The AMPATH program is a leading initiative in rural Kenya providing healthcare services to combat HIV. Malnutrition and food insecurity are common among AMPATH patients and the Nutritional Information System (NIS) was designed, with cross-functional collaboration between engineering and medical communities, as a comprehensive electronic system to record and assist in effective food distribution in a region with poor infrastructure. Design The NIS was designed modularly to support the urgent need of a system for the growing food distribution program. The system manages the ordering, storage, packing, shipping, and distribution of fresh produce from AMPATH farms and dry food supplements from the World Food Programme (WFP) and U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) based on nutritionists' prescriptions for food supplements. Additionally, the system also records details of food distributed to support future studies. Measurements Patients fed weekly, patient visits per month. Results With inception of the NIS, the AMPATH food distribution program was able to support 30,000 persons fed weekly, up from 2,000 persons. Patient visits per month also saw a marked increase. Conclusion The NIS' modular design and frequent, effective interactions between developers and users has positively affected the design, implementation, support, and modifications of the NIS. It demonstrates the success of collaboration between engineering and medical communities, and more importantly the feasibility for technology readily available in a modern country to contribute to healthcare delivery in developing countries like Kenya and other parts of sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:19717795

  12. Droplet-based lipid bilayer system integrated with microfluidic channels for solution exchange.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Yutaro; Kawano, Ryuji; Osaki, Toshihisa; Kamiya, Koki; Miki, Norihisa; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2013-04-21

    This paper proposes a solution exchange of a droplet-based lipid bilayer system, in which the inner solution of a droplet is replaced for the purpose of efficient ion channel analyses. In our previous report, we successfully recorded the channel conductance of alpha-hemolysin in a bilayer lipid membrane using a droplet contact method that can create a spontaneous lipid bilayer at the interface of contacting droplets; this method is widely used as highly efficient method for preparing planar lipid membranes. When only pipetting droplets of the solution, this method is highly efficient for preparing lipid membranes. However, the drawback of droplet-based systems is their inability to exchange the solution within the droplets. To study the effect of inhibitors and promoters of ion channels in drug discovery, it would be beneficial to conduct a solution exchange of droplets to introduce membrane proteins and to apply or wash-out the chemicals. In this study, we propose a droplet contact method that allows for the solution exchange of droplets via microfluidic channels. We experimentally and numerically investigated the bilayer stability with respect to exchanging flow rates, and then demonstrated a binding assay of an alpha-hemolysin using one of its blockers. The solution exchange in this system was conducted in less than 20 s without rupturing the membrane. We believe that the proposed system will enhance the efficiency of ion channel analyses.

  13. Heat exchangers for cardioplegia systems: in vitro study of four different concepts.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Mário; Novello, Waldyr Parorali; de Arruda, Antonio Celso Fonseca; Braile, Domingo Marcolino

    2003-05-01

    The aim of this work is the evaluation of four different heat exchangers used for myocardium during cardioplegic system in cardiac surgeries. Four types of shell and tube heat exchangers made of different exchange elements were constructed, as follows: stainless steel tubes, aluminium tubes, polypropylene hollow fiber, and bellows type. The evaluation was performed by in vitro tests of parameters such as heat transfer, pressure drop, and hemolysis tendency. The result has shown that all four systems tested were able to achieve the heat performance, and to offer low resistance to flow, and safety, as well as have low tendency to hemolysis. However, we can emphasize that the bellows type heat exchanger has a significant difference with regard to the other three types.

  14. Advanced Heat/Mass Exchanger Technology for Geothermal and Solar Renewable Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Greiner, Miles; Childress, Amy; Hiibel, Sage; Kim, Kwang; Park, Chanwoo; Wirtz, Richard

    2014-12-16

    Northern Nevada has abundant geothermal and solar energy resources, and these renewable energy sources provide an ample opportunity to produce economically viable power. Heat/mass exchangers are essential components to any energy conversion system. Improvements in the heat/mass exchange process will lead to smaller, less costly (more efficient) systems. There is an emerging heat transfer technology, based on micro/nano/molecular-scale surface science that can be applied to heat/mass exchanger design. The objective is to develop and characterize unique coating materials, surface configurations and membranes capable of accommodating a 10-fold increase in heat/mass exchanger performance via phase change processes (boiling, condensation, etc.) and single phase convective heat/mass transfer.

  15. Reading the World: Food Literacy and the Potential for Food System Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumner, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    In the field of adult education, literacy is a contested concept, so it is not surprising that terms like food literacy are also highly debated. While some associate food literacy with individual food shopping and preparation, others look to it as a means to engage with larger issues of global import. Given that food literacy is a fairly new term,…

  16. Reduction of Sodium in the NASA Space Food System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kloeris, Vickie L.

    2010-01-01

    Excessive sodium content of the average American diet is an issue that is gaining more and more attention due to the implications for chronic disease and thus health care costs. The typical astronaut or cosmonaut dining on the International Space Station (ISS) is consuming even more sodium per day than the average American due to the lack of refrigeration for food and the limited amount of fresh food in the diet. NASA has known for many years that the high sodium in the on orbit diet is an exacerbating factor for the bone loss that occurs in all crew members in microgravity. However, bone loss is reversed upon return to earth normal gravity. After ten years of having US crewmembers on ISS, additional medical issues have emerged in some long duration ISS crewmembers that are not necessarily being reversed upon return to earth. While it is not necessarily thought that the high sodium content of the diet is the cause of these issues, it is thought that reducing sodium intake could potentially help alleviate some of the on orbit symptoms. Thus, there is an urgent focus on sodium reduction in space food. This paper will discuss the strategies and progress of an on-going project at NASA to reformulate the US space food system to reduce the sodium content.

  17. Food safety systems in a small dairy factory: implementation, major challenges, and assessment of systems' performances.

    PubMed

    Cusato, Sueli; Gameiro, Augusto H; Corassin, Carlos H; Sant'ana, Anderson S; Cruz, Adriano G; Faria, José de Assis F; de Oliveira, Carlos Augusto F

    2013-01-01

    The present study describes the implementation of a food safety system in a dairy processing plant located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, and the challenges found during the process. In addition, microbiological indicators have been used to assess system's implementation performance. The steps involved in the implementation of a food safety system included a diagnosis of the prerequisites, implementation of the good manufacturing practices (GMPs), sanitation standard operating procedures (SSOPs), training of the food handlers, and hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP). In the initial diagnosis, conformity with 70.7% (n=106) of the items analyzed was observed. A total of 12 critical control points (CCPs) were identified: (1) reception of the raw milk, (2) storage of the raw milk, (3 and 4) reception of the ingredients and packaging, (5) milk pasteurization, (6 and 7) fermentation and cooling, (8) addition of ingredients, (9) filling, (10) storage of the finished product, (11) dispatching of the product, and (12) sanitization of the equipment. After implementation of the food safety system, a significant reduction in the yeast and mold count was observed (p<0.05). The main difficulties encountered for the implementation of food safety system were related to the implementation of actions established in the flow chart and to the need for constant training/adherence of the workers to the system. Despite this, the implementation of the food safety system was shown to be challenging, but feasible to be reached by small-scale food industries.

  18. An Approach to Semantic Interoperability for Improved Capability Exchanges in Federations of Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moschoglou, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks an affirmative answer to the question whether a knowledge-based approach to system of systems interoperation using semantic web standards and technologies can provide the centralized control of the capability for exchanging data and services lacking in a federation of systems. Given the need to collect and share real-time…

  19. 21 CFR 26.71 - Exchange of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exchange of information. 26.71 Section 26.71 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE...

  20. 21 CFR 26.71 - Exchange of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exchange of information. 26.71 Section 26.71 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE...

  1. 21 CFR 26.71 - Exchange of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exchange of information. 26.71 Section 26.71 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE...

  2. Food Classification Systems Based on Food Processing: Significance and Implications for Policies and Actions: A Systematic Literature Review and Assessment.

    PubMed

    Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Parra, Diana C; Cannon, Geoffrey; Monteiro, Carlos A

    2014-06-01

    This paper is the first to make a systematic review and assessment of the literature that attempts methodically to incorporate food processing into classification of diets. The review identified 1276 papers, of which 110 were screened and 21 studied, derived from five classification systems. This paper analyses and assesses the five systems, one of which has been devised and developed by a research team that includes co-authors of this paper. The quality of the five systems is assessed and scored according to how specific, coherent, clear, comprehensive and workable they are. Their relevance to food, nutrition and health, and their use in various settings, is described. The paper shows that the significance of industrial food processing in shaping global food systems and supplies and thus dietary patterns worldwide, and its role in the pandemic of overweight and obesity, remains overlooked and underestimated. Once food processing is systematically incorporated into food classifications, they will be more useful in assessing and monitoring dietary patterns. Food classification systems that emphasize industrial food processing, and that define and distinguish relevant different types of processing, will improve understanding of how to prevent and control overweight, obesity and related chronic non-communicable diseases, and also malnutrition. They will also be a firmer basis for rational policies and effective actions designed to protect and improve public health at all levels from global to local.

  3. Knowledge about food classification systems and value attributes provides insight for understanding complementary food choices in Mexican working mothers.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Oliveros, Maria Guadalupe; Bisogni, Carole A; Frongillo, Edward A

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge about mothers' perceptions of food classification and values about complementary feeding is necessary for designing educational and food supply interventions targeted to young children. To determine classification, attributes, and consumption/preparation routines of key complementary foods, 44 mothers of children < 2 y of age in 14 manufacturing businesses were studied. Using 31 key foods, we conducted free-listings, pile-sort, and food attributes exercises. Hierarchical clustering showed that mothers identified nine classes of key foods, including milk derivatives, complements, junk food, infant products, chicken parts, and other meats. From multidimensional scaling, mothers used three primary classification systems: food groups, food introduction stages, and food processing. Secondary classification systems were healthy-junk, heavy-light, hot-cold, good-bad fat, and main dish-complement. Child health and nutrition, particularly vitamin content, were salient attributes. Fruits and vegetables were preferred for initiating complementary feeding on the second month of age. Consumption of guava, mango, and legumes, however, was associated with digestive problems (empacho). Red meats were viewed as cold-type, heavy, and hard, not suitable for young children, but right for toddlers. Chicken liver was considered nutritious but dirty and bitter. Egg and fish were viewed as a vitamin source but potentially allergenic. Mothers valued vitamin content, flavor, and convenience of processed foods, but some were suspicious about expiration date, chemical and excessive sugar content and overall safety of these foods. Mothers' perceptions and values may differ from those of nutritionists and program designers, and should be addressed when promoting opportune introduction of complementary foods in social programs.

  4. The effect of wind and currents on gas exchange in an estuarine system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broecker, W. S.; Ledwell, J. R.; Bopp, R.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives were to develop a non-volatile tracer to use in gas exchange experiments in laterally unconfined systems and to study applications of deliberate tracers in limnology and oceanography. Progress was made on both fronts but work on the development of the non-volatile tracer proved to be more difficult and labor intensive that anticipated so no field experiments using non-volatile tracers was performed as yet. In the search for a suitable non-volatile tracer for an ocean scale gas exchange experiment a tracer was discovered which does not have the required sensitivity for a large scale experiment, but is very easy to analyze and will be well suited for smaller experiments such as gas exchange determinations on rivers and streams. Sulfur hexafluoride, SF6, was used successfully as a volatile tracer along with tritium as a non-volatile tracer to study gas exchange rates from a primary stream. This is the first gas exchange experiment in which gas exchange rates were determined on a head water stream where significant groundwater input occurs along the reach. In conjunction with SF6, Radon-222 measurements were performed on the groundwater and in the stream. The feasibility of using a combination of SF6 and radon is being studied to determine groundwater inputs and gas exchange of rates in streams with significant groundwater input without using a non-volatile tracer.

  5. Development of a Waste Water Regenerative System - Using Sphagnum Moss Ion-exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeon, M.; Wheeler, R.; Leahy, Jj

    The use of inexpensive, light weight and regenerative systems in an enclosed environment is of great importance to sustained existence in such habitats as the International Space Station, Moon or even Mars. Many systems exist which utilise various synthetic ion exchangers to complete the process of waste water clean-up. These systems do have a very good exchange rate for cations but a very low exchange rate for anions. They also have a maximum capacity before they need regeneration. This research proposes a natural alternative to these synthetic ion-exchangers that utilises one of natures greatest ion-exchangers, that of Sphagnum Moss. Sphagna can be predominantly found in the nutrient poor environment of Raised Bogs, a type of isolated wetland with characteristic low pH and little interaction with the surrounding water table. All nutrients come from precipitation. The sphagna have developed as the bog's sponges, soaking up all available nutrients (both cation & anion) from the precipitation and eventually distributing them to the surrounding flora and fauna, through the water. The goal of this research is to use this ability in the processing of waste water from systems similar to isolated microgravity environments, to produce clean water for reuse in these environments. The nutrients taken up by the sphagna will also be utilised as a growth medium for cultivar growth, such as those selected for hydroponics' systems.

  6. Global Climate Change, Food Security and the U.S. Food System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly Elizabeth; Walsh, Margaret; Hauser, Rachel; Murray, Anthony; Jadin, Jenna; Baklund, Peter; Robinson, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Climate change influences on the major pillars of food security. Each of the four elements of food security (availability,access,utilization,andstability) is vulnerable to changes in climate. For example,reductions in production related to regional drought influence food availability at multiple scales. Changes in price influences the ability of certain populations to purchase food (access). Utilization maybe affected when production zones shift, reducing the availability of preferred or culturally appropriate types of food within a region. Stability of the food supply may be highly uncertain given an increased incidence of extreme climatic events and their influence on production patterns.

  7. Origin of the asymmetric magnetization reversal behavior in exchange-biased systems: competing anisotropies.

    PubMed

    Camarero, Julio; Sort, Jordi; Hoffmann, Axel; García-Martín, Jose Miguel; Dieny, Bernard; Miranda, Rodolfo; Nogués, Josep

    2005-07-29

    The magnetization reversal in exchange-biased ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic (FM-AFM) bilayers is investigated. Different reversal pathways on each branch of the hysteresis loop, i.e., asymmetry, are obtained both experimentally and theoretically when the magnetic field is applied at certain angles from the anisotropy direction. The range of angles and the magnitude of this asymmetry are determined by the ratio between the FM anisotropy and the interfacial FM-AFM exchange anisotropy. The occurrence of asymmetry is linked with the appearance of irreversibility, i.e., finite coercivity, as well as with the maximum of exchange bias, increasing for larger anisotropy ratios. Our results indicate that asymmetric hysteresis loops are intrinsic to exchange-biased systems and the competition between anisotropies determines the asymmetric behavior of the magnetization reversal.

  8. The evolutionary synchronization of the exchange rate system in ASEAN+6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiaobing; Hu, Haibo; Wang, Xiaofan

    2010-12-01

    Although there are extensive researches on the behavior of the world currency network, the complexity of the Asian regional currency system is not well understood regardless of its importance. Using daily exchange rates this paper examines exchange rate co-movements in the region before and after the China exchange rate reform. It was found that the correlation between Asian currencies and the US Dollar, the previous regional key currency has become weaker and intra-Asia interactions have increased. Cross sample entropy and cross entropy approaches are also applied to examine the synchrony behavior among the Asian currencies. The study also shows that the Asian exchange rate markets featured are neither stochastic nor efficient. These findings may shed some light on the in-depth understanding of collective behaviors in a regional currency network; they will also lay a theoretical foundation for further policy formulation in Asian currency integration.

  9. Effect of oral administration of mutagens found in food on the frequency of sister chromatid exchanges in the colonic epithelium of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, D.B.; Stuart, E.; Heddle, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate there is a link between dietary factors and the incidence of colon cancer, and it has been suggested mutagens in foods might be responsible for initiating the carcinogenic process. Some food mutagens are formed during the cooking process. For example, certain heterocyclic amines, including Trp-P-2 (3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido(4,3-n) indole) and MeIQ (2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo(4,5-f)quinoline), which have been isolated from broiled meat and fish at low (ng/g) levels, are extremely potent mutagens in the Ames Salmonella/microsome test and can induce mutation in cultured mammalian cells as well. Other mutagens in foods are natural products; quercetin, a flavanoid widely distributed in plant products, is mutagenic to Salmonella and cultured mammalian cells. As most of the evidence implicating substance in food as mutagenic carcinogens comes from in vitro studies, it is of interest to determine whether these compounds can also exert genotoxic effects in vivo, particularly in colonic tissue. The ability to induce nuclear aberrations in vivo in murine colonic epithelial tissue has been suggested to be a property of colon carcinogens specifically, and several mutagens found in cooked food, including MeIQ and Trp-P-2, have been found to produce such nucleotoxicity. The authors report here tests of the ability of MeIQ, Trp-P-2, and quercetin to induce sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in the colonic epithelium of mice.

  10. An Evaluation of Strategies for Training Staff to Implement the Picture Exchange Communication System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Clarissa S.; Dunning, Johnna L.; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne

    2011-01-01

    The picture exchange communication system (PECS) is a functional communication system frequently used with individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders who experience severe language delays (Frost & Bondy, 2002). Few empirical investigations have evaluated strategies for training direct care staff how to effectively implement PECS with…

  11. Scientific Verification Test of Orbitec Deployable Vegetable Production System for Salad Crop Growth on ISS- Gas Exchange System design and function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldemire, Ashleigh

    2007-01-01

    The ability to produce and maintain salad crops during long term missions would be a great benefit to NASA; the renewable food supply would save cargo space, weight and money. The ambient conditions of previous ground controlled crop plant experiments do not reflect the microgravity and high CO2 concentrations present during orbit. It has been established that microgravity does not considerably alter plant growth. (Monje, Stutte, Chapman, 2005). To support plants in a space-craft environment efficient and effective lighting and containment units are necessary. Three lighting systems were previously evaluated for radish growth in ambient air; fluorescent lamps in an Orbitec Biomass Production System Educational (BPSE), a combination of red, blue, and green LED's in a Deployable Vegetable Production System (Veggie), and a combination of red and blue LED's in a Veggie. When mass measurements compared the entire possible growing area vs. power consumed by the respective units, the Veggies clearly exceeded the BPSE indicating that the LED units were a more resource efficient means of growing radishes under ambient conditions in comparison with fluorescent lighting. To evaluate the most productive light treatment system for a long term space mission a more closely simulated ISS environment is necessary. To induce a CO2 dense atmosphere inside the Veggie's and BPSE a gas exchange system has been developed to maintain a range of 1000-1200 ppm CO2 during a 21-day light treatment experiment. This report details the design and function of the gas exchange system. The rehabilitation, trouble shooting, maintenance and testing of the gas exchange system have been my major assignments. I have also contributed to the planting, daily measurements and harvesting of the radish crops 21-day light treatment verification test.

  12. Secretion systems and signal exchange between nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and legumes

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Matthew S.; Sadowsky, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots and/or stem of leguminous plants involves a complex signal exchange between both partners. Since many microorganisms are present in the soil, legumes and rhizobia must recognize and initiate communication with each other to establish symbioses. This results in the formation of nodules. Rhizobia within nodules exchange fixed nitrogen for carbon from the legume. Symbiotic relationships can become non-beneficial if one partner ceases to provide support to the other. As a result, complex signal exchange mechanisms have evolved to ensure continued, beneficial symbioses. Proper recognition and signal exchange is also the basis for host specificity. Nodule formation always provides a fitness benefit to rhizobia, but does not always provide a fitness benefit to legumes. Therefore, legumes have evolved a mechanism to regulate the number of nodules that are formed, this is called autoregulation of nodulation. Sequencing of many different rhizobia have revealed the presence of several secretion systems - and the Type III, Type IV, and Type VI secretion systems are known to be used by pathogens to transport effector proteins. These secretion systems are also known to have an effect on host specificity and are a determinant of overall nodule number on legumes. This review focuses on signal exchange between rhizobia and legumes, particularly focusing on the role of secretion systems involved in nodule formation and host specificity. PMID:26191069

  13. Secretion systems and signal exchange between nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and legumes.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Matthew S; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    The formation of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots and/or stem of leguminous plants involves a complex signal exchange between both partners. Since many microorganisms are present in the soil, legumes and rhizobia must recognize and initiate communication with each other to establish symbioses. This results in the formation of nodules. Rhizobia within nodules exchange fixed nitrogen for carbon from the legume. Symbiotic relationships can become non-beneficial if one partner ceases to provide support to the other. As a result, complex signal exchange mechanisms have evolved to ensure continued, beneficial symbioses. Proper recognition and signal exchange is also the basis for host specificity. Nodule formation always provides a fitness benefit to rhizobia, but does not always provide a fitness benefit to legumes. Therefore, legumes have evolved a mechanism to regulate the number of nodules that are formed, this is called autoregulation of nodulation. Sequencing of many different rhizobia have revealed the presence of several secretion systems - and the Type III, Type IV, and Type VI secretion systems are known to be used by pathogens to transport effector proteins. These secretion systems are also known to have an effect on host specificity and are a determinant of overall nodule number on legumes. This review focuses on signal exchange between rhizobia and legumes, particularly focusing on the role of secretion systems involved in nodule formation and host specificity.

  14. Radiology Reporting System Data Exchange With the Electronic Health Record System: A Case Study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Maryam; Ghazisaeidi, Marjan; Bashiri, Azadeh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In order to better designing of electronic health record system in Iran, integration of health information systems based on a common language must be done to interpret and exchange this information with this system is required. Background: This study provides a conceptual model of radiology reporting system using unified modeling language. The proposed model can solve the problem of integration this information system with the electronic health record system. By using this model and design its service based, easily connect to electronic health record in Iran and facilitate transfer radiology report data. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that was conducted in 2013. The study population was 22 experts that working at the Imaging Center in Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran and the sample was accorded with the community. Research tool was a questionnaire that prepared by the researcher to determine the information requirements. Content validity and test-retest method was used to measure validity and reliability of questioner respectively. Data analyzed with average index, using SPSS. Also Visual Paradigm software was used to design a conceptual model. Result: Based on the requirements assessment of experts and related texts, administrative, demographic and clinical data and radiological examination results and if the anesthesia procedure performed, anesthesia data suggested as minimum data set for radiology report and based it class diagram designed. Also by identifying radiology reporting system process, use case was drawn. Conclusion: According to the application of radiology reports in electronic health record system for diagnosing and managing of clinical problem of the patient, with providing the conceptual Model for radiology reporting system; in order to systematically design it, the problem of data sharing between these systems and electronic health records system would eliminate. PMID:26156904

  15. Food Security Framings within the UK and the Integration of Local Food Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirwan, James; Maye, Damian

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a critical interpretation of food security politics in the UK. It applies the notion of food security collective action frames to assess how specific action frames are maintained and contested. The interdependency between scale and framing in food security discourse is also scrutinised. It does this through an examination of…

  16. Implications of using approximate Bloch-McConnell equations in NMR analyses of chemically exchanging systems: application to the electron self-exchange of plastocyanin.

    PubMed

    Hansen, D Flemming; Led, Jens J

    2003-08-01

    The validity of a series of approximate solutions of the Bloch-McConnell equations normally applied in the analyses of chemically exchanging systems is evaluated, using the electron self-exchange (ESE) in the blue copper protein plastocyanin from Anabaena variabilis as an example. The evaluation is based on a comparison with the results of a complete analysis of the NMR signals of chemically exchanging nuclei that allows an independent and accurate determination of all the involved parameters. The complete analysis is based on the general solution of the Bloch-McConnell equations. It includes a simultaneous analysis of the chemical shift, and the transverse and longitudinal relaxation rates of the observed nuclei as well as the variation of these parameters with the molar fractions of the exchanging species and the rate of the chemical exchange process. The linear prediction model method was used in the data analysis to achieve the highest possible precision. Surprisingly, it is found that the fast exchange condition may not be fulfilled even in cases where a single exchange-averaged NMR signal is observed, and the Larmor frequency and relaxation rates depend linearly on the molar fractions of the exchanging species. In such cases the use of approximate solutions in the analysis of the transverse relaxation rates and the pseudo-contact shifts can lead to erroneous results. In limiting cases close to the fast exchange and slow exchange regimes correct values of some of the parameters can be obtained using the second order approximate solution of the Bloch-McConnell equations. In contrast, the complete analysis of the NMR signals results in an accurate determination of the exchange rates and the NMR parameters of the exchanging sites. This, in turn, can provide information about the structure and function of a protein undergoing chemically exchange. For the investigated plastocyanin the complete analysis results in an accurate determination of the paramagnetic

  17. Real Time Alert System: A Disease Management System Leveraging Health Information Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Vibha; Sheley, Meena E.; Xu, Shawn; Downs, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Rates of preventive and disease management services can be improved by providing automated alerts and reminders to primary care providers (PCPs) using of health information technology (HIT) tools. Methods: Using Adaptive Turnaround Documents (ATAD), an existing Health Information Exchange (HIE) infrastructure and office fax machines, we developed a Real Time Alert (RTA) system. RTA is a computerized decision support system (CDSS) that is able to deliver alerts to PCPs statewide for recommended services around the time of the patient visit. RTA is also able to capture structured clinical data from providers using existing fax technology. In this study, we evaluate RTA’s performance for alerting PCPs when their patients with asthma have an emergency room visit anywhere in the state. Results: Our results show that RTA was successfully able to deliver “just in time” patient-relevant alerts to PCPs across the state. Furthermore, of those ATADs faxed back and automatically interpreted by the RTA system, 35% reported finding the provided information helpful. The PCPs who reported finding information helpful also reported making a phone call, sending a letter or seeing the patient for follow up care. Conclusions: We have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of electronically exchanging important patient related information with the PCPs statewide. This is despite a lack of a link with their electronic health records. We have shown that using our ATAD technology, a PCP can be notified quickly of an important event such as a patient’s asthma related emergency room admission so further follow up can happen in near real time. PMID:23569648

  18. Microbiological quality of food in relation to hazard analysis systems and food hygiene training in UK catering and retail premises.

    PubMed

    Little, C L; Lock, D; Barnes, J; Mitchell, R T

    2003-09-01

    A meta-analysis of eight UK food studies was carried out to determine the microbiological quality of food and its relationship with the presence in food businesses of hazard analysis systems and food hygiene training. Of the 19,022 premises visited to collect food samples in these studies between 1997 and 2002, two thirds (66%) were catering premises and one third (34%) were retail premises. Comparison with PHLS Microbiological Guidelines revealed that significantly more ready-to-eat food samples from catering premises (20%; 2,511/12,703) were of unsatisfactory or unacceptable microbiological quality compared to samples from retail premises (12%; 1,039/8,462) (p < 0.00001). Three quarters (76%) of retail premises had hazard analysis systems in place compared with 59% of catering premises (p < 0.00001). In 87% of retail premises the manager had received some form of food hygiene training compared with 80% of catering premises (p < 0.00001). From premises where the manager had received no food hygiene training a greater proportion of samples were of unsatisfactory and unacceptable microbiological quality (20% retail, 27% catering) compared with premises where the manager had received food hygiene training (11% retail, 19% catering) (p < 0.00001). Where the manager of the premises had received food hygiene training, documented hazard analysis systems were more likely to be in place (p < 0.00001). Higher proportions of samples of unsatisfactory and unacceptable microbiological quality (17% retail, 22% catering) were from premises where there was no hazard analysis system in place compared to premises that had a documented hazard analysis system in place (10% retail, 18% catering) (p < 0.00001). Our meta-analysis suggests that the lower microbiological quality of ready-to-eat foods from catering premises compared with those collected from retail premises may reflect differences in management food hygiene training and the presence of a hazard analysis system. The

  19. Stacked Micro Heat Exchange System for Optimized Thermal Coupling of MicroTEGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtas, N.; Grab, M.; Glatz, W.; Hierold, C.

    2013-07-01

    This study presents modeling and experimental results of micro thermoelectric generators (μTEGs) integrated into a multilayer micro heat exchange system. The multilayer configuration benefits from low heat transfer resistances at small fluid flow rates and at the same time from low required pumping powers. The compact stacked power device allows for high net output power per volume, and therefore a reduction in size, weight, and cost compared with conventional large-scale heat exchangers. The influence of the boundary conditions and the system design parameters on the net output power of the micro heat exchange system was investigated by simulation. The theoretical results showed a major impact of the microchannel dimensions and the μTEG thickness on the overall output performance of the system. By adapting the applied fluid flow rate, the system's net power output can be maximized for varying operating temperatures. Experimental measurements of the cross-flow micro heat exchange system were in good agreement with the performed simulations. A net μTEG output power of 62.9 mW/cm2 was measured for a double-layer system at an applied water inlet temperature difference of 60 K with a Bi2Te3 μTEG ( ZT of 0.12), resulting in a net volumetric efficiency factor of 37.2 W/m3/K2.

  20. Food safety management systems performance in African food processing companies: a review of deficiencies and possible improvement strategies.

    PubMed

    Kussaga, Jamal B; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Tiisekwa, Bendantunguka Pm; Luning, Pieternel A

    2014-08-01

    This study seeks to provide insight into current deficiencies in food safety management systems (FSMS) in African food-processing companies and to identify possible strategies for improvement so as to contribute to African countries' efforts to provide safe food to both local and international markets. This study found that most African food products had high microbiological and chemical contamination levels exceeding the set (legal) limits. Relative to industrialized countries, the study identified various deficiencies at government, sector/branch, retail and company levels which affect performance of FSMS in Africa. For instance, very few companies (except exporting and large companies) have implemented HACCP and ISO 22000:2005. Various measures were proposed to be taken at government (e.g. construction of risk-based legislative frameworks, strengthening of food safety authorities, recommend use of ISO 22000:2005, and consumers' food safety training), branch/sector (e.g. sector-specific guidelines and third-party certification), retail (develop stringent certification standards and impose product specifications) and company levels (improving hygiene, strict raw material control, production process efficacy, and enhancing monitoring systems, assurance activities and supportive administrative structures). By working on those four levels, FSMS of African food-processing companies could be better designed and tailored towards their production processes and specific needs to ensure food safety.

  1. Work exchange between quantum systems: the spin-oscillator model.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Heiko; Mahler, Günter

    2010-02-01

    With the development of quantum thermodynamics it has been shown that relaxation to thermal equilibrium and with it the concept of heat flux may emerge directly from quantum mechanics. This happens for a large class of quantum systems if embedded into another quantum environment. In this paper, we discuss the complementary question of the emergence of work flux from quantum mechanics. We introduce and discuss two different methods to assess the work source quality of a system, one based on the generalized factorization approximation, the other based on generalized definitions of work and heat. By means of those methods, we show that small quantum systems can, indeed, act as work reservoirs. We illustrate this behavior for a simple system consisting of a spin coupled to an oscillator and investigate the effects of two different interactions on the work source quality. One case will be shown to allow for a work source functionality of arbitrarily high quality.

  2. Segmented heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann

    2010-12-14

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  3. Efficacy of plasma exchange and immunoadsorption in systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kronbichler, Andreas; Brezina, Biljana; Quintana, Luis F; Jayne, David R W

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal treatments have been used since the 1970s in the management of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A randomised controlled trial comparing the efficacy of standard of care (SOC) combined with plasma exchange against SOC alone in patients with lupus nephritis revealed no difference in terms of renal outcome. Subsequently, initial expectations have been dampened and further experience with plasma exchange is mainly limited to observational studies and single case reports. Beneficial effects have been reported in patients with refractory disease course or in pregnancy with prior complications due to SLE and antiphospholipid syndrome. A more specific form of extracorporeal treatment, immunoadsorption (IAS), has emerged as a valuable option in the treatment of SLE. In line with the plasma exchange experience, IAS seems to have beneficial effects in patients with refractory disease, contraindications to standard immunosuppression or during pregnancy. The mechanism IAS relates to autoantibody removal but for plasma exchange removal of activated complement components, coagulation factors, cytokines and microparticles may also be relevant. Both treatment forms have good safety profiles although reactions to blood product replacement in plasma exchange and procedure related complications such as bleeding or catheter-related infections have occurred. There is a need to more clearly define the clinical utility of plasma exchange and IAS in refractory lupus and APS subgroups.

  4. Active heat exchange system development for latent heat thermal energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lefrois, R. T.; Knowles, G. R.; Mathur, A. K.; Budimir, J.

    1979-01-01

    Active heat exchange concepts for use with thermal energy storage systems in the temperature range of 250 C to 350 C, using the heat of fusion of molten salts for storing thermal energy are described. Salt mixtures that freeze and melt in appropriate ranges are identified and are evaluated for physico-chemical, economic, corrosive and safety characteristics. Eight active heat exchange concepts for heat transfer during solidification are conceived and conceptually designed for use with selected storage media. The concepts are analyzed for their scalability, maintenance, safety, technological development and costs. A model for estimating and scaling storage system costs is developed and is used for economic evaluation of salt mixtures and heat exchange concepts for a large scale application. The importance of comparing salts and heat exchange concepts on a total system cost basis, rather than the component cost basis alone, is pointed out. The heat exchange concepts were sized and compared for 6.5 MPa/281 C steam conditions and a 1000 MW(t) heat rate for six hours. A cost sensitivity analysis for other design conditions is also carried out.

  5. Indigenous peoples' food systems for health: finding interventions that work.

    PubMed

    Kuhnlein, Harriet; Erasmus, Bill; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Englberger, Lois; Okeke, Chinwe; Turner, Nancy; Allen, Lindsay; Bhattacharjee, Lalita

    2006-12-01

    This is a short report of a 'safari' held in conjunction with the International Congress of Nutrition in September 2005, in Futululu, St. Lucia, South Africa. Participants were several members of the International Union of Nutritional Sciences Task Force on Indigenous Peoples' Food Systems and Nutrition, other interested scientists and members of the Kwa Zulu indigenous community. The paper describes the rationale for and contributions towards understanding what might be successful interventions that would resonate among indigenous communities in many areas of the world. A summary of possible evaluation strategies of such interventions is also given.

  6. Ultra-low field MRI food inspection system prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawagoe, Satoshi; Toyota, Hirotomo; Hatta, Junichi; Ariyoshi, Seiichiro; Tanaka, Saburo

    2016-11-01

    We develop an ultra-low field (ULF) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system using a high-temperature superconducting quantum interference device (HTS-SQUID) for food inspection. A two-dimensional (2D)-MR image is reconstructed from the grid processing raw data using the 2D fast Fourier transform method. In a previous study, we combined an LC resonator with the ULF-MRI system to improve the detection area of the HTS-SQUID. The sensitivity was improved, but since the experiments were performed in a semi-open magnetically shielded room (MSR), external noise was a problem. In this study, we develop a compact magnetically shielded box (CMSB), which has a small open window for transfer of a pre-polarized sample. Experiments were performed in the CMSB and 2D-MR images were compared with images taken in the semi-open MSR. A clear image of a disk-shaped water sample is obtained, with an outer dimension closer to that of the real sample than in the image taken in the semi-open MSR. Furthermore, the 2D-MR image of a multiple cell water sample is clearly reconstructed. These results show the applicability of the ULF-MRI system in food inspection.

  7. Delivery of Probiotics in the Space Food System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, S. L.; Ott, C. M.; Douglas, G. L.

    2014-01-01

    The addition of probiotic bacteria to the space food system is expected to confer immunostimulatory benefits on crewmembers during spaceflight, counteracting the immune dysregulation that has been documented in spaceflight. Specifically, the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus has been shown to promote health benefits including antagonism towards and inhibition of virulence related gene expression in pathogens, mucosal stimulation of immune cells, and a reduction in the occurrence and duration of cold and flu-like symptoms. The optimum delivery system for probiotics has not been determined for spaceflight, where the food system is shelf stable and the lack of refrigeration prevents the use of traditional dairy delivery methods. This work proposes to determine whether L. acidophilus is more viable, and therefore more likely to confer immune benefit, when delivered in a capsule form or when delivered in nonfat dry milk powder with a resuscitation opportunity upon rehydration, following 0, 4, and 8 months of storage at -80degC, 4degC, and 22degC, and both prior to and after challenge with simulated gastric and intestinal juices. We hypothesize that the low moisture neutral dairy matrix provided by the nonfat dry milk, and the rehydration step prior to consumption, will extend probiotic viability and stress tolerance compared to a capsule during potential storage conditions in spaceflight and in simulated digestion conditions.

  8. Delivery of Probiotics in the Space Food System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, S. L.; Ott, C. M.; Douglas, G. L.

    2014-01-01

    The addition of probiotic bacteria to the space food system is expected to confer immunostimulatory benefits on crewmembers during spaceflight, counteracting the immune dysregulation that has been documented in spaceflight [1]. Specifically, the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus has been shown to promote health benefits including antagonism towards and inhibition of virulence related gene expression in pathogens, mucosal stimulation of immune cells, and a reduction in the occurrence and duration of cold and flu-like symptoms [2-5]. The optimum delivery system for probiotics has not been determined for spaceflight, where the food system is shelf stable and the lack of refrigeration prevents the use of traditional dairy delivery methods. This work proposes to determine whether L. acidophilus is more viable, and therefore more likely to confer immune benefit, when delivered in a capsule form or when delivered in nonfat dry milk powder with a resuscitation opportunity upon rehydration, following 0, 4, and 8 months of storage at -80degC, 4degC, and 22degC, and both prior to and after challenge with simulated gastric and intestinal juices. We hypothesize that the low moisture neutral dairy matrix provided by the nonfat dry milk, and the rehydration step prior to consumption, will extend probiotic viability and stress tolerance compared to a capsule during potential storage conditions in spaceflight and in simulated digestion conditions.

  9. Evaluation of engineering foods for closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karel, M.

    1982-01-01

    A nutritionally adequate and acceptable diet was evaluated and developed. A design for a multipurpose food plant is discussed. The types and amounts of foods needed to be regenerated in a partially closed ecological life support system (PCELSS) were proposed. All steps of food processes to be utilized in the multipurpose food plant of PCELSS were also considered. Equipment specifications, simplification of the proposed processes, and food waste treatment were analyzed.

  10. A multiple chamber, semicontinuous, crop carbon dioxide exchange system: design, calibration, and data interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    van Iersel, M. W.; Bugbee, B.

    2000-01-01

    Long-term, whole crop CO2 exchange measurements can be used to study factors affecting crop growth. These factors include daily carbon gain, cumulative carbon gain, and carbon use efficiency, which cannot be determined from short-term measurements. We describe a system that measures semicontinuously crop CO2 exchange in 10 chambers over a period of weeks or months. Exchange of CO2 in every chamber can be measured at 5 min intervals. The system was designed to be placed inside a growth chamber, with additional environmental control provided by the individual gas exchange chambers. The system was calibrated by generating CO2 from NaHCO3 inside the chambers, which indicated that accuracy of the measurements was good (102% and 98% recovery for two separate photosynthesis systems). Since the systems measure net photosynthesis (P-net, positive) and dark respiration(R-dark, negative), the data can be used to estimate gross photosynthesis, daily carbon gain, cumulative carbon gain, and carbon use efficiency. Continuous whole-crop measurements are a valuable tool that complements leaf photosynthesis measurements. Multiple chambers allow for replication and comparison among several environmental or cultural treatments that may affect crop growth. Example data from a 2 week study with petunia (Petunia x hybrida Hort. Vilm.-Andr.) are presented to illustrate some of the capabilities of this system.

  11. Clinical evaluation of a flat-plate membrane plasma exchange system.

    PubMed

    Grossman, L; Benny, W B; Buchanan, J; Erickson, R R; Buffaloe, G W

    1983-01-01

    A new flat-plate membrane plasma separation system specifically designed for therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) was clinically evaluated in both research and routine clinical settings. The study included a comparison to a currently available centrifugal cell separation system employed for TPE. A total of 267 membrane procedures were performed on 39 patients over a 14-month period. Both qualitative and quantitative studies showed that membrane plasma exchange procedures were equivalent to centrifugal procedures in the removal of plasma constituents from patients. A notable difference between the two types of procedure was the effect on the peripheral blood platelet count: the plasma filtrate from the membrane system was essentially cell-free and platelet counts fell only 11% during the procedure, compared to a 53% decrease during the centrifugation runs. Patient responses to both types of procedure were similar and the frequency of side-effects was low. A sampling of patient opinion revealed a preference for the membrane system for a variety of reasons. Procedure times were shorter with the membrane system because of higher achievable blood flow rates, and thus higher plasma exchange rates, while the overall nursing time requirement was lower. The results show that this flat-plate membrane TPE system enables rapid and effective plasma exchange therapy, and offered a number of monitoring and control functions that provided a safer, more efficient therapeutic procedure in the majority of patient treatments performed in this study.

  12. The Challenges of Developing a Food System for a Mars Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presents a review of the development of food systems for the use during a Mars Mission. It review some of the food delivery systems developed for all of the NASA space programs from Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo, to the Space Shuttle, International Space Station. The goals and objectives of the program are to: provide an adequate food system and develop a safe food system, that is nutritious and acceptable to astronauts, and to provide a food system that efficiently balances vehicle resources.

  13. Data and Information Exchange System for the "Reindeer Mapper" Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy; Yurchak, Boris

    2005-01-01

    During this past year, the Reindeer Mapper Intranet system has been set up on the NASA system, 8 team members have been established, a Reindeer Mapper reference list containing 696 items has been entered, 6 power point presentations have been put on line for review among team members, 304 satellite images have been catalogued (including 16 Landsat images, 288 NDVI 10-day composited images and an anomaly series- May 1998 to December 2002, and 56 SAR CEOS S A R format files), schedules and meeting dates are being shared, students at the Nordic Sami Institute are experimenting with the system for reindeer herder indigenous knowledge sharing, and an "address book" is being developed. Several documents and presentations have been translated and made available in Russian for our Russian colleagues. This has enabled our Russian partners to utilize documents and presentations for use in their research (e.g., SAR imagery comparisons with Russian GIS of specific study areas) and discussion with local colleagues.

  14. The Challenges in the Development of a Long Duration Space Mission Food System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Swango, Beverly; Toerne, Mary E.; Russo, Dane M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Advanced Food System at Johnson Space Center/NASA will be responsible for supplying food to the crew for long duration exploratory missions. These missions require development of both a Transit Food System and of a Planetary Food System. The Transit Food System will consist of pre-packaged food of extended shelf life. It will be supplemented with salad crops that will be consumed fresh. The challenge is to develop a food system with a shelf life of 3 - 5 years that will use minimal power and create minimal waste from the food packaging. The Planetary Food System will allow for food processing of crops grown on the planetary surface due to the presence of some gravitational force. Crops will be processed to final products to provide a nutritious and acceptable diet for the crew. The food system must be flexible due to crop variation, availability, and shelf life. Crew meals, based on thesc: crops, must be nutritious, high quality, safe, and contain variety. The Advanced Food System becomes a fulcrum creating the right connection from crops to crew meals while dealing with issues of integration within a closed self-regenerative system (e.g., safety, waste production, volumes, water usage, etc.).

  15. Exchange effect and magneto-plasmon mode dispersion in an anisotropic two-dimensional electronic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaoguang

    2016-11-01

    The exchange effect and the magneto-plasmon mode dispersion are studied theoretically for an anisotropic two-dimensional electronic system in the presence of a uniform perpendicular magnetic field. Employing an effective low-energy model with anisotropic effective masses, which is relevant for a monolayer of phosphorus, the exchange effect due to the electron-electron interaction is treated within the self-consistent Hartree-Fock approximation. The magneto-plasmon mode dispersion is obtained by solving a Bethe-Salpeter equation for the electron density-density correlation function within the ladder diagram approximation. It is found that the exchange effect is reduced in the anisotropic system in comparison with the isotropic one. The magneto-plasmon mode dispersion shows a clear dependence on the direction of the wave vector. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61076092 and 61290303).

  16. Early emerging system for reasoning about the social nature of food.

    PubMed

    Liberman, Zoe; Woodward, Amanda L; Sullivan, Kathleen R; Kinzler, Katherine D

    2016-08-23

    Selecting appropriate foods is a complex and evolutionarily ancient problem, yet past studies have revealed little evidence of adaptations present in infancy that support sophisticated reasoning about perceptual properties of food. We propose that humans have an early-emerging system for reasoning about the social nature of food selection. Specifically, infants' reasoning about food choice is tied to their thinking about agents' intentions and social relationships. Whereas infants do not expect people to like the same objects, infants view food preferences as meaningfully shared across individuals. Infants' reasoning about food preferences is fundamentally social: They generalize food preferences across individuals who affiliate, or who speak a common language, but not across individuals who socially disengage or who speak different languages. Importantly, infants' reasoning about food preferences is flexibly calibrated to their own experiences: Tests of bilingual babies reveal that an infant's sociolinguistic background influences whether she will constrain her generalization of food preferences to people who speak the same language. Additionally, infants' systems for reasoning about food is differentially responsive to positive and negative information. Infants generalize information about food disgust across all people, regardless of those people's social identities. Thus, whereas food preferences are seen as embedded within social groups, disgust is interpreted as socially universal, which could help infants avoid potentially dangerous foods. These studies reveal an early-emerging system for thinking about food that incorporates social reasoning about agents and their relationships, and allows infants to make abstract, flexible, adaptive inferences to interpret others' food choices.

  17. Manothermosonication of foods and food-resembling systems: effect on nutrient content and nonenzymatic browning.

    PubMed

    Vercet, A; Burgos, J; López-Buesa, P

    2001-01-01

    The effect of manothermosonication (MTS), an emergent technology for food preservation, on thiamin, riboflavin, carotenoids, and ascorbic acid was evaluated in milk and orange juice. The effect of both heat treatment and MTS on several compounds produced in nonenzymatic browning in model systems was also studied. MTS does not affect significantly the nutrient content studied. However, it changes the behavior of nonenzymatic browning. No formation of 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfuraldehyde (HMF) was detected in fruit juice model systems after heat and MTS treatments at the experimental conditions used. In a milk-resembling system, free HMF formation by MTS is higher compared to that by heat treatment. As the MTS temperature increases, free HMF production by both treatments equaled on another. For bound HMF the production rate is lower by MTS than by heat treatment under the experimental conditions used. Formation kinetics of brown pigments and that of fluorescent compounds are different for both treatments. Fluorescence and brown pigment production are faster in MTS.

  18. A computational model of insect discontinuous gas exchange: A two-sensor, control systems approach.

    PubMed

    Grieshaber, Beverley J; Terblanche, John S

    2015-06-07

    The insect gas exchange system is characterised by branching air-filled tubes (tracheae/tracheoles) and valve-like structures in their outer integument (spiracles) which allow for a periodic gas exchange pattern known as the discontinuous gas exchange cycle (DGC). The DGC facilitates the temporal decoupling of whole animal gas exchange from cellular respiration rates and may confer several physiological benefits, which are nevertheless highly controversial (primarily reduction of cellular oxidative damage and/or respiratory water saving). The intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing DGCs are the focus of extensive ongoing research and little consensus has been reached on the evolutionary genesis or mechanistic costs and benefits of the pattern. Despite several hypotheses and much experimental and evolutionary biology research, a mechanistic physical model, which captures various key elements of the DGC pattern, is currently lacking. Here, we present a biologically realistic computational, two-sensor DGC model (pH/carbon dioxide and oxygen setpoints) for an Orthopteran gas exchange system, and show computationally for the first time that a control system of two interacting feedback loops is capable of generating a full DGC pattern with outputs which are physiologically realistic, quantitatively matching experimental results found in this taxonomic model elsewhere. A finite-element mathematical approach is employed and various trigger sets are considered. Parameter sensitivity analyses suggest that various aspects of insect DGC are adequately captured in this model. In particular, with physiologically relevant input parameters, the full DGC pattern is induced; and the phase durations, endotracheal carbon dioxide partial pressure ranges, and pH fluctuations which arise are physically realistic. The model results support the emergent property hypothesis for the existence of DGC, and indicate that asymmetric loading and off-loading (hysteresis) in one of the sensor

  19. Efficient data exchange: Integrating a vector GIS with an object-oriented, 3-D visualization system

    SciTech Connect

    Kuiper, J.; Ayers, A.; Johnson, R.; Tolbert-Smith, M.

    1996-03-01

    A common problem encountered in Geographic Information System (GIS) modeling is the exchange of data between different software packages to best utilize the unique features of each package. This paper describes a project to integrate two systems through efficient data exchange. The first is a widely used GIS based on a relational data model. This system has a broad set of data input, processing, and output capabilities, but lacks three-dimensional (3-D) visualization and certain modeling functions. The second system is a specialized object-oriented package designed for 3-D visualization and modeling. Although this second system is useful for subsurface modeling and hazardous waste site characterization, it does not provide many of the, capabilities of a complete GIS. The system-integration project resulted in an easy-to-use program to transfer information between the systems, making many of the more complex conversion issues transparent to the user. The strengths of both systems are accessible, allowing the scientist more time to focus on analysis. This paper details the capabilities of the two systems, explains the technical issues associated with data exchange and how they were solved, and outlines an example analysis project that used the integrated systems.

  20. Exchange bias of the interface spin system at the Fe/MgO interface.

    PubMed

    Fan, Y; Smith, K J; Lüpke, G; Hanbicki, A T; Goswami, R; Li, C H; Zhao, H B; Jonker, B T

    2013-06-01

    The ferromagnet/oxide interface is key to developing emerging multiferroic and spintronic technologies with new functionality. Here we probe the Fe/MgO interface magnetization, and identify a new exchange bias phenomenon manifested only in the interface spin system, and not in the bulk. The interface magnetization exhibits a pronounced exchange bias, and the hysteresis loop is shifted entirely to one side of the zero field axis. However, the bulk magnetization does not, in marked contrast to typical systems where exchange bias is manifested in the net magnetization. This reveals the existence of an antiferromagnetic exchange pinning layer at the interface, identified here as FeO patches that exist even for a nominally 'clean' interface. These results demonstrate that atomic moments at the interface are non-collinear with the bulk magnetization, and therefore may affect the net anisotropy or serve as spin scattering sites. We control the exchange bias magnitude by varying the interface oxygen concentration and Fe-O bonding.

  1. Energy Exchange in Driven Open Quantum Systems at Strong Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrega, Matteo; Solinas, Paolo; Sassetti, Maura; Weiss, Ulrich

    2016-06-01

    The time-dependent energy transfer in a driven quantum system strongly coupled to a heat bath is studied within an influence functional approach. Exact formal expressions for the statistics of energy dissipation into the different channels are derived. The general method is applied to the driven dissipative two-state system. It is shown that the energy flows obey a balance relation, and that, for strong coupling, the interaction may constitute the major dissipative channel. Results in analytic form are presented for the particular value K =1/2 of strong Ohmic dissipation. The energy flows show interesting behaviors including driving-induced coherences and quantum stochastic resonances. It is found that the general characteristics persists for K near 1/2 .

  2. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

  3. 28 CFR 16.133 - Exemption of Department of Justice Regional Data Exchange System (RDEX), DOJ-012.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF MATERIAL OR INFORMATION Exemption of Records Systems Under the Privacy Act § 16.133 Exemption of Department of Justice Regional Data Exchange System (RDEX), DOJ-012. (a) The Department of Justice Regional Data Exchange System (RDEX), DOJ-012, is exempted from subsections (c)(3)...

  4. Internest food sharing within wood ant colonies: resource redistribution behavior in a complex system

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Elva J.H.

    2016-01-01

    Resource sharing is an important cooperative behavior in many animals. Sharing resources is particularly important in social insect societies, as division of labor often results in most individuals including, importantly, the reproductives, relying on other members of the colony to provide resources. Sharing resources between individuals is therefore fundamental to the success of social insects. Resource sharing is complicated if a colony inhabits several spatially separated nests, a nesting strategy common in many ant species. Resources must be shared not only between individuals in a single nest but also between nests. We investigated the behaviors facilitating resource redistribution between nests in a dispersed-nesting population of wood ant Formica lugubris. We marked ants, in the field, as they transported resources along the trails between nests of a colony, to investigate how the behavior of individual workers relates to colony-level resource exchange. We found that workers from a particular nest “forage” to other nests in the colony, treating them as food sources. Workers treating other nests as food sources means that simple, pre-existing foraging behaviors are used to move resources through a distributed system. It may be that this simple behavioral mechanism facilitates the evolution of this complex life-history strategy. PMID:27004016

  5. IoT-based smart garbage system for efficient food waste management.

    PubMed

    Hong, Insung; Park, Sunghoi; Lee, Beomseok; Lee, Jaekeun; Jeong, Daebeom; Park, Sehyun

    2014-01-01

    Owing to a paradigm shift toward Internet of Things (IoT), researches into IoT services have been conducted in a wide range of fields. As a major application field of IoT, waste management has become one such issue. The absence of efficient waste management has caused serious environmental problems and cost issues. Therefore, in this paper, an IoT-based smart garbage system (SGS) is proposed to reduce the amount of food waste. In an SGS, battery-based smart garbage bins (SGBs) exchange information with each other using wireless mesh networks, and a router and server collect and analyze the information for service provisioning. Furthermore, the SGS includes various IoT techniques considering user convenience and increases the battery lifetime through two types of energy-efficient operations of the SGBs: stand-alone operation and cooperation-based operation. The proposed SGS had been operated as a pilot project in Gangnam district, Seoul, Republic of Korea, for a one-year period. The experiment showed that the average amount of food waste could be reduced by 33%.

  6. IoT-Based Smart Garbage System for Efficient Food Waste Management

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaekeun

    2014-01-01

    Owing to a paradigm shift toward Internet of Things (IoT), researches into IoT services have been conducted in a wide range of fields. As a major application field of IoT, waste management has become one such issue. The absence of efficient waste management has caused serious environmental problems and cost issues. Therefore, in this paper, an IoT-based smart garbage system (SGS) is proposed to reduce the amount of food waste. In an SGS, battery-based smart garbage bins (SGBs) exchange information with each other using wireless mesh networks, and a router and server collect and analyze the information for service provisioning. Furthermore, the SGS includes various IoT techniques considering user convenience and increases the battery lifetime through two types of energy-efficient operations of the SGBs: stand-alone operation and cooperation-based operation. The proposed SGS had been operated as a pilot project in Gangnam district, Seoul, Republic of Korea, for a one-year period. The experiment showed that the average amount of food waste could be reduced by 33%. PMID:25258730

  7. Opportunities for GEOGLAM to contribute to Food Systems Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeZaks, D.; Jahn, M.

    2013-12-01

    Since the GEO Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEO-GLAM) community of practice was formed, there has been much interest in how this community can be leveraged to address a series of challenges that has received recognition from a variety of stakeholder groups across acacemia, government, the private sector and multilateral international organizations. This talk will review the collaborative network that has formed around the on-going and planned activities of GEOGLAM, and how future research and development activities within and around GEOGLAM can contribute to the innovation ecosystem around agricultural monitoring and how monitoring activities can contribute to informing decision processes from stakeholders ranging from farmers to policy-makers and other key stakeholders. These collaborative activities revolve around sharing data, information, knowledge, analytics, improved reflections of risks, and opportunities related to humanity's sustainable provisioning at the land/water/energy nexus. The goal of extending GEOGLAMs collaborative activities is to mobilize aligned assets and commitments to set up more ordered approaches to describing and managing the dynamics of food systems, viewed more holistically as sets of nested geospatially and temporally explicit processes. A special focus will be given to how information assets originating from within GEOGLAM can be used to support a coherent visualization of the world's food systems along with improving representation of the resource bases upon which our survival depends

  8. Uncertainty quantification of surface-water/groundwater exchange estimates in large wetland systems using Python

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, J. D.; Metz, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Most watershed studies include observation-based water budget analyses to develop first-order estimates of significant flow terms. Surface-water/groundwater (SWGW) exchange is typically assumed to be equal to the residual of the sum of inflows and outflows in a watershed. These estimates of SWGW exchange, however, are highly uncertain as a result of the propagation of uncertainty inherent in the calculation or processing of the other terms of the water budget, such as stage-area-volume relations, and uncertainties associated with land-cover based evapotranspiration (ET) rate estimates. Furthermore, the uncertainty of estimated SWGW exchanges can be magnified in large wetland systems that transition from dry to wet during wet periods. Although it is well understood that observation-based estimates of SWGW exchange are uncertain it is uncommon for the uncertainty of these estimates to be directly quantified. High-level programming languages like Python can greatly reduce the effort required to (1) quantify the uncertainty of estimated SWGW exchange in large wetland systems and (2) evaluate how different approaches for partitioning land-cover data in a watershed may affect the water-budget uncertainty. We have used Python with the Numpy, Scipy.stats, and pyDOE packages to implement an unconstrained Monte Carlo approach with Latin Hypercube sampling to quantify the uncertainty of monthly estimates of SWGW exchange in the Floral City watershed of the Tsala Apopka wetland system in west-central Florida, USA. Possible sources of uncertainty in the water budget analysis include rainfall, ET, canal discharge, and land/bathymetric surface elevations. Each of these input variables was assigned a probability distribution based on observation error or spanning the range of probable values. The Monte Carlo integration process exposes the uncertainties in land-cover based ET rate estimates as the dominant contributor to the uncertainty in SWGW exchange estimates. We will discuss

  9. Exploring the Potential Impacts of Historic Volcanic Eruptions on the Contemporary Global Food System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puma, Michael J.; Chon, S.; Wada, Y.

    2015-01-01

    A better understanding of volcanic impacts on crops is urgently needed, as volcanic eruptions and the associated climate anomalies can cause unanticipated shocks to food production. Such shocks are a major concern given the fragility of the global food system.

  10. Developing ratings for food products: lessons learned from media rating systems.

    PubMed

    Kunkel, Dale; McKinley, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Children regularly consume low-nutrient, high-calorie food that is not consistent with a healthful diet, contributing to an increasing epidemic of overweight and obesity. Among the multiple causes of this problem is the food industry's emphasis on marketing calorie-dense food products to children. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) has recommended that industry adopt a uniform system of simplified food ratings to convey the nutritional qualities of food in a manner that is understandable and appealing to children and youth. This report analyzes the need for such a system in a food marketing environment that increasingly identifies healthful products for the consumer in inconsistent fashion. It considers evidence regarding current usage of food labeling and draws parallels with media rating systems in discussing the prospects for a uniform food rating system that would accomplish the IOM's objective.

  11. Cholesterol photosensitized oxidation in food and biological systems.

    PubMed

    Cardenia, Vladimiro; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Boselli, Emanuele; Lercker, Giovanni

    2013-03-01

    Lipid oxidation is one of the main chemical degradations occurring in biological systems and leads to the formation of compounds that are related to aging and various chronic and degenerative diseases. The extent of oxidation will depend on the presence of antioxidants/pro-oxidants, the unsaturation degree of fatty acids, and environmental conditions. Lipid oxidation can also affect other molecules that have double bonds in their chemical structures, such as cholesterol. Cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) have been studied in depth, because of their negative and controversial biological effects. The formation of COPs can be particularly favored in the presence of light and photosensitizers, since they generate excited singlet oxygen that rapidly reacts with the double bond by a non radical mechanism and without any induction period. The present review intends to provide an overall and critical picture of cholesterol photosensitized oxidation in food and biological systems, and its possible impact on human health and well-being.

  12. Space shuttle food system study: Food and beverage package development, modification 8S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A new, highly utile rehydration package was developed for foods in zero gravity. Rehydratable foods will become more acceptable as a result of their overall rehydration capability and improved palatability. This new package design is greatly enhanced by the specified spacecraft condition of atmospheric pressure; the pressure differential between the atmosphere and the package carries the functional responsibility for rapid food rehydration without excess package manipulation by the consumer. Crew acceptance will further be enhanced by less manipulation, hotter rehydration water temperatures and the ability to hold the foods at preparation temperatures until they are consumed.

  13. Land system change and food security: towards multi-scale land system solutions☆

    PubMed Central

    Verburg, Peter H; Mertz, Ole; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Haberl, Helmut; Wu, Wenbin

    2013-01-01

    Land system changes are central to the food security challenge. Land system science can contribute to sustainable solutions by an integrated analysis of land availability and the assessment of the tradeoffs associated with agricultural expansion and land use intensification. A land system perspective requires local studies of production systems to be contextualised in a regional and global context, while global assessments should be confronted with local realities. Understanding of land governance structures will help to support the development of land use policies and tenure systems that assist in designing more sustainable ways of intensification. Novel land systems should be designed that are adapted to the local context and framed within the global socio-ecological system. Such land systems should explicitly account for the role of land governance as a primary driver of land system change and food production. PMID:24143158

  14. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Heat Exchange Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Requirements for Heat Exchange Systems 8 Table 8 to Subpart VVVVVV of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources Pt. 63, Subpt. VVVVVV, Table 8 Table 8 to Subpart VVVVVV... next semi-annual periodic report required by § 63.152(c)” means the next semi-annual compliance...

  15. 40 CFR 63.8030 - What requirements apply to my heat exchange systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... apply to my heat exchange systems? (a) You must comply with the requirements specified in Table 6 to... § 63.10(b)(1). (e) The reference to the periodic report required by § 63.152(c) of subpart G of...

  16. Gas exchange in NASA's biomass production chamber - A preprototype closed human life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corey, Kenneth A.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    1992-01-01

    The unique capabilities of the NASA biomass production chamber for monitoring and evaluating gas exchange rates are examined. Special emphasis is given to results with wheat and soybeans. The potential of the chamber as a preprototype of a closed human life support system is considered.

  17. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Ffff of... - Work Practice Standards for Heat Exchange Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Work Practice Standards for Heat Exchange Systems 10 Table 10 to Subpart FFFF of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National...

  18. Social-Communicative Effects of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerna, Anna; Esposito, Dalila; Conson, Massimiliano; Russo, Luigi; Massagli, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a common treatment choice for non-verbal children with autism. However, little empirical evidence is available on the usefulness of PECS in treating social-communication impairments in autism. Aims: To test the effects of PECS on social-communicative skills in children with autism,…

  19. Understanding the Picture Exchange Communication System and Its Application in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Amanda; Sandt, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) and its applications in physical education. The PECS is an appropriate communication intervention for students with autism who lack functional communication skills. It is often confused with other visual support strategies, so the authors delineate the six phases of PECS and…

  20. Quantitative Synthesis and Component Analysis of Single-Participant Studies on the Picture Exchange Communication System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tincani, Matt; Devis, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    The "Picture Exchange Communication System" (PECS) has emerged as the augmentative communication intervention of choice for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with a supporting body of single-participant studies. This report describes a meta-analysis of 16 single-participant studies on PECS with percentage of nonoverlapping data…

  1. Using the Picture Exchange Communication System with Students with Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivy, Sarah E.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Hooper, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    Students with visual impairment (VI) were taught to request using the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) and tangible symbols. Participants were four males with additional disabilities, 5 to 11 years old, who had little to no functional vision. A functional relation between PECS Phase 1 and requesting was established using a multiple…

  2. The Ownership and Control of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission's EDGAR System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, James Packard

    1993-01-01

    Describes the EDGAR (Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis and Retrieval) system developed for the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) for SEC disclosure filings. Ownership and control of the database, hardware, and software is considered; the Information Industry Association position is described; and the need for greater public access to…

  3. System design package: Maxi-therm S-101 heating module, passive heat exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This document is the specification which establishes the requirements for the design, installation, and performance of a passive heat exchanger module with auxiliary heaters for use with solar heating systems. It designates the Interim Performance Criteria applicable to the subsystem and defines any deviations. This document also includes the manufacturing instructions and required materials and parts for the Maxitherm S101 Heating Module.

  4. Experimental Evaluation of the Training Structure of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Anne R.; Carr, James E.; LeBlanc, Linda A.

    2012-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a picture-based alternative communication method that is widely accepted and utilized with individuals with disabilities. Although prior studies have examined the clinical efficacy of PECS, none have experimentally evaluated its manualized training structure. We experimentally evaluated the…

  5. A Further Evaluation of Behavioral Skills Training for Implementation of the Picture Exchange Communication System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homlitas, Christa; Rosales, Rocío; Candel, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of a behavioral skills training package to teach implementation of Phases 1, 2, and 3A of the picture exchange communication system (PECS) to teachers employed at a therapeutic center for children with autism. Probes in the natural environment and follow-up were conducted with children who were assigned to work with…

  6. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Ffff of... - Work Practice Standards for Heat Exchange Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Work Practice Standards for Heat Exchange Systems 10 Table 10 to Subpart FFFF of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED)...

  7. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Ffff of... - Work Practice Standards for Heat Exchange Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Work Practice Standards for Heat Exchange Systems 10 Table 10 to Subpart FFFF of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED)...

  8. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Ffff of... - Work Practice Standards for Heat Exchange Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Work Practice Standards for Heat Exchange Systems 10 Table 10 to Subpart FFFF of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National...

  9. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Ffff of... - Work Practice Standards for Heat Exchange Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Work Practice Standards for Heat Exchange Systems 10 Table 10 to Subpart FFFF of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED)...

  10. 18 CFR 301.4 - Exchange Period Average System Cost determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Plant. (iv) CONSTANT—Constant. (v) CSALES—Customer Sales. (vi) CSERVE—Customer Service. (vii) COAL—Coal... the Exchange Period by the same rate of growth as total Contract System Load. (7) If any of the... be used as the starting values. A Utility will be allowed to include new plant additions, and to...

  11. 18 CFR 301.4 - Exchange Period Average System Cost determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Plant. (iv) CONSTANT—Constant. (v) CSALES—Customer Sales. (vi) CSERVE—Customer Service. (vii) COAL—Coal... the Exchange Period by the same rate of growth as total Contract System Load. (7) If any of the... be used as the starting values. A Utility will be allowed to include new plant additions, and to...

  12. 18 CFR 301.4 - Exchange Period Average System Cost determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Plant. (iv) CONSTANT—Constant. (v) CSALES—Customer Sales. (vi) CSERVE—Customer Service. (vii) COAL—Coal... the Exchange Period by the same rate of growth as total Contract System Load. (7) If any of the... be used as the starting values. A Utility will be allowed to include new plant additions, and to...

  13. 18 CFR 301.4 - Exchange Period Average System Cost determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Plant. (iv) CONSTANT—Constant. (v) CSALES—Customer Sales. (vi) CSERVE—Customer Service. (vii) COAL—Coal... the Exchange Period by the same rate of growth as total Contract System Load. (7) If any of the... be used as the starting values. A Utility will be allowed to include new plant additions, and to...

  14. Interoperability and models for exchange of data between information systems in public administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glavev, Victor

    2016-12-01

    The types of software applications used by public administrations can be divided in three main groups: document management systems, record management systems and business process systems. Each one of them generates outputs that can be used as input data to the others. This is the main reason that requires exchange of data between these three groups and well defined models that should be followed. There are also many other reasons that will be discussed in the paper. Interoperability is a key aspect when those models are implemented, especially when there are different manufactures of systems in the area of software applications used by public authorities. The report includes examples of implementation of models for exchange of data between software systems deployed in one of the biggest administration in Bulgaria.

  15. Food System Trade Study for a Near-Term Mars Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper evaluates several food system options for a near-term Mars mission, based on plans for the 120-day BIO-Plex test. Food systems considered in the study are based on the International Space Station (ISS) Assembly Phase and Assembly Complete food systems. The four systems considered are: 1) ISS assembly phase food system (US portion) with individual packaging without salad production; 2) ISS assembly phase food system (US portion) with individual packaging, with salad production; 3) ISS assembly phase food system (US portion) with bulk packaging, with salad production; 4) ISS assembly complete food system (US portion) with bulk packaging with salad and refrigeration/freezing. The food system options are assessed using equivalent system mass (ESM), which evaluates each option based upon the mass, volume, power, cooling and crewtime requirements that are associated with each food system option. However, since ESM is unable to elucidate the differences in psychological benefits between the food systems, a qualitative evaluation of each option is also presented.

  16. Nutrition and food technology for a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, P. E.; Mabel, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Food technology requirements and a nutritional strategy for a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) to provide adequate food in an acceptable form in future space missions are discussed. The establishment of nutritional requirements, dietary goals, and a food service system to deliver acceptable foods in a safe and healthy form and the development of research goals and priorities were the main objectives of the study.

  17. Investigation of heat exchangers for energy conversion systems of megawatt-class space power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilmov, D. N.; Mamontov, Yu. N.; Skorohodov, A. S.; Smolyarov, V. A.; Filatov, N. I.

    2016-01-01

    The specifics of operation (high temperatures in excess of 1000 K and large pressure drops of several megapascals between "hot" and "cold" coolant paths) of heat exchangers in the closed circuit of a gasturbine power converter operating in accordance with the Brayton cycle with internal heat recovery are analyzed in the context of construction of space propulsion systems. The design of a heat-exchange matrix made from doubly convex stamped plates with a specific surface relief is proposed. This design offers the opportunity to construct heat exchangers with the required parameters (strength, rigidity, weight, and dimensions) for the given operating conditions. The diagram of the working area of a test bench is presented, and the experimental techniques are outlined. The results of experimental studies of heat exchange and flow regimes in the models of heat exchangers with matrices containing 50 and 300 plates for two pairs of coolants (gas-gas and gas-liquid) are detailed. A criterion equation for the Nusselt number in the range of Reynolds numbers from 200 to 20 000 is proposed. The coefficients of hydraulic resistance for each coolant path are determined as functions of the Reynolds number. It is noted that the pressure in the water path in the "gas-liquid" series of experiments remained almost constant. This suggests that no well-developed processes of vaporization occurred within this heat-exchange matrix design even when the temperature drop between gas and water was as large as tens or hundreds of degrees. The obtained results allow one to design flight heat exchangers for various space power plants.

  18. Heat Exchanger Design Options and Tritium Transport Study for the VHTR System

    SciTech Connect

    Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim

    2008-09-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted to consider heat exchanger options and tritium transport in a very high temperature reactor (VHTR) system for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. The heat exchanger options include types, arrangements, channel patterns in printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHE), coolant flow direction, and pipe configuration in shell-and-tube designs. Study considerations include: three types of heat exchanger designs (PCHE, shell-and-tube, and helical coil); single- and two-stage unit arrangements; counter-current and cross flow configurations; and straight pipes and U-tube designs in shell-and-tube type heat exchangers. Thermal designs and simple stress analyses were performed to estimate the heat exchanger options, and the Finite Element Method was applied for more detailed calculations, especially for PCHE designs. Results of the options study show that the PCHE design has the smallest volume and heat transfer area, resulting in the least tritium permeation and greatest cost savings. It is theoretically the most reliable mechanically, leading to a longer lifetime. The two-stage heat exchanger arrangement appears to be safer and more cost effective. The recommended separation temperature between first and second stages in a serial configuration is 800oC, at which the high temperature unit is about one-half the size of the total heat exchanger core volume. Based on simplified stress analyses, the high temperature unit will need to be replaced two or three times during the plant’s lifetime. Stress analysis results recommend the off-set channel pattern configuration for the PCHE because stress reduction was estimated at up to 50% in this configuration, resulting in a longer lifetime. The tritium transport study resulted in the development of a tritium behavior analysis code using the MATLAB Simulink code. In parallel, the THYTAN code, previously performed by Ohashi and Sherman (2007) on the Peach Bottom data, was revived

  19. Impact of orthogonal exchange coupling on magnetic anisotropy in antiferromagnetic oxides/ferromagnetic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuświk, Piotr; Lana Gastelois, Pedro; Głowiński, Hubert; Przybylski, Marek; Kirschner, Jürgen

    2016-10-01

    The influence of interface exchange coupling on magnetic anisotropy in the antiferromagnetic oxide/Ni system is investigated. We show how interfacial exchange coupling can be employed not only to pin the magnetization of the ferromagnetic layer but also to support magnetic anisotropy to orient the easy magnetization axis perpendicular to the film plane. The fact that this effect is only observed below the Néel temperature of all investigated antiferromagnetic oxides with significantly different magnetocrystalline anisotropies gives evidence that antiferromagnetic ordering is a source of the additional contribution to the perpendicular effective magnetic anisotropy.

  20. Impact of orthogonal exchange coupling on magnetic anisotropy in antiferromagnetic oxides/ferromagnetic systems.

    PubMed

    Kuświk, Piotr; Gastelois, Pedro Lana; Głowiński, Hubert; Przybylski, Marek; Kirschner, Jürgen

    2016-10-26

    The influence of interface exchange coupling on magnetic anisotropy in the antiferromagnetic oxide/Ni system is investigated. We show how interfacial exchange coupling can be employed not only to pin the magnetization of the ferromagnetic layer but also to support magnetic anisotropy to orient the easy magnetization axis perpendicular to the film plane. The fact that this effect is only observed below the Néel temperature of all investigated antiferromagnetic oxides with significantly different magnetocrystalline anisotropies gives evidence that antiferromagnetic ordering is a source of the additional contribution to the perpendicular effective magnetic anisotropy.

  1. Detection of stratosphere troposphere exchange in cut-off low systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Jeremy D.; Vaughan, Geraint

    1994-01-01

    The Aberystwyth MST radar has been used as part of the TOASTE program to study the structure of the tropopause in cut-off-low system with an aim to identifying regions where stratosphere-troposphere exchange are taking place. Theory predicts that the vertical gradient in reflected power is proportional to the static stability of the reflecting region, and should therefore resolve tropopause structure. Comparisons of MST power profiles with radiosonde data are presented and show good agreement, revealing regions of indefinite tropopauses, where stratosphere-troposphere exchange is thought to take place. The continuous nature of MST data allows an estimation of the size of these regions.

  2. Exposure assessment within a Total Diet Study: a comparison of the use of the pan-European classification system FoodEx-1 with national food classification systems.

    PubMed

    Akhandaf, Y; Van Klaveren, J; De Henauw, S; Van Donkersgoed, G; Van Gorcum, T; Papadopoulos, A; Sirot, V; Kennedy, M; Pinchen, H; Ruprich, J; Rehurkova, I; Perelló, G; Sioen, I

    2015-04-01

    A Total Diet Study (TDS) consists of selecting, collecting and preparing commonly consumed foods purchased at retail level and analysing them for harmful and/or beneficial chemical substances. A food classification system is needed to link food consumption data with the contaminant concentration data obtained in the TDS for the exposure assessment. In this study a comparison was made between the use of a national food classification systems and the use of FoodEx-1, developed and recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The work was performed using data of six European countries: Belgium, Czech Republic, France, The Netherlands, Spain and the UK. For each population, exposure to contaminant A (organic compounds) and/or contaminant B (inorganic compound) was assessed by the Monte Carlo Risk Assessment (MCRA) software using the national classification system and FoodEx-1 for food consumption data and for TDS laboratory results. Minimal differences between both approaches were observed. This observation applied for both contaminant A and contaminant B. In general risk assessment will be similar for both approaches; however, this is not guaranteed. FoodEx-1 proved to be a valuable hierarchic classification system in order to harmonise exposure assessment based on existing TDS results throughout Europe.

  3. Semiempirical Investigation of the Indirect Exchange Interaction in a rem-IN System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakarov, Kh. O.

    2014-05-01

    The Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) exchange interaction is investigated for the first time in compounds of binary REM (rare-earth metal) - In systems (REМ = Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, or Тm) using experimental values of the paramagnetic Curie temperature (θp ) of these compounds. The prediction of the RKKY theory on the direct proportionality between θp and the de Gennes factor for equiatomic compounds of heavy REM with indium, similarly to pure REM, is confirmed. Values of the indirect exchange interaction parameter are estimated semiempirically for the examined compounds. As a whole, it is established that for the compounds of REM with indium, as for pure REM, the exchange interaction of RKKY type is characteristic.

  4. Foundation heat exchangers for residential ground source heat pump systems Numerical modeling and experimental validation

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, Lu; Cullin, James; Spitler, Jeffery; Im, Piljae; Fisher, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    A new type of ground heat exchanger that utilizes the excavation often made for basements or foundations has been proposed as an alternative to conventional ground heat exchangers. This article describes a numerical model that can be used to size these foundation heat exchanger (FHX) systems. The numerical model is a two-dimensional finite-volume model that considers a wide variety of factors, such as soil freezing and evapotranspiration. The FHX numerical model is validated with one year of experimental data collected at an experimental house located near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The model shows good agreement with the experimental data-heat pump entering fluid temperatures typically within 1 C (1.8 F) - with minor discrepancies due to approximations, such as constant moisture content throughout the year, uniform evapotranspiration over the seasons, and lack of ground shading in the model.

  5. Portable multispectral fluorescence imaging system for food safety applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefcourt, Alan M.; Kim, Moon S.; Chen, Yud-Ren

    2004-03-01

    Fluorescence can be a sensitive method for detecting food contaminants. Of particular interest is detection of fecal contamination as feces is the source of many pathogenic organisms. Feces generally contain chlorophyll a and related compounds due to ingestion of plant materials, and these compounds can readily be detected using fluorescence techniques. Described is a fluorescence-imaging system consisting primarily of a UV light source, an intensified camera with a six-position filter wheel, and software for controlling the system and automatically analyzing the resulting images. To validate the system, orchard apples artificially contaminated with dairy feces were used in a "hands-on" public demonstration. The contamination sites were easily identified using automated edge detection and threshold detection algorithms. In addition, by applying feces to apples and then washing sets of apples at hourly intervals, it was determined that five h was the minimum contact time that allowed identification of the contamination site after the apples were washed. There are many potential uses for this system, including studying the efficacy of apple washing systems.

  6. Serial robot for the trajectory optimization and error compensation of TMT mask exchange system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianping; Zhang, Feifan; Zhou, Zengxiang; Zhai, Chao

    2015-10-01

    Mask exchange system is the main part of Multi-Object Broadband Imaging Echellette (MOBIE) on the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). According to the conception of the TMT mask exchange system, the pre-design was introduced in the paper which was based on IRB 140 robot. The stiffness model of IRB 140 in SolidWorks was analyzed under different gravity vectors for further error compensation. In order to find the right location and path planning, the robot and the mask cassette model was imported into MOBIE model to perform different schemes simulation. And obtained the initial installation position and routing. Based on these initial parameters, IRB 140 robot was operated to simulate the path and estimate the mask exchange time. Meanwhile, MATLAB and ADAMS software were used to perform simulation analysis and optimize the route to acquire the kinematics parameters and compare with the experiment results. After simulation and experimental research mentioned in the paper, the theoretical reference was acquired which could high efficient improve the structure of the mask exchange system parameters optimization of the path and precision of the robot position.

  7. Study and development of a cryogenic heat exchanger for life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soliman, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    A prototype cryogenic heat exchanger for removal of waste heat from a spacecraft environmental control life support system was developed. The heat exchanger uses the heat sink capabilities of the cryogenic propellants and, hence, can operate over all mission phases from prelaunch to orbit, to post landing, with quiescent periods during orbit. A survey of candidate warm fluids resulted in the selection of E-2, a fluorocarbon compound, because of its low freezing point and high boiling point. The final design and testing of the heat exchanger was carried out, however, using Freon-21, which is similar to E-2 except for its low boiling point. This change was motivated by the desire for cost effectiveness of the experimental program. The transient performance of the heat exchanger was demonstrated by an analog simulation of the heat sink system. Under the realistic transient heat load conditions (20 sec ramp from minimum to maximum Freon-21 inlet temperature), the control system was able to maintain the warm fluid outlet temperature within + or - 3 F. For a 20-sec ramp from 0 F to -400 F in the hydrogen inlet temperature, at maximum heat load, the warm fluid outlet temperature was maintained within + or - 7 F.

  8. The Influence of Organizational Systems on Information Exchange in Long-Term Care Facilities: An Institutional Ethnography.

    PubMed

    Caspar, Sienna; Ratner, Pamela A; Phinney, Alison; MacKinnon, Karen

    2016-06-01

    Person-centered care is heavily dependent on effective information exchange among health care team members. We explored the organizational systems that influence resident care attendants' (RCAs) access to care information in long-term care (LTC) settings. We conducted an institutional ethnography in three LTC facilities. Investigative methods included naturalistic observations, in-depth interviews, and textual analysis. Practical access to texts containing individualized care-related information (e.g., care plans) was dependent on job classification. Regulated health care professionals accessed these texts daily. RCAs lacked practical access to these texts and primarily received and shared information orally. Microsystems of care, based on information exchange formats, emerged. Organizational systems mandated written exchange of information and did not formally support an oral exchange. Thus, oral information exchanges were largely dependent on the quality of workplace relationships. Formal systems are needed to support structured oral information exchange within and between the microsystems of care found in LTC.

  9. 7 CFR 246.12 - Food delivery systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the delivery of health and nutrition education services to participants. (e) Retail food delivery... levels pharmacy vendors that supply only exempt infant formula and/or WIC-eligible medical foods, and non... that supply only exempt infant formula and/or WIC-eligible medical foods and non-profit...

  10. 7 CFR 246.12 - Food delivery systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the delivery of health and nutrition education services to participants. (e) Retail food delivery... levels pharmacy vendors that supply only exempt infant formula and/or WIC-eligible medical foods, and non... that supply only exempt infant formula and/or WIC-eligible medical foods and non-profit...

  11. Mediated Cross-Cultural Learning through Exchange in Higher Agricultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wals, Arjen E. J.; Sriskandarajah, Nadarajah

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on the long-term impact of an intensive European Union-Australia student exchange programme that took place in 2004 and 2005. The programme, Learning through Exchange about Agriculture, Food Systems and Environment (LEAFSE), was designed to facilitate exchange of post-graduate students on a pilot scale between four…

  12. Healthcare information exchange system based on a hybrid central/federated model.

    PubMed

    Ghane, Kamran

    2014-01-01

    The quality of care can be significantly enhanced and healthcare cost can be substantially reduced if healthcare providers can have access to patient records that are scattered among several paper and electronic based systems. Major challenges of Healthcare Information Exchange result from patient's medical records being kept in several healthcare provider offices, clinics and hospitals in different formats. There are two major problems with healthcare information retrieval. The first problem is lack of visibility and knowledge as to where patient's medical records reside. The second problem is lack of access to information and also incompatibility of data formats. A considerable coverage of Electronic Information Exchange among Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems remains to be implemented despite extensive standardization efforts toward providing solutions. The adoption pace of available standards and solutions has been slow with the exception of some public/government entities. This paper describes a comprehensive and practical solution based on a distributed system with independent subsystems that control and manage processes and data flow of information exchange. The Registrar Subsystem creates a directory of healthcare providers and patients. The Security Subsystem provides authentication and authorization services across all subsystems. The Locators address patient and medical location lookup. The Agents act on behalf of healthcare providers to communicate with other subsystems. The Mediators facilitate information retrieval. The Solution comprises of three levels of participation that allows healthcare providers to join the system easily by starting from basic semi-manual information exchange level and then migrating to a fully electronic and automated information exchange. The Solution is modeled based on variety of standards and protocols used in Internet and other application fields as well as healthcare specific standards and proposals.

  13. Simulation of lakes and surface water heat exchangers for design of surface water heat pump systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conjeevaram Bashyam, Krishna

    Surface Water Heat Pump (SWHP) system utilize surface water bodies, such as ponds, lakes, rivers, and the sea, as heat sources and/or sinks. These systems may be open-loop, circulating water between the surface water body and a heat exchanger on dry land, or closed-loop, utilizing a submerged surface water heat exchanger (SWHE). Both types of SWHP systems have been widely used, but little in the way of design data, design procedures, or energy calculation procedures is available to aid engineers in the design and analysis of these systems. For either type of SWHP system, the ability to predict the evolution of lake temperature with time is an important aspect of needed design and energy analysis procedures. This thesis describes the development and validation of a lake model that is coupled with a surface water heat exchanger model to predict both the lake dynamics (temperature, stratification, ice/snow cover) and the heat transfer performance of different types of SWHE. This one-dimensional model utilizes a detailed surface heat balance model at the upper boundary, a sediment conduction heat transfer model at the lower boundary, and an eddy diffusion model to predict transport within the lake. The lake model is implemented as part of the developed software design tool, which can be used as an aid in the sizing of SWHE used in closed loop SWHP systems.

  14. Analytical Method for Sugar Profile in Pet Food and Animal Feeds by High-Performance Anion-Exchange Chromatography with Pulsed Amperometric Detection.

    PubMed

    Ellingson, David J; Anderson, Phillip; Berg, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    There is a need for a standardized, accurate, rugged, and consistent method to measure for sugars in pet foods and animal feeds. Many traditional standard sugar methods exist for other matrixes, but when applied in collaborative studies there was poor agreement and sources of error identified with those standard methods. The advancement in technology over the years has given us the ability to improve on these standard methods of analysis. A method is described here that addresses these common issues and was subjected to a single-laboratory validation to assess performance on a wide variety of pet foods and animal feeds. Of key importance to the method performance is the sample preparation before extraction, type of extraction solvent, postextraction cleanup, and, finally, optimized chromatography using high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. The results obtained from the validation demonstrate how typical issues seen with these matrixes can influence performance of sugar analysis. The results also demonstrate that this method is fit-for-purpose and can meet the challenges of sugar analysis in pet food and animal feeds to lay the foundation for a standardized method of analysis.

  15. From ontology selection and semantic web to an integrated information system for food-borne diseases and food safety.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xianghe; Peng, Yun; Meng, Jianghong; Ruzante, Juliana; Fratamico, Pina M; Huang, Lihan; Juneja, Vijay; Needleman, David S

    2011-01-01

    Several factors have hindered effective use of information and resources related to food safety due to inconsistency among semantically heterogeneous data resources, lack of knowledge on profiling of food-borne pathogens, and knowledge gaps among research communities, government risk assessors/managers, and end-users of the information. This paper discusses technical aspects in the establishment of a comprehensive food safety information system consisting of the following steps: (a) computational collection and compiling publicly available information, including published pathogen genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data; (b) development of ontology libraries on food-borne pathogens and design automatic algorithms with formal inference and fuzzy and probabilistic reasoning to address the consistency and accuracy of distributed information resources (e.g., PulseNet, FoodNet, OutbreakNet, PubMed, NCBI, EMBL, and other online genetic databases and information); (c) integration of collected pathogen profiling data, Foodrisk.org ( http://www.foodrisk.org ), PMP, Combase, and other relevant information into a user-friendly, searchable, "homogeneous" information system available to scientists in academia, the food industry, and government agencies; and (d) development of a computational model in semantic web for greater adaptability and robustness.

  16. The strategic use of standardized information exchange technology in a university health system.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Po-Hsun; Chen, Heng-Shuen; Lai, Feipei; Lai, Jin-Shin

    2010-04-01

    This article illustrates a Web-based health information system that is comprised of specific information exchange standards related to health information for healthcare services in National Taiwan University Health System. Through multidisciplinary teamwork, medical and informatics experts collaborated and studied on system scope definition, standard selection challenges, system implementation barriers, system management outcomes, and further expandability of other systems. After user requirement analysis and prototyping, from 2005 to 2008, an online clinical decision support system with multiple functions of reminding and information push was implemented. It was to replace its original legacy systems and serve among the main hospital and three branches of 180-200 clinics and 7,500-8,000 patient visits per day. To evaluate the effectiveness of this system, user surveys were performed, which revealed that the average score of user satisfaction increased from 2.80 to 3.18 on a 4-point scale. Among the items, especially e-learning for training service, courtesy communications for system requests, and courtesy communications for system operations showed statistically significant improvement. From this study, the authors concluded that standardized information exchange technologies can be used to create a brand new enterprise value and steadily obtain more competitive advantages for a prestige healthcare system.

  17. Space station/base food system study. Volume 1: Systems design handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    A description is given of the approach used in a study to identify and define engineering data for a spectrum of possible items and equipment comprising potential food systems. In addition, the material presented includes: (1) the study results containing the candidate concepts considered and technical data, performance characteristics, and sketches for each of the concepts by functional area; (2) human factors considerations for crew tasks; (3) shuttle supply interface requirements; (4) special food system study areas; and (5) recommendations and conclusions based on the study results.

  18. Aboriginal health learning in the forest and cultivated gardens: building a nutritious and sustainable food system.

    PubMed

    Stroink, Mirella L; Nelson, Connie H

    2009-01-01

    Sustainable food systems are those in which diverse foods are produced in close proximity to a market. A dynamic, adaptive knowledge base that is grounded in local culture and geography and connected to outside knowledge resources is essential for such food systems to thrive. Sustainable food systems are particularly important to remote and Aboriginal communities, where extensive transportation makes food expensive and of poorer nutritional value. The Learning Garden program was developed and run with two First Nation communities in northwestern Ontario. With this program, the team adopted a holistic and experiential model of learning to begin rebuilding a knowledge base that would support a sustainable local food system. The program involved a series of workshops held in each community and facilitated by a community-based coordinator. Topics included cultivated gardening and forest foods. Results of survey data collected from 20 Aboriginal workshop participants are presented, revealing a moderate to low level of baseline knowledge of the traditional food system, and a reliance on the mainstream food system that is supported by food values that place convenience, ease, and price above the localness or cultural connectedness of the food. Preliminary findings from qualitative data are also presented on the process of learning that occurred in the program and some of the insights we have gained that are relevant to future adaptations of this program.

  19. A comparative study of ion exchange kinetics in zinc/lead-modified zeolite-clinoptilolite systems.

    PubMed

    Trgo, M; Perić, J; Medvidović, N Vukojević

    2006-08-25

    The kinetics of zinc and lead ions removal by modified zeolite-clinoptilolite has been investigated. The rate of the ion exchange process for lead ions is faster than for zinc ions, as well as the time needed to reach the equilibrium. The ion exchange capacity of zeolite of lead ions is doubly higher than that of zinc ions. Diffusion models according to the Vermeulen's approximation, the parabolic diffusion model and the homogeneous diffusion model have been tested with the experimental data of ion exchange for zinc and lead. For both systems examined, the best fit of the models proposed with the experimental data was shown by the Vermeulen's approximation and the homogeneous diffusion model with t-->t(infinity). The diffusion coefficients are calculated from kinetic models of lead ions they are of the order of 10(-6)cm(2)/min, constant for all examined initial concentrations and not dependent on time. The diffusion coefficients in the system of zinc ions is of the order of 10(-8)cm(2)/min, also independent of initial concentrations, but decreasing with time from the beginning of ion exchange to the equilibrium.

  20. Spin dynamics of polarization inversion spin exchange at the magic angle in multiple spin systems.

    PubMed

    Gan, Z

    2000-03-01

    Polarization inversion spin exchange at the magic angle (PISEMA) [J. Magn. Reson. A 109, 270 (1994)] is an important experiment in NMR structural characterization of membrane proteins in oriented lipid bilayers. This paper presents a theoretical and experimental study of the spin dynamics in PISEMA to investigate the line-narrowing mechanism. The study focuses on the effect of neighboring protons on the spin exchange of a strongly coupled spin pair. The spin exchange is solved analytically for simple spin systems and is numerically simulated for many-spin systems. The results show that the dipolar couplings from the neighboring protons of a strongly coupled spin pair perturb the spin exchange only in the second order, therefore it has little contribution to the linewidth of PISEMA spectra in comparison to the separated-local-field spectra. The effects from proton resonance offset and the mismatch of the Hartmann-Hahn condition are also discussed along with experimental results using model single-crystal samples.

  1. Improving NO(x) cap-and-trade system with adjoint-based emission exchange rates.

    PubMed

    Mesbah, S Morteza; Hakami, Amir; Schott, Stephan

    2012-11-06

    Cap-and-trade programs have proven to be effective instruments for achieving environmental goals while incurring minimum cost. The nature of the pollutant, however, affects the design of these programs. NO(x), an ozone precursor, is a nonuniformly mixed pollutant with a short atmospheric lifetime. NO(x) cap-and-trade programs in the U.S. are successful in reducing total NO(x) emissions but may result in suboptimal environmental performance because location-specific ozone formation potentials are neglected. In this paper, the current NO(x) cap-and-trade system is contrasted to a hypothetical NO(x) trading policy with sensitivity-based exchange rates. Location-specific exchange rates, calculated through adjoint sensitivity analysis, are combined with constrained optimization for prediction of NO(x) emissions trading behavior and post-trade ozone concentrations. The current and proposed policies are examined in a case study for 218 coal-fired power plants that participated in the NO(x) Budget Trading Program in 2007. We find that better environmental performance at negligibly higher system-wide abatement cost can be achieved through inclusion of emission exchange rates. Exposure-based exchange rates result in better environmental performance than those based on concentrations.

  2. 75 FR 38073 - Information Collection; Commodity Request (Food Aid Request Entry System (FARES))

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Farm Service Agency Information Collection; Commodity Request (Food Aid Request... individuals and organizations on an extension of a currently approved information collection for the Food Aid Request Entry System (FARES). FSA and CCC procure various processed foods and commodities to be...

  3. Farm to Table and beyond: Helping Students Make Sense of the Global Food System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Pamela; Barton, Angela Calabrese; Contento, Isobel; Crabtree, Margo

    2008-01-01

    It is not enough for students to acquire knowledge about how food is produced and processed; they must also come to understand the biological and environmental contexts in which food production, processing, and transportation take place. Through diagramming, students begin to understand that our food system has a series of interacting parts and…

  4. Nutrient and Food Group Analysis in the 2016 ASA24® System

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers, clinicians, and educators can use the ASA24 system to analyze 65 nutrients and 37 food groups (U.S. and Canadian versions) from food recall or record data. Analyses for ASA24-Australia-2016 provide 41 nutrients and no food groups.

  5. CONAN-The cruncher of local exchange coefficients for strongly interacting confined systems in one dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loft, N. J. S.; Kristensen, L. B.; Thomsen, A. E.; Volosniev, A. G.; Zinner, N. T.

    2016-12-01

    We consider a one-dimensional system of particles with strong zero-range interactions. This system can be mapped onto a spin chain of the Heisenberg type with exchange coefficients that depend on the external trap. In this paper, we present an algorithm that can be used to compute these exchange coefficients. We introduce an open source code CONAN (Coefficients of One-dimensional N-Atom Networks) which is based on this algorithm. CONAN works with arbitrary external potentials and we have tested its reliability for system sizes up to around 35 particles. As illustrative examples, we consider a harmonic trap and a box trap with a superimposed asymmetric tilted potential. For these examples, the computation time typically scales with the number of particles as O(N 3.5 ± 0.4) . Computation times are around 10 s for N = 10 particles and less than 10 min for N = 20 particles.

  6. Performance of replica-exchange Wang-Landau sampling for the study of spin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying Wai; Eisenbach, Markus; Vogel, Thomas; Wüst, Thomas; Landau, David P.

    2014-03-01

    The recently proposed replica-exchange Wang-Landau sampling (REWL) is a novel, massively parallel Monte Carlo method which allows for the parallelization of Wang-Landau sampling based on a replica-exchange framework. The robustness of the scheme is demonstrated by its broad applicability on a variety of spin systems: from the simplest models with discrete or continuous energy domains, to complex systems captured by large-scale first principles density functional theory calculations. The accuracy of REWL is studied by comparing the thermodynamic properties with exact solutions and results obtained by the original, serial Wang-Landau sampling. The principles for the speed-up, the strong and weak scaling behavior of REWL are also investigated when different parameter settings are employed. We will show, with the aid of selected spin systems, that the method accelerates the simulations significantly with a possible improved accuracy. Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 210603 (2013)

  7. Competition between charge exchange and chemical reaction - The D2/+/ + H system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preston, R. K.; Cross, R. J., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Study of the special features of molecular charge exchange and its competition with chemical reaction in the case of the D2(+) + H system. The trajectory surface hopping (TSH) model proposed by Tully and Preston (1971) is used to study this competition for a number of reactions involving the above system. The diatomics-in-molecules zero-overlap approximation is used to calculate the three adiabatic surfaces - one triplet and two singlet - which are needed to describe this system. One of the significant results of this study is that the chemical reaction and charge exchange are strongly coupled. It is also found that the number of trajectories passing into the chemical regions of the three surfaces depends very strongly on the surface crossings.-

  8. Compressed Air System Optimization: Case Study Food Industry in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widayati, Endang; Nuzahar, Hasril

    2016-01-01

    Compressors and compressed air systems was one of the most important utilities in industries or factories. Approximately 10% of the cost of electricity in the industry was used to produce compressed air. Therefore the potential for energy savings in the compressors and compressed air systems had a big challenge. This field was conducted especially in Indonesia food industry or factory. Compressed air system optimization was a technique approach to determine the optimal conditions for the operation of compressors and compressed air systems that included evaluation of the energy needs, supply adjustment, eliminating or reconfiguring the use and operation of inefficient, changing and complementing some equipment and improving operating efficiencies. This technique gave the significant impact for energy saving and costs. The potential savings based on this study through measurement and optimization e.g. system that lowers the pressure of 7.5 barg to 6.8 barg would reduce energy consumption and running costs approximately 4.2%, switch off the compressor GA110 and GA75 was obtained annual savings of USD 52,947 ≈ 455 714 kWh, running GA75 light load or unloaded then obtained annual savings of USD 31,841≈ 270,685 kWh, install new compressor 2x132 kW and 1x 132 kW VSD obtained annual savings of USD 108,325≈ 928,500 kWh. Furthermore it was needed to conduct study of technical aspect of energy saving potential (Investment Grade Audit) and performed Cost Benefit Analysis. This study was one of best practice solutions how to save energy and improve energy performance in compressors and compressed air system.

  9. Nutrition program for the elderly: participants' perception of food quality by type of food service system.

    PubMed

    Kendrick, O W; Slezak, D

    1989-01-01

    A survey of 1028 clients who participated in 21 nutrition sites for the elderly funded by the Suburban Cook County Area Agency on Aging in Chicago, Illinois revealed that participants who received meals prepared on-site were more satisfied with the quality of the meals than participants who received meals that were satellited as hot bulk food or as preplated cook/freeze meals. Participants who judged the meals as fair or poor were more likely than those who rated the food as excellent or good to respond that they would increase their donation if the food were improved. Data from a national survey used as a standard for judging participant satisfaction of food service are presented in this article.

  10. Grating exchange system of independent mirror supported by floating rotary stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianhuan; Tao, Jin; Liu, Yan; Nan, Yan

    2015-10-01

    The performance of The Grating Exchange System can satisfy the Thirty Meter Telescope - TMT for astronomical observation WFOS index requirements and satisfy the requirement of accuracy in the grating exchange. It is used to install in the MOBIE and a key device of MOBIE. The Wide Field Optical Spectrograph (WFOS) is one of the three first-light observing capabilities selected by the TMT Science Advisory Committee. The Multi-Object Broadband Imaging Echellette (MOBIE) instrument design concept has been developed to address the WFOS requirements as described in the TMT Science-Based Requirements Document (SRD). The Grating Exchange System uses a new type of separate movement way of three grating devices and a mirror device. Three grating devices with a mirror are able to achieve independence movement. This kind of grating exchange system can effectively solve the problem that the volume of the grating change system is too large and that the installed space of MOBIE instruments is too limit. This system adopts the good stability, high precision of rotary stage - a kind of using air bearing (Air bearing is famous for its ultra-high precision, and can meet the optical accuracy requirement) and rotation positioning feedback gauge turntable to support grating device. And with a kind of device which can carry greater weight bracket fixed on the MOBIE instrument, with two sets of servo motor control rotary stage and the mirror device respectively. And we use the control program to realize the need of exercising of the grating device and the mirror device. Using the stress strain analysis software--SolidWorks for stress and strain analysis of this structure. And then checking the structure of the rationality and feasibility. And prove that this system can realize the positioning precision under different working conditions can meet the requirements of imaging optical grating diffraction efficiency and error by the calculation and optical performance analysis.

  11. Generalized Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN) secure key exchange system using arbitrary resistors

    PubMed Central

    Vadai, Gergely; Mingesz, Robert; Gingl, Zoltan

    2015-01-01

    The Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN) secure key exchange system has been introduced as a simple, very low cost and efficient classical physical alternative to quantum key distribution systems. The ideal system uses only a few electronic components—identical resistor pairs, switches and interconnecting wires—in order to guarantee perfectly protected data transmission. We show that a generalized KLJN system can provide unconditional security even if it is used with significantly less limitations. The more universal conditions ease practical realizations considerably and support more robust protection against attacks. Our theoretical results are confirmed by numerical simulations. PMID:26333562

  12. Assessment of nutrient stability in foods from the space food system after long-duration spaceflight on the ISS.

    PubMed

    Zwart, S R; Kloeris, V L; Perchonok, M H; Braby, L; Smith, S M

    2009-09-01

    Maintaining an intact nutrient supply in the food system flown on spacecraft is a critical issue for mission success and crew health. Ground-based evidence indicates that some vitamins may be altered and fatty acids oxidized (and therefore rendered useless, or even dangerous) by long-term storage and by exposure to radiation, both of which will be issues for long-duration exploration missions in space. In this study, the stability of nutrients was investigated in food samples exposed to spaceflight on the Intl. Space Station (ISS). A total of 6 replicates of 5 different space food items, a multivitamin, and a vitamin D supplement were packaged into 4 identical kits and were launched in 2006 on the space shuttle. After 13, 353, 596, and 880 d of spaceflight aboard the ISS, the kits were returned to Earth. Nine replicates of each food item and vitamin, from the same lots as those sent into space, remained in an environmental chamber on Earth to serve as controls at each time point. Vitamins, hexanal, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, and amino acids were measured in identical-lot food samples at each time point. After 596 d of spaceflight, differences in intact vitamin concentrations due to duration of storage were observed for most foodstuffs, but generally, nutrients from flight samples did not degrade any faster than ground controls. This study provided the 1st set of spaceflight data for investigation of nutrient stability in the food system, and the results will help NASA design food systems for both ISS and space exploration missions.

  13. Space shuttle/food system study. Volume 1: Technical volume, oven study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The baseline space shuttle galley was designed to utilize lightweight rehydratable foods, to be prepared for consumption by rehydration with chilled or hot water. The impact is examined of an extension of food types to include thermostabilized food, at ambient temperature, and frozen foods on the baseline design of the shuttle galley. Weight, volume, and power penalities associated with heating thermostabilized and frozen foods by means of a hot air convection heating system and a conduction heating system are determined along with the impact on crew/galley interface and meal preparation.

  14. Portable breathing system. [a breathing apparatus using a rebreathing system of heat exchangers for carbon dioxide removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovell, J. S. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A semiclosed-loop rebreathing system is discussed for use in a hostile environment. A packed bed regenerative heat exchanger providing two distinct temperature humidity zones of breathing gas with one zone providing cool, relatively dry air and the second zone providing hot, moist air is described.

  15. A model for (re)building consumer trust in the food system.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Annabelle M; Withall, Elizabeth; Coveney, John; Meyer, Samantha B; Henderson, Julie; McCullum, Dean; Webb, Trevor; Ward, Paul R

    2016-04-12

    The article presents a best practice model that can be utilized by food system actors to assist with (re)building trust in the food system, before, during and after a food incident defined as 'any situation within the food supply chain where there is a risk or potential risk of illness or confirmed illness or injury associated with the consumption of a food or foods' (Commonwealth of Australia.National Food Incident Response Protocol.Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, 2012). Interviews were undertaken with 105 actors working within the media, food industry and food regulatory settings across Australia, New Zealand (NZ) and the United Kingdom (UK). Interview data produced strategy statements, which indicated participant views on how to (re)build consumer trust in the food system. These included: (i) be transparent, (ii) have protocols and procedures in place, (iii) be credible, (iv) be proactive, (v) put consumers first, (vi) collaborate with stakeholders, (vii) be consistent, (viii) educate stakeholders and consumers, (ix) build your reputation and (x) keep your promises. A survey was designed to enable participants to indicate their agreement/disagreement with the ideas, rate their importance and provide further comment. The five strategies considered key to (re)building consumer trust were used to develop a model demonstrating best practice strategies for (re)building consumer trust in the food system before, during and after a food incident. In a world where the food system is increasingly complex, strategies for (re)building and fostering consumer trust are important. This study offers a model to do so which is derived from the views and experiences of actors working across the food industry, food regulation and the media.

  16. The Challenges of Developing a Food System for a Mars Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph describing the food system that NASA is developing for Manned Mars Missions is shown. The topics include: 1) The President's Vision for U.S. Space Exploration -January 14, 2004; 2) Introducing Orion (and Ares); 3) Mercury (1961-1963); 4) Gemini (1965-1966); 5) Apollo (1968-1972); 6) Skylab (1973-1974); 7) Shuttle/Mir (1995-1998); 8) Shuttle (1981-present) International Space Station (2000-present); 9) NASA Stored Food System; 10) Advanced Food Technology; 11) Orion Missions; 12) Orion Challenges; 13) Food Packaging; 14) Mars Mission Assumptions; 15) Planetary Food System Selected Crops; 16) Food Processing Equipment Constraints; 17) Crew Involvement Constraints; 18) Advanced Food Technology Integration; 19) Research Highlights Internal; and 20) Research Highlights External.

  17. Making exchange entitlements operational: the food economy approach to famine prediction and the RiskMap computer program.

    PubMed

    Seaman, J

    2000-06-01

    The effect of production failure or some other shock on household income and food supply depends upon: (a) the pattern of household income, and (b) its ability to compensate for any deficit which may have occurred, for example, by the sale of assets or finding additional paid employment. The corollary is that the prediction of the likely effect of some event on the future state of the economy or food supply of a population of households requires an understanding of the economy of the households concerned and the economic context to which these relate. This paper describes an attempt to develop an approach to prediction using a dynamic model of economy based on quantitative descriptions of household economy obtained by systematic rapid field-work and summarises the experience of the use of this approach to date.

  18. Gold Nanoparticle Monolayers from Sequential Interfacial Ligand Exchange and Migration in a Three-Phase System

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guang; Hallinan, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    Using a three-phase system, centimeter-scale monolayer gold nanoparticle (Au NP) films have been prepared that have long-range order and hydrophobic ligands. The system contains an interface between an aqueous phase containing Au NPs and an oil phase containing one of various types of amine ligands, and a water/air interface. As the Au NPs diffuse to the water/oil interface, ligand exchange takes place which temporarily traps them at the water/oil interface. The ligand-exchanged particles then spontaneously migrate to the air/water interface, where they self-assemble, forming a monolayer under certain conditions. The spontaneous formation of the NP film at the air/water interface was due to the minimization of the system Helmholtz free energy. However, the extent of surface functionalization was dictated by kinetics. This decouples interfacial ligand exchange from interfacial self-assembly, while maintaining the simplicity of a single system. The interparticle center-to-center distance was dictated by the amine ligand length. The Au NP monolayers exhibit tunable surface plasma resonance and excellent spatial homogeneity, which is useful for surface-enhanced Raman scattering. The “air/water/oil” self-assembly method developed here not only benefits the fundamental understanding of NP ligand conformations, but is also applicable to the manufacture of plasmonic nanoparticle devices with precisely designed optical properties. PMID:27762394

  19. Gold Nanoparticle Monolayers from Sequential Interfacial Ligand Exchange and Migration in a Three-Phase System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guang; Hallinan, Daniel T.

    2016-10-01

    Using a three-phase system, centimeter-scale monolayer gold nanoparticle (Au NP) films have been prepared that have long-range order and hydrophobic ligands. The system contains an interface between an aqueous phase containing Au NPs and an oil phase containing one of various types of amine ligands, and a water/air interface. As the Au NPs diffuse to the water/oil interface, ligand exchange takes place which temporarily traps them at the water/oil interface. The ligand-exchanged particles then spontaneously migrate to the air/water interface, where they self-assemble, forming a monolayer under certain conditions. The spontaneous formation of the NP film at the air/water interface was due to the minimization of the system Helmholtz free energy. However, the extent of surface functionalization was dictated by kinetics. This decouples interfacial ligand exchange from interfacial self-assembly, while maintaining the simplicity of a single system. The interparticle center-to-center distance was dictated by the amine ligand length. The Au NP monolayers exhibit tunable surface plasma resonance and excellent spatial homogeneity, which is useful for surface-enhanced Raman scattering. The “air/water/oil” self-assembly method developed here not only benefits the fundamental understanding of NP ligand conformations, but is also applicable to the manufacture of plasmonic nanoparticle devices with precisely designed optical properties.

  20. Developing an Integrated Information System for the Food Sector. Agricultural Economic Report No. 575.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manchester, Alden

    This document proposes an information system for the food sector that integrates measures of prices, quantities, and values. It suggests that such an integrated information system provides more information about many developments in the food sector than a system that separately measures prices, quantities, or values. Concepts and approaches…

  1. Exchange Network

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Environmental Information Exchange Network (EIEN) is an Internet-based system used by state, tribal and territorial partners to securely share environmental and health information with one another and EPA.

  2. Space shuttle/food system study. Volume 2, Appendix A: Active heating system-screening analysis. Appendix B: Reconstituted food heating techniques analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Technical data are presented which were used to evaluate active heating methods to be incorporated into the space shuttle food system design, and also to evaluate the relative merits and penalties associated with various approaches to the heating of rehydrated food during space flight. Equipment heating candidates were subject to a preliminary screening performed by a selection rationale process which considered the following parameters; (1) gravitational effect; (2) safety; (3) operability; (4) system compatibility; (5) serviceability; (6) crew acceptability; (7) crew time; (8) development risk; and (9) operating cost. A hot air oven, electrically heated food tray, and microwave oven were selected for further consideration and analysis. Passive, semi-active, and active food preparation approaches were also studied in an effort to determine the optimum method for heating rehydrated food. Potential complexity, cost, vehicle impact penalties, and palatability were considered in the analysis. A summary of the study results is provided along with cost estimates for each of the potential sytems

  3. Building a national electronic medical record exchange system - experiences in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Chuan Jack; Yen, Ju-Chuan; Chiu, Wen-Ta; Jian, Wen-Shan; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Hsu, Min-Huei

    2015-08-01

    There are currently 501 hospitals and about 20,000 clinics in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance (NHI) system, which is operated by the NHI Administration, uses a single-payer system and covers 99.9% of the nation's total population of 23,000,000. Taiwan's NHI provides people with a high degree of freedom in choosing their medical care options. However, there is the potential concern that the available medical resources will be overused. The number of doctor consultations per person per year is about 15. Duplication of laboratory tests and prescriptions are not rare either. Building an electronic medical record exchange system is a good method of solving these problems and of improving continuity in health care. In November 2009, Taiwan's Executive Yuan passed the 'Plan for accelerating the implementation of electronic medical record systems in medical institutions' (2010-2012; a 3-year plan). According to this plan, a patient can, at any hospital in Taiwan, by using his/her health insurance IC card and physician's medical professional IC card, upon signing a written agreement, retrieve all important medical records for the past 6 months from other participating hospitals. The focus of this plan is to establish the National Electronic Medical Record Exchange Centre (EEC). A hospital's information system will be connected to the EEC through an electronic medical record (EMR) gateway. The hospital will convert the medical records for the past 6 months in its EMR system into standardized files and save them on the EMR gateway. The most important functions of the EEC are to generate an index of all the XML files on the EMR gateways of all hospitals, and to provide search and retrieval services for hospitals and clinics. The EEC provides four standard inter-institution EMR retrieval services covering medical imaging reports, laboratory test reports, discharge summaries, and outpatient records. In this system, we adopted the Health Level 7 (HL7) Clinical Document

  4. Epitaxial exchange-bias systems: From fundamentals to future spin-orbitronics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wei; Krishnan, Kannan M.

    2016-07-01

    Exchange bias has been investigated for more than half a century and several insightful reviews, published around the year 2000, have already summarized many key experimental and theoretical aspects related to this phenomenon. Since then, due to developments in thin-film fabrication and sophisticated characterization methods, exchange bias continues to show substantial advances; in particular, recent studies on epitaxial systems, which is the focus of this review, allow many long-standing mysteries of exchange bias to be unambiguously resolved. The advantage of epitaxial samples lies in the well-defined interface structures, larger coherence lengths, and competing magnetic anisotropies, which are often negligible in polycrystalline samples. Beginning with a discussion of the microscopic spin properties at the ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic interface, we correlate the details of spin lattices with phenomenological anisotropies, and finally connect the two by introducing realistic measurement approaches and models. We conclude by providing a brief perspective on the future of exchange bias and related studies in the context of the rapidly evolving interest in antiferromagnetic spintronics.

  5. Brief Report: Randomized test of the efficacy of picture exchange communication system on highly generalized picture exchanges in children with ASD.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Paul J; Lieberman, Rebecca G

    2010-05-01

    A randomized control trial comparing two social-communication interventions in young children with autism examined far-transfer of the use of picture exchange to communicate. Thirty-six children were randomly assigned to one of two treatment conditions, one of which was the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). All children had access to picture symbols during assessments. Post-treatment measurement of the number of picture exchanges in a far-transfer, assessment context favored the PECS intervention. These findings were interpreted as support for the hypothesis that the PECS curriculum can successfully teach a generalized means of showing coordinated attention to object and person without requiring eye contact to children with ASD.

  6. Element exchange in a water- and gas-closed biological Life Support System.

    PubMed

    Gribovskaya, I V; Kudenko YuA; Gitelson, J I

    1997-01-01

    Liquid human wastes and household water used for nutrition of wheat made possible to realize 24% closure for the mineral exchange in an experiment with a 2-component version of "Bios-3" life support system (LSS) Input-output balances of revealed, that elements (primarily trace elements) within the system. The structural materials (steel, titanium), expanded clay aggregate, and catalytic furnace catalysts. By the end of experiment, the permanent nutrient solution, plants, and the human diet gradually built up Ni, Cr, Al, Fe, V, Zn, Cu, and Mo. Thorough selection and pretreatment of materials can substantially reduce this accumulation. To enhance closure of the mineral exchange involves processing of human-metabolic wastes and inedible biomes inside LSS. An efficient method to oxidize wastes by hydrogen peroxide icon a quartz reactor at the temperature of 80 degrees C controlled electromagnetic field is proposed.

  7. Quantum logic gates from time-dependent global magnetic field in a system with constant exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Nenashev, A. V. Dvurechenskii, A. V.; Zinovieva, A. F.; Gornov, A. Yu.; Zarodnyuk, T. S.

    2015-03-21

    We propose a method that implements a universal set of one- and two-quantum-bit gates for quantum computation in a system of coupled electron pairs with constant non-diagonal exchange interaction. In our proposal, suppression of the exchange interaction is performed by the continual repetition of single-spin rotations. A small g-factor difference between the electrons allows for addressing qubits and avoiding strong magnetic field pulses. Numerical experiments were performed to show that, to implement the one- and two-qubit operations, it is sufficient to change the strength of the magnetic field by a few Gauss. This introduces one and then the other electron in a resonance. To determine the evolution of the two-qubit system, we use the algorithms of optimal control theory.

  8. Orbital Ordering in Frustrated Jahn-Teller Systems with 90° Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostovoy, M. V.; Khomskii, D. I.

    2002-11-01

    We show that superexchange interactions in frustrated Jahn-Teller systems with transition metal ions connected by the 90° metal-oxygen-metal bonds (e.g., NaNiO2, LiNiO2, and ZnMn2O4) are much different from those in materials with the 180° bonds. In the 90°-exchange systems spins and orbitals are decoupled: the spin exchange is much weaker than the orbital one and it is ferromagnetic for all orbital states. Though the mean-field orbital ground state is strongly degenerate, quantum orbital fluctuations select particular ferro-orbital states. We explain the orbital and magnetic ordering observed in NaNiO2 and show that LiNiO2 is not a spin-orbital liquid.

  9. Orbital ordering in frustrated Jahn-Teller systems with 90 degrees exchange.

    PubMed

    Mostovoy, M V; Khomskii, D I

    2002-11-25

    We show that superexchange interactions in frustrated Jahn-Teller systems with transition metal ions connected by the 90 degrees metal-oxygen-metal bonds (e.g., NaNiO2, LiNiO2, and ZnMn2O4) are much different from those in materials with the 180 degrees bonds. In the 90 degrees -exchange systems spins and orbitals are decoupled: the spin exchange is much weaker than the orbital one and it is ferromagnetic for all orbital states. Though the mean-field orbital ground state is strongly degenerate, quantum orbital fluctuations select particular ferro-orbital states. We explain the orbital and magnetic ordering observed in NaNiO2 and show that LiNiO2 is not a spin-orbital liquid.

  10. Element exchange in a water-and gas-closed biological life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-01-01

    Liquid human wastes and household water used for nutrition of wheat made possible to realize 24% closure for the mineral exchange in an experiment with a 2-component version of ``Bios-3'' life support system (LSS) Input-output balances of revealed, that elements (primarily trace elements) within the system. The structural materials (steel, titanium), expanded clay aggregate, and catalytic furnace catalysts. By the end of experiment, the permanent nutrient solution, plants, and the human diet gradually built up Ni, Cr, Al, Fe, V, Zn, Cu, and Mo. Thorough selection and pretreatment of materials can substantially reduce this accumulation. To enhance closure of the mineral exchange involves processing of human- metabolic wastes and inedible biomes inside LSS. An efficient method to oxidize wastes by hydrogen peroxide in a quartz reactor at the temperature of 80°C controlled electromagnetic field is proposed.

  11. Element exchange in a water-and gas-closed biological life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribovskaya, I. V.; Kudenko, Yu. A.; Gitelson, J. I.

    1997-01-01

    Liquid human wastes and household water used for nutrition of wheat made possible to realize 24% closure for the mineral exchange in an experiment with a 2-component version of ``Bios-3'' life support system (LSS) Input-output balances of revealed, that elements (primarily trace elements) within the system. The structural materials (steel, titanium), expanded clay aggregate, and catalytic furnace catalysts. By the end of experiment, the permanent nutrient solution, plants, and the human diet gradually built up Ni, Cr, Al, Fe, V, Zn, Cu, and Mo. Thorough selection and pretreatment of materials can substantially reduce this accumulation. To enhance closure of the mineral exchange involves processing of human- metabolic wastes and inedible biomes inside LSS. An efficient method to oxidize wastes by hydrogen peroxide in a quartz reactor at the temperature of 80 degC controlled electromagnetic field is proposed.

  12. Food Consumption and its impact on Cardiovascular Disease: Importance of Solutions focused on the globalized food system

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Sonia S.; Hawkes, Corinna; de Souza, Russell J.; Mente, Andrew; Dehghan, Mahshid; Nugent, Rachel; Zulyniak, Michael A.; Weis, Tony; Bernstein, Adam M.; Krauss, Ronald; Kromhout, Daan; Jenkins, David J.A.; Malik, Vasanti; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A.; Mozafarrian, Dariush; Yusuf, Salim; Willett, Walter C.; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-01-01

    Major scholars in the field, based on a 3-day consensus, created an in-depth review of current knowledge on the role of diet in CVD, the changing global food system and global dietary patterns, and potential policy solutions. Evidence from different countries, age/race/ethnicity/socioeconomic groups suggest the health effects studies of foods, macronutrients, and dietary patterns on CVD appear to be far more consistent though regional knowledge gaps are highlighted. There are large gaps in knowledge about the association of macronutrients to CVD in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), particularly linked with dietary patterns are reviewed. Our understanding of foods and macronutrients in relationship to CVD is broadly clear; however major gaps exist both in dietary pattern research and ways to change diets and food systems. Based on the current evidence, the traditional Mediterranean-type diet, including plant foods/emphasizing plant protein sources, provides a well-tested healthy dietary pattern to reduce CVD. PMID:26429085

  13. Analysis and Perspective from the Complex Aerospace Systems Exchange (CASE) 2013

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Kennie H.; Parker, Peter A.; Detweiler, Kurt N.; McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Dress, David A.; Kimmel, William M.

    2014-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center embedded four rapporteurs at the Complex Aerospace Systems Exchange (CASE) held in August 2013 with the objective to capture the essence of the conference presentations and discussions. CASE was established to provide a discussion forum among chief engineers, program managers, and systems engineers on challenges in the engineering of complex aerospace systems. The meeting consists of invited presentations and panels from industry, academia, and government followed by discussions among attendees. This report presents the major and reoccurring themes captured throughout the meeting and provides analysis and insights to further the CASE mission.

  14. Short communication: a food-systems approach to assessing dairy product waste.

    PubMed

    Ridoutt, B G; Baird, D L; Bastiaans, K; Darnell, R; Hendrie, G A; Riley, M; Sanguansri, P; Syrette, J; Noakes, M; Keating, B A

    2014-10-01

    Concern about world population increase, food security, and the environmental burdens of food production have made food-waste reduction a social and environmental priority. In this context, the quantification of dairy product waste is especially difficult due to the varied means of disposal, by solid and liquid waste streams, and due to inclusion as an ingredient in many processed foods. In this study, food intake data from the Australian National Nutrition Survey (>13,000 participants; >4,500 food items) were disaggregated into basic foods and total national dairy product intake was expressed in whole-milk equivalents. This result was compared with total domestic milk supply, indicating a level of waste of 29% for dairy products in the Australian food system. With national food-waste reduction targets becoming increasingly common, reliable estimates of food waste at the national scale are important for goal setting, baseline reporting, and performance monitoring. For this purpose, the systems approach to assessing food waste demonstrated in this project is deemed to have advantages over other common methods of food-waste assessment, such as bin audits, waste diaries, and surveys.

  15. Risk of Performance Decrement and Crew Illness Due to an Inadequate Food System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, Grace L.; Cooper, Maya; Bermudez-Aguirre, Daniela; Sirmons, Takiyah

    2016-01-01

    NASA is preparing for long duration manned missions beyond low-Earth orbit that will be challenged in several ways, including long-term exposure to the space environment, impacts to crew physiological and psychological health, limited resources, and no resupply. The food system is one of the most significant daily factors that can be altered to improve human health, and performance during space exploration. Therefore, the paramount importance of determining the methods, technologies, and requirements to provide a safe, nutritious, and acceptable food system that promotes crew health and performance cannot be underestimated. The processed and prepackaged food system is the main source of nutrition to the crew, therefore significant losses in nutrition, either through degradation of nutrients during processing and storage or inadequate food intake due to low acceptability, variety, or usability, may significantly compromise the crew's health and performance. Shelf life studies indicate that key nutrients and quality factors in many space foods degrade to concerning levels within three years, suggesting that food system will not meet the nutrition and acceptability requirements of a long duration mission beyond low-Earth orbit. Likewise, mass and volume evaluations indicate that the current food system is a significant resource burden. Alternative provisioning strategies, such as inclusion of bioregenerative foods, are challenged with resource requirements, and food safety and scarcity concerns. Ensuring provisioning of an adequate food system relies not only upon determining technologies, and requirements for nutrition, quality, and safety, but upon establishing a food system that will support nutritional adequacy, even with individual crew preference and self-selection. In short, the space food system is challenged to maintain safety, nutrition, and acceptability for all phases of an exploration mission within resource constraints. This document presents the

  16. Assurance of Quality Data for Food Composition Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL), Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, provides USDA’s Nutrient Data Base for Standard Reference (SR), the foundation of most other food composition databases and includes information on about 130 components in approximately 7100 foods. Assessing the validit...

  17. 7 CFR 246.12 - Food delivery systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the delivery of health and nutrition education, and breastfeeding counseling services to participants... levels pharmacy vendors that supply only exempt infant formula and/or WIC-eligible medical foods, and non... that supply only exempt infant formula and/or WIC-eligible medical foods and non-profit...

  18. 7 CFR 246.12 - Food delivery systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the delivery of health and nutrition education, and breastfeeding counseling services to participants... levels pharmacy vendors that supply only exempt infant formula and/or WIC-eligible medical foods, and non... that supply only exempt infant formula and/or WIC-eligible medical foods and non-profit...

  19. 7 CFR 246.12 - Food delivery systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the delivery of health and nutrition education, and breastfeeding counseling services to participants... levels pharmacy vendors that supply only exempt infant formula and/or WIC-eligible medical foods, and non... that supply only exempt infant formula and/or WIC-eligible medical foods and non-profit...

  20. Risk management and market efficiency on the Midwest Independent System Operator electricity exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Kevin

    Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc. (MISO) is a non-profit regional transmission organization (RTO) that oversees electricity production and transmission across thirteen states and one Canadian province. MISO also operates an electronic exchange for buying and selling electricity for each of its five regional hubs. MISO oversees two types of markets. The forward market, which is referred to as the day-ahead (DA) market, allows market participants to place demand bids and supply offers on electricity to be delivered at a specified hour the following day. The equilibrium price, known as the locational marginal price (LMP), is determined by MISO after receiving sale offers and purchase bids from market participants. MISO also coordinates a spot market, which is known as the real-time (RT) market. Traders in the real-time market must submit bids and offers by thirty minutes prior to the hour for which the trade will be executed. After receiving purchase and sale offers for a given hour in the real time market, MISO then determines the LMP for that particular hour. The existence of the DA and RT markets allows producers and retailers to hedge against the large fluctuations that are common in electricity prices. Hedge ratios on the MISO exchange are estimated using various techniques. No hedge ratio technique examined consistently outperforms the unhedged portfolio in terms of variance reduction. Consequently, none of the hedge ratio methods in this study meet the general interpretation of FASB guidelines for a highly effective hedge. One of the major goals of deregulation is to bring about competition and increased efficiency in electricity markets. Previous research suggests that electricity exchanges may not be weak-form market efficient. A simple moving average trading rule is found to produce statistically and economically significant profits on the MISO exchange. This could call the long-term survivability of the MISO exchange into question.

  1. Ferromagnetic resonance of an heterogeneous multilayer system with interlayer exchange coupling: an accessible model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, A. F.; Landeros, P.

    2016-09-01

    We present a general model for the coupled magnetic resonances of an exchange interacting multilayer system, which can be implemented without complex analytical calculations or numerical simulations. The model allows one to study the spin wave modes of a multilayer structure with any number of layers, accounting for individual uniaxial and cubic anisotropies, and (static and dynamic) demagnetizing and external fields as well, assuming that only the interlayer exchange coupling mechanism is relevant between such magnetic layers. This scheme is applied to recent measurements of a NiFe/CoFe bilayer, and to studying the influence of the strength of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange interactions and the applied field orientation on the spin wave modes and intensities of the ferromagnetic resonance response. We find that the acoustic oscillation mode tends to stabilize in frequency if the magnetizations of the layers are parallel to each other, while the optical mode stabilizes when the magnetizations are antiparallel. Furthermore, we find that each oscillation mode is governed by either the NiFe or the CoFe. The modes swap the governing layer as the perpendicular field increases, inducing a gap between their frequencies, which appears to be proportional to the exchange coupling. Finally, we find that the field linewidth of the bilayer due to Gilbert damping has a dependence on the frequency very similar to the linear dependence of the linewidth in single layers. The theoretical scheme presented here can be further used to explore magnetization dynamics in different multilayer architectures—such as exchange springs, structures with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, and complex compositions of layer stacks—and can be useful as a basis to study multilayers with chiral and dipolar interactions.

  2. Energy exchange rates between the ionosphere-thermosphere system and the magnetosphere at high latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aikio, A.; Cai, L.; Nygren, T.; Kuula, R.

    2012-04-01

    The magnetosphere and the ionosphere-thermosphere system exchange energy in the form of electromagnetic energy flux, accompanied by electric fields and field-aligned currents, as well as in the form of precipitating particle fluxes. In this study, we examine the first form of energy exchange by using a one-month database obtained by the EISCAT incoherent scatter radar measurements in Tromso. The electromagnetic energy exchange rate can be further divided into ion-neutral frictional heating rate (sometimes called Joule heating) and work done on neutrals. The ion-neutral frictional heating rate depends on Pedersen conductivity and on ionospheric electric fields, measured in the frame of reference moving with the neutrals. The role of neutral winds has been an open question, since it is difficult to measure them. The CP2 scan mode of the EISCAT radar makes it possible to deduce neutral winds in the E region and hence to estimate the role of neutral air motion (e.g. tidal winds and atmospheric gravity waves) in the energy exchange rates. In this talk, we will present the magnetic local time (MLT) dependence of height-integrated quantities: electromagnetic energy exchange rates (QEM), ion-neutral frictional heating rate (QJ) and work done on neutrals (Qm) for different magnetic activity levels categorized by the Kp index. We will show that the role of winds is different in different MLT sectors (e.g. dusk vs. dawn) and at different activity levels. We will also show that on rare occasions the ionosphere can act as a dynamo generating electromagnetic energy that may propagate to the magnetosphere.

  3. The effect of food portion sizes on the obesity prevention using system dynamics modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal; Zulkepli, Jafri Hj; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura

    2014-09-01

    The rise in income and population growth have increased the demand for food and induced changes in food habits, food purchasing and consumption patterns in Malaysia. With this transition, one of the plausible causes of weight gain and obesity is the frequent consumption of outside food which is synonymous with bigger portion size. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to develop a system dynamics model to analyse the effect of reducing food portion size on weight and obesity prevention. This study combines the different strands of knowledge comprise of nutrition, physical activity and body metabolism. These elements are synthesized into a system dynamics model called SIMULObese. Findings from this study suggested that changes in eating behavior should not emphasize only on limiting the food portion size consumption. The efforts should also consider other eating events such as controlling the meal frequency and limiting intake of high-calorie food in developing guidelines to prevent obesity.

  4. Early emerging system for reasoning about the social nature of food

    PubMed Central

    Liberman, Zoe; Woodward, Amanda L.; Sullivan, Kathleen R.; Kinzler, Katherine D.

    2016-01-01

    Selecting appropriate foods is a complex and evolutionarily ancient problem, yet past studies have revealed little evidence of adaptations present in infancy that support sophisticated reasoning about perceptual properties of food. We propose that humans have an early-emerging system for reasoning about the social nature of food selection. Specifically, infants’ reasoning about food choice is tied to their thinking about agents’ intentions and social relationships. Whereas infants do not expect people to like the same objects, infants view food preferences as meaningfully shared across individuals. Infants’ reasoning about food preferences is fundamentally social: They generalize food preferences across individuals who affiliate, or who speak a common language, but not across individuals who socially disengage or who speak different languages. Importantly, infants’ reasoning about food preferences is flexibly calibrated to their own experiences: Tests of bilingual babies reveal that an infant’s sociolinguistic background influences whether she will constrain her generalization of food preferences to people who speak the same language. Additionally, infants’ systems for reasoning about food is differentially responsive to positive and negative information. Infants generalize information about food disgust across all people, regardless of those people’s social identities. Thus, whereas food preferences are seen as embedded within social groups, disgust is interpreted as socially universal, which could help infants avoid potentially dangerous foods. These studies reveal an early-emerging system for thinking about food that incorporates social reasoning about agents and their relationships, and allows infants to make abstract, flexible, adaptive inferences to interpret others’ food choices. PMID:27503878

  5. Controls on residence time and exchange in a system of shallow coastal bays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safak, I.; Wiberg, P. L.; Richardson, D. L.; Kurum, M. O.

    2015-04-01

    Patterns of transport and residence time influence the morphology, ecology and biogeochemistry of shallow coastal bay systems in important ways. To better understand the factors controlling residence time and exchange in coastal bays, a three-dimensional finite-volume coastal ocean model was set up and validated with field observations of circulation in a system of 14 shallow coastal bays on the Atlantic coast of the USA (Virginia Coast Reserve). Residence times of neutrally buoyant particles as well as exchange among the bays in the system and between the bays and the ocean were examined with Lagrangian particle tracking. There was orders of magnitude variation in the calculated residence time within most of the bays, ranging from hours in the tidally refreshed (repletion) water near the inlets to days-weeks in the remaining (residual) water away from the inlets. Residence time in the repletion waters was most sensitive to the tidal phase (low vs. high) when particles were released whereas residence time in the residual waters was more sensitive to wind forcing. Wind forcing was found to act as a diffuser that shortens particle residence within the bays; its effect was higher away from the inlets and in relatively confined bays. Median residence time in the bays significantly decreased with an increase in the ratio between open water area and total area (open water plus marsh). Exchange among the bays and capture areas of inlets (i.e., exchange between the bays and the ocean) varied considerably but were insensitive to tidal phase of release, wind, and forcing conditions in different years, in contrast to the sensitivity of residence time to these factors. We defined a new quantity, termed shortest-path residence time, calculated as distance from the closest inlet divided by root-mean-square velocity at each point in model domain. A relationship between shortest-path residence time and particle-tracking residence time provides a means of estimating residence time

  6. STS-41 crewmembers sample food selections at JSC's Man-Systems Division lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-41 crewmembers sample food selections at JSC's Man-Systems Division food laboratory in Experiments and Systems Laboratory Bldg 15. Seated left to right at the kitchen counter are Mission Specialist (MS) William M. Shepherd, MS Bruce E. Melnick, Pilot Robert D. Cabana, and Commander Richard N. Richards. Technician explains food preparation device to the crew(S90-32080). Notice the various items lined up in front of each crewmember.

  7. Management traceability information system for the food supply chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendriss, S.; Benabdelhafid, A.; Boukachour, J.

    2008-06-01

    For a long time, the traceability was applied only for management reasons, but with the advent of new communication and information technologies more and more used in the logistic medium, the notion of the traceability became new extensive to meet the new market needs in term of information by ensuring accessibility the data characteristic or been dependent on the product throughout its life cycle. On the basis of this postulate, we tried to raise some questions of research, beginning by the presentation of the progress achieved, assumptions and objective relating to the traceability, in the second time we mentioned principal work by showing how evolved the scientific question especially the information systems integrating the traceability were developed very little in the literature. Based on what was developed in the first part, we present our generic modeling approach of communicating product "smart object", able to take into account the various essential elements for its traceability: the product in its various states, various operations carried out on the product, resources used, its localization, and interactions between the product and its environment carried out on the basis of whole of service. In order to validate our generic modeling, a case of study representing an application in a context of food industry is presented.

  8. Competitive interactions between invasive Nile tilapia and native fish: the potential for altered trophic exchange and modification of food webs.

    PubMed

    Martin, Charles W; Valentine, Marla M; Valentine, John F

    2010-12-21

    Recent studies have highlighted both the positive and negative impacts of species invasions. Most of these studies have been conducted on either immobile invasive plants or sessile fauna found at the base of food webs. Fewer studies have examined the impacts of vagile invasive consumers on native competitors. This is an issue of some importance given the controlling influence that consumers have on lower order plants and animals. Here, we present results of laboratory experiments designed to assess the impacts of unintended aquaculture releases of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), in estuaries of the Gulf of Mexico, on the functionally similar redspotted sunfish (Lepomis miniatus). Laboratory choice tests showed that tilapia prefer the same structured habitat that native sunfish prefer. In subsequent interspecific competition experiments, agonistic tilapia displaced sunfish from their preferred structured habitats. When a piscivore (largemouth bass) was present in the tank with both species, the survival of sunfish decreased. Based on these findings, if left unchecked, we predict that the proliferation of tilapia (and perhaps other aggressive aquaculture fishes) will have important detrimental effects on the structure of native food webs in shallow, structured coastal habitats. While it is likely that the impacts of higher trophic level invasive competitors will vary among species, these results show that consequences of unintended releases of invasive higher order consumers can be important.

  9. Places to Intervene to Make Complex Food Systems More Healthy, Green, Fair, and Affordable.

    PubMed

    Malhi, Luvdeep; Karanfil, Ozge; Merth, Tommy; Acheson, Molly; Palmer, Amanda; Finegood, Diane T

    2009-07-01

    A Food Systems and Public Health conference was convened in April 2009 to consider research supporting food systems that are healthy, green, fair, and affordable. We used a complex systems framework to examine the contents of background material provided to conference participants. Application of our intervention-level framework (paradigm, goals, system structure, feedback and delays, structural elements) enabled comparison of the conference themes of healthy, green, fair, and affordable. At the level of system structure suggested actions to achieve these goals are fairly compatible, including broad public discussion and implementation of policies and programs that support sustainable food production and distribution. At the level of paradigm and goals, the challenge of making healthy and green food affordable becomes apparent as some actions may be in conflict. Systems thinking can provide insight into the challenges and opportunities to act to make the food supply more healthy, green, fair, and affordable.

  10. The roles and values of wild foods in agricultural systems

    PubMed Central

    Bharucha, Zareen; Pretty, Jules

    2010-01-01

    Almost every ecosystem has been amended so that plants and animals can be used as food, fibre, fodder, medicines, traps and weapons. Historically, wild plants and animals were sole dietary components for hunter–gatherer and forager cultures. Today, they remain key to many agricultural communities. The mean use of wild foods by agricultural and forager communities in 22 countries of Asia and Africa (36 studies) is 90–100 species per location. Aggregate country estimates can reach 300–800 species (e.g. India, Ethiopia, Kenya). The mean use of wild species is 120 per community for indigenous communities in both industrialized and developing countries. Many of these wild foods are actively managed, suggesting there is a false dichotomy around ideas of the agricultural and the wild: hunter–gatherers and foragers farm and manage their environments, and cultivators use many wild plants and animals. Yet, provision of and access to these sources of food may be declining as natural habitats come under increasing pressure from development, conservation-exclusions and agricultural expansion. Despite their value, wild foods are excluded from official statistics on economic values of natural resources. It is clear that wild plants and animals continue to form a significant proportion of the global food basket, and while a variety of social and ecological drivers are acting to reduce wild food use, their importance may be set to grow as pressures on agricultural productivity increase. PMID:20713393

  11. Application and opportunities of pulses in food system: a review.

    PubMed

    Asif, Muhammad; Rooney, Lloyd W; Ali, Rashida; Riaz, Mian N

    2013-01-01

    Pulses are highly nutritious seeds of pod-bearing leguminous plants, specifically dry peas, lentils, and chickpeas. US farmers harvest about 2.6 million pounds of pulses every year but 75% of this is being exported internationally because of its increased consumption in the developing countries. In the current scenario, increasing costs of production, bad economy, and fluctuating food commodity prices have made a strong case for US producers to seek opportunities to increase domestic consumption of pulses through value-added products. Pulses are the richest sources of plant proteins and provide approximately 10% of the total dietary requirements of the proteins world over. Pulses are also high in dietary fibers and complex carbohydrates leading to low GI (glycemic index) foods. Pulses help to lower cholesterol and triglycerides as leguminous fibers are hypoglycosuria because of consisting more amylose than amylopectin. Pulses provide tremendous opportunities to be utilized in the processed foods such as bakery products, bread, pasta, snack foods, soups, cereal bar filing, tortillas, meat, etc. These show excellent opportunities in frozen dough foods either as added flour or as fillings. Pulses in view of their nutrient profile, seem to be ideal for inclusion in designing snack foods, baby, and sports foods.

  12. Emergence of noncollinear anisotropies from interfacial magnetic frustration in exchange-bias systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, E.; Camarero, J.; Sort, J.; Nogues, J.; Mikuszeit, N.; Garcia-Martin, J. M.; Hoffmann, A.; Dieny, B.; Miranda, R.; Univ. Autonoma de Madrid; Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona; Inst. de Microelectronica de Madrid; SPINTEC

    2009-01-01

    Exchange bias, referred to the interaction between a ferromagnet (FM) and an antiferromagnet (AFM), is a fundamental interfacial magnetic phenomenon, which is key to current and future applications. The effect was discovered half a century ago, and it is well established that the spin structures at the FM/AFM interface play an essential role. However, currently, ad hoc phenomenological anisotropies are often postulated without microscopic justification or sufficient experimental evidence to address magnetization-reversal behavior in exchange-bias systems. We advance toward a detailed microscopic understanding of the magnetic anisotropies in exchange-bias FM/AFM systems by showing that symmetry-breaking anisotropies leave a distinct fingerprint in the asymmetry of the magnetization reversal and we demonstrate how these emerging anisotropies are correlated with the intrinsic anisotropy. Angular and vectorial resolved Kerr hysteresis loops from FM/AFM bilayers with varying degree of ferromagnetic anisotropy reveal a noncollinear anisotropy, which becomes important for ferromagnets with vanishing intrinsic anisotropy. Numerical simulations show that this anisotropy naturally arises from the inevitable spin frustration at an atomically rough FM/AFM interface. As a consequence, we show in detail how the differences observed for different materials during magnetization reversal can be understood in general terms as originating from the interplay between interfacial frustration and intrinsic anisotropies. This understanding will certainly open additional avenues to tailor future advanced magnetic materials.

  13. Filtration and ion exchange trailer system (F.I.T.S.)

    SciTech Connect

    Plante, P.; Pratte, S.; Jenson, C.

    1995-05-01

    In preparation for the fall 1992 outage, Maine Yankee determined that a number of its planned filtration and ion exchange activities would require supplementary equipment not available in the plant. A review of outage processing needs, as well as future requirements, led Maine Yankee to determine that a mobile trailer containing a number of process systems could be (1) moved, as necessary, to various sites around the plant, and (2) easily stored on site between outages. In late spring of 1993, Diversified Technologies was awarded a contract for a Filtration and Ion Exchange Trailer (F.I.T.S.), to be delivered in late summer in preparation for the outage. The trailer contained a multi-media deep bed filter and associated piping and flush tank, a tri-bag filter unit, dual demineralizers, a chemical addition tank and metering pump, static mixer, plant utility interface connections and other instrumentation and controls to permit filtering and ion exchanging the process stream in a variety of configurations. This paper discusses the design criteria, seismic considerations and operational requirements of the mobile trailer. Data and operating experience from full-scale outage operation is reviewed, including desludging of stream generators and dechromating of secondary systems.

  14. Fault diagnosis for the heat exchanger of the aircraft environmental control system based on the strong tracking filter.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian; Lu, Chen; Liu, Hongmei

    2015-01-01

    The aircraft environmental control system (ECS) is a critical aircraft system, which provides the appropriate environmental conditions to ensure the safe transport of air passengers and equipment. The functionality and reliability of ECS have received increasing attention in recent years. The heat exchanger is a particularly significant component of the ECS, because its failure decreases the system's efficiency, which can lead to catastrophic consequences. Fault diagnosis of the heat exchanger is necessary to prevent risks. However, two problems hinder the implementation of the heat exchanger fault diagnosis in practice. First, the actual measured parameter of the heat exchanger cannot effectively reflect the fault occurrence, whereas the heat exchanger faults are usually depicted by utilizing the corresponding fault-related state parameters that cannot be measured directly. Second, both the traditional Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and the EKF-based Double Model Filter have certain disadvantages, such as sensitivity to modeling errors and difficulties in selection of initialization values. To solve the aforementioned problems, this paper presents a fault-related parameter adaptive estimation method based on strong tracking filter (STF) and Modified Bayes classification algorithm for fault detection and failure mode classification of the heat exchanger, respectively. Heat exchanger fault simulation is conducted to generate fault data, through which the proposed methods are validated. The results demonstrate that the proposed methods are capable of providing accurate, stable, and rapid fault diagnosis of the heat exchanger.

  15. The hazard analysis and critical control point system in food safety.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Anavella Gaitan

    2004-01-01

    The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system is a preventive method of ensuring food safety. Its objectives are the identification of consumer safety hazards that can occur in the production line and the establishment of a control process to guarantee a safer product for the consumer; it is based on the identification of potential hazards to food safety and on measures aimed at preventing these hazards. HACCP is the system of choice in the management of food safety. The principles of HACCP are applicable to all phases of food production, including basic husbandry practices, food preparation and handling, food processing, food service, distribution systems, and consumer handling and use. The HACCP system is involved in every aspect of food safety production (according to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization [FAO] and the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods [ICMSF]). The most basic concept underlying the HACCP system is that of prevention rather than inspection. The control of processes and conditions comprises the critical control point (CCP) element. HACCP is simply a methodical, flexible, and systematic application of the appropriate science and technology for planning, controlling, and documenting the safe production of foods. The successful application of HACCP requires the full commitment and involvement of management and the workforce, using a multidisciplinary approach that should include, as appropriate, expertise in agronomy, veterinary health, microbiology, public health, food technology, environmental health, chemistry, engineering, and so on according to the particular situation. Application of the HACCP system is compatible with the implementation of total quality management (TQM) systems such as the ISO 9000 series.

  16. Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Mei, Viung C.; Chen, Fang C.

    1997-01-01

    A refrigeration system having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle.

  17. Simulating the exchange of Majorana zero modes with a photonic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jin-Shi; Sun, Kai; Han, Yong-Jian; Li, Chuan-Feng; Pachos, Jiannis K.; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-10-01

    The realization of Majorana zero modes is in the centre of intense theoretical and experimental investigations. Unfortunately, their exchange that can reveal their exotic statistics needs manipulations that are still beyond our experimental capabilities. Here we take an alternative approach. Through the Jordan-Wigner transformation, the Kitaev's chain supporting two Majorana zero modes is mapped to the spin-1/2 chain. We experimentally simulated the spin system and its evolution with a photonic quantum simulator. This allows us to probe the geometric phase, which corresponds to the exchange of two Majorana zero modes positioned at the ends of a three-site chain. Finally, we demonstrate the immunity of quantum information encoded in the Majorana zero modes against local errors through the simulator. Our photonic simulator opens the way for the efficient realization and manipulation of Majorana zero modes in complex architectures.

  18. Time Dependency of Psychotherapeutic Exchanges: The Contribution of the Theory of Dynamic Systems in Analyzing Process

    PubMed Central

    Salvatore, Sergio; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a general framework for the use of Theory of Dynamic Systems (TDS) in the field of psychotherapy research. Psychotherapy is inherently dynamic, namely a function of time. Consequently, the improvement of construct validity and clinical relevance of psychotherapy process research require the development of models of investigation allowing dynamic mappings of clinical exchange. Thus, TDS becomes a significant theoretical and methodological reference. The paper focuses two topics. First, the main concepts of TDS are briefly introduced together with a basic typology of approaches developed within this domain. Second, we propose a repertoire of investigation strategies that can be used to capture the dynamic nature of clinical exchange. In this way we intend to highlight the feasibility and utility of strategies of analysis informed by TDS. PMID:22848205

  19. Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

    1997-04-22

    A refrigeration system is described having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle. 4 figs.

  20. Simulating the exchange of Majorana zero modes with a photonic system

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jin-Shi; Sun, Kai; Han, Yong-Jian; Li, Chuan-Feng; Pachos, Jiannis K.; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-01-01

    The realization of Majorana zero modes is in the centre of intense theoretical and experimental investigations. Unfortunately, their exchange that can reveal their exotic statistics needs manipulations that are still beyond our experimental capabilities. Here we take an alternative approach. Through the Jordan–Wigner transformation, the Kitaev's chain supporting two Majorana zero modes is mapped to the spin-1/2 chain. We experimentally simulated the spin system and its evolution with a photonic quantum simulator. This allows us to probe the geometric phase, which corresponds to the exchange of two Majorana zero modes positioned at the ends of a three-site chain. Finally, we demonstrate the immunity of quantum information encoded in the Majorana zero modes against local errors through the simulator. Our photonic simulator opens the way for the efficient realization and manipulation of Majorana zero modes in complex architectures. PMID:27779181

  1. Identification of biofloc microscopic composition as the natural bioremediation in zero water exchange of Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei, culture in closed hatchery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manan, Hidayah; Moh, Julia Hwei Zhong; Kasan, Nor Azman; Suratman, Suhaimi; Ikhwanuddin, Mhd

    2016-06-01

    Study on the microscopic composition of biofloc in closed hatchery culture system was carried out to determine the interaction between the aggregation flocs in the bioremediation process for the decomposition and degradation of organic matter loaded in the shrimp culture tanks. The study was done for 105 days of culture period in zero water exchange. All of the organic loaded in the culture tanks identified comes from the shrimp feces, uneaten fed, and the decomposed macro- and microorganisms died in the culture tanks. All of the microscopic organisms in the biofloc were identified using Advance microscopes Nikon 80i. From the present study, there were abundances and high varieties of phytoplankton, zooplankton, protozoa, nematodes and algae species identified as aggregates together in the flocs accumulation. All of these microscopic organisms identified implemented the symbiotic process together for food supply, become the algae grazer, act as natural water stabilizer in regulating the nutrients in culture tank and serve as decomposer for dead organic matter in the water environment. Heterotrophic bacteria identified from Pseudomonas and Aeromonas family consumed the organic matter loaded at the bottom of culture tank and converted items through chemical process as useful protein food to be consumed back by the shrimp. Overall it can be concluded that the biofloc organisms identified really contributed as natural bioremediation agents in zero water exchange culture system to ensure the water quality in the optimal condition until the end of culture period.

  2. Climate change and food security.

    PubMed

    Gregory, P J; Ingram, J S I; Brklacich, M

    2005-11-29

    Dynamic interactions between and within the biogeophysical and human environments lead to the production, processing, distribution, preparation and consumption of food, resulting in food systems that underpin food security. Food systems encompass food availability (production, distribution and exchange), food access (affordability, allocation and preference) and food utilization (nutritional and societal values and safety), so that food security is, therefore, diminished when food systems are stressed. Such stresses may be induced by a range of factors in addition to climate change and/or other agents of environmental change (e.g. conflict, HIV/AIDS) and may be particularly severe when these factors act in combination. Urbanization and globalization are causing rapid changes to food systems. Climate change may affect food systems in several ways ranging from direct effects on crop production (e.g. changes in rainfall leading to drought or flooding, or warmer or cooler temperatures leading to changes in the length of growing season), to changes in markets, food prices and supply chain infrastructure. The relative importance of climate change for food security differs between regions. For example, in southern Africa, climate is among the most frequently cited drivers of food insecurity because it acts both as an underlying, ongoing issue and as a short-lived shock. The low ability to cope with shocks and to mitigate long-term stresses means that coping strategies that might be available in other regions are unavailable or inappropriate. In other regions, though, such as parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain of India, other drivers, such as labour issues and the availability and quality of ground water for irrigation, rank higher than the direct effects of climate change as factors influencing food security. Because of the multiple socio-economic and bio-physical factors affecting food systems and hence food security, the capacity to adapt food systems to reduce their

  3. 21 CFR 173.20 - Ion-exchange membranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ion-exchange membranes. 173.20 Section 173.20 Food... for Food Treatment § 173.20 Ion-exchange membranes. Ion-exchange membranes may be safely used in the processing of food under the following prescribed conditions: (a) The ion-exchange membrane is prepared...

  4. Two-Phase Cryogenic Heat Exchanger for the Thermodynamic Vent System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christie, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    A two-phase cryogenic heat exchanger for a thermodynamic vent system was designed and analyzed, and the predicted performance was compared with test results. A method for determining the required size of the Joule-Thomson device was also developed. Numerous sensitivity studies were performed to show that the design was robust and possessed a comfortable capacity margin. The comparison with the test results showed very similar heat extraction performance for similar inlet conditions. It was also shown that estimates for Joule- Thomson device flow rates and exit quality can vary significantly and these need to be accommodated for with a robust system design.

  5. Consumer Trust in the U.S. Food System: An Examination of the Recreancy Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Stephen G.; Arnot, Charlie; Fallon, James; Fleck, Terry; Soorholtz, David; Sutton-Vermeulen, Matt; Wilson, Jannette J. H.

    2009-01-01

    Because consumer opinions to an increasing extent affect the structure and management of the U.S. food system, it is important for social scientists to accurately model consumer trust in this system so they can better understand and anticipate public responses to existing or proposed food-related regulatory policies and facilitate effective…

  6. Resource for Evaluating the Economic Impact of Local Food System Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jablonski, Becca B. R.; O'Hara, Jeffrey K.; McFadden, Dawn Thilmany; Tropp, Debra

    2016-01-01

    Local food system stakeholders are confronted with challenges when attempting to ascertain the economic impacts of food system investments. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Marketing Service commissioned a team of economists to develop a resource to provide support to stakeholders interested in understanding the economic impacts of…

  7. Feminist Heuristics: Transforming the Foundation of Food Quality and Safety Assurance Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Aya Hirata

    2012-01-01

    Food safety and quality assurance systems have emerged as a key mechanism of food governance in recent years and are also popular among alternative agrofood movements, such as the organic and fair trade movements. Rural sociologists have identified many problems with existing systems, including corporate cooptation, the marginalization of small…

  8. Manual of Accounting for Pennsylvania School Systems Food Service Fund (Cafeteria Fund).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

    The purpose of this manual is to provide an accounting system that will accurately measure the financial position and operating results of a food service operation. The accounting system has been designed to be easily adaptable to the reporting requirements established by the Food and Nutrition Service of the United States Department of…

  9. Illustrating Chemical Concepts through Food Systems: Introductory Chemistry Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, E., IV; Setser, C. S.

    1980-01-01

    Demonstrations involving foods that illustrate chemical concepts are described, including vaporization of liquids and Graham's law of diffusion, chemical reaction rates, adsorption, properties of solutions, colloidal dispersions, suspensions, and hydrogen ion concentration. (CS)

  10. Formation of Nitrosamines in Food and in the Digestive System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishnok, John S.

    1977-01-01

    A discussion is presented of the toxicity, chemistry, and environmental presence of nitrosamines. Carcinogenicity and effects on various organs of test animals are reviewed. Also some information on the presence of use of nitrosamines in human food is given. (MR)

  11. A model stomach system to investigate disintegration kinetics of solid foods during gastric digestion.

    PubMed

    Kong, F; Singh, R P

    2008-06-01

    Knowledge of the disintegration kinetics of food particulates in the human stomach is essential for assessing the bioaccessibility of nutrients in solid foods and understanding stomach emptying. The objective of this study was to develop a model stomach system and to investigate the kinetics of food disintegration. Our system consisted mainly of a turntable and a jacketed glass chamber containing simulated gastric juice in which plastic beads were added to simulate food particulates as well as provide a suitable mechanical destructive force on food samples. The mechanical force on the samples was simultaneously measured using the load cell of a TA-XT2 texture analyzer. Cylindrical carrots and ham samples were used as representative foods. The system is capable of simulating the in vivo stomach in terms of providing a wide range of continuous and periodic forces comparable to those measured in vivo. The modified power exponential function of the form y(t)= 1 - (1 -e(-kt))(beta), where y(t) is the mass retention ratio at time t, provided a reasonable description for the disintegration performance of tested foods. The mass retention curve can be either a sigmoidal decay with an initial delay or an exponential decay, which are decided largely by the hardness of the foods during digestion and the extent of physical force acting on the foods. A good match was observed between the kinetics of food disintegration and in vivo stomach emptying.

  12. Impacts of feeding less food-competing feedstuffs to livestock on global food system sustainability.

    PubMed

    Schader, Christian; Muller, Adrian; Scialabba, Nadia El-Hage; Hecht, Judith; Isensee, Anne; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Smith, Pete; Makkar, Harinder P S; Klocke, Peter; Leiber, Florian; Schwegler, Patrizia; Stolze, Matthias; Niggli, Urs

    2015-12-06

    Increasing efficiency in livestock production and reducing the share of animal products in human consumption are two strategies to curb the adverse environmental impacts of the livestock sector. Here, we explore the room for sustainable livestock production by modelling the impacts and constraints of a third strategy in which livestock feed components that compete with direct human food crop production are reduced. Thus, in the outmost scenario, animals are fed only from grassland and by-products from food production. We show that this strategy could provide sufficient food (equal amounts of human-digestible energy and a similar protein/calorie ratio as in the reference scenario for 2050) and reduce environmental impacts compared with the reference scenario (in the most extreme case of zero human-edible concentrate feed: greenhouse gas emissions -18%; arable land occupation -26%, N-surplus -46%; P-surplus -40%; non-renewable energy use -36%, pesticide use intensity -22%, freshwater use -21%, soil erosion potential -12%). These results occur despite the fact that environmental efficiency of livestock production is reduced compared with the reference scenario, which is the consequence of the grassland-based feed for ruminants and the less optimal feeding rations based on by-products for non-ruminants. This apparent contradiction results from considerable reductions of animal products in human diets (protein intake per capita from livestock products reduced by 71%). We show that such a strategy focusing on feed components which do not compete with direct human food consumption offers a viable complement to strategies focusing on increased efficiency in production or reduced shares of animal products in consumption.

  13. Impacts of feeding less food-competing feedstuffs to livestock on global food system sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Judith; Isensee, Anne; Smith, Pete; Makkar, Harinder P. S.; Klocke, Peter; Leiber, Florian; Stolze, Matthias; Niggli, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Increasing efficiency in livestock production and reducing the share of animal products in human consumption are two strategies to curb the adverse environmental impacts of the livestock sector. Here, we explore the room for sustainable livestock production by modelling the impacts and constraints of a third strategy in which livestock feed components that compete with direct human food crop production are reduced. Thus, in the outmost scenario, animals are fed only from grassland and by-products from food production. We show that this strategy could provide sufficient food (equal amounts of human-digestible energy and a similar protein/calorie ratio as in the reference scenario for 2050) and reduce environmental impacts compared with the reference scenario (in the most extreme case of zero human-edible concentrate feed: greenhouse gas emissions −18%; arable land occupation −26%, N-surplus −46%; P-surplus −40%; non-renewable energy use −36%, pesticide use intensity −22%, freshwater use −21%, soil erosion potential −12%). These results occur despite the fact that environmental efficiency of livestock production is reduced compared with the reference scenario, which is the consequence of the grassland-based feed for ruminants and the less optimal feeding rations based on by-products for non-ruminants. This apparent contradiction results from considerable reductions of animal products in human diets (protein intake per capita from livestock products reduced by 71%). We show that such a strategy focusing on feed components which do not compete with direct human food consumption offers a viable complement to strategies focusing on increased efficiency in production or reduced shares of animal products in consumption. PMID:26674194

  14. Competitive coevolutionary learning of fuzzy systems for job exchange in computational grids.

    PubMed

    Fölling, Alexander; Grimme, Christian; Lepping, Joachim; Papaspyrou, Alexander; Schwiegelshohn, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    In our work, we address the problem of workload distribution within a computational grid. In this scenario, users submit jobs to local high performance computing (HPC) systems which are, in turn, interconnected such that the exchange of jobs to other sites becomes possible. Providers are able to avoid local execution of jobs by offering them to other HPC sites. In our implementation, this distribution decision is made by a fuzzy system controller whose parameters can be adjusted to establish different exchange behaviors. In such a system, it is essential that HPC sites can only benefit if the workload is equitably (not necessarily equally) portioned among all participants. However, each site egoistically strives only for the minimization of its own jobs' response times regularly at the expense of other sites. This scenario is particularly suited for the application of a competitive coevolutionary algorithm: the fuzzy systems of the participating HPC sites are modeled as species that evolve in different populations while having to compete within the commonly shared ecosystem. Using real workload traces and grid setups, we show that opportunistic cooperation leads to significant improvements for each HPC site as well as for the overall system.

  15. Tether System for Exchanging Payloads Between the International Space Station and the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, Robert P.

    1998-01-01

    Systems composed of several rotating and/or hanging tethers may provide a means of exchanging supplies between low Earth orbit facilities and lunar bases without requiring the use of propellant. This work develops methods for designing a tether system capable of repeatedly exchanging payloads between a LEO facility such as the International Space Station or a Space Business Park and a base on the lunar surface. In this system, a hanging tether extended upwards from the LEO facility, places a payload into a slightly elliptical orbit, where it is caught by a rotating tether in a higher elliptical orbit. This rotating tether then tosses the payload to the moon. At the moon, a long rotating "Lunavator" tether catches the payload and deposits it on the surface of the moon. By transporting an equal mass of lunar materials such as oxygen back down to the LEO facility through the tether transport system, the momentum and energy of the system is conserved, allowing frequent traffic between LEO and the lunar surface with minimal propellant requirements.

  16. Product reformulation in the food system to improve food safety. Evaluation of policy interventions.

    PubMed

    Marotta, Giuseppe; Simeone, Mariarosaria; Nazzaro, Concetta

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the level of attention that the consumer awards to a balanced diet and to product ingredients, with a twofold purpose: to understand whether food product reformulation can generate a competitive advantage for companies that practice it and to evaluate the most appropriate policy interventions to promote a healthy diet. Reformulation strategy, in the absence of binding rules, could be generated by consumers. Results from qualitative research and from empirical analysis have shown that the question of health is a latent demand influenced by two main factors: a general lack of information, and the marketing strategies adopted by companies which bring about an increase in the information asymmetry between producers and consumers. In the absence of binding rules, it is therefore necessary that the government implement information campaigns (food education) aimed at increasing knowledge regarding the effects of unhealthy ingredients, in order to inform and improve consumer choice. It is only by means of widespread information campaigns that food product reformulation can become a strategic variable and allow companies to gain a competitive advantage. This may lead to virtuous results in terms of reducing the social costs related to an unhealthy diet.

  17. Study of heat exchange in cooling systems of heat-stressed structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikulin, A. V.; Yaroslavtsev, N. L.; Zemlyanaya, V. A.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing working parameters of the cycle of gas-turbine engines, complicating design of gas-turbine plants, as well as growing aerodynamic, thermal, static, and dynamic loads, necessitate the development of promising cooling systems for heat-stressed structures. This work is devoted to an experimental study of heat exchange in ducts equipped with systems of inclined and cross walls (fins). It has been found that an increase in the Reynolds number Re from 3000 to 20000 leads to a decrease in the heat exchange, which is characterized by the relative Nusselt number overline{Nu}, by 19-30% at the angle of inclination of the walls φ = 0, 40°, 50°, and 90° if the length of the walls x w is comparable to the spacing b s and by 12-15% at φ = 30° and 90° if x w ≫ b s. If cross walls are used in cooling ducts, the length of the walls x w plays the governing role; an increase in this characteristic from 1.22 × 10-3 to 3.14 × 10-3 m leads to an increase in the intensity of heat exchange by 30-40% and to a decrease in the capacity of the entire system of the walls. It has been shown that, on surfaces with wavy fins, the intensity of heat exchange is closest to that determined in the models under study. For example, values of the Colborne criterion StPr2/3 for ducts equipped with wavy fins and for the models under study differ only slightly (by 2-20% depending on the value of the angle φ). However, the difference for surfaces with short plate fins and ducts equipped with inclined walls is high (30-40%). This is due to the design features of these surfaces and to the severe effect of the inlet portion on heat exchange, since the surfaces are characterized by a higher ratio of the duct length to the hydraulic diameter L/d h at small fin thicknesses ((0.1-0.15) × 10-3 m). The experimental results can be used in developing designs of nozzle and rotor blades of high-temperature gas turbines in gas-turbine engines and plants.

  18. Fault Diagnosis for the Heat Exchanger of the Aircraft Environmental Control System Based on the Strong Tracking Filter

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jian; Lu, Chen; Liu, Hongmei

    2015-01-01

    The aircraft environmental control system (ECS) is a critical aircraft system, which provides the appropriate environmental conditions to ensure the safe transport of air passengers and equipment. The functionality and reliability of ECS have received increasing attention in recent years. The heat exchanger is a particularly significant component of the ECS, because its failure decreases the system’s efficiency, which can lead to catastrophic consequences. Fault diagnosis of the heat exchanger is necessary to prevent risks. However, two problems hinder the implementation of the heat exchanger fault diagnosis in practice. First, the actual measured parameter of the heat exchanger cannot effectively reflect the fault occurrence, whereas the heat exchanger faults are usually depicted by utilizing the corresponding fault-related state parameters that cannot be measured directly. Second, both the traditional Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and the EKF-based Double Model Filter have certain disadvantages, such as sensitivity to modeling errors and difficulties in selection of initialization values. To solve the aforementioned problems, this paper presents a fault-related parameter adaptive estimation method based on strong tracking filter (STF) and Modified Bayes classification algorithm for fault detection and failure mode classification of the heat exchanger, respectively. Heat exchanger fault simulation is conducted to generate fault data, through which the proposed methods are validated. The results demonstrate that the proposed methods are capable of providing accurate, stable, and rapid fault diagnosis of the heat exchanger. PMID:25823010

  19. 21 CFR 21.20 - Procedures for notice of Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act Record Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Administration Privacy Act Record Systems. 21.20 Section 21.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROTECTION OF PRIVACY Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act Record Systems § 21.20 Procedures for notice of Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act...

  20. 21 CFR 21.20 - Procedures for notice of Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act Record Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Administration Privacy Act Record Systems. 21.20 Section 21.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROTECTION OF PRIVACY Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act Record Systems § 21.20 Procedures for notice of Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act...

  1. 21 CFR 21.20 - Procedures for notice of Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act Record Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Administration Privacy Act Record Systems. 21.20 Section 21.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROTECTION OF PRIVACY Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act Record Systems § 21.20 Procedures for notice of Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act...

  2. 21 CFR 21.20 - Procedures for notice of Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act Record Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Administration Privacy Act Record Systems. 21.20 Section 21.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROTECTION OF PRIVACY Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act Record Systems § 21.20 Procedures for notice of Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act...

  3. Thermal control of a lidar laser system using a non-conventional ram air heat exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killough, Brian D.; Alexander, William, Jr.; Swofford, Doyle P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis and performance testing of a uniquely designed external heat exchanger. The heat exchanger is attached externally to an aircraft and is used to cool a laser system within the fuselage. Estimates showed insufficient cooling capacity with a conventional staggered tube array in the limited space available. Thus, a non-conventional design wes developed with larger tube and fin area exposed to the ram air to increase the heat transfer performance. The basic design consists of 28 circular finned aluminum tubes arranged in two parallel banks. Wind tunnel tests were performed to simulate air and liquid flight conditions for the non-conventional parallel bank arrangement and the conventional staggered tube arrangement. Performance comparisons of each of the two designs are presented. Test results are used in a computer model of the heat exchanger to predict the operating performance for the entire flight profile. These analyses predict significantly improved performance over the conventional design and show adequate thermal control margins.

  4. Systematic generation of buffer systems for pH gradient ion exchange chromatography and their application.

    PubMed

    Kröner, Frieder; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2013-04-12

    pH gradient protein separations are widely used techniques in the field of protein analytics, of which isoelectric focusing is the most well known application. The chromatographic variant, based on the formation of pH gradients in ion exchange columns is only rarely applied due to the difficulties to form controllable, linear pH gradients over a broad pH range. This work describes a method for the systematic generation of buffer compositions with linear titration curves, resulting in well controllable pH gradients. To generate buffer compositions with linear titration curves an in silico method was successfully developed. With this tool, buffer compositions for pH gradient ion exchange chromatography with pH ranges spanning up to 7.5 pH units were established and successfully validated. Subsequently, the buffer systems were used to characterize the elution behavior of 22 different model proteins in cation and anion exchange pH gradient chromatography. The results of both chromatographic modes as well as isoelectric focusing were compared to describe differences in between the methods.

  5. Wavelength calibration of the charge exchange recombination spectroscopy system on the DIII-D tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Gohil, P.; Burrell, K.H.; Groebner, R.J.; Holtrop, K.; Kaplan, K.H.; Monier-Garbet, P.

    1998-06-01

    A wavelength calibration of all the detectors on the charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CER) system is performed after every plasma discharge on the DIII-D tokamak. This is done to insure that the rest wavelength position of the C VI 5290.5 {angstrom} charge exchange line on the detector is accurately known so that the Doppler shift of the spectral line emitted during the discharge can be used for measurements of plasma rotation. In addition, this calibration provides a check on the spectral dispersion needed to determine the ion temperature. The reference spectra for the calibration are Ne I lines created by neon capillary discharge lamps contained within specially designed, diffuse reflectors. The Ne I lines at 3520.4720 {angstrom}, 5274.0393 {angstrom}, 5280.0853 {angstrom}, 5298.1891 {angstrom}, and 5304.7580 {angstrom} are used in this work. The location of these lines on the linear detectors can be determined to an accuracy of 0.1 pixel, which corresponds to a plasma rotation accuracy of 1.2 km/s and 0.7 km/s for the central and edge rotation measurements, respectively. Use of oppositely directed views of the plasma at the same major radius have been used to verify that the nominal 5290.5 {angstrom} wavelength of the C VI (n = 8 {r_arrow} 7) multiplet is the correct wavelength for the line emitted owing to charge exchange excitation.

  6. Horizontal Heat Exchanger Design and Analysis for Passive Heat Removal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vierow, Karen

    2005-08-29

    This report describes a three-year project to investigate the major factors of horizontal heat exchanger performance in passive containment heat removal from a light water reactor following a design basis accident LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident). The heat exchanger studied in this work may be used in advanced and innovative reactors, in which passive heat removal systems are adopted to improve safety and reliability The application of horizontal tube-bundle condensers to passive containment heat removal is new. In order to show the feasibility of horizontal heat exchangers for passive containment cooling, the following aspects were investigated: 1. the condensation heat transfer characteristics when the incoming fluid contains noncondensable gases 2. the effectiveness of condensate draining in the horizontal orientation 3. the conditions that may lead to unstable condenser operation or highly degraded performance 4. multi-tube behavior with the associated secondary-side effects This project consisted of two experimental investigations and analytical model development for incorporation into industry safety codes such as TRAC and RELAP. A physical understanding of the flow and heat transfer phenomena was obtained and reflected in the analysis models. Two gradute students (one funded by the program) and seven undergraduate students obtained research experience as a part of this program.

  7. Plant Atrium System for Food Production in NASA's Deep Space Habitat Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Simpson, Morgan; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Newsham, Gary; Stutte, Gary W.

    2013-01-01

    Future human space exploration missions will need functional habitat systems. Possible concepts are assessed for integration issues, power requirements, crew operations, technology, and system performance. A food production system concept was analyzed at NASA Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) in 2011, and at NASA JSC in 2012. System utilizes fresh foods (vegetables and small fruits) which are harvested on a continuous basis. Designed to improve crew's diet and quality of life without interfering with other components or operations.

  8. The endocannabinoid system modulates the valence of the emotion associated to food ingestion.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Díaz, Mónica; Rueda-Orozco, Pavel Ernesto; Ruiz-Contreras, Alejandra Evelyn; Prospéro-García, Oscar

    2012-07-01

    Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are mediators of the homeostatic and hedonic systems that modulate food ingestion. Hence, eCBs, by regulating the hedonic system, may be modulating the valence of the emotion associated to food ingestion (positive: pleasant or negative: unpleasant). Our first goal was to demonstrate that palatable food induces conditioned place preference (CPP), hence a positive-valence emotion. Additionally, we analyzed if this CPP is blocked by AM251, inducing a negative valence emotion, meaning avoiding the otherwise pursued compartment. The second goal was to demonstrate that CPP induced by regular food would be strengthened by the simultaneous administration of anandamide or oleamide, and if such, CPP is blocked by AM251. Finally, we tested the capacity of eCBs (without food) to induce CPP. Our results indicate that rats readily developed CPP to palatable food, which was blocked by AM251. The CPP induced by regular food was strengthened by eCBs and blocked by AM251. Finally, oleamide, unlike anandamide, induced CPP. These results showed that eCBs mediate the positive valence (CPP) of the emotion associated to food ingestion. It was also observed that the blockade of the CB1 receptor causes a loss of correlation between food and CPP (negative valence: avoidance). These data further support the role of eCBs as regulators of the hedonic value of food.

  9. Effects on Communicative Requesting and Speech Development of the Picture Exchange Communication System in Children with Characteristics of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganz, Jennifer B.; Simpson, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    Few studies on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems have addressed the potential for such systems to impact word utterances in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an AAC system designed specifically to minimize difficulties with communication skills experienced by…

  10. Observability and Estimation of Distributed Space Systems via Local Information-Exchange Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fathpour, Nanaz; Hadaegh, Fred Y.; Mesbahi, Mehran; Rahmani, Amirreza

    2011-01-01

    Spacecraft formation flying involves the coordination of states among multiple spacecraft through relative sensing, inter-spacecraft communication, and control. Most existing formation-flying estimation algorithms can only be supported via highly centralized, all-to-all, static relative sensing. New algorithms are proposed that are scalable, modular, and robust to variations in the topology and link characteristics of the formation exchange network. These distributed algorithms rely on a local information exchange network, relaxing the assumptions on existing algorithms. Distributed space systems rely on a signal transmission network among multiple spacecraft for their operation. Control and coordination among multiple spacecraft in a formation is facilitated via a network of relative sensing and interspacecraft communications. Guidance, navigation, and control rely on the sensing network. This network becomes more complex the more spacecraft are added, or as mission requirements become more complex. The observability of a formation state was observed by a set of local observations from a particular node in the formation. Formation observability can be parameterized in terms of the matrices appearing in the formation dynamics and observation matrices. An agreement protocol was used as a mechanism for observing formation states from local measurements. An agreement protocol is essentially an unforced dynamic system whose trajectory is governed by the interconnection geometry and initial condition of each node, with a goal of reaching a common value of interest. The observability of the interconnected system depends on the geometry of the network, as well as the position of the observer relative to the topology. For the first time, critical GN&C (guidance, navigation, and control estimation) subsystems are synthesized by bringing the contribution of the spacecraft information-exchange network to the forefront of algorithmic analysis and design. The result is a

  11. Efficiency of a novel "Food to waste to food" system including anaerobic digestion of food waste and cultivation of vegetables on digestate in a bubble-insulated greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Stoknes, K; Scholwin, F; Krzesiński, W; Wojciechowska, E; Jasińska, A

    2016-10-01

    At urban locations certain challenges are concentrated: organic waste production, the need for waste treatment, energy demand, food demand, the need for circular economy and limited area for food production. Based on these factors the project presented here developed a novel technological approach for processing organic waste into new food. In this system, organic waste is converted into biogas and digester residue. The digester residue is being used successfully as a stand-alone fertilizer as well as main substrate component for vegetables and mushrooms for the first time - a "digeponics" system - in a closed new low energy greenhouse system with dynamic soap bubble insulation. Biogas production provides energy for the process and CO2 for the greenhouse. With very limited land use highly efficient resource recycling was established at pilot scale. In the research project it was proven that a low energy dynamic bubble insulated greenhouse can be operated continuously with 80% energy demand reduction compared to conventional greenhouses. Commercial crop yields were achieved based on fertilization with digestate; in individual cases they were even higher than the control yields of vegetables such as tomatoes, cucumber and lettuce among others. For the first time an efficient direct use of digestate as substrate and fertilizer has been developed and demonstrated.

  12. Susceptibility of South Korea to hydrologic extremes affecting the global food system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puma, M. J.; Chon, S. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Food security in South Korea is closely linked to trade in the global food system. The country's production of major grains declined from 5.8 million metric tons (mmt) in 1998 to 4.8 mmt in 2014, which coincided with a shift in grain self sufficiency from 43% down to 24% over this same period. Many factors led to these changes, including reductions in domestic agricultural land, governmental policies supporting industry over agriculture, and a push towards trade liberalization. South Korea's self sufficiency is now one of the lowest among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, leaving it vulnerable to disruptions in the global food system. Here we explore this vulnerability by assessing how global trade disruptions would affect Korea's food security. We impose historical extreme drought and flood events that would possibly affect today's major food producing regions concurrently. Next we compute food supply deficits in South Korea that might result from these events. Our analyses provide a framework for formulating domestic food policies to enhance South Korea's food security in the increasingly fragile global food system.

  13. Role of attachment to surfaces on the prevalence and survival of Campylobacter through food systems.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Vu Tuan; Fegan, Narelle; Turner, Mark S; Dykes, Gary A

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter continues to be one of the bacterial pathogens most frequently associated with human gastrointestinal illness worldwide. Because Campylobacter primarily colonizes the intestines of animals used for food production, food products of animal origin can become contaminated with this pathogen and thus represent a significant risk factor. Despite application of numerous physical and chemical interventions to control Campylobacter during food processing, the high isolation rate of this pathogen from some retail meat products indicates that Campylobacter is able to persist from animal slaughterhouses through food systems. Given the fastidious growth requirements and high susceptibility of this pathogen to environmental conditions, the ability of Campylobacter to attach to food and food-related surfaces is likely to play an important role in food contamination and movement through food systems. This review was compiled to (i) describe how the attachment of Campylobacter to surfaces influences the prevalence and survival of the organism through food systems, (ii) examine the potential factors affecting the ability of Campylobacter to attach to surfaces, and (iii) suggest strategies for controlling this attachment process.

  14. Evolution of the Tropical Cyclone Integrated Data Exchange And Analysis System (TC-IDEAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turk, J.; Chao, Y.; Haddad, Z.; Hristova-Veleva, S.; Knosp, B.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Li, P.; Licata, S.; Poulsen, W.; Su, H.; Tanelli, S.; Vane, D.; Vu, Q.; Goodman, H. M.; Blakeslee, R.; Conover, H.; Hall, J.; He, Y.; Regner, K.; Knapp, Ken

    2010-01-01

    The Tropical Cyclone Integrated Data Exchange and Analysis System (TC-IDEAS) is being jointly developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as part of NASA's Hurricane Science Research Program. The long-term goal is to create a comprehensive tropical cyclone database of satellite and airborne observations, in-situ measurements and model simulations containing parameters that pertain to the thermodynamic and microphysical structure of the storms; the air-sea interaction processes; and the large-scale environment.

  15. Lack of agreement between gas exchange variables measured by two metabolic systems.

    PubMed

    Jakovljevic, Djordje G; Nunan, David; Donovan, Gay; Hodges, Lynette D; Sandercock, Gavin R H; Brodie, David A

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the agreement and consistency between gas exchange variables measured by two online metabolic systems during an incremental exercise test. After obtaining local ethics approval and informed consent, 15 healthy subjects performed an incremental exercise test to volitional fatigue using the Bruce protocol. The Innocor (Innovision, Denmark) and CardiO2 (Medical Graphics, USA) systems were placed in series, with the Innocor mouthpiece attached to the pneumotach of the CardiO2. Metabolic data were analysed during the last 30 seconds of each stage and at peak exercise. There were non- significant differences (p > 0.05) between the two systems in estimation of oxygen consumption (VO2) and in minute ventilation (VE). Mean Cronbach's alpha for VO2 and VE were 0.88 and 0.92. The Bland-Altman analysis revealed that limits of agreement were -0.52 to 0.55 l.min(-1) for VO2, and -8.74 to 10.66 l.min(-1) for VE. Carbon dioxide production (VCO2) and consequently respiratory exchange ratio (RER) measured by the Innocor were significantly lower (p < 0.05) through all stages. The CardiO2 measured fraction of expired carbon dioxide (FeCO2) significantly higher (p < 0.05). The limits of agreement for VO2 and VE are wide and unacceptable in cardio-pulmonary exercise testing. The Innocor reported VCO2 systematically lower. Therefore the Innocor and CardiO2 metabolic systems cannot be used interchangeably without affecting the diagnosis of an individual patient. Results from the present study support previous suggestion that considerable care is needed when comparing metabolic data obtained from different automated metabolic systems. Key pointsThere is general concern regarding the limited knowledge available about the accuracy of a number of commercially available systems.Demonstrated limits of agreement between key gas exchange variables (oxygen consumption and minute ventilation) as measured by the two metabolic systems were wide and unacceptable

  16. Evaluation of engineered foods for Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karel, M.

    1981-01-01

    A system of conversion of locally regenerated raw materials and of resupplied freeze-dried foods and ingredients into acceptable, safe and nutritious engineered foods is proposed. The first phase of the proposed research has the following objectives: (1) evaluation of feasibility of developing acceptable and reliable engineered foods from a limited selection of plants, supplemented by microbially produced nutrients and a minimum of dehydrated nutrient sources (especially those of animal origin); (2) evaluation of research tasks and specifications of research projects to adapt present technology and food science to expected space conditions (in particular, problems arising from unusual gravity conditions, problems of limited size and the isolation of the food production system, and the opportunities of space conditions are considered); (3) development of scenarios of agricultural production of plant and microbial systems, including the specifications of processing wastes to be recycled.

  17. Whole Foods Market Retrofits Multiple Building Systems for Big Savings

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    Whole Foods Market partnered with U.S. the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to reduce annual energy consumption in existing stores by at least 30% versus pre-retrofit energy use at its store in Edgewater, New Jersey, as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) program.

  18. Raman chemical imaging system for food safety and quality inspection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Raman chemical imaging technique combines Raman spectroscopy and digital imaging to visualize composition and structure of a target, and it offers great potential for food safety and quality research. In this study, a laboratory-based Raman chemical imaging platform was designed and developed. The i...

  19. Experience with NuResin, a mobile ion exchange resin reprocessing system

    SciTech Connect

    Palazzi, K.R.; Bell, M.J.; Concklin, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Ion exchange resin used in condensate polishing, steam generator blowdown, and radwaste systems is a major contributor to the volume of low-level waste (LLW) at operating nuclear plants. Plant regeneration systems for resins use large quantities of demineralized water for cleaning, separating, and regenerating resins. These systems generate a tremendous volume of LLW from boiling water reactors (BWRs) and those pressurized water reactors (PWRs) that have experienced steam generator tube leaks. At essentially all BWRs and those PWRs that replace rather than regenerate condensate polishing resin, the LLW volume contribution from the resin alone is significant. This report describes a process for the treatment of resins with the objective of returning the resin to service.

  20. Site-Specific Cassette Exchange Systems in the Aedes aegypti Mosquito and the Plutella xylostella Moth

    PubMed Central

    Haghighat-Khah, Roya Elaine; Scaife, Sarah; Martins, Sara; St John, Oliver; Matzen, Kelly Jean; Morrison, Neil; Alphey, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Genetically engineered insects are being evaluated as potential tools to decrease the economic and public health burden of mosquitoes and agricultural pest insects. Here we describe a new tool for the reliable and targeted genome manipulation of pest insects for research and field release using recombinase mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) mechanisms. We successfully demonstrated the established ΦC31-RMCE method in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, which is the first report of RMCE in mosquitoes. A new variant of this RMCE system, called iRMCE, combines the ΦC31-att integration system and Cre or FLP-mediated excision to remove extraneous sequences introduced as part of the site-specific integration process. Complete iRMCE was achieved in two important insect pests, Aedes aegypti and the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, demonstrating the transferability of the system across a wide phylogenetic range of insect pests. PMID:25830287

  1. From Cutlass to Agribusiness: Caribbean Food and Agriculture in Transition within a Global System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Michael J.

    This examination of the future role of food and agriculture in world peace and prosperity presents a regional cross-country view of the Caribbean countries with emphasis on the Caricom English speaking countries within a global food system environment. Following an introductory section, the second of six sections focuses on two broad agricultural…

  2. Theoretical foundations of apparent-damping phenomena and nearly irreversible energy exchange in linear conservative systems.

    PubMed

    Carcaterra, A; Akay, A

    2007-04-01

    This paper discusses a class of unexpected irreversible phenomena that can develop in linear conservative systems and provides a theoretical foundation that explains the underlying principles. Recent studies have shown that energy can be introduced to a linear system with near irreversibility, or energy within a system can migrate to a subsystem nearly irreversibly, even in the absence of dissipation, provided that the system has a particular natural frequency distribution. The present work introduces a general theory that provides a mathematical foundation and a physical explanation for the near irreversibility phenomena observed and reported in previous publications. Inspired by the properties of probability distribution functions, the general formulation developed here is based on particular properties of harmonic series, which form the common basis of linear dynamic system models. The results demonstrate the existence of a special class of linear nondissipative dynamic systems that exhibit nearly irreversible energy exchange and possess a decaying impulse response. In addition to uncovering a new class of dynamic system properties, the results have far-reaching implications in engineering applications where classical vibration damping or absorption techniques may not be effective. Furthermore, the results also support the notion of nearly irreversible energy transfer in conservative linear systems, which until now has been a concept associated exclusively with nonlinear systems.

  3. Aberrant interaction of the gut immune system with environmental factors in the development of food allergies.

    PubMed

    Kunisawa, Jun; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2010-05-01

    The gastrointestinal immune system is a major component of the mucosal barrier, which maintains an immunologic homeostasis between the host and the harsh environment of the gut. This homeostasis is achieved by immunologic quiescence, and its dysregulation is thought to result from the development of immune diseases such as food allergies. Recent findings have revealed versatile pathways in the development of intestinal allergies to certain food antigens. In this review, we summarize the regulatory and quiescence mechanisms in the gut immune system and describe aberrant interactions between the host immune system and the gut environment in the development of food allergies.

  4. Food System Support of the Relocation Strategy in California. Volume I. Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    7APA92 056 SYSTAN INC ,LOS ALTOS CA F/S 15/3 FOOD SYSTEM SUPPORT OF THE RELOCATION STRATEGY IN CALIFORNIA. V-ETC(U) SEP 80 A W SIMPSON. J W...REPORT L V FOOD SYSTEM S PIPORT of the RELOCATION STRATEGY in CALIFORNIA ObJO VOLUME 1: ANALYSIS Contract DCPA01-78-C-0220 \\ FEMA Work Unit 2313F...September 1980 C-) Approved for Public Releasec i i A 1 _ _ Distribution Unlimited 0 YSTAN DETACHABLE F I NAL REPO.RT FOOD SYSTEM SUPPORT OF THE RELOCATION

  5. Reproductive health and the industrialized food system: a point of intervention for health policy.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Patrice; Wallinga, David; Perron, Joanne; Gottlieb, Michelle; Sayre, Lucia; Woodruff, Tracey

    2011-05-01

    What food is produced, and how, can have a critical impact on human nutrition and the environment, which in turn are key drivers of healthy human reproduction and development. The US food production system yields a large volume of food that is relatively low in cost for consumers but is often high in calories and low in nutritional value. In this article we examine the evidence that intensive use of pesticides, chemical fertilizers, hormones, antibiotics, and fossil fuel in food production, as well as chemicals in food packaging, are potentially harmful to human reproductive and developmental health. We conclude that policies to advance a healthy food system are necessary to prevent adverse reproductive health effects and avoid associated health costs among current and future generations. These policies include changes to the Farm Bill and the Toxic Substances Control Act, and greater involvement by the health care sector in supporting and sourcing food from urban agriculture programs, farmers' markets, and local food outlets, as well as increasing understanding by clinicians of the links between reproductive health and industrialized food production.

  6. High Level Waste System Impacts from Small Column Ion Exchange Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, D. J.; Hamm, L. L.; Aleman, S. E.; Peeler, D. K.; Herman, C. C.; Edwards, T. B.

    2005-08-18

    The objective of this task is to identify potential waste streams that could be treated with the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) and perform an initial assessment of the impact of doing so on the High-Level Waste (HLW) system. Design of the SCIX system has been performed as a backup technology for decontamination of High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The SCIX consists of three modules which can be placed in risers inside underground HLW storage tanks. The pump and filter module and the ion exchange module are used to filter and decontaminate the aqueous tank wastes for disposition in Saltstone. The ion exchange module contains Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST in its engineered granular form is referred to as IONSIV{reg_sign} IE-911), and is selective for removal of cesium ions. After the IE-911 is loaded with Cs-137, it is removed and the column is refilled with a fresh batch. The grinder module is used to size-reduce the cesium-loaded IE-911 to make it compatible with the sludge vitrification system in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). If installed at the SRS, this SCIX would need to operate within the current constraints of the larger HLW storage, retrieval, treatment, and disposal system. Although the equipment has been physically designed to comply with system requirements, there is also a need to identify which waste streams could be treated, how it could be implemented in the tank farms, and when this system could be incorporated into the HLW flowsheet and planning. This document summarizes a preliminary examination of the tentative HLW retrieval plans, facility schedules, decontamination factor targets, and vitrified waste form compatibility, with recommendations for a more detailed study later. The examination was based upon four batches of salt solution from the currently planned disposition pathway to treatment in the SCIX. Because of differences in capabilities between the SRS baseline and SCIX, these four batches were

  7. Helium exchange gas based variable temperature insert for cryogen-free magnet system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadaf, A.; Kar, S.; Kumar, M.; Dutt, R. N.; Das, A.; Singh, F.; Posa, L.; Datta, T. S.; Sarangi, S. K.

    2017-02-01

    A cryocooler based variable temperature inserts (VTI) has been designed and developed for measurement of physical properties at low temperature and high magnetic field. The VTI, designed using the helium exchange gas principle, needs to be integrated in the warm bore of an existing 6 T cryogen free magnet system. The lowest temperature achieved at the sample is 5 K at 34.5 kPa (∼5 psi) gaseous helium environment in the sample space. The equilibrium temperature of the sample, at the vacuum condition, is 8.7 K. The cool-down time of the sample at vacuum environment is 9 hrs whereas it takes 7 hrs in presence of helium exchange gas. The temperature of the sample was varied up to 325 K. The stability of the temperature achieved is less than 50 mK. The cooling and heating curves has been studied to estimate time required for a complete cycle of experiment. This paper will briefly present the design and performance of VTI system in temperature range of 5-325 K.

  8. Joint perpendicular anisotropy and strong interlayer exchange coupling in systems with thin vanadium spacers

    SciTech Connect

    Devolder, T. Le Goff, A.; Eimer, S.; Adam, J.-P.

    2015-04-28

    We study the influence of the insertion of a vanadium spacer layer between an FeCoB layer and a [Co/Ni] multilayer in an MgO substrate-based system mimicking the reference system of a perpendicular anisotropy magnetic tunnel junction. The anisotropy of the [Co/Ni] multilayer gradually improves with the vanadium thicknesses t, up to an optimized state for t = 8 Å, with little influence of the thermal annealing. The interlayer exchange coupling is ferromagnetic and very strong for t≤6 Å. It can be adjusted by thermal treatment at t = 8 Å from no coupling in the as-grown state to more than 2 mJ/m{sup 2} after 250 °C annealing. For this spacer thickness, the magnetic properties are consistent with the occurrence of a bcc (001) to an fcc (111) crystalline structure transition at the vanadium spacer. The remaining interlayer exchange coupling at t = 8 Å is still substantially higher than the one formerly obtained with a Tantalum spacer, which holds promise for further optimization of the reference layers of tunnel junctions meant for magnetic random access memories.

  9. Development of Laboratory Experimental System to Clarify Solar Wind Charge Exchange Mechanism with TES Microcalorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enoki, T.; Ishisaki, Y.; Akamatsu, H.; Ezoe, Y.; Ohashi, T.; Kanda, T.; Ishida, T.; Tanuma, H.; Ohashi, H.; Shinozaki, K.; Mitsuda, K.

    2012-06-01

    Significant fraction of the cosmic diffuse soft X-ray emission (0.1-1 keV) is caused by the Solar Wind Charge eXchange (SWCX) process between the solar wind ion (C q+, N q+, O q+ etc.) and the interplanetary neutral matter. It is difficult to identify spectral features of SWCX with the spectral resolution of existing X-ray astronomy satellites. We are developing a laboratory experimental system with transition edge sensor (TES) X-ray microcalorimeters, in order to clarify the SWCX mechanism. This experiment is designed to measure Charge eXchange (CX) X-rays using Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) that generates multi-charged ions. Emission lines (OVIII: 2p→1s; 654 eV) by CX between O8+ and neutral He atom is aimed to be measured with energy resolution better than 10 eV. The TES microcalorimeter is cooled by a double-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (DADR), however, our TES microcalorimeter are not working potentially due to magnetic field contamination. This paper reports our experimental system, present results, and future prospects.

  10. Acidity field of soils as ion-exchange systems and the diagnostics of genetic soil horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokotov, Yu. A.; Sukhacheva, E. Yu.; Aparin, B. F.

    2014-12-01

    For the comprehensive description of the acidity of a two-phase ion-exchange system, we should analyze two curves of the ionite titration by a strong base in water and salt solutions and find the quantitative relationships between the corresponding pH characteristics. An idea of the three-dimensional field of acidity of ion-exchange systems (the phase space of the soil acidity characteristics) and its three two-dimensional projections is suggested. For soils, three interrelated characteristics—the pH values of the salt and water extracts and the degree of base saturation—can serve as spatial coordinates for the acidity field. Representation of factual data in this field makes it possible to compare and analyze the acidity characteristics of different soils and soil horizons and to determine their specific features. Differentiation of the field into separate volumes allows one to present the data in a discrete form. We have studied the distribution patterns of the groups of soil horizons from Leningrad oblast and other regions of northwestern Russia in the acidity field. The studied samples are grouped in different partially overlapping areas of the projections of the acidity field. The results of this grouping attest to the correctness of the modern classification of Russian soils. A notion of the characteristic soil area in the acidity field is suggested; it can be applied to all the soils with a leaching soil water regime.

  11. Observability and Estimation of Distributed Space Systems via Local Information-Exchange Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahmani, Amirreza; Mesbahi, Mehran; Fathpour, Nanaz; Hadaegh, Fred Y.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we develop an approach to formation estimation by explicitly characterizing formation's system-theoretic attributes in terms of the underlying inter-spacecraft information-exchange network. In particular, we approach the formation observer/estimator design by relaxing the accessibility to the global state information by a centralized observer/estimator- and in turn- providing an analysis and synthesis framework for formation observers/estimators that rely on local measurements. The noveltyof our approach hinges upon the explicit examination of the underlying distributed spacecraft network in the realm of guidance, navigation, and control algorithmic analysis and design. The overarching goal of our general research program, some of whose results are reported in this paper, is the development of distributed spacecraft estimation algorithms that are scalable, modular, and robust to variations inthe topology and link characteristics of the formation information exchange network. In this work, we consider the observability of a spacecraft formation from a single observation node and utilize the agreement protocol as a mechanism for observing formation states from local measurements. Specifically, we show how the symmetry structure of the network, characterized in terms of its automorphism group, directly relates to the observability of the corresponding multi-agent system The ramification of this notion of observability over networks is then explored in the context of distributed formation estimation.

  12. Trust makers, breakers and brokers: building trust in the Australian food system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance of consumer trust in the food supply has previously been identified, and dimensions of consumer trust in food—who they trust and the type of trust that they exhibit—has been explored. However, there is a lack of research about the mechanisms through which consumer trust in the food supply is developed, maintained, broken and repaired. This study seeks to address this gap by exploring if, and how, consumer trust in the food supply is considered by the media, food industry and governments when responding to food scares. The aim of the research is to develop models of trust building that can be implemented following food scares. Methods Semi-structured interviews will be undertaken with media, public relations officials and policy makers in Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. Participants will be recruited through purposive sampling and will be asked to discuss a hypothetical case study outlining a food incident, and any experiences of specific food scares. Models of trust development, maintenance and repair will be developed from interview data. Comment on these models will be sought from experts in food-related organizations through a Delphi study, where participants will be asked to consider the usefulness of the models. Participants’ comments will be used to revise the models until consensus is reached on the suitability and usability of the models. Discussion This study will contribute to the literature about systems-based trust, and explore trust as a social and regulatory process. The protocol and results will be of interest and use to the food industry, food regulators, consumer advocate groups, media seeking to report food-related issues and policy makers concerned with public health and consumer health and well-being. This research represents an important contribution to the translation of the theoretical conceptualizations of trust into practical use in the context of food. PMID:23496819

  13. Multivariable robust control of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fu-Cheng; Chen, Hsuan-Tsung; Yang, Yee-Pien; Yen, Jia-Yush

    This paper applies multivariable robust control strategies to a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system. From the system point of view, a PEMFC can be modeled as a two-input-two-output system, where the inputs are air and hydrogen flow rates and the outputs are cell voltage and current. By fixing the output resistance, we aimed to control the cell voltage output by regulating the air and hydrogen flow rates. Due to the nonlinear characteristics of this system, multivariable robust controllers were designed to provide robust performance and to reduce the hydrogen consumption of this system. The study was carried out in three parts. Firstly, the PEMFC system was modeled as multivariable transfer function matrices using identification techniques, with the un-modeled dynamics treated as system uncertainties and disturbances. Secondly, robust control algorithms were utilized to design multivariable H ∞ controllers to deal with system uncertainty and performance requirements. Finally, the designed robust controllers were implemented to control the air and hydrogen flow rates. From the experimental results, multivariable robust control is shown to provide steady output responses and significantly reduce hydrogen consumption.

  14. [New international initiatives to create systems of effective risk prediction and food safety].

    PubMed

    Efimochkinal, N R; Bagryantseva, E C; Dupouy, E C; Khotimchenko, S A; Permyakov, E V; Sheveleva, S A; Arnautov, O V

    2016-01-01

    Ensuring food safety is one of the most important problems that is directly related to health protection of the population. The problem is particularly relevant on aglobalscale because ofincreasingnumberoffood-borne diseases andimportance of the health consequence early detection. In accordance with the position of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, food safety concept also includes quality. In this case, creation of the national, supranational and international early warning systems related to the food safety, designed with the purpose to prevent or minimize risks on different stages of the food value chain in various countries, regions and climate zones specific to national nutrition and lifestyle in different groups of population, gains particular importance. The article describes the principles and working examples of international, supranational and national food safety early warning systems. Great importance is given to the hazards of microbial origin - emergent pathogens. Example of the rapid reaction to the appearance of cases, related to the melanin presence in infant formula, are presented. Analysis of the current food safety and quality control system in Russian Federation shows that main improvements are mostly related to the development of the efficient monitoring, diagnostics and rapid alert procedures forfood safety on interregional and international levels that will allow to estimate real contamination of food with the most dangerous pathogens, chemical and biological contaminants, and the development of the electronic database and scientifically proved algorithms for food safety and quality management for targeted prevention activities against existing and emerging microbiological and other etiology risks, and public health protection.

  15. Characterization and control of the microbial community affiliated with copper or aluminum heat exchangers of HVAC systems.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Michael G; Attaway, Hubert H; Terzieva, Silva; Marshall, Anna; Steed, Lisa L; Salzberg, Deborah; Hamoodi, Hameed A; Khan, Jamil A; Feigley, Charles E; Michels, Harold T

    2012-08-01

    Microbial growth in heating ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems with the subsequent contamination of indoor air is of increasing concern. Microbes and the subsequent biofilms grow easily within heat exchangers. A comparative study where heat exchangers fabricated from antimicrobial copper were evaluated for their ability to limit microbial growth was conducted using a full-scale HVAC system under conditions of normal flow rates using single-pass outside air. Resident bacterial and fungal populations were quantitatively assessed by removing triplicate sets of coupons from each exchanger commencing the fourth week after their installation for the next 30 weeks. The intrinsic biofilm associated with each coupon was extracted and characterized using selective and differential media. The predominant organisms isolated from aluminum exchangers were species of Methylobacterium of which at least three colony morphologies and 11 distinct PFGE patterns we found; of the few bacteria isolated from the copper exchangers, the majority were species of Bacillus. The concentrations and type of bacteria recovered from the control, aluminum, exchangers were found to be dependent on the type of plating media used and were 11,411-47,257 CFU cm(-2) per coupon surface. The concentration of fungi was found to average 378 CFU cm(-2). Significantly lower concentrations of bacteria, 3 CFU cm(-2), and fungi, 1 CFU cm(-2), were recovered from copper exchangers regardless of the plating media used. Commonly used aluminum heat exchangers developed stable, mixed, bacterial/fungal biofilms in excess of 47,000 organisms per cm(2) within 4 weeks of operation, whereas the antimicrobial properties of metallic copper were able to limit the microbial load affiliated with the copper heat exchangers to levels 99.97 % lower during the same time period.

  16. How the Organic Food System Supports Sustainable Diets and Translates These into Practice

    PubMed Central

    Strassner, Carola; Cavoski, Ivana; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Kahl, Johannes; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Lairon, Denis; Lampkin, Nicolas; Løes, Anne-Kristin; Matt, Darja; Niggli, Urs; Paoletti, Flavio; Pehme, Sirli; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Schader, Christian; Stolze, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Organic production and consumption provide a delineated food system that can be explored for its potential contribution to sustainable diets. While organic agriculture improves the sustainability performance on the production side, critical reflections are made on how organic consumption patterns, understood as the practice of people consuming significant amounts of organic produce, may also be taken as an example for sustainable food consumption. The consumption patterns of regular organic consumers seem to be close to the sustainable diet concept of FAO. Certain organic-related measures might therefore be useful in the sustainability assessment of diets, e.g., organic production and organic consumption. Since diets play a central role in shaping food systems and food systems shape diets, the role of organic consumption emerges as an essential topic to be addressed. This role may be based on four important organic achievements: organic agriculture and food production has a definition, well-established principles, public standards, and useful metrics. By 2015, data for organic production and consumption are recorded annually from more than 160 countries, and regulations are in force in more than 80 countries or regions. The organic food system puts the land (agri-cultura) back into the diet; it is the land from which the diet in toto is shaped. Therefore, the organic food system provides essential components of a sustainable diet. PMID:26176912

  17. How the Organic Food System Supports Sustainable Diets and Translates These into Practice.

    PubMed

    Strassner, Carola; Cavoski, Ivana; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Kahl, Johannes; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Lairon, Denis; Lampkin, Nicolas; Løes, Anne-Kristin; Matt, Darja; Niggli, Urs; Paoletti, Flavio; Pehme, Sirli; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Schader, Christian; Stolze, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Organic production and consumption provide a delineated food system that can be explored for its potential contribution to sustainable diets. While organic agriculture improves the sustainability performance on the production side, critical reflections are made on how organic consumption patterns, understood as the practice of people consuming significant amounts of organic produce, may also be taken as an example for sustainable food consumption. The consumption patterns of regular organic consumers seem to be close to the sustainable diet concept of FAO. Certain organic-related measures might therefore be useful in the sustainability assessment of diets, e.g., organic production and organic consumption. Since diets play a central role in shaping food systems and food systems shape diets, the role of organic consumption emerges as an essential topic to be addressed. This role may be based on four important organic achievements: organic agriculture and food production has a definition, well-established principles, public standards, and useful metrics. By 2015, data for organic production and consumption are recorded annually from more than 160 countries, and regulations are in force in more than 80 countries or regions. The organic food system puts the land (agri-cultura) back into the diet; it is the land from which the diet in toto is shaped. Therefore, the organic food system provides essential components of a sustainable diet.

  18. Critical Research Needed to Examine the Environmental Impacts of Expanded Refrigeration on the Food System.

    PubMed

    Heard, Brent R; Miller, Shelie A

    2016-11-15

    The unbroken global refrigerated supply chain, or cold chain, is rapidly expanding in developing countries. In addition to increasing the energy intensity of the food system, the expanded cold chain may facilitate changes in the global diet, food waste patterns, food production and distribution, and shopping habits. The sustainability impacts of many of these changes chain are unknown, given the complexity of interacting social, economic, and technical factors. The current literature surrounding the environmental impacts of refrigeration in the food system focuses on the direct impacts of energy use and coolant emissions, and lacks a critical evaluation of the accompanying systemic societal changes that potentially carry greater environmental impacts. This review examines the cold chain as a transformative technology, identifying key intrinsic, indirect, and external factors that will favorably, unfavorably, or ambiguously impact the environmental profile of the food system. The review identifies key interactions and feedbacks between the cold chain, food production and consumption decisions, infrastructure development, and the global environment which are largely unexamined and in need of empirical data. Viewing cold chain expansion from this broader perspective is essential to understanding the changing impacts of the food system in developing countries and may inform future sustainability planning.

  19. Numerical analysis of heat exchange processes for the ground source heat pump system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, H.; Muto, H.; Moritani, S.; Kohgo, Y.; Hamamoto, S.; Takemura, T.; Ohnishi, J.; Komatsu, T.

    2012-12-01

    Ground source heat pump systems (GSHP) use ground or groundwater as a heat source. They can achieve much higher coefficient of performance (COP) than conventional air source heat pump systems because the temperature of the ground is much more stable than that of the air. Heat energy in the ground is then viewed as one of the renewable energy sources. GSHP has been receiving great interests among countries in North America and Western Europe, as well as some developed countries in Asia because it can potentially reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission. While GSHP can inject heat from the buildings to the ground for cooling during the summer, it can pump heat stored in the ground for heating during the winter. As some physical, chemical, and biological properties of the ground and groundwater are temperature dependent, running GSHP can eventually affect groundwater quality. The main objective of this project was to develop a model that allows predicting not only ground and groundwater temperatures but also changes in physical, chemical, and biological properties of ground and groundwater with GSHP under operations. This particular study aims at simulating heat exchange and transfer processes in the ground for a vertical-loop closed GSHP system. In the closed GSHP system, an anti-freezing solution is circulated inside the closed-loop tube, called U-tube, that is buried in the ground. Heat is then transferred to the anti-freezing solution in the U-tube by a heat exchanger. In this study we used HYDRUS to predict temperature of the anti-freezing solution, as well as that of the ground. HYDRUS allows one to simulate variably-saturated water flow and solute and heat transport in porous media numerically in two- and three-dimensional domains with great flexibility in defining boundary conditions. At first changes in anti-freezing solution temperatures measured were predicted in response to Thermal Response Test (TRT) conducted at our study site. Then, heat

  20. Development of an electrochemical cholesterol sensor system for food analysis.

    PubMed

    Nagaoka, Tsutomu; Tokonami, Shiho; Shiigi, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Hiroaki; Takagi, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Yasunori

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we report on a food-cholesterol monitoring sensor based on a non-enzymatic approach. Amorphous and single-crystal gold electrodes were modified with an alkanethiol self-assembled monolayer to quantify it by voltammetry. We first discuss the basic characteristics of these sensors and provide more information about the instrument developed by JSK Co. This instrument is a battery-operated handheld voltammetric analyzer, which mounts a sensor chip to monitor cholesterol contents in food samples. The sensor showed excellent linearity with the cholesterol concentration; egg-yolk samples were analyzed to give an excellent agreement between the values obtained by the sensor (1.4 mM) and chromatography (1.1 mM).