Sample records for food fermentation processes

  1. Fermentation process improvement of a Chinese traditional food: soybean residue cake.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yingzheng; Pan, Siyi; Wang, Kexing; Xu, Xiaoyun

    2010-09-01

    Fermentation process improvement of soybean residue cake, a Chinese traditional fermented food, and its physicochemical analysis during fermentation were studied. One of the dominant strains in the fermentation was isolated and identified as Mucor racemosus Fresenius. The fermentation process was improved by subsection fermentation. The crude protein content decreased from 19.95 ± 0.03% in the raw soybean residue to 16.85 ± 0.10% in the fermented products, and the formaldehyde nitrogen content increased from 0.068 ± 0.004% to 0.461 ± 0.022% in final fermented cakes. Hardness of samples significantly (P < 0.05) increased whereas springiness, cohesiveness, and resilience significantly (P < 0.05) decreased with increasing fermentation time, respectively. Microstructure observations showed obvious change of the surface of cake samples during the fermentation process. During the soybean processing, it will produce plenty of by-products, and the most part of them is soybean residue. The discarded soybean residue causes economic loss. Fortunately, we can obtain nutritious and delicious fermented soybean residue cakes by fermenting soybean residue as raw material.

  2. Health benefits of fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Şanlier, Nevin; Gökcen, Büşra Başar; Sezgin, Aybüke Ceyhun

    2017-09-25

    In the past, the beneficial effects of fermented foods on health were unknown, and so people primarily used fermentation to preserve foods, enhance shelf life, and improve flavour. Fermented foods became an important part of the diet in many cultures, and over time fermentation has been associated with many health benefits. Because of this, the fermentation process and the resulting fermented products have recently attracted scientific interest. In addition, microorganisms contributing to the fermentation process have recently been associated with many health benefits, and so these microorganisms have become another focus of attention. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been some of the most studied microorganisms. During fermentation, these bacteria synthesize vitamins and minerals, produce biologically active peptides with enzymes such as proteinase and peptidase, and remove some non-nutrients. Compounds known as biologically active peptides, which are produced by the bacteria responsible for fermentation, are also well known for their health benefits. Among these peptides, conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have a blood pressure lowering effect, exopolysaccharides exhibit prebiotic properties, bacteriocins show anti-microbial effects, sphingolipids have anti-carcinogenic and anti-microbial properties, and bioactive peptides exhibit anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, opioid antagonist, anti-allergenic, and blood pressure lowering effects. As a result, fermented foods provide many health benefits such as anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-atherosclerotic activity. However, some studies have shown no relationship between fermented foods and health benefits. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the health effects of fermented foods.

  3. Yeasts Diversity in Fermented Foods and Beverages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Fleet, Graham H.

    People across the world have learnt to culture and use the essential microorganisms for production of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. A fermented food is produced either spontaneously or by adding mixed/pure starter culture(s). Yeasts are among the essential functional microorganisms encountered in many fermented foods, and are commercially used in production of baker's yeast, breads, wine, beer, cheese, etc. In Asia, moulds are predominant followed by amylolytic and alcohol-producing yeasts in the fermentation processes, whereas in Africa, Europe, Australia and America, fermented products are prepared exclusively using bacteria or bacteria-yeasts mixed cultures. This chapter would focus on the varieties of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages produced by yeasts, their microbiology and role in food fermentation, widely used commercial starters (pilot production, molecular aspects), production technology of some common commercial fermented foods and alcoholic beverages, toxicity and food safety using yeasts cultures and socio-economy

  4. Acetic acid bacteria in fermented foods and beverages.

    PubMed

    De Roos, Jonas; De Vuyst, Luc

    2018-02-01

    Although acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are commonly found in spontaneous or backslopped fermented foods and beverages, rather limited knowledge about their occurrence and functional role in natural food fermentation ecosystems is available. Not only is their cultivation, isolation, and identification difficult, their cells are often present in a viable but not culturable state. Yet, they are promising starter cultures either to better control known food fermentation processes or to produce novel fermented foods and beverages. This review summarizes the most recent findings on the occurrence and functional role of AAB in natural food fermentation processes such as lambic beer, water kefir, kombucha, and cocoa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A review on the fermentation of foods and the residues of pesticides-biotransformation of pesticides and effects on fermentation and food quality.

    PubMed

    Regueiro, Jorge; López-Fernández, Olalla; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Residues of pesticides in food are influenced by processing such as fermentation. Reviewing the extensive literature showed that in most cases, this step leads to large reductions in original residue levels in the fermented food, with the formation of new pesticide by-products. The behavior of residues in fermentation can be rationalized in terms of the physical-chemical properties of the pesticide and the nature of the process. In addition, the presence of pesticides decrease the growth rate of fermentative microbiota (yeasts and bacterias), which provokes stuck and sluggish fermentations. These changes have in consequence repercussions on several aspects of food sensory quality (physical-chemical properties, polyphenolic content, and aromatic profile) of fermented food. The main aim of this review is to deal with all these topics to propose challenging needs in science-based quality management of pesticides residues in food.

  6. Health benefits of fermented foods: microbiota and beyond.

    PubMed

    Marco, Maria L; Heeney, Dustin; Binda, Sylvie; Cifelli, Christopher J; Cotter, Paul D; Foligné, Benoit; Gänzle, Michael; Kort, Remco; Pasin, Gonca; Pihlanto, Anne; Smid, Eddy J; Hutkins, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Fermented foods and beverages were among the first processed food products consumed by humans. The production of foods such as yogurt and cultured milk, wine and beer, sauerkraut and kimchi, and fermented sausage were initially valued because of their improved shelf life, safety, and organoleptic properties. It is increasingly understood that fermented foods can also have enhanced nutritional and functional properties due to transformation of substrates and formation of bioactive or bioavailable end-products. Many fermented foods also contain living microorganisms of which some are genetically similar to strains used as probiotics. Although only a limited number of clinical studies on fermented foods have been performed, there is evidence that these foods provide health benefits well-beyond the starting food materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Review - Lactic acid bacteria in traditional fermented Asian foods.

    PubMed

    Azam, Mariya; Mohsin, Mashkoor; Ijaz, Hira; Tulain, Ume Ruqia; Ashraf, Muhammad Adnan; Fayyaz, Ahad; Abadeen, Zainul; Kamran, Qindeel

    2017-09-01

    Lactic acid bacteria play vital roles in various fermented foods in Asia. This paper reviews many types of the world's lactic acid fermented foods and discusses the beneficial effects of lactic acid fermentation of food. The lactic acid bacteria associated with foods now include species of the genera Carnobacterium, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Oenococcus, Pediococcus, Streptococcus, Tetragenococcus, Vagococcus and Weissella. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are involved in many fermentation processes of Asian traditional foods, demonstrating their profound effects on improving food quality and food safety. During the past few decades' interest has arisen in the use of the varied antagonistic activities of LAB to extent the shelf-life of protein-rich products such as meats and fish. This review article outlines the main types of LAB fermentation as well as their typical fermented foods such as idli, kishk, sauerkraut, koumiss, Suan-tsai, stinky tofu, Chinese sausage and kefir. The roles of LAB and the reasons for their common presence are also discussed.

  8. The Use of Lactic Acid Bacteria Starter Cultures during the Processing of Fermented Cereal-based Foods in West Africa: A Review.

    PubMed

    Soro-Yao, Amenan Anastasie; Brou, Kouakou; Amani, Georges; Thonart, Philippe; Djè, Koffi Marcelin

    2014-12-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the primary microorganisms used to ferment maize-, sorghum- or millet-based foods that are processed in West Africa. Fermentation contributes to desirable changes in taste, flavour, acidity, digestibility and texture in gruels (ogi, baca, dalaki), doughs (agidi, banku, komé) or steam-cooked granulated products (arraw, ciacry, dégué). Similar to other fermented cereal foods that are available in Africa, these products suffer from inconsistent quality. The use of LAB starter cultures during cereal dough fermentation is a subject of increasing interest in efforts to standardise this step and guaranty product uniformity. However, their use by small-scale processing units or small agro-food industrial enterprises is still limited. This review aims to illustrate and discuss major issues that influence the use of LAB starter cultures during the processing of fermented cereal foods in West Africa.

  9. Fermented Foods: Patented Approaches and Formulations for Nutritional Supplementation and Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Borresen, Erica C.; Henderson, Angela J.; Kumar, Ajay; Weir, Tiffany L.; Ryan, Elizabeth P.

    2016-01-01

    Fermentation has had a long history in human food production and consumption. Fermented foods and beverages can comprise anywhere between 5-40% of the human diet in some populations. Not only is this process beneficial for extending shelf-life for foods and beverages, but also fermentation can enhance nutritional properties in a safe and effective manner. In many developed countries, traditional methods are now replaced with specific technologies for production of fermented foods, and an emerging industrial practice allows for higher quality standardization of food products in the market place. Due to changes in fermentation processes and the increased consumption of these products, a detailed review of recent patents involving fermented foods and beverages and their impact on health is warranted. Fermented food products that can enhance nutrition, improve health, and prevent disease on a global level will require consistent fermentation methods, evaluation of nutritional compositions, and food safety testing. This review is intended to guide the development of fermented foods for enhanced human health benefits and suggests the need for multidisciplinary collaborations and structural analysis across the fields of food science, microbiology, human nutrition, and biomedical sciences. PMID:22702745

  10. The Use of Lactic Acid Bacteria Starter Cultures during the Processing of Fermented Cereal-based Foods in West Africa: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Soro-Yao, Amenan Anastasie; Brou, Kouakou; Amani, Georges; Thonart, Philippe; Djè, Koffi Marcelin

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the primary microorganisms used to ferment maize-, sorghum- or millet-based foods that are processed in West Africa. Fermentation contributes to desirable changes in taste, flavour, acidity, digestibility and texture in gruels (ogi, baca, dalaki), doughs (agidi, banku, komé) or steam-cooked granulated products (arraw, ciacry, dégué). Similar to other fermented cereal foods that are available in Africa, these products suffer from inconsistent quality. The use of LAB starter cultures during cereal dough fermentation is a subject of increasing interest in efforts to standardise this step and guaranty product uniformity. However, their use by small-scale processing units or small agro-food industrial enterprises is still limited. This review aims to illustrate and discuss major issues that influence the use of LAB starter cultures during the processing of fermented cereal foods in West Africa. PMID:27073601

  11. Nutritional Guidelines and Fermented Food Frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Victoria; Ferrão, Jorge; Fernandes, Tito

    2017-01-01

    This review examines different nutritional guidelines, some case studies, and provides insights and discrepancies, in the regulatory framework of Food Safety Management of some of the world’s economies. There are thousands of fermented foods and beverages, although the intention was not to review them but check their traditional and cultural value, and if they are still lacking to be classed as a category on different national food guides. For understanding the inconsistencies in claims of concerning fermented foods among various regulatory systems, each legal system should be considered unique. Fermented foods and beverages have long been a part of the human diet, and with further supplementation of probiotic microbes, in some cases, they offer nutritional and health attributes worthy of recommendation of regular consumption. Despite the impact of fermented foods and beverages on gastro-intestinal wellbeing and diseases, their many health benefits or recommended consumption has not been widely translated to global inclusion in world food guidelines. In general, the approach of the legal systems is broadly consistent and their structures may be presented under different formats. African traditional fermented products are briefly mentioned enhancing some recorded adverse effects. Knowing the general benefits of traditional and supplemented fermented foods, they should be a daily item on most national food guides. PMID:28783111

  12. Fermented functional foods based on probiotics and their biogenic metabolites.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Van Sinderen, Douwe

    2005-04-01

    The claimed health benefits of fermented functional foods are expressed either directly through the interaction of ingested live microorganisms, bacteria or yeast with the host (probiotic effect) or indirectly as a result of ingestion of microbial metabolites produced during the fermentation process (biogenic effect). Although still far from fully understood, several probiotic mechanisms of action have been proposed, including competitive exclusion, competition for nutrients and/or stimulation of an immune response. The biogenic properties of fermented functional foods result from the microbial production of bioactive metabolites such as certain vitamins, bioactive peptides, organic acids or fatty acids during fermentation.

  13. African fermented foods and probiotics.

    PubMed

    Franz, Charles M A P; Huch, Melanie; Mathara, Julius Maina; Abriouel, Hikmate; Benomar, Nabil; Reid, Gregor; Galvez, Antonio; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H

    2014-11-03

    Africa has an age old history of production of traditional fermented foods and is perhaps the continent with the richest variety of lactic acid fermented foods. These foods have a large impact on the nutrition, health and socio-economy of the people of the continent, often plagued by war, drought, famine and disease. Sub-Saharan Africa is the world's region with the highest percentage of chronically malnourished people and high child mortality. Further developing of traditional fermented foods with added probiotic health features would be an important contribution towards reaching the UN Millennium Development Goals of eradication of poverty and hunger, reduction in child mortality rates and improvement of maternal health. Specific probiotic strains with documented health benefits are sparsely available in Africa and not affordable to the majority of the population. Furthermore, they are not used in food fermentations. If such probiotic products could be developed especially for household food preparation, such as cereal or milk foods, it could make a profound impact on the health and well-being of adults and children. Suitable strains need to be chosen and efforts are needed to produce strains to make products which will be available for clinical studies. This can gauge the impact of probiotics on consumers' nutrition and health, and increase the number of people who can benefit. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. REDUCING WASTEWATER FROM CUCUMBER PICKLING PROCESS BY CONTROLLED CULTURE FERMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    On a demonstration scale, the controlled culture fermentation process (CCF) developed by the U.S. Food Fermentation Laboratory was compared with the conventional natural fermentation process (NF) in regard to product quality and yield and volume and concentration of wastewaters. ...

  15. Fermented dairy food and CVD risk.

    PubMed

    Tapsell, Linda C

    2015-04-01

    Fermented dairy foods such as yoghurt and cheese are commonly found in the Mediterranean diet. Recent landmark research has confirmed the effect of the Mediterranean diet on reducing the CVD risk, but the relative contributions of fermented dairy foods have not been fully articulated. The present study provides a review of the relationship between fermented dairy foods consumption and CVD risk in the context of the whole diet. Studies show that people who eat healthier diets may be more likely to consume yoghurt, so there is a challenge in attributing separate effects to yoghurt. Analyses from large population studies list yoghurt as the food most negatively associated with the risk of weight gain (a problem that may lead to CVD). There is some suggestion that fermented dairy foods consumption (yoghurt or cheese) may be associated with reduced inflammatory biomarkers associated with the development of CVD. Dietary trials suggest that cheese may not have the same effect on raising LDL-cholesterol levels as butter with the same saturated fat content. The same might be stated for yoghurt. The use of different probiotic cultures and other aspects of study design remain a problem for research. Nevertheless, population studies from a range of countries have shown that a reduced risk of CVD occurs with the consumption of fermented dairy foods. A combination of evidence is necessary, and more research is always valuable, but indications remain that fermented dairy foods such as cheese and yoghurt are integral to diets that are protective against CVD.

  16. Importance of lactic acid bacteria in Asian fermented foods

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria play important roles in various fermented foods in Asia. Besides being the main component in kimchi and other fermented foods, they are used to preserve edible food materials through fermentation of other raw-materials such as rice wine/beer, rice cakes, and fish by producing organic acids to control putrefactive microorganisms and pathogens. These bacteria also provide a selective environment favoring fermentative microorganisms and produce desirable flavors in various fermented foods. This paper discusses the role of lactic acid bacteria in various non-dairy fermented food products in Asia and their nutritional and physiological functions in the Asian diet. PMID:21995342

  17. Fermentable short chain carbohydrate (FODMAP) content of common plant-based foods and processed foods suitable for vegetarian- and vegan-based eating patterns.

    PubMed

    Tuck, C; Ly, E; Bogatyrev, A; Costetsou, I; Gibson, P; Barrett, J; Muir, J

    2018-06-01

    The low FODMAP (fermentable, oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols) diet is an effective strategy to improve symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. However, combining the low FODMAP diet with another dietary restriction such as vegetarianism/veganism is challenging. Greater knowledge about the FODMAP composition of plant-based foods and food processing practices common to vegetarian/vegan eating patterns would assist in the implementation of the diet in this patient population. The present study aimed to quantify the FODMAP content of plant-based foods common in vegetarian/vegan diets and to investigate whether food processing can impact FODMAP levels. Total FODMAP content was quantified in 35 foods, including fructose-in-excess-of-glucose, lactose, sorbitol, mannitol, galacto-oligosaccharide and total fructan, using high-performance-liquid-chromatography and enzymatic assays. The effects of cooking, sprouting, pickling, fermentation, activation and canning on FODMAP content were assessed. The Monash University criteria to classify foods as low FODMAP was used. Of the 35 foods, 20 were classified as low FODMAP, including canned coconut milk (0.24 g serve -1 ), dulse (0.02 serve -1 ), nutritional yeast (0.01 serve -1 ), soy cheese (0.03 serve -1 ), tempeh (0.26 serve -1 ), wheat gluten (0.13 serve -1 ) and wheat grass (0.05 serve -1 ). No FODMAPs were detected in agar-agar, egg replacer, vegan egg yolk, kelp noodles and spirulina. Food processing techniques that produced the greatest reduction in FODMAP content included pickling and canning. The present study provides a greater FODMAP composition knowledge of plant-based foods that can now be applied to the dietetic management of vegetarians/vegans requiring a low FODMAP diet. Food processing lowered the FODMAP content of foods, thereby increasing options for patients following a low FODMAP diet. © 2018 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  18. Recent trends in bioethanol production from food processing byproducts.

    PubMed

    Akbas, Meltem Yesilcimen; Stark, Benjamin C

    2016-11-01

    The widespread use of corn starch and sugarcane as sources of sugar for the production of ethanol via fermentation may negatively impact the use of farmland for production of food. Thus, alternative sources of fermentable sugars, particularly from lignocellulosic sources, have been extensively investigated. Another source of fermentable sugars with substantial potential for ethanol production is the waste from the food growing and processing industry. Reviewed here is the use of waste from potato processing, molasses from processing of sugar beets into sugar, whey from cheese production, byproducts of rice and coffee bean processing, and other food processing wastes as sugar sources for fermentation to ethanol. Specific topics discussed include the organisms used for fermentation, strategies, such as co-culturing and cell immobilization, used to improve the fermentation process, and the use of genetic engineering to improve the performance of ethanol producing fermenters.

  19. Functional Properties of Microorganisms in Fermented Foods

    PubMed Central

    Tamang, Jyoti P.; Shin, Dong-Hwa; Jung, Su-Jin; Chae, Soo-Wan

    2016-01-01

    Fermented foods have unique functional properties imparting some health benefits to consumers due to presence of functional microorganisms, which possess probiotics properties, antimicrobial, antioxidant, peptide production, etc. Health benefits of some global fermented foods are synthesis of nutrients, prevention of cardiovascular disease, prevention of cancer, gastrointestinal disorders, allergic reactions, diabetes, among others. The present paper is aimed to review the information on some functional properties of the microorganisms associated with fermented foods and beverages, and their health-promoting benefits to consumers. PMID:27199913

  20. Impact of Fermented Foods on Human Cognitive Function-A Review of Outcome of Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Sivamaruthi, Bhagavathi Sundaram; Kesika, Periyanaina; Chaiyasut, Chaiyavat

    2018-05-31

    Food is an essential need for all living creatures which provides the energy to maintain life and grow further. Fermentation is a process used to preserve and advance the quality of foods, and those foods are known as fermented foods. Some foods offer health benefits to consumers apart from nutrition, and such foods are called as functional foods. Most functional foods are fermented foods, and the fermenting microorganism plays a precious role in the functional property of the food. Cognitive decline is closely associated with the productivity of an individual and the society. Even though cognitive decline is connected to aging, dietary pattern influences memory, anxiety and other social behaviors. Many scientific studies have explained the link between food habits and cognitive functions by in vitro and in vivo models. The present review compiled the clinical data on the impact of fermented foods on human cognitive function.

  1. Thermal and refining processes, not fermentation, tend to reduce lipotropic capacity of plant-based foods.

    PubMed

    Fardet, Anthony; Martin, Jean-François; Chardigny, Jean-Michel

    2011-08-01

    Plant-based foods (PBF) are relevant and diversified sources of lipotropes, which are compounds preventing excess hepatic fat deposits. In a first study, we defined the lipotropic capacity (LC, %) of raw PBF as the means of 8 lipotrope densities (LD, mg/100 kcal), each expressed relative to that of a reference food ranking the highest considering its mean 8 LD ranks (LC(raw asparagus)=100%) (A. Fardet, J.-F. Martin and J. M. Chardigny, J. Food Comp. Anal., 2011, DOI: 10.1016/j.jfca.2011.1003.1013). We showed that vegetables appeared as the best source of lipotropes on a 100 kcal-basis compared to legumes, cereals, fruits and nuts. The main objective of this second study was to quantify the effect of processing on LD and LC of raw PBF based on lipotrope contents collected in a USDA (United State Department of Agriculture) database and the literature, i.e. betaine, choline, myo-inositol, methionine, magnesium, niacin, pantothenic acid and folate contents. Choline and betaine densities were not significantly affected by processing while methionine and lipotropic micronutrient densities were significantly decreased, especially for magnesium, pantothenate and folates. Myo-inositol density decreases were insignificant due to lower product number resulting from limited literature data. Lipotropic micronutrient densities were more affected by processing than other densities. Fermentations increased betaine (median change of +32%) and choline (+34%) densities. Canning and boiling vegetables increased choline densities (+26%). Globally, processing significantly reduced LC by ∼20%, fermentations being less drastic (median change of -5%) than refining (-33%) and thermal treatments (-16%). More specifically, canning increased LC of beetroot (536 vs 390%) and common bean (40 vs 36%) as fermentation towards LC grape (14 vs 7% for wine). Results were then mainly discussed based on percentages of lipotrope content changes on a dry-weight basis. Results of this study also showed

  2. Determination of Ethyl Carbamate in Alcoholic Beverages and Fermented Foods Sold in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Dayeon; Choi, Bogyoung; Kim, Eunjoo; Park, Seri; Paeng, Hwijin; Kim, Cho-Il; Lee, Jee-Yeon; Yoon, Hae Jung; Koh, Eunmi

    2015-09-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) classified as a probable human carcinogen (Group 2A) is naturally formed in alcoholic beverages and fermented foods during fermentation process and/or during storage. The objective of this study was to analyze EC in 34 food items including 14 alcoholic beverages and 20 fermented foods sold in Korea. Each food was collected from 18 supermarkets in 9 metropolitan cities in Korea, and then made into composite. According to food composition and alcohol content, samples were divided into four matrices such as apple juice, milk, Soju (liquor containing about 20% alcohol), and rice porridge. The maximum EC value of 151.06 µg/kg was found in Maesilju (liquor made from Maesil and Soju). Whisky and Bokbunjaju (Korean black raspberry wine) contained 9.90 µg/kg and 6.30 µg/kg, respectively. EC was not detected in other alcoholic beverages. Of 20 fermented foods, Japanese-style soy sauce had highest level of 15.59 µg/kg and traditional one contained 4.18 µg/kg. Soybean paste had 1.18 µg/kg, however, EC was not found in other fermented foods.

  3. Fermented foods, neuroticism, and social anxiety: An interaction model.

    PubMed

    Hilimire, Matthew R; DeVylder, Jordan E; Forestell, Catherine A

    2015-08-15

    Animal models and clinical trials in humans suggest that probiotics can have an anxiolytic effect. However, no studies have examined the relationship between probiotics and social anxiety. Here we employ a cross-sectional approach to determine whether consumption of fermented foods likely to contain probiotics interacts with neuroticism to predict social anxiety symptoms. A sample of young adults (N=710, 445 female) completed self-report measures of fermented food consumption, neuroticism, and social anxiety. An interaction model, controlling for demographics, general consumption of healthful foods, and exercise frequency, showed that exercise frequency, neuroticism, and fermented food consumption significantly and independently predicted social anxiety. Moreover, fermented food consumption also interacted with neuroticism in predicting social anxiety. Specifically, for those high in neuroticism, higher frequency of fermented food consumption was associated with fewer symptoms of social anxiety. Taken together with previous studies, the results suggest that fermented foods that contain probiotics may have a protective effect against social anxiety symptoms for those at higher genetic risk, as indexed by trait neuroticism. While additional research is necessary to determine the direction of causality, these results suggest that consumption of fermented foods that contain probiotics may serve as a low-risk intervention for reducing social anxiety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Health benefits of kimchi (Korean fermented vegetables) as a probiotic food.

    PubMed

    Park, Kun-Young; Jeong, Ji-Kang; Lee, Young-Eun; Daily, James W

    2014-01-01

    Kimchi is a traditional Korean food manufactured by fermenting vegetables with probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Many bacteria are involved in the fermentation of kimchi, but LAB become dominant while the putrefactive bacteria are suppressed during salting of baechu cabbage and the fermentation. The addition of other subingredients and formation of fermentation byproducts of LAB promote the fermentation process of LAB to eventually lead to eradication of putrefactive- and pathogenic bacteria, and also increase the functionalities of kimchi. Accordingly, kimchi can be considered a vegetable probiotic food that contributes health benefits in a similar manner as yogurt as a dairy probiotic food. Further, the major ingredients of kimchi are cruciferous vegetables; and other healthy functional foods such as garlic, ginger, red pepper powder, and so on are added to kimchi as subingredients. As all of these ingredients undergo fermentation by LAB, kimchi is regarded as a source of LAB; and the fermentative byproducts from the functional ingredients significantly boost its functionality. Because kimchi is both tasty and highly functional, it is typically served with steamed rice at every Korean meal. Health functionality of kimchi, based upon our research and that of other, includes anticancer, antiobesity, anticonstipation, colorectal health promotion, probiotic properties, cholesterol reduction, fibrolytic effect, antioxidative and antiaging properties, brain health promotion, immune promotion, and skin health promotion. In this review we describe the method of kimchi manufacture, fermentation, health functionalities of kimchi and the probiotic properties of its LAB.

  5. Review: Diversity of Microorganisms in Global Fermented Foods and Beverages

    PubMed Central

    Tamang, Jyoti P.; Watanabe, Koichi; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H.

    2016-01-01

    Culturalable and non-culturable microorganisms naturally ferment majority of global fermented foods and beverages. Traditional food fermentation represents an extremely valuable cultural heritage in most regions, and harbors a huge genetic potential of valuable but hitherto undiscovered strains. Holistic approaches for identification and complete profiling of both culturalable and non-culturable microorganisms in global fermented foods are of interest to food microbiologists. The application of culture-independent technique has thrown new light on the diversity of a number of hitherto unknown and non-cultural microorganisms in naturally fermented foods. Functional bacterial groups (“phylotypes”) may be reflected by their mRNA expression in a particular substrate and not by mere DNA-level detection. An attempt has been made to review the microbiology of some fermented foods and alcoholic beverages of the world. PMID:27047484

  6. Determination of Ethyl Carbamate in Alcoholic Beverages and Fermented Foods Sold in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Dayeon; Choi, Bogyoung; Kim, Eunjoo; Park, Seri; Paeng, Hwijin; Kim, Cho-il; Lee, Jee-yeon; Yoon, Hae Jung

    2015-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) classified as a probable human carcinogen (Group 2A) is naturally formed in alcoholic beverages and fermented foods during fermentation process and/or during storage. The objective of this study was to analyze EC in 34 food items including 14 alcoholic beverages and 20 fermented foods sold in Korea. Each food was collected from 18 supermarkets in 9 metropolitan cities in Korea, and then made into composite. According to food composition and alcohol content, samples were divided into four matrices such as apple juice, milk, Soju (liquor containing about 20% alcohol), and rice porridge. The maximum EC value of 151.06 µg/kg was found in Maesilju (liquor made from Maesil and Soju). Whisky and Bokbunjaju (Korean black raspberry wine) contained 9.90 µg/kg and 6.30 µg/kg, respectively. EC was not detected in other alcoholic beverages. Of 20 fermented foods, Japanese-style soy sauce had highest level of 15.59 µg/kg and traditional one contained 4.18 µg/kg. Soybean paste had 1.18 µg/kg, however, EC was not found in other fermented foods. PMID:26483888

  7. Fermented food in the context of a healthy diet: how to produce novel functional foods?

    PubMed

    Leroy, Frédéric; De Vuyst, Luc

    2014-11-01

    This review presents an overview of recent studies on the production of functional fermented foods, of both traditional and innovative natures, and the mapping of the functional compounds involved. The functional aspects of fermented foods are mostly related to the concept of probiotic bacteria or the targeted microbial generation of functional molecules, such as bioactive peptides, during food fermentation. Apart from conventional yoghurt and fermented milks, several fermented nondairy foods are globally gaining in interest, in particular from soy or cereal origin, sometimes novel but often originating from ethnic (Asian) diets. In addition, a range of functional nonmicrobial compounds may be added to the fermented food matrix. Overall, a wide variety of potential health benefits is being claimed, yet often poorly supported by mechanistic insights and rarely demonstrated with clinical trials or even animal models. Although functional foods offer considerable market potential, several issues still need to be addressed. As most of the studies on functional fermented foods are of a rather descriptive and preliminary nature, there is a clear need for mechanistic studies and well controlled in-vivo experiments.

  8. Inclusion of Fermented Foods in Food Guides around the World

    PubMed Central

    Chilton, Stephanie N.; Burton, Jeremy P.; Reid, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Fermented foods have been a well-established part of the human diet for thousands of years, without much of an appreciation for, or an understanding of, their underlying microbial functionality, until recently. The use of many organisms derived from these foods, and their applications in probiotics, have further illustrated their impact on gastrointestinal wellbeing and diseases affecting other sites in the body. However, despite the many benefits of fermented foods, their recommended consumption has not been widely translated to global inclusion in food guides. Here, we present the case for such inclusion, and challenge health authorities around the world to consider advocating for the many benefits of these foods. PMID:25580813

  9. Antioxidant properties of certain cereals as affected by food-grade bacteria fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chung-Yi; Wu, Sz-Jie; Shyu, Yuan-Tay

    2014-04-01

    The effects of fermentation by 2 food-grade bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus plantarum) on antioxidant activities and the contents of phenolics and flavonoids in 4 cereals (specifically adlay, chestnut, lotus seed, and walnut) were determined and compared with those of their non-fermented counterparts. Results showed that antioxidant properties observed in the fermented and non-fermented cereals may vary with fermented starters. Fermentation was observed to increase the phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extracts. The effects on Bacillus-fermented cereals were stronger than on Lactobacillus-fermented cereals. In IC50 values (mg/mL) of extracts, the extracts of fermented cereal showed a stronger DPPH radical scavenging and ferric-reducing activities. Fermentation did not significantly alter the Fe(2+)-chelating activity in the extracts of chestnuts and lotus seeds. All cereals were shown significantly inhibited the production of LPS-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) without creating obvious cytotoxic effects in the macrophage cells. These results suggest that the fermentation process enables cereal-based foods with enhanced antioxidant capacities to contribute to health and nutritional improvements in consumers. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. An ethnobotanical perspective on traditional fermented plant foods and beverages in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Sõukand, Renata; Pieroni, Andrea; Biró, Marianna; Dénes, Andrea; Dogan, Yunus; Hajdari, Avni; Kalle, Raivo; Reade, Benedict; Mustafa, Behxhet; Nedelcheva, Anely; Quave, Cassandra L; Łuczaj, Łukasz

    2015-07-21

    Fermented food and beverages represent an important part of the worldwide foodscape, medicinal food domain and domestic strategies of health care, yet relevant traditional knowledge in Europe is poorly documented. Review of primary ethnographic literature, archival sources and a few ad-hoc ethnobotanical field studies in seven selected Eastern European countries (Albania, Belarus, Bulgaria, Estonia, Hungary, Kosovo, and Poland) were conducted. Current or recently abandoned uses of 116 botanical taxa, belonging to 37 families in fermented food or medicinal food products were recorded. These findings demonstrate a rich bio-cultural diversity of use, and also a clear prevalence of the use of fruits of the tannin- and phenolic-rich Rosaceae species in alcoholic, lactic- and acetic acid fermented preparations. In the considered countries, fermentation still plays (or has played until recent years) a crucial role in folk cuisines and this heritage requires urgent and in-depth evaluation. Future studies should be aimed at further documenting and also bio-evaluating the ingredients and processes involved in the preparation of homemade fermented products, as this can be used to support local, community-based development efforts to foster food security, food sovereignty, and small-scale local food-based economies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Food waste and food processing waste for biohydrogen production: a review.

    PubMed

    Yasin, Nazlina Haiza Mohd; Mumtaz, Tabassum; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Abd Rahman, Nor'Aini

    2013-11-30

    Food waste and food processing wastes which are abundant in nature and rich in carbon content can be attractive renewable substrates for sustainable biohydrogen production due to wide economic prospects in industries. Many studies utilizing common food wastes such as dining hall or restaurant waste and wastes generated from food processing industries have shown good percentages of hydrogen in gas composition, production yield and rate. The carbon composition in food waste also plays a crucial role in determining high biohydrogen yield. Physicochemical factors such as pre-treatment to seed culture, pH, temperature (mesophilic/thermophilic) and etc. are also important to ensure the dominance of hydrogen-producing bacteria in dark fermentation. This review demonstrates the potential of food waste and food processing waste for biohydrogen production and provides a brief overview of several physicochemical factors that affect biohydrogen production in dark fermentation. The economic viability of biohydrogen production from food waste is also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Novel insights into the microbiology of fermented dairy foods.

    PubMed

    Macori, Guerrino; Cotter, Paul D

    2018-02-01

    Fermentation is a traditional approach to food preservation that, in addition to improving food safety, also confers enhanced organoleptic, nutritional, and health-promoting attributes upon those foods. Dairy products can be fermented by a diverse microbiota. The accompanying microbes can be studied using a variety of different, including 'omics'-based, approaches that can reveal their composition and functionality. These methods have increasingly been recently applied to study fermented dairy foods from the perspective of genetic diversity, functionality and succession. The insights provided by these studies are summarised in this review. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fermented and non-fermented soy food consumption and gastric cancer in Japanese and Korean populations: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongseon; Kang, Moonsu; Lee, Jung-Sug; Inoue, Manami; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2011-01-01

    Soy food is known to contribute greatly to a reduction in the risk of gastric cancer (GC). However, both Japanese and Korean populations have high incidence rates of GC despite the consumption of a wide variety of soy foods. One primary reason is that they consume fermented rather than non-fermented soy foods. In order to assess the varying effects of fermented and non-fermented soy intake on GC risk in these populations, we conducted a meta-analysis of published reports. Twenty studies assessing the effect of the consumption of fermented soy food on GC risk were included, and 17 studies assessing the effect of the consumption of non-fermented soy food on GC risk were included. We found that a high intake of fermented soy foods was significantly associated with an increased risk of GC (odds ratio [OR] = 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02-1.44, I(2) = 71.48), whereas an increased intake of non-fermented soy foods was significantly associated with a decreased risk of GC (overall summary OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.54-0.77, I(2) = 64.27). These findings show that a high level of consumption of non-fermented soy foods, rather than fermented soy foods, is important in reducing GC risk. © 2010 Japanese Cancer Association.

  14. Microbial ecology and quality assurance in food fermentation systems. The case of kefir grains application.

    PubMed

    Plessas, S; Alexopoulos, A; Voidarou, C; Stavropoulou, E; Bezirtzoglou, E

    2011-12-01

    Fermentation technology has become a modern method for food production the last decades as a process for enhancing product stability, safety and sensory standards. The main reason for this development is the increasing consumers' demand for safe and high quality food products. The above has led the scientific community to the thorough study for the appropriate selection of specific microorganisms with desirable properties such as bacteriocin production, and probiotic properties. The main food products produced through fermentation activity are bread, wine, beer cheese and other dairy products. The microorganisms conducting the above processes are mainly yeasts and lactic acid bacteria. The end products of carbohydrate catabolism by these microorganisms contribute not only to preservation as it was believed years ago, but also to the flavour, aroma and texture and to the increase of the nutritional quality by thereby helping determine unique product characteristics. Thus, controlling the function of specific microorganisms or the succession of microorganisms that dominate the microflora is therefore advantageous, because it can increase product quality, functionality and value. Throughout the process of the discovery of microbiological diversity in various fermented food systems, the development of starter culture technology has gained more scientific attention, and it could be used for the control of the manufacturing operation, and management of product quality. In the frame of this review the presentation of the quality enhancement of most consumed fermented food products around the world is attempted and the new trends in production of fermented food products, such as bread is discussed. The review is focused in kefir grains application in bread production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Acoustical experiment of yogurt fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, H; Mizutani, K; Ohbuchi, T; Nakamura, T

    2006-12-22

    One of the important factors through food manufacturing is hygienic management. Thus, food manufactures prove their hygienic activities by taking certifications like a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP). This concept also applies to food monitoring. Acoustical measurements have advantage for other measurement in food monitoring because they make it possible to measure with noncontact and nondestructive. We tried to monitor lactic fermentation of yogurt by a probing sensor using a pair of acoustic transducers. Temperature of the solution changes by the reaction heat of fermentation. Consequently the sound velocity propagated through the solution also changes depending on the temperature. At the same time, the solution change its phase from liquid to gel. The transducers usage in the solution indicates the change of the temperature as the change of the phase difference between two transducers. The acoustic method has advantages of nondestructive measurement that reduces contamination of food product by measuring instrument. The sensor was inserted into milk with lactic acid bacterial stain of 19 degrees C and monitored phase retardation of propagated acoustic wave and its temperature with thermocouples in the mild. The monitoring result of fermentation from milk to Caspian Sea yogurt by the acoustic transducers with the frequency of 3.7 MHz started to show gradient change in temperature caused by reaction heat of fermentation but stop the gradient change at the end although the temperature still change. The gradient change stopped its change because of phase change from liquid to gel. The present method will be able to measure indirectly by setting transducers outside of the measuring object. This noncontact sensing method will have great advantage of reduces risk of food contamination from measuring instrument because the measurement probes are set out of fermentation reactor or food containers. Our proposed method will contribute to the

  16. Fermented Nut-Based Vegan Food: Characterization of a Home made Product and Scale-Up to an Industrial Pilot-Scale Production.

    PubMed

    Tabanelli, Giulia; Pasini, Federica; Riciputi, Ylenia; Vannini, Lucia; Gozzi, Giorgia; Balestra, Federica; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Gardini, Fausto; Montanari, Chiara

    2018-03-01

    Because of the impossibility to consume food of animal origin, vegan consumers are looking for substitutes that could enrich their diet. Among many substitutes, fermented nut products are made from different nut types and obtained after soaking, grinding, and fermentation. Although other fermented vegetable products have been deeply investigated, there are few data about the fermentative processes of nut-based products and the microbial consortia able to colonize these products are not yet studied. This study characterized a hand-made vegan product obtained from cashew nut. Lactic acid bacteria responsible for fermentation were identified, revealing a succession of hetero- and homo-fermentative species during process. Successively, some lactic acid bacteria isolates from the home-made vegan product were used for a pilot-scale fermentation. The products obtained were characterized and showed features similar to the home-made one, although the microbiological hazards have been prevented through proper and rapid acidification, enhancing their safety features. Spontaneous fermented products are valuable sources of microorganisms that can be used in many food processes as starter cultures. The lactic acid bacteria isolated in this research can be exploited by industries to develop new foods and therefore to enter new markets. The use of selected starter cultures guarantees good organoleptic characteristics and food safety (no growth of pathogens). © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  17. Metabolism of nitrate in fermented meats: the characteristic feature of a specific group of fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Hammes, Walter P

    2012-04-01

    Within the universe of food fermentation processes the multi-purpose use of nitrate and/or nitrite is a unique characteristic of meat fermentations. These curing agents play a decisive role in obtaining the specific sensory properties, stability and hygienic safety of products such as fermented sausages, ham and, more recently, emulsion type of sausages. The use of nitrate is the traditional method in curing processes and requires its reduction to reactive nitrite. Thus, nitrate reduction is the key event that is exclusively performed by microorganisms. Under controlled fermentation conditions starter cultures are used that contain staphylococci and/or Kocuria varians, which in addition to strongly affecting sensory properties exhibit efficient nitrate reductase activity. To obtain clean label products some plant sources of nitrate have been in use. When producing thermally treated sausages (e.g. of emulsion type), starter cultures are used that form nitrite before cooking takes place. Staphylococci reduce nitrite to ammonia after nitrate has been consumed. K. varians is devoid of nitrite reductase activity. Nitrate and nitrite reductases are also present in certain strains of lactobacilli. It was shown that their application as starter cultures warrants efficient activity in sausages made with either nitrate or nitrite. NO is formed from nitrite in numerous chemical reactions among which disproportionation and reaction with reductants either added or endogenous in meat are of practical importance. Numerous nitrosation and nitrosylation reactions take place in the meat matrix among which the formation of nitrosomyoglobin is of major sensory importance. Safety considerations in meat fermentation relate to the safe nature of the starter organisms and to the use of nitrate/nitrite. Staphylococci ("micrococci") in fermented meat have a long tradition in food use but have not received the QPS status from the EFSA. They require, therefore, thorough assessment with

  18. Biotechnology in Food Production and Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knorr, Dietrich; Sinskey, Anthony J.

    1985-09-01

    The food processing industry is the oldest and largest industry using biotechnological processes. Further development of food products and processes based on biotechnology depends upon the improvement of existing processes, such as fermentation, immobilized biocatalyst technology, and production of additives and processing aids, as well as the development of new opportunities for food biotechnology. Improvements are needed in the characterization, safety, and quality control of food materials, in processing methods, in waste conversion and utilization processes, and in currently used food microorganism and tissue culture systems. Also needed are fundamental studies of the structure-function relationship of food materials and of the cell physiology and biochemistry of raw materials.

  19. A Review of Fermented Foods with Beneficial Effects on Brain and Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Binna; Hong, Veronica Minsu; Yang, Jeongwon; Hyun, Heejung; Im, Jooyeon Jamie; Hwang, Jaeuk; Yoon, Sujung; Kim, Jieun E.

    2016-01-01

    Around the world, fermentation of foods has been adopted over many generations, primarily due to their commercial significance with enriched flavors and high-profile nutrients. The increasing application of fermented foods is further promoted by recent evidence on their health benefits, beyond the traditionally recognized effects on the digestive system. With recent advances in the understanding of gut-brain interactions, there have also been reports suggesting the fermented food’s efficacy, particularly for cognitive function improvements. These results are strengthened by the proposed biological effects of fermented foods, including neuroprotection against neurotoxicity and reactive oxygen species. This paper reviews the beneficial health effects of fermented foods with particular emphasis on cognitive enhancement and neuroprotective effects. With an extensive review of fermented foods and their potential cognitive benefits, this paper may promote commercially feasible applications of fermented foods as natural remedies to cognitive problems. PMID:28078251

  20. Influence of Fermentation Process on the Anthocyanin Composition of Wine and Vinegar Elaborated from Strawberry.

    PubMed

    Hornedo-Ortega, Ruth; Álvarez-Fernández, M Antonia; Cerezo, Ana B; Garcia-Garcia, Isidoro; Troncoso, Ana M; Garcia-Parrilla, M Carmen

    2017-02-01

    Anthocyanins are the major polyphenolic compounds in strawberry fruit responsible for its color. Due to their sensitivity, they are affected by food processing techniques such as fermentation that alters both their chemical composition and organoleptic properties. This work aims to evaluate the impact of different fermentation processes on individual anthocyanins compounds in strawberry wine and vinegar by UHPLC-MS/MS Q Exactive analysis. Nineteen, 18, and 14 anthocyanin compounds were identified in the strawberry initial substrate, strawberry wine, and strawberry vinegar, respectively. Four and 8 anthocyanin compounds were tentatively identified with high accuracy for the 1st time to be present in the beverages obtained by alcoholic fermentation and acetic fermentation of strawberry, respectively. Both, the total and the individual anthocyanin concentrations were decreased by both fermentation processes, affecting the alcoholic fermentation to a lesser extent (19%) than the acetic fermentation (91%). Indeed, several changes in color parameters have been assessed. The color of the wine and the vinegar made from strawberry changed during the fermentation process, varying from red to orange color, this fact is directly correlated with the decrease of anthocyanins compounds. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  1. Fermented Food and Non-Communicable Chronic Diseases: A Review.

    PubMed

    Gille, Doreen; Schmid, Alexandra; Walther, Barbara; Vergères, Guy

    2018-04-04

    Fermented foods represent a significant fraction of human diets. Although their impact on health is positively perceived, an objective evaluation is still missing. We have, therefore, reviewed meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCT) investigating the relationship between fermented foods and non-transmissible chronic diseases. Overall, after summarizing 25 prospective studies on dairy products, the association of fermented dairy with cancer was found to be neutral, whereas it was weakly beneficial, though inconsistent, for specific aspects of cardio-metabolic health, in particular stroke and cheese intake. The strongest evidence for a beneficial effect was for yoghurt on risk factors of type 2 diabetes. Although mechanisms explaining this association have not been validated, an increased bioavailability of insulinotropic amino acids and peptides as well as the bacterial biosynthesis of vitamins, in particular vitamin K2, might contribute to this beneficial effect. However, the heterogeneity in the design of the studies and the investigated foods impedes a definitive assessment of these associations. The literature on fermented plants is characterized by a wealth of in vitro data, whose positive results are not corroborated in humans due to the absence of RCTs. Finally, none of the RCTs were specifically designed to address the impact of food fermentation on health. This question should be addressed in future human studies.

  2. Occurrence and function of yeasts in Asian indigenous fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Aidoo, Kofi E; Nout, M J Rob; Sarkar, Prabir K

    2006-01-01

    In the Asian region, indigenous fermented foods are important in daily life. In many of these foods, yeasts are predominant and functional during the fermentation. The diversity of foods in which yeasts predominate ranges from leavened bread-like products such as nan and idli, to alcoholic beverages such as rice and palm wines, and condiments such as papads and soy sauce. Although several products are obtained by natural fermentation, the use of traditional starter cultures is widespread. This minireview focuses on the diversity and functionality of yeasts in these products, and on opportunities for research and development.

  3. Fermented Food and Non-Communicable Chronic Diseases: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Gille, Doreen; Schmid, Alexandra; Walther, Barbara; Vergères, Guy

    2018-01-01

    Fermented foods represent a significant fraction of human diets. Although their impact on health is positively perceived, an objective evaluation is still missing. We have, therefore, reviewed meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCT) investigating the relationship between fermented foods and non-transmissible chronic diseases. Overall, after summarizing 25 prospective studies on dairy products, the association of fermented dairy with cancer was found to be neutral, whereas it was weakly beneficial, though inconsistent, for specific aspects of cardio-metabolic health, in particular stroke and cheese intake. The strongest evidence for a beneficial effect was for yoghurt on risk factors of type 2 diabetes. Although mechanisms explaining this association have not been validated, an increased bioavailability of insulinotropic amino acids and peptides as well as the bacterial biosynthesis of vitamins, in particular vitamin K2, might contribute to this beneficial effect. However, the heterogeneity in the design of the studies and the investigated foods impedes a definitive assessment of these associations. The literature on fermented plants is characterized by a wealth of in vitro data, whose positive results are not corroborated in humans due to the absence of RCTs. Finally, none of the RCTs were specifically designed to address the impact of food fermentation on health. This question should be addressed in future human studies. PMID:29617330

  4. Identification of proteolytic bacteria from thai traditional fermented foods and their allergenic reducing potentials.

    PubMed

    Phromraksa, P; Nagano, H; Boonmars, T; Kamboonruang, C

    2008-05-01

    This study aimed to identify proteolytic bacteria from Thai traditional fermented foods and investigate their allergenic reducing potentials to wheat and milk allergens. Nine bacteria were isolated from fermented foods as follows: fermented soybean seeds (Thua Nao), fermented soybean paste (Thua Nao), wheat flour dough of steamed stuffed bun (Sa La Pao), and soaked rice from Thai fermented rice-noodle (Kha Nhom Jeen) processing. Both phenotypic and genotypic identifications were used in this study. It was found that all isolates were Gram-positive rods. Seven isolates were matched and identified as Bacillus subtilis by both techniques, and the remaining 2 isolates were phenotypically and genotypically identified as B. licheniformis and B. subtilis, respectively. The concentrated crude enzyme of B. subtilis DB and SR could reduce allergenicity of gliadin by hydrolyzing the allergenic gliadin fragments detected by immunoblotting. Furthermore, the enzyme of B. subtilis DB could also reduce allergenicity of beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) detected by hydrolyzing the major allergenic epitope of beta-LG at Gln(35)-Ser(36) position. B. subtilis DB and SR can be applied for the production of hypoallergenic wheat flour or milk food products.

  5. Invited review: Fermented milk as antihypertensive functional food.

    PubMed

    Beltrán-Barrientos, L M; Hernández-Mendoza, A; Torres-Llanez, M J; González-Córdova, A F; Vallejo-Córdoba, B

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decade, interest has risen in fermented dairy foods that promote health and could prevent diseases such as hypertension. This biological effect has mainly been attributed to bioactive peptides encrypted within dairy proteins that can be released during fermentation with specific lactic acid bacteria or during gastrointestinal digestion. The most studied bioactive peptides derived from dairy proteins are antihypertensive peptides; however, a need exists to review the different studies dealing with the evaluation of antihypertensive fermented milk before a health claim may be associated with the product. Thus, the objective of this overview was to present available information related to the evaluation of fermented milk containing antihypertensive peptides by in vitro and in vivo studies, which are required before a fermented functional dairy product may be introduced to the market. Although commercial fermented milks with antihypertensive effects exist, these are scarce and most are based on Lactobacillus helveticus. Thus, a great opportunity is available for the development of functional dairy products with new lactic acid bacteria that support heart health through blood pressure- and heart rate-lowering effects. Hence, the consumer may be willing to pay a premium for foods with important functional benefits. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Sustainable Food Processing Inspired by Nature.

    PubMed

    Sybesma, Wilbert; Blank, Imre; Lee, Yuan-Kun

    2017-04-01

    Here, we elaborate on the natural origin and use of enzymes and cultures in sustainable food processing. We also illustrate how enzymatically treated or fermented food can contribute to solving challenges involving nutrition and health, such as aging, malnutrition, obesity, and allergy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Koji--where East meets West in fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yang; Tramper, Johannes

    2013-12-01

    Almost all biotechnological processes originate from traditional food fermentations, i.e. the many indigenous processes that can be found already in the written history of thousands of years ago. We still consume many of these fermented foods and beverages on a daily basis today. The evolution of these traditional processes, in particular since the 19th century, stimulated and influenced the development of modern biotechnological processes. In return, the development of modern biotechnology and related advanced techniques will no doubt improve the process, the product quality and the safety of our favourite fermented foods and beverages. In this article, we describe the relationship between these traditional food fermentations and modern biotechnology. Using Koji and its derived product soy sauce as examples, we address the mutual influences that will provide us with a better future concerning the quality, safety and nutritional effect of many fermented food products. © 2013.

  8. A multiplex competitive ELISA for the detection and characterization of gluten in fermented-hydrolyzed foods.

    PubMed

    Panda, Rakhi; Boyer, Marc; Garber, Eric A E

    2017-12-01

    A novel competitive ELISA was developed utilizing the G12, R5, 2D4, MIoBS, and Skerritt antibody-HRP conjugates employed in nine commercial ELISA test kits that are routinely used for gluten detection. This novel multiplex competitive ELISA simultaneously measures gliadin-, deamidated gliadin-, and glutenin-specific epitopes. The assay was used to evaluate 20 wheat beers, 20 barley beers, 6 barley beers processed to reduce gluten, 15 soy sauces, 6 teriyaki sauces, 6 Worcestershire sauces, 6 vinegars, and 8 sourdough breads. For wheat beers, the apparent gluten concentration values obtained by the G12 and Skerritt antibodies were typically higher than those obtained using the R5 antibodies. The sourdough bread samples resulted in higher apparent gluten concentration values with the Skerritt antibody, while the values generated by the G12 and R5 antibodies were comparable. Although the soy-based sauces showed non-specific inhibition with the multiple R5 and G12 antibodies, their overall profile was distinguishable from the other categories of fermented foods. Cluster analysis of the apparent gluten concentration values obtained by the multiplex competitive ELISA, as well as the relative response of the nine gluten-specific antibodies used in the assay to different gluten proteins/peptides, distinguishes among the different categories of fermented-hydrolyzed foods by recognizing the differences in the protein/peptide profiles characteristic of each product. This novel gluten-based multiplex competitive ELISA provides insight into the extent of proteolysis resulting from various fermentation processes, which is essential for accurate gluten quantification in fermented-hydrolyzed foods. Graphical abstract A novel multiplex competitive ELISA for the detection and characterization of gluten in fermented-hydrolyzed foods.

  9. Batch dark fermentation from enzymatic hydrolyzed food waste for hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Ye, Min; Zhu, Ai Jun; Zhao, Hong Ting; Li, Yong Feng

    2015-09-01

    A combination bioprocess of solid-state fermentation (SSF) and dark fermentative hydrogen production from food waste was developed. Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae were utilized in SSF from food waste to generate glucoamylase and protease which were used to hydrolyze the food waste suspension to get the nutrients-rich (glucose and free amino nitrogen (FAN)) hydrolysate. Both glucose and FAN increased with increasing of food waste mass ratio from 4% to 10% (w/v) and the highest glucose (36.9 g/L) and FAN (361.3mg/L) were observed at food waste mass ratio of 10%. The food waste hydrolysates were then used as the feedstock for dark fermentative hydrogen production by heat pretreated sludge. The best hydrogen yield of 39.14 ml H2/g food waste (219.91 ml H2/VSadded) was achieved at food waste mass ratio of 4%. The proposed combination bioprocess could effectively accelerate the hydrolysis rate, improve raw material utilization and enhance hydrogen yield. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Aggravation of atopic dermatitis in breast-fed infants by tree nut-related foods and fermented foods in breast milk.

    PubMed

    Uenishi, Toshiaki; Sugiura, Hisashi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Uehara, Masami

    2011-02-01

    Ninety-two exclusively breast-fed Japanese infants with atopic dermatitis were studied to see whether tree nut-related foods (chocolate and coffee) and fermented foods (cheese, yogurt, bread, soy sauce, miso soup and fermented soy beans) eaten by their mothers affected their skin condition. Of the 92 infants, 67 (73%) showed improvement of skin lesions when their mothers avoided these foods and showed aggravation of skin lesions when these foods were reintroduced. The predominant offending foods were chocolate, yogurt, soy sauce and miso soup. A long-term maternal exclusion of the trigger foods brought about progressive improvement of skin lesions in the majority of the infants. These findings suggest that tree nut-related foods and fermented foods are important offending foods of atopic dermatitis in breast-fed infants. © 2010 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  11. The advantages of deep ocean water for the development of functional fermentation food.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chun-Lin

    2015-03-01

    Deep ocean water (DOW) is obtained from 600 m below the sea surface. In recent years, DOW has been applied in the development of fermentation biotechnologies and functional foods. DOW is rich in trace minerals, comprises multiple physiological and health functions, and is able to promote microbe growth; therefore, the application of DOW directly benefits the development of the fermentation industry and functional foods. This study integrated the current health functions and applications of DOW with the latest results from studies related to fermentation biotechnology. Subsequently, the influence of applying DOW in fermented functional food development and the effects in health function improvements were summarized. According to the previous studies, the main reasons for the increased effect of fermented functional foods through the application of DOW are increased generation of functional metabolite contents in the microbes, intrinsic health functions of DOW, and the microbial use of mechanisms of converting the absorbed inorganic ions into highly bioavailable organic ions for the human body. These combined advantages not only enhance the health functions of fermentation products but also provide fermentation products with the intrinsic health functions of DOW.

  12. Analysis of Improved Nutritional Composition of Potential Functional Food (Okara) after Probiotic Solid-State Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sulagna; Lee, Jaslyn J L; Chen, Wei Ning

    2018-05-30

    Okara is a major agro-waste, generated as a byproduct from the soymilk and tofu industry. Since okara has a high nutritive value, reusing it as a substrate for solid state biofermentation is an economical and environmental friendly option. Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus plantarum were the probiotic FDA-approved food-grade cultures used in this study. The study revealed that biofermenting okara improves its nutritional composition. It was found that the metabolomic composition (by GC-MS analysis) and antioxidant activity (by DPPH test) improved after the microbial fermentations. Of the two, okara fermented with R. oligosporus showed better results. Further, the metabolites were traced back to their respective biosynthesis pathways, in order to understand the biochemical reactions being triggered during the fermentation processes. The findings of this entire work open up the possibility of employing fermented okara as a potential functional food for animal feed.

  13. Is lactate an undervalued functional component of fermented food products?

    PubMed Central

    Garrote, Graciela L.; Abraham, Analía G.; Rumbo, Martín

    2015-01-01

    Although it has been traditionally regarded as an intermediate of carbon metabolism and major component of fermented dairy products contributing to organoleptic and antimicrobial properties of food, there is evidence gathered in recent years that lactate has bioactive properties that may be responsible of broader properties of functional foods. Lactate can regulate critical functions of several key players of the immune system such as macrophages and dendritic cells, being able to modulate inflammatory activation of epithelial cells as well. Intraluminal levels of lactate derived from fermentative metabolism of lactobacilli have been shown to modulate inflammatory environment in intestinal mucosa. The molecular mechanisms responsible to these functions, including histone deacetylase dependent-modulation of gene expression and signaling through G-protein coupled receptors have started to be described. Since lactate is a major fermentation product of several bacterial families with probiotic properties, we here propose that it may contribute to some of the properties attributed to these microorganisms and in a larger view, to the properties of food products fermented by lactic acid bacteria. PMID:26150815

  14. Food processing by high hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kazutaka

    2017-04-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) process, as a nonthermal process, can be used to inactivate microbes while minimizing chemical reactions in food. In this regard, a HHP level of 100 MPa (986.9 atm/1019.7 kgf/cm 2 ) and more is applied to food. Conventional thermal process damages food components relating color, flavor, and nutrition via enhanced chemical reactions. However, HHP process minimizes the damages and inactivates microbes toward processing high quality safe foods. The first commercial HHP-processed foods were launched in 1990 as fruit products such as jams, and then some other products have been commercialized: retort rice products (enhanced water impregnation), cooked hams and sausages (shelf life extension), soy sauce with minimized salt (short-time fermentation owing to enhanced enzymatic reactions), and beverages (shelf life extension). The characteristics of HHP food processing are reviewed from viewpoints of nonthermal process, history, research and development, physical and biochemical changes, and processing equipment.

  15. Development of Fermented Taro as a Food Preservative Ingredient in Intermediate Moisture Products

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    BACTERIOCINS TARO MOISTURE MICROBIOLOGY NISIN SHELF LIFE FOOD SPOILAGE RATIONS FOOD SAFETY FERMF.l’l TATION 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION...Antibacterial Potential of Fermented Taro and its Development as a Food Preservative". This report covers the second part of the microbiology and food ... safety aspects of the project, the development of fermented taro as a food preservative and its incorporation into a developmental military food

  16. Traditional low-alcoholic and non-alcoholic fermented beverages consumed in European countries: a neglected food group.

    PubMed

    Baschali, Aristea; Tsakalidou, Effie; Kyriacou, Adamantini; Karavasiloglou, Nena; Matalas, Antonia-Leda

    2017-06-01

    Fermented beverages hold a long tradition and contribution to the nutrition of many societies and cultures worldwide. Traditional fermentation has been empirically developed in ancient times as a process of raw food preservation and at the same time production of new foods with different sensorial characteristics, such as texture, flavour and aroma, as well as nutritional value. Low-alcoholic fermented beverages (LAFB) and non-alcoholic fermented beverages (NAFB) represent a subgroup of fermented beverages that have received rather little attention by consumers and scientists alike, especially with regard to their types and traditional uses in European societies. A literature review was undertaken and research articles, review papers and textbooks were searched in order to retrieve data regarding the dietary role, nutrient composition, health benefits and other relevant aspects of diverse ethnic LAFB and NAFB consumed by European populations. A variety of traditional LAFB and NAFB consumed in European regions, such as kefir, kvass, kombucha and hardaliye, are presented. Milk-based LAFB and NAFB are also available on the market, often characterised as 'functional' foods on the basis of their probiotic culture content. Future research should focus on elucidating the dietary role and nutritional value of traditional and 'functional' LAFB and NAFB, their potential health benefits and consumption trends in European countries. Such data will allow for LAFB and NAFB to be included in national food composition tables.

  17. 40 CFR 180.522 - Fumigants for processed grains used in production of fermented malt beverage; tolerances for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... production of fermented malt beverage; tolerances for residues. 180.522 Section 180.522 Protection of... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.522 Fumigants for processed grains used in production of fermented malt beverage; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Fumigants for processed grain...

  18. Enzymes- An Existing and Promising Tool of Food Processing Industry.

    PubMed

    Ray, Lalitagauri; Pramanik, Sunita; Bera, Debabrata

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme catalyzed process technology has enormous potential in the food sectors as indicated by the recent patents studies. It is very well realized that the adaptation of the enzyme catalyzed process depends on the availability of enzyme in affordable prices. Enzymes may be used in different food sectors like dairy, fruits & vegetable processing, meat tenderization, fish processing, brewery and wine making, starch processing and many other. Commercially only a small number of enzymes are used because of several factors including instability of enzymes during processing and high cost. More and more enzymes for food technology are now derived from specially selected or genetically modified microorganisms grown in industrial scale fermenters. Enzymes with microbial source have commercial advantages of using microbial fermentation rather than animal and plant extraction to produce food enzymes. At present only a relatively small number of enzymes are used commercially in food processing. But the number is increasing day by day and field of application will be expanded more and more in near future. The purpose of this review is to describe the practical applications of enzymes in the field of food processing.

  19. Kombucha brewing under the Food and Drug Administration model Food Code: risk analysis and processing guidance.

    PubMed

    Nummer, Brian A

    2013-11-01

    Kombucha is a fermented beverage made from brewed tea and sugar. The taste is slightly sweet and acidic and it may have residual carbon dioxide. Kombucha is consumed in many countries as a health beverage and it is gaining in popularity in the U.S. Consequently, many retailers and food service operators are seeking to brew this beverage on site. As a fermented beverage, kombucha would be categorized in the Food and Drug Administration model Food Code as a specialized process and would require a variance with submission of a food safety plan. This special report was created to assist both operators and regulators in preparing or reviewing a kombucha food safety plan.

  20. Formation of taste-active amino acids, amino acid derivatives and peptides in food fermentations - A review.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Cindy J; Schieber, Andreas; Gänzle, Michael G

    2016-11-01

    Fermented foods are valued for their rich and complex odour and taste. The metabolic activity of food-fermenting microorganisms determines food quality and generates odour and taste compounds. This communication reviews the formation of taste-active amino acids, amino acid derivatives and peptides in food fermentations. Pathways of the generation of taste compounds are presented for soy sauce, cheese, fermented meats, and bread. Proteolysis or autolysis during food fermentations generates taste-active amino acids and peptides; peptides derived from proteolysis particularly impart umami taste (e.g. α-glutamyl peptides) or bitter taste (e.g. hydrophobic peptides containing proline). Taste active peptide derivatives include pyroglutamyl peptides, γ-glutamyl peptides, and succinyl- or lactoyl amino acids. The influence of fermentation microbiota on proteolysis, and peptide hydrolysis, and the metabolism of glutamate and arginine is well understood, however, the understanding of microbial metabolic activities related to the formation of taste-active peptide derivatives is incomplete. Improved knowledge of the interactions between taste-active compounds will enable the development of novel fermentation strategies to develop tastier, less bitter, and low-salt food products, and may provide novel and "clean label" ingredients to improve the taste of other food products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Recent advances in lactic acid production by microbial fermentation processes.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Ali; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2013-11-01

    Fermentative production of optically pure lactic acid has roused interest among researchers in recent years due to its high potential for applications in a wide range of fields. More specifically, the sharp increase in manufacturing of biodegradable polylactic acid (PLA) materials, green alternatives to petroleum-derived plastics, has significantly increased the global interest in lactic acid production. However, higher production costs have hindered the large-scale application of PLA because of the high price of lactic acid. Therefore, reduction of lactic acid production cost through utilization of inexpensive substrates and improvement of lactic acid production and productivity has become an important goal. Various methods have been employed for enhanced lactic acid production, including several bioprocess techniques facilitated by wild-type and/or engineered microbes. In this review, we will discuss lactic acid producers with relation to their fermentation characteristics and metabolism. Inexpensive fermentative substrates, such as dairy products, food and agro-industrial wastes, glycerol, and algal biomass alternatives to costly pure sugars and food crops are introduced. The operational modes and fermentation methods that have been recently reported to improve lactic acid production in terms of concentrations, yields, and productivities are summarized and compared. High cell density fermentation through immobilization and cell-recycling techniques are also addressed. Finally, advances in recovery processes and concluding remarks on the future outlook of lactic acid production are presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Whole-Genome Sequencing and Comparative Genome Analysis of Bacillus subtilis Strains Isolated from Non-Salted Fermented Soybean Foods.

    PubMed

    Kamada, Mayumi; Hase, Sumitaka; Fujii, Kazushi; Miyake, Masato; Sato, Kengo; Kimura, Keitarou; Sakakibara, Yasubumi

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is the main component in the fermentation of soybeans. To investigate the genetics of the soybean-fermenting B. subtilis strains and its relationship with the productivity of extracellular poly-γ-glutamic acid (γPGA), we sequenced the whole genome of eight B. subtilis stains isolated from non-salted fermented soybean foods in Southeast Asia. Assembled nucleotide sequences were compared with those of a natto (fermented soybean food) starter strain B. subtilis BEST195 and the laboratory standard strain B. subtilis 168 that is incapable of γPGA production. Detected variants were investigated in terms of insertion sequences, biotin synthesis, production of subtilisin NAT, and regulatory genes for γPGA synthesis, which were related to fermentation process. Comparing genome sequences, we found that the strains that produce γPGA have a deletion in a protein that constitutes the flagellar basal body, and this deletion was not found in the non-producing strains. We further identified diversity in variants of the bio operon, which is responsible for the biotin auxotrophism of the natto starter strains. Phylogenetic analysis using multilocus sequencing typing revealed that the B. subtilis strains isolated from the non-salted fermented soybeans were not clustered together, while the natto-fermenting strains were tightly clustered; this analysis also suggested that the strain isolated from "Tua Nao" of Thailand traces a different evolutionary process from other strains.

  3. Whole-Genome Sequencing and Comparative Genome Analysis of Bacillus subtilis Strains Isolated from Non-Salted Fermented Soybean Foods

    PubMed Central

    Kamada, Mayumi; Hase, Sumitaka; Fujii, Kazushi; Miyake, Masato; Sato, Kengo; Kimura, Keitarou; Sakakibara, Yasubumi

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is the main component in the fermentation of soybeans. To investigate the genetics of the soybean-fermenting B. subtilis strains and its relationship with the productivity of extracellular poly-γ-glutamic acid (γPGA), we sequenced the whole genome of eight B. subtilis stains isolated from non-salted fermented soybean foods in Southeast Asia. Assembled nucleotide sequences were compared with those of a natto (fermented soybean food) starter strain B. subtilis BEST195 and the laboratory standard strain B. subtilis 168 that is incapable of γPGA production. Detected variants were investigated in terms of insertion sequences, biotin synthesis, production of subtilisin NAT, and regulatory genes for γPGA synthesis, which were related to fermentation process. Comparing genome sequences, we found that the strains that produce γPGA have a deletion in a protein that constitutes the flagellar basal body, and this deletion was not found in the non-producing strains. We further identified diversity in variants of the bio operon, which is responsible for the biotin auxotrophism of the natto starter strains. Phylogenetic analysis using multilocus sequencing typing revealed that the B. subtilis strains isolated from the non-salted fermented soybeans were not clustered together, while the natto-fermenting strains were tightly clustered; this analysis also suggested that the strain isolated from “Tua Nao” of Thailand traces a different evolutionary process from other strains. PMID:26505996

  4. Monitoring of Lactic Fermentation Process by Ultrasonic Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alouache, B.; Touat, A.; Boutkedjirt, T.; Bennamane, A.

    The non-destructive control by using ultrasound techniques has become of great importance in food industry. In this work, Ultrasound has been used for quality control and monitoring the fermentation stages of yogurt, which is a highly consumed product. On the contrary to the physico-chemical methods, where the measurement instruments are directly introduced in the sample, ultrasound techniques have the advantage of being non-destructive and contactless, thus reducing the risk of contamination. Results obtained in this study by using ultrasound seem to be in good agreement with those obtained by physico-chemical methods such as acidity measurement by using a PH-meter instrument. This lets us to conclude that ultrasound method may be an alternative for a healthy control of yoghurt fermentation process.

  5. Food processing and allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Verhoeckx, Kitty C M; Vissers, Yvonne M; Baumert, Joseph L; Faludi, Roland; Feys, Marcel; Flanagan, Simon; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Holzhauser, Thomas; Shimojo, Ryo; van der Bolt, Nieke; Wichers, Harry; Kimber, Ian

    2015-06-01

    Food processing can have many beneficial effects. However, processing may also alter the allergenic properties of food proteins. A wide variety of processing methods is available and their use depends largely on the food to be processed. In this review the impact of processing (heat and non-heat treatment) on the allergenic potential of proteins, and on the antigenic (IgG-binding) and allergenic (IgE-binding) properties of proteins has been considered. A variety of allergenic foods (peanuts, tree nuts, cows' milk, hens' eggs, soy, wheat and mustard) have been reviewed. The overall conclusion drawn is that processing does not completely abolish the allergenic potential of allergens. Currently, only fermentation and hydrolysis may have potential to reduce allergenicity to such an extent that symptoms will not be elicited, while other methods might be promising but need more data. Literature on the effect of processing on allergenic potential and the ability to induce sensitisation is scarce. This is an important issue since processing may impact on the ability of proteins to cause the acquisition of allergic sensitisation, and the subject should be a focus of future research. Also, there remains a need to develop robust and integrated methods for the risk assessment of food allergenicity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Open fermentative production of fuel ethanol from food waste by an acid-tolerant mutant strain of Zymomonas mobilis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kedong; Ruan, Zhiyong; Shui, Zongxia; Wang, Yanwei; Hu, Guoquan; He, Mingxiong

    2016-03-01

    The aim of present study was to develop a process for open ethanol fermentation from food waste using an acid-tolerant mutant of Zymomonas mobilis (ZMA7-2). The mutant showed strong tolerance to acid condition of food waste hydrolysate and high ethanol production performance. By optimizing fermentation parameters, ethanol fermentation with initial glucose concentration of 200 g/L, pH value around 4.0, inoculum size of 10% and without nutrient addition was considered as best conditions. Moreover, the potential of bench scales fermentation and cell reusability was also examined. The fermentation in bench scales (44 h) was faster than flask scale (48 h), and the maximum ethanol concentration and ethanol yield (99.78 g/L, 0.50 g/g) higher than that of flask scale (98.31 g/L, 0.49 g/g). In addition, the stable cell growth and ethanol production profile in five cycles successive fermentation was observed, indicating the mutant was suitable for industrial ethanol production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Isolation and characterization of lactic acid bacteria from pobuzihi (fermented cummingcordia), a traditional fermented food in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Sheng; Wu, Hui-Chung; Wang, Chiung-Mei; Lin, Chia-Chun; Chen, Yi-Ting; Jhong, Yu-Jyun; Yanagida, Fujitoshi

    2013-03-01

    Lactobacillus pobuzihii is a novel species which has been previously found in pobuzihi (fermented cummingcordia), a traditional fermented food in Taiwan. However, the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) microflora in pobuzihi has not been studied in detail. In this study, LAB from pobuzihi were isolated, identified, and characterized. A total of 196 LAB were isolated; 79 cultures were isolated from the sample collected from a manufacturing factory, 38 from pobuzihi samples collected from 4 different markets, and 79 from 2 fresh cummingcordia samples. These isolates were characterized phenotypically and then divided into eight groups (A to H) by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA. Lactobacillus plantarum was the most abundant LAB found in most samples during the fermentation of pobuzihi. On the other hand, Enterococcus casseliflavus and Weissella cibaria were, respectively, the major species found in the two fresh cummingcordia samples. A potential novel species or subspecies of lactococcal strain was found. In addition, seven L. plantarum and five W. cibaria strains showed inhibitory activity against the indicator strain Lactobacillus sakei JCM 1157(T). This is the first report describing the distribution and varieties of LAB existing in the pobuzihi during its fermentation process and the final product on the market.

  8. Lactic acid fermentation in the production of foods from vegetables, cereals and legumes.

    PubMed

    Steinkraus, K H

    1983-09-01

    Lactic acid bacteria perform an essential role in the preservation and production of wholesome foods. Generally the lactic acid fermentations are low-cost and often little or no heat is required in their preparation. Thus, they are fuel-efficient. Lactic acid fermented foods have an important role in feeding the world's population on every continent today. As world population rises, lactic acid fermentation is expected to become even more important in preserving fresh vegetables, fruits, cereals and legumes for feeding humanity.

  9. Development of a novel three-stage fermentation system converting food waste to hydrogen and methane.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Mi-Sun

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a novel three-stage (lactate-+photo-H(2)+CH(4)) fermentation system was developed, which converts food waste to H(2) and CH(4), with an emphasis on achieving high H(2) yield. The system begins by first fermenting food waste to lactate, rather than acetate and butyrate, using indigenous lactic acid bacteria. Lactate fermentation effluent was then centrifuged, and the supernatant was used for H(2) production by photo-fermentation, while the residue was used for CH(4) production by anaerobic digestion. Overall, via the three-stage fermentation system, 41% and 37% of the energy content in the food waste was converted to H(2) and CH(4), respectively, corresponding to the electrical energy yield of 1146 MJ/ton-food waste, which is 1.4 times higher value than that of previous two-stage dark (H(2)+CH(4)) fermentation system. The H(2) yield based on hexose input was 8.35 mol H(2)/mol hexose(added), the highest value ever reported from actual organic waste. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 fermentation improves nutritional quality of food soybeans and feed soybean meals.

    PubMed

    Hong, Kee-Jong; Lee, Chan-Ho; Kim, Sung Woo

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of fermentation on the nutritional quality of food-grade soybeans and feed-grade soybean meals. Soybeans and soybean meals were fermented by Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 in a bed-packed solid fermentor for 48 hours. After fermentation, their nutrient contents as well as trypsin inhibitor were measured and compared with those of raw soybeans and soybean meals. Proteins were extracted from fermented and non-fermented soybeans and soybean meals, and the peptide characteristics were evaluated after electrophoresis. Fermented soybeans and fermented soybean meals contained 10% more (P < .05) crude protein than raw soybeans and soybean meals. The essential amino acid profile was unchanged after fermentation. Fermentation eliminated (P < .05) most of the trypsin inhibitor from both soybeans and soybean meals. Fermentation increased the amount of small-size peptides (<20 kDa) (P < .05) compared with raw soybeans, while significantly decreasing large-size peptides (>60 kDa) (P < .05). Fermented soybean meal contained more (P < .01) small-size peptides (<20 kDa) than soybean meal. Fermented soybean meal did not contain large-size peptides (>60 kDa), whereas 22.1% of peptides in soybean meal were large-size (>60 kDa). Collectively, fermentation increased protein content, eliminated trypsin inhibitors, and reduced peptide size in soybeans and soybean meals. These effects of fermentation might make soy foods more useful in human diets as a functional food and benefit livestock as a novel feed ingredient.

  11. Detection of Gluten during the Fermentation Process To Produce Soy Sauce.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wanying; Watson, Damien; Bakke, Mikio; Panda, Rakhi; Bedford, Binaifer; Kande, Parnavi S; Jackson, Lauren S; Garber, Eric A E

    2017-04-03

    Advances have been made to provide people with celiac disease (CD) access to a diverse diet through an increase in the availability of gluten-free food products and regulations designed to increase label reliability. Despite advances in our knowledge regarding CD and analytical methods to detect gluten, little is known about the effects of fermentation on gluten detection. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and lateral flow devices routinely used by analytical laboratories and regulatory agencies to test for the presence of gluten in food were examined for their ability to detect gluten during the fermentation processes leading to the production of soy sauce, as well as in finished products. Similar results were observed irrespective of whether the soy sauce was produced using pilot-plant facilities or according to a homemade protocol. In both cases, gluten was not detected after moromi (brine-based) fermentation, which is the second stage of fermentation. The inability to detect gluten after moromi fermentation was irrespective of whether the assay used a sandwich configuration that required two epitopes or a competitive configuration that required only one epitope. Consistent with these results was the observation that ELISA, lateral flow devices, and Western immunoblot analyses were unable to detect gluten in commercial soy sauce, teriyaki sauce, and Worcestershire sauce. Although reports are lacking on problems associated with the consumption of fermented soy-containing sauces by consumers with CD, additional research is needed to determine whether all immunopathogenic elements in gluten are hydrolyzed during soy sauce production.

  12. Diversity and killer activity of yeasts in Malaysian fermented food samples.

    PubMed

    Lim, S L; Tay, S T

    2011-08-01

    The biodiversity and the killer activity of yeasts isolated from various types of fermented food in Malaysia were investigated in this study. Of 252 yeasts isolated from 48 fermented food samples in this study, 19 yeast species were identified based on sequence analysis of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 partial fragments of the yeasts. A total of 29 (11.5%) of the yeast isolates demonstrated killer activity to at least one Candida species tested in this study; including 22 isolates of Trichosporon asahii, 4 isolates of Pichia anomala, and one isolate each of Pichia norvegensis, Pichia fermentans and Issatchenkia orientalis, respectively. The presence of killer yeasts reflects antagonism that occurs during microbial interaction in the fermented food, whereby certain yeasts produce killer toxins and possibly other toxic substances in competition for limited nutrients and space. The anti-Candida activity demonstrated by killer yeasts in this study should be further explored for development of alternative therapy against candidiasis.

  13. The production of chemicals from food processing wastes using a novel fermenter separator. Annual progress report, January 1993--March 1994

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Dale, M.C.; Venkatesh, K.V.; Choi, H.

    The basic objective of this project is to convert waste streams from the food processing industry to usable fuels and chemicals using novel bioreactors. These bioreactors should allow economical utilization of waste (whey, waste sugars, waste starch, bottling wastes, candy wastes, molasses, and cellulosic wastes) by the production of ethanol, acetone/butanol, organic acids (acetic, lactic, and gluconic), yeast diacetyl flavor, and antifungal compounds. Continuous processes incorporating various processing improvements such as simultaneous product separation and immobilized cells are being developed to allow commercial scale utilization of waste stream. The production of ethanol by a continuous reactor-separator is the process closestmore » to commercialization with a 7,500 liter pilot plant presently sited at an Iowa site to convert whey lactose to ethanol. Accomplishments during 1993 include installation and start-up of a 7,500 liter ICRS for ethanol production at an industry site in Iowa; Donation and installation of a 200 liter yeast pilot Plant to the project from Kenyon Enterprises; Modeling and testing of a low energy system for recovery of ethanol from vapor is using a solvent absorption/extractive distillation system; Simultaneous saccharification/fermentation of raw corn grits and starch in a stirred reactor/separator; Testing of the ability of `koji` process to ferment raw corn grits in a `no-cook` process.« less

  14. Liquid fuels from food waste: An alternative process to co-digestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Yoke-Leng; Ch'ng, Boon-Juok; Mok, Yau-Cheng; Goh, Sok-Yee; Hilaire, Dickens Saint; Pinnock, Travis; Adams, Shemlyn; Cassis, Islande; Ibrahim, Zainab; Johnson, Camille; Johnson, Chantel; Khatim, Fatima; McCormack, Andrece; Okotiuero, Mary; Owens, Charity; Place, Meoak; Remy, Cristine; Strothers, Joel; Waithe, Shannon; Blaszczak-Boxe, Christopher; Pratt, Lawrence M.

    2017-04-01

    Waste from uneaten, spoiled, or otherwise unusable food is an untapped source of material for biofuels. A process is described to recover the oil from mixed food waste, together with a solid residue. This process includes grinding the food waste to an aqueous slurry, skimming off the oil, a combined steam treatment of the remaining solids concurrent with extrusion through a porous cylinder to release the remaining oil, a second oil skimming step, and centrifuging the solids to obtain a moist solid cake for fermentation. The water, together with any resulting oil from the centrifuging step, is recycled back to the grinding step, and the cycle is repeated. The efficiency of oil extraction increases with the oil content of the waste, and greater than 90% of the oil was collected from waste containing at least 3% oil based on the wet mass. Fermentation was performed on the solid cake to obtain ethanol, and the dried solid fermentation residue was a nearly odorless material with potential uses of biochar, gasification, or compost production. This technology has the potential to enable large producers of food waste to comply with new laws which require this material to be diverted from landfills.

  15. Novel Production Protocol for Small-scale Manufacture of Probiotic Fermented Foods

    PubMed Central

    Westerik, Nieke; Wacoo, Alex Paul; Sybesma, Wilbert; Kort, Remco

    2016-01-01

    A novel dried bacterial consortium of Lactobacillus rhamnosus yoba 2012 and Streptococcus thermophilus C106 is cultured in 1 L of milk. This fresh starter can be used for the production of fermented milk and other fermented foods either at home or at small-scale in rural settings. For the fresh starter, 1 L of milk is pasteurized in a pan that fits into a larger pan containing water, placed on a source of heat. In this water bath, the milk is heated and incubated at 85 °C for 30 min. Thereafter, the milk is cooled down to 45 °C, transferred to a vacuum flask, inoculated with the dried bacteria and left for at least 16 hr between 30 °C and 45 °C. For the purpose of frequent home production, the fresh starter is frozen into ice cubes, which can be used for the production of small volumes of up to 2 L of fermented milk. For the purpose of small-scale production in resource-poor countries, pasteurization of up to 100 L of milk is conducted in milk cans that are placed in a large sauce pan filled with water and heated on a fire at 85 °C for 30 min, and subsequently cooled to 45 °C. Next, the 100 L batch is inoculated with the 1 L freshly prepared starter mentioned before. To assure an effective fermentation at a temperature between 30 and 45 °C, the milk can is covered with a blanket for 12 hr. For the production of non-dairy fermented foods, the fresh starter is left in a cheese cloth for 12 hr, and the drained-off whey can be subsequently used for the inoculation of a wide range of food raw materials, including vegetables and cereal-based foods. PMID:27684196

  16. Novel Production Protocol for Small-scale Manufacture of Probiotic Fermented Foods.

    PubMed

    Westerik, Nieke; Wacoo, Alex Paul; Sybesma, Wilbert; Kort, Remco

    2016-09-10

    A novel dried bacterial consortium of Lactobacillus rhamnosus yoba 2012 and Streptococcus thermophilus C106 is cultured in 1 L of milk. This fresh starter can be used for the production of fermented milk and other fermented foods either at home or at small-scale in rural settings. For the fresh starter, 1 L of milk is pasteurized in a pan that fits into a larger pan containing water, placed on a source of heat. In this water bath, the milk is heated and incubated at 85 °C for 30 min. Thereafter, the milk is cooled down to 45 °C, transferred to a vacuum flask, inoculated with the dried bacteria and left for at least 16 hr between 30 °C and 45 °C. For the purpose of frequent home production, the fresh starter is frozen into ice cubes, which can be used for the production of small volumes of up to 2 L of fermented milk. For the purpose of small-scale production in resource-poor countries, pasteurization of up to 100 L of milk is conducted in milk cans that are placed in a large sauce pan filled with water and heated on a fire at 85 °C for 30 min, and subsequently cooled to 45 °C. Next, the 100 L batch is inoculated with the 1 L freshly prepared starter mentioned before. To assure an effective fermentation at a temperature between 30 and 45 °C, the milk can is covered with a blanket for 12 hr. For the production of non-dairy fermented foods, the fresh starter is left in a cheese cloth for 12 hr, and the drained-off whey can be subsequently used for the inoculation of a wide range of food raw materials, including vegetables and cereal-based foods.

  17. Characterization of a cold-active esterase from Lactobacillus plantarum suitable for food fermentations.

    PubMed

    Esteban-Torres, María; Mancheño, José Miguel; de las Rivas, Blanca; Muñoz, Rosario

    2014-06-04

    Lactobacillus plantarum is a lactic acid bacteria that can be found in numerous fermented foods. Esterases from L. plantarum exert a fundamental role in food aroma. In the present study, the gene lp_2631 encoding a putative esterase was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and the overproduced Lp_2631 protein has been biochemically characterized. Lp_2631 exhibited optimal esterase activity at 20 °C and more than 90% of maximal activity at 5 °C, being the first cold-active esterase described in a lactic acid bacteria. Lp_2631 exhibited 40% of its maximal activity after 2 h of incubation at 65 °C. Lp_2631 also showed marked activity in the presence of compounds commonly found in food fermentations, such as NaCl, ethanol, or lactic acid. The results suggest that Lp_2631 might be a useful esterase to be used in food fermentations.

  18. Procedure of brewing alcohol as a staple food: case study of the fermented cereal liquor "Parshot" as a staple food in Dirashe special woreda, southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Sunano, Yui

    2016-07-01

    For most brews, alcohol fermentation and lactic fermentation take place simultaneously during the brewing process, and alcohol fermentation can progress smoothly because the propagation of various microorganisms is prevented by lactic fermentation. It is not necessary to cause lactic fermentation with a thing generated naturally and intentionally. The people living in the Dirashe area in southern Ethiopia drink three types of alcoholic beverages that are prepared from cereals. From these alcoholic beverages, parshot is prepared by the addition of plant leaves for lactic fermentation and nech chaka by adding cereal powder for lactic fermentation before alcohol fermentation. People living in the Dirashe area partake of parshot as part of their staple diet. The brewing process used for parshot and a food culture with alcoholic beverages as parts of the staple diet are rare worldwide. This article discusses the significance of using lactic fermentation before alcoholic fermentation and focuses on lactic fermentation in the brewing methods used for the three kinds of alcoholic beverages consumed in the Dirashe area. We initially observed the brewing process and obtained information about the process from the people in that area. Next, we determined the pH and analyzed the lactic acid (g/100 g) and ethanol (g/100 g) content during lactic fermentation of parshot and nech chaka; the ethyl acetate (mg/100 g) and volatile base nitrogen (mg/100 g) content during this period was also analyzed. In addition, we compared the ethanol (g/100 g) content of all three kinds of alcoholic beverages after completion of brewing. The results showed that it was possible to consume large quantities of these alcoholic beverages because of the use of lactic fermentation before alcoholic fermentation, which improved the safety and preservation characteristics of the beverages by preventing the propagation of various microorganisms, improving flavor, and controlling the alcohol level.

  19. Microbial bioinformatics for food safety and production

    PubMed Central

    Alkema, Wynand; Boekhorst, Jos; Wels, Michiel

    2016-01-01

    In the production of fermented foods, microbes play an important role. Optimization of fermentation processes or starter culture production traditionally was a trial-and-error approach inspired by expert knowledge of the fermentation process. Current developments in high-throughput ‘omics’ technologies allow developing more rational approaches to improve fermentation processes both from the food functionality as well as from the food safety perspective. Here, the authors thematically review typical bioinformatics techniques and approaches to improve various aspects of the microbial production of fermented food products and food safety. PMID:26082168

  20. Over production of fermentable sugar for bioethanol production from carbohydrate-rich Malaysian food waste via sequential acid-enzymatic hydrolysis pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Hafid, Halimatun Saadiah; Nor 'Aini, Abdul Rahman; Mokhtar, Mohd Noriznan; Talib, Ahmad Tarmezee; Baharuddin, Azhari Samsu; Umi Kalsom, Md Shah

    2017-09-01

    In Malaysia, the amount of food waste produced is estimated at approximately 70% of total municipal solid waste generated and characterised by high amount of carbohydrate polymers such as starch, cellulose, and sugars. Considering the beneficial organic fraction contained, its utilization as an alternative substrate specifically for bioethanol production has receiving more attention. However, the sustainable production of bioethanol from food waste is linked to the efficient pretreatment needed for higher production of fermentable sugar prior to fermentation. In this work, a modified sequential acid-enzymatic hydrolysis process has been developed to produce high concentration of fermentable sugars; glucose, sucrose, fructose and maltose. The process started with hydrothermal and dilute acid pretreatment by hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sulphuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) which aim to degrade larger molecules of polysaccharide before accessible for further steps of enzymatic hydrolysis by glucoamylase. A kinetic model is proposed to perform an optimal hydrolysis for obtaining high fermentable sugars. The results suggested that a significant increase in fermentable sugar production (2.04-folds) with conversion efficiency of 86.8% was observed via sequential acid-enzymatic pretreatment as compared to dilute acid pretreatment (∼42.4% conversion efficiency). The bioethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae utilizing fermentable sugar obtained shows ethanol yield of 0.42g/g with conversion efficiency of 85.38% based on the theoretical yield was achieved. The finding indicates that food waste can be considered as a promising substrate for bioethanol production. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Indigenous Bacteria and Fungi Drive Traditional Kimoto Sake Fermentations

    PubMed Central

    Bokulich, Nicholas A.; Ohta, Moe; Lee, Morgan

    2014-01-01

    Sake (Japanese rice wine) production is a complex, multistage process in which fermentation is performed by a succession of mixed fungi and bacteria. This study employed high-throughput rRNA marker gene sequencing, quantitative PCR, and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism to characterize the bacterial and fungal communities of spontaneous sake production from koji to product as well as brewery equipment surfaces. Results demonstrate a dynamic microbial succession, with koji and early moto fermentations dominated by Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Aspergillus flavus var. oryzae, succeeded by Lactobacillus spp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae later in the fermentations. The microbiota driving these fermentations were also prevalent in the production environment, illustrating the reservoirs and routes for microbial contact in this traditional food fermentation. Interrogating the microbial consortia of production environments in parallel with food products is a valuable approach for understanding the complete ecology of food production systems and can be applied to any food system, leading to enlightened perspectives for process control and food safety. PMID:24973064

  2. Simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation of unprocessed food waste into ethanol using thermophilic anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Saurabh Sudha; David, Aditi; Shrestha, Namita; Johnson, Glenn R; Benjamin, Kenneth M; Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana; Sani, Rajesh K

    2017-11-01

    The one-pot CRUDE (Conversion of Raw and Untreated Disposal into Ethanol) process was developed for simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation of unprocessed food waste into ethanol using thermophilic (growing at 65°C) anaerobic bacteria. Unlike existing waste to energy technologies, the CRUDE process obviates the need for any pre-treatment or enzyme addition. A High-Temperature-High-Pressure (HTHP) distillation technique was also applied that facilitated efficient use of fermentation medium, inoculum recycling, and in-situ ethanol collection. For material balancing of the process, each characterized component was represented in terms of C-mol. Recovery of 94% carbon at the end confirmed the operational efficiency of CRUDE process. The overall energy retaining efficiency calculated from sugars to ethanol was 1262.7kJdryweightkg -1 of volatile solids using HTHP. These results suggest that the CRUDE process can be a starting point for the development of a commercial ethanol production process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of curing agents on the oxidative and nitrosative damage to meat proteins during processing of fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Villaverde, A; Morcuende, D; Estévez, M

    2014-07-01

    The effect of increasing concentrations of curing agents, ascorbate (0, 250, and 500 ppm), and nitrite (0, 75, and 150 ppm), on the oxidative and nitrosative damage to proteins during processing of fermented sausages was studied. The potential influence of these reactions on color and texture of the fermented sausages was also addressed. Nitrite had a pro-oxidant effect on tryptophan depletion and promoted the formation of protein carbonyls and Schiff bases. The nitration degree in the fermented sausages was also dependent on nitrite concentration. On the other hand, ascorbate acted as an efficient inhibitor of the oxidative and nitrosative damage to meat proteins. As expected, nitrite clearly favored the formation of the cured red color and ascorbate acted as an enhancer of color formation. Nitrite content was positively correlated with hardness. The chemistry behind the action of nitrite and ascorbate on muscle proteins during meat fermentation is thoroughly discussed. The results suggest that ascorbate (500 ppm) may be required to compensate the pro-oxidant impact of nitrite on meat proteins. This study provides insight on the action of curing agents on meat proteins during processing of fermented sausages. This chemistry background provides understanding of the potential influence of the oxidative and nitrosative damage to proteins on the quality of processed muscle foods. The study provides novel information on the impact of the combination of nitrite and ascorbate on the chemical deterioration of proteins and the influence on particular quality traits of fermented sausages. These data may be of interest for the design of cured muscle foods of enhanced quality. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Caregivers' knowledge and use of fermented foods for infant and young children feeding in a rural community of odi, gauteng province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Chelule, Paul K; Mokgatle, Mathildah M; Zungu, Lindiwe I; Chaponda, Armelia

    2014-01-01

    Fermented foods have positive health effects in adults and children if consumed regularly. However, lack of knowledge and perceptions to-wards fermented foods may limit their usage. This study aimed to assess the caregivers' awareness and usage of fermented foods for feeding children in peri-urban/rural communities of Gauteng Province. A qualitative exploratory study was conducted in June, 2012, in a peri-urban/rural community to assess the awareness and use of fermented foods by child caregivers attending a local antenatal clinic through focus group discussions. Thirty three caregivers participated in the study; however 29 indicated their demographic profiles. Four major themes that emerged from the analysis included knowledge on fermented foods, perceived benefits of fermentation, varied views about fermentation and feeding practices. Fermented foods that caregivers, their families and community members consume include ting, fat cakes, dumplings, sorghum beer and mageu. Findings also showed that children consumed fermented foods in form of soft ting porridge; and yoghurt, marketed as Activia and Danone commercial brands. Also, caregivers were not comfortable feeding their children with fermented foods, indicating their limited knowledge on the nutri-tional value of these foods. It is critical to promote caregivers' knowledge and use of fermented foods for feeding infants and young children in South African rural communities.

  5. [Survey and analysis of ethyl carbamate in commercial fermented foods in Hangzhou in 2010].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ping-Gu; Yang, Da-Jin; Shen, Xiang-Hong; Wang, Li-Yuan; Pan, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Yong-Xin; Tan, Ying

    2011-07-01

    To observe the ethyl carbamate concentrations in different commercial fermented foods in Hangzhou in 2010. In 2010, 237 commercial fermented food samples of eight categories, including yellow wine, white spirit, wine, beer, cooking wine, sauce, vinegar and fermented bean curd, were purchased from 3 different size markets respectively in Hangzhou. The ethyl carbamate was measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in selection ion mode, after the samples were coupled with D5-ethyl carbamate, and purified by diatomite solid phase extraction column. The results showed that ethyl carbamate was detected in all samples analyzed (100%) with the range from 2.0 µg/kg to 515.0 µg/kg. The ethyl carbamate average (median) levels in 8 food categories were descending with fermented red bean curd (182.2 µg/kg (161.2 µg/kg)), yellow wine (159.6 µg/kg (121.0 µg/kg)), cooking wine (86.8 µg/kg (95.6 µg/kg)), white spirit (72.0 µg/kg (60.5 µg/kg)), soy sauce (47.2 µg/kg (40.7µg/kg)), vinegar (26.7 µg/kg (31.8 µg/kg)), wine (15.7 µg/kg (16.8 µg/kg)) and beer (2.2 µg/kg (2.3 µg/kg)). The ethyl carbamate was detected in all fermented foods in Hangzhou in 2010, and the levels of ethyl carbamate in red bean curd and yellow wine were higher than others.

  6. Fermentation process for the production of organic acids

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hermann, Theron; Reinhardt, James; Yu, Xiaohui

    This invention relates to improvements in the fermentation process used in the production of organic acids from biological feedstock using bacterial catalysts. The improvements in the fermentation process involve providing a fermentation medium comprising an appropriate form of inorganic carbon, an appropriate amount of aeration and a biocatalyst with an enhanced ability to uptake and assimilate the inorganic carbon into the organic acids. This invention also provides, as a part of an integrated fermentation facility, a novel process for producing a solid source of inorganic carbon by sequestering carbon released from the fermentation in an alkali solution.

  7. Recovery of phosphorus and volatile fatty acids from wastewater and food waste with an iron-flocculation sequencing batch reactor and acidogenic co-fermentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruo-Hong; Li, Xiao-Yan

    2017-12-01

    A sequencing batch reactor-based system was developed for enhanced phosphorus (P) removal and recovery from municipal wastewater. The system consists of an iron-dosing SBR for P precipitation and a side-stream anaerobic reactor for sludge co-fermentation with food waste. During co-fermentation, sludge and food waste undergo acidogenesis, releasing phosphates under acidic conditions and producing volatile fatty acids (VFAs) into the supernatant. A few types of typical food waste were investigated for their effectiveness in acidogenesis and related enzymatic activities. The results show that approximately 96.4% of total P in wastewater was retained in activated sludge. Food waste with a high starch content favoured acidogenic fermentation. Around 55.7% of P from wastewater was recovered as vivianite, and around 66% of food waste loading was converted into VFAs. The new integration formed an effective system for wastewater treatment, food waste processing and simultaneous recovery of P and VFAs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of microbial community adaptation in mesophilic hydrogen fermentation from food waste by tagged 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Laothanachareon, Thanaporn; Kanchanasuta, Suwimon; Mhuanthong, Wuttichai; Phalakornkule, Chantaraporn; Pisutpaisal, Nipon; Champreda, Verawat

    2014-11-01

    Dark fermentation is an attractive process for generation of biohydrogen, which involves complex microbial processes on decomposition of organic wastes and subsequent conversion of metabolic intermediates to hydrogen. The microbes present in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor for waste water treatment were tested for application in batch dark fermentation of food waste at varying ratios of feedstock to heat-treated microbial inoculum (F/M) of 1-8 (g TVS/g TVS). Biohydrogen yields between 0.39 and 2.68 mol H2/mol hexose were obtained, indicating that the yields were highly dependent on the starting F/M ratio. The highest H2 purity of 66% was obtained from the first 8 h of fermentation at the F/M ratio of 2, whereas the highest H2 production was obtained after 35 h of fermentation at the F/M ratio of 5. Tagged 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing showed that the seed culture comprised largely of uncultured bacteria with various Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes, while the starting food waste contained mainly lactic acid bacteria. Enrichment of Firmicutes, particularly Clostridia and lactic acid bacteria occurred within 8 h of the dark fermentation and the H2 producing microcosm at 35 h was dominated >80% by Clostridium spp. The major H2 producer was identified as a Clostridial strain related to Clostridium frigidicarnis. This work demonstrated the adaption of the microbial community during the dark fermentation of complex food waste and revealed the major roles of Clostridia in both substrate degradation and biohydrogen production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of baking and fermentation on the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of grain-based food.

    PubMed

    Bostic, Joshua N; Palafox, Sherilyn J; Rottmueller, Marina E; Jahren, A Hope

    2015-05-30

    Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) is used extensively to reconstruct general attributes of prehistoric and modern diets in both humans and animals. In order to apply these methods to the accurate determination of specific intakes of foods/nutrients of interest, the isotopic signature of individually consumed foods must be constrained. For example, 86% of the calories consumed in the USA are derived from processed and prepared foods, but the relationship between the stable isotope composition of raw ingredients and the resulting products has not been characterized. To examine the effect of common cooking techniques on the stable isotope composition of grain-based food items, we prepared yeast buns and sugar cookies from standardized recipes and measured bulk δ(13) C and δ(15) N values of samples collected throughout a 75 min fermentation process (buns) and before and after baking at 190°C (buns and cookies). Simple isotope mixing models were used to determine if the isotopic signatures of 13 multi-ingredient foods could be estimated from the isotopic signatures of their constituent raw ingredients. No variations in δ(13) C or δ(15) N values were detected between pre- and post-baked yeast buns (pre: -24.78‰/2.61‰, post: -24.75‰/2.74‰), beet-sugar cookies (pre: -24.48‰/3.84‰, post: -24.47‰/3.57‰), and cane-sugar cookies (pre: -19.07‰/2.97‰, post: -19.02‰/3.21‰), or throughout a 75 min fermentation process in yeast buns. Using isotopic mass balance equations, the δ(13) C/δ(15) N values of multi-ingredient foods were estimated from the isotopic composition of constituent raw ingredients to within 0.14 ± 0.13‰/0.24 ± 0.17‰ for gravimetrically measured recipes and 0.40 ± 0.38‰/0.58 ± 0.53‰ for volumetrically measured recipes. Two common food preparation techniques, baking and fermentation, do not substantially affect the carbon or nitrogen isotopic signature of grain-based foods. Mass-balance equations can be used to

  10. Caregivers’ Knowledge and Use of Fermented Foods for Infant and Young Children Feeding in a Rural Community of Odi, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Chelule, Paul K; Mokgatle, Mathildah M; Zungu, Lindiwe I; Chaponda, Armelia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fermented foods have positive health effects in adults and children if consumed regularly. However, lack of knowledge and perceptions to­wards fermented foods may limit their usage. This study aimed to assess the caregivers’ awareness and usage of fermented foods for feeding children in peri-urban/rural communities of Gauteng Province. Methods: A qualitative exploratory study was conducted in June, 2012, in a peri-urban/rural community to assess the awareness and use of fermented foods by child caregivers attending a local antenatal clinic through focus group discussions. Results: Thirty three caregivers participated in the study; however 29 indicated their demographic profiles. Four major themes that emerged from the analysis included knowledge on fermented foods, perceived benefits of fermentation, varied views about fermentation and feeding practices. Fermented foods that caregivers, their families and community members consume include ting, fat cakes, dumplings, sorghum beer and mageu. Findings also showed that children consumed fermented foods in form of soft ting porridge; and yoghurt, marketed as Activia and Danone commercial brands. Also, caregivers were not comfortable feeding their children with fermented foods, indicating their limited knowledge on the nutri­tional value of these foods. Conclusion: It is critical to promote caregivers’ knowledge and use of fermented foods for feeding infants and young children in South African rural communities. PMID:25097837

  11. Perspectives on the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria from African traditional fermented foods and beverages

    PubMed Central

    Mokoena, Mduduzi Paul; Mutanda, Taurai; Olaniran, Ademola O.

    2016-01-01

    Diverse African traditional fermented foods and beverages, produced using different types of fermentation, have been used since antiquity because of their numerous nutritional values. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from these products have emerged as a welcome source of antimicrobials and therapeutics, and are accepted as probiotics. Probiotics are defined as live microbial food supplements which beneficially affect the host by improving the intestinal microbial balance. Currently, popular probiotics are derived from fermented milk products. However, with the growing number of consumers with lactose intolerance that are affected by dietary cholesterol from milk products, there is a growing global interest in probiotics from other food sources. The focus of this review is to provide an overview of recent developments on the applications of probiotic LAB globally, and to specifically highlight the suitability of African fermented foods and beverages as a viable source of novel probiotics. PMID:26960543

  12. Molecular identification and quantification of lactic acid bacteria in traditional fermented dairy foods of Russia.

    PubMed

    Yu, J; Wang, H M; Zha, M S; Qing, Y T; Bai, N; Ren, Y; Xi, X X; Liu, W J; Menghe, B L G; Zhang, H P

    2015-08-01

    Russian traditional fermented dairy foods have been consumed for thousands of years. However, little research has focused on exploiting lactic acid bacteria (LAB) resources and analyzing the LAB composition of Russian traditional fermented dairy foods. In the present study, we cultured LAB isolated from fermented mare and cow milks, sour cream, and cheese collected from Kalmykiya, Buryats, and Tuva regions of Russia. Seven lactobacillus species and the Bifidobacterium genus were quantified by quantitative PCR. The LAB counts in these samples ranged from 3.18 to 9.77 log cfu/mL (or per gram). In total, 599 LAB strains were obtained from these samples using de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe agar and M17 agar. The identified LAB belonged to 7 genera and 30 species by 16S rRNA and murE gene sequencing and multiplex PCR assay. The predominant LAB isolates were Lactobacillus helveticus (176 strains) and Lactobacillus plantarum (63 strains), which represented 39.9% of all isolates. The quantitative PCR results revealed that counts of 7 lactobacilli species and Bifidobacterium spp. of 30 fermented cow milk samples ranged from 1.19±0.34 (Lactobacillus helveticus in Tuva) to 8.09±0.71 (Lactobacillus acidophilus in Kalmykiya) log cfu/mL of fermented cow milk (mean ± standard error). The numbers of Bifidobacterium spp., Lb. plantarum, Lb. helveticus, and Lb. acidophilus revealed no significant difference between the 3 regions; nevertheless, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus sakei, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus exhibited different degrees of variation across 3 regions. The results demonstrate that traditional fermented dairy products from different regions of Russia have complex compositions of LAB species. The diversity of LAB might be related to the type of fermented dairy product, geographical origin, and manufacturing process. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Tempeh: a mold-modified indigenous fermented food made from soybeans and/or cereal grains.

    PubMed

    Hachmeister, K A; Fung, D Y

    1993-01-01

    A variety of indigenous fermented foods exist today; however, tempeh has been one of the most widely accepted and researched mold-modified fermented products. Tempeh is a traditional fermented food made from soaked and cooked soybeans inoculated with a mold, usually of the genus Rhizopus. After fermentation has occurred, the soybeans are bound together into a compact cake by dense cottony mycelium. An important function of the mold in the fermentation process is the synthesis of enzymes, which hydrolyze soybean constituents and contribute to the development of a desirable texture, flavor, and aroma of the product. Enzymatic hydrolysis also may decrease or eliminate antinutritional constituents; consequently, the nutritional quality of the fermented product may be improved. Current technology and new scientific advancements have enabled researchers to examine specific strains of Rhizopus and new substrates such as cereal grains. Because Kansas produces numerous cereal grains, production of a fermented tempeh-like product using wheat, sorghum (milo), oats, rye, barley, corn, and triticale is a definite possibility for generating a Kansas Value-Added Product. In this study, several different tempeh-like products were produced using various cereal grains inoculated with Rhizopus oligosporus NRRL 2549 or R. oligosporus NRRL 2710. Grains used included hard red winter wheat, triticale, yellow sorghum (milo), and red sorghum (milo). The grain source as well as the strain of R. oligosporus used influenced the product's appearance, flavor, and patty integrity. Results showed that R. oligosporus NRRL 2549 produced more mycelium at a more rapid rate than did the R. oligosporus NRRL 2710 strain. The combination of red sorghum and R. oligosporus NRRL 2549 yielded a product with good patty texture, aroma, and appearance. Furthermore, the red sorghum fermented product was well suited for slicing. On the other hand, yellow sorghum inoculated with either R. oligosporus NRRL 2549 or

  14. Effects of milk components and food additives on survival of three bifidobacteria strains in fermented milk under simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ziarno, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Background In the dairy industry, probiotic strains of Bifidobacterium are introduced into the composition of traditional starter cultures intended for the production of fermented foods, or sometimes are the sole microflora responsible for the fermentation process. In order to be able to reach the intestines alive and fulfil their beneficial role, probiotic strains must be able to withstand the acidity of the gastric juices and bile present in the duodenum. Objective The paper reports effects of selected fermented milk components on the viability of three strains of bifidobacteria in fermented milk during subsequent incubation under conditions representing model digestive juices. Design The viability of the bifidobacterial cells was examined after a 3-h incubation of fermented milk under simulated gastric juice conditions and then after 5-h incubation under simulated duodenum juice conditions. The Bifidobacterium strains tested differed in their sensitivity to the simulated conditions of the gastrointestinal juices. Results Bifidobacterial cell viability in simulated intestinal juices was dependent on the strain used in our experiments, and product components acted protectively towards bifidobacterial cells and its dose. Conclusions Bifidobacterial cells introduced into the human gastrointestinal tract as food ingredients have a good chance of survival during intestinal transit and to reach the large intestine thanks to the protective properties of the food components and depending on the strain and composition of the food. PMID:26546945

  15. Effects of milk components and food additives on survival of three bifidobacteria strains in fermented milk under simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions.

    PubMed

    Ziarno, Małgorzata; Zaręba, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    In the dairy industry, probiotic strains of Bifidobacterium are introduced into the composition of traditional starter cultures intended for the production of fermented foods, or sometimes are the sole microflora responsible for the fermentation process. In order to be able to reach the intestines alive and fulfil their beneficial role, probiotic strains must be able to withstand the acidity of the gastric juices and bile present in the duodenum. The paper reports effects of selected fermented milk components on the viability of three strains of bifidobacteria in fermented milk during subsequent incubation under conditions representing model digestive juices. The viability of the bifidobacterial cells was examined after a 3-h incubation of fermented milk under simulated gastric juice conditions and then after 5-h incubation under simulated duodenum juice conditions. The Bifidobacterium strains tested differed in their sensitivity to the simulated conditions of the gastrointestinal juices. Bifidobacterial cell viability in simulated intestinal juices was dependent on the strain used in our experiments, and product components acted protectively towards bifidobacterial cells and its dose. Bifidobacterial cells introduced into the human gastrointestinal tract as food ingredients have a good chance of survival during intestinal transit and to reach the large intestine thanks to the protective properties of the food components and depending on the strain and composition of the food.

  16. Minimally Processed Functional Foods: Technological and Operational Pathways.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Svetlana

    2016-10-01

    This paper offers a concise review of technical and operational concepts underpinning commercialization of minimally processed functional foods (FFs), foods with fresh-like qualities commanding premium prices. The growing number of permitted nutritional content/health claims, many of which relate to well-being, coupled with emerging extraction and food processing technologies offers new exciting opportunities for small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) specializing in fresh produce to play an active role in the health market. Supporting SMEs, governments could benefit from savings in healthcare costs and value creation in the economy. Consumers could benefit from novel FF formats such as refrigerated RTE (ready-to-eat) meals, a variety of fresh-like meat-, fish-, and egg-based products, fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, cereal-based fermented foods and beverages. To preserve these valuable commodities, mild biological (enzymatic treatment, fermentation and, bio-preservation) and engineering solutions are needed. The latter include nonthermal techniques such as high-pressure treatment, cook-chill, sous-vide, mirco-encapsulation, vacuum impregnation and others. "De-constructive" culinary techniques such as 3D food printing and molecular gastronomy as well as developments in nutrigenomics and digital technologies facilitate novel product formats, personalization and access to niche markets. In the operational sense, moving from nourishment to health improvement demands a shift from defensive market-oriented to offensive market-developing strategies including collaborative networks with research organizations. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  17. Bacteriophages in food fermentations: new frontiers in a continuous arms race.

    PubMed

    Samson, Julie E; Moineau, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    Phage contamination represents an important risk to any process requiring bacterial growth, particularly in the biotechnology and food industries. The presence of unwanted phages may lead to manufacturing delays, lower quality product, or, in the worst cases, total production loss. Thus, constant phage monitoring and stringent application of the appropriate control measures are indispensable. In fact, a systematic preventive approach to phage contamination [phage analysis and critical control points (PACCP)] should be put in place. In this review, sources of phage contamination and novel phage detection methods are described, with an emphasis on bacterial viruses that infect lactic acid bacteria used in food fermentations. Recent discoveries related to antiphage systems that are changing our views on phage-host interactions are highlighted. Finally, future directions are also discussed.

  18. Menaquinones, bacteria, and the food supply; the relevance of dairy and fermented food products to vitamin K

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vitamin K exists in the food supply as phylloquinone, a plant-based form, and as menaquinones (MK), a collection of isomers mostly originating from bacterial synthesis. Though multiple bacterial species used as starter cultures for food fermentations synthesize MK, relatively little is known about ...

  19. Indigenous bacteria and fungi drive traditional kimoto sake fermentations.

    PubMed

    Bokulich, Nicholas A; Ohta, Moe; Lee, Morgan; Mills, David A

    2014-09-01

    Sake (Japanese rice wine) production is a complex, multistage process in which fermentation is performed by a succession of mixed fungi and bacteria. This study employed high-throughput rRNA marker gene sequencing, quantitative PCR, and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism to characterize the bacterial and fungal communities of spontaneous sake production from koji to product as well as brewery equipment surfaces. Results demonstrate a dynamic microbial succession, with koji and early moto fermentations dominated by Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Aspergillus flavus var. oryzae, succeeded by Lactobacillus spp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae later in the fermentations. The microbiota driving these fermentations were also prevalent in the production environment, illustrating the reservoirs and routes for microbial contact in this traditional food fermentation. Interrogating the microbial consortia of production environments in parallel with food products is a valuable approach for understanding the complete ecology of food production systems and can be applied to any food system, leading to enlightened perspectives for process control and food safety. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Parameter Estimation for Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Food Waste Into Ethanol Using Matlab Simulink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Rebecca Anne

    The increase in waste disposal and energy costs has provided an incentive to convert carbohydrate-rich food waste streams into fuel. For example, dining halls and restaurants discard foods that require tipping fees for removal. An effective use of food waste may be the enzymatic hydrolysis of the waste to simple sugars and fermentation of the sugars to ethanol. As these wastes have complex compositions which may change day-to-day, experiments were carried out to test fermentability of two different types of food waste at 27° C using Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (ATCC4124) and Genencor's STARGEN™ enzyme in batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) experiments. A mathematical model of SSF based on experimentally matched rate equations for enzyme hydrolysis and yeast fermentation was developed in Matlab Simulink®. Using Simulink® parameter estimation 1.1.3, parameters for hydrolysis and fermentation were estimated through modified Michaelis-Menten and Monod-type equations with the aim of predicting changes in the levels of ethanol and glycerol from different initial concentrations of glucose, fructose, maltose, and starch. The model predictions and experimental observations agree reasonably well for the two food waste streams and a third validation dataset. The approach of using Simulink® as a dynamic visual model for SSF represents a simple method which can be applied to a variety of biological pathways and may be very useful for systems approaches in metabolic engineering in the future.

  1. Modification of isoflavone profiles in a fermented soy food with almond powder.

    PubMed

    Park, MinHee; Jeong, Min Kyu; Kim, MiJa; Lee, JaeHwan

    2012-01-01

    Isoflavone profiles of a fermented soy food, cheonggukjang, were modified using almond powder. Isoflavones were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an ultraviolet detector. Malonyl derivatives of isoflavones decreased and aglycones of isoflavones increased in samples with almond powder for 48 h. As added, almond powder increased from 0%, 5%, and 10% (w/w), amounts of aglycones increased to 21.11%, 26.63%, and 32.45% for 48 h, respectively. β-Glucosidase activity in 5% and 10% almond added samples was significantly higher than samples without addition of almond (P < 0.05). The content of succinyl daidzin and succinyl genistin, new metabolites from isoflavones, in almond-added cheonggukjang was significantly lower than control samples, implying that β-glucosidase activity from almond affected negatively the formation of succinyl derivatives (P < 0.05). Principal component analysis (PCA) for isoflavone distribution showed that first principal component (PC1) and second principal component (PC2) expressed 64.78% and 22.26% of the data variability, respectively. Biotransformation of isoflavones in any fermented soy foods can be achieved using natural products containing high β-glucosidase activity such as almond. The results of this study can help to modify the structural transformation of phytochemicals in any fermented soy foods using natural products. Adjusting the content of almond powder can achieve wanted profiles, for example, high aglycones content. Also, content of metabolites such as succinyl derivatives can be controlled using proper amounts of almond and fermentation time. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Stillage reflux in food waste ethanol fermentation and its by-product accumulation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongzhi; Yang, Jian; Jia, Yan; Wang, Qunhui; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2016-06-01

    Raw materials and pollution control are key issues for the ethanol fermentation industry. To address these concerns, food waste was selected as fermentation substrate, and stillage reflux was carried out in this study. Reflux was used seven times during fermentation. Corresponding ethanol and reducing sugar were detected. Accumulation of by-products, such as organic acid, sodium chloride, and glycerol, was investigated. Lactic acid was observed to accumulate up to 120g/L, and sodium chloride reached 0.14mol/L. Other by-products did not accumulate. The first five cycles of reflux increased ethanol concentration, which prolonged fermentation time. Further increases in reflux time negatively influenced ethanol fermentation. Single-factor analysis with lactic acid and sodium chloride demonstrated that both factors affected ethanol fermentation, but lactic acid induced more effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fermentation process using specific oxygen uptake rates as a process control

    DOEpatents

    Van Hoek, Pim; Aristidou, Aristos; Rush, Brian J.

    2016-08-30

    Specific oxygen uptake (OUR) is used as a process control parameter in fermentation processes. OUR is determined during at least the production phase of a fermentation process, and process parameters are adjusted to maintain the OUR within desired ranges. The invention is particularly applicable when the fermentation is conducted using a microorganism having a natural PDC pathway that has been disrupted so that it no longer functions. Microorganisms of this sort often produce poorly under strictly anaerobic conditions. Microaeration controlled by monitoring OUR allows the performance of the microorganism to be optimized.

  4. Fermentation process using specific oxygen uptake rates as a process control

    DOEpatents

    Van Hoek, Pim [Minnetonka, MN; Aristidou, Aristos [Maple Grove, MN; Rush, Brian [Minneapolis, MN

    2011-05-10

    Specific oxygen uptake (OUR) is used as a process control parameter in fermentation processes. OUR is determined during at least the production phase of a fermentation process, and process parameters are adjusted to maintain the OUR within desired ranges. The invention is particularly applicable when the fermentation is conducted using a microorganism having a natural PDC pathway that has been disrupted so that it no longer functions. Microorganisms of this sort often produce poorly under strictly anaerobic conditions. Microaeration controlled by monitoring OUR allows the performance of the microorganism to be optimized.

  5. Fermentation process using specific oxygen uptake rates as a process control

    DOEpatents

    Hoek, Van; Pim, Aristidou [Minnetonka, MN; Aristos, Rush [Maple Grove, MN; Brian, [Minneapolis, MN

    2007-06-19

    Specific oxygen uptake (OUR) is used as a process control parameter in fermentation processes. OUR is determined during at least the production phase of a fermentation process, and process parameters are adjusted to maintain the OUR within desired ranges. The invention is particularly applicable when the fermentation is conducted using a microorganism having a natural PDC pathway that has been disrupted so that it no longer functions. Microorganisms of this sort often produce poorly under strictly anaerobic conditions. Microaeration controlled by monitoring OUR allows the performance of the microorganism to be optimized.

  6. Fermentation process using specific oxygen uptake rates as a process control

    DOEpatents

    Van Hoek, Pim; Aristidou, Aristos; Rush, Brian

    2014-09-09

    Specific oxygen uptake (OUR) is used as a process control parameter in fermentation processes. OUR is determined during at least the production phase of a fermentation process, and process parameters are adjusted to maintain the OUR within desired ranges. The invention is particularly applicable when the fermentation is conducted using a microorganism having a natural PDC pathway that has been disrupted so that it no longer functions. Microorganisms of this sort often produce poorly under strictly anaerobic conditions. Microaeration controlled by monitoring OUR allows the performance of the microorganism to be optimized.

  7. Insights into the microbial diversity and community dynamics of Chinese traditional fermented foods from using high-throughput sequencing approaches*

    PubMed Central

    He, Guo-qing; Liu, Tong-jie; Sadiq, Faizan A.; Gu, Jing-si; Zhang, Guo-hua

    2017-01-01

    Chinese traditional fermented foods have a very long history dating back thousands of years and have become an indispensable part of Chinese dietary culture. A plethora of research has been conducted to unravel the composition and dynamics of microbial consortia associated with Chinese traditional fermented foods using culture-dependent as well as culture-independent methods, like different high-throughput sequencing (HTS) techniques. These HTS techniques enable us to understand the relationship between a food product and its microbes to a greater extent than ever before. Considering the importance of Chinese traditional fermented products, the objective of this paper is to review the diversity and dynamics of microbiota in Chinese traditional fermented foods revealed by HTS approaches. PMID:28378567

  8. Mindful Persistence: Literacies for Taking up and Sustaining Fermented-Food Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santana, Christina; Kuznetsov, Stacey; Schmeckpeper, Sheri; Curry, Linda J.; Long, Elenore; Davis, Lauren; Koerner, Heidi; McQuarrie, Kimberly Butterfield

    2015-01-01

    Almost by definition, resisting the insidious convenience of the mainstream food supply requires persistence. This is especially true for food projects requiring fermentation--projects that unfold over days or weeks and require day-to-day science in kitchens where variables can be hard to control and where some degree of periodic failure is almost…

  9. Plant-based Paste Fermented by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeast: Functional Analysis and Possibility of Application to Functional Foods

    PubMed Central

    Kuwaki, Shinsuke; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Tanaka, Hidehiko; Ishihara, Kohji

    2012-01-01

    A plant-based paste fermented by lactic acid bacteria and yeast (fermented paste) was made from various plant materials. The paste was made of fermented food by applying traditional food-preservation techniques, that is, fermentation and sugaring. The fermented paste contained major nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids), 18 kinds of amino acids, and vitamins (vitamin A, B1, B2, B6, B12, E, K, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, and folic acid). It contained five kinds of organic acids, and a large amount of dietary fiber and plant phytochemicals. Sucrose from brown sugar, used as a material, was completely resolved into glucose and fructose. Some physiological functions of the fermented paste were examined in vitro. It was demonstrated that the paste possessed antioxidant, antihypertensive, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergy and anti-tyrosinase activities in vitro. It was thought that the fermented paste would be a helpful functional food with various nutrients to help prevent lifestyle diseases. PMID:25114554

  10. The relationship between fermented food intake and mortality risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands cohort.

    PubMed

    Praagman, Jaike; Dalmeijer, Geertje W; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S; Monique Verschuren, W M; Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, H; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Beulens, Joline W J

    2015-02-14

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between total and subtypes of bacterial fermented food intake (dairy products, cheese, vegetables and meat) and mortality due to all causes, total cancer and CVD. From the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands cohort, 34 409 Dutch men and women, aged 20-70 years who were free from CVD or cancer at baseline, were included. Baseline intakes of total and subtypes of fermented foods were measured with a validated FFQ. Data on the incidence and causes of death were obtained from the national mortality register. Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyse mortality in relation to the quartiles of fermented food intake. After a mean follow-up of 15 (sd 2·5) years, 2436 deaths occurred (1216 from cancer and 727 from CVD). After adjustment for age, sex, total energy intake, physical activity, education level, hypertension, smoking habit, BMI, and intakes of fruit, vegetables and alcohol, total fermented food intake was not found to be associated with mortality due to all causes (hazard ratio upper v. lowest quartile (HR(Q4 v. Q1)) 1·00, 95% CI 0·88, 1·13), cancer (HR(Q4 v. Q1) 1·02, 95% CI 0·86, 1·21) or CVD (HR(Q4 v. Q1) 1·04, 95 % CI 0·83, 1·30). Bacterial fermented foods mainly consisted of fermented dairy foods (78 %) and cheese (16%). None of the subtypes of fermented foods was consistently related to mortality, except for cheese which was moderately inversely associated with CVD mortality, and particularly stroke mortality (HR(Q4 v. Q1) 0·59, 95% CI 0·38, 0·92, P trend= 0·046). In conclusion, the present study provides no strong evidence that intake of fermented foods, particularly fermented dairy foods, is associated with mortality.

  11. Microbial behavior and changes in food constituents during fermentation of Japanese sourdoughs with different rye and wheat starting materials.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Akihito; Ito, Keisuke; Itou, Madoka; Narushima, Noriko; Ito, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Akihisa; Hirayama, Satoru; Furukawa, Soichi; Morinaga, Yasushi; Miyamoto, Takahisa

    2018-01-01

    Sourdough is a food item made by kneading grain flour and water together and allowing fermentation through the action of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillales) and yeast. Typically, Japanese bakeries make sourdough with rye flour, wheat flour, malt extract, and water and allow spontaneous fermentation for 6 days. We compared the microbial behavior and food components, such as organic acids, sugars, and free amino acids, of sourdoughs made using two different rye and wheat flours during the 6-day fermentation period. Comparisons were made for two types of rye and wheat flours, using different production sites and different milling, distribution, and storage conditions. The microbial count was evaluated using different culture media. All sourdough types showed a significant increase in lactic acid levels on fermentation day 2 and a decrease in free amino acid levels on day 4. Low overall lactic acid production and little fluctuation in sugar levels occurred in sourdough made from French ingredients. For sourdough made from Japanese ingredients, sugar levels (chiefly glucose, sucrose, and maltose) declined on fermentation day 1, increased on day 2, and declined by day 5. With the French ingredients, no yeast cells were detected until day 3, and many acid precursors of sourdough flavor components were detected. Yet with the Japanese ingredients, 10 6 /g yeast cells were detected on days 3-5, as well as sourdough-flavor esters and alcohols. Differences in raw material quality affected the microbial behavior and changes in food constituents during the fermentation process and, consequently, the sourdough flavor. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Plasmid fermentation process for DNA immunization applications.

    PubMed

    Carnes, Aaron E; Williams, James A

    2014-01-01

    Plasmid DNA for immunization applications must be of the highest purity and quality. The ability of downstream purification to efficiently produce a pure final product is directly influenced by the performance of the upstream fermentation process. While several clinical manufacturing facilities already have validated fermentation processes in place to manufacture plasmid DNA for use in humans, a simple and inexpensive laboratory-scale fermentation process can be valuable for in-house production of plasmid DNA for use in animal efficacy studies. This chapter describes a simple fed-batch fermentation process for producing bacterial cell paste enriched with high-quality plasmid DNA. A constant feeding strategy results in a medium cell density culture with continuously increasing plasmid amplification towards the end of the process. Cell banking and seed culture preparation protocols, which can dramatically influence final product yield and quality, are also described. These protocols are suitable for production of research-grade plasmid DNA at the 100 mg-to-1.5 g scale from a typical 10 L laboratory benchtop fermentor.

  13. Effects of chemical, physical, and technological processes on the nature of food allergens.

    PubMed

    Poms, Roland E; Anklam, Elke

    2004-01-01

    A review is presented of studies of different processing techniques and their effect on the allergenicity and antigenicity of certain allergenic foods. An overview of investigated technologies is given with regard to their impact on the protein structure and their potential application in the production of hypoallergenic foods. The use of physical processes (such as heating, high pressure, microparticulation, ultrafiltration, and irradiation), chemical processes (such as proteolysis, fermentation, and refining by extraction), and biotechnological approaches, as well as the effects of these processes on individual allergenic foods, are included. Additionally, the implications of food processing for food allergen analysis with respect to food safety assessment and industrial quality control are briefly discussed.

  14. Fermented Brown Rice Flour as Functional Food Ingredient.

    PubMed

    Ilowefah, Muna; Chinma, Chiemela; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M; Muhammad, Kharidah; Makeri, Mohammad

    2014-02-12

    As fermentation could reduce the negative effects of bran on final cereal products, the utilization of whole-cereal flour is recommended, such as brown rice flour as a functional food ingredient. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of fermented brown rice flour on white rice flour, white rice batter and its steamed bread qualities. Brown rice batter was fermented using commercial baker's yeast (Eagle brand) according to the optimum conditions for moderate acidity (pH 5.5) to obtain fermented brown rice flour (FBRF). The FBRF was added to white rice flour at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% levels to prepare steamed rice bread. Based on the sensory evaluation test, steamed rice bread containing 40% FBRF had the highest overall acceptability score. Thus, pasting properties of the composite rice flour, rheological properties of its batter, volume and texture properties of its steamed bread were determined. The results showed that peak viscosity of the rice flour containing 40% FBRF was significantly increased, whereas its breakdown, final viscosity and setback significantly decreased. Viscous, elastic and complex moduli of the batter having 40% FBRF were also significantly reduced. However, volume, specific volume, chewiness, resilience and cohesiveness of its steamed bread were significantly increased, while hardness and springiness significantly reduced in comparison to the control. These results established the effectiveness of yeast fermentation in reducing the detrimental effects of bran on the sensory properties of steamed white rice bread and encourage the usage of brown rice flour to enhance the quality of rice products.

  15. High-strength fermentable wastewater reclamation through a sequential process of anaerobic fermentation followed by microalgae cultivation.

    PubMed

    Qi, Wenqiang; Chen, Taojing; Wang, Liang; Wu, Minghong; Zhao, Quanyu; Wei, Wei

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the sequential process of anaerobic fermentation followed by microalgae cultivation was evaluated from both nutrient and energy recovery standpoints. The effects of different fermentation type on the biogas generation, broth metabolites' composition, algal growth and nutrients' utilization, and energy conversion efficiencies for the whole processes were discussed. When the fermentation was designed to produce hydrogen-dominating biogas, the total energy conversion efficiency (TECE) of the sequential process was higher than that of the methane fermentation one. With the production of hydrogen in anaerobic fermentation, more organic carbon metabolites were left in the broth to support better algal growth with more efficient incorporation of ammonia nitrogen. By applying the sequential process, the heat value conversion efficiency (HVCE) for the wastewater could reach 41.2%, if methane was avoided in the fermentation biogas. The removal efficiencies of organic metabolites and NH 4 + -N in the better case were 100% and 98.3%, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A combined approach of generalized additive model and bootstrap with small sample sets for fault diagnosis in fermentation process of glutamate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunbo; Pan, Feng; Li, Yun

    2016-07-29

    Glutamate is of great importance in food and pharmaceutical industries. There is still lack of effective statistical approaches for fault diagnosis in the fermentation process of glutamate. To date, the statistical approach based on generalized additive model (GAM) and bootstrap has not been used for fault diagnosis in fermentation processes, much less the fermentation process of glutamate with small samples sets. A combined approach of GAM and bootstrap was developed for the online fault diagnosis in the fermentation process of glutamate with small sample sets. GAM was first used to model the relationship between glutamate production and different fermentation parameters using online data from four normal fermentation experiments of glutamate. The fitted GAM with fermentation time, dissolved oxygen, oxygen uptake rate and carbon dioxide evolution rate captured 99.6 % variance of glutamate production during fermentation process. Bootstrap was then used to quantify the uncertainty of the estimated production of glutamate from the fitted GAM using 95 % confidence interval. The proposed approach was then used for the online fault diagnosis in the abnormal fermentation processes of glutamate, and a fault was defined as the estimated production of glutamate fell outside the 95 % confidence interval. The online fault diagnosis based on the proposed approach identified not only the start of the fault in the fermentation process, but also the end of the fault when the fermentation conditions were back to normal. The proposed approach only used a small sample sets from normal fermentations excitements to establish the approach, and then only required online recorded data on fermentation parameters for fault diagnosis in the fermentation process of glutamate. The proposed approach based on GAM and bootstrap provides a new and effective way for the fault diagnosis in the fermentation process of glutamate with small sample sets.

  17. Genomic Features and Niche-Adaptation of Enterococcus faecium Strains from Korean Soybean-Fermented Foods.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Bae; Jin, Gwi-Deuk; Lee, Jun-Yeong; Choi, Yun-Jaie

    2016-01-01

    Certain strains of Enterococcus faecium contribute beneficially to human health and food fermentation. However, other E. faecium strains are opportunistic pathogens due to the acquisition of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance determinants. To characterize E. faecium from soybean fermentation, we sequenced the genomes of 10 E. faecium strains from Korean soybean-fermented foods and analyzed their genomes by comparing them with 51 clinical and 52 non-clinical strains of different origins. Hierarchical clustering based on 13,820 orthologous genes from all E. faecium genomes showed that the 10 strains are distinguished from most of the clinical strains. Like non-clinical strains, their genomes are significantly smaller than clinical strains due to fewer accessory genes associated with antibiotic resistance, virulence, and mobile genetic elements. Moreover, we identified niche-associated gene gain and loss from the soybean strains. Thus, we conclude that soybean E. faecium strains might have evolved to have distinctive genomic features that may contribute to its ability to thrive during soybean fermentation.

  18. Genomic Features and Niche-Adaptation of Enterococcus faecium Strains from Korean Soybean-Fermented Foods

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Bae; Jin, Gwi-Deuk; Lee, Jun-Yeong; Choi, Yun-Jaie

    2016-01-01

    Certain strains of Enterococcus faecium contribute beneficially to human health and food fermentation. However, other E. faecium strains are opportunistic pathogens due to the acquisition of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance determinants. To characterize E. faecium from soybean fermentation, we sequenced the genomes of 10 E. faecium strains from Korean soybean-fermented foods and analyzed their genomes by comparing them with 51 clinical and 52 non-clinical strains of different origins. Hierarchical clustering based on 13,820 orthologous genes from all E. faecium genomes showed that the 10 strains are distinguished from most of the clinical strains. Like non-clinical strains, their genomes are significantly smaller than clinical strains due to fewer accessory genes associated with antibiotic resistance, virulence, and mobile genetic elements. Moreover, we identified niche-associated gene gain and loss from the soybean strains. Thus, we conclude that soybean E. faecium strains might have evolved to have distinctive genomic features that may contribute to its ability to thrive during soybean fermentation. PMID:27070419

  19. Bacterial Diversity Analysis during the Fermentation Processing of Traditional Chinese Yellow Rice Wine Revealed by 16S rDNA 454 Pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ruo-si; Dong, Ya-chen; Chen, Feng; Chen, Qi-he

    2015-10-01

    Rice wine is a traditional Chinese fermented alcohol drink. Spontaneous fermentation with the use of the Chinese starter and wheat Qu lead to the growth of various microorganisms during the complete brewing process. It's of great importance to fully understand the composition of bacteria diversity in rice wine in order to improve the quality and solve safety problems. In this study, a more comprehensive bacterial description was shown with the use of bacteria diversity analysis, which enabled us to have a better understanding. Rarefaction, rank abundance, alpha Diversity, beta diversity and principal coordinates analysis simplified their complex bacteria components and provide us theoretical foundation for further investigation. It has been found bacteria diversity is more abundant at mid-term and later stage of brewing process. Bacteria community analysis reveals there is a potential safety hazard existing in the fermentation, since most of the sequence reads are assigned to Enterobacter (7900 at most) and Pantoea (7336 at most), followed by Staphylococcus (2796 at most) and Pseudomonas (1681 at most). Lactic acid bacteria are rare throughout the fermentation process which is not in accordance with other reports. This work may offer us an opportunity to investigate micro ecological fermentation system in food industry. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Generalised additive modelling approach to the fermentation process of glutamate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Bo; Li, Yun; Pan, Feng; Shi, Zhong-Ping

    2011-03-01

    In this work, generalised additive models (GAMs) were used for the first time to model the fermentation of glutamate (Glu). It was found that three fermentation parameters fermentation time (T), dissolved oxygen (DO) and oxygen uptake rate (OUR) could capture 97% variance of the production of Glu during the fermentation process through a GAM model calibrated using online data from 15 fermentation experiments. This model was applied to investigate the individual and combined effects of T, DO and OUR on the production of Glu. The conditions to optimize the fermentation process were proposed based on the simulation study from this model. Results suggested that the production of Glu can reach a high level by controlling concentration levels of DO and OUR to the proposed optimization conditions during the fermentation process. The GAM approach therefore provides an alternative way to model and optimize the fermentation process of Glu. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Genomics of Microbial Domestication in the Fermented Food Environment

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, John G; Rinker, David C

    2015-01-01

    Shortly after the agricultural revolution, the domestication of bacteria, yeasts, and molds, played an essential role in enhancing the stability, quality, flavor, and texture of food products. These domestication events were likely the result of human food production practices that entailed the continual recycling of isolated microbial communities in the presence of abundant agricultural food sources. We suggest that within these novel agrarian food niches the metabolic requirements of those microbes became regular and predictable resulting in rapid genomic specialization through such mechanisms as pseudogenization, genome decay, interspecific hybridization, gene duplication, and horizontal gene transfer. The ultimate result was domesticated strains of microorganisms with enhanced fermentative capacities. PMID:26338497

  2. Effects of low-fat or full-fat fermented and non-fermented dairy foods on selected cardiovascular biomarkers in overweight adults.

    PubMed

    Nestel, Paul J; Mellett, Natalie; Pally, Suzana; Wong, Gerard; Barlow, Chris K; Croft, Kevin; Mori, Trevor A; Meikle, Peter J

    2013-12-01

    The association between consumption of full-fat dairy foods and CVD may depend partly on the nature of products and may not apply to low-fat dairy foods. Increased circulating levels of inflammatory biomarkers after consumption of dairy product-rich meals suggest an association with CVD. In the present study, we tested the effects of low-fat and full-fat dairy diets on biomarkers associated with inflammation, oxidative stress or atherogenesis and on plasma lipid classes. Within full-fat dairy diets, we also compared fermented v. non-fermented products. In a randomised cross-over study, twelve overweight/obese subjects consumed during two 3-week periods two full-fat dairy diets containing either yogurt plus cheese (fermented) or butter, cream and ice cream (non-fermented) or a low-fat milk plus yogurt diet, with the latter being consumed between and at the end of the full-fat dairy dietary periods. The concentrations of six inflammatory and two atherogenic biomarkers known to be raised in CVD were measured as well as those of plasma F2-isoprostanes and lipid classes. The concentrations of six of the eight biomarkers tended to be higher on consumption of the low-fat dairy diet than on that of the fermented dairy diet and the concentrations of two plasmalogen lipid classes reported to be associated with increased oxidisability were also higher on consumption of the low-fat dairy diet than on that of the fermented dairy diet (P< 0.001), although plasma F2-isoprostane concentrations did not differ on consumption of any of the diets. On the other hand, the concentrations of plasma sphingomyelin and IL-6 were significantly higher on consumption of the non-fermented dairy diet than on that of the low-fat dairy diet (P< 0.02). In conclusion, short-term diets containing low-fat dairy products did not lead to a more favourable biomarker profile associated with CVD risk compared with the full-fat dairy products, suggesting that full-fat fermented dairy products may be the more

  3. Investigation of food waste valorization through sequential lactic acid fermentative production and anaerobic digestion of fermentation residues.

    PubMed

    Demichelis, Francesca; Pleissner, Daniel; Fiore, Silvia; Mariano, Silvia; Navarro Gutiérrez, Ivette Michelle; Schneider, Roland; Venus, Joachim

    2017-10-01

    This work concerns the investigation of the sequential production of lactic acid (LA) and biogas from food waste (FW). LA was produced from FW using a Streptococcus sp. strain via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) and separate enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF). Via SHF a yield of 0.33g LA /g FW (productivity 3.38g LA /L·h) and via SSF 0.29g LA /g FW (productivity 2.08g LA /L·h) was obtained. Fermentation residues and FW underwent anaerobic digestion (3wt% TS). Biogas yields were 0.71, 0.74 and 0.90Nm 3 /kg VS for FW and residues from SSF and SHF respectively. The innovation of the approach is considering the conversion of FW into two different products through a biorefinery concept, therefore making economically feasible LA production and valorising its fermentative residues. Finally, a mass balance of three different outlines with the aim to assess the amount of LA and biogas that may be generated within different scenarios is presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The influence of slaughterhouse waste on fermentative H2 production from food waste: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Boni, Maria Rosaria; Sbaffoni, Silvia; Tuccinardi, Letizia

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of slaughterhouse waste (SHW; essentially the skin, fats, and meat waste of pork, poultry, and beef) in a fermentative co-digestion process for H2 production from pre-selected organic waste taken from a refectory (food waste [FW]). Batch tests under mesophilic conditions were conducted in stirred reactors filled with different proportions of FW and SHW. The addition of 60% and 70% SHW to a mixture of SHW and FW improved H2 production compared to that in FW only, reaching H2-production yields of 145 and 109 ml g VS 0(-1), respectively, which are 1.5-2 times higher than that obtained with FW alone. Although the SHW ensured a more stable fermentative process due to its high buffering capacity, a depletion of H2 production occurred when SHW fraction was higher than 70%. Above this percentage, the formation of foam and aggregated material created non-homogenous conditions of digestion. Additionally, the increasing amount of SHW in the reactors may lead to an accumulation of long chain fatty acids (LCFAs), which are potentially toxic for anaerobic microorganisms and may inhibit the normal evolution of the fermentative process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fermentation of food and feed: A technology for efficient utilization of macro and trace elements in monogastrics.

    PubMed

    Humer, Elke; Schedle, Karl

    2016-09-01

    Mineral deficiencies, especially of iron, zinc, and calcium, respectively, negatively affect human health and may lead to conditions such as iron deficiency anemia, rickets, osteoporosis, and diseases of the immune system. Cereal grains and legumes are of global importance in nutrition of monogastrics (humans and the respective domestic animals) and provide high amounts of several minerals, e.g., iron, zinc, and calcium. Nevertheless, their bioavailability is low. Plants contain phytates, the salts of phytic acid, chemically known as inositol-hexakisphosphate, which interact with several minerals and proteins. However, phytate may be hydrolysed by phytase. This enzyme is naturally present in plants and also widely distributed in microorganisms. Several food processing methods have been reported to enhance phytate hydrolysis, due to the activation of endogenous phytase activity or via the enzyme produced by microbes. In recent years, fermentation for food and feed improvement and preservation, respectively, has gained increasing interest as a promising method to degrade phytate and enhance mineral utilization in monogastrics. Indeed, several in vitro as well as in vivo studies confirm a positive effect on the utilization of minerals, such as P, Ca, Fe and Zn, using sourdough fermentation for baking or fermentation of legumes, mainly soybeans. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the potential of fermentation to enhance macro and trace element bioavailability in monogastric species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. The Biotechnology of Ugba, a Nigerian Traditional Fermented Food Condiment

    PubMed Central

    Olasupo, Nurudeen A.; Okorie, Chimezie P.; Oguntoyinbo, Folarin A.

    2016-01-01

    Legumes and oil bean seeds used for the production of condiments in Africa are inedible in their natural state; they contain some anti-nutritional factors especially undigestible oligosaccharides and phytate. Fermentation impact desirable changes by reducing anti-nutritional factors and increasing digestibility. Ugba is an alkaline fermented African oil bean cotyledon (Pentaclethra macrophylla) produced by the Ibos and other ethnic groups in southern Nigeria. Seen as a family business in many homes, its preparation is in accordance with handed-down tradition from previous generations and serves as a cheap source of plant protein. Its consumption as a native salad is made possible by fermentation of the cotyledon for 2–5 days, but could also serve as a soup flavoring agent when fermentation last for 6–10 days. The fermentation process involved is usually natural with an attendant issue of product safety, quality and inconsistency. The production of this condiment is on a small scale and the equipment used are very rudimentary, devoid of good manufacturing procedures that call to question the issue of microbial safety. This paper therefore reviews the production process and the spectrum of microbial composition involved during fermentation. In addition, potential spoilage agents, nutritional and biochemical changes during production are examined. Furthermore, information that can support development of starter cultures for controlled fermentation process in order to guarantee microbiological safety, quality and improved shelf life are also discussed. PMID:27540371

  7. Development of a fermented quinoa-based beverage.

    PubMed

    Ludena Urquizo, Fanny Emma; García Torres, Silvia Melissa; Tolonen, Tiina; Jaakkola, Mari; Pena-Niebuhr, Maria Grazzia; von Wright, Atte; Repo-Carrasco-Valencia, Ritva; Korhonen, Hannu; Plumed-Ferrer, Carme

    2017-05-01

    Quinoa is a crop that originated from the Andes. It has high nutritional value, outstanding agro-ecological adaptability, and low water requirements. Quinoa is an excellent crop alternative to help overcome food shortages, and it can also have a role in the prevention of developed world lifestyle diseases, such as type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, etc. In order to expand the traditional uses of quinoa and to provide new, healthier and more nutritious food products, a fermented quinoa-based beverage was developed. Two quinoa varieties (Rosada de Huancayo and Pasankalla) were studied. The fermentation process, viscosity, acidity, and metabolic activity during the preparation and storage of the drink were monitored, as well as the preliminary organoleptic acceptability of the product. The drink had viable and stable microbiota during the storage time and the fermentation proved to be mostly homolactic. Both quinoa varieties were suitable as base for fermented products; Pasankalla, however, has the advantage due to higher protein content, lower saponin concentration, and lower loss of viscosity during the fermentation process. These results suggest that the differences between quinoa varieties may have substantial effects on food processes and on the properties of final products. This is a factor that should be taken into account when planning novel products based on this grain.

  8. Application of principal component analysis (PCA) as a sensory assessment tool for fermented food products.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debasree; Chattopadhyay, Parimal

    2012-06-01

    The objective of the work was to use the method of quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) to describe the sensory attributes of the fermented food products prepared with the incorporation of lactic cultures. Panellists were selected and trained to evaluate various attributes specially color and appearance, body texture, flavor, overall acceptability and acidity of the fermented food products like cow milk curd and soymilk curd, idli, sauerkraut and probiotic ice cream. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified the six significant principal components that accounted for more than 90% of the variance in the sensory attribute data. Overall product quality was modelled as a function of principal components using multiple least squares regression (R (2) = 0.8). The result from PCA was statistically analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). These findings demonstrate the utility of quantitative descriptive analysis for identifying and measuring the fermented food product attributes that are important for consumer acceptability.

  9. Formation of volatile sulfur compounds and metabolism of methionine and other sulfur compounds in fermented food.

    PubMed

    Landaud, Sophie; Helinck, Sandra; Bonnarme, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    The formation of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) in fermented food is a subject of interest. Such compounds are essential for the aroma of many food products like cheeses or fermented beverages, in which they can play an attractive or a repulsive role, depending on their identity and their concentration. VSC essentially arise from common sulfur-bearing precursors, methionine being the most commonly found. In the first section of this paper, the main VSC found in cheese, wine, and beer are reviewed. It is shown that a wide variety of VSC has been evidenced in these food products. Because of their low odor threshold and flavor notes, these compounds impart essential sensorial properties to the final product. In the second section of this review, the main (bio)chemical pathways leading to VSC synthesis are presented. Attention is focused on the microbial/enzymatic phenomena-which initiate sulfur bearing precursors degradation-leading to VSC production. Although chemical reactions could also play an important role in this process, this aspect is not fully developed in our review. The main catabolic pathways leading to VSC from the precursor methionine are presented.

  10. The influence of slaughterhouse waste on fermentative H{sub 2} production from food waste: Preliminary results

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Boni, Maria Rosaria; Sbaffoni, Silvia; Tuccinardi, Letizia, E-mail: letizia.tuccinardi@uniroma1.it

    Highlights: • Co-digestion process finalized to bio-H{sub 2} production was tested in batch tests. • Slaughterhouse waste (SHW) and food waste (FW) were co-digested in different proportions. • The presence of SHW affected the H{sub 2} production from FW. • When SHW ranging between 50% and 70% the H{sub 2} production is improved. • SHW percentages above 70%, led to a depletion in H{sub 2} production. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of slaughterhouse waste (SHW; essentially the skin, fats, and meat waste of pork, poultry, and beef) in a fermentative co-digestion process formore » H{sub 2} production from pre-selected organic waste taken from a refectory (food waste [FW]). Batch tests under mesophilic conditions were conducted in stirred reactors filled with different proportions of FW and SHW. The addition of 60% and 70% SHW to a mixture of SHW and FW improved H{sub 2} production compared to that in FW only, reaching H{sub 2}-production yields of 145 and 109 ml gVS{sub 0}{sup -1}, respectively, which are 1.5–2 times higher than that obtained with FW alone. Although the SHW ensured a more stable fermentative process due to its high buffering capacity, a depletion of H{sub 2} production occurred when SHW fraction was higher than 70%. Above this percentage, the formation of foam and aggregated material created non-homogenous conditions of digestion. Additionally, the increasing amount of SHW in the reactors may lead to an accumulation of long chain fatty acids (LCFAs), which are potentially toxic for anaerobic microorganisms and may inhibit the normal evolution of the fermentative process.« less

  11. Food Applications and Regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate; Omar, Nabil Ben; Lucas, Rosario

    This chapter deals with food applications of bacteriocins. Regulatory issues on the different possibilities for incorporating bacteriocins as bioprotectants are discussed. Specific applications of bacteriocins or bacteriocin-producing strains are described for main food categories, including milk and dairy products, raw meats, ready-to-eat meat and poultry products, fermented meats, fish and fish products or fermented fish. The last section of the chapter deals with applications in foods and beverages derived from plant materials, such as raw vegetable foods, fruits and fruit juices, cooked food products, fermented vegetable foods and ­fermented beverages. Results obtained for application of bacteriocins in combination with other hurdles are also discussed for each specific case, with a special emphasis on novel food packaging and food-processing technologies, such as irradiation, pulsed electric field treatments or high hydrostatic pressure treatment.

  12. Metabolite profiling of the fermentation process of "yamahai-ginjo-shikomi" Japanese sake.

    PubMed

    Tatsukami, Yohei; Morisaka, Hironobu; Aburaya, Shunsuke; Aoki, Wataru; Kohsaka, Chihiro; Tani, Masafumi; Hirooka, Kiyoo; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Kitaoka, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Hisashi; Wakai, Yoshinori; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2018-01-01

    Sake is a traditional Japanese alcoholic beverage prepared by multiple parallel fermentation of rice. The fermentation process of "yamahai-ginjo-shikomi" sake is mainly performed by three microbes, Aspergillus oryzae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Lactobacilli; the levels of various metabolites fluctuate during the fermentation of sake. For evaluation of the fermentation process, we monitored the concentration of moderate-sized molecules (m/z: 200-1000) dynamically changed during the fermentation process of "yamahai-ginjo-shikomi" Japanese sake. This analysis revealed that six compounds were the main factors with characteristic differences in the fermentation process. Among the six compounds, four were leucine- or isoleucine-containing peptides and the remaining two were predicted to be small molecules. Quantification of these compounds revealed that their quantities changed during the month of fermentation process. Our metabolomic approach revealed the dynamic changes observed in moderate-sized molecules during the fermentation process of sake, and the factors found in this analysis will be candidate molecules that indicate the progress of "yamahai-ginjo-shikomi" sake fermentation.

  13. Produce from Africa’s Gardens: Potential for Leafy Vegetable and Fruit Fermentations

    PubMed Central

    Oguntoyinbo, Folarin A.; Fusco, Vincenzina; Cho, Gyu-Sung; Kabisch, Jan; Neve, Horst; Bockelmann, Wilhelm; Huch, Melanie; Frommherz, Lara; Trierweiler, Bernhard; Becker, Biserka; Benomar, Nabil; Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H.; Franz, Charles M. A. P.

    2016-01-01

    A rich variety of indigenous fruits and vegetables grow in Africa, which contribute to the nutrition and health of Africa’s populations. Fruits and vegetables have high moisture and are thus inherently prone to accelerated spoilage. Food fermentation still plays a major role in combating food spoilage and foodborne diseases that are prevalent in many of Africa’s resource disadvantaged regions. Lactic acid fermentation is probably the oldest and best-accepted food processing method among the African people, and is largely a home-based process. Fermentation of leafy vegetables and fruits is, however, underutilized in Africa, although such fermented products could contribute toward improving nutrition and food security in this continent, where many are still malnourished and suffer from hidden hunger. Fermentation of leafy vegetables and fruits may not only improve safety and prolong shelf life, but may also enhance the availability of some trace minerals, vitamins and anti-oxidants. Cassava, cow-peas, amaranth, African nightshade, and spider plant leaves have a potential for fermentation, as do various fruits for the production of vinegars or fruit beers and wines. What is needed to accelerate efforts for production of fermented leaves and vegetables is the development of fermentation protocols, training of personnel and scale-up of production methods. Furthermore, suitable starter cultures need to be developed and produced to guarantee the success of the fermentations. PMID:27458430

  14. Microbioligical Hazard Contamination in Fermented Vegetables Sold in Local Markets in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Chrun, Rithy; Hosotani, Yukie; Kawasaki, Susumu; Inatsu, Yasuhiro

    2017-01-01

     Fermented vegetables are common part of Cambodian diet. The food safety status for these foods has not been investigated. This study was conducted to evaluate the microbiological hazards that contaminated fermented vegetables. A total of 68 samples of fermented vegetables were purchased randomly from five wet markets in Phnom Penh. The conventional culture methods for microbiological analysis were used. Coliform bacteria (Escherichia coli, Cronobactersakazakii, and Enterobacter spp.), opportunistic non-Entrobacteriaceae, Enterococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Listeria spp. were found in these fermented foods. The highest contamination rate of Enterococcus spp. was 34% of total fermented vegetable samples, followed by Bacillus spp. coliform bacteria and E. coli (31%, 24% and 10%, respectively). The potential foodborne pathogen, C. sakazakii, was identified in one sample. Fermented mixed vegetables showed higher contamination rate of coliform bacteria (50%) than fermented single-type vegetables (13%). The results showed that fermented vegetables sold in wet market are poor in hygiene. The stage in the processing chain where contamination occurred should be identified and basic sanitary practice should be enforced to improve the food safety of fermented vegetables in Cambodia.

  15. Techno-economic evaluation of a combined bioprocess for fermentative hydrogen production from food waste.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Fang, Jun; Liu, Zhixiang; Tang, Junhong

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the techno-economic evaluation of a combined bioprocess based on solid state fermentation for fermentative hydrogen production from food waste was carried out. The hydrogen production plant was assumed to be built in Hangzhou and designed for converting 3 ton food waste per day into hydrogen. The total capital cost (TCC) and the annual production cost (APC) were US$583092 and US$88298.1/year, respectively. The overall revenue after the tax was US$146473.6/year. The return on investment (ROI), payback period (PBP) and internal rate of return (IRR) of the plant were 26.75%, 5 years and 24.07%, respectively. The results exhibited that the combined bioprocess for hydrogen production from food waste was feasible. This is an important study for attracting investment and industrialization interest for hydrogen production from food waste in the industrial scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Determination of tryptophan derivatives in kynurenine pathway in fermented foods using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Cemile; Gökmen, Vural

    2018-03-15

    This study aimed to develop an analytical method for the determination of tryptophan and its derivatives in kynurenine pathway using tandem mass spectrometry in various fermented food products (bread, beer, red wine, white cheese, yoghurt, kefir and cocoa powder). The method entails an aqueous extraction and reversed phase chromatographic separation using pentafluorophenyl (PFP) column. It allowed quantitation of low ppb levels of tryptophan and its derivatives in different fermented food matrices. It was found that beer samples were found to contain kynurenine within the range of 28.7±0.7μg/L and 86.3±0.5μg/L. Moreover, dairy products (yoghurt, white cheese and kefir) contained kynurenine ranging from 30.3 to 763.8μg/kg d.w. Though bread samples analyzed did not contain kynurenic acid, beer and red wine samples as yeast-fermented foods were found to contain kynurenic acid. Among foods analyzed, cacao powder had the highest amounts of kynurenic acid (4486.2±165.6μg/kgd.w), which is a neuroprotective compound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mitigation of Patulin in Fresh and Processed Foods and Beverages

    PubMed Central

    Ioi, J. David; Zhou, Ting; Tsao, Rong; F. Marcone, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin of food safety concern. It is produced by numerous species of fungi growing on fruits and vegetables. Exposure to the toxin is connected to issues neurological, immunological, and gastrointestinal in nature. Regulatory agencies worldwide have established maximum allowable levels of 50 µg/kg in foods. Despite regulations, surveys continue to find patulin in commercial food and beverage products, in some cases, to exceed the maximum limits. Patulin content in food can be mitigated throughout the food processing chain. Proper handling, storage, and transportation of food can limit fungal growth and patulin production. Common processing techniques including pasteurisation, filtration, and fermentation all have an effect on patulin content in food but individually are not sufficient safety measures. Novel methods to remove or detoxify patulin have been reviewed. Non-thermal processing techniques such as high hydrostatic pressure, UV radiation, enzymatic degradation, binding to microorganisms, and chemical degradation all have potential but have not been optimised. Until further refinement of these methods, the hurdle approach to processing should be used where food safety is concerned. Future development should focus on determining the nature and safety of chemicals produced from the breakdown of patulin in treatment techniques. PMID:28492465

  18. Identification of natural lactoylcholine in lactic acid bacteria-fermented food.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kozo; Okitsu, Sho; Ishida, Ryuya; Tian, Su; Igari, Naoki; Amano, Yoshihiko

    2016-06-15

    Acetylcholine (AcCh) is a major neurotransmitter and an agonist of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in non-neuronal systems. Artificially synthesized lactoylcholine (LaCh) has potent nicotinic activity equal to that of AcCh. In this study, we report the isolation and purification of natural AcCh and LaCh from a lactic-fermented food known to reduce blood pressure. To our knowledge, we are the first to isolate natural LaCh. The choline esters were isolated using a novel purification procedure combining a weak cation-exchange cartridge with ODS and pentafluorophenyl HPLC columns, and the structure of LaCh was identified via various analyses. Assessment of D- and L-LaCh showed that the isolated LaCh was an enantiomer mixture with a D/L ratio of 1.6. D-LaCh induced vasorelaxation of thoracic aortas from spontaneously hypertensive rats (EC50=3.83×10(-7) M), while L-LaCh did not. Our results suggest that choline esters could be new functional ingredients in lactic-fermented foods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Metabolite profiling of the fermentation process of "yamahai-ginjo-shikomi" Japanese sake

    PubMed Central

    Tatsukami, Yohei; Morisaka, Hironobu; Aburaya, Shunsuke; Aoki, Wataru; Kohsaka, Chihiro; Tani, Masafumi; Hirooka, Kiyoo; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Kitaoka, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Hisashi; Wakai, Yoshinori

    2018-01-01

    Sake is a traditional Japanese alcoholic beverage prepared by multiple parallel fermentation of rice. The fermentation process of “yamahai-ginjo-shikomi” sake is mainly performed by three microbes, Aspergillus oryzae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Lactobacilli; the levels of various metabolites fluctuate during the fermentation of sake. For evaluation of the fermentation process, we monitored the concentration of moderate-sized molecules (m/z: 200–1000) dynamically changed during the fermentation process of “yamahai-ginjo-shikomi” Japanese sake. This analysis revealed that six compounds were the main factors with characteristic differences in the fermentation process. Among the six compounds, four were leucine- or isoleucine-containing peptides and the remaining two were predicted to be small molecules. Quantification of these compounds revealed that their quantities changed during the month of fermentation process. Our metabolomic approach revealed the dynamic changes observed in moderate-sized molecules during the fermentation process of sake, and the factors found in this analysis will be candidate molecules that indicate the progress of “yamahai-ginjo-shikomi” sake fermentation. PMID:29298316

  20. Isolation of Tannin-Degrading Lactobacilli from Humans and Fermented Foods

    PubMed Central

    Osawa, Ro; Kuroiso, Keiko; Goto, Satoshi; Shimizu, Akira

    2000-01-01

    Lactobacilli with tannase activity were isolated from human feces and fermented foods. A PCR-based taxonomic assay revealed that the isolates belong to Lactobacillus plantarum, L. paraplantarum, and L. pentosus. Additional studies on a range of Lactobacillus species from established culture collections confirmed that this enzymatic activity is a phenotypic property common to these three species. PMID:10877812

  1. Characterization of some bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Grosu-Tudor, Silvia-Simona; Stancu, Mihaela-Marilena; Pelinescu, Diana; Zamfir, Medana

    2014-09-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from different sources (dairy products, fruits, fresh and fermented vegetables, fermented cereals) were screened for antimicrobial activity against other bacteria, including potential pathogens and food spoiling bacteria. Six strains have been shown to produce bacteriocins: Lactococcus lactis 19.3, Lactobacillus plantarum 26.1, Enterococcus durans 41.2, isolated from dairy products and Lactobacillus amylolyticus P40 and P50, and Lactobacillus oris P49, isolated from bors. Among the six bacteriocins, there were both heat stable, low molecular mass polypeptides, with a broad inhibitory spectrum, probably belonging to class II bacteriocins, and heat labile, high molecular mass proteins, with a very narrow inhibitory spectrum, most probably belonging to class III bacteriocins. A synergistic effect of some bacteriocins mixtures was observed. We can conclude that fermented foods are still important sources of new functional LAB. Among the six characterized bacteriocins, there might be some novel compounds with interesting features. Moreover, the bacteriocin-producing strains isolated in our study may find applications as protective cultures.

  2. Strain-Level Metagenomic Analysis of the Fermented Dairy Beverage Nunu Highlights Potential Food Safety Risks

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Aaron M.; Crispie, Fiona; Daari, Kareem; O'Sullivan, Orla; Martin, Jennifer C.; Arthur, Cornelius T.; Claesson, Marcus J.; Scott, Karen P.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The rapid detection of pathogenic strains in food products is essential for the prevention of disease outbreaks. It has already been demonstrated that whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing can be used to detect pathogens in food but, until recently, strain-level detection of pathogens has relied on whole-metagenome assembly, which is a computationally demanding process. Here we demonstrated that three short-read-alignment-based methods, i.e., MetaMLST, PanPhlAn, and StrainPhlAn, could accurately and rapidly identify pathogenic strains in spinach metagenomes that had been intentionally spiked with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in a previous study. Subsequently, we employed the methods, in combination with other metagenomics approaches, to assess the safety of nunu, a traditional Ghanaian fermented milk product that is produced by the spontaneous fermentation of raw cow milk. We showed that nunu samples were frequently contaminated with bacteria associated with the bovine gut and, worryingly, we detected putatively pathogenic E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains in a subset of nunu samples. Ultimately, our work establishes that short-read-alignment-based bioinformatics approaches are suitable food safety tools, and we describe a real-life example of their utilization. IMPORTANCE Foodborne pathogens are responsible for millions of illnesses each year. Here we demonstrate that short-read-alignment-based bioinformatics tools can accurately and rapidly detect pathogenic strains in food products by using shotgun metagenomics data. The methods used here are considerably faster than both traditional culturing methods and alternative bioinformatics approaches that rely on metagenome assembly; therefore, they can potentially be used for more high-throughput food safety testing. Overall, our results suggest that whole-metagenome sequencing can be used as a practical food safety tool to prevent diseases or to link outbreaks to specific food products. PMID

  3. Strain-Level Metagenomic Analysis of the Fermented Dairy Beverage Nunu Highlights Potential Food Safety Risks.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Aaron M; Crispie, Fiona; Daari, Kareem; O'Sullivan, Orla; Martin, Jennifer C; Arthur, Cornelius T; Claesson, Marcus J; Scott, Karen P; Cotter, Paul D

    2017-08-15

    The rapid detection of pathogenic strains in food products is essential for the prevention of disease outbreaks. It has already been demonstrated that whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing can be used to detect pathogens in food but, until recently, strain-level detection of pathogens has relied on whole-metagenome assembly, which is a computationally demanding process. Here we demonstrated that three short-read-alignment-based methods, i.e., MetaMLST, PanPhlAn, and StrainPhlAn, could accurately and rapidly identify pathogenic strains in spinach metagenomes that had been intentionally spiked with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in a previous study. Subsequently, we employed the methods, in combination with other metagenomics approaches, to assess the safety of nunu, a traditional Ghanaian fermented milk product that is produced by the spontaneous fermentation of raw cow milk. We showed that nunu samples were frequently contaminated with bacteria associated with the bovine gut and, worryingly, we detected putatively pathogenic E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains in a subset of nunu samples. Ultimately, our work establishes that short-read-alignment-based bioinformatics approaches are suitable food safety tools, and we describe a real-life example of their utilization. IMPORTANCE Foodborne pathogens are responsible for millions of illnesses each year. Here we demonstrate that short-read-alignment-based bioinformatics tools can accurately and rapidly detect pathogenic strains in food products by using shotgun metagenomics data. The methods used here are considerably faster than both traditional culturing methods and alternative bioinformatics approaches that rely on metagenome assembly; therefore, they can potentially be used for more high-throughput food safety testing. Overall, our results suggest that whole-metagenome sequencing can be used as a practical food safety tool to prevent diseases or to link outbreaks to specific food products. Copyright

  4. Genomic analysis of WCP30 Phage of Weissella cibaria for Dairy Fermented Foods.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Duck; Park, Jong-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we report the morphogenetic analysis and genome sequence of a new WCP30 phage of Weissella cibaria , isolated from a fermented food. Based on its morphology, as observed by transmission electron microscopy, WCP30 phage belongs to the family Siphoviridae . Genomic analysis of WCP30 phage showed that it had a 33,697-bp double-stranded DNA genome with 41.2% G+C content. Bioinformatics analysis of the genome revealed 35 open reading frames. A BLASTN search showed that WCP30 phage had low sequence similarity compared to other phages infecting lactic acid bacteria. This is the first report of the morphological features and complete genome sequence of WCP30 phage, which may be useful for controlling the fermentation of dairy foods.

  5. Table Olive Fermentation Using Starter Cultures with Multifunctional Potential

    PubMed Central

    Bonatsou, Stamatoula; Tassou, Chrysoula C.; Panagou, Efstathios Z.; Nychas, George-John E.

    2017-01-01

    Table olives are one of the most popular plant-derived fermented products. Their enhanced nutritional value due to the presence of phenolic compounds and monounsaturated fatty acids makes olives an important food commodity of the Mediterranean diet. However, despite its economic significance, table olive fermentation is mainly craft-based and empirically driven by the autochthonous microbiota of the olives depending on various intrinsic and extrinsic factors, leading to a spontaneous process and a final product of variable quality. The use of microorganisms previously isolated from olive fermentations and studied for their probiotic potential and technological characteristics as starter cultures may contribute to the reduction of spoilage risk resulting in a controlled fermentation process. This review focuses on the importance of the development and implementation of multifunctional starter cultures related to olives with desirable probiotic and technological characteristics for possible application on table olive fermentation with the main purpose being the production of a health promoting and sensory improved functional food. PMID:28555038

  6. Table Olive Fermentation Using Starter Cultures with Multifunctional Potential.

    PubMed

    Bonatsou, Stamatoula; Tassou, Chrysoula C; Panagou, Efstathios Z; Nychas, George-John E

    2017-05-28

    Table olives are one of the most popular plant-derived fermented products. Their enhanced nutritional value due to the presence of phenolic compounds and monounsaturated fatty acids makes olives an important food commodity of the Mediterranean diet. However, despite its economic significance, table olive fermentation is mainly craft-based and empirically driven by the autochthonous microbiota of the olives depending on various intrinsic and extrinsic factors, leading to a spontaneous process and a final product of variable quality. The use of microorganisms previously isolated from olive fermentations and studied for their probiotic potential and technological characteristics as starter cultures may contribute to the reduction of spoilage risk resulting in a controlled fermentation process. This review focuses on the importance of the development and implementation of multifunctional starter cultures related to olives with desirable probiotic and technological characteristics for possible application on table olive fermentation with the main purpose being the production of a health promoting and sensory improved functional food.

  7. Awareness and Prevalence of Mycotoxin Contamination in Selected Nigerian Fermented Foods

    PubMed Central

    Njobeh, Patrick; Obadina, Adewale

    2017-01-01

    Fermented food samples (n = 191) including maize gruel (ogi), sorghum gruel (ogi-baba), melon seed (ogiri), locust bean (iru) and African oil bean seed (ugba) from Southwest Nigeria were quantified for 23 mycotoxins, including aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), fumonisin B1 (FB1), and sterigmatocystin (STE) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The practices, perceived understanding and health risks related to fungal and mycotoxin contamination amongst fermented food sellers was also established. Data obtained revealed that 82% of the samples had mycotoxins occurring singly or in combination. FB1 was present in 83% of ogi-baba samples, whereas 20% of ugba samples contained AFB1 (range: 3 to 36 µg/kg) and STE was present in 29% of the ogi samples. In terms of multi-mycotoxin contamination, FB1 + FB2 + FB3 + STE + AFB1 + alternariol + HT-2 co-occurred within one sample. The awareness study revealed that 98% of respondents were unaware of mycotoxin contamination, and their education level slightly correlated with their level of awareness (p < 0.01, r = 0.308). The extent to which the analyzed mycotoxins contaminated these food commodities, coupled with the poor perception of the population under study on fungi and mycotoxins, justifies the need to enact fungal and mycotoxin mitigation strategies along the food chain. PMID:29117141

  8. Antimicrobial resistance in coagulase-negative staphylococci from Nigerian traditional fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Fowoyo, P T; Ogunbanwo, S T

    2017-01-31

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci have become increasingly recognized as the etiological agent of some infections. A significant characteristic of coagulase-negative staphylococci especially strains isolated from animals and clinical samples is their resistance to routinely used antibiotics although, resistant strains isolated from fermented foods have not been fully reported. A total of two hundred and fifty-five CoNS isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test using the disc diffusion technique. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the isolates to the tested antibiotics was determined using the microbroth dilution method. Methicillin resistant strains were confirmed by detection of methicillin resistant genes (mecA) and also employing cefoxitin screening test. The isolates were confirmed to be methicillin resistant by the detection of mecA genes and the cefoxitin screening test. The isolates demonstrated appreciable resistance to ampicillin (86.7%), sulfomethoxazole-trimethoprim (74.9%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (52.5%) and oxacillin (35.7%). Methicillin resistance was exhibited by 13 out of the 255 isolates although no mecA gene was detected. It was also observed that the methicillin resistant isolates were prevalent in these traditional foods; iru, kindirmo, nono and wara. This study has ameliorated the incidence of multiple antibiotic resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci in Nigerian fermented foods and if not tackled adequately might lead to horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance from food to man.

  9. Cardboard proportions and total solids contents as driving factors in dry co-fermentation of food waste.

    PubMed

    Capson-Tojo, Gabriel; Trably, Eric; Rouez, Maxime; Crest, Marion; Bernet, Nicolas; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Delgenès, Jean-Philippe; Escudié, Renaud

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of the co-substrate proportions (0-60% of cardboard in dry basis) and the initial total solid contents (20-40%) on the batch fermentation performance. Maximum hydrogen yields were obtained when mono-fermenting food waste at high solids contents (89mlH 2 ·gVS -1 ). The hydrogen yields were lower when increasing the proportions of cardboard. The lower hydrogen yields at higher proportions of cardboard were translated into higher yields of caproic acid (up to 70.1gCOD·kgCOD bio -1 ), produced by consumption of acetic acid and hydrogen. The highest substrate conversions were achieved at low proportions of cardboard, indicating a stabilization effect due to higher buffering capacities in co-fermentation. Clostridiales were predominant in all operational conditions. This study opens up new possibilities for using the cardboard proportions for controlling the production of high added-value products in dry co-fermentation of food waste. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Freeze-Dried Vegetable Products on the Technological Process and the Quality of Dry Fermented Sausages.

    PubMed

    Eisinaite, Viktorija; Vinauskiene, Rimante; Viskelis, Pranas; Leskauskaite, Daiva

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the chemical composition of freeze-dried vegetable powders: celery, celery juice, parsnip and leek. The effect of different freeze-dried vegetables onto the ripening process and the properties of dry fermented sausages was also evaluated. Vegetable products significantly (p < 0.05) differed in their chemical composition: celery products contained higher amounts of nitrates, total phenolic compounds and lower amounts of sucrose, parsnip had higher concentration of proteins, leek was rich in fat. The analysis of pH, water activity, lactic acid bacteria, coagulase-positive staphylococci and coliforms content showed that the incorporation of freeze-dried vegetables had no negative effect on the fermentation and ripening process of dry fermented sausages. In addition, the color parameters for sausages with the added lyophilised celery products were considerable (p < 0.05) more stable during these processes. At the end of the ripening process the sausages made with lyophilised celery juice were characterised by higher lightness and lower hardness than those made with the addition of other vegetable products and control. Freeze-dried celery, celery juice, parsnip and leek have some potential for the usage as a functional ingredient or as a source for indirect addition of nitrate in the production of fermented sausages. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Microbial diversity and their roles in the vinegar fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Li, Sha; Li, Pan; Feng, Feng; Luo, Li-Xin

    2015-06-01

    Vinegar is one of the oldest acetic acid-diluted solution products in the world. It is produced from any fermentable sugary substrate by various fermentation methods. The final vinegar products possess unique functions, which are endowed with many kinds of compounds formed in the fermentation process. The quality of vinegar is determined by many factors, especially by the raw materials and microbial diversity involved in vinegar fermentation. Given that metabolic products from the fermenting strains are directly related to the quality of the final products of vinegar, the microbial diversity and features of the dominant strains involved in different fermentation stages should be analyzed to improve the strains and stabilize fermentation. Moreover, although numerous microbiological studies have been conducted to examine the process of vinegar fermentation, knowledge about microbial diversity and their roles involved in fermentation is still fragmentary and not systematic enough. Therefore, in this review, the dominant microorganism species involved in the stages of alcoholic fermentation and acetic acid fermentation of dissimilar vinegars were summarized. We also summarized various physicochemical properties and crucial compounds in disparate types of vinegar. Furthermore, the merits and drawbacks of vital fermentation methods were generalized. Finally, we described in detail the relationships among microbial diversity, raw materials, fermentation methods, physicochemical properties, compounds, functionality, and final quality of vinegar. The integration of this information can provide us a detailed map about the microbial diversity and function involved in vinegar fermentation.

  12. Biochemicals from food waste and recalcitrant biomass via syngas fermentation: A review.

    PubMed

    Wainaina, Steven; Horváth, Ilona Sárvári; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2018-01-01

    An effective method for the production of value-added chemicals from food waste and lignocellulosic materials is a hybrid thermal-biological process, which involves gasification of the solid materials to syngas (primarily CO and H 2 ) followed by fermentation. This paper reviews the recent advances in this process. The special focus is on the cultivation methods that involve the use of single strains, defined mixed cultures and undefined mixed cultures for production of carboxylic acids and higher alcohols. A rate limiting step in these processes is the low mass transfer between the gas and the liquid phases. Therefore, novel techniques that can enhance the gas-liquid mass transfer including membrane- and trickle-bed bioreactors were discussed. Such bioreactors have shown promising results in increasing the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (k L a). High gas pressure also influences the mass transfer in certain batch processes, although the presence of impurities in the gas would impede the process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fermentation Kinetics and Continuous Process of L-Asparaginase Production

    PubMed Central

    Liu, F. S.; Zajic, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    For the purpose of obtaining L-asparaginase in quantities from Erwinia aroideae, cell growth and enzyme formation were investigated in both batch and continuous fermentation. Using yeast extract as a growth-limiting substrate, the relationship between specific growth rate and substrate concentration was found to fit the Monod equation. The optimum temperature for enzyme production was 24 C, although cell growth was higher at 28 C. The enzyme yield reached its maximum of 4 IU/ml during the negative acceleration growth phase which occurs just prior to stationary growth. Compared to batch fermentations, the continuous fermentation process gave a lower enzyme yield except when the fermentation was conducted at a dilution rate of 0.1 hr-1. The graphical method frequently used for prediction of continuous fermentation does not apply to L-asparaginase production by E. aroideae. The optimum temperature for enzyme production in continuous process was 24 C, which was the same as in batch process. Increasing the temperature from 24 to 28 C resulted in a 20% loss of enzyme yield. PMID:4568894

  14. Butanol production from food waste: a novel process for producing sustainable energy and reducing environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haibo; Singh, Vijay; Qureshi, Nasib

    2015-01-01

    Waste is currently a major problem in the world, both in the developing and the developed countries. Efficient utilization of food waste for fuel and chemical production can positively influence both the energy and environmental sustainability. This study investigated using food waste to produce acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) by Clostridium beijerinckii P260. In control fermentation, 40.5 g/L of glucose (initial glucose 56.7 g/L) was used to produce 14.2 g/L of ABE with a fermentation productivity and a yield of 0.22 g/L/h and 0.35 g/g, respectively. In a similar fermentation 81 g/L of food waste (containing equivalent glucose of 60.1 g/L) was used as substrate, and the culture produced 18.9 g/L ABE with a high ABE productivity of 0.46 g/L/h and a yield of 0.38 g/g. Fermentation of food waste at higher concentrations (129, 181 and 228 g/L) did not remarkably increase ABE production but resulted in high residual glucose due to the culture butanol inhibition. An integrated vacuum stripping system was designed and applied to recover butanol from the fermentation broth simultaneously to relieve the culture butanol inhibition, thereby allowing the fermentation of food waste at high concentrations. ABE fermentation integrated with vacuum stripping successfully recovered the ABE from the fermentation broth and controlled the ABE concentrations below 10 g/L during fermentation when 129 g/L food waste was used. The ABE productivity with vacuum fermentation was 0.49 g/L/h, which was 109 % higher than the control fermentation (glucose based). More importantly, ABE vacuum recovery and fermentation allowed near-complete utilization of the sugars (~98 %) in the broth. In these studies it was demonstrated that food waste is a superior feedstock for producing butanol using Clostridium beijerinckii. Compared to costly glucose, ABE fermentation of food waste has several advantages including lower feedstock cost, higher productivity, and less residual sugars.

  15. Characterization of probiotic bacteria involved in fermented milk processing enriched with folic acid.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhen; Wu, Jing; Cao, Pei; Jin, Yifeng; Pan, Daodong; Zeng, Xiaoqun; Guo, Yuxing

    2017-06-01

    Yogurt products fermented with probiotic bacteria are a consumer trend and a challenge for functional food development. So far, limited research has focused on the behavior of the various probiotic strains used in milk fermentation. In the present study, we characterized folic acid production and the sensory and textural characteristics of yogurt products fermented with probiotic bacteria. Yogurt fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum had improved nutrient content and sensory and textural characteristics, but the presence of L. plantarum significantly impaired the growth and survival of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus during refrigerated storage. Overall, L. plantarum was a good candidate for probiotic yogurt fermentation; further studies are needed to understand the major metabolite path of lactic acid bacteria in complex fermentation. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of metabolomic profile of fermented Orostachys japonicus A. Berger by capillary electrophoresis time of flight mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Das, Gitishree; Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Lee, Sun-Young; Kim, Changgeon; Park, Jae Gyu

    2017-01-01

    Microbial cell performance in food biotechnological processes has become an important concern for improving human health worldwide. Lactobacillus plantarum, which is widely distributed in nature, is a lactic acid bacterium with many industrial applications for fermented foods or functional foods (e.g., probiotics). In the present study, using capillary electrophoresis time of flight mass spectrometry, the metabolomic profile of dried Orostachys japonicus A. Berger, a perennial medicinal herb with L. plantarum was compared with that of O. japonicus fermented with L. plantarum to elucidate the metabolomic changes induced by the fermentation process. The levels of several metabolites were changed by the fermentation process, indicating their involvement in microbial performance. For example, glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, the TCA cycle, the urea cycle-related metabolism, nucleotide metabolism, and lipid and amino acid metabolism were altered significantly by the fermentation process. Although the fermented metabolites were not tested using in vivo studies to increase human health benefits, our findings provide an insight into the alteration of metabolites induced by fermentation, and indicated that the metabolomic analysis for the process should be accompanied by fermenting strains and conditions. PMID:28704842

  17. Analysis of metabolomic profile of fermented Orostachys japonicus A. Berger by capillary electrophoresis time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Das, Gitishree; Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Lee, Sun-Young; Kim, Changgeon; Park, Jae Gyu; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Microbial cell performance in food biotechnological processes has become an important concern for improving human health worldwide. Lactobacillus plantarum, which is widely distributed in nature, is a lactic acid bacterium with many industrial applications for fermented foods or functional foods (e.g., probiotics). In the present study, using capillary electrophoresis time of flight mass spectrometry, the metabolomic profile of dried Orostachys japonicus A. Berger, a perennial medicinal herb with L. plantarum was compared with that of O. japonicus fermented with L. plantarum to elucidate the metabolomic changes induced by the fermentation process. The levels of several metabolites were changed by the fermentation process, indicating their involvement in microbial performance. For example, glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, the TCA cycle, the urea cycle-related metabolism, nucleotide metabolism, and lipid and amino acid metabolism were altered significantly by the fermentation process. Although the fermented metabolites were not tested using in vivo studies to increase human health benefits, our findings provide an insight into the alteration of metabolites induced by fermentation, and indicated that the metabolomic analysis for the process should be accompanied by fermenting strains and conditions.

  18. Reverse Osmosis Processing of Organic Model Compounds and Fermentation Broths

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    AFRL-ML-TY-TP-2007-4545 POSTPRINT REVERSE OSMOSIS PROCESSING OF ORGANIC MODEL COMPOUNDS AND FERMENTATION BROTHS Robert Diltz...TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) Bioresource Technology 98 (2007) 686–695Reverse osmosis processing of organic model compounds and fermentation broths...December 2005; accepted 31 January 2006 Available online 4 April 2006Abstract Post-treatment of an anaerobic fermentation broth was evaluated using a 150

  19. Development of lotus root fermented sugar syrup as a functional food supplement/condiment and evaluation of its physicochemical, nutritional and microbiological properties.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shruti; Park, Juyeon; Park, Jung Hyun; Lee, Jong Suk; Kim, Myunghee

    2018-02-01

    Lotus ( Nelumbo nucifera ) root has been used as an edible vegetable in East Asia for thousands of years. The present research was aimed to explore the physicochemical, nutritional and microbiological safety of lotus root fermented sugar syrup as a fermented food supplement or condiment for human health benefits. In this study, the physicochemical, nutritional and microbiological safety properties of lotus root syrup fermented with 57° Brix brown sugar at different time periods until 6 months (180 days) was investigated. There was a significant improvement as compared to 57° Brix brown sugar broth (as a control) in the total acceptability and physicochemical properties of lotus root sugar syrup samples such as pH and color improvement. The red color values of 180 days lotus root fermented sugar syrup samples were significantly enhanced (6.85 ± 0.58) when compared with the control (0.20 ± 0.15). In addition, the total protein content was increased from 8.27 ± 0.86 to 392.33 ± 7.19 μg/mL, along with the increase in fermentation time reaching to the level of consumption acceptability. All the lotus root fermented sugar syrup samples were subjected to microbiological analysis. It was found that the coliform, Bacillus cereus , Escherichia coli , Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus counts were not detected in majority of the samples, confirming the high degree of hygiene processing of lotus root fermented sugar syrup samples for its use as a food supplement or condiment.

  20. Process for the fermentative production of acetone, butanol and ethanol

    DOEpatents

    Glassner, David A.; Jain, Mahendra K.; Datta, Rathin

    1991-01-01

    A process including multistage continuous fermentation followed by batch fermentation with carefully chosen temperatures for each fermentation step, combined with an asporogenic strain of C. acetobutylicum and a high carbohydrate substrate concentration yields extraordinarily high butanol and total solvents concentrations.

  1. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of Lactobacillus helveticus strains from traditional fermented dairy foods and antihypertensive effect of fermented milk of strain H9.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongfu; Liu, Wenjun; Xue, Jiangang; Yang, Jie; Chen, Xia; Shao, Yuyu; Kwok, Lai-yu; Bilige, Menghe; Mang, Lai; Zhang, Heping

    2014-11-01

    Hypertension is a major global health issue which elevates the risk of a large world population to chronic life-threatening diseases. The inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is an effective target to manage essential hypertension. In this study, the fermentation properties (titratable acidity, free amino nitrogen, and fermentation time) and ACE-inhibitory (ACEI) activity of fermented milks produced by 259 Lactobacillus helveticus strains previously isolated from traditional Chinese and Mongolian fermented foods were determined. Among them, 37 strains had an ACEI activity of over 50%. The concentrations of the antihypertensive peptides, Ile-Pro-Pro and Val-Pro-Pro, were further determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The change of ACEI activity of the fermented milks of 3 strains exhibiting the highest ACEI activity upon gastrointestinal protease treatment was assayed. Fermented milks produced by strain H9 (IMAU60208) had the highest in vitro ACEI activity (86.4 ± 1.5%), relatively short fermentation time (7.5 h), and detectable Val-Pro-Pro (2.409 ± 0.229 µM) and Ile-Pro-Pro (1.612 ± 0.114 µM) concentrations. Compared with the control, a single oral dose of H9-fermented milk significantly attenuated the systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) by 15 to 18 mmHg during the 6 to 12 h after treatment. The long-term daily H9-fermented milk intake over 7 wk exerted significant antihypertensive effect to SHR, but not normotensive rats, and the systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly lower, by 12 and 10 mmHg, respectively, compared with the control receiving saline. The feeding of H9-fermented milk to SHR resulted in a significantly higher weight gain at wk 7 compared with groups receiving saline, commercial yogurt, and captopril. Our study identified a novel probiotic L. helveticus strain originated from kurut sampled from Tibet

  2. Ethanol fermentation characteristics of recycled water by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in an integrated ethanol-methane fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinchao; Wang, Ke; Wang, Huijun; Zhang, Jianhua; Mao, Zhonggui

    2016-11-01

    An process of integrated ethanol-methane fermentation with improved economics has been studied extensively in recent years, where the process water used for a subsequent fermentation of carbohydrate biomass is recycled. This paper presents a systematic study of the ethanol fermentation characteristics of recycled process water. Compared with tap water, fermentation time was shortened by 40% when mixed water was employed. However, while the maximal ethanol production rate increased from 1.07g/L/h to 2.01g/L/h, ethanol production was not enhanced. Cell number rose from 0.6×10(8) per mL in tap water to 1.6×10(8) per mL in mixed water but although biomass increased, cell morphology was not affected. Furthermore, the use of mixed water increased the glycerol yield but decreased that of acetic acid, and the final pH with mixed water was higher than when using tap water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Bao, Jia-Wei; Su, Xian-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Zeng, Xin; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2016-03-01

    In this study, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was established to solve the problem of wastewater treatment in citric acid production. Citric acid wastewater was treated through anaerobic digestion and then the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) was further treated and recycled for the next batch citric acid fermentation. This process could eliminate wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. Propionic acid was found in the ADE and its concentration continually increased in recycling. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was investigated, and results indicated that influence of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was contributed to the undissociated form. Citric acid fermentation was inhibited when the concentration of propionic acid was above 2, 4, and 6 mM in initial pH 4.0, 4.5 and, 5.0, respectively. However, low concentration of propionic acid could promote isomaltase activity which converted more isomaltose to available sugar, thereby increasing citric acid production. High concentration of propionic acid could influence the vitality of cell and prolong the lag phase, causing large amount of glucose still remaining in medium at the end of fermentation and decreasing citric acid production.

  4. The effect of microbial starter composition on cassava chips fermentation for the production of fermented cassava flour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Listianingrum, Zaenudin, Ahmad; Trihatmoko, Kharisrama

    2015-12-01

    The processing of cassava into fermented cassava flour (fercaf) or the widely known as modified cassava flour (mocaf) presents an alternative solution to improve the competitiveness of local foods and to support national food security. However, the mass production of fercaf is being limited by several problems, among which is the availability of starter cultures. This paper presents the mapping of the effect of microbial starter compositions on the nutritional content of fercaf in order to obtain the suitable nutritional composition. Based on their enzymatic activities, the combination of Lactobacillus plantarum, Bacillus subtilis, and Aspergillus oryzae were tested during the study. In addition, commercial starter was also tested. During the fermentation, the dynamics in microbial population were measured as well as changes in cyanogenic glucoside content. The microbial starter composition was observed to affect the dynamics in microbial populationcynaogenic glucoside content of the produced fercaf. In general, steady state microbial population was reached within 12 hours of fermentation. Cyanogenic glucoside was observed to decrease along the fermentation.

  5. Improving production of volatile fatty acids from food waste fermentation by hydrothermal pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun; Wang, Kun; Yang, Yuqiang; Shen, Dongsheng; Wang, Meizhen; Mo, Han

    2014-11-01

    Food waste (FW) was pretreated by a hydrothermal method and then fermented for volatile fatty acid (VFAs) production. The soluble substance in FW increased after hydrothermal pretreatment (⩽200 °C). Higher hydrothermal temperature would lead to mineralization of the organic compounds. The optimal temperature for organic dissolution was 180 °C, at which FW dissolved 42.5% more soluble chemical oxygen demand than the control. VFA production from pretreated FW fermentation was significantly enhanced compared with the control. The optimal hydrothermal temperature was 160 °C with a VFA yield of 0.908 g/g VSremoval. Butyrate and acetate were the prevalent VFAs followed by propionate and valerate. FW fermentation was inhibited after 200 °C pretreatment. The VFAs were extracted from the fermentation broth by liquid-liquid extraction. The VFA recovery was 50-70%. Thus, 0.294-0.411 g VFAs could be obtained per gram of hydrothermally pretreated FW (in dry weight) by this method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetic diversity and population structure of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus isolated from naturally fermented dairy foods.

    PubMed

    Song, Yuqin; Sun, Zhihong; Guo, Chenyi; Wu, Yarong; Liu, Wenjun; Yu, Jie; Menghe, Bilige; Yang, Ruifu; Zhang, Heping

    2016-03-04

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus is one of the most widely used starter culture strains in industrial fermented dairy manufacture. It is also common in naturally fermented dairy foods made using traditional methods. The subsp. bulgaricus strains found in naturally fermented foods may be useful for improving current industrial starter cultures; however, little is known regarding its genetic diversity and population structure. Here, a collection of 298 L. delbrueckii strains from naturally fermented products in Mongolia, Russia, and West China was analyzed by multi-locus sequence typing based on eight conserved genes. The 251 confirmed subsp. bulgaricus strains produced 106 unique sequence types, the majority of which were assigned to five clonal complexes (CCs). The geographical distribution of CCs was uneven, with CC1 dominated by Mongolian and Russian isolates, and CC2-CC5 isolates exclusively from Xinjiang, China. Population structure analysis suggested six lineages, L1-L6, with various homologous recombination rates. Although L2-L5 were mainly restricted within specific regions, strains belonging to L1 and L6 were observed in diverse regions, suggesting historical transmission events. These results greatly enhance our knowledge of the population diversity of subsp. bulgaricus strains, and suggest that strains from CC1 and L4 may be useful as starter strains in industrial fermentation.

  7. Microbial fuel cell treatment of ethanol fermentation process water

    DOEpatents

    Borole, Abhijeet P [Knoxville, TN

    2012-06-05

    The present invention relates to a method for removing inhibitor compounds from a cellulosic biomass-to-ethanol process which includes a pretreatment step of raw cellulosic biomass material and the production of fermentation process water after production and removal of ethanol from a fermentation step, the method comprising contacting said fermentation process water with an anode of a microbial fuel cell, said anode containing microbes thereon which oxidatively degrade one or more of said inhibitor compounds while producing electrical energy or hydrogen from said oxidative degradation, and wherein said anode is in electrical communication with a cathode, and a porous material (such as a porous or cation-permeable membrane) separates said anode and cathode.

  8. Hydrogen and electricity production from a food processing wastewater using fermentation and microbial fuel cell technologies.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sang Eun; Logan, Bruce E

    2005-11-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from fermentation of sugars in wastewaters, but much of the organic matter remains in solution. We demonstrate here that hydrogen production from a food processing wastewater high in sugar can be linked to electricity generation using a microbial fuel cell (MFC) to achieve more effective wastewater treatment. Grab samples were taken from: plant effluent at two different times during the day (Effluents 1 and 2; 735+/-15 and 3250+/-90 mg-COD/L), an equalization tank (Lagoon; 1670+/-50mg-COD/L), and waste stream containing a high concentration of organic matter (Cereal; 8920+/-150 mg-COD/L). Hydrogen production from the Lagoon and effluent samples was low, with 64+/-16 mL of hydrogen per liter of wastewater (mL/L) for Effluent 1, 21+/-18 mL/L for Effluent 2, and 16+/-2 mL/L for the Lagoon sample. There was substantially greater hydrogen production using the Cereal wastewater (210+/-56 mL/L). Assuming a theoretical maximum yield of 4 mol of hydrogen per mol of glucose, hydrogen yields were 0.61-0.79 mol/mol for the Cereal wastewater, and ranged from 1 to 2.52 mol/mol for the other samples. This suggests a strategy for hydrogen recovery from wastewater based on targeting high-COD and high-sugar wastewaters, recognizing that sugar content alone is an insufficient predictor of hydrogen yields. Preliminary tests with the Cereal wastewater (diluted to 595 mg-COD/L) in a two-chambered MFC demonstrated a maximum of 81+/-7 mW/m(2) (normalized to the anode surface area), or 25+/-2 mA per liter of wastewater, and a final COD of <30 mg/L (95% removal). Using a one-chambered MFC and pre-fermented wastewater, the maximum power density was 371+/-10 mW/m(2) (53.5+/-1.4 mA per liter of wastewater). These results suggest that it is feasible to link biological hydrogen production and electricity producing using MFCs in order to achieve both wastewater treatment and bioenergy production.

  9. Taming wild yeast: potential of conventional and nonconventional yeasts in industrial fermentations.

    PubMed

    Steensels, Jan; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    Yeasts are the main driving force behind several industrial food fermentation processes, including the production of beer, wine, sake, bread, and chocolate. Historically, these processes developed from uncontrolled, spontaneous fermentation reactions that rely on a complex mixture of microbes present in the environment. Because such spontaneous processes are generally inconsistent and inefficient and often lead to the formation of off-flavors, most of today's industrial production utilizes defined starter cultures, often consisting of a specific domesticated strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S. bayanus, or S. pastorianus. Although this practice greatly improved process consistency, efficiency, and overall quality, it also limited the sensorial complexity of the end product. In this review, we discuss how Saccharomyces yeasts were domesticated to become the main workhorse of food fermentations, and we investigate the potential and selection of nonconventional yeasts that are often found in spontaneous fermentations, such as Brettanomyces, Hanseniaspora, and Pichia spp.

  10. Rapid production of organic fertilizer by dynamic high-temperature aerobic fermentation (DHAF) of food waste.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yang; Ju, Meiting; Li, Weizun; Ren, Qingbin; Liu, Le; Chen, Yu; Yang, Qian; Hou, Qidong; Liu, Yiliang

    2015-12-01

    Keep composting matrix in continuous collision and friction under a relatively high-temperature can significantly accelerate the progress of composting. A bioreactor was designed according to the novel process. Using this technology, organic fertilizer could be produced within 96h. The electric conductivity (EC) and pH value reached to a stable value of 2.35mS/cm and 7.7 after 96h of fermentation. The total carbon/total nitrogen (TC/TN) and dissolved carbon/dissolved nitrogen (DC/DN) ratio was decrease from 27.3 and 36.2 to 17.4 and 7.6 respectively. In contrast, it needed 24days to achieve the similar result in traditional static composting (TSC). Compost particles with different size were analyzed to explore the rapid degradation mechanism of food waste. The evidence of anaerobic fermentation was firstly discovered in aerobic composting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes in the ginsenoside content during the fermentation process using microbial strains.

    PubMed

    Lee, So Jin; Kim, Yunjeong; Kim, Min-Gul

    2015-10-01

    Red ginseng (RG) is processed from Panax ginseng via several methods including heat treatment, mild acid hydrolysis, and microbial conversion to transform the major ginsenosides into minor ginsenosides, which have greater pharmaceutical activities. During the fermentation process using microbial strains in a machine for making red ginseng, a change of composition occurs after heating. Therefore, we confirmed that fermentation had occurred using only microbial strains and evaluated the changes in the ginsenosides and their chemical composition. To confirm the fermentation by microbial strains, the fermented red ginseng was made with microbial strains (w-FRG) or without microbial strains (n-FRG), and the fermentation process was performed to tertiary fermentation. The changes in the ginsenoside composition of the self-manufactured FRG using the machine were evaluated using HPLC, and the 20 ginsenosides were analyzed. Additionally, we investigated changes of the reducing sugar and polyphenol contents during fermentation process. In the fermentation process, ginsenosides Re, Rg1, and Rb1 decreased but ginsenosides Rh1, F2, Rg3, and Compound Y (C.Y) increased in primary FRG more than in the raw ginseng and RG. The content of phenolic compounds was high in FRG and the highest in the tertiary w-FRG. Moreover, the reducing sugar content was approximately three times higher in the tertiary w-FRG than in the other n-FRG. As the results indicate, we confirmed the changes in the ginsenoside content and the role of microbial strains in the fermentation process.

  12. Change of Monascus pigment metabolism and secretion in different extractive fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gong; Tang, Rui; Tian, Xiaofei; Qin, Peng; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2017-06-01

    Monascus pigments that were generally produced intracellularly from Monascus spp. are important natural colorants in food industry. In this study, change of pigment metabolism and secretion was investigated through fed-batch extractive fermentation and continuous extractive fermentation. The biomass, secreting rate of pigment and total pigment yield closely correlated with the activated time of extractive fermentation as well as the composition of feeding nutrients. Metal ions played a key role in both the cell growth and pigment metabolism. Nitrogen source was necessary for a high productivity of biomass but not for high pigment yield. Furthermore, fermentation period for the fed-batch extractive fermentation could be reduced by 18.75% with a nitrogen source free feeding medium. Through a 30-day continuous extractive fermentation, the average daily productivity for total pigments reached 74.9 AU day -1 with an increase by 32.6 and 296.3% compared to that in a 6-day conventional batch fermentation and a 16-day fed-batch extractive fermentation, respectively. At the meantime, proportions of extracellular pigments increased gradually from 2.7 to 71.3%, and yellow pigments gradually became dominated in both intracellular and extracellular pigments in the end of continuous extractive fermentation. This findings showed that either fed-batch or continuous extractive fermentation acted as a promising method in the efficient production of Monascus pigments.

  13. Bacillus subtilis HJ18-4 from traditional fermented soybean food inhibits Bacillus cereus growth and toxin-related genes.

    PubMed

    Eom, Jeong Seon; Lee, Sun Young; Choi, Hye Sun

    2014-11-01

    Bacillus subtilis HJ18-4 isolated from buckwheat sokseongjang, a traditional Korean fermented soybean food, exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens, including Bacillus cereus. In this study, we investigated the antibacterial efficacy and regulation of toxin gene expression in B. cereus by B. subtilis HJ18-4. Expression of B. cereus toxin-related genes (groEL, nheA, nheC, and entFM) was downregulated by B. subtilis HJ18-4, which also exhibited strong antibacterial activity against B. cereus. We also found that water extracts of soy product fermented with B. subtilis HJ18-4 significantly inhibited the growth of B. cereus and toxin expression. These results indicate that B. subtilis HJ18-4 could be used as an antimicrobial agent to control B. cereus in the fermented soybean food industry. Our findings also provide an opportunity to develop an efficient biological control agent against B. cereus. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Food Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Methane fermentation process for utilization of organic waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frąc, M.; Ziemiński, K.

    2012-07-01

    Biogas is a renewable and sustainable energy carrier generated via anaerobic digestion of biomass. This fuel is derived from various biomass resources and depending on its origin it contains methane (40-75%), carbon dioxide (20-45%) and some other compounds. The aim of this paper is to present the current knowledge and prospects of using the methane fermentation process to dispose of various types of organic wastes as well as conditions and factors affecting the methane fermentation process.

  15. Impact of food processing on rye product properties and their in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Daniel P; Gutiérrez, José L Vázquez; Landberg, Rikard; Alminger, Marie; Langton, Maud

    2018-06-01

    Rye products have been reported to elicit postprandial insulin and glucose responses which may be beneficial for prevention of type-2 diabetes. However, mechanisms underlying variations in responses related to processing techniques are not fully understood. Five differently processed rye products (sourdough-fermented bread, fermented and unfermented crispbread, extrusion-cooked rye, and porridge) and refined wheat bread were characterised. Two in vitro methods, a dynamic method simulating digestion in the stomach and small intestine and a static method, simulating conditions in the stomach were used to determine viscosity development, structural changes and release of glucose during digestion. Structural and compositional differences induced by processing influenced product digestion. Gastric disintegration and digesta particle size were related to characteristics of the starch/protein matrix, while digesta viscosity was reduced due to fibre degradation during fermentation. More cohesive boluses were associated with slower glucose release. Sourdough fermentation increased amylose leakage and appeared to inhibit starch hydrolysis despite low digesta viscosity and rapid disintegration. The net release of glucose during digestion of foods is determined by several factors which may vary in their importance depending on product specific properties.

  16. Water reuse in the l-lysine fermentation process

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hsiao, T.Y.; Glatz, C.E.

    1996-02-05

    L-Lysine is produced commercially by fermentation. As is typical for fermentation processes, a large amount of liquid waste is generated. To minimize the waste, which is mostly the broth effluent from the cation exchange column used for l-lysine recovery, the authors investigated a strategy of recycling a large fraction of this broth effluent to the subsequent fermentation. This was done on a lab-scale process with Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 21253 as the l-lysine-producing organisms. Broth effluent from a fermentation in a defined medium was able to replace 75% of the water for the subsequent batch; this recycle ratio was maintained formore » 3 sequential batches without affecting cell mass and l-lysine production. Broth effluent was recycled at 50% recycle ratio in a fermentation in a complex medium containing beet molasses. The first recycle batch had an 8% lower final l-lysine level, but 8% higher maximum cell mass. In addition to reducing the volume of liquid waste, this recycle strategy has the additional advantage of utilizing the ammonium desorbed from the ion-exchange column as a nitrogen source in the recycle fermentation. The major problem of recycling the effluent from the complex medium was in the cation-exchange operation, where column capacity was 17% lower for the recycle batch. The loss of column capacity probably results from the buildup of cations competing with l-lysine for binding.« less

  17. Effect of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2014-09-01

    An integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was proposed to solve the problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid fermentation process. Extraction wastewater was treated by anaerobic digestion and then recycled for the next batch of citric acid fermentation to eliminate wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. Acetic acid as an intermediate product of methane fermentation was present in anaerobic digestion effluent. In this study, the effect of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation was investigated and results showed that lower concentration of acetic acid could promote Aspergillus niger growth and citric acid production. 5-Cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) staining was used to quantify the activity of A. niger cells, and the results suggested that when acetic acid concentration was above 8 mM at initial pH 4.5, the morphology of A. niger became uneven and the part of the cells' activity was significantly reduced, thereby resulting in deceasing of citric acid production. Effects of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation, as influenced by initial pH and cell number in inocula, were also examined. The result indicated that inhibition by acetic acid increased as initial pH declined and was rarely influenced by cell number in inocula.

  18. Study on fermentation kinetics and extraction process of rhamnolipid production by papermaking wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Keer

    2018-01-01

    Paper mill wastewater (PMW) is the outlet water generated during pulp and papermaking process in the paper industry. Fermentation by wastewater can lower the cost of production as well as alleviate the pressure of wastewater treatment. Rhamnolipids find broad placations as natural surfactants. This paper studied the rhamnolipids fermentation by employing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated by the laboratory, and determined to use wastewater which filtered by medium speed filter paper and strain Z2, the culture conditions were optimized, based on the flask shaking fermentation. On the basis of 5L tank fermentation, batch fermentation was carried out, the yield of fermentation reached 7.067g/L and the fermentation kinetics model of cell growth, product formation and substrate consumption was established by using origin software, and the fermentation process could be simulated well. And studied on the extraction process of rhamnolipids, through fermentation dynamic equation analysis can predict the in fill material yield can be further improved. Research on the extraction process of rhamnolipid simplifies the operation of extraction, and lays the foundation for the industrial extraction.

  19. Potency of microfiltration membrane process in purifying broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) fermented by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as functional food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susilowati, Agustine; Aspiyanto, Maryati, Yati; Melanie, Hakiki; Lotulung, Puspa D.

    2017-01-01

    Purifying broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) fermented by Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) using mixture of L. bulgaricus, S. thermopillus, L. acidophillusand Bifidobacteriumbifidum and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) as carbon source have been performed to recover biomass concentrate for probiotic and antioxidant. Purification of fermented broccoli was conducted through microfiltration (MF) membrane of 0.15 µm at stirrer rotation speed 400 rpm, room temperature and pressure 40 psia for 30 minutes. Fermented broccoli produced via fermentation process with fermentation time 0 (initial) and 48 hours, and LAB concentration 10% and 20% (v/v) represented as biomass of A, B, C and D. The experimental result showed that based on selectivity of total organic acids, separating optimization was achieved at biomass D (fermentation time 48 hours and mixed LAB culture concentration 20%). Concentrate composition produced in this condition were total acids 6.04%, total solids 24.31%, total polyphenol 0.0252%, reducing sugar 68.25 mg/mL, total sugars 30.89 mg/mL, and dissolved protein 28.54 mg/mL with pH 3.94. In this condition, recovery of biomass concentrate of D for total acids 5.64 folds, total solids 1.82 folds, total polyphenol 3.03 folds, reducing sugar 1.16 folds, total sugars 1.19 folds, and dissolved protein 0.67 folds compared with feed (initial process). Identification of monomer of biomass concentrate D as polyphenol derivatives at T2,01 and T3.01 gave monomer with molecular weight (MW) 192.78 Dalton (Da.), and monomer with MW 191.08, 191.49 and 192.07 Da., while lactic acid derivatives showed MW 251.13, 251.6 and 252.14, and monomer with MW 250.63, 252.14 and 254.22 Da.

  20. Bacteriophages BCP1-1 and BCP8-2 require divalent cations for efficient control of Bacillus cereus in fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Bandara, Nadeeka; Jo, Junhee; Ryu, Sangryeol; Kim, Kwang-Pyo

    2012-08-01

    Bacillus cereus is a foodborne bacterial pathogen that causes diarrhea and vomiting. In this study, the usefulness of bacteriophages to eradicate B. cereus from fermented foods was investigated. A total of 13 phages were isolated from Korean fermented food products, and 2 (BCP1-1 and BCP8-2) were further characterized. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), restriction enzyme digestion pattern analysis, and SDS-PAGE of the structural proteins suggest that both phages belong to the family Myoviridae, containing approximately 150 kbp-long genomes. The host ranges of both phages were limited to B. cereus group species (12/13), as they were not able to lyse other Gram-positive or negative strains including Bacillus subtilis. Purified phages were used to inhibit B. cereus growth in a model fermented food system, cheonggukjang, a fast-fermented soybean paste product. BCP1-1 and BCP8-2 were able to effectively eradicate B. cereus from the food only if divalent cations (Ca²⁺, Mg²⁺, or Mn²⁺) were added to the medium. Further studies reveal that divalent cations are essential for phage adsorption, while a monovalent cation (Na⁺) is required for the post-adsorption phase of phage infection. Taken together, our findings imply that a phage could be an ideal anti-bacterial agent for use in fermented food products that require the presence of beneficial microflora and, during phage application, optimization of phage reaction conditions is critical for the successful utilization of phage biocontrol. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of cereal-based functional food using cereal-mix substrate fermented with probiotic strain - Pichia kudriavzevii OG32.

    PubMed

    Ogunremi, Omotade R; Agrawal, Renu; Sanni, Abiodun I

    2015-11-01

    Probiotic strains contribute to the functionality of foods during fermentation. In this present work, cereal-mix was fermented with probiotic Pichia kudriavzevii OG32. Selected fermentation parameters and functional properties of the product were determined. The growth of Pichia kudriavzevii OG32 was supported by the cereal-mix containing 1% salt and 0.2% red chili powder to counts of between 7.46 and 8.22 Log10 cfu/mL within 24 h. Pichia kudriavzevii OG32 increased the viscosity of cereal-mix with the highest inoculum size (1.84x105cfu/ml) giving the highest viscosity of 1793.6 mPa.S. An inoculum size of 1.98 × 10(4) cfu/mL gave the most acceptable product based on the sensory evaluation by the panelist. Forty volatile compounds were identified in the fermented product, while acids (32.21%) and esters (32.37%) accounted for the largest proportions. The cereal-based fermented product scavenged DPPH from 200 μmol/L methanolic solution by 55.71%. Probiotic yeast improved the sensory and some functional properties of cereal-based substrate during fermentation. This is one of the first reports on the volatile composition of cereal-based functional food produced with probiotic yeast.

  2. Reduction of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli in production of fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Holck, Askild L; Axelsson, Lars; Rode, Tone Mari; Høy, Martin; Måge, Ingrid; Alvseike, Ole; L'abée-Lund, Trine M; Omer, Mohamed K; Granum, Per Einar; Heir, Even

    2011-11-01

    After a number of foodborne outbreaks of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli involving fermented sausages, some countries have imposed regulations on sausage production. For example, the US Food Safety and Inspection Service requires a 5 log(10) reduction of E. coli in fermented products. Such regulations have led to a number of studies on the inactivation of E. coli in fermented sausages by changing processing and post-processing conditions. Several factors influence the survival of E. coli such as pre-treatment of the meat, amount of NaCl, nitrite and lactic acid, water activity, pH, choice of starter cultures and addition of antimicrobial compounds. Also process variables like fermentation temperature and storage time play important roles. Though a large variety of different production processes of sausages exist, generally the reduction of E. coli caused by production is in the range 1-2 log(10). In many cases this may not be enough to ensure microbial food safety. By optimising ingredients and process parameters it is possible to increase E. coli reduction to some extent, but in some cases still other post process treatments may be required. Such treatments may be storage at ambient temperatures, specific heat treatments, high pressure processing or irradiation. HACCP analyses have identified the quality of the raw materials, low temperature in the batter when preparing the sausages and a rapid pH drop during fermentation as critical control points in sausage production. This review summarises the literature on the reduction verotoxigenic E. coli in production of fermented sausages. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic diversity and population structure of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus isolated from naturally fermented dairy foods

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yuqin; Sun, Zhihong; Guo, Chenyi; Wu, Yarong; Liu, Wenjun; Yu, Jie; Menghe, Bilige; Yang, Ruifu; Zhang, Heping

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus is one of the most widely used starter culture strains in industrial fermented dairy manufacture. It is also common in naturally fermented dairy foods made using traditional methods. The subsp. bulgaricus strains found in naturally fermented foods may be useful for improving current industrial starter cultures; however, little is known regarding its genetic diversity and population structure. Here, a collection of 298 L. delbrueckii strains from naturally fermented products in Mongolia, Russia, and West China was analyzed by multi-locus sequence typing based on eight conserved genes. The 251 confirmed subsp. bulgaricus strains produced 106 unique sequence types, the majority of which were assigned to five clonal complexes (CCs). The geographical distribution of CCs was uneven, with CC1 dominated by Mongolian and Russian isolates, and CC2–CC5 isolates exclusively from Xinjiang, China. Population structure analysis suggested six lineages, L1–L6, with various homologous recombination rates. Although L2–L5 were mainly restricted within specific regions, strains belonging to L1 and L6 were observed in diverse regions, suggesting historical transmission events. These results greatly enhance our knowledge of the population diversity of subsp. bulgaricus strains, and suggest that strains from CC1 and L4 may be useful as starter strains in industrial fermentation. PMID:26940047

  4. Menaquinones, bacteria, and the food supply: the relevance of dairy and fermented food products to vitamin K requirements.

    PubMed

    Walther, Barbara; Karl, J Philip; Booth, Sarah L; Boyaval, Patrick

    2013-07-01

    Vitamin K exists in the food supply as phylloquinone, a plant-based form and as menaquinones (MKs), a collection of isoprenologues mostly originating from bacterial synthesis. Although multiple bacterial species used as starter cultures for food fermentations synthesize MK, relatively little is known about the presence and distribution of MK in the food supply and the relative contribution of MK to total dietary vitamin K intake. Dairy products may be a predominant source of dietary MK in many regions of the world, and there is recent interest in enhancing the MK content of dairy products through identification and selection of MK-producing bacteria in dairy fermentations. This interest is increased by emerging evidence that current dietary recommendations based on the classic role of vitamin K as an enzyme cofactor for coagulation proteins may not be optimal for supporting vitamin K requirements in extrahepatic tissues and that MK may have unique bioactivity beyond that as an enzyme cofactor. Observational studies have reported favorable associations between MK intake and bone and cardiovascular health. Although randomized trials have provided some evidence to support the beneficial effects of MK on bone, the evidence to date is not definitive, and randomized trials have not yet examined MK intake in relation to cardiovascular outcomes. Food production practices provide a means to enhance dietary MK availability and intake. However, parallel research is needed to optimize these production practices, develop comprehensive food MK content databases, and test hypotheses of unique beneficial physiological roles of MK beyond that achieved by phylloquinone.

  5. Development of an industrializable fermentation process for propionic acid production.

    PubMed

    Stowers, Chris C; Cox, Brad M; Rodriguez, Brandon A

    2014-05-01

    Propionic acid (PA) is a short-chain fatty acid with wide industrial application including uses in pharmaceuticals, herbicides, cosmetics, and food preservatives. As a three-carbon building block, PA also has potential as a precursor for high-volume commodity chemicals such as propylene. Currently, most PA is manufactured through petrochemical routes, which can be tied to increasing prices and volatility due to difficulty in demand forecasting and feedstock availability. Herein described are research advancements to develop an industrially feasible, renewable route to PA. Seventeen Propionibacterium strains were screened using glucose and sucrose as the carbon source to identify the best platform strain. Propionibacterium acidipropionici ATCC 4875 was selected as the platform strain and subsequent fermentation optimization studies were performed to maximize productivity and yield. Fermentation productivity was improved three-fold to exceed 2 g/l/h by densifying the inoculum source. Byproduct levels, particularly lactic and succinic acid, were reduced by optimizing fermentor headspace pressure and shear. Following achievement of commercially viable productivities, the lab-grade medium components were replaced with industrial counterparts to further reduce fermentation costs. A pure enzymatically treated corn mash (ECM) medium improved the apparent PA yield to 0.6 g/g (PA produced/glucose consumed), but it came at the cost of reduced productivity. Supplementation of ECM with cyanocobalamin restored productivity to near lab-grade media levels. The optimized ECM recipe achieved a productivity of 0.5 g/l/h with an apparent PA yield of 0.60 g/g corresponding to a media cost <1 USD/kg of PA. These improvements significantly narrow the gap between the fermentation and incumbent petrochemical processes, which is estimated to have a manufacturing cost of 0.82 USD/kg in 2017.

  6. Analysis of problems with dry fermentation process for biogas production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilát, Peter; Patsch, Marek; Jandačka, Jozef

    2012-04-01

    The technology of dry anaerobic fermentation is still meeting with some scepticism, and therefore in most biogas plants are used wet fermentation technology. Fermentation process would be not complete without an optimal controlled condition: dry matter content, density, pH, and in particular the reaction temperature. If is distrust of dry fermentation eligible it was on the workplace of the Department of Power Engineering at University of Zilina built an experimental small-scale biogas station that allows analysis of optimal parameters of the dry anaerobic fermentation, in particular, however, affect the reaction temperature on yield and quality of biogas.

  7. Acetic acid production from food wastes using yeast and acetic acid bacteria micro-aerobic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; He, Dongwei; Niu, Dongjie; Zhao, Youcai

    2015-05-01

    In this study, yeast and acetic acid bacteria strains were adopted to enhance the ethanol-type fermentation resulting to a volatile fatty acids yield of 30.22 g/L, and improve acetic acid production to 25.88 g/L, with food wastes as substrate. In contrast, only 12.81 g/L acetic acid can be obtained in the absence of strains. The parameters such as pH, oxidation reduction potential and volatile fatty acids were tested and the microbial diversity of different strains and activity of hydrolytic ferment were investigated to reveal the mechanism. The optimum pH and oxidation reduction potential for the acetic acid production were determined to be at 3.0-3.5 and -500 mV, respectively. Yeast can convert organic matters into ethanol, which is used by acetic acid bacteria to convert the organic wastes into acetic acid. The acetic acid thus obtained from food wastes micro-aerobic fermentation liquid could be extracted by distillation to get high-pure acetic acid.

  8. [Food processing industry--the salt shock to the consumers].

    PubMed

    Doko Jelinić, Jagoda; Nola, Iskra Alexandra; Andabaka, Damir

    2010-05-01

    Industrial food production and processing is necessarily connected with the use of salt. Salt or sodium chloride is used as a preservative, spice, agent for color maintenance, texture, and to regulate fermentation by stopping the growth of bacteria, yeast and mold. Besides kitchen salt, other types of salt that also contain sodium are used in various technological processes in food preparing industry. Most of the "hidden" salt, 70%-75%, can be brought to the body by using industrial food, which, unfortunately, has been increasingly used due to the modern way of life. Bread and bakery products, meat products, various sauces, dried fish, various types of cheese, fast food, conserved vegetables, ready-made soups and food additives are the most common industrial foods rich in sodium. Many actions have been taken all over the world to restrict salt consumption. The World Health Organization recommends the upper limit of salt input of 5 g per day. These actions appeal to food industry to reduce the proportion of salt in their products. Besides lower salt addition during manufacture, food industry can use salt substitutes, in particular potassium chloride (KCl), in combination with additives that can mask the absence of salt, and flavor intensifiers that also enhance the product salinity. However, food industry is still quite resistant to reducing salt in their products for fear from losing profits.

  9. Whey-derived valuable products obtained by microbial fermentation.

    PubMed

    Pescuma, Micaela; de Valdez, Graciela Font; Mozzi, Fernanda

    2015-08-01

    Whey, the main by-product of the cheese industry, is considered as an important pollutant due to its high chemical and biological oxygen demand. Whey, often considered as waste, has high nutritional value and can be used to obtain value-added products, although some of them need expensive enzymatic synthesis. An economical alternative to transform whey into valuable products is through bacterial or yeast fermentations and by accumulation during algae growth. Fermentative processes can be applied either to produce individual compounds or to formulate new foods and beverages. In the first case, a considerable amount of research has been directed to obtain biofuels able to replace those derived from petrol. In addition, the possibility of replacing petrol-derived plastics by biodegradable polymers synthesized during bacterial fermentation of whey has been sought. Further, the ability of different organisms to produce metabolites commonly used in the food and pharmaceutical industries (i.e., lactic acid, lactobionic acid, polysaccharides, etc.) using whey as growth substrate has been studied. On the other hand, new low-cost functional whey-based foods and beverages leveraging the high nutritional quality of whey have been formulated, highlighting the health-promoting effects of fermented whey-derived products. This review aims to gather the multiple uses of whey as sustainable raw material for the production of individual compounds, foods, and beverages by microbial fermentation. This is the first work to give an overview on the microbial transformation of whey as raw material into a large repertoire of industrially relevant foods and products.

  10. Evaluation of the microbial community, acidity and proximate composition of akamu, a fermented maize food.

    PubMed

    Obinna-Echem, Patience C; Kuri, Victor; Beal, Jane

    2014-01-30

    Akamu is a lactic acid-fermented cereal-based food that constitutes a major infant complementary food in most West African countries. The identities of LAB populations from DGGE analysis and conventionally isolated LAB and yeasts from traditionally fermented akamu were confirmed by PCR sequencing analysis. The relationships between pH, acidity and lactic acid levels and proximate composition of the akamu samples were investigated. The LAB communities in the akamu samples comprised mainly Lactobacillus species, including Lb. fermentum, Lb. plantarum, Lb. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Lb. helveticus, as well as Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris. Identified yeasts were Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans, Clavispora lusitaniae and Saccharomyces paradoxus. Low pH (3.22-3.95) was accompanied by high lactic acid concentrations (43.10-84.29 mmol kg⁻¹). Protein (31.88-74.32 g kg⁻¹) and lipid (17.74-36.83 g kg⁻¹ contents were negatively correlated with carbohydrate content (897.48-926.20 g kg⁻¹, of which ≤1 g kg⁻¹ was sugars). Ash was either not detected or present only in trace amounts (≤4 g kg⁻¹). Energy levels ranged from 17.29 to 18.37 kJ g⁻¹. The akamu samples were predominantly starchy foods and had pH < 4.0 owing to the activities of fermentative LAB. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Titration and HPLC Characterization of Kombucha Fermentation: A Laboratory Experiment in Food Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Breanna; Lawton, Nicole M.; Tachibana, Sean R.; Swartz, Natasja A.; Hall, W. Paige

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of the many constituents that make up our food, whether they are desirable (vitamins, antioxidants, nutrients) or undesirable (pesticides, toxins), is one of the most practical applications of chemistry. In this study, kombucha, a popular fermented tea beverage, was analyzed using acid-base titration and high-performance liquid…

  12. Bioethanol production: an integrated process of low substrate loading hydrolysis-high sugars liquid fermentation and solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue.

    PubMed

    Chu, Qiulu; Li, Xin; Ma, Bin; Xu, Yong; Ouyang, Jia; Zhu, Junjun; Yu, Shiyuan; Yong, Qiang

    2012-11-01

    An integrated process of enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation was investigated for high ethanol production. The combination of enzymatic hydrolysis at low substrate loading, liquid fermentation of high sugars concentration and solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue was beneficial for conversion of steam explosion pretreated corn stover to ethanol. The results suggested that low substrate loading hydrolysis caused a high enzymatic hydrolysis yield; the liquid fermentation of about 200g/L glucose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae provided a high ethanol concentration which could significantly decrease cost of the subsequent ethanol distillation. A solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue was combined, which was available to enhance ethanol production and cellulose-to-ethanol conversion. The results of solid state fermentation demonstrated that the solid state fermentation process accompanied by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. High-Throughput Sequencing of Microbial Community Diversity and Dynamics during Douchi Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Yang, Hui-Lin; Tu, Zong-Cai; Wang, Xiao-Lan

    2016-01-01

    Douchi is a type of Chinese traditional fermented food that is an important source of protein and is used in flavouring ingredients. The end product is affected by the microbial community present during fermentation, but exactly how microbes influence the fermentation process remains poorly understood. We used an Illumina MiSeq approach to investigate bacterial and fungal community diversity during both douchi-koji making and fermentation. A total of 181,443 high quality bacterial 16S rRNA sequences and 221,059 high quality fungal internal transcribed spacer reads were used for taxonomic classification, revealing eight bacterial and three fungal phyla. Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were the dominant bacterial phyla, while Ascomycota and Zygomycota were the dominant fungal phyla. At the genus level, Staphylococcus and Weissella were the dominant bacteria, while Aspergillus and Lichtheimia were the dominant fungi. Principal coordinate analysis showed structural separation between the composition of bacteria in koji making and fermentation. However, multivariate analysis of variance based on unweighted UniFrac distances did identify distinct differences (p <0.05), and redundancy analysis identified two key genera that are largely responsible for the differences in bacterial composition between the two steps. Staphylococcus was enriched in koji making, while Corynebacterium was enriched in fermentation. This is the first investigation to integrate douchi fermentation and koji making and fermentation processes through this technological approach. The results provide insight into the microbiome of the douchi fermentation process, and reveal a structural separation that may be stratified by the environment during the production of this traditional fermented food.

  14. High-Throughput Sequencing of Microbial Community Diversity and Dynamics during Douchi Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Zong-cai; Wang, Xiao-lan

    2016-01-01

    Douchi is a type of Chinese traditional fermented food that is an important source of protein and is used in flavouring ingredients. The end product is affected by the microbial community present during fermentation, but exactly how microbes influence the fermentation process remains poorly understood. We used an Illumina MiSeq approach to investigate bacterial and fungal community diversity during both douchi-koji making and fermentation. A total of 181,443 high quality bacterial 16S rRNA sequences and 221,059 high quality fungal internal transcribed spacer reads were used for taxonomic classification, revealing eight bacterial and three fungal phyla. Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were the dominant bacterial phyla, while Ascomycota and Zygomycota were the dominant fungal phyla. At the genus level, Staphylococcus and Weissella were the dominant bacteria, while Aspergillus and Lichtheimia were the dominant fungi. Principal coordinate analysis showed structural separation between the composition of bacteria in koji making and fermentation. However, multivariate analysis of variance based on unweighted UniFrac distances did identify distinct differences (p <0.05), and redundancy analysis identified two key genera that are largely responsible for the differences in bacterial composition between the two steps. Staphylococcus was enriched in koji making, while Corynebacterium was enriched in fermentation. This is the first investigation to integrate douchi fermentation and koji making and fermentation processes through this technological approach. The results provide insight into the microbiome of the douchi fermentation process, and reveal a structural separation that may be stratified by the environment during the production of this traditional fermented food. PMID:27992473

  15. Impact of food processing and detoxification treatments on mycotoxin contamination.

    PubMed

    Karlovsky, Petr; Suman, Michele; Berthiller, Franz; De Meester, Johan; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Perrin, Irène; Oswald, Isabelle P; Speijers, Gerrit; Chiodini, Alessandro; Recker, Tobias; Dussort, Pierre

    2016-11-01

    Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites commonly occurring in food, which pose a health risk to the consumer. Maximum levels for major mycotoxins allowed in food have been established worldwide. Good agricultural practices, plant disease management, and adequate storage conditions limit mycotoxin levels in the food chain yet do not eliminate mycotoxins completely. Food processing can further reduce mycotoxin levels by physical removal and decontamination by chemical or enzymatic transformation of mycotoxins into less toxic products. Physical removal of mycotoxins is very efficient: manual sorting of grains, nuts, and fruits by farmers as well as automatic sorting by the industry significantly lowers the mean mycotoxin content. Further processing such as milling, steeping, and extrusion can also reduce mycotoxin content. Mycotoxins can be detoxified chemically by reacting with food components and technical aids; these reactions are facilitated by high temperature and alkaline or acidic conditions. Detoxification of mycotoxins can also be achieved enzymatically. Some enzymes able to transform mycotoxins naturally occur in food commodities or are produced during fermentation but more efficient detoxification can be achieved by deliberate introduction of purified enzymes. We recommend integrating evaluation of processing technologies for their impact on mycotoxins into risk management. Processing steps proven to mitigate mycotoxin contamination should be used whenever necessary. Development of detoxification technologies for high-risk commodities should be a priority for research. While physical techniques currently offer the most efficient post-harvest reduction of mycotoxin content in food, biotechnology possesses the largest potential for future developments.

  16. Process simulation of ethanol production from biomass gasification and syngas fermentation.

    PubMed

    Pardo-Planas, Oscar; Atiyeh, Hasan K; Phillips, John R; Aichele, Clint P; Mohammad, Sayeed

    2017-12-01

    The hybrid gasification-syngas fermentation platform can produce more bioethanol utilizing all biomass components compared to the biochemical conversion technology. Syngas fermentation operates at mild temperatures and pressures and avoids using expensive pretreatment processes and enzymes. This study presents a new process simulation model developed with Aspen Plus® of a biorefinery based on a hybrid conversion technology for the production of anhydrous ethanol using 1200tons per day (wb) of switchgrass. The simulation model consists of three modules: gasification, fermentation, and product recovery. The results revealed a potential production of about 36.5million gallons of anhydrous ethanol per year. Sensitivity analyses were also performed to investigate the effects of gasification and fermentation parameters that are keys for the development of an efficient process in terms of energy conservation and ethanol production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Process engineering and scale-up of autotrophic Clostridium strain P11 syngas fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundiyana, Dimple Kumar Aiyanna

    Scope and Method of Study. Biomass gasification followed by fermentation of syngas to ethanol is a potential process to produce bioenergy. The process is currently being researched under laboratory- and pilot-scale in an effort to optimize the process conditions and make the process feasible for commercial production of ethanol and other biofuels such as butanol and propanol. The broad research objectives for the research were to improve ethanol yields during syngas fermentation and to design a economical fermentation process. The research included four statistically designed experimental studies in serum bottles, bench-scale and pilot-scale fermentors to screen alternate fermentation media components, to determine the effect of process parameters such as pH, temperature and buffer on syngas fermentation, to determine the effect of key limiting nutrients of the acetyl-CoA pathway in a continuous series reactor design, and to scale-up the syngas fermentation in a 100-L pilot scale fermentor. Findings and Conclusions. The first experimental study identified cotton seed extract (CSE) as a feasible medium for Clostridium strain P11 fermentation. The study showed that CSE at 0.5 g L-1 can potentially replace all the standard Clostridium strain P11 fermentation media components while using a media buffer did not significantly improve the ethanol production when used in fermentation with CSE. Scale-up of the CSE fermentation in 2-L and 5-L stirred tank fermentors showed 25% increase in ethanol yield. The second experimental study showed that syngas fermentation at 32°C without buffer was associated with higher ethanol concentration and reduced lag time in switching to solventogenesis. Conducting fermentation at 40°C or by lowering incubation pH to 5.0 resulted in reduced cell growth and no production of ethanol or acetic acid. The third experiment studied the effect of three limiting nutrients, calcium pantothenate, vitamin B12 and CoCl2 on syngas fermentation. Results

  18. Monitoring and Evaluation of Alcoholic Fermentation Processes Using a Chemocapacitor Sensor Array

    PubMed Central

    Oikonomou, Petros; Raptis, Ioannis; Sanopoulou, Merope

    2014-01-01

    The alcoholic fermentation of Savatiano must variety was initiated under laboratory conditions and monitored daily with a gas sensor array without any pre-treatment steps. The sensor array consisted of eight interdigitated chemocapacitors (IDCs) coated with specific polymers. Two batches of fermented must were tested and also subjected daily to standard chemical analysis. The chemical composition of the two fermenting musts differed from day one of laboratory monitoring (due to different storage conditions of the musts) and due to a deliberate increase of the acetic acid content of one of the musts, during the course of the process, in an effort to spoil the fermenting medium. Sensor array responses to the headspace of the fermenting medium were compared with those obtained either for pure or contaminated samples with controlled concentrations of standard ethanol solutions of impurities. Results of data processing with Principal Component Analysis (PCA), demonstrate that this sensing system could discriminate between a normal and a potential spoiled grape must fermentation process, so this gas sensing system could be potentially applied during wine production as an auxiliary qualitative control instrument. PMID:25184490

  19. Exploring flavour-producing core microbiota in multispecies solid-state fermentation of traditional Chinese vinegar

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zong-Min; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Multispecies solid-state fermentation (MSSF), a natural fermentation process driven by reproducible microbiota, is an important technique to produce traditional fermented foods. Flavours, skeleton of fermented foods, was mostly produced by microbiota in food ecosystem. However, the association between microbiota and flavours and flavour-producing core microbiota are still poorly understood. Here, acetic acid fermentation (AAF) of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar was taken as a typical case of MSSF. The structural and functional dynamics of microbiota during AAF process was determined by metagenomics and favour analyses. The dominant bacteria and fungi were identified as Acetobacter, Lactobacillus, Aspergillus, and Alternaria, respectively. Total 88 flavours including 2 sugars, 9 organic acids, 18 amino acids, and 59 volatile flavours were detected during AAF process. O2PLS-based correlation analysis between microbiota succession and flavours dynamics showed bacteria made more contribution to flavour formation than fungi. Seven genera including Acetobacter, Lactobacillus, Enhydrobacter, Lactococcus, Gluconacetobacer, Bacillus and Staphylococcus were determined as functional core microbiota for production of flavours in Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar, based on their dominance and functionality in microbial community. This study provides a perspective for bridging the gap between the phenotype and genotype of ecological system, and advances our understanding of MSSF mechanisms in Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar. PMID:27241188

  20. Exploring flavour-producing core microbiota in multispecies solid-state fermentation of traditional Chinese vinegar.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zong-Min; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2016-05-31

    Multispecies solid-state fermentation (MSSF), a natural fermentation process driven by reproducible microbiota, is an important technique to produce traditional fermented foods. Flavours, skeleton of fermented foods, was mostly produced by microbiota in food ecosystem. However, the association between microbiota and flavours and flavour-producing core microbiota are still poorly understood. Here, acetic acid fermentation (AAF) of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar was taken as a typical case of MSSF. The structural and functional dynamics of microbiota during AAF process was determined by metagenomics and favour analyses. The dominant bacteria and fungi were identified as Acetobacter, Lactobacillus, Aspergillus, and Alternaria, respectively. Total 88 flavours including 2 sugars, 9 organic acids, 18 amino acids, and 59 volatile flavours were detected during AAF process. O2PLS-based correlation analysis between microbiota succession and flavours dynamics showed bacteria made more contribution to flavour formation than fungi. Seven genera including Acetobacter, Lactobacillus, Enhydrobacter, Lactococcus, Gluconacetobacer, Bacillus and Staphylococcus were determined as functional core microbiota for production of flavours in Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar, based on their dominance and functionality in microbial community. This study provides a perspective for bridging the gap between the phenotype and genotype of ecological system, and advances our understanding of MSSF mechanisms in Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar.

  1. Introducing capnophilic lactic fermentation in a combined dark-photo fermentation process: a route to unparalleled H2 yields.

    PubMed

    Dipasquale, L; Adessi, A; d'Ippolito, G; Rossi, F; Fontana, A; De Philippis, R

    2015-01-01

    Two-stage process based on photofermentation of dark fermentation effluents is widely recognized as the most effective method for biological production of hydrogen from organic substrates. Recently, it was described an alternative mechanism, named capnophilic lactic fermentation, for sugar fermentation by the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana in CO2-rich atmosphere. Here, we report the first application of this novel process to two-stage biological production of hydrogen. The microbial system based on T. neapolitana DSM 4359(T) and Rhodopseudomonas palustris 42OL gave 9.4 mol of hydrogen per mole of glucose consumed during the anaerobic process, which is the best production yield so far reported for conventional two-stage batch cultivations. The improvement of hydrogen yield correlates with the increase in lactic production during capnophilic lactic fermentation and takes also advantage of the introduction of original conditions for culturing both microorganisms in minimal media based on diluted sea water. The use of CO2 during the first step of the combined process establishes a novel strategy for biohydrogen technology. Moreover, this study opens the way to cost reduction and use of salt-rich waste as feedstock.

  2. Ethanol fermentation integrated with PDMS composite membrane: An effective process.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chaohui; Cai, Di; Hu, Song; Miao, Qi; Wang, Yong; Qin, Peiyong; Wang, Zheng; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-01-01

    The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane, prepared in water phase, was investigated in separation ethanol from model ethanol/water mixture and fermentation-pervaporation integrated process. Results showed that the PDMS membrane could effectively separate ethanol from model solution. When integrated with batch ethanol fermentation, the ethanol productivity was enhanced compared with conventional process. Fed-batch and continuous ethanol fermentation with pervaporation were also performed and studied. 396.2-663.7g/m(2)h and 332.4-548.1g/m(2)h of total flux with separation factor of 8.6-11.7 and 8-11.6, were generated in the fed-batch and continuous fermentation with pervaporation scenario, respectively. At the same time, high titre ethanol production of ∼417.2g/L and ∼446.3g/L were also achieved on the permeate side of membrane in the two scenarios, respectively. The integrated process was environmental friendly and energy saving, and has a promising perspective in long-terms operation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of dietary fiber on inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer: importance of fermentation pattern.

    PubMed

    Rose, Devin J; DeMeo, Mark T; Keshavarzian, Ali; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2007-02-01

    The benefits of dietary fiber on inflammatory bowel disease may be related to the fermentative production of butyrate in the colon, which appears to decrease the inflammatory response. The benefits of dietary fiber against colon cancer may be related to both fermentative and non-fermentative processes, although poorly fermentable fibers appear more influential. Dietary fiber fermentation profiles are important in determining optimal fibers for colonic health, and may be a function of structure, processing conditions, and other food components. A greater understanding of the relationships between fermentation rate and dietary fiber structure would allow for development of dietary fibers for optimum colonic health.

  4. Commercialization of a novel fermentation concept.

    PubMed

    Mazumdar-Shaw, Kiran; Suryanarayan, Shrikumar

    2003-01-01

    Fermentation is the core of biotechnology where current methodologies span across technologies based on the use of either solid or liquid substrates. Traditionally, solid substrate fermentation technologies have been the widely practiced in the Far East to manufacture fermented foods such as soya sauce, sake etc. The Western World briefly used solid substrate fermentation for the manufacture of antibiotics and enzymes but rapidly replaced this technology with submerged fermentation which proved to be a superior technology in terms of automation, containment and large volume fermentation. Biocon India developed its enzyme technology based on solid substrate fermentation as a low-cost, low-energy option for the production of specialty enzymes. However, the limitations of applying solid substrate fermentation to more sophisticated biotechnology products as well as large volume fermentations were recognized by Biocon India as early as 1990 and the company embarked on a 8 year research and development program to develop a novel bioreactor capable of conducting solid substrate fermentation with comparable levels of automation and containment as those practiced by submerged fermentation. In addition, the novel technology enabled fed-batch fermentation, in situ extraction and other enabling features that will be discussed in this article. The novel bioreactor was christened the "PlaFractor" (pronounced play-fractor). The next level of research on this novel technology is now focused on addressing large volume fermentation. This article traces the evolution of Biocon India's original solid substrate fermentation to the PlaFractor technology and provides details of the scale-up and commercialization processes that were involved therein. What is also apparent in the article is Biocon India's commercially focused research programs and the perceived need to be globally competitive through low costs of innovation that address, at all times, processes and technologies that

  5. Tracing the contamination origin of coliform bacteria in two small food-processing factories.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Tatsuya; Sekine, Masahiro; Oyaizu, Hiroshi

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this study was to trace contamination sources of coliform bacteria by comparing the types of coliforms between food samples and the processing environments in two small food-processing factories (factories A and B). Fermentation tests of five sugars enabled the successful classification of 16 representative type strains into eight distinct groups. The grouping procedure was then applied to comparison of the coliform flora between food products and various locations in their processing environments. The consistency between each food and the tested locations was evaluated using the Jaccard index. The air conditioner and refrigeration room floor in factory A showed an index of 1.00, while the shaping machine in factory B showed an index of 0.98, indicating that these locations could be contamination sources. The validity of our results was confirmed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA, which showed 100% matched profiles between the air conditioner and the food in factory A, and highly matched profiles between the machine and the food in factory B. This method for comparing the coliform flora between food and environments has the potential to be a reliable tracing tool for various food industries.

  6. High stability of Stx2 phage in food and under food-processing conditions.

    PubMed

    Rode, Tone Mari; Axelsson, Lars; Granum, Per Einar; Heir, Even; Holck, Askild; L'abée-Lund, Trine M

    2011-08-01

    Bacteriophages (phages) carrying Shiga toxin genes constitute a major virulence attribute in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). Several EHEC outbreaks have been linked to food. The survival of such strains in different foods has received much attention, while the fate of the mobile Shiga toxin-converting phages (Stx phages) has been less studied. We have investigated the stability of an Stx phage in several food products and examined how storage, food processing, and disinfection influence the infectivity of phage particles. The study involved a recombinant Stx phage (Δstx::cat) of an E. coli O103:H25 strain from a Norwegian outbreak in 2006. Temperature, matrix, and time were factors of major importance for the stability of phage particles. Phages stored at cooling temperatures (4°C) showed a dramatic reduction in stability compared to those stored at room temperature. The importance of the matrix was evident at higher temperatures (60°C). Phages in ground beef were below the detection level when heated to 60°C for more than 10 min, while phages in broth exposed to the same heating conditions showed a 5-log-higher stability. The phages tolerated desiccation poorly but were infective for a substantial period of time in solutions. Under moist conditions, they also had a high ability to tolerate exposure to several disinfectants. In a dry-fermented sausage model, phages were shown to infect E. coli in situ. The results show that Stx phage particles can maintain their infectivity in foods and under food-processing conditions.

  7. Harnessing functional food strategies for the health challenges of space travel—Fermented soy for astronaut nutrition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Nicole D.; Champagne, Claude P.; Masotti, Adriana I.; Wagar, Lisa E.; Tompkins, Thomas A.; Green-Johnson, Julia M.

    2011-04-01

    Astronauts face numerous health challenges during long-duration space missions, including diminished immunity, bone loss and increased risk of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. Changes in the intestinal flora of astronauts may contribute to these problems. Soy-based fermented food products could provide a nutritional strategy to help alleviate these challenges by incorporating beneficial lactic acid bacteria, while reaping the benefits of soy isoflavones. We carried out strain selection for the development of soy ferments, selecting strains of lactic acid bacteria showing the most effective growth and fermentation ability in soy milk ( Streptococcus thermophilus ST5, Bifidobacterium longum R0175 and Lactobacillus helveticus R0052). Immunomodulatory bioactivity of selected ferments was assessed using an in vitro challenge system with human intestinal epithelial and macrophage cell lines, and selected ferments show the ability to down-regulate production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8 following challenge with tumour necrosis factor-alpha. The impact of fermentation on vitamin B1 and B6 levels and on isoflavone biotransformation to agluconic forms was also assessed, with strain variation-dependent biotransformation ability detected. Overall this suggests that probiotic bacteria can be successfully utilized to develop soy-based fermented products targeted against health problems associated with long-term space travel.

  8. Phytate degrading activities of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional fermented food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damayanti, Ema; Ratisiwi, Febiyani Ndaru; Istiqomah, Lusty; Sembiring, Langkah; Febrisiantosa, Andi

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the potential of LAB with phytate degrading activity from fermented traditional food grain-based and legume-based. Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from different sources of traditional fermented food from Gunungkidul Yogyakarta Indonesia such as gembus tempeh (tofu waste), soybean tempeh, lamtoro tempeh (Leucaena bean) and kara tempeh. Isolation of LAB was performed using Total Plate Count (TPC) on de Man Rogosa Sharpe Agar (MRSA) medium supplemented with CaCO3. They were screened for their ability to degrade myo-inositol hexaphosphate or IP6 by using qualitative streak platemethod with modified de Man Rogosa-MorpholinoPropanesulfonic Acid Sharpe (MRS-MOPS) medium contained sodium salt of phytic acid as substrate and cobalt chloride staining (plate assay) method. The selected isolates were further assayed for phytase activities using quantitative method with spectrophotometer and the two selected isolates growth were optimized. Furthermore, thhe isolates that shown the highest phytase activity was characterized and identified using API 50 CH kitand 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The results showed that there were 18 LAB isolates obtained from samplesand 13 isolates were able to degrade sodium phytate based on qualitative screening. According to quantitative assay, the highest phytate degrading activities were found in TG-2(23.562 U/mL) and TG-1 (19.641 U/mL) isolated from gembus tempeh. The phytate activity of TG-2 was optimum at 37 °C with agitation, while the phytate activity of TG-1 was optimum at 45 °C without agitation. Characterization and identification of TG-2 isolate with the highest phytate degrading activity using API 50 CH and 16S rRNA showed that TG-2had homology with Lactobacillus fermentum. It could be concluded that LAB from from fermented traditional food grain-based and legume-based produced the extracellular phytase. Keywords: lactic acid bacteria, tempeh, phytatedegrading activity

  9. Technical and economic assessments of storage techniques for long-term retention of industrial-beet sugar for non-food industrial fermentations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas-Ramirez, Juan Manuel

    Industrial beets may compete against corn grain as an important source of sugars for non-food industrial fermentations. However, dependable and energy-efficient systems for beet sugar storage and processing are necessary to help establish industrial beets as a viable sugar feedstock. Therefore, technical and economic aspects of beet sugar storage and processing were evaluated. First, sugar retention was evaluated in whole beets treated externally with either one of two antimicrobials or a senescence inhibitor and stored for 36 wk at different temperature and atmosphere combinations. Although surface treatment did not improve sugar retention, full retention was enabled by beet dehydration caused by ambient air at 25 °C and with a relative humidity of 37%. This insight led to the evaluation of sugar retention in ground-beet tissue ensiled for 8 wk at different combinations of acidic pH, moisture content (MC), and sugar:solids. Some combinations of pH ≤ 4.0 and MC ≤ 67.5% enabled retentions of at least 90%. Yeast fermentability was also evaluated in non-purified beet juice acidified to enable long-term storage and partially neutralized before fermentation. None of the salts synthesized through juice acidification and partial neutralization inhibited yeast fermentation at the levels evaluated in that work. Conversely, yeast fermentation rates significantly improved in the presence of ammonium salts, which appeared to compensate for nitrogen deficiencies. Capital and operating costs for production and storage of concentrated beet juice for an ethanol plant with a production capacity of 76 x 106 L y-1 were estimated on a dry-sugar basis as U.S. ¢34.0 kg-1 and ¢2.2 kg-1, respectively. Storage and processing techniques evaluated thus far prove that industrial beets are a technically-feasible sugar feedstock for ethanol production.

  10. Microbial Succession and Flavor Production in the Fermented Dairy Beverage Kefir.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Aaron M; Crispie, Fiona; Kilcawley, Kieran; O'Sullivan, Orla; O'Sullivan, Maurice G; Claesson, Marcus J; Cotter, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Kefir is a putatively health-promoting dairy beverage that is produced when a kefir grain, consisting of a consortium of microorganisms, is added to milk to initiate a natural fermentation. Here, a detailed analysis was carried out to determine how the microbial population, gene content, and flavor of three kefirs from distinct geographic locations change over the course of 24-h fermentations. Metagenomic sequencing revealed that Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens was the dominant bacterial species in kefir during early stages of fermentations but that Leuconostoc mesenteroides became more prevalent in later stages. This pattern is consistent with an observation that genes involved in aromatic amino acid biosynthesis were absent from L. kefiranofaciens but were present in L. mesenteroides . Additionally, these shifts in the microbial community structure, and associated pathways, corresponded to changes in the levels of volatile compounds. Specifically, Acetobacter spp. correlated with acetic acid; Lactobacillus spp. correlated with carboxylic acids, esters and ketones; Leuconostoc spp. correlated with acetic acid and 2,3-butanedione; and Saccharomyces spp. correlated with esters. The correlation data suggest a causal relationship between microbial taxa and flavor that is supported by observations that addition of L. kefiranofaciens NCFB 2797 increased the levels of esters and ketones whereas addition of L. mesenteroides 213M0 increased the levels of acetic acid and 2,3-butanedione. Finally, we detected genes associated with probiotic functionalities in the kefir microbiome. Our results illustrate the dynamic nature of kefir fermentations and microbial succession patterns therein and can be applied to optimize the fermentation processes, flavors, and health-related attributes of this and other fermented foods. IMPORTANCE Traditional fermented foods represent relatively low-complexity microbial environments that can be used as model microbial communities to understand

  11. Protein extraction method for the proteomic study of a Mexican traditional fermented starchy food.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, C; Barkla, B J; Wacher, C; Delgado-Olivares, L; Rodríguez-Sanoja, R

    2014-12-05

    Pozol is a traditional fermented maize dough prepared in southeastern Mexico. Wide varieties of microorganisms have already been isolated from this spontaneously fermented product; and include fungi, yeasts, and lactic- and non-lactic acid bacteria. Pozol presents physicochemical features different from that of other food fermentation products, such as a high starch content, in addition to a low protein content. It is these qualities that make it intractable for protein recovery and characterization. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology to optimize the recovery of proteins from the pozol dough following fermentation, by reducing the complexity of the mixture prior to 2D-PAGE analysis and sequencing, to allow the characterization of the metaproteome of the dough. The proteome of 15day fermented maize dough was characterized; proteins were separated and analyzed by mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Subsequent sequence homology database searching, identified numerous bacterial and fungi proteins; with a predominance of lactic acid bacterial proteins, mainly from the Lactobacillus genus. Fungi are mainly represented by Aspergillus. For dominant genera, the most prevalent proteins belong to carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, which suggest that at 15days of fermentation not only fungi but also bacteria are metabolically active. Several methodologies have been employed to study pozol, with a specific focus toward the identification of the microbiota of this fermented maize dough, using both traditional cultivation techniques and culture independent molecular techniques. However to date, the dynamics of this complex fermentation is not well understood. With the purpose to gain further insight into the nature of the fermentation, we used proteomic technologies to identify the origin of proteins and enzymes that facilitate substrate utilization and ultimately the development of the microbiota and fermentation. In this paper we overcome the first general

  12. Understanding Kombucha Tea Fermentation: A Review.

    PubMed

    Villarreal-Soto, Silvia Alejandra; Beaufort, Sandra; Bouajila, Jalloul; Souchard, Jean-Pierre; Taillandier, Patricia

    2018-03-01

    Kombucha is a beverage of probable Manchurian origins obtained from fermented tea by a microbial consortium composed of several bacteria and yeasts. This mixed consortium forms a powerful symbiosis capable of inhibiting the growth of potentially contaminating bacteria. The fermentation process also leads to the formation of a polymeric cellulose pellicle due to the activity of certain strains of Acetobacter sp. The tea fermentation process by the microbial consortium was able to show an increase in certain biological activities which have been already studied; however, little information is available on the characterization of its active components and their evolution during fermentation. Studies have also reported that the use of infusions from other plants may be a promising alternative. Kombucha is a traditional fermented tea whose consumption has increased in the recent years due to its multiple functional properties such as anti-inflammatory potential and antioxidant activity. The microbiological composition of this beverage is quite complex and still more research is needed in order to fully understand its behavior. This study comprises the chemical and microbiological composition of the tea and the main factors that may affect its production. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. Antibiotic resistance of lactic acid bacteria isolated from dry-fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Fraqueza, Maria João

    2015-11-06

    Dry-fermented sausages are meat products highly valued by many consumers. Manufacturing process involves fermentation driven by natural microbiota or intentionally added starter cultures and further drying. The most relevant fermentative microbiota is lactic acid bacteria (LAB) such as Lactobacillus, Pediococcus and Enterococcus, producing mainly lactate and contributing to product preservation. The great diversity of LAB in dry-fermented sausages is linked to manufacturing practices. Indigenous starters development is considered to be a very promising field, because it allows for high sanitary and sensorial quality of sausage production. LAB have a long history of safe use in fermented food, however, since they are present in human gastrointestinal tract, and are also intentionally added to the diet, concerns have been raised about the antimicrobial resistance in these beneficial bacteria. In fact, the food chain has been recognized as one of the key routes of antimicrobial resistance transmission from animal to human bacterial populations. The World Health Organization 2014 report on global surveillance of antimicrobial resistance reveals that this issue is no longer a future prediction, since evidences establish a link between the antimicrobial drugs use in food-producing animals and the emergence of resistance among common pathogens. This poses a risk to the treatment of nosocomial and community-acquired infections. This review describes the possible sources and transmission routes of antibiotic resistant LAB of dry-fermented sausages, presenting LAB antibiotic resistance profile and related genetic determinants. Whenever LAB are used as starters in dry-fermented sausages processing, safety concerns regarding antimicrobial resistance should be addressed since antibiotic resistant genes could be mobilized and transferred to other bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor Activity on Egg Albumen Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Nahariah, N.; Legowo, A. M.; Abustam, E.; Hintono, A.

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is used for fermentation of fish products, meat and milk. However, the utilization of these bacteria in egg processing has not been done. This study was designed to evaluate the potential of fermented egg albumen as a functional food that is rich in angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitors activity (ACE-inhibitor activity) and is antihypertensive. A completely randomized design was used in this study with six durations of fermentation (6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 h) as treatments. Six hundred eggs obtained from the same chicken farm were used in the experiment as sources of egg albumen. Bacteria L. plantarum FNCC 0027 used in the fermentation was isolated from cow’s milk. The parameters measured were the total bacteria, dissolved protein, pH, total acid and the activity of ACE-inhibitors. The results showed that there were significant effects of fermentation time on the parameters tested. Total bacteria increased significantly during fermentation for 6, 12, 18, and 24 h and then decreased with the increasing time of fermentation to 30 and 36 h. Soluble protein increased significantly during fermentation to 18 h and then subsequently decreased during of fermentation to 24, 30, and 36 h. The pH value decreased markedly during fermentation. The activities of ACE-inhibitor in fermented egg albumen increased during fermentation to 18 h and then decreased with the increasing of the duration of fermentation to 24, 30, and 36 h. The egg albumen which was fermented for 18 h resulted in a functional food that was rich in ACE-inhibitor activity. PMID:25715689

  15. A review on traditional Turkish fermented non-alcoholic beverages: microbiota, fermentation process and quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Altay, Filiz; Karbancıoglu-Güler, Funda; Daskaya-Dikmen, Ceren; Heperkan, Dilek

    2013-10-01

    Shalgam juice, hardaliye, boza, ayran (yoghurt drink) and kefir are the most known traditional Turkish fermented non-alcoholic beverages. The first three are obtained from vegetables, fruits and cereals, and the last two ones are made of milk. Shalgam juice, hardaliye and ayran are produced by lactic acid fermentation. Their microbiota is mainly composed of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei in shalgam fermentation and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei and Lactobacillus casei subsp. pseudoplantarum in hardaliye fermentation are predominant. Ayran is traditionally prepared by mixing yoghurt with water and salt. Yoghurt starter cultures are used in industrial ayran production. On the other hand, both alcohol and lactic acid fermentation occur in boza and kefir. Boza is prepared by using a mixture of maize, wheat and rice or their flours and water. Generally previously produced boza or sourdough/yoghurt are used as starter culture which is rich in Lactobacillus spp. and yeasts. Kefir is prepared by inoculation of raw milk with kefir grains which consists of different species of yeasts, LAB, acetic acid bacteria in a protein and polysaccharide matrix. The microbiota of boza and kefir is affected from raw materials, the origin and the production methods. In this review, physicochemical properties, manufacturing technologies, microbiota and shelf life and spoilage of traditional fermented beverages were summarized along with how fermentation conditions could affect rheological properties of end product which are important during processing and storage. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Quality, antioxidative ability, and cell proliferation-enhancing activity of fermented black soybean broths with various supplemental culture medium.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Chien; Wu, Pey-Shiuan; Liang, David Woei-Ming; Kwan, Chang-Chin; Chen, Yi-Shyan

    2012-01-01

    The fermented soybean-based foods have played an important role in traditional diets around the world for many centuries, and Bacillus subtilis is typically used in the fermentation of soybean-based foods. The fermentation process may improve not only the flavor but also the nutritional value of food, and substances produced in this fermented broth were affected by many factors including culture medium and the selected soybeans. In this study, we use 3 potential culture mediums in the fermentation of black soybean and the fermented black soybean broths were used for the examination of amino acid composition, total phenolics content, flavonoids and anthocyanins contents, the antioxidant properties, and cytotoxicity. Our results indicated that the fermented black soybean broth, fermentation III, have the most abundant essential amino acid (79.77 mg/g), phenolics (19.33 mg/g), flavonoids (46.01 mg/g), and anthocyanins (1.06 mg/g). Besides, all of the fermented black soybean broths exhibited the significant antioxidative abilities with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect, reducing power and ferrous ion chelating effect. In addition, the fermented black soybean broths demonstrated the cell proliferation-enhancing activity in Detroit 551 cells. The cells were augmented up to the maximum value of 183.6% (compared with control) at 10 mg/mL of the fermentation I. Therefore, the different supplemental culture medium fermented black soybean broths may be used as a functional ingredient in the products of nutritional drinks and health foods. The present study illustrated the potential of various supplemental culture medium fermented black soybean broths in the application of functional ingredient for nutritional drinks and health foods. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Fermentation Cover Brine Reformulation for Cucumber Processing with Low Salt to Reduce Bloater Defect.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Y; Pérez-Díaz, I M

    2017-12-01

    CO 2 . It represents a process ready cover brine formulation with the potential to allow the manufacture of cucumber pickles with low salt, enhanced food safety, and reduce environmental impact and water usage. Pilot commercial scale cucumber fermentations brined with such ingredients are to reveal the efficacy of this process ready formulation in the presence of oxygen from air in tanks, as opposed to 3.8 L (1-US gal) closed jars in the laboratory. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  18. Functional Screening of Antibiotic Resistance Genes from a Representative Metagenomic Library of Food Fermenting Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Devirgiliis, Chiara; Barile, Simona; Perozzi, Giuditta

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) represent the predominant microbiota in fermented foods. Foodborne LAB have received increasing attention as potential reservoir of antibiotic resistance (AR) determinants, which may be horizontally transferred to opportunistic pathogens. We have previously reported isolation of AR LAB from the raw ingredients of a fermented cheese, while AR genes could be detected in the final, marketed product only by PCR amplification, thus pointing at the need for more sensitive microbial isolation techniques. We turned therefore to construction of a metagenomic library containing microbial DNA extracted directly from the food matrix. To maximize yield and purity and to ensure that genomic complexity of the library was representative of the original bacterial population, we defined a suitable protocol for total DNA extraction from cheese which can also be applied to other lipid-rich foods. Functional library screening on different antibiotics allowed recovery of ampicillin and kanamycin resistant clones originating from Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus helveticus genomes. We report molecular characterization of the cloned inserts, which were fully sequenced and shown to confer AR phenotype to recipient bacteria. We also show that metagenomics can be applied to food microbiota to identify underrepresented species carrying specific genes of interest. PMID:25243126

  19. Relevance of microbial coculture fermentations in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Bader, J; Mast-Gerlach, E; Popović, M K; Bajpai, R; Stahl, U

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to review coculture fermentations in industrial biotechnology. Examples for the advantageous utilization of cocultures instead of single cultivations include the production of bulk chemicals, enzymes, food additives, antimicrobial substances and microbial fuel cells. Coculture fermentations may result in increased yield, improved control of product qualities and the possibility of utilizing cheaper substrates. Cocultivation of different micro-organisms may also help to identify and develop new biotechnological substances. The relevance of coculture fermentations and the potential of improving existing processes as well as the production of new chemical compounds in industrial biotechnology are pointed out here by means of more than 35 examples.

  20. Study on color identification for monitoring and controlling fermentation process of branched chain amino acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lei; Wang, Yizhong; Chen, Ning; Liu, Tiegen; Xu, Qingyang; Kong, Fanzhi

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, a new method for monitoring and controlling fermentation process of branched chain amino acid (BCAA) was proposed based on color identification. The color image of fermentation broth of BCAA was firstly taken by a CCD camera. Then, it was changed from RGB color model to HIS color model. Its histograms of hue H and saturation S were calculated, which were used as the input of a designed BP network. The output of the BP network was the description of the color of fermentation broth of BCAA. After training, the color of fermentation broth was identified by the BP network according to the histograms of H and S of a fermentation broth image. Along with other parameters, the fermentation process of BCAA was monitored and controlled to start the stationary phase of fermentation soon. Experiments were conducted with satisfied results to show the feasibility and usefulness of color identification of fermentation broth in fermentation process control of BCAA.

  1. Quantifying the biases in metagenome mining for realistic assessment of microbial ecology of naturally fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Keisam, Santosh; Romi, Wahengbam; Ahmed, Giasuddin; Jeyaram, Kumaraswamy

    2016-09-27

    Cultivation-independent investigation of microbial ecology is biased by the DNA extraction methods used. We aimed to quantify those biases by comparative analysis of the metagenome mined from four diverse naturally fermented foods (bamboo shoot, milk, fish, soybean) using eight different DNA extraction methods with different cell lysis principles. Our findings revealed that the enzymatic lysis yielded higher eubacterial and yeast metagenomic DNA from the food matrices compared to the widely used chemical and mechanical lysis principles. Further analysis of the bacterial community structure by Illumina MiSeq amplicon sequencing revealed a high recovery of lactic acid bacteria by the enzymatic lysis in all food types. However, Bacillaceae, Acetobacteraceae, Clostridiaceae and Proteobacteria were more abundantly recovered when mechanical and chemical lysis principles were applied. The biases generated due to the differential recovery of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) by different DNA extraction methods including DNA and PCR amplicons mix from different methods have been quantitatively demonstrated here. The different methods shared only 29.9-52.0% of the total OTUs recovered. Although similar comparative research has been performed on other ecological niches, this is the first in-depth investigation of quantifying the biases in metagenome mining from naturally fermented foods.

  2. On-line identification of fermentation processes for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Câmara, M M; Soares, R M; Feital, T; Naomi, P; Oki, S; Thevelein, J M; Amaral, M; Pinto, J C

    2017-07-01

    A strategy for monitoring fermentation processes, specifically, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of corn mash, was developed. The strategy covered the development and use of first principles, semimechanistic and unstructured process model based on major kinetic phenomena, along with mass and energy balances. The model was then used as a reference model within an identification procedure capable of running on-line. The on-line identification procedure consists on updating the reference model through the estimation of corrective parameters for certain reaction rates using the most recent process measurements. The strategy makes use of standard laboratory measurements for sugars quantification and in situ temperature and liquid level data. The model, along with the on-line identification procedure, has been tested against real industrial data and have been able to accurately predict the main variables of operational interest, i.e., state variables and its dynamics, and key process indicators. The results demonstrate that the strategy is capable of monitoring, in real time, this complex industrial biomass fermentation. This new tool provides a great support for decision-making and opens a new range of opportunities for industrial optimization.

  3. The cocoa bean fermentation process: from ecosystem analysis to starter culture development.

    PubMed

    De Vuyst, L; Weckx, S

    2016-07-01

    Cocoa bean fermentation is still a spontaneous curing process to facilitate drying of nongerminating cocoa beans by pulp removal as well as to stimulate colour and flavour development of fermented dry cocoa beans. As it is carried out on farm, cocoa bean fermentation is subjected to various agricultural and operational practices and hence fermented dry cocoa beans of variable quality are obtained. Spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations carried out with care for approximate four days are characterized by a succession of particular microbial activities of three groups of micro-organisms, namely yeasts, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB), which results in well-fermented fully brown cocoa beans. This has been shown through a plethora of studies, often using a multiphasic experimental approach. Selected strains of several of the prevailing microbial species have been tested in appropriate cocoa pulp simulation media to unravel their functional roles and interactions as well as in small plastic vessels containing fresh cocoa pulp-bean mass to evaluate their capacity to dominate the cocoa bean fermentation process. Various starter cultures have been proposed for successful fermentation, encompassing both cocoa-derived and cocoa nonspecific strains of (hybrid) yeasts, LAB and AAB, some of which have been implemented on farms successfully. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Recent advances and strategies in process and strain engineering for the production of butyric acid by microbial fermentation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hongzhen; Yang, Rongling; Zhao, Yuping; Wang, Zhaoyu; Liu, Zheng; Huang, Mengyu; Zeng, Qingwei

    2018-04-01

    Butyric acid is an important platform chemical, which is widely used in the fields of food, pharmaceutical, energy, etc. Microbial fermentation as an alternative approach for butyric acid production is attracting great attention as it is an environmentally friendly bioprocessing. However, traditional fermentative butyric acid production is still not economically competitive compared to chemical synthesis route, due to the low titer, low productivity, and high production cost. Therefore, reduction of butyric acid production cost by utilization of alternative inexpensive feedstock, and improvement of butyric acid production and productivity has become an important target. Recently, several advanced strategies have been developed for enhanced butyric acid production, including bioprocess techniques and metabolic engineering methods. This review provides an overview of advances and strategies in process and strain engineering for butyric acid production by microbial fermentation. Additionally, future perspectives on improvement of butyric acid production are also proposed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Presence of Listeria monocytogenes in Mediterranean-Style Dry Fermented Sausages

    PubMed Central

    Meloni, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    The morphological, physiological and epidemiological features of L. monocytogenes, together with the severity of human listeriosis infections, make L. monocytogenes of particular concern for manufacturers of cold-stored “ready to eat” (RTE) foods. L. monocytogenes has been isolated from a wide variety of RTE foods and is responsible for several outbreaks associated with the consumption of RTE meat, poultry, dairy, fish and vegetable products. Although L. monocytogenes is among the most frequently-detected pathogens in dry fermented sausages, these products could be included in the category of RTE products in which the growth of L. monocytogenes is not favored and have rarely been implicated in listeriosis outbreaks. However, L. monocytogenes is highly difficult to control in fermented sausage processing environments due to its high tolerance to low pH and high salt concentration. In many Mediterranean-style dry fermented sausages, an empirical application of the hurdle technology often occurs and the frequent detection of L. monocytogenes in these products at the end of ripening highlights the need for food business operators to properly apply hurdle technology and to control the contamination routes of L. monocytogenes in the processing plants. In the following, through an up-to-date review of (personal and un-) published data, the main aspects of the presence of L. monocytogenes in Mediterranean-style dry fermented sausages will be discussed. PMID:28231188

  6. Presence of Listeria monocytogenes in Mediterranean-Style Dry Fermented Sausages.

    PubMed

    Meloni, Domenico

    2015-03-12

    The morphological, physiological and epidemiological features of L. monocytogenes , together with the severity of human listeriosis infections, make L. monocytogenes of particular concern for manufacturers of cold-stored "ready to eat" (RTE) foods. L. monocytogenes has been isolated from a wide variety of RTE foods and is responsible for several outbreaks associated with the consumption of RTE meat, poultry, dairy, fish and vegetable products. Although L. monocytogenes is among the most frequently-detected pathogens in dry fermented sausages, these products could be included in the category of RTE products in which the growth of L. monocytogenes is not favored and have rarely been implicated in listeriosis outbreaks. However, L. monocytogenes is highly difficult to control in fermented sausage processing environments due to its high tolerance to low pH and high salt concentration. In many Mediterranean-style dry fermented sausages, an empirical application of the hurdle technology often occurs and the frequent detection of L. monocytogenes in these products at the end of ripening highlights the need for food business operators to properly apply hurdle technology and to control the contamination routes of L. monocytogenes in the processing plants. In the following, through an up-to-date review of (personal and un-) published data, the main aspects of the presence of L. monocytogenes in Mediterranean-style dry fermented sausages will be discussed.

  7. Microbial Ecology and Process Technology of Sourdough Fermentation.

    PubMed

    De Vuyst, Luc; Van Kerrebroeck, Simon; Leroy, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    From a microbiological perspective, sourdough is to be considered as a specific and stressful ecosystem, harboring yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB), that is used for the production of baked goods. With respect to the metabolic impact of the sourdough microbiota, acidification (LAB), flavor formation (LAB and yeasts), and leavening (yeasts and heterofermentative LAB species) are most noticeable. Three distinct types of sourdough fermentation processes can be discerned based on the inocula applied, namely backslopped ones (type 1), those initiated with starter cultures (type 2), and those initiated with a starter culture followed by backslopping (type 3). A sourdough-characteristic LAB species is Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis. A sourdough-characteristic yeast species is Candida humilis. Although it has been suggested that the microbiota of a specific sourdough may be influenced by its geographical origin, region specificity often seems to be an artefact resulting from interpretation of the research data, as those are dependent on sampling, isolation, and identification procedures. It is however clear that sourdough-adapted microorganisms are able to withstand stress conditions encountered during their growth. Based on the technological setup, type 0 (predoughs), type I (artisan bakery firm sourdoughs), type II (industrial liquid sourdoughs), and type III sourdoughs (industrial dried sourdoughs) can be distinguished. The production of all sourdoughs, independent of their classification, depends on several intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Both the flour (type, quality status, etc.) and the process parameters (fermentation temperature, pH and pH evolution, dough yield, water activity, oxygen tension, backslopping procedure and fermentation duration, etc.) determine the dynamics and outcome of (backslopped) sourdough fermentation processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. 573.500 Section 573.500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... fermentation product. Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product may be safely used in animal feed...

  9. Enhancement of l-lactic acid production via synergism in open co-fermentation of Sophora flavescens residues and food waste.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jin; Gao, Ming; Wang, Qunhui; Wang, Juan; Sun, Xiaohong; Chang, Qiang; Tashiro, Yukihiro

    2017-02-01

    In this study, Sophora flavescens residues (SFR) were used for l-lactic acid production and were mixed with food waste (FW) to assess the effects of different compositions of SFR and FW. Positive synergistic effects of mixed substrates were achieved with co-fermentation. Co-fermentation increased the proportion of l-lactic acid by decreasing the co-products of ethanol and other organic acids. A maximum l-lactic acid concentration of 48.4g/L and l-lactic acid conversion rate of 0.904g/g total sugar were obtained through co-fermentation of SFR and FW at the optimal ratio of 1:1.5. These results were approximately 6-fold those obtained during mono-fermentation of SFR. Co-fermentation of SFR and FW provides a suitable C/N ratio and pH for effective open fermentative production of l-lactic acid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [GSH fermentation process modeling using entropy-criterion based RBF neural network model].

    PubMed

    Tan, Zuoping; Wang, Shitong; Deng, Zhaohong; Du, Guocheng

    2008-05-01

    The prediction accuracy and generalization of GSH fermentation process modeling are often deteriorated by noise existing in the corresponding experimental data. In order to avoid this problem, we present a novel RBF neural network modeling approach based on entropy criterion. It considers the whole distribution structure of the training data set in the parameter learning process compared with the traditional MSE-criterion based parameter learning, and thus effectively avoids the weak generalization and over-learning. Then the proposed approach is applied to the GSH fermentation process modeling. Our results demonstrate that this proposed method has better prediction accuracy, generalization and robustness such that it offers a potential application merit for the GSH fermentation process modeling.

  11. Fermented Food Consumption and Psychological Distress in Pregnant Women: A Nationwide Birth Cohort Study of the Japan Environment and Children's Study.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Fumiaki; Nishigori, Hidekazu; Nishigori, Toshie; Mizuno, Satoshi; Obara, Taku; Metoki, Hirohito; Sakurai, Kasumi; Ishikuro, Mami; Iwama, Noriyuki; Tatsuta, Nozomi; Nishijima, Ichiko; Fujiwara, Ikuma; Arima, Takahiro; Nakai, Kunihiko; Sugiyama, Takashi; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2016-12-01

    Health benefits of fermented foods are attracting attention worldwide, and they have been traditionally eaten in Japan. Moreover, a recent study showed the association between the higher intake of yogurt and lower prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Psychological problems, such as anxiety and depression, during pregnancy are serious health concerns and may increase the risk of adverse outcomes in children. In this study, we explored the association between fermented food consumption and psychological distress in 10,129 pregnant Japanese women, using the fixed data of the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS), an ongoing nation-wide birth cohort study. Food consumption was assessed with a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and the Kessler 6-item psychological distress scale (K6) was administered to eligible women during their second or third trimester to eliminate overlap with the period of hyperemesis gravidarum. The mean median gestation in the subjects was 24.8 weeks. In total, 9,030 subjects completed the K6 questionnaire and FFQ. Importantly, the prevalence of the K6 score of ≥ 13 was 3.1% (280 subjects). This value was lower compared to precedent studies, which may reflect that cooperative and health conscious subject participated in the survey. The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicates that the intake of yogurt, lactic acid beverages, cheese, Japanese pickles, miso soup, or fermented soybeans was not significantly associated with a K6 score of ≥ 13. In conclusion, the present cohort study shows no association between fermented food consumption and psychological distress symptoms during the second or third trimester of pregnancy.

  12. Antimicrobials Used in the Fermentation of Fuel Ethanol – Clarification of Jurisdiction

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has determined that antimicrobials applied to processed food or feed during fermentation of organic material to produce fuel ethanol are outside the scope of EPA’s regulatory authority under FIFRA. The Food and Drug Administration has jurisdiction.

  13. Effects of household detergent on anaerobic fermentation of kitchen wastewater from food waste disposer.

    PubMed

    Lee, K H; Park, K Y; Khanal, S K; Lee, J W

    2013-01-15

    This study examines the effects of household detergent on anaerobic methane fermentation of wastewater from food waste disposers (FWDs). Anaerobic toxicity assay (ATA) demonstrated that methane production substantially decreased at a higher detergent concentration. The Gompertz three-parameter model fitted well with the ATA results, and both the extent of methane production (M) and methane production rate (R(m)) obtained from the model were strongly affected by the concentration of the detergent. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of the detergent was 603 mg/L based on R(m). Results from fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) analysis of microbial culture revealed that deterioration of methane fermentation was attributed to impaired structure of anaerobic microbial membrane due to detergent. This study suggests that wastewater from FWD could be used for methane production, but it is necessary to reduce the concentration of detergent prior to anaerobic fermentation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. High Stability of Stx2 Phage in Food and under Food-Processing Conditions ▿

    PubMed Central

    Rode, Tone Mari; Axelsson, Lars; Granum, Per Einar; Heir, Even; Holck, Askild; L'Abée-Lund, Trine M.

    2011-01-01

    Bacteriophages (phages) carrying Shiga toxin genes constitute a major virulence attribute in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). Several EHEC outbreaks have been linked to food. The survival of such strains in different foods has received much attention, while the fate of the mobile Shiga toxin-converting phages (Stx phages) has been less studied. We have investigated the stability of an Stx phage in several food products and examined how storage, food processing, and disinfection influence the infectivity of phage particles. The study involved a recombinant Stx phage (Δstx::cat) of an E. coli O103:H25 strain from a Norwegian outbreak in 2006. Temperature, matrix, and time were factors of major importance for the stability of phage particles. Phages stored at cooling temperatures (4°C) showed a dramatic reduction in stability compared to those stored at room temperature. The importance of the matrix was evident at higher temperatures (60°C). Phages in ground beef were below the detection level when heated to 60°C for more than 10 min, while phages in broth exposed to the same heating conditions showed a 5-log-higher stability. The phages tolerated desiccation poorly but were infective for a substantial period of time in solutions. Under moist conditions, they also had a high ability to tolerate exposure to several disinfectants. In a dry-fermented sausage model, phages were shown to infect E. coli in situ. The results show that Stx phage particles can maintain their infectivity in foods and under food-processing conditions. PMID:21685156

  15. Processing maize flour and corn meal food products

    PubMed Central

    Gwirtz, Jeffrey A; Garcia-Casal, Maria Nieves

    2014-01-01

    Corn is the cereal with the highest production worldwide and is used for human consumption, livestock feed, and fuel. Various food technologies are currently used for processing industrially produced maize flours and corn meals in different parts of the world to obtain precooked refined maize flour, dehydrated nixtamalized flour, fermented maize flours, and other maize products. These products have different intrinsic vitamin and mineral contents, and their processing follows different pathways from raw grain to the consumer final product, which entail changes in nutrient composition. Dry maize mechanical processing creates whole or fractionated products, separated by anatomical features such as bran, germ, and endosperm. Wet maize processing separates by chemical compound classification such as starch and protein. Various industrial processes, including whole grain, dry milling fractionation, and nixtamalization, are described. Vitamin and mineral losses during processing are identified and the nutritional impacts outlined. Also discussed are the vitamin and mineral contents of corn. PMID:24329576

  16. Ferment in Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, Janice

    1974-01-01

    A pollution-reducing and energy-saving alternative to petroleum use could be the fermentation industry and other technologies based on the use of renewable resources. Expansion of the fermentation industry could reduce our dependence on petroleum, reduce growing waste disposal problems, and help solve world food shortages. (BT)

  17. A novel process for recovery of fermentation-derived succinic acid: process design and economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Orjuela, Alvaro; Orjuela, Andrea; Lira, Carl T; Miller, Dennis J

    2013-07-01

    Recovery and purification of organic acids produced in fermentation constitutes a significant fraction of total production cost. In this paper, the design and economic analysis of a process to recover succinic acid (SA) via dissolution and acidification of succinate salts in ethanol, followed by reactive distillation to form succinate esters, is presented. Process simulation was performed for a range of plant capacities (13-55 million kg/yr SA) and SA fermentation titers (50-100 kg/m(3)). Economics were evaluated for a recovery system installed within an existing fermentation facility producing succinate salts at a cost of $0.66/kg SA. For a SA processing capacity of 54.9 million kg/yr and a titer of 100 kg/m(3) SA, the model predicts a capital investment of $75 million and a net processing cost of $1.85 per kg SA. Required selling price of diethyl succinate for a 30% annual return on investment is $1.57 per kg. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Recent advances in electronic nose techniques for monitoring of fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hui; Zhang, Hang; Chen, Quansheng; Mei, Congli; Liu, Guohai

    2015-12-01

    Microbial fermentation process is often sensitive to even slight changes of conditions that may result in unacceptable end-product quality. Thus, the monitoring of the process is critical for discovering unfavorable deviations as early as possible and taking the appropriate measures. However, the use of traditional analytical techniques is often time-consuming and labor-intensive. In this sense, the most effective way of developing rapid, accurate and relatively economical method for quality assurance in microbial fermentation process is the use of novel chemical sensor systems. Electronic nose techniques have particular advantages in non-invasive monitoring of microbial fermentation process. Therefore, in this review, we present an overview of the most important contributions dealing with the quality control in microbial fermentation process using the electronic nose techniques. After a brief description of the fundamentals of the sensor techniques, some examples of potential applications of electronic nose techniques monitoring are provided, including the implementation of control strategies and the combination with other monitoring tools (i.e. sensor fusion). Finally, on the basis of the review, the electronic nose techniques are critically commented, and its strengths and weaknesses being highlighted. In addition, on the basis of the observed trends, we also propose the technical challenges and future outlook for the electronic nose techniques.

  19. Ethanol production from food waste at high solids content with vacuum recovery technology.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haibo; Qureshi, Nasib; Chen, Ming-Hsu; Liu, Wei; Singh, Vijay

    2015-03-18

    Ethanol production from food wastes does not only solve environmental issues but also provides renewable biofuels. This study investigated the feasibility of producing ethanol from food wastes at high solids content (35%, w/w). A vacuum recovery system was developed and applied to remove ethanol from fermentation broth to reduce yeast ethanol inhibition. A high concentration of ethanol (144 g/L) was produced by the conventional fermentation of food waste without a vacuum recovery system. When the vacuum recovery is applied to the fermentation process, the ethanol concentration in the fermentation broth was controlled below 100 g/L, thus reducing yeast ethanol inhibition. At the end of the conventional fermentation, the residual glucose in the fermentation broth was 5.7 g/L, indicating incomplete utilization of glucose, while the vacuum fermentation allowed for complete utilization of glucose. The ethanol yield for the vacuum fermentation was found to be 358 g/kg of food waste (dry basis), higher than that for the conventional fermentation at 327 g/kg of food waste (dry basis).

  20. Municipal wastewater biological nutrient removal driven by the fermentation liquid of dairy wastewater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Chen, Yinguang; Wu, Jiang

    2017-11-01

    Carbon substrate is required by biological nutrient removal (BNR) microorganism, but it is usually insufficient in the influent of many municipal wastewater treatment plants. In this study the use of ethanol-enriched fermentation liquid, which was derived from dairy wastewater, as the preferred carbon substrate of BNR was reported. First, the application of dairy wastewater and food processing wastewater and their fermentation liquid as the carbon substrate of BNR was compared in the short-term tests. The fermented wastewater showed higher BNR performance than the unfermented one, and the fermentation liquid of dairy wastewater (FL-DW), which was obtained under pH 8 and fermentation time of 6 day, exhibited the highest phosphorus (95.5%) and total nitrogen (97.6%) removal efficiencies due to its high ethanol content (57.9%). Then, the long-term performance of FL-DW acting as the carbon substrate of BNR was compared with that of acetate and ethanol, and the FL-DW showed the greatest phosphorus and total nitrogen removal. Further investigation showed that the use of FL-DW caused the highest polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) synthesis in BNR microbial cells, and more PHAs were used for phosphorus uptake and denitrification rather than glycogen synthesis and microbial growth. The FL-DW can be used as a preferred carbon substrate for BNR microbes. AB: aerobic end sludge active biomass; BNR: biological nutrient removal; DW: dairy wastewater; FL-DW: fermentation liquid of dairy wastewater; FPW: food processing wastewater; FL-FPW: fermentation liquid of food processing wastewater; PHAs: polyhydroxyalkanoates; PHB: poly-3-hydroxybutyrate; PHV: poly-3-hydroxyvalerate; PH2MV: poly-3-hydroxy-2- methylvalerate; PAOs: phosphorus accumulating organisms; SBR: sequencing batch reactor; SOP: soluble ortho-phosphorus; TN: total nitrogen; TSS: total suspended solids; VSS: volatile suspended solids; VFAs: volatile fatty acids; WWTPs: wastewater treatment plants.

  1. Presence and molecular characterization of the major serovars of Listeria monocytogenes in ten Sardinian fermented sausage processing plants.

    PubMed

    Meloni, Domenico; Consolati, Simonetta Gianna; Mazza, Roberta; Mureddu, Anna; Fois, Federica; Piras, Francesca; Mazzette, Rina

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in ten Sardinian fermented sausage processing plants. A total of 230 samples were collected and 40 L. monocytogenes isolates were obtained and subjected to serotyping and investigated for the presence of ten virulence-associated genes using multiplex PCR assays. The isolates were further subjected to PFGE and investigated for their adhesion abilities in polystyrene microtiter plates. L. monocytogenes was found in 6% of food contact surfaces, in sausages at the end of acidification (3%) and ripening (8%). Serotyping revealed the presence of four serovars: 1/2c (37.5%), 1/2b (27.5%), 4b (22.5%) and 1/2a (12.5%). All virulence-associated genes were detected in 67.5% of the isolates. Isolates from processing environment, semi-processed and finished products showed high pulsotype diversity and the majority of isolates presented weak adhesion capability. The detection of the pathogen in fermented sausages confirms the ability of L. monocytogenes to overcome the hurdles of the manufacturing process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Aroma formation by immobilized yeast cells in fermentation processes.

    PubMed

    Nedović, V; Gibson, B; Mantzouridou, T F; Bugarski, B; Djordjević, V; Kalušević, A; Paraskevopoulou, A; Sandell, M; Šmogrovičová, D; Yilmaztekin, M

    2015-01-01

    Immobilized cell technology has shown a significant promotional effect on the fermentation of alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine and cider. However, genetic, morphological and physiological alterations occurring in immobilized yeast cells impact on aroma formation during fermentation processes. The focus of this review is exploitation of existing knowledge on the biochemistry and the biological role of flavour production in yeast for the biotechnological production of aroma compounds of industrial importance, by means of immobilized yeast. Various types of carrier materials and immobilization methods proposed for application in beer, wine, fruit wine, cider and mead production are presented. Engineering aspects with special emphasis on immobilized cell bioreactor design, operation and scale-up potential are also discussed. Ultimately, examples of products with improved quality properties within the alcoholic beverages are addressed, together with identification and description of the future perspectives and scope for cell immobilization in fermentation processes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Biocontrol strategies for Mediterranean-style fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Márcia; Ferreira, Vânia; Magalhães, Rui; Teixeira, Paula

    2018-01-01

    Naturally fermented meat sausages have a long tradition in Mediterranean countries and are one of the most important groups of traditional foods consumed throughout Europe. Despite all the advances in food science and technology and increased regulatory requirements and concerns for safety and quality during the last decades, the challenge to control important foodborne pathogens in this type of meat products still persists. Simultaneously, growing consumer interest in safe, high quality and minimal processed products, with less additives/preservatives have driven the food industry and scientists in a crusade for innovative technologies to maintain the safety of these products by natural means. Biological control (biocontrol) fits well within this tendency. This review summarizes the latest achievements on biocontrol strategies applied to Mediterranean-style fermented sausages, namely: (i) bioprotective cultures; (ii) bacteriocins; and, (iii) essential oils (EOs). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. DGGE and multivariate analysis of a yeast community in spontaneous cocoa fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, A C R; Marques, E L S; Dias, J C T; Rezende, R P

    2015-12-28

    Cocoa bean is the main raw material used in the production of chocolate. In southern Bahia, Brazil, cocoa farming and processing is an important economic activity. The fermentation of cocoa is the processing stage that yields important chocolate flavor precursors and complex microbial involvement is essential for this process. In this study, PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoreses (DGGE) was used to investigate the diversity of yeasts present during the spontaneous fermentation of cocoa in southern Bahia. The DGGE analysis revealed a richness of 8 to 13 distinct bands of varied intensities among the samples; and samples taken at 24, 36, and 48 h into the fermentation process were found to group with 70% similarity and showed the greatest diversity of bands. Hierarchical clustering showed that all samples had common operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and the highest number of OTUs was found in the 48 h sample. Variations in pH and temperature observed within the fermenting mass over time possibly had direct effects on the composition of the existing microbial community. The findings reported here indicate that a heterogeneous yeast community is involved in the complex cocoa fermentation process, which is known to involve a succession of specialized microorganisms.

  5. Critical moisture content for microbial growth in dried food-processing residues.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Farzaneh; Vandergheynst, Jean S

    2010-09-01

    Food-processing residues are good feedstocks for biofuel and biochemical production because they have high energy content and are abundant. Year-round biofuel and biochemical production requires proper storage to prevent microbial decomposition and thermal runaway. In this study, microbial activity of tomato pomace (TP), grape pomace (GP), fermented grape pomace (FGP) and sugar beet pulp (SBP) was monitored at nine different moisture contents. Maximum and cumulative respirations for each feedstock with respect to moisture content followed a sigmoidal relationship. The critical moisture content below which no microbial activity was detected for SBP, TP, FGP and GP was 24-31, 16-21, 23-33 and 43-46% (dry basis) respectively. A logarithmic relationship was observed (R(2) = 0.94) between critical moisture content and initial water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) content of the processing residues. The critical moisture content below which no microbial activity was detected and the relationship between critical moisture content and initial WSC content were determined in this study for four food-processing residues. Both parameters permit evaluation of the potential for deterioration of food-processing residues during storage based on moisture content and WSC content. Copyright 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Alcoholic fermentation with flocculant Saccharomyces cerevisiae in fed-batch process.

    PubMed

    Guidini, Carla Zanella; Marquez, Líbia Diniz Santos; de Almeida Silva, Helisângela; de Resende, Miriam Maria; Cardoso, Vicelma Luiz; Ribeiro, Eloízio Júlio

    2014-02-01

    Studies have been conducted on selecting yeast strains for use in fermentation for ethanol production to improve the performance of industrial plants and decrease production costs. In this paper, we study alcoholic fermentation in a fed-batch process using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain with flocculant characteristics. Central composite design (CCD) was used to determine the optimal combination of the variables involved, with the sucrose concentration of 170 g/L, a cellular concentration in the inoculum of 40% (v/v), and a filling time of 6 h, which resulted in a 92.20% yield relative to the theoretical maximum yield, a productivity of 6.01 g/L h and a residual sucrose concentration of 44.33 g/L. With some changes in the process such as recirculation of medium during the fermentation process and increase in cellular concentration in the inoculum after use of the CCD was possible to reduce the residual sucrose concentration to 2.8 g/L in 9 h of fermentation and increase yield and productivity for 92.75% and 9.26 g/L h, respectively. A model was developed to describe the inhibition of alcoholic fermentation kinetics by the substrate and the product. The maximum specific growth rate was 0.103 h(-1), with K(I) and K(s) values of 109.86 and 30.24 g/L, respectively. The experimental results from the fed-batch reactor show a good fit with the proposed model, resulting in a maximum growth rate of 0.080 h(-1).

  7. Microbial Succession and Flavor Production in the Fermented Dairy Beverage Kefir

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Aaron M.; Crispie, Fiona; Kilcawley, Kieran; O’Sullivan, Orla; O’Sullivan, Maurice G.; Claesson, Marcus J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Kefir is a putatively health-promoting dairy beverage that is produced when a kefir grain, consisting of a consortium of microorganisms, is added to milk to initiate a natural fermentation. Here, a detailed analysis was carried out to determine how the microbial population, gene content, and flavor of three kefirs from distinct geographic locations change over the course of 24-h fermentations. Metagenomic sequencing revealed that Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens was the dominant bacterial species in kefir during early stages of fermentations but that Leuconostoc mesenteroides became more prevalent in later stages. This pattern is consistent with an observation that genes involved in aromatic amino acid biosynthesis were absent from L. kefiranofaciens but were present in L. mesenteroides. Additionally, these shifts in the microbial community structure, and associated pathways, corresponded to changes in the levels of volatile compounds. Specifically, Acetobacter spp. correlated with acetic acid; Lactobacillus spp. correlated with carboxylic acids, esters and ketones; Leuconostoc spp. correlated with acetic acid and 2,3-butanedione; and Saccharomyces spp. correlated with esters. The correlation data suggest a causal relationship between microbial taxa and flavor that is supported by observations that addition of L. kefiranofaciens NCFB 2797 increased the levels of esters and ketones whereas addition of L. mesenteroides 213M0 increased the levels of acetic acid and 2,3-butanedione. Finally, we detected genes associated with probiotic functionalities in the kefir microbiome. Our results illustrate the dynamic nature of kefir fermentations and microbial succession patterns therein and can be applied to optimize the fermentation processes, flavors, and health-related attributes of this and other fermented foods. IMPORTANCE Traditional fermented foods represent relatively low-complexity microbial environments that can be used as model microbial communities to

  8. Determination of D- and L-pipecolic acid in food samples including processed foods.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Toru; Fujita, Manabu; Kodama, Taku; Hada, Toshikazu; Higashino, Kazuya

    2003-01-01

    Pipecolic acid, a metabolite of lysine, is found in human physiological fluids and is thought to play an important role in the central inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid system. However, it is unclear whether plasma D- and L-pipecolic acid originate from oral food intake or intestinal bacterial metabolites. We analyzed the contents of D- and L-pipecolic acid in several processed foods including dairy products (cow's milk, cheese and yogurt), fermented beverages (beer and wine) and heated samples (beef, bovine liver, bread and tofu) to clarify the relationship between plasma D- and L-pipecolic acid and dietary foods. Our study revealed that some of the samples contained high concentrations of total pipecolic acid, and a higher proportion of L- than D-isomers. The other samples also showed high proportions of L-pipecolic acid. It was also shown that there is no significant change in the ratio of the D-isomer before and after heat treatment. The heat treatments could not cause the racemization of pipecolic acid in this study. These findings suggest that plasma pipecolic acid, particularly the D-isomer, does not originate from direct food intake and that D- and L-pipecolic acid can possibly be derived from intestinal bacterial metabolites. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. Characterization of the Degree of Food Processing in Relation With Its Health Potential and Effects.

    PubMed

    Fardet, Anthony

    2018-01-01

    Up today technological processes are intended to produce safe and palatable food products. Yet, it is also expected that processing produces healthy and sustainable foods. However, due to the dramatic increase of chronic diseases prevalence worldwide, i.e., obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and some cancers, ultraprocessing has been pointed out as producing unhealthy foods, rich in energy and poor in protective micronutrients and fiber, i.e., "empty" calories. Indeed the 1980s saw massive arrivals of ultraprocessed foods in supermarkets, i.e., fractionated-recombined foods with added ingredients and/or additives. Epidemiological studies clearly emphasized that populations adhering the most to ultraprocessed foods, e.g., processed meat, refined grains, ultraprocessed plant-based foods, and/or sweetened beverages, exhibited the higher prevalence of chronic diseases. This prompted researchers to classify foods according to their degree of processing as with the international NOVA classification (i.e., un/minimally processed, processed, and ultraprocessed foods). More and more studies showed that such a classification makes sense for health. Overall one distinguishes three categories of processes: mechanical, thermal, and fermentative treatments, this latter being the more favorable to food health potential. This chapter has therefore several ambitions: (1) to review association between degree of food processing and chronic disease risk prevalence; (2) to explore the impact of technological processes on food health potential considering both matrix and compositional effects; (3) to discuss the need for classifying food according to their degree of processing in future epidemiological studies; and (4) to analyze consequences of adhering to a more holistic paradigm in both food processing and nutrition. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of fermentation on the nutritional quality and functional properties of infant food formulations prepared from bambarra-groundnut, fluted-pumpkin and millet seeds.

    PubMed

    Ezeji, C; Ojimelukwe, P C

    1993-11-01

    Weaning foods were formulated by complementation of millet with bambarra groundnut seeds and fluted pumkin seeds. The proximate composition of the individual seeds and the formulations were determined. The composite flour blend containing the highest quantity of fluted pumkin seeds was found to have the highest protein and fat contents (24 and 8% respectively). Functional properties of formulated weaning foods were evaluated. The effect of fermentation on the nutritional quality of the products were determined by animal feeding experiments. The feed intake, weight gain and PER values were evaluated. Fermentation was found to improve the nutritional quality of the formulations. The fermented composite mixture of millet, bambarra groundnut and fluted pumpkin flour (1:1:2) was found to have the highest PER value of 2.1. This suggests that this fermented product will support growth in children better than other formulations.

  11. Characterization of the microbial diversity in yacon spontaneous fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Reina, L. D.; Pérez-Díaz, I. M.; Breidt, F.; Azcarate-Peril, M. A.; Medina, E.; Butz, N.V.

    2015-01-01

    The prebiotic fructooligosaccharides (FOS) content of yacon makes this root an attractive alternative for the supplementation of a variety of food products. The preservation of yacon by fermentation has been proposed as an alternative to increase the probiotic content of the root concomitantly with its shelf life. Thus the fermented yacon could have significant functional content. The objective of this research was to characterize the biochemistry and microbiology of spontaneous yacon fermentation and define the viability of the proposed process. The biochemical analysis of spontaneous heterolactic fermentation of yacon showed a progressive drop in pH with increased lactic and acetic acids, and the production of mannitol during fermentation. The microbial ecology of yacon fermentation was investigated using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Bacterial cell counts revealed a dominance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) over yeasts, which were also present during fermentation. Results showed that the heterofermentative LAB were primarily Leuconostoc species, which dominated the fermentation. The fermentation of yacon by Leuconostoc spp. is thus presented as a viable method to achieve long term preservation of this root. PMID:25777679

  12. Design of penicillin fermentation process simulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Xiaoyu; Yuan, Zhonghu; Qi, Xiaoxuan; Zhang, Wenqi

    2011-10-01

    Real-time monitoring for batch process attracts increasing attention. It can ensure safety and provide products with consistent quality. The design of simulation system of batch process fault diagnosis is of great significance. In this paper, penicillin fermentation, a typical non-linear, dynamic, multi-stage batch production process, is taken as the research object. A visual human-machine interactive simulation software system based on Windows operation system is developed. The simulation system can provide an effective platform for the research of batch process fault diagnosis.

  13. Focused Review: Agmatine in Fermented Foods

    PubMed Central

    Galgano, Fernanda; Caruso, Marisa; Condelli, Nicola; Favati, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Polyamines (PAs) are ubiquitous substances considered to be bioregulators of numerous cell functions; they take part in cell growth, division, and differentiation. These biogenic amines are also involved in tissue repair and in intracellular signaling; in fact, because of their polycationic character, they interact to a large extent with membrane phospholipids and may play an important role in the regulation of membrane-linked enzymes. The intracellular polyamine content derives from the simultaneous regulation of the synthesis, catabolism, uptake, and elimination of the polyamines; furthermore, PAs are present in all cell types at different concentrations, but the highest levels are found in rapid-turnover tissues. In addition to spermidine, spermine, and putrescine, also agmatine (AGM), deriving from arginine and identified in mammals in the 1990s, is a polyamine and several studies have reported its potentially positive role in the production of secretagogues, and in neuronal, vascular, metabolic, and therapeutic functions. Because of the low arginine decarboxylase (ADC) activity in mammalians, the amounts of AGM found in their tissues can be only minimally ascribed to an endogenous de novo synthesis by ADC, while a substantial quantity of AGM may be of dietary origin. Several food products contain only small amounts of polyamines, while higher concentrations can be found in fermented foods. PAs could also be considered as indicators of freshness in fish and meat products; as these moieties are produced during food storage, it would seem to confirm the main role of microorganisms in their synthesis. In particular, high levels of AGM are present in alcoholic beverages, such as wine, beer, sake, which would seem to confirm the role of yeasts in AGM production. Although many biological functions have been attributed to polyamines, high levels of these compounds in foodstuffs can have toxicological effects; however, no safe level for the intake of polyamines in a

  14. Image analysis and mathematical modelling for the supervision of the dough fermentation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zettel, Viktoria; Paquet-Durand, Olivier; Hecker, Florian; Hitzmann, Bernd

    2016-10-01

    The fermentation (proof) process of dough is one of the quality-determining steps in the production of baking goods. Beside the fluffiness, whose fundaments are built during fermentation, the flavour of the final product is influenced very much during this production stage. However, until now no on-line measurement system is available, which can supervise this important process step. In this investigation the potential of an image analysis system is evaluated, that enables the determination of the volume of fermented dough pieces. The camera is moving around the fermenting pieces and collects images from the objects by means of different angles (360° range). Using image analysis algorithms the volume increase of individual dough pieces is determined. Based on a detailed mathematical description of the volume increase, which based on the Bernoulli equation, carbon dioxide production rate of yeast cells and the diffusion processes of carbon dioxide, the fermentation process is supervised. Important process parameters, like the carbon dioxide production rate of the yeast cells and the dough viscosity can be estimated just after 300 s of proofing. The mean percentage error for forecasting the further evolution of the relative volume of the dough pieces is just 2.3 %. Therefore, a forecast of the further evolution can be performed and used for fault detection.

  15. Fermentation process tracking through enhanced spectral calibration modeling.

    PubMed

    Triadaphillou, Sophia; Martin, Elaine; Montague, Gary; Norden, Alison; Jeffkins, Paul; Stimpson, Sarah

    2007-06-15

    The FDA process analytical technology (PAT) initiative will materialize in a significant increase in the number of installations of spectroscopic instrumentation. However, to attain the greatest benefit from the data generated, there is a need for calibration procedures that extract the maximum information content. For example, in fermentation processes, the interpretation of the resulting spectra is challenging as a consequence of the large number of wavelengths recorded, the underlying correlation structure that is evident between the wavelengths and the impact of the measurement environment. Approaches to the development of calibration models have been based on the application of partial least squares (PLS) either to the full spectral signature or to a subset of wavelengths. This paper presents a new approach to calibration modeling that combines a wavelength selection procedure, spectral window selection (SWS), where windows of wavelengths are automatically selected which are subsequently used as the basis of the calibration model. However, due to the non-uniqueness of the windows selected when the algorithm is executed repeatedly, multiple models are constructed and these are then combined using stacking thereby increasing the robustness of the final calibration model. The methodology is applied to data generated during the monitoring of broth concentrations in an industrial fermentation process from on-line near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) spectrometers. It is shown that the proposed calibration modeling procedure outperforms traditional calibration procedures, as well as enabling the identification of the critical regions of the spectra with regard to the fermentation process.

  16. Brettanomyces as a starter culture in rice-steamed sponge cake: a traditional fermented food in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peng; Xu, Xiaoyun; Xu, Yongxia; Chen, Qingchan; Pan, Siyi

    2011-11-01

    The potential use of Brettanomyces anomalus PSY-001 as an additional starter culture for the production of Rice-steamed sponge cake (RSSC), a traditional fermented food in China, was investigated. Two productions of RSSC, each containing batches of experimental cakes with Brettanomyces added and reference cakes with the leavened liquid added were carried out. For both experimental and reference cakes, chemical analysis and sensory evaluation were carried out during the fermentation period. The results showed that experimental cakes had desirable aroma and taste. The observed differences indicate a positive contribution to the overall quality of RSSC by B. anomalus PSY-001.

  17. Population size drives industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcoholic fermentation and is under genetic control.

    PubMed

    Albertin, Warren; Marullo, Philippe; Aigle, Michel; Dillmann, Christine; de Vienne, Dominique; Bely, Marina; Sicard, Delphine

    2011-04-01

    Alcoholic fermentation (AF) conducted by Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been exploited for millennia in three important human food processes: beer and wine production and bread leavening. Most of the efforts to understand and improve AF have been made separately for each process, with strains that are supposedly well adapted. In this work, we propose a first comparison of yeast AFs in three synthetic media mimicking the dough/wort/grape must found in baking, brewing, and wine making. The fermentative behaviors of nine food-processing strains were evaluated in these media, at the cellular, populational, and biotechnological levels. A large variation in the measured traits was observed, with medium effects usually being greater than the strain effects. The results suggest that human selection targeted the ability to complete fermentation for wine strains and trehalose content for beer strains. Apart from these features, the food origin of the strains did not significantly affect AF, suggesting that an improvement program for a specific food processing industry could exploit the variability of strains used in other industries. Glucose utilization was analyzed, revealing plastic but also genetic variation in fermentation products and indicating that artificial selection could be used to modify the production of glycerol, acetate, etc. The major result was that the overall maximum CO(2) production rate (V(max)) was not related to the maximum CO(2) production rate per cell. Instead, a highly significant correlation between V(max) and the maximum population size was observed in all three media, indicating that human selection targeted the efficiency of cellular reproduction rather than metabolic efficiency. This result opens the way to new strategies for yeast improvement.

  18. Biomass, strain engineering, and fermentation processes for butanol production by solventogenic clostridia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Yun, Eun Ju; Kim, Jungyeon; Lee, Sang Jun; Um, Youngsoon; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2016-10-01

    Butanol is considered an attractive biofuel and a commercially important bulk chemical. However, economical production of butanol by solventogenic clostridia, e.g., via fermentative production of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE), is hampered by low fermentation performance, mainly as a result of toxicity of butanol to microorganisms and high substrate costs. Recently, sugars from marine macroalgae and syngas were recognized as potent carbon sources in biomass feedstocks that are abundant and do not compete for arable land with edible crops. With the aid of systems metabolic engineering, many researchers have developed clostridial strains with improved performance on fermentation of these substrates. Alternatively, fermentation strategies integrated with butanol recovery processes such as adsorption, gas stripping, liquid-liquid extraction, and pervaporation have been designed to increase the overall titer of butanol and volumetric productivity. Nevertheless, for economically feasible production of butanol, innovative strategies based on recent research should be implemented. This review describes and discusses recent advances in the development of biomass feedstocks, microbial strains, and fermentation processes for butanol production.

  19. Fermentation of Apple Juice with a Selected Yeast Strain Isolated from the Fermented Foods of Himalayan Regions and Its Organoleptic Properties.

    PubMed

    Kanwar, S S; Keshani

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from different fermented foods of Western Himalayas have been studied for strain level and functional diversity in our department. Among these 23 strains, 10 S. cerevisiae strains on the basis of variation in their brewing traits were selected to study their organoleptic effect at gene level by targeting ATF1 gene, which is responsible for ester synthesis during fermentation. Significant variation was observed in ATF1 gene sequences, suggesting differences in aroma and flavor of their brewing products. Apple is a predominant fruit in Himachal Pradesh and apple cider is one of the most popular drinks all around the world hence, it was chosen for sensory evaluation of six selected yeast strains. Organoleptic studies and sensory analysis suggested Sc21 and Sc01 as best indigenous strains for soft and hard cider, respectively, indicating their potential in enriching the local products with enhanced quality.

  20. Extraction of glutathione from EFB fermentation waste using methanol with sonication process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muryanto, Muryanto; Alvin, Nurdin, Muhammad; Hanifah, Ummu; Sudiyani, Yanni

    2017-11-01

    Glutathione is important compound on the human body. Glutathione have a widely use at pharmacy and cosmetics as detoxification, skin whitening agent, antioxidant and many other. This study aims to obtain glutathione from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in fermentation waste of second generation bioethanol. The remaining yeast in the empty fruit bunch (EFB) fermentation was separated from the fermentation solution use centrifugation process and then extracted using a methanol-water solution. The extraction process was done by maceration which was assisted by sonication process. Solvent concentration and time of sonication were varied to see its effect on glutathione concentration. The concentration of glutathione from the extraction process was analyzed using alloxan method with UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The results show that the highest glutathione concentration was approximately 1.32 g/L obtained with methanol solvent at 90 minutes of maceration following with 15 minutes sonication.

  1. Efficient production of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) from cassava by a fermentation-pervaporation coupled process.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Chen, Xiangrong; Qi, Benkun; Luo, Jianquan; Zhang, Yuming; Su, Yi; Wan, Yinhua

    2014-10-01

    Production of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) from cassava was investigated with a fermentation-pervaporation (PV) coupled process. ABE products were in situ removed from fermentation broth to alleviate the toxicity of solvent to the Clostridium acetobutylicum DP217. Compared to the batch fermentation without PV, glucose consumption rate and solvent productivity increased by 15% and 21%, respectively, in batch fermentation-PV coupled process, while in continuous fermentation-PV coupled process running for 304 h, the substrate consumption rate, solvent productivity and yield increased by 58%, 81% and 15%, reaching 2.02 g/Lh, 0.76 g/Lh and 0.38 g/g, respectively. Silicalite-1 filled polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) membrane modules ensured media recycle without significant fouling, steadily generating a highly concentrated ABE solution containing 201.8 g/L ABE with 122.4 g/L butanol. After phase separation, a final product containing 574.3g/L ABE with 501.1g/L butanol was obtained. Therefore, the fermentation-PV coupled process has the potential to decrease the cost in ABE production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Alleviation of harmful effect in stillage reflux in food waste ethanol fermentation based on metabolic and side-product accumulation regulation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongzhi; Yang, Jian; Jia, Yan; Wang, Qunhui; Ma, Xiaoyu; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2016-10-01

    Stillage reflux fermentation in food waste ethanol fermentation could reduce sewage discharge but exert a harmful effect because of side-product accumulation. In this study, regulation methods based on metabolic regulation and side-product alleviation were conducted. Result demonstrated that controlling the proper oxidation-reduction potential value (-150mV to -250mV) could reduce the harmful effect, improve ethanol yield by 21%, and reduce fermentation time by 20%. The methods of adding calcium carbonate to adjust the accumulated lactic acid showed that ethanol yield increased by 17.3%, and fermentation time decreased by 20%. The accumulated glyceal also shows that these two methods can reduce the harmful effect. Fermentation time lasted for seven times without effect, and metabolic regulation had a better effect than side-product regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Saccharide breakdown and fermentation by the honey bee gut microbiome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Fredrick J; Rusch, Douglas B; Stewart, Frank J; Mattila, Heather R; Newton, Irene L G

    2015-03-01

    The honey bee, the world's most important agricultural pollinator, relies exclusively on plant-derived foods for nutrition. Nectar and pollen collected by honey bees are processed and matured within the nest through the activities of honey bee-derived microbes and enzymes. In order to better understand the contribution of the microbial community to food processing in the honey bee, we generated a metatranscriptome of the honey bee gut microbiome. The function of the microbial community in the honey bee, as revealed by metatranscriptome sequencing, resembles that of other animal guts and food-processing environments. We identified three major bacterial classes that are active in the gut (γ-Proteobacteria, Bacilli and Actinobacteria), all of which are predicted to participate in the breakdown of complex macromolecules (e.g. polysaccharides and polypeptides), the fermentation of component parts of these macromolecules, and the generation of various fermentation products, such as short-chain fatty acids and alcohol. The ability of the microbial community to metabolize these carbon-rich food sources was confirmed through the use of community-level physiological profiling. Collectively, these findings suggest that the gut microflora of the honey bee harbours bacterial members with unique roles, which ultimately can contribute to the processing of plant-derived food for colonies. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Diversity of halophilic archaea in fermented foods and human intestines and their application.

    PubMed

    Lee, Han-Seung

    2013-12-01

    Archaea are prokaryotic organisms distinct from bacteria in the structural and molecular biological sense, and these microorganisms are known to thrive mostly at extreme environments. In particular, most studies on halophilic archaea have been focused on environmental and ecological researches. However, new species of halophilic archaea are being isolated and identified from high salt-fermented foods consumed by humans, and it has been found that various types of halophilic archaea exist in food products by culture-independent molecular biological methods. In addition, even if the numbers are not quite high, DNAs of various halophilic archaea are being detected in human intestines and much interest is given to their possible roles. This review aims to summarize the types and characteristics of halophilic archaea reported to be present in foods and human intestines and to discuss their application as well.

  5. Effects of food processing on food allergens.

    PubMed

    Sathe, Shridhar K; Sharma, Girdhari M

    2009-08-01

    Food allergies are on the rise in Western countries. With the food allergen labeling requirements in the US and EU, there is an interest in learning how food processing affects food allergens. Numerous foods are processed in different ways at home, in institutional settings, and in industry. Depending on the processing method and the food, partial or complete removal of the offending allergen may be possible as illustrated by reduction of peanut allergen in vitro IgE immunoreactivity upon soaking and blanching treatments. When the allergen is discretely located in a food, one may physically separate and remove it from the food. For example, lye peeling has been reported to produce hypoallergenic peach nectar. Protein denaturation and/or hydrolysis during food processing can be used to produce hypoallergenic products. This paper provides a short overview of basic principles of food processing followed by examples of their effects on food allergen stability. Reviewed literature suggests assessment of processing effects on clinically relevant reactivity of food allergens is warranted.

  6. Time delay and noise explaining the behaviour of the cell growth in fermentation process

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ayuobi, Tawfiqullah; Rosli, Norhayati; Bahar, Arifah

    2015-02-03

    This paper proposes to investigate the interplay between time delay and external noise in explaining the behaviour of the microbial growth in batch fermentation process. Time delay and noise are modelled jointly via stochastic delay differential equations (SDDEs). The typical behaviour of cell concentration in batch fermentation process under this model is investigated. Milstein scheme is applied for solving this model numerically. Simulation results illustrate the effects of time delay and external noise in explaining the lag and stationary phases, respectively for the cell growth of fermentation process.

  7. Time delay and noise explaining the behaviour of the cell growth in fermentation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayuobi, Tawfiqullah; Rosli, Norhayati; Bahar, Arifah; Salleh, Madihah Md

    2015-02-01

    This paper proposes to investigate the interplay between time delay and external noise in explaining the behaviour of the microbial growth in batch fermentation process. Time delay and noise are modelled jointly via stochastic delay differential equations (SDDEs). The typical behaviour of cell concentration in batch fermentation process under this model is investigated. Milstein scheme is applied for solving this model numerically. Simulation results illustrate the effects of time delay and external noise in explaining the lag and stationary phases, respectively for the cell growth of fermentation process.

  8. Multivariate analysis of organic acids in fermented food from reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography data.

    PubMed

    Mortera, Pablo; Zuljan, Federico A; Magni, Christian; Bortolato, Santiago A; Alarcón, Sergio H

    2018-02-01

    Multivariate calibration coupled to RP-HPLC with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) was applied to the identification and the quantitative evaluation of the short chain organic acids (malic, oxalic, formic, lactic, acetic, citric, pyruvic, succinic, tartaric, propionic and α-cetoglutaric) in fermented food. The goal of the present study was to get the successful resolution of a system in the combined occurrence of strongly coeluting peaks, of distortions in the time sensors among chromatograms, and of the presence of unexpected compounds not included in the calibration step. Second-order HPLC-DAD data matrices were obtained in a short time (10min) on a C18 column with a chromatographic system operating in isocratic mode (mobile phase was 20mmolL -1 phosphate buffer at pH 2.20) and a flow-rate of 1.0mLmin -1 at room temperature. Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and unfolded partial least-squares combined with residual bilinearization (U-PLS/RBL) were the second-order calibration algorithms select for data processing. The performance of the analytical parameters was good with an outstanding limit of detection (LODs) for acids ranging from 0.15 to 10.0mmolL -1 in the validation samples. The improved method was applied to the analysis of many dairy products (yoghurt, cultured milk and cheese) and wine. The method was shown as an effective means for determining and following acid contents in fermented food and was characterized by reducibility with simple, high resolution and rapid procedure without derivatization of analytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhanced coproduction of hydrogen and methane from cornstalks by a three-stage anaerobic fermentation process integrated with alkaline hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xi-Yu; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2012-01-01

    A three-stage anaerobic fermentation process including H(2) fermentation I, H(2) fermentation II, methane fermentation was developed for the coproduction of hydrogen and methane from cornstalks. Hydrogen production from cornstalks using direct microbial conversion by Clostridium thermocellum 7072 was markedly enhanced in the two-stage thermophilic hydrogen fermentation process integrated with alkaline treatment. The highest total hydrogen yield from cornstalks in the two-stage fermentation process reached 74.4 mL/g-cornstalk. The hydrogen fermentation effluents and alkaline hydrolyzate were further used for methane fermentation by anaerobic granular sludge, and the total methane yield reached 205.8 mL/g-cornstalk. The total energy recovery in the three-stage anaerobic fermentation process integrated with alkaline hydrolysis reached 70.0%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Solid-State Fermentation vs Submerged Fermentation for the Production of l-Asparaginase.

    PubMed

    Doriya, K; Jose, N; Gowda, M; Kumar, D S

    l-Asparaginase, an enzyme that catalyzes l-asparagine into aspartic acid and ammonia, has relevant applications in the pharmaceutical and food industry. So, this enzyme is used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, a malignant disorder in children. This enzyme is also able to reduce the amount of acrylamide found in carbohydrate-rich fried and baked foods which is carcinogenic to humans. The concentration of acrylamide in food can be reduced by deamination of asparagine using l-Asparaginase. l-Asparaginase is present in plants, animals, and microbes. Various microorganisms such as bacteria, yeast, and fungi are generally used for the production of l-Asparaginase as it is difficult to obtain the same from plants and animals. l-Asparaginase from bacteria causes anaphylaxis and other abnormal sensitive reactions. To overcome this, eukaryotic organisms such as fungi can be used for the production of l-Asparaginase. l-Asparaginase can be produced either by solid-state fermentation (SSF) or by submerged fermentation (SmF). SSF is preferred over SmF as it is cost effective, eco-friendly and it delivers high yield of enzyme. SSF process utilizes agricultural and industrial wastes as solid substrate. The contamination level is substantially reduced in SSF through low moisture content. Current chapter will discuss in detail the chemistry and applications of l-Asparaginase enzyme and various methods available for the production of the enzyme, especially focusing on the advantages and limitations of SSF and SmF processes. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Batch-batch stable microbial community in the traditional fermentation process of huyumei broad bean pastes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Linjiang; Fan, Zihao; Kuai, Hui; Li, Qi

    2017-09-01

    During natural fermentation processes, a characteristic microbial community structure (MCS) is naturally formed, and it is interesting to know about its batch-batch stability. This issue was explored in a traditional semi-solid-state fermentation process of huyumei, a Chinese broad bean paste product. The results showed that this MCS mainly contained four aerobic Bacillus species (8 log CFU per g), including B. subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. methylotrophicus, and B. tequilensis, and the facultative anaerobe B. cereus with a low concentration (4 log CFU per g), besides a very small amount of the yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii (2 log CFU per g). The dynamic change of the MCS in the brine fermentation process showed that the abundance of dominant species varied within a small range, and in the beginning of process the growth of lactic acid bacteria was inhibited and Staphylococcus spp. lost its viability. Also, the MCS and its dynamic change were proved to be highly reproducible among seven batches of fermentation. Therefore, the MCS naturally and stably forms between different batches of the traditional semi-solid-state fermentation of huyumei. Revealing microbial community structure and its batch-batch stability is helpful for understanding the mechanisms of community formation and flavour production in a traditional fermentation. This issue in a traditional semi-solid-state fermentation of huyumei broad bean paste was firstly explored. This fermentation process was revealed to be dominated by a high concentration of four aerobic species of Bacillus, a low concentration of B. cereus and a small amount of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. Lactic acid bacteria and Staphylococcus spp. lost its viability at the beginning of fermentation. Such the community structure was proved to be highly reproducible among seven batches. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Profiling of dynamic changes in the microbial community during the soy sauce fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Wei, Quanzeng; Wang, Hongbin; Chen, Zhixin; Lv, Zhijia; Xie, Yufeng; Lu, Fuping

    2013-10-01

    Soy sauce is a traditional condiment manufactured by natural inoculation and mixed culture fermentation. As is well known, it is the microbial community that plays an important role in the formation of its flavors. However, to date, its dynamic changes during the long period of fermentation process are still unclear, intensively constraining the improvement and control of the soy sauce quality. In this work, we revealed the dynamic changes of the microbial community by combining a cultured dependent method and a cultured independent method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Results indicated that the two methods verified and complemented each other in profiling microbial community, and that significant dynamics of the microbial community existed during the fermentation process, especially the strong inhibition of the growth of most of the microbes when entering into the mash stage from the koji stage. In the analysis of bacterial community, Staphylococcus and Bacillus were found to be the dominant bacteria and detected in the whole fermentation process. Kurthia and Klebsiella began to appear in the koji stage and then fade away in the early stage of the mash fermentation. In the analysis of fungal community, Aspergillus sojae and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii were found to be the dominant fungi in the koji and mash fermentation, respectively. It was clearly shown that when A. sojae decreased and disappeared in the middle stage of the mash fermentation, Z. rouxii appeared and increased at the meantime. Aspergillus parasiticus, Trichosporon ovoides and Trichosporon asahii also appeared in the koji and the early period of the mash fermentation and disappeared thereafter. Similar to Z. rouxii, Millerozyma farinosa and Peronospora farinosa were also found spontaneously which appeared in the mid-late period of the mash fermentation. The principal component analysis suggested that the microbial community underwent significant changes in

  13. The Utilization of Banana Peel in the Fermentation Liquid in Food Waste Composting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, A. A.; Rahman, N. A.; Azhari, N. W.

    2016-07-01

    Municipal solid waste in Malaysia contains a high amount of organic matters, particularly food waste. Food waste represents almost 60% from the total municipal solid waste disposed in the landfill. Food waste can be converted into useful materials such as compost. However, source separation of food waste for recycling is not commonly practiced in Malaysia due to various constraints. These constraints include low awareness among the waste generators and low demand of the products produced from the food waste such as composts. Composting is one of the alternatives that can be used in food waste disposal from Makanan Ringan Mas. The aim of the study is to convert food waste generated from Makanan Ringan Mas which is a medium sale industry located at Parit Kuari Darat, Batu Pahat by using composting method. The parameters which include temperature, pH value, NPK (Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium) values has been examined. Banana peel is being used as the fermentation liquid whilst soil and coconut husk were used as the composting medium. Based on the results during the composting process, most of the pH value in each reactor is above 5 and approximately at neutral. This shown that the microbial respiration in the well controlled composting reactor was inhibited and had approached the mature phase. On the other hand, during the period of composting, the overall temperature range from 25 °C to 47 °C which shown the active phase for composting will occoured. As for NPK content Nitrogen value range is 35325 mg/L to 78775 mg/L, Phosphorus, 195.83 mg/L to 471 mg/L and potassium is 422.3 mg/L to 2046 mg/L which is sufficient to use for agricultural purpose. The comparison was made with available organic compost in the market and only showed slightly difference. Nevertheless, in comparison with common fertilizer, the NPK value of organic compost are considerably very low.

  14. Suitability of anaerobic digestion effluent as process water for corn fuel ethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Liu, Pei; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2014-01-01

    A corn fuel ethanol plant integrated with anaerobic digestion treatment of thin stillage increases the net energy balance. Furthermore, the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) can be reused as a potential substitute for process water in the ethanol fermentation. In this study, the suitability of ADE as process water for corn ethanol fermentation was investigated by analyzing the potential inhibitory components in the ADE. It was found that ammonium influenced the growth and metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Maximum ethanol production was obtained when the concentration of ammonium nitrogen was 200 mg/L, and ammonium could replace urea as the nitrogen source for S. cerevisiae under this concentration. In the ethanol fermentation with a higher concentration of ammonium, more glycerol was produced, thereby resulting in the decrease of ethanol production. In addition, components except ammonium in the ADE caused no inhibition to ethanol production. These results suggest that ADE could be reused as process water for corn ethanol fermentation without negative effect when ammonium concentration is well controlled.

  15. Beer fermentation: monitoring of process parameters by FT-NIR and multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Silvia; Amigo, José Manuel; Lyndgaard, Christian Bøge; Foschino, Roberto; Casiraghi, Ernestina

    2014-07-15

    This work investigates the capability of Fourier-Transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy to monitor and assess process parameters in beer fermentation at different operative conditions. For this purpose, the fermentation of wort with two different yeast strains and at different temperatures was monitored for nine days by FT-NIR. To correlate the collected spectra with °Brix, pH and biomass, different multivariate data methodologies were applied. Principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares (PLS) and locally weighted regression (LWR) were used to assess the relationship between FT-NIR spectra and the abovementioned process parameters that define the beer fermentation. The accuracy and robustness of the obtained results clearly show the suitability of FT-NIR spectroscopy, combined with multivariate data analysis, to be used as a quality control tool in the beer fermentation process. FT-NIR spectroscopy, when combined with LWR, demonstrates to be a perfectly suitable quantitative method to be implemented in the production of beer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fermentation of Apple Juice with a Selected Yeast Strain Isolated from the Fermented Foods of Himalayan Regions and Its Organoleptic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Kanwar, S. S.; Keshani

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from different fermented foods of Western Himalayas have been studied for strain level and functional diversity in our department. Among these 23 strains, 10 S. cerevisiae strains on the basis of variation in their brewing traits were selected to study their organoleptic effect at gene level by targeting ATF1 gene, which is responsible for ester synthesis during fermentation. Significant variation was observed in ATF1 gene sequences, suggesting differences in aroma and flavor of their brewing products. Apple is a predominant fruit in Himachal Pradesh and apple cider is one of the most popular drinks all around the world hence, it was chosen for sensory evaluation of six selected yeast strains. Organoleptic studies and sensory analysis suggested Sc21 and Sc01 as best indigenous strains for soft and hard cider, respectively, indicating their potential in enriching the local products with enhanced quality. PMID:27446050

  17. The process-related dynamics of microbial community during a simulated fermentation of Chinese strong-flavored liquor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanyan; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Li, Xiangzhen; Tao, Yong; Jia, Jia; He, Xiaohong

    2017-09-15

    Famous Chinese strong-flavored liquor (CSFL) is brewed by microbial consortia in a special fermentation pit (FT). However, the fermentation process was not fully understood owing to the complicate community structure and metabolism. In this study, the process-related dynamics of microbial communities and main flavor compounds during the 70-day fermentation process were investigated in a simulated fermentation system. A three-phase model was proposed to characterize the process of the CSFL fermentation. (i) In the early fermentation period (1-23 days), glucose was produced from macromolecular carbohydrates (e.g., starch). The prokaryotic diversity decreased significantly. The Lactobacillaceae gradually predominated in the prokaryotic community. In contrast, the eukaryotic diversity rose remarkably in this stage. Thermoascus, Aspergillus, Rhizopus and unidentified Saccharomycetales were dominant eukaryotic members. (ii) In the middle fermentation period (23-48 days), glucose concentration decreased while lactate acid and ethanol increased significantly. Prokaryotic community was almost dominated by the Lactobacillus, while eukaryotic community was mainly comprised of Thermoascus, Emericella and Aspergillus. (iii) In the later fermentation period (48-70 days), the concentrations of ethyl esters, especially ethyl caproate, increased remarkably. The CSFL fermentation could undergo three stages: saccharification, glycolysis and esterification. Saccharomycetales, Monascus, and Rhizopus were positively correlated to glucose concentration (P < 0.05), highlighting their important roles in the starch saccharification. The Lactobacillaceae, Bacilli, Botryotinia, Aspergillus, unidentified Pleosporales and Capnodiales contributed to the glycolysis and esterification, because they were positively correlated to most organic acids and ethyl esters (P < 0.05). Additionally, four genera, including Emericella, Suillus, Mortierella and Botryotinia, that likely played key roles

  18. Data on the application of Functional Data Analysis in food fermentations.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Bellido, M A; Romero-Gil, V; García-García, P; Rodríguez-Gómez, F; Arroyo-López, F N; Garrido-Fernández, A

    2016-12-01

    This article refers to the paper "Assessment of table olive fermentation by functional data analysis" (Ruiz-Bellido et al., 2016) [1]. The dataset include pH, titratable acidity, yeast count and area values obtained during fermentation process (380 days) of Aloreña de Málaga olives subjected to five different fermentation systems: i) control of acidified cured olives, ii) highly acidified cured olives, iii) intermediate acidified cured olives, iv) control of traditional cracked olives, and v) traditional olives cracked after 72 h of exposure to air. Many of the Tables and Figures shown in this paper were deduced after application of Functional Data Analysis to raw data using a routine executed under R software for comparison among treatments by the transformation of raw data into smooth curves and the application of a new battery of statistical tools (functional pointwise estimation of the averages and standard deviations, maximum, minimum, first and second derivatives, functional regression, and functional F and t-tests).

  19. Utilization of Food Processing By-products as Dietary, Functional, and Novel Fiber: A Review.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Satish Kumar; Bansal, Sangita; Mangal, Manisha; Dixit, Anil Kumar; Gupta, Ram K; Mangal, A K

    2016-07-26

    Fast growing food processing industry in most countries across the world, generates huge quantity of by-products, including pomace, hull, husk, pods, peel, shells, seeds, stems, stalks, bran, washings, pulp refuse, press cakes, etc., which have less use and create considerable environmental pollution. With growing interest in health promoting functional foods, the demand of natural bioactives has increased and exploration for new sources is on the way. Many of the food processing industrial by-products are rich sources of dietary, functional, and novel fibers. These by-products can be directly (or after certain modifications for isolation or purification of fiber) used for the manufacture of various foods, i.e. bread, buns, cake, pasta, noodles, biscuit, ice creams, yogurts, cheese, beverages, milk shakes, instant breakfasts, ice tea, juices, sports drinks, wine, powdered drink, fermented milk products, meat products and meat analogues, synthetic meat, etc. A comprehensive literature survey has been carried on this topic to give an overview in the field dietary fiber from food by-products. In this article, the developments in the definition of fiber, fiber classification, potential sources of dietary fibers in food processing by-products, their uses, functional properties, caloric content, energy values and the labelling regulations have been discussed.

  20. African fermented dairy products - Overview of predominant technologically important microorganisms focusing on African Streptococcus infantarius variants and potential future applications for enhanced food safety and security.

    PubMed

    Jans, Christoph; Meile, Leo; Kaindi, Dasel Wambua Mulwa; Kogi-Makau, Wambui; Lamuka, Peter; Renault, Pierre; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Lacroix, Christophe; Hattendorf, Jan; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther; Fokou, Gilbert; Bonfoh, Bassirou

    2017-06-05

    Milk is a major source of nutrients, but can also be a vehicle for zoonotic foodborne diseases, especially when raw milk is consumed. In Africa, poor processing and storage conditions contribute to contamination, outgrowth and transmission of pathogens, which lead to spoilage, reduced food safety and security. Fermentation helps mitigate the impact of poor handling and storage conditions by enhancing shelf life and food safety. Traditionally-fermented sour milk products are culturally accepted and widely distributed in Africa, and rely on product-specific microbiota responsible for aroma, flavor and texture. Knowledge of microbiota and predominant, technologically important microorganisms is critical in developing products with enhanced quality and safety, as well as sustainable interventions for these products, including Africa-specific starter culture development. This narrative review summarizes current knowledge of technologically-important microorganisms of African fermented dairy products (FDP) and raw milk, taking into consideration novel findings and taxonomy when re-analyzing data of 29 publications covering 25 products from 17 African countries. Technologically-important lactic acid bacteria such as Lactococcus lactis and Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius (Sii), Lactobacillus spp. and yeasts predominated in raw milk and FDP across Africa. Re-analysis of data also suggests a much wider distribution of Sii and thus a potentially longer history of use than previously expected. Therefore, evaluating the role and safety of African Sii lineages is important when developing interventions and starter cultures for FDP in Africa to enhance food safety and food security. In-depth functional genomics, epidemiologic investigations and latest identification approaches coupled with stakeholder involvement will be required to evaluate the possibility of African Sii lineages as novel food-grade Streptococcus lineage. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by

  1. Lactate production as representative of the fermentation potential of Corynebacterium glutamicum 2262 in a one-step process.

    PubMed

    Khuat, Hoang Bao Truc; Kaboré, Abdoul Karim; Olmos, Eric; Fick, Michel; Boudrant, Joseph; Goergen, Jean-Louis; Delaunay, Stéphane; Guedon, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    The fermentative properties of thermo-sensitive strain Corynebacterium glutamicum 2262 were investigated in processes coupling aerobic cell growth and the anaerobic fermentation phase. In particular, the influence of two modes of fermentation on the production of lactate, the fermentation product model, was studied. In both processes, lactate was produced in significant amount, 27 g/L in batch culture, and up to 55.8 g/L in fed-batch culture, but the specific production rate in the fed-batch culture was four times lower than that in the batch culture. Compared to other investigated fermentation processes, our strategy resulted in the highest yield of lactic acid from biomass. Lactate production by C. glutamicum 2262 thus revealed the capability of the strain to produce various fermentation products from pyruvate.

  2. Physico-chemical characterization of natural fermentation process of Conservolea and Kalamàta table olives and developement of a protocol for the pre-selection of fermentation starters.

    PubMed

    Bleve, Gianluca; Tufariello, Maria; Durante, Miriana; Grieco, Francesco; Ramires, Francesca Anna; Mita, Giovanni; Tasioula-Margari, Maria; Logrieco, Antonio Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Table olives are one of the most important traditional fermented vegetables in Europe and their world consumption is constantly increasing. Conservolea and Kalamàta are the most important table olives Greek varieties. In the Greek system, the final product is obtained by spontaneous fermentations, without any chemical debittering treatment. This natural fermentation process is not predictable and strongly influenced by the physical-chemical conditions and by the presence of microorganisms contaminating the olives. Natural fermentations of Conservolea and Kalamàta cultivars black olives were studied in order to determine microbiological, biochemical and chemical evolution during the process. Following the process conditions generally used by producers, in both cultivars, yeasts were detected throughout the fermentation, whereas lactic acid bacteria (LAB) appeared in the last staged of the process. A new optimized specific protocol was developed to select autochthonous yeast and LAB isolates that can be good candidates as starters. These microorganisms were pre-selected for their ability to adapt to model brines, to have beta-glucosidase activity, not to produce biogenic amines. Chemical compounds deriving by microbiological activities and associated to the three different phases (30, 90 and 180 days) of the fermentation process were identified and were proposed as chemical descriptors to follow the fermentation progress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Functional microorganisms for functional food quality.

    PubMed

    Gobbetti, M; Cagno, R Di; De Angelis, M

    2010-09-01

    Functional microorganisms and health benefits represent a binomial with great potential for fermented functional foods. The health benefits of fermented functional foods are expressed either directly through the interactions of ingested live microorganisms with the host (probiotic effect) or indirectly as the result of the ingestion of microbial metabolites synthesized during fermentation (biogenic effect). Since the importance of high viability for probiotic effect, two major options are currently pursued for improving it--to enhance bacterial stress response and to use alternative products for incorporating probiotics (e.g., ice cream, cheeses, cereals, fruit juices, vegetables, and soy beans). Further, it seems that quorum sensing signal molecules released by probiotics may interact with human epithelial cells from intestine thus modulating several physiological functions. Under optimal processing conditions, functional microorganisms contribute to food functionality through their enzyme portfolio and the release of metabolites. Overproduction of free amino acids and vitamins are two classical examples. Besides, bioactive compounds (e.g., peptides, γ-amino butyric acid, and conjugated linoleic acid) may be released during food processing above the physiological threshold and they may exert various in vivo health benefits. Functional microorganisms are even more used in novel strategies for decreasing phenomenon of food intolerance (e.g., gluten intolerance) and allergy. By a critical approach, this review will aim at showing the potential of functional microorganisms for the quality of functional foods.

  4. Enhanced bioelectricity harvesting in microbial fuel cells treating food waste leachate produced from biohydrogen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeongdong; Ahn, Youngho

    2015-05-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) treating the food waste leachate produced from biohydrogen fermentation were examined to enhance power generation and energy recovery. In batch mode, the maximum voltage production was 0.56 V and the power density reached 1540 mW/m(2). The maximum Coulombic efficiency (CEmax) and energy efficiency (EE) in the batch mode were calculated to be 88.8% and 18.8%, respectively. When the organic loading rate in sequencing batch mode varied from 0.75 to 6.2 g COD/L-d (under CEmax), the maximum power density reached 769.2 mW/m(2) in OLR of 3.1 g COD/L-d, whereas higher energy recovery (CE=52.6%, 0.346 Wh/g CODrem) was achieved at 1.51 g COD/L-d. The results demonstrate that readily biodegradable substrates in biohydrogen fermentation can be effectively used for the enhanced bioelectricity harvesting of MFCs and a MFC coupled with biohydrogen fermentation is of great benefit on higher electricity generation and energy efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Conversion of food processing wastes to biofuel using clostridia.

    PubMed

    Abd-Alla, Mohamed Hemida; Zohri, Abdel-Naser Ahmed; El-Enany, Abdel-Wahab Elsadek; Ali, Shimaa Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to demonstrate the recycling of food processing wastes as a low cost-effective substrate for acetone - butanol - ethanol (ABE) production. Potato peels and cheese whey were utilized during fermentation with eight local Clostridium strains in addition to the commercial strain, C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 for ABE and organic acids production. From potato peels, Clostridium beijerinckii ASU10 produced the highest ABE production (17.91 g/l) representing 61.3% butanol (10.98 g/l), 33.6% acetone (6.02 g/l) and 5.1% ethanol (0.91 g/l). While, C. chauvoei ASU12 showed the highest acid production (8.15 g/l) including 5.50 and 2.61 g/l acetic and butyric acids, respectively. Use of cheese whey as fermentable substrate exhibited a substantial increase in ethanol ratio and decrease in butanol ratio compared to those produced from potato peels. Clostridium beijerinckii ASU5 produced the highest ABE concentration (7.13 g/l) representing 50.91% butanol (3.63 g/l), 35.34% acetone (2.52 g/l) and 13.74% ethanol (0.98 g/l). The highest acid production (8.00 g/l) was obtained by C. beijerinckii ASU5 representing 4.89 and 3.11 g/l for acetic and butyric acid, respectively. Supplementation of potato peels with an organic nitrogen source showed NH 4 NO 3 promoted ABE production more than yeast extract. In conclusion, this study introduced an ecofriendly and economical practice for utilization of food processing wastes (renewable substrates as potato peels and cheese whey) for biofuel production using various Clostridium strains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of fermented black soybean natto inoculated with Bacillus natto during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yongjin; Ge, Changrong; Yuan, Wei; Zhu, Renjun; Zhang, Wujiu; Du, Lijuan; Xue, Jie

    2010-05-01

    To make nutrients more accessible and further increase biological activity, cooked black soybeans were inoculated with Bacillus natto and fermented at 37 degrees C for 48 h. The changes in physiochemical properties of fermented black soybean natto were investigated. The inoculation procedure significantly increased moisture, viscosity, color, polyphenol compounds and anthocyanin, and significantly decreased hardness after 48 h fermentation. Fibrinolytic and caseinolytic protease, beta-glucosidase activities, TCA-soluble nitrogen, and ammonia nitrogen contents in the inoculated samples significantly increased as fermentation time increased. Genistin and daidzin concentrations gradually decreased with increased fermentation time. However, genistein and daidzein increased with fermentation time, which reached 316.8 and 305.2 microg g(-1) during 48 h fermentation, respectively. DPPH radical scavenging activities of the fermented black soybeans increased linearly with fermentation time and concentration. Compared with the soaked black soybeans and cooked black soybeans, the fermented black soybeans with B. natto resulted in higher scavenging activity towards DPPH radicals, which correlated well with the content of total phenols (r = 0.9254, P < 0.05) and aglycone isoflavone (r = 0.9861, P < 0.05). Black soybean natto fermented by B. natto has the potential to become a functional food because of its high antioxidant activity.

  7. Bioethanol production from tuber crops using fermentation technology: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thatoi, Hrudayanath; Dash, Preeti Krishna; Mohapatra, Sonali; Swain, Manas Ranjan

    2016-05-01

    Bioethanol, an alcohol produced by fermentation of plant biomass containing starch and sugars by micro-organisms, considered as a dominant form of fuel for future. Production of this renewable fuel, especially from starchy materials such as tuber crops, holds a remarkable potential to meet the future energy demand because of its high production and comparitively less demand for use as food and fodder. This review focuses on the world bioethanol production scenario from various tuber crops, namely cassava, sweet potato, potato, yam, aroids, sugar beet, etc., fermentation techniques and micro-organisms used in fermentation process along with its future prospects. The advances in metabolic pathway engineering and genetic engineering techniques have led to the development of micro-organisms capable of efficiently converting biomass sugars into ethanol. Several biotechnological tools that are also available for the improvement of microorganisms to meet the harsh environments typically met with certain industrial fermentation process are also discussed.

  8. Population Size Drives Industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae Alcoholic Fermentation and Is under Genetic Control▿†‡

    PubMed Central

    Albertin, Warren; Marullo, Philippe; Aigle, Michel; Dillmann, Christine; de Vienne, Dominique; Bely, Marina; Sicard, Delphine

    2011-01-01

    Alcoholic fermentation (AF) conducted by Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been exploited for millennia in three important human food processes: beer and wine production and bread leavening. Most of the efforts to understand and improve AF have been made separately for each process, with strains that are supposedly well adapted. In this work, we propose a first comparison of yeast AFs in three synthetic media mimicking the dough/wort/grape must found in baking, brewing, and wine making. The fermentative behaviors of nine food-processing strains were evaluated in these media, at the cellular, populational, and biotechnological levels. A large variation in the measured traits was observed, with medium effects usually being greater than the strain effects. The results suggest that human selection targeted the ability to complete fermentation for wine strains and trehalose content for beer strains. Apart from these features, the food origin of the strains did not significantly affect AF, suggesting that an improvement program for a specific food processing industry could exploit the variability of strains used in other industries. Glucose utilization was analyzed, revealing plastic but also genetic variation in fermentation products and indicating that artificial selection could be used to modify the production of glycerol, acetate, etc. The major result was that the overall maximum CO2 production rate (Vmax) was not related to the maximum CO2 production rate per cell. Instead, a highly significant correlation between Vmax and the maximum population size was observed in all three media, indicating that human selection targeted the efficiency of cellular reproduction rather than metabolic efficiency. This result opens the way to new strategies for yeast improvement. PMID:21357433

  9. Color identification and fuzzy reasoning based monitoring and controlling of fermentation process of branched chain amino acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lei; Wang, Yizhong; Xu, Qingyang; Huang, Huafang; Zhang, Rui; Chen, Ning

    2009-11-01

    The main production method of branched chain amino acid (BCAA) is microbial fermentation. In this paper, to monitor and to control the fermentation process of BCAA, especially its logarithmic phase, parameters such as the color of fermentation broth, culture temperature, pH, revolution, dissolved oxygen, airflow rate, pressure, optical density, and residual glucose, are measured and/or controlled and/or adjusted. The color of fermentation broth is measured using the HIS color model and a BP neural network. The network's input is the histograms of hue H and saturation S, and output is the color description. Fermentation process parameters are adjusted using fuzzy reasoning, which is performed by inference rules. According to the practical situation of BCAA fermentation process, all parameters are divided into four grades, and different fuzzy rules are established.

  10. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Lactobacillus plantarum GB-LP1 Isolated from Traditional Korean Fermented Food.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jihyun; Ahn, Sojin; Kim, Kwondo; Caetano-Anolles, Kelsey; Lee, Chanho; Kang, Jungsun; Cho, Kyungjin; Yoon, Sook Hee; Kang, Dae-Kyung; Kim, Heebal

    2017-08-28

    As probiotics play an important role in maintaining a healthy gut flora environment through antitoxin activity and inhibition of pathogen colonization, they have been of interest to the medical research community for quite some time now. Probiotic bacteria such as Lactobacillus plantarum , which can be found in fermented food, are of particular interest given their easy accessibility. We performed whole-genome sequencing and genomic analysis on a GB-LP1 strain of L. plantarum isolated from Korean traditional fermented food; this strain is well known for its functions in immune response, suppression of pathogen growth, and antitoxin effects. The complete genome sequence of GB-LP1 is a single chromosome of 3,040,388 bp with 2,899 predicted open reading frames. Genomic analysis of GB-LP1 revealed two CRISPR regions and genes showing accelerated evolution, which may have antibiotic and antitoxin functions. The aim of the present study was to predict strain specific-genomic characteristics and assess the potential of this new strain as lactic acid bacteria at the genomic level using in silico analysis. These results provide insight into the L. plantarum species as well as confirm the possibility of its utility as a candidate probiotic.

  11. Dominance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in alcoholic fermentation processes: role of physiological fitness and microbial interactions.

    PubMed

    Albergaria, Helena; Arneborg, Nils

    2016-03-01

    Winemaking, brewing and baking are some of the oldest biotechnological processes. In all of them, alcoholic fermentation is the main biotransformation and Saccharomyces cerevisiae the primary microorganism. Although a wide variety of microbial species may participate in alcoholic fermentation and contribute to the sensory properties of end-products, the yeast S. cerevisiae invariably dominates the final stages of fermentation. The ability of S. cerevisiae to outcompete other microbial species during alcoholic fermentation processes, such as winemaking, has traditionally been ascribed to its high fermentative power and capacity to withstand the harsh environmental conditions, i.e. high levels of ethanol and organic acids, low pH values, scarce oxygen availability and depletion of certain nutrients. However, in recent years, several studies have raised evidence that S. cerevisiae, beyond its remarkable fitness for alcoholic fermentation, also uses defensive strategies mediated by different mechanisms, such as cell-to-cell contact and secretion of antimicrobial peptides, to combat other microorganisms. In this paper, we review the main physiological features underlying the special aptitude of S. cerevisiae for alcoholic fermentation and discuss the role of microbial interactions in its dominance during alcoholic fermentation, as well as its relevance for winemaking.

  12. Optimization of the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process using thermotolerant yeasts.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, I; Oliva, J M; Ballesteros, M; Carrasco, J

    1993-01-01

    Different treatments to improve the thermotolerance of fermenting yeasts for simultaneous ethanol saccharification and fermentation process of cellulosic materials have been examined. Yeasts of the genera Saccharomyces and Kluyveromyces were tested for growth and fermentation at progressively higher temperatures in the range of 42-47 degrees C. The best results were obtained with K. marxianus LG, which was then submitted to different treatments in order to achieve thermotolerant clones. A total of 35 new clones were obtained that dramatically improved the SSF of 10% Solka-floc substrate at 45 degrees C when compared to the original strain, some with ethanol concentrations as high as 33 g/L.

  13. Production of poly(malic acid) from sugarcane juice in fermentation by Aureobasidium pullulans: Kinetics and process economics.

    PubMed

    Wei, Peilian; Cheng, Chi; Lin, Meng; Zhou, Yipin; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2017-01-01

    Poly(β-l-malic acid) (PMA) is a biodegradable polymer with many potential biomedical applications. PMA can be readily hydrolyzed to malic acid (MA), which is widely used as an acidulant in foods and pharmaceuticals. PMA production from sucrose and sugarcane juice by Aureobasidium pullulans ZX-10 was studied in shake-flasks and bioreactors, confirming that sugarcane juice can be used as an economical substrate without any pretreatment or nutrients supplementation. A high PMA titer of 116.3g/L and yield of 0.41g/g were achieved in fed-batch fermentation. A high productivity of 0.66g/L·h was achieved in repeated-batch fermentation with cell recycle. These results compared favorably with those obtained from glucose and other biomass feedstocks. A process economic analysis showed that PMA could be produced from sugarcane juice at a cost of $1.33/kg, offering a cost-competitive bio-based PMA for industrial applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Changes in Volatile Compounds of Chinese Luzhou-Flavor Liquor during the Fermentation and Distillation Process.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiaofei; Wu, Chongde; Huang, Jun; Zhou, Rongqing

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamic of volatile compounds in the Zaopei during the fermentation and distillation process by headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GCMS). Physicochemical properties analysis of Zaopei (fermented grains [FG], fermented grains mixed with sorghum [FGS], streamed grains [SG], and streamed grains mixed with Daqu [SGD]) showed distinct changes. A total number of 66 volatile compounds in the Zaopei were identified, in which butanoic acid, hexanoic acid, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl lactate, ethyl octanoate, hexyl hexanoate, ethyl hydrocinnamate, ethyl oleate, ethyl hexadecanoate, and ethyl linoleate were considered to be the dominant compounds due to their high concentrations. FG had the highest volatile compounds (112.43 mg/kg), which significantly decreased by 17.05% in the FGS, 67.12% in the SG, and 73.75% in the SGD. Furthermore, about 61.49% of volatile compounds of FGS were evaporated into raw liquor, whereas head, heart, and tail liquor accounted for 29.84%, 39.49%, and 30.67%, respectively. Each volatile class generally presented a decreasing trend, except for furans. Especially, the percentage of esters was 55.51% to 67.41% in the Zaopei, and reached 92.60% to 97.67% in the raw liquor. Principal component analysis based ordination of volatile compounds data segregated FGS and SGD samples. In addition, radar diagrams of the odor activity values suggested that intense flavor of fruit was weakened most from FG to SGD. The dynamic of volatile compounds in the Zaopei during the fermentation and distillation process was tested by SPME-GCMS. The result of this study demonstrated that both volatile compounds of Zaopei and thermal reaction during distillation simply determined the unique feature of raw liquor. This study was conducted based on the real products from liquor manufactory, so it is practicable that the method can be used in an industry setting. © 2015 Institute of Food

  15. Recent advances in microbial fermentation for dairy and health

    PubMed Central

    Arendt, Elke; Hill, Colin; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul

    2017-01-01

    Microbial fermentation has been used historically for the preservation of foods, the health benefits of which have since come to light. Early dairy fermentations depended on the spontaneous activity of the indigenous microbiota of the milk. Modern fermentations rely on defined starter cultures with desirable characteristics to ensure consistency and commercial viability. The selection of defined starters depends on specific phenotypes that benefit the product by guaranteeing shelf life and ensuring safety, texture, and flavour. Lactic acid bacteria can produce a number of bioactive metabolites during fermentation, such as bacteriocins, biogenic amines, exopolysaccharides, and proteolytically released peptides, among others. Prebiotics are added to food fermentations to improve the performance of probiotics. It has also been found that prebiotics fermented in the gut can have benefits that go beyond helping probiotic growth. Studies are now looking at how the fermentation of prebiotics such as fructo-oligosaccharides can help in the prevention of diseases such as osteoporosis, obesity, and colorectal cancer. The potential to prevent or even treat disease through the fermentation of food is a medically and commercially attractive goal and is showing increasing promise. However, the stringent regulation of probiotics is beginning to detrimentally affect the field and limit their application. PMID:28649371

  16. Diversity of lactic acid bacteria in sian-sianzih (fermented clams), a traditional fermented food in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-sheng; Wu, Hui-chung; Li, Ya-han; Leong, Kun-hon; Pua, Xiao-hui; Weng, Ming-kai; Yanagida, Fujitoshi

    2012-01-30

    Sian-sianzih (fermented clams) is a popular traditional fermented food in Taiwan. The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) microflora in sian-sianzih have not been studied in detail. In this study, LAB from sian-sianzih were isolated, characterized and identified. A total of 186 cultures of LAB were isolated from seven sian-sianzih samples and 29 cultures were isolated from its main raw substrate: clams. The identification results revealed up to 11 distinct bacterial species belonging to five genera in sian-sianzih, and three species belonging to two genera in clams. The most common bacterial genera in sian-sianzih were Lactobacillus and Weissella, followed by Leuconostoc, Pediococcus and Lactococcus. A regional similarity in LAB, with differences in diversity, was observed in the current study. On the other hand, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis was the most common species found in raw clam samples. The results also suggested that greater LAB diversity could be observed in wild clams than in cultured ones. Furthermore, antibacterial activities of the isolates were determined, and one Weisella hellenica strain showed inhibitory activity against the indicator strain Lactobacilluas sakei JCM 1157(T) . A sensory assessment of seven sian-sianzih samples was also performed and the results indicated that diversity of LAB has a great effect on its aroma and taste formation. The results demonstrate that various LAB species are distributed in sian-sianzih and have a great effect on the flavor of sian-sianzih. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Yeast population dynamics of industrial fuel-ethanol fermentation process assessed by PCR-fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    da Silva-Filho, Eurípedes Alves; Brito dos Santos, Scheila Karina; Resende, Alecsandra do Monte; de Morais, José Otamar Falcão; de Morais, Marcos Antonio; Ardaillon Simões, Diogo

    2005-07-01

    Yeast population used in industrial production of fuel-ethanol may vary according to the plant process condition and to the environmental stresses imposed to yeast cells. Therefore, yeast strains isolated from a particular industrial process may be adapted to such conditions and should be used as starter strain instead of less adapted commercial strains. This work reports the use of PCR-fingerprinting method based on microsatellite primer (GTG)5 to characterize the yeast population dynamics along the fermentation period in six distilleries. The results show that indigenous fermenting strains present in the crude substrate can be more adapted to the industrial process than commercial strains. We also identified new strains that dominate the yeast population and were more present either in molasses or sugar cane fermenting distilleries. Those strains were proposed to be used as starters in those industrial processes. This is the first report on the use of molecular markers to discriminate Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from fuel-ethanol producing process.

  18. Enzymes in Fermented Fish.

    PubMed

    Giyatmi; Irianto, H E

    Fermented fish products are very popular particularly in Southeast Asian countries. These products have unique characteristics, especially in terms of aroma, flavor, and texture developing during fermentation process. Proteolytic enzymes have a main role in hydrolyzing protein into simpler compounds. Fermentation process of fish relies both on naturally occurring enzymes (in the muscle or the intestinal tract) as well as bacteria. Fermented fish products processed using the whole fish show a different characteristic compared to those prepared from headed and gutted fish. Endogenous enzymes like trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, and aminopeptidase are the most involved in the fermentation process. Muscle tissue enzymes like cathepsins, peptidases, transaminases, amidases, amino acid decarboxylases, glutamic dehydrogenases, and related enzymes may also play a role in fish fermentation. Due to the decreased bacterial number during fermentation, contribution of microbial enzymes to proteolysis may be expected prior to salting of fish. Commercial enzymes are supplemented during processing for specific purposes, such as quality improvement and process acceleration. In the case of fish sauce, efforts to accelerate fermentation process and to improve product quality have been studied by addition of enzymes such as papain, bromelain, trypsin, pepsin, and chymotrypsin. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The deep processing of seaweed industrial waste--Influence of several fermentation on seaweed waste of feed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shipeng; Zhang, Shuping

    2018-02-01

    This paper focuses on several factors on the effects of fermented seaweed feed, and obtains the optimal fermentation process through the analysis of nutrients. Through the experiment we can get, Seaweed waste fermented the best feed when adding 1% of microbial agents and 0.5% of corn powder, fermenting for 15 days.

  20. Acetone-butanol-ethanol from sweet sorghum juice by an immobilized fermentation-gas stripping integration process.

    PubMed

    Cai, Di; Wang, Yong; Chen, Changjing; Qin, Peiyong; Miao, Qi; Zhang, Changwei; Li, Ping; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-07-01

    In this study, sweet sorghum juice (SSJ) was used as the substrate in a simplified ABE fermentation-gas stripping integration process without nutrients supplementation. The sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) after squeezing the fermentable juice was used as the immobilized carrier. The results indicated that the productivity of ABE fermentation process was improved by gas stripping integration. A total 24g/L of ABE solvents was obtained from 59.6g/L of initial sugar after 80h of fermentation with gas stripping. Then, long-term of fed-batch fermentation with continuous gas stripping was further performed. 112.9g/L of butanol, 44.1g/L of acetone, 9.5g/L of ethanol (total 166.5g/L of ABE) was produced in overall 312h of fermentation. At the same time, concentrated ABE product was obtained in the condensate of gas stripping. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fermented inulin hydrolysate by Bifidobacterium breve as cholesterol binder in functional food application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melanie, Hakiki; Susilowati, Agustine; Maryati, Yati

    2017-01-01

    Inulin hydrolysate is a result of inulin hydrolysis by inulinase enzyme of Scopulariopsis sp.-CBS1 fungi isolated from dahlia tuber skin in the formation of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) as dietary fiber. Inulin hydrolysate fermented by Bifidobacterium breve has a potential as cholesterol binder in digestive system due to dietary fiber content in inulin. This study was conducted to evaluate the best cholesterol binding capacity by the variation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) culture concentration of 10%, 20% and 30% (v/v), respectively. Fermentation process were conducted with inulin hydrolysate concentration of 25% (w/v), skim milk 7,5% (w/v) and various LAB culture concentration at 40 °C for 0, 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours. The results showed that the variation of LAB culture concentrations affect the cholesterol binding ability in fermented inulin hydrolysate. The fermentation process with 10% LAB culture concentration at 40°C for 48 hours resulted in the highest cholesterol binding capacity (CBC) of 13,69 mg/g at pH 7and 14,44 mg/g at pH 2 with composition of total acids of 0,787%, soluble dietary fiber of 0,396%, insoluble dietary fiber of 5,47%, total solids of 14,476%, total sugars of 472,484 mg/mL, reducing sugar of 92 mg/mL and total plate count (TPC) of 7,278 log CFU/mL, respectively.

  2. Evaluation of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for differentiation of Pichia kluyveri strains isolated from traditional fermentation processes.

    PubMed

    De la Torre González, Francisco Javier; Gutiérrez Avendaño, Daniel Oswaldo; Gschaedler Mathis, Anne Christine; Kirchmayr, Manuel Reinhart

    2018-06-06

    Non- Saccharomyces yeasts are widespread microorganisms and some time ago were considered contaminants in the beverage industry. However, nowadays they have gained importance for their ability to produce aromatic compounds, which in alcoholic beverages improves aromatic complexity and therefore the overall quality. Thus, identification and differentiation of the species involved in fermentation processes is vital and can be classified in traditional methods and techniques based on molecular biology. Traditional methods, however, can be expensive, laborious and/or unable to accurately discriminate on strain level. In the present study, a total of 19 strains of Pichia kluyveri isolated from mezcal, tejuino and cacao fermentations were analyzed with rep-PCR fingerprinting and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The comparative analysis between MS spectra and rep-PCR patterns obtained from these strains showed a high similarity between both methods. However, minimal differences between the obtained rep-PCR and MALDI-TOF MS clusters could be observed. The data shown suggests that MALDI-TOF MS is a promising alternative technique for rapid, reliable and cost-effective differentiation of natives yeast strains isolated from different traditional fermented foods and beverages. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Validation of MALDI-TOF MS for rapid classification and identification of lactic acid bacteria, with a focus on isolates from traditional fermented foods in Northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Doan, N T L; Van Hoorde, K; Cnockaert, M; De Brandt, E; Aerts, M; Le Thanh, B; Vandamme, P

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the potential use of MALDI-TOF MS for fast and reliable classification and identification of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from traditional fermented foods. A total of 119 strains of LAB from fermented meat (nem chua) were analysed with both (GTG)(5)-PCR fingerprinting and MALDI-TOF MS. Cluster analysis of the profiles revealed five species represented by a single isolate both in (GTG)(5)-PCR and in MALDI-TOF MS; five species grouped alike for (GTG)(5)-PCR and for MALDI-TOF MS; however, differences in minimal similarity between the delineated (GTG)(5)-PCR and MALDI-TOF MS clusters could be observed; three species showed more heterogeneity in their MALDI-TOF MS profiles compared to their (GTG)(5)-PCR profiles; two species, each represented by a single MALDI-TOF cluster, were subdivided in the corresponding (GTG)(5)-PCR dendrogram. As proof of the identification potential of MALDI-TOF MS, LAB diversity from one fermented mustard sample was analysed using MALDI-TOF MS. PheS gene sequencing was used for validation. MALDI-TOF MS is a powerful, fast, reliable and cost-effective technique for the identification of LAB associated with the production of fermented foods. Food LAB can be identified using MALDI-TOF MS, and its application could possibly be extended to other food matrices and/or other food-derived micro-organisms. © 2012 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Rapid discrimination of strain-dependent fermentation characteristics among Lactobacillus strains by NMR-based metabolomics of fermented vegetable juice

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Toshihide; Sekiyama, Yasuyo; Kikuchi, Jun

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the applicability of NMR-based metabolomics to discriminate strain-dependent fermentation characteristics of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are important microorganisms for fermented food production. To evaluate the discrimination capability, six type strains of Lactobacillus species and six additional L. brevis strains were used focusing on i) the difference between homo- and hetero-lactic fermentative species and ii) strain-dependent characteristics within L. brevis. Based on the differences in the metabolite profiles of fermented vegetable juices, non-targeted principal component analysis (PCA) clearly separated the samples into those inoculated with homo- and hetero-lactic fermentative species. The separation was primarily explained by the different levels of dominant metabolites (lactic acid, acetic acid, ethanol, and mannitol). Orthogonal partial least squares discrimination analysis, based on a regions-of-interest (ROIs) approach, revealed the contribution of low-abundance metabolites: acetoin, phenyllactic acid, p-hydroxyphenyllactic acid, glycerophosphocholine, and succinic acid for homolactic fermentation; and ornithine, tyramine, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) for heterolactic fermentation. Furthermore, ROIs-based PCA of seven L. brevis strains separated their strain-dependent fermentation characteristics primarily based on their ability to utilize sucrose and citric acid, and convert glutamic acid and tyrosine into GABA and tyramine, respectively. In conclusion, NMR metabolomics successfully discriminated the fermentation characteristics of the tested strains and provided further information on metabolites responsible for these characteristics, which may impact the taste, aroma, and functional properties of fermented foods. PMID:28759594

  5. Multiobjective optimization and multivariable control of the beer fermentation process with the use of evolutionary algorithms.

    PubMed

    Andrés-Toro, B; Girón-Sierra, J M; Fernández-Blanco, P; López-Orozco, J A; Besada-Portas, E

    2004-04-01

    This paper describes empirical research on the model, optimization and supervisory control of beer fermentation. Conditions in the laboratory were made as similar as possible to brewery industry conditions. Since mathematical models that consider realistic industrial conditions were not available, a new mathematical model design involving industrial conditions was first developed. Batch fermentations are multiobjective dynamic processes that must be guided along optimal paths to obtain good results. The paper describes a direct way to apply a Pareto set approach with multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs). Successful finding of optimal ways to drive these processes were reported. Once obtained, the mathematical fermentation model was used to optimize the fermentation process by using an intelligent control based on certain rules.

  6. Application of byproducts from food processing for production of 2,3-butanediol using Bacillus amyloliquefaciens TUL 308.

    PubMed

    Sikora, Barbara; Kubik, Celina; Kalinowska, Halina; Gromek, Ewa; Białkowska, Aneta; Jędrzejczak-Krzepkowska, Marzena; Schüett, Fokko; Turkiewicz, Marianna

    2016-08-17

    A nonpathogenic bacterial strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens TUL 308 synthesized minor 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) amounts from glucose, fructose, sucrose, and glycerol, and efficiently produced the diol from molasses and hydrolysates of food processing residues. Batch fermentations yielded 16.53, 10.72, and 5 g/L 2,3-BD from enzymatic hydrolysates of apple pomace, dried sugar beet pulp, and potato pulp (at initial concentrations equivalent to 45, 20, and 30 g/L glucose, respectively), and 25.3 g/L 2,3-BD from molasses (at its initial concentration equivalent to 60 g/L saccharose). Fed-batch fermentations in the molasses-based medium with four feedings with either glucose or sucrose (in doses increasing their concentration by 25 g/L) resulted in around twice higher maximum 2,3-BD concentration (of about 60 and 50 g/L, respectively). The GRAS Bacillus strain is an efficient 2,3-BD producer from food industry byproducts.

  7. Culture-independent quantification of physiologically-active microbial groups in fermented foods using rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes: application to pozol, a Mexican lactic acid fermented maize dough.

    PubMed

    Ampe, F; ben Omar, N; Guyot, J P

    1999-07-01

    Nine phylogenetic oligonucleotide probes were used to describe at the genus level the microbial community responsible for the spontaneous fermentation of maize, leading to the production of Mexican pozol. Ribosomal RNAs of specific groups and genera, in particular, lactic acid bacteria, were quantified using a culture-independent approach. In the early stage of the fermentation, Lactococcus and Leuconostoc appeared to be the dominant genera. A contrario, these represented minor genera at the end of the fermentation when Lactobacillus dominated the process. In addition, eukaryotes seemed to play a significant role throughout the fermentation and enterobacteria could be detected by this method.

  8. 21 CFR 184.1685 - Rennet (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (fermentation-derived). 184.1685 Section 184.1685 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived). (a)(1) Rennet and bovine rennet are... clear solution containing the active enzyme chymosin (E.C. 3.4.23.4). It is derived, via fermentation...

  9. Production of Functional High-protein Beverage Fermented with Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Korean Traditional Fermented Food

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to manufacture functional high protein fermented beverage, using whey protein concentrate (WPC) and Lactobacillus plantarum DK211 isolated from kimchi, and to evaluate the physicochemical, functional, and sensory properties of the resulting product. The fermented whey beverage (FWB) was formulated with whey protein concentrate 80 (WPC 80), skim milk powder, and sucrose; and fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum DK211 as single, or mixed with Lactococcus lactis R704, a commercial starter culture. The pH, titratable acidity, and viable cell counts during fermentation and storage were evaluated. It was found that the mixed culture showed faster acid development than the single culture. The resulting FWB had high protein (9%) and low fat content (0.2%). Increased viscosity, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activity were observed after fermentation. A viable cell count of 109 CFU/mL in FWB was achieved within 10 h fermentation, and it remained throughout storage at 15℃ for 28 d. Sensory analysis was also conducted, and compared to that of a commercial protein drink. The sensory scores of FWB were similar to those of the commercial protein drink in most attributes, except sourness. The sourness was highly related with the high lactic acid content produced during fermentation. The results showed that WPC and vegetable origin lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi might be used for the development of a high protein fermented beverage, with improved functionality and organoleptic properties. PMID:26761827

  10. Dynamic modeling and analyses of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process to produce bio-ethanol from rice straw.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jordon; Su, Wen-Jun; Chien, I-Lung; Chang, Der-Ming; Chou, Sheng-Hsin; Zhan, Rui-Yu

    2010-02-01

    The rice straw, an agricultural waste from Asians' main provision, was collected as feedstock to convert cellulose into ethanol through the enzymatic hydrolysis and followed by the fermentation process. When the two process steps are performed sequentially, it is referred to as separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF). The steps can also be performed simultaneously, i.e., simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). In this research, the kinetic model parameters of the cellulose saccharification process step using the rice straw as feedstock is obtained from real experimental data of cellulase hydrolysis. Furthermore, this model can be combined with a fermentation model at high glucose and ethanol concentrations to form a SSF model. The fermentation model is based on cybernetic approach from a paper in the literature with an extension of including both the glucose and ethanol inhibition terms to approach more to the actual plants. Dynamic effects of the operating variables in the enzymatic hydrolysis and the fermentation models will be analyzed. The operation of the SSF process will be compared to the SHF process. It is shown that the SSF process is better in reducing the processing time when the product (ethanol) concentration is high. The means to improve the productivity of the overall SSF process, by properly using aeration during the batch operation will also be discussed.

  11. Assessment of Antibiotic Resistant Commensal Bacteria in Food

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    from yogurt , another fermented dairy food with high total plate counts. This suggests that the variabilities in starter strain selection or processing...of ART in yogurt …………………………...…………. ……………….40 4.4. Prevalence of ART in cheese.. ………………………............……. ……………….41 4.5. Prevalence of ART in...can be found in a multitude of bacteria important in food fermentation and food safety (35,36). Another common mechanism is enzyme modification

  12. The water kefir grain inoculum determines the characteristics of the resulting water kefir fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Laureys, D; De Vuyst, L

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the influence of the water kefir grain inoculum on the characteristics of the water kefir fermentation process. Three water kefir fermentation processes were started with different water kefir grain inocula and followed as a function of time regarding microbial species diversity, community dynamics, substrate consumption profile and metabolite production course. The inoculum determined the water kefir grain growth, the viable counts on the grains, the time until total carbohydrate exhaustion, the final metabolite concentrations and the microbial species diversity. There were always 2-10 lactic acid bacterial cells for every yeast cell and the majority of these micro-organisms was always present on the grains. Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Lactobacillus nagelii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were always present and may be the key micro-organisms during water kefir fermentation. Low water kefir grain growth was associated with small grains with high viable counts of micro-organisms, fast fermentation and low pH values, and was not caused by the absence of exopolysaccharide-producing lactic acid bacteria. The water kefir grain inoculum influences the microbial species diversity and characteristics of the fermentation process. A select group of key micro-organisms was always present during fermentation. This study allows a rational selection of a water kefir grain inoculum. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Electrotechnologies to process foods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Electrical energy is being used to process foods. In conventional food processing plants, electricity drives mechanical devices and controls the degree of process. In recent years, several processing technologies are being developed to process foods directly with electricity. Electrotechnologies use...

  14. Probiotics and Disease: A Comprehensive Summary—Part 2, Commercially Produced Cultured and Fermented Foods Commonly Available in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Emily C.; Gossard, Crystal M.; Dolan, Keren E.; Finley, Heather J.; Burns, Cathleen M.; Gasta, Margaret G.; Pizano, Jessica M.; Williamson, Christy B.; Lipski, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    This article series provides a literature review of the disease-specific probiotic strains studied in published clinical trials in humans and animals. The goal of the series is to provide clinically useful tools. The table design allows for quick access to supportive data and will be helpful as a guide for both researchers and clinicians. The first article (part 1) focused on mental health and neurological conditions. This second article (part 2) explores cultured and fermented foods that are commonly available in the United States. Future articles will review conditions related to cardiometabolic and fatigue syndromes; ear, nose, throat, respiratory, and infectious diseases; immune and dermatological conditions; cancer; gastrointestinal and genitourinary; followed by an article focused on probiotic supplements. This literature review is specific to disease conditions, probiotic classification, and individual strains. In part 1, we explored foods, brands, bacterial strains, and the number of organisms at end of production (in colony-forming units). In part 2, we investigate many of the commercially available cultured and fermented probiotic rich foods that are currently available in the United States. This summary can serve as a quick reference guide for recommending probiotic rich foods to patients. PMID:28223894

  15. Ethanol production from residual wood chips of cellulose industry: acid pretreatment investigation, hemicellulosic hydrolysate fermentation, and remaining solid fraction fermentation by SSF process.

    PubMed

    Silva, Neumara Luci Conceição; Betancur, Gabriel Jaime Vargas; Vasquez, Mariana Peñuela; Gomes, Edelvio de Barros; Pereira, Nei

    2011-04-01

    Current research indicates the ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic materials, such as residual wood chips from the cellulose industry, as new emerging technology. This work aimed at evaluating the ethanol production from hemicellulose of eucalyptus chips by diluted acid pretreatment and the subsequent fermentation of the generated hydrolysate by a flocculating strain of Pichia stipitis. The remaining solid fraction generated after pretreatment was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis, which was carried out simultaneously with glucose fermentation [saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process] using a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The acid pretreatment was evaluated using a central composite design for sulfuric acid concentration (1.0-4.0 v/v) and solid to liquid ratio (1:2-1:4, grams to milliliter) as independent variables. A maximum xylose concentration of 50 g/L was obtained in the hemicellulosic hydrolysate. The fermentation of hemicellulosic hydrolysate and the SSF process were performed in bioreactors and the final ethanol concentrations of 15.3 g/L and 28.7 g/L were obtained, respectively.

  16. Changes in cassava toxicity during processing into gari and ijapu--two fermented food products.

    PubMed

    Sokari, T G; Karibo, P S

    1992-01-01

    Grated cassava to which tap water was added at levels of 25%, 50% and 75% (v/w) was held at 30 degrees C, 40 degrees C or 50 degrees C and examined over a 6 h period for cyanide content, pH and titratable acidity (TTA). During the come-up time, i.e. the time between addition of water and attainment of desired holding temperature (between 14 and 47 min), reductions in bound cyanide of ca 54-85% occurred, depending on the level of added water and holding temperature. The corresponding losses for the control samples, to which no water was added, were ca 25-33%. The biggest reduction in the bound cyanide of > 99% (from 89.0 to 0.6 ppm) occurred in grated cassava with 75% added water held at 50 degrees C. There was little or no change in pH during the period of study. The reduction of processing time for certain cassava products based on separation into detoxication and flavour development/fermentation stages is discussed.

  17. A modified indirect mathematical model for evaluation of ethanol production efficiency in industrial-scale continuous fermentation processes.

    PubMed

    Canseco Grellet, M A; Castagnaro, A; Dantur, K I; De Boeck, G; Ahmed, P M; Cárdenas, G J; Welin, B; Ruiz, R M

    2016-10-01

    To calculate fermentation efficiency in a continuous ethanol production process, we aimed to develop a robust mathematical method based on the analysis of metabolic by-product formation. This method is in contrast to the traditional way of calculating ethanol fermentation efficiency, where the ratio between the ethanol produced and the sugar consumed is expressed as a percentage of the theoretical conversion yield. Comparison between the two methods, at industrial scale and in sensitivity studies, showed that the indirect method was more robust and gave slightly higher fermentation efficiency values, although fermentation efficiency of the industrial process was found to be low (~75%). The traditional calculation method is simpler than the indirect method as it only requires a few chemical determinations in samples collected. However, a minor error in any measured parameter will have an important impact on the calculated efficiency. In contrast, the indirect method of calculation requires a greater number of determinations but is much more robust since an error in any parameter will only have a minor effect on the fermentation efficiency value. The application of the indirect calculation methodology in order to evaluate the real situation of the process and to reach an optimum fermentation yield for an industrial-scale ethanol production is recommended. Once a high fermentation yield has been reached the traditional method should be used to maintain the control of the process. Upon detection of lower yields in an optimized process the indirect method should be employed as it permits a more accurate diagnosis of causes of yield losses in order to correct the problem rapidly. The low fermentation efficiency obtained in this study shows an urgent need for industrial process optimization where the indirect calculation methodology will be an important tool to determine process losses. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Improving properties of sweet potato composite flour: Influence of lactic fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuliana, Neti; Nurdjanah, Siti; Setyani, Sri; Novianti, Dini

    2017-06-01

    The use of locally grown crops such as sweet potato as raw material for composite flour is considered advantageous as it reduces the importation of wheat flour. However the use of native sweetpotato flour has drawback properties when applied in the food. This study was aimed to modify sweet potato flour through six methods of lactic fermentation (spontaneous, pickle brine, Lb plantarum, Lc mesentereoides, a mixed of Lb plantarum and Lc mesentereoides, and mixed of Lb plantarum, Lc mesentereoides and yeast) to increase its properties in composite flour. Composite flours were obtained after fermentation of sweet potato slices for 48h in the proportion of 50% sweet potatoes flour and 50% wheat flour. pH, moisture content, swelling power, solubility, and pasting properties were determined for the fermented and unfermented composite flours. The results indicated that the composite fermented flours had better properties than those of non fermented flour. Fermentation increased swelling power, moisture content, meanwhile, solubility, and pH, deacresed. Amylose leaching, however, was not significantly affected by the fermentation process.

  19. Monitoring of substrate and product concentrations in acetic fermentation processes for onion vinegar production by NIR spectroscopy: value addition to worthless onions.

    PubMed

    González-Sáiz, J M; Esteban-Díez, I; Sánchez-Gallardo, C; Pizarro, C

    2008-08-01

    Wastes and by-products of the onion-processing industry pose an increasing disposal and environmental problem and represent a loss of valuable sources of nutrients. The present study focused on the production of vinegar from worthless onions as a potential valorisation route which could provide a viable solution to multiple disposal and environmental problems, simultaneously offering the possibility of converting waste materials into a useful food-grade product and of exploiting the unique properties and health benefits of onions. This study deals specifically with the second and definitive step of the onion vinegar production process: the efficient production of vinegar from onion waste by transforming onion ethanol, previously produced by alcoholic fermentation, into acetic acid via acetic fermentation. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), coupled with multivariate calibration methods, has been used to monitor the concentrations of both substrates and products in acetic fermentation. Separate partial least squares (PLS) regression models, correlating NIR spectral data of fermentation samples with each kinetic parameter studied, were developed. Wavelength selection was also performed applying the iterative predictor weighting-PLS (IPW-PLS) method in order to only consider significant spectral features in each model development to improve the quality of the final models constructed. Biomass, substrate (ethanol) and product (acetic acid) concentration were predicted in the acetic fermentation of onion alcohol with high accuracy using IPW-PLS models with a root-mean-square error of the residuals in external prediction (RMSEP) lower than 2.5% for both ethanol and acetic acid, and an RMSEP of 6.1% for total biomass concentration (a very satisfactory result considering the relatively low precision and accuracy associated with the reference method used for determining the latter). Thus, the simple and reliable calibration models proposed in this study suggest that they

  20. Comprehensive assessment of the L-lysine production process from fermentation of sugarcane molasses.

    PubMed

    Anaya-Reza, Omar; Lopez-Arenas, Teresa

    2017-07-01

    L-Lysine is an essential amino acid that can be produced by chemical processes from fossil raw materials, as well as by microbial fermentation, the latter being a more efficient and environmentally friendly procedure. In this work, the production process of L-lysine-HCl is studied using a systematic approach based on modeling and simulation, which supports decision making in the early stage of process design. The study considers two analysis stages: first, the dynamic analysis of the fermentation reactor, where the conversion of sugars from sugarcane molasses to L-lysine with a strain of Corynebacterium glutamicum is carried out. In this stage, the operation mode (either batch or fed batch) and operating conditions of the fermentation reactor are defined to reach the maximum technical criteria. Afterwards, the second analysis stage relates to the industrial production process of L-lysine-HCl, where the fermentation reactor, upstream processing, and downstream processing are included. In this stage, the influence of key parameters on the overall process performance is scrutinized through the evaluation of several technical, economic, and environmental criteria, to determine a profitable and sustainable design of the L-lysine production process. The main results show how the operating conditions, process design, and selection of evaluation criteria can influence in the conceptual design. The best plant design shows maximum product yield (0.31 g L-lysine/g glucose) and productivity (1.99 g/L/h), achieving 26.5% return on investment (ROI) with a payback period (PBP) of 3.8 years, decreasing water and energy consumption, and with a low potential environmental impact (PEI) index.

  1. Fermented cereal beverages: from probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic towards Nanoscience designed healthy drinks.

    PubMed

    Salmerón, I

    2017-08-01

    The consumption of fermented foods by human kind goes a long way back in history and there are as many types of fermented food as civilizations. Food Science and Technology has progressed from designing nutritional foods towards food with health improvement characteristics such as functional foods. In this sense, the area of food with properties to improve gastrointestinal health such as probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics has been the most important segment within functional foods. Most of these products are dairy-based so the development of nondairy gut improvement products has been of great interest for the food industry, resulting in the rise of cereal-based probiotic and synbiotic products. Finally, through Nanoscience and the application of Nanotechnology techniques in the food sector, it has been possible to design fermented beverages with synbiotic properties, and the incorporation of nanoparticles with unique and specific bioactivity, which has opened a new horizon in this segment of food created to improve human health and well-being. There is currently a great interest in producing healthy food in particular that which has an impact in improving the gastrointestinal health such as probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics. Most of these functional foods are dairy based and have been greatly accepted worldwide. Nevertheless, there has been a need for the development of nondairy probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic products. This has encouraged food scientists to study the feasibility of applying other fermenting substrates such as cereals for the development of innovative nondairy fermented functional foods. Therefore, in this review we have addressed the significance of applying cereals and their fractions for the development of probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic beverages. Furthermore, we have presented the importance of including nanoscience and nanotechnology techniques for the creation of fermented cereal beverages that contain specific bioactive

  2. Estimation of fundamental kinetic parameters of polyhydroxybutyrate fermentation process of Azohydromonas australica using statistical approach of media optimization.

    PubMed

    Gahlawat, Geeta; Srivastava, Ashok K

    2012-11-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate or PHB is a biodegradable and biocompatible thermoplastic with many interesting applications in medicine, food packaging, and tissue engineering materials. The present study deals with the enhanced production of PHB by Azohydromonas australica using sucrose and the estimation of fundamental kinetic parameters of PHB fermentation process. The preliminary culture growth inhibition studies were followed by statistical optimization of medium recipe using response surface methodology to increase the PHB production. Later on batch cultivation in a 7-L bioreactor was attempted using optimum concentration of medium components (process variables) obtained from statistical design to identify the batch growth and product kinetics parameters of PHB fermentation. A. australica exhibited a maximum biomass and PHB concentration of 8.71 and 6.24 g/L, respectively in bioreactor with an overall PHB production rate of 0.75 g/h. Bioreactor cultivation studies demonstrated that the specific biomass and PHB yield on sucrose was 0.37 and 0.29 g/g, respectively. The kinetic parameters obtained in the present investigation would be used in the development of a batch kinetic mathematical model for PHB production which will serve as launching pad for further process optimization studies, e.g., design of several bioreactor cultivation strategies to further enhance the biopolymer production.

  3. Changes in selected physical property and enzyme activity of rice and barley koji during fermentation and storage.

    PubMed

    Bechman, Allison; Phillips, Robert D; Chen, Jinru

    2012-06-01

    Koji are solid-state fermentation products made by inoculating steamed grains with the spores of fungi, particularly Aspergillus spp. This research was undertaken to identify the fermentation and storage conditions optimal for the production and maintenance of selected hydrolytic enzymes, such as α-amlyase and protease, in koji. Steamed rice and barley were inoculated with 2 × 10 ¹¹ Aspergillus oryzae spores per kilogram of grains and fermented for 118 h in a growth chamber at 28 to 32 °C with controlled relative humidities. Samples were drawn periodically during fermentation and storage at -20, 4, or 32 °C, and α-amylase and protease activity, mold counts, a(w), moisture contents, and pH of collected samples were determined. It was observed that the a(w), moisture contents, and pH of the koji were influenced by the duration of fermentation and temperature of storage. The α-amylase activity of both koji increased as the populations of A. oryzae increased during the exponential growth phase. The enzyme activity of barley koji was significantly higher than that of rice koji, reaching a peak activity of 211.87 or 116.57 U at 46 and 58 h, respectively, into the fermentation process. The enzyme activity in both products started to decrease once the mold culture entered the stationary growth phase. The protease activities of both koji were low and remained relatively stable during fermentation and storage. These results suggest that rice and barley koji can be used as sources of α-amylase and desired enzyme activity can be achieved by controlling the fermentation and storage conditions. Amylases and proteases are 2 important hydrolytic enzymes. In the food industry, these enzymes are used to break down starches and proteins while reducing the viscosity of foods. Although amylases and proteases are found in plants and animals, commercial enzymes are often produced using bacteria or molds through solid state fermentation, which is designed to use natural microbial

  4. Environmental Microbiota Drives Microbial Succession and Metabolic Profiles during Chinese Liquor Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueshan; Du, Hai; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Yan

    2017-12-01

    Traditional solid-state fermentation of foods and beverages is mainly carried out by complex microbial communities from raw materials, starters and the processing environments. However, it is still unclear how the environmental microbiota influences on the quality of fermented foods and beverages, especially for Chinese liquor. In this study, we utilized high-throughput sequencing, microbial source tracking and multiphasic metabolite target analysis to analyze the origins of microbiota and the metabolic profiles during liquor fermentation. This study contributes to a deeper understanding of the role of environmental microbiota during fermentation. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. Kinetic model of continuous ethanol fermentation in closed-circulating process with pervaporation membrane bioreactor by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Fan, Senqing; Chen, Shiping; Tang, Xiaoyu; Xiao, Zeyi; Deng, Qing; Yao, Peina; Sun, Zhaopeng; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Chunyan

    2015-02-01

    Unstructured kinetic models were proposed to describe the principal kinetics involved in ethanol fermentation in a continuous and closed-circulating fermentation (CCCF) process with a pervaporation membrane bioreactor. After ethanol was removed in situ from the broth by the membrane pervaporation, the secondary metabolites accumulated in the broth became the inhibitors to cell growth. The cell death rate related to the deterioration of the culture environment was described as a function of the cell concentration and fermentation time. In CCCF process, 609.8 g L(-1) and 750.1 g L(-1) of ethanol production were obtained in the first run and second run, respectively. The modified Gompertz model, correlating the ethanol production with the fermentation period, could be used to describe the ethanol production during CCCF process. The fitting results by the models showed good agreement with the experimental data. These models could be employed for the CCCF process technology development for ethanol fermentation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cucumber fermentation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Humans have consumed fermented cucumber products since before the dawn of civilization. Although cucumber fermentation remains largely a traditional process, it has proven to be a consistently safe process by which raw cucumbers are transformed into high quality pickles that have a long shelf-life ...

  7. Preservation and fermentation: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Ross, R Paul; Morgan, S; Hill, C

    2002-11-15

    Preservation of food and beverages resulting from fermentation has been an effective form of extending the shelf-life of foods for millennia. Traditionally, foods were preserved through naturally occurring fermentations, however, modern large scale production generally now exploits the use of defined strain starter systems to ensure consistency and quality in the final product. This review will mainly focus on the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for food improvement, given their extensive application in a wide range of fermented foods. These microorganisms can produce a wide variety of antagonistic primary and secondary metabolites including organic acids, diacetyl, CO2 and even antibiotics such as reuterocyclin produced by Lactobacillus reuteri. In addition, members of the group can also produce a wide range of bacteriocins, some of which have activity against food pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Clostridium botulinum. Indeed, the bacteriocin nisin has been used as an effective biopreservative in some dairy products for decades, while a number of more recently discovered bacteriocins, such as lacticin 3147, demonstrate increasing potential in a number of food applications. Both of these lactococcal bacteriocins belong to the lantibiotic family of posttranslationally modified bacteriocins that contain lanthionine, beta-methyllanthionine and dehydrated amino acids. The exploitation of such naturally produced antagonists holds tremendous potential for extension of shelf-life and improvement of safety of a variety of foods.

  8. Laser metrology in food-related systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Sanchez, Patricia; Lopez, Daniel; Kongraksawech, Teepakorn; Vazquez, Pedro; Torres, J. Antonio; Ramirez, Jose A.; Huerta-Ruelas, Jorge

    2005-02-01

    An optical system was developed using a low-cost semiconductor laser and commercial optical and electronic components, to monitor food processes by measuring changes in optical rotation (OR) of chiral compounds. The OR signal as a function of processing time and sample temperature were collected and recorded using a computer data acquisition system. System has been tested during two different processes: sugar-protein interaction and, beer fermentation process. To study sugar-protein interaction, the following sugars were used: sorbitol, trehalose and sucrose, and in the place of Protein, Serum Albumin Bovine (BSA, A-7906 Sigma-Aldrich). In some food processes, different sugars are added to protect damage of proteins during their processing, storage and/or distribution. Different sugar/protein solutions were prepared and heated above critical temperature of protein denaturation. OR measurements were performed during heating process and effect of different sugars in protein denaturation was measured. Higher sensitivity of these measurements was found compared with Differential Scanning Calorimetry, which needs higher protein concentration to study these interactions. The brewing fermentation process was monitored in-situ using this OR system and validated by correlation with specific density measurements and gas chromatography. This instrument can be implemented to monitor fermentation on-line, thereby determining end of process and optimizing process conditions in an industrial setting. The high sensitivity of developed OR system has no mobile parts and is more flexible than commercial polarimeters providing the capability of implementation in harsh environments, signifying the potential of this method as an in-line technique for quality control in food processing and for experimentation with optically active solutions.

  9. Effect of Germination and Fermentation Process on the Antioxidant Compounds of Quinoa Seeds.

    PubMed

    Carciochi, Ramiro Ariel; Galván-D'Alessandro, Leandro; Vandendriessche, Pierre; Chollet, Sylvie

    2016-12-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seed has gained a great interest in the last years, mainly due to its nutritional properties and its content of antioxidant substances with health-promoting properties in humans. In this work, the effect of germination time and fermentation on the levels of antioxidant compounds (ascorbic acid, tocopherol isomers and phenolic compounds) and antioxidant activity of quinoa seeds was evaluated. Fermentation was carried out naturally by the microorganisms present in the seeds or by inoculation with two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (used for baking and brewing). Ascorbic acid and total tocopherols were significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05) after 72 h of germination process in comparison with raw quinoa seeds, whilst fermentation caused a decrease in both types of compounds. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity were improved using both bioprocesses, being this effect more noticeable for germination process (101 % of increase after three days of germination). Germination and fermentation proved to be desirable procedures for producing enriched ingredients with health-promoting antioxidant compounds in a natural way.

  10. Response of microbial community of organic-matter-impoverished arable soil to long-term application of soil conditioner derived from dynamic rapid fermentation of food waste

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jiaqi; Li, Mingxiao; Mao, Xuhui; Hao, Yan; Ding, Jie; Liu, Dongming; Liu, Hongliang

    2017-01-01

    Rapid fermentation of food waste can be used to prepare soil conditioner. This process consumes less time and is more cost-effective than traditional preparation technology. However, the succession of the soil microbial community structure after long-term application of rapid fermentation-derived soil conditioners remains unclear. Herein, dynamic rapid fermentation (DRF) of food waste was performed to develop a soil conditioner and the successions and diversity of bacterial communities in an organic-matter-impoverished arable soil after six years of application of DRF-derived soil conditioner were investigated. Results showed that the treatment increased soil organic matter (SOM) accumulation and strawberry yield by 5.3 g/kg and 555.91 kg/ha, respectively. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Firmicutes became the dominant phyla, occupying 65.95%–77.52% of the bacterial sequences. Principal component analysis (PCA) results showed that the soil bacterial communities were largely influenced by the treatment. Redundancy analysis (RDA) results showed that the relative abundances of Gemmatimonadetes, Chloroflexi, Verrucomicrobia, Nitrospirae, and Firmicutes were significantly correlated with soil TC, TN, TP, NH4+-N, NO3−-N, OM, and moisture. These communities were all distributed in the soil samples collected in the sixth year of application. Long-term treatment did not enhance the diversity of bacterial species but significantly altered the distribution of major functional bacterial communities in the soils. Application of DRF-derived soil conditioner could improve the soil quality and optimize the microbial community, ultimately enhancing fruit yields. PMID:28419163

  11. Response of microbial community of organic-matter-impoverished arable soil to long-term application of soil conditioner derived from dynamic rapid fermentation of food waste.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jiaqi; Li, Mingxiao; Mao, Xuhui; Hao, Yan; Ding, Jie; Liu, Dongming; Xi, Beidou; Liu, Hongliang

    2017-01-01

    Rapid fermentation of food waste can be used to prepare soil conditioner. This process consumes less time and is more cost-effective than traditional preparation technology. However, the succession of the soil microbial community structure after long-term application of rapid fermentation-derived soil conditioners remains unclear. Herein, dynamic rapid fermentation (DRF) of food waste was performed to develop a soil conditioner and the successions and diversity of bacterial communities in an organic-matter-impoverished arable soil after six years of application of DRF-derived soil conditioner were investigated. Results showed that the treatment increased soil organic matter (SOM) accumulation and strawberry yield by 5.3 g/kg and 555.91 kg/ha, respectively. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Firmicutes became the dominant phyla, occupying 65.95%-77.52% of the bacterial sequences. Principal component analysis (PCA) results showed that the soil bacterial communities were largely influenced by the treatment. Redundancy analysis (RDA) results showed that the relative abundances of Gemmatimonadetes, Chloroflexi, Verrucomicrobia, Nitrospirae, and Firmicutes were significantly correlated with soil TC, TN, TP, NH4+-N, NO3--N, OM, and moisture. These communities were all distributed in the soil samples collected in the sixth year of application. Long-term treatment did not enhance the diversity of bacterial species but significantly altered the distribution of major functional bacterial communities in the soils. Application of DRF-derived soil conditioner could improve the soil quality and optimize the microbial community, ultimately enhancing fruit yields.

  12. Design of a lamella settler for biomass recycling in continuous ethanol fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Tabera, J; Iznaola, M A

    1989-04-20

    The design and application of a settler to a continuous fermentation process with yeast recycle were studied. The compact lamella-type settler was chosen to avoid large volumes associated with conventional settling tanks. A rationale of the design method is covered. The sedimentation area was determined by classical batch settling rate tests and sedimentation capacity calculation. Limitations on the residence time of the microorganisms in the settler, rather than sludge thickening considerations, was the approach employed for volume calculation. Fermentation rate tests with yeast after different sedimentation periods were carried out to define a suitable residence time. Continuous cell recycle fermentation runs, performed with the old and new sedimentation devices, show that lamella settler improves biomass recycling efficiency, being the process able to operate at higher sugar concentrations and faster dilution rates.

  13. Prebiotics as functional food ingredients preventing diet-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Florowska, A; Krygier, K; Florowski, T; Dłużewska, E

    2016-05-18

    This paper reviews the potential of prebiotic-containing foods in the prevention or postponement of certain diet-related diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases with hypercholesterolemia, osteoporosis, diabetes, gastrointestinal infections and gut inflammation. Also the data on prebiotics as food ingredients and their impact on food product quality are presented. Prebiotics are short chain carbohydrates that are resistant to the digestion process in the upper part of the digestive system, are not absorbed in any segment of the gastrointestinal system, and finally are selectively fermented by specific genera of colonic bacteria. The mechanisms of the beneficial impacts of prebiotics on human health are very difficult to specify directly, because their health-promoting functions are related to fermentation by intestinal microflora. The impact of prebiotics on diet-related diseases in many ways also depends on the products of their fermentation. Prebiotics as functional food ingredients also have an impact on the quality of food products, due to their textural and gelling properties. Prebiotics as food additives can be very valuable in the creation of functional food aimed at preventing or postponing many diet-related diseases. They additionally have beneficial technological properties which improve the quality of food products.

  14. Study on the Removal of Cadmium in Rice Using Microbial Fermentation Method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Lei, Qunying; Cheng, Yuliang; Xie, Yunfei; Qian, He; Guo, Yahui; Chen, Yi; Yao, Weirong

    2017-06-01

    This work mainly examined how to remove cadmium in rice by fermentation, the removal mechanisms, and the quality of fermented rice in order to utilize cadmium-contaminated rice. The fermentation time, temperature, liquid ratio, inoculant levels, and number of washes were varied to optimize the efficiency of cadmium removal. The optimum fermentation process, in which the rate of cadmium removal from the rice is 80.84%, required an inoculant amount of 0.1%, a liquid ratio of 1:1, a period of 60 h at 37 °C, and subsequently washed with water 4 times. The physicochemical properties of raw cadmium-contaminated rice and fermented rice were studied. Results showed that the pasting temperature of the fermented rice became lower, and temperature at which pasting starts dropped but the endothermic enthalpy increased, implying that the protein content in the rice decreased during the fermentation. It suggested that the crystal structure of rice starch changed and fermentation did not result in the formation of new chemical bonds or functional groups in the rice. Microbial fermentation method can therefore effectively reduce cadmium level in contaminated rice. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  15. Development of a high temperature microbial fermentation process for butanol

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Jeor, Jeffery D. St.; Reed, David W.; Daubaras, Dayna L.

    2015-08-01

    Transforming renewable biomass into cost-competitive high-performance biofuels and bioproducts is key to the U.S. future energy and chemical needs. Butanol production by microbial fermentation for chemical conversion to polyolefins, elastomers, drop-in jet or diesel fuel, and other chemicals is a promising solution. A high temperature fermentation process could decrease energy costs, capital cost, give higher butanol production, and allow for continuous fermentation. In this paper, we describe our approach to genetically transform Geobacillus caldoxylosiliticus, using a pUCG18 plasmid, for potential insertion of a butanol production pathway. Transformation methods tested were electroporation of electrocompetent cells, ternary conjugation with E. coli donormore » and helper strains, and protoplast fusion. These methods have not been successful using the current plasmid. Growth controls show cells survive the various methods tested, suggesting the possibility of transformation inhibition from a DNA restriction modification system in G. caldoxylosiliticus, as reported in the literature.« less

  16. A novel extractive fermentation process for propionic acid production from whey lactose

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lewis, V.P.; Yang, Shangtian

    An extractive fermentation process was developed to produce propionate from lactose. The bacterium Propionibacterium acidipropionici was immobilized in a spiral wound, fibrous matrix packed in the reactor. Propionic acid is the major product from lactose fermentation, with acetic acid and carbon dioxide as byproducts. Propionic acid is a strong inhibitor to this fermentation. A tertiary amine was used to selectively extract propionic acid from the bioreactor, hence enhancing reactor productivity by over 100%. The authors also speculate that by selectively extracting propionic acid, lactose metabolism can be directed to yield more propionate and less byproducts. Other advantages of extractive fermentationmore » include better pH control and a purer product. The propionic acid present in the extractant can be easily stripped with small amounts of an alkaline solution, resulting in a concentrated propionate salt. The extractant was also regenerated in this stripping step. Thus, the process is energy-efficient and economically attractive.« less

  17. Monitoring of Lactobacillus fermentation process by using ion chromatography with a series piezoelectric quartz crystal detector.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Xie, Y; Dai, X; Wei, W

    2001-03-01

    A new method monitoring Lactobacillus fermentation process, which combines ion chromatography (IC) with a series piezoelectric quartz crystal (SPQC) technique, is presented in this paper. Monitoring of the fermentation process was realized by examining the rate of production of lactic acid. An automatic membrane dialyser was used for the pretreatment of the sample in on-line monitoring. A mixture of p-hydroxybenzoic acid and N,N-diethylethanolamine was adopted as mobile phase and its flow rate was 0.8 ml/min. The effects of some fermentation conditions were also discussed in detail. Accordingly, the optimal fermentation conditions were obtained. This method is simple and convenient while the results obtained are accurate and reliable.

  18. Food-Processing Wastes.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Val S; Cummings, Gregg A; Maillacheruvu, K Y; Tang, Walter Z

    2015-10-01

    Literature published in 2014 and early 2015 related to food processing wastes treatment for industrial applications are reviewed. This review is a subsection of the Treatment Systems section of the annual Water Environment Federation literature review and covers the following food processing industries and applications: general, meat and poultry, fruits and vegetables, dairy and beverage, and miscellaneous treatment of food wastes.

  19. Food-Processing Wastes.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Val S; Cummings, Gregg A; Maillacheruvu, K Y; Tang, Walter Z

    2017-10-01

    Literature published in 2016 and early 2017 related to food processing wastes treatment for industrial applications are reviewed. This review is a subsection of the Treatment Systems section of the annual Water Environment Federation literature review and covers the following food processing industries and applications: general, meat and poultry, fruits and vegetables, dairy and beverage, and miscellaneous treatment of food wastes.

  20. Food-Processing Wastes.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Val S; Cummings, Gregg A; Maillacheruvu, K Y; Tang, Walter Z

    2016-10-01

    Literature published in 2015 and early 2016 related to food processing wastes treatment for industrial applications are reviewed. This review is a subsection of the Treatment Systems section of the annual Water Environment Federation literature review and covers the following food processing industries and applications: general, meat and poultry, fruits and vegetables, dairy and beverage, and miscellaneous treatment of food wastes.

  1. Acidogenic fermentation characteristics of different types of protein-rich substrates in food waste to produce volatile fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Shen, Dongsheng; Yin, Jun; Yu, Xiaoqin; Wang, Meizhen; Long, Yuyang; Shentu, Jiali; Chen, Ting

    2017-03-01

    In this study, tofu and egg white, representing typical protein-rich substrates in food waste based on vegetable and animal protein, respectively, were investigated for producing volatile fatty acids (VFAs) by acidogenic fermentation. VFA production, composition, conversion pathways and microbial communities in acidogenesis from tofu and egg white with and without hydrothermal (HT) pretreatment were compared. The results showed HT pretreatment could improve the VFA production of tofu but not for egg white. The optimum VFA yields were 0.46g/gVS (tofu with HT) and 0.26g/gVS (egg white without HT), respectively. Tofu could directly produce VFAs through the Stickland reaction, while egg white was converted to lactate and VFAs simultaneously. About 30-40% of total protein remained in all groups after fermentation. Up to 50% of the unconverted soluble protein in the HT groups was protease. More lactate-producing bacteria, mainly Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus, were present during egg white fermentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Processed foods: contributions to nutrition.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Connie M; Dwyer, Johanna; Fulgoni, Victor L; King, Janet C; Leveille, Gilbert A; MacDonald, Ruth S; Ordovas, Jose; Schnakenberg, David

    2014-06-01

    Both fresh and processed foods make up vital parts of the food supply. Processed food contributes to both food security (ensuring that sufficient food is available) and nutrition security (ensuring that food quality meets human nutrient needs). This ASN scientific statement focuses on one aspect of processed foods: their nutritional impacts. Specifically, this scientific statement 1) provides an introduction to how processed foods contribute to the health of populations, 2) analyzes the contribution of processed foods to "nutrients to encourage" and "constituents to limit" in the American diet as recommended by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 3) identifies the responsibilities of various stakeholders in improving the American diet, and 4) reviews emerging technologies and the research needed for a better understanding of the role of processed foods in a healthy diet. Analyses of the NHANES 2003-2008 show that processed foods provide both nutrients to encourage and constituents to limit as specified in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Of the nutrients to encourage, processed foods contributed 55% of dietary fiber, 48% of calcium, 43% of potassium, 34% of vitamin D, 64% of iron, 65% of folate, and 46% of vitamin B-12. Of the constituents to limit, processed foods contributed 57% of energy, 52% of saturated fat, 75% of added sugars, and 57% of sodium. Diets are more likely to meet food guidance recommendations if nutrient-dense foods, either processed or not, are selected. Nutrition and food science professionals, the food industry, and other stakeholders can help to improve the diets of Americans by providing a nutritious food supply that is safe, enjoyable, affordable, and sustainable by communicating effectively and accurately with each other and by working together to improve the overall knowledge of consumers. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. [Luring effect of the fermented Laminaria japonica to Oncomelania hupensis].

    PubMed

    Ma, An-ning; Ni, Hong; Wang, Wan-xian; Zhang, Yun; Geng, Peng

    2010-02-01

    To study the attraction effect of the food attractants on Oncomelania hupensis. Oncomelania snail food was prepared with the fermented kelp (Laminaria japonica) mixed with corn starch. Snails were fed with the food and kept for 12, 24, 36, and 48 h at 15, 25, 35 degrees C respectively. Meanwhile, snail-killing effect was tested by granules containing jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisama heterophyllum) with or without the fermented kelp under the condition of 25 degrees C, 30% or 60% soil humidity. The snail-attracting rate of the fermented kelp was affected by the temperature, highest under 25 degrees C and lowest under 35 degrees C at any time point, with a rate of 80.3% in 48 h at 25 degrees C which was higher than that of the control (17.0%) (P<0.01). The snail mortality rate in the group using jack-in-the-pulpit with fermented kelp (85.3%) was higher than that of the group without fermented kelp (26.8%) (P<0.05). The mortality under 60% of soil humidity was higher than that under 30% humidity (P<0.01). The fermented kelp shows a strong luring effect to the Oncomelania snails.

  4. Economic analysis and environmental impact assessment of three different fermentation processes for fructooligosaccharides production.

    PubMed

    Mussatto, Solange I; Aguiar, Luís M; Marinha, Mariana I; Jorge, Rita C; Ferreira, Eugénio C

    2015-12-01

    Three different fermentation processes for the production of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) were evaluated and compared in terms of economic aspects and environmental impact. The processes included: submerged fermentation of sucrose solution by Aspergillus japonicus using free cells or using the cells immobilized in corn cobs, and solid-state fermentation (SSF) using coffee silverskin as support material and nutrient source. The scale-up was designed using data obtained at laboratory scale and considering an annual productivity goal of 200 t. SSF was the most attractive process in both economic and environmental aspects since it is able to generate FOS with higher annual productivity (232.6 t) and purity (98.6%) than the other processes; reaches the highest annual profit (6.55 M€); presents the lowest payback time (2.27 years); and is more favourable environmentally causing a lower carbon footprint (0.728 kg/kg, expressed in mass of CO2 equivalent per mass of FOS) and the lowest wastewater generation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Shotgun Metagenomics and Volatilome Profile of the Microbiota of Fermented Sausages.

    PubMed

    Ferrocino, Ilario; Bellio, Alberto; Giordano, Manuela; Macori, Guerrino; Romano, Angelo; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Decastelli, Lucia; Cocolin, Luca

    2018-02-01

    Changes in the microbial gene content and abundance can be analyzed to detect shifts in the microbiota composition due to the use of a starter culture in the food fermentation process, with the consequent shift of key metabolic pathways directly connected with product acceptance. Meat fermentation is a complex process involving microbes that metabolize the main components in meat. The breakdown of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids can lead to the formation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can drastically affect the organoleptic characteristics of the final products. The present meta-analysis, performed with the shotgun DNA metagenomic approach, focuses on studying the microbiota and its gene content in an Italian fermented sausage produced by using a commercial starter culture (a mix of Lactobacillus sakei and Staphylococcus xylosus ), with the aim to discover the connections between the microbiota, microbiome, and the release of volatile metabolites during ripening. The inoculated fermentation with the starter culture limited the development of Enterobacteriaceae and reduced the microbial diversity compared to that from spontaneous fermentation. KEGG database genes associated with the reduction of acetaldehyde to ethanol (EC 1.1.1.1), acetyl phosphate to acetate (EC 2.7.2.1), and 2,3-butanediol to acetoin (EC 1.1.1.4) were most abundant in inoculated samples (I) compared to those in spontaneous fermentation samples (S). The volatilome profiles were highly consistent with the abundance of the genes; elevated acetic acid (1,173.85 μg/kg), ethyl acetate (251.58 μg/kg), and acetoin (1,100.19 μg/kg) were observed in the presence of the starters at the end of fermentation. Significant differences were found in the liking of samples based on flavor and odor, suggesting a higher preference by consumers for the spontaneous fermentation samples. Inoculated samples exhibited the lowest scores for the liking data, which were clearly associated with the highest

  6. Coupling of Spinosad Fermentation and Separation Process via Two-Step Macroporous Resin Adsorption Method.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fanglong; Zhang, Chuanbo; Yin, Jing; Shen, Yueqi; Lu, Wenyu

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a two-step resin adsorption technology was investigated for spinosad production and separation as follows: the first step resin addition into the fermentor at early cultivation period to decrease the timely product concentration in the broth; the second step of resin addition was used after fermentation to adsorb and extract the spinosad. Based on this, a two-step macroporous resin adsorption-membrane separation process for spinosad fermentation, separation, and purification was established. Spinosad concentration in 5-L fermentor increased by 14.45 % after adding 50 g/L macroporous at the beginning of fermentation. The established two-step macroporous resin adsorption-membrane separation process got the 95.43 % purity and 87 % yield for spinosad, which were both higher than that of the conventional crystallization of spinosad from aqueous phase that were 93.23 and 79.15 % separately. The two-step macroporous resin adsorption method has not only carried out the coupling of spinosad fermentation and separation but also increased spinosad productivity. In addition, the two-step macroporous resin adsorption-membrane separation process performs better in spinosad yield and purity.

  7. Impact of osmotic stress and ethanol inhibition in yeast cells on process oscillation associated with continuous very-high-gravity ethanol fermentation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background VHG fermentation is a promising process engineering strategy aiming at improving ethanol titer, and thus saving energy consumption for ethanol distillation and distillage treatment. However, sustained process oscillation was observed during continuous VHG ethanol fermentation, which significantly affected ethanol fermentation performance of the system. Results Sustained process oscillation was investigated in continuous VHG ethanol fermentation, and stresses exerted on yeast cells by osmotic pressure from unfermented sugars and ethanol inhibition developed within the fermentation system were postulated to be major factors triggering this phenomenon. In this article, steady state was established for continuous ethanol fermentation with LG medium containing 120 g/L glucose, and then 160 g/L non-fermentable xylose was supplemented into the LG medium to simulate the osmotic stress on yeast cells under the VHG fermentation condition, but the fermentation process was still at steady state, indicating that the impact of osmotic stress on yeast cells was not the main reason for the process oscillation. However, when 30 g/L ethanol was supplemented into the LG medium to simulate the ethanol inhibition in yeast cells under the VHG fermentation condition, process oscillation was triggered, which was augmented with extended oscillation period and exaggerated oscillation amplitude as ethanol supplementation was increased to 50 g/L, but the process oscillation was gradually attenuated when the ethanol supplementations were stopped, and the steady state was restored. Furthermore, gas stripping was incorporated into the continuous VHG fermentation system to in situ remove ethanol produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the process oscillation was also attenuated, but restored after the gas stripping was interrupted. Conclusions Experimental results indicated that ethanol inhibition rather than osmotic stress on yeast cells is one of the main factors triggering the

  8. High Solid Fed-batch Butanol Fermentation with Simultaneous Product Recovery: Part II - Process Integration.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Nasib; Klasson, K Thomas; Saha, Badal C; Liu, Siqing

    2018-04-25

    In these studies liquid hot water (LHW) pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed Sweet Sorghum Bagasse (SSB) hydrolyzates were fermented in a fed-batch reactor. As reported in the preceding paper, the culture was not able to ferment the hydrolyzate I in a batch process due to presence of high level of toxic chemicals, in particular acetic acid released from SSB during the hydrolytic process. To be able to ferment the hydrolyzate I obtained from 250 gL -1 SSB hydrolysis, a fed-batch reactor with in-situ butanol recovery was devised. The process was started with the hydrolyzate II and when good cell growth and vigorous fermentation were observed, the hydrolyzate I was slowly fed to the reactor. In this manner the culture was able to ferment all the sugars present in both the hydrolyzates to acetone butanol ethanol (ABE). In a control batch reactor in which ABE was produced from glucose, ABE productivity and yield of 0.42 gL -1 h -1 and 0.36 were obtained, respectively. In the fed-batch reactor fed with SSB hydrolyzates these productivity and yield values were 0.44 gL -1 h -1 and 0.45, respectively. ABE yield in the integrated system was high due to utilization of acetic acid to convert to ABE. In summary we were able to utilize both the hydrolyzates obtained from LHW pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed SSB (250 gL -1 ) and convert them to ABE. Complete fermentation was possible due to simultaneous recovery of ABE by vacuum. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  9. Processed milk waste recycling via thermal pretreatment and lactic acid bacteria fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kasmi, Mariam; Hamdi, Moktar; Trabelsi, Ismail

    2017-05-01

    Processed milk waste (MW) presents a serious problem within the dairy industries due to its high polluting load. Its chemical oxygen demand (COD) can reach values as high as 80,000 mg O 2  L -1 . This study proposes to reduce the organic load of those wastes using thermal coagulation and recover residual valuable components via fermentation. Thermal process results showed that the COD removal rates exceeded 40% when samples were treated at temperature above 60 °C to reach 72% at 100 °C. Clarified supernatants resulting from thermal treatment of the samples at the temperatures of 60 (MW 60 ), 80 (MW 80 ), and 100 °C (MW 100 ) were fermented using lactic acid bacteria strains without pH control. Lactic strains recorded important final cell yields (5-7 g L -1 ). Growth mediums prepared using the thermally treated MW produced 73% of the bacterial biomass recorded with a conventional culture medium. At the end of fermentation, mediums were found exhausted from several valuable components. Industrial scale implementation of the proposed process for the recycling of industrial MWs is described and discussed.

  10. Opportunities to improve the conversion of food waste to lactate: Fine-tuning secondary factors.

    PubMed

    RedCorn, Raymond; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2017-11-01

    Extensive research has demonstrated the potential for bioconversion of food waste to lactate, with major emphasis on adjusting temperature, pH, and loading rate of the fermentation. Each of these factors has a significant effect on lactate production; however, additional secondary factors have received little attention. Here we investigate three additional factors where opportunities exist for process improvement: freezing of samples during storage, discontinuous pH control, and holdover of fermentation broth between fermentations. Freezing samples prior to fermentation was shown to reduce the production rate of lactate by 8%, indicating freeze-thaw should be avoided in experiments. Prior work indicated a trade-off in pH control strategies, where discontinuous pH control correlated with higher lactate accumulation while continuous pH control correlated with higher production rate. Here we demonstrate that continuous pH control can achieve both higher lactate accumulation and higher production rate. Finally, holding over fermentation broth was shown to be a simple method to improve production rate (by 18%) at high food waste loading rates (>140 g volatile solids L -1 ) but resulted in lower lactate accumulation (by 17%). The results inform continued process improvements within the waste treatment of food waste through fermentation to lactic acid.

  11. Growth media in anaerobic fermentative processes: The underestimated potential of thermophilic fermentation and anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, A T W M; van Lier, J B; de Kreuk, M K

    Fermentation and anaerobic digestion of organic waste and wastewater is broadly studied and applied. Despite widely available results and data for these processes, comparison of the generated results in literature is difficult. Not only due to the used variety of process conditions, but also because of the many different growth media that are used. Composition of growth media can influence biogas production (rates) and lead to process instability during anaerobic digestion. To be able to compare results of the different studies reported, and to ensure nutrient limitation is not influencing observations ascribed to process dynamics and/or reaction kinetics, a standard protocol for creating a defined growth medium for anaerobic digestion and mixed culture fermentation is proposed. This paper explains the role(s) of the different macro- and micronutrients, as well as the choices for a growth medium formulation strategy. In addition, the differences in nutrient requirements between mesophilic and thermophilic systems are discussed as well as the importance of specific trace metals regarding specific conversion routes and the possible supplementary requirement of vitamins. The paper will also give some insight into the bio-availability and toxicity of trace metals. A remarkable finding is that mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes are quite comparable at their optimum temperatures. This has consequences for the trace metal requirements of thermophiles under certain conditions. Under non-limiting conditions, the trace metal requirement of thermophilic systems is about 3 times higher than for mesophilic systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Science Study Aids 7: Fermentation - Activities of a Fabulous Fungus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Bill

    This publication is the seventh of a series of seven supplementary investigative materials for use in secondary science classes providing up-to-date research-related investigations. This unit is structured for grades 7 through 10. It is concerned with the roles of fermentation processes in the agriculture and food industry. The guide enables…

  13. Development of a biosensor telemetry system for monitoring fermentation in craft breweries.

    PubMed

    Farina, Donatella; Zinellu, Manuel; Fanari, Mauro; Porcu, Maria Cristina; Scognamillo, Sergio; Puggioni, Giulia Maria Grazia; Rocchitta, Gaia; Serra, Pier Andrea; Pretti, Luca

    2017-03-01

    The development and applications of biosensors in the food industry has had a rapid grown due to their sensitivity, specificity and simplicity of use with respect to classical analytical methods. In this study, glucose and ethanol amperometric biosensors integrated with a wireless telemetry system were developed and used for the monitoring of top and bottom fermentations in beer wort samples. The collected data were in good agreement with those obtained by reference methods. The simplicity of construction, the low cost and the short time of analysis, combined with easy interpretation of the results, suggest that these devices could be a valuable alternative to conventional methods for monitoring fermentation processes in the food industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fermentative production of ethanol from carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Köpke, Michael; Mihalcea, Christophe; Bromley, Jason C; Simpson, Séan D

    2011-06-01

    'Too much Carbon Monoxide for me to bear…' are the opening lyrics of the CAKE song Carbon Monoxide (from their 2004 album Pressure Chief), and while this may be the case for most living organisms, several species of bacteria both thrive on this otherwise toxic gas, and metabolize it for the production of fuels and chemicals. Indeed CO fermentation offers the opportunity to sustainably produce fuels and chemicals without impacting the availability of food resources or even farm land. Mounting commercial interest in the potential of this process has in turn triggered greater scrutiny of the molecular and genetic basis for CO metabolism, as well as the challenges associated with the implementation and operation of gas fermentation at scale. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. High solid fed-batch butanol fermentation with simultaneous product recovery: part II - process integration.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In these studies liquid hot water (LHW) pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed Sweet Sorghum Bagasse (SSB) hydrolyzates were fermented in a fed-batch reactor. As reported in the preceding paper, the culture was not able to ferment the hydrolyzate I in a batch process due to presence of high level o...

  16. New process for production of fermented black table olives using selected autochthonous microbial resources

    PubMed Central

    Tufariello, Maria; Durante, Miriana; Ramires, Francesca A.; Grieco, Francesco; Tommasi, Luca; Perbellini, Ezio; Falco, Vittorio; Tasioula-Margari, Maria; Logrieco, Antonio F.; Mita, Giovanni; Bleve, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    Table olives represent one important fermented product in Europe and, in the world, their demand is constantly increasing. At the present time, no systems are available to control black table olives spontaneous fermentation by the Greek method. During this study, a new protocol for the production of black table olives belonging to two Italian (Cellina di Nardò and Leccino) and two Greek (Kalamàta and Conservolea) cultivars has been developed: for each table olive cultivar, starter-driven fermentations were performed inoculating, firstly, one selected autochthonous yeast starter and, subsequently, one selected autochthonous LAB starter. All starters formulation were able to dominate fermentation process. The olive fermentation was monitored using specific chemical descriptors able to identify a first stage (30 days) mainly characterized by aldehydes; a second period (60 days) mainly characterized by higher alcohols, styrene and terpenes; a third fermentation stage represented by acetate esters, esters and acids. A significant decrease of fermentation time (from 8 to 12 months to a maximum of 3 months) and an significant improvement in organoleptic characteristics of the final product were obtained. This study, for the first time, describes the employment of selected autochthonous microbial resources optimized to mimic the microbial evolution already recorded during spontaneous fermentations. PMID:26441932

  17. Performance and microbial community of a membrane bioreactor system - Treating wastewater from ethanol fermentation of food waste.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaobiao; Li, Mengqi; Zheng, Wei; Liu, Rui; Chen, Lujun

    2017-03-01

    In this study, a lab-scale biological anaerobic/anaerobic/anoxic/membrane bioreactor (A 3 -MBR) was designed to treat wastewater from the ethanol fermentation of food waste, a promising way for the disposal of food waste and reclamation of resources. The 454 pyrosequencing technique was used to investigate the composition of the microbial community in the treatment system. The system yielded a stable effluent concentration of chemical oxygen demand (202±23mg/L), total nitrogen (62.1±7.1mg/L), ammonia (0.3±0.13mg/L) and total phosphorus (8.3±0.9mg/L), and the reactors played different roles in specific pollutant removal. The exploration of the microbial community in the system revealed that: (1) the microbial diversity of anaerobic reactors A 1 and A 2 , in which organic pollutants were massively degraded, was much higher than that in anoxic A 3 and aerobic MBR; (2) although the community composition in each reactor was quite different, bacteria assigned to the classes Clostridia, Bacteroidia, and Synergistia were important and common microorganisms for organic pollutant degradation in the anaerobic units, and bacteria from Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria were the dominant microbial population in A 3 and MBR; (3) the taxon identification indicated that Arcobacter in the anaerobic reactors and Thauera in the anoxic reactor were two representative genera in the biological process. Our results proved that the biological A 3 -MBR process is an alternative technique for treating wastewater from food waste. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Sourdough lactic acid bacteria: exploration of non-wheat cereal-based fermentation.

    PubMed

    Coda, Rossana; Cagno, Raffaella Di; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2014-02-01

    Cereal-based foods represent a very important source of biological as well as of cultural diversity, as testified by the wide range of derived fermented products. A trend that is increasingly attracting bakery industries as well as consumers is the use of non-conventional flours for the production of novel products, characterised by peculiar flavour and better nutritional value. Lactic acid bacteria microbiota of several non-wheat cereals and pseudo-cereals has been recently deeply investigated with the aim of studying the biodiversity and finding starter cultures for sourdough fermentation. Currently, the use of ancient or ethnic grains is mainly limited to traditional typical foods and the bread making process is not well standardised with consequent negative effects on the final properties. The challenge in fermenting such grains is represented by the necessity to combine good technology and sensory properties with nutritional/health benefits. The choice of the starter cultures has a critical impact on the final quality of cereal-based products, and strains that dominate and outcompete contaminants should be applied for specific sourdough fermentations. In this sense, screening and characterisation of the lactic acid bacteria microbiota is very useful in the improvement of a peculiar flour, from both a nutritional and technological point of view. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Lactic acid production with undefined mixed culture fermentation of potato peel waste.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shaobo; McDonald, Armando G; Coats, Erik R

    2014-11-01

    Potato peel waste (PPW) as zero value byproduct generated from food processing plant contains a large quantity of starch, non-starch polysaccharide, lignin, protein, and lipid. PPW as one promising carbon source can be managed and utilized to value added bioproducts through a simple fermentation process using undefined mixed cultures inoculated from wastewater treatment plant sludge. A series of non-pH controlled batch fermentations under different conditions such as pretreatment process, enzymatic hydrolysis, temperature, and solids loading were studied. Lactic acid (LA) was the major product, followed by acetic acid (AA) and ethanol under fermentation conditions without the presence of added hydrolytic enzymes. The maximum yields of LA, AA, and ethanol were respectively, 0.22 g g(-1), 0.06 g g(-1), and 0.05 g g(-1). The highest LA concentration of 14.7 g L(-1) was obtained from a bioreactor with initial solids loading of 60 g L(-1) at 35°C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Study on feasibility of determination of glucosamine content of fermentation process using a micro NIR spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhongyu; Li, Can; Li, Lian; Nie, Lei; Dong, Qin; Li, Danyang; Gao, Lingling; Zang, Hengchang

    2018-08-05

    N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc) is a microbial fermentation product, and NIR spectroscopy is an effective process analytical technology (PAT) tool in detecting the key quality attribute: the GlcNAc content. Meanwhile, the design of NIR spectrometers is under the trend of miniaturization, portability and low-cost nowadays. The aim of this study was to explore a portable micro NIR spectrometer with the fermentation process. First, FT-NIR spectrometer and Micro-NIR 1700 spectrometer were compared with simulated fermentation process solutions. The R c 2 , R p 2 , RMSECV and RMSEP of the optimal FT-NIR and Micro-NIR 1700 models were 0.999, 0.999, 3.226 g/L, 1.388 g/L and 0.999, 0.999, 1.821 g/L, 0.967 g/L. Passing-Bablok regression method and paired t-test results showed there were no significant differences between the two instruments. Then the Micro-NIR 1700 was selected for the practical fermentation process, 135 samples from 10 batches were collected. Spectral pretreatment methods and variables selection methods (BiPLS, FiPLS, MWPLS and CARS-PLS) for PLS modeling were discussed. The R c 2 , R p 2 , RMSECV and RMSEP of the optimal GlcNAc content PLS model of the practical fermentation process were 0.994, 0.995, 2.792 g/L and 1.946 g/L. The results have a positive reference for application of the Micro-NIR spectrometer. To some extent, it could provide theoretical supports in guiding the microbial fermentation or the further assessment of bioprocess. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Soluble Fiber with High Water-Binding Capacity, Swelling Capacity, and Fermentability Reduces Food Intake by Promoting Satiety Rather Than Satiation in Rats.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chengquan; Wei, Hongkui; Zhao, Xichen; Xu, Chuanhui; Zhou, Yuanfei; Peng, Jian

    2016-10-02

    To understand whether soluble fiber (SF) with high water-binding capacity (WBC), swelling capacity (SC) and fermentability reduces food intake and whether it does so by promoting satiety or satiation or both, we investigated the effects of different SFs with these properties on the food intake in rats. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to four equal groups and fed the control diet or diet containing 2% konjac flour (KF), pregelatinized waxy maize starch (PWMS) plus guar gum (PG), and PWMS starch plus xanthan gum (PX) for three weeks, with the measured values of SF, WBC, and SC in the four diets following the order of PG > KF > PX > control. Food intake, body weight, meal pattern, behavioral satiety sequence, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in cecal content were evaluated. KF and PG groups reduced the food intake, mainly due to the decreased feeding behavior and increased satiety, as indicated by decreased meal numbers and increased inter-meal intervals. Additionally, KF and PG groups increased concentrations of acetate acid, propionate acid, and SCFAs in the cecal contents. Our results indicate that SF with high WBC, SC, and fermentability reduces food intake-probably by promoting a feeling of satiety in rats to decrease their feeding behavior.

  2. Soluble Fiber with High Water-Binding Capacity, Swelling Capacity, and Fermentability Reduces Food Intake by Promoting Satiety Rather Than Satiation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chengquan; Wei, Hongkui; Zhao, Xichen; Xu, Chuanhui; Zhou, Yuanfei; Peng, Jian

    2016-01-01

    To understand whether soluble fiber (SF) with high water-binding capacity (WBC), swelling capacity (SC) and fermentability reduces food intake and whether it does so by promoting satiety or satiation or both, we investigated the effects of different SFs with these properties on the food intake in rats. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to four equal groups and fed the control diet or diet containing 2% konjac flour (KF), pregelatinized waxy maize starch (PWMS) plus guar gum (PG), and PWMS starch plus xanthan gum (PX) for three weeks, with the measured values of SF, WBC, and SC in the four diets following the order of PG > KF > PX > control. Food intake, body weight, meal pattern, behavioral satiety sequence, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in cecal content were evaluated. KF and PG groups reduced the food intake, mainly due to the decreased feeding behavior and increased satiety, as indicated by decreased meal numbers and increased inter-meal intervals. Additionally, KF and PG groups increased concentrations of acetate acid, propionate acid, and SCFAs in the cecal contents. Our results indicate that SF with high WBC, SC, and fermentability reduces food intake—probably by promoting a feeling of satiety in rats to decrease their feeding behavior. PMID:27706095

  3. Bacteriocinogenic LAB Strains for Fermented Meat Preservation: Perspectives, Challenges, and Limitations.

    PubMed

    Favaro, Lorenzo; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov

    2017-12-01

    Over the last decades, much research has focused on lactic acid bacteria (LAB) bacteriocins because of their potential as biopreservatives and their action against the growth of spoilage microbes. Meat and fermented meat products are prone to microbial contamination, causing health risks, as well as economic losses in the meat industry. The use of bacteriocin-producing LAB starter or protective cultures is suitable for fermented meats. However, although bacteriocins can be produced during meat processing, their levels are usually much lower than those achieved during in vitro fermentations under optimal environmental conditions. Thus, the direct addition of a bacteriocin food additive would be desirable. Moreover, safety and technological characteristics of the bacteriocinogenic LAB must be considered before their widespread applications. This review describes the perspectives and challenges toward the complete disclosure of new bacteriocins as effective preservatives in the production of safe and "healthy" fermented meat products.

  4. Rapid purification and plasticization of D-glutamate-containing poly-γ-glutamate from Japanese fermented soybean food natto.

    PubMed

    Ashiuchi, Makoto; Oike, Shota; Hakuba, Hirofumi; Shibatani, Shigeo; Oka, Nogiho; Wakamatsu, Taisuke

    2015-12-10

    Poly-γ-glutamate (PGA) is a major component of mucilage derived from natto, a Japanese fermented food made from soybeans, and PGAs obtained under laboratory's conditions contain numerous d-glutamyl residues. Natto foods are thus promising as a source for nutritionally safe d-amino acids present in intact and digested polymers, although there is little information on the stereochemistry of PGA isolated directly from natto. Here, we describe the development of a new process for rapid purification of PGA using alum and determined the D-glutamate content of natto PGA by chiral high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis. Further, using hexadecylpyridinium cation (HDP(+)), which is a compound of toothpaste, we chemically transformed natto PGA into a new thermoplastic material, called DL-PGAIC. (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance and calorimetric measurements indicate that DL-PGAIC is a stoichiometric complex of natto PGA and HDP(+) with glass transition points of -16.8 °C and -3.1 °C. Then, DL-PGAIC began decomposing at 210°C, suggesting thermal stability suitable for use as a supramolecular soft plastic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Phytochemical profile and antioxidant activity of caper berries (Capparis spinosa L.): Evaluation of the influence of the fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-López, J; Ruiz-Medina, A; Ortega-Barrales, P; Llorent-Martínez, E J

    2018-06-01

    In this work, we report the phytochemical profile and antioxidant activity of caper berries (Capparis spinosa L.) before and after a fermentation process. The phytochemical profiles were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry detection (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS n ). Twenty-one compounds were characterized, and seven of them quantified. The main component of non-fermented berries was glucocapparin, which was degraded upon the fermentation process. Most of the compounds were quercetin and kaempferol glycosides, epicatechin, and proanthocyanidins. The main differences observed upon the fermentation process were a decrease in epicatechin concentration, the hydrolysis of quercetin glycosides, and the degradation of glucosinolates. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents, as well as the antioxidant activities by the in vitro antioxidant assays DPPH and ABTS + , were determined, observing that the values were slightly higher after the fermentation process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Formation of melatonin and its isomer during bread dough fermentation and effect of baking.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Cemile; Kocadağlı, Tolgahan; Gökmen, Vural

    2014-04-02

    Melatonin is produced mainly by the pineal gland in vertebrates. Also, melatonin and its isomer are found in foods. Investigating the formation of melatonin and its isomer is of importance during bread dough fermentation and its degradation during baking since bread is widely consumed in high amounts. Formation of melatonin was not significant during dough fermentation. The melatonin isomer content of nonfermented dough was found to be 4.02 ng/g and increased up to 16.71 ng/g during fermentation. Lower amounts of isomer in crumb and crust than dough showed that the thermal process caused a remarkable degree of degradation in melatonin isomer. At the end of the 180 min fermentation Trp decreased by 58%. The results revealed for the first time the formation of a melatonin isomer in bread dough during yeast fermentation.

  7. Identification and Characterization of Bioactive Peptides of Fermented Goat Milk as a Sources of Antioxidant as a Therapeutic Natural Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdi, Chanif; Untari, Handayu; Cendrakasih Padaga, Masdiana

    2018-01-01

    The increasing of functional food is rising in line with public awareness for healthy food consumption. Provision of functional food source is developed through enhanced bioactive that has a regulatory function for body. Bioactive peptides in milk is known have variety of beneficial function of the body such as immunomodulator, immunostimulatory, anti-hypertension, anti-hyper cholesterol, as well as a variety of other beneficial function. The aim of this study is to obtain fermentation methods to product functional dairy product contain bioactive peptides and beneficial of fermented goat milk. The result of this study showed that goat milk fermented using 3 % commercial starter able to produce the best yoghurt than using local yoghurt starter. Analysis of protein content showed that the fermentation processing increased the amount of protein in goat milk sample. Using SDS-PAGE showed that the breakdown of protein into fraction of fermented goat milk greater than unfermented goat milk. The result of fractional protein was analyzed by LC MS/MS and showed that there were three kind bioactive sequences of bioactive peptides. Each of which consist of 16 amino acids that safely protected from gastrointestinal animal model that fed by dietary treatment of hypercholesterolemia.

  8. Effect of fermentation and subsequent pasteurization processes on amino acids composition of orange juice.

    PubMed

    Cerrillo, I; Fernández-Pachón, M S; Collado-González, J; Escudero-López, B; Berná, G; Herrero-Martín, G; Martín, F; Ferreres, F; Gil-Izquierdo, A

    2015-06-01

    The fermentation of fruit produces significant changes in their nutritional composition. An orange beverage has been obtained from the controlled alcoholic fermentation and thermal pasteurization of orange juice. A study was performed to determine the influence of both processes on its amino acid profile. UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS was used for the first time for analysis of orange juice samples. Out of 29 amino acids and derivatives identified, eight (ethanolamine, ornithine, phosphoethanolamine, α-amino-n-butyric acid, hydroxyproline, methylhistidine, citrulline, and cystathionine) have not previously been detected in orange juice. The amino acid profile of the orange juice was not modified by its processing, but total amino acid content of the juice (8194 mg/L) was significantly increased at 9 days of fermentation (13,324 mg/L). Although the pasteurization process produced partial amino acid degradation, the total amino acid content was higher in the final product (9265 mg/L) than in the original juice, enhancing its nutritional value.

  9. Minimally processed foods are more satiating and less hyperglycemic than ultra-processed foods: a preliminary study with 98 ready-to-eat foods.

    PubMed

    Fardet, Anthony

    2016-05-18

    Beyond nutritional composition, food structure is increasingly recognized to play a role in food health potential, notably in satiety and glycemic responses. Food structure is also highly dependent on processing conditions. The hypothesis for this study is, based on a data set of 98 ready-to-eat foods, that the degree of food processing would correlate with the satiety index (SI) and glycemic response. Glycemic response was evaluated according to two indices: the glycemic index (GI) and a newly designed index, the glycemic glucose equivalent (GGE). The GGE indicates how a quantity of a certain food affects blood glucose levels by identifying the amount of food glucose that would have an effect equivalent to that of the food. Then, foods were clustered within three processing groups based on the international NOVA classification: (1) raw and minimally processed foods; (2) processed foods; and (3) ultra-processed foods. Ultra-processed foods are industrial formulations of substances extracted or derived from food and additives, typically with five or more and usually many (cheap) ingredients. The data were correlated by nonparametric Spearman's rank correlation coefficient on quantitative data. The main results show strong correlations between GGE, SI and the degree of food processing, while GI is not correlated with the degree of processing. Thus, the more food is processed, the higher the glycemic response and the lower its satiety potential. The study suggests that complex, natural, minimally and/or processed foods should be encouraged for consumption rather than highly unstructured and ultra-processed foods when choosing weakly hyperglycemic and satiating foods.

  10. Biotransformation of ginsenoside Rd in the ginseng extraction residue by fermentation with lingzhi (Ganoderma lucidum).

    PubMed

    Hsu, Bo Yang; Lu, Ting Jang; Chen, Chia Hui; Wang, Shing Jung; Hwang, Lucy Sun

    2013-12-15

    Ginseng and lingzhi (Ganoderma lucidum) both are valuable traditional Chinese medicines and have been extensively utilised in functional foods and traditional medicines in many Asian countries. However, massive quantity of ginseng residue is produced after extraction of ginseng which still contains a lot of bioactive compounds such as ginsenosides. The goal of this study was to reuse the American ginseng extraction residue as the fermentation medium of G. lucidum to produce bioactive ginsenoside enriched biotransformation products. The changes of ginsenosides in the fermentation products were analysed during fermentation. Our results showed that after 30 days of fermentation, ginsenoside Rg1, Rd, and compound K (CK) significantly increased, especially Rd, while other ginsenosides (Re, Rb1 and Rc) decreased during fermentation. Ginsenoside Rd is the major ginsenoside in the final fermentation product. Furthermore, the biotransformation of ginsenosides was the major reaction in this fermentation process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Biogas production of Chicken Manure by Two-stage fermentation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin Yuan; Wang, Jing Jing; Nie, Jia Min; Wu, Nan; Yang, Fang; Yang, Ren Jie

    2018-06-01

    This paper performs a batch experiment for pre-acidification treatment and methane production from chicken manure by the two-stage anaerobic fermentation process. Results shows that the acetate was the main component in volatile fatty acids produced at the end of pre-acidification stage, accounting for 68% of the total amount. The daily biogas production experienced three peak period in methane production stage, and the methane content reached 60% in the second period and then slowly reduced to 44.5% in the third period. The cumulative methane production was fitted by modified Gompertz equation, and the kinetic parameters of the methane production potential, the maximum methane production rate and lag phase time were 345.2 ml, 0.948 ml/h and 343.5 h, respectively. The methane yield of 183 ml-CH4/g-VSremoved during the methane production stage and VS removal efficiency of 52.7% for the whole fermentation process were achieved.

  12. The interactive effect of fungicide residues and yeast assimilable nitrogen on fermentation kinetics and hydrogen sulfide production during cider fermentation.

    PubMed

    Boudreau, Thomas F; Peck, Gregory M; O'Keefe, Sean F; Stewart, Amanda C

    2017-01-01

    Fungicide residues on fruit may adversely affect yeast during cider fermentation, leading to sluggish or stuck fermentation or the production of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), which is an undesirable aroma compound. This phenomenon has been studied in grape fermentation but not in apple fermentation. Low nitrogen availability, which is characteristic of apples, may further exacerbate the effects of fungicides on yeast during fermentation. The present study explored the effects of three fungicides: elemental sulfur (S 0 ) (known to result in increased H 2 S in wine); fenbuconazole (used in orchards but not vineyards); and fludioxonil (used in post-harvest storage of apples). Only S 0 led to increased H 2 S production. Fenbuconazole (≥0.2 mg L -1 ) resulted in a decreased fermentation rate and increased residual sugar. An interactive effect of yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) concentration and fenbuconazole was observed such that increasing the YAN concentration alleviated the negative effects of fenbuconazole on fermentation kinetics. Cidermakers should be aware that residual fenbuconazole (as low as 0.2 mg L -1 ) in apple juice may lead to stuck fermentation, especially when the YAN concentration is below 250 mg L -1 . These results indicate that fermentation problems attributed to low YAN may be caused or exacerbated by additional factors such as fungicide residues, which have a greater impact on fermentation performance under low YAN conditions. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Stabilization process in Saccharomyces intra and interspecific hybrids in fermentative conditions.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Través, Laura; Lopes, Christian A; Barrio, Eladio; Querol, Amparo

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated the genetic stabilization of artificial intra- (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and interspecific (S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii) hybrids under wine fermentative conditions. Large-scale transitions in genome size and genome reorganizations were observed during this process. Interspecific hybrids seem to need fewer generations to reach genetic stability than intraspecific hybrids. The largest number of molecular patterns recovered among the derived clones was observed for intraspecific hybrids, particularly for those obtained by rare-mating. Molecular marker analyses revealed that unstable clones could change during the industrial process to obtain active dry yeast. When no changes in molecular markers and ploidy were observed after this process, no changes in genetic composition were confirmed by comparative genome hybridization, considering the clone as a stable hybrid. According to our results, under these conditions, fermentation steps 3 and 5 (30-50 generations) would suffice to obtain genetically stable interspecific and intraspecific hybrids, respectively. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  14. Fermentation and recovery process for lactic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Tsai, S.P.; Moon, S.H.; Coleman, R.

    1995-11-07

    A method is described for converting starch to glucose and fermenting glucose to lactic acid, including simultaneous saccharification and fermentation through use of a novel consortium of bacterial strains. 2 figs.

  15. Probiotic potentials of yeasts isolated from some cereal-based Nigerian traditional fermented food products.

    PubMed

    Ogunremi, O R; Sanni, A I; Agrawal, R

    2015-09-01

    To determine the starter culture and multifunctional potentials of yeast strains from some cereal-based Nigerian traditional fermented food products. Yeast isolates were screened for enzyme production and identified by sequencing the D1/D2 region of 26S rDNA. Pichia kluyveri LKC17, Issatchenkia orientalis OSL11, Pichia kudriavzevii OG32, Pichia kudriavzevii ROM11 and Candida tropicalis BOM21 exhibited the highest protease, lipase and phytase activity. They were selected and further evaluated for gastrointestinal survival and adherence ability. Although strain-specific, they retained viability at 37°C and showed survival at pH 2·0., I. orientalis OSL11 showed the highest survival at 2% bile salts concentration and P. kudriavzevii ROM11 showed the least survival. The yeast strains showed strong autoaggregation ability (81·24-91·85%) and hydrophobicity to n-hexadecane (33·61-42·30%). The highest co-aggregation ability was detected for P. kudriavzevii OG32 and Escherichia coli (71·57%). All the yeast strains removed cholesterol in the range of 49·03-74·05% over 48 h and scavenged for free radicals in methanol reaction system. In this study, we isolated new yeast strains with multifunctional potentials that can be used as functional starter cultures to produce cereal-based probiotic products. The development of probiotic yeast strains as starter culture to improve the quality attributes and confer functional value on cereal-based traditional fermented foods is beneficial. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Probiotic fermented sausage: viability of probiotic microorganisms and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rouhi, M; Sohrabvandi, S; Mortazavian, A M

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are from functional foods that bring health benefits for humans. Nowadays, a major development in functional foods is related to food containing probiotic cultures, mainly lactic acid bacteria or bifidobacteria. Probiotics must be alive and ingested in sufficient amounts to exert the positive effects on the health and the well-being of the host. Therefore, viability of probiotic products (the minimum viable probiotic cells in each gram or milliliter of product till the time of consumption) is their most important characteristic. However, these organisms often show poor viability in fermented products due to their detrimental conditions. Today, the variety of fermented meat products available around the world is nearly equal to that of cheese. With meat products, raw fermented sausages could constitute an appropriate vehicle for such microorganisms into the human gastrointestinal tract. In present article, the viability of probiotic microorganisms in fermented sausage, the main factors affect their viability, and the sensorial characteristics of final product are discussed.

  17. Effect of Cultivar, Temperature, and Environmental Conditions on the Dynamic Change of Melatonin in Mulberry Fruit Development and Wine Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Yin, Li-Yuan; Shi, Xue-Ying; Xiao, Hua; Kang, Kun; Liu, Xing-Yan; Zhan, Ji-Cheng; Huang, Wei-Dong

    2016-04-01

    High levels of melatonin have been reported in various foods but not in mulberry or its wine. This study investigated the dynamic changes of melatonin levels during mulberry fruit development and ethanol fermentation of 2 different colored mulberry cultivars ("Hongguo2ˮ Morus nigra, black and "Baiyuwangˮ Morus alba, white) at 2 fermentation temperatures (16 and 25 °C). Our results showed that the melatonin level increased in the beginning of mulberry development but decreased in the end. The MnTDC gene expression level correlated with melatonin production, which implied that TDC may be the rate-limiting enzyme of the melatonin biosynthetic process in mulberries. During mulberry fermentation, the melatonin concentration increased rapidly in the beginning and then decreased gradually. Low temperature delayed the melatonin production during fermentation. A relatively high level of melatonin was found in "Hongguo2ˮ compared with "Baiyuwangˮ during fruit development and fermentation. The variation of melatonin correlated with the ethanol production rate, suggesting that melatonin may participate in physiological regulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the fermentation stage. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Electro-Fermentation - Merging Electrochemistry with Fermentation in Industrial Applications.

    PubMed

    Schievano, Andrea; Pepé Sciarria, Tommy; Vanbroekhoven, Karolien; De Wever, Heleen; Puig, Sebastià; Andersen, Stephen J; Rabaey, Korneel; Pant, Deepak

    2016-11-01

    Electro-fermentation (EF) merges traditional industrial fermentation with electrochemistry. An imposed electrical field influences the fermentation environment and microbial metabolism in either a reductive or oxidative manner. The benefit of this approach is to produce target biochemicals with improved selectivity, increase carbon efficiency, limit the use of additives for redox balance or pH control, enhance microbial growth, or in some cases enhance product recovery. We discuss the principles of electrically driven fermentations and how EF can be used to steer both pure culture and microbiota-based fermentations. An overview is given on which advantages EF may bring to both existing and innovative industrial fermentation processes, and which doors might be opened in waste biomass utilization towards added-value biorefineries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Relationship between fermentation index and other biochemical changes evaluated during the fermentation of Mexican cocoa (Theobroma cacao) beans.

    PubMed

    Romero-Cortes, Teresa; Salgado-Cervantes, Marco Antonio; García-Alamilla, Pedro; García-Alvarado, Miguel Angel; Rodríguez-Jimenes, Guadalupe del C; Hidalgo-Morales, Madeleine; Robles-Olvera, Víctor

    2013-08-15

    During traditional cocoa processing, the end of fermentation is empirically determined by the workers; consequently, a high variability on the quality of fermented cocoa beans is observed. Some physicochemical properties (such as fermentation index) have been used to measure the degree of fermentation and changes in quality, but only after the fermentation process has concluded, using dried cocoa beans. This would suggest that it is necessary to establish a relationship between the chemical changes inside the cocoa bean and the fermentation conditions during the fermentation in order to standardize the process. Cocoa beans were traditionally fermented inside wooden boxes, sampled every 24 h and analyzed to evaluate fermentation changes in complete bean, cotyledon and dried beans. The value of the fermentation index suggested as the minimal adequate (≥1) was observed at 72 h in all bean parts analyzed. At this time, values of pH, spectral absorption, total protein hydrolysis and vicilin-class globulins of fermented beans suggested that they were well fermented. Since no difference was found between the types of samples, the pH value could be used as a first indicator of the end of the fermentation and confirmed by evaluation of the fermentation index using undried samples, during the process. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. [Analysis of changes in minerals contents during cider fermentation process by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Ye, Meng-qi; Yue, Tian-li; Gao, Zhen-peng; Yuan, Ya-hong; Nie, Gang

    2015-01-01

    The changes in mineral elements during cider fermentation process were determined using ICP-MS. The results showed that the main minerals in the fermentation liquor included K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Sr and B. The content of K was the highest in both the apple juice and the cider, being 1 853. 83 and 1 654. 38 mg . L-1 respectively. The content of minerals was in dynamic changes along with the fermentation process. As a whole, during 72-120 h and 144-216 h, most of the minerals contents underwent great fluctuation. Especially when fermented for 192 h, the content of most of the minerals reached peak value or valley value. The content of Fe and Zn achieved their peak value, while the content of K, Na, Ca, Mg, Mn and B achieved valley value. But during the following 24 h, the content of minerals underwent a sharp reversal. After fermentation, the content of K, Mg, Cu, Zn and B decreased significantly, while the content of Na, Ca, Mn, Fe and Sr did not change significantly. The correlational analysis was conducted to evaluate the correlation between the mineral elements, and the result showed that the correlation between Ca and Mn was the most significant, with the correlation index reaching 0. 924. The information of this study will supply sufficient data for the fermentation process control and quality improvement of cider.

  1. Modeling of acetate-type fermentation of sugar-containing wastewater under acidic pH conditions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liang; Pan, Xin-Rong; Wang, Ya-Zhou; Li, Chen-Xuan; Chen, Chang-Bin; Zhao, Quan-Bao; Mu, Yang; Yu, Han-Qing; Li, Wen-Wei

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a kinetic model was developed based on Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 to provide insights into the directed production of acetate and methane from sugar-containing wastewater under low pH conditions. The model sufficiently described the dynamics of liquid-phase and gaseous products in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor by comprehensively considering the syntrophic bioconversion steps of sucrose hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis under acidic pH conditions. The modeling results revealed a significant pH-dependency of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and ethanol-producing processes that govern the sucrose fermentative pathway through changing the hydrogen yield. The reaction thermodynamics of such acetate-type fermentation were evaluated, and the implications for process optimization by adjusting the hydraulic retention time were discussed. This work sheds light on the acid-stimulated acetate-type fermentation process and may lay a foundation for optimization of resource-oriented processes for treatment of food wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cognitive processing of food rewards.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Suzanne

    2016-09-01

    Cues associated with tasty foods, such as their smell or taste, are strong motivators of eating, but the power of food cues on behaviour varies from moment to moment and from person to person. Variation in the rewarding value of a food with metabolic state explains why food cues are more attractive when hungry. However, cognitive processes are also important determinants of our responses to food cues. An urge to consume a tempting food may be resisted if, for example, a person has a longer term goal of weight loss. There is also evidence that responses to food cues can be facilitated or inhibited by memory processes. The aim of this review is to add to the literature on cognitive control of eating by reviewing recent evidence on the influence of working memory and episodic memory processes on responses to food cues. It is argued that processing of food information in working memory affects how much attention is paid to food cues in the environment and promotes the motivation to seek out food in the absence of direct contact with food cues. It is further argued that memories of specific recent eating episodes play an important role in directing food choices and influencing when and how much we eat. However, these memory processes are prone to disruption. When this happens, eating behaviour may become more cue-driven and less flexible. In the modern food environment, disruption of cognitive processing of food reward cues may lead to overconsumption and obesity. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Resistant starch derived from processed legumes: in vitro and in vivo fermentation characteristics.

    PubMed

    Mahadevamma, S; Shamala, T R; Tharanathan, R N

    2004-08-01

    The effect of processing of legumes on resistant starch formation, its rate of fermentation and the production of short chain fatty acids under in vitro and in vivo systems was assessed. The content of resistant starch in pressure-cooked Bengal gram, black gram and red gram was 3.59%, 1.58% and 3.34%, respectively. Fermentation in vitro of resistant starch derived from processed red gram showed higher amount of short chain fatty acids (2.38 mmol), especially butyric acid (2.22 mmol). Under in vivo conditions (in albino rats) all processed legumes showed a higher faecal bulking, and more short chain fatty acids, with a significant increase in the anaerobic bacterial counts. Compared with a processed legume diet, the caecum of animals fed a raw diet showed a preponderance of propionic acid.

  4. Improvement of the antioxidant and hypolipidaemic effects of cowpea flours (Vigna unguiculata) by fermentation: results of in vitro and in vivo experiments.

    PubMed

    Kapravelou, Garyfallia; Martínez, Rosario; Andrade, Ana M; López Chaves, Carlos; López-Jurado, María; Aranda, Pilar; Arrebola, Francisco; Cañizares, Francisco J; Galisteo, Milagros; Porres, Jesús M

    2015-04-01

    The antioxidant capacity and hypolipidaemic effects of Vigna unguiculata, as well as their potential improvement by different fermentation and thermal processes were studied using in vitro and in vivo methods. Phenolic content and reducing capacity of legume acetone extract were significantly increased by different fermentation processes, and by the thermal treatment of fermented legume flours. TBARS inhibiting capacity was increased by fermentation but not by thermal treatment. A higher ability to decrease Cu(2+)/H2O2-induced electrophoretic mobility of LDL was found in fermented when compared to raw legume extracts, and a higher protective effect on short term metabolic status of HT-29 cells was found for raw and lactobacillus-fermented Vigna followed by naturally fermented Vigna extracts. Significant improvements in plasma antioxidant capacity and hepatic activity of antioxidant enzymes were observed in rats that consumed fermented legume flours when compared to the untreated legume or a casein-methionine control diet. In addition, liver weight and plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were also positively affected by untreated or naturally fermented Vigna. V. unguiculata has demonstrated its potential as a functional food with interesting antioxidant and lipid lowering properties, which can be further augmented by fermentation processes associated or not to thermal processing. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Optimization of fermentation parameters to study the behavior of selected lactic cultures on soy solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez de Olmos, A; Bru, E; Garro, M S

    2015-03-02

    The use of solid fermentation substrate (SSF) has been appreciated by the demand for natural and healthy products. Lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria play a leading role in the production of novel functional foods and their behavior is practically unknown in these systems. Soy is an excellent substrate for the production of functional foods for their low cost and nutritional value. The aim of this work was to optimize different parameters involved in solid state fermentation (SSF) using selected lactic cultures to improve soybean substrate as a possible strategy for the elaboration of new soy food with enhanced functional and nutritional properties. Soy flour and selected lactic cultures were used under different conditions to optimize the soy SSF. The measured responses were bacterial growth, free amino acids and β-glucosidase activity, which were analyzed by applying response surface methodology. Based on the proposed statistical model, different fermentation conditions were raised by varying the moisture content (50-80%) of the soy substrate and temperature of incubation (31-43°C). The effect of inoculum amount was also investigated. These studies demonstrated the ability of selected strains (Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei and Bifidobacterium longum) to grow with strain-dependent behavior on the SSF system. β-Glucosidase activity was evident in both strains and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei was able to increase the free amino acids at the end of fermentation under assayed conditions. The used statistical model has allowed the optimization of fermentation parameters on soy SSF by selected lactic strains. Besides, the possibility to work with lower initial bacterial amounts to obtain results with significant technological impact was demonstrated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Gamma-aminobutyric acid fermentation with date residue by a lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus brevis.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Momoko; Yamane, Daisuke; Funato, Kouichi; Yoshida, Atsushi; Sambongi, Yoshihiro

    2018-03-01

    Dates are commercially consumed as semi-dried fruit or processed into juice and puree for further food production. However, the date residue after juice and puree production is not used, although it appears to be nutrient enriched. Here, date residue was fermented by a lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus brevis, which has been generally recognized as safe. Through degradation of sodium glutamate added to the residue during the fermentation, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which reduces neuronal excitability, was produced at the conversion rate of 80-90% from glutamate. In order to achieve this GABA production level, pretreatment of the date residue with carbohydrate-degrading enzymes, i.e., cellulase and pectinase, was necessary. All ingredients used for this GABA fermentation were known as being edible. These results provide us with a solution for the increasing commercial demand for GABA in food industry with the use of date residue that has been often discarded. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Investigation of the instability and low water kefir grain growth during an industrial water kefir fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Laureys, David; Van Jean, Amandine; Dumont, Jean; De Vuyst, Luc

    2017-04-01

    A poorly performing industrial water kefir production process consisting of a first fermentation process, a rest period at low temperature, and a second fermentation process was characterized to elucidate the causes of its low water kefir grain growth and instability. The frozen-stored water kefir grain inoculum was thawed and reactivated during three consecutive prefermentations before the water kefir production process was started. Freezing and thawing damaged the water kefir grains irreversibly, as their structure did not restore during the prefermentations nor the production process. The viable counts of the lactic acid bacteria and yeasts on the water kefir grains and in the liquors were as expected, whereas those of the acetic acid bacteria were high, due to the aerobic fermentation conditions. Nevertheless, the fermentations progressed slowly, which was caused by excessive substrate concentrations resulting in a high osmotic stress. Lactobacillus nagelii, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Bifidobacterium aquikefiri, Gluconobacter roseus/oxydans, Gluconobacter cerinus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Zygotorulaspora florentina were the most prevalent microorganisms. Lb. hilgardii, the microorganism thought to be responsible for water kefir grain growth, was not found culture-dependently, which could explain the low water kefir grain growth of this industrial process.

  8. Contemporary food technology and its impact on cuisine.

    PubMed

    Lupien, John R; Lin, Ding Xiao

    2004-01-01

    This article contains a general review of current food technologies and their effect on the quality and safety of foods. The uses of these technologies in the context of current and projected world population, urbanization prevention of food losses, preservation and trade of foods, domestically and internationally are briefly reviewed. Technologies discussed are related to food storage, refrigeration, frozen foods, milling and baking, canning, pickling, extrusion processes, fermentation, and to foods and food ingredients such as fruits and vegetables, animal products, fat and oils, canned products, and food additives.

  9. Fermentation Methods for Protein Enrichment of Cassava and Corn with Candida tropicalis

    PubMed Central

    Azoulay, Edgard; Jouanneau, Françoise; Bertrand, Jean-Claude; Raphael, Alain; Janssens, Jacques; Lebeault, Jean Michel

    1980-01-01

    Candida tropicalis grows on soluble starch, corn, and cassava powders without requiring that these substrates be previously hydrolyzed. C. tropicalis possesses the enzyme needed to hydrolyze starch, namely, an α-amylase. That property has been used to develop a fermentation process whereby C. tropicalis can be grown directly on corn or cassava powders so that the resultant mixture of biomass and residual corn or cassava contains about 20% protein, which represents a balanced diet for either animal fodder or human food. The fact that no extra enzymes are required to hydrolyze starch results in a particularly efficient way of improving the nutritional value of amylaceous products, through a single-step fermentation process. PMID:16345495

  10. A novel processed food classification system applied to Australian food composition databases.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, S A; Lacy, K E; Grimes, C A; Woods, J; Campbell, K J; Nowson, C A

    2017-08-01

    The extent of food processing can affect the nutritional quality of foodstuffs. Categorising foods by the level of processing emphasises the differences in nutritional quality between foods within the same food group and is likely useful for determining dietary processed food consumption. The present study aimed to categorise foods within Australian food composition databases according to the level of food processing using a processed food classification system, as well as assess the variation in the levels of processing within food groups. A processed foods classification system was applied to food and beverage items contained within Australian Food and Nutrient (AUSNUT) 2007 (n = 3874) and AUSNUT 2011-13 (n = 5740). The proportion of Minimally Processed (MP), Processed Culinary Ingredients (PCI) Processed (P) and Ultra Processed (ULP) by AUSNUT food group and the overall proportion of the four processed food categories across AUSNUT 2007 and AUSNUT 2011-13 were calculated. Across the food composition databases, the overall proportions of foods classified as MP, PCI, P and ULP were 27%, 3%, 26% and 44% for AUSNUT 2007 and 38%, 2%, 24% and 36% for AUSNUT 2011-13. Although there was wide variation in the classifications of food processing within the food groups, approximately one-third of foodstuffs were classified as ULP food items across both the 2007 and 2011-13 AUSNUT databases. This Australian processed food classification system will allow researchers to easily quantify the contribution of processed foods within the Australian food supply to assist in assessing the nutritional quality of the dietary intake of population groups. © 2017 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  11. Is there a potential consumer market for low-sodium fermented sausages?

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Bibiana A; Campagnol, Paulo C B; da Cruz, Adriano G; Morgano, Marcelo A; Wagner, Roger; Pollonio, Marise A R

    2015-05-01

    The NaCl levels in dry fermented sausages were reduced by 50% or were substituted with KCl, CaCl2 , or a blend of KCl and CaCl2 (1:1). The quality, safety, and the potential consumer market of dry fermented sausages were assessed. Neither 50% reduction of the NaCl content nor the substitution of 50% of the NaCl with KCl influenced the fermentation and maturation process. However, when CaCl2 was used as the substitute salt (50%), there was a significant decrease in pH, an increase in the water activity, and a decrease in lactic acid and micrococcus bacterial counts. Overall, the sensory acceptance decreased in dry fermented sausages with reduced sodium content. However, cluster analysis and internal preference mapping revealed potential for commercialization of samples with 50% of the NaCl content substituted with KCl or with a mixture of KCl and CaCl2 (1:1). © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Implementation and process analysis of pilot scale multi-phase anaerobic fermentation and digestion of faecal sludge in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Justin; Fanyin-Martin, Ato; Taher, Edris; Chandran, Kartik

    2017-01-01

    Background.  In Ghana, faecal sludge (FS) from on-site sanitation facilities is often discharged untreated into the environment, leading to significant insults to environmental and human health. Anaerobic digestion offers an attractive pathway for FS treatment with the concomitant production of energy in the form of methane. Another innovative option includes separating digestion into acidogenesis (production of volatile fatty acids (VFA)) and methanogenesis (production of methane), which could ultimately facilitate the production of an array of biofuels and biochemicals from the VFA. This work describes the development, implementation and modeling based analysis of a novel multiphase anaerobic fermentation-digestion process aimed at FS treatment in Kumasi, Ghana.  Methods.  A pilot-scale anaerobic fermentation process was implemented at the Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly’s Oti Sanitary Landfill Site at Adanse Dompoase.  The process consisted of six 10 m reactors in series, which were inoculated with bovine rumen and fed with fecal sludge obtained from public toilets.  The performance of the fermentation process was characterized in terms of both aqueous and gaseous variables representing the conversion of influent organic carbon to VFA as well as CH 4.  Using the operating data, the first-ever process model for FS fermentation and digestion was developed and calibrated, based on the activated sludge model framework. Results and Conclusions.  This work represents one of the first systematic efforts at integrated FS characterization and process modeling to enable anaerobic fermentation and digestion of FS. It is shown that owing to pre-fermentation of FS in public septage holding tanks, one could employ significantly smaller digesters (lower capital costs) or increased loading capabilities for FS conversion to biogas or VFA. Further, using the first-ever calibrated process model for FS fermentation and digestion presented herein, we expect improved and more

  13. Implementation and process analysis of pilot scale multi-phase anaerobic fermentation and digestion of faecal sludge in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Shih, Justin; Fanyin-Martin, Ato; Taher, Edris; Chandran, Kartik

    2017-11-06

    Background.  In Ghana, faecal sludge (FS) from on-site sanitation facilities is often discharged untreated into the environment, leading to significant insults to environmental and human health. Anaerobic digestion offers an attractive pathway for FS treatment with the concomitant production of energy in the form of methane. Another innovative option includes separating digestion into acidogenesis (production of volatile fatty acids (VFA)) and methanogenesis (production of methane), which could ultimately facilitate the production of an array of biofuels and biochemicals from the VFA. This work describes the development, implementation and modeling based analysis of a novel multiphase anaerobic fermentation-digestion process aimed at FS treatment in Kumasi, Ghana.  Methods.  A pilot-scale anaerobic fermentation process was implemented at the Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly's Oti Sanitary Landfill Site at Adanse Dompoase.  The process consisted of six 10 m reactors in series, which were inoculated with bovine rumen and fed with fecal sludge obtained from public toilets.  The performance of the fermentation process was characterized in terms of both aqueous and gaseous variables representing the conversion of influent organic carbon to VFA as well as CH 4 .  Using the operating data, the first-ever process model for FS fermentation and digestion was developed and calibrated, based on the activated sludge model framework. Results and Conclusions.  This work represents one of the first systematic efforts at integrated FS characterization and process modeling to enable anaerobic fermentation and digestion of FS. It is shown that owing to pre-fermentation of FS in public septage holding tanks, one could employ significantly smaller digesters (lower capital costs) or increased loading capabilities for FS conversion to biogas or VFA. Further, using the first-ever calibrated process model for FS fermentation and digestion presented herein, we expect improved and more

  14. Histamine and Tyramine in Food.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    normal constituents of many foods and have been found in cheese; sauerkraut; wine; fish; and putrid, aged or fermented meats. These low molecular...constituents of many foods and have been found in cheese; sauerkraut; wine; fish; and putrid, aged, or fermented meats. These low molecular weight organic...amounts of tyramine and histamine, formation of large amounts of these amines has been reported only in aged, fermented products or products such as

  15. Butanol production from food waste: a novel process for producing sustainable energy and reducing environmental pollution

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Efficient utilization of food waste for fuel and chemical production can positively influence both the energy and environmental sustainability. In these studies we investigated use of food waste to produce butanol by Clostridium beijerinckii P260. In control fermentation, 40.5 g/L of glucose (initia...

  16. Microbiological and biochemical survey on the transition of fermentative processes in Fukuyama pot vinegar brewing.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Sachiko; Furukawa, Soichi; Ogihara, Hirokazu; Kawarai, Taketo; Kitada, Chika; Komenou, Akiko; Yamasaki, Makari

    2010-06-01

    Traditional brewing of Fukuyama pot vinegar is a process that has been continued in Fukuyama, Kagoshima, Japan, for almost 200 years. The entire process proceeds from raw materials, including steamed rice, rice koji (steamed rice grown with a fungus, Aspergillus oryzae) and water, to produce vinegar in roughly capped large pots laid in the open air. No special fermentative manipulation is required, except for scattering dried rice koji (called furi-koji) on the surface of the mash to form a cap-like mat on the surface at the start of brewing. As the biochemical mechanism of the natural transition of the fermentative processes during brewing has not been fully explained, we conducted a microbiological and biochemical study on the transition. First, a distinct biochemical change was observed in the brewing of spring preparation; that is, a sharp decline in pH from 6.5 to 3.5 within the first 5 days of brewing was observed due to lactic acid fermentation. Alcoholic fermentation also proceeded with a sharp increase to 4.5% ethanol within the first 5 days under the acidic conditions, suggesting that saccharification and both fermentations proceed in parallel. Acidic conditions and ethanol accumulation restricted the growth of most microorganisms in the mash, and in turn provided a favorable growth condition for acetic acid bacteria which are acid resistant and "ethanol-philic." Acetic acid was detected from day 16 and gradually increased in concentration, reaching a maximum of 7% at day 70 that was maintained thereafter. Empirically furi-koji naturally sinks into the mash after around day 40 by an unknown mechanism, allowing acetic acid bacteria to easily form pellicles on the mash surface and promoting efficient acetic acid fermentation. Dominant microbial species involved in the three fermentations were identified by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis using PCR-amplified defined-regions of small rDNA from microorganisms in the brewing mash or colony

  17. Antihyperglycemic and anti-inflammatory effects of fermented food paste in high-fat diet and streptozotocin-challenged mice

    PubMed Central

    Zulkawi, Noraisyah; Ng, Kam Heng; Zamberi, Nur Rizi; Yeap, Swee Keong; Satharasinghe, Dilan A; Tan, Sheau Wei; Ho, Wan Yong; Abd Rashid, Nur Yuhasliza; Md Lazim, Mohd Izwan; Jamaluddin, Anisah; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Long, Kamariah

    2018-01-01

    Background Fermented food has been widely consumed as health food to ameliorate or prevent several chronic diseases including diabetes. Xeniji™, a fermented food paste (FFP), has been previously reported with various bioactivities, which may be caused by the presence of several metabolites including polyphenolic acids, flavonoids, and vitamins. In this study, the anti-hyperglycemic and anti-inflammatory effects of FFP were assessed. Methods In this study, type 2 diabetes model mice were induced by streptozotocin and high-fat diet (HFD) and used to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and anti-inflammatory effects of FFP. Mice were fed with HFD and challenged with 30 mg/kg body weight (BW) of streptozotocin for 1 month followed by 6 weeks of supplementation with 0.1 and 1.0 g/kg BW of FFP. Metformin was used as positive control treatment. Results Xeniji™-supplemented hyperglycemic mice were recorded with lower glucose level after 6 weeks of duration. This effect was contributed by the improvement of insulin sensitivity in the hyperglycemic mice indicated by the oral glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test, and end point insulin level. In addition, gene expression study has shown that the antihyperglycemic effect of FFP is related to the improvement of lipid and glucose metabolism in the mice. Furthermore, both 0.1 and 1 g/kg BW of FFP was able to reduce hyperglycemia-related inflammation indicated by the reduction of proinflammatory cytokines, NF-kB and iNOS gene expression and nitric oxide level. Conclusion FFP potentially demonstrated in vivo antihyperglycemic and anti-inflammatory effects on HFD and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. PMID:29872261

  18. Fermented fruits and vegetables of Asia: a potential source of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Swain, Manas Ranjan; Anandharaj, Marimuthu; Ray, Ramesh Chandra; Parveen Rani, Rizwana

    2014-01-01

    As world population increases, lactic acid fermentation is expected to become an important role in preserving fresh vegetables, fruits, and other food items for feeding humanity in developing countries. However, several fermented fruits and vegetables products (Sauerkraut, Kimchi, Gundruk, Khalpi, Sinki, etc.) have a long history in human nutrition from ancient ages and are associated with the several social aspects of different communities. Among the food items, fruits and vegetables are easily perishable commodities due to their high water activity and nutritive values. These conditions are more critical in tropical and subtropical countries which favour the growth of spoilage causing microorganisms. Lactic acid fermentation increases shelf life of fruits and vegetables and also enhances several beneficial properties, including nutritive value and flavours, and reduces toxicity. Fermented fruits and vegetables can be used as a potential source of probiotics as they harbour several lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus plantarum, L. pentosus, L. brevis, L. acidophilus, L. fermentum, Leuconostoc fallax, and L. mesenteroides. As a whole, the traditionally fermented fruits and vegetables not only serve as food supplements but also attribute towards health benefits. This review aims to describe some important Asian fermented fruits and vegetables and their significance as a potential source of probiotics.

  19. Fermented Fruits and Vegetables of Asia: A Potential Source of Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Ramesh Chandra

    2014-01-01

    As world population increases, lactic acid fermentation is expected to become an important role in preserving fresh vegetables, fruits, and other food items for feeding humanity in developing countries. However, several fermented fruits and vegetables products (Sauerkraut, Kimchi, Gundruk, Khalpi, Sinki, etc.) have a long history in human nutrition from ancient ages and are associated with the several social aspects of different communities. Among the food items, fruits and vegetables are easily perishable commodities due to their high water activity and nutritive values. These conditions are more critical in tropical and subtropical countries which favour the growth of spoilage causing microorganisms. Lactic acid fermentation increases shelf life of fruits and vegetables and also enhances several beneficial properties, including nutritive value and flavours, and reduces toxicity. Fermented fruits and vegetables can be used as a potential source of probiotics as they harbour several lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus plantarum, L. pentosus, L. brevis, L. acidophilus, L. fermentum, Leuconostoc fallax, and L. mesenteroides. As a whole, the traditionally fermented fruits and vegetables not only serve as food supplements but also attribute towards health benefits. This review aims to describe some important Asian fermented fruits and vegetables and their significance as a potential source of probiotics. PMID:25343046

  20. High-dose processing and application to Korean space foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Beom-Seok; Park, Jin-Gyu; Park, Jae-Nam; Han, In-Jun; Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kang, Sang-Wook; Choi, Gi-Hyuk; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-07-01

    Nutrition bar, Ramen (ready-to-cook noodle), and two Korean traditional foods ( Kimchi, fermented vegetable; Sujeonggwa, cinnamon beverage) have been developed as space foods using high-dose gamma irradiation. Addition of calcium lactate and vitamin C, a mild heating, deep-freezing, and gamma irradiation at 25 kGy were conducted to prepare Kimchi as a ready-to-eat space food. Sterilization of Space Kimchi (SK) was confirmed by a microbiological test. The hardness of the Space Kimchi was lower than the untreated Kimchi (CON), but higher than the irradiated only Kimchi. Sensory attributes of the SK were similar to CON, and maintained during preservation at 35 °C for 30 days. The optimal doses for eliminating the contaminated microbes and maintaining the qualities of the Nutrition bars, Ramen, and Sujeonggwa were determined at 15, 10 and 6 kGy, respectively. All the Korean space food were certificated for use in space flight conditions of 30 days by the Russian Institute for Biomedical Problems.

  1. Metabolomic Profiles of Aspergillus oryzae and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens During Rice Koji Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Da Eun; Lee, Sunmin; Jang, Eun Seok; Shin, Hye Won; Moon, Byoung Seok; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2016-06-14

    Rice koji, used early in the manufacturing process for many fermented foods, produces diverse metabolites and enzymes during fermentation. Using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS), ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography linear trap quadrupole ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-IT-MS/MS), and multivariate analysis we generated the metabolite profiles of rice koji produced by fermentation with Aspergillus oryzae (RK_AO) or Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (RK_BA) for different durations. Two principal components of the metabolomic data distinguished the rice koji samples according to their fermenter species and fermentation time. Several enzymes secreted by the fermenter species, including α-amylase, protease, and β-glucosidase, were assayed to identify differences in expression levels. This approach revealed that carbohydrate metabolism, serine-derived amino acids, and fatty acids were associated with rice koji fermentation by A. oryzae, whereas aromatic and branched chain amino acids, flavonoids, and lysophospholipids were more typical in rice koji fermentation by B. amyloliquefaciens. Antioxidant activity was significantly higher for RK_BA than for RK_AO, as were the abundances of flavonoids, including tricin, tricin glycosides, apigenin glycosides, and chrysoeriol glycosides. In summary, we have used MS-based metabolomics and enzyme activity assays to evaluate the effects of using different microbial species and fermentation times on the nutritional profile of rice koji.

  2. Oxygen and diverse nutrients influence the water kefir fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Laureys, David; Aerts, Maarten; Vandamme, Peter; De Vuyst, Luc

    2018-08-01

    Eight water kefir fermentation series differing in the presence of oxygen, the nutrient concentration, and the nutrient source were studied during eight consecutive backslopping steps. The presence of oxygen allowed the proliferation of acetic acid bacteria, resulting in high concentrations of acetic acid, and decreased the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium aquikefiri. Low nutrient concentrations resulted in slow water kefir fermentation and high pH values, which allowed the growth of Comamonas testosteroni/thiooxydans. Further, low nutrient concentrations favored the growth of Lactobacillus hilgardii and Dekkera bruxellensis, whereas high nutrient concentrations favored the growth of Lactobacillus nagelii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Dried figs, dried apricots, and raisins resulted in stable water kefir fermentation. Water kefir fermentation with dried apricots resulted in the highest pH and water kefir grain growth, whereas that with raisins resulted in the lowest pH and water kefir grain growth. Further, water kefir fermentation with raisins resembled fermentations with low nutrient concentrations, that with dried apricots resembled fermentations with normal nutrient concentrations, and that with fresh figs or a mixture of yeast extract and peptone resembled fermentations with high nutrient concentrations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of the addition of different nitrogen sources in the tequila fermentation process at high sugar concentration.

    PubMed

    Arrizon, J; Gschaedler, A

    2007-04-01

    To study the effect of the addition of different nitrogen sources at high sugar concentration in the tequila fermentation process. Fermentations were performed at high sugar concentration (170 g l(-1)) using Agave tequilana Weber blue variety with and without added nitrogen from different sources (ammonium sulfate; glutamic acid; a mixture of ammonium sulfate and amino acids) during the exponential phase of growth. All the additions increased the fermentation rate and alcohol efficiency. The level of synthesis of volatile compounds depended on the source added. The concentration of amyl alcohols and isobutanol were decreased while propanol and acetaldehyde concentration increased. The most efficient nitrogen sources for fermentation rate were ammonium sulfate and the mixture of ammonium sulfate and amino acids. The level of volatile compounds produced depended upon types of nitrogen. The synthesis of some volatile compounds increased while others decreased with nitrogen addition. The addition of nitrogen could be a strategy for improving the fermentation rate and efficiency in the tequila fermentation process at high sugar Agave tequilana concentration. Furthermore, the sensory quality of the final product may change because the synthesis of the volatile compounds is modified.

  4. Fermentation of Soybean Meal Hydrolyzates with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis for Ethanol Production.

    PubMed

    Luján-Rhenals, Deivis E; Morawicki, Rubén O; Gbur, Edward E; Ricke, Steven C

    2015-07-01

    Most of the ethanol currently produced by fermentation is derived from sugar cane, corn, or beets. However, it makes good ecological and economic sense to use the carbohydrates contained in by-products and coproducts of the food processing industry for ethanol production. Soybean meal, a co-product of the production of soybean oil, has a relatively high carbohydrate content that could be a reasonable substrate for ethanol production after fermentable sugars are released via hydrolysis. In this research, the capability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-2233 and Zymomonas mobilis subsp. mobilis NRRL B-4286 to produce ethanol was evaluated using soybean meal hydrolyzates as substrates for the fermentation. These substrates were produced from the dilute-acid hydrolysis of soybean meal at 135 °C for 45 min with 0, 0.5%, 1.25%, and 2% H2 SO4 and at 120 °C for 30 min with 1.25% H2 SO4 . Kinetic parameters of the fermentation were estimated using the logistic model. Ethanol production using S. cerevisiae was highest with the substrates obtained at 135 °C, 45 min, and 0.5% H2 SO4 and fermented for 8 h, 8 g/L (4 g ethanol/100 g fresh SBM), while Z. mobilis reached its maximum ethanol production, 9.2 g/L (4.6 g ethanol/100 g fresh SBM) in the first 20 h of fermentation with the same hydrolyzate. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Combination of electron beam irradiation and thermal treatment to enhance the shelf-life of traditional Indian fermented food (Idli)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulmule, Manoj D.; Shimmy, Shankar M.; Bambole, Vaishali; Jamdar, Sahayog N.; Rawat, K. P.; Sarma, K. S. S.

    2017-02-01

    Idli, a steam-cooked breakfast food item consumed in India, is famous as a staple food for its spongy texture and unique fermented taste. Idli preparation is a time consuming process; although instant Idli pre-mixes as powder or batter are available in the market, they do not have the distinctive taste and aroma similar to the Idli prepared at home. Hence ready-to-eat (RTE) form of this food is in demand. Therefore, an attempt was made to prepare RTE Idli bearing similar taste as home-cooked Idli with an extended shelf-life of up to two months at an ambient temperature using Electron Beam Irradiation (EBI) at dosages 2.5 kGy, 5 kGy and 7.5 kGy and combination processing comprised of EBI dosage at 2.5 kGy and thermal treatment (80 °C for 20 min). The treated Idli's were microbiologically and sensorially evaluated at storage periods of zero day, 14 days, 30 days and 60 days. Idli's irradiated at 7.5 kGy and subjected to combination processing at 2.5 kGy and thermal treatment were shelf-stable for 60 days. 2.5 kGy and 5 kGy radiation dosages alone were not sufficient to preserve Idli samples for more than 14 days. Undesirable change in sensory properties of Idli was observed at an EBI dosage of 7.5 kGy. Sensory properties of combination processed Idli's were found to undergo minor change over the storage period. The present work suggests that lowest radiation dosage in combination with thermal treatment could be useful to achieve the extended shelf-life without considerably impairing the organoleptic quality of Ready-to-Eat Idli.

  6. Polyhexamethyl biguanide can eliminate contaminant yeasts from fuel-ethanol fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Elsztein, Carolina; de Menezes, João Assis Scavuzzi; de Morais, Marcos Antonio

    2008-09-01

    Industrial ethanol fermentation is a non-sterile process and contaminant microorganisms can lead to a decrease in industrial productivity and significant economic loss. Nowadays, some distilleries in Northeastern Brazil deal with bacterial contamination by decreasing must pH and adding bactericides. Alternatively, contamination can be challenged by adding a pure batch of Saccharomyces cerevisiae-a time-consuming and costly process. A better strategy might involve the development of a fungicide that kills contaminant yeasts while preserving S. cerevisiae cells. Here, we show that polyhexamethyl biguanide (PHMB) inhibits and kills the most important contaminant yeasts detected in the distilleries of Northeastern Brazil without affecting the cell viability and fermentation capacity of S. cerevisiae. Moreover, some physiological data suggest that PHMB acts through interaction with the yeast membrane. These results support the development of a new strategy for controlling contaminant yeast population whilst keeping industrial yields high.

  7. Effects of fermentation time and low temperature during the production process of Thai pickled fish (pla-som) on the viability and infectivity of Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae.

    PubMed

    Onsurathum, Sudarat; Pinlaor, Porntip; Haonon, Ornuma; Chaidee, Apisit; Charoensuk, Lakhanawan; Intuyod, Kitti; Boonmars, Thidarut; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Pinlaor, Somchai

    2016-02-02

    Contamination of a popular fermented fish dish, pla-som, by Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae (OVMC) is a possible cause of carcinogenic liver fluke infection in Thailand. Affected individuals are at risk of bile duct cancer, which is a major health problem for people in the Greater Mekong Subregion. In order to investigate concerns about food safety, we studied the effects of fermentation time and low temperature on the viability and infectivity of OVMC during the pla-som production process. Pla-som was prepared at room temperature for up to 1 week in duplicate experiments using cyprinid freshwater fish obtained from an O. viverrini-endemic area. OVMC were then isolated and identified under a stereomicroscope. Complete and viable OVMC were found on days 1-4 of fermentation, while their morphology was degenerated thereafter. After OVMC were fed to hamsters, the percentage of the worm recovery after 1 to 2 months of infection was 52%, 44.7%, 11.3% and 1% for days 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. In order to measure the effect of low temperature on OVMC, fish were kept in a refrigerator (4 °C) for up to five days and then subsequently fermented for three days. In fish stored in a refrigerator for 1 and 2 days, viable OVMC were clearly observed and were able to infect hamsters, a worm-recovery percentage of 3.3% and 12.7%, respectively. By contrast, in pla-som prepared from fish stored for 3 to 5 days, OVMC were degenerated and could not infect the host. In conclusion, pla-som fermentation for more than four days and refrigerating fish for three days before pla-som processing can prevent O. viverrini infection. This study may increase awareness of fermented-fish dish preparation to prevent liver fluke infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization of the microbial diversity in yacon spontaneous fermentation at 20 °C.

    PubMed

    Reina, L D; Pérez-Díaz, I M; Breidt, F; Azcarate-Peril, M A; Medina, E; Butz, N

    2015-06-16

    The prebiotic fructooligosaccharide content of yacon makes this root an attractive alternative for the supplementation of a variety of food products. The preservation of yacon by fermentation has been proposed as an alternative to increase the probiotic content of the root concomitantly with its shelf life. Thus the fermented yacon could have significant functional content. The objective of this research was to characterize the biochemistry and microbiology of spontaneous yacon fermentation with 2% NaCl and define the viability of the proposed process. The biochemical analysis of spontaneous heterolactic fermentation of yacon showed a progressive drop in pH with increased lactic and acetic acids, and the production of mannitol during fermentation. The microbial ecology of yacon fermentation was investigated using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Bacterial cell counts revealed a dominance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) over yeasts, which were also present during the first 2 days of the fermentation. Results showed that the heterofermentative LAB were primarily Leuconostoc species, thus it presents a viable method to achieve long term preservation of this root. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Influence of yeast and lactic acid bacterium on the constituent profile of soy sauce during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Harada, Risa; Yuzuki, Masanobu; Ito, Kotaro; Shiga, Kazuki; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2017-02-01

    Soy sauce is a Japanese traditional seasoning composed of various constituents that are produced by various microbes during a long-term fermentation process. Due to the complexity of the process, the investigation of the constituent profile during fermentation is difficult. Metabolomics, the comprehensive study of low molecular weight compounds in biological samples, is thought to be a promising strategy for deep understanding of the constituent contribution to food flavor characteristics. Therefore, metabolomics is suitable for the analysis of soy sauce fermentation. Unfortunately, only few and unrefined studies of soy sauce fermentation using metabolomics approach have been reported. Therefore, we investigated changes in low molecular weight hydrophilic and volatile compounds of soy sauce using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based non-targeted metabolic profiling. The data were analyzed by statistical analysis to evaluate influences of yeast and lactic acid bacterium on the constituent profile. Consequently, our results suggested a novel finding that lactic acid bacterium affected the production of several constituents such as cyclotene, furfural, furfuryl alcohol and methional in the soy sauce fermentation process. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Ethanol production from banana peels using statistically optimized simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Oberoi, Harinder Singh; Vadlani, Praveen V; Saida, Lavudi; Bansal, Sunil; Hughes, Joshua D

    2011-07-01

    Dried and ground banana peel biomass (BP) after hydrothermal sterilization pretreatment was used for ethanol production using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize concentrations of cellulase and pectinase, temperature and time for ethanol production from BP using SSF. Analysis of variance showed a high coefficient of determination (R(2)) value of 0.92 for ethanol production. On the basis of model graphs and numerical optimization, the validation was done in a laboratory batch fermenter with cellulase, pectinase, temperature and time of nine cellulase filter paper unit/gram cellulose (FPU/g-cellulose), 72 international units/gram pectin (IU/g-pectin), 37 °C and 15 h, respectively. The experiment using optimized parameters in batch fermenter not only resulted in higher ethanol concentration than the one predicted by the model equation, but also saved fermentation time. This study demonstrated that both hydrothermal pretreatment and SSF could be successfully carried out in a single vessel, and use of optimized process parameters helped achieve significant ethanol productivity, indicating commercial potential for the process. To the best of our knowledge, ethanol concentration and ethanol productivity of 28.2 g/l and 2.3 g/l/h, respectively from banana peels have not been reported to date. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Isolation, selection and evaluation of yeasts for use in fermentation of coffee beans by the wet process.

    PubMed

    de Melo Pereira, Gilberto Vinícius; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Pandey, Ashok; Medeiros, Adriane Bianchi Pedroni; Andrade Lara, João Marcos Rodrigues; Gollo, André Luiz; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2014-10-01

    During wet processing of coffee, the ripe cherries are pulped, then fermented and dried. This study reports an experimental approach for target identification and selection of indigenous coffee yeasts and their potential use as starter cultures during the fermentation step of wet processing. A total of 144 yeast isolates originating from spontaneously fermenting coffee beans were identified by molecular approaches and screened for their capacity to grow under coffee-associated stress conditions. According to ITS-rRNA gene sequencing, Pichia fermentans and Pichia kluyveri were the most frequent isolates, followed by Candida Candida glabrata, quercitrusa, Saccharomyces sp., Pichia guilliermondii, Pichia caribbica and Hanseniaspora opuntiae. Nine stress-tolerant yeast strains were evaluated for their ability to produce aromatic compounds in a coffee pulp simulation medium and for their pectinolytic activity. P. fermentans YC5.2 produced the highest concentrations of flavor-active ester compounds (viz., ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate), while Saccharomyces sp. YC9.15 was the best pectinase-producing strain. The potential impact of these selected yeast strains to promote flavor development in coffee beverages was investigated for inoculating coffee beans during wet fermentation trials at laboratory scale. Inoculation of a single culture of P. fermentans YC5.2 and co-culture of P. fermentans YC5.2 and Saccharomyces sp. YC9.15 enhanced significantly the formation of volatile aroma compounds during the fermentation process compared to un-inoculated control. The sensory analysis indicated that the flavor of coffee beverages was influenced by the starter cultures, being rated as having the higher sensory scores for fruity, buttery and fermented aroma. This demonstrates a complementary role of yeasts associated with coffee quality through the synthesis of yeast-specific volatile constituents. The yeast strains P. fermentans YC5.2 and Saccharomyces sp. YC9.15 have a great

  12. Acidogenic fermentation of food waste for volatile fatty acid production with co-generation of biohydrogen.

    PubMed

    Dahiya, Shikha; Sarkar, Omprakash; Swamy, Y V; Venkata Mohan, S

    2015-04-01

    Fermentation experiments were designed to elucidate the functional role of the redox microenvironment on volatile fatty acid (VFA, short chain carboxylic acid) production and co-generation of biohydrogen (H2). Higher VFA productivity was observed at pH 10 operation (6.3g/l) followed by pH 9, pH 6, pH 5, pH 7, pH 8 and pH 11 (3.5 g/l). High degree of acidification, good system buffering capacity along with co-generation of higher H2 production from food waste was also noticed at alkaline condition. Experiments illustrated the role of initial pH on carboxylic acids synthesis. Alkaline redox conditions assist solubilization of carbohydrates, protein and fats and also suppress the growth of methanogens. Among the carboxylic acids, acetate fraction was higher at alkaline condition than corresponding neutral or acidic operations. Integrated process of VFA production from waste with co-generation of H2 can be considered as a green and sustainable platform for value-addition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Melatonin is synthesised by yeast during alcoholic fermentation in wines.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Naranjo, M Isabel; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Troncoso, Ana M; Cantos-Villar, Emma; Garcia-Parrilla, M Carmen

    2011-06-15

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a neurohormone produced in the pineal gland. Its biological properties are related to the circadian rhythm. Recently, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) accepted the health claim related to melatonin and the alleviation of subjective feelings of jet lag. This molecule has been detected in some foods. In this work, 13 grape varieties were studied; 7 monovarietal wines were produced in an experimental winery under strictly controlled conditions and were sampled in different steps. The grape varieties used to make the wines were: Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Syrah, Tempranillo, Tintilla de Rota, Palomino Fino and Alpha red. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) unequivocally confirmed the presence of melatonin in wines. The main contribution of this paper is the results that clearly show that melatonin is synthesised during the winemaking process, specifically after the alcoholic fermentation. Indeed, melatonin is absent in grapes and musts and is formed during alcoholic fermentation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fermentation of cellulosic materials to mycoprotein foods.

    PubMed

    Moo-Young, M; Chisti, Y; Vlach, D

    1993-01-01

    A new bioprocess is described in which a cellulolytic, food-grade fungus Neurospora sitophila converts cellulosic materials to protein-rich products for food and fodder. The optimal conditions for the conversion are identified: 35-37 degrees C temperature, pH 5.5, 2.35 ms(-1) agitator tip speed. Scale-up of the production process to 1,300 L is reported. The mycoprotein production data on several types of cellulosic materials (sugarcane bagasse, corn stover, wood cellulose) are presented. The performance of N. sitophila is found to compare favourably with that of Chaetomium cellulolyticum, another cellulolytic organism previously reported on by us.

  15. What Fermenter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, John

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the feasibility of using fermenters in secondary school laboratories. Includes discussions of equipment, safety, and computer interfacing. Describes how a simple fermenter could be used to simulate large-scale processes. Concludes that, although teachers and technicians will require additional training, the prospects for biotechnology in…

  16. Selection of starter cultures for the production of sour cassava starch in a pilot-scale fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Penido, Fernanda Corrêa Leal; Piló, Fernanda Barbosa; Sandes, Sávio Henrique de Cicco; Nunes, Álvaro Cantini; Colen, Gecernir; Oliveira, Evelyn de Souza; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Lacerda, Inayara Cristina Alves

    2018-02-28

    Sour cassava starch (Polvilho azedo) is obtained from a spontaneous fermentation conducted by microorganisms from raw materials and fermentation tanks. This product is traditionally used in the baking industry for the manufacture of biscuits and Brazilian cheese breads. However, the end of fermentation is evaluated empirically, and the process occurs without standardization, which results in products of inconsistent quality. Predominant microbiota from a cassava flour manufacturer was isolated in order to select starter cultures for the production of sour cassava starch in a pilot-scale fermentation process. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were isolated, enumerated and grouped by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism, and PCR fingerprinting, respectively. One isolate of each molecular profile was identified by sequencing of the rRNA gene. LAB were prevalent throughout the entire process. Lactobacillus brevis (21.5%), which produced the highest values of acidity, and Lactobacillus plantarum (13.9%) were among the most frequent species. Pichia scutulata (52.2%) was the prevalent yeast and showed amylolytic activity. The aforementioned species were tested as single and mixed starter cultures in a pilot-scale fermentation process for 28 days. L. plantarum exhibited better performance as a starter culture, which suggests its potential for the production of sour cassava starch. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Sabah snake grass extract pre-processing: Preliminary studies in drying and fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solibun, A.; Sivakumar, K.

    2016-06-01

    Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. F.) Lindau which also known as ‘Sabah Snake Grass’ among Malaysians have been studied in terms of its medicinal and chemical properties in Asian countries which is used to treat various diseases from cancer to viral-related diseases such as varicella-zoster virus lesions. Traditionally, this plant has been used by the locals to treat insect and snake bites, skin rashes, diabetes and dysentery. In Malaysia, the fresh leaves of this plant are usually boiled with water and consumed as herbal tea. The objectives of this study are to determine the key process parameters for Sabah Snake Grass fermentation which affect the chemical and biological constituent concentrations within the tea, extraction kinetics of fermented and unfermented tea and the optimal process parameters for the fermentation of this tea. Experimental methods such as drying, fermenting and extraction of C.nutans leaves were conducted before subjecting them to analysis of antioxidant capacity. Conventional oven- dried (40, 45 and 50°C) and fermented (6, 12 and 18 hours) whole C.nutans leaves were subjected to tea infusion extraction (water temperature was 80°C, duration was 90 minutes) and the sample liquid was extracted for every 5th, 10th, 15th, 25th, 40th, 60th and 90th minute. Analysis for antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content (TPC) were conducted by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-pycryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocaltheu reagent, respectively. The 40°C dried leaves sample produced the highest phenolic content at 0.1344 absorbance value in 15 minutes of extraction while 50°C dried leaves sample produced 0.1298 absorbance value in 10 minutes of extraction. The highest antioxidant content was produced by 50°C dried leaves sample with absorbance value of 1.6299 in 5 minutes of extraction. For 40°C dried leaves sample, the highest antioxidant content could be observed in 25 minutes of extraction with the absorbance value of 1.1456. The largest diameter of disc

  18. Second meal effect on appetite and fermentation of wholegrain rye foods.

    PubMed

    Ibrügger, Sabine; Vigsnæs, Louise Kristine; Blennow, Andreas; Skuflić, Dan; Raben, Anne; Lauritzen, Lotte; Kristensen, Mette

    2014-09-01

    Wholegrain rye has been associated with decreased hunger sensations. This may be partly mediated by colonic fermentation. Sustained consumption of fermentable components is known to change the gut microflora and may increase numbers of saccharolytic bacteria. To investigate the effect of wholegrain rye consumption on appetite and colonic fermentation after a subsequent meal. In a randomized, controlled, three-arm cross-over study, twelve healthy male subjects consumed three iso-caloric evening test meals. The test meals were based on white wheat bread (WBB), wholegrain rye kernel bread (RKB), or boiled rye kernels (RK). Breath hydrogen excretion and subjective appetite sensation were measured before and at 30 min intervals for 3 h after a standardized breakfast in the subsequent morning. After the 3 h, an ad libitum lunch meal was served to assess energy intake. In an in vitro study, RKB and RK were subjected to digestion and 24 h-fermentation in order to study SCFA production and growth of selected saccharolytic bacteria. The test meals did not differ in their effect on parameters of subjective appetite sensation the following day. Ad libitum energy intake at lunch was, however, reduced by 11% (P < 0.01) after RKB and 7% (P < 0.05) after RK compared with after WWB evening meal. Breath hydrogen excretion was significantly increased following RKB and RK evening meals compared with WWB (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). Overall, RKB and RK were readily fermented in vitro and exhibited similar fermentation profiles, although total SCFA production was higher for RK compared with RKB (P < 0.001). In vitro fermentation of RKB and RK both increased the relative quantities of Bifidobacterium and decreased Bacteroides compared with inoculum (P < 0.001). The C. coccoides group was reduced after RKB (P < 0.001). Consumption of wholegrain rye products reduced subsequent ad libitum energy intake in young healthy men, possibly mediated by

  19. Phylogenetic analysis of Bacillus subtilis strains applicable to natto (fermented soybean) production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spore-forming Bacillus strains that produce extracellular poly-'-glutamic acid were screened for their application to natto (fermented soybean food) fermentation. Among the 365 strains, including B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens, which we isolated from rice straw, 59 were capable of fermenting n...

  20. Production of lactic acid from sucrose: strain selection, fermentation, and kinetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Lunelli, Betânia H; Andrade, Rafael R; Atala, Daniel I P; Wolf Maciel, Maria Regina; Maugeri Filho, Francisco; Maciel Filho, Rubens

    2010-05-01

    Lactic acid is an important product arising from the anaerobic fermentation of sugars. It is used in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, chemical, and food industries as well as for biodegradable polymer and green solvent production. In this work, several bacterial strains were isolated from industrial ethanol fermentation, and the most efficient strain for lactic acid production was selected. The fermentation was conducted in a batch system under anaerobic conditions for 50 h at a temperature of 34 degrees C, a pH value of 5.0, and an initial sucrose concentration of 12 g/L using diluted sugarcane molasses. Throughout the process, pulses of molasses were added in order to avoid the cell growth inhibition due to high sugar concentration as well as increased lactic acid concentrations. At the end of the fermentation, about 90% of sucrose was consumed to produce lactic acid and cells. A kinetic model has been developed to simulate the batch lactic acid fermentation results. The data obtained from the fermentation were used for determining the kinetic parameters of the model. The developed model for lactic acid production, growth cell, and sugar consumption simulates the experimental data well.

  1. Research on On-Line Modeling of Fed-Batch Fermentation Process Based on v-SVR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yongjun

    The fermentation process is very complex and non-linear, many parameters are not easy to measure directly on line, soft sensor modeling is a good solution. This paper introduces v-support vector regression (v-SVR) for soft sensor modeling of fed-batch fermentation process. v-SVR is a novel type of learning machine. It can control the accuracy of fitness and prediction error by adjusting the parameter v. An on-line training algorithm is discussed in detail to reduce the training complexity of v-SVR. The experimental results show that v-SVR has low error rate and better generalization with appropriate v.

  2. Effect of handling and processing on pesticide residues in food- a review.

    PubMed

    Bajwa, Usha; Sandhu, Kulwant Singh

    2014-02-01

    Pesticides are one of the major inputs used for increasing agricultural productivity of crops. The pesticide residues, left to variable extent in the food materials after harvesting, are beyond the control of consumer and have deleterious effect on human health. The presence of pesticide residues is a major bottleneck in the international trade of food commodities. The localization of pesticides in foods varies with the nature of pesticide molecule, type and portion of food material and environmental factors. The food crops treated with pesticides invariably contain unpredictable amount of these chemicals, therefore, it becomes imperative to find out some alternatives for decontamination of foods. The washing with water or soaking in solutions of salt and some chemicals e.g. chlorine, chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, ozone, acetic acid, hydroxy peracetic acid, iprodione and detergents are reported to be highly effective in reducing the level of pesticides. Preparatory steps like peeling, trimming etc. remove the residues from outer portions. Various thermal processing treatments like pasteurization, blanching, boiling, cooking, steaming, canning, scrambling etc. have been found valuable in degradation of various pesticides depending upon the type of pesticide and length of treatment. Preservation techniques like drying or dehydration and concentration increase the pesticide content many folds due to concentration effect. Many other techniques like refining, fermentation and curing have been reported to affect the pesticide level in foods to varied extent. Milling, baking, wine making, malting and brewing resulted in lowering of pesticide residue level in the end products. Post harvest treatments and cold storage have also been found effective. Many of the decontamination techniques bring down the concentration of pesticides below MRL. However, the diminution effect depends upon the initial concentration at the time of harvest, substrate/food and type of

  3. Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for the Production of Bacteriocin Fermentate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-30

    pentosaceus 43200 were obtained from ATCC. Lactobacillus (L.) plantarum NCDO 955, which was used as an indicator organism, and a strain of pediocin-producing...Development of food grade media for the preparation of Lactobacillus plantarum starter culture. J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol. 52: 349-356. Shurtleff, W...MEDIA FERMENTATION BROTH SAFETY INHIBITION BACTERIOCINS LACTOBACILLUS ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS

  4. Cocoa pulp in beer production: Applicability and fermentative process performance.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Cassiane da Silva Oliveira; de Carvalho, Giovani Brandão Mafra; da Silva, Marília Lordêlo Cardoso; da Silva, Gervásio Paulo; Machado, Bruna Aparecida Souza; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula Trovatti

    2017-01-01

    This work evaluated the effect of cocoa pulp as a malt adjunct on the parameters of fermentation for beer production on a pilot scale. For this purpose, yeast isolated from the spontaneous fermentation of cachaça (SC52), belonging to the strain bank of the State University of Feira de Santana-Ba (Brazil), and a commercial strain of ale yeast (Safale S-04 Belgium) were used. The beer produced was subjected to acceptance and purchase intention tests for sensorial analysis. At the beginning of fermentation, 30% cocoa pulp (adjunct) was added to the wort at 12°P concentration. The production of beer on a pilot scale was carried out in a bioreactor with a 100-liter capacity, a usable volume of 60 liters, a temperature of 22°C and a fermentation time of 96 hours. The fermentation parameters evaluated were consumption of fermentable sugars and production of ethanol, glycerol and esters. The beer produced using the adjunct and yeast SC52 showed better fermentation performance and better acceptance according to sensorial analysis.

  5. Cocoa pulp in beer production: Applicability and fermentative process performance

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Giovani Brandão Mafra; da Silva, Gervásio Paulo

    2017-01-01

    This work evaluated the effect of cocoa pulp as a malt adjunct on the parameters of fermentation for beer production on a pilot scale. For this purpose, yeast isolated from the spontaneous fermentation of cachaça (SC52), belonging to the strain bank of the State University of Feira de Santana-Ba (Brazil), and a commercial strain of ale yeast (Safale S-04 Belgium) were used. The beer produced was subjected to acceptance and purchase intention tests for sensorial analysis. At the beginning of fermentation, 30% cocoa pulp (adjunct) was added to the wort at 12°P concentration. The production of beer on a pilot scale was carried out in a bioreactor with a 100-liter capacity, a usable volume of 60 liters, a temperature of 22°C and a fermentation time of 96 hours. The fermentation parameters evaluated were consumption of fermentable sugars and production of ethanol, glycerol and esters. The beer produced using the adjunct and yeast SC52 showed better fermentation performance and better acceptance according to sensorial analysis. PMID:28419110

  6. Consumers' conceptualization of ultra-processed foods.

    PubMed

    Ares, Gastón; Vidal, Leticia; Allegue, Gimena; Giménez, Ana; Bandeira, Elisa; Moratorio, Ximena; Molina, Verónika; Curutchet, María Rosa

    2016-10-01

    Consumption of ultra-processed foods has been associated with low diet quality, obesity and other non-communicable diseases. This situation makes it necessary to develop educational campaigns to discourage consumers from substituting meals based on unprocessed or minimally processed foods by ultra-processed foods. In this context, the aim of the present work was to investigate how consumers conceptualize the term ultra-processed foods and to evaluate if the foods they perceive as ultra-processed are in concordance with the products included in the NOVA classification system. An online study was carried out with 2381 participants. They were asked to explain what they understood by ultra-processed foods and to list foods that can be considered ultra-processed. Responses were analysed using inductive coding. The great majority of the participants was able to provide an explanation of what ultra-processed foods are, which was similar to the definition described in the literature. Most of the participants described ultra-processed foods as highly processed products that usually contain additives and other artificial ingredients, stressing that they have low nutritional quality and are unhealthful. The most relevant products for consumers' conceptualization of the term were in agreement with the NOVA classification system and included processed meats, soft drinks, snacks, burgers, powdered and packaged soups and noodles. However, some of the participants perceived processed foods, culinary ingredients and even some minimally processed foods as ultra-processed. This suggests that in order to accurately convey their message, educational campaigns aimed at discouraging consumers from consuming ultra-processed foods should include a clear definition of the term and describe some of their specific characteristics, such as the type of ingredients included in their formulation and their nutritional composition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Lactic acid fermentation from food waste with indigenous microbiota: Effects of pH, temperature and high OLR.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jialing; Wang, Xiaochang; Hu, Yisong; Zhang, Yongmei; Li, Yuyou

    2016-06-01

    The effects of pH, temperature and high organic loading rate (OLR) on lactic acid production from food waste without extra inoculum addition were investigated in this study. Using batch experiments, the results showed that although the hydrolysis rate increased with pH adjustment, the lactic acid concentration and productivity were highest at pH 6. High temperatures were suitable for solubilization but seriously restricted the acidification processes. The highest lactic acid yield (0.46g/g-TS) and productivity (278.1mg/Lh) were obtained at 37°C and pH 6. In addition, the lactic acid concentration gradually increased with the increase in OLR, and the semi-continuous reactor could be stably operated at an OLR of 18g-TS/Ld. However, system instability, low lactic acid yield and a decrease in VS removal were noticed at high OLRs (22g-TS/Ld). The concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in the fermentation mixture were relatively low but slightly increased with OLR, and acetate was the predominant VFA component. Using high-throughput pyrosequencing, Lactobacillus from the raw food waste was found to selectively accumulate and become dominant in the semi-continuous reactor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Agave tequilana age, cultivation field location and yeast strain on tequila fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Pinal, L; Cornejo, E; Arellano, M; Herrera, E; Nuñez, L; Arrizon, J; Gschaedler, A

    2009-05-01

    The effect of yeast strain, the agave age and the cultivation field location of agave were evaluated using kinetic parameters and volatile compound production in the tequila fermentation process. Fermentations were carried out with Agave juice obtained from two cultivation fields (CF1 and CF2), as well as two ages (4 and 8 years) and two Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains (GU3 and AR5) isolated from tequila fermentation must. Sugar consumption and ethanol production varied as a function of cultivation field and agave age. The production of ethyl acetate, 1-propanol, isobutanol and amyl alcohols were influenced in varying degrees by yeast strain, agave age and cultivation field. Methanol production was only affected by the agave age and 2-phenylethanol was influenced only by yeast strain. This work showed that the use of younger Agave tequilana for tequila fermentation resulted in differences in sugar consumption, ethanol and volatile compounds production at the end of fermentation, which could affect the sensory quality of the final product.

  9. Microbial community structure in fermentation process of Shaoxing rice wine by Illumina-based metagenomic sequencing.

    PubMed

    Xie, Guangfa; Wang, Lan; Gao, Qikang; Yu, Wenjing; Hong, Xutao; Zhao, Lingyun; Zou, Huijun

    2013-09-01

    To understand the role of the community structure of microbes in the environment in the fermentation of Shaoxing rice wine, samples collected from a wine factory were subjected to Illumina-based metagenomic sequencing. De novo assembly of the sequencing reads allowed the characterisation of more than 23 thousand microbial genes derived from 1.7 and 1.88 Gbp of sequences from two samples fermented for 5 and 30 days respectively. The microbial community structure at different fermentation times of Shaoxing rice wine was revealed, showing the different roles of the microbiota in the fermentation process of Shaoxing rice wine. The gene function of both samples was also studied in the COG database, with most genes belonging to category S (function unknown), category E (amino acid transport and metabolism) and unclassified group. The results show that both the microbial community structure and gene function composition change greatly at different time points of Shaoxing rice wine fermentation. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Of enzyme use in cost-effective high solid simultaneous saccharification and fermentation processes.

    PubMed

    Sóti, Valentin; Lenaerts, Silvia; Cornet, Iris

    2018-03-20

    Enzyme cost is considered to be one of the most significant factors defining the final product price in lignocellulose hydrolysis and fermentation. Enzyme immobilization and recycling can be a tool to decrease costs. However, high solid loading is a key factor towards high product titers, and recovery of immobilized enzymes from this thick liquid is often overlooked. This paper aims to evaluate the economic feasibility of immobilized enzymes in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of lignocellulose biomass in general, as well as the recuperation of magnetic immobilized enzymes (m-CLEAs) during high solid loading in simultaneous saccharification, detoxification and fermentation processes (SSDF) of lignocellulose biomass. Enzyme prices were obtained from general cost estimations by Klein-Marcuschamer et al. [Klein-Marcuschamer et al. (2012) Biotechnol. Bioeng. 109, 1083-1087]. During enzyme cost analysis, the influence of inoculum recirculation as well as a shortened fermentation time was explored. Both resulted in 15% decrease of final enzyme product price. Enzyme recuperation was investigated experimentally and 99.5 m/m% of m-CLEAs was recovered from liquid medium in one step, while 88 m/m% could still be recycled from a thick liquid with high solid concentrations (SSF fermentation broth). A mathematical model was constructed to calculate the cost of immobilized and free enzyme utilization and showed that, with current process efficiencies and commercial enzyme prices, the cost reduction obtained by enzyme immobilization can reach around 60% compared to free enzyme utilization, while lower enzyme prices will result in a lower percentage of immobilization related savings, but overall enzyme costs will decrease significantly. These results are applied in a case study, estimating the viability of shifting from sugar to lignocellulose substrate for a 100 t lactic acid fermentation batch. It was concluded that it will only be economically feasible

  11. Hydrogen production from sugar beet juice using an integrated biohydrogen process of dark fermentation and microbial electrolysis cell.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Bipro Ranjan; Elbeshbishy, Elsayed; Hafez, Hisham; Lee, Hyung-Sool

    2015-12-01

    An integrated dark fermentation and microbial electrochemical cell (MEC) process was evaluated for hydrogen production from sugar beet juice. Different substrate to inoculum (S/X) ratios were tested for dark fermentation, and the maximum hydrogen yield was 13% of initial COD at the S/X ratio of 2 and 4 for dark fermentation. Hydrogen yield was 12% of initial COD in the MEC using fermentation liquid end products as substrate, and butyrate only accumulated in the MEC. The overall hydrogen production from the integrated biohydrogen process was 25% of initial COD (equivalent to 6 mol H2/mol hexoseadded), and the energy recovery from sugar beet juice was 57% using the combined biohydrogen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Modeling of an integrated fermentation/membrane extraction process for the production of 2-phenylethanol and 2-phenylethylacetate.

    PubMed

    Adler, Philipp; Hugen, Thorsten; Wiewiora, Marzena; Kunz, Benno

    2011-03-07

    An unstructured model for an integrated fermentation/membrane extraction process for the production of the aroma compounds 2-phenylethanol and 2-phenylethylacetate by Kluyveromyces marxianus CBS 600 was developed. The extent to which this model, based only on data from the conventional fermentation and separation processes, provided an estimation of the integrated process was evaluated. The effect of product inhibition on specific growth rate and on biomass yield by both aroma compounds was approximated by multivariate regression. Simulations of the respective submodels for fermentation and the separation process matched well with experimental results. With respect to the in situ product removal (ISPR) process, the effect of reduced product inhibition due to product removal on specific growth rate and biomass yield was predicted adequately by the model simulations. Overall product yields were increased considerably in this process (4.0 g/L 2-PE+2-PEA vs. 1.4 g/L in conventional fermentation) and were even higher than predicted by the model. To describe the effect of product concentration on product formation itself, the model was extended using results from the conventional and the ISPR process, thus agreement between model and experimental data improved notably. Therefore, this model can be a useful tool for the development and optimization of an efficient integrated bioprocess. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A new perspective on microbial landscapes within food production

    PubMed Central

    Bokulich, Nicholas A; Lewis, Zachery T; Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Mills, David A

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput, ‘next-generation’ sequencing tools offer many exciting new possibilities for food research. From investigating microbial dynamics within food fermentations to the ecosystem of the food-processing built environment, amplicon sequencing, metagenomics, and transcriptomics present novel applications for exploring microbial communities in, on, and around our foods. This review discusses the many uses of these tools for food-related and food facility-related research and highlights where they may yield nuanced insight into the microbial world of food production systems. PMID:26773388

  14. Degradation of endogenous and exogenous genes of genetically modified rice with Cry1Ab during food processing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Xing, Fuguo; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Liu, Yang

    2014-05-01

    In order to assess the degradation of endogenous and exogenous genes during food processing, genetically modified rice with Cry1Ab was used as raw material to produce 4 processed foods: steamed rice, rice noodles, rice crackers, and sweet rice wine. The results showed various processing procedures caused different degrees of degradation of both endogenous and exogenous genes. During the processing of steamed rice and rice noodles, the procedures were so mild that only genes larger than 1500 bp were degraded, and no degradation of NOS terminator and Hpt gene was detected. For rice crackers, frying was the most severe procedure, followed by microwaving, baking, boiling, 1st drying, and 2nd drying. For sweet rice wine, fermentation had more impact on degradation of genes than the other processing procedures. All procedures in this study did not lead to degradation of genes to below 200 bp, except for NOS terminator. In the case of stability of the genes studied during processing of rice crackers and sweet rice wine, SPS gene was the most, followed by the Cry1Ab gene, Hpt gene, Pubi promoter, and NOS terminator. In our study, we gained some information about the degradation of endogenous and exogenous genes during 4 foods processing, compared the different stabilities between endogenous and exogenous genes, and analyzed different effects of procedure on degradation of genes. In addition, the fragments of endogenous and exogenous genes about 200 bp could be detected in final products, except NOS terminator. As a result, we provided some base information about risk assessment of genetically modified (GM) food and appropriate length of fragment to detect GM component in processed foods. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae - Combining kinetic modeling and optimization techniques points out avenues to effective process design.

    PubMed

    Scheiblauer, Johannes; Scheiner, Stefan; Joksch, Martin; Kavsek, Barbara

    2018-09-14

    A combined experimental/theoretical approach is presented, for improving the predictability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentations. In particular, a mathematical model was developed explicitly taking into account the main mechanisms of the fermentation process, allowing for continuous computation of key process variables, including the biomass concentration and the respiratory quotient (RQ). For model calibration and experimental validation, batch and fed-batch fermentations were carried out. Comparison of the model-predicted biomass concentrations and RQ developments with the corresponding experimentally recorded values shows a remarkably good agreement for both batch and fed-batch processes, confirming the adequacy of the model. Furthermore, sensitivity studies were performed, in order to identify model parameters whose variations have significant effects on the model predictions: our model responds with significant sensitivity to the variations of only six parameters. These studies provide a valuable basis for model reduction, as also demonstrated in this paper. Finally, optimization-based parametric studies demonstrate how our model can be utilized for improving the efficiency of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Illumina sequencing-based analyses of bacterial communities during short-chain fatty-acid production from food waste and sewage sludge fermentation at different pH values.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Weixiao; Chen, Hong; Yan, ShuHai; Su, Jianqiang

    2014-09-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) can be produced by primary and waste activated sludge anaerobic fermentation. The yield and product spectrum distribution of SCFAs can be significantly affected by different initial pH values. However, most studies have focused on the physical and chemical aspects of SCFA production by waste activated sludge fermentation at different pH values. Information on the bacterial community structures during acidogenic fermentation is limited. In this study, comparisons of the bacterial communities during the co-substrate fermentation of food wastes and sewage sludge at different pH values were performed using the barcoded Illumina paired-end sequencing method. The results showed that different pH environments harbored a characteristic bacterial community, including sequences related to Lactobacillus, Prevotella, Mitsuokella, Treponema, Clostridium, and Ureibacillus. The most abundant bacterial operational taxonomic units in the different pH environments were those related to carbohydrate-degrading bacteria, which are associated with constituents of co-substrate fermentation. Further analyses showed that during organic matter fermentation, a core microbiota composed of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes existed. Comparison analyses revealed that the bacterial community during fermentation was significantly affected by the pH, and that the diverse product distribution was related to the shift in bacterial communities.

  17. Improved Release and Metabolism of Flavonoids by Steered Fermentation Processes: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen Thai, Huynh; Van Camp, John; Smagghe, Guy; Raes, Katleen

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview on steered fermentation processes to release phenolic compounds from plant-based matrices, as well as on their potential application to convert phenolic compounds into unique metabolites. The ability of fermentation to improve the yield and to change the profile of phenolic compounds is mainly due to the release of bound phenolic compounds, as a consequence of the degradation of the cell wall structure by microbial enzymes produced during fermentation. Moreover, the microbial metabolism of phenolic compounds results in a large array of new metabolites through different bioconversion pathways such as glycosylation, deglycosylation, ring cleavage, methylation, glucuronidation and sulfate conjugation, depending on the microbial strains and substrates used. A whole range of metabolites is produced, however metabolic pathways related to the formation and bioactivities, and often quantification of the metabolites are highly underinvestigated. This strategy could have potential to produce extracts with a high-added value from plant-based matrices. PMID:25347275

  18. Biofuels from food processing wastes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhanying; O'Hara, Ian M; Mundree, Sagadevan; Gao, Baoyu; Ball, Andrew S; Zhu, Nanwen; Bai, Zhihui; Jin, Bo

    2016-04-01

    Food processing industry generates substantial high organic wastes along with high energy uses. The recovery of food processing wastes as renewable energy sources represents a sustainable option for the substitution of fossil energy, contributing to the transition of food sector towards a low-carbon economy. This article reviews the latest research progress on biofuel production using food processing wastes. While extensive work on laboratory and pilot-scale biosystems for energy production has been reported, this work presents a review of advances in metabolic pathways, key technical issues and bioengineering outcomes in biofuel production from food processing wastes. Research challenges and further prospects associated with the knowledge advances and technology development of biofuel production are discussed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Traditional biotechnology for new foods and beverages.

    PubMed

    Hugenholtz, Jeroen

    2013-04-01

    The food and beverage industry is re-discovering fermentation as a crucial step in product innovation. Fermentation can provide various benefits such as unique flavor, health and nutrition, texture and safety (shelf life), while maintaining a 100% natural label. In this review several examples are presented on how fermentation is used to replace, modify or improve current, artificially produced, foods and beverages and how also fermentation can be used for completely novel consumer products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The potential of species-specific tagatose-6-phosphate (T6P) pathway in Lactobacillus casei group for galactose reduction in fermented dairy foods.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qinglong; Shah, Nagendra P

    2017-04-01

    Residual lactose and galactose in fermented dairy foods leads to several industrial and health concerns. There is very little information pertaining to manufacture of fermented dairy foods that are low in lactose and galactose. In the present study, comparative genomic survey demonstrated the constant presence of chromosome-encoded tagatose-6-phosphate (T6P) pathway in Lactobacillus casei group. Lactose/galactose utilization tests and β-galactosidase assay suggest that PTS Gal system, PTS Lac system and T6P pathway are major contributors for lactose/galactose catabolism in this group of organisms. In addition, it was found than lactose catabolism by Lb. casei group accumulated very limited galactose in the MRS-lactose medium and in reconstituted skim milk, whereas Streptococcus thermophilus and Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (Lb. bulgaricus) strains secreted high amount of galactose extracellularly. Moreover, co-culturing Lb. casei group with Str. thermophilus showed significant reduction in galactose content, while co-culturing Lb. casei group with Lb. bulgaricus showed significant reduction in lactose content but significant increase in galactose content in milk. Overall, the present study highlighted the potential of Lb. casei group for reducing galactose accumulation in fermented milks due to its species-specific T6P pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ultrafiltration of hemicellulose hydrolysate fermentation broth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Desiriani, Ria; Wenten, I. G.

    2017-03-01

    Hemicelulosic material is often used as the main substrate to obtain high-value products such as xylose. The five carbon sugar, xylose, could be further processed by fermentation to produce xylitol. However, not only the hemicellulose hydrolysate fermentation broth contains xylitol, but also metabolite products, residual substances, biomass and mineral salts. Therefore, in order to obtain the end products, various separation processes are required to separate and purify the desired product from the fermentation broth. One of the most promising downstream processing methods of fermentation broth clarification is ultrafiltration due to its potential for energy saving and higher purity. In addition, ultrafiltration membrane has a high performance in separating inhibitory components in the fermentation broth. This paper assesses the influence of operating conditions; including trans-membrane pressure, velocity, pH of the fermentation broth solutions, and also to the xylitol concentration in the product. The challenges of the ultrafiltration process will be pointed out.

  2. Biogenic amines in dry fermented sausages: a review.

    PubMed

    Suzzi, Giovanna; Gardini, Fausto

    2003-11-15

    Biogenic amines are compounds commonly present in living organisms in which they are responsible for many essential functions. They can be naturally present in many foods such as fruits and vegetables, meat, fish, chocolate and milk, but they can also be produced in high amounts by microorganisms through the activity of amino acid decarboxylases. Excessive consumption of these amines can be of health concern because their not equilibrate assumption in human organism can generate different degrees of diseases determined by their action on nervous, gastric and intestinal systems and blood pressure. High microbial counts, which characterise fermented foods, often unavoidably lead to considerable accumulation of biogenic amines, especially tyramine, 2-phenylethylamine, tryptamine, cadaverine, putrescine and histamine. However, great fluctuations of amine content are reported in the same type of product. These differences depend on many variables: the quali-quantitative composition of microbial microflora, the chemico-physical variables, the hygienic procedure adopted during production, and the availability of precursors. Dry fermented sausages are worldwide diffused fermented meat products that can be a source of biogenic amines. Even in the absence of specific rules and regulations regarding the presence of these compounds in sausages and other fermented products, an increasing attention is given to biogenic amines, especially in relation to the higher number of consumers with enhanced sensitivity to biogenic amines determined by the inhibition of the action of amino oxidases, the enzymes involved in the detoxification of these substances. The aim of this paper is to give an overview on the presence of these compounds in dry fermented sausages and to discuss the most important factors influencing their accumulation. These include process and implicit factors as well as the role of starter and nonstarter microflora growing in the different steps of sausage production

  3. Comparison of biotransformation of inorganic selenium by Lactobacillus and Saccharomyces in lactic fermentation process of yogurt and kefir.

    PubMed

    Alzate, A; Fernández-Fernández, A; Pérez-Conde, M C; Gutiérrez, A M; Cámara, C

    2008-09-24

    The aim of the present study was to characterize, quantify, and compare the different selenium species that are produced when lactic fermentation with two different types of microorganisms, bacteria (Lactobacillus) and yeast (Saccharomyces), take place to produce yogurt and kefir, respectively, and to study the transformation process of these species as a function of time. These two dairy products were chosen for the study because they are highly consumed in different cultures. Moreover, the microorganisms present in the fermentation processes are different. While the bacteria Lactobacillus is the one responsible for yogurt fermentation, a partnership between bacteria and the yeast Saccharomyces causes kefir fermentation. A comparative study has been carried out by fermenting Se(IV) enriched milk in the presence of both types of microorganisms, where the concentration range studied was from 0.5 to 20 microg g (-1). Enzymatic extraction enabled selenium speciation profiles, obtained by anionic exchange and ion-pairing reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (IP-RP-HPLC) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) applied to the enriched samples showed segregated Se (0), at added concentrations higher than 5 microg g (-1). The main Se species formed depended on the type of microorganism involved in the fermentation process, SeCys 2 and MeSeCys being the main species generated in yogurt and SeMet in kefir. The results obtained are different for both kinds of samples. Lactic fermentation for yogurt produced an increment in selenocystine (SeCys 2) and Se-methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys), while fermentation to produce kefir also incremented the selenomethionine (SeMet) concentration. The Se species are stable for at least 10 and 15 days for kefir and yogurt, respectively. After this period, selenocystine concentration decreased, and the concentration of Se-methylselenocysteine was found to

  4. A new perspective on microbial landscapes within food production.

    PubMed

    Bokulich, Nicholas A; Lewis, Zachery T; Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Mills, David A

    2016-02-01

    High-throughput, 'next-generation' sequencing tools offer many exciting new possibilities for food research. From investigating microbial dynamics within food fermentations to the ecosystem of the food-processing built environment, amplicon sequencing, metagenomics, and transcriptomics present novel applications for exploring microbial communities in, on, and around our foods. This review discusses the many uses of these tools for food-related and food facility-related research and highlights where they may yield nuanced insight into the microbial world of food production systems. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Tyramine and β-phenylethylamine, from fermented food products, as agonists for the human trace amine-associated receptor 1 (hTAAR1) in the stomach.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Hiroto; Takebe, Youhei; Murakami, Yuka; Takahama, Yusei; Morimura, Shigeru

    2017-05-01

    The aromatic amines tyramine and β-phenylethylamine are abundant in fermented foods. Recently, a family of human trace amine-associated receptors (hTAARs) was discovered that responds to these compounds. This study examined the expression of hTAAR genes in five human organs. Among them, the stomach expressed hTAAR1 and hTAAR9. Interestingly, more hTAAR1 was expressed in the pylorus than in the other stomach regions. The CRE-SEAP reporter assay revealed that only hTAAR1 functioned as a G s -coupled receptor in response to tyramine and β-phenylethylamine stimulation. The β-phenylethylamine-mediated hTAAR1 activity could be potentiated using 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine. These data suggest that tyramine and β-phenylethylamine in fermented foods act at hTAAR1 as agonists in the pylorus of stomach.

  6. Effect of Microbial Interaction on Urea Metabolism in Chinese Liquor Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qun; Lin, Jianchun; Cui, Kaixiang; Du, Rubin; Zhu, Yang; Xu, Yan

    2017-12-20

    Urea is the primary precursor of the carcinogen ethyl carbamate in fermented foods. Understanding urea metabolism is important for controlling ethyl carbamate production. Using Chinese liquor as a model system, we used metatranscriptome analysis to investigate urea metabolism in spontaneous food fermentation processes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was dominant in gene transcription for urea biosynthesis and degradation. Lysinibacillus sphaericus was dominant for urea degradation. S. cerevisiae degraded 18% and L. sphaericus degraded 13% of urea in their corresponding single cultures, whereas they degraded 56% of urea in coculture after 12 h. Compared to single cultures, transcription of CAR1, DAL2, and argA, which are related to urea biosynthesis, decreased by 51, 36, and 69% in coculture, respectively. Transcription of DUR1 and ureA, which are related to urea degradation, increased by 227 and 70%, respectively. Thus, coexistence of the two strains promoted degradation of urea via transcriptional regulation of genes related to urea metabolism.

  7. Oxidative stability of fermented meat products.

    PubMed

    Wójciak, Karolina M; Dolatowski, Zbigniew J

    2012-04-02

    Meat and meat products, which form a major part of our diet, are very susceptible to quality changes resulting from oxidative processes. Quality of fermented food products depends on the course of various physicochemical and biochemical processes. Oxidation of meat components in raw ripening products may be the result of enzymatic changes occurring as a result of activity of enzymes originating in tissues and microorganisms, as well as lipid peroxidation by free radicals. Primary and secondary products of lipid oxidation are extremely reactive and react with other components of meat, changing their physical and chemical properties. Oxidised proteins take on a yellowish, red through brown hue. Products of lipid and protein degradation create a specific flavour and aroma ; furthermore, toxic substances (such as biogenic amines or new substances) are formed as a result of interactions between meat components, e.g. protein-lipid or protein-protein combinations, as well as transverse bonds in protein structures. Oxidation of meat components in raw ripening products is a particularly difficult process. On the one hand it is essential, since the enzymatic and non-enzymatic lipid oxidation creates flavour and aroma compounds characteristic for ripening products; on the other hand excessive amounts or transformations of those compounds may cause the fermented meat product to become a risk to health.

  8. Brazilian Kefir-Fermented Sheep's Milk, a Source of Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Peptides.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Meire Dos Santos Falcão; da Silva, Roberto Afonso; da Silva, Milena Fernandes; da Silva, Paulo Alberto Bezerra; Costa, Romero Marcos Pedrosa Brandão; Teixeira, José António Couto; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo; Cavalcanti, Maria Taciana Holanda

    2017-12-28

    Fermented milks are a source of bioactive peptides and may be considered as functional foods. Among these, sheep's milk fermented with kefir has not been widely studied and its most relevant properties need to be more thoroughly characterized. This research study is set out to investigate and evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of peptides from fermented sheep's milk in Brazil when produced by using kefir. For this, the chemical and microbiological composition of the sheep's milk before and after the fermentation was evaluated. The changes in the fermented milk and the peptides extracted before the fermentation and in the fermented milk during its shelf life were verified. The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the peptides from the fermented milk were evaluated and identified according to the literature. The physicochemical properties and mineral profile of the fermented milk were like those of fresh milk. The peptide extract presented antimicrobial activity and it was detected that 13 of the 46 peptides were able to inhibit the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. A high antioxidant activity was observed in the peptides extracted from fermented milk (3.125 mg/mL) on the 28th day of storage. Two fractions displayed efficient radical scavenging properties by DPPH and ABTS methods. At least 11 peptides distributed in the different fractions were identified by tandem mass spectrometry. This sheep's milk fermented by Brazilian kefir grains, which has antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and probiotic microorganisms, is a good candidate for further investigation as a source for bioactive peptides. The fermentation process was thus a means by which to produce potential bioactive peptides.

  9. Metaproteomics of Microbiota in Naturally Fermented Soybean Paste, Da-jiang.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Pengfei; Xie, Mengxi; An, Feiyu; Qiu, Boshu; Wu, Rina

    2018-05-01

    Da-jiang is a typical traditional fermented soybean product in China. At present, the proteins in da-jiang are needed to be explored. The composition and species of microbial proteins in traditional fermented da-jiang were analyzed by metaproteomics based on sodium dodecyl sulfonate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The results showed that the number and variety of microbial proteins in the traditional fermented da-jiang from different regions were different. The production site influences the fermentation in da-jiang. Then we analyzed the functions of the microbial proteins identified in da-jiang, and found that they were mainly involved in the process of protein synthesis, glycometabolism and nucleic acid synthesis. In addtion, we compared the proteins composition in different da-jiang. There are 51 common proteins of naturally fermented da-jiang, and 25 common microbial sources. The main commonly microbial sources of fungal proteins are Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces; the main commonly microbial sources of bacterial proteins are Enterococcus faecalis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Bacillus subtilis. These common microbes play the predominant role in da-jiang fermentation. The present results help us to understand the fermentation of da-jiang and improve the quality and safety of final products in the future. The study illustrated metaproteome of microbiota in traditional fermented soybean paste, da-jiang, by sodium dodecyl sulfonate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A method of extracting metaproteome from microbiota in da-jiang was attempted. The findings help to understand the fermentation of da-jiang and improve the quality and safety of da-jiang in fermented industry. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  10. Biohythane system using two steps of POME fermentation process for supplying electrical energi : economic evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuldian, P.; Hastuti, Z. D.; Murti, S. D. S.; Adiarso

    2018-03-01

    Indonesia as the largest producer of palm oil in the world has the prospective to generate additional benefits such as electricity by utilizing Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME). The high Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) content of 35,000 ppm POME is a great potential for conversion to hydrogen and methane through a fermentation process. In this study, two stages of fermentation using a microbial consortium have been performed in the 1 m3 BioHythane reactor system to produce biohydrogen and biomethane. After two-stage fermentation process for 24 hours in this system, the microbial consortium succeeds in producing biohydrogen and biomethane of 32 and 60 vol. %, respectively. This gas product after the purification process could be converted to electricity to be 0.02 and 0.75 kWe, respectively. Furthermore, as result of economic calculation analysis, this biohythane system showed up the value of Capital Expenditures (CAPEX) of US 26,39540 and Operating Expenses (OPEX) of US 14,712 per year, and resulted total generated electricity cost of US 2.478 / kWh.

  11. Process for protein enrichment of cassava by solid substrate fermentation in rural conditions

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Daubresse, P.; Ntibashirwa, S.; Gheysen, A.

    1987-06-01

    An artisanal static process for protein enrichment of cassava by solid-state fermentation, developed in laboratory and tested on pilot units in Burundi (Central Africa), provides enriched cassava containing 10.7% of dry matter protein versus 1% before fermentation. Cassava chips, processed into granules of 2-4-mm diameter, are moistened (40% water content) and steamed. After cooling to 40 degrees C, cassava is mixed with a nutritive solution containing the inoculum (Rhizopus oryzae, strain MUCL 28627) and providing the following per 100 g dry matter: 3.4 g urea, 1.5 g KH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/, O.8 g MgSO/sub 4/.7H/sub 2/O, and 22.7 g citric acid.more » For the fermentation, cassava, with circa 60% moisture content, is spread in a thin layer (2-3 cm thick) on perforated trays and slid into an aerated humidified enclosure. The incubation lasts more or less 65 hours. The production of protein enriched cassava is 3.26 kg dry matter/square m tray. The effects of the variation of the nutritive solution composition and the inoculum conservation period on the protein production are equally discussed. (Refs. 37).« less

  12. Safety assessment of the biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd.

    PubMed

    Yang, Juan; Ding, Xiaowen; Qin, Yingrui; Zeng, Yitao

    2014-08-06

    To evaluate the safety of biogenic amines, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to evaluate the levels of biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd. In fermented soya beans, the total biogenic amines content was in a relatively safe range in many samples, although the concentration of histamine, tyramine, and β-phenethylamine was high enough in some samples to cause a possible safety threat, and 8 of the 30 samples were deemed unsafe. In fermented bean curd, the total biogenic amines content was more than 900 mg/kg in 19 white sufu amples, a level that has been determined to pose a safety hazard; putrescine was the only one detected in all samples and also had the highest concentration, which made samples a safety hazard; the content of tryptamine, β-phenethylamine, tyramine, and histamine had reached the level of threat to human health in some white and green sufu samples, and that may imply another potential safety risk; and 25 of the 33 samples were unsafe. In conclusion, the content of biogenic amines in all fermented soya bean products should be studied and appropriate limits determined to ensure the safety of eating these foods.

  13. Improvement of l-lactic acid productivity from sweet sorghum juice by repeated batch fermentation coupled with membrane separation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Meng, Hongyu; Cai, Di; Wang, Bin; Qin, Peiyong; Wang, Zheng; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-07-01

    In order to efficiently produce l-lactic acid from non-food feedstocks, sweet sorghum juice (SSJ), which is rich of fermentable sugars, was directly used for l-lactic acid fermentation by Lactobacillus rhamnosus LA-04-1. A membrane integrated repeated batch fermentation (MIRB) was developed for productivity improvement. High-cell-density fermentation was achieved with a final cell density (OD620) of 42.3, and the CCR effect was overcomed. When SSJ (6.77gL(-1) glucose, 4.51gL(-1) fructose and 50.46gL(-1) sucrose) was used as carbon source in MIRB process, l-lactic acid productivity was increased significantly from 1.45gL(-1)h(-1) (batch 1) to 17.55gL(-1)h(-1) (batch 6). This process introduces an effective way to produce l-lactic acid from SSJ. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Radio frequency processing of food

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The IFT 2016 food expo, which was home to 2,695 booths, was both exciting and educational for those who wished to learn more about food processing. From pumps to small-scale unit operations to commercial equipment, exhibitors highlighted both traditional and innovative food processing solutions for ...

  15. Phylogenomic Analysis of Lactobacillus curvatus Reveals Two Lineages Distinguished by Genes for Fermenting Plant-Derived Carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Terán, Lucrecia C; Coeuret, Gwendoline; Raya, Raúl; Zagorec, Monique; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine; Chaillou, Stéphane

    2018-06-01

    Lactobacillus curvatus is a lactic acid bacterium encountered in many different types of fermented food (meat, seafood, vegetables, and cereals). Although this species plays an important role in the preservation of these foods, few attempts have been made to assess its genomic diversity. This study uses comparative analyses of 13 published genomes (complete or draft) to better understand the evolutionary processes acting on the genome of this species. Phylogenomic analysis, based on a coalescent model of evolution, revealed that the 6,742 sites of single nucleotide polymorphism within the L. curvatus core genome delineate two major groups, with lineage 1 represented by the newly sequenced strain FLEC03, and lineage 2 represented by the type-strain DSM20019. The two lineages could also be distinguished by the content of their accessory genome, which sheds light on a long-term evolutionary process of lineage-dependent genetic acquisition and the possibility of population structure. Interestingly, one clade from lineage 2 shared more accessory genes with strains of lineage 1 than with other strains of lineage 2, indicating recent convergence in carbohydrate catabolism. Both lineages had a wide repertoire of accessory genes involved in the fermentation of plant-derived carbohydrates that are released from polymers of α/β-glucans, α/β-fructans, and N-acetylglucosan. Other gene clusters were distributed among strains according to the type of food from which the strains were isolated. These results give new insight into the ecological niches in which L. curvatus may naturally thrive (such as silage or compost heaps) in addition to fermented food.

  16. Walk-through survey report: control technology for fermentation processes at Wyeth Laboratories, Inc. , W