Science.gov

Sample records for food intake energy

  1. Incorporation of air into a snack food reduces energy intake

    PubMed Central

    Osterholt, Kathrin M.; Roe, Liane S.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated how the air content of a familiar snack food affected energy intake and whether varying the method of serving the snack modified intake. We tested two versions of an extruded snack (cheese puffs) that were equal in energy density (5.7 kcal/g), but differed in energy per volume (less-aerated snack: 1.00 kcal/ml; more- aerated snack: 0.45 kcal/ml). In a within-subjects design, 16 women and 12 men consumed the snacks ad libitum in the laboratory during four afternoon sessions. A standard volume (1250 ml) of each snack was served once in a bowl and once in an opaque bag. Results showed that intake of the two snacks differed significantly by energy (p=0.0003) and volume (p<0.0001); subjects consumed 21% less weight and energy (70±17 kcal) of the more-aerated snack than the less-aerated snack, although they consumed a 73% greater volume of the more-aerated snack (239±24 ml). These findings suggest that subjects responded to both the weight and volume of the snack. Despite differences in intake, hunger and fullness ratings did not differ across conditions. The serving method did not significantly affect intake. Results from this study indicate that incorporating air into food provides a strategy to reduce energy intake from energy-dense snacks. PMID:17188782

  2. Intake of energy and nutrients; harmonization of Food Composition Databases.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Victoria, Emilio; Martinez de Victoria, Ignacio; Martinez-Burgos, M Alba

    2015-02-26

    Food composition databases (FCDBs) provide detailed information about the nutritional composition of foods. The conversion of food consumption into nutrient intake need a Food composition database (FCDB) which lists the mean nutritional values for a given food portion. The limitations of FCDBs are sometimes little known by the users. Multicentre studies have raised several methodology challenges which allow to standardize nutritional assessments in different populations and geographical areas for food composition and nutrient intake. Differences between FCDBs include those attributed to technical matters, such as description of foods, calculation of energy and definition of nutrients, analytical methods, and principles for recipe calculation. Such differences need to be identified and eliminated before comparing data from different studies, especially when dietary data is related to a health outcome. There are ongoing efforts since 1984 to standardize FCDBs over the world (INFOODS, EPIC, EuroFIR, etc.). Food composition data can be gathered from different sources like private company analysis, universities, government laboratories and food industry. They can also be borrowed from scientific literature or even from the food labelling. There are different proposals to evaluate the quality of food composition data. For the development of a FCDB it is fundamental document in the most detailed way, each of the data values of the different components and nutrients of a food. The objective of AECOSAN (Agencia Española de Consumo Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutrición) and BEDCA (Base de Datos Española de Composición de Alimentos) association was the development and support of a reference FCDB in Spain according to the standards to be defined in Europe. BEDCA is currently the only FCDB developed in Spain with compiled and documented data following EuroFIR standards.

  3. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O

    2016-10-04

    Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods) and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water) and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean adults. Findings

  4. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O.

    2016-01-01

    Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods) and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water) and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean adults. Findings

  5. Development of a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire to assess food, energy and nutrient intake in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Overvad, K; Tjønneland, A; Haraldsdóttir, J; Ewertz, M; Jensen, O M

    1991-12-01

    Foods to be included in a Danish self-administered semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire were identified from food tables developed, together with data collected, for the survey 'Dietary habits in Denmark, 1985'. The questionnaire was to be used in a prospective study on diet, cancer and health, and the aim was to rank individuals with regard to intake of 19 different nutrients considered of prime importance in human carcinogenesis. The questionnaire for the dietary survey included 247 foods and recipes. From stepwise multiple regression analyses with the intake of each of the 19 nutrients as the dependent variable and the intake of the 247 foods and recipes as independent variables, the foods in the models explaining 90% of the between-person variability were considered for the final questionnaire. All relevant analyses were performed for the study group as a whole, for men and women separately, and in each gender for subgroups of energy intake. Taken together, the models explaining 90% of the between-person variability identified a total of 74 foods or recipes, which were important predictors of the intake of one or more of the nutrients considered. A few foods were excluded and a few foods were added to the final questionnaire based on common biological background information, and on information on foods providing important amounts of given nutrients, but which failed to contribute to regression analyses. The 92 foods and recipes, which were included in the final questionnaire provided altogether 81% of the average total supply of the nutrients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Patterns of Food Parenting Practices and Children's Intake of Energy-Dense Snack Foods.

    PubMed

    Gevers, Dorus W M; Kremers, Stef P J; de Vries, Nanne K; van Assema, Patricia

    2015-05-27

    Most previous studies of parental influences on children's diets included just a single or a few types of food parenting practices, while parents actually employ multiple types of practices. Our objective was to investigate the clustering of parents regarding food parenting practices and to characterize the clusters in terms of background characteristics and children's intake of energy-dense snack foods. A sample of Dutch parents of children aged 4-12 was recruited by a research agency to fill out an online questionnaire. A hierarchical cluster analysis (n = 888) was performed, followed by k-means clustering. ANOVAs, ANCOVAs and chi-square tests were used to investigate associations between cluster membership, parental and child background characteristics, as well as children's intake of energy-dense snack foods. Four distinct patterns were discovered: "high covert control and rewarding", "low covert control and non-rewarding", "high involvement and supportive" and "low involvement and indulgent". The "high involvement and supportive" cluster was found to be most favorable in terms of children's intake. Several background factors characterized cluster membership. This study expands the current knowledge about parental influences on children's diets. Interventions should focus on increasing parental involvement in food parenting.

  7. Usual energy intake mediated the relationship between food reinforcement and BMI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relative reinforcing value of food (RRVfood) is correlated with overweight status and energy consumed, as those who find food more reinforcing are heavier and consume more energy. One hypothesis relating these variables is that food reinforcement is related to BMI through usual energy intake. ...

  8. Direct effects of food cues seen during TV viewing on energy intake in young women.

    PubMed

    van Nee, Roselinde L; Larsen, Junilla K; Fisher, Jennifer O

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have examined direct effects of food cues presented within television (TV) programs on eating behavior in adults. This research experimentally determined whether exposure to food cues in TV programs affects energy intake during TV viewing among young women, independently from food cues presented in TV advertisements. The experiment involved a 2 (TV program with or without food cues) by 2 (TV advertisements with or without food cues) between-participants design. While watching TV, participants could freely eat peanut chocolate candies and crisps (potato chips). Participants were 121 young women (mean age = 19.6 years; mean BMI = 22.5). Participants who watched a TV program with food cues tended to have a lower total energy intake and ate significantly less peanut chocolate candies than participants who watched the same TV program without food cues. This effect was particularly pronounced among participants with a higher BMI. Food advertisements did not affect energy intake. Findings may indicate that subtle continuous food cues during TV programs could make young females more aware of their own eating and/or weight, leading to reduced intake of particularly sweet snack foods during TV viewing. Considering the non-significant trend for the effect of the TV program with food cues on total energy intake, findings should be replicated to provide possible tools for prevention campaigns using food cue reminders to watch one's intake.

  9. Energy intakes of US children and adults by food purchase location and by specific food source

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To our knowledge, no studies have examined energy intakes by food purchase location and food source using a representative sample of US children, adolescents and adults. Evaluations of purchase location and food sources of energy may inform public health policy. Methods Analyses were based on the first day of 24-hour recall for 22,852 persons in the 2003-4, 2005-6, and 2007-8 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). The most common food purchase locations were stores (grocery store, supermarket, convenience store, or specialty store), quick-service restaurants/pizza (QSR), full-service restaurants (FSR), school cafeterias, or food from someone else/gifts. Specific food sources of energy were identified using the National Cancer Institute aggregation scheme. Separate analyses were conducted for children ages 6-11y, adolescents ages 12-19y, and adults aged 20-50y and ≥51y. Results Stores (grocery, convenience, and specialty) were the food purchase locations for between 63.3% and 70.3% of dietary energy in the US diet. Restaurants provided between 16.9% and 26.3% of total energy. Depending on the respondents’ age, QSR provided between 12.5% and 17.5% of energy, whereas FSR provided between 4.7% and 10.4% of energy. School meals provided 9.8% of energy for children and 5.5% for adolescents. Vending machines provided <1% of energy. Pizza from QSR, the top food away from home (FAFH) item, provided 2.2% of energy in the diets of children and 3.4% in the diets of adolescents. Soda, energy, and sports drinks from QSR provided approximately 1.2% of dietary energy. Conclusions Refining dietary surveillance approaches by incorporating food purchase location may help inform public health policy. Characterizing the important sources of energy, in terms of both purchase location and source may be useful in anticipating the population-level impacts of proposed policy or educational interventions. These data show that stores provide a majority of

  10. Food characteristics, long-term habituation and energy intake. Laboratory and field studies.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Leonard H; Fletcher, Kelly D; O'Neill, Jessica; Roemmich, James N; Raynor, Hollie; Bouton, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    Greater food variety is related to increased energy intake, and one approach to reduce food intake is to reduce food variety. The effects of varying the variety of foods at the dinner meal to reduce energy intake was assessed in laboratory and field experiments. Experiment 1 randomly assigned 31 overweight children to one of three conditions that provided one laboratory meal per day over a week. Conditions were the SAME macaroni and cheese, SIMILAR types of macaroni and cheese, or a VARIETY of high-energy-dense foods. On days 1 and 5 all children consumed the same macaroni and cheese meal. Results showed significant differences in energy consumed between SAME and SIMILAR versus VARIETY from day 1 to 5, with SAME and SIMILAR decreasing and VARIETY increasing energy intake. Trials to habituation, a potential mechanism for the variety effect, showed the same pattern of between group differences as energy intake. Experiment 2 randomly assigned 30 overweight children to conditions that provided the SAME, SIMILAR or VARIETY of high-energy-dense entrees along with a variety of low-energy-dense dinner entrees to eat in their homes for 4 weeks. Results showed significant between group differences in energy intake across weeks, with significant decreases over weeks for the SAME and SIMILAR versus VARIETY groups. The pattern of results across the experiments shows the same pattern of reduction in energy intake if children eat the same or similar characteristics of foods (types of macaroni and cheese), which may provide ideas about how to develop dietary variety prescriptions that can reduce intake and be tested in clinical trials.

  11. FTO Polymorphisms Moderate the Association of Food Reinforcement with Energy Intake

    PubMed Central

    Scheid, Jennifer L.; Carr, Katelyn A.; Lin, Henry; Fletcher, Kelly D.; Sucheston, Lara; Singh, Prashant K.; Salis, Robbert; Erbe, Richard; Faith, Myles S.; Allison, David B.; Epstein, Leonard H.

    2015-01-01

    Food reinforcement (RRVfood) is related to increased energy intake, cross-sectionally related to obesity, and prospectively related to weight gain. The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is related to elevated body mass index and increased energy intake. The primary purpose of the current study was to determine whether any of 68 FTO single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or a FTO risk score moderate the association between food reinforcement and energy or macronutrient intake. Energy and macronutrient intake was measured using a laboratory ad libitum snack food consumption task in 237 adults of varying BMI. Controlling for BMI, the relative reinforcing value of reading (RRVreading) and proportion of African ancestry, RRVfood predicted 14.2% of the variance in energy intake, as well as predicted carbohydrate, fat, protein and sugar intake. In individual analyses, six FTO SNPs (rs12921970, rs9936768, rs12446047, rs7199716, rs8049933 and rs11076022, spanning approximately 251K bp) moderated the relationship between RRVfood and energy intake to predict an additional 4.9 - 7.4% of variance in energy intake. We created an FTO risk score based on 5 FTO SNPs (rs9939609, rs8050136, rs3751812, rs1421085, and rs1121980) that are related to BMI in multiple studies. The FTO risk score did not increase variance accounted for beyond individual FTO SNPs. Rs12921970 and rs12446047 served as moderators of the relationship between RRVfood and carbohydrate, fat, protein, and sugar intake. This study shows for the first time that the relationship between RRVfood and energy intake is moderated by FTO SNPs. Research is needed to understand how these processes interact to predict energy and macronutrient intake. PMID:24768648

  12. FTO polymorphisms moderate the association of food reinforcement with energy intake.

    PubMed

    Scheid, Jennifer L; Carr, Katelyn A; Lin, Henry; Fletcher, Kelly D; Sucheston, Lara; Singh, Prashant K; Salis, Robbert; Erbe, Richard W; Faith, Myles S; Allison, David B; Epstein, Leonard H

    2014-06-10

    Food reinforcement (RRVfood) is related to increased energy intake, cross-sectionally related to obesity, and prospectively related to weight gain. The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is related to elevated body mass index and increased energy intake. The primary purpose of the current study was to determine whether any of 68 FTO single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or a FTO risk score moderate the association between food reinforcement and energy or macronutrient intake. Energy and macronutrient intake was measured using a laboratory ad libitum snack food consumption task in 237 adults of varying BMI. Controlling for BMI, the relative reinforcing value of reading (RRVreading) and proportion of African ancestry, RRVfood predicted 14.2% of the variance in energy intake, as well as predicted carbohydrate, fat, protein and sugar intake. In individual analyses, six FTO SNPs (rs12921970, rs9936768, rs12446047, rs7199716, rs8049933 and rs11076022, spanning approximately 251kbp) moderated the relationship between RRVfood and energy intake to predict an additional 4.9-7.4% of variance in energy intake. We created an FTO risk score based on 5 FTO SNPs (rs9939609, rs8050136, rs3751812, rs1421085, and rs1121980) that are related to BMI in multiple studies. The FTO risk score did not increase variance accounted for beyond individual FTO SNPs. rs12921970 and rs12446047 served as moderators of the relationship between RRVfood and carbohydrate, fat, protein, and sugar intake. This study shows for the first time that the relationship between RRVfood and energy intake is moderated by FTO SNPs. Research is needed to understand how these processes interact to predict energy and macronutrient intake.

  13. Contribution of Food Groups to Energy and Nutrient Intakes in Five Developed Countries.

    PubMed

    Auestad, Nancy; Hurley, Judith S; Fulgoni, Victor L; Schweitzer, Cindy M

    2015-06-08

    Economic growth in developing countries and globalization of the food sector is leading to increasingly similar food consumption patterns worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe similarities and differences in the contributions of main food groups to energy and nutrient intakes in five developed countries across three continents. We obtained summary reports of national food consumption survey data from Australia, France, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States. Survey years spanned 2003-2012; sample size ranged from 1444 to 17,386. To mitigate heterogeneity of food groups across countries, we recategorized each survey's reported food groups and subgroups into eight main food groups and, for three countries, a ninth "mixed dishes" group. We determined the percent contribution of each food group to mean daily intakes of energy, saturated fat, sodium, fiber, and ten vitamins and minerals that are commonly under-consumed. Differences in findings from surveys utilizing a foods-as-consumed versus a disaggregated or ingredients approach to food group composition and contributions from the milk and milk products group, a source of several under-consumed nutrients, were explored. Patterns of food group contributions to energy and nutrient intakes were generally similar across countries. Some differences were attributable to the analytical approach used by the surveys. For the meat/protein, milk and milk products, vegetables, and fruit groups, percent contributions to key nutrient intakes exceeded percent contributions to energy intake. The mixed dishes group provided 10%-20% of total daily energy and a similar 10%-25% of the daily intake of several nutrients. This descriptive study contributes to an understanding of food group consumption patterns in developed countries.

  14. Contribution of Food Groups to Energy and Nutrient Intakes in Five Developed Countries

    PubMed Central

    Auestad, Nancy; Hurley, Judith S.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Schweitzer, Cindy M.

    2015-01-01

    Economic growth in developing countries and globalization of the food sector is leading to increasingly similar food consumption patterns worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe similarities and differences in the contributions of main food groups to energy and nutrient intakes in five developed countries across three continents. We obtained summary reports of national food consumption survey data from Australia, France, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States. Survey years spanned 2003–2012; sample size ranged from 1444 to 17,386. To mitigate heterogeneity of food groups across countries, we recategorized each survey’s reported food groups and subgroups into eight main food groups and, for three countries, a ninth “mixed dishes” group. We determined the percent contribution of each food group to mean daily intakes of energy, saturated fat, sodium, fiber, and ten vitamins and minerals that are commonly under-consumed. Differences in findings from surveys utilizing a foods-as-consumed versus a disaggregated or ingredients approach to food group composition and contributions from the milk and milk products group, a source of several under-consumed nutrients, were explored. Patterns of food group contributions to energy and nutrient intakes were generally similar across countries. Some differences were attributable to the analytical approach used by the surveys. For the meat/protein, milk and milk products, vegetables, and fruit groups, percent contributions to key nutrient intakes exceeded percent contributions to energy intake. The mixed dishes group provided 10%–20% of total daily energy and a similar 10%–25% of the daily intake of several nutrients. This descriptive study contributes to an understanding of food group consumption patterns in developed countries. PMID:26061017

  15. Usual energy intake mediates the relationship between food reinforcement and BMI.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Leonard H; Carr, Katelyn A; Lin, Henry; Fletcher, Kelly D; Roemmich, James N

    2012-09-01

    The relative reinforcing value of food (RRV(food)) is positively associated with energy consumed and overweight status. One hypothesis relating these variables is that food reinforcement is related to BMI through usual energy intake. Using a sample of two hundred fifty-two adults of varying weight and BMI levels, results showed that usual energy intake mediated the relationship between RRV(food) and BMI (estimated indirect effect = 0.0027, bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals (CIs) 0.0002-0.0068, effect ratio = 0.34), controlling for age, sex, minority status, education, and reinforcing value of reading (RRV(reading)). Laboratory and usual energy intake were correlated (r = 0.24, P < 0.001), indicating that laboratory energy intake could provide an index of eating behavior in the natural environment. The mediational relationship observed suggests that increasing or decreasing food reinforcement could influence body weight by altering food consumption. Research is needed to develop methods of modifying RRV(food) to determine experimentally whether manipulating food reinforcement would result in changes in body weight.

  16. Estimation of energy intake in clinical practice: a comparison between a food record protocol and a precoded food record book.

    PubMed

    Lorefält, Birgitta; Unosson, Mitra

    2002-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare energy intake estimated from a clinical food record protocol (CFRP) with that from a precoded food record book (PFRB) as reference method. Food and fluid consumption were recorded in 10 older patients using a CFRP in parallel with a PFRB during a 6-day period. The results showed that there were no significant differences in mean energy intake estimated from the CFRP as compared with that estimated from the PFRB. The correlation coefficient between the calculated daily energy intake from the CFRP and PFRB was 0.96. The differences in energy intake (kcal/day) between the CFRP and PFRB, plotted against their mean value for 10 patients, showed that results were within the limits of agreement (mean +/- 2SD) for nine patients. The differences in each day's energy intake between the two methods plotted against their mean value showed that 97% of the estimated daily energy intake was within the limits of agreement. The weighted kappa between the two methods was 0.76. The CFRP would seem to be acceptable for the estimation of mean energy intake in the hospital setting.

  17. Peptides and food intake.

    PubMed

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food

  18. Peptides and Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food

  19. Overconsumption of Energy and Excessive Discretionary Food Intake Inflates Dietary Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Hendrie, Gilly A.; Baird, Danielle; Ridoutt, Brad; Hadjikakou, Michalis; Noakes, Manny

    2016-01-01

    Population dietary guidelines have started to include information about the environmental impacts of food choices, but more quantifiable evidence is needed, particularly about the impacts associated with discretionary foods. This paper utilised the 2011–2012 Australian Health Survey food intake data along with a highly disaggregated input–output model to estimate the greenhouse gas emissions (GHGe) of Australians’ dietary intake, and compare current patterns of eating which vary in diet quality and GHGe to the recommended diet. The average dietary GHGe were 18.72 ± 12.06 and 13.73 ± 8.72 kg CO2e/day for male and female adults, respectively. The correlation between total energy and GHGe was r = 0.54 (p < 0.001). Core foods contributed 68.4% and discretionary foods 29.4%. Within core foods, fresh meat and alternatives (33.9%) was the greatest contributor. The modelling of current dietary patterns showed the contribution of discretionary foods to GHGe was 121% greater in the average diet and 307% greater in the “lower quality, higher GHGe” diet compared to the recommended diet. Reducing discretionary food intake would allow for small increases in emissions from core foods (in particular vegetables, dairy and grains), thereby providing a nutritional benefit at little environmental expense. Public health messages that promote healthy eating, eating to one’s energy needs and improved diet quality will also contribute to lowering GHGe. PMID:27809233

  20. Overconsumption of Energy and Excessive Discretionary Food Intake Inflates Dietary Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Australia.

    PubMed

    Hendrie, Gilly A; Baird, Danielle; Ridoutt, Brad; Hadjikakou, Michalis; Noakes, Manny

    2016-10-31

    Population dietary guidelines have started to include information about the environmental impacts of food choices, but more quantifiable evidence is needed, particularly about the impacts associated with discretionary foods. This paper utilised the 2011-2012 Australian Health Survey food intake data along with a highly disaggregated input-output model to estimate the greenhouse gas emissions (GHGe) of Australians' dietary intake, and compare current patterns of eating which vary in diet quality and GHGe to the recommended diet. The average dietary GHGe were 18.72 ± 12.06 and 13.73 ± 8.72 kg CO₂e/day for male and female adults, respectively. The correlation between total energy and GHGe was r = 0.54 (p < 0.001). Core foods contributed 68.4% and discretionary foods 29.4%. Within core foods, fresh meat and alternatives (33.9%) was the greatest contributor. The modelling of current dietary patterns showed the contribution of discretionary foods to GHGe was 121% greater in the average diet and 307% greater in the "lower quality, higher GHGe" diet compared to the recommended diet. Reducing discretionary food intake would allow for small increases in emissions from core foods (in particular vegetables, dairy and grains), thereby providing a nutritional benefit at little environmental expense. Public health messages that promote healthy eating, eating to one's energy needs and improved diet quality will also contribute to lowering GHGe.

  1. Processed Food Contributions to Energy and Nutrient Intake Differ among US Children by Race/Ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Eicher-Miller, Heather A; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R

    2015-12-02

    This study determined and compared the mean daily intake of energy and nutrients from processed foods by level of processing (minimally processed; processed for preservation, nutrient enhancement, and freshness; mixtures of combined ingredients; ready-to-eat processed foods; and prepared foods/meals) among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American US children. Data from participants 2-18 years old (n = 10,298) of the nationally representative cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2008 with a complete one day, 24-h dietary recall were used to determine mean intake of energy and nutrients recommended for increase and decrease, as per the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, among child race/ethnic groups by category of food processing. Regression analysis was used to estimate and compare covariate-adjusted (gender, age, and poverty-income-level) least square means (p < 0.05/3 race/ethnic groups). All children, regardless of race or ethnicity consumed processed foods. Approximately 66% to 84% of total daily energy, saturated fat, cholesterol, fiber, total sugar, added sugars, calcium, vitamin D, potassium, and sodium intake are contributed by one of the five categories of processed foods. Clinicians and policy should primarily advise consideration of the energy and nutrient composition of foods, rather than the processing level, when selecting a healthy diet for children.

  2. Processed Food Contributions to Energy and Nutrient Intake Differ among US Children by Race/Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Eicher-Miller, Heather A.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Keast, Debra R.

    2015-01-01

    This study determined and compared the mean daily intake of energy and nutrients from processed foods by level of processing (minimally processed; processed for preservation, nutrient enhancement, and freshness; mixtures of combined ingredients; ready-to-eat processed foods; and prepared foods/meals) among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American US children. Data from participants 2–18 years old (n = 10,298) of the nationally representative cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2008 with a complete one day, 24-h dietary recall were used to determine mean intake of energy and nutrients recommended for increase and decrease, as per the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, among child race/ethnic groups by category of food processing. Regression analysis was used to estimate and compare covariate-adjusted (gender, age, and poverty-income-level) least square means (p < 0.05/3 race/ethnic groups). All children, regardless of race or ethnicity consumed processed foods. Approximately 66% to 84% of total daily energy, saturated fat, cholesterol, fiber, total sugar, added sugars, calcium, vitamin D, potassium, and sodium intake are contributed by one of the five categories of processed foods. Clinicians and policy should primarily advise consideration of the energy and nutrient composition of foods, rather than the processing level, when selecting a healthy diet for children. PMID:26633491

  3. Obesity by choice revisited: effects of food availability, flavor variety and nutrient composition on energy intake.

    PubMed

    Ackroff, Karen; Bonacchi, Kristine; Magee, Michael; Yiin, Yeh-Min; Graves, Jonathan V; Sclafani, Anthony

    2007-10-22

    Recent work suggested that the energy intake and weight gain of rats maintained on chow and 32% sucrose solution could be increased by simply offering more sources of sucrose [Tordoff M.G. Obesity by choice: the powerful influence of nutrient availability on nutrient intake. Am J Physiol 2002;282:R1536-R1539.]. In Experiment 1 this procedure was replicated but the effect was not: rats given one bottle of sucrose and five bottles of water consumed as much sucrose as those given five bottles of sucrose and one of water. Adding different flavors to the sucrose did not increase intakes further in Experiment 2. The relative potency of sucrose and other optional foods was studied in Experiment 3. Sucrose solution stimulated more overeating and weight gain than fat (vegetable shortening), and offering both sucrose and shortening did not generate further increases in energy intake. Finally, foods commonly used to produce overeating and weight gain were compared. Sucrose was less effective than a high-fat milk diet, and offering cookies in addition to the milk did not increase energy intake further. The nature of optional foods (nutrient composition and physical form) was markedly more important than the number of food sources available to the animals, and is a better contender as the reason for "obesity by choice".

  4. Acute and chronic effects of gum chewing on food reinforcement and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Swoboda, Christine; Temple, Jennifer L

    2013-04-01

    Although chewing gum has been considered a potential method for reducing energy intake, little empirical data exist to support this idea. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that chewing gum before eating reduces motivation to eat, hunger, and energy intake. In order to test this hypothesis, we conducted two experiments in which participants chewed gum prior to completing a food reinforcement task or before all eating occasions for two of three weeks. In Experiment 1, we found that chewing gum had no influence on the reinforcing value of food, but chewing mint gum reduced liking of and energy intake from fruit. In addition, chewing gum reduced self-reported hunger immediately after gum chewing and after eating compared with the no gum condition. In Experiment 2, gum chewing had no significant effect on total energy intake, but participants consumed fewer meals, consumed more energy per meal, and had a lower nutrient adequacy ratio during the gum chewing weeks. These studies provide no evidence that acute or chronic gum chewing reduces hunger or energy intake. In fact, chewing mint-flavored gum may deter consumption of fruit and reduce diet quality.

  5. Effects of sweetness and energy in drinks on food intake following exercise.

    PubMed

    King, N A; Appleton, K; Rogers, P J; Blundell, J E

    1999-04-01

    Exercise is known to cause physiological changes that could affect the impact of nutrients on appetite control. This study was designed to assess the effect of drinks containing either sucrose or high-intensity sweeteners on food intake following exercise. Using a repeated-measures design, three drink conditions were employed: plain water (W), a low-energy drink sweetened with artificial sweeteners aspartame and acesulfame-K (L), and a high-energy, sucrose-sweetened drink (H). Following a period of challenging exercise (70% VO2 max for 50 min), subjects consumed freely from a particular drink before being offered a test meal at which energy and nutrient intakes were measured. The degree of pleasantness (palatability) of the drinks was also measured before and after exercise. At the test meal, energy intake following the artificially sweetened (L) drink was significantly greater than after water and the sucrose (H) drinks (p < 0.05). Compared with the artificially sweetened (L) drink, the high-energy (H) drink suppressed intake by approximately the energy contained in the drink itself. However, there was no difference between the water (W) and the sucrose (H) drink on test meal energy intake. When the net effects were compared (i.e., drink + test meal energy intake), total energy intake was significantly lower after the water (W) drink compared with the two sweet (L and H) drinks. The exercise period brought about changes in the perceived pleasantness of the water, but had no effect on either of the sweet drinks. The remarkably precise energy compensation demonstrated after the higher energy sucrose drink suggests that exercise may prime the system to respond sensitively to nutritional manipulations. The results may also have implications for the effect on short-term appetite control of different types of drinks used to quench thirst during and after exercise.

  6. Economics of food intake in mice: energy yield of the reinforcer.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Neil E; Giddings, Ashley M; Minervini, Vanessa; Robertson, Kimberly L

    2014-09-01

    One of the Zeitgeists of the field for the study of ingestive behavior is that organisms are endowed with internal self-regulatory mechanisms that ensure optimal nutrition. However, the alarming increase in the prevalence of obesity challenges us to reconsider the extent to which internal regulatory mechanisms affect food intake, especially in a free market economy. Cued by the pioneering work of George Collier and his students, we have been examining food intake (demand) in mice when the effort or price of food is manipulated. We present two new experiments in mice that investigate the effect of energy yield per unit of food earned on working for food. The first experiment shows that when the nominal energy yield of each food pellet is halved by cellulose dilution, mice show relatively inelastic calorie-related demand despite the fact the cellulose diluted diet is unpalatable. The second experiment shows that the size of the pellet reinforcer does not have a major effect on food demand except in the extreme condition of small reward and high unit price. New analyses of distributions of responding are presented which suggest that mice work for "target" numbers of food rewards with only a small influence of price or energy gain.

  7. Stress augments food 'wanting' and energy intake in visceral overweight subjects in the absence of hunger.

    PubMed

    Lemmens, Sofie G; Rutters, Femke; Born, Jurriaan M; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2011-05-03

    Stress may induce eating in the absence of hunger, possibly involving changes in food reward, i.e. 'liking' and 'wanting'. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of acute psychological stress on food reward, and on energy intake, in visceral overweight (VO) vs. normal weight (NW) subjects. Subjects (27 NW, age=26 ± 9 yrs, BMI=22 ± 2 kg/m²; 15 VO, age=36 ± 12 yrs, BMI=28 ± 1 kg/m²) came to the university twice, fasted, for either a rest or stress condition (randomized cross-over design). Per test-session 'liking' and 'wanting' for 72 items divided in six categories (bread, filling, drinks, dessert, snacks, and stationery (control)) were measured twice, each time followed by a wanted meal. Appetite profile (visual analogue scales, VAS), heart rate, mood state and level of anxiety (POMS/STAI questionnaires) were measured. High hunger and low satiety (64 ± 19, 22 ± 20 mmVAS) confirmed the fasted state. Elevated heart rate, anger and confusion scores (p ≤ 0.03) confirmed the stress vs. rest condition. Consumption of the first meal decreased hunger, increased satiety, and decreased ranking of 'liking' of bread vs. increased ranking of 'liking' of the control (p<0.001). 'Wanting' for dessert and snacks, energy intake, carbohydrate and fat intake for the second meal stress vs. rest relatively increased in VO vs. decreased in NW (p<0.02). During stress vs. rest VO showed a 6 ± 9% increase in percentage of daily energy requirements consumed over the two meals (p=0.01). To conclude, visceral overweight subjects showed stress-induced food intake in the absence of hunger, resulting in an increased energy intake.

  8. C-type natriuretic peptide as a new regulator of food intake and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Inuzuka, Megumi; Tamura, Naohisa; Yamada, Nobuko; Katsuura, Goro; Oyamada, Naofumi; Taura, Daisuke; Sonoyama, Takuhiro; Fukunaga, Yasutomo; Ohinata, Kousaku; Sone, Masakatsu; Nakao, Kazuwa

    2010-08-01

    The physiological implication of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) including energy metabolism has not been elucidated, because of markedly short stature in CNP-null mice. In the present study we analyzed food intake and energy expenditure of CNP-null mice with chondrocyte-targeted CNP expression (CNP-Tg/Nppc(-/-) mice), in which marked skeletal dysplasia was rescued, to investigate the significance of CNP under minimal influences of skeletal phenotypes. In CNP-Tg/Nppc(-/-) mice, body weight and body fat ratio were reduced by 24% and 32%, respectively, at 20 wk of age, and decreases of blood glucose levels during insulin tolerance tests were 2-fold exaggerated at 17 wk of age, as compared with CNP-Tg/Nppc(+/+) mice. Urinary noradrenalin excretion of CNP-Tg/Nppc(-/-) mice was greater than that of CNP-Tg/Nppc(+/+) mice by 28%. In CNP-Tg/Nppc(-/-) mice, rectal temperature at 1600 h was higher by 1.1 C, and uncoupling protein-1 mRNA expression in the brown adipose tissue was 2-fold increased, which was canceled by propranolol administration, as compared with CNP-Tg/Nppc(+/+) mice. Oxygen consumption was significantly increased in CNP-Tg/Nppc(-/-) mice compared with that in CNP-Tg/Nppc(+/+) mice. Food intake of CNP-Tg/Nppc(-/-) mice upon ad libitum feeding and refeeding after 48 h starvation were reduced by 21% and 61%, respectively, as compared with CNP-Tg/Nppc(+/+) mice. This study unveiled a new aspect of CNP as a molecule regulating food intake and energy expenditure. Further analyses on precise mechanisms of CNP actions would lead to the better understanding of the significance of the CNP/guanylyl cyclase-B system in food intake and energy expenditure.

  9. Major food sources contributing to energy intake--a nationwide survey of Brazilians aged 10 years and older.

    PubMed

    Sichieri, Rosely; Bezerra, Ilana Nogueira; Araújo, Marina Campos; de Moura Souza, Amanda; Yokoo, Edna Massae; Pereira, Rosangela Alves

    2015-05-28

    Identification of major sources of energy in the diet helps to implement dietary recommendations to reduce obesity. To determine the food sources of energy consumed by Brazilians, we used the traditional method of ranking energy contribution of selected food groups and also compared days with and without consumption of specific food groups. Analysis was based on two non-consecutive days of dietary record from the Brazilian National Dietary Survey, conducted among 34,003 Brazilians (aged 10 years or more), taking into account the complex design of the survey. Comparison of days with and without consumption gave more consistent results, with sweets and cookies as the most important contributors to energy intake, increasing 992 kJ/d (95% CI 883, 1096) for those days when consumption of cakes, cookies and desserts was reported compared to days without their consumption. Savoury snacks, cheese and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) also increase energy intake by about 600 kJ. The only group associated with decreased energy intake was vegetable (-155 kJ; 95% CI -272, -37). Consumption of beans, milk and fruits increased the energy intake by about 210 kJ. In total, the mean energy intake of the group was 8000 kJ. Except for the consumption of vegetables, all of the other ten food groups analysed were associated with increased energy intake. Sweets and cookies may increase the energy intake by 12% and SSB by 7%, indicating that these two groups are major targets for improving healthy eating by reducing energy intake; whereas vegetable intake is associated with the reduction of energy content of the diet.

  10. Gastrointestinal regulation of food intake

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, David E.; Overduin, Joost

    2007-01-01

    Despite substantial fluctuations in daily food intake, animals maintain a remarkably stable body weight, because overall caloric ingestion and expenditure are exquisitely matched over long periods of time, through the process of energy homeostasis. The brain receives hormonal, neural, and metabolic signals pertaining to body-energy status and, in response to these inputs, coordinates adaptive alterations of energy intake and expenditure. To regulate food consumption, the brain must modulate appetite, and the core of appetite regulation lies in the gut-brain axis. This Review summarizes current knowledge regarding the neuroendocrine regulation of food intake by the gastrointestinal system, focusing on gastric distention, intestinal and pancreatic satiation peptides, and the orexigenic gastric hormone ghrelin. We highlight mechanisms governing nutrient sensing and peptide secretion by enteroendocrine cells, including novel taste-like pathways. The increasingly nuanced understanding of the mechanisms mediating gut-peptide regulation and action provides promising targets for new strategies to combat obesity and diabetes. PMID:17200702

  11. Molecular and cellular regulation of hypothalamic melanocortin neurons controlling food intake and energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Koch, M; Horvath, T L

    2014-07-01

    The brain receives and integrates environmental and metabolic information, transforms these signals into adequate neuronal circuit activities, and generates physiological behaviors to promote energy homeostasis. The responsible neuronal circuitries show lifetime plasticity and guaranty metabolic health and survival. However, this highly evolved organization has become challenged nowadays by chronic overload with nutrients and reduced physical activity, which results in an ever-increasing number of obese individuals worldwide. Research within the last two decades has aimed to decipher the responsible molecular and cellular mechanisms for regulation of the hypothalamic melanocortin neurons, which have a key role in the control of food intake and energy metabolism. This review maps the central connections of the melanocortin system and highlights its global position and divergent character in physiological and pathological metabolic events. Moreover, recently uncovered molecular and cellular processes in hypothalamic neurons and glial cells that drive plastic morphological and physiological changes in these cells, and account for regulation of food intake and energy metabolism, are brought into focus. Finally, potential functional interactions between metabolic disorders and psychiatric diseases are discussed.

  12. Prominent pancreatic endocrinopathy and altered control of food intake disrupt energy homeostasis in prion diseases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, J.D.; Berardinelli, J.G.; Rocke, T.E.; Bessen, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative diseases that can induce endocrinopathies. The basis of altered endocrine function in prion diseases is not well understood, and the purpose of this study was to investigate the spatiotemporal relationship between energy homeostasis and prion infection in hamsters inoculated with either the 139H strain of scrapie agent, which induces preclinical weight gain, or the HY strain of transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME), which induces clinical weight loss. Temporal changes in body weight, feed, and water intake were measured as well as both non-fasted and fasted concentrations of serum glucose, insulin, glucagon, ??-ketones, and leptin. In 139H scrapie-infected hamsters, polydipsia, hyperphagia, non-fasted hyperinsulinemia with hyperglycemia, and fasted hyperleptinemia were found at preclinical stages and are consistent with an anabolic syndrome that has similarities to type II diabetes mellitus and/or metabolic syndrome X. In HY TME-infected hamsters, hypodipsia, hypersecretion of glucagon (in both non-fasted and fasted states), increased fasted ??-ketones, fasted hypoglycemia, and suppressed non-fasted leptin concentrations were found while feed intake was normal. These findings suggest a severe catabolic syndrome in HY TME infection mediated by chronic increases in glucagon secretion. In both models, alterations of pancreatic endocrine function were not associated with PrPSc deposition in the pancreas. The results indicate that prominent endocrinopathy underlies alterations in body weight, pancreatic endocrine function, and intake of food. The prion-induced alterations of energy homeostasis in 139H scrapie- or HY TME-infected hamsters could occur within areas of the hypothalamus that control food satiety and/or within autonomic centers that provide neural outflow to the pancreas. ?? 2008 Society for Endocrinology.

  13. Developmental programming of energy balance regulation: is physical activity more 'programmable' than food intake?

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shaoyu; Eclarinal, Jesse; Baker, Maria S; Li, Ge; Waterland, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Extensive human and animal model data show that environmental influences during critical periods of prenatal and early postnatal development can cause persistent alterations in energy balance regulation. Although a potentially important factor in the worldwide obesity epidemic, the fundamental mechanisms underlying such developmental programming of energy balance are poorly understood, limiting our ability to intervene. Most studies of developmental programming of energy balance have focused on persistent alterations in the regulation of energy intake; energy expenditure has been relatively underemphasised. In particular, very few studies have evaluated developmental programming of physical activity. The aim of this review is to summarise recent evidence that early environment may have a profound impact on establishment of individual propensity for physical activity. Recently, we characterised two different mouse models of developmental programming of obesity; one models fetal growth restriction followed by catch-up growth, and the other models early postnatal overnutrition. In both studies, we observed alterations in body-weight regulation that persisted to adulthood, but no group differences in food intake. Rather, in both cases, programming of energy balance appeared to be due to persistent alterations in energy expenditure and spontaneous physical activity (SPA). These effects were stronger in female offspring. We are currently exploring the hypothesis that developmental programming of SPA occurs via induced sex-specific alterations in epigenetic regulation in the hypothalamus and other regions of the central nervous system. We will summarise the current progress towards testing this hypothesis. Early environmental influences on establishment of physical activity are likely an important factor in developmental programming of energy balance. Understanding the fundamental underlying mechanisms in appropriate animal models will help determine whether early life

  14. Sleep disturbances, body fat distribution, food intake and/or energy expenditure: pathophysiological aspects.

    PubMed

    St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Shechter, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Data from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have illustrated a relationship between short sleep duration (SSD) and weight gain. Individuals with SSD are heavier and gain more weight over time than normal-duration sleepers. This sleep-obesity relationship may have consequences for obesity treatments, as it appears that short sleepers have reduced ability to lose weight. Laboratory-based clinical studies found that experimental sleep restriction affects energy expenditure and intake, possibly providing a mechanistic explanation for the weight gain observed in chronic short sleepers. Specifically, compared to normal sleep duration, sleep restriction increases food intake beyond the energetic costs of increased time spent awake. Reasons for this increased energy intake after sleep restriction are unclear but may include disrupted appetite-regulating hormones, altered brain mechanisms involved in the hedonic aspects of appetite, and/or changes in sleep quality and architecture. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disorder at the intersection of sleep and obesity, and the characteristics of the disorder illustrate many of the effects of sleep disturbances on body weight and vice versa. Specifically, while obesity is among the main risk factors for OSA, the disorder itself and its associated disturbances in sleep quality and architecture seem to alter energy balance parameters and may induce further weight gain. Several intervention trials have shown that weight loss is associated with reduced OSA severity. Thus, weight loss may improve sleep, and these improvements may promote further weight loss. Future studies should establish whether increasing sleep duration/improving sleep quality can induce weight loss.

  15. Overestimation of infant and toddler energy intake by 24-h recall compared with weighed food records

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls have been used in large surveys of infant and toddler energy intake, but the accuracy of the method for young children is not well documented. We aimed to determine the accuracy of infant and toddler energy intakes by a single, telephone-administered, multiple-pass 2...

  16. Food Intake and Energy Expenditure of Sailors at a Large Naval Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    vegetarian meals; Fruit is often old and bruised. 13 4. Discussion Mean height, weight and BMI of male subjects were similar to the values found for...the evening of day 0. Body fat was also estimated on the evening of day 7. Body Mass Index ( BMI ) was calculated for each subject according to the...formula BMI = weight (kg)/height2 (m). 2.2 Food Intake/Plate Waste Food intake was estimated on an individual basis for each of the eleven subjects. Food

  17. The 2005 USDA Food Guide Pyramid is associated with more adequate nutrient intakes within energy constraints than the 1992 Pyramid.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Wilde, Parke E; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Tucker, Katherine L

    2006-05-01

    The USDA issued the Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) to help Americans choose healthy diets. We examined whether adherence to the 1992 and 2005 FGP was associated with moderate energy and adequate nutrient intakes. We used data for 2138 men and 2213 women > 18 y old, from the 2001-2002 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Quadratic programming was used to generate diets with minimal departure from intakes reported for the NHANES 2001-02. We examined the effect of the number of servings/d of Food Pyramid groups set at 1992 and at 2005 FGP recommendations for 1600, 2200, and 2800 kcal (1 kcal = 4.184 kJ) levels. We calculated energy and nutrients provided by different FGP dietary patterns. Within current U.S. dietary practices, following the 1992 FGP without sodium restriction may provide 200 more kcal than recommended for each energy level. Although it can meet most of old nutrient recommendations (1989), it fails to meet the latest dietary reference intakes, especially for the 1600 kcal level. The 2005 FGP appears to provide less energy and more adequate nutrient intakes, with the exception of vitamin E and potassium for some groups. However, without discretionary energy restriction, Americans are at risk of having excessive energy intake even if they follow the 2005 FGP food serving recommendations. Our analysis suggests that following the 2005 FGP may be associated with lower energy and optimal nutrient intake. Careful restriction of discretionary calories appears necessary for appropriate energy intakes to be maintained.

  18. PDK1-Foxo1 in Agouti-Related Peptide Neurons Regulates Energy Homeostasis by Modulating Food Intake and Energy Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yongheng; Nakata, Masanori; Okamoto, Shiki; Takano, Eisuke; Yada, Toshihiko; Minokoshi, Yasuhiko; Hirata, Yukio; Nakajima, Kazunori; Iskandar, Kristy; Hayashi, Yoshitake; Ogawa, Wataru; Barsh, Gregory S.; Hosoda, Hiroshi; Kangawa, Kenji; Itoh, Hiroshi; Noda, Tetsuo; Kasuga, Masato; Nakae, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Insulin and leptin intracellular signaling pathways converge and act synergistically on the hypothalamic phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase/3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1). However, little is known about whether PDK1 in agouti-related peptide (AGRP) neurons contributes to energy homeostasis. We generated AGRP neuron-specific PDK1 knockout (AGRPPdk1−/−) mice and mice with selective expression of transactivation-defective Foxo1 (Δ256Foxo1AGRPPdk1−/−). The AGRPPdk1−/− mice showed reductions in food intake, body length, and body weight. The Δ256Foxo1AGRPPdk1−/− mice showed increased body weight, food intake, and reduced locomotor activity. After four weeks of calorie-restricted feeding, oxygen consumption and locomotor activity were elevated in AGRPPdk1−/− mice and reduced in Δ256Foxo1AGRPPdk1−/− mice. In vitro, ghrelin-induced changes in [Ca2+]i and inhibition of ghrelin by leptin were significantly attenuated in AGRPPdk1−/− neurons compared to control neurons. However, ghrelin-induced [Ca2+]i changes and leptin inhibition were restored in Δ256Foxo1AGRPPdk1−/− mice. These results suggested that PDK1 and Foxo1 signaling pathways play important roles in the control of energy homeostasis through AGRP-independent mechanisms. PMID:21694754

  19. Impact of Orexin-A Treatment on Food Intake, Energy Metabolism and Body Weight in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Blais, Anne; Drouin, Gaëtan; Chaumontet, Catherine; Voisin, Thierry; Couvelard, Anne; Even, Patrick Christian; Couvineau, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Orexin-A and -B are hypothalamic neuropeptides of 33 and 28-amino acids, which regulate many homeostatic systems including sleep/wakefulness states, energy balance, energy homeostasis, reward seeking and drug addiction. Orexin-A treatment was also shown to reduce tumor development in xenografted nude mice and is thus a potential treatment for carcinogenesis. The aim of this work was to explore in healthy mice the consequences on energy expenditure components of an orexin-A treatment at a dose previously shown to be efficient to reduce tumor development. Physiological approaches were used to evaluate the effect of orexin-A on food intake pattern, energy metabolism body weight and body adiposity. Modulation of the expression of brain neuropeptides and receptors including NPY, POMC, AgRP, cocaine- and amphetamine related transcript (CART), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and prepro-orexin (HCRT), and Y2 and Y5 neuropeptide Y, MC4 (melanocortin), OX1 and OX2 orexin receptors (Y2R, Y5R, MC4R, OX1R and OX2R, respectively) was also explored. Our results show that orexin-A treatment does not significantly affect the components of energy expenditure, and glucose metabolism but reduces intraperitoneal fat deposit, adiposity and the expression of several brain neuropeptide receptors suggesting that peripheral orexin-A was able to reach the central nervous system. These findings establish that orexin-A treatment which is known for its activity as an inducer of tumor cell death, do have minor parallel consequence on energy homeostasis control. PMID:28085909

  20. Effects of exposure to television advertising for energy-dense/nutrient-poor food on children's food intake and obesity in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bora; Kim, Hyogyoo; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Yoon, Jihyun; Chung, Sang-Jin

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of television food advertising on participant food intake and risk of obesity. A total of 2419 children aged 11-13 years were selected from 118 elementary schools in South Korea. All participants completed a self-administered questionnaire with questions about height, weight, television viewing times, food preferences, and food intakes. To estimate actual exposure to food advertising, we asked participants to specify the times at which they usually watched television. We then collected data on the various types of food advertisement broadcast on five different television networks during those viewing times over the course of the previous 7 months. The amount of television watched and exposure to energy-dense/nutrient-poor (EDNP) food advertising were associated with an increased risk of being overweight or obese. Exposure to television advertising for EDNP food was also significantly associated with higher EDNP food preference and intake and lower fruit and vegetable intake. However, these relationships disappeared for all foods after adjusting for the overall amount of television watched. Although it was not possible to conclude that exposure to television advertising for EDNP food was associated with an increased risk of obesity, preference for EDNP foods, or overall food intake due to the strong comprehensive effects of television viewing time, there was a reason to believe the evidence of the effects of advertising in this study. Future longitudinal studies are needed to determine the exclusive effects of exposure to television advertising for EDNP food.

  1. Increased resting energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and food intake in patients with highly active antiretroviral therapy-associated lipodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Sutinen, Jussi; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele

    2007-03-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is associated with metabolic adverse events such as lipodystrophy in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of HAART-associated lipodystrophy on resting energy expenditure and caloric intake. In this cross-sectional study we compared resting energy expenditure (REE) and energy intake in 30 HAART-treated patients with lipodystrophy (HAART+LD+) with 13 HAART-treated patients without lipodystrophy (HAART+LD-). REE was measured using indirect calorimetry, and energy intake was recorded as a 3-day diary of food intake. REE (5,180+/-160 vs. 4,260+/-150 J/min, P<0.01) and also REE expressed per fat-free mass (86+/-1 vs. 78+/-2 J.kg fat-free mass-1.min-1, P<0.01) were significantly higher in the HAART+LD+ than the HAART+LD- group. Rate of lipid oxidation was significantly higher in the HAART+LD+ than the HAART+LD- group. Total energy and fat intakes were significantly increased in the HAART+LD+ compared with the HAART+LD- group. These results imply that HAART-associated lipodystrophy is associated with increased REE and lipid oxidation and with increased caloric and fat intake.

  2. Acute effects of a herb extract formulation and inulin fibre on appetite, energy intake and food choice.

    PubMed

    Harrold, J A; Hughes, G M; O'Shiel, K; Quinn, E; Boyland, E J; Williams, N J; Halford, J C G

    2013-03-01

    The impact of two commercially available products, a patented herb extract Yerbe Maté, Guarana and Damiana (YGD) formulation and an inulin-based soluble fermentable fibre (SFF), alone or in combination, on appetite and food intake were studied for the first time in a double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. 58 normal to slightly overweight women consumed a fixed-load breakfast followed 4h later by an ad libitum lunch. They were administered YGD (3 tablets) and SFF (5g in 100ml water), YGD and water (100ml), SFF and placebo (3 tablets) or water and placebo 15min before meals. Appetite was assessed using visual analogue scales, and energy intake was measured at lunch. Significant reductions in food intake and energy intake were observed when YGD was present (59.5g, 16.3%; 112.4kcal, 17.3%) and when SFF was present (31.9g, 9.1%; 80kcal, 11.7%) compared with conditions were products were absent. The lowest intake (gram and kcal) was in the YGD+SFF condition. Significant reductions in AUC hunger and AUC desire to eat were also observed after YGD+SFF combination. The data demonstrate that YGD produces a robust short-term effect on caloric intake, an effect augmented by SFF. Caloric compensation for SFF indicates independent effects on appetite regulation.

  3. Effects of alcohol on food and energy intake in human subjects: evidence for passive and active over-consumption of energy.

    PubMed

    Yeomans, Martin R

    2004-08-01

    The effects of alcohol on food and energy intake in human subjects have been the subject of a number of controlled studies recently. Unlike the evidence for other macronutrients, there is minimal evidence for any compensatory reduction in food intake in response to energy ingested as alcohol. In contrast, all studies testing intake within 1 h of preload ingestion report a higher intake of food following alcohol relative to energy-matched controls, although this short-term stimulatory effect is not evident if the test meal is delayed beyond 1 h. This time-course suggests that short-term stimulation of appetite may be mediated by the pharmacological action of alcohol on the appetite control system, either through enhanced orosensory reward or impaired satiety. In the long term, energy ingested as alcohol is additive to energy from other sources, suggesting that moderate alcohol consumption results in long-term passive over-consumption alongside short-term active over-consumption of energy through appetite stimulation. Despite the consistency of enhanced energy intake after moderate alcohol, evidence of an association between alcohol in the diet and obesity remains contentious, although the most recent results suggest that alcohol intake correlates with BMI. Future research needs to address this issue and clarify the mechanisms underlying appetite stimulation by alcohol.

  4. Contribution of foods consumed away from home to energy intake in Brazilian urban areas: the 2008-9 Nationwide Dietary Survey.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Ilana Nogueira; de Moura Souza, Amanda; Pereira, Rosangela Alves; Sichieri, Rosely

    2013-04-14

    The objectives of the present study were to estimate the dietary contribution of away-from-home food consumption, to describe the contribution of away-from-home foods to energy intake, and to investigate the association between eating away from home and total energy intake in Brazilian urban areas. In the first Brazilian Nationwide Dietary Survey, conducted in 2008-9, food records were collected from 25 753 individuals aged 10 years or older, living in urban areas of Brazil. Foods were grouped into thirty-three food groups, and the mean energy intake provided by away-from-home food consumption was estimated. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the association between away-from-home food consumption and total energy intake. All analyses considered the sample design effect. Of the total population, 43 % consumed at least one food item away from home. The mean energy intake from foods consumed away from home was 1408 kJ (337 kcal), averaging 18 % of total energy intake. Eating away from home was associated with increased total energy intake, except for men in the highest income level. The highest percentage of away-from-home energy sources was for food with a high content of energy, such as alcoholic beverages (59 %), baked and deep-fried snacks (54 %), pizza (42 %), soft drinks (40 %), sandwiches (40 %), and sweets and desserts (30 %). The consumption of foods away from home was related to a greater energy intake. The characterisation of away-from-home food habits is necessary in order to properly design strategies to promote healthy food consumption in the away-from-home environment.

  5. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls.

    PubMed

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Forsum, Elisabet; Henriksson, Hanna; Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva; Larsson, Christel; Maddison, Ralph; Timpka, Toomas; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-15

    Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH), which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare energy intake (EI) using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water (DLW); and (b) to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years) within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP) obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH) was not statistically different from TEE (DLW) (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680 kJ/24 h, respectively). No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665-0.896, p < 0.001). In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials.

  6. Measuring food intake with digital photography.

    PubMed

    Martin, C K; Nicklas, T; Gunturk, B; Correa, J B; Allen, H R; Champagne, C

    2014-01-01

    The digital photography of foods method accurately estimates the food intake of adults and children in cafeterias. When using this method, images of food selection and leftovers are quickly captured in the cafeteria. These images are later compared with images of 'standard' portions of food using computer software. The amount of food selected and discarded is estimated based upon this comparison, and the application automatically calculates energy and nutrient intake. In the present review, we describe this method, as well as a related method called the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM), which relies on smartphones to estimate food intake in near real-time in free-living conditions. When using the RFPM, participants capture images of food selection and leftovers using a smartphone and these images are wirelessly transmitted in near real-time to a server for analysis. Because data are transferred and analysed in near real-time, the RFPM provides a platform for participants to quickly receive feedback about their food intake behaviour and to receive dietary recommendations for achieving weight loss and health promotion goals. The reliability and validity of measuring food intake with the RFPM in adults and children is also reviewed. In sum, the body of research reviewed demonstrates that digital imaging accurately estimates food intake in many environments and it has many advantages over other methods, including reduced participant burden, elimination of the need for participants to estimate portion size, and the incorporation of computer automation to improve the accuracy, efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the method.

  7. Neuropeptide Y influences acute food intake and energy status affects NPY immunoreactivity in the female musk shrew (Suncus murinus).

    PubMed

    Bojkowska, Karolina; Hamczyk, Magdalena M; Tsai, Houng-Wei; Riggan, Anna; Rissman, Emilie F

    2008-02-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) stimulates feeding, depresses sexual behavior, and its expression in the brain is modulated by energetic status. We examined the role of NPY in female musk shrews, a species with high energetic and reproductive demands; they store little fat, and small changes in energy can rapidly diminish or enhance sexual receptivity. Intracerebroventricular infusion of NPY enhanced acute food intake in shrews; however, NPY had little affect on sexual receptivity. The distribution of NPY immunoreactivity in the female musk shrew brain was unremarkable, but energy status differentially affected NPY immunoreactivity in several regions. Similar to what has been noted in other species, NPY immunoreactivity was less dense in brains of ad libitum shrews and greater in shrews subjected to food restriction. In two midbrain regions, both of which contain high levels of gonadotropin releasing hormone II (GnRH II), which has anorexigenic actions in shrews, NPY immunoreactivity was more sensitive to changes in food intake. In these regions, acute re-feeding (90-180 min) after food restriction reduced NPY immunoreactivity to levels noted in ad libitum shrews. We hypothesize that interactions between NPY and GnRH II maintain energy homeostasis and reproduction in the musk shrew.

  8. Effects of food form on food intake and postprandial appetite sensations, glucose and endocrine responses, and energy expenditure in resistance trained v. sedentary older adults.

    PubMed

    Apolzan, John W; Leidy, Heather J; Mattes, Richard D; Campbell, Wayne W

    2011-10-01

    Limited research has suggested that the food form of nutritional supplements (FFNS) and resistance training (RT) influence ingestive behaviour and energy balance in older adults. The effects of the FFNS and RT on acute appetitive, endocrine and metabolic responses are not adequately documented. The present study assessed the effects of the FFNS and RT on postprandial appetite sensations (hunger and fullness), endocrine responses (plasma insulin, cholecystokinin, ghrelin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)), metabolism (glucose, energy expenditure and RER) and food intake (satiation) in older adults. On separate days, eighteen sedentary (Sed) and sixteen RT healthy adults (age 62-84 years) consumed 12·5 % of their energy need as an isoenergetic- and macronutrient-matched solid or beverage. Postprandial responses were assessed over 4 h. No RT × FFNS interactions were observed for any parameter. Fasting cholecystokinin was higher in the RT v. Sed group (P < 0·05). RT did not influence fullness, but fullness was higher following the solid v. beverage intake (P < 0·01). Neither RT nor FFNS influenced hunger. Glucose and insulin were higher after the solid v. beverage intake (P < 0·01). Ghrelin, GLP-1 and energy expenditure were not different between the RT and FFNS groups. Postprandial cholecystokinin was higher in the RT v. Sed group (P < 0·01) and for solid v. beverage (P < 0·05). RER was lower for solid v. beverage (P < 0·001). Neither RT nor FFNS independently or interactively influenced food intake 2 h after post-nutritional supplements. In conclusion, RT had little influence on ingestive behaviour. The appetitive and endocrine responses suggested the solid-promoted satiety; however, the FFNS did not alter subsequent food intake.

  9. Nutrient Sensing Systems in Fish: Impact on Food Intake Regulation and Energy Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Conde-Sieira, Marta; Soengas, José L.

    2017-01-01

    Evidence obtained in recent years in a few species, especially rainbow trout, supports the presence in fish of nutrient sensing mechanisms. Glucosensing capacity is present in central (hypothalamus and hindbrain) and peripheral [liver, Brockmann bodies (BB, main accumulation of pancreatic endocrine cells in several fish species), and intestine] locations whereas fatty acid sensors seem to be present in hypothalamus, liver and BB. Glucose and fatty acid sensing capacities relate to food intake regulation and metabolism in fish. Hypothalamus is as a signaling integratory center in a way that detection of increased levels of nutrients result in food intake inhibition through changes in the expression of anorexigenic and orexigenic neuropeptides. Moreover, central nutrient sensing modulates functions in the periphery since they elicit changes in hepatic metabolism as well as in hormone secretion to counter-regulate changes in nutrient levels detected in the CNS. At peripheral level, the direct nutrient detection in liver has a crucial role in homeostatic control of glucose and fatty acid whereas in BB and intestine nutrient sensing is probably involved in regulation of hormone secretion from endocrine cells. PMID:28111540

  10. Nutrient Sensing Systems in Fish: Impact on Food Intake Regulation and Energy Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Conde-Sieira, Marta; Soengas, José L

    2016-01-01

    Evidence obtained in recent years in a few species, especially rainbow trout, supports the presence in fish of nutrient sensing mechanisms. Glucosensing capacity is present in central (hypothalamus and hindbrain) and peripheral [liver, Brockmann bodies (BB, main accumulation of pancreatic endocrine cells in several fish species), and intestine] locations whereas fatty acid sensors seem to be present in hypothalamus, liver and BB. Glucose and fatty acid sensing capacities relate to food intake regulation and metabolism in fish. Hypothalamus is as a signaling integratory center in a way that detection of increased levels of nutrients result in food intake inhibition through changes in the expression of anorexigenic and orexigenic neuropeptides. Moreover, central nutrient sensing modulates functions in the periphery since they elicit changes in hepatic metabolism as well as in hormone secretion to counter-regulate changes in nutrient levels detected in the CNS. At peripheral level, the direct nutrient detection in liver has a crucial role in homeostatic control of glucose and fatty acid whereas in BB and intestine nutrient sensing is probably involved in regulation of hormone secretion from endocrine cells.

  11. Reviewing the Effects of L-Leucine Supplementation in the Regulation of Food Intake, Energy Balance, and Glucose Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Pedroso, João A B; Zampieri, Thais T; Donato, Jose

    2015-05-22

    Leucine is a well-known activator of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Because mTOR signaling regulates several aspects of metabolism, the potential of leucine as a dietary supplement for treating obesity and diabetes mellitus has been investigated. The objective of the present review was to summarize and discuss the available evidence regarding the mechanisms and the effects of leucine supplementation on the regulation of food intake, energy balance, and glucose homeostasis. Based on the available evidence, we conclude that although central leucine injection decreases food intake, this effect is not well reproduced when leucine is provided as a dietary supplement. Consequently, no robust evidence indicates that oral leucine supplementation significantly affects food intake, although several studies have shown that leucine supplementation may help to decrease body adiposity in specific conditions. However, more studies are necessary to assess the effects of leucine supplementation in already-obese subjects. Finally, although several studies have found that leucine supplementation improves glucose homeostasis, the underlying mechanisms involved in these potential beneficial effects remain unknown and may be partially dependent on weight loss.

  12. Reviewing the Effects of l-Leucine Supplementation in the Regulation of Food Intake, Energy Balance, and Glucose Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Pedroso, João A.B.; Zampieri, Thais T.; Donato, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Leucine is a well-known activator of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Because mTOR signaling regulates several aspects of metabolism, the potential of leucine as a dietary supplement for treating obesity and diabetes mellitus has been investigated. The objective of the present review was to summarize and discuss the available evidence regarding the mechanisms and the effects of leucine supplementation on the regulation of food intake, energy balance, and glucose homeostasis. Based on the available evidence, we conclude that although central leucine injection decreases food intake, this effect is not well reproduced when leucine is provided as a dietary supplement. Consequently, no robust evidence indicates that oral leucine supplementation significantly affects food intake, although several studies have shown that leucine supplementation may help to decrease body adiposity in specific conditions. However, more studies are necessary to assess the effects of leucine supplementation in already-obese subjects. Finally, although several studies have found that leucine supplementation improves glucose homeostasis, the underlying mechanisms involved in these potential beneficial effects remain unknown and may be partially dependent on weight loss. PMID:26007339

  13. Food hedonics and reinforcement as determinants of laboratory food intake in smokers.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Leonard H; Wright, Suzanne M; Paluch, Rocco A; Leddy, John; Hawk, Larry W; Jaroni, Jodie L; Saad, Frances G; Crystal-Mansour, Susan; Lerman, Caryn

    2004-05-01

    Both the hedonic ratings and the reinforcing value of food have been considered to be determinants of food intake. The objective of this study was to compare the pleasurable ratings and the reinforcing value of food as determinants of energy intake. Seventy-four smokers were studied in food consumption and reinforcing value of food tasks prior to enrolling in a smoking-cessation treatment program. For the food consumption task, the participants tasted and consumed food ad lib from eight snack foods. The reinforcing value of the food task assessed how hard subjects would work for a preferred snack food. Results showed that food reinforcement was related to laboratory food intake, with those high in food reinforcement consuming significantly more calories (+114.4 kcal, P<.01) than did the participants low in food reinforcement. Food reinforcement was related to food intake for the preferred food as well as to total energy intake. Hedonics for the preferred food was related to food reinforcement but not to either measure of laboratory energy intake. In multiple-regression models, food reinforcement and the interaction of food reinforcement by sex were significant predictors of energy intake for the preferred food and for total energy intake, along with baseline hunger. In conclusion, energy intake in smokers in a laboratory setting is more strongly related to food reinforcement than to the hedonic ratings of food.

  14. Energy and macronutrient composition of breakfast affect gastric emptying of lunch and subsequent food intake, satiety and satiation.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Miriam; Shafat, Amir

    2010-06-01

    Satiety and food intake are closely related to gastrointestinal transit and specifically gastric emptying. High-fat (HF) meals empty more slowly from the stomach yet are less satiating than isoenergetic low-fat (LF) meals. The current study examines how gastric emptying and satiety at lunch are affected by energy and macronutrient content of breakfast. Nine male volunteers consumed either (1) a HF breakfast, (2) a LF breakfast isoenergetic to HF (LFE) or (3) a LF breakfast of equal mass to HF (LFM). Gastric emptying half time measured using the sodium [(13)C] acetate breath test was delayed after HF compared to LF meals (HF: 102 + or - 11, LFE: 96 + or - 13, LFM: 95 + or - 13 min, mean + or - SD). Fullness increased and desire to eat decreased following the LFE breakfast measured using visual analogue scales. Eating a HF breakfast increased the energy, fat and protein from an ad libitum buffet meal given 4h after lunch. In conclusion, eating a HF breakfast delayed gastric emptying of lunch and increased food intake 7 h later compared to a LFM breakfast. These data suggest both mass and energy content of food regulate subsequent appetite and feeding and demonstrate the hyperphagic effect of a single HF meal.

  15. Intake of energy-dense foods, fast foods, sugary drinks, and breast cancer risk in African American and European American women.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Urmila; McCann, Susan E; Zirpoli, Gary; Gong, Zhihong; Lin, Yong; Hong, Chi-Chen; Ciupak, Gregory; Pawlish, Karen; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bandera, Elisa V

    2014-01-01

    Limiting energy-dense foods, fast foods, and sugary drinks that promote weight gain is a cancer prevention recommendation, but no studies have evaluated intake in relation to breast cancer risk in African American (AA) women. In a case-control study with 1692 AA women (803 cases and 889 controls) and 1456 European American (EA) women (755 cases and 701 controls), odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for risk were computed, stratifying for menopausal and estrogen receptor (ER) status. Among postmenopausal EA women, breast cancer risk was associated with frequent consumption of energy-dense foods (OR = 2.95; 95% CI: 1.66-5.22), fast foods (OR = 2.35; 95% CI: 1.38-4.00), and sugary drinks (OR = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.13-3.70). Elevated risk of ER+ tumors in EA women was associated with energy-dense (OR = 1.75; 95% CI: 1.14-2.69) and fast foods (OR = 1.84; 95% CI: 1.22-2.77). Among AA women, frequent fast food consumption was related to premenopausal breast cancer risk (OR = 1.97; 95% CI: 1.13-3.43), and with ER+ tumors. Energy adjustment attenuated risk estimates in AA women, while strengthening them among EA women. Frequent consumption of energy-dense and fast foods that have poor nutritive value appeared to increase breast cancer risk in AA and EA women, with differences by menopausal status and ER status.

  16. The energy, nutrient and food intakes of teenagers aged 16-17 years in Britain. 1. Energy, macronutrients and non-starch polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Crawley, H F

    1993-07-01

    As part of the 16-17 year follow-up of the 1970 longitudinal birth cohort study, The International Centre for Child Studies collected dietary data from a National sample of 4760 teenagers. Dietary intake data were collected in 4 d unweighed dietary diaries, distributed by schools and returned by post. Dietary intake data were quantitatively coded, and the intakes of energy, macronutrients and non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) are reported. Intakes of fat and extrinsic sugars, expressed as a percentage of energy intake, exceeded recent recommendations (Department of Health, 1991), and the intakes of intrinsic sugars, milk sugars and starch, and NSP were considerably lower than recommended. Only 25% of males and 10% of females achieved intakes of 18 g NSP/d. The main food groups contributing fat (%) to the diets of teenagers (for males and females respectively) were meat and meat products (24.2, 22.1), spreading fats (18.6, 18.1) and cereals and cereal products (18, 17.8), whilst the major sources of sugars (%) were (for males and females respectively) sugar and confectionary (28.2, 26.4), cereals and cereal products (24.5, 23) and beverages (21.9, 21.5). Less than half the cohort drank alcohol during the recording period, and about 6% of females drank more than 2 units alcohol/d, and about 6% of males drank more than 3 units alcohol/d.

  17. Leptin signaling is required for adaptive changes in food intake, but not energy expenditure, in response to different thermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Kaiyala, Karl J; Ogimoto, Kayoko; Nelson, Jarrell T; Schwartz, Michael W; Morton, Gregory J

    2015-01-01

    Survival of free-living animals depends on the ability to maintain core body temperature in the face of rapid and dramatic changes in their thermal environment. If food intake is not adjusted to meet the changing energy demands associated with changes of ambient temperature, a serious challenge to body energy stores can occur. To more fully understand the coupling of thermoregulation to energy homeostasis in normal animals and to investigate the role of the adipose hormone leptin to this process, comprehensive measures of energy homeostasis and core temperature were obtained in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and their wild-type (WT) littermate controls when housed under cool (14°C), usual (22°C) or ∼ thermoneutral (30°C) conditions. Our findings extend previous evidence that WT mice robustly defend normothermia in response to either a lowering (14°C) or an increase (30°C) of ambient temperature without changes in body weight or body composition. In contrast, leptin-deficient, ob/ob mice fail to defend normothermia at ambient temperatures lower than thermoneutrality and exhibit marked losses of both body fat and lean mass when exposed to cooler environments (14°C). Our findings further demonstrate a strong inverse relationship between ambient temperature and energy expenditure in WT mice, a relationship that is preserved in ob/ob mice. However, thermal conductance analysis indicates defective heat retention in ob/ob mice, irrespective of temperature. While a negative relationship between ambient temperature and energy intake also exists in WT mice, this relationship is disrupted in ob/ob mice. Thus, to meet the thermoregulatory demands of different ambient temperatures, leptin signaling is required for adaptive changes in both energy intake and thermal conductance. A better understanding of the mechanisms coupling thermoregulation to energy homeostasis may lead to the development of new approaches for the treatment of obesity.

  18. Effects of a 12-week aerobic exercise intervention on eating behaviour, food cravings, and 7-day energy intake and energy expenditure in inactive men.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Joel; Paxman, Jenny; Dalton, Caroline; Winter, Edward; Broom, David R

    2016-11-01

    This study examined effects of 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on eating behaviour, food cravings, and weekly energy intake and expenditure in inactive men. Eleven healthy men (mean ± SD: age, 26 ± 5 years; body mass index, 24.6 ± 3.8 kg·m(-2); maximum oxygen uptake, 43.1 ± 7.4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) completed the 12-week supervised exercise programme. Body composition, health markers (e.g., blood pressure), eating behaviour, food cravings, and weekly energy intake and expenditure were assessed before and after the exercise intervention. There were no intervention effects on weekly free-living energy intake (p = 0.326, d = -0.12) and expenditure (p = 0.799, d = 0.04) or uncontrolled eating and emotional eating scores (p > 0.05). However, there was a trend with a medium effect size (p = 0.058, d = 0.68) for cognitive restraint to be greater after the exercise intervention. Total food cravings (p = 0.009, d = -1.19) and specific cravings of high-fat foods (p = 0.023, d = -0.90), fast-food fats (p = 0.009, d = -0.71), and carbohydrates/starches (p = 0.009, d = -0.56) decreased from baseline to 12 weeks. Moreover, there was a trend with a large effect size for cravings of sweets (p = 0.052, d = -0.86) to be lower after the exercise intervention. In summary, 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise reduced food cravings and increased cognitive restraint, but these changes were not accompanied by changes in other eating behaviours or weekly energy intake and expenditure. The results indicate the importance of exercising for health improvements even when reductions in body mass are modest.

  19. Energy balance and food intake: the role of PPARgamma gene polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Cecil, Joanne E; Watt, Peter; Palmer, Colin N; Hetherington, Marion

    2006-06-30

    Mechanisms regulating energy balance involve complex interactions between genetic, environmental and behavioural (learnt and intrinsic) factors. Genotype may drive the partitioning of energy metabolism and predispose to site-specific adiposity, culminating in a state of energy imbalance. One candidate gene with a direct link to adiposity is the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) gene. PPARG is a cell nuclear receptor expressed almost exclusively in adipose tissue that regulates adipocyte differentiation, lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. PPARgamma appears to be a key regulator of energy balance, with polymorphisms on the PPARG gene linked to obesity and effects on body composition. Our research has confirmed an association between the pro12ala allele and reduced incidence of obesity in pre-pubertal children and there are strong associations between genetic variation at the PPARG locus and percentage body fat. Moreover, our evidence suggests that PPARG C-681G and pro12ala polymorphisms display opposing effects in terms of growth phenotype, with pro12Ala associated with deficient energy utilisation, leading to reduced growth and the G-681 variant associated with accelerated growth compared with wildtypes. Common differences in this gene have also been associated with variations in body weight in response to dietary macronutrients. Preliminary evidence suggests that PPARG variants may even be involved in the control of short term energy compensation. Taken together these data suggest that the role of PPARG is varied and complex, influencing fat deposition and growth velocity early in life, with potential impact in the control of energy intake and appetite regulation, and could provide a key target for future research and anti-obesity agents.

  20. Body composition and energy intake - skeletal muscle mass is the strongest predictor of food intake in obese adolescents: The HEARTY trial.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Jameason D; Sigal, Ronald J; Kenny, Glen P; Alberga, Angela S; Prud'homme, Denis; Phillips, Penny; Doucette, Steve; Goldfield, Gary

    2016-06-01

    There has been renewed interest in examining the relationship between specific components of energy expenditure and the overall influence on energy intake (EI). The purpose of this cross-sectional analysis was to determine the strongest metabolic and anthropometric predictors of EI. It was hypothesized that resting metabolic rate (RMR) and skeletal muscle mass would be the strongest predictors of EI in a sample of overweight and obese adolescents. 304 post-pubertal adolescents (91 boys, 213 girls) aged 16.1 (±1.4) years with body mass index at or above the 95th percentile for age and sex OR at or above the 85th percentile plus an additional diabetes risk factor were measured for body weight, RMR (kcal/day) by indirect calorimetry, body composition by magnetic resonance imaging (fat free mass (FFM), skeletal muscle mass, fat mass (FM), and percentage body fat), and EI (kcal/day) using 3 day food records. Body weight, RMR, FFM, skeletal muscle mass, and FM were all significantly correlated with EI (p < 0.005). After adjusting the model for age, sex, height, and physical activity, only FFM (β = 21.9, p = 0.007) and skeletal muscle mass (β = 25.8, p = 0.02) remained as significant predictors of EI. FFM and skeletal muscle mass also predicted dietary protein and fat intake (p < 0.05), but not carbohydrate intake. In conclusion, with skeletal muscle mass being the best predictor of EI, our results support the hypothesis that the magnitude of the body's lean tissue is related to absolute levels of EI in a sample of inactive adolescents with obesity.

  1. Association of fast food consumption with energy intake, diet quality, body mass index and the risk of obesity in a representative Mediterranean population.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Helmut; Fïto, Montserrat; Covas, Maria Isabel

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the association of fast food consumption with BMI, energy intake and diet quality in a Mediterranean population. The subjects were Spanish men (n 1491) and women (n 1563) aged 25-74 years who were examined in 1999-2000, in a population-based cross-sectional survey in northeast Spain (Girona). Dietary intake was assessed using a FFQ that included four typical fast food items. Two dietary-quality indices, the Mediterranean diet score and the healthy eating index, were created. Height and weight were measured. Within the population studied, 10.1 % reported eating fast food at least once per month. Dietary energy intake and energy density were directly associated with frequency of fast food consumption. Multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for lifestyle and educational level showed an inverse association of frequency of fast food consumption with meeting the dietary reference intake (DRI) for energy (P = 0.001). The consumption of fast food more than once per week increased the risk of overall low diet quality (P < 0.001). BMI was directly associated with fast food consumption expressed in g/d (P = 0.025) and in kJ/d (P = 0.017). The risk of being obese increased with the frequency of fast food consumption (P = 0.046). Fast food consumption was associated with higher energy intakes, poor diet quality and higher BMI. The likelihood of not meeting the DRI for energy, and of being obese, increased with the frequency of fast food consumption.

  2. Fat/carbohydrate ratio but not energy density determines snack food intake and activates brain reward areas.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Tobias; Kreitz, Silke; Gaffling, Simone; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2015-05-14

    The snack food potato chips induces food intake in ad libitum fed rats, which is associated with modulation of the brain reward system and other circuits. Here, we show that food intake in satiated rats is triggered by an optimal fat/carbohydrate ratio. Like potato chips, an isocaloric fat/carbohydrate mixture influenced whole brain activity pattern of rats, affecting circuits related e.g. to reward/addiction, but the number of modulated areas and the extent of modulation was lower compared to the snack food itself.

  3. Quantitative Genetics of Food Intake in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Garlapow, Megan E; Huang, Wen; Yarboro, Michael T; Peterson, Kara R; Mackay, Trudy F C

    2015-01-01

    Food intake is an essential animal activity, regulated by neural circuits that motivate food localization, evaluate nutritional content and acceptance or rejection responses through the gustatory system, and regulate neuroendocrine feedback loops that maintain energy homeostasis. Excess food consumption in people is associated with obesity and metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. However, little is known about the genetic basis of natural variation in food consumption. To gain insights in evolutionarily conserved genetic principles that regulate food intake, we took advantage of a model system, Drosophila melanogaster, in which food intake, environmental conditions and genetic background can be controlled precisely. We quantified variation in food intake among 182 inbred, sequenced lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP). We found significant genetic variation in the mean and within-line environmental variance of food consumption and observed sexual dimorphism and genetic variation in sexual dimorphism for both food intake traits (mean and variance). We performed genome wide association (GWA) analyses for mean food intake and environmental variance of food intake (using the coefficient of environmental variation, CVE, as the metric for environmental variance) and identified molecular polymorphisms associated with both traits. Validation experiments using RNAi-knockdown confirmed 24 of 31 (77%) candidate genes affecting food intake and/or variance of food intake, and a test cross between selected DGRP lines confirmed a SNP affecting mean food intake identified in the GWA analysis. The majority of the validated candidate genes were novel with respect to feeding behavior, and many had mammalian orthologs implicated in metabolic diseases.

  4. Alterations in energy balance from an exercise intervention with ad libitum food intake.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Katarina; Renaud, Anne; Zurbuchen, Stefanie; Tschopp, Céline; Lehmann, Jan; Malatesta, Davide; Ruch, Nicole; Schutz, Yves; Kayser, Bengt; Mäder, Urs

    2016-01-01

    Better understanding is needed regarding the effects of exercise alone, without any imposed dietary regimens, as a single tool for body-weight regulation. Thus, we evaluated the effects of an 8-week increase in activity energy expenditure (AEE) on ad libitum energy intake (EI), body mass and composition in healthy participants with baseline physical activity levels (PAL) in line with international recommendations. Forty-six male adults (BMI = 19·7-29·3 kg/m(2)) participated in an intervention group, and ten (BMI = 21·0-28·4 kg/m(2)) in a control group. Anthropometric measures, cardiorespiratory fitness, EI, AEE and exercise intensity were recorded at baseline and during the 1st, 5th and 8th intervention weeks, and movement was recorded throughout. Body composition was measured at the beginning and at the end of the study, and resting energy expenditure was measured after the study. The intervention group increased PAL from 1·74 (se 0·03) to 1·93 (se 0·03) (P < 0·0001) and cardiorespiratory fitness from 41·4 (se 0·9) to 45·7 (se 1·1) ml O2/kg per min (P = 0·001) while decreasing body mass (-1·36 (se 0·2) kg; P = 0·001) through adipose tissue mass loss (ATM) (-1·61 (se 0·2) kg; P = 0·0001) compared with baseline. The control group did not show any significant changes in activity, body mass or ATM. EI was unchanged in both groups. The results indicate that in normal-weight and overweight men, increasing PAL from 1·7 to 1·9 while keeping EI ad libitum over an 8-week period produces a prolonged negative energy balance. Replication using a longer period (and/or more intense increase in PAL) is needed to investigate if and at what body composition the increase in AEE is met by an equivalent increase in EI.

  5. Consequences of Lower Food Intake on the Digestive Enzymes Activities, the Energy Reserves and the Reproductive Outcome in Gammarus fossarum

    PubMed Central

    Charron, Laetitia; Geffard, Olivier; Chaumot, Arnaud; Coulaud, Romain; Jaffal, Ali; Gaillet, Véronique; Dedourge-Geffard, Odile; Geffard, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Digestive enzyme activity is often used as a sensitive response to environmental pollution. However, only little is known about the negative effects of stress on digestive capacities and their consequences on energy reserves and reproduction, although these parameters are important for the maintenance of populations. To highlight if changes in biochemical responses (digestive enzymes and reserves) led to impairments at an individual level (fertility), Gammarus fossarum were submitted to a lower food intake throughout a complete female reproductive cycle (i.e. from ovogenesis to offspring production). For both males and females, amylase activity was inhibited by the diet stress, whereas trypsin activity was not influenced. These results underline similar sensitivity of males and females concerning their digestive capacity. Energy reserves decreased with food starvation in females, and remained stable in males. The number of embryos per female decreased with food starvation. Lower digestive activity in males and females therefore appears as an early response. These results underline the ecological relevance of digestive markers, as they make it possible to anticipate upcoming consequences on reproduction in females, a key biological variable for population dynamics. PMID:25880985

  6. High prevalence of malnutrition and deranged relationship between energy demands and food intake in advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Mohan, A; Poulose, R; Kulshreshtha, I; Chautani, A M; Madan, K; Hadda, V; Guleria, R

    2016-04-21

    The relation between dietary intake and metabolic profile in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was evaluated. Patients with NSCLC were recruited and their caloric requirement and resting energy expenditure (REE) were calculated using the Harris-Benedict equation and Katch-McArdle formula respectively. Hypermetabolic state was defined as REE more than 10% above the basal metabolic rate (BMR). Body composition parameters were calculated by bioelectric impedance method. The 24-h dietary intake method and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool assessed nutritional intake. One hundred and forty-eight subjects were included (87% males). Of these, 46.6% subjects were hypermetabolic and 31% cachexic, with lower calorie and protein intakes than recommended, although per cent of total energy derived from protein, fat and carbohydrates were similar. Hypermetabolic patients had lower BMI, though the per cent deficit in energy and protein consumption was similar. Cachexia was associated with lower BMR but not with deficit in energy or protein consumption. No correlation was seen between dietary intake and body composition parameters. The calorie and protein intake of NSCLC patients is lower than recommended. The discordance between elevated REE and dietary intake implies that the relationship between increased energy demands and food intake may be altered.

  7. A simulation study of the potential effects of healthy food and beverage substitutions on diet quality and total energy intake in Lower Mississippi Delta adults.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Jessica L; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M; Onufrak, Stephen J; Zoellner, Jamie M; Connell, Carol L; Bogle, Margaret L; Yadrick, Kathy

    2011-12-01

    The majority of adult diets in the United States, particularly the South, are of poor quality, putting these individuals at increased risk for chronic diseases. In this study, simulation modeling was used to determine the effects of substituting familiar, more healthful foods and beverages for less healthy ones on diet quality and total energy intake in Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) adults. Dietary data collected in 2000 for 1689 LMD adults who participated in the Foods of Our Delta Study were analyzed. The Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) was used to measure diet quality. The effects of substituting targeted foods and beverages with more healthful items on diet quality were simulated by replacing the targeted items' nutrient profile with their replacements' profile. For the single food and beverage groups, 100% replacement of grain desserts with juice-packed fruit cocktail and sugar-sweetened beverages with water resulted in the largest improvements in diet quality (4.0 and 3.8 points, respectively) and greatest decreases in total energy intake (98 and 215 kcal/d, respectively). The 100% substitution of all food and beverage groups combined resulted in a 12.0-point increase in HEI-2005 score and a decrease of 785 kcal/d in total energy intake. Community interventions designed to improve the diet of LMD adults through the use of familiar, healthy food and beverage substitutions have the potential to improve diet quality and decrease energy intake of this health disparate population.

  8. Leptin inhibits food-deprivation-induced increases in food intake and food hoarding.

    PubMed

    Keen-Rhinehart, Erin; Bartness, Timothy J

    2008-12-01

    Food deprivation stimulates foraging and hoarding and to a much lesser extent, food intake in Siberian hamsters. Leptin, the anorexigenic hormone secreted primarily from adipocytes, may act in the periphery, the brain, or both to inhibit these ingestive behaviors. Therefore, we tested whether leptin given either intracerebroventricularly or intraperitoneally, would block food deprivation-induced increases in food hoarding, foraging, and intake in animals with differing foraging requirements. Hamsters were trained in a running wheel-based food delivery foraging system coupled with simulated burrow housing. We determined the effects of food deprivation and several peripheral doses of leptin on plasma leptin concentrations. Hamsters were then food deprived for 48 h and given leptin (0, 10, 40, or 80 microg ip), and additional hamsters were food deprived for 48 h and given leptin (0, 1.25, 2.5, or 5.0 microg icv). Foraging, food intake, and hoarding were measured postinjection. Food deprivation stimulated food hoarding to a greater degree and duration than food intake. In animals with a foraging requirement, intracerebroventricular leptin almost completely blocked food deprivation-induced increased food hoarding and intake, but increased foraging. Peripheral leptin treatment was most effective in a sedentary control group, completely inhibiting food deprivation-induced increased food hoarding and intake at the two highest doses, and did not affect foraging at any dose. Thus, the ability of leptin to inhibit food deprivation-induced increases in ingestive behaviors differs based on foraging effort (energy expenditure) and the route of administration of leptin administration.

  9. Energy and macronutrient content of familiar beverages interact with pre-meal intervals to determine later food intake, appetite and glycemic response in young adults.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Shirin; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Liu, Ting Ting; Akhavan, Tina; El Khoury, Dalia; Goff, H Douglas; Anderson, G Harvey

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to compare the effects of pre-meal consumption of familiar beverages on appetite, food intake, and glycemic response in healthy young adults. Two short-term experiments compared the effect of consumption at 30 (experiment 1) or 120 min (experiment 2) before a pizza meal of isovolumetric amounts (500 mL) of water (0 kcal), soy beverage (200 kcal), 2% milk (260 kcal), 1% chocolate milk (340 kcal), orange juice (229 kcal) and cow's milk-based infant formula (368 kcal) on food intake and subjective appetite and blood glucose before and after a meal. Pre-meal ingestion of chocolate milk and infant formula reduced food intake compared to water at 30 min, however, beverage type did not affect food intake at 2h. Pre-meal blood glucose was higher after chocolate milk than other caloric beverages from 0 to 30 min (experiment 1), and after chocolate milk and orange juice from 0 to 120 min (experiment 2). Only milk reduced post-meal blood glucose in both experiments, suggesting that its effects were independent of meal-time energy intake. Combined pre- and post-meal blood glucose was lower after milk compared to chocolate milk and orange juice, but did not differ from other beverages. Thus, beverage calorie content and inter-meal intervals are primary determinants of food intake in the short-term, but macronutrient composition, especially protein content and composition, may play the greater role in glycemic control.

  10. Reported Energy Intake Accuracy Compared to Doubly Labeled Water and Usability of the Mobile Food Record among Community Dwelling Adults

    PubMed Central

    Boushey, Carol J.; Spoden, Melissa; Delp, Edward J.; Zhu, Fengqing; Bosch, Marc; Ahmad, Ziad; Shvetsov, Yurii B.; DeLany, James P.; Kerr, Deborah A.

    2017-01-01

    The mobile Food Record (mFR) is an image-based dietary assessment method for mobile devices. The study primary aim was to test the accuracy of the mFR by comparing reported energy intake (rEI) to total energy expenditure (TEE) using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method. Usability of the mFR was assessed by questionnaires before and after the study. Participants were 45 community dwelling men and women, 21–65 years. They were provided pack-out meals and snacks and encouraged to supplement with usual foods and beverages not provided. After being dosed with DLW, participants were instructed to record all eating occasions over a 7.5 days period using the mFR. Three trained analysts estimated rEI from the images sent to a secure server. rEI and TEE correlated significantly (Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.58, p < 0.0001). The mean percentage of underreporting below the lower 95% confidence interval of the ratio of rEI to TEE was 12% for men (standard deviation (SD) ± 11%) and 10% for women (SD ± 10%). The results demonstrate the accuracy of the mFR is comparable to traditional dietary records and other image-based methods. No systematic biases could be found. The mFR was received well by the participants and usability was rated as easy. PMID:28327502

  11. Reported Energy Intake Accuracy Compared to Doubly Labeled Water and Usability of the Mobile Food Record among Community Dwelling Adults.

    PubMed

    Boushey, Carol J; Spoden, Melissa; Delp, Edward J; Zhu, Fengqing; Bosch, Marc; Ahmad, Ziad; Shvetsov, Yurii B; DeLany, James P; Kerr, Deborah A

    2017-03-22

    The mobile Food Record (mFR) is an image-based dietary assessment method for mobile devices. The study primary aim was to test the accuracy of the mFR by comparing reported energy intake (rEI) to total energy expenditure (TEE) using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method. Usability of the mFR was assessed by questionnaires before and after the study. Participants were 45 community dwelling men and women, 21-65 years. They were provided pack-out meals and snacks and encouraged to supplement with usual foods and beverages not provided. After being dosed with DLW, participants were instructed to record all eating occasions over a 7.5 days period using the mFR. Three trained analysts estimated rEI from the images sent to a secure server. rEI and TEE correlated significantly (Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.58, p < 0.0001). The mean percentage of underreporting below the lower 95% confidence interval of the ratio of rEI to TEE was 12% for men (standard deviation (SD) ± 11%) and 10% for women (SD ± 10%). The results demonstrate the accuracy of the mFR is comparable to traditional dietary records and other image-based methods. No systematic biases could be found. The mFR was received well by the participants and usability was rated as easy.

  12. Leptin receptor neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus are key regulators of energy expenditure and body weight, but not food intake

    PubMed Central

    Rezai-Zadeh, Kavon; Yu, Sanghou; Jiang, Yanyan; Laque, Amanda; Schwartzenburg, Candice; Morrison, Christopher D.; Derbenev, Andrei V.; Zsombok, Andrea; Münzberg, Heike

    2014-01-01

    Objective Leptin responsive neurons play an important role in energy homeostasis, controlling specific autonomic, behavioral, and neuroendocrine functions. We have previously identified a population of leptin receptor (LepRb) expressing neurons within the dorsomedial hypothalamus/dorsal hypothalamic area (DMH/DHA) which are related to neuronal circuits that control brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. Intra-DMH leptin injections also activate sympathetic outflow to BAT, but whether such effects are mediated directly via DMH/DHA LepRb neurons and whether this is physiologically relevant for whole body energy expenditure and body weight regulation has yet to be determined. Methods We used pharmacosynthetic receptors (DREADDs) to selectively activate DMH/DHA LepRb neurons. We further deleted LepRb with virally driven cre-recombinase from DMH/DHA neurons and determined the physiological importance of DMH/DHA LepRb neurons in whole body energy homeostasis. Results Neuronal activation of DMH/DHA LepRb neurons with DREADDs promoted BAT thermogenesis and locomotor activity, which robustly induced energy expenditure (p < 0.001) and decreases body weight (p < 0.001). Similarly, intra-DMH/DHA leptin injections normalized hypothermia and attenuated body weight gain in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. Conversely, ablation of LepRb from DMH/DHA neurons remarkably drives weight gain (p < 0.001) by reducing energy expenditure (p < 0.001) and locomotor activity (p < 0.001). The observed changes in body weight were largely independent of food intake. Conclusion Taken together, our data highlight that DMH/DHA LepRb neurons are sufficient and necessary to regulate energy expenditure and body weight. PMID:25352997

  13. Food intake regulation in children. Fat and sugar substitutes and intake.

    PubMed

    Birch, L L; Fisher, J O

    1997-05-23

    A series of experiments exploring children's responsiveness to manipulations of energy density and macronutrient content of foods have been reviewed to assess the nutritional impact of macronutrient substitutes on children's intake. In these experiments, the focus is on the extent to which the energy content of foods was a salient factor influencing children's food intake, and macronutrient substitutes were used as tools to investigate this issue. Therefore, although several different macronutrient substitutes have been used in this research, we do not have a parametric set of experiments systematically assessing the impact of a variety of macronutrient substitutes. Given this, what can we conclude from the existing data? When the energy density and macronutrient content of foods is altered through the use of macronutrient substitutes that reduce the energy content of foods, children tend to adjust for the missing energy, although this adjustment may be partial and incomplete. This suggests the possibility that when macronutrient substitutes are used to reduce the energy content of foods, children's energy intake may be reduced. This adjustment, however, will most likely be less than a "calorie for calorie" reduction. In addition, even among young children, there are individual differences in the extent to which children adjust their intake in response to macronutrient and energy manipulations. The data are more extensive and particularly clear for cases in which CHO manipulations are used to alter energy density, but there is evidence for adjustments in energy intake in response to alterations of the fat content of the diet. The compensation for energy is not macronutrient specific; that is, when the fat content of food is reduced to reduce energy density of foods, children do not selectively consume fat in subsequent meals. This means that manipulations of macronutrient content of foods that reduce foods' energy content may not result in alterations of energy

  14. Effects of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on immediate and subsequent three-day food intake and energy expenditure in active and inactive men.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Joel; Paxman, Jenny; Dalton, Caroline; Winter, Edward; Broom, David

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the effects of an acute bout of low-intensity cycling on food intake and energy expenditure over four days. Thirty healthy, active (n=15) and inactive (n=15) men completed two conditions (exercise and control), in a randomised crossover fashion. The exercise experimental day involved cycling for one hour at an intensity equivalent to 50% of maximum oxygen uptake and two hours of rest. The control condition comprised three hours of rest. Participants arrived at the laboratory fasted overnight; breakfast was standardised and an ad libitum pasta lunch was consumed on each experimental day. Participants kept a food diary and wore an Actiheart to estimate energy intake and expenditure for the remainder of the experimental days and over the subsequent 3 days. Ad libitum lunch energy intake did not differ between conditions (p=0.32, d=0.18) or groups (p=0.43, d=0.27). Energy intake in the active group was greater on the exercise experimental day than on the control experimental day (mean difference=2070 kJ; 95% CI 397 to 3743 kJ, p=0.024, d=0.56) while in the inactive group it was increased on only the third day after exercise (mean difference=2225 kJ; 95% CI 414 to 4036 kJ, p=0.024, d=0.80). There was only a group effect (p=0.032, d=0.89) for free-living energy expenditure, indicating that active participants expended more energy than inactive over this period. Acute low-intensity exercise did not affect energy intake at the meal immediately after exercise, but induces an acute (within the experimental day) and delayed (third day after the experimental day) increase in energy intake in active and inactive participants, respectively with no compensatory changes to daily energy expenditure. These results suggest that active individuals compensate for an acute exercise-induced energy deficit quicker than inactive individuals.

  15. Developmental programming of energy balance regulation: Is physical activity more "programmable" than food intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive human and animal model data show that environmental influences during critical periods of prenatal and early postnatal development can cause persistent alterations in energy balance regulation. Although a potentially important factor in the worldwide obesity epidemic, the fundamental mecha...

  16. Involvement of melatonin and thyroid hormones in the control of sleep, food intake and energy metabolism in the domestic fowl.

    PubMed Central

    Bermudez, F F; Forbes, J M; Injidi, M H

    1983-01-01

    Growing male domestic fowl of an egg-laying strain were fed ad libitum and injected intraperitoneally with melatonin or intramuscularly with triiodothyronine (T3) to study the effects on sleep, food intake, blood glucose, e.e.g., oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. Melatonin caused a dose-related depression of food intake with sleep and aphagia lasting for 2 1/2 hr following 8 mg, drowsiness and greatly reduced intake following 4 and 2 mg and a slight reduction in food intake after 1 mg. T3 injection was followed by increased feeding within the range 50-200 micrograms. The higher dose (200 micrograms) completely prevented the effects of 10 mg melatonin injected simultaneously. Melatonin (10 mg) depressed plasma glucose levels whereas T3 (200 micrograms) elevated blood glucose. Either darkness or melatonin (10 mg) caused an increase in amplitude and a decrease in frequency of the e.e.g. Birds fasted for 3 hr before injection showed significantly lower oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production when given melatonin (10 mg); T3 had no effect within the 4 hr period after injection and did not modify the effects of melatonin. It is postulated that the rapid effects of melatonin and T3 which were observed result from direct effects of these hormones on the central nervous system. PMID:6410055

  17. Energy intake from commercially-prepared meals by food source in Korean adults: Analysis of the 2001 and 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Injoo; Kim, Won Gyoung

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The commercial foodservice industry in Korea has shown rapid growth recently. This study examined Korean adults' consumption of commercially-prepared meals based on where the food was prepared. SUBJECTS/METHODS Data from a 24-hour dietary recall of the 2001 and 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed. A total of 10,539 subjects (n = 6,152 in 2001; n = 4,387 in 2011) aged 19-64 years were included for analysis. Commercially-prepared meals were classified into four food source groups based on where the food was prepared: Korean restaurants, Chinese/Western/Japanese restaurants, fast-food restaurants, and retail stores. Subjects' energy intake, including the amount and proportion of calories, was examined for each food source. The analysis was also conducted by gender for age-stratified groups: 19-29, 30-49, and 50-64 years old. RESULTS Korean adults' energy intake from commercially-prepared meals increased in the amount of calories (551 kcal to 635 kcal, P < 0.01), but not in the proportion of daily calories (27% to 28%) from 2001 to 2011. The most frequent food source of commercially-prepared meals was Korean restaurants in both years. The amount and proportion of calories from retail stores increased from 83 kcal to 143 kcal (P < 0.001) and from 4% to 7% (P < 0.001), respectively, during the same period. Males aged 30-49 years (34%) and females aged 19-29 years (35%) consumed the highest proportion of daily calories from commercially-prepared meals in 2011. CONCLUSIONS Korean adults consumed about one-fourth of their energy intake from commercially-prepared meals. In particular, males aged 30-49 years and females aged 19-29 years consumed more than one-third of their energy intake from commercially-prepared meals. Korean restaurants played a significant role in Korean adults' energy intake. Retail stores increased influence on Korean adults' energy intake. These results could be useful for developing health

  18. Food intake norms increase and decrease snack food intake in a remote confederate study.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Eric; Benwell, Helen; Higgs, Suzanne

    2013-06-01

    Social factors have been reported to influence food intake. In the remote confederate paradigm, naive participants are led to believe that previous study participants have consumed a small or large amount of food. To date, there has been no demonstration using this paradigm that information about how much previous participants eat (food intake norms) both increase and decrease food intake in the same study. In the present experiment, we tested 64 undergraduate psychology students using a remote confederate design. We investigated the effect of both a high intake and low intake norm on food intake under the same conditions. We also tested whether a variable shown previously to predict food intake matching amongst eating partners (trait empathy) predicted the influence of food intake norms on intake. Compared with a no norm control condition, leading participants to believe that the intake norm was to eat a lot of cookies increased cookie intake and leading participants to believe the intake norm was to eat few cookies reduced intake. Trait empathy did not moderate the influence of food intake norms on consumption. These findings add to evidence that perceived intake norms exert strong bi-directional effects on food intake.

  19. Monosodium L-glutamate in soup reduces subsequent energy intake from high-fat savoury food in overweight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Miyaki, Takashi; Imada, Toshifumi; Hao, Susan Shuzhen; Kimura, Eiichiro

    2016-01-14

    The umami seasoning, monosodium L-glutamate (MSG), has been shown to increase satiety in normal body weight adults, although the results have not been consistent. The satiety effect of MSG in overweight and obese adults has not been examined yet. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of MSG in a vegetable soup on subsequent energy intakes as well as food selection in overweight and obese adult women without eating disorders. A total of sixty-eight overweight and obese women (BMI range: 25·0-39·9 kg/m²), otherwise healthy, were recruited to our study. A fixed portion (200 ml) of control vegetable soup or the same soup with added MSG (0·5 g/100 ml) was provided 10 min before an ad libitum lunch and an ad libitum snack in the mid-afternoon. The control soup had equivalent amount of Na to the soup with added MSG. Energy intakes at the ad libitum lunch and ad libitum snack time after the soup preload were assessed using a randomised, double-blind, two-way cross-over design. The soup with MSG in comparison with the control soup resulted in significantly lower consumption of energy at lunch. The addition of MSG in the soup also reduced energy intake from high-fat savoury foods. The soup with MSG showed lower but no significant difference in energy intake at mid-afternoon. The addition of umami seasoning MSG in a vegetable soup may decrease subsequent energy intake in overweight and obese women who do not have eating disorders.

  20. The ability of habitual exercise to influence appetite and food intake in response to high- and low-energy preloads in man.

    PubMed

    Long, S J; Hart, K; Morgan, L M

    2002-05-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that habitual exercisers demonstrate an increased accuracy of regulation of food intake in compensation for previous dietary energy intake. Twenty-three lean healthy male subjects were divided into two groups on the basis of their habitual exercise levels: non-exercisers (no exercise sessions/week, n 9), and exercisers (>two exercise sessions of 40 min or more/week, n 14). The appetite response to covert liquid preloads of high (2513 kJ) energy (HE) and low (1008 kJ) energy (LE) was investigated Sixty minutes after the preload subjects were offered an ab libitum buffet-style meal and energy intake (EI) was calculated. Subjective hunger and satiety were assessed throughout using self-rated visual-analogue scales. Buffet EI in non-exercisers was not significantly different following the LE or HE preloads (mean compensation 7 %), but the exercise group significantly reduced their energy intake following the HE, compared with the LE, preload (mean compensation 90 %; P=0.0035). A broadly similar pattern of response was observed for both moderate (two to three sessions/week, n 7) and high exercisers (>four sessions/week, n 7). There were no significant differences between hunger or satiety ratings following HE or LE preloads for either group. However non-exercisers scored significantly higher on their self-ratings of hunger at the start of the study, before preload consumption, compared with the exercisers (P<0.01). These findings demonstrate that habitual exercisers have an increased accuracy of short-term regulation of food intake in compensation for preload manipulation, and provide additional support for advocating regular exercise in the prevention of overweight and obesity.

  1. Measuring food intake with digital photography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Digital Photography of Foods Method accurately estimates the food intake of adults and children in cafeterias. With this method, images of food selection and leftovers are quickly captured in the cafeteria. These images are later compared with images of 'standard' portions of food using computer...

  2. Food intake monitoring: an acoustical approach to automated food intake activity detection and classification of consumed food.

    PubMed

    Päßler, Sebastian; Wolff, Matthias; Fischer, Wolf-Joachim

    2012-06-01

    Obesity and nutrition-related diseases are currently growing challenges for medicine. A precise and timesaving method for food intake monitoring is needed. For this purpose, an approach based on the classification of sounds produced during food intake is presented. Sounds are recorded non-invasively by miniature microphones in the outer ear canal. A database of 51 participants eating seven types of food and consuming one drink has been developed for algorithm development and model training. The database is labeled manually using a protocol with introductions for annotation. The annotation procedure is evaluated using Cohen's kappa coefficient. The food intake activity is detected by the comparison of the signal energy of in-ear sounds to environmental sounds recorded by a reference microphone. Hidden Markov models are used for the recognition of single chew or swallowing events. Intake cycles are modeled as event sequences in finite-state grammars. Classification of consumed food is realized by a finite-state grammar decoder based on the Viterbi algorithm. We achieved a detection accuracy of 83% and a food classification accuracy of 79% on a test set of 10% of all records. Our approach faces the need of monitoring the time and occurrence of eating. With differentiation of consumed food, a first step toward the goal of meal weight estimation is taken.

  3. [Food intake regulation - 2nd part].

    PubMed

    Brunerová, Ludmila; Anděl, Michal

    2014-01-01

    The review article summarizes the principles of hedonic regulation of food intake which represents the food intake independent on the maintenance of homeostasis. The theory describing hedonic regulation, so called Incentive Salience Theory, comprises three major processes: liking (positive attribution to food stimulus), wanting (motivation to gain it) and learning (identification of these stimuli and distinguishing them from those connected with aversive reaction). Neuronal reward circuits are the anatomical and functional substrates of hedonic regulation. They react to gustatory and olfactory (or visual) stimuli associated with food intake. A food item is preferred in case its consumption is connected with a pleasant feeling thus promoting the behavioural reaction. The probability of this reaction after repetitive exposure to such a stimulus is increased (learned preference). On the contrary, learned aversion after repetitive exposure is connected with avoidance of a food item associated with a negative feeling. Main mediators of hedonic regulation are endocannabinoids, opioids and monoamines (dopamine, serotonin). Dopamine in dorsal striatum via D2 receptors generates food motivation as a key means of survival, however in ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens) is responsible for motivation to food bringing pleasure. Serotonin via its receptors 5-HT1A a T-HT2C decreases intake of palatable food. It plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of eating disorders, particularly mental anorexia. There, a food restriction represents a kind of automedication to constitutionally pathologically increased serotonin levels. Detailed understanding of processes regulating food intake is a key to new pharmacological interventions in eating disorders.

  4. Menstrual cycle hormones, food intake, and cravings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Food craving and intake are affected by steroid hormones during the menstrual cycle, especially in the luteal phase, when craving for certain foods has been reported to increase. However, satiety hormones such as leptin have also been shown to affect taste sensitivity, and therefore food ...

  5. Food cravings, endogenous opioid peptides, and food intake: a review.

    PubMed

    Mercer, M E; Holder, M D

    1997-12-01

    Extensive research indicates a strong relationship between endogenous opioid peptides (EOPs) and food intake. In the present paper, we propose that food cravings act as an intervening variable in this opioid-ingestion link. Specifically, we argue that altered EOP activity may elicit food cravings which in turn may influence food consumption. Correlational support for this opioidergic theory of food cravings is provided by examining various clinical conditions (e.g. pregnancy, menstruation, bulimia, stress, depression) which are associated with altered EOP levels, intensified food cravings, and increased food intake.

  6. Gender bias in food intake favors male preschool Guatemalan children.

    PubMed

    Frongillo, E A; Bégin, F

    1993-02-01

    Gender bias in food intake and its subsequent effects on growth and illness were examined using data from rural Guatemalan children. Multiple regression controlled for energy requirements, illness, and maternal and economic factors. Gender bias in energy and protein intake favored boys; the magnitude for ages 2-5 y was 247 kJ/d. Analysis of subsequent effects showed that boys had higher rates of weight gain due to gender bias in energy intake than did girls for ages 1-2 y (0.27-0.97 kg/y), when there were no differences in illness rates due to gender bias in energy intake. For age 3-5 y, boys and girls did not differ in weight gain due to gender bias in energy intake. For ages 1-2 y for weight and stature, the growth rate for boys was faster than that of girls by 6-49% due to gender bias. This study provides evidence of gender bias in food intake in a Latin American population, but more work on the existence of and reasons for gender bias in food intake is needed before advocating that education or health programs should focus on this issue.

  7. Nutrients, satiety, and control of energy intake.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Angelo; Bellisle, France

    2015-10-01

    In the context of the worldwide epidemic of obesity affecting men and women of all ages, it is important to understand the mechanisms that control human appetite, particularly those that allow the adjustment of energy intake to energy needs. Satiety is one important psycho-biological mechanism whose function is to inhibit intake following the ingestion of a food or a beverage. According to the classical theories of appetite control, satiety is influenced by macronutrient intake and/or metabolism. Satiety also seems to be modified by micronutrients, non-nutrients, and some bioactive food constituents. Under optimal conditions, satiety should be well connected with hunger and satiation in a way that spontaneously leads to a close match between energy intake and expenditures. However, the current obesity epidemic suggests that dysfunctions often affect satiety and energy intake. In this regard, this paper presents a conceptual integration that hopefully will help health professionals address satiety issues and provide the public with informed advice to facilitate appetite control.

  8. Effects of food processing and fibre content on the digestibility, energy intake and biochemical parameters of Blue-and-gold macaws (Ara ararauna L. - Aves, Psittacidae).

    PubMed

    Veloso, R R; Sakomura, N K; Kawauchi, I M; Malheiros, E B; Carciofi, A C

    2014-04-01

    Considering the increased incidence of obesity and metabolic diseases in caged psittacines, the effect of fibre and food processing was evaluated in the Blue-and-gold macaw. Four food formulations (0%, 7%, 14% and 21% of sugarcane fibre) processed by pelleting or extrusion were studied, resulting in eight diets. To study digestibility, 48 macaws housed in pairs in cages was used in a block design. Subsequently, diets containing 0% or 21% sugarcane fibre, pelleted or extrude was fed for 4 months to evaluate energy intake and blood metabolites. A 2 × 2 × 2 (two fibre levels, two food processing methods and two genders) factorial arrangement with subplots (beginning and end) was used. When differences were detected in anova's F test, data were submitted to polynomial contrasts in the first experiment and to orthogonal contrasts in the second experiment (p < 0.05). Fibre addition reduced protein, fat and energy (p < 0.001) digestibility in both food processing. Pelleted foods presented higher dry matter digestibility and food metabolisable energy (ME) than the extruded ones (p < 0.05). Fibre addition or the type of processing did not change ME ingestion (p > 0.05). The macaws gained body weight (p < 0.05) regardless of the diet (p > 0.05), but females fed with the high-fibre diets did not gain weight (p > 0.05), suggesting a low food ME (12.5 kJ/g).The substitution of the original diet (sunflower seeds, fruits and cooked maize) by the experimental foods decreased the basal (12-h fast) concentrations of glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides (p < 0.001). The consumption of pelleted diets reduced serum glucose and cholesterol (p < 0.05). Results suggest that the pelleted diets were more beneficial and can be used to reduce blood metabolites related to metabolic disorders that are commonly observed in macaws.

  9. Soda consumption during ad libitum food intake predicts weight change.

    PubMed

    Bundrick, Sarah C; Thearle, Marie S; Venti, Colleen A; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B

    2014-03-01

    Soda consumption may contribute to weight gain over time. Objective data were used to determine whether soda consumption predicts weight gain or changes in glucose regulation over time. Subjects without diabetes (128 men, 75 women; mean age 34.3±8.9 years; mean body mass index 32.5±7.4; mean percentage body fat 31.6%±8.6%) self-selected their food from an ad libitum vending machine system for 3 days. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from food weight. Energy consumed from soda was recorded as were food choices that were low in fat (<20% of calories from fat) or high in simple sugars (>30%). Food choices were expressed as percentage of daily energy intake. A subset of 85 subjects had measurement of follow-up weights and oral glucose tolerance (57 men, 28 women; mean follow-up time=2.5±2.1 years, range 6 months to 9.9 years). Energy consumed from soda was negatively related to age (r=-0.27, P=0.0001) and choosing low-fat foods (r=-0.35, P<0.0001), but positively associated with choosing solid foods high in simple sugars (r=0.45, P<0.0001) and overall average daily energy intake (r=0.46, P<0.0001). Energy intake from food alone did not differ between individuals who did and did not consume beverage calories (P=0.11). Total daily energy intake had no relationship with change in weight (P=0.29) or change in glucose regulation (P=0.38) over time. However, energy consumed from soda correlated with change in weight (r=0.21, P=0.04). This relationship was unchanged after adjusting for follow-up time and initial weight. Soda consumption is a marker for excess energy consumption and is associated with weight gain.

  10. Soda Consumption During Ad Libitum Food Intake Predicts Weight Change

    PubMed Central

    Bundrick, Sarah C.; Thearle, Marie S.; Venti, Colleen A.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B.

    2013-01-01

    Soda consumption may contribute to weight gain over time. Objective data were used to determine whether soda consumption predicts weight gain or changes in glucose regulation over time. Subjects without diabetes (128 men, 75 women; mean age 34.3±8.9 years; mean body mass index [BMI] 32.5±7.4; mean percentage body fat 31.6%±8.6%) self-selected their food from an ad libitum vending machine system for 3 days. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from food weight. Energy consumed from soda was recorded as were food choices that were low in fat (<20%) or high in simple sugars (>30%). Food choices were expressed as percentage of daily energy intake. A subset of 85 subjects had measurement of follow-up weights and oral glucose tolerance (57 men, 28 women; mean follow-up time=2.5±2.1 years, range 6 months to 9.9 years). Energy consumed from soda was negatively related to age (r=–0.27, P=0.0001), and choosing low-fat foods (r=−0.35, P<0.0001), but positively associated with choosing solid foods high in simple sugars (r=0.45, P<0.0001) and overall average daily energy intake (r=0.46, P<0.0001). Energy intake from food alone did not differ between individuals who did and did not consume beverage calories (P=0.11). Total daily energy intake had no relationship with change in weight (P=0.29) or change in glucose regulation (P=0.38) over time. However, energy consumed from soda correlated with change in weight (r=0.21, P=0.04). This relationship was unchanged after adjusting for follow-up time and initial weight. Soda consumption is a marker for excess energy consumption and is associated with weight gain. PMID:24321742

  11. Stress exposure, food intake and emotional state.

    PubMed

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Fulton, Stephanie; Wilson, Mark; Petrovich, Gorica; Rinaman, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes the proceedings of the symposium entitled, "Stress, Palatable Food and Reward", that was chaired by Drs. Linda Rinaman and Yvonne Ulrich-Lai at the 2014 Neurobiology of Stress Workshop held in Cincinnati, OH. This symposium comprised research presentations by four neuroscientists whose work focuses on the biological bases for complex interactions among stress, food intake and emotion. First, Dr Ulrich-Lai describes her rodent research exploring mechanisms by which the rewarding properties of sweet palatable foods confer stress relief. Second, Dr Stephanie Fulton discusses her work in which excessive, long-term intake of dietary lipids, as well as their subsequent withdrawal, promotes stress-related outcomes in mice. Third, Dr Mark Wilson describes his group's research examining the effects of social hierarchy-related stress on food intake and diet choice in group-housed female rhesus macaques, and compared the data from monkeys to results obtained in analogous work using rodents. Finally, Dr Gorica Petrovich discusses her research program that is aimed at defining cortical-amygdalar-hypothalamic circuitry responsible for curbing food intake during emotional threat (i.e. fear anticipation) in rats. Their collective results reveal the complexity of physiological and behavioral interactions that link stress, food intake and emotional state, and suggest new avenues of research to probe the impact of genetic, metabolic, social, experiential and environmental factors on these interactions.

  12. Stress Exposure, Food Intake, and Emotional State

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M.; Fulton, Stephanie; Wilson, Mark; Petrovich, Gorica; Rinaman, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes the proceedings of the symposium entitled, “Stress, Palatable Food and Reward”, that was chaired by Drs. Linda Rinaman and Yvonne Ulrich-Lai at the 2014 Neurobiology of Stress Workshop held in Cincinnati, OH. This symposium comprised research presentations by four neuroscientists whose work focuses on the biological bases for complex interactions among stress, food intake and emotion. First, Dr. Ulrich-Lai describes her rodent research exploring mechanisms by which the rewarding properties of sweet palatable foods confer stress relief. Second, Dr. Stephanie Fulton discusses her work in which excessive, long-term intake of dietary lipids, as well as their subsequent withdrawal, promotes stress-related outcomes in mice. Third, Dr. Mark Wilson describes his group’s research examining the effects of social hierarchy-related stress on food intake and diet choice in group-housed female rhesus macaques, and compared the data from monkeys to results obtained in analogous work using rodents. Lastly, Dr. Gorica Petrovich discusses her research program that is aimed at defining cortical–amygdalar–hypothalamic circuitry responsible for curbing food intake during emotional threat (i.e., fear anticipation) in rats. Their collective results reveal the complexity of physiological and behavioral interactions that link stress, food intake and emotional state, and suggest new avenues of research to probe the impact of genetic, metabolic, social, experiential, and environmental factors. PMID:26303312

  13. The relationship between interviewer–respondent race match and reporting of energy intake using food frequency questionnaires in the rural South United States

    PubMed Central

    Lemacks, Jennifer L.; Huye, Holly; Rupp, Renee; Connell, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the observational study was to determine whether interviewer race influences food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) reporting accuracy in a Deep South, largely African American cohort. Methods A secondary analysis was conducted to investigate the influence of interviewer race on energy reporting of 319 African Americans who participated in the Mississippi Communities for Healthy Living intervention in May–June 2011, a community-based and USDA-funded project. Reported energy intake was compared to total energy expenditure to identify normal (ENR), under-(EUR) and over-reporters (EOR). Multivariate logistic regression models determined the relationship between race match and energy misreporting, accounting for confounding variables (educational level, health status perception, BMI, gender, and age) identified using chi-square/correlation analyses. Results The sample included 278 African Americans with 165 EURs, 26 EORs, and 87 ENRs identified. Logistic regression analyses revealed that there was no relationship between race-matched participants and EUR or EOR; controlling factors, BMI and perceived health status were significant in the model. Conclusion This study is the first to our knowledge to examine whether race influences dietary intake reporting which may influence assessment data used for comparison with health outcomes. This may have important implications for research conducted in health disparate populations, particularly rural, Southern populations. PMID:26844114

  14. Modest changes in dietary intake across the menstrual cycle: implications for food intake research.

    PubMed

    Bryant, M; Truesdale, K P; Dye, L

    2006-11-01

    Food intake varies across the menstrual cycle in mammals, energy intake usually being greater in the premenstrual phase compared with the postmenstrual phase. Premenstrual increments in energy intake and a preferential selection of carbohydrate have been suggested to be greater in women with premenstrual syndrome (PMS), who may be more sensitive to cyclical hormonal or neurotransmitter fluctuations. This has direct implications for research within populations of women, especially where the primary outcome is diet or a change in energy balance. We aimed to determine whether: the premenstrual intake of energy and macronutrients differed from the postmenstrual intake; the change in intake across the menstrual cycle differed in women with PMS compared with controls; and the change in intake was related to the severity of premenstrual symptoms. We collected 3 d dietary intake data during the postmenstrual and premenstrual phases of the menstrual cycle in thirty-one women with PMS and twenty-seven control women. The consumption of energy and macronutrient intake were similar between the phases of the cycle in women with PMS. Conversely, intakes were usually greater premenstrually in control women, although not all differences were statistically significant. Exceptions were with non-milk extrinsic sugars and alcohol, which were both consumed in greater amounts in the premenstrual phase in women with PMS. Significant correlations were observed between the severity of symptoms and the change in the consumption of these nutrients. These data suggest that a consideration of the menstrual cycle phase and PMS in diet may not be warranted, especially in cross-sectional analysis, although it may need to be taken into account when examining change in intake during dietary interventions.

  15. Serotonin 5-HT2C receptor-independent expression of hypothalamic NOR1, a novel modulator of food intake and energy balance, in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Nonogaki, Katsunori; Kaji, Takao; Ohba, Yukie; Sumii, Makiko; Wakameda, Mamoru; Tamari, Tomohiro

    2009-08-21

    NOR1, Nur77 and Nurr1 are orphan nuclear receptors and members of the NR4A subfamily. Here, we report that the expression of hypothalamic NOR1 was remarkably decreased in mildly obese {beta}-endorphin-deficient mice and obese db/db mice with the leptin receptor mutation, compared with age-matched wild-type mice, whereas there were no genotypic differences in the expression of hypothalamic Nur77 or Nurr1 in these animals. The injection of NOR1 siRNA oligonucleotide into the third cerebral ventricle significantly suppressed food intake and body weight in mice. On the other hand, the decreases in hypothalamic NOR1 expression were not found in non-obese 5-HT2C receptor-deficient mice. Moreover, systemic administration of m-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP), a 5-HT2C/1B receptor agonist, had no effect on hypothalamic NOR1 expression, while suppressing food intake in {beta}-endorphin-deficient mice. These findings suggest that 5-HT2C receptor-independent proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides regulate the expression of hypothalamic NOR1, which is a novel modulator of feeding behavior and energy balance.

  16. Serotonin 5-HT2C receptor-independent expression of hypothalamic NOR1, a novel modulator of food intake and energy balance, in mice.

    PubMed

    Nonogaki, Katsunori; Kaji, Takao; Ohba, Yukie; Sumii, Makiko; Wakameda, Mamoru; Tamari, Tomohiro

    2009-08-21

    NOR1, Nur77 and Nurr1 are orphan nuclear receptors and members of the NR4A subfamily. Here, we report that the expression of hypothalamic NOR1 was remarkably decreased in mildly obese beta-endorphin-deficient mice and obese db/db mice with the leptin receptor mutation, compared with age-matched wild-type mice, whereas there were no genotypic differences in the expression of hypothalamic Nur77 or Nurr1 in these animals. The injection of NOR1 siRNA oligonucleotide into the third cerebral ventricle significantly suppressed food intake and body weight in mice. On the other hand, the decreases in hypothalamic NOR1 expression were not found in non-obese 5-HT2C receptor-deficient mice. Moreover, systemic administration of m-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP), a 5-HT2C/1B receptor agonist, had no effect on hypothalamic NOR1 expression, while suppressing food intake in beta-endorphin-deficient mice. These findings suggest that 5-HT2C receptor-independent proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides regulate the expression of hypothalamic NOR1, which is a novel modulator of feeding behavior and energy balance.

  17. Caloric density affects food hoarding and intake by Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Wood, A D; Bartness, T J

    1996-01-01

    Siberian hamsters respond to food deprivation or restriction by increasing their food hoarding and do so proportionately to the degree of body mass (fat) loss. These data suggest that Siberian hamsters integrate their internally stored energy as body fat with their externally stored energy as hoarded food such that when internal energy stores are decreased, external stores are increased. The purpose of the present experiments was to test whether the caloric value of the food hoard is regulated. This was accomplished by challenging the hamsters with diets of varying caloric density and assessing whether their hoarded food is changed accordingly. Specifically, in Experiment 1 hamsters were switched from the control food pellets to a diet where the caloric density was increased by creating a high fat diet (HFD). In Experiment 2, the caloric density of the control diet was decreased by diluting it with cellulose such that 25% and 50% (kcal/wt) reduced calorie diets (RCDs) were created. HFD-fed hamsters decreased their food hoarding, increased their body mass, and decreased the grams of food eaten, but not enough to compensate exactly for the increased caloric density of the diet. When refed the control diet, food hoarding increased to pre-HFD levels as body mass and food intake decreased. RCD feeding resulted in caloric density-dependent effects on all measures. Food hoarding and intake (grams and calories) increased when hamsters were given the 25% RCD and did so to an even greater degree when given the 50% RCD. Thus, Siberian hamsters responded to increases or decreases in the caloric density of their food by attempting to regulate the number of calories hoarded and eaten; however, the adjustments in food hoarding: 1) were not precise, 2) were largely opposite of food intake, 3) tended to be inversely related to body mass and 4) were caloric density dependent.

  18. Food compensation: do exercise ads change food intake?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Past research has shown that promotional messages such as food advertising influence food consumption. However, what has gone largely unexplored is the effect of exercise advertising on food intake. This study experimentally tested the effects of exposure to exercise commercials on food intake at a lunch meal as compared to the effects of control commercials. Methods Prior to eating lunch, 125 participants (71 women, 54 men) watched 8 commercials, either all related to exercise or fitness (n = 67) or neutral products (i.e. car insurance) (n = 58). The meal consisted of a pasta dish with tomato sauce, salad and chocolate pudding. The post-lunch questionnaire included questions about body mass index, exercise habits, motivation and dietary restraint. Results Participants exposed to exercise commercials reduced their caloric intake by 21.7% relative to the control condition. Additionally, watching exercise messages increased the perceived healthiness and liking of the meal. Although exercise habits and intentions did not moderate the effect of commercial condition on food intake, we also found that this intake reduction was driven by participants with higher body mass index levels. Conclusions These results imply that exercise messages may serve as a reminder of the link between food and physical activity and affect food consumption. It also highlights the need for increased awareness that these messages have powerful influences not only on exercise behavior, but also on closely related behaviors such as eating. PMID:21276218

  19. Inclusion of Pork Meat in the Diets of Young Women Reduces Their Intakes of Energy-Dense, Nutrient-Poor Foods: Results from a Randomized Controlled Tria

    PubMed Central

    McArthur, Jennifer O.; Gough, Natalie M.; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Adherence of young women to dietary recommendations has been examined predominantly by surveys. This study aimed to determine the quality of women’s diets relative to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE); and to evaluate dietary changes during an intervention trial with pork meat or an iron supplement. A 12-week randomized trial was conducted in young women who were assigned to one of three groups. They maintained three, seven-day food diaries while continuing their routine diet (CG); taking an iron supplement (SG); or incorporating into their diets 500 g/week of pork (PG). Participants (n = 58) provided dietary information on 1218 diary-days. The serves consumed from the vegetable, fruit and dairy groups were lower (p < 0.001), and from the meat and alternatives group greater (p < 0.001) than the recommended serves. PG consumed significantly fewer (p < 0.001) serves of “extra” foods, and ate fruit more frequently (p < 0.001) than CG and SG. The participants’ dietary self-assessment showed poor agreement with the AGHE description of “serve”. The inclusion of pork in the diets of young women is associated with the reduced consumption of energy-dense nutrient-poor “extra” foods and increased frequency of fruit intake. The effect may be explained by diverse factors such as increased food knowledge, cooking skills and the effect of pork on satiety. PMID:24949547

  20. Vitamin K: food composition and dietary intakes

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Sarah L.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin K is present in the diet in the forms of phylloquinone and menaquinones. Phylloquinone, which is the major dietary source, is concentrated in leafy plants and is the vitamin K form best characterized in terms of food composition and dietary intakes. In contrast, menaquinones are the product of bacterial production or conversion from dietary phylloquinone. Food composition databases are limited for menaquinones and their presence in foods varies by region. Dietary intakes of all forms of vitamin K vary widely among age groups and population subgroups. Similarly, the utilization of vitamin K from different forms and food sources appear to vary, although our understanding of vitamin K is still rudimentary in light of new developments regarding the menaquinones. PMID:22489217

  1. Sensory influences on food intake control: moving beyond palatability.

    PubMed

    McCrickerd, K; Forde, C G

    2016-01-01

    The sensory experience of eating is an important determinant of food intake control, often attributed to the positive hedonic response associated with certain sensory cues. However, palatability is just one aspect of the sensory experience. Sensory cues based on a food's sight, smell, taste and texture are operational before, during and after an eating event. The focus of this review is to look beyond palatability and highlight recent advances in our understanding of how certain sensory characteristics can be used to promote better energy intake control. We consider the role of visual and odour cues in identifying food in the near environment, guiding food choice and memory for eating, and highlight the ways in which tastes and textures influence meal size and the development of satiety after consumption. Considering sensory characteristics as a functional feature of the foods and beverages we consume provides the opportunity for research to identify how sensory enhancements might be combined with energy reduction in otherwise palatable foods to optimize short-term energy intake regulation in the current food environment. Moving forward, the challenge for sensory nutritional science will be to assess the longer-term impact of these principles on weight management.

  2. Cart Regulates Food Intake in Channel Catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cocaine-and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) is a potent hypothalamic anorectic peptide in mammals and fish. We hypothesized that increased food intake is associated with changes in expression of CART mRNA within the brain of channel catfish. Objectives were to clone the CART gene, examine ...

  3. Agouti-related protein increases food hoarding more than food intake in Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Day, Diane E; Bartness, Timothy J

    2004-01-01

    Agouti-related protein (AgRP), an endogenous melanocortin 3/4 receptor antagonist, appears to play an important role in the control of food intake and energy balance because exogenous administration in rats and overexpression in mice result in hyperphagia and body mass gain. Furthermore, arcuate nucleus AgRP mRNA is increased with fasting in laboratory rats and mice and is decreased with refeeding. In Siberian hamsters, fasting also increases arcuate nucleus AgRP mRNA, but these animals increase food hoarding, rather than food intake with refeeding. Therefore, we tested whether exogenous AgRP increased food hoarding in this species. Hamsters were trained in a hoarding/foraging apparatus to run a programmed number of wheel revolutions to earn food pellets. Four doses of AgRP-(83-132) or vehicle were injected into the third ventricle at the beginning of the dark phase, and food hoarding, food intake, and foraging were measured at various time points subsequently. Overall, food hoarding was stimulated as much as 10 times more than food intake, and both responses occurred as early as 1 h after injection. Food hoarding was increased the greatest at the lowest dose (0.1 nmol), whereas food intake was increased the greatest at the second lowest dose (1 nmol). Food intake and especially food hoarding were increased up to seven days after the AgRP injections. Foraging was increased at all AgRP doses except the highest dose (100 nmol). These results suggest that AgRP triggers the search for food in this species, and once they find it, hoarding predominates over eating.

  4. Effects of Dietary Protein and Fiber at Breakfast on Appetite, ad Libitum Energy Intake at Lunch, and Neural Responses to Visual Food Stimuli in Overweight Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sayer, R. Drew; Amankwaah, Akua F.; Tamer, Gregory G.; Chen, Ningning; Wright, Amy J.; Tregellas, Jason R.; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Kareken, David A.; Talavage, Thomas M.; McCrory, Megan A.; Campbell, Wayne W.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing either protein or fiber at mealtimes has relatively modest effects on ingestive behavior. Whether protein and fiber have additive or interactive effects on ingestive behavior is not known. Fifteen overweight adults (5 female, 10 male; BMI: 27.1 ± 0.2 kg/m2; aged 26 ± 1 year) consumed four breakfast meals in a randomized crossover manner (normal protein (12 g) + normal fiber (2 g), normal protein (12 g) + high fiber (8 g), high protein (25 g) + normal fiber (2 g), high protein (25 g) + high fiber (8 g)). The amount of protein and fiber consumed at breakfast did not influence postprandial appetite or ad libitum energy intake at lunch. In the fasting-state, visual food stimuli elicited significant responses in the bilateral insula and amygdala and left orbitofrontal cortex. Contrary to our hypotheses, postprandial right insula responses were lower after consuming normal protein vs. high protein breakfasts. Postprandial responses in other a priori brain regions were not significantly influenced by protein or fiber intake at breakfast. In conclusion, these data do not support increasing dietary protein and fiber at breakfast as effective strategies for modulating neural reward processing and acute ingestive behavior in overweight adults. PMID:26742068

  5. Energy and Nutrient Intake Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckey, T. D.; Venugopal, B.; Hutcheson, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    A passive system to determine the in-flight intake of nutrients is developed. Nonabsorbed markers placed in all foods in proportion to the nutrients selected for study are analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Fecal analysis for each market indicates how much of the nutrients were eaten and apparent digestibility. Results of feasibility tests in rats, mice, and monkeys indicate the diurnal variation of several markers, the transit time for markers in the alimentary tract, the recovery of several markers, and satisfactory use of selected markers to provide indirect measurement of apparent digestibility. Recommendations are provided for human feasibility studies.

  6. [Relationship between dietary fiber intake and food intake patterns of the general population, evaluated by a regional nutrition survey].

    PubMed

    Nagayama, I; Notsu, A; Noda, H; Otsuka, Y

    1998-07-01

    This study was performed to estimate the dietary fiber intake calculated using individual food intake data and the dietary fiber tables, and to ascertain the relationship between food intake patterns and dietary fiber intake of the general population. The 805 subjects over 15 years old were obtained from the Tottori Prefecture Nutrition Survey. The results are summarized as follows: 1. The average dietary fiber intake per capita per day was 18.19 g; 18.67 g in men, and 17.81 g in women. Dietary fiber intake per energy was different among sexes and ages: women had more dietary fiber than men and the aged had more than the young. Those who had high fiber intake per energy took green vegetables, fruits, milk, soybean products, seaweed and potatoes more frequently, and did not take oil so frequently. 2. Total dietary fiber intake from 20 food-group sources was analyzed by Multiple Regression Analysis. For both men and women fruits, vegetables and soybean products mostly influenced dietary fiber intake. 3. Based on the intake of the 20 food-groups obtained from 356 men and 449 women, the correlation matrix among these foods was calculated. The correlation matrix was also submitted to a Principal Component Analysis. The result of the Principal Component Analysis told that food intake patterns were different among the levels of dietary fiber intake. Food intake patterns of men and women who had high fiber intake per energy had an eating pattern characterized by relatively more non-processed vegetable food, bread and milk. 4. The level of blood pressure was significantly related to dietary fiber intake per energy in men over 60 years old. In the hypertensive men over 60 years old, 23.3% were in the low fiber intake group, 37.2% in the middle group, and 39.5% in the high group. But in the normal blood pressure men over 60 years old, 50.0% were in the low fiber intake group, 8.3% in the middle group, and 41.7% in the high group.

  7. Television and eating: repetition enhances food intake.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Utsa; Stevenson, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Some studies find that eating with TV increases food intake while others do not. Some of this variability may reflect the engagingness of what is being watched (i.e., content). To test this we varied engagingness by manipulating content familiarity. Female participants undertook two sessions. In the "Different" session they watched two different episodes of the comedy Friends, with snack food presented during the second episode. In the "Same" session they viewed another episode of Friends twice in succession, with snack food presented during the second repeat showing. The three episodes of Friends used here were fully counterbalanced, so overall the only difference between the "Same" and "Different" sessions was whether the content of the second show was familiar or novel. As expected, 14% less was eaten in the "Different" session, suggesting that novel and presumably more engaging content can reduce intake relative to watching familiar and presumably less engaging content. These findings are consistent with the idea that the engagingness of TV can differentially affect food intake, although boredom or irritability resulting from repeat viewing might also explain this effect.

  8. Television and eating: repetition enhances food intake

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Utsa; Stevenson, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Some studies find that eating with TV increases food intake while others do not. Some of this variability may reflect the engagingness of what is being watched (i.e., content). To test this we varied engagingness by manipulating content familiarity. Female participants undertook two sessions. In the “Different” session they watched two different episodes of the comedy Friends, with snack food presented during the second episode. In the “Same” session they viewed another episode of Friends twice in succession, with snack food presented during the second repeat showing. The three episodes of Friends used here were fully counterbalanced, so overall the only difference between the “Same” and “Different” sessions was whether the content of the second show was familiar or novel. As expected, 14% less was eaten in the “Different” session, suggesting that novel and presumably more engaging content can reduce intake relative to watching familiar and presumably less engaging content. These findings are consistent with the idea that the engagingness of TV can differentially affect food intake, although boredom or irritability resulting from repeat viewing might also explain this effect. PMID:26579040

  9. Dietary intake, food composition and nutrient intake in wild and captive populations of Daubentonia madagascariensis.

    PubMed

    Sterling, E J; Dierenfeld, E S; Ashbourne, C J; Feistner, A T

    1994-01-01

    Data are presented on dietary and nutrient intake in a wild population of aye-ayes. Study animals ate 4 main food types: seeds, nectar, fungus and insect larvae. Calculated calorie intake was slightly lower during the cold season than during the hot, wet and the hot, dry seasons. Total intakes almost doubled to compensate for the lower energy content of the diet during the cold season. Comparison of natural and captive diets suggests that maintenance and even growth requirements of aye-ayes can be met by relatively low-fat, low-protein diets. Daily energy requirements were estimated to average about 280 kcal metabolizable energy/day. Animals in the wild were estimated to eat between 260 and 342 kcal, while captive animals consumed 260 kcal/day.

  10. Smaller food item sizes of snack foods influence reduced portions and caloric intake in young adults.

    PubMed

    Marchiori, David; Waroquier, Laurent; Klein, Olivier

    2011-05-01

    Studies considering the impact of food-size variations on consumption have predominantly focused on portion size, whereas very little research has investigated variations in food-item size, especially at snacking occasions, and results have been contradictory. This study evaluated the effect of altering the size of food items (ie, small vs large candies) of equal-size food portions on short-term energy intake while snacking. The study used a between-subjects design (n=33) in a randomized experiment conducted in spring 2008. In a psychology laboratory (separate cubicles), participants (undergraduate psychology students, 29 of 33 female, mean age 20.3±2 years, mean body mass index 21.7±3.7) were offered unlimited consumption of candies while participating in an unrelated computerized experiment. For half of the subjects, items were cut in two to make the small food-item size. Food intake (weight in grams, kilocalories, and number of food items) was examined using analysis of variance. Results showed that decreasing the item size of candies led participants to decrease by half their gram weight intake, resulting in an energy intake decrease of 60 kcal compared to the other group. Appetite ratings and subject and food characteristics had no moderating effect. A cognitive bias could explain why people tend to consider that one unit of food (eg, 10 candies) is the appropriate amount to consume, regardless of the size of the food items in the unit. This study suggests a simple dietary strategy, decreasing food-item size without having to alter the portion size offered, may reduce energy intake at snacking occasions.

  11. Physiology of Food Intake Control in Children.

    PubMed

    Anderson, G Harvey; Hunschede, Sascha; Akilen, Rajadurai; Kubant, Ruslan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to draw attention to the limited information available on food intake (FI) control in children and adolescents 7-17 y of age, which is essential for developing food policies and guidelines in this population. Although environmental factors have been the overwhelming focus of research on the causative factors of obesity, research focusing on the physiologic control of appetite in children and adolescents is a neglected area of research. To present this message, a review of FI regulation and the role of food and food components in signaling processes are followed by an examination of the role of hormones during puberty in intake regulation. To examine the interaction of environment and physiology on FI regulation, the effects of exercise, television programs, and food advertisements are discussed. In conclusion, although limited, this literature review supports a need for children and adolescents to be a greater focus of research that would lead to sound nutrition policies and actions to reduce chronic disease. A focus on the environment must be balanced with an understanding of physiologic and behavioral changes associated with this age group.

  12. Assessing Dietary Intake in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Food Frequency Questionnaire Versus 24-Hour Diet Recalls.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Roberts, Susan B; Must, Aviva; Wong, William W; Gilhooly, Cheryl H; Kelly, Michael J; Parsons, Susan K; Saltzman, Edward

    2015-10-01

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet recalls (24HRs) against total energy expenditure (TEE) measured using the doubly labeled water method in 16 childhood cancer survivors. Dietary underreporting, assessed by (EI-TEE)/TEE × 100%, was 22% for FFQ and 1% for repeated 24HRs. FFQ significantly underestimates dietary intake and should not be used to assess the absolute intake of foods and nutrients in childhood cancer survivors.

  13. Assessing dietary intake in childhood cancer survivors: Food frequency questionnaire versus 24-hour diet recalls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet r...

  14. A Predictive Model of the Dynamics of Body Weight and Food Intake in Rats Submitted to Caloric Restrictions

    PubMed Central

    Jacquier, Marine; Crauste, Fabien; Soulage, Christophe O.; Soula, Hédi A.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamics of body weight and food intake can be studied by temporally perturbing food availability. This perturbation can be obtained by modifying the amount of available food over time while keeping the overall food quantity constant. To describe food intake dynamics, we developed a mathematical model that describes body weight, fat mass, fat-free mass, energy expenditure and food intake dynamics in rats. In addition, the model considers regulation of food intake by leptin, ghrelin and glucose. We tested our model on rats experiencing temporally variable food availability. Our model is able to predict body weight and food intake variations by taking into account energy expenditure dynamics based on a memory of the previous food intake. This model allowed us to estimate this memory lag to approximately 8 days. It also explains how important variations in food availability during periods longer than these 8 days can induce body weight gains. PMID:24932616

  15. A predictive model of the dynamics of body weight and food intake in rats submitted to caloric restrictions.

    PubMed

    Jacquier, Marine; Crauste, Fabien; Soulage, Christophe O; Soula, Hédi A

    2014-01-01

    Dynamics of body weight and food intake can be studied by temporally perturbing food availability. This perturbation can be obtained by modifying the amount of available food over time while keeping the overall food quantity constant. To describe food intake dynamics, we developed a mathematical model that describes body weight, fat mass, fat-free mass, energy expenditure and food intake dynamics in rats. In addition, the model considers regulation of food intake by leptin, ghrelin and glucose. We tested our model on rats experiencing temporally variable food availability. Our model is able to predict body weight and food intake variations by taking into account energy expenditure dynamics based on a memory of the previous food intake. This model allowed us to estimate this memory lag to approximately 8 days. It also explains how important variations in food availability during periods longer than these 8 days can induce body weight gains.

  16. Circadian Timing of Food Intake Contributes to Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Arble, Deanna M.; Bass, Joseph; Laposky, Aaron D.; Vitaterna, Martha H.; Turek, Fred W.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of body weight regulation have focused almost entirely on caloric intake and energy expenditure. However, a number of recent studies in animals linking energy regulation and the circadian clock at the molecular, physiological and behavioral levels raise the possibility that the timing of food intake itself may play a significant role in weight gain. The present study focused on the role of the circadian phase of food consumption in weight gain. We provide evidence that nocturnal mice fed a high fat diet only during the 12 hour light phase gain significantly more weight than mice fed only during the 12 hour dark phase. A better understanding of the role of the circadian system for weight gain could have important implications for developing new therapeutic strategies for combating the obesity epidemic facing the human population today. PMID:19730426

  17. Circadian timing of food intake contributes to weight gain.

    PubMed

    Arble, Deanna M; Bass, Joseph; Laposky, Aaron D; Vitaterna, Martha H; Turek, Fred W

    2009-11-01

    Studies of body weight regulation have focused almost entirely on caloric intake and energy expenditure. However, a number of recent studies in animals linking energy regulation and the circadian clock at the molecular, physiological, and behavioral levels raise the possibility that the timing of food intake itself may play a significant role in weight gain. The present study focused on the role of the circadian phase of food consumption in weight gain. We provide evidence that nocturnal mice fed a high-fat diet only during the 12-h light phase gain significantly more weight than mice fed only during the 12-h dark phase. A better understanding of the role of the circadian system for weight gain could have important implications for developing new therapeutic strategies for combating the obesity epidemic facing the human population today.

  18. Low-dose pancreatic polypeptide inhibits food intake in man.

    PubMed

    Jesudason, David R; Monteiro, Mariana P; McGowan, Barbara M C; Neary, Nicola M; Park, Adrian J; Philippou, Elena; Small, Caroline J; Frost, Gary S; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Bloom, Stephen R

    2007-03-01

    Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) is a gut hormone released from the pancreas in response to food ingestion and remains elevated for up to 6 h postprandially. Plasma levels are elevated in patients with pancreatic tumours. An intravenous infusion of PP has been reported to reduce food intake in man, suggesting that PP is a satiety hormone. We investigated whether a lower infusion rate of PP would induce significant alterations in energy intake. The study was randomised and double-blinded. Fourteen lean fasted volunteers (five men and nine women) received 90 min infusions of PP (5 pmol/kg per min) and saline on two separate days. The dose chosen was half that used in a previous human study which reported a decrease in appetite but at supra-physiological levels of PP. One hour after the end of the infusion, a buffet lunch was served and energy intake measured. PP infusion was associated with a significant 11 % reduction in energy intake compared with saline (2440 (se 200) v. 2730 (se 180) kJ; P<0 x 05). Preprandial hunger as assessed by a visual analogue score was decreased in the PP-treated group compared to saline. These effects were achieved with plasma levels of PP within the pathophysiological range of pancreatic tumours.

  19. Energy density of the diets of Japanese adults in relation to food and nutrient intake and general and abdominal obesity: a cross-sectional analysis from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Okubo, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    The associations of dietary energy density with dietary intake and obesity have been largely unexplored in non-Western populations. The present cross-sectional study examined the associations using data from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan. Dietary intake was assessed using a 1-d semi-weighed dietary record in 15 618 Japanese adults aged ≥20 years. Mean dietary energy density (calculated on the basis of foods only) was 5·98 (sd 1·20) kJ/g in men and 5·72 (sd 1·16) kJ/g in women. Dietary energy density was positively associated with intakes of bread, noodles (only men), meat, fats and oils, and sugar and confectionery but inversely with intakes of white rice (only men), potatoes, pulses, vegetables, fruits, and fish and shellfish. For nutrient intake, dietary energy density was positively associated with total fat and SFA but inversely associated with all other nutrients examined such as protein, carbohydrate, alcohol (only women), dietary fibre, and several vitamins and minerals, including Na. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, dietary energy density was positively associated with abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥80 cm) in women (adjusted prevalence ratio between the extreme tertiles 1·07; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·12; P for trend=0·003). Dietary energy density was also positively but non-significantly associated with general obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2) in women (P for trend=0·08). There were no such associations in men. In conclusion, lower energy density of the diets of Japanese adults was associated with favourable food and nutrient intake patterns, except for higher Na, and, in only women, a lower prevalence of abdominal obesity.

  20. The effect of diet, exercise, and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene on food intake, body composition, and carcass energy levels in virgin female BALB/c mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Keith, Robert E.; Strahan, Susan; White, Marguerite T.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of diet, exercise, and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA), a mammary-tumor carcinogen, on food intake, energy consumption, body weight, and body composition in virgin female BALB/c mice are investigated. Diet, exercise, and DMBA all had pronounced effects on energy consumption, which in turn affected body composition. These treatments may influence manifestations of breast cancer via their effects on body composition.

  1. Girls' dairy intake, energy intake, and weight status.

    PubMed

    Fiorito, Laura M; Ventura, Alison K; Mitchell, Diane C; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen; Birch, Leann L

    2006-11-01

    We explored the relationships among girls' weight status, dairy servings, and total energy intake. The hypothesis that consuming dairy could reduce risk for overweight was evaluated by comparing energy intake and weight status of girls who met or consumed less than the recommended three servings of dairy per day. Participants included 172 11-year-old non-Hispanic white girls, assessed cross-sectionally. Intakes of dairy, calcium, and energy were measured using three 24-hour recalls. Body mass index and body fat measures from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry were obtained. Because preliminary analyses suggested systematic underreporting of energy intake, the relationships among dairy servings and measures of weight status were examined for the total sample and for subsamples of under-, plausible, and overreporters. Data for the total sample provided support for the hypothesized relationship among weight status, dairy servings, and energy intake. Thirty-nine percent of girls reported consuming the recommended >/=3 servings of dairy per day; these girls also reported higher energy intake but had lower body mass index z scores and body fat than the girls who consumed fewer than three dairy servings each day. Among plausible reporters, no relationship between dairy intake and weight status was noted. This discrepancy may be attributable to a high percentage (45%) of overweight underreporters in the total sample. Our findings reveal that reporting bias, resulting from the presence of a substantial proportion of underreporters of higher weight status, can contribute to obtaining spurious associations between dairy intake and weight status. These findings underscore the need for randomly controlled trials to assess the role of dairy in weight management.

  2. Girls’ Dairy Intake, Energy Intake, and Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    FIORITO, LAURA M.; VENTURA, ALISON K.; MITCHELL, DIANE C.; SMICIKLAS-WRIGHT, HELEN; BIRCH, LEANN L.

    2008-01-01

    We explored the relationships among girls’ weight status, dairy servings, and total energy intake. The hypothesis that consuming dairy could reduce risk for overweight was evaluated by comparing energy intake and weight status of girls who met or consumed less than the recommended three servings of dairy per day. Participants included 172 11-year-old non-Hispanic white girls, assessed cross-sectionally. Intakes of dairy, calcium, and energy were measured using three 24-hour recalls. Body mass index and body fat measures from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry were obtained. Because preliminary analyses suggested systematic underreporting of energy intake, the relationships among dairy servings and measures of weight status were examined for the total sample and for subsamples of under-, plausible, and overreporters. Data for the total sample provided support for the hypothesized relationship among weight status, dairy servings, and energy intake. Thirty-nine percent of girls reported consuming the recommended ≥3 servings of dairy per day; these girls also reported higher energy intake but had lower body mass index z scores and body fat than the girls who consumed fewer than three dairy servings each day. Among plausible reporters, no relationship between dairy intake and weight status was noted. This discrepancy may be attributable to a high percentage (45%) of overweight underreporters in the total sample. Our findings reveal that reporting bias, resulting from the presence of a substantial proportion of underreporters of higher weight status, can contribute to obtaining spurious associations between dairy intake and weight status. These findings underscore the need for randomly controlled trials to assess the role of dairy in weight management. PMID:17081836

  3. Critical role of the endocannabinoid system in the regulation of food intake and energy metabolism, with phylogenetic, developmental, and pathophysiological implications.

    PubMed

    Viveros, M P; de Fonseca, F Rodriguez; Bermudez-Silva, F J; McPartland, J M

    2008-09-01

    The endocannabinoid system (ECS) consists of two receptors (CB(1) and CB(2)), several endogenous ligands (primarily anandamide and 2-AG), and over a dozen ligand-metabolizing enzymes. The ECS has deep phylogenetic roots and regulates many aspects of embryological development and homeostasis, including neuroprotection and neural plasticity, immunity and inflammation, apoptosis and carcinogenesis, pain and emotional memory, and the focus of this review: hunger, feeding, and metabolism. The ECS controls energy balance and lipid metabolism centrally (in the hypothalamus and mesolimbic pathways) and peripherally (in adipocytes and pancreatic islet cells), acting through numerous anorexigenic and orexigenic pathways (e.g., ghrelin, leptin, orexin, adiponectin, endogenous opioids, and corticotropin-releasing hormone). Obesity leads to excessive endocannabinoid production by adipocytes, which drives CB(1) in a feed-forward dysfunction. Phylogenetic research suggests the genes for endocannabinoid enzymes, especially DAGLalpha and NAPE-PLD, may harbor mildly deleterious alleles that express disease-related phenotypes. Several CB(1) inverse agonists have been developed for the treatment of obesity, including rimonabant, taranabant, and surinabant. These drugs are efficacious at reducing food intake as well as abdominal adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors. However, given the myriad beneficial roles of the ECS, it should be no surprise that systemic CB(1) blockade induces various adverse effects. Alternatives to systemic blockade include CB(1) partial agonists, pleiotropic drugs, peripherally restricted antagonists, allosteric antagonists, and endocannabinoid ligand modulation. The ECS offers several discrete targets for the management of obesity and its associated cardiometabolic sequelae.

  4. Salt Content Impacts Food Preferences and Intake among Children

    PubMed Central

    Bouhlal, Sofia; Chabanet, Claire; Issanchou, Sylvie; Nicklaus, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Decreasing dietary sodium intake, which can be achieved by reducing salt content in food, is recommended. Salt contributes to the taste of foods and makes them more enjoyable. Whether a food is liked or disliked is an important determinant of food intake, especially among children. However, the role of salt in children's food acceptance has received little attention. The impact of salt content on children's hedonic rating and intake of two foods was investigated in children. Using a within-subject crossover design, we recruited 75 children (8–11 years) to participate in five lunches in their school cafeteria. The target foods were green beans and pasta. The added salt content was 0, 0.6 or 1.2 g/100 g. The children's intake (g) of all lunch items was measured. The children provided their hedonic rating of the food, a preference ranking and a saltiness ranking in the laboratory. Children could rank the foods according to salt content, and they preferred the two saltier options. A food-specific effect of salt content on intake was observed. Compared to the intermediate level (0.6 g salt/100 g), not adding salt decreased green bean intake (−21%; p = 0.002), and increasing the salt content increased pasta intake (+24%; p<0.0001). Structural Equation Modeling was used to model the relative weights of the determinants of intake. It showed that the primary driver of food intake was the child's hunger; the second most important factor was the child's hedonic rating of the food, regardless of its salt content, and the last factor was the child's preference for the particular salt content of the food. In conclusion, salt content has a positive and food-specific effect on intake; it impacted food preferences and intake differently in children. Taking into account children's preferences for salt instead of their intake may lead to excessive added salt. PMID:23342052

  5. Changes in intakes of total and added sugar and their contribution to energy intake in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Chun, Ock K; Chung, Chin E; Wang, Ying; Padgitt, Andrea; Song, Won O

    2010-08-01

    This study was designed to document changes in total sugar intake and intake of added sugars, in the context of total energy intake and intake of nutrient categories, between the 1970s and the 1990s, and to identify major food sources contributing to those changes in intake. Data from the NHANES I and III were analyzed to obtain nationally representative information on food consumption for the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the U.S. from 1971 to 1994. In the past three decades, in addition to the increase in mean intakes of total energy, total sugar, added sugars, significant increases in the total intake of carbohydrates and the proportion of carbohydrates to the total energy intake were observed. The contribution of sugars to total carbohydrate intake decreased in both 1-18 y and 19+ y age subgroups, and the contribution of added sugars to the total energy intake did not change. Soft drinks/fluid milk/sugars and cakes, pastries, and pies remained the major food sources for intake of total sugar, total carbohydrates, and total energy during the past three decades. Carbonated soft drinks were the most significant sugar source across the entire three decades. Changes in sugar consumption over the past three decades may be a useful specific area of investigation in examining the effect of dietary patterns on chronic diseases.

  6. The influence of food intake and ambient temperature on the rate of thyroxine utilization.

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, D L; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H

    1977-01-01

    Young growing pigs of both sexes were subjected to changes in (1) energy intake, (2) ambient temperature, and (3) bulk of food. The rate of disappearance of injected 125I-labelled thyroxine from the plasma (K) was measured. An analysis of variance revealed that the effect attributable to changes in the energy content of the food intake was statistically significant (P less 0-01). A change in ambient temperature had no statistically significant effect on K, nor did a change in the bulk of food when energy intake was constant (P less than 0-05). PMID:903901

  7. Genetic variants in human CLOCK associate with total energy intake and cytokine sleep factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the importance of total energy intake in circadian system regulation, no study has related human CLOCK gene polymorphisms and food intake measures. The aim of this study was to investigate associations of five CLOCK single-nucleotide-polymorphisms (SNPs) with food-intake and to explore the p...

  8. Differences in food intake of tumour-bearing cachectic mice are associated with hypothalamic serotonin signalling

    PubMed Central

    Dwarkasing, Jvalini T; Boekschoten, Mark V; Argilès, Joseph M; van Dijk, Miriam; Busquets, Silvia; Penna, Fabio; Toledo, Miriam; Laviano, Alessandro; Witkamp, R F; van Norren, Klaske

    2015-01-01

    Background Anorexia is a common symptom among cancer patients and contributes to malnutrition and strongly impinges on quality of life. Cancer-induced anorexia is thought to be caused by an inability of food intake-regulating systems in the hypothalamus to respond adequately to negative energy balance during tumour growth. Here, we show that this impaired response of food-intake control is likely to be mediated by altered serotonin signalling and by failure in post-transcriptional neuropeptide Y (NPY) regulation. Methods Two tumour cachectic mouse models with different food intake behaviours were used: a C26-colon adenocarcinoma model with increased food intake and a Lewis lung carcinoma model with decreased food intake. This contrast in food intake behaviour between tumour-bearing (TB) mice in response to growth of the two different tumours was used to distinguish between processes involved in cachexia and mechanisms that might be important in food intake regulation. The hypothalamus was used for transcriptomics (affymetrix chips). Results In both models, hypothalamic expression of orexigenic NPY was significantly higher compared with controls, suggesting that this change does not directly reflect food intake status but might be linked to negative energy balance in cachexia. Expression of genes involved in serotonin signalling showed to be different between C26-TB mice and Lewis lung carcinoma-TB mice and was inversely associated with food intake. In vitro, using hypothalamic cell lines, serotonin repressed neuronal hypothalamic NPY secretion while not affecting messenger NPY expression, suggesting that serotonin signalling can interfere with NPY synthesis, transport, or secretion. Conclusions Altered serotonin signalling is associated with changes in food intake behaviour in cachectic TB mice. Serotonins' inhibitory effect on food intake under cancer cachectic conditions is probably via affecting the NPY system. Therefore, serotonin regulation might be a

  9. Central transthyretin acts to decrease food intake and body weight

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fenping; Kim, Yonwook J.; Moran, Timothy H.; Li, Hong; Bi, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Transthyretin (TTR) is a blood and cerebrospinal fluid transporter of thyroxine and retinol. Gene expression profiling revealed an elevation of Ttr expression in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) of rats with exercise-induced anorexia, implying that central TTR may also play a functional role in modulating food intake and energy balance. To test this hypothesis, we have examined the effects of brain TTR on food intake and body weight and have further determined hypothalamic signaling that may underlie its feeding effect in rats. We found that intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of TTR in normal growing rats decreased food intake and body weight. This effect was not due to sickness as icv TTR did not cause a conditioned taste aversion. ICV TTR decreased neuropeptide Y (NPY) levels in the DMH and the paraventricular nucleus (P < 0.05). Chronic icv infusion of TTR in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats reversed hyperphagia and obesity and reduced DMH NPY levels. Overall, these results demonstrate a previously unknown anorectic action of central TTR in the control of energy balance, providing a potential novel target for treating obesity and its comorbidities. PMID:27053000

  10. Validation of a Tablet Application for Assessing Dietary Intakes Compared with the Measured Food Intake/Food Waste Method in Military Personnel Consuming Field Rations

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Mavra; Mandic, Iva; Lou, Wendy; Goodman, Len; Jacobs, Ira; L’Abbé, Mary R.

    2017-01-01

    The collection of accurate dietary intakes using traditional dietary assessment methods (e.g., food records) from military personnel is challenging due to the demanding physiological and psychological conditions of training or operations. In addition, these methods are burdensome, time consuming, and prone to measurement errors. Adopting smart-phone/tablet technology could overcome some of these barriers. The objective was to assess the validity of a tablet app, modified to contain detailed nutritional composition data, in comparison to a measured food intake/waste method. A sample of Canadian Armed Forces personnel, randomized to either a tablet app (n = 9) or a weighed food record (wFR) (n = 9), recorded the consumption of standard military rations for a total of 8 days. Compared to the gold standard measured food intake/waste method, the difference in mean energy intake was small (−73 kcal/day for tablet app and −108 kcal/day for wFR) (p > 0.05). Repeated Measures Bland-Altman plots indicated good agreement for both methods (tablet app and wFR) with the measured food intake/waste method. These findings demonstrate that the tablet app, with added nutritional composition data, is comparable to the traditional dietary assessment method (wFR) and performs satisfactorily in relation to the measured food intake/waste method to assess energy, macronutrient, and selected micronutrient intakes in a sample of military personnel. PMID:28264428

  11. Timing of food intake and obesity: a novel association.

    PubMed

    Garaulet, Marta; Gómez-Abellán, Purificación

    2014-07-01

    Recent studies link energy regulation to the circadian clock at the behavioral, physiological and molecular levels, emphasizing that the timing of food intake itself may have a significant role in obesity. In this regards, there is emerging literature in animals demonstrating a relationship between the timing of feeding and weight regulation. Unusual feeding time can produce a disruption of the circadian system which might produce unhealthy consequences in humans. In a longitudinal study, we recently showed that the timing of the main meal was predictive of weight loss during a 20-week dietary intervention and that this effect was independent from total 24-h caloric intake. The importance of caloric distribution across the day on weight loss therapy was supported by a recent 12-week experimental study showing that subjects assigned to high caloric intake during breakfast lost significantly more weight than those assigned to high caloric intake during the dinner. Furthermore, one of the most influential discoveries relevant for this area of research in the last years is the presence of an active circadian clock in different organs related to food intake. This is the case for stomach, intestine, pancreas or liver. New data also suggest that there is a temporal component in the regulation of adipose tissue functions. Thus, a specific temporal order in the daily patterns of adipose tissue genes appears to be crucial for adipose tissue to exclusively either accumulate fat or to mobilize fat at the proper time. Taking into account that feeding is the source of energy for adipose tissue, the time of feeding, particularly for high-energy content meals, may be decisive, and changes in this timing could have metabolic consequences for the development of obesity and for weight loss.

  12. Fat pad-specific effects of lipectomy on foraging, food hoarding, and food intake.

    PubMed

    Dailey, Megan E; Bartness, Timothy J

    2008-02-01

    Unlike most species, after food deprivation, Siberian hamsters increase foraging and food hoarding, two appetitive ingestive behaviors, but not food intake, a consummatory ingestive behavior. We previously demonstrated (Wood AD, Bartness TJ, Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 272: R783-R792, 1997) that increases in food hoarding are triggered by directly decreasing body fat levels through partial surgical lipectomy; however, we did not test if lipectomy affected foraging, nor if the magnitude of the lipid deficit affected food hoard size. Therefore, we tested whether varying the size of the lipectomy-induced lipid deficit and/or foraging effort affected foraging, food hoarding, or food intake. This was accomplished by housing adult male Siberian hamsters in a foraging/hoarding system and removing (x) both epididymal white adipose tissue (EWATx) pads, both inguinal white adipose tissue (IWATx) pads, or both EWAT and IWAT pads (EWATx + IWATx) and measuring foraging, food hoarding, and food intake for 12 wk. The lipectomy-induced lipid deficit triggered different patterns of white adipose tissue mass compensation that varied with foraging effort. Foraging for food (10 wheel revolutions to earn a food pellet) abolished the EWATx-induced compensation in IWAT pad mass. The magnitude of the lipid deficit did not engender a proportional change in any of the appetitive or consummatory ingestive behaviors. EWATx caused the greatest increase in food hoarding compared with IWATx or EWATx + IWATx, when animals were required to forage for their food. Collectively, it appears that the magnitude of a lipid deficit does not affect appetitive or consummatory behaviors; rather, when energy (foraging) demands are increased, loss of specific (gonadal) fat pads can preferentially stimulate increases in food hoarding.

  13. Dietary sources of energy and macronutrient intakes among Flemish preschoolers.

    PubMed

    De Keyzer, Willem; Lin, Yi; Vereecken, Carine; Maes, Lea; Van Oyen, Herman; Vanhauwaert, Erika; De Backer, Guy; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2011-11-01

    This study aims to identify major food sources of energy and macronutrients among Flemish preschoolers as a basis for evaluating dietary guidelines. Three-day estimated diet records were collected from a representative sample of 696 Flemish preschoolers (2.5-6.5 years old; participation response rate: 50%). For 11 dietary constituents, the contribution of 57 food groups was computed by summing the amount provided by the food group for all individuals divided by the total intake of the respective nutrient for all individuals. Bread (12%), sweet snacks (12%), milk (6%), flavoured milk drinks (9%), and meat products (6%) were the top five energy contributors. Sweet snacks were among the top contributors to energy, total fat, all fatty acids, cholesterol, and complex and simple carbohydrates. Fruit juices and flavoured milk drinks are the main contributors to simple carbohydrates (respectively 14% and 18%). All principal food groups like water, bread and cereals, vegetables, fruit, milk and spreadable fats were under-consumed by more than 30% of the population, while the food groups that were over-consumed consisted only of low nutritious and high energy dense foods (sweet snacks, sugared drinks, fried potatoes, sauces and sweet spreads). From the major food sources and gaps in nutrient and food intakes, some recommendations to pursue the nutritional goals could be drawn: the intake of sweet snacks and sugar-rich drinks (incl. fruit juices) should be discouraged, while consumption of fruits, vegetables, water, bread and margarine on bread should be encouraged.

  14. MTII attenuates ghrelin- and food deprivation-induced increases in food hoarding and food intake.

    PubMed

    Keen-Rhinehart, Erin; Bartness, Timothy J

    2007-12-01

    Food deprivation triggers a constellation of physiological and behavioral changes including increases in peripherally-produced ghrelin and centrally-produced agouti-related protein (AgRP). Upon refeeding, food intake is increased in most species, however hamsters primarily increase food hoarding. Food deprivation-induced increases in food hoarding by Siberian hamsters are mimicked by peripheral ghrelin and central AgRP injections. Because food deprivation stimulates ghrelin as well as AgRP synthesis/release, food deprivation-induced increases in hoarding may be mediated by melanocortin 3 or 4 receptor (MC3/4-R) antagonism via AgRP, the MC3/4-R inverse agonist. Therefore, we asked: Can a MC3/4-R agonist block food deprivation- or ghrelin-induced increases in foraging, food hoarding and food intake? This was accomplished by injecting melanotan II (MTII), a synthetic MC3/4-R agonist, into the 3rd ventricle in food deprived, fed or peripheral ghrelin injected hamsters and housed in a running wheel-based food delivery foraging system. Three foraging conditions were used: a) no running wheel access, non-contingent food, b) running wheel access, non-contingent food or c) a foraging requirement for food (10 revolutions/pellet). Food deprivation was a more potent stimulator of foraging and hoarding than ghrelin. Concurrent injections of MTII completely blocked food deprivation- and ghrelin-induced increases in food intake and attenuated, but did not always completely block, food deprivation- and ghrelin-induced increases in food hoarding. Collectively, these data suggest that the MC3/4-R are involved in ghrelin- and food deprivation-induced increases in food intake, but other neurochemical systems, such as previously demonstrated with neuropeptide Y, also are involved in increases in food hoarding as well as foraging.

  15. Daily energy balance in children and adolescents. Does energy expenditure predict subsequent energy intake?

    PubMed

    Thivel, David; Aucouturier, Julien; Doucet, Éric; Saunders, Travis J; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Both physical and sedentary activities primarily impact energy balance through energy expenditure, but they also have important implications in term of ingestive behavior. The literature provides scarce evidence on the relationship between daily activities and subsequent nutritional adaptations in children and adolescents. Sedentary activities and physical exercise are generally considered distinctly despite the fact that they represent the whole continuum of daily activity-induced energy expenditure. This brief review paper examines the impact of daily activities (from vigorous physical activity to imposed sedentary behaviors) on acute energy intake control of lean and obese children and adolescents, and whether energy expenditure is the main predictor of subsequent energy intake in this population. After an overview of the available literature, we conclude that both acute physical activity and sedentary behaviors induce food consumption modifications in children and adolescents but also that the important discrepancy between the methodologies used does not allow any clear conclusion so far. When considering energy intake responses according to the level of energy expenditure generated by those activities, it is clear that energy expenditure is not the main predictor of food consumption in both lean and obese children and adolescents. This suggests that other characteristics of those activities may have a greater impact on calorie intake (such as intensity, duration or induced mental stress) and that energy intake may be mainly determined by non-homeostatic pathways that could override the energetic and hormonal signals.

  16. Neurobiology of food intake in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Morton, Gregory J; Meek, Thomas H; Schwartz, Michael W

    2014-06-01

    Under normal conditions, food intake and energy expenditure are balanced by a homeostatic system that maintains stability of body fat content over time. However, this homeostatic system can be overridden by the activation of 'emergency response circuits' that mediate feeding responses to emergent or stressful stimuli. Inhibition of these circuits is therefore permissive for normal energy homeostasis to occur, and their chronic activation can cause profound, even life-threatening, changes in body fat mass. This Review highlights how the interplay between homeostatic and emergency feeding circuits influences the biologically defended level of body weight under physiological and pathophysiological conditions.

  17. Vitamin Intake from Food Supplements in a German Cohort - Is there a Risk of Excessive Intake?

    PubMed

    Willers, Janina; Heinemann, Michaela; Bitterlich, Norman; Hahn, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Food supplements, if not properly used, may lead to potentially harmful nutrient intake. The purpose of this survey was to examine vitamin intake from food supplements. Taking into account the intake from food, as obtained from the National Nutrition Survey, it was determined whether the tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) were exceeded via supplements alone, or in combination with food. Data from 1070 supplement users (18-93 years) was available. The dietary and supplemental vitamin intakes of three groups were analyzed: average intake (50th percentile food+50th percentile supplements), middle-high intake (50th+95th) and high intake (95th+95th). Vitamin C (53%), vitamin E (45%) and B vitamins (37-45%) were consumed most frequently. Few subjects (n=7) reached or exceeded the ULs through supplements alone. The UL for vitamin A and folate was reached by a few men in the middle-high group, and by a few men and women in the high intake group. Otherwise, even in the high intake group, the recommended vitamin D intake of 20 µg/day (in case of insufficient endogenous synthesis) could not be achieved. The use of food supplements was not associated with excessive vitamin intake in this survey, except in a small number of cases. Vitamin A intake above the UL was the result of high dietary intake which also included the intake of β-carotene, rather than the result of overconsumption of food supplements. Diets mainly included folate from natural sources, which has no associated risk.

  18. Beverage Consumption Habits in Italian Population: Association with Total Water Intake and Energy Intake

    PubMed Central

    Mistura, Lorenza; D’Addezio, Laura; Turrini, Aida

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate total water intake (TWI) from water, beverages and foods among Italian adults and the elderly. Methods: Data of 2607 adults and the elderly, aged 18–75 years from the last national food consumption survey, INRAN-SCAI 2005-06, were used to evaluate the TWI. The INRAN-SCAI 2005-06 survey was conducted on a representative sample of 3323 individuals aged 0.1 to 97.7 years. A 3-day semi-structured diary was used for participants to record the consumption of all foods, beverages and nutritional supplements. Results: On average, TWI was 1.8 L for men and 1.7 L for women. More than 75% of women and 90% of men did not comply with the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Adequate Intake. The contribution of beverages to the total energy intake (EI) was 6% for the total sample. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by alcoholic beverages for men and hot beverages for women. Conclusion: According to the present results, adults and elderly Italians do not reach the adequate intake for water as suggested by the EFSA and by the national reference level of nutrient and energy intake. Data on water consumption should also be analyzed in single socio-demographic groups in order to identify sub-groups of the population that need more attention and to plan more targeted interventions. PMID:27792160

  19. Effects of human opiorphin on food intake and water intake in mice following central administration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Tian, Xiao-Zhu; Bai, Lu; Liu, Ze-Qi; Xiao, Xing-Peng; Liu, Pu; Li, Xiang-Kai

    2017-02-22

    Human opiorphin plays an important pharmacological functions in rats or mice. The present study was performed to investigate effects and underlying mechanism of central injected opiorphin on food intake and water intake in mice. Intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered opiorphin (5-20μg/kg) dose-dependently suppressed food intake in fasted mice, but had no influence on food intake in freely feeding mice. The cumulative food intake was significantly decreased at 60min after injection of 10 and 20μg/kg opiorphin and the food intake was significantly reduced during the 20-60min period after treatment. Non-selected opiate receptor antagonist naloxone could fully block the inhibitory effect induced by opiorphin on cumulative food intake at 60min in fasted mice, suggesting that the anorexic effect of opiorphin was related to the opioid system. Moreover, the anorexic effect induced by opiorphin in fasted mice was also significantly inhibited by pretreatment with captopril or valsartan, which suggested that endogenous angiotensin may be involved in the response to opiorphin. Interestingly, the effect of opiorphin on water intake was increased in both fasted and freely feeding mice, which was completely blocked by captopril and valsartan. Furthermore, naloxone did not modify the effect of opiorphin on water intake. All together, the food and water intake effects of opiorphin may be due to the protection of the endogenous angiotensin and opioid peptides from degradation by NEP or APN.

  20. The neurobiology of food intake in an obesogenic environment

    PubMed Central

    Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this non-systematic review of the literature is to highlight some of the neural systems and pathways that are affected by the various intake-promoting aspects of the modern food environment and explore potential modes of interaction between core systems such as hypothalamus and brainstem primarily receptive to internal signals of fuel availability and forebrain areas such as the cortex, amygdala and meso-corticolimbic dopamine system, primarily processing external signals. The modern lifestyle with its drastic changes in the way we eat and move puts pressure on the homoeostatic system responsible for the regulation of body weight, which has led to an increase in overweight and obesity. The power of food cues targeting susceptible emotions and cognitive brain functions, particularly of children and adolescents, is increasingly exploited by modern neuromarketing tools. Increased intake of energy-dense foods high in fat and sugar is not only adding more energy, but may also corrupt neural functions of brain systems involved in nutrient sensing as well as in hedonic, motivational and cognitive processing. It is concluded that only long-term prospective studies in human subjects and animal models with the capacity to demonstrate sustained over-eating and development of obesity are necessary to identify the critical environmental factors as well as the underlying neural systems involved. Insights from these studies and from modern neuromarketing research should be increasingly used to promote consumption of healthy foods. PMID:22800810

  1. The neurobiology of food intake in an obesogenic environment.

    PubMed

    Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this non-systematic review of the literature is to highlight some of the neural systems and pathways that are affected by the various intake-promoting aspects of the modern food environment and explore potential modes of interaction between core systems such as hypothalamus and brainstem primarily receptive to internal signals of fuel availability and forebrain areas such as the cortex, amygdala and meso-corticolimbic dopamine system, primarily processing external signals. The modern lifestyle with its drastic changes in the way we eat and move puts pressure on the homoeostatic system responsible for the regulation of body weight, which has led to an increase in overweight and obesity. The power of food cues targeting susceptible emotions and cognitive brain functions, particularly of children and adolescents, is increasingly exploited by modern neuromarketing tools. Increased intake of energy-dense foods high in fat and sugar is not only adding more energy, but may also corrupt neural functions of brain systems involved in nutrient sensing as well as in hedonic, motivational and cognitive processing. It is concluded that only long-term prospective studies in human subjects and animal models with the capacity to demonstrate sustained over-eating and development of obesity are necessary to identify the critical environmental factors as well as the underlying neural systems involved. Insights from these studies and from modern neuromarketing research should be increasingly used to promote consumption of healthy foods.

  2. Seasonal Variation in the Voluntary Food Intake of Domesticated Cats (Felis Catus)

    PubMed Central

    Serisier, Samuel; Feugier, Alexandre; Delmotte, Sébastien; Biourge, Vincent; German, Alexander James

    2014-01-01

    There are numerous reports about seasonal cycles on food intake in animals but information is limited in dogs and cats. A 4-year prospective, observational, cohort study was conducted to assess differences in food intake in 38 ad-libitum-fed adult colony cats, of various breeds, ages and genders. Individual food intake was recorded on a daily basis, and the mean daily intake for each calendar month was calculated. These data were compared with climatic data (temperature and daylight length) for the region in the South of France where the study was performed. Data were analysed using both conventional statistical methods and by modelling using artificial neural networks (ANN). Irrespective of year, an effect of month was evident on food intake (P<0.001), with three periods of broadly differing intake. Food intake was least in the summer months (e.g. June, to August), and greatest during the months of late autumn and winter (e.g. October to February), with intermediate intake in the spring (e.g. March to May) and early autumn (e.g. September). A seasonal effect on bodyweight was not recorded. Periods of peak and trough food intake coincided with peaks and troughs in both temperature and daylight length. In conclusion, average food intake in summer is approximately 15% less than food intake during the winter months, and is likely to be due to the effects of outside temperatures and differences in daylight length. This seasonal effect in food intake should be properly considered when estimating daily maintenance energy requirements in cats. PMID:24759851

  3. Histidine suppresses food intake through its conversion into neuronal histamine.

    PubMed

    Yoshimatsu, Hironobu; Chiba, Seiichi; Tajima, Daisuke; Akehi, Yuko; Sakata, Toshiie

    2002-01-01

    Hypothalamic neuronal histamine has been shown to regulate feeding behavior and energy metabolism as a target of leptin action in the brain. The present study aimed to examine the involvement of L-histidine, a precursor of neuronal histamine, in the regulation of feeding behavior in rats. Intraperitoneal (ip) injection of L-histidine at doses of 0.35 and 0.70 mmol/kg body weight significantly decreased the 24-hr cumulative food and water intakes compared to phosphate buffered saline injected controls (P < 0.05 for each). This suppression of feeding was mimicked dose-dependently by intracerebroventricular infusion of histidine at doses of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 micromol/rat (P < 0.05 for each). Pretreatment of the rats with an ip bolus injection of alpha-fluoromethylhistidine, a suicide inhibitor of a histidine decarboxylase (HDC), at a dosage of 224 micromol/kg blocked the conversion of histidine into histamine and attenuated the suppressive effect of histidine on food intake from 64.2% to 88.1% of the controls (P < 0.05). Administration of 0.35 mmol/kg histidine ip increased the concentration of hypothalamic neuronal histamine compared with the controls (P < 0.05). HDC activity was increased simultaneously by histidine administration compared with the controls (P < 0.05). The present findings indicate that L-histidine suppresses food intake through its conversion into histamine in the hypothalamus.

  4. Moderate alcohol consumption stimulates food intake and food reward of savoury foods.

    PubMed

    Schrieks, Ilse C; Stafleu, Annette; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; de Graaf, Cees; Witkamp, Renger F; Boerrigter-Rijneveld, Rianne; Hendriks, Henk F J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food reward plays a role in the stimulating effect of moderate alcohol consumption on subsequent food intake. In addition, we explored the role of oral and gut sensory pathways in alcohol's effect on food reward by modified sham feeding (MSF) or consumption of a preload after alcohol intake.In a single-blind crossover design, 24 healthy men were randomly assigned to either consumption of vodka/orange juice (20 g alcohol) or orange juice only, followed by consumption of cake, MSF of cake or no cake. Food reward was evaluated by actual food intake measured by an ad libitum lunch 45 min after alcohol ingestion and by behavioural indices of wanting and liking of four food categories (high fat, low fat, sweet and savoury).Moderate alcohol consumption increased food intake during the ad libitum lunch by 11% (+338 kJ, P = 0.004). Alcohol specifically increased intake (+127 kJ, P <0.001) and explicit liking (P = 0.019) of high-fat savoury foods. Moreover, moderate alcohol consumption increased implicit wanting for savoury (P = 0.013) and decreased implicit wanting for sweet (P = 0.017) before the meal. Explicit wanting of low-fat savoury foods only was higher after alcohol followed by no cake as compared to after alcohol followed by cake MSF (P = 0.009), but not as compared to alcohol followed by cake consumption (P = 0.082). Both cake MSF and cake consumption had no overall effect on behavioural indices of food reward.To conclude, moderate alcohol consumption increased subsequent food intake, specifically of high-fat savoury foods. This effect was related to the higher food reward experienced for savoury foods. The importance of oral and gut sensory signalling in alcohol's effect on food reward remains largely unclear.

  5. Factors for Healthy Food or Less-Healthy Food Intake among Taiwanese Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Chia-Feng; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2010-01-01

    Little information is available on the prevalence and risk factors for less-healthy food intake among people with intellectual disabilities (ID). This study aimed to provide the information of healthy or less-healthy food intake among Taiwanese adolescents with ID and to examine the risk factors to their food intake. A cross-sectional data on 1419…

  6. Associations of food preferences and household food availability with dietary intake and quality in youth with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lipsky, L M; Nansel, T R; Haynie, D L; Mehta, S N; Laffel, L M B

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine associations of food preferences and availability with dietary intake in youth with type 1 diabetes, for whom dietary intake and quality are essential to disease management. Youth (n=252, age 13.2±2.8 y, diabetes duration 6.3±3.4 y) reported preferences and parents reported household availability for 61 food items categorized as fruit, vegetables, whole grains, refined grains and fats/sweets. Youth energy-adjusted daily servings of food groups, Healthy Eating Index-2005 and Nutrient Rich Foods 9.3 scores were calculated from 3-day diet records. Associations of dietary intake and quality variables with preference and availability of all food groups were evaluated by linear regressions adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. Fruit and whole grain intake were positively related to corresponding preference and availability; whole grain intake and refined grain availability were inversely related. Vegetable, refined grain and fats/sweets intake were unrelated to preference and availability. Diet quality measures were related positively to fruit preference and whole grain availability and inversely to refined grains availability. Findings indicate associations of dietary intake with food preference and availability vary by food group in youth with type 1 diabetes. Measures of overall dietary quality were more consistently associated with food group availability than preferences.

  7. Associations of food preferences and household food availability with dietary intake and quality in youth with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lipsky, LM; Nansel, TR; Haynie, DL; Mehta, SN; Laffel, LMB

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine associations of food preferences and availability with dietary intake in youth with type 1 diabetes, for whom dietary intake and quality are essential to disease management. Youth (n=252, age 13.2±2.8y, diabetes duration 6.3±3.4y) reported preferences and parents reported household availability for 61 food items categorized as fruit, vegetables, whole grains, refined grains and fats/sweets. Youth energy-adjusted daily servings of food groups, Healthy Eating Index-2005 and Nutrient Rich Foods 9.3 scores were calculated from 3-day diet records. Associations of dietary intake and quality variables with preference and availability of all food groups were evaluated by linear regressions adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. Fruit and whole grain intake were positively related to corresponding preference and availability; whole grain intake and refined grain availability were inversely related. Vegetable, refined grain and fats/sweets intake were unrelated to preference and availability. Diet quality measures were related positively to fruit preference and whole grain availability and inversely to refined grains availability. Findings indicate associations of dietary intake with food preference and availability vary by food group in youth with type 1 diabetes. Measures of overall dietary quality were more consistently associated with food group availability than preferences. PMID:22595289

  8. Relationship between Food Intake and Sleep Pattern in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Crispim, Cibele Aparecida; Zimberg, Ioná Zalcman; dos Reis, Bruno Gomes; Diniz, Rafael Marques; Tufik, Sérgio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between food intake and sleep patterns in healthy individuals. Methods: Fifty-two healthy volunteers (27 women and 25 men) were recruited to participate in the study. Volunteers underwent sleep evaluation through nocturnal polysomnography and completed a 3-day food diary to evaluate food intake. Results: No differences in sleep patterns were observed in either gender, except in the percentage of stage 1 sleep, which was greater in men. Different correlations were observed between sleep and dietary variables according to gender. The correlation between dietary and sleep variables in men indicated a negative relationship between nocturnal fat intake and the sleep latency, including REM sleep. The percentage of nocturnal fat intake correlated with sleep efficiency, sleep latency, REM latency, stage 2 sleep, REM sleep, and wake after sleep onset (WASO) in women. The percentage of nocturnal caloric intake correlated with sleep latency and efficiency in women. Conclusions: We conclude that food intake during the nocturnal period is correlated with negative effects on the sleep quality of healthy individuals. Indeed, food intake near the sleeping period (dinner and late night snack) was negatively associated with sleep quality variables. More studies are necessary to elucidate the real effect of food intake on sleep. Citation: Crispim CA; Zimberg IZ; dos Reis BG; Diniz RM; Tufik S; de Mello MT. Relationship between food intake and sleep pattern in healthy individuals. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(6):659-664. PMID:22171206

  9. Maternal encouragement to be thin moderates the effect of commercials on children's snack food intake.

    PubMed

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Van Strien, Tatjana

    2010-08-01

    The present study experimentally tested the effects of adult targeted food commercials (energy-dense and light food products) on actual snack food intake in young children while watching television. Furthermore, the moderating role of maternal behaviors was investigated. The children (N=121, aged between 8 and 12 years) were exposed to a neutral movie that was interrupted by two commercial breaks. These breaks contained commercials promoting either energy-dense foods, low energy versions of the same energy-dense foods (light food commercials), or neutral commercials aimed at adults. Snack food intake during watching television was measured. Children filled out questionnaires and were weighed and measured afterwards. Children who perceived maternal encouragement to be thin ate slightly more when exposed to energy-dense food commercials and especially when exposed to light food commercials than when exposed to neutral commercials. In contrast, children who perceived no maternal encouragement to be thin ate more when exposed to neutral commercials than when exposed to either energy-dense food commercials or light food commercials. These findings suggest that exposure to adult targeted light food cues produced disinhibition in children who experienced maternal encouragement to be thin, resulting in elevated snack food intake.

  10. Nutrient Intakes: Individuals in 48 States, Year 1977-78. Nationwide Food Consumption Survey 1977-78. Report No. I-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This report presents 3-day nutrient intake data for about 36,100 individuals in 48 states. Data are provided in 157 tables, and results are summarized in the text. The contribution of 14 food groups to intakes of food energy and 14 nutrients are presented. Also included are the average intakes of food energy and nutrients, the nutrient densities…

  11. Detection of periods of food intake using Support Vector Machines.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Meyer, Paulo; Schuckers, Stephanie; Makeyev, Oleksandr; Sazonov, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Studies of obesity and eating disorders need objective tools of Monitoring of Ingestive Behavior (MIB) that can detect and characterize food intake. In this paper we describe detection of food intake by a Support Vector Machine classifier trained on time history of chews and swallows. The training was performed on data collected from 18 subjects in 72 experiments involving eating and other activities (for example, talking). The highest accuracy of detecting food intake (94%) was achieved in configuration where both chews and swallows were used as predictors. Using only swallowing as a predictor resulted in 80% accuracy. Experimental results suggest that these two predictors may be used for differentiation between periods of resting and food intake with a resolution of 30 seconds. Proposed methods may be utilized for development of an accurate, inexpensive, and non-intrusive methodology to objectively monitor food intake in free living conditions.

  12. Validation of a questionnaire assessing food frequency and nutritional intake in Greek adolescents.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Sousana K; Barboukis, Vassilis; Dalkiranis, Anastasios; Hassapidou, Maria; Petridou, Anatoli; Mougios, Vassilis

    2008-03-01

    The aim of the study was to develop and validate a specific semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to assess nutritional intake of Greek adolescents. The sample of the study consisted of 250 pupils (15.3 +/- 0.7 years), who completed the Youth Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire enriched with 22 Greek foods and recipes to include ethnic and racial diversity. A 3-day weighed food recall was used as the criterion to test the validity of the questionnaire. The analysis of correlation revealed significant correlations between the two methods for almost all variables. The Pearson's coefficients ranged from 0.83 for energy intake to 0.34 for folate intake. Non-significant correlations were found for selenium and vitamin D intakes. The findings of the study provide evidence for the validity of the scale and its utility in assessing nutritional intake of Greek adolescents.

  13. Food and macronutrient intake of male adolescent Kalenjin runners in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Dirk L; Van Hall, Gerrit; Hambraeus, Leif

    2002-12-01

    A nutritional survey based on twelve adolescent male Kalenjin runners in Kenya during a 2-week field study was carried out in order to determine the composition of their diet and make a comparison with macronutrient recommendations for athletes. Food samples were collected for analysis of macronutrient distribution and energy content from main meals and the macronutrient distribution and energy content of additional food intake were based on the information of a 24 h recall interview and estimated from food tables. The diet of the Kalenjin runners was very high in carbohydrate (71 % 8.7 g/kg body weight per d) and very low in fat (15 %). Intake of total protein (13 %; 1.6 g/kg body weight per d) was above the daily intake recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization/United Nations University (FAO/WHO/UNU), while essential amino acid intake was estimated to be in the borderline-to-low range based on FAO/WHO/UNU recommendations for children <12 years and adults. The energy intake was mainly derived from vegetable sources (90 %) with maize and kidney beans as the staple food (81 %). The diet of the Kalenjin runners met recommendations for endurance athletes for total protein and most essential amino acid intake as well as carbohydrate intake even though it was based on a small range of food items.

  14. Insulin Resistance, Hyperinsulinemia, and Energy Intake in Overweight Children

    PubMed Central

    Han, Joan C.; Rutledge, Margaret S.; Kozlosky, Merel; Salaita, Christine G.; Gustafson, Jennifer K.; Keil, Margaret F.; Fleisch, Abby F.; Roberts, Mary D.; Ning, Cong; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between energy intake during a buffet meal and indices of insulin dynamics in overweight children. Study design 95 non-diabetic, overweight (BMI ≥95th percentile) children (age 10.3±1.4y) selected lunch from a 9,835kcal buffet eaten ad libitum after an overnight fast. The associations between energy intake and measures of insulin dynamics, in the post-absorptive state and during a 2h-hyperglycemic clamp, were determined. Covariates in the statistical model included race, sex, skeletal age, fat-free mass, fat mass, socioeconomic status, and number of foods in the buffet rated as acceptable. Results Energy intake was positively associated with the fasting homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR; β=0.24, p=0.042), fasting insulin/glucose ratio (β=0.24, p=0.044), 1st-phase insulin (β=0.23, p=0.032), and 1st-phase C-peptide (β=0.21, p=0.046); energy intake was negatively associated with clamp-derived insulin sensitivity (SIclamp; β= -0.29, p=0.042). Each 10% decrease in SIclamp predicted 27 kcal greater energy intake. Conclusions Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia are associated with greater energy intake after an overnight fast in overweight children. These associations suggest mechanisms whereby insulin resistance may contribute to excessive weight gain in children. PMID:18410761

  15. Allopregnanolone preferentially induces energy‐rich food intake in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, Ellinor; Johansson, Maja; Bäckström, Torbjörn; Haage, David

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is an increasing problem and identification of the driving forces for overeating of energy‐rich food is important. Previous studies show that the stress and sex steroid allopregnanolone has a hyperphagic effect on both bland food and palatable food. If allopregnanolone induces a preference for more palatable or for more energy‐rich food is not known. The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of allopregnanolone on food preference. Male Wistar rats were subjected to two different food preference tests: a choice between standard chow and cookies (which have a higher energy content and also are more palatable than chow), and a choice between a low caloric sucrose solution and standard chow (which has a higher energy content and is less palatable than sucrose). Food intake was measured for 1 h after acute subcutaneous injections of allopregnanolone. In the choice between cookies and chow allopregnanolone significantly increased only the intake of cookies. When the standard chow was the item present with the highest caloric load, the chow intake was increased and allopregnanolone had no effect on intake of the 10% sucrose solution. The increased energy intakes induced by the high allopregnanolone dose compared to vehicle were very similar in the two tests, 120% increase for cookies and 150% increase for chow. It appears that in allopregnanolone‐induced hyperphagia, rats choose the food with the highest energy content regardless of its palatability. PMID:25501437

  16. Puberty and observed energy intake: boy, can they eat!1234

    PubMed Central

    Shomaker, Lauren B; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Savastano, David M; Kozlosky, Merel; Columbo, Kelli M; Wolkoff, Laura E; Zocca, Jaclyn M; Brady, Sheila M; Yanovski, Susan Z; Crocker, Melissa K; Ali, Asem

    2010-01-01

    Background: Anecdotal reports suggest that adolescent males consume large quantities of food to meet the growth demands of pubertal development. However, limited experimental data exist to support this impression. Objective: The objective was to measure energy intakes of youth at different pubertal stages. Design: Participants were 204 volunteers (50.5% male) aged 8–17 y. Pubertal development was categorized by physical examination into prepuberty (males: testes < 4 mL; females: Tanner breast stage 1), early–midpuberty (males: testes = 4–12 mL; females: Tanner breast stages 2–3), or late puberty (males: testes >12 mL; females: Tanner breast stages 4–5). Energy intake was measured as consumption from a 9835-kcal food array during 2 lunchtime meals. Results: Males consumed more energy than did females across all pubertal stages (P < 0.001). Intake increased with pubertal development (P < 0.001), but the timing and magnitude of change varied by sex (P = 0.02). Males' unadjusted energy intake was greater in late puberty (mean ± SE: 1955 ± 70 kcal) than in prepuberty (1287 ± 90 kcal) or early–midpuberty (1413 ± 92 kcal) (P < 0.001). Females' unadjusted energy intake tended to be lower among prepubertal girls (905 ± 140 kcal) than among females in early–midpuberty (1278 ± 82 kcal, P = 0.07) or late puberty (1388 ± 68 kcal, P = 0.01). After adjustment for fat-free mass, fat mass, height, overweight status, race, and meal instruction, the main effect of sex (P < 0.001) remained significant, but the effect of puberty was not significant (P = 0.66). Conclusions: The observed intake patterns are congruent with known sexual dimorphisms for body composition, peak growth velocity, and pubertal development. Consistent with their higher energy requirements, males can consume significantly larger amounts of food than females, especially during later puberty. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00320177. PMID:20504975

  17. Macronutrient intake and food sources in the very old: analysis of the Newcastle 85+ Study.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Nuno; Hill, Tom R; Granic, Antoneta; Davies, Karen; Collerton, Joanna; Mathers, John C; Siervo, Mario; Wrieden, Wendy L; Seal, Chris J; Kirkwood, Thomas B L; Jagger, Carol; Adamson, Ashley J

    2016-06-01

    Food and nutrient intake data are scarce in very old adults (85 years and older) - one of the fastest growing age segments of Western societies, including the UK. Our primary objective was to assess energy and macronutrient intakes and respective food sources in 793 85-year-olds (302 men and 491 women) living in North-East England and participating in the Newcastle 85+ cohort Study. Dietary information was collected using a repeated multiple-pass recall (2×24 h recalls). Energy, macronutrient and NSP intakes were estimated, and the contribution (%) of food groups to nutrient intake was calculated. The median energy intake was 6·65 (interquartile ranges (IQR) 5·49-8·16) MJ/d - 46·8 % was from carbohydrates, 36·8 % from fats and 15·7 % from proteins. NSP intake was 10·2 g/d (IQR 7·3-13·7). NSP intake was higher in non-institutionalised, more educated, from higher social class and more physically active 85-year-olds. Cereals and cereal products were the top contributors to intakes of energy and most macronutrients (carbohydrates, non-milk extrinsic sugars, NSP and fat), followed by meat and meat products. The median intakes of energy and NSP were much lower than the estimated average requirement for energy (9·6 MJ/d for men and 7·7 MJ/d for women) and the dietary reference value (DRV) for NSP (≥18 g/d). The median SFA intake was higher than the DRV (≤11 % of dietary energy). This study highlights the paucity of data on dietary intake and the uncertainties about DRV for this age group.

  18. Analysis of Total Food Intake and Composition of Individual's ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA released the final report, Analysis of Total Food Intake and Composition of Individual’s Diet Based on USDA’s 1994-1996, 98 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII). The consumption of food by the general population is a significant route of potential exposure to hazardous substances that are present in the environment. For this reason, a thorough analysis of the dietary habits of the American public would aid in the identification of potential exposure pathways. To that end, the EPA developed per capita food intake rates for various food items and food categories using databases developed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). These intake rates were incorporated into EPA's 1997 Exposure Factors Handbook. Since that time, EPA has recommended that the food intake study be updated and expanded to include a more comprehensive analysis of food intake. That analysis is presented in this document. The purpose of this study is to characterize the consumption of food by the people of the United States.

  19. Online Dietary Intake Estimation: Reproducibility and Validity of the Food4Me Food Frequency Questionnaire Against a 4-Day Weighed Food Record

    PubMed Central

    Fallaize, Rosalind; Forster, Hannah; Macready, Anna L; Walsh, Marianne C; Mathers, John C; Brennan, Lorraine; Gibney, Eileen R; Gibney, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Background Advances in nutritional assessment are continuing to embrace developments in computer technology. The online Food4Me food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was created as an electronic system for the collection of nutrient intake data. To ensure its accuracy in assessing both nutrient and food group intake, further validation against data obtained using a reliable, but independent, instrument and assessment of its reproducibility are required. Objective The aim was to assess the reproducibility and validity of the Food4Me FFQ against a 4-day weighed food record (WFR). Methods Reproducibility of the Food4Me FFQ was assessed using test-retest methodology by asking participants to complete the FFQ on 2 occasions 4 weeks apart. To assess the validity of the Food4Me FFQ against the 4-day WFR, half the participants were also asked to complete a 4-day WFR 1 week after the first administration of the Food4Me FFQ. Level of agreement between nutrient and food group intakes estimated by the repeated Food4Me FFQ and the Food4Me FFQ and 4-day WFR were evaluated using Bland-Altman methodology and classification into quartiles of daily intake. Crude unadjusted correlation coefficients were also calculated for nutrient and food group intakes. Results In total, 100 people participated in the assessment of reproducibility (mean age 32, SD 12 years), and 49 of these (mean age 27, SD 8 years) also took part in the assessment of validity. Crude unadjusted correlations for repeated Food4Me FFQ ranged from .65 (vitamin D) to .90 (alcohol). The mean cross-classification into “exact agreement plus adjacent” was 92% for both nutrient and food group intakes, and Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement for energy-adjusted macronutrient intakes. Agreement between the Food4Me FFQ and 4-day WFR varied, with crude unadjusted correlations ranging from .23 (vitamin D) to .65 (protein, % total energy) for nutrient intakes and .11 (soups, sauces and miscellaneous foods) to .73 (yogurts

  20. Dairy food at the first occasion of eating is important for total dairy food intake for Australian children.

    PubMed

    Riley, Malcolm D; Baird, Danielle L; Hendrie, Gilly A

    2014-09-23

    The cross-sectional 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey collected detailed dietary information from a representative sample of more than 4400 children by 24-h dietary recall. Dairy food intake by Australian children is substantially lower than recommendations, and decreases as a percentage of energy intake as children grow older. Children aged 2 to 16 years are, on average, 2.3 times more likely to have a dairy food at the first daily occasion of eating, than at the second occasion. For children who consumed any dairy food at the first occasion of eating, the total daily intake of dairy foods was 129% (95% CI 120%-138%) greater than for children who did not consume a dairy food at the first occasion of eating. Their dairy food intake for the rest of the day following the first occasion of eating was also greater by 29% (95% CI 21%-37%). Younger age group, male sex, location of eating being at home or in a residence and starting the first occasion of eating from 6 a.m. to 9 a.m. are all jointly associated with having a dairy food at the first occasion of eating. A simple strategy to increase Australian children's intake from the dairy and alternatives food group may be to make sure that the first occasion of eating each day includes a dairy food or a nutritional equivalent.

  1. [Food calcium intake in teenager women in Panama].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ortega, Myriam

    2008-09-01

    The adequacy of calcium intake from food and carbonated drinks consumption levels in a Panama City's female adolescents group was studied. We evaluated 180 teenage girls (12-17 years) in two public schools using food frequency questionnaires and a 24-hour food recall. According to the results, milk and cheese were this population's main calcium source. Milk was a food source in 60.5%, while 56.7% indicated that they eat cheese. On average, a once-a-day intake of one of these dairy products was observed in 1/4 of the group. Ice cream and pulses were secondary calcium sources. Yogurt, milk-made meals and beverages, green vegetables, fortified food and sardines were not components of these girls' food habits. The average calcium intake was 440 mg/d +/- 423 according to the food frequency questionnaire and 314 mg/d +/- 255 according to their 24-hour food recall. Calcium's low level intakes are less than 50% of the recommended daily intake for this age group. Carbonated drinks were consumed by 72% of the group and 30% drank one unit daily. Dairy products are the main calcium source for the studied group. However, because of insufficient calcium intake and high consumption of carbonated drinks, the future bone health of these teenage girls is at risk.

  2. Snack food intake in ad libitum fed rats is triggered by the combination of fat and carbohydrates

    PubMed Central

    Hoch, Tobias; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Snack food like potato chips substantially contributes to energy intake in humans. In contrast to basic food, snacks are consumed additionally to other meals and may thereby lead to non-homeostatic energy intake. Snack food is also frequently associated with hedonic hyperphagia, a food intake independent from hunger. Analysis of brain activity patterns by manganese-enhanced MRI has previously revealed that the intake of potato chips in ad libitum fed rats strongly activates the reward system of the rat brain, which may lead to hedonic hyperphagia. The purpose of the present study was to develop a two-choice preference test to identify molecular determinants of snack food triggering extra food intake in ad libitum fed rats. Different kinds of test food were presented three times a day for 10 min each time. To minimize the influence of organoleptic properties, each test food was applied in a homogenous mixture with standard chow. Food intake as well as food intake-related locomotor activity were analyzed to evaluate the effects induced by the test foods in the two-choice preference test. In summary, fat (F), carbohydrates (CH), and a mixture of fat and carbohydrates (FCH) led to a higher food intake compared to standard chow. Notably, potato chip test food (PC) was highly significantly preferred over standard chow (STD) and also over their single main macronutrients F and CH. Only FCH induced an intake comparable to PC. Despite its low energy density, fat-free potato chip test food (ffPC) was also significantly preferred over STD and CH, but not over F, FCH, and PC. Thus, it can be concluded that the combination of fat and carbohydrates is a major molecular determinant of potato chips triggering hedonic hyperphagia. The applied two-choice preference test will facilitate future studies on stimulating and suppressive effects of other food components on non-homeostatic food intake. PMID:24744741

  3. The relationship between interviewer-respondent race match and reporting of energy intake using food frequency questionnaires in the rural South United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of the observational study was to determine whether interviewer race influences food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) reporting accuracy in a Deep South, largely African American cohort. A secondary analysis was conducted to investigate the influence of interviewer race on energy reporting ...

  4. Effect of intravenous nutrient infusions on food intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Walls, E K; Koopmans, H S

    1989-06-01

    To assess the effect of gut signals on food intake two types of nutrients were infused intravenously for 17.5 hours in 17 hour fed rats. In the first experiment a solution of 25% d-glucose and 4.25% amino acids (Travasol) was infused at levels of 26 and 52 kcal/day for two consecutive four-day periods. During infusion periods, food intake was reduced from saline baseline levels by 18.9 +/- 1.7 and 34.8 +/- 1.8 kcal/day, respectively. This represents an oral intake reduction of approximately 70% of the infused calories. In contrast, food intake was reduced 17.4 +/- 1.7 kcal/day below saline baseline levels when 40 kcal of Nutralipid were infused. The reduction in food intake was only 43% of the lipid calories infused. These results indicate that infusions of glucose and amino acids are more effective than infusion of fats in inhibiting daily food intake, that gut signals associated with absorption of fat provide important satiety signals and that removal of fat from the bloodstream has relatively little effect on daily food intake.

  5. Under- and Over-Reporting of Energy Intake in Slovenian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobe, Helena; Krzisnik, Ciril; Mis, Natasa Fidler

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine under- and over-reporting of energy intake (EI) among adolescents and to compare relative food and nutrient intakes of under-reporters (UR), over-reporters (OR), and the whole population to acceptable reporters (AR). Design: All adolescents completed food frequency questionnaires at regional health centers, and a subgroup…

  6. Changes in Food Intake and Activity after Quitting Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sharon M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Evaluated changes in food intake and activity levels among 95 subjects who quit smoking. Found significant increases in calories, sucrose, and fats 2 weeks after quitting. Total sugars changes were less consistent. Activity levels did not change significantly. At week 26, caloric intake for abstinent women was approximately equal to baseline…

  7. Job Stress and Neuropeptide Response Contributing to Food Intake Regulation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Woong; Won, Yong Lim; Ko, Kyung Sun; Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the correlations between food intake behavior and job stress level and neuropeptide hormone concentrations. Job strain and food intake behavior were first identified using a self-reported questionnaire, concentrations of neuropeptide hormones (adiponectin, brain derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF], leptin, and ghrelin) were determined, and the correlations were analyzed. In the results, job strain showed significant correlations with adiponectin (odds ratio [OR], 1.220; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.001~1.498; p < 0.05) and BDNF (OR, 0.793; 95% CI, 0.646~0.974; p < 0.05), and ghrelin exhibited a significant correlation with food intake score (OR, 0.911; 95% CI, 0.842~0.985, p < 0.05). These results suggest that job stress affects food intake regulation by altering the physiological concentrations of neuropeptide hormones as well as emotional status.

  8. Job Stress and Neuropeptide Response Contributing to Food Intake Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki-Woong; Won, Yong Lim; Ko, Kyung Sun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the correlations between food intake behavior and job stress level and neuropeptide hormone concentrations. Job strain and food intake behavior were first identified using a self-reported questionnaire, concentrations of neuropeptide hormones (adiponectin, brain derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF], leptin, and ghrelin) were determined, and the correlations were analyzed. In the results, job strain showed significant correlations with adiponectin (odds ratio [OR], 1.220; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.001~1.498; p < 0.05) and BDNF (OR, 0.793; 95% CI, 0.646~0.974; p < 0.05), and ghrelin exhibited a significant correlation with food intake score (OR, 0.911; 95% CI, 0.842~0.985, p < 0.05). These results suggest that job stress affects food intake regulation by altering the physiological concentrations of neuropeptide hormones as well as emotional status. PMID:26877843

  9. Usual Dietary Intakes: Food Intakes, U.S. Population, 2007-10

    Cancer.gov

    We have applied the NCI Method for estimating distributions of usual intake to data from two recent cycles of the NHANES to estimate means and percentiles of the distributions of food intake and the percentage of persons meeting recommendations for a range of sex-age groups in the US population.

  10. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake estimate in Greece.

    PubMed

    Bratakos, Sotirios M; Lazou, Andriana E; Bratakos, Michael S; Lazos, Evangelos S

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium content of foods, as well as dietary aluminium intake of the Greek adult population, was determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy after microwave sample digestion and food consumption data. Al content ranged from 0.02 to 741.2 mg kg⁻¹, with spices, high-spice foods, cereal products, vegetables and pulses found to be high in Al. Differences in aluminium content were found between different food classes from Greece and those from some other countries. Aluminium intake of Greeks is 3.7 mg/day based on DAFNE Food Availability Databank, which uses data from the Household Budget Surveys. On the other hand, according to the per capita food consumption data collected by both national and international organisations, Al intake is 6.4 mg day⁻¹. Greek adult population has an Al intake lower than the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake of 7 mg kg⁻¹ body weight established by EFSA. Cereals and vegetables are the main Al contributors, providing 72.4% of daily intake.

  11. Dietary fibers reduce food intake by satiation without conditioned taste aversion in mice.

    PubMed

    Rasoamanana, Rojo; Even, Patrick C; Darcel, Nicolas; Tomé, Daniel; Fromentin, Gilles

    2013-02-17

    It is well known that intake of dietary fiber (DF) potently decreases food intake and feelings of hunger and/or promotes satiety ratings. However, the mechanisms explaining these effects are not well characterized. This work was performed to determine which of satiation and/or satiety mechanisms provoke the decrease of food intake induced by DF in mice. We tested in an intra-group protocol a low-viscosity (LV, fructo-oligosaccharide), a viscous (VP, guar gum) and a high-viscosity (HV, mixture of guar gum and fructo-oligosaccharide) preload. These were given to mice by intra-gastric gavage. It appeared that viscous preloads such as VP and HV reduced the daily energy intake by 14% and 21% respectively. The strong effect of HV was mainly due to a large decrease of meal size (by 57%) and meal duration (by 65%) with no effect on ingestion rate during the first 30 min after administration. Therefore, the DF-induced decrease of energy intake was due to a satiation mechanism. This is further supported by a 3-fold increased sensitization of neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract as observed by c-Fos protein immunolabelling. No compensation of food intake was observed during the rest of the day, a phenomenon that may be explained by the fact that metabolic rate remained high despite the lower food intake. We have also shown that the DF-induced inhibition of food intake was not paired with a conditioned taste aversion. To conclude, this work demonstrates that DF inhibits food intake by increasing satiation during ~1h after administration.

  12. Dietary intake and food sources of added sugar in the Australian population.

    PubMed

    Lei, Linggang; Rangan, Anna; Flood, Victoria M; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu

    2016-03-14

    Previous studies in Australian children/adolescents and adults examining added sugar (AS) intake were based on now out-of-date national surveys. We aimed to examine the AS and free sugar (FS) intakes and the main food sources of AS among Australians, using plausible dietary data collected by a multiple-pass, 24-h recall, from the 2011-12 Australian Health Survey respondents (n 8202). AS and FS intakes were estimated using a previously published method, and as defined by the WHO, respectively. Food groups contributing to the AS intake were described and compared by age group and sex by one-way ANOVA. Linear regression was used to test for trends across age groups. Usual intake of FS (as percentage energy (%EFS)) was computed using a published method and compared with the WHO cut-off of <10%EFS. The mean AS intake of the participants was 60·3 (SD 52·6) g/d. Sugar-sweetened beverages accounted for the greatest proportion of the AS intake of the Australian population (21·4 (sd 30·1)%), followed by sugar and sweet spreads (16·3 (SD 24·5)%) and cakes, biscuits, pastries and batter-based products (15·7 (sd 24·4)%). More than half of the study population exceeded the WHO's cut-off for FS, especially children and adolescents. Overall, 80-90% of the daily AS intake came from high-sugar energy-dense and/or nutrient-poor foods. To conclude, the majority of Australian adults and children exceed the WHO recommendation for FS intake. Efforts to reduce AS intake should focus on energy-dense and/or nutrient-poor foods.

  13. Morning sickness and salt intake, food cravings, and food aversions.

    PubMed

    Crystal, S R; Bowen, D J; Bernstein, I L

    1999-08-01

    Evidence for an association between early pregnancy sickness and offspring salt (NaCl) preference has been obtained from studying offspring as young adults and as infants. To determine whether the association between early pregnancy sickness and salt preference of offspring is secondary to familiar similarity in salt preference, the present study examined the self-reported salt intake and dietary cravings and aversions of pregnant women. Women who reported little or no vomiting (n = 108) were compared to women who reported moderate to severe vomiting (n = 21) during pregnancy. The women's self-reported salt use and reported cravings and aversions for common food were measured via survey for time periods prior to and during their current pregnancy. Women did not differ in reported salt use prior to pregnancy as a function of their pregnancy symptoms. Women reported more aversions during, than prior to, pregnancy (p < 0.05). Women with more severe vomiting reported a greater number of aversions (p < 0.05) both prior to and during pregnancy. There was a significant association between experiencing cravings and aversions prior to pregnancy and experiencing craving and aversions during pregnancy (p < 0.05). These findings do not provide evidence for an association between dietary levels of sodium and the likelihood of experiencing severe pregnancy symptoms. Therefore, these data do not support the suggestion that reported elevations in salt preference in offspring of women with moderate to severe vomiting during pregnancy are mediated by familial dietary practices.

  14. Leptin intake during lactation prevents obesity and affects food intake and food preferences in later life.

    PubMed

    Palou, Andreu; Picó, Catalina

    2009-02-01

    Breast milk is practically the only food ingested during the first months of life in fully breastfed infants and it is assumed to match the infant's nutritional needs. Epidemiological data suggest that breastfeeding compared with infant formula feeding confers protection against several chronic diseases later on in life and, particularly, against obesity and related medical complications. However, causality has not been related to any specific compound of breast milk. Recent data in our laboratory have identified leptin as the specific compound that is responsible for some of these beneficial effects of breastfeeding. The hormone leptin was identified as a key candidate because it is present in breast milk, but is not present in infant formula, and when ingested during the suckling period can be absorbed by the immature stomach exerting biological effects. Evidence of the beneficial effects of breast milk leptin was obtained from human studies, showing that milk-borne maternal leptin appeared to give moderate protection to infants from excess weight gain. Direct cause-effect evidence was obtained in rats, where oral leptin supplementation during the suckling period resulted in a decrease in food intake, affected food preferences in favour of carbohydrates versus fat, and protected against overweight in adulthood, with an improvement of related parameters such as leptin and insulin sensitivity. These findings open a new area of research on the use of leptin in the design of more appropriate infant formula, which is significant considering the increasing incidence of obesity and its associated medical complications.

  15. Medial prefrontal D1 dopamine neurons control food intake

    PubMed Central

    Land, Benjamin B; Narayanan, Nandakumar S; Liu, Rong-Jian; Gianessi, Carol A; Brayton, Catherine E; Grimaldi, David; Sarhan, Maysa; Guarnieri, Douglas J; Deisseroth, Karl; Aghajanian, George K; Dileone, Ralph J

    2014-01-01

    Although the prefrontal cortex influences motivated behavior, its role in food intake remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate a role for D1-type dopamine receptor-expressing neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in the regulation of feeding. Food intake increases activity in D1 neurons of the mPFC in mice, and optogenetic photostimulation of D1 neurons increases feeding. Conversely, inhibition of D1 neurons decreases intake. Stimulation-based mapping of prefrontal D1 neuron projections implicates the medial basolateral amygdala (mBLA) as a downstream target of these afferents. mBLA neurons activated by prefrontal D1 stimulation are CaMKII positive and closely juxtaposed to prefrontal D1 axon terminals. Finally, photostimulating these axons in the mBLA is sufficient to increase feeding, recapitulating the effects of mPFC D1 stimulation. These data describe a new circuit for top-down control of food intake. PMID:24441680

  16. Ventral hippocampal neurons inhibit postprandial energy intake.

    PubMed

    Hannapel, Reilly C; Henderson, Yoko H; Nalloor, Rebecca; Vazdarjanova, Almira; Parent, Marise B

    2017-03-01

    Evidence suggests that the memory of a recently ingested meal limits subsequent intake. Given that ventral hippocampal (vHC) neurons are involved in memory and energy intake, the present experiment tested the hypothesis that vHC neurons contribute to the formation of a memory of a meal and inhibit energy intake during the postprandial period. We tested (1) whether pharmacological inactivation of vHC neurons during the period following a sucrose meal, when the memory of the meal would be undergoing consolidation, accelerates the onset of the next sucrose meal and increases intake and (2) whether sucrose intake increases vHC expression of the synaptic plasticity marker activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to consume a 32% sucrose solution daily at the same time and location. On the experimental day, the rats were given intra-vHC infusions of the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol or vehicle after they finished their first sucrose meal. Compared to vehicle infusions, postmeal intra-vHC muscimol infusions decreased the latency to the next sucrose meal, increased the amount of sucrose consumed during that meal, increased the total number of sucrose meals and the total amount of sucrose ingested. In addition, rats that consumed sucrose had higher levels of Arc expression in both vHC CA1 and CA3 subfields than cage control rats. Collectively, these findings are the first to show that vHC neurons inhibit energy intake during the postprandial period and support the hypothesis that vHC neurons form a memory of a meal and inhibit subsequent intake. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Measuring Food Intake and Nutrient Absorption in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Amaro, Rafael L; Valentine, Elizabeth R; Carretero, Maria; LeBoeuf, Sarah E; Rangaraju, Sunitha; Broaddus, Caroline D; Solis, Gregory M; Williamson, James R; Petrascheck, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans has emerged as a powerful model to study the genetics of feeding, food-related behaviors, and metabolism. Despite the many advantages of C. elegans as a model organism, direct measurement of its bacterial food intake remains challenging. Here, we describe two complementary methods that measure the food intake of C. elegans. The first method is a microtiter plate-based bacterial clearing assay that measures food intake by quantifying the change in the optical density of bacteria over time. The second method, termed pulse feeding, measures the absorption of food by tracking de novo protein synthesis using a novel metabolic pulse-labeling strategy. Using the bacterial clearance assay, we compare the bacterial food intake of various C. elegans strains and show that long-lived eat mutants eat substantially more than previous estimates. To demonstrate the applicability of the pulse-feeding assay, we compare the assimilation of food for two C. elegans strains in response to serotonin. We show that serotonin-increased feeding leads to increased protein synthesis in a SER-7-dependent manner, including proteins known to promote aging. Protein content in the food has recently emerged as critical factor in determining how food composition affects aging and health. The pulse-feeding assay, by measuring de novo protein synthesis, represents an ideal method to unequivocally establish how the composition of food dictates protein synthesis. In combination, these two assays provide new and powerful tools for C. elegans research to investigate feeding and how food intake affects the proteome and thus the physiology and health of an organism.

  18. Serotonin reciprocally regulates melanocortin neurons to modulate food intake.

    PubMed

    Heisler, Lora K; Jobst, Erin E; Sutton, Gregory M; Zhou, Ligang; Borok, Erzsebet; Thornton-Jones, Zoe; Liu, Hong Yan; Zigman, Jeffrey M; Balthasar, Nina; Kishi, Toshiro; Lee, Charlotte E; Aschkenasi, Carl J; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Yu, Jia; Boss, Olivier; Mountjoy, Kathleen G; Clifton, Peter G; Lowell, Bradford B; Friedman, Jeffrey M; Horvath, Tamas; Butler, Andrew A; Elmquist, Joel K; Cowley, Michael A

    2006-07-20

    The neural pathways through which central serotonergic systems regulate food intake and body weight remain to be fully elucidated. We report that serotonin, via action at serotonin1B receptors (5-HT1BRs), modulates the endogenous release of both agonists and antagonists of the melanocortin receptors, which are a core component of the central circuitry controlling body weight homeostasis. We also show that serotonin-induced hypophagia requires downstream activation of melanocortin 4, but not melanocortin 3, receptors. These results identify a primary mechanism underlying the serotonergic regulation of energy balance and provide an example of a centrally derived signal that reciprocally regulates melanocortin receptor agonists and antagonists in a similar manner to peripheral adiposity signals.

  19. Trends in energy intake among Korean adults, 1998-2015: Results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Sungha; Kim, Hyun Ja

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Assessing changes in energy intake and dietary sources is important to understand trends in the prevalence of obesity. Thus, we examined trends in energy intake and its nutrient and food sources in Korean adults from 1998 through 2015. SUBJECTS/METHODS This study included 70,769 subjects aged ≥ 19 years who completed a nutrition survey. Subject data were obtained from the 1998, 2001, 2005, 2007-2009, 2010-2012, and 2013-2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Dietary intake was assessed by a 1-day 24-hour recall method. RESULTS In men, the daily energy intake significantly increased from 2,196 kcal in 1998 to 2,489 kcal in 2013-2015 (P for trend < 0.0001). However, the daily energy intake among women did not change significantly over the same period (P for trend = 0.5772). The percentages of energy intake from animal foods (e.g., meat and milk) and beverages increased during the study period in both men and women. However, the percentage of energy intake from plant foods decreased due to a marked decrease in the intake of white rice. Changes in food sources of energy intake led to changes in the nutrient sources of energy intake; for example, the increase of energy intake from fat and decrease of energy intake from carbohydrate. CONCLUSIONS This study suggests that since 1998, energy intake has increased among Korean adult men, but not among women. However, the composition of food and nutrient sources of energy intake has changed in both men and women. Energy intake and its nutrient and food sources should continue to be monitored regularly in the Korean adult population. PMID:28386388

  20. Energy intake estimation from counts of chews and swallows

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Juan M.; Higgins, Janine A.; Schuckers, Stephanie C.; Bellisle, France; Pan, Zhaoxing; Melanson, Edward L.; Neuman, Michael R.; Sazonov, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Current, validated methods for dietary assessment rely on self-report, which tends to be inaccurate, time-consuming, and burdensome. The objective of this work was to demonstrate the suitability of estimating energy intake using individually-calibrated models based on Counts of Chews and Swallows (CCS models). In a laboratory setting, subjects consumed three identical meals (training meals) and a fourth meal with different content (validation meal). Energy intake was estimated by four different methods: weighed food records (gold standard), diet diaries, photographic food records, and CCS models. Counts of chews and swallows were measured using wearable sensors and video analysis. Results for the training meals demonstrated that CCS models presented the lowest reporting bias and a lower error as compared to diet diaries. For the validation meal, CCS models showed reporting errors that were not different from the diary or the photographic method. The increase in error for the validation meal may be attributed to differences in the physical properties of foods consumed during training and validation meals. However, this may be potentially compensated for by including correction factors into the models. This study suggests that estimation of energy intake from CCS may offer a promising alternative to overcome limitations of self-report. PMID:25447016

  1. The Kilkenny Health Project: food and nutrient intakes in randomly selected healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Gibney, M J; Moloney, M; Shelley, E

    1989-03-01

    1. Sixty healthy subjects aged 35-44 years (thirty men and thirty women) were randomly selected from electoral registers to participate in a dietary survey using the 7 d weighed-intake method during June-August 1985. 2. Energy intake (MJ/d) was 12.5 for men and 8.4 for women. Fat contributed 36.0 and 39.1% of the total energy intake of men and women respectively. When this was adjusted to exclude energy derived from alcoholic beverages, the corresponding values were 38.8 and 39.7% respectively. The major sources of dietary fat (%) were spreadable fats (28), meat (23), milk (12) and biscuits and cakes (11). 3. The subjects were divided into low- and high-fat groups both on the relative intake of fat (less than 35% or greater than 40% dietary energy from fat) and on the absolute intake of fat (greater than or less than 120 g fat/d). By either criterion, high-fat consumers had lower than average intakes of low-fat, high-carbohydrate foods such as potatoes, bread, fruit and table sugar, and higher intakes of milk, butter and confectionery products. Meat intake was higher among high-fat eaters only when a high-fat diet was defined as a percentage of energy.

  2. Plasma ghrelin concentrations, food intake, and anorexia in liver failure.

    PubMed

    Marchesini, Giulio; Bianchi, Giampaolo; Lucidi, Paola; Villanova, Nicola; Zoli, Marco; De Feo, Pierpaolo

    2004-05-01

    Ghrelin is related to feeding behavior and nutrition in several physiological and pathological conditions. We tested the hypothesis that the anorexia and the decreased food intake of advanced liver failure might be associated with hyperghrelinemia. Fasting ghrelin was measured in 43 cirrhotic patients, food intake was self-assessed using the Corli score and a 3-d dietary record (n = 25), and anorexia/hunger was tested by a Likert scale. Fifty healthy subjects, matched for age and body mass index, served as controls. Ghrelin levels were not systematically increased in cirrhosis (414 +/- 164 vs. 398 +/- 142 pmol/liter in controls) but increased with decreasing Corli score (P = 0.014) and along the scale of anorexia/hunger (P = 0.0001), which were both related to the 3-d dietary record (P = 0.009 and P < 0.0001, respectively). Logistical regression confirmed that high ghrelin (>500 pmol/liter) was significantly associated with a low calorie intake [odds ratio (OR), 3.03 for any 100-calorie reduced intake; P = 0.015], a reduced Corli score (OR, 3.09; P = 0.031), and the anorexia score (OR, 3.37; P = 0.009), after adjustment for body mass index. The study confirms the previously observed relationship of fasting ghrelin with food intake in disease-associated malnutrition. In the presence of anorexia, hyperghrelinemia might indicate a compensatory mechanism trying to stimulate food intake, which is nonetheless ineffective in the physiological range.

  3. Exercise and energy intake in overweight, sedentary individuals.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Kristin L; Spring, Bonnie; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2009-01-01

    Exercise expends energy, but without dietary intervention, exercise does not appear to produce substantial weight loss. The present study examined whether overweight, sedentary individuals increase their energy intake after moderate intensity exercise, particularly in the presence of negative mood. A repeated measures design was used where overweight, sedentary individuals (N=65) completed, in counterbalanced order, two conditions: 3 min of exercise (Active) and 3 min of sedentary activity (Sedentary) during one session. Snack foods were presented 10 min after each activity. Mixed-effects regression modeling revealed no significant effect of Active versus Sedentary condition on energy intake. However, moderational analyses revealed that change in negative mood interacted with condition to predict energy intake, such that participants who reported increased negative mood during exercise consumed more calories in the Active compared to the Sedentary condition. That a short bout of exercise resulted in mood deterioration and increased energy intake for some overweight, sedentary individuals is concerning. Further research examining behavioral and physiological mechanisms of mood deterioration and caloric overcompensation following exercise in overweight, sedentary individuals is warranted.

  4. Nutrient and nontraditional food intakes by Zambian children in a controlled feeding trial

    PubMed Central

    Schmaelzle, Samantha; Kaliwile, Chisela; Arscott, Sara A.; Gannon, Bryan; Masi, Cassim; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Many programs aim to alleviate vitamin A deficiency. Biofortification is an approach to improve provitamin A carotenoid concentrations of staple crops in some developing countries. In rural Zambia, maize accounts for the majority of energy intake. Provitamin A–biofortified (orange) maize has been released in Zambia. Objective This study quantified food intake of Zambian children from records collected in a feeding trial in 2012 in order to compare adoption of orange maize and a new vegetable (green beans) with white maize and traditional foods. Methods One hundred thirty-six children with a mean age of 71.5 ± 6.9 months were fed three meals a day for 6 days a week for 15 weeks at four feeding centers. Breakfast consisted of maize porridge, and lunch and dinner were stiff porridge (nshima) with various side dishes (relishes). There were three treatment groups, which received orange maize and placebo oil, white maize and placebo oil, or white maize and a daily vitamin A supplement. Food was weighed before and after consumption. Nutritionists were trained to interview the children’s caregivers about the previous day’s intake using dietary recalls. Nine dietary recalls for each child were recorded and analyzed. Results Total food intake did not differ among the groups (p = .31) and energy intakes on Sundays (<880 kcal) were below recommendations. Nshima intake was lower in the orange-maize group (p = .008), largely due to a genotype effect. Intakes of relish, green bean, and porridge did not differ among the groups (p > .19). Dietary recalls revealed that children living in sites closer to the main road consumed more on Sundays than children living about 8 km from the main road, but less in the evenings when children were off site. Conclusions The intakes of energy of these Zambian children suggest inadequacy. Implementation and adoption of new and biofortified foods is possible with promotion. PMID:24791580

  5. Arguments at Mealtime and Child Energy Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnier, Daniel; Dubois, Lise; Girard, Manon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine how arguments at mealtimes relate to children's daily energy intake. Design: A cross-sectional study using data obtained through the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development 1998-2010 (QLSCD), a representative sample of children born in 1998, in the province of Quebec, Canada. Setting: Face-to-face interviews,…

  6. Validation of a FFQ for estimating whole-grain cereal food intake.

    PubMed

    Ross, Alastair B; Pineau, Nicolas; Kochhar, Sunil; Bourgeois, Alexandre; Beaumont, Maurice; Decarli, Bernard

    2009-12-01

    Estimation of whole-grain (WG) food intake in epidemiological and nutritional studies is normally based on general diet FFQ, which are not designed to specifically capture WG intake. To estimate WG cereal intake, we developed a forty-three-item FFQ focused on cereal product intake over the past month. We validated this questionnaire against a 3-d-weighed food record (3DWFR) in thirty-one subjects living in the French-speaking part of Switzerland (nineteen female and twelve male). Subjects completed the FFQ on day 1 (FFQ1), the 3DWFR between days 2 and 13 and the FFQ again on day 14 (FFQ2). The subjects provided a fasting blood sample within 1 week of FFQ2. Total cereal intake, total WG intake, intake of individual cereals, intake of different groups of cereal products and alkylresorcinol (AR) intake were calculated from both FFQ and the 3DWFR. Plasma AR, possible biomarkers for WG wheat and rye intake were also analysed. The total WG intake for the 3DWFR, FFQ1, FFQ2 was 26 (sd 22), 28 (sd 25) and 21 (sd 16) g/d, respectively. Mean plasma AR concentration was 55.8 (sd 26.8) nmol/l. FFQ1, FFQ2 and plasma AR were correlated with the 3DWFR (r 0.72, 0.81 and 0.57, respectively). Adjustment for age, sex, BMI and total energy intake did not affect the results. This FFQ appears to give a rapid and adequate estimate of WG cereal intake in free-living subjects.

  7. [Diltiazem enhances food intake and gastrointestinal function in rats].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Na; Li, Sheng-Li; Li, Chuang-Hong; Zhang, Chen-Xu; Yuan, Hui; Li, Xin-Ping

    2012-04-25

    The present study was to investigate the effects of diltiazem, a ghrelin receptor agonist, on food intake and gastrointestinal functions in rats. Rats were intragastrically administered with diltiazem solution (daily 16 mg/kg, 30 mg/kg or 80 mg/kg, 30 d), and the rats with saline as control. To detect the effects of diltiazem on food intake and body weight, the average daily food intake and body weight were recorded, and the serum metabolic hormones of plasma growth hormone (GH) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) were tested by radioimmunoassay. By means of the spectrophotometer and the modified Mett's method, the effects of diltiazem on rat's gastrointestinal function and pepsin activity were tested, respectively. In addition, the gastric juice's acidity of rats was detected by titration and the secretion amount was calculated. The results showed that the food intake and body weight were maximally promoted by diltiazem at the dose of 30 mg/kg daily (30 d). The average daily food intake and body weight were significantly increased, and the serum concentrations of GH and NPY were also remarkably increased in diltiazem-treated groups compared with those in control group. The results also showed that the gastric emptying rate, gastric acid secretion and the activity of pepsin were significantly increased in diltiazem-treated group compared with those in control group. These results suggest that diltiazem induces enhancement of eating, in the same time, it can also stimulate the gastrointestinal function and regulate growth of rat.

  8. Energy expenditure, energy intake, and weight loss in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Poehlman, E T; Dvorak, R V

    2000-02-01

    Alzheimer disease is one of the leading causes of death among older individuals. Unexplained weight loss and cachexia are frequent clinical findings in patients with Alzheimer disease. Thus, it has been postulated that Alzheimer disease may be associated with dysfunction in body weight regulation. This brief review examines the interrelations among energy intake, energy expenditure, and body composition in Alzheimer disease. We explored whether abnormally high daily energy expenditures, low energy intakes, or both contribute to unexplained weight loss and a decline in nutritional status. Specifically, we considered studies that examined energy intake, body composition, and daily energy expenditure and its components. The application of doubly labeled water and indirect calorimetry to understand the etiology of wasting has increased our knowledge regarding the relation among energy expenditure, physical activity levels, and body composition in Alzheimer disease patients. Although the number of studies are limited, results do not support the notion that a hypermetabolic state contributes to unexplained weight loss in Alzheimer disease, even in cachectic patients. Recent findings are presented suggesting an association between abnormally elevated levels of physical activity energy expenditure and elevated appendicular skeletal muscle mass and energy intake in Alzheimer disease patients. Clinical strategies aimed at developing lifestyle and dietary interventions to maintain adequate energy intake, restore energy balance, and maintain skeletal muscle mass should be a future area of investigation in Alzheimer disease research.

  9. High-fructose corn syrup, energy intake, and appetite regulation.

    PubMed

    Melanson, Kathleen J; Angelopoulos, Theodore J; Nguyen, Von; Zukley, Linda; Lowndes, Joshua; Rippe, James M

    2008-12-01

    High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has been implicated in excess weight gain through mechanisms seen in some acute feeding studies and by virtue of its abundance in the food supply during years of increasing obesity. Compared with pure glucose, fructose is thought to be associated with insufficient secretion of insulin and leptin and suppression of ghrelin. However, when HFCS is compared with sucrose, the more commonly consumed sweetener, such differences are not apparent, and appetite and energy intake do not differ in the short-term. Longer-term studies on connections between HFCS, potential mechanisms, and body weight have not been conducted. The main objective of this review was to examine collective data on associations between consumption of HFCS and energy balance, with particular focus on energy intake and its regulation.

  10. Container size influences snack food intake independently of portion size.

    PubMed

    Marchiori, David; Corneille, Olivier; Klein, Olivier

    2012-06-01

    While larger containers have been found to increase food intake, it is unclear whether this effect is driven by container size, portion size, or their combination, as these variables are usually confounded. The study was advertised as examining the effects of snack food consumption on information processing and participants were served M&M's for free consumption in individual cubicles while watching a TV show. Participants were served (1) a medium portion of M&M's in a small (n=30) or (2) in a large container (n=29), or (3) a large portion in a large container (n=29). The larger container increased intake by 129% (199 kcal) despite holding portion size constant, while controlling for different confounding variables. This research suggests that larger containers stimulate food intake over and above their impact on portion size.

  11. Wheel running, food intake, and body weight in male rats.

    PubMed

    Looy, H; Eikelboom, R

    1989-02-01

    The acquisition of wheel running, its effects on food intake and body weight, and the effects of wheel deprivation, were examined in male rats. Running increased during the first 15 days of access, then plateaued. When wheels were unlocked after 10 days of deprivation, running was reduced, but quickly recovered to original levels. Animals first given wheel access 49 days into the study ran little, with no increase over days. Food intake dropped each time with wheel access, but recovered to control levels over 10-14 days. Wheel deprivation resulted in a temporary hyperphagia. With wheel access, weight initially dropped and was then maintained at a reduced percentage of homecage-housed animals. In male rats wheel access appears to have temporary effects on food intake, and long term effects on weight. Marked differences in the activity of same-age rats suggest that wheel running is in part a function of housing history.

  12. Antisense reduction of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 enhances energy expenditure and insulin sensitivity independent of food intake in C57BL/6J mice on a Western-type diet.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoping; Hernandez-Ono, Antonio; Crooke, Rosanne M; Graham, Mark J; Ginsberg, Henry N

    2012-06-01

    We recently reported that inhibition of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) by antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) improved hepatic lipid metabolism independent of food intake. In that study, 11β-HSD1 ASO-treated mice lost weight compared with food-matched control ASO-treated mice, suggesting treatment-mediated increased energy expenditure. We have now examined the effects of 11β-HSD1 ASO treatment on adipose tissue metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and whole-body energy expenditure. We used an ASO to knock down 11β-HSD1 in C57BL/6J mice consuming a Western-type diet (WTD). The 11β-HSD1 ASO-treated mice consumed less food, so food-matched control ASO-treated mice were also evaluated. We characterized body composition, gene expression of individual adipose depots, and measures of energy metabolism. We also investigated glucose/insulin tolerance as well as acute insulin signaling in several tissues. Knockdown of 11β-HSD1 protected against WTD-induced obesity by reducing epididymal, mesenteric, and subcutaneous white adipose tissue while activating thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue. The latter was confirmed by demonstrating increased energy expenditure in 11β-HSD1 ASO-treated mice. The 11β-HSD1 ASO treatment also protected against WTD-induced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance; this protection was associated with smaller cells and fewer macrophages in epididymal white adipose tissue as well as enhanced in vivo insulin signaling. Our results indicate that ASO-mediated inhibition of 11β-HSD1 can protect against several WTD-induced metabolic abnormalities. These effects are, at least in part, mediated by increases in the oxidative capacity of brown adipose tissue.

  13. Effects of caffeine and Bombesin on ethanol and food intake

    SciTech Connect

    Dietze, M.A.; Kulkosky, P.J. )

    1991-01-01

    The methylxanthine caffeine and ethyl alcohol are widely used and powerful psychotropic drugs, but their interactions are not well understood. Bombesin is a brain-gut neuropeptide which is thought to function as a neurochemical factor in the inhibitory control of voluntary alcohol ingestion. We assessed the effects of combinations of intraperitoneal doses of caffeine and bombesin on 5% w/v ethanol solution and food intake in deprived rats. Deprived male and female Wistar rats received access to 5% ethanol or Purina chow for 30 minutes after i.p. injections. In single doses, CAF and BBS significantly decreased both ethanol and food consumption, at 50 mg/kg and 10 {mu}g/kg, respectively. CAF and BBS combinations produced infra-additive, or less-than-expected inhibitory effects on ethanol intake, but simple additive inhibitory effects on food intake. This experimental evidence suggests a reciprocal blocking of effects of CAF and BBS on ethanol intake but not food intake. Caffeine, when interacting and bombesin, increases alcohol consumption beyond expected values. Caffeine could affect the operation of endogenous satisfy signals for alcohol consumption.

  14. Postprandial appetite ratings are reproducible and moderately related to total day energy intakes, but not ad libitum lunch energy intakes, in healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Amy J; Heap, Sarah; Ingram, Jessica; Law, Marron; Wright, Amanda J

    2016-04-01

    Reproducibility and validity testing of appetite ratings and energy intakes are needed in experimental and natural settings. Eighteen healthy young women ate a standardized breakfast for 8 days. Days 1 and 8, they rated their appetite (Hunger, Fullness, Desire to Eat, Prospective Food Consumption (PFC)) over a 3.5 h period using visual analogue scales, consumed an ad libitum lunch, left the research center and recorded food intake for the remainder of the day. Days 2-7, participants rated their at-home Hunger at 0 and 30 min post-breakfast and recorded food intake for the day. Total area under the curve (AUC) over the 180 min period before lunch, and energy intakes were calculated. Reproducibility of satiety measures between days was evaluated using coefficients of repeatability (CR), coefficients of variation (CV) and intra-class coefficients (ri). Correlation analysis was used to examine validity between satiety measures. AUCs for Hunger, Desire to Eat and PFC (ri = 0.73-0.78), ad libitum energy intakes (ri = 0.81) and total day energy intakes (ri​ = 0.48) were reproducible; fasted ratings were not. Average AUCs for Hunger, Desire to Eat and PFC, Desire to Eat at nadir and PFC at fasting, nadir and 180 min were correlated to total day energy intakes (r = 0.50-0.77, P < 0.05), but no ratings were correlated to lunch consumption. At-home Hunger ratings were weakly reproducible but not correlated to reported total energy intakes. Satiety ratings did not concur with next meal intake but PFC ratings may be useful predictors of intake. Overall, this study adds to the limited satiety research on women and challenges the accepted measures of satiety in an experimental setting.

  15. Limits to sustained energy intake. XVI. Body temperature and physical activity of female mice during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gamo, Yuko; Bernard, Amelie; Mitchell, Sharon E; Hambly, Catherine; Al Jothery, Aqeel; Vaanholt, Lobke M; Król, Elzbieta; Speakman, John R

    2013-06-15

    Lactation is the most energy-demanding phase of mammalian reproduction, and lactation performance may be affected by events during pregnancy. For example, food intake may be limited in late pregnancy by competition for space in the abdomen between the alimentary tract and fetuses. Hence, females may need to compensate their energy budgets during pregnancy by reducing activity and lowering body temperature. We explored the relationships between energy intake, body mass, body temperature and physical activity throughout pregnancy in the MF1 mouse. Food intake and body mass of 26 females were recorded daily throughout pregnancy. Body temperature and physical activity were monitored every minute for 23 h a day by implanted transmitters. Body temperature and physical activity declined as pregnancy advanced, while energy intake and body mass increased. Compared with a pre-mating baseline period, mice increased energy intake by 56% in late pregnancy. Although body temperature declined as pregnancy progressed, this served mostly to reverse an increase between baseline and early pregnancy. Reduced physical activity may compensate the energy budget of pregnant mice but body temperature changes do not. Over the last 3 days of pregnancy, food intake declined. Individual variation in energy intake in the last phase of pregnancy was positively related to litter size at birth. As there was no association between the increase in body mass and the decline in intake, we suggest the decline was not caused by competition for abdominal space. These data suggest overall reproductive performance is probably not constrained by events during pregnancy.

  16. Beverages contribute extra calories to meals and daily energy intake in overweight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Bleil, Maria E; Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Nackers, Lisa M; Busch, Andrew M; Whited, Matthew C; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2013-10-02

    Caloric beverages may promote obesity by yielding energy without producing satiety, but prior laboratory and intervention studies are inconclusive. This study examined whether the diets of free-living overweight and obese women show evidence that calories from beverages are offset by reductions in solid food within individual eating occasions and across entire days. Eighty-two women weighed and recorded all consumed foods and beverages for seven days. Beverages were coded as high-calorie (≥ 0.165 kcal/g) or low-calorie (<0.165 kcal/g), and total energy intake and energy intake from solid food were calculated for each eating occasion and day. In covariate-adjusted models, energy intake from solid food did not differ between eating occasions that included high-calorie or low-calorie beverages and those with no reported beverage. Energy intake from solid food was also unrelated to the number of high-calorie or low-calorie beverages consumed per day. On average, eating occasions that included a high-calorie beverage were 169 kcal higher in total energy than those with no reported beverage, and 195 kcal higher in total energy than those that included a low-calorie beverage. Each high-calorie beverage consumed per day contributed an additional 147 kcal to women's daily energy intake, whereas low-calorie beverage intake was unrelated to daily energy intake. Beverages contributed to total energy intake in a near-additive fashion among free-living overweight and obese women, suggesting a need to develop more effective interventions to reduce caloric beverage intake in the context of weight management, and to potentially reexamine dietary guidelines.

  17. Energy intake from beverages is increasing among Mexican adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Barquera, Simon; Hernandez-Barrera, Lucia; Tolentino, Maria Lizbeth; Espinosa, Juan; Ng, Shu Wen; Rivera, Juan A; Popkin, Barry M

    2008-12-01

    Little is understood about the patterns and trends in adolescent and adult beverage intake in Mexico or most other countries. Here, we used nationally representative dietary intake, income, and food expenditure surveys, which included 416 adolescents (aged 12-18 y) and 2180 adults (aged >or=19 y) from the 1999 Mexican Nutrition Survey and 7464 adolescents and 21,113 adults from the 2006 Mexican Health and Nutrition Survey. We measured the volume and energy per day contributed by all beverages consumed by the sample subjects. In 2006, Mexican adolescents and adults obtained 20.1 and 22.3%, respectively, of their energy intake from energy-containing beverages. Whole milk, carbonated and noncarbonated sugar-sweetened beverages, fruit juice with various sugar and water combinations added, and alcohol represented the 4 major categories of beverage intake. The trends from the dietary intake surveys showed very large increases in the intake of energy-containing beverages among adolescents and adults between 1999 and 2006. Income elasticities showed a high likelihood that intakes will increase as Mexican incomes continue to rise. Whereas the own-price elasticities for whole milk and sodas were both modest, intakes of these were increasing and higher than those for all other food groups. Energy intake trends and current levels of beverage intakes in Mexico are the highest recorded in a nationally representative survey and present major challenges for public health authorities.

  18. Inhibitory effects of xylitol on gastric emptying and food intake

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1985-05-01

    The authors have previously shown, using a 99m-Tc scrambled egg meal, that pentose sugars (i.e. xylose and arabinose) markedly prolong gastric emptying. Others have reported that slowing of gastric emptying may decrease appetite and thus decrease food intake. In the present study, the authors utilized the effects of xylitol (an FDA-approved pentose sugar) on gastric emptying to study the correlation between gastric emptying and food intake. Initially, gastric emptying was measured in human volunteers utilizing a standardized 99m-Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water. Results demonstrated a significant reduction in food intake (892 +- 65 kcal with water vs 654 +- 26 kcal following the ingestion of 25 gm xylitol (p<0.05). We conclude that the effect of pentose sugars in prolonging gastric emptying directly influences food intake and contributes to early satiety. The data suggest a role of xylitol as an essentially non-caloric food additive potentially important in diet control.

  19. Daily intakes of naturally occurring radioisotopes in typical Korean foods.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min-Seok; Lin, Xiu-Jing; Lee, Sun Ah; Kim, Wan; Kang, Hee-Dong; Doh, Sih-Hong; Kim, Do-Sung; Lee, Dong-Myung

    2008-08-01

    The concentrations of naturally occurring radioisotopes ((232)Th, (228)Th, (230)Th, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, and (40)K) in typical Korean foods were evaluated. The daily intakes of these radioisotopes were calculated by comparing concentrations in typical Korean foods and the daily consumption rates of these foods. Daily intakes were as follows: (232)Th, 0.00-0.23; (228)Th, 0.00-2.04; (230)Th, 0.00-0.26; (228)Ra, 0.02-2.73; (226)Ra, 0.01-4.37 mBq/day; and (40)K, 0.01-5.71 Bq/day. The total daily intake of the naturally occurring radioisotopes measured in this study from food was 39.46 Bq/day. The total annual internal dose resulting from ingestion of radioisotopes in food was 109.83 muSv/y, and the radioisotope with the highest daily intake was (40)K. These values were same level compiled in other countries.

  20. [Relationship among prop phenotype, body mass index, waist circumference, total body fat and food intake].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ruiz, Nina Del Rocío; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Jiménez-Castro, Jorge Alfonso; López-Díaz, José Alberto; Angulo-Guerrero, Ofelia

    2014-01-01

    The PROP phenotype (6-n-propylthiouracil) has been proposed as indicator of body mass index, adiposity and food intake. This relationship among variables is contradictory. No correlation has been found among the PROP phenotype, body indicators and energy consumption in some studies. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship among PROP taster status, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), total body fat (TBF) and food intake. The PROP taster status was established using two scales: the nine-point scale and the general labeled magnitude scale. Dietary habits of participants were recorded online during 35 days. The classification by PROP phenotype varied according to the scale. No significant differences were observed between PROP tasters and PROP non-tasters, with both scales, in body mass index, waist circumference, total body fat and energy and macronutrient intake. The PROP phenotype was not an indicator factor of body weight, adiposity and energy and macronutrients consumption in young adults.

  1. Impact of ambient odors on food intake, saliva production and appetite ratings.

    PubMed

    Proserpio, Cristina; de Graaf, Cees; Laureati, Monica; Pagliarini, Ella; Boesveldt, Sanne

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ambient odor exposure on appetite, salivation and food intake. 32 normal-weight young women (age: 21.4±5.3year; BMI: 21.7±1.9kg/m(2)) attended five test sessions in a non-satiated state. Each participant was exposed to ambient odors (chocolate, beef, melon and cucumber), in a detectable but mild concentration, and to a control condition (no-odor exposure). During each condition, at different time points, participants rated appetite for 15 food products, and saliva was collected. After approximately 30min, ad libitum intake was measured providing a food (chocolate rice, high-energy dense product) that was congruent with one of the odors they were exposed to. A significant odor effect on food intake (p=0.034) and salivation (p=0.017) was found. Exposure to odors signaling high-energy dense products increased food intake (243.97±22.84g) compared to control condition (206.94±24.93g; p=0.03). Consistently, salivation was increased significantly during chocolate and beef exposure (mean: 0.494±0.050g) compared to control condition (0.417±0.05g; p=0.006). Even though odor exposure did not induce specific appetite for congruent products (p=0.634), appetite scores were significantly higher during odor exposure (p<0.0001) compared to the no-odor control condition and increased significantly over time (p=0.010). Exposure to food odors seems to drive behavioral and physiological responses involved in eating behavior, specifically for odors and foods that are high in energy density. This could have implications for steering food intake and ultimately influencing the nutritional status of people.

  2. The role of attentional bias in the effect of food advertising on actual food intake among children.

    PubMed

    Folkvord, Frans; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Wiers, Reinout W; Buijzen, Moniek

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the potential moderating role of attentional bias (i.e., gaze duration, number of fixations, latency of initial fixation) in the effect of advergames promoting energy-dense snacks on children's snack intake. A randomized between-subject design was conducted with 92 children who played an advergame that promoted either energy-dense snacks or nonfood products. Eye movements and reaction times to food and nonfood cues were recorded to assess attentional bias during playtime using eye-tracking methods. Children could eat freely after playing the game. The results showed that playing an advergame containing food cues increased total intake. Furthermore, children with a higher gaze duration for the food cues ate more of the advertised snacks. In addition, children with a faster latency of initial fixation to the food cues ate more in total and ate more of the advertised snacks. The number of fixations on the food cues did not increase actual snack intake. Food advertisements are designed to grab attention, and this study shows that the extent to which a child's attention is directed to a food cue increases the effect of the advertisement.

  3. Food cravings, food intake, and weight status in a community-based sample.

    PubMed

    Chao, Ariana; Grilo, Carlos M; White, Marney A; Sinha, Rajita

    2014-08-01

    The aims of this study were to 1) determine the relationships between BMI and the frequency of food cravings for different categories of foods, 2) examine the associations between cravings for different types of foods and self-reported, habitual intake of these foods, and 3) assess how these relationships differ by BMI. Six hundred and forty-six participants (55.7% female; 66.4% White; mean age 29.5±9.1 years; mean BMI 27.3±5.5 kg/m(2)) completed a comprehensive assessment battery including the Food Craving Inventory (FCI) and a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). There was a significant positive relationship between BMI and food cravings. There were significant positive associations of cravings for sweets, high fats, carbohydrates/starches, and fast-food fats on respective intake of these types of foods; however, there were no significant interactions between food cravings and BMI on the respective type of food intake. This study indicates significant positive relationships between specific categories of food cravings and habitual intake of those foods.

  4. Insoluble fibres, satiety and food intake in cats fed kibble diets.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, B A; Sakomura, N K; Vasconcellos, R S; Sembenelli, G; Gomes, M O S; Monti, M; Malheiros, E B; Kawauchi, I M; Carciofi, A C

    2016-04-14

    Fibre is generally considered to dilute food energy, alter intestinal transit time and promote satiety; however, in cats, conflicting results have been found. In this study, two insoluble fibres were evaluated in four feline diets: control (no added fibre); diet with 10% sugar cane fibre; diet with 20% sugar cane fibre; and diet with 10% cellulose. The experiment was conducted with 32 cats, eight animals per diet, over 42 days: 1-7 for diet adaptation; 8-14 for total collection of faeces for digestibility; 15-17 for fresh faeces collection for fermentation products measurements; 18-20 for gastrointestinal transit time determination; 21 and 37 to evaluate the pattern of food intake; and 22 and 42 to assess satiety. Means were compared by analysis of variance and orthogonal contrasts, and the pattern of food intake was compared by repeated-measures analysis of variance (p < 0.05). The cats exhibited increased food intake after fibre addition to the diets (p < 0.05), achieving similar energy consumption. Cellulose and the two levels of sugar cane fibre reduced nutrient availability and energy digestibility, but only sugar cane fibre reduced fat digestibility (p < 0.05). Faecal output and the number of defecations per day increased with fibre inclusion (p < 0.05). Gastrointestinal transit time did not change with sugar cane fibre inclusion, but it was reduced with cellulose addition (p = 0.032). The pattern of food intake did not change, but cats fed fibre-supplemented diets exhibited greater consumption of a challenge meal, increasing energy intake (p < 0.01) when exposed to a palatable, energy-dense food.

  5. The impact of salt, fat and sugar levels on toddler food intake.

    PubMed

    Bouhlal, Sofia; Issanchou, Sylvie; Nicklaus, Sophie

    2011-02-01

    Understanding the early determinants of food intake, in particular the role of food sensory quality, is a necessary step to improve the prevention of unhealthy food habits. However, the extent to which food intake varies according to salt, fat and sugar content is imperfectly known. The present study aimed at evaluating whether toddler food intake varied during lunches or snacks in which salt, fat or sugar contents had been modified in common foods. Seventy-four children (30 (se 0·5) months old) participated in the study in their usual day-care centres. Every other week, they were served lunches composed, among other items, of green beans and pasta with varying salt (0, 0·6 and 1·2 % added salt) or fat (0, 2·5 and 5 % added butter) levels and afternoon snacks composed of fruit purée varying in sugar level (0, 5 and 10 % added sugar). During each meal, children could eat as much as they wanted from the target foods. Each food was weighed before and after the meal. Salt level had a positive impact on the intake of the target foods. On the contrary, no impact of added fat or added sugar levels was observed. This implies that fat and sugar addition could be avoided in foods for children without having an impact on palatability, allowing the energy density of children's diet to be limited. Salt addition should be limited, but its suppression in vegetables, whose intake is to be promoted, should be considered cautiously.

  6. A Novel Wearable Device for Food Intake and Physical Activity Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Farooq, Muhammad; Sazonov, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Presence of speech and motion artifacts has been shown to impact the performance of wearable sensor systems used for automatic detection of food intake. This work presents a novel wearable device which can detect food intake even when the user is physically active and/or talking. The device consists of a piezoelectric strain sensor placed on the temporalis muscle, an accelerometer, and a data acquisition module connected to the temple of eyeglasses. Data from 10 participants was collected while they performed activities including quiet sitting, talking, eating while sitting, eating while walking, and walking. Piezoelectric strain sensor and accelerometer signals were divided into non-overlapping epochs of 3 s; four features were computed for each signal. To differentiate between eating and not eating, as well as between sedentary postures and physical activity, two multiclass classification approaches are presented. The first approach used a single classifier with sensor fusion and the second approach used two-stage classification. The best results were achieved when two separate linear support vector machine (SVM) classifiers were trained for food intake and activity detection, and their results were combined using a decision tree (two-stage classification) to determine the final class. This approach resulted in an average F1-score of 99.85% and area under the curve (AUC) of 0.99 for multiclass classification. With its ability to differentiate between food intake and activity level, this device may potentially be used for tracking both energy intake and energy expenditure. PMID:27409622

  7. Oxytocin's inhibitory effect on food intake is stronger in obese than normal-weight men

    PubMed Central

    Thienel, M; Fritsche, A; Heinrichs, M; Peter, A; Ewers, M; Lehnert, H; Born, J; Hallschmid, M

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Animal studies and pilot experiments in men indicate that the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin limits food intake, and raise the question of its potential to improve metabolic control in obesity. Subjects/Methods: We compared the effect of central nervous oxytocin administration (24 IU) via the intranasal route on ingestive behaviour and metabolic function in 18 young obese men with the results in a group of 20 normal-weight men. In double-blind, placebo-controlled experiments, ad libitum food intake from a test buffet was examined in fasted subjects 45 min after oxytocin administration, followed by the assessment of postprandial, reward-driven snack intake. Energy expenditure was repeatedly assessed by indirect calorimetry and blood was sampled to determine concentrations of blood glucose and hormones. Results: Oxytocin markedly reduced hunger-driven food intake in the fasted state in obese but not in normal-weight men, and led to a reduction in snack consumption in both groups, whereas energy expenditure remained generally unaffected. Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis secretion and the postprandial rise in plasma glucose were blunted by oxytocin in both groups. Conclusions: Oxytocin exerts an acutely inhibitory impact on food intake that is enhanced rather than decreased in obese compared with normal-weight men. This pattern puts it in contrast to other metabolically active neuropeptides and bodes well for clinical applications of oxytocin in the treatment of metabolic disorders. PMID:27553712

  8. Radioactive contamination of food and the intake by man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frissel, M. J.; Blaauboer, R. O.; Köster, H. W.; Leenhouts, H. P.; Stoutjesdijk, J. F.; Vaas, L. H.

    This paper describes the different pathways by which food is contaminated after a release of radionuclides into the environment. Equations to calculate the contamination level, as well as the most important parameters used in these equations, are included. Thereupon is explained how the radiation dose can be calculated from the intake of radioactivity. The principles which are used to derive criteria for the amounts of radioactivity which are allowed in food are described.

  9. Nesfatin-1 - More than a food intake regulatory peptide.

    PubMed

    Stengel, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Nesfatin-1 was discovered a decade ago and despite the fact that it represents just one of a multitude of food intake-inhibiting factors it received increasing attention. This led to a detailed characterization of NUCB2/nesfatin-1's physiological property to reduce food intake and also gave rise to an involvement in the long term regulation of body weight, especially under conditions of obesity. In addition, studies indicated the involvement of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in other homeostatic functions as well: glucose homeostasis, water intake, gastrointestinal functions, temperature regulation, cardiovascular functions, puberty onset and sleep. These pleiotropic actions underline the physiological relevance of this peptide. Recently, the involvement of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in psychiatric disorders such as anxiety has been investigated giving rise to the speculation that NUCB2/nesfatin-1 represents a peptidergic link between eating and anxiety/depression disorders.

  10. Epidemiological study on food intake and Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Toyonaga, A; Okamatsu, H; Sasaki, K; Kimura, H; Saito, T; Shimizu, S; Fukuizumi, K; Tsuruta, O; Tanikawa, K; Sata, M

    2000-01-01

    We conducted an epidemiological study to investigate the relation of food intake to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in an area endemic for H. pylori. In this study, 365 subjects, 104 men and 261 women, were randomly selected from 7,389 adult (over age 20) inhabitants of town A, Japan. The prevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) class antibody to H. pylori (anti-H. pylori) was 83.7% and the prevalence of anti-H. pylori increased with age significantly (P < 0.05). Subjects with anamnesis of gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcer and gastric cancer tended to have a higher anti-H. pylori positive ratio (93.5%) than those without (81.0%). But there was no relationship between anti-H. pylori prevalence and sex, blood type, smoking or drinking habits. Daily intake of foods by food groups, nutrients and the concentrations of serum ingredients were compared between 37 anti-H. pylori-positive and 40 negative subjects selected from 365 inhabitants by matching up according to sex and age. The daily intake of cereals, potatoes and starches, and milks tended to be higher in positive than negative subjects, while the daily intake of algae and tea appeared to be a little higher in negative than in positive subjects. The daily zinc intake of antibody-positive subjects was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in antibody negative subjects. On the other hand, the daily iron intake in negative subjects was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in positive subjects. The serum concentrations of copper, zinc, and vitamin E tended to be higher in positive than negative subjects. But there were no significant differences in serum ingredients concentrations between antibody negative and positive subjects. Our findings suggest that iron and zinc intakes may effect on H. pylori infection.

  11. Energy intake and energy expenditure of pre-professional female contemporary dancers

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Meghan A.; Howatson, Glyn; Quin, Edel; Redding, Emma; Stevenson, Emma J.

    2017-01-01

    Many athletes in aesthetic and weight dependent sports are at risk of energy imbalance. However little is known about the exercise and eating behaviours of highly trained dance populations. This investigation sought to determine the energy intake and energy expenditure of pre-professional female contemporary dancers. Twenty-five female contemporary dance students completed the study. Over a 7-day period, including five week days (with scheduled dance training at a conservatoire) and two weekend days (with no scheduled dance training at the conservatoire), energy intake (self-reported weighed food diary and 24 h dietary recall) and expenditure (tri-axial accelerometry) were recorded. Mean daily energy intake and expenditure were different over the 7-day period (P = 0.014) equating to an energy deficit of -356 ± 668 kcal·day-1 (or -1.5 ± 2.8 MJ·day-1). Energy expenditure was not different when comparing week and weekend days (P = 0.297). However daily energy intake (P = 0.002), energy availability (P = 0.003), and energy balance (P = 0.004) were lower during the week compared to the weekend, where energy balance became positive. The percentage contribution of macronutrients to total energy intake also differed; with higher fat (P = 0.022) and alcohol (P = 0.020), and lower carbohydrate (P = 0.001) and a trend for lower protein (P = 0.051) at the weekend. Energy balance and appropriate macronutrient intake are essential for maintaining the demands of training, performance and recovery. Whilst aesthetics are important, female contemporary dancers may be at risk of the numerous health and performance impairments associated with negative energy balance, particularly during periods of scheduled training. PMID:28212449

  12. Energy intake and energy expenditure of pre-professional female contemporary dancers.

    PubMed

    Brown, Meghan A; Howatson, Glyn; Quin, Edel; Redding, Emma; Stevenson, Emma J

    2017-01-01

    Many athletes in aesthetic and weight dependent sports are at risk of energy imbalance. However little is known about the exercise and eating behaviours of highly trained dance populations. This investigation sought to determine the energy intake and energy expenditure of pre-professional female contemporary dancers. Twenty-five female contemporary dance students completed the study. Over a 7-day period, including five week days (with scheduled dance training at a conservatoire) and two weekend days (with no scheduled dance training at the conservatoire), energy intake (self-reported weighed food diary and 24 h dietary recall) and expenditure (tri-axial accelerometry) were recorded. Mean daily energy intake and expenditure were different over the 7-day period (P = 0.014) equating to an energy deficit of -356 ± 668 kcal·day-1 (or -1.5 ± 2.8 MJ·day-1). Energy expenditure was not different when comparing week and weekend days (P = 0.297). However daily energy intake (P = 0.002), energy availability (P = 0.003), and energy balance (P = 0.004) were lower during the week compared to the weekend, where energy balance became positive. The percentage contribution of macronutrients to total energy intake also differed; with higher fat (P = 0.022) and alcohol (P = 0.020), and lower carbohydrate (P = 0.001) and a trend for lower protein (P = 0.051) at the weekend. Energy balance and appropriate macronutrient intake are essential for maintaining the demands of training, performance and recovery. Whilst aesthetics are important, female contemporary dancers may be at risk of the numerous health and performance impairments associated with negative energy balance, particularly during periods of scheduled training.

  13. 2-deoxy-D-glucose suppresses food intake through activation of hypothalamic histamine in rats.

    PubMed

    Sakata, T; Tamari, Y; Kang, M; Yoshimatsu, H

    1994-08-01

    The aim of this experiment was to demonstrate whether brain histamine contributes to delayed suppression of food intake after administration of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG). Food intake decreased significantly for 48 h after infusion of 2-DG into the rat third cerebroventricle. This delayed decrease in food intake was abolished by depletion of neuronal histamine by intraperitoneal pretreatment with alpha-fluoromethylhistidine (160 mumol/rat), a suicide inhibitor of a histamine-synthesizing enzyme. Intracerebroventricular infusion of 24 mumol 2-DG accelerated turnover rate of hypothalamic histamine. These results indicate that the delayed feeding suppression by 2-DG is modulated through histaminergic neurons in the hypothalamus. This histaminergic response may be related, at least in part, to homeostatic control of energy metabolism in the brain.

  14. Community Food Environment, Home Food Environment, and Fruit and Vegetable Intake of Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Ding; Sallis, James F.; Norman, Gregory J.; Saelens, Brian E.; Harris, Sion Kim; Kerr, Jacqueline; Rosenberg, Dori; Durant, Nefertiti; Glanz, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine (1) reliability of new food environment measures; (2) association between home food environment and fruit and vegetable (FV) intake; and (3) association between community and home food environment. Methods: In 2005, a cross-sectional survey was conducted with readministration to assess test-retest reliability. Adolescents,…

  15. Executive Cognitive Function and Food Intake in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Nathaniel R.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Chou, Chih-Ping; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The current study investigated relations among neurocognitive skills important for behavioral regulation, and the intake of fruit, vegetables, and snack food in children. Design: Participants completed surveys at a single time point. Setting: Assessments took place during school. Participants: Participants were 107 fourth-grade children…

  16. Caffeine increases food intake while reducing anxiety-related behaviors.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Patrick; Levack, Russell; Watters, Jared; Xu, Zhenping; Yang, Yunlei

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different doses of caffeine on appetite and anxiety-related behavior. Additionally, we sought to determine if withdrawal from chronic caffeine administration promotes anxiety. In this study, we utilized rodent open field testing and feeding behavior assays to determine the effects of caffeine on feeding and anxiety-related behavior (n = 8 mice; 4-8 weeks old). We also measured 2 h and 24 h food intake and body-weight during daily administration of caffeine (n = 12 mice; 4-8 weeks old). To test for caffeine withdrawal induced anxiety, anxiety-related behavior in rodents was quantified following withdrawal from four consecutive days of caffeine administration (n = 12 mice; 4-8 weeks old). We find that acute caffeine administration increases food intake in a dose-dependent manner with lower doses of caffeine more significantly increasing food intake than higher doses. Acute caffeine administration also reduced anxiety-related behaviors in mice without significantly altering locomotor activity. However, we did not observe any differences in 24 h food intake or body weight following chronic caffeine administration and there were no observable differences in anxiety-related behaviors during caffeine withdrawal. In conclusion, we find that caffeine can both increase appetite and decrease anxiety-related behaviors in a dose dependent fashion. Given the complex relationship between appetite and anxiety, the present study provides additional insights into potential caffeine-based pharmacological mechanisms governing appetite and anxiety disorders, such as bulimia nervosa.

  17. Increased energy and nutrient intake during training and competition improves elite triathletes' endurance performance.

    PubMed

    Frentsos, J A; Baer, J T

    1997-03-01

    Dietary habits were evaluated in 6 elite triathletes (4 male, 2 female). Analysis of 7-day diet records showed mean daily energy and carbohydrate intake to be insufficient to support estimated requirements. Mean intakes of vitamins and most minerals exceeded the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) except zinc chromium, which did not meet 66% of recommended amounts. Individualized nutrition intervention using the Diabetic Food Exchange System to support performance during training and competition was provided. To improve dietary intake, subjects consumed fortified nutrition supplements (Reliv, Inc.) before and after daily training. Follow-up 7-day diet records showed that average energy intake and percentage of energy from carbohydrate increased, as did intakes of zinc and chromium. Triathletes' performance in a short course triathlon was improved compared to a similar competition completed prior to the nutrition intervention. Following the intervention, triathletes were able to meet recommended daily energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intakes and improve endurance performance.

  18. Usual Dietary Intakes: Food Intakes, U.S. Population, 2001-04

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Method provides the capability to estimate the distribution of usual food intakes in the U.S. population to greatly enhance the ability to monitor diets relative to recommendations and to assess the scope of dietary deficiencies and excesses.

  19. Ghrelin, food intake, and botanical extracts: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Rezaie, Peyman; Mazidi, Mohsen; Nematy, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    A kind of growth hormone secretagogue (GHS), ghrelin, was first isolated from the rat stomach and plays a major role in the activation of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a) resulting the release of growth hormone (GH). The preproghrelin gene is placed on chromosome 3, at locus 3p25 –2 in humans and constitutes five exons and three introns. Ghrelin is most plentifully expressed in particular cells in the oxyntic glands of the gastric epithelium, initially named X/A-like cells. Almost 60-70% of circulating ghrelin is secreted by the stomach. Plasma ghrelin concentration alters throughout the day. Ghrelin has been suggested to act as a meal initiator because of its appetite-stimulating influences in free feeding rats in short period. In addition to ghrelin’s function as a meal motivator, it seems to contribute in long-term energy balance and nutritional status. In addition, many studies have been carried out in order to investigate the effects of natural and medicinal plants and botanical extracts on appetite, food intake, energy hemostasis, and the level of related hormones including ghrelin. Due to the importance of ghrelin in nutritional and medical sciences, this review was performed to understand new aspects of this hormone’s function. PMID:26445708

  20. The effect of rises in food costs on food intake of three year olds in Jerusalem.

    PubMed

    Palti, H; Taveedej, C H; Pevsner, B

    1983-12-01

    The food intake of two samples of children born five years apart were determined in 1975 and 1980 at three years of age in a low and middle class neighbourhood of Jerusalem. The 24-hour recall method was used. No deficiency in caloric intake was noted. The protein intake was twice the recommended dietary allowance (RDA), 3.7 gr/kg in the study group interviewed in 1975 and 3.3 gr/kg in those interviewed in 1980. The mean daily iron intake was only 40% of the RDA. The main sources for protein were milk and milk products, poultry and eggs. Significantly higher mean caloric and protein intakes were noted for the upper as compared to middle and low social class in 1980. Children from Asian origin had the lowest caloric and protein intake in 1975 and 1980 whereas those of European-American origin had the highest. Severe inflation and the resulting tenfold increase in food prices in Israel were not reflected in marked changes in dietary intake. The percentage expenditure on food was 25% of total income during both periods. The possible factors influencing the stability in dietary intake are governmental subsidy for the essential foods, correction of wages and increase in social security payments thus maintaining the buying power, as well as the educational effect of the preventive services--the Mother and Child Health Stations on feeding practices.

  1. Food intake regulation of circulating thyroid hormones in domestic fowl.

    PubMed

    Klandorf, H; Harvey, S

    1985-11-01

    The relationship between food intake and thyroid function has been investigated in immature domestic fowl. Starvation delayed, but did not suppress, the triiodothyronine (T3) response to intravenously administered thyrotropin-releasing hormone (10 micrograms/kg). This probably resulted from a suppression of monodeiodinase activity, since the conversion of thyroxine (T4) to T3 in thyroidectomised birds following an intramuscular injection of T4 (10 micrograms/kg) was markedly reduced by starvation. Starvation, for 24 or 48 hr, lowered the circulating T3 level but increased the T4 concentration. When fasted birds were refed the T4 concentration was initially enhanced but subsequently declined as the T3 concentration progressively increased. The accompanying decline in the T4:T3 ratio in fasted-refed birds indicated that the rise in the T3 level resulted from the peripheral monodeiodination of T4. The increase in T3 concentration could be induced solely by carbohydrate; the intraperitoneal administration of glucose (2.0 g/kg) to fasted birds resulting in a slight, transient rise in the T3 concentration and a fall in the T4:T3 ratio. The generation of T3 was also energy dependent, in that the magnitude of the T3 response of fasted birds to refeeding was proportional to the amount of food consumed and to the metabolisable energy (ME) content of the diet. Moreover, when exogenous T4 (100 micrograms/kg) was intramuscularly administered to thyroidectomised birds fed a diet with a high ME content, the conversion of T4 to T4 was greater than that in birds fed a diet of lower ME content. These results demonstrate that nutritional stimuli are involved in the regulation of thyroid function in birds, particularly in the peripheral generation of T3.

  2. Food items contributing most to variation in antioxidant intake; a cross-sectional study among Norwegian women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fruit and vegetable intake has been found to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, certain types of cancer and diabetes mellitus. It is possible that antioxidants play a large part in this protective effect. However, which foods account for the variation in antioxidant intake in a population is not very clear. We used food frequency data from a population-based sample of women to identify the food items that contributed most to the variation in antioxidant intake in Norwegian diet. Methods We used data from a study conducted among participants in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP), the national program which invites women aged 50–69 years to mammographic screening every 2 years. A subset of 6514 women who attended the screening in 2006/2007 completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Daily intake of energy, nutrients and antioxidant intake were estimated. We used multiple linear regression analysis to capture the variation in antioxidant intake. Results The mean (SD) antioxidant intake was 23.0 (8.5) mmol/day. Coffee consumption explained 54% of the variation in antioxidant intake, while fruits and vegetables explained 22%. The twenty food items that contributed most to the total variation in antioxidant intake explained 98% of the variation in intake. These included different types of coffee, tea, red wine, blueberries, walnuts, oranges, cinnamon and broccoli. Conclusions In this study we identified a list of food items which capture the variation in antioxidant intake among these women. The major contributors to dietary total antioxidant intake were coffee, tea, red wine, blueberries, walnuts, oranges, cinnamon and broccoli. These items should be assessed in as much detail as possible in studies that wish to capture the variation in antioxidant intake. PMID:24433390

  3. The effect of hydration status on appetite and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Corney, Robert Anthony; Sunderland, Caroline; James, Lewis John

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of hypohydration produced by exercise and sub-optimal rehydration on appetite and energy intake. Ten males lost ~2% body mass through evening exercise in the heat (35°C). Over the next 13 h, participants were re-fed and either rehydrated (RE: water equal to 175% of body mass loss (BML)) or remained hypohydrated (HYPO: 200 ml water), until the following morning. Urine samples, blood samples and subjective feelings were collected pre-exercise, post-exercise and 13 h post-exercise, with an ad libitum breakfast provided 13 h post-exercise. Total BML at 13 h post-exercise was greater during HYPO (2.8 (0.5)%) than RE (0.5 (0.5)%). Energy intake at the ad libitum breakfast was similar between trials (RE: 4237 (1459) kJ; HYPO: 4612 (1487) kJ; P = 0.436), with no difference in energy consumed in foods (P = 0.600) or drinks (P = 0.147). Total water ingestion at the ad libitum breakfast meal was greater during HYPO (1641 (367) ml) than RE (797 (275) ml) (P < 0.001), with this being explained by increased water intake through fluids (P < 0.001). Thirteen hours post-exercise, participants reported greater thirst (P < 0.001) and lower fullness (P < 0.01) during HYPO. Alterations in hydration status produced by exercise are unlikely to influence post-exercise food intake and consequently other aspects of recovery or adaptation.

  4. What do prisoners eat? Nutrient intakes and food practices in a high-secure prison.

    PubMed

    Hannan-Jones, Mary; Capra, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    There are limited studies on the adequacy of prisoner diet and food practices, yet understanding these are important to inform food provision and assure duty of care for this group. The aim of this study was to assess the dietary intakes of prisoners to inform food and nutrition policy in this setting. This research used a cross-sectional design with convenience sampling in a 945-bed male high-secure prison. Multiple methods were used to assess food available at the group level, including verification of food portion, quality and practices. A pictorial tool supported the diet history method. Of 276 eligible prisoners, 120 dietary interviews were conducted and verified against prison records, with 106 deemed plausible. The results showed the planned food to be nutritionally adequate, with the exception of vitamin D for older males and long-chain fatty acids, with Na above upper limits. The Australian dietary targets for chronic disease risk were not achieved. High energy intakes were reported with median 13·8 (se 0·3) MJ. Probability estimates of inadequate intake varied with age groups: Mg 8 % (>30 years), 2·9 % (70 years), 1·5 % (<70 years); folate 3·5 %; Zn and I 2·7 %; and vitamin A 2·3 %. Nutrient intakes were greatly impacted by self-funded snacks. Results suggest the intakes to be nutritionally favourable when compared with males in the community. This study highlights the complexity of food provision in the prison environment and also poses questions for population-level dietary guidance in delivering appropriate nutrients within energy limits.

  5. Evaluation of Drinks Contribution to Energy Intake in Summer and Winter

    PubMed Central

    Malisova, Olga; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Zampelas, Antonis; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2015-01-01

    All drinks hydrate and most also provide nutrients and energy. Our objective was to evaluate the contribution of drinks to total energy intake in summer and winter. Data were obtained using the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) from a sample of the general population in Athens, Greece (n = 984), 473 individuals (42 ± 18 years) in summer and 511 individuals (38 ± 20 years) in winter stratified by sex and age. The WBQ embeds a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire of 58 foods and the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data were analyzed for the contribution of drinks to total energy intake. In winter, total energy intake was 2082 ± 892 kcal/day; energy intake from drinks was 479 ± 286 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1860 ± 390 kcal/day. In summer, total energy intake was 1890 ± 894 kcal/day, energy intake from drinks 492 ± 499 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1830 ± 491 kcal/day. Energy intake from drinks in summer was higher than in winter (p < 0.001) and in men higher than in women in both seasons (p < 0.001 in summer, p = 0.02 in winter). Coffee, coffee drinks, milk, chocolate milk and alcoholic drinks contributed approximately 75% of energy from drinks. Fruit juice and sugar-sweetened drinks, including soft drinks and fruit juice based drinks, were consumed less frequently contributing up to 25% of drink energy intake. Drinks contribute approximately 1/4 of total energy intake depending on the energy content of the drink and frequency of consumption. Coffee, dairy and alcoholic drinks were the main energy contributors. PMID:25988765

  6. Evaluation of drinks contribution to energy intake in summer and winter.

    PubMed

    Malisova, Olga; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Zampelas, Antonis; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2015-05-15

    All drinks hydrate and most also provide nutrients and energy. Our objective was to evaluate the contribution of drinks to total energy intake in summer and winter. Data were obtained using the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) from a sample of the general population in Athens, Greece (n = 984), 473 individuals (42 ± 18 years) in summer and 511 individuals (38 ± 20 years) in winter stratified by sex and age. The WBQ embeds a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire of 58 foods and the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data were analyzed for the contribution of drinks to total energy intake. In winter, total energy intake was 2082 ± 892 kcal/day; energy intake from drinks was 479 ± 286 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1860 ± 390 kcal/day. In summer, total energy intake was 1890 ± 894 kcal/day, energy intake from drinks 492 ± 499 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1830 ± 491 kcal/day. Energy intake from drinks in summer was higher than in winter (p < 0.001) and in men higher than in women in both seasons (p < 0.001 in summer, p = 0.02 in winter). Coffee, coffee drinks, milk, chocolate milk and alcoholic drinks contributed approximately 75% of energy from drinks. Fruit juice and sugar-sweetened drinks, including soft drinks and fruit juice based drinks, were consumed less frequently contributing up to 25% of drink energy intake. Drinks contribute approximately 1/4 of total energy intake depending on the energy content of the drink and frequency of consumption. Coffee, dairy and alcoholic drinks were the main energy contributors.

  7. The energy content of restaurant foods without stated calorie information

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Context: National recommendations for prevention and treatment of obesity emphasize reducing energy intake through self-monitoring food consumption. However, there is little information on the energy content of foods offered by non-chain restaurants, which account for approximately 50% of restauran...

  8. Influence of simplified nutrition labeling and taxation on laboratory energy intake in adults.

    PubMed

    Temple, Jennifer L; Johnson, Karena M; Archer, Kelli; Lacarte, Allison; Yi, Christina; Epstein, Leonard H

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of these studies was to test the hypotheses that simplified nutrition labeling and taxation alter food selection and intake. In Experiment 1, participants consumed lunch in the laboratory three times with no labels, standard nutrition labels, or traffic light diet labels at each visit. In Experiment 2, participants were given $6.00 with which to purchase lunch in the laboratory twice with standard pricing on one visit and a 25% tax on "red" foods on another visit. Participants received a brief education session on the labeling systems being used. Total energy intake and energy intake and number of foods purchased from each traffic light category were measured. Nutrition labeling decreased energy intake in lean females, but had no effect in men or in obese females. Traffic light labels increased consumption of "green" foods and decreased consumption of "red" foods. Taxation decreased the purchasing of "red" foods in obese, but not non-obese participants. There were no interactions between taxation and simplified nutrition labeling. Although generalization to real-world purchasing and consumption is limited by the laboratory study design, our findings suggests that taking multiple, simultaneous approaches to reduce energy intake may have the greatest impact on food purchases and/or nutrient consumption.

  9. Presentation and interpretation of food intake data: factors affecting comparability across studies.

    PubMed

    Faber, Mieke; Wenhold, Friede A M; Macintyre, Una E; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss; Steyn, Nelia P; Oldewage-Theron, Wilna H

    2013-01-01

    Non-uniform, unclear, or incomplete presentation of food intake data limits interpretation, usefulness, and comparisons across studies. In this contribution, we discuss factors affecting uniform reporting of food intake across studies. The amount of food eaten can be reported as mean portion size, number of servings or total amount of food consumed per day; the absolute intake value for the specific study depends on the denominator used because food intake data can be presented as per capita intake or for consumers only. To identify the foods mostly consumed, foods are reported and ranked according to total number of times consumed, number of consumers, total intake, or nutrient contribution by individual foods or food groups. Presentation of food intake data primarily depends on a study's aim; reported data thus often are not comparable across studies. Food intake data further depend on the dietary assessment methodology used and foods in the database consulted; and are influenced by the inherent limitations of all dietary assessments. Intake data can be presented as either single foods or as clearly defined food groups. Mixed dishes, reported as such or in terms of ingredients and items added during food preparation remain challenging. Comparable presentation of food consumption data is not always possible; presenting sufficient information will assist valid interpretation and optimal use of the presented data. A checklist was developed to strengthen the reporting of food intake data in science communication.

  10. Energy intake and nutrition counseling in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, V S; Mangrum, P J

    1982-02-01

    Historically, it has been thought that the patient with cystic fibrosis (CF) has a voracious appetite. It is now becoming apparent that many patients do not have caloric intakes which meet their full energy requirements. Our study of CF patient, utilizing, a five-day written record of food consumptions and direct observation, supports this finding and points out the need for further nutritional counseling in providing optimal care for these patients. The cause of increased nutrient requirements and considerations for individualization of counseling are briefly discussed.

  11. Method for assessing food intakes in terms of servings based on food guidance.

    PubMed

    Cleveland, L E; Cook, D A; Krebs-Smith, S M; Friday, J

    1997-04-01

    We describe a method for comparing food intakes reported in surveys with recommendations given in the US Department of Agriculture's food guide pyramid. Such comparison was previously difficult because many foods are eaten as mixtures that cannot be categorized into pyramid food groups and because food intake data and food recommendations are expressed in different units of measurement. We developed a recipe file showing ingredients at multiple levels of breakdown and used it to disaggregate food mixtures into their ingredients so that they could be placed into pyramid food groups. Food-specific weight consistent with the pyramid definitions for serving sizes were derived from the food code book of the 1989-1991 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals and used to develop a serving-weight file. Data collected from 8181 adults aged > or = 20 y in the survey were used to estimate the mean number of servings from pyramid food groups and percentages of the population meeting pyramid recommendations. The mean numbers of servings were close to the minimum recommendations for the grain, vegetable, and meat groups and well below the minimum recommendations for the fruit and dairy groups. large proportions of adults (43-72%) failed to meet the dietary recommendations. Our method has several nutrition monitoring and nutrition education applications.

  12. A simple dietary assessment tool to monitor food intake of hospitalized adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Budiningsari, Dwi; Shahar, Suzana; Manaf, Zahara Abdul; Susetyowati, Susetyowati

    2016-01-01

    Background/objectives Monitoring food intake of patients during hospitalization using simple methods and minimal training is an ongoing problem in hospitals. Therefore, there is a need to develop and validate a simple, easy to use, and quick tool that enables staff to estimate dietary intake. Thus, this study aimed to develop and validate the Pictorial Dietary Assessment Tool (PDAT). Subjects and methods A total of 37 health care staff members consisting of dietitians, nurses, and serving assistants estimated 130 breakfast and lunch meals consumed by 67 patients using PDAT. PDAT was developed based on the hospital menu that consists of staple food (rice or porridge), animal source protein (chicken, meat, eggs, and fish), and non-animal source protein (tau fu and tempeh), with a total of six pictorials of food at each meal time. Weighed food intake was used as a gold standard to validate PDAT. Agreement between methods was analyzed using correlations, paired t-test, Bland–Altman plots, kappa statistics, and McNemar’s test. Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic were calculated to identify whether patients who had an inadequate food intake were categorized as at risk by the PDAT, based on the food weighing method. Agreement between different backgrounds of health care staff was calculated by intraclass correlation coefficient and analysis of variance test. Results There was a significant correlation between the weighing food method and PDAT for energy (r=0.919, P<0.05), protein (r=0.843, P<0.05), carbohydrate (r=0.912, P<0.05), and fat (r=0.952; P<0.05). Nutrient intakes as assessed using PDAT and food weighing were rather similar (295±163 vs 292±158 kcal for energy; 13.9±7.8 vs 14.1±8.0 g for protein; 46.1±21.4 vs 46.7±22.3 g for carbohydrate; 7.4±3.1 vs 7.4±3.1 g for fat; P>0.05). The PDAT and food weighing method showed a satisfactory agreement beyond chance (k) (0.81 for staple food and animal source

  13. Computational Analysis of the Hypothalamic Control of Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Tabe-Bordbar, Shayan; Anastasio, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Food-intake control is mediated by a heterogeneous network of different neural subtypes, distributed over various hypothalamic nuclei and other brain structures, in which each subtype can release more than one neurotransmitter or neurohormone. The complexity of the interactions of these subtypes poses a challenge to understanding their specific contributions to food-intake control, and apparent consistencies in the dataset can be contradicted by new findings. For example, the growing consensus that arcuate nucleus neurons expressing Agouti-related peptide (AgRP neurons) promote feeding, while those expressing pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC neurons) suppress feeding, is contradicted by findings that low AgRP neuron activity and high POMC neuron activity can be associated with high levels of food intake. Similarly, the growing consensus that GABAergic neurons in the lateral hypothalamus suppress feeding is contradicted by findings suggesting the opposite. Yet the complexity of the food-intake control network admits many different network behaviors. It is possible that anomalous associations between the responses of certain neural subtypes and feeding are actually consistent with known interactions, but their effect on feeding depends on the responses of the other neural subtypes in the network. We explored this possibility through computational analysis. We made a computer model of the interactions between the hypothalamic and other neural subtypes known to be involved in food-intake control, and optimized its parameters so that model behavior matched observed behavior over an extensive test battery. We then used specialized computational techniques to search the entire model state space, where each state represents a different configuration of the responses of the units (model neural subtypes) in the network. We found that the anomalous associations between the responses of certain hypothalamic neural subtypes and feeding are actually consistent with the known structure

  14. Room service improves patient food intake and satisfaction with hospital food.

    PubMed

    Williams, R; Virtue, K; Adkins, A

    1998-07-01

    Cancer therapy causes side effects that interfere with oral intake. Frequently, patients undergoing such therapy suffer from anorexia, nausea, vomiting, food aversions, dysgeusia, and xerostomia, all which adversely affect oral intake. Adequate nutrition intake is an important part of therapy for the cancer patient, especially when that patient is a child. Children who are well nourished are better able to withstand infection and tolerate therapy. Parents and staff at our hospital have worked diligently to improve patient's oral intake with limited success. Hence, a multidisciplinary team was organized to develop a new approach to food services that would improve patients' oral intake. The team initiated patient "room service," and patients were allowed to call the kitchen when they were ready to eat. The system works much like room service in a hotel. After the introduction of room service, patients' caloric intake improved significantly (P = .008), and protein intake increased by 18%. Patient satisfaction with hospital food service also improved; excellent ratings increased by as much as 35%. We conclude that room service is a viable alternative to traditional food services in the pediatric oncology setting and may be useful in other patient populations, such as maternity and general pediatrics.

  15. The macronutrients, appetite and energy intake

    PubMed Central

    Carreiro, Alicia L; Dhillon, Jaapna; Gordon, Susannah; Jacobs, Ashley G; Higgins, Kelly A; McArthur, Breanna M; Redan, Benjamin W; Rivera, Rebecca L; Schmidt, Leigh R; Mattes, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Each of the macronutrients, carbohydrate, protein and fat, has a unique set of properties that influence health, but all are a source of energy. The optimal balance of their contribution to the diet has been a long-standing matter of debate. Over the past half century, there has been a progression of thinking regarding the mechanisms by which each may contribute to energy balance. At the beginning of this time period, the emphasis was on metabolic signals that initiated eating events (i.e., determined eating frequency). This was followed by an orientation to gut endocrine signals that purportedly modulate the size of eating events (i.e., determined portion size). Most recently, research attention has been directed to the brain where the reward signals elicited by the macronutrients are viewed as potentially problematic (i.e., contribute to disordered eating). At this point the predictive power of the macronutrients for energy intake remains limited. PMID:27431364

  16. Elevated objectively measured but not self-reported energy intake predicts future weight gain in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Durant, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Background Although obesity putatively occurs when individuals consume more calories than needed for metabolic needs, numerous risk factor studies have not observed significant positive relations between reported caloric intake and future weight gain, potentially because reported caloric intake is inaccurate. Objective The present study tested the hypothesis that objectively measured habitual energy intake, estimated with doubly labeled water, would show a stronger positive relation to future weight gain than self-reported caloric intake based on a widely used food frequency measure. Design 253 adolescents completed a doubly labeled water (DLW) assessment of energy intake (EI), a food frequency measure, and a resting metabolic rate (RMR) assessment at baseline, and had their body mass index (BMI) measured at baseline and at 1- and 2-year follow-ups. Results Controlling for baseline RMR, elevated objectively measured EI, but not self-reported habitual caloric intake, predicted increases in BMI over a 2-year follow-up. On average, participants under-reported caloric intake by 35%. Conclusions Results provide support for the thesis that self-reported caloric intake has not predicted future weight gain because it is less accurate than objectively measured habitual caloric intake, suggesting that food frequency measures can lead to misleading findings. However, even objectively measured caloric intake showed only a moderate relation to future weight gain, implying that habitual caloric intake fluctuates over time and that it may be necessary to conduct serial assessments of habitual intake to better reflect the time-varying effects of caloric intake on weight gain. PMID:24930597

  17. Food hoarding, but not food intake, is attenuated by acute diazepam treatment in female Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui-Di; Wang, Qian; Wang, De-Hua

    2014-06-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Energy Balance". Effects of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on food hoarding are unknown in rodents, and the effects of energy balance and GABA have not been evaluated in females. To evaluate the role of food deprivation and GABA on food hoarding, female Mongolian gerbils were given i.p. injection of diazepam (1mg/kg and 3mg/kg, respectively), a GABAA receptor agonist. Among food-deprived females, there was a bimodal pattern in the frequency of gerbils with different levels of food hoarding. High food hoarding (HFH) and low food hoarding (LFH) gerbils were analyzed. Diazepam blocked food deprivation-induced food hoarding in HFH gerbils, but not in LFH gerbils. This blockade was associated with increased cellular activation in selected brain areas, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), caudate putamen (CP) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), which suggested that direct activation of GABA in the brain reward circuitry decreased food hoarding in HFH females. Moreover, diazepam increased Fos expression in field CA2 and CA3 of the hippocampus, but had no significant effect on Fos expression in field CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, indicating that the hippocampus has area-specific effects on food hoarding in HFH gerbils. Diazepam did not alter food intake in both HFH and LFH gerbils. In addition, serum corticosterone concentrations were higher in the HFH than in the LFH ones. Together, these data indicated that food deprivation increased food hoarding in female gerbils, diazepam reduced food deprivation-induced food hoarding in HFH gerbils, and that GABA might influence food hoarding via classical reward circuitry via the mesolimbic dopamine system and specific hippocampal areas.

  18. Protein intake in Parkinsonian patients using the EPIC food frequency questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Marczewska, Agnieszka; De Notaris, Roberta; Sieri, Sabina; Barichella, Michela; Fusconi, Elisabetta; Pezzoli, Gianni

    2006-08-01

    The dietary habits of 45 Italian patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and their spouses were investigated using the EPIC food frequency questionnaire. Average daily energy intake was similar, but PD patients consumed significantly more vegetable proteins and carbohydrates (both +18%; P = 0.01 and P = 0.001, respectively). Daily protein intake, which interferes with levodopa absorption, was 50% higher than the recommended daily allowance (1.2 vs. 0.8 g/kg) in both PD patients and spouses and was significantly higher in patients with moderate/severe symptoms (1.27 +/- 0.29 vs. 1.07 +/- 0.28 g/kg; P < 0.001). In patients taking levodopa, there was a correlation between daily levodopa dosage and protein intake (P = 0.027). Dietary habits of patients with advanced and/or fluctuating PD should always be checked, with particular reference to protein intake.

  19. Energy and nutrient intakes of disabled children: do feeding problems make a difference?

    PubMed

    Thommessen, M; Riis, G; Kase, B F; Larsen, S; Heiberg, A

    1991-12-01

    We examined the effect of feeding problems and alternative feeding practices on the energy and nutrient intakes of disabled children. Subjects were 221 disabled children aged 1 to 16 years from seven diagnostic groups: a 4-day food record was obtained for 166 children. The children's energy and nutrient intakes were examined in relation to the presence or absence of four feeding problems (gross motor/self-feeding impairment, oral-motor dysfunction, lack of appetite, food aversions) and two alternate feeding practices (prolonged assisted feeding and use of pureed foods). Cross-sectional analyses showed that children with feeding problems or alternative feeding practices had lower energy and nutrient intakes than did children without these factors. The presence of oral-motor dysfunction or prolonged assisted feeding significantly reduced relative energy intake. In general, differences in energy and nutrient intakes between children with and without other feeding problems or practices were small, and few statistically significant differences were found. The findings indicate that some feeding problems may reduce food intake in disabled children, although this effect is lessened by the conscientious efforts of parents. Parents and families of disabled children should receive dietary counseling to prevent deteriorative effects on the physical growth and health of children with long-standing feeding problems.

  20. Impression management and food intake. Current directions in research.

    PubMed

    Vartanian, Lenny R

    2015-03-01

    This paper reviews recent research on consumption stereotypes (judgments of others based on what they eat) and impression management (modifying one's eating behavior in order to create a particular impression). A major recent focus in the literature has been on masculinity and meat eating, with research showing that meat is strongly associated with masculinity, and that individuals who follow a meat-based diet are perceived as more masculine than are individuals who follow a vegetarian diet. Although direct evidence for impression management through food intake remains sparse, a number of methodological approaches (including priming techniques and ecological valid assessments) are described that could be used in future research to identify the motives underlying people's eating behavior. Consumption stereotypes and impression management may be important influences on people's eating behavior, but the complexities of how, when, and for whom these factors influence food intake are still not well understood.

  1. Selected Intakes as Ratios of Energy Intake, U.S. Population, 2001-04

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Method provides the capability to estimate the distribution of usual food intakes in the US population to greatly enhance the ability to monitor diets relative to recommendations and to assess the scope of dietary deficiencies and excesses.

  2. Daytime sleepiness affects prefrontal regulation of food intake.

    PubMed

    Killgore, William D S; Schwab, Zachary J; Weber, Mareen; Kipman, Maia; Deldonno, Sophie R; Weiner, Melissa R; Rauch, Scott L

    2013-05-01

    The recent epidemic of obesity corresponds closely with the decline in the average number of hours of sleep obtained nightly. While growing research suggests that sleep loss may affect hormonal and other physiological systems related to food intake, no studies have yet explored the role that sleepiness may play in reducing prefrontal inhibitory control over food intake. Because evidence suggests that women may be more prone to obesity and eating disorders, as well as more likely to suffer from sleep problems, we examined the relation between general daytime sleepiness, brain responses to food stimuli, and self-reported overeating separately for men and women. Thirty-eight healthy adults (16 women; 22 men) aged 18 to 45 underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while viewing pictures of high- and low-calorie foods. Subjects completed the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and provided a rating to the query "how often do you eat more than you intend to." Contrast images comparing brain activation derived from the high- versus low-calorie conditions were correlated voxel-wise with scores from the ESS in a second-level regression model, the output of which was used to predict self-reported overeating. As hypothesized, daytime sleepiness correlated with reduced activation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex during perception of high- versus low-calorie food images. Moreover, activation within this cluster predicted overeating, but only for women. Findings suggest that normal fluctuations in sleepiness may be sufficient to affect brain regions important for regulating food intake, but that these effects may differ between men and women.

  3. Food and Nutrient Intakes According to Income in Korean Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Inyoung; Jang, Myoung-Jin; Oh, Kyungwon

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The present study investigated associations between income and intake of nutrients and food in adults (n = 11,063) from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2009. Methods To examine relationships between individual dietary intake and anthropometric measures and family income, multiple linear regression models were constructed for each outcome variable. All models were adjusted for age, education, energy intake, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity. Results For men, intakes of protein, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, and vitamin C were lower in low-income compared to high-income groups. For women, intakes of protein and niacin were lower in low-income groups. Lowest income group ate less dairy products in men and less fruits and fishes or shellfishes in women. Conclusion Low-income groups had severe food insecurity and low diet quality compared to high-income groups. The study results will provide direction for public health efforts regarding dietary intakes according to economic status among Korean men and women. PMID:24159472

  4. Food branding influences ad libitum intake differently in children depending on weight status. Results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Forman, Jamie; Halford, Jason C G; Summe, Heather; MacDougall, Megan; Keller, Kathleen L

    2009-08-01

    Environmental changes have facilitated the rapid increase in childhood obesity. One such change is increased presence of food marketing which promotes intake of high-fat, energy-dense foods. This study tested the hypotheses that overweight (OW) children are more sensitive to the intake-enhancing effects of food branding than non-OW children, and that the relationship between weight status and intake of branded foods is mediated by level of food brand awareness. Forty-three non-OW (n = 23) and OW (n = 20) children from diverse ethnic backgrounds participated in four dinnertime visits to test their intake of meals where food brands were present ("branded") or absent ("unbranded"). Food brand awareness was assessed by testing children's abilities to match food brand logos with correct foods and name specific brands from recall. Weight and height were measured on the first visit to determine BMI z-score and weight status. OW children consumed significantly more energy per meal than non-OW. Child age and brand awareness were positively associated. OW children consumed an additional 40 kcal in branded vs. unbranded meals whereas non-OW children consumed 45 kcal less in branded meals. Overweight children showed greater responsiveness to food branding, and they may be at risk in environments that are highly inundated with messages about food.

  5. A simulation study of the potenial effects of healthy food and beverage substitutions on diet quality and total energy intake in lower Mississippi Delta adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The majority of adult diets in the United States, particularly the South, are of poor quality, putting these individuals at increased risk for chronic diseases. In this study, simulation modeling was used to determine the effects of substituting familiar, more healthful foods and beverages for less...

  6. Energy intake, physical activity, energy balance, and cancer: epidemiologic evidence.

    PubMed

    Pan, Sai Yi; DesMeules, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Energy intake, physical activity, and obesity are modifiable lifestyle factors. This chapter reviews and summarizes the epidemiologic evidence on the relation of energy intake, physical activity, and obesity to cancer. High energy intake may increase the risk of cancers of colon-rectum, prostate (especially advanced prostate cancer), and breast. However, because physical activity, body size, and metabolic efficiency are highly related to total energy intake and expenditure, it is difficult to assess the independent effect of energy intake on cancer risk. There are sufficient evidences to support a role of physical activity in preventing cancers of the colon and breast, whereas the association is stronger in men than in women for colon cancer and in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women for breast cancer. The evidence also suggests that physical activity likely reduces the risk of cancers of endometrium, lung, and prostate (to a lesser extent). On the other hand, there is little or no evidence that the risk of rectal cancer is related to physical activity, whereas the results have been inconsistent regarding the association between physical activity and the risks of cancers of pancreas, ovary and kidney. Epidemiologic studies provide sufficient evidence that obesity is a risk factor for both cancer incidence and mortality. The evidence supports strong links of obesity with the risk of cancers of the colon, rectum, breast (in postmenopausal women), endometrium, kidney (renal cell), and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. Epidemiologic evidence also indicates that obesity is probably related to cancers of the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder, and aggressive prostate cancer, while it seems that obesity is not associated with lung cancer. The role of obesity in other cancer risks is unclear.

  7. Physiology of Food Intake Control in Children123

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, G Harvey; Hunschede, Sascha; Akilen, Rajadurai; Kubant, Ruslan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to draw attention to the limited information available on food intake (FI) control in children and adolescents 7–17 y of age, which is essential for developing food policies and guidelines in this population. Although environmental factors have been the overwhelming focus of research on the causative factors of obesity, research focusing on the physiologic control of appetite in children and adolescents is a neglected area of research. To present this message, a review of FI regulation and the role of food and food components in signaling processes are followed by an examination of the role of hormones during puberty in intake regulation. To examine the interaction of environment and physiology on FI regulation, the effects of exercise, television programs, and food advertisements are discussed. In conclusion, although limited, this literature review supports a need for children and adolescents to be a greater focus of research that would lead to sound nutrition policies and actions to reduce chronic disease. A focus on the environment must be balanced with an understanding of physiologic and behavioral changes associated with this age group. PMID:26773031

  8. Relation of reward from food intake and anticipated food intake to obesity: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Stice, Eric; Spoor, Sonja; Bohon, Cara; Veldhuizen, Marga G; Small, Dana M

    2008-11-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that obese individuals experience greater reward from food consumption (consummatory food reward) and anticipated consumption (anticipatory food reward) than lean individuals using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with 33 adolescent girls (mean age = 15.7, SD = 0.9). Obese relative to lean adolescent girls showed greater activation bilaterally in the gustatory cortex (anterior and mid insula, frontal operculum) and in somatosensory regions (parietal operculum and Rolandic operculum) in response to anticipated intake of chocolate milkshake (vs. a tasteless solution) and to actual consumption of milkshake (vs. a tasteless solution); these brain regions encode the sensory and hedonic aspects of food. However, obese relative to lean adolescent girls also showed decreased activation in the caudate nucleus in response to consumption of milkshake versus a tasteless solution, potentially because they have reduced dopamine receptor availability. Results suggest that individuals who show greater activation in the gustatory cortex and somatosensory regions in response to anticipation and consumption of food, but who show weaker activation in the striatum during food intake, may be at risk for overeating and consequent weight gain.

  9. Separating the actions of sweetness and calories: effects of saccharin and carbohydrates on hunger and food intake in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Rogers, P J; Blundell, J E

    1989-06-01

    A comparison was made of the effects on hunger and food intake of consuming preloads varying in sweetness and energy content. The preloads were a plain (unsweetened) yogurt, and the same yogurt sweetened to equal intensity with saccharin or glucose, or supplemented with starch. This balanced design made it possible to assess the consequences of adding sweetness to food as well as the consequences of substituting a nonnutritive sweetener for a caloric sweetener. Subjects (N = 24, repeated measures design) ate the preload at midday and returned one hour later for a sandwich lunch. Food intake in this meal was measured directly, and intake during the remaining part of the day was monitored using home recording in diaries. Hunger was assessed using subjective ratings of motivation to eat. Food intake at lunchtime was significantly greater following the saccharin compared with the plain preload, and parallel effects were revealed by the motivational ratings. Saccharin also stimulated further increases in intake after lunch. Food intake was lowest following the high-energy preloads, with the starch supplemented yogurt producing somewhat the largest suppression of intake. The results confirm and extend previous findings showing that intense sweeteners do not possess the same satiating capacity as glucose and sucrose. The stimulation of appetite by saccharin may be due to its sweet taste and also to effects on postingestive mechanisms.

  10. Impact of Perceived Healthiness of Food on Food Choices and Intake.

    PubMed

    Provencher, Véronique; Jacob, Raphaëlle

    2016-03-01

    Healthy eating is an important determinant of health, but adherence to dietary guidelines remains a public health concern. Identifying factors that impact dietary habits is therefore important to facilitate healthy eating. One widely used strategy to help consumers make healthier food choices is nutrition information, such as labeling and claims. Despite the intention of these strategies to improve decision making, they can also be misunderstood or misinterpreted by consumers. The aim of this review is to explore food perceptions by examining how cognitive factors influence perceived healthiness of food, and the impact of perceived healthiness of food on food choices and intake. Overall findings of this review suggest that cognitive factors, such as type of food and branding, significantly contribute to judgmental bias and have an impact on perceived healthiness while not consistently or systematically influencing choice and intake.

  11. Effects of neutering on food intake, body weight and body composition in growing female kittens.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Lucille G; Salt, Carina; Thomas, Gaelle; Butterwick, Richard

    2011-10-01

    To understand the effects of neutering on food intake, body weight (BW) and body composition in kittens, data from an unrelated study were subjected to post hoc analysis. A total of twelve pairs of 11-week-old female littermates were randomly assigned to either a neutered group (neutered at 19 weeks old) or an entire group (kept entire) and offered free access to a dry diet until the age of 1 year. Neutered kittens exhibited increased food intake and increased BW after neutering (both P < 0.00 001). Food intake (per kg BW) peaked 10 weeks after neutering; the mean intake of neutered kittens was 17 (95 % CI 8, 27) % more than entire littermates (P = 0.00 014). The intake was then reduced until there was no significant difference between the groups 18 weeks post-neutering. By 52 weeks of age, the neutered kittens were 24 (95 % CI 11, 39) % heavier than entire littermates (P < 0.0001) with a body condition score (BCS) 16.6 (95 % CI 0.9, 34.8) % higher (P = 0.0028). Neutered kittens continued to grow significantly fatter after neutering (all P < 0.0014), while entire kittens showed no significant change after 18 weeks of age. As neutered kittens consumed similar amounts of energy to their entire littermates from 18 weeks post-neutering, while their BW, BCS and percentage fat continued to increase, we suggest that neutered kittens have a reduced metabolisable energy requirement, and should therefore be fed to maintain an ideal BCS rather than ad libitum. Moreover, to maintain an ideal BCS, entire kittens consumed 93 (95 % CI 87, 100) % of their theoretical intake at 26 weeks of age, and 79 (95 % CI 72, 87) % at 52 weeks of age, suggesting that the current energy recommendation is inappropriate for these kittens.

  12. Are post-exercise appetite sensations and energy intake coupled in children and adolescents?

    PubMed

    Thivel, David; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2014-06-01

    The effect of physical activity on energy balance is not restricted to its induced energy expenditure but also affects the control of energy intake and appetite. Although it is now clear that physical exercise affects subsequent energy intake and appetite, the mechanisms involved remain uncertain. Most previous studies have assessed both post-exercise energy intake and appetite but mainly focussed their analyses on food consumption, and it remains unclear whether changes in appetite provide an accurate reflection of changes in energy intake. This brief review aims to analyse conjointly the effective energy intake and appetite sensation responses to acute exercise in children and adolescents to examine whether or not these responses to exercise are coupled. After an overview of the available literature, we conclude that acute exercise has an uncoupling effect on energy intake and appetite sensations in both lean and overweight/obese youth. Although methodological issues between studies can be highlighted, lack of consideration of inter-individual variability in terms of energy intake and appetite could be one of the main explanations for such a conclusion. It now appears necessary to further consider the impact of acute exercise and then chronic physical activity on an individual basis in the regulation of energy balance to prescribe successful weight loss programmes.

  13. Characteristics of energy intake under-reporting in French adults.

    PubMed

    Berta Vanrullen, Isabelle; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Bertaut, Aurélie; Dufour, Ariane; Dallongeville, Jean

    2014-04-14

    Energy intake under-reporting (UR) is a concern in nutritional epidemiological studies, as it may distort the relationships between dietary habits and health. Although UR is known to be associated with certain characteristics, few studies have investigated them in France. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of UR in French adults. UR was defined according to Goldberg's classification. A sample of 1567 adults was drawn from the nationally representative French dietary survey (Individuelle Nationale des Consommations Alimentaires 2 2006-7). Food intake (7 d record), dietary habits, socio-economic status, region of residence, sedentary behaviour and weight perception variables were assessed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate the associations between UR and a number of covariates. The overall prevalence of UR was 22.5%, similar in men and women. In both sexes, UR was positively associated with overweight and protein intake and inversely associated with age. In women, UR was associated with eating lunch in the office, poor perception of diet quality and sedentary behaviour and was inversely associated with educational level, residence in the Paris region, cereal product intake and eating lunch in a friend's or family member's home. In men, UR was positively associated with a history of slimming and inversely associated with dairy product intake and eating lunch at a staff canteen. In conclusion, UR is prevalent in French adults and is associated with several different characteristics. It is important to take account of UR when investigating diet-disease associations in adults.

  14. Food intake reduction and immunologic alterations in mice fed dehydroepiandrosterone.

    PubMed

    Weindruch, R; McFeeters, G; Walford, R L

    1984-01-01

    A diet containing 0.4% DHEA was fed to male mice of a long-lived strain from 3 weeks until 18 weeks of age. These mice were compared with others fed a control diet ad libitum and with mice pair-fed the control diet in amounts approximating the intake of the DHEA-fed group. Mice fed the DHEA diet failed to eat all of the food presented to them whereas the pair-fed mice ate all of their food. All mice were studied at 18 weeks of age for two age-sensitive immune parameters (spleen lymphocyte proliferation induced by T-cell mitogens [PHA or ConA] and natural killer cell lysis of an allogeneic tumor). DHEA feeding led to: 1) a decrease in food intake (approximately 30% less than for mice fed the control diet ad libitum), 2) a lower body weight at 18 weeks of age (approximately 40% lower than for ad libitum controls) due to a decrease in the body weight gained from 3 weeks through 18 weeks of age (approximately 55% lower than controls), 3) a lower spleen weight (approximately 30% lower than controls) but without lower numbers of nucleated cells per spleen, 4) an increase in PHA-induced proliferation by spleen lymphocytes (approximately 100% higher than for controls) and, 5) no influence on splenic natural killer cell activity. The inhibition of body weight gain for mice fed DHEA appeared due to both a reduction in food intake and a metabolic effect since mice eating DHEA gained less body weight per gram of food eaten than did mice in either group eating the control diet.

  15. Commercial complementary food consumption is prospectively associated with added sugar intake in childhood.

    PubMed

    Foterek, Kristina; Buyken, Anette E; Bolzenius, Katja; Hilbig, Annett; Nöthlings, Ute; Alexy, Ute

    2016-06-01

    Given that commercial complementary food (CF) can contain high levels of added sugar, a high consumption may predispose to a preference for sweet taste later in life. This study examined cross-sectional associations between commercial CF consumption and added sugar intake in infancy as well as its prospective relation to added sugar intake in pre-school and primary-school age children. In all, 288 children of the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study with 3-d weighed dietary records at 0·5 and 0·75 (infancy), 3 and 4 (pre-school age) and 6 and 7 years of age (primary-school age) were included in this analysis. Individual commercial CF consumption as percentage of total commercial CF (%cCF) was averaged at 0·5 and 0·75 years. Individual total added sugar intake (g/d, energy percentage/d) was averaged for all three age groups. Multivariable logistic and linear regression models were used to analyse associations between %cCF and added sugar intake. In infancy, a higher %cCF was associated with odds for high added sugar intake from CF and for high total added sugar intake (>75th percentile, P<0·033). Prospectively, a higher %cCF was related to higher added sugar intake in both pre-school (P<0·041) and primary-school age children (P<0·039), although these associations were attenuated in models adjusting for added sugar intake in infancy. A higher %cCF in infancy may predispose to higher added sugar intake in later childhood by virtue of its added sugar content. Therefore, offering home-made CF or carefully chosen commercial CF without added sugar might be one strategy to reduce sugar intake in infancy and later on.

  16. Post-meal perceivable satiety and subsequent energy intake with intake of partially hydrolysed guar gum.

    PubMed

    Rao, Theertham Pradyumna; Hayakawa, Mariko; Minami, Tadayasu; Ishihara, Noriyuki; Kapoor, Mahendra Parkash; Ohkubo, Tsutomu; Juneja, Lekh Raj; Wakabayashi, Kazuo

    2015-05-14

    Partially hydrolysed guar gum (PHGG), a soluble dietary fibre, has been shown to provide many health benefits. Previous studies had suggested that the combination of PHGG with protein provided a significant satiation effect on visual analogue scales (VAS). What was lacking was only the effect of administration of small doses of PHGG on post-meal satiation and subsequent energy intake. The objectives of the present investigations were to find the subjective perception of post-meal satiety with acute and long term administration of small amounts of PHGG alone with food, its effects on subsequent energy intake and the comparative effects among different types of soluble fibres. The following three separate studies were conducted: in study 1, healthy subjects (n 12) consumed PHGG along with breakfast, lunch and an evening snack; in study 2, healthy subjects (n 24) consumed 2 g of PHGG or dextrin along with yogurt as breakfast for 2 weeks; in study 3, healthy subjects (n 6) took 6 g each of either PHGG or indigestible dextrin or inulin along with lunch. In all the studies, various satiety parameters were measured on VAS before and after consumption of PHGG. The addition of PHGG showed significant (P < 0.05) acute (studies 1 and 3) and long-term (studies 1 and 2) satiety effects compared to the control and/or an equal amount of carbohydrate or other types of soluble fibre. Study 2 also indicated that the prolonged consumption of PHGG may significantly (P < 0.05) reduce energy intake from whole-day snacking. PHGG could be an ideal natural soluble fibre for delivering acute and long term satiety effects for comfortable appetite control.

  17. Improvement in fruit and vegetable consumption associated with more favorable energy density and nutrient and food group intake, but not kilocalories

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Children generally do not consume adequate amounts of fruits and vegetables (F/V). Eating more F/V can improve energy density and overall diet quality. Our aim was to investigate whether improvements in F/V consumption were associated with improvements in energy density, total calories, and dietary ...

  18. Self-reported vs. actual energy intake in youth with and without loss of control eating.

    PubMed

    Wolkoff, Laura E; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Shomaker, Lauren B; Kozlosky, Merel; Columbo, Kelli M; Elliott, Camden A; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M; Osborn, Robyn L; Yanovski, Susan Z; Yanovski, Jack A

    2011-01-01

    Episodes of loss of control over eating (LOC) in children and adolescents--often characterized by the consumption of highly palatable dessert and snack-type foods--have been associated with a lack of awareness while eating that could lead to under- or over-estimation of how much food is consumed. However, little is known about the reporting accuracy of food intake in youth with and without LOC eating. One hundred fifty-six girls and boys were administered the Eating Disorder Examination to assess for the presence of LOC eating. Youth were queried regarding the amounts of foods consumed directly following a multi-item, laboratory buffet test meal. Children with LOC (n=42) did not differ significantly from youth without LOC (n=114) in reporting accuracy of total food intake (reported minus actual energy intake: 153.0 ± 59.6 vs. 96.9 ± 36.0 kcal; p=0.42). However, compared to those without LOC, children with LOC were less accurate at reporting percentage of energy intake from carbohydrate (p=0.01). Youth with LOC were also less accurate at reporting their intake of desserts (p=0.04). Findings point to the possibility that youth with LOC may have poorer recall of sweet food consumption. Future research is required to examine whether poorer recall reflects a lack of awareness while eating palatable, sweet foods.

  19. Kisspeptin and RFRP-3 differentially regulate food intake and metabolic neuropeptides in the female desert jerboa.

    PubMed

    Talbi, Rajae; Laran-Chich, Marie-Pierre; Magoul, Rabia; El Ouezzani, Seloua; Simonneaux, Valérie

    2016-11-02

    Jerboas are wild rodents exhibiting exceptional adaptation to their desert environment. Under harsh autumn conditions, they shut down reproduction, increase body weight and hibernate, while during spring they become sexually active even under negative energy-balance. We recently reported that these rhythms are associated with synchronized changes in genes expressing reproductive (Kiss1, Rfrp) and metabolic (Npy and Pomc) peptides, raising the hypothesis of coordinated seasonal regulation of both functions. Here we analyzed whether kisspeptin and RFRP-3 regulate food-intake in parallel to their established reproductive functions. Intracerebroventricular administration of kisspeptin inhibited food intake by 1.5-fold in fasted, but not ad-libitum fed, female jerboas captured in spring, an effect associated with an increase in Pomc and decrease in Rfrp mRNA levels. By contrast, intracerebroventricular injection of RFRP-3 induced a 4-fold increase in food-intake in ad-libitum female jerboas, together with a decrease in Pomc and increase in Npy mRNA levels. This orexigenic effect of RFRP-3 was observed in both spring and autumn, whereas kisspeptin's anorexigenic effect was only observed in spring. Altogether, this study reports opposite metabolic effects of kisspeptin and RFRP-3 in the female jerboa and strengthens our hypothesis of a coordinated, season-dependent, regulation of reproductive activity and food intake through interactions of these hypothalamic peptides.

  20. Glucagon‐related peptides and the regulation of food intake in chickens

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The regulatory mechanisms underlying food intake in chickens have been a focus of research in recent decades to improve production efficiency when raising chickens. Lines of evidence have revealed that a number of brain‐gut peptides function as a neurotransmitter or peripheral satiety hormone in the regulation of food intake both in mammals and chickens. Glucagon, a 29 amino acid peptide hormone, has long been known to play important roles in maintaining glucose homeostasis in mammals and birds. However, the glucagon gene encodes various peptides that are produced by tissue‐specific proglucagon processing: glucagon is produced in the pancreas, whereas oxyntomodulin (OXM), glucagon‐like peptide (GLP)‐1 and GLP‐2 are produced in the intestine and brain. Better understanding of the roles of these peptides in the regulation of energy homeostasis has led to various physiological roles being proposed in mammals. For example, GLP‐1 functions as an anorexigenic neurotransmitter in the brain and as a postprandial satiety hormone in the peripheral circulation. There is evidence that OXM and GLP‐2 also induce anorexia in mammals. Therefore, it is possible that the brain‐gut peptides OXM, GLP‐1 and GLP‐2 play physiological roles in the regulation of food intake in chickens. More recently, a novel GLP and its specific receptor were identified in the chicken brain. This review summarizes current knowledge about the role of glucagon‐related peptides in the regulation of food intake in chickens. PMID:27150835

  1. Ghrelin affects stopover decisions and food intake in a long-distance migrant

    PubMed Central

    Lupi, Sara; Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Cardinale, Massimiliano

    2017-01-01

    Billions of birds migrate long distances to either reach breeding areas or to spend the winter at more benign places. On migration, most passerines frequently stop over to rest and replenish their fuel reserves. To date, we know little regarding how they decide that they are ready to continue their journey. What physiological signals tell a bird’s brain that its fuel reserves are sufficient to resume migration? A network of hormones regulates food intake and body mass in vertebrates, including the recently discovered peptide hormone, ghrelin. Here, we show that ghrelin reflects body condition and influences migratory behavior of wild birds. We measured ghrelin levels of wild garden warblers (Sylvia borin) captured at a stopover site. Further, we manipulated blood concentrations of ghrelin to test its effects on food intake and migratory restlessness. We found that acylated ghrelin concentrations of garden warblers with larger fat scores were higher than those of birds without fat stores. Further, injections of unacylated ghrelin decreased food intake and increased migratory restlessness. These results represent experimental evidence that appetite-regulating hormones control migratory behavior. Our study lays a milestone in migration physiology because it provides the missing link between ecologically dependent factors such as condition and timing of migration. In addition, it offers insights in the regulation of the hormonal system controlling food intake and energy stores in vertebrates, whose disruption causes eating disorders and obesity. PMID:28167792

  2. Paradoxical sleep deprivation activates hypothalamic nuclei that regulate food intake and stress response.

    PubMed

    Galvão, Milene de Oliveira Lara; Sinigaglia-Coimbra, Rita; Kawakami, Suzi Emiko; Tufik, Sergio; Suchecki, Deborah

    2009-09-01

    A large body of evidence has shown that prolonged paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) results in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, and in loss of body weight despite an apparent increase of food intake, reflecting increased energy expenditure. The flowerpot technique for PSD is an efficient paradigm for investigating the relationships among metabolic regulation and stress response. The purpose of the present study was to examine the mechanisms involved in the effects of 96 h of PSD on metabolism regulation, feeding behaviour and stress response by studying corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and orexin (ORX) immunoreactivity in specific hypothalamic nuclei. Once-daily assessments of body weight, twice-daily measurements of (spillage-corrected) food intake, and once-daily determinations of plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone were made throughout PSD or at corresponding times in control rats (CTL). Immunoreactivity for CRH in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and for ORX in the hypothalamic lateral area was evaluated at the end of the experimental period. PSD resulted in increased diurnal, but not nocturnal, food intake, producing no significant changes in global food intake. PSD augmented the immunoreactivity for CRH and plasma ACTH and corticosterone levels, characterizing activation of the HPA axis. PSD also markedly increased the ORX immunoreactivity. The average plasma level of corticosterone correlated negatively with body weight gain throughout PSD. These results indicate that augmented ORX and CRH immunoreactivity in specific hypothalamic nuclei may underlie some of the metabolic changes consistently described in PSD.

  3. Ghrelin in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) post-larvae: Paracrine effects on food intake.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Guillén, Carmen; Yúfera, Manuel; Engrola, Sofia

    2017-02-01

    Successful food consumption and digestion depend on specifics anatomical and behavioral characteristics and corresponding physiological functions that should be ready to work at the appropriate time. The physiological regulation of appetite and ingestion involves a complex integration of peripheral and central signals by the brain. Ghrelin is a peptide hormone involved in the control of energy homeostasis and increases food intake in mammals, however ghrelin has species-specific actions on food intake in fish. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this peptide has an orexigenic or anorexigenic role in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) in order to improve the knowledge of the physiological basis underlying feeding activity. Feed intake was measured at several sampling points to determine the overall action time of the peptide and its effect in Senegalese sole food intake. Artemia protein digestibility and retention were determined in order to analyze the ghrelin effect in fed and fasted Senegalese sole post-larvae. Results suggested that ghrelin acts as orexigenic hormone in Senegalese sole, with a response time around 25min. Results indicated that Senegalese sole post-larvae are able to maintain absorption and retention capacities independently of feeding rate and nutritional status. Furthermore, the present study gives insight for the first time of the fate of the retained amino acids, being mainly used for protein accretion (86.79% of retained amino acids recovered in protein and FAA fractions).

  4. Insulin receptor regulates food intake through sulfakinin signaling in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xianyu; Yu, Na; Smagghe, Guy

    2016-06-01

    Insects obtain energy and nutrients via feeding to support growth and development. The insulin signaling pathway is involved in the regulation of feeding; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we show that insulin signaling regulates food intake via crosstalk with neuropeptide sulfakinin in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Silencing of the insulin receptor (InR) decreased the food intake in the penultimate and final instar stages, leading to a decrease of weight gain and mortality during larval-pupal metamorphosis. Interestingly, the knockdown of InR co-occurred with an increased expression of sulfakinin (sk), a gene encoding neuropeptide SK functioning as a satiety signal. In parallel, double silencing of sk and InR eliminated the inhibitory effect on food intake as induced by silencing of InR and the larvae died as prepupae. In conclusion, this study shows, for the first time, that the insulin/InR signaling regulates food intake through the sulfakinin signaling pathway in the larval stages of this important model and pest insect, indicating a novel target for pest control.

  5. Kisspeptin and RFRP-3 differentially regulate food intake and metabolic neuropeptides in the female desert jerboa

    PubMed Central

    Talbi, Rajae; Laran-Chich, Marie-Pierre; Magoul, Rabia; El Ouezzani, Seloua; Simonneaux, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Jerboas are wild rodents exhibiting exceptional adaptation to their desert environment. Under harsh autumn conditions, they shut down reproduction, increase body weight and hibernate, while during spring they become sexually active even under negative energy-balance. We recently reported that these rhythms are associated with synchronized changes in genes expressing reproductive (Kiss1, Rfrp) and metabolic (Npy and Pomc) peptides, raising the hypothesis of coordinated seasonal regulation of both functions. Here we analyzed whether kisspeptin and RFRP-3 regulate food-intake in parallel to their established reproductive functions. Intracerebroventricular administration of kisspeptin inhibited food intake by 1.5-fold in fasted, but not ad-libitum fed, female jerboas captured in spring, an effect associated with an increase in Pomc and decrease in Rfrp mRNA levels. By contrast, intracerebroventricular injection of RFRP-3 induced a 4-fold increase in food-intake in ad-libitum female jerboas, together with a decrease in Pomc and increase in Npy mRNA levels. This orexigenic effect of RFRP-3 was observed in both spring and autumn, whereas kisspeptin’s anorexigenic effect was only observed in spring. Altogether, this study reports opposite metabolic effects of kisspeptin and RFRP-3 in the female jerboa and strengthens our hypothesis of a coordinated, season-dependent, regulation of reproductive activity and food intake through interactions of these hypothalamic peptides. PMID:27805048

  6. Food label use and its relation to dietary intake among US adults.

    PubMed

    Ollberding, Nicholas Jay; Wolf, Randi L; Contento, Isobel

    2011-05-01

    Rates of diet-related chronic disease combined with the lack of current data on patterns of food label use by the US population warrant re-examination of the use and potential influence of this public health tool. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of food label use and the association between food label use and nutrient intake in a nationally representative sample of US adults who participated in the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Data on food label use were collected during the interview portion of the survey, and nutrient intake was estimated using the average of two 24-hour dietary recalls. In this sample, 61.6% of participants reported using the Nutrition Facts panel, 51.6% looked at the list of ingredients, 47.2% looked at serving size, and 43.8% reviewed health claims at least sometimes when deciding to purchase a food product. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in food label use across all demographic characteristics examined. Significant differences (P<0.05) in mean nutrient intake of total energy, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, dietary fiber, and sugars were observed between food label users and non-users with label users reporting healthier nutrient consumption. The greatest differences observed were for total energy and fat and for use of specific nutrient information on the food label. Despite food label use being associated with improved dietary factors, label use alone is not expected to be sufficient in modifying behavior ultimately leading to improved health outcomes.

  7. Food label use and its relation to dietary intake among US adults.

    PubMed

    Ollberding, Nicholas Jay; Wolf, Randi L; Contento, Isobel

    2010-08-01

    Rates of diet-related chronic disease combined with the lack of current data on patterns of food label use by the US population warrant re-examination of the use and potential influence of this public health tool. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of food label use and the association between food label use and nutrient intake in a nationally representative sample of US adults who participated in the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Data on food label use were collected during the interview portion of the survey, and nutrient intake was estimated using the average of two 24-hour dietary recalls. In this sample, 61.6% of participants reported using the Nutrition Facts panel, 51.6% looked at the list of ingredients, 47.2% looked at serving size, and 43.8% reviewed health claims at least sometimes when deciding to purchase a food product. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in food label use across all demographic characteristics examined. Significant differences (P<0.05) in mean nutrient intake of total energy, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, dietary fiber, and sugars were observed between food label users and non-users with label users reporting healthier nutrient consumption. The greatest differences observed were for total energy and fat and for use of specific nutrient information on the food label. Despite food label use being associated with improved dietary factors, label use alone is not expected to be sufficient in modifying behavior ultimately leading to improved health outcomes.

  8. Food-related advertisements and food intake among adult men and women.

    PubMed

    Wonderlich-Tierney, Anna L; Wenzel, Kevin R; Vander Wal, Jillon S; Wang-Hall, Jennifer

    2013-12-01

    Television viewing may contribute to obesity via promotion of sedentary behavior and exposure to food-related commercials. However, the mechanisms by which food-related commercials promote food intake are not well understood. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of television advertisements on food intake according to sex and transportability, or the tendency to become engrossed in what one is viewing. Eighty-three undergraduate students, free of disordered eating symptoms, were stratified by sex and randomly assigned to one of three conditions (food-related advertisements, neutral advertisements, or no advertisements). They were then identified as high or low in transportability according to a median split. A significant interaction was found between advertisement condition and transportability such that those high in transportability ate more in the food than other advertisement conditions. A second interaction was found between sex and transportability with women high in transportability eating more food than women low in transportability irrespective of advertisement condition. No significant main effects of advertisement condition, sex, or transportability were found. Results suggest the importance of studying the impact of individual difference variables on the relationship between food-related advertising and food intake.

  9. Food consumption and nutrient intake in Italian school children: results of the ZOOM8 study.

    PubMed

    Martone, Deborah; Roccaldo, Romana; Censi, Laura; Toti, Elisabetta; Catasta, Giovina; D'Addesa, Dina; Carletti, Claudia

    2013-09-01

    The food consumption and food habits of Italian third-class-primary-school children were assessed and their energy and nutrient intakes were compared with requirements. The study involved 1740 subjects (900 males and 840 females) aged 8-9 years, from the north, centre and south of Italy. Body weight and height were measured. Parents filled in a semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire for their child. The results showed that the diet of Italian children is unbalanced in terms of macronutrients and deficient in fiber. The average daily intakes of fruit (234 g/d), vegetables (134 g/d) and legumes (17 g/d), were lower than the nationally recommended ones. The percentages of energy intake from fats (41%) and from carbohydrates (45%) were higher and lower respectively than recommended. Low intakes of fiber (13.5 g/d) were reported. A national nutrition policy in Italy should focus on nutrition education programs in schools and for parents.

  10. Child care choices, food intake, and children's obesity status in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Bidisha; Powell, Lisa M

    2014-07-01

    This article studies two pathways in which selection into different types of child care settings may affect likelihood of childhood obesity. Frequency of intake of high energy-dense and low energy-dense food items may vary across care settings, affecting weight outcomes. We find that increased use of paid and regulated care settings, such as center care and Head Start, is associated with higher consumption of fruits and vegetables. Among children from single-mother households, the probability of obesity increases by 15 percentage point with an increase in intake of soft drinks from four to six times a week to daily consumption and by 25 percentage point with an increase in intake of fast food from one to three times a week to four to six times a week. Among children from two-parent households, eating vegetables one additional time a day is associated with 10 percentage point decreased probability of obesity, while one additional drink of juice a day is associated with 10 percentage point increased probability of obesity. Second, variation across care types could be manifested through differences in the structure of the physical environment not captured by differences in food intake alone. This type of effect is found to be marginal and is statistically significant among children from two-parent households only. Data are used from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Birth Cohort surveys (N=10,700; years=2001-2008). Children's age ranged from four to six years in the sample.

  11. The new Dietary Reference Intakes in food labeling: the food industry's perspective.

    PubMed

    Kretser, Alison J

    2006-05-01

    The food industry appreciates the complexity of applying the new Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) in labeling. The industry is prepared to update food labels to reflect new nutrient recommendations and views upcoming changes as an opportunity to harmonize nutrition information across the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005, MyPyramid.gov, and the food label. Members of the Grocery Manufacturers Association are unanimous in their belief that the food label be as useful to consumers as possible. This article raises discussion points, issues, and implications associated with implementation of the new DRIs on the food label.

  12. The Effects of Exercise on Food Intake and Hunger: Relationship with Acylated Ghrelin and Leptin

    PubMed Central

    Vatansever-Ozen, Serife; Tiryaki-Sonmez, Gul; Bugdayci, Guler; Ozen, Guclu

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a long bout of aerobic exercise on hunger and energy intake and circulating levels of leptin and acylated ghrelin. Ten healthy male subjects undertook two, 4 h trials in a randomized crossover design. In the exercise trial subjects ran for 105 min at 50% of maximal oxygen uptake and the last 15 min at 70% of maximal oxygen uptake followed by a 120 min rest period. In the control trial, subjects rested for 4 h. Subjects consumed a buffet test meal at 180 min during each trial. Hunger ratings, acylated ghrelin, leptin, glucose and insulin concentrations were measured at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h. No differences were found at baseline values for hunger, acylated ghrelin, leptin, insulin and glucose for both trials (p > 0.05). The estimated energy expenditure of the exercise trial was 1550 ± 136 kcal. Exercise did not change subsequent absolute energy intake, but produced a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in relative energy intake. A two-way ANOVA revealed a significant (p < 0. 05) interaction effect for hunger and acylated ghrelin. In conclusion, this exercise regimen had a positive effect on reducing appetite which is related to reduced acylated ghrelin responses over time. This finding lends support for a role of exercise in weight management. Key points Physical exercise is a strategy used to counteract obesity, since it lowers the energetic balance by increasing energy expenditure. However, because any energy expended in exercise elevates the intensity of hunger and drives food consumption, it is pertinent to ask how effective exercise could be in helping people to lose weight or to prevent weight gain. The effects of exercise on hunger sensations and food intake are fairly controversial and depend on the intensity and duration of exercise. 120 min prolonged treadmill exercise with mix intensity, temporarily decreased hunger sensations, acylated ghrelin and relative energy intake. Variations in exercise intensity should

  13. Peripheral ghrelin injections stimulate food intake, foraging, and food hoarding in Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Keen-Rhinehart, Erin; Bartness, Timothy J

    2005-03-01

    Fasting triggers many effects, including increases in circulating concentrations of ghrelin, a primarily stomach-derived orexigenic hormone. Exogenous ghrelin treatment stimulates food intake, implicating it in fasting-induced increases in feeding, a consummatory ingestive behavior. In Siberian hamsters, fasting also stimulates appetitive ingestive behaviors such as foraging and food hoarding. Therefore, we tested whether systemic ghrelin injections (3, 30, and 200 mg/kg) would stimulate these appetitive behaviors using a running wheel-based food delivery system coupled with simulated burrow housing. We also measured active ghrelin plasma concentrations after exogenous ghrelin treatment and compared them to those associated with fasting. Hamsters had the following: 1) no running wheel access, free food; 2) running wheel access, free food; or 3) foraging requirement (10 revolutions/pellet), no free food. Ghrelin stimulated foraging at 0-1, 2-4, and 4-24 h postinjection but failed to affect wheel running activity not coupled to food. Ghrelin stimulated food intake initially (200-350%, first 4 h) across all groups; however, in hamsters with a foraging requirement, ghrelin also stimulated food intake 4-24 h postinjection (200-250%). Ghrelin stimulated food hoarding 2-72 h postinjection (100-300%), most markedly 2-4 h postinjection in animals lacking a foraging requirement (635%). Fasting increased plasma active ghrelin concentrations in a time-dependent fashion, with the 3- and 30-mg/kg dose creating concentrations of the peptide comparable to those induced by 24-48 h of fasting. Collectively, these data suggest that exogenous ghrelin, similar to fasting, increases appetitive behaviors (foraging, hoarding) by Siberian hamsters, but dissimilar to fasting in this species, stimulates food intake.

  14. Energy, saturated fat and fibre intakes among Dutch children and adolescents at breakfast and implications for educational messages.

    PubMed

    Raaijmakers, L G M; Bessems, K M H H; Kremers, S P J; van Assema, P

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess energy, saturated fat and fibre intakes at breakfast among Dutch youngsters aged 10-19 years and the extent to which they meet nutritional value recommendations and the educational messages on food group intake by the Netherlands Nutrition Centre (NNC). A cross-sectional design was used and data were collected through an online questionnaire among 2380 students attending 71 Dutch schools for primary and secondary education. Energy intake at breakfast was, on average, 15.8% of daily recommended energy intake; mean saturated fat intake was 7.5 en% and mean fibre intake 1.0 g per 100 kcal. Of the participants, 67.2% met the saturated fat intake recommendation and 35.3% the fibre intake recommendation. In addition, 25.5% were assessed to have an adequate energy intake based on daily recommended, but not individually measured, age- and gender-specific energy intake. Most participants consumed products from the grains food group, in combination with products from one or two other food groups. Consumption from two or more food groups resulted in less favourable intake. Our study found generally inadequate fibre intake at breakfast as well as an indication of inadequate energy intake at breakfast among Dutch youngsters. The educational message of the NNC to consume at least (wholemeal) bread or another fibre-rich product (cereals) at breakfast seems realistic in terms of compliance and favourable in terms of the resulting nutritional value. The educational message to preferably eat from each of the five main food groups should be reconsidered.

  15. Intake of specific nutrients and foods and hearing level measured 13 years later.

    PubMed

    Péneau, Sandrine; Jeandel, Claude; Déjardin, Philippe; Andreeva, Valentina A; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2013-06-01

    Only a few studies have investigated the impact of nutrients and food groups on hearing level (HL) with a population-based approach. We examined the 13-year association between intake of specific nutrients and food groups and HL in a sample of French adults. A total of 1823 subjects, aged 45-60 years at baseline, participating in the Supplementation with Antioxidant Vitamins and Minerals 2 cohort were selected. Nutrient and food intake was estimated at baseline among participants who had completed at least six 24 h dietary records. HL was assessed 13 years after baseline and was defined as the pure-tone air conduction of the worse ear at the following thresholds: 0·5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz. The relationship between quartiles of energy-adjusted nutrient and food intake and HL was assessed by multivariate linear regression analyses, in men and women separately. Intakes of retinol (P-trend ¼ 0·058) and vitamin B12 (P-trend=0·068) tended to be associated with better HL in women. Intakes of meat as a whole (P-trend=0·030), red meat (P-trend=0·014) and organ meat (P-trend=0·017) were associated with better HL in women. Higher intake of seafood as a whole (P-trend=0·07) and of shellfish (P-trend=0·097) tended to be associated with better HL in men. Consumption of meat is therefore associated with a better HL in women. Further research is required to better elucidate the mechanisms behind the associations between diet and hearing.

  16. 28 CFR 549.64 - Food/liquid intake/output.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Food/liquid intake/output. 549.64 Section... MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.64 Food/liquid intake/output. (a) Staff shall prepare and...) Staff shall remove any commissary food items and private food supplies of the inmate while the inmate...

  17. 28 CFR 549.64 - Food/liquid intake/output.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Food/liquid intake/output. 549.64 Section... MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.64 Food/liquid intake/output. (a) Staff shall prepare and...) Staff shall remove any commissary food items and private food supplies of the inmate while the inmate...

  18. Short and long-term energy intake patterns and their implications for human body weight regulation.

    PubMed

    Chow, Carson C; Hall, Kevin D

    2014-07-01

    Adults consume millions of kilocalories over the course of a few years, but the typical weight gain amounts to only a few thousand kilocalories of stored energy. Furthermore, food intake is highly variable from day to day and yet body weight is remarkably stable. These facts have been used as evidence to support the hypothesis that human body weight is regulated by active control of food intake operating on both short and long time scales. Here, we demonstrate that active control of human food intake on short time scales is not required for body weight stability and that the current evidence for long term control of food intake is equivocal. To provide more data on this issue, we emphasize the urgent need for developing new methods for accurately measuring energy intake changes over long time scales. We propose that repeated body weight measurements can be used along with mathematical modeling to calculate long-term changes in energy intake and thereby quantify adherence to a diet intervention and provide dynamic feedback to individuals that seek to control their body weight.

  19. Food dependence in rats selectively bred for low versus high saccharin intake. Implications for "food addiction".

    PubMed

    Yakovenko, Veronica; Speidel, Elizabeth R; Chapman, Clinton D; Dess, Nancy K

    2011-10-01

    The "food addiction" concept implies that proneness to drug dependence and to food dependence should covary. The latter was studied in low- (LoS) and high- (HiS) saccharin-consuming rats, who differ in drug self-administration (HiS>LoS) and withdrawal (LoS>HiS). Sugary food intake in the first 1-2 h was higher in HiS than LoS rats. Sugar intake predicted startle during abstinence only among LoS rats. These results may suggest bingeing-proneness in HiS rats and withdrawal-proneness among LoS rats. However, intake escalation and somatic withdrawal did not differ between lines. Further study with selectively bred rats, with attention to definitions and measures, is warranted.

  20. [Anthropometric evaluation and food intake of preschool children at municipal educational centers, in South of Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Ferreira, Andreza Campos; Pereira, Cristina Novack Amaral; Silva, Roberta Ribeiro

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this article is to evaluate socioeconomic conditions, nutritional status and food intake of preschool children assisted at Municipal Educational Centers (CEMs) of Alfenas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A transverse study involving 186 children was performed. The socioeconomic profile, weight, height, age, sex and food intake by a direct weighting tool were evaluated. It was observed an income family of one to three minimum wages, incomplete fundamental learning, private house with basic sanitation, four to five inhabitants per house of whom two worked at most. The average age was 49.2 +/- 12.9 months. The stunting rates were more prevalent among the children (20.5%). The whole, 72.6% of children have energy intake below Estimated Energy Intake (EER). However, when stratifying for age group, 78.4% of the children from 1 to 3 years old have high energy intake and 74.1% from 4 to 6 years old have inadequate energy intake. All children presented consumption below the Adequate Intake (AI) of calcium and most of them below to Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) of iron. Despite some biosocioeconomic factors be favorable to the nutritional status, malnutrition, and inadequate nutrient intake were present, which demanded the implementation of nutritional programs in CEMs.

  1. Both encouraging feeding style and high energy density may increase energy intakes from fermented millet gruels eaten by infants and toddlers in Ouagadougou.

    PubMed

    Mouquet-Rivier, Claire; Traoré, Tahirou; Soma, Adama; Kaboré, Claire; Trèche, Serge

    2016-04-01

    Traditional fermented millet gruel is frequently eaten by children in Burkina Faso as a complementary food or for breakfast. The effects of gruel energy density and feeding style on intakes (amounts and energy) were assessed in children in Ouagadougou. Twenty-three young children (11 infants and 12 toddlers) were given two meals of gruel per day for two periods of 11 consecutive days, first, the traditional fermented gruel (TFG), and second, an improved high energy density fermented gruel (IFG). On the first 10 days of each period, the children were fed as usual, while on the 11th day, the mothers were asked to use encouraging feeding. Intakes of TFG and IFG were also measured once a day for nine days in 25 preschoolers (2-5 years-old). After adjustment for the subject effect, IFG intakes did not significantly differ from TFG intakes in the groups of infants and toddlers, meaning there was a significant increase in energy intakes, which almost doubled. Encouraging feeding increased TFG intakes in both age groups, but IFG intakes only increased in toddlers, whose energy intake tripled compared to that from TFG with the usual feeding style. In preschoolers, mean IFG intakes were lower than TFG intakes and there were no increase in mean energy intakes. Improving fermented gruel and training the mothers to encourage their young children during feeding are two possible strategies to improve food intakes, and hence to better satisfy the children's nutritional needs.

  2. The Built Food Environment and Dietary Intake among African-American Adults

    PubMed Central

    Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Okamoto, Hiroe; Hernandez, Daphne C.; Regan, Seann D.; McNeill, Lorna H.; Obasi, Ezemenari M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The built food environment surrounding people's homes may influence their dietary intake. This exploratory study examined how the density of different sources of food in the residential environment was associated with dietary consumption among 77 African-American adults in Houston, Texas. Methods The number of fast-food-type restaurants, large grocery stores, and convenience-type stores within 2- and 5-mile residential buffers were divided by the respective areas to obtain food environment density variables. Intake of fruit and vegetables [FV], fiber [FI], and percent energy from fat [PEF] was assessed using National Health Interview Survey items. Covariate-adjusted regressions were used to assess relations of interest. Results Greater density of fast-food-type restaurants within 2 miles was associated with greater FV, FI, and PEF (ps ≤ .012); and for FV and FI within 5 miles (ps < .004). Density of large grocery stores was unrelated to intake. Greater density of convenience-type stores within 2 miles was negatively associated with FV and FI (ps ≤ .03); results became marginal at 5 miles for FV (p = .10) but not FI (p = .03). Conclusion Maximizing healthy offerings in venue-rich metropolitan areas might provide direction for policies to reduce obesity. PMID:26685808

  3. Personality factors predict spicy food liking and intake

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Nadia K.; Hayes, John E.

    2012-01-01

    A number of factors likely affect the liking of capsaicin-containing foods such as social influences, repeated exposure to capsaicin, physiological differences in chemosensation, and personality. For example, it is well known that repeated exposure to capsaicin and chilies can result in chronic desensitization. Here, we explore the relationship between multiple personality variables – body awareness/consciousness, sensation seeking, and sensitivity to punishment, and sensitivity to reward – and the liking and consumption of capsaicin-containing foods. As expected, a strong relationship was found between liking of spicy foods and frequency of chili consumption. However, no association was observed between frequency of chili consumption and the perceived burn/sting of sampled capsaicin. Nor was there any association between perceived burn/sting of capsaicin and any of the personality measures. Private Body Consciousness did not relate to any of the measures used in the current study. Sensation Seeking showed positive correlations with the liking of spicy foods, but not non-spicy control foods. Sensitivity to Punishment showed no relation with frequency of chili consumption, and nonsignificant negative trends with liking of spicy foods. Conversely, Sensitivity to Reward was weakly though significantly correlated with the liking of a spicy meal, and similar nonsignificant trends were seen for other spicy foods. Frequency of chili consumption was positively associated with Sensation Seeking and Sensitivity to Reward. Present data indicate individuals who enjoy spicy foods exhibit higher Sensation Seeking and Sensitivity to Reward traits. Rather than merely showing reduced response to the irritating qualities of capsaicin as might be expected under the chronic desensitization hypothesis, these findings support the hypothesis that personality differences may drive differences in spicy food liking and intake. PMID:23538555

  4. Hippocampus Contributions to Food Intake Control: Mnemonic, Neuroanatomical, and Endocrine Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kanoski, Scott E; Grill, Harvey J

    2015-09-28

    Food intake is a complex behavior that can occur or cease to occur for a multitude of reasons. Decisions about where, when, what, and how much to eat are not merely reflexive responses to food-relevant stimuli or to changes in energy status. Rather, feeding behavior is modulated by various contextual factors and by previous experiences. The data reviewed here support the perspective that neurons in multiple hippocampal subregions constitute an important neural substrate linking the external context, the internal context, and mnemonic and cognitive information to control both appetitive and ingestive behavior. Feeding behavior is heavily influenced by hippocampal-dependent mnemonic functions, including episodic meal-related memories and conditional learned associations between food-related stimuli and postingestive consequences. These mnemonic processes are undoubtedly influenced by both external and internal factors relating to food availability, location, and physiological energy status. The afferent and efferent neuroanatomical connectivity of the subregions of the hippocampus is reviewed with regard to the integration of visuospatial and olfactory sensory information (the external context) with endocrine and gastrointestinal interoceptive stimuli (the internal context). Also discussed are recent findings demonstrating that peripherally derived endocrine signals act on receptors in hippocampal neurons to reduce (leptin, glucagon-like peptide-1) or increase (ghrelin) food intake and learned food reward-driven responding, thereby highlighting endocrine and neuropeptidergic signaling in hippocampal neurons as a novel substrate of importance in the higher-order regulation of feeding behavior.

  5. Peptide YY signaling in the lateral parabrachial nucleus increases food intake through the Y1 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Golub, Danielle; Hayes, Matthew R.; Grill, Harvey J.

    2015-01-01

    Although central PYY delivery potently increases food intake, the sites of action and mechanisms mediating these hyperphagic effects are not fully understood. The present studies investigate the contribution of lateral parabrachial nucleus (lPBN) PYY-Y receptor signaling to food intake control, as lPBN neurons express Y receptors and receive PYY fibers and are known to integrate circulating and visceral sensory signals to regulate energy balance. Immunohistochemical results identified a subpopulation of gigantocellular reticular nucleus PYY-producing neurons that project monosynaptically to the lPBN, providing an endogenous source of PYY to the lPBN. lPBN microinjection of PYY-(1–36) or PYY-(3–36) markedly increased food intake by increasing meal size. To determine which receptors mediate these behavioral results, we first performed quantitative real-time PCR to examine the relative levels of Y receptor expression in lPBN tissue. Gene expression analyses revealed that, while Y1, Y2, and Y5 receptors are each expressed in lPBN tissue, Y1 receptor mRNA is expressed at fivefold higher levels than the others. Furthermore, behavioral/pharmacological results demonstrated that the hyperphagic effects of PYY-(3–36) were eliminated by lPBN pretreatment with a selective Y1 receptor antagonist. Together, these results highlight the lPBN as a novel site of action for the intake-stimulatory effects of central PYY-Y1 receptor signaling. PMID:26330345

  6. Salty food intake and risk of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Tsugane, S; Tei, Y; Takahashi, T; Watanabe, S; Sugano, K

    1994-05-01

    To clarify the risk factors for Helicobacter pylori infection, which is considered to play an etiologic role in atrophic gastritis, duodenal ulcer and gastric cancer, various parameters including diet and socioeconomic characteristics were compared between H. pylori-infected and non-infected men. In a cross-sectional study of 634 men aged 40 to 49 years selected randomly from five areas with different rates of gastric cancer mortality, 474 of 628 men evaluated were positive for IgG antibody against H. pylori. After logistic regression analysis adjusted for area, the results showed a significant association between frequent intake of pickled vegetables and prevalence of H. pylori antibody (odds ratios against men who consume < 1 day/week 1.19 for 1-2 days/week, 1.92 for 3-4 days/week, 1.90 for 5-7 days/week; P for trend = 0.02). Daily consumption of miso soup was also associated with an increased risk (odds ratio against non-daily consumer = 1.60, 95% confidence interval = 1.03-2.49). Occupation, number of siblings, education, smoking and alcohol drinking, and other dietary habits were not significantly associated with the prevalence of infection in this population. Although there are limitations in a cross-sectional study such as this, consumption of salty foods appears to increase the risk of H. pylori infection, which could be a marker of salty food intake or an intermediate risk factor in the etiologic sequence between salty food intake and gastric cancer.

  7. Can the controversial relationship between dietary calcium and body weight be mechanistically explained by alterations in appetite and food intake?

    PubMed Central

    Teegarden, Dorothy; Gunther, Carolyn W

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide and the incidence of overweight and obesity continues to rise. Diet plays a significant role in the modulation of body weight and there is some evidence to suggest that calcium or dairy intake may modulate body weight and body fat mass. Several mechanisms through which calcium or dairy products may affect body weight or fat have been suggested, including a possible effect on appetite and food intake. A recent study investigated to what extent people could compensate for increased energy intake from dairy products and found that a 7-day increase in dairy intake had no effect on appetite and no evidence of complete compensation for the raised energy intake. In another study, the effects of altered calcium content of a dairy-based test meal was evaluated in obese subjects; the findings indicated that although a higher calcium content of the meal reduced the extent of post-prandial chylomicron-associated triglyceridemia, there was no effect on appetite-related hormones (CCK, ghrelin, GLP-1, or PPY) or on energy intake from a subsequent ad libitum test meal. Thus, this new evidence does not support the hypothesis that high calcium or dairy intake reduces appetite or food intake. PMID:18826456

  8. Can the controversial relationship between dietary calcium and body weight be mechanistically explained by alterations in appetite and food intake?

    PubMed

    Teegarden, Dorothy; Gunther, Carolyn W

    2008-10-01

    The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide and the incidence of overweight and obesity continues to rise. Diet plays a significant role in the modulation of body weight and there is some evidence to suggest that calcium or dairy intake may modulate body weight and body fat mass. Several mechanisms through which calcium or dairy products may affect body weight or fat have been suggested, including a possible effect on appetite and food intake. A recent study investigated to what extent people could compensate for increased energy intake from dairy products and found that a 7-day increase in dairy intake had no effect on appetite and no evidence of complete compensation for the raised energy intake. In another study, the effects of altered calcium content of a dairy-based test meal was evaluated in obese subjects; the findings indicated that although a higher calcium content of the meal reduced the extent of post-prandial chylomicron-associated triglyceridemia, there was no effect on appetite-related hormones (CCK, ghrelin, GLP-1, or PPY) or on energy intake from a subsequent ad libitum test meal. Thus, this new evidence does not support the hypothesis that high calcium or dairy intake reduces appetite or food intake.

  9. Effect of salt intensity in soup on ad libitum intake and on subsequent food choice.

    PubMed

    Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P; Lakemond, Catriona M M; de Wijk, Rene A; Luning, Pieternel A; de Graaf, Cees

    2012-02-01

    The effect of salt intensity on ad libitum intake of tomato soup was investigated when soup was served as a first course and as a second course. Also the effect of salt intensity in soup on subsequent sweet vs. savory choice of sandwich fillings was investigated. Forty-three healthy subjects consumed ad libitum a low-salt (LS), ideal-salt (IS) and high-salt (HS) tomato soup in both meal settings. The salt concentrations were selected on an individual basis, in a way that IS was most pleasant and LS and HS were similar in pleasantness. The ad libitum intake of IS soup was higher than that of LS and HS soup, and the ad libitum intake of LS soup was higher than that of HS soup. The meal setting, soup as a first or as a second course, did not affect ad libitum intake. Salt intensity in soup did not predict sweet vs. savory choice of fillings in grams or energy, although most sodium from fillings was consumed after intake of HS soup. In conclusion, a higher salt intensity lead to lower ad libitum intake of soup similar in palatability (LS vs. HS). In addition, salt intensity in soup does not predict sweet vs. savory food choice.

  10. Food intake suppressant effect of baclofen in rats.

    PubMed

    Zarrindast, M R; Hosseini-Nia, T; Allah-Maddadi, S

    1989-01-01

    1. Baclofen given intraperitoneally (i.p.) to rats caused a dose-dependent decrease in food intake. 2. Bicuculline or picrotoxin (GABAA-antagonist) and methergoline (5-HT antagonist) decreased the anorectic effect of baclofen. 3. Pimozide (dopamine receptor blocker), phenoxybenzamine and propranolol (alpha and beta adrenergic blockers) did not diminish the baclofen effect, but even increased the anorexia induced by the drug. 4. It can be postulated that, at least partially, GABAA receptor mechanism, GABA-5HT receptor complex and/or 5-HT mechanism may be involved in baclofen induced anorexia.

  11. Immediate increase in food intake following exercise messages.

    PubMed

    Albarracin, Dolores; Wang, Wei; Leeper, Joshua

    2009-07-01

    Communications to stimulate weight loss include exercise-promotion messages that often produce unsatisfactory results due to compensatory behavioral and metabolic mechanisms triggered by physical activity. This research investigated potential automatic facilitation of eating immediately after exercise messages in the absence of actual exercise. Two controlled experiments demonstrated greater than control food intake following exposure to print messages typical of exercise campaigns as well as subliminal presentation of action words associated with exercise (e.g., "active"). These inadvertent effects may explain the limited efficacy of exercise-promotion programs for weight loss, particularly when systematic dietary guidelines are absent.

  12. Immediate Increase in Food Intake Following Exercise Messages

    PubMed Central

    Albarracin, Dolores; Wang, Wei; Leeper, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Communications to stimulate weight loss include exercise-promotion messages that often produce unsatisfactory results due to compensatory behavioral and metabolic mechanisms triggered by physical activity. This research investigated potential automatic facilitation of eating immediately after exercise messages in the absence of actual exercise. Two controlled experiments demonstrated greater than control food intake following exposure to print messages typical of exercise campaigns as well as subliminal presentation of action words associated with exercise (e.g., “active”). These inadvertent effects may explain the limited efficacy of exercise-promotion programs for weight loss, particularly when systematic dietary guidelines are absent. PMID:19247284

  13. Metabolizable energy intake of client-owned adult cats.

    PubMed

    Thes, M; Koeber, N; Fritz, J; Wendel, F; Dobenecker, B; Kienzle, E

    2015-12-01

    A retrospective analysis of the metabolizable energy (ME) intake of privately owned pet cats from the authors' nutrition consultation practice (years 2007-2011) was carried out to test whether current recommendations are suitable for pet cats. Data of 80 adult cats (median age: 9.0 years, median deviation from ideal weight: +22.5%, majority neutered) at maintenance were available. Six percentage of the cats were healthy and the others were affected by various chronic diseases. A standardized questionnaire was used, cat owners weighed cat and food. For ration calculation, the software Diet Check Munich(™) was used (ME prediction according to National Research Council, 2006: Nutrient Requirements of Dogs and Cats. National Academy Press, Washington, DC). Data were analysed for the factors deviation from ideal weight, breed, age, gender, disease and type of feeding [prepared food (dry, wet) vs. home-made]. Over- or underweight were defined as ≥15% deviation from ideal body weight (BW) according to Kienzle and Moik (British Journal of Nutrition 2011, 106, Suppl 1: S113). Cat owner's estimation of ideal BW was higher than literature data from Kienzle and Moik (2011). Based on literature data, 26.3% of the pet cats were normal weight, 63.7% overweight and 10% underweight. The mean ME intake of all adult cats amounted to 0.40 ± 0.14 MJ/kg actual BW(0.67) (n = 80). When the data were analysed according to normal, over- and underweight, there was a significant effect with normal weight cats eating 0.46 MJ/kg BW(0.67) . Underweight cats ate even more (0.49 MJ/kg BW(0.67) ), whereas overweight cats ate considerably less (0.36 MJ/kg BW(0.67) ). The other factors had no influence on ME intake of adult cats.

  14. Effect of WIC Food Package Changes on Dietary Intake of Preschool Children in New Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Morshed, Alexandra B.; Davis, Sally M.; Greig, Elizabeth A.; Myers, Orrin B.; Cruz, Theresa H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study examined WIC policy change effects on dietary intake of preschool children from WIC-participating households in rural New Mexico communities. Methods Dietary intake of children enrolled in Head Start in 8 communities was compared before and after 2009 WIC food package changes. Results Following the policy change, participants reported significantly increased consumption of lower-fat milk, reduced consumption of saturated fat (grams), and decreased consumption of vegetables without potatoes. No significant differences in fruit, fruit juice, vegetables including potatoes, whole-grains and saturated fat (percent-energy) consumption were observed. Conclusions WIC policy changes have the potential to improve children’s saturated fat intake. More research with robust designs is necessary to examine long-term effects of WIC policy changes. PMID:27668264

  15. Nutritional impact of sodium reduction strategies on sodium intake from processed foods

    PubMed Central

    Hendriksen, M A H; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J; Noort, M W; van Raaij, J M A

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives: Sodium intake in the Netherlands is substantially above the recommended intake of 2400 mg/day. This study aimed to estimate the effect of two sodium reduction strategies, that is, modification of the composition of industrially processed foods toward the technologically feasible minimum level or alteration of consumers' behavior on sodium intake in the Netherlands. Subjects/methods: Data from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (2007–2010) and the Food Composition Table (2011) were used to estimate the current sodium intake. In the first scenario, levels in processed foods were reduced toward their technologically feasible minimum level (sodium reduction in processed foods scenario). The minimum feasible levels were based on literature searches or expert judgment. In the second scenario, foods consumed were divided into similar food (sub)groups. Subsequently, foods were replaced by low-sodium alternatives (substitution of processed foods scenario). Sodium intake from foods was calculated based on the mean of two observation days for the current food consumption pattern and the scenarios. Results: Sodium levels of processed foods could be reduced in most food groups by 50%, and this may reduce median sodium intake from foods by 38% (from 3042 to 1886 mg/day in adult men). Substitution of foods may reduce sodium intake by 47% (from 3042 to 1627 mg/day in adult men), owing to many low-sodium alternatives within food groups. Conclusions: In the Netherlands, reduction of sodium intake by modification of food composition or by alteration of behavior may substantially reduce the median sodium intake from foods below the recommended sodium intake. PMID:25782426

  16. Food Group and Micronutrient Intake Adequacy among Children, Adults and Elderly Women in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Mavrogianni, Christina; van den Heuvel, Ellen GHM; Bos, Rolf; Singh-Povel, Cecile

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to record the percentage of children, adults and elderly women in Greece meeting food and micronutrient intake recommendations. Additionally, the present study was aiming to identify the main food contributors of micronutrient intakes and assess the degree up to which meeting food intake recommendations also ensures micronutrient intake adequacy. Dietary intake data from three studies conducted in Greece (on 9–13-year-old children; 40–60-year-old adults; and 50–75-year-old women) were used to estimate mean intakes, the percentages of subjects meeting food and nutrient intake recommendations and the contribution of six core food groups to nutrient intake adequacy. The present study showed that more than 50% of children, adults and elderly women were failing to consume the recommended portions of vegetables, dairy and grains. Furthermore, children and adults consuming the recommended portions of individual core food groups had significantly lower percentages of inadequate micronutrient intakes compared to their counterparts not meeting food intake recommendations (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, even among those consuming the recommended portions from a specific core food group, the recommended intake of the corresponding micronutrient (for which this food group is the main contributor) was not always met. Indicatively, 18.2%–44.1% and 4.2%–7.0% of the populations under study were not meeting calcium and vitamin C intake recommendations, although they were consuming the recommended portions of dairy and fruits, respectively. In conclusion, these findings highlight the importance for public health policy makers to take all necessary initiatives to support the population in achieving the recommended intakes from all core food groups, but also emphasize on food variety to ensure adequate intake for all micronutrients. PMID:25768954

  17. Food group and micronutrient intake adequacy among children, adults and elderly women in Greece.

    PubMed

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Mavrogianni, Christina; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Bos, Rolf; Singh-Povel, Cecile

    2015-03-11

    The aim of the present study was to record the percentage of children, adults and elderly women in Greece meeting food and micronutrient intake recommendations. Additionally, the present study was aiming to identify the main food contributors of micronutrient intakes and assess the degree up to which meeting food intake recommendations also ensures micronutrient intake adequacy. Dietary intake data from three studies conducted in Greece (on 9-13-year-old children; 40-60-year-old adults; and 50-75-year-old women) were used to estimate mean intakes, the percentages of subjects meeting food and nutrient intake recommendations and the contribution of six core food groups to nutrient intake adequacy. The present study showed that more than 50% of children, adults and elderly women were failing to consume the recommended portions of vegetables, dairy and grains. Furthermore, children and adults consuming the recommended portions of individual core food groups had significantly lower percentages of inadequate micronutrient intakes compared to their counterparts not meeting food intake recommendations (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, even among those consuming the recommended portions from a specific core food group, the recommended intake of the corresponding micronutrient (for which this food group is the main contributor) was not always met. Indicatively, 18.2%-44.1% and 4.2%-7.0% of the populations under study were not meeting calcium and vitamin C intake recommendations, although they were consuming the recommended portions of dairy and fruits, respectively. In conclusion, these findings highlight the importance for public health policy makers to take all necessary initiatives to support the population in achieving the recommended intakes from all core food groups, but also emphasize on food variety to ensure adequate intake for all micronutrients.

  18. Effect of plate size on meal energy intake in normal weight women

    PubMed Central

    Akyol, Asli; Cetin, Cansu; Besler, H. Tanju

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Use of smaller plates to control food intake is a commonly recommended strategy for restricting energy intake, despite conflicting results. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether or not three different sizes of plates influence energy intake during a multi-itemed buffet meal in normal weight women. SUBJECTS/METHODS This was a cross-over study conducted on 37 female participants aged 19-25 years with normal BMI levels. Participants were recruited from Hacettepe University and the surrounding community. On experimental days, participants ate a standard breakfast and were then randomly assigned to eat lunch using a small (19 cm), medium (23 cm), or large (28 cm) diameter plate. Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores on sensory and satiety outcomes were measured for all meals. Energy and macronutrient intakes during lunch were recorded. RESULTS There was no evidence that use of a smaller plate size reduced energy or specific macronutrient intake during the free choice lunch meal. Multiple visits to the serving table were not associated with energy or macronutrient intake. Plate size did not affect VAS scores during the test days. CONCLUSIONS Plate size did not influence energy intake, meal composition, or palatability in normal weight women during a multi-itemed open buffet lunch. Studies in natural settings at the population level are needed to clarify current outcomes. PMID:27698960

  19. Ketosis, ketogenic diet and food intake control: a complex relationship

    PubMed Central

    Paoli, Antonio; Bosco, Gerardo; Camporesi, Enrico M.; Mangar, Devanand

    2015-01-01

    Though the hunger-reduction phenomenon reported during ketogenic diets is well-known, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms remain uncertain. Ketosis has been demonstrated to exert an anorexigenic effect via cholecystokinin (CCK) release while reducing orexigenic signals e.g., via ghrelin. However, ketone bodies (KB) seem to be able to increase food intake through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the release and production of adiponectin. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of our current knowledge of the effects of ketogenic diet (KD) on food control in an effort to unify the apparently contradictory data into a coherent picture. PMID:25698989

  20. Western-Style Fast Food Intake and Cardiometabolic Risk in an Eastern Country

    PubMed Central

    Odegaard, Andrew O.; Koh, Woon Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min; Gross, Myron D.; Pereira, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Western-style fast food contributes to a dietary pattern portending poor cardiometabolic health in the United States. With globalization, this way of eating is becoming more common in developing and recently developed populations. Methods and Results We examined the association of Western-style fast food intake with risk of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease mortality in Chinese Singaporeans. This analysis included men and women 45 to 74 years of age who enrolled in the Singapore Chinese Health Study from 1993 to 1998. For CHD mortality, 52 584 participants were included and 1397 deaths were identified through December 31, 2009, via registry linkage. For type 2 diabetes mellitus, 43 176 participants were included and 2252 cases were identified during the follow-up interview (1999 –2004) and validated. Hazard ratios for incident type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease mortality were estimated with thorough adjustment for demographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors. Chinese Singaporeans with relatively frequent intake of Western-style fast food items (≥2 times per week) had an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (hazard ratio, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.03–1.54) and dying of coronary heart disease (hazard ratio, 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.18 –2.06) relative to their peers with little or no reported intake. These associations were not materially altered by adjustments for overall dietary pattern, energy intake, and body mass index. Conclusions Western-style fast food intake is associated with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and of coronary heart disease mortality in an Eastern population. These findings suggest the need for further attention to global dietary acculturation in the context of ongoing epidemiological and nutrition transitions. PMID:22753304

  1. Food and Nutrient Intake among 12-Month-Old Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi Infants

    PubMed Central

    Grewal, Navnit Kaur; Andersen, Lene Frost; Kolve, Cathrine Solheim; Kverndalen, Ingrid; Torheim, Liv Elin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to describe food and nutrient intake among 12-month-old Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi infants, with a focus on iron and vitamin D intake. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from August 2013 through September 2014. Eighty-nine mothers/infants of Somali origin and 77 mothers/infants of Iraqi origin residing in Eastern Norway participated in the study. Data were collected using two 24-h multiple-pass recalls. Forty percent of the Norwegian-Somali infants and 47% of the Norwegian-Iraqi infants were breastfed at 12 months of age (p = 0.414). Median energy percentages (E%) from protein, fat and carbohydrates were within the recommended intake ranges, except the level of saturated fats (12–13 E%). Median intakes of almost all micronutrients were above the recommended daily intakes. Most of the infants consumed iron-enriched products (81%) and received vitamin D supplements (84%). The median intakes of iron and vitamin D were significantly higher among infants receiving iron-enriched products and vitamin D supplements compared to infants not receiving such products (p < 0.001). The findings indicate that the food and nutrient intake of this group of infants in general seems to be in accordance with Norwegian dietary recommendations. Foods rich in iron and vitamin D supplements were important sources of the infants’ intake of iron and vitamin D and should continue to be promoted. PMID:27690092

  2. Energy Intake, Profile, and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Emma; Ávila, José Manuel; Valero, Teresa; del Pozo, Susana; Rodriguez, Paula; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2015-06-12

    Energy intake, and the foods and beverages contributing to that, are considered key to understanding the high obesity prevalence worldwide. The relative contributions of energy intake and expenditure to the obesity epidemic, however, remain poorly defined in Spain. The purpose of this study was to contribute to updating data of dietary energy intake and its main sources from food and beverages, according to gender and age. These data were derived from the ANIBES ("Anthropometry, Intake, and Energy Balance in Spain") study, a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the Spanish population (from 9-75 years old). A three-day dietary record, collected by means of a tablet device, was used to obtain information about food and beverage consumption and leftovers. The final sample comprised 2009 individuals (1,013 men, 996 women). The observed mean dietary energy intake was 7.6 ± 2.11 MJ/day (8.2 ± 2.22 MJ/day for men and 6.9 ± 1.79 MJ/day for women). The highest intakes were observed among adolescents aged 13-17 years (8.4 MJ/day), followed by children 9-12 years (8.2 ± 1.80 MJ/day), adults aged 18-64 (7.6 ± 2.14 MJ/day) and older adults aged 65-75 years (6.8 ± 1.88 MJ/day). Cereals or grains (27.4%), meats and derivatives (15.2%), oils and fats (12.3%), and milk and dairy products (11.8%) contributed most to daily energy intake. Energy contributions from non-alcoholic beverages (3.9%), fish and shellfish (3.6%), sugars and sweets (3.3%) and alcoholic beverages (2.6%) were moderate to minor. Contributions to caloric profile were 16.8%E from proteins; 41.1%E from carbohydrates, including 1.4%E from fiber; 38.5%E from fats; and 1.9%E from alcohol intake. We can conclude that energy intake is decreasing in the Spanish population. A variety of food and beverage groups contribute to energy intake; however, it is necessary to reinforce efforts for better adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet.

  3. Energy Intake, Profile, and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Emma; Ávila, José Manuel; Valero, Teresa; del Pozo, Susana; Rodriguez, Paula; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M.; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    Energy intake, and the foods and beverages contributing to that, are considered key to understanding the high obesity prevalence worldwide. The relative contributions of energy intake and expenditure to the obesity epidemic, however, remain poorly defined in Spain. The purpose of this study was to contribute to updating data of dietary energy intake and its main sources from food and beverages, according to gender and age. These data were derived from the ANIBES (“Anthropometry, Intake, and Energy Balance in Spain”) study, a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the Spanish population (from 9–75 years old). A three-day dietary record, collected by means of a tablet device, was used to obtain information about food and beverage consumption and leftovers. The final sample comprised 2009 individuals (1,013 men, 996 women). The observed mean dietary energy intake was 7.6 ± 2.11 MJ/day (8.2 ± 2.22 MJ/day for men and 6.9 ± 1.79 MJ/day for women). The highest intakes were observed among adolescents aged 13–17 years (8.4 MJ/day), followed by children 9–12 years (8.2 ± 1.80 MJ/day), adults aged 18–64 (7.6 ± 2.14 MJ/day) and older adults aged 65–75 years (6.8 ± 1.88 MJ/day). Cereals or grains (27.4%), meats and derivatives (15.2%), oils and fats (12.3%), and milk and dairy products (11.8%) contributed most to daily energy intake. Energy contributions from non-alcoholic beverages (3.9%), fish and shellfish (3.6%), sugars and sweets (3.3%) and alcoholic beverages (2.6%) were moderate to minor. Contributions to caloric profile were 16.8%E from proteins; 41.1%E from carbohydrates, including 1.4%E from fiber; 38.5%E from fats; and 1.9%E from alcohol intake. We can conclude that energy intake is decreasing in the Spanish population. A variety of food and beverage groups contribute to energy intake; however, it is necessary to reinforce efforts for better adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet. PMID:26076230

  4. Exercise-Trained Men and Women: Role of Exercise and Diet on Appetite and Energy Intake

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Stephanie M.; Hand, Taryn M.; Manore, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of appetite and energy intake is influenced by numerous hormonal and neural signals, including feedback from changes in diet and exercise. Exercise can suppress subjective appetite ratings, subsequent energy intake, and alter appetite-regulating hormones, including ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1) for a period of time post-exercise. Discrepancies in the degree of appetite suppression with exercise may be dependent on subject characteristics (e.g., body fatness, fitness level, age or sex) and exercise duration, intensity, type and mode. Following an acute bout of exercise, exercise-trained males experience appetite suppression, while data in exercise-trained women are limited and equivocal. Diet can also impact appetite, with low-energy dense diets eliciting a greater sense of fullness at a lower energy intake. To date, little research has examined the combined interaction of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake. This review focuses on exercise-trained men and women and examines the impact of exercise on hormonal regulation of appetite, post-exercise energy intake, and subjective and objective measurements of appetite. The impact that low-energy dense diets have on appetite and energy intake are also addressed. Finally, the combined effects of high-intensity exercise and low-energy dense diets are examined. This research is in exercise-trained women who are often concerned with weight and body image issues and consume low-energy dense foods to keep energy intakes low. Unfortunately, these low-energy intakes can have negative health consequences when combined with high-levels of exercise. More research is needed examining the combined effect of diet and exercise on appetite regulation in fit, exercise-trained individuals. PMID:25389897

  5. Exercise-trained men and women: role of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Howe, Stephanie M; Hand, Taryn M; Manore, Melinda M

    2014-11-10

    The regulation of appetite and energy intake is influenced by numerous hormonal and neural signals, including feedback from changes in diet and exercise. Exercise can suppress subjective appetite ratings, subsequent energy intake, and alter appetite-regulating hormones, including ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1) for a period of time post-exercise. Discrepancies in the degree of appetite suppression with exercise may be dependent on subject characteristics (e.g., body fatness, fitness level, age or sex) and exercise duration, intensity, type and mode. Following an acute bout of exercise, exercise-trained males experience appetite suppression, while data in exercise-trained women are limited and equivocal. Diet can also impact appetite, with low-energy dense diets eliciting a greater sense of fullness at a lower energy intake. To date, little research has examined the combined interaction of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake. This review focuses on exercise-trained men and women and examines the impact of exercise on hormonal regulation of appetite, post-exercise energy intake, and subjective and objective measurements of appetite. The impact that low-energy dense diets have on appetite and energy intake are also addressed. Finally, the combined effects of high-intensity exercise and low-energy dense diets are examined. This research is in exercise-trained women who are often concerned with weight and body image issues and consume low-energy dense foods to keep energy intakes low. Unfortunately, these low-energy intakes can have negative health consequences when combined with high-levels of exercise. More research is needed examining the combined effect of diet and exercise on appetite regulation in fit, exercise-trained individuals.

  6. Hypothalamic eIF2α Signaling Regulates Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Maurin, Anne-Catherine; Benani, Alexandre; Lorsignol, Anne; Brenachot, Xavier; Parry, Laurent; Carraro, Valérie; Guissard, Christophe; Averous, Julien; Jousse, Céline; Bruhat, Alain; Chaveroux, Cédric; B’chir, Wafa; Muranishi, Yuki; Ron, David; Pénicaud, Luc; Fafournoux, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Summary The reversible phosphorylation of the α subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α) is a highly conserved signal implicated in the cellular adaptation to numerous stresses such as the one caused by amino acid limitation. In response to dietary amino acid deficiency, the brain-specific activation of the eIF2α kinase GCN2 leads to food intake inhibition. We report here that GCN2 is rapidly activated in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) after consumption of a leucine-deficient diet. Furthermore, knockdown of GCN2 in this particular area shows that MBH GCN2 activity controls the onset of the aversive response. Importantly, pharmacological experiments demonstrate that the sole phosphorylation of eIF2α in the MBH is sufficient to regulate food intake. eIF2α signaling being at the crossroad of stress pathways activated in several pathological states, our study indicates that hypothalamic eIF2α phosphorylation could play a critical role in the onset of anorexia associated with certain diseases. PMID:24485657

  7. Discrete strategies to reduce intake of discretionary food choices: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Grieger, Jessica A; Wycherley, Thomas P; Johnson, Brittany J; Golley, Rebecca K

    2016-05-06

    On a population level, dietary improvement strategies have had limited success in preventing the surge in overweight and obesity or reducing risk factors for chronic disease. While numerous multi-component studies have examined whole-of-diet strategies, and single component (i.e. discrete) dietary intervention strategies have targeted an increase in core foods (e.g. fruits, vegetables, dairy), there is a paucity of evidence on the effectiveness of dietary intervention strategies targeting a decrease in discretionary choices. The aim of this review was to identify dietary intervention strategies that are potentially relevant to reducing intake of discretionary choices in 2-65 year olds. A scoping review was carried out to map the literature on key discrete dietary intervention strategies that are potentially applicable to reducing discretionary choices, and to identify the targeted health/nutrition effects (e.g. improve nutrient intake, decrease sugar intake, and reduce body weight) of these strategies. Studies conducted in participants aged 2-65 years and published in English by July 20, 2015, were located through electronic searches including the Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and Scopus. Three thousand two hundred and eighty three studies were identified from the search, of which 44 met the selection criteria. The dietary intervention strategies included reformulation (n = 13), substitution (n = 5), restriction/elimination (n = 9), supplementation (n = 13), and nutrition education/messages (n = 4). The key findings of the review were: restricting portion size was consistently beneficial for reducing energy intake in the acute setting; reformulating foods from higher fat to lower fat could be useful to reduce saturated fat intake; substituting discretionary choices for high fibre snacks, fruit, or low/no-calorie beverages may be an effective strategy for reducing energy intake; supplementing nutrient dense foods such as nuts and

  8. More distinct food intake patterns among women than men in northern Sweden: a population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Winkvist, Anna; Hörnell, Agneta; Hallmans, Göran; Lindahl, Bernt; Weinehall, Lars; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2009-01-01

    Background The need to promote a healthy diet to curb the current obesity epidemic has today been recognized by most countries. A prerequisite for planning and evaluating interventions on dietary intake is the existence of valid information on long-term average dietary intake in a population. Few large, population-based studies of dietary intake have been carried out in Sweden. The largest to date is the Västerbotten Intervention Program (VIP), which was initiated in 1985, with data collection still ongoing. This paper reports on the first comprehensive analyses of the dietary data and presents dietary intake patterns among over 60,000 women and men in northern Sweden during 1992–2005. Methods Between 1992 and 2005, 71,367 inhabitants in Västerbotten county aged 30, 40, 50, and 60 years visited their local health care center as part of the VIP. Participants of VIP filled in an 84- or 64-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and provided sociodemographic information. Complete and realistic information on consumption frequency was provided by 62,531 individuals. Food intake patterns were analyzed using K-means cluster analyses. Results The mean daily energy intake was 6,83 (± 1,77) MJ among women and 8,71 (± 2,26) MJ among men. More than half of both women and men were classified as Low Energy Reporters (defined as individuals reporting a food intake level below the lower 95% confidence interval limit of the physical activity level). Larger variation in frequency of daily intake was seen among women than among men for most food groups. Among women, four dietary clusters were identified, labeled "Fruit and vegetables", "High fat", "Coffee and sandwich", and "Tea and ice cream". Among men, three dietary clusters were identified, labeled "Fruit and vegetables", "High fat", and "Tea, soda and cookies". Conclusion More distinct food intake patterns were seen among women than men in this study in northern Sweden. Due to large proportions of Low Energy Reporters

  9. Light at night increases body mass by shifting the time of food intake.

    PubMed

    Fonken, Laura K; Workman, Joanna L; Walton, James C; Weil, Zachary M; Morris, John S; Haim, Abraham; Nelson, Randy J

    2010-10-26

    The global increase in the prevalence of obesity and metabolic disorders coincides with the increase of exposure to light at night (LAN) and shift work. Circadian regulation of energy homeostasis is controlled by an endogenous biological clock that is synchronized by light information. To promote optimal adaptive functioning, the circadian clock prepares individuals for predictable events such as food availability and sleep, and disruption of clock function causes circadian and metabolic disturbances. To determine whether a causal relationship exists between nighttime light exposure and obesity, we examined the effects of LAN on body mass in male mice. Mice housed in either bright (LL) or dim (DM) LAN have significantly increased body mass and reduced glucose tolerance compared with mice in a standard (LD) light/dark cycle, despite equivalent levels of caloric intake and total daily activity output. Furthermore, the timing of food consumption by DM and LL mice differs from that in LD mice. Nocturnal rodents typically eat substantially more food at night; however, DM mice consume 55.5% of their food during the light phase, as compared with 36.5% in LD mice. Restricting food consumption to the active phase in DM mice prevents body mass gain. These results suggest that low levels of light at night disrupt the timing of food intake and other metabolic signals, leading to excess weight gain. These data are relevant to the coincidence between increasing use of light at night and obesity in humans.

  10. The impact of nutritional policy on socioeconomic disparity in the unhealthy food intake among Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kirang; Park, Sun Min; Oh, Kyung Won

    2013-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the trend in unhealthy food intake by socioeconomic position (SEP) and to determine whether the government's nutritional policies affect socioeconomic disparity in the food intake among adolescents. Data were from the six independent cross-sectional survey data (2006-2011) of Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey and included 445,287 subjects aged 12-18 years. The unhealthy food intake was assessed by food frequency intake and SEP was evaluated with the family affluence scale. We observed that unhealthy food intakes decreased through the years, showing the apparent decline when nutritional policies focusing on the restriction of unhealthy foods were implemented, and the trend was all same in the different SEP groups. The pattern of unhealthy food intakes by SEP has changed before and after implementation of the policies. The intakes of carbonated beverages, fast food, and confectioneries were higher in the higher SEP group before implementation of the policies but the difference was not shown after implementation of the policies. The intake of instant noodles was consistently higher in the lower SEP group. The risk of frequent consumption of unhealthy foods was generally more decreased through the years in the higher SEP group than the lower SEP group. In conclusion, this study found the positive effect of nutritional policy on unhealthy food intake among adolescents and the high SEP group appeared to undergo greater desirable changes in dietary behaviors after implementation of nutritional policies than the low SEP group.

  11. The Intestinal Peptide Transporter PEPT1 Is Involved in Food Intake Regulation in Mice Fed a High-Protein Diet

    PubMed Central

    Sailer, Manuela; Daniel, Hannelore

    2011-01-01

    High-protein diets are effective in achieving weight loss which is mainly explained by increased satiety and thermogenic effects. Recent studies suggest that the effects of protein-rich diets on satiety could be mediated by amino acids like leucine or arginine. Although high-protein diets require increased intestinal amino acid absorption, amino acid and peptide absorption has not yet been considered to contribute to satiety effects. We here demonstrate a novel finding that links intestinal peptide transport processes to food intake, but only when a protein-rich diet is provided. When mice lacking the intestinal peptide transporter PEPT1 were fed diets containing 8 or 21 energy% of protein, no differences in food intake and weight gain were observed. However, upon feeding a high-protein (45 energy%) diet, Pept1−/− mice reduced food intake much more pronounced than control animals. Although there was a regain in food consumption after a few days, no weight gain was observed which was associated with a reduced intestinal energy assimilation and increased fecal energy losses. Pept1−/− mice on high-protein diet displayed markedly reduced plasma leptin levels during the period of very low food intake, suggesting a failure of leptin signaling to increase energy intake. This together with an almost two-fold elevated plasma arginine level in Pept1−/− but not wildtype mice, suggests that a cross-talk of arginine with leptin signaling in brain, as described previously, could cause these striking effects on food intake. PMID:22031831

  12. Trans fatty acids: current contents in Canadian foods and estimated intake levels for the Canadian population.

    PubMed

    Ratnayake, W M Nimal; L'Abbe, Mary R; Farnworth, Sara; Dumais, Lydia; Gagnon, Claude; Lampi, Brian; Casey, Valerie; Mohottalage, Dayani; Rondeau, Isabelle; Underhill, Lynne; Vigneault, Michele; Lillycrop, William; Meleta, Mary; Wong, Lynn Y; Ng, Tran; Gao, Yu; Kwong, Keri; Chalouh, Shirley; Pantazopoulos, Peter; Gunaratna, Hasantha; Rahardja, Adeline; Blagden, Richard; Roscoe, Veronica; Krakalovich, Thomas; Neumann, Gary; Lombaert, Gary A

    2009-01-01

    Research conducted in the mid-1990s indicated that the levels of trans fats in Canadian diets were among the highest in the world. The consumption of trans fats raises blood levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, while reducing levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. In June 2007, Health Canada called on the food industry to voluntarily reduce levels of trans fats in vegetable oils and soft (tub)-margarines to < 2% of total fat, and in all other foods, to < 5%. Industry must show satisfactory progress by June 2009, or Health Canada might have to introduce legislation to ensure that recommended limits are achieved. Since 2005, Health Canada has been performing a national assessment of prepackaged and restaurant foods that likely contain trans fats. From 2005 to 2009, 1120 samples were analyzed, of which 852 or approximately 76% met the recommended trans fat limits. As a result of reformulation, most of the products had decreased trans + saturated fat content. The estimated average intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) in Canada significantly dropped from the high value of 8.4 g/day in the mid-1990s to 3.4 g/day (or 1.4% food energy) in 2008. However, this TFA intake of 1.4% of energy is still above the World Health Organization recommended limit of TFA intake of < 1% of energy, which suggests that the Canadian food industry needs to put more effort into reducing the TFA content in its products, especially in tub-margarines, donuts, and bakery products.

  13. Household food insecurity and dietary intake among Mexican-American women participating in federal food assistance programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study explored the association between food insecurity and dietary intake among Mexican-American women after controlling for sociocultural and economic factors including participation in federal food assistance programs. A cross-sectional design was used. Demographics, anthropometrics, accultur...

  14. Mineral Intake in Urban Pregnant Women from Base Diet, Fortified Foods, and Food Supplements: Focus on Calcium, Iron, and Zinc.

    PubMed

    Jia, Hai Xian; Han, Jun Hua; Li, Hu Zhong; Liang, Dong; Deng, Tao Tao; Chang, Su Ying

    2016-12-01

    In the Chinese national nutrition surveys, fortified foods were not investigated separately from the base diet, and the contribution of fortified foods to micronutrients intake is not very clear. This study investigated the diet, including fortified foods and food supplements, of urban pregnant women and analyzed the intake of calcium, iron, and zinc to assess the corresponding contributions of fortified foods, food supplements, and the base diet. The results demonstrated that the base diet was the major source of calcium, iron, and zinc, and was recommended to be the first choice for micronutrients intake. Furthermore, consumption of fortified foods and food supplements offered effective approaches to improve the dietary intake of calcium, iron, and zinc in Chinese urban pregnant women.

  15. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake assessment from 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hexiang; Tang, Jun; Huang, Lichun; Shen, Xianghong; Zhang, Ronghua; Chen, Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Aluminium was measured in 2580 samples of 15 food groups and dietary exposure was estimated. Samples were purchased and analysed during 2010 to 2014. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (mean 4862 mg/kg), laver (mean 455.2 mg/kg) and fried twisted cruller (mean 392.4 mg/kg). Dietary exposure to aluminium was estimated for Zhejiang residents. The average dietary exposure to aluminium via 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province was 1.15 mg/kg bw/week, which is below the provisional tolerable weekly intake of 2 mg/kg bw /week. Jellyfish is the main Al contributor, providing 37.6% of the daily intake via these 15 food groups. This study provided new information on aluminium levels and assessment of aluminium (Al) dietary exposure in Zhejiang Province of China.

  16. Measurement of Ad Libitum Food Intake, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Time in Response to Overfeeding

    PubMed Central

    He, Jianying; Votruba, Susanne; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Bonfiglio, Susan; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Given the wide availability of highly palatable foods, overeating is common. Energy intake and metabolic responses to overfeeding may provide insights into weight gain prevention. We hypothesized a down-regulation in subsequent food intake and sedentary time, and up-regulation in non-exercise activity and core temperature in response to overfeeding in order to maintain body weight constant. In a monitored inpatient clinical research unit using a cross over study design, we investigated ad libitum energy intake (EI, using automated vending machines), core body temperature, and physical activity (using accelerometry) following a short term (3-day) weight maintaining (WM) vs overfeeding (OF) diet in healthy volunteers (n = 21, BMI, mean ± SD, 33.2±8.6 kg/m2, 73.6% male). During the ad libitum periods following the WM vs. OF diets, there was no significant difference in mean 3-d EI (4061±1084 vs. 3926±1284 kcal/day, p = 0.41), and there were also no differences either in core body temperature (37.0±0.2°C vs. 37.1±0.2°C, p = 0.75) or sedentary time (70.9±12.9 vs. 72.0±7.4%, p = 0.88). However, during OF (but not WM), sedentary time was positively associated with weight gain (r = 0.49, p = 0.05, adjusted for age, sex, and initial weight). In conclusion, short term overfeeding did not result in a decrease in subsequent ad libitum food intake or overall change in sedentary time although in secondary analysis sedentary time was associated with weight gain during OF. Beyond possible changes in sedentary time, there is minimal attempt to restore energy balance during or following short term overfeeding. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00342732 PMID:22629311

  17. Food intake response to exercise and active video gaming in adolescents: effect of weight status.

    PubMed

    Chaput, J P; Tremblay, A; Pereira, B; Boirie, Y; Duclos, M; Thivel, D

    2016-02-14

    Although a few data are available regarding the impact of video games on energy intake (EI) in lean adolescents, there is no evidence on the effect of passive and active video gaming on food intake in both lean and obese youth. It is also unknown whether isoenergetic active video games and exercise differently affect food consumption in youth. In all, twelve lean and twelve obese adolescent boys (12-15 years old) had to complete four 1-h sessions in a cross-over design study: control (CON; sitting), passive video game (PVG; boxing game on Xbox 360), active video game (AVG; boxing game on Xbox Kinect 360) and exercise (EX; cycling). The exercise and active video game activities were designed to generate the same energy expenditure (EE). EE was measured using a K4b2 portable indirect calorimeter. Ad libitum food intake and appetite sensations were assessed following the sessions. AVG and EX-EE were significantly higher in obese participants and significantly higher compared with PVG and CON in both groups. Obese participants significantly ate more than lean ones in all four conditions (P<0·001). EI did not differ between conditions in obese participants (CON: 4935 (SD 1490) kJ; PVG: 4902 (SD 1307) kJ; AVG: 4728 (SD 1358) kJ; EX: 4643 (SD 1335) kJ), and was significantly lower in lean participants after EX (2847 (SD 577) kJ) compared with PVG (3580 (SD 863) kJ) and AVG (3485 (SD 643) kJ) (P<0·05). Macronutrient intake was not significantly different between the groups or conditions. Hunger was significantly higher and satiety was lower in obese participants but no condition effect was observed. Overall, moderate-intensity exercise provides better effect on energy balance than an isoenergetic hour of active video gaming in lean adolescent boys by dually affecting EE and EI.

  18. Difference in adult food group intake by sex and age groups comparing Brazil and United States nationwide surveys

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background International comparisons of dietary intake are an important source of information to better understand food habits and their relationship to nutrition related diseases. The objective of this study is to compare food intake of Brazilian adults with American adults identifying possible dietary factors associated with the increase in obesity in Brazil. Methods This research used cross-national analyses between the United States and Brazil, including 5,420 adults in the 2007–2008 What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and 26,390 adults in the 2008–2009 Brazilian Household Budget Survey, Individual Food Intake. Dietary data were collected through 24 h recalls in the U.S. and through food records in Brazil. Foods and beverages were combined into 25 food categories. Food intake means and percentage of energy contribution by food categories to the population’s total energy intake were compared between the countries. Results Higher frequencies of intake were reported in the United States compared to Brazil for the majority of food categories except for meat, rice and rice dishes; beans and legumes; spreads; and coffee and tea. In either country, young adults (20-39 yrs) had greater reports of meat, poultry and fish mixed dishes; pizza and pasta; and soft drinks compared to older adults (60 + yrs). Meat, poultry and fish mixed dishes (13%), breads (11%), sweets and confections (8%), pizza and pasta (7%), and dairy products (6%) were the top five food category sources of energy intake among American adults. The top five food categories in Brazil were rice and rice dishes (13%), meat (11%), beans and legumes (10%), breads (10%), and coffee and tea (6%). Thus, traditional plant-based foods such as rice and beans were important contributors in the Brazilian diet. Conclusion Although young adults had higher reports of high-calorie and nutrient-poor foods than older adults in both countries, Brazilian young adults did not

  19. Validity of energy intake estimated by digital photography + recall in overweight and obese young adults

    PubMed Central

    Ptomey, Lauren T.; Willis, Erik A.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Mayo, Matthew S.; Washburn, Richard A.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Sullivan, Debra K.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent reports have questioned the adequacy of self-report measures of dietary intake as the basis for scientific conclusions regarding the associations of dietary intake and health, and reports have recommended the development and evaluation of better methods for the assessment of dietary intake in free-living individuals. We developed a procedure that utilized pre- and post-meal digital photographs in combination with dietary recalls (DP+R) to assess energy intake during ad libitum eating in a cafeteria setting. Objective To compare mean daily energy intake of overweight and obese young adults assessed by a DP+R method with mean total daily energy expenditure assessed by doubly labelled water (TDEEDLW). Methods Energy intake was assessed using the DP+R method in 91 overweight and obese young adults (age = 22.9±3.2 yrs., BMI=31.2 ± 5.6 kg·m2, female = 49%) over 7-days of ad libitum eating in a University cafeteria. Foods consumed outside the cafeteria (i.e., snacks, non-cafeteria meals) were assessed using multiple-pass recall procedures using food models and standardized, neutral probing questions. TDEEDLW was assessed in all participants over the 14-day period. Results The mean energy intakes estimated by DP+R and TDEEDLW were not significantly different (DP+R = 2912 ± 661 kcal/d; TDEEDLW = 2849 ± 748 kcal/d, p = 0.42). The DP+R method overestimated TDEEDLW by 63 ± 750 kcal/d (6.8 ± 28%). Conclusion Results suggest that the DP+R method provides estimates of energy intake comparable to those obtained by TDEEDLW. PMID:26122282

  20. Carbohydrate intake and food sources of junior triathletes during a moderate and an intensive training period.

    PubMed

    Carlsohn, Anja; Nippe, Susanne; Heydenreich, Juliane; Mayer, Frank

    2012-12-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the quantity and the main food sources of carbohydrate (CHO) intake of junior elite triathletes during a short-term moderate (MOD; 12 km swimming, 100 km cycling, 30 km running per wk) and intensive training period (INT; 23 km swimming, 200 km cycling, 45 km running per wk). Self-reported dietary-intake data accompanied by training protocols of 7 male triathletes (18.1 ± 2.4 yr, 20.9 ± 1.4 kg/m(2)) were collected on 7 consecutive days during both training periods in the same competitive season. Total energy and CHO intake were calculated based on the German Food Database. A paired t test was applied to test for differences between the training phases (α = .05). CHO intake was slightly higher in INT than in MOD (9.0 ± 1.6 g · kg(-1) · d(-1) vs. 7.8 ± 1.6 g · kg(-1) · d(-1); p = .041). Additional CHO in INT was mainly ingested during breakfast (115 ± 37 g in MOD vs. 175 ± 23 g in INT; p = .002) and provided by beverages (280.5 ± 97.3 g/d vs. 174.0 ± 58.3 g/d CHO; p = .112). Altogether, main meals provided approximately two thirds of the total CHO intake. Pre- and postexercise snacks additionally supplied remarkable amounts of CHO (198.3 ± 84.3 g/d in INT vs. 185.9 ± 112 g/d CHO in MOD; p = .231). In conclusion, male German junior triathletes consume CHO in amounts currently recommended for endurance athletes during moderate to intensive training periods. Main meals provide the majority of CHO and should therefore not be skipped. CHO-containing beverages, as well as pre- and postexercise snacks, may provide a substantial amount of CHO intake in training periods with high CHO requirements.

  1. Eating Frequency, Food Intake, and Weight: A Systematic Review of Human and Animal Experimental Studies

    PubMed Central

    Raynor, Hollie A.; Goff, Matthew R.; Poole, Seletha A.; Chen, Guoxun

    2015-01-01

    Eating frequently during the day, or “grazing,” has been proposed to assist with managing food intake and weight. This systematic review assessed the effect of greater eating frequency (EF) on intake and anthropometrics in human and animal experimental studies. Studies were identified through the PubMed electronic database. To be included, studies needed to be conducted in controlled settings or use methods that carefully monitored food intake, and measure food intake or anthropometrics. Studies using human or animal models of disease states (i.e., conditions influencing glucose or lipid metabolism), aside from being overweight or obese, were not included. The 25 reviewed studies (15 human and 10 animal studies) contained varying study designs, EF manipulations (1–24 eating occasions per day), lengths of experimentation (230 min to 28 weeks), and sample sizes (3–56 participants/animals per condition). Studies were organized into four categories for reporting results: (1) human studies conducted in laboratory/metabolic ward settings; (2) human studies conducted in field settings; (3) animal studies with experimental periods <1 month; and (4) animal studies with experimental periods >1 month. Out of the 13 studies reporting on consumption, 8 (61.5%) found no significant effect of EF. Seventeen studies reported on anthropometrics, with 11 studies (64.7%) finding no significant effect of EF. Future, adequately powered, studies should examine if other factors (i.e., disease states, physical activity, energy balance and weight status, long-term increased EF) influence the relationship between increased EF and intake and/or anthropometrics. PMID:26734613

  2. Habitual rapid food intake and ineffective esophageal motility

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kong-Ling; Chen, Ji-Hong; Zhang, Qian; Huizinga, Jan D; Vadakepeedika, Shawn; Zhao, Yu-Rong; Yu, Wen-Zhen; Luo, He-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To study non-cardiac chest pain (NCCP) in relation to ineffective esophageal motility (IEM) and rapid food intake. METHODS: NCCP patients with a self-reported habit of fast eating underwent esophageal manometry for the diagnosis of IEM. Telephone interviews identified eating habits of additional IEM patients. Comparison of manometric features was done among IEM patients with and without the habit of rapid food intake and healthy controls. A case study investigated the effect of 6-mo gum chewing on restoration of esophageal motility in an IEM patient. The Valsalva maneuver was performed in IEM patients and healthy controls to assess the compliance of the esophagus in response to abdominal pressure increase. RESULTS: Although most patients diagnosed with NCCP do not exhibit IEM, remarkably, all 12 NCCP patients who were self-reporting fast eaters with a main complaint of chest pain (75.0%) had contraction amplitudes in the mid and distal esophagus that were significantly lower compared with healthy controls [(23.45 mmHg (95%CI: 14.06-32.85) vs 58.80 mmHg (95%CI: 42.56-75.04), P < 0.01 and 28.29 mmHg (95%CI: 21.77-34.81) vs 50.75 mmHg (95%CI: 38.44-63.05), P < 0.01, respectively)]. In 7 normal-eating IEM patients with a main complaint of sensation of obstruction (42.9%), the mid amplitude was smaller than in the controls [30.09 mmHg (95%CI: 19.48-40.70) vs 58.80 mmHg (95%CI: 42.56-75.04), P < 0.05]. There was no statistically significant difference in manometric features between the fast-eating and normal-eating groups. One NCCP patient who self-reported fast eating and was subsequently diagnosed with IEM did not improve with proton-pump inhibition but restored swallow-induced contractions upon 6-mo gum-chewing. The Valsalva maneuver caused a markedly reduced pressure rise in the mid and proximal esophagus in the IEM patients. CONCLUSION: Habitual rapid food intake may lead to IEM. A prospective study is needed to validate this hypothesis. Gum-chewing might

  3. Effects of Pre-portioned and Family-style Food Service on Preschool Children's Food Intake and Waste at Snacktime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branen, Laurel; Fletcher, Janice; Myers, Linda

    1997-01-01

    Studied differences in food intake, waste, and time required for eating when young children are served by preportioned or family-style food service. Found intake of children fed family style was significantly greater, and no significant differences were found in the mean portions of waste or in the time required to eat. (Author)

  4. Socio-economic differences in food group and nutrient intakes among young women in Ireland.

    PubMed

    McCartney, Daniel M A; Younger, Katherine M; Walsh, Joanne; O'Neill, Marie; Sheridan, Claire; Kearney, John M

    2013-12-14

    The present study aimed to investigate socio-economic disparities in food and nutrient intakes among young Irish women. A total of 221 disadvantaged and seventy-four non-disadvantaged women aged 18-35 years were recruited. Diet was assessed using a diet history protocol. Of the total population, 153 disadvantaged and sixty-three non-disadvantaged women were classified as plausible dietary reporters. Food group intakes, nutrient intakes and dietary vitamin and mineral concentrations per MJ of energy consumed were compared between the disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged populations, as was compliance with dietary fibre, macronutrient and micronutrient intake guidelines. The disadvantaged women had lower intakes than the non-disadvantaged women of fruit, vegetables, fish, breakfast cereals, low-fat milk and wholemeal bread (all P< 0·001), yogurt (P= 0·001), low-fat spread (P= 0·002) and fresh meat (P= 0·003). They also had higher intakes of butter, processed red meats, white bread, sugar-sweetened beverages, fried potatoes and potato-based snacks (all P< 0·001) and full-fat milk (P= 0·014). Nutritionally, the disadvantaged women had higher fat, saturated fat and refined sugar intakes; lower dietary fibre, vitamin and mineral intakes; and lower dietary vitamin and mineral densities per MJ than their more advantaged peers. Non-achievement of carbohydrate (P= 0·017), fat (P< 0·001), saturated fat (P< 0·001), refined sugar (P< 0·001), folate (P= 0·050), vitamin C (P< 0·001), vitamin D (P= 0·047) and Ca (P= 0·019) recommendations was more prevalent among the disadvantaged women. Both groups showed poor compliance with Fe and Na guidelines. We conclude that the nutritional deficits present among these socially disadvantaged women are significant, but may be potentially ameliorated by targeted food-based interventions.

  5. "Split Them!" Smaller Item Sizes of Cookies Lead to a Decrease in Energy Intake in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchiori, David; Waroquier, Laurent; Klein, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine the influence of altering the size of snack food (ie, small vs large cookies) on short-term energy intake. Methods: First- and sixth-graders (n = 77) participated in a between-subjects experimental design. All participants were offered the same gram weight of cookies during an afternoon tea at their school. For half of the…

  6. Regulation of food intake by mechanosensory ion channels in enteric neurons

    PubMed Central

    Olds, William H; Xu, Tian

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of food intake is fundamental to energy homeostasis in animals. The contribution of non-nutritive and metabolic signals in regulating feeding is unclear. Here we show that enteric neurons play a major role in regulating feeding through specialized mechanosensory ion channels in Drosophila. Modulating activities of a specific subset of enteric neurons, the posterior enteric neurons (PENs), results in sixfold changes in food intake. Deficiency of the mechanosensory ion channel PPK1 gene or RNAi knockdown of its expression in the PENS result in a similar increase in food intake, which can be rescued by expression of wild-type PPK1 in the same neurons. Finally, pharmacological inhibition of the mechanosensory ion channel phenocopies the result of genetic interrogation. Together, our study provides the first molecular genetic evidence that mechanosensory ion channels in the enteric neurons are involved in regulating feeding, offering an enticing alternative to current therapeutic strategy for weight control. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04402.001 PMID:25285450

  7. Reduction of food intake following X-ray irradiation of rats--involvement of visceral afferent nerves.

    PubMed

    Unno, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Mitsuyasu; Arai, Shoichi; Kurosawa, Mieko

    2002-03-18

    Radiotherapy for malignant tumours often elicits anorexia or loss of appetite as an adverse effect. However, the mechanism for this is poorly understood. The present study was undertaken to investigate if visceral afferents are responsible for reduction of food intake following X-ray irradiation. Rats were exposed bilaterally to X-ray (10 MV) irradiation with total doses of 1.5, 3 and 6 Gy, using a high-energy electron linear accelerator at a dose rate of 4.9 Gy min(-1) X-ray irradiation of the whole body, abdomen or head with doses of 1.5, 3 and 6 Gy reduced food intake in a dose-dependent manner. The reduction of food intake after X-ray irradiation of the whole body or abdomen was significantly greater than when only the head was irradiated. Reduction of food intake was observed for the first 4 days after 6 Gy X-ray irradiation of the abdomen, while it was observed only on the first day after the same 6-Gy irradiation of the abdomen in animals whose small-diameter afferents were ablated by capsaicin pre-treatment. These results suggested that the abdominal afferent nerves at least contribute to the reduction of food intake observed on second to fourth days after 6-Gy abdominal irradiation. Taken together, the present evidence suggests that the reduction of food intake following X-ray irradiation of the whole body or the abdomen is partly mediated via abdominal afferent nerves. Moreover, the results of X-ray irradiation to the head suggest that X-ray irradiation directly influences the central nervous system to reduce food intake.

  8. Electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA): relative validity of a mobile phone application to measure intake of food groups.

    PubMed

    Rangan, Anna M; Tieleman, Laurissa; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Tang, Lie Ming; Hebden, Lana; Roy, Rajshri; Kay, Judy; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2016-06-01

    Automation of dietary assessment can reduce limitations of established methodologies, by alleviating participant and researcher burden. Designed as a research tool, the electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA) is a food record in mobile phone application format. The present study aimed to examine the relative validity of the e-DIA with the 24-h recall method to estimate intake of food groups. A sample of eighty university students aged 19-24 years recorded 5 d of e-DIA and 3 d of recall within this 5-d period. The three matching days of dietary data were used for analysis. Food intake data were disaggregated and apportioned to one of eight food groups. Median intakes of food groups were similar between the methods, and strong correlations were found (mean: 0·79, range: 0·69-0·88). Cross-classification by tertiles produced a high level of exact agreement (mean: 71 %, range: 65-75 %), and weighted κ values were moderate to good (range: 0·54-0·71). Although mean differences (e-DIA-recall) were small (range: -13 to 23 g), limits of agreement (LOA) were relatively large (e.g. for vegetables, mean difference: -4 g, LOA: -159 to 151 g). The Bland-Altman plots showed robust agreement, with minimum bias. This analysis supports the use of e-DIA as an alternative to the repeated 24-h recall method for ranking individuals' food group intake.

  9. [Folate and folic acid intake estimation and food enrichment requirements].

    PubMed

    Olivares Martínez, Ana Belén; Ros Berruezo, Gaspar; Bernal Cava, M José; Martínez Graciá, Carmen; Periago Castón, M Jesús

    2005-03-01

    The term "folate" is a generic way to name the different forms derived from folic acid, one of the B vitamins (specifically B9 vitamin). They are essential in the metabolism when they act as cofactors in the transfer reactions of one carbon. However, only plants and microorganisms are able to synthesize them de novo, in such a way that both animals and human beings have to intake them through their diet. Folic acid is widely spread in nature, mainly in vegetables, liver ans cereals. However, nowadays, the lack of folates in the diet is one of the most common nutritional deficiencies in the world, and it has serious consequences on human health. There is evidence that even in developed countries folate intake is usually low; and even, is some cases, below optima levels. The authorities in several countries have adapted different norms related to folic acid, fortifying staple food such as dairy products or cereals, mandatory (U.S.A., Canada or Chile) or voluntary (most of the European countries).

  10. Energy and the food system

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Jeremy; Williams, Adrian; Hughes, John K.; Black, Mairi; Murphy, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Modern agriculture is heavily dependent on fossil resources. Both direct energy use for crop management and indirect energy use for fertilizers, pesticides and machinery production have contributed to the major increases in food production seen since the 1960s. However, the relationship between energy inputs and yields is not linear. Low-energy inputs can lead to lower yields and perversely to higher energy demands per tonne of harvested product. At the other extreme, increasing energy inputs can lead to ever-smaller yield gains. Although fossil fuels remain the dominant source of energy for agriculture, the mix of fuels used differs owing to the different fertilization and cultivation requirements of individual crops. Nitrogen fertilizer production uses large amounts of natural gas and some coal, and can account for more than 50 per cent of total energy use in commercial agriculture. Oil accounts for between 30 and 75 per cent of energy inputs of UK agriculture, depending on the cropping system. While agriculture remains dependent on fossil sources of energy, food prices will couple to fossil energy prices and food production will remain a significant contributor to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Technological developments, changes in crop management, and renewable energy will all play important roles in increasing the energy efficiency of agriculture and reducing its reliance of fossil resources. PMID:20713398

  11. [Frequency of intake and energy value of breakfast for students from selected primary schools in Warsaw].

    PubMed

    Hamułka, J; Gronowska-Senger, A; Witkowska, K

    2000-01-01

    Energy value and frequency breakfast intake in Warsaw primary schools were estimated in a group of 330 children aged 7-15 years. The research was carried out in autumn 1998 year. The nutrition mode was assessed by questionnaire interviews and of 24-hour recall [4] and computer programme "Zywienie". The size of the consumed portion was determined with an album containing colour photographs of products and dishes of different size [14]. Food consumption quality was estimated using test of Bielińska modified by Kulesza et al. [8]. Frequency breakfast intake decreased at older schoolchildren. Breakfast milk and products, vegetables and fruits intake was too low; intake of fat sweets and beverages like "coca-cola" was too high. Breakfast energy value was too low compared with recommended dietary allowances.

  12. Food and nutrient intakes of French frequent seafood consumers with regard to fish consumption recommendations: results from the CALIPSO study.

    PubMed

    Sirot, Véronique; Dumas, Céline; Leblanc, Jean-Charles; Margaritis, Irène

    2011-05-01

    Besides providing n-3 fatty acids with nutritional and health benefits, seafood consumption may contribute to the reduction of nutrient prevalences of inadequacy. To evaluate the contributions of seafood and other food groups to nutrient intakes of frequent seafood consumers, food consumption was evaluated through an FFQ on 991 French men and women (18-81 years) consuming seafood at least twice a week. Intakes, prevalence of inadequacies, risks of upper limit excess and food contributions to intakes were assessed for thirty-three nutrients. Mean fat contributions to total energy intakes (38·3 and 39·0 % for men and women, respectively) met French recommendations, but mean carbohydrate intakes (40·9 and 39·7 %, respectively) were insufficient. Micronutrient inadequacies were lower than in the French general population, the highest being for vitamin C (41·3 and 40·1 % for men and women, respectively), vitamin E (35·0 and 35·3 % for men and women, respectively) and Mg (37·5 and 25·5 % for men and women, respectively). Upper safety limits (USL) were exceeded mostly for Zn (6·2 %), Ca (3·7 %), retinol (2·0 %) and Cu (0·9 %). Mean contributions of seafood to vitamin D, B12, I and Se intakes ranged 40-65 %. Molluscs and crustaceans significantly contributed to vitamin B12 (13·7 %), Cu (11·4 %), Fe (11·5 %), Zn (8·4 %) and I (6·1 %) intakes, and canned fish contributed to vitamin D intake (13·4 %). Besides fish, contributions of mollusc and crustacean consumption to nutrient intakes should be considered from a public health viewpoint. Consuming seafood at least twice a week induces moderate inadequacies and risks of exceeding USL for some micronutrients, whereas macronutrient intakes remained imbalanced.

  13. An intervention study targeting energy and nutrient intake in worksite cafeterias.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Michael R; Tappe, Karyn A; Butryn, Meghan L; Annunziato, Rachel A; Coletta, Maria C; Ochner, Christopher N; Rolls, Barbara J

    2010-08-01

    Modifying the food environment is a promising strategy for promoting healthier eating behavior. This study aimed to evaluate nutritional and weight changes in a program that used worksite cafeterias to reduce employees' calorie content of purchased foods and improve their macronutrient intake. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: 1) only environmental change (i.e., the introduction of 10 new low-energy-density (ED) foods and provision of labels for all foods sold at lunch, which listed ED, calories, and macronutrient content) or 2) the environmental change plus pricing incentives for purchasing low-ED foods and education about low-ED eating delivered in four, 1-hour group sessions. Participant lunch choices were monitored electronically at the point of purchase for 3 months before the intervention was instituted (i.e., the baseline period) and for 3 months afterward (i.e., intervention period). Participants were adults (n=96, BMI=29.7+/-6.0 kg/m(2)) who regularly ate lunch at their workplace cafeteria. There was no difference between groups in total energy intake over the study period. Across groups, energy and percent of energy from fat decreased and percent of energy from carbohydrate increased from baseline to the intervention period (all p<.01). Follow-up analyses, conducted by averaging Baseline Months 1 and 2 and comparing them to Intervention Month 3 as a conservative estimate of overall impact of the intervention, indicated that change in energy, carbohydrate, and fat intake remained significant (p<.001). Providing nutrition labels and reducing the ED of selected foods was associated with improved dietary intake.

  14. Criteria for optimizing food composition tables in relation to studies of habitual food intakes.

    PubMed

    Joyanes, María; Lema, Lourdes

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to increase the accuracy, reliability, and precision of food composition data and, in consequence, better approximate nutrient intake estimations and recommendations. To do this it is necessary to specify and taken into account factors that play an important role in the variation of composition in order to avoid excessively broad dispersions and irregularities in data distributions. This implies the presentation of representative and, as consequence, extrapolable data, with nutritionally grounded confidence intervals. This study suggests a methodology that better approaches the accuracy, reliability, and precision of food composition data.

  15. Does eating slowly influence appetite and energy intake when water intake is controlled?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Slow eating has been associated with enhanced satiation, but also with increased water intake. Therefore, the role of water ingestion in regard to eating rate needs to be discerned. This study examined the influence of eating rate on appetite regulation and energy intake when water intake is controlled. Methods In a randomized design, slow and fast eating rates were compared on two occasions, in 30 women (22.7±1.2y; BMI=22.4±0.4kg/m2) who consumed an ad libitum mixed-macronutrient lunch with water (300 mL). Satiation was examined as the main outcome by measuring energy intake during meals. At designated times, subjects rated hunger, satiety, desire-to-eat, thirst, and meal palatability on visual analogue scales. Paired t-tests were used to compare hypothesis-driven outcomes. Appetite ratings were compared across time points and conditions by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) using a within-subject model. Results Energy intake and appetite ratings did not differ between conditions at meal completion. However, subjects rated less hunger and tended to rate lower desire-to-eat and greater satiety at 1 hour following the slow condition. Conclusions Results tend to support a role of slow eating on decreased hunger and higher inter-meal satiety when water intake is controlled. However, the lack of significant differences in energy intake under these conditions indicates that water intake may account for the effects of eating rate on appetite regulation. PMID:23171246

  16. Differential effects of dairy snacks on appetite, but not overall energy intake.

    PubMed

    Dougkas, Anestis; Minihane, Anne M; Givens, D Ian; Reynolds, Christopher K; Yaqoob, Parveen

    2012-12-28

    Dietary regulation of appetite may contribute to the prevention and management of excess body weight. The present study examined the effect of consumption of individual dairy products as snacks on appetite and subsequent ad libitum lunch energy intake. In a randomised cross-over trial, forty overweight men (age 32 (sd 9) years; BMI 27 (sd 2) kg/m2) attended four sessions 1 week apart and received three isoenergetic (841 kJ) and isovolumetric (410 ml) servings of dairy snacks or water (control) 120 min after breakfast. Appetite profile was determined throughout the morning and ad libitum energy intake was assessed 90 min after the intake of snacks. Concentrations of amino acids, glucose, insulin, ghrelin and peptide tyrosine tyrosine were measured at baseline (0 min) and 80 min after the intake of snacks. Although the results showed that yogurt had the greatest suppressive effect on appetite, this could be confounded by the poor sensory ratings of yogurt. Hunger rating was 8, 10 and 24 % (P < 0·001) lower after the intake of yogurt than cheese, milk and water, respectively. Energy intake was 11, 9 and 12 % (P < 0·02) lower after the intake of yogurt, cheese and milk, respectively, compared with water (4312 (se 226) kJ). Although there was no difference in the postprandial responses of hormones, alanine and isoleucine concentrations were higher after the intake of yogurt than cheese and milk (P < 0·05). In conclusion, all dairy snacks reduced appetite and lunch intake compared with water. Yogurt had the greatest effect on suppressing subjective appetite ratings, but did not affect subsequent food intake compared with milk or cheese.

  17. Phytate in foods and significance for humans: food sources, intake, processing, bioavailability, protective role and analysis.

    PubMed

    Schlemmer, Ulrich; Frølich, Wenche; Prieto, Rafel M; Grases, Felix

    2009-09-01

    The article gives an overview of phytic acid in food and of its significance for human nutrition. It summarises phytate sources in foods and discusses problems of phytic acid/phytate contents of food tables. Data on phytic acid intake are evaluated and daily phytic acid intake depending on food habits is assessed. Degradation of phytate during gastro-intestinal passage is summarised, the mechanism of phytate interacting with minerals and trace elements in the gastro-intestinal chyme described and the pathway of inositol phosphate hydrolysis in the gut presented. The present knowledge of phytate absorption is summarised and discussed. Effects of phytate on mineral and trace element bioavailability are reported and phytate degradation during processing and storage is described. Beneficial activities of dietary phytate such as its effects on calcification and kidney stone formation and on lowering blood glucose and lipids are reported. The antioxidative property of phytic acid and its potentional anticancerogenic activities are briefly surveyed. Development of the analysis of phytic acid and other inositol phosphates is described, problems of inositol phosphate determination and detection discussed and the need for standardisation of phytic acid analysis in foods argued.

  18. Effects of Anorectic Drugs on Food Intake under Progressive-Ratio and Free-Access Conditions in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeSage, Mark G.; Stafford, David; Glowa, John R.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of two anorectic drugs, dexfenfluramine and phentermine, on food intake under different food-access conditions were examined. Experiment 1 compared the effects of these drugs on food intake under a progressive-ratio (PR) schedule and free-access conditions. Dexfenfluramine decreased food intake under both conditions, but the doses…

  19. Reward, dopamine and the control of food intake: implications for obesity

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow N. D.; Wang G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Baler, R.D.

    2011-10-01

    The ability to resist the urge to eat requires the proper functioning of neuronal circuits involved in top-down control to oppose the conditioned responses that predict reward from eating the food and the desire to eat the food. Imaging studies show that obese subjects might have impairments in dopaminergic pathways that regulate neuronal systems associated with reward sensitivity, conditioning and control. It is known that the neuropeptides that regulate energy balance (homeostatic processes) through the hypothalamus also modulate the activity of dopamine cells and their projections into regions involved in the rewarding processes underlying food intake. It is postulated that this could also be a mechanism by which overeating and the resultant resistance to homoeostatic signals impairs the function of circuits involved in reward sensitivity, conditioning and cognitive control.

  20. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, food intake regulation, and obesity.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Vargas, Haydeé; Martínez-Ezquerro, José Darío; Bienvenu, Thierry

    2011-08-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin that plays a fundamental role in development and plasticity of the central nervous system (CNS). It is currently recognized as a major participant in the regulation of food intake. Multiple studies have shown that different regulators of appetite such as leptin, insulin and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) potentially exert anorexigenic effects through BDNF. Low circulating levels of BDNF are associated with a higher risk of eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Strict food restriction reduces BDNF and may trigger binge-eating episodes and weight gain. The existence of mutations that cause haploinsufficiency of BDNF as well as some genetic variants, notably the BDNF p.Val66Met polymorphism, are also associated with the development of obese phenotypes and hyperphagia. However, association of the Met allele with AN and BN, which have different phenotypic characteristics, shows clearly the existence of other relevant factors that regulate eating behavior. This may, in part, be explained by the epigenetic regulation of BDNF through mechanisms like DNA methylation and histone acetylation. Environmental factors, primarily during early development, are crucial to the establishment of these stable but reversible changes that alter the transcriptional expression and are transgenerationally heritable, with potential concomitant effects on the development of eating disorders and body weight control.

  1. Ecological correlations of dietary food intake and mental health disorders.

    PubMed

    Hoerr, Jordan; Fogel, Joshua; Van Voorhees, Benjamin

    2017-03-01

    This paper examines the ecological association of dietary food intake with mental health outcomes on the group level across countries. Published data from the World Mental Health Survey were used to compare lifetime prevalence of four categories of mental health disorders (anxiety disorders, mood disorders, impulse control disorders, and substance use disorders) with a country's fish/seafood and sugar/sweetener supply quantity using the Spearman rank correlation. Data were compared for 17 countries across the world. Sugar and sweetener supply quantity was significantly and positively associated with anxiety disorders (rho=0.75, p=0.001), mood disorders (rho=0.75, p=0.001), impulse control disorders (rho=0.78, p=0.001), and substance use disorders (rho=0.68, p=0.007). Fish and seafood supply quantity had no significant association with any mental health disorders. Mental health disorders represent a significant health problem around the world. Public health measures aimed at improving the quality and availability of a nation's food supply could have a significant positive impact on mental health. Further randomized studies are needed to further validate the study findings.

  2. 28 CFR 549.64 - Food/liquid intake/output.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Food/liquid intake/output. 549.64 Section 549.64 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.64 Food/liquid intake/output. (a) Staff shall prepare...

  3. 28 CFR 549.64 - Food/liquid intake/output.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Food/liquid intake/output. 549.64 Section 549.64 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.64 Food/liquid intake/output. (a) Staff shall prepare...

  4. 28 CFR 549.64 - Food/liquid intake/output.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Food/liquid intake/output. 549.64 Section 549.64 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.64 Food/liquid intake/output. (a) Staff shall prepare...

  5. Associations of Built Food Environment with Dietary Intake among Youth with Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamichhane, Archana P.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Puett, Robin; Bottai, Matteo; Porter, Dwayne E.; Liese, Angela D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the associations of supermarket and fast-food outlet accessibility and availability with dietary intake among youth with diabetes. Design: Subjects' residential location and dietary intake was obtained from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Food outlet data obtained from the South Carolina Department of Health and…

  6. Liquid and solid meal replacement products differentially affect postprandial appetite and food intake in older adults.

    PubMed

    Stull, April J; Apolzan, John W; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E; Iglay, Heidi B; Campbell, Wayne W

    2008-07-01

    Liquid and solid foods are documented to elicit differential appetitive and food intake responses. This study was designed to assess the influences of liquid vs solid meal replacement products on postprandial appetite ratings and subsequent food intake in healthy older adults. This study used a randomized and crossover design with two 1-day trials (1 week between trials), and 24 adults (12 men and 12 women) aged 50 to 80 years with body mass index (calculated as kg/m2) between 22 and 30 participated. After an overnight fast, the subjects consumed meal replacement products as either a beverage (liquid) or a bar (solid). The meal replacement products provided 25% of each subject's daily estimated energy needs with comparable macronutrient compositions. Subjects rated their appetite on a 100 mm quasilogarithmic visual analog scale before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 minutes after consuming the meal replacement product. At minute 120, each subject consumed cooked oatmeal ad libitum to a "comfortable level of fullness." Postprandial composite (area under the curve from minute 15 to minute 120) hunger was higher (P=0.04) for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products and desire to eat (P=0.15), preoccupation with thoughts of food (P=0.07), and fullness (P=0.25) did not differ for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products. On average, the subjects consumed 13.4% more oatmeal after the liquid vs solid (P=0.006) meal replacement product. These results indicate that meal replacement products in liquid and solid form do not elicit comparable appetitive and ingestive behavior responses and that meal replacement products in liquid form blunt the postprandial decline in hunger and increase subsequent food intake in older adults.

  7. Liquid and Solid Meal Replacement Products Differentially Affect Postprandial Appetite and Food Intake in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stull, April J.; Apolzan, John W.; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E.; Iglay, Heidi B.; Campbell, Wayne W.

    2008-01-01

    Liquid and solid foods are documented to elicit differential appetitive and food intake responses. This study was designed to assess the influences of liquid vs solid meal replacement products on postprandial appetite ratings and subsequent food intake in healthy older adults. This study used a randomized and crossover design with two 1-day trials (1 week between trials), and 24 adults (12 men and 12 women) aged 50 to 80 years with body mass index (calculated as kg/m2) between 22 and 30 participated. After an overnight fast, the subjects consumed meal replacement products as either a beverage (liquid) or a bar (solid). The meal replacement products provided 25% of each subject's daily estimated energy needs with comparable macro-nutrient compositions. Subjects rated their appetite on a 100 mm quasilogarithmic visual analog scale before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 minutes after consuming the meal replacement product. At minute 120, each subject consumed cooked oatmeal ad libitum to a “comfortable level of fullness.” Postprandial composite (area under the curve from minute 15 to minute 120) hunger was higher (P=0.04) for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products and desire to eat (P=0.15), preoccupation with thoughts of food (P=0.07), and fullness (P=0.25) did not differ for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products. On average, the subjects consumed 13.4% more oatmeal after the liquid vs solid (P=0.006) meal replacement product. These results indicate that meal replacement products in liquid and solid form do not elicit comparable appetitive and ingestive behavior responses and that meal replacement products in liquid form blunt the postprandial decline in hunger and increase subsequent food intake in older adults. PMID:18589034

  8. Soy Food Intake, Tamoxifen Use, Estrogen Receptor Polymorphism, and Breast Cancer Survival

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    Results from the soy food intake and breast cancer survival manuscript indicate that there is no association between soy protein intake and breast cancer...tertile). The association between soy protein intake and breast cancer survival did not differ according to ER/PR status, tumor stage, age at diagnosis...reported a decrease. standard protocol. Soy protein content of each food item was estimated Patients were followed up through January 2003 with based on the

  9. Development and Application of the Remote Food Photography Method to Measure Food Intake in Exclusively Milk Fed Infants: A Laboratory-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Altazan, Abby D.; Gilmore, L. Anne; Burton, Jeffrey H.; Ragusa, Shelly A.; Apolzan, John W.; Martin, Corby K.; Redman, Leanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurate methods of assessing food intake in infants are needed to assess the relationship between infant feeding practices and risk of childhood obesity. Current methods are either subjective or have limited ability for use beyond clinical research settings. Objective To assess the accuracy of the RFPM to evaluate simulated milk intake including energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intake compared to direct weighing within a controlled study. Methods Individuals were recruited to prepare three 2 fl oz, 4 fl oz, 6 fl oz, and 8 fl oz servings of infant formula and to capture photographs at different stages of preparation (dry powdered formula, prepared formula, and liquid waste) using the SmartIntake® application. Gram weights of the bottles were obtained by the RFPM and direct weighing. Using the United States Department of Agriculture National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient values were generated from gram weights. Results Intake of formula prepared from powder measured by the RFPM was equivalent to weighed intake within 7.5% equivalence bounds among all servings and each serving size. The mean difference between methods varied among servings sizes with the RFPM underestimating intake by 1.6 ± 0.4 kcals in 2 fl oz servings, 4.8 ± 0.6 kcals in 4 fl oz servings, and 6.2 ± 1.0 kcals in 6 fl oz servings, and overestimating intake by 0.1 ± 1.2 kcals in 8 fl oz servings. Bland-Altman analysis showed that the RFPM overestimated intake at lower levels food intake and underestimated intake at higher levels. Considering photographs of only the prepared formula bottle and the bottle with formula waste to simulate ready-to-feed formula and human breast milk, intake estimated by the RFPM was equivalent to the directly weighed intake within 7.5% for all servings. Conclusions The RFPM has higher accuracy than subjective methods and similar accuracy as compared to the objective methods in estimating simulated

  10. The impact of water intake on energy intake and weight status: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Melissa C.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of consuming water with meals rather than drinking no beverage or various other beverages remains under-studied. This systematic review of English language studies compared the effects of drinking water and various beverage alternatives on energy intake and/or weight status. We collected relevant clinical trials, epidemiologic, and intervention studies and summarized findings across the literature. Using clinical trials, average differences in total energy intake at test meals (ΔTEI) were calculated across studies for each of several beverage categories compared to water. The literature for these comparisons is sparse and somewhat inconclusive. One of the most consistent sets of findings comes from comparing adults drinking sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB’s) vs. water before a single meal. Total energy intakes were increased 7.8% (ΔTEI range −7.5 to 18.9) when SSBs were consumed. Studies comparing nonnutritive sweeteners with water were also relatively consistent and found no impact on energy intake among adults (ΔTEI = −1.3, range −9 to13.8). Much less conclusive evidence replacing water with milk and juice estimated increases in TEI of 14.9% (range 10.9 to 23.9). These findings, along with epidemiologic and intervention studies suggested a potentially important role for water in reducing energy intakes, and by this means a role in obesity prevention. A need for randomized-controlled trials exists. PMID:20796216

  11. A Retrospective Investigation of Thiamin and Energy Intakes Following an Outbreak of Beriberi in the Gambia

    PubMed Central

    Thurnham, David I.; Cathcart, Angela E.; Livingstone, Margaret B. E.

    2011-01-01

    In the early part of the rainy season in 1988, an outbreak of beriberi occurred in free-living adults in a relatively small area in the North Bank region of The Gambia. In 1995 we selected two compounds in a village called Chilla situated within the affected district to retrospectively examine dietary factors potentially contributing to the outbreak. There had previously been cases of beriberi in one compound (BBC) but not in the other (NBC). We measured energy and thiamin intakes for four days on six occasions during the year. We calculated energy and thiamin intakes of people living in the two compounds and foods were collected for thiamin analysis through the year. Thiamin:Energy ratios only met international recommendations in the immediate post‑harvest season when energy and thiamin intakes were highest and then fell through the year. In the rainy season when food was short and labour was heaviest, energy intakes were lower in the NBC but thiamin:energy ratios were lower in BBC. Records of rainfall in 1988 collected near the village indicated that the amount in August was twice the average. We suggest the heavy rainfall may have increased farm workload and reduced income from outside-village work activity. The lower energy intakes in the NBC may have forced adults to rest thus sparing thiamin demands and delaying onset of beriberi. In contrast, the higher energy intake of adults in the BBC may have enabled them to continue working, thus increasing demands for thiamin and inducing the earlier onset of beriberi. PMID:22254079

  12. Protein Beverage vs. Protein Gel on Appetite Control and Subsequent Food Intake in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sha; Leidy, Heather J.; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of food form and physicochemical properties of protein snacks on appetite and subsequent food intake in healthy adults. Twelve healthy subjects received a standardized breakfast and then 2.5 h post-breakfast consumed the following snacks, in randomized order: 0 kcal water (CON) or 96 kcal whey protein snacks as beverages with a pH of either 3.0 (Bev-3.0) or 7.0 (Bev-7.0) or gels as acid (Gel-Acid) or heated (Gel-Heated). In-vitro study showed that Bev-3.0 was more resistant to digestion than Bev-7.0, while Gel-Acid and Gel-Heated had similar digestion pattern. Appetite questionnaires were completed every 20 min until an ad libitum lunch was provided. Post-snack hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were lower following the beverages and gels vs. CON (all, p < 0.05), and post-snack fullness was greater following the snacks (except for the Bev-3.0) vs. CON (all, p < 0.05). Gel-Heated treatment led to lower prospective food consumption vs. Bev-3.0; however, no other differences were detected. Although all snacks reduced energy intake vs. CON, no differences were observed among treatments. This study suggested that whey protein in either liquid or solid form improves appetite, but the physicochemical property of protein has a minimal effect. PMID:26506378

  13. The TRPA1 agonist, methyl syringate suppresses food intake and gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jung; Son, Hee Jin; Song, Seo Hyeon; Jung, Myungji; Kim, Yiseul; Rhyu, Mee-Ra

    2013-01-01

    Transient receptor potential channel ankryn 1 (TRPA1) expressed in the gastrointestinal tract is associated with gastric motility, gastric emptying, and food intake. In this study, we investigated the effects of methyl syringate, a specific and selective TRPA1 agonist, on food intake, gastric emptying, and gut hormone levels in imprinting control region (ICR) mice. The administration of methyl syringate suppressed cumulative food intake and gastric emptying. In addition, treatment with ruthenium red (RR), a general cation channel blocker, and HC-030031, a selective TRPA1 antagonist, inhibited methyl syringate-induced reduction of food intake and delayed gastric emptying in ICR mice. Methyl syringate also increased plasma peptide YY (PYY) levels, but not glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels. The elevation in PYY was blocked by treatment with RR and HC-030031. The present findings indicate that methyl syringate regulates food intake and gastric emptying through a TRPA1-mediated pathway and, by extension, can contribute to weight suppression.

  14. Acute injection of ASP in the third ventricle inhibits food intake and locomotor activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Roy, Christian; Roy, Marie-Claude; Gauvreau, Danny; Poulin, Anne-Marie; Tom, Fun-Qun; Timofeeva, Elena; Richard, Denis; Cianflone, Katherine

    2011-07-01

    Acylation-stimulating protein (ASP; also known as C3adesArg) stimulates triglyceride synthesis and glucose transport via interaction with its receptor C5L2, which is expressed peripherally (adipose tissue, muscle) and centrally. Previous studies have shown that ASP-deficient mice (C3KO) and C5L2-deficient mice (C5L2KO) are hyperphagic (59 to 229% increase, P < 0.0001), which is counterbalanced by increased energy expenditure measured as oxygen consumption (Vo(2)) and a lower RQ. The aim of the present study was to evaluate ASP's effect on food intake, energy expenditure, and neuropeptide expression. Male rats were surgically implanted with intracerebroventricular (icv) cannulas directed toward the third ventricle. After a 5-h fast, rats were injected, and food intake was assessed at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 16, 24, and 48 h, with a 5- to 7-day washout period between each injection. Acute icv injections of ASP (0.3-1,065 pmol) had a time-dependent effect on decreasing food intake by 20 to 57% (P < 0.05). Decreases were detected by 30 min (maximum 57%, P < 0.01) and at the highest dose effects extended to 48 h (19%, P < 0.05, 24- to 48-h period). Daily body weight gain was decreased by 131% over the first 24 h and 29% over the second 24 h (P < 0.05). A conditioned taste aversion test indicated that there was no malaise. Furthermore, acute ASP injection affected energy substrate usage, demonstrated by decreased Vo(2) and RQ (P < 0.05; implicating greater fatty acid usage), with a 49% decrease in total activity over 24 h (P < 0.05). ASP administration also increased anorexic neuropeptide POMC expression (44%) in the arcuate nucleus, with no change in NPY. Altogether ASP may have central in addition to peripheral effects.

  15. Changing food patterns across the seasons in rural Pakistan: analysis of food variety, dietary diversity and calorie intake.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Abid; Zulfiqar, Farhad; Saboor, Abdul

    2014-01-01

    This comparative study investigated variations in food patterns across the seasons in rural Pakistan through assessing the changes in food variety, dietary diversity and calorie intake. It analyzed the situation using the primary information of 97 and 114 households surveyed in summer and winter respectively. Findings revealed a significant difference of households' food variety, dietary diversity and calorie intake across the seasons. In the winter, households' food basket was more diverse, showing 30%, 13%, and 8% rise in food variety, dietary diversity, and caloric intake, respectively, due mainly to the changes in food choices in winter. Rural households preferred to consume items from nutritious food groups (i.e., dried fruits and nuts, oilseeds, and locally preserved foods) during the severe cold weather. However, they did not substitute significantly the items from basic food groups (i.e., cereals, vegetables and legumes, tubers, and dairy products), with those belonging to nutritious groups. Based on findings, it is concluded that food variety, dietary diversity and calorie intake fluctuate across the seasons, therefore surveys of dietary patterns and calorie intake in one particular season may not be reliable, and food security status of households may not be generalized on the basis of one season survey.

  16. Impact of food choice on sodium intake patterns from multiple NHANES surveys.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zefeng; Gao, Zhifeng; McFadden, Brandon

    2017-02-01

    To examine how the food consumption from various food groups would impact American adults' sodium intake and whether this impact structurally changes over time, data were obtained from six-cycle National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2010. Foods were categorized by the first two digits of the USDA food code. Regression models were employed to investigate the associations between the consumption of each food group and sodium intake, and whether there were changes in the associations in consecutive six cycles. Results show that the calorie consumption of oils, beverages and water, fruit juices, fruits, lamb, fruit products, and sugars and sweets had no significant impact on individuals' sodium intake, while calorie consumption of tomatoes, fish, dark-green vegetables, and crackers contributes the most to sodium intake. The contribution to sodium intake of most food groups does not change significantly over time, with the exception of salad dressing whose contribution to sodium intake increased in four consecutive years when compared to that of 1999-2000. The sodium amount contributed by one calorie consumption (sodium density) of most food was above the daily recommendation level, 1.2 mg per calorie per day. Lowering individuals' sodium intake involves either guiding individuals to consume more fruit related products or decreasing the amount of sodium in most food groups at the production or food preparation stages.

  17. Effects of different intermittent peptide YY (3-36) dosing strategies on food intake, body weight, and adiposity in diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Reidelberger, Roger D; Haver, Alvin C; Chelikani, Prasanth K; Buescher, James L

    2008-08-01

    Chronic administration of anorexigenic substances to experimental animals by injections or continuous infusion typically produces either no effect or a transient reduction in food intake and body weight. Our aim here was to identify an intermittent dosing strategy for intraperitoneal infusion of peptide YY(3-36) [PYY(3-36)] that produces a sustained reduction in daily food intake and adiposity in diet-induced obese rats. Rats (665+/-10 g body wt, 166+/-7 g body fat) with intraperitoneal catheters tethered to infusion swivels had free access to a high-fat diet. Vehicle-treated rats (n=23) had relatively stable food intake, body weight, and adiposity during the 9-wk test period. None of 15 PYY(3-36) dosing regimens administered in succession to a second group of rats (n=22) produced a sustained 15-25% reduction in daily food intake for >5 days, although body weight and adiposity were reduced across the 9-wk period by 12% (594+/-15 vs. 672+/-15 g) and 43% (96+/-7 vs. 169+/-9 g), respectively. The declining inhibitory effect of PYY(3-36) on daily food intake when the interinfusion interval was >or=3 h appeared to be due in part to an increase in food intake between infusions. The declining inhibitory effect of PYY(3-36) on daily food intake when the interinfusion interval was <3 h suggested possible receptor downregulation and tolerance to frequent PYY(3-36) administration; however, food intake significantly increased when PYY(3-36) treatments were discontinued for 1 day following apparent loss in treatment efficacies. Together, these results demonstrate the development of a potent homeostatic response to increase food intake when PYY(3-36) reduces food intake and energy reserves in diet-induced obese rats.

  18. Children's Food Security and Intakes from School Meals. Final Report. Contractor and Cooperator Report No. 61

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potamites, Elizabeth; Gordon, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Using 2005 data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Third School Nutrition Dietary Assessment survey, this study examines the contribution of school meals to the food and nutrient intake of children in food-secure, marginally secure, and food-insecure households. The study finds that children from food-insecure and marginally secure…

  19. Food Consumption and Nutrient Intake by Children Aged 10 to 48 Months Attending Day Care in The Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Goldbohm, R. Alexandra; Rubingh, Carina M.; Lanting, Caren I.; Joosten, Koen F. M.

    2016-01-01

    The diet of young children is an important determinant of long-term health effects, such as overweight and obesity. We analyzed two-day food consumption records from 1526 young children (10–48 months old) attending 199 daycare centers across The Netherlands. Data were observed and recorded in diaries by caregivers at the day nursery and by parents at home on days that the children attended the daycare center. According to national and European reference values, the children had an adequate nutrient intake with exception of low intakes of total fat, n-3 fatty acids from fish and possibly iron. Intakes of energy and protein were substantially higher than recommended and part of the population exceeded the tolerable upper intake levels for sodium, zinc and retinol. Consumption of fruit, fats, fish, and fluids was substantially less than recommended. The children used mostly (semi-)skimmed milk products and non-refined bread and cereals, as recommended. Two thirds of the consumed beverages, however, contained sugar and contributed substantially to energy intake. In young children, low intakes of n-3 fatty acids and iron are a potential matter of concern, as are the high intakes of energy, protein, sugared beverages, and milk, since these may increase the risk of becoming overweight. PMID:27428995

  20. Food Consumption and Nutrient Intake by Children Aged 10 to 48 Months Attending Day Care in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Goldbohm, R Alexandra; Rubingh, Carina M; Lanting, Caren I; Joosten, Koen F M

    2016-07-14

    The diet of young children is an important determinant of long-term health effects, such as overweight and obesity. We analyzed two-day food consumption records from 1526 young children (10-48 months old) attending 199 daycare centers across The Netherlands. Data were observed and recorded in diaries by caregivers at the day nursery and by parents at home on days that the children attended the daycare center. According to national and European reference values, the children had an adequate nutrient intake with exception of low intakes of total fat, n-3 fatty acids from fish and possibly iron. Intakes of energy and protein were substantially higher than recommended and part of the population exceeded the tolerable upper intake levels for sodium, zinc and retinol. Consumption of fruit, fats, fish, and fluids was substantially less than recommended. The children used mostly (semi-)skimmed milk products and non-refined bread and cereals, as recommended. Two thirds of the consumed beverages, however, contained sugar and contributed substantially to energy intake. In young children, low intakes of n-3 fatty acids and iron are a potential matter of concern, as are the high intakes of energy, protein, sugared beverages, and milk, since these may increase the risk of becoming overweight.

  1. Validity of Energy Intake Reports in Relation to Dietary Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Shaneshin, Mahboubeh; Jessri, Mahsa

    2014-01-01

    The role of under- and overreporting of energy intake in determining the dietary patterns is yet unclear, especially in the Middle Eastern countries. This study identifies the prevalence of misreporting among Tehranian women aged 18-45 years and to compare the dietary intake patterns of plausible and all energy reporters. Dietary intakes and anthropometric data were collected. FitMate™ metabolic analyzer and Goldberg equation were used in determining the under/overreporting of energy intake. Underreporters were more likely to be overweight and older compared to plausible reporters. Three dietary patterns emerged for all reporters, and two were identified for plausible reporters. Using only plausible reporters to determine dietary patterns was not similar to using all reporters. The proportion of underreporters was 59.3% in the mixture cluster, 30.4% in the unhealthy cluster, and 35.3% in the healthy cluster (p<0.05). Underreporting of energy intake is not uniformly distributed among dietary pattern clusters and tends to be less severe among subjects in the unhealthy cluster. Our data suggested that misreporting of energy intake might affect the dietary pattern analysis. PMID:24847591

  2. Ecological momentary assessment of environmental and personal factors and snack food intake in African American women.

    PubMed

    Zenk, Shannon N; Horoi, Irina; McDonald, Ashley; Corte, Colleen; Riley, Barth; Odoms-Young, Angela M

    2014-12-01

    This study examined contributions of environmental and personal factors (specifically, food availability and expense, daily hassles, self-efficacy, positive and negative affect) to within-person and between-person variations in snack food intake in 100 African American women. Participants were signaled at random five times daily for seven days to complete a survey on a study-provided smartphone. Women reported consuming snack foods at 35.2% of signals. Easier food availability accounting for one's usual level was associated with higher snack food intake. Being near outlets that predominately sell snacks (e.g., convenience stores), while accounting for one's usual proximity to them, was associated with higher snack food intake. Accounting for one's usual daily hassle level, we found that on days with more frequent daily hassles snack food intake was higher. The positive association between within-person daily hassles frequency and snack food intake was stronger when foods were easily available. Public and private policies to curb ubiquitous food availability and mobile health interventions that take into account time-varying influences on food choices and provide real-time assistance in dealing with easy food availability and coping with stressors may be beneficial in improving African American women's day to day food choices.

  3. Estimated Dietary Polyphenol Intake and Major Food and Beverage Sources among Elderly Japanese

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Chie; Fukushima, Yoichi; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Suzuki-Sugihara, Norie; Saita, Emi; Takahashi, Yoshinari; Kondo, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Estimating polyphenol intake contributes to the understanding of polyphenols’ health benefits. However, information about human polyphenol intake is scarce, especially in the elderly. This study aimed to estimate the dietary intake and major sources of polyphenols and to determine whether there is any relationship between polyphenol intake and micronutrient intake in healthy elderly Japanese. First, 610 subjects (569 men, 41 women; aged 67.3 ± 6.1 years) completed food frequency questionnaires. We then calculated their total polyphenol intake using our polyphenol content database. Their average total polyphenol intake was 1492 ± 665 mg/day, the greatest part of which was provided by beverages (79.1%). The daily polyphenol intake differed largely among individuals (183–4854 mg/day), also attributable mostly to beverage consumption. Coffee (43.2%) and green tea (26.6%) were the major sources of total polyphenol; the top 20 food items accounted for >90%. The polyphenol intake did not strongly correlate with the intake of any micronutrient, suggesting that polyphenols may exert health benefits independently of nutritional intake. The polyphenol intake in this elderly population was slightly higher than previous data in Japanese adults, and beverages such as coffee and green tea contributed highly to the intake. PMID:26690212

  4. A photographic method to measure food item intake. Validation in geriatric institutions.

    PubMed

    Pouyet, Virginie; Cuvelier, Gérard; Benattar, Linda; Giboreau, Agnès

    2015-01-01

    From both a clinical and research perspective, measuring food intake is an important issue in geriatric institutions. However, weighing food in this context can be complex, particularly when the items remaining on a plate (side dish, meat or fish and sauce) need to be weighed separately following consumption. A method based on photography that involves taking photographs after a meal to determine food intake consequently seems to be a good alternative. This method enables the storage of raw data so that unhurried analyses can be performed to distinguish the food items present in the images. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to validate a photographic method to measure food intake in terms of differentiating food item intake in the context of a geriatric institution. Sixty-six elderly residents took part in this study, which was performed in four French nursing homes. Four dishes of standardized portions were offered to the residents during 16 different lunchtimes. Three non-trained assessors then independently estimated both the total and specific food item intakes of the participants using images of their plates taken after the meal (photographic method) and a reference image of one plate taken before the meal. Total food intakes were also recorded by weighing the food. To test the reliability of the photographic method, agreements between different assessors and agreements among various estimates made by the same assessor were evaluated. To test the accuracy and specificity of this method, food intake estimates for the four dishes were compared with the food intakes determined using the weighed food method. To illustrate the added value of the photographic method, food consumption differences between the dishes were explained by investigating the intakes of specific food items. Although they were not specifically trained for this purpose, the results demonstrated that the assessor estimates agreed between assessors and among various estimates made by the same

  5. Food intake and nutritional status of preschool from maroon communities of the state Alagoas, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Fernanda Maria de B.; Ferreira, Haroldo da Silva; Bezerra, Myrtis Katille de A.; de Assunção, Monica Lopes; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the dietary intake and the nutritional status of children from Alagoas maroon communities. METHODS: Cross-sectional study involving 724 children (12-60 months) from 39 Alagoas maroon communities. The nutritional status was investigated by anthropometric, biochemical (hemoglobin) and food consumption indicators. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia, stunting and obesity were, respectively, 48.0, 9.7 and 6.0%. The children had a monotonous eating pattern and a considerable prevalence of inadequate intake of zinc (17.0%), folate (18.1%), iron (20.2%) and vitamins A (29.7%) and C (34.3%). Compared to the other socioeconomic classes, the E class children had lower average consumption (p<0.05) for energy, carbohydrate, vitamins A and C, folate, iron, zinc and phosphorus. CONCLUSIONS: Anemia is a serious Public Health problem. The prevalence of chronic malnutrition and obesity were similar to those observed for the children in the State as a whole, where a nutritional transition process is occuring. There was a high prevalence of inadequate food intake risk for zinc, folate, iron and vitamins A and C, suggesting the need for nutritional education actions. PMID:24473948

  6. Smart phones are useful for food intake and physical activity surveys.

    PubMed

    Wohlers, Erica M; Sirard, John R; Barden, Charles M; Moon, Jon K

    2009-01-01

    Current self-report methods of recording food intake and Physical Activity (PA) are cumbersome and inaccurate. Food and activity surveys implemented on a smart phone will allow for immediate entry, data transfer to a researcher, and feedback to the user. Ten subjects followed a script, representative of one day, to enter food intake and PA on a smart phone. In the follow-up report, all subjects were interested in using the tested program to compare food intake with PA to predict weight gain and loss.

  7. Eating Behavior Dimensions: Associations With Energy Intake And Body Weight: A Review

    PubMed Central

    French, Simone A.; Epstein, Leonard H; Jeffery, Robert W.; Blundell, John E.; Wardle, Jane

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to spark integrative thinking in the area of eating behaviors by critically examining research on exemplary constructs in this area. The eating behaviors food responsiveness, enjoyment of eating, satiety responsiveness, eating in the absence of hunger, reinforcing value of food, eating disinhibition and impulsivity/self-control are reviewed in relation to energy intake, body mass index and weight gain over time. Each of these constructs has been developed independently, and little research has explored the extent to which they overlap or whether they differentially predict food choices, energy intake and weight gain in the naturalistic environment. Most available data show positive cross-sectional associations with body mass index, but fewer studies report associations with energy intake or food choices. Little prospective data are available to link measures of eating behaviors with weight gain. Disinhibition has the largest and most consistent body of empirical data that link it prospectively with weight gain. An overarching conceptual model to integrate the conceptual and empirical research base for the role of eating behavior dimensions in the field of obesity research would highlight potential patterns of interaction between individual differences in eating behaviors, specific aspects of the individual’s food environment and individual variation in state levels of hunger and satiety. PMID:22796186

  8. Bottle and sippy cup use is associated with diet and energy intake in toddlers.

    PubMed

    Ben-Avraham, Sivan; Hyden, Christel J; Fletcher, Jason; Bonuck, Karen A

    2015-10-01

    The second year of life incorporates a continued shift from a liquid- to solid-based diet. Little is known about the prevalence and dietary impact of bottle and sippy cup use. This paper describes associations between percent of energy consumed via drinking containers (bottles and sippy cups combined) and dietary outcomes, between 1 and 2 years of age. This observational study recruited n = 299 low-income, nutrition programme clients from the Bronx, NY, whose 12 month olds consumed ≥ 2 non-water bottles per day. The main exposure variable was percent of energy intake via drinking containers (PEDC), dichotomized at the median into low-percent-energy-from-drinking-containers (LOW-C) and high-percent-energy-from-drinking-containers (HIGH-C) groups, assessed quarterly, for 1 year. We report 24-hour dietary recall nutrient and food serving data by LOW-C vs. HIGH-C. We employed linear mixed models to study associations between PEDC and nutrient intake. PEDC decreased from 52% to 33% between 1 and 2 years of age in both groups. The LOW-C group had higher intake of energy, dietary fibre, iron and sodium, grains, protein-rich foods and sweets. Conversely, LOW-C group had lower intake of Vitamin D and calcium vs. the HIGH-C group. PEDC was inversely associated with total energy intake in a model controlling for baseline age, baseline-weight-for-length and gender (β = -5.8, P = 0.029, 95% confidence interval (-10.96, -0.6). Lower bottle and sippy cup use had significant, albeit mixed association with diet quality in the second year of life, and was associated with higher energy intake. Evidence-based guidelines are needed to determine the appropriate use of those feeding methods.

  9. Why can't we control our food intake? The downside of dietary variety on learned satiety responses.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ashley A

    2016-08-01

    A striking feature of the modern food environment is the sheer amount of dietary choice available to the individual. In addition to an endless variety of highly palatable and energy dense foods, efforts to combat obesity have resulted in the production of several low- and reduced-calorie versions of these foods that are marketed to consumers. As a result, we are now confronted with a staggering amount of 'dietary variability'-the same food item can be obtained in a variety of different energy densities. This is a concern because evidence in rodents suggests that this kind of dietary variability can compromise one of the major cognitive determinants of food intake among non-human animals-flavor-nutrient satiety learning. Flavor-nutrient satiety learning enables animals to learn about the energy content or satiating quality of the foods they consume and adjust their intake to fit their energy needs. Notably, evidence suggests that dietary variability can disrupt this kind of learning, leading to overeating and weight gain. Here, I discuss the utility of flavor-nutrient satiety learning in human dietary behavior, highlighting certain features of the modern environment that can be disruptive to the acquisition of this kind of learning in humans. Special emphasis is placed on dietary variability, however I also highlight other aspects of the environment that can undermine this kind of learning, such as competition from other satiety-relevant cues (i.e., food labels), detrimental effects of Western diets on food-related cognitive processing, and the abundance of macronutrients that are inadequate at supporting learned satiety responses. The goal of this work is to highlight novel ways in which the environment may disrupt food-relevant learning and energy intake, and to provide some explanation for the elusive nature of flavor-nutrient learning in humans.

  10. Food and nutrient intake in African American children and adolescents aged five to 16 years in Baltimore City

    PubMed Central

    Kolahdooz, Fariba; Butler, Jennie L.; Christiansen, Karina; Diette, Gregory B.; Breysse, Patrick N.; Hansel, Nadia N.; McCormack, Meredith C.; Sheehy, Tony; Gittelsohn, Joel; Sharma, Sangita

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe food and nutrient intake for low-income, urban African American children and adolescents to highlight the need for further nutrition intervention programs and appropriate tools to address overweight and obesity. Methods This was a cross sectional study using interviewer-administered single 24-hour dietary recalls. Participants were low income African American boys and girls aged 5–16 years or their caregivers in Baltimore City. Frequency of food consumption and dietary intakes were analysed by gender and age groups. Results Eighty-one participants were included for analysis. Mean daily energy intakes exceeded Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) from 10 to 71% across all gender-age groups: 2,304 kcal for children aged 5–8 years; 2,429 kcal and 2,732 kcal for boys and girls aged 9–13 years, respectively; and 3,339 kcal and 2,846 kcal for boys and girls aged 14–16 years, respectively. The most frequently reported consumed foods were sweetened drinks, chips, candies, and milk across all age groups. The majority of participants (79–100%) did not meet the DRIs for dietary fiber and vitamin E across all gender-age groups. Milk accounted for 14%, 17%, and 21% of energy, fat, and protein intake, respectively, among children 5–8 years of age, while pizza was the top source of energy, fat, and protein (11%, 13%, and 18%, respectively) among 14–16 year old adolescents. Sweetened drinks and sweetened juices were major sources of sugar, contributing 33% for 5–8 year olds, 29% for 9–13 year olds and 35% for 14–16 year olds. Conclusions Mean daily energy intake exceeded dietary recommendations across all gender-age groups. This study has provided previously unavailable information on diet and highlights foods to be targeted in nutrition intervention programs. PMID:25856051

  11. Estimated nutrient intakes from food generally do not meet dietary reference intakes among adult members of Pacific Northwest tribal nations.

    PubMed

    Fialkowski, Marie K; McCrory, Megan A; Roberts, Sparkle M; Tracy, J Kathleen; Grattan, Lynn M; Boushey, Carol J

    2010-05-01

    Diet is influential in the etiology of chronic diseases in many populations including Native Americans. The objective of this report is to present the first comprehensive dietary survey, to our knowledge, of a representative sample of nonpregnant adults from Pacific Northwest tribal nations participating in the Communities Advancing the Studies of Tribal Nations Across the Lifespan (CoASTAL) cohort. Only participants who completed 1-4 d of dietary records and had weights and heights measured in the laboratory were eligible for this analysis (n = 418). Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by gender for the total sample, those with plausibly reported energy intakes (rEI), and those with implausibly rEI. Estimates of nutrient intakes were compared with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Nutrient estimates from NHANES 2001-2002 were used as a reference. Among both men and women, total fat contributed 34-37% of energy intake and saturated fat contributed 11-12% of energy intake. Daily cholesterol intakes ranged from 262 to 442 mg. A majority of men and women were not meeting recommendations for vitamins A, C, and E, magnesium, and sodium. For a majority of the nutrients examined, plausibility resulted in higher mean estimates. The CoASTAL cohort nutrient profile is similar to NHANES 2001-2002, with a majority of DRI recommendations not being met. Adequate dietary intake information may be more important for this population, because Native Americans experience a disproportionate burden for diseases.

  12. The effects of food-related attentional bias training on appetite and food intake.

    PubMed

    Hardman, Charlotte A; Rogers, Peter J; Etchells, Katie A; Houstoun, Katie V E; Munafò, Marcus R

    2013-12-01

    Obese and overweight individuals show a marked attentional bias to food cues. Food-related attentional bias may therefore play a causal role in over-eating. To test this possibility, the current study experimentally manipulated attentional bias towards food using a modified version of the visual probe task in which cake-stationery item image pairs were presented for 500 ms each. Participants (N=60) were either trained to attend to images of cake, trained to avoid images of cake, or assigned to a no-training control group. Hunger was measured before and after the training. Post-training, participants were given the opportunity to consume cake as well as a non-target food (crisps) that was not included in the training. There was weak evidence of an increase in attentional bias towards cake in the attend group only. We found no selective effects of the training on hunger or food intake, and little evidence for any gender differences. Our study suggests that attentional bias for food is particularly ingrained and difficult to modify. It also represents a first step towards elucidating the potential functional significance of food-related attentional biases and the lack of behavioural effects is broadly consistent with single-session attentional training studies from the addiction literature. An alternative hypothesis, that attentional bias represents a noncausal proxy for the motivational impact of appetitive stimuli, is considered.

  13. The Influence of Seasonal Frugivory on Nutrient and Energy Intake in Wild Western Gorillas

    PubMed Central

    Masi, Shelly; Mundry, Roger; Ortmann, Sylvia; Cipolletta, Chloé; Boitani, Luigi; Robbins, Martha M.

    2015-01-01

    The daily energy requirements of animals are determined by a combination of physical and physiological factors, but food availability may challenge the capacity to meet nutritional needs. Western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) are an interesting model for investigating this topic because they are folivore-frugivores that adjust their diet and activities to seasonal variation in fruit availability. Observations of one habituated group of western gorillas in Bai-Hokou, Central African Republic (December 2004-December 2005) were used to examine seasonal variation in diet quality and nutritional intake. We tested if during the high fruit season the food consumed by western gorillas was higher in quality (higher in energy, sugar, fat but lower in fibre and antifeedants) than during the low fruit season. Food consumed during the high fruit season was higher in digestible energy, but not any other macronutrients. Second, we investigated whether the gorillas increased their daily intake of carbohydrates, metabolizable energy (KCal/g OM), or other nutrients during the high fruit season. Intake of dry matter, fibers, fat, protein and the majority of minerals and phenols decreased with increased frugivory and there was some indication of seasonal variation in intake of energy (KCal/g OM), tannins, protein/fiber ratio, and iron. Intake of non-structural carbohydrates and sugars was not influenced by fruit availability. Gorillas are probably able to extract large quantities of energy via fermentation since they rely on proteinaceous leaves during the low fruit season. Macronutrients and micronutrients, but not digestible energy, may be limited for them during times of low fruit availability because they are hind-gut fermenters. We discuss the advantages of seasonal frugivores having large dietary breath and flexibility, significant characteristics to consider in the conservation strategies of endangered species. PMID:26154509

  14. Comparison of children’s food and beverage intakes with national recommendations in New York City child-care centres

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, L Beth; Breck, Andrew; Khan, Laura Kettel

    2016-01-01

    Objective The present study compared foods and beverages provided to and consumed by children at child-care centres in New York City (NYC) with national nutrition recommendations. Design The study used survey, observational and centre record data collected from child-care centres. Food and beverage intakes from two days of observation and amounts of energy and nutrients were estimated using the US National Cancer Institute’s Automated Self-Administered 24 h Recall system. Setting Meal and snack time at 108 child-care centres in low-income communities in NYC. Subjects Children aged 3–4 years old in classrooms selected by the directors of the participating child-care centres. Results Foods and beverages provided to and consumed by children (n 630) met >50% of the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) for most nutrients. Intakes of fibre and vitamins D and E were <30% of the DRI. Foods and beverages provided >50% of the recommended average daily intake amounts for total grains, fruits and fruit juices, and dairy, but <50% of the recommended amounts for whole grains, protein foods and vegetables. Intake of oils was below the allowance for energy levels, but foods and beverages with solid fats and added sugars exceeded the limits by 68%. Conclusions Providing more whole grains, vegetables and low-fat dairy and fewer foods with solid fats and added sugars may improve children’s diet quality when at child-care centres. Centre staff may need training, resources and strategies in order to meet the nutrition recommendations. PMID:27280552

  15. Adequate nutrient intakes are associated with traditional food consumption in nunavut inuit children aged 3-5 years.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Down, Louise; Egeland, Grace M

    2010-07-01

    Dietary habits among Arctic preschoolers are unknown. A cross-sectional health survey of 388 Inuit, aged 3-5 y, was conducted in 16 communities in Canada's Nunavut Territory. Twenty-four-hour recall and FFQ with parents and primary caregivers quantified diet from market and traditional foods (TF). The Institute of Medicine's Dietary Reference Intakes estimated adequacy comparing intakes with Estimated Average Requirement or Adequate Intakes (AI). High-sugar and high-fat food and sugar beverage consumption and the extent to which dietary habits followed the Canadian Food Guide were evaluated. The children's mean age was 4.4 +/- 0.9 y and the mean BMI percentile was 90.2%. Consumption of nutrient-poor and energy-dense food and beverages contributed to 35% of energy. Most children met the requirements for many nutrients despite not eating the recommended servings from Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide First Nations, Inuit and Métis. Higher intake of TF resulted in higher intakes of cholesterol, vitamins A and D, iron, magnesium, and zinc. The percent above the AI for vitamin D was 43.1, 56.8, and 83.2% among no, low, and high TF consumers, respectively (chi2 test; P-trend < 0.0001). Dietary habits indicate a population at risk for overweight, obesity, and tooth decay. Interventions should encourage TF, including plant-based TF; healthy market food choices, including fruit and vegetables; and milk or alternative sources of vitamin D and calcium and discourage unhealthy market food choices.

  16. An economic analysis of community-level fast food prices and individual-level fast food intake: longitudinal effects

    PubMed Central

    Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Guilkey, David K.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2011-01-01

    Background While dietary intake is shaped by cost, there is minimal research on the association between community-level food prices and dietary intake. Methods We used nationally representative, longitudinal data to examine how community-level food price variation was associated with individual-level fast food intake by race/ethnicity and income across waves II (1996) and III (2001–02) of The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n=11,088) from 158 baseline and 363 follow-up US counties. Results Negative binomial regression models predicting the number of fast food meals per week show strong relationships between fast food consumption and prices of fast food and soda that varied by gender and race/ethnicity. We found relatively stronger association between food prices and fast food intake for males and relatively greater price sensitivity for soda versus burgers. In the group with strongest associations (black males), a 20% increase in price of soda was associated with a decrease of a 0.25 visits to a fast food restaurant per week. Conclusions Economic incentives may be an effective mechanism to address fast food intake in an age group at high risk for obesity. PMID:21852178

  17. Children's Executive Function and High-Calorie, Low-Nutrient Food Intake: Mediating Effects of Child-Perceived Adult Fast Food Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Eleanor B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann; Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the relationships among child executive function (EF), child-perceived parent fast food intake, and child self-reported subsequent consumption of high-calorie, low-nutrient (HCLN) food. Design: One year and 6-month longitudinal observation from a larger randomized controlled trial. Setting. Southern California…

  18. Pattern of intake of food additives associated with hyperactivity in Irish children and teenagers.

    PubMed

    Connolly, A; Hearty, A; Nugent, A; McKevitt, A; Boylan, E; Flynn, A; Gibney, M J

    2010-04-01

    A double-blind randomized intervention study has previously shown that a significant relationship exists between the consumption of various mixes of seven target additives by children and the onset of hyperactive behaviour. The present study set out to ascertain the pattern of intake of two mixes (A and B) of these seven target additives in Irish children and teenagers using the Irish national food consumption databases for children (n = 594) and teenagers (n = 441) and the National Food Ingredient Database. The majority of additive-containing foods consumed by both the children and teenagers contained one of the target additives. No food consumed by either the children or teenagers contained all seven of the target food additives. For each additive intake, estimates for every individual were made assuming that the additive was present at the maximum legal permitted level in those foods identified as containing it. For both groups, mean intakes of the food additives among consumers only were far below the doses used in the previous study on hyperactivity. Intakes at the 97.5th percentile of all food colours fell below the doses used in Mix B, while intakes for four of the six food colours were also below the doses used in Mix A. However, in the case of the preservative sodium benzoate, it exceeded the previously used dose in both children and teenagers. No child or teenager achieved the overall intakes used in the study linking food additives with hyperactivity.

  19. Effect of tidal cycle and food intake on the baseline plasma corticosterone rhythm in intertidally foraging marine iguanas.

    PubMed

    Woodley, Sarah K; Painter, Danika L; Moore, Michael C; Wikelski, Martin; Romero, L Michael

    2003-06-15

    In most species, plasma levels of baseline glucocorticoids such as corticosterone (B) have a circadian rhythm. This rhythm can be entrained by both photoperiod and food intake and is related to aspects of energy intake and metabolism. Marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) offer a unique opportunity to better understand the relative importance of the light:dark cycle versus food intake in influencing the rhythm in baseline B in a natural system. Compared to other species, food intake is not as strictly determined by the phase of the light:dark cycle. Animals feed in the intertidal zone so feeding activity is heavily influenced by the tidal cycle. We measured baseline plasma B levels in free-living iguanas over several 24-h periods that varied in the timing of low tide/foraging activity. We found that baseline B levels were higher during the day relative to night. However, when low tide occurred during the day, baseline B levels dropped coincident with the timing of low tide. Whether the baseline B rhythm (including the drop during foraging) is an endogenous rhythm with a circatidal component, or is simply a result of feeding and associated physiological changes needs to be tested. Together, these data suggest that the baseline B rhythm in marine iguanas is influenced by the tidal cycle/food intake as well as the light:dark cycle.

  20. Energy intake and energy expenditure for determining excess weight gain in pregnant women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To conduct a secondary analysis designed to test whether gestational weight gain is the result of increased energy intake or adaptive changes in energy expenditures. In this secondary analysis, energy intake and energy expenditure of 45 pregnant women (body mass index [BMI] 18.5-24.9 [n=33] and BMI ...

  1. Evaluation of an Innovative Method for Calculating Energy Intake of Hospitalized Patients.

    PubMed

    Cox Sullivan, Sheila; Bopp, Melinda M; Roberson, Paula K; Lensing, Shelly; Sullivan, Dennis H

    2016-09-09

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a multi-component method for capturing nutrient intake, which used observation, photography, and an innovative computer program. To assess reliability and accuracy, multiple responsible employees (REs) independently conducted nutrient intake assessments on simulated meals; each RE's results relating to energy intake were compared to those from the other REs and to those obtained by pre- and post-meal weighing of the food items. System efficiency was assessed by having REs perform independent assessments on the same set of simulated meals using either the new or traditional hospital method for which the REs had to document each food item served and then find the items in a computer database-steps that were automated in the new method. Interrater reliability for energy intake estimated on clinic wards was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.975, 95% CI 0.958 to 0.992) and there was a high level of agreement between the REs' estimates and the true values determined by food weighing; per the method of Bland and Altman the mean difference between the two types of estimates was 0.3 kcal (95% CI, -8.1 to 8.7 kcal) with limits of agreement of -79.5 kcal to 80.1 kcal. Compared to the traditional method, energy intake assessments could be completed using the multi-component method in less than a third of the time. These results indicate the multi-component method is an accurate, reliable, and efficient method of obtaining energy intake assessments for hospitalized patients.

  2. Evaluation of an Innovative Method for Calculating Energy Intake of Hospitalized Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cox Sullivan, Sheila; Bopp, Melinda M.; Roberson, Paula K.; Lensing, Shelly; Sullivan, Dennis H.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a multi-component method for capturing nutrient intake, which used observation, photography, and an innovative computer program. To assess reliability and accuracy, multiple responsible employees (REs) independently conducted nutrient intake assessments on simulated meals; each RE’s results relating to energy intake were compared to those from the other REs and to those obtained by pre- and post-meal weighing of the food items. System efficiency was assessed by having REs perform independent assessments on the same set of simulated meals using either the new or traditional hospital method for which the REs had to document each food item served and then find the items in a computer database–steps that were automated in the new method. Interrater reliability for energy intake estimated on clinic wards was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.975, 95% CI 0.958 to 0.992) and there was a high level of agreement between the REs’ estimates and the true values determined by food weighing; per the method of Bland and Altman the mean difference between the two types of estimates was 0.3 kcal (95% CI, −8.1 to 8.7 kcal) with limits of agreement of −79.5 kcal to 80.1 kcal. Compared to the traditional method, energy intake assessments could be completed using the multi-component method in less than a third of the time. These results indicate the multi-component method is an accurate, reliable, and efficient method of obtaining energy intake assessments for hospitalized patients. PMID:27618096

  3. Exposure assessment of adult intake of bisphenol A (BPA) with emphasis on canned food dietary exposures.

    PubMed

    Lorber, Matthew; Schecter, Arnold; Paepke, Olaf; Shropshire, William; Christensen, Krista; Birnbaum, Linda

    2015-04-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-volume, synthetic compound found in epoxy resins and plastics used in food packaging. Food is believed to be a major source of BPA intake. In this study, we measured the concentration of BPA in convenience samplings of foodstuffs purchased in Dallas, Texas. Sampling entailed collection of 204 samples of fresh, frozen, and canned foods in two rounds in 2010. BPA was positive in 73% of the canned food samples, while it was found in only 7% of non-canned foods at low concentrations. The results of this food sampling program were used to calculate adult dietary intakes of BPA. A pathway approach combined food intakes, a "canned fraction" parameter which described what portion of total intake of that food came from canned products, and measured food concentrations. Dietary intakes were calculated as 12.6 ng/kg-day, of which 12.4 ng/kg-day was from canned foods. Canned vegetable intakes alone were 11.9 ng/kg-day. This dietary intake was compared to total intakes of BPA estimated from urine measurements of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Total adult central tendency intakes ranged from 30 to 70 ng/kg-day for NHANES cycles between 2005 and 2010. Three possibilities were explored to explain the difference between these two approaches for intake estimation. Not all foods which may have been canned, particularly canned beverages such as soft drinks, were sampled in our food sampling program. Second, non-food pathways of exposure may be important for adults, including thermal paper exposures, and dust and air exposures. Finally, our canned food concentrations may not be adequately representative of canned foods in the United States; they were found to be generally lower compared to canned food concentrations measured in six other worldwide food surveys including three in North America. Our finding that canned food concentrations greatly exceeded non-canned concentrations was consistent with other studies, and

  4. Exposure assessment of adult intake of bisphenol A (BPA) with emphasis on canned food dietary exposures

    PubMed Central

    Lorber, Matthew; Schecter, Arnold; Paepke, Olaf; Shropshire, William; Christensen, Krista; Birnbaum, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-volume, synthetic compound found in epoxy resins and plastics used in food packaging. Food is believed to be a major source of BPA intake. In this study, we measured the concentration of BPA in convenience samplings of foodstuffs purchased in Dallas, Texas. Sampling entailed collection of 204 samples of fresh, frozen, and canned foods in two rounds in 2010. BPA was positive in 73% of the canned food samples, while it was found in only 7% of non-canned foods at low concentrations. The results of this food sampling program were used to calculate adult dietary intakes of BPA. A pathway approach combined food intakes, a “canned fraction” parameter which described what portion of total intake of that food came from canned products, and measured food concentrations. Dietary intakes were calculated as 12.6 ng/kg-day, of which 12.4 ng/kg-day was from canned foods. Canned vegetable intakes alone were 11.9 ng/kg-day. This dietary intake was compared to total intakes of BPA estimated from urine measurements of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Total adult central tendency intakes ranged from 30 to 70 ng/kg-day for NHANES cycles between 2005 and 2010. Three possibilities were explored to explain the difference between these two approaches for intake estimation. Not all foods which may have been canned, particularly canned beverages such as soft drinks, were sampled in our food sampling program. Second, non-food pathways of exposure may be important for adults, including thermal paper exposures, and dust and air exposures. Finally, our canned food concentrations may not be adequately representative of canned foods in the United States; they were found to be generally lower compared to canned food concentrations measured in six other worldwide food surveys including three in North America. Our finding that canned food concentrations greatly exceeded non-canned concentrations was consistent with other studies, and

  5. PYY(3–36) Into The Arcuate Nucleus Inhibits Food Deprivation-Induced Increases In Food Hoarding and Intake

    PubMed Central

    Teubner, Brett J.W.; Bartness, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Central administration of neuropeptide Y (NPY) increases food intake in laboratory rats and mice, as well as food foraging and hoarding in Siberian hamsters. The NPY-Y1 and Y5 receptors (Rs) within the hypothalamus appear sufficient to account for these increases in ingestive behaviors. Stimulation of NPY-Y2Rs in the Arcuate nucleus (Arc) has an anorexigenic effect as shown by central or peripheral administration of its natural ligand peptide YY (3–36) and pharmacological NPY-Y2R antagonism by BIIE0246 increases food intake. Both effects on food intake by NPY-Y2R agonism and antagonism are relatively short-lived lasting ~4 h. The role of NPY-Y2Rs in appetitive ingestive behaviors (food foraging/hoarding) is untested, however. Therefore, Siberians hamsters, a natural food hoarder, were housed in a semi-natural burrow/foraging system that had a) foraging requirement (10 revolutions/ pellet), no free food (true foraging group), b) no running wheel access, free food (general malaise control) or c) running wheel access, free food (exercise control). We microinjected BIIE0246 (antagonist) and PYY(3–36) (agonist) into the Arc to test the role of NPY-Y2Rs there on ingestive behaviors. Food foraging, hoarding, and intake were not affected by Arc BIIE0246 microinjection in fed hamsters 1, 2, 4, and 24 h post injection. Stimulation of NPY-Y2Rs by PYY(3–36) inhibited food intake at 0–1 and 1–2 h and food hoarding at 1–2 h without causing general malaise or affecting foraging. Collectively, these results implicate a sufficiency, but not necessity, of the Arc NPY-Y2R in the inhibition of food intake and food hoarding by Siberian hamsters. PMID:23816798

  6. Role of NPY and its receptor subtypes in foraging, food hoarding, and food intake by Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Day, Diane E; Keen-Rhinehart, Erin; Bartness, Timothy J

    2005-07-01

    Fasting has widespread physiological and behavioral effects such as increases in arcuate nucleus neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene expression in rodents, including Siberian hamsters. Fasting also stimulates foraging and food hoarding (appetitive ingestive behaviors) by Siberian hamsters but does relatively little to change food intake (consummatory ingestive behavior). Therefore, we tested the effects of third ventricular NPY Y1 ([Pro(34)]NPY) or Y5 ([D-Trp(34)]NPY) receptor agonists on these ingestive behaviors using a wheel running-based food delivery system coupled with simulated burrow housing. Siberian hamsters had 1) no running wheel access and free food, 2) running wheel access and free food, or 3) foraging requirements (10 or 50 revolutions/pellet). NPY (1.76 nmol) stimulated food intake only during the first 4 h postinjection ( approximately 200-1,000%) and mostly in hamsters with a foraging requirement. The Y1 receptor agonist markedly increased food hoarding (250-1,000%), increased foraging as well as wheel running per se, and had relatively little effect on food intake (<250%). Unlike NPY, the Y5 agonist significantly increased food intake, especially in foraging animals ( approximately 225-800%), marginally increased food hoarding (250-500%), and stimulated foraging and wheel running 4-24 h postinjection, with the distribution of earned pellets favoring eating versus hoarding across time. Across treatments, food hoarding predominated early postinjection, whereas food intake tended to do so later. Collectively, NPY stimulated both appetitive and consummatory ingestive behaviors in Siberian hamsters involving Y1/Y5 receptors, with food hoarding and foraging/wheel running (appetitive) more involved with Y1 receptors and food intake (consummatory) with Y5 receptors.

  7. PYY(3-36) into the arcuate nucleus inhibits food deprivation-induced increases in food hoarding and intake.

    PubMed

    Teubner, Brett J W; Bartness, Timothy J

    2013-09-01

    Central administration of neuropeptide Y (NPY) increases food intake in laboratory rats and mice, as well as food foraging and hoarding in Siberian hamsters. The NPY-Y1 and Y5 receptors (Rs) within the hypothalamus appear sufficient to account for these increases in ingestive behaviors. Stimulation of NPY-Y2Rs in the Arcuate nucleus (Arc) has an anorexigenic effect as shown by central or peripheral administration of its natural ligand peptide YY (3-36) and pharmacological NPY-Y2R antagonism by BIIE0246 increases food intake. Both effects on food intake by NPY-Y2R agonism and antagonism are relatively short-lived lasting ∼4h. The role of NPY-Y2Rs in appetitive ingestive behaviors (food foraging/hoarding) is untested, however. Therefore, Siberians hamsters, a natural food hoarder, were housed in a semi-natural burrow/foraging system that had (a) foraging requirement (10 revolutions/pellet), no free food (true foraging group), (b) no running wheel access, free food (general malaise control) or (c) running wheel access, free food (exercise control). We microinjected BIIE0246 (antagonist) and PYY(3-36) (agonist) into the Arc to test the role of NPY-Y2Rs there on ingestive behaviors. Food foraging, hoarding, and intake were not affected by Arc BIIE0246 microinjection in fed hamsters 1, 2, 4, and 24h post injection. Stimulation of NPY-Y2Rs by PYY(3-36) inhibited food intake at 0-1 and 1-2h and food hoarding at 1-2h without causing general malaise or affecting foraging. Collectively, these results implicate a sufficiency, but not necessity, of the Arc NPY-Y2R in the inhibition of food intake and food hoarding by Siberian hamsters.

  8. Evidence for an interaction between CB1 cannabinoid and oxytocin receptors in food and water intake.

    PubMed

    Verty, A N A; McFarlane, J R; McGregor, I S; Mallet, P E

    2004-09-01

    Oxytocin and CB(1) cannabinoid receptors independently modulate food intake. Although an interaction between oxytocin and cannabinoid systems has been demonstrated with respect to the cannabinoid withdrawal syndrome, the interaction between these systems in modulating food intake has not yet been examined. The present study had three primary purposes: (1) to determine whether oxytocin and a CB(1) receptor antagonist block food and fluid intake in a supra-additive manner, (2) to determine the relative position of the CB(1) receptors in the chain of control of food intake in relation to the oxytocin system, and (3) to determine whether the increase in fluid intake induced by an oxytocin antagonist is mediated via cannabinoid receptors. Rats were habituated to the test environment and injection procedure, and then received intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of various combinations of the oxytocin receptor antagonist tocinoic acid, the cannabionid receptor agonist delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), oxytocin, or the cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR 141716. Food and water intake and locomotor activity were then measured for 120 min. When administrated alone, SR 141716 and oxytocin dose-dependently attenuated baseline food intake, while oxytocin but not SR 141716 reduced water intake. Sub-anorectic doses of SR 141716 and oxytocin attenuated baseline feeding beyond what would be expected by the sum of the individual drug effects without affecting baseline water intake. THC stimulated feeding but not water intake. THC-induced feeding was not blocked by oxytocin, however, the oxytocin did attenuate water intake during such feeding. SR 141716 dose-dependently reduced tocinoic-acid-stimulated food intake and partially attenuated water intake. Locomotor activity was not significantly affected by any drug treatments, suggesting that effects on feeding were not due to a non-specific reduction in motivated behaviour. These findings reveal an interaction between

  9. The contribution of various foods to intake of vitamin A and carotenoids in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Goldbohm, R A; Brants, H A; Hulshof, K F; van den Brandt, P A

    1998-01-01

    This study presents data on dietary intake of specific carotenoids in the Netherlands, based on a recently developed food composition database for carotenoids. Regularly eaten vegetables, the main dietary source of carotenoids, were sampled comprehensively and analysed with modern analytic methods. The database was complemented with data from recent literature and information from food manufacturers. In addition, data on intake of vitamin A are presented, which are based on the most recent update of the Dutch Food Composition Table. Intake of vitamin A was calculated for adult participants of the second Dutch National Food Consumption Survey in 1992, whereas intake of carotenoids was calculated for participants of the Dutch Cohort Study on diet and cancer, aged 55 to 69 in 1986. Mean intake of vitamin A amounted to 1.1 and 0.9 mg RE/day for men and women, respectively; the contributions of meat, fats and oils, vegetables and dairy products to total intake were 35%, 24%, 16%, and 16%, respectively. Mean intake of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene and lutein plus zeaxanthin was 0.7, 3.0, and 2.5 mg/day respectively for both men and women, while mean intake of lycopene was 1.0 mg/day for men and 1.3 mg/day for women. The most important foods contributing to intake of beta-carotene and lutein plus zeaxanthin were carrots (beta-carotene only), spinach, endive and kale.

  10. Diet choice exaggerates food hoarding, intake and pup survival across reproduction.

    PubMed

    Day, Diane E; Mintz, Eric M; Bartness, Timothy J

    Siberian hamsters increase food intake and hoarding during pregnancy and lactation, perhaps to compensate for large decreases in body fat (approximately 50%). We tested the effects of diet choice on these responses in pregnant, lactating and virgin hamsters housed in a simulated burrow system. Hamsters were offered pellet chow (PC) or a choice of sunflower seeds (SS), rabbit chow (RC) and PC. Pregnant or lactating PC-fed hamsters had increased food intake and hoard size compared with virgins, effects exaggerated by diet self-selection. The pregnancy-induced increases and lactation-induced decreases in body mass were enhanced and diminished by diet self-selection, respectively. Pregnant self-selecting hamsters ate relatively more carbohydrate and less fat and hoarded less carbohydrate and more fat than their virgin counterparts (protein not affected). Lactating and virgin self-selecting hamsters both ate and hoarded relatively more carbohydrate than protein or fat compared with PC-fed hamsters but were not different from each other. Litter and pup sizes were similar at birth, but pups from self-selecting mothers had decreased lipid content (50%) compared with pups from PC-fed mothers, whereas at weaning they were heavier but not fatter. Only lactating PC-fed mothers cannibalized their pups (approximately 60% eaten, 8/10 litters). The pregnancy-induced increased eating and hoarding of carbohydrate may have helped meet immediate energy needs sparing dwindling lipid reserves, whereas the decreased fetal lipid investment may have helped conserve energy in anticipation of the increased demands of lactation. The diet-induced exaggerated caloric intake and food hoard size of lactating hamsters may have promoted pup growth and survival.

  11. Energy and macronutrient intake in adolescent sprint athletes: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Aerenhouts, Dirk; Deriemaeker, Peter; Hebbelinck, Marcel; Clarys, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Macronutrient intake, height, weight, and body composition of 60 adolescent sprint athletes were estimated every 6 months over 3 years. Seven-day food records were analysed based on the Belgian and Dutch food databanks. The age of participants at the start of the 3-year study was 14.8 ± 1.6 years for female athletes and 14.7 ± 1.9 years for male athletes. Girls and boys gained height (3.4 ± 4.6 cm and 5.9 ± 6.6 cm respectively) and weight (5.6 ± 3.5 kg and 8.7 ± 5.5 kg respectively), whereas percent body fat remained unchanged in both girls and boys (around 17.0% and 8.5% respectively). Mean protein intake of around 1.5 g · kg⁻¹ body weight was within recommendations on each occasion for both sexes. Carbohydrate intakes between 5 and 7 g · kg⁻¹ body weight support a training programme of moderate intensity. Total and saturated fat intakes were high at the start of the study (girls: 31.8 ± 3.5% and 12.2 ± 2.0% of energy intake; boys: 30.3 ± 4.6% and 12.0 ± 1.9% of energy intake) and it appeared to be difficult to achieve and maintain lower intakes. Consistent low fluid intakes around 40 ml · kg⁻¹ body weight were observed. General non-stringent advice for improvement of the diet resulted in significant favourable changes only for the consumption of wholegrain bread, vegetables, and soft drinks. Dietary habits of adolescent sprint athletes are not always according to guidelines and are relatively stable but repeated advice can induce moderate improvements.

  12. Food Restriction-Induced Changes in Gonadotropin-Inhibiting Hormone Cells are Associated with Changes in Sexual Motivation and Food Hoarding, but not Sexual Performance and Food Intake.

    PubMed

    Klingerman, Candice M; Williams, Wilbur P; Simberlund, Jessica; Brahme, Nina; Prasad, Ankita; Schneider, Jill E; Kriegsfeld, Lance J

    2011-01-01

    We hypothesized that putative anorectic and orexigenic peptides control the motivation to engage in either ingestive or sex behaviors, and these peptides function to optimize reproductive success in environments where energy fluctuates. Here, the putative orexigenic peptide, gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone (GnIH, also known as RFamide-related peptide-3), and the putative anorectic hormones leptin, insulin, and estradiol were examined during the course of food restriction. Groups of female Syrian hamsters were restricted to 75% of their ad libitum food intake or fed ad libitum for 4, 8, or 12 days. Two other groups were food-restricted for 12 days and then re-fed ad libitum for 4 or 8 days. After testing for sex and ingestive behavior, blood was sampled and assayed for peripheral hormones. Brains were immunohistochemically double-labeled for GnIH and the protein product of the immediate early gene, c-fos, a marker of cellular activation. Food hoarding, the number of double-labeled cells, and the percent of GnIH-Ir cells labeled with Fos-Ir were significantly increased at 8 and 12 days after the start of food restriction. Vaginal scent marking and GnIH-Ir cell number significantly decreased after the same duration of restriction. Food hoarding, but not food intake, was significantly positively correlated with cellular activation in GnIH-Ir cells. Vaginal scent marking was significantly negatively correlated with cellular activation in GnIH-Ir cells. There were no significant effects of food restriction on plasma insulin, leptin, estradiol, or progesterone concentrations. In the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) of energetically challenged females, strong projections from NPY-Ir cells were found in close apposition to GnIH-Ir cells. Together these results are consistent with the idea that metabolic signals influence sexual and ingestive motivation via NPY fibers that project to GnIH cells in the DMH.

  13. Food Restriction-Induced Changes in Gonadotropin-Inhibiting Hormone Cells are Associated with Changes in Sexual Motivation and Food Hoarding, but not Sexual Performance and Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Klingerman, Candice M.; Williams, Wilbur P.; Simberlund, Jessica; Brahme, Nina; Prasad, Ankita; Schneider, Jill E.; Kriegsfeld, Lance J.

    2011-01-01

    We hypothesized that putative anorectic and orexigenic peptides control the motivation to engage in either ingestive or sex behaviors, and these peptides function to optimize reproductive success in environments where energy fluctuates. Here, the putative orexigenic peptide, gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone (GnIH, also known as RFamide-related peptide-3), and the putative anorectic hormones leptin, insulin, and estradiol were examined during the course of food restriction. Groups of female Syrian hamsters were restricted to 75% of their ad libitum food intake or fed ad libitum for 4, 8, or 12 days. Two other groups were food-restricted for 12 days and then re-fed ad libitum for 4 or 8 days. After testing for sex and ingestive behavior, blood was sampled and assayed for peripheral hormones. Brains were immunohistochemically double-labeled for GnIH and the protein product of the immediate early gene, c-fos, a marker of cellular activation. Food hoarding, the number of double-labeled cells, and the percent of GnIH-Ir cells labeled with Fos-Ir were significantly increased at 8 and 12 days after the start of food restriction. Vaginal scent marking and GnIH-Ir cell number significantly decreased after the same duration of restriction. Food hoarding, but not food intake, was significantly positively correlated with cellular activation in GnIH-Ir cells. Vaginal scent marking was significantly negatively correlated with cellular activation in GnIH-Ir cells. There were no significant effects of food restriction on plasma insulin, leptin, estradiol, or progesterone concentrations. In the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) of energetically challenged females, strong projections from NPY-Ir cells were found in close apposition to GnIH-Ir cells. Together these results are consistent with the idea that metabolic signals influence sexual and ingestive motivation via NPY fibers that project to GnIH cells in the DMH. PMID:22649396

  14. The odor of Osmanthus fragrans attenuates food intake

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Inui, Tadashi; Tsuji, Tadataka

    2013-01-01

    Odors have been shown to exert an influence on various physiological and behavioral activities. However, little is known whether or not odor stimulation directly affects the levels of feeding-related neuropeptides. Here we show that the neural transmission by Osmanthus fragrans (OSM) decreased the mRNA expression of orexigenic neuropeptides, such as agouti-related protein, neuropeptide Y, melanin-concentrating hormone and prepro-orexin, while increased anorexigenic neuropeptides, such as cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript and proopiomelanocortin in rats. The decreased number of orexin-immunoreactive neurons in the hypothalamus coincided well with the OSM-induced decreases in the expression of prepro-orexin mRNA. This study demonstrates that the OSM odor, which is known to have a mild sedative effect, decreases the motivation to eat, food intake and body weight, accompanied by sluggish masticatory movements. The data suggest that these effects are due to suppression of orexigenic neuropeptides and activation of anorexigenic neuropeptides in the hypothalamus. PMID:23519146

  15. U.S. Food Guide Pyramid food group intake by Asian Indian immigrants in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Jonnalagadda, S S; Diwan, S; Cohen, D L

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the food group intake and the dietary quality of middle-aged and older Gujarati Asian Indian immigrants (45 years or older) living in two urban metropolitan areas in the U.S. Participants (90 men, 99 females) completed a 24-hour dietary recall, which was used to determine if they met the daily food group intake guidelines of the U.S. Food Guide Pyramid. The overall quality of their reported dietary intake was determined using the Healthy Eating Index based on their nutrient and food group intake. Both men and women met the daily number of servings recommendations for the grains (men: 9.3 servings/day; women: 6.9 servings/day) and vegetables (men: 4.5 servings/day; women: 3.6 servings/day) groups, but did not meet the recommendations for fruits, dairy and meats groups. The total score on the Healthy Eating Index of the diets of these participants was 73, indicative of a dietary intake that does not meet the established U.S. dietary guidelines. These immigrants should be educated about appropriate food choices (ethnic and non-ethnic) within each of the U.S. Food Guide Pyramid food groups to improve the overall quality of their dietary intakes.

  16. Energy and macronutrient intake over the course of the day of German adults: A DEDIPAC-study.

    PubMed

    Wittig, Friederike; Hummel, Eva; Wenzler, Germaine; Heuer, Thorsten

    2017-03-16

    The aim of the study was to analyze the energy and macronutrient intake over the course of the day of selected population groups in Germany defined by sex, age, BMI, SES, and diet quality. The study was based on food consumption data from the German National Nutrition Survey II (2005-2007) assessed by two 4-day dietary weighing records of 662 women and men aged between 18 and 80 years. Energy and macronutrient intake were calculated using the German Nutrient Database 3.02 and summarized for the periods 'morning', 'midday', 'afternoon', 'evening', and 'night'. Generalized estimating equation models were used to examine differences in energy and macronutrient intake. For women and men, a three-main-meal pattern ('morning', 'midday', and 'evening') was observed, indicated as peaks in energy intake at 08:00 to 09:00, 13:00 and 19:00 o'clock. The distributions of carbohydrate, protein, and fat intake mirror the distribution of energy intake over the course of the day. The highest energy intake was found in the 'evening' period, especially in young adults, overweight persons, persons with a high SES, and men with a low diet quality. Women of the oldest age group showed a similar energy intake across the three-main-meals in contrast to young adults, who had lower peaks in the 'morning' and 'midday' periods as well as a shift to later meal times. Young adults seem to have a higher variability in energy intake and a less distinct meal pattern, while seniors have a more structured day. Because a high energy intake in the 'evening' period is associated with negative health-related factors, the distribution of energy intake should be considered by recommendations for a healthy nutritional behavior.

  17. Sloths like it hot: ambient temperature modulates food intake in the brown-throated sloth (Bradypus variegatus)

    PubMed Central

    Haupt, Ryan J.; Avey-Arroyo, Judy A.; Wilson, Rory P.

    2015-01-01

    Sloths are considered to have one of the lowest mass-specific metabolic rates of any mammal and, in tandem with a slow digestive rate, have been theorized to have correspondingly low rates of ingestion. Here, we show in a study conducted over five months, that three captive Bradypus variegatus (Brown-throated sloths) had a remarkably low mean food intake of 17 g kg−1day−1 (SD 4.2). Food consumption was significantly affected by ambient temperature, with increased intake at higher temperatures. We suggest that the known fluctuation of sloth core body temperature with ambient temperature affects the rate at which gut fauna process digesta, allowing for increased rates of fermentation at higher temperatures. Since Bradypus sloths maintain a constantly full stomach, faster rates of fermentation should enhance digestive throughput, increasing the capacity for higher levels of food intake, thereby allowing increased energy acquisition at higher ambient temperatures. This contrasts with other mammals, which tend to show increased levels of food intake in colder conditions, and points to the importance of temperature in regulating all aspects of energy use in sloths. PMID:25861559

  18. Sloths like it hot: ambient temperature modulates food intake in the brown-throated sloth (Bradypus variegatus).

    PubMed

    Cliffe, Rebecca N; Haupt, Ryan J; Avey-Arroyo, Judy A; Wilson, Rory P

    2015-01-01

    Sloths are considered to have one of the lowest mass-specific metabolic rates of any mammal and, in tandem with a slow digestive rate, have been theorized to have correspondingly low rates of ingestion. Here, we show in a study conducted over five months, that three captive Bradypus variegatus (Brown-throated sloths) had a remarkably low mean food intake of 17 g kg(-1)day(-1) (SD 4.2). Food consumption was significantly affected by ambient temperature, with increased intake at higher temperatures. We suggest that the known fluctuation of sloth core body temperature with ambient temperature affects the rate at which gut fauna process digesta, allowing for increased rates of fermentation at higher temperatures. Since Bradypus sloths maintain a constantly full stomach, faster rates of fermentation should enhance digestive throughput, increasing the capacity for higher levels of food intake, thereby allowing increased energy acquisition at higher ambient temperatures. This contrasts with other mammals, which tend to show increased levels of food intake in colder conditions, and points to the importance of temperature in regulating all aspects of energy use in sloths.

  19. Intracerebroventricular administration of C-type natriuretic peptide suppresses food intake via activation of the melanocortin system in mice.

    PubMed

    Yamada-Goto, Nobuko; Katsuura, Goro; Ebihara, Ken; Inuzuka, Megumi; Ochi, Yukari; Yamashita, Yui; Kusakabe, Toru; Yasoda, Akihiro; Satoh-Asahara, Noriko; Ariyasu, Hiroyuki; Hosoda, Kiminori; Nakao, Kazuwa

    2013-05-01

    C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) and its receptor are abundantly distributed in the brain, especially in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus associated with regulating energy homeostasis. To elucidate the possible involvement of CNP in energy regulation, we examined the effects of intracerebroventricular administration of CNP on food intake in mice. The intracerebroventricular administration of CNP-22 and CNP-53 significantly suppressed food intake on 4-h refeeding after 48-h fasting. Next, intracerebroventricular administration of CNP-22 and CNP-53 significantly decreased nocturnal food intake. The increment of food intake induced by neuropeptide Y and ghrelin was markedly suppressed by intracerebroventricular administration of CNP-22 and CNP-53. When SHU9119, an antagonist for melanocortin-3 and melanocortin-4 receptors, was coadministered with CNP-53, the suppressive effect of CNP-53 on refeeding after 48-h fasting was significantly attenuated by SHU9119. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that intracerebroventricular administration of CNP-53 markedly increased the number of c-Fos-positive cells in the ARC, paraventricular nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamus, ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, and lateral hypothalamus. In particular, c-Fos-positive cells in the ARC after intracerebroventricular administration of CNP-53 were coexpressed with α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone immunoreactivity. These results indicated that intracerebroventricular administration of CNP induces an anorexigenic action, in part, via activation of the melanocortin system.

  20. Altered "set-point" of the hypothalamus determines effects of cortisol on food intake, adiposity, and metabolic substrates in sheep.

    PubMed

    Henry, B A; Blache, D; Dunshea, F R; Clarke, I J

    2010-01-01

    Chronic elevation of glucocorticoid concentrations is detrimental to health. We investigated effects of chronic increase in plasma cortisol concentrations on energy balance and endocrine function in sheep. Because food intake and reproduction are regulated by photoperiod, we performed experiments in January (JAN) and August (AUG), when appetite drive is either high or low, respectively. Ovariectomized ewes were treated (intramuscularly) daily with 0.5mg Synacthen Depot(R) (synthetic adrenocorticotropin: ACTH) or saline for 4 wk. Blood samples were taken to measure plasma concentrations of cortisol, luteinising hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), growth hormone (GH), leptin, insulin, and glucose. Adrenocorticotropin treatment increased concentrations of cortisol. During JAN, treatment reduced food intake transiently, but increased food intake in AUG. Leptin concentrations were reduced and glucose concentrations were greater in AUG, and insulin concentrations were similar throughout the year. Treatment with ACTH increased leptin concentrations in AUG only, whereas insulin concentrations increased in JAN only. Synacthen treatment increased glucose concentrations, with a greater effect in JAN. Changes in truncal adiposity and ACTH-induced cortisol secretion were positively correlated in JAN and negatively correlated in AUG. Treatment reduced the plasma LH pulse frequency in JAN and AUG, with an effect on pulse amplitude in JAN only. Treatment did not affect plasma GH or FSH concentrations. We conclude that chronically elevated cortisol concentrations can affect food intake, adiposity, and reproductive function. In sheep, effects of chronically elevated cortisol concentrations on energy balance and metabolism depend upon metabolic setpoint, determined by circannual rhythms.

  1. Interactions of Circadian Rhythmicity, Stress and Orexigenic Neuropeptide Systems: Implications for Food Intake Control

    PubMed Central

    Blasiak, Anna; Gundlach, Andrew L.; Hess, Grzegorz; Lewandowski, Marian H.

    2017-01-01

    Many physiological processes fluctuate throughout the day/night and daily fluctuations are observed in brain and peripheral levels of several hormones, neuropeptides and transmitters. In turn, mediators under the “control” of the “master biological clock” reciprocally influence its function. Dysregulation in the rhythmicity of hormone release as well as hormone receptor sensitivity and availability in different tissues, is a common risk-factor for multiple clinical conditions, including psychiatric and metabolic disorders. At the same time circadian rhythms remain in a strong, reciprocal interaction with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Recent findings point to a role of circadian disturbances and excessive stress in the development of obesity and related food consumption and metabolism abnormalities, which constitute a major health problem worldwide. Appetite, food intake and energy balance are under the influence of several brain neuropeptides, including the orexigenic agouti-related peptide, neuropeptide Y, orexin, melanin-concentrating hormone and relaxin-3. Importantly, orexigenic neuropeptide neurons remain under the control of the circadian timing system and are highly sensitive to various stressors, therefore the potential neuronal mechanisms through which disturbances in the daily rhythmicity and stress-related mediator levels contribute to food intake abnormalities rely on reciprocal interactions between these elements. PMID:28373831

  2. NPY Y1 receptor is involved in ghrelin- and fasting-induced increases in foraging, food hoarding, and food intake.

    PubMed

    Keen-Rhinehart, Erin; Bartness, Timothy J

    2007-04-01

    Fasting triggers a constellation of physiological and behavioral changes, including increases in peripherally produced ghrelin and centrally produced hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY). Refeeding stimulates food intake in most species; however, hamsters primarily increase foraging and food hoarding with smaller increases in food intake. Fasting-induced increases in foraging and food hoarding in Siberian hamsters are mimicked by peripheral ghrelin, central NPY, and NPY Y1 receptor agonist injections. Because fasting stimulates ghrelin and subsequently NPY synthesis/release, it may be that fasting-induced increased hoarding is mediated by NPY Y1 receptor activation. Therefore, we asked: Can an Y1 receptor antagonist block fasting- or ghrelin-induced increases in foraging, food hoarding, and food intake? This was accomplished by injecting the NPY Y1 receptor antagonist 1229U91 intracerebroventricularly in hamsters fasted, fed, or given peripheral ghrelin injections and housed in a running wheel-based food delivery foraging system coupled with simulated-burrow housing. Three foraging conditions were used: 1) no running wheel access, free food, 2) running wheel access, free food, or 3) foraging requirement (10 revolutions/pellet) for food. Fasting was a more potent stimulator of foraging and food hoarding than ghrelin. Concurrent injections of 1229U91 completely blocked fasting- and ghrelin-induced increased foraging and food intake and attenuated, but did not always completely block, fasting- and ghrelin-induced increases in food hoarding. Collectively, these data suggest that the NPY Y1 receptor is important for the effects of ghrelin- and fasting-induced increases in foraging and food intake, but other NPY receptors and/or other neurochemical systems are involved in increases in food hoarding.

  3. Food-related energy requirements.

    PubMed

    Hirst, E

    1974-04-12

    I have used data from input-output studies to determine the quantities of primary and electric energy consumed in the agricultural, processing, transportation, wholesale and retail trade, and household sectors for personal consumption of food. Before one draws conclusions from these results, it is important to note the assumptions and approximations used in this analysis. First, the economic input-output data published by the Department of Commerce are subject to a number of inaccuracies, including lack of complete coverage for an industry, restriction of data for proprietary reasons, and use of different time periods for different data. Second, aggregation can combine within the same sector industries whose energy intensities differ widely. For example, eating and drinking establishments probably consume more energy per dollar of sales (because of refrigerators, stoves, and freezers) than do department stores. However, both types of establishment are included in retail trade. Thus energy use for food-related retail trade may be underestimated because of aggregation. Third, the energy coefficients are subject to error. In particular, the coefficients for the agricultural and trade sectors are vulnerable because energy use within these sectors is not well documented. Finally, the scaling factor used to estimate food-related energy use for the 1960's is approximate, in that it neglects the possibility that these energy coefficients changed differently with time. Because of these limitations, which are described more fully by Herendeen (6), a number of important issues were not addressed here. such as relative energy requirements for fresh, frozen, and canned vegetables; and for soybeans as compared to beef. This analysis shows that the U.S. food cycle consumes a considerable amount of energy, about 12 percent of the total national energy budget. The residential sector, which accounts for 30 percent of the total, is the most energy-intensive sector in terms of energy

  4. Protein-energy intake and malnutrition in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Hodges, P; Gee, M; Grace, M; Sherbaniuk, R W; Wensel, R H; Thomson, A B

    1984-12-01

    A detailed nutrient assessment was made of 23 male and 24 female patients with Crohn's disease who entered sequentially into an outpatient clinic. Assessment included 48-hour dietary recall, anthropometric measurements, and biochemical and hematological tests appropriate to characterize protein-energy malnutrition. Approximately 40% of patients had energy intakes equal to only two-thirds of the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). Three men and five women had relative body weights less than 85% of standard, but body weight was not correlated with energy intake. Relative body weight was correlated with arm muscle circumference in both male and female patients and with triceps skinfold and total lymphocyte count in women. Although the mean protein intake was greater than 150% of the RDA, evidence of protein malnutrition included low arm muscle circumference in 14% of the men and 15% of the women, low serum albumin concentration in 13% of the women, and low total lymphocyte count in one-half of the patients. The Crohn's disease activity index was correlated significantly with serum albumin, energy intake, and duration of disease in men and with serum ferritin and hemoglobin concentration in women. Thus, a reduced relative body weight or reduced serum albumin was not uncommon in patients with Crohn's disease but did not necessarily occur in those with reduced intakes of protein and energy. However, a low relative body weight may indicate need for further nutritional assessment.

  5. Empirical evaluation of the ability to learn a calorie counting system and estimate portion size and food intake.

    PubMed

    Martin, Corby K; Anton, Stephen D; York-Crowe, Emily; Heilbronn, Leonie K; VanSkiver, Claudia; Redman, Leanne M; Greenway, Frank L; Ravussin, Eric; Williamson, Donald A

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if: (1) participants could learn the HMR Calorie System by testing if their use of the system was more accurate after training; and (2) estimated portion size and food intake improved with training. A secondary aim was to use PACE (photographic assessment of calorie estimation) to assess if participants learned the HMR system. The PACE consists of pictures of foods, the energy content of which is known. A within-subjects design was used to test the aims of this study. Participants were 44 overweight (25 foods to test if they could effectively use the HMR system and accurately estimate portion size and the amount of food eaten. The PACE was also used to quantify accuracy at using the HMR system. Training resulted in more accurate estimation of food intake, use of the HMR system and estimated portion size when presented with food. Additionally, training resulted in significantly more accurate use of the HMR system when measured with PACE. It is concluded that people can learn the HMR Calorie System and improve the accuracy of portion size and food intake estimates. The PACE is a useful assessment tool to test if participants learn a calorie counting system.

  6. Physical activity, energy requirements, and adequacy of dietary intakes of older persons in a rural Filipino community

    PubMed Central

    Risonar, Maria Grace D; Rayco-Solon, Pura; Ribaya-Mercado, Judy D; Solon, Juan Antonio A; Cabalda, Aegina B; Tengco, Lorena W; Solon, Florentino S

    2009-01-01

    Background Aging is a process associated with physiological changes such as in body composition, energy expenditure and physical activity. Data on energy and nutrient intake adequacy among elderly is important for disease prevention, health maintenance and program development. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was designed to determine the energy requirements and adequacy of energy and nutrient intakes of older persons living in private households in a rural Filipino community. Study participants were generally-healthy, ambulatory, and community living elderly aged 60–100 y (n = 98), 88 of whom provided dietary information in three nonconsecutive 24-hour food-recall interviews. Results There was a decrease in both physical activity and food intake with increasing years. Based on total energy expenditure and controlling for age, gender and socio-economic status, the average energy requirement for near-old (≥ 60 to < 65 y) males was 2074 kcal/d, with lower requirements, 1919 and 1699 kcal/d for the young-old (≥ 65 to < 75 y) and the old-old (≥ 75 y), respectively. Among females, the average energy requirements for the 3 age categories were 1712, 1662, and 1398 kcal/d, respectively. Actual energy intakes, however, were only ~65% adequate for all subjects as compared to energy expenditure. Protein, fat, and micronutrients (vitamins A and C, thiamin, riboflavin, iron and calcium) intakes were only ~24–51% of the recommended daily intake. Among this population, there was a weight decrease of 100 g (p = 0.012) and a BMI decrease of 0.04 kg/m2 (p = 0.003) for every 1% decrease in total caloric intake as percentage of the total energy expenditure requirements. Conclusion These community living elderly suffer from lack of both macronutrient intake as compared with energy requirements, and micronutrient intake as compared with the standard dietary recommendations. Their energy intakes are ~65% of the amounts required based on their total energy

  7. Estimation of selenium intake in Switzerland in relation to selected food groups.

    PubMed

    Jenny-Burri, J; Haldimann, M; Dudler, V

    2010-11-01

    The selenium concentration in foods was analysed in order to identify principal sources of this trace element in Switzerland. Selenium intake estimations based on three different approaches were carried out. From the relationship between intake and serum/plasma concentration, the selenium intake was estimated to 66 µg day(-1). The second approach based on measured food groups combined with consumption statistics; and the third approach consisted of duplicate meal samples. With the last two methods, over 75% of the serum/plasma based intake was confirmed. Swiss pasta made of North American durum wheat was the food with the highest contribution to the dietary intake, followed by meat. The strong decrease in imports of selenium-rich North American wheat of the last years was not reflected in the present intake estimations. It appears that this intake loss was compensated by a consumption increase of other foods. Compared with former intake estimations, selenium intake seems to be in Switzerland nearly constant for the last 25 years.

  8. Brazilian pregnant and lactating women do not change their food intake to meet nutritional goals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nutritional requirements are increased during pregnancy and lactation. The aim of this study was to compare the food intake and prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake among pregnant, lactating and reproductive-age women. Methods Two-day dietary records of 322 pregnant and 751 lactating women were compared to those of 6837 non-pregnant and non-lactating women aged 19 to 40 years from a nationwide representative sample. The usual nutrient intake was estimated using the National Cancer Institute method, and compared to nutritional goals to estimate prevalence of inadequate intake. Results Pregnant, lactating and reproductive-age women did not differ in their average consumption of 18 food groups, except for rice, with greatest intake among lactating women. The prevalence of nutrient inadequacy in pregnant women was higher than in reproductive-age women for folate (78% versus 40%) and vitamin B6 (59% versus 33%). In lactating women, prevalence was higher than in reproductive-age women for vitamin A (95% versus 72%), vitamin C (56% versus 37%), vitamin B6 (75% vs. 33%), folate (72% versus 40%) and zinc (64% versus 20%). The percentage of sodium intake above the upper limit was greater than 70% in the three groups. Conclusions Inadequate intake is frequent in women and increases during pregnancy and lactation, because women do not change their food intake. Guidelines should stimulate healthy food intake for women across the lifespan. PMID:24890188

  9. Voluntary exercise and increased food intake after mild chronic stress improve social avoidance behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Airi; Shiuchi, Tetsuya; Chikahisa, Sachiko; Shimizu, Noriyuki; Séi, Hiroyoshi

    2015-11-01

    It is well-established that exercise can influence psychological conditions, cognitive function, and energy metabolism in peripheral tissues including the skeletal muscle. However, it is not clear whether exercise can influence social interaction with others and alleviate defeat stress. This study investigated the effect of voluntary wheel running on impaired social interaction induced by chronic social defeat stress (SDS) using the resident-intruder social defeat model. Mice were divided into three groups: control, stress alone, and stress+exercise. SDS was performed by exposing C57BL/6 mice to retired ICR mice for 2.5 min. The C57BL/6 mice were continuously defeated by these resident (aggressor) mice and, following 5 days of SDS, experienced 2 days of rest with no SDS. Mice in the stress+exercise group were allowed to voluntarily run on a wheel for 2h after every SDS exposure. Two weeks later, compared to the control group, the stress group showed a higher ratio of time spent in the corner zone of a social interaction paradigm even though SDS did not elicit depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors. We also observed that voluntary exercise, which did not affect muscle weight and gene expression, decreased social avoidance behavior of stressed mice without clear changes in brain monoamine levels. Interestingly, food intake in the stress+exercise group was the greatest among the three groups. To test the effect of the exercise-induced increase in food intake on social behavior, we set up a pair-fed group where food intake was restricted. We then compared these mice to mice in the stress alone group. We found that the ratio of time spent in the corner zone of the social interaction test was not different between ad libitum- and pair-fed groups, although pair-fed mice spent more time in the corner zone when an aggressor mouse was present than when it was absent. In addition, pair-feeding did not show exercise-induced reductions of adrenal gland weight and enhanced the

  10. Risk of human ovarian cancer is related to dietary intake of selected nutrients, phytochemicals and food groups.

    PubMed

    McCann, Susan E; Freudenheim, Jo L; Marshall, James R; Graham, Saxon

    2003-06-01

    Intakes of specific nutrients and food groups have been shown previously to be related to ovarian cancer risk, but no studies, to our knowledge, have emphasized the effect of phytochemical intakes on this cancer. We conducted a case-control study of diet and ovarian cancer in western New York involving 124 primary, histologically confirmed ovarian cancer cases and 696 population-based controls, frequency matched to cases on age and county of residence. Diet was assessed with a detailed food-frequency questionnaire. Nutrient and phytochemical intakes were calculated from published food composition data. The odds ratios (OR) and 95% CI for risk of ovarian cancer with each nutrient, phytochemical and food group were estimated with unconditional logistic regression adjusting for age, education, total months menstruating, difficulty becoming pregnant, oral contraceptive use, menopausal status and energy intake. Compared with women in the lowest quintile of intake, reduced risks were observed for women in the highest quintile of intake of dietary fiber (OR 0.43, 95% CI, 0.20-0.94), total carotenoids (OR 0.33, 95% CI, 0.16-0.68), stigmasterol (OR 0.42, 95% CI, 0.20-0.87), total lignans (OR 0.43, 95% CI, 0.21-0.85), vegetables (OR 0.47, 95% CI, 0.23-0.97) and poultry (OR 0.45, 95% CI, 0.22-0.92). These results support a protective effect on ovarian cancer of phytoestrogen intakes, and our results support the hypothesis that a plant-based diet may be important in reducing risks of hormone-related neoplasms.

  11. Traditional food consumption is associated with higher nutrient intakes in Inuit children attending childcare centres in Nunavik

    PubMed Central

    Gagné, Doris; Blanchet, Rosanne; Lauzière, Julie; Vaissière, Émilie; Vézina, Carole; Ayotte, Pierre; Déry, Serge; O'Brien, Huguette Turgeon

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To describe traditional food (TF) consumption and to evaluate its impact on nutrient intakes of preschool Inuit children from Nunavik. Design A cross-sectional study. Methods Dietary intakes of children were assessed with a single 24-hour recall (n=217). TF consumption at home and at the childcare centres was compared. Differences in children's nutrient intakes when consuming or not consuming at least 1 TF item were examined using ANCOVA. Results A total of 245 children attending childcare centres in 10 communities of Nunavik were recruited between 2006 and 2010. The children's mean age was 25.0±9.6 months (11–54 months). Thirty-six percent of children had consumed at least 1 TF item on the day of the recall. TF contributed to 2.6% of total energy intake. Caribou and Arctic char were the most reported TF species. Land animals and fish/shellfish were the main contributors to energy intake from TF (38 and 33%, respectively). In spite of a low TF intake, children who consumed TF had significantly (p<0.05) higher intakes of protein, omega-3 fatty acids, iron, phosphorus, zinc, copper, selenium, niacin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, and vitamin B12, and lower intakes of energy and carbohydrate compared with non-consumers. There was no significant difference in any of the socio-economic variables between children who consumed TF and those who did not. Conclusion Although TF was not eaten much, it contributed significantly to the nutrient intakes of children. Consumption of TF should be encouraged as it provides many nutritional, economic, and sociocultural benefits. PMID:22818718

  12. Genetics of food intake self-regulation in childhood: literature review and research opportunities.

    PubMed

    Faith, Myles S; Carnell, Susan; Kral, Tanja V E

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric obesity results from a daily energy imbalance between intake and expenditure, an imbalance potentially as slight as ~30-50 kcal/day (e.g., a few extra sips of cola or bites of a cookie). That an 'energy gap' so small may be so powerful suggests the importance of understanding mechanisms of food intake self-regulation (FISR). This review focuses on 4 behavioral indices of FISR in childhood: (1) eating in the absence of hunger; (2) eating rate; (3) caloric compensation and satiety responsiveness, and (4) food responsiveness. Evidence from pediatric samples around the world indicates that these traits are associated with body mass index, are heritable, and are linked to polymorphisms in the FTO gene. We review these data, also discussing their relevance to practical issues of parental feeding styles, portion sizes, and health literacy and numeracy. Research gaps and opportunities for future investigation are discussed. Multidisciplinary approaches and study designs that can address gene-environment interactions are needed to advance the science of FISR and stimulate new avenues for childhood obesity prevention.

  13. Television watching and the emotional impact on social modeling of food intake among children.

    PubMed

    Bevelander, Kirsten E; Meiselman, Herbert L; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2013-04-01

    The main goal of this study was to test whether exposure to happy, neutral, or sad media content influences social modeling effects of (snack) food intake in young children. The study was conducted at 14 Dutch urban and suburban primary schools. The participants (N=112) were asked to watch a movie with a same-sex normal-weight confederate who was instructed to eat either nothing or a standardized amount of snack food (10 chocolate-coated peanuts). The study involved a 3 (movie clips: happy, neutral, and sad)×2 (peer's food intake: no intake versus a standardized intake) between-participants design. A significant interaction between the movie clip condition and intake condition was found (F(2,102)=3.30, P=.04, Cohen's f(2)=.20). Positive as well as negative emotions were found to lead to adjustment to the intake of a peer, as compared to that of children in the neutral movie condition. The findings suggest that children eat more mindlessly when watching an emotional movie and, therefore, respond more automatically to a peer's food intake, whereas children may be less susceptible to a peer's intake while watching a neutral movie. As young children are not in the position to choose their food consumption environment yet, parents and schools should provide consumption settings that limit eating in front of the television.

  14. Experimentally induced sickness decreases food intake, but not hoarding, in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

    PubMed

    Durazzo, Alfredo; Proud, Kevin; Demas, Gregory E

    2008-11-01

    A wide range of physiological and behavioral alterations occur in response to sickness. Sickness behaviors, rather than incidental by-products or side-effects of acute illness, serve as adaptive functional responses that allow animals to cope with a pathogenic challenge. Among the more salient sickness behaviors is a reduction in food intake; virtually all sick animals display marked decreases in this behavior. Food intake, however, is only one component of the food-related behavioral repertoire. For many mammalian species, food hoarding represents a substantial portion of the total energetic budget. Here we tested the effects of experimental sickness on food hoarding and food intake in a naturally food hoarding species, Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). Adult male and female hamsters received injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce sickness or control injections. LPS-induced sickness resulted in a marked decrease in food intake in both males and females, but did not decrease hoarding in either sex. These results support previous findings suggesting that food hoarding and food intake appear to be differentially regulated at the physiological level.

  15. Antidepressant Use is Associated with Increased Energy Intake and Similar Levels of Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Jensen-Otsu, Elsbeth; Austin, Gregory L

    2015-11-20

    Antidepressants have been associated with weight gain, but the causes are unclear. The aims of this study were to assess the association of antidepressant use with energy intake, macronutrient diet composition, and physical activity. We used data on medication use, energy intake, diet composition, and physical activity for 3073 eligible adults from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Potential confounding variables, including depression symptoms, were included in the models assessing energy intake, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. Antidepressant users reported consuming an additional (mean ± S.E.) 215 ± 73 kcal/day compared to non-users (p = 0.01). There were no differences in percent calories from sugar, fat, or alcohol between the two groups. Antidepressant users had similar frequencies of walking or biking, engaging in muscle-strengthening activities, and engaging in moderate or vigorous physical activity. Antidepressant users were more likely to use a computer for ≥2 h/day (OR 1.77; 95% CI: 1.09-2.90), but TV watching was similar between the two groups. These results suggest increased energy intake and sedentary behavior may contribute to weight gain associated with antidepressant use. Focusing on limiting food intake and sedentary behaviors may be important in mitigating the weight gain associated with antidepressant use.

  16. Assessment of Daily Food and Nutrient Intake in Japanese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Using Dietary Reference Intakes

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Yukiko; Hattori, Mikako; Wada, Sayori; Iwase, Hiroya; Kadono, Mayuko; Tatsumi, Hina; Kuwahata, Masashi; Fukui, Michiaki; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto; Kido, Yasuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Medical nutrition therapy for the management of diabetes plays an important role in preventing diabetes complications and managing metabolic control. However, little is known about actual eating habits of individuals with type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM), especially in Japan. Therefore, we sought to (1) assess the dietary intake of individuals with T2DM, and (2) characterize their intake relative to national recommendations. This cross-sectional study involved 149 patients (77 males and 72 females) aged 40–79 years with T2DM recruited at a Kyoto hospital. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Under-consumption, adequacy, and over-consumption, of nutrients were compared to the age- and sex-based standards of the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes. Among the results, most notable are (1) the inadequacy of diets in men with respect to intake of vitamins and minerals, likely owing to low intake of vegetables and fruits; (2) excess contributions of fat intake to total energy in both sexes; and (3) excess consumption of sweets and beverages relative to the national average. The prevalence of diabetes complications may be increasing because of a major gap between the typical dietary intake of individuals with T2DM and dietary recommendation. PMID:23803740

  17. Assessment of daily food and nutrient intake in Japanese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients using dietary reference intakes.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yukiko; Hattori, Mikako; Wada, Sayori; Iwase, Hiroya; Kadono, Mayuko; Tatsumi, Hina; Kuwahata, Masashi; Fukui, Michiaki; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto; Kido, Yasuhiro

    2013-06-26

    Medical nutrition therapy for the management of diabetes plays an important role in preventing diabetes complications and managing metabolic control. However, little is known about actual eating habits of individuals with type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM), especially in Japan. Therefore, we sought to (1) assess the dietary intake of individuals with T2DM, and (2) characterize their intake relative to national recommendations. This cross-sectional study involved 149 patients (77 males and 72 females) aged 40-79 years with T2DM recruited at a Kyoto hospital. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Under-consumption, adequacy, and over-consumption, of nutrients were compared to the age- and sex-based standards of the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes. Among the results, most notable are (1) the inadequacy of diets in men with respect to intake of vitamins and minerals, likely owing to low intake of vegetables and fruits; (2) excess contributions of fat intake to total energy in both sexes; and (3) excess consumption of sweets and beverages relative to the national average. The prevalence of diabetes complications may be increasing because of a major gap between the typical dietary intake of individuals with T2DM and dietary recommendation.

  18. Food nanotechnology: water is the key to lowering the energy density of processed foods.

    PubMed

    Robson, A A

    2011-01-01

    It is crucial that emergent technologies create foods that help prevent the causal mechanisms of the diet induced disease epidemic. Food nanotechnology could create modem convenience foods that mimic and improve on the nutritional value of the most nutritious cooked wild foods for humans. Structuring a solid pro