Science.gov

Sample records for food motivation typology

  1. What is Intrinsic Motivation? A Typology of Computational Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves; Kaplan, Frederic

    2007-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation, centrally involved in spontaneous exploration and curiosity, is a crucial concept in developmental psychology. It has been argued to be a crucial mechanism for open-ended cognitive development in humans, and as such has gathered a growing interest from developmental roboticists in the recent years. The goal of this paper is threefold. First, it provides a synthesis of the different approaches of intrinsic motivation in psychology. Second, by interpreting these approaches in a computational reinforcement learning framework, we argue that they are not operational and even sometimes inconsistent. Third, we set the ground for a systematic operational study of intrinsic motivation by presenting a formal typology of possible computational approaches. This typology is partly based on existing computational models, but also presents new ways of conceptualizing intrinsic motivation. We argue that this kind of computational typology might be useful for opening new avenues for research both in psychology and developmental robotics. PMID:18958277

  2. A Typological Approach to Investigate the Teaching Career Decision: Motivations and Beliefs about Teaching of Prospective Teacher Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Margareta Maria; Turner, Jeannine E.; Nietfeld, John L.

    2012-01-01

    This study utilized cluster analysis to identify typologies of prospective teachers enrolled in a teacher education program in the U.S. based upon their self-report motivations for teaching. A three-cluster solution generated three distinctive typologies of prospective teachers (N's of 93, 70 and 52), and further differences among typologies were…

  3. Marketing the University of Calgary to Frosh: A Motivational Typology of Student-College Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnetson, Robert James

    This thesis proposes a segmentation of the University of Calgary's (Canada) freshman class based on benefits sought from attendance and provides descriptions of each benefit segment that includes the impact of institutional characteristics. A motivational typology for university participation is presented and the marketing implications of this…

  4. Use of the Motivation and Engagement Scale-University/College as a Means of Identifying Student Typologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elphinstone, Brad; Tinker, Sean

    2017-01-01

    The Motivation and Engagement Scale-University/College (MES-UC) was used to identify student typologies on the basis of adaptive and maladaptive academic cognitions and behaviours. The sample comprised first-year (n = 390), second-year (n = 300), and third-year (n = 251) undergraduate students with 4 student typologies identified: high…

  5. Typology of alcohol mixed with energy drink consumers: motivations for use.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Amy; Droste, Nicolas; Pennay, Amy; Miller, Peter; Lubman, Dan I; Bruno, Raimondo

    2015-06-01

    Previous research on alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has shown that use is typically driven by hedonistic, social, functional, and intoxication-related motives, with differential associations with alcohol-related harm across these constructs. There has been no research looking at whether there are subgroups of consumers based on patterns of motivations. Consequently, the aims were to determine the typology of motivations for AmED use among a community sample and to identify correlates of subgroup membership. In addition, we aimed to determine whether this structure of motivations applied to a university student sample. Data were used from an Australian community sample (n = 731) and an Australian university student sample (n = 594) who were identified as AmED consumers when completing an online survey about their alcohol and ED use. Participants reported their level of agreement with 14 motivations for AmED use; latent classes of AmED consumers were identified based on patterns of motivation endorsement using latent class analysis. A 4-class model was selected using data from the community sample: (i) taste consumers (31%): endorsed pleasurable taste; (ii) energy-seeking consumers (24%): endorsed functional and taste motives; (iii) hedonistic consumers (33%): endorse pleasure and sensation-seeking motives, as well as functional and taste motives; and (iv) intoxication-related consumers (12%): endorsed motives related to feeling in control of intoxication, as well as hedonistic, functional, and taste motives. The consumer subgroups typically did not differ on demographics, other drug use, alcohol and ED use, and AmED risk taking. The patterns of motivations for the 4-class model were similar for the university student sample. This study indicated the existence of 4 subgroups of AmED consumers based on their patterns of motivations for AmED use consistently structured across the community and university student sample. These findings lend support to the

  6. Motivational typologies of drinkers: do enhancement and coping drinkers form two distinct groups?

    PubMed

    Littlefield, Andrew K; Vergés, Alvaro; Rosinski, Jenny M; Steinley, Douglas; Sher, Kenneth J

    2013-03-01

    This study used a person-centered approach to test whether drinking motive typologies could be identified. Longitudinal study of college students within the intensive multivariate prospective alcohol college-transitions (IMPACTS) data set. University campus in the United States. University students (baseline n reporting alcohol motives = 2158; baseline age = 18.60 years old). The drinking motives questionnaire-revised (DMQ-R). Using Steinley & Brusco's cluster analysis approach [based on the theoretical ratio expected between the within sum of squares and the total sum of squares when the data are divided into two clusters when no cluster structure is present; the cut-off for the ratio is 0.25 for uniform (multivariate uniform) distributions and 0.36 for normal (multivariate normal) distributions], we examined whether there was evidence for distinct clusters of individuals that differed on their overall level of motives to drink. We tested the fit of a one-group (cluster) solution compared to multi-cluster solutions. Both cross-sectionally and prospectively, the data could not be partitioned into two or more clusters [regardless of whether the cut-off assuming a multivariate uniform distribution (i.e. 0.25) or the more liberal multivariate normal distribution (i.e., 0.36) was used]. These findings showed that enhancement and coping drinkers do not form two distinct groups but, rather, these motives exist on a continuum such that individuals who are high in one internal motive tend to be high in the other motive. Coping and enhancement drinkers do not form two distinct groups. Variable-centered approaches to drinking motives may be a better alternative to classifying all drinkers as either enhancement or coping drinkers for both clinical and research endeavors. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Understanding the anaerobic biodegradability of food waste: Relationship between the typological, biochemical and microbial characteristics.

    PubMed

    Fisgativa, Henry; Tremier, Anne; Le Roux, Sophie; Bureau, Chrystelle; Dabert, Patrick

    2017-03-01

    In this study, an extensive characterisation of food waste (FW) was performed with the aim of studying the relation between FW characteristics and FW treatability through an anaerobic digestion process. In addition to the typological composition (paper, meat, fruits, vegetables contents, etc) and the physicochemical characteristics, this study provides an original characterisation of microbial populations present in FW. These intrinsic populations can actively participate to aerobic and anaerobic degradation with the presence of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes species for the bacteria and of Ascomycota phylum for the fungi. However, the characterisation of FW bacterial and fungi community shows to be a challenge because of the biases generated by the non-microbial DNA coming from plant and by the presence of mushrooms in the food. In terms of relations, it was demonstrated that some FW characteristics as the density, the volatile solids and the fibres content vary as a function of the typological composition. No direct relationship was demonstrated between the typological composition and the anaerobic biodegradability. However, the Pearson's matrix results reveal that the anaerobic biodegradation potential of FW was highly related to the total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD), the total solid content (TS), the high weight organic matter molecules soluble in water (SOLW>1.5 kDa) and the C/N ratio content. These relations may help predicting FW behaviour through anaerobic digestion process. Finally, this study also showed that the storage of FW before collection, that could induce pre-biodegradation, seems to impact several biochemical characteristics and could improve the biodegradability of FW.

  8. Russian consumers' motives for food choice.

    PubMed

    Honkanen, Pirjo; Frewer, Lynn

    2009-04-01

    Knowledge about food choice motives which have potential to influence consumer consumption decisions is important when designing food and health policies, as well as marketing strategies. Russian consumers' food choice motives were studied in a survey (1081 respondents across four cities), with the purpose of identifying consumer segments based on these motives. These segments were then profiled using consumption, attitudinal and demographic variables. Face-to-face interviews were used to sample the data, which were analysed with two-step cluster analysis (SPSS). Three clusters emerged, representing 21.5%, 45.8% and 32.7% of the sample. The clusters were similar in terms of the order of motivations, but differed in motivational level. Sensory factors and availability were the most important motives for food choice in all three clusters, followed by price. This may reflect the turbulence which Russia has recently experienced politically and economically. Cluster profiles differed in relation to socio-demographic factors, consumption patterns and attitudes towards health and healthy food.

  9. Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) revisited. Suggestions for the development of an enhanced general food motivation model.

    PubMed

    Fotopoulos, Christos; Krystallis, Athanasios; Vassallo, Marco; Pagiaslis, Anastasios

    2009-02-01

    Recognising the need for a more statistically robust instrument to investigate general food selection determinants, the research validates and confirms Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ's) factorial design, develops ad hoc a more robust FCQ version and tests its ability to discriminate between consumer segments in terms of the importance they assign to the FCQ motivational factors. The original FCQ appears to represent a comprehensive and reliable research instrument. However, the empirical data do not support the robustness of its 9-factorial design. On the other hand, segmentation results at the subpopulation level based on the enhanced FCQ version bring about an optimistic message for the FCQ's ability to predict food selection behaviour. The paper concludes that some of the basic components of the original FCQ can be used as a basis for a new general food motivation typology. The development of such a new instrument, with fewer, of higher abstraction FCQ-based dimensions and fewer items per dimension, is a right step forward; yet such a step should be theory-driven, while a rigorous statistical testing across and within population would be necessary.

  10. Motivations for choosing various food groups based on individual foods.

    PubMed

    Phan, Uyen T X; Chambers, Edgar

    2016-10-01

    Understanding "why people eat what they eat" is important for improving the lives of people around the world by helping provide industrial and social solutions for people to have greater pleasure and health from the foods they choose. The objective of this study was to investigate the motivations behind everyday choices of different food groups using a bottom-up approach that targeted the specific choices of foods and beverages people consumed at various times of a day. This study was conducted using an online survey included questions related to demographics, the most recent meal including specific food choices, and a slightly modified Eating Motivation Surveys (2 motivations were added, and Check-All-That-Apply procedure was used), which contained 50 sub-scales to measure 17 motivations including such topics as Liking, Pleasure, Convenience, Health, Price, Variety Seeking etc. A total of 198 participants have completed the surveys. Data were analyzed by Correspondence Analysis. Liking was found to be the strongest motivation that drove people to select all sorts of foods. Need and Hunger and Convenience were the main motivations for baked products, "fast" foods, sausages and meats, and snack foods while Health and Weight Control were found to be the main driving factors for vegetables, fruits & fruit juices, nuts, seeds, dairy & egg, and poultry products. Sweets were linked to Pleasure. For beverages, people were motivated most by Heath and Weight Control to choose water and tea. Coffee was used due to Habits; soda was because of Pleasure and alcoholic was for socialization purposes. This study provided developers, marketers, health educators, etc. With a new method to understand food choice in order to promote better eating.

  11. Studying Food Reward and Motivation in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Ziauddeen, Hisham; Subramaniam, Naresh; Cambridge, Victoria C.; Medic, Nenad; Farooqi, Ismaa Sadaf; Fletcher, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    A key challenge in studying reward processing in humans is to go beyond subjective self-report measures and quantify different aspects of reward such as hedonics, motivation, and goal value in more objective ways. This is particularly relevant for the understanding of overeating and obesity as well as their potential treatments. In this paper are described a set of measures of food-related motivation using handgrip force as a motivational measure. These methods can be used to examine changes in food related motivation with metabolic (satiety) and pharmacological manipulations and can be used to evaluate interventions targeted at overeating and obesity. However to understand food-related decision making in the complex food environment it is essential to be able to ascertain the reward goal values that guide the decisions and behavioral choices that people make. These values are hidden but it is possible to ascertain them more objectively using metrics such as the willingness to pay and a method for this is described. Both these sets of methods provide quantitative measures of motivation and goal value that can be compared within and between individuals. PMID:24686284

  12. Studying food reward and motivation in humans.

    PubMed

    Ziauddeen, Hisham; Subramaniam, Naresh; Cambridge, Victoria C; Medic, Nenad; Farooqi, Ismaa Sadaf; Fletcher, Paul C

    2014-03-19

    A key challenge in studying reward processing in humans is to go beyond subjective self-report measures and quantify different aspects of reward such as hedonics, motivation, and goal value in more objective ways. This is particularly relevant for the understanding of overeating and obesity as well as their potential treatments. In this paper are described a set of measures of food-related motivation using handgrip force as a motivational measure. These methods can be used to examine changes in food related motivation with metabolic (satiety) and pharmacological manipulations and can be used to evaluate interventions targeted at overeating and obesity. However to understand food-related decision making in the complex food environment it is essential to be able to ascertain the reward goal values that guide the decisions and behavioral choices that people make. These values are hidden but it is possible to ascertain them more objectively using metrics such as the willingness to pay and a method for this is described. Both these sets of methods provide quantitative measures of motivation and goal value that can be compared within and between individuals.

  13. What motivates the consumer's food choice?

    PubMed

    Jáuregui-Lobera, I; Bolaños Ríos, P

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the psychometric properties of the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) in Spanish population (FCQ-SP), its factor structure and internal consistency. In addition, the relationships between the FCQ-SP and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), the Irrational Food Beliefs Scale (IFBS), and the Eating Disorders Inventory-3 (EDI-3) were analysed in order to explore the validity of the FCQSP. Possible gender differences in the food choice pattern were analysed. The sample comprised 255 women and 50 men, ranged from 25 to 64 years. In order to get a better interpretation of the results associated with changes based on the age, the participants were grouped in four age intervals (25-34, 35-44, 45-54, and 55-64). All the participants were relatives of secondary and high school students in three schools of Seville and Cordoba. The factor analysis yields the seven following factors: mood, health and natural content, sensory appeal, weight control, convenience, familiarity, and price. The internal consistency was determined by means of the Cronbach's α coefficients, which ranged from 0.70 to 0.83 for the different components. With regards to the food choice profile, sensory appeal was the most motivating factor to choose food, followed by price and weight control. With respect to gender differences, women showed higher scores than men in all components except in the case of price. The FCQ-SP has adequate psychometric properties to be applied to Spanish population, and it is useful to explore the consumers' motivation with regards to food choice.

  14. Why Do Adults Learn? Developing a Motivational Typology across 12 European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeren, Ellen; Holford, John; Nicaise, Ides; Baert, Herman

    2012-01-01

    Participation in adult education is today generally considered an individual responsibility. However, participation is the result of a complex bounded agency between individuals, educational institutions and regulating governments. This paper explores the motives of 12,000 European adult learners in formal adult education in 12 European countries.…

  15. Why Do Adults Learn? Developing a Motivational Typology across 12 European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeren, Ellen; Holford, John; Nicaise, Ides; Baert, Herman

    2012-01-01

    Participation in adult education is today generally considered an individual responsibility. However, participation is the result of a complex bounded agency between individuals, educational institutions and regulating governments. This paper explores the motives of 12,000 European adult learners in formal adult education in 12 European countries.…

  16. Typology of eaters based on conventional and organic food consumption: results from the NutriNet-Santé cohort study.

    PubMed

    Baudry, Julia; Touvier, Mathilde; Allès, Benjamin; Péneau, Sandrine; Méjean, Caroline; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lairon, Denis; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2016-08-01

    Limited information is available on large-scale populations regarding the socio-demographic and nutrient profiles and eating behaviour of consumers, taking into account both organic and conventional foods. The aims of this study were to draw up a typology of consumers according to their eating habits, based both on their dietary patterns and the mode of food production, and to outline their socio-demographic, behavioural and nutritional characteristics. Data were collected from 28 245 participants of the NutriNet-Santé study. Dietary information was obtained using a 264-item, semi-quantitative, organic FFQ. To identify clusters of consumers, principal component analysis was applied on sixteen conventional and sixteen organic food groups followed by a clustering procedure. The following five clusters of consumers were identified: (1) a cluster characterised by low energy intake, low consumption of organic food and high prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes; (2) a cluster of big eaters of conventional foods with high intakes of SFA and cholesterol; (3) a cluster with high consumption of organic food and relatively adequate nutritional diet quality; (4) a group with a high percentage of organic food consumers, 14 % of which were either vegetarians or vegans, who exhibited a high nutritional diet quality and a low prevalence of inadequate intakes of most vitamins except B12; and (5) a group of moderate organic food consumers with a particularly high intake of proteins and alcohol and a poor nutritional diet quality. These findings may have implications for future aetiological studies investigating the potential impact of organic food consumption.

  17. Parents' food choice motives and their associations with children's food preferences.

    PubMed

    Russell, Catherine G; Worsley, Anthony; Liem, Djin G

    2015-04-01

    The objective was to investigate parents' motives for selecting foods for their children and the associations between these motives and children's food preferences. Cross-sectional survey. A modified version of the Food Choice Questionnaire was used to assess parents' food choice motives. Parents also reported children's liking/disliking of 176 food and beverage items on 5-point Likert scales. Patterns of food choice motives were examined with exploratory principal component analysis. Associations between motives and children's food preferences were assessed with linear regression while one-way and two-way ANOVA were used to test for sociodemographic differences. Two Australian cities. Parents (n 371) of 2-5-year-old children. Health, nutrition and taste were key motivators for parents, whereas price, political concerns and advertising were among the motives considered least important. The more parents' food choice for their children was driven by what their children wanted, the less children liked vegetables (β =-0·27, P<0·01), fruit (β=-0·19, P<0·01) and cereals (β=-0·28, P<0·01) and the higher the number of untried foods (r=0·17, P<0·01). The reverse was found for parents' focus on natural/ethical motives (vegetables β=0·17, P<0·01; fruit β=0·17, P<0·01; cereals β=0·14, P=0·01). Health and nutrition motives bordered on statistical significance as predictors of children's fruit and vegetable preferences. Although parents appear well intentioned in their motives for selecting children's foods, there are gaps to be addressed in the nature of such motives (e.g. selecting foods in line with the child's desires) or the translation of health motives into healthy food choices.

  18. Motivations for Food Consumption during Specific Eating Occasions in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Delores; Phan, Uyen T. X.; Chanadang, Sirichat; Maughan, Curtis; Sanchez, Karolina; Di Donfrancesco, Brizio; Gomez, David; Higa, Federica; Li, Han; Chambers, Edgar; Esen, Eyyup

    2016-01-01

    Several studies in different countries have been conducted to investigate factors affecting food choices. The objective of this study was to understand the motivations of specific food and beverage choices for different eating occasions in a typical diet of the Turkish people. A convenience sample of 141 respondents from seven different geographical regions in Turkey completed an online survey questionnaire that included questions about demographic information and details about their latest eating occasion. Respondents reported all of their motivations for choosing each food/beverage item reported for that specific eating occasion. Results indicated that different motivations played different roles in food choices of people in Turkey. Liking was a key characteristic for all eating occasions, but key natural concerns were even more important at breakfast, and need and hunger were more important for a mid-afternoon snack. Lunch involved additional motivations such as Sociability, Variety Seeking, and Social Norms. In addition to Liking, choices of different food groups were also driven by other motivations such as Habits, Convenience, Need and Hunger, Natural Concerns, and Health. This study helped better understand the current dietary patterns of Turkish people as well as the motives underlying their choices of foods and beverages for different meals and snacks. These findings could be useful for dietary campaigns that aim to improve eating behaviors in Turkey. PMID:28231134

  19. Health concern, food choice motives, and attitudes toward healthy eating: the mediating role of food choice motives.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-Hua Christine

    2008-07-01

    This study addresses how various health concerns might influence not only consumers' food choice motives but also consumers' subsequent attitudes toward healthy eating. This study expects that those consumers with greater health concerns would have different food choice motives and better attitudes toward healthy eating. A self-completion questionnaire was used to gather information. Participants, a random sample of 500 undergraduate students from a national university in Taipei, Taiwan, provided a total of 456 usable questionnaires, representing a valid response rate of 91%. The average age of the respondents at the time of the survey was 21 years and 63% of respondents were females. The relationship between health concern and healthy eating attitudes was confirmed. The relationship between health concern of developing diseases and attitudes toward healthy eating was fully mediated by food choice motives. However, the relationship between calorie consumption health concern and healthy eating attitudes was only partially mediated by food choice motives. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  20. Habituation of salivation and motivated responding for food in children.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Leonard H; Saad, Frances G; Handley, Elizabeth A; Roemmich, James N; Hawk, Larry W; McSweeney, Frances K

    2003-12-01

    Repeated presentation of food cues results in habituation in adults, as demonstrated by a decrement in salivary responding that is reversed by presenting a new food cue in adults. Food reinforced behavior in animals shows the same pattern of responding, with a decrease in responding to obtain the food, followed by a recovery of responding when a new food is presented. The present study assessed whether children would show the same pattern of a decrement of food reinforced responding followed by recovery of responding when a new food is presented for both salivation and food reinforcement tasks. Subjects were assigned to one of two groups that differed in the trial that the new food stimulus was presented to ensure recovery was specific to the introduction of the new food stimulus. In the salivation task, subjects were provided repeated olfactory presentations of a cheeseburger with apple pie as the new food stimulus, while in the food reinforcement task subjects worked for the opportunity to consume a cheeseburger, followed by the opportunity to work for consumption of apple pie. Subjects in both groups showed a decrement in salivary and food reinforced responding to repeated food cues followed by immediate recovery of responding on the trial when a new food was presented. Subjects increased their energy intake by over 30% in the food reinforcement task when a new food was presented. These results are consistent with the general process theory of motivation that suggests that changes in food reinforced responding may be due in part to habituation.

  1. Homeostasis Meets Motivation in the Battle to Control Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Ferrario, Carrie R.; Labouèbe, Gwenaël; Liu, Shuai; Nieh, Edward H.; Routh, Vanessa H.; Xu, Shengjin

    2016-01-01

    Signals of energy homeostasis interact closely with neural circuits of motivation to control food intake. An emerging hypothesis is that the transition to maladaptive feeding behavior seen in eating disorders or obesity may arise from dysregulation of these interactions. Focusing on key brain regions involved in the control of food intake (ventral tegmental area, striatum, hypothalamus, and thalamus), we describe how activity of specific cell types embedded within these regions can influence distinct components of motivated feeding behavior. We review how signals of energy homeostasis interact with these regions to influence motivated behavioral output and present evidence that experience-dependent neural adaptations in key feeding circuits may represent cellular correlates of impaired food intake control. Future research into mechanisms that restore the balance of control between signals of homeostasis and motivated feeding behavior may inspire new treatment options for eating disorders and obesity. PMID:27911750

  2. Relationships among food label use, motivation, and dietary quality.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lisa M Soederberg; Cassady, Diana L; Applegate, Elizabeth A; Beckett, Laurel A; Wilson, Machelle D; Gibson, Tanja N; Ellwood, Kathleen

    2015-02-05

    Nutrition information on packaged foods supplies information that aids consumers in meeting the recommendations put forth in the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans such as reducing intake of solid fats and added sugars. It is important to understand how food label use is related to dietary intake. However, prior work is based only on self-reported use of food labels, making it unclear if subjective assessments are biased toward motivational influences. We assessed food label use using both self-reported and objective measures, the stage of change, and dietary quality in a sample of 392 stratified by income. Self-reported food label use was assessed using a questionnaire. Objective use was assessed using a mock shopping task in which participants viewed food labels and decided which foods to purchase. Eye movements were monitored to assess attention to nutrition information on the food labels. Individuals paid attention to nutrition information when selecting foods to buy. Self-reported and objective measures of label use showed some overlap with each other (r=0.29, p<0.001), and both predicted dietary quality (p<0.001 for both). The stage of change diminished the predictive power of subjective (p<0.09), but not objective (p<0.01), food label use. These data show both self-reported and objective measures of food label use are positively associated with dietary quality. However, self-reported measures appear to capture a greater motivational component of food label use than do more objective measures.

  3. [Individual typological features of the dog behavior during the choice between food and avoidance of electrocutaneous stimulation].

    PubMed

    Chilingarian, L I; Preobrazhenskaia, L A

    2005-01-01

    Two conditioned reflexes (CR) on flash were elaborated in five dogs in three experimental series. In one of them pressing on pedal were constantly reinforced with two pieces of liver, in other--escape or avoidance of skin stimulation with lifting of leg. In a third series, series of reinforcement choice, in front of animal with electrodes, fasting on leg, put the pedal. During of choice series defensive reactions were dominated in two dogs, alimentary reactions--three of them. For restoration alimentary behaviour in dog with great dominating of defensive reactions were many times reinforced with--food "passive" pressing legs on pedal during conditional stimuli, dog with less dominating of these reactions for restoration were enough a few coupling of conditional stimuli with food. With intensification electrocutaneus stimulation of legs or decreasing alimentary reinforcement we a success of diminishing of degree of alimentary reaction domination in one dog and in other ones temporarily changed of these domination on prevalence of defensive reactions. The results were compared with data, obtained in these dogs with technique of choice between probability and value of alimentary reinforcement. This comparison were permitted us of ranging dogs on scale "carefulness-riskiness", revealed of individual typological features of these animals.

  4. Perceived motivators to home food preparation: focus group findings.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sheila A; Walter, Janelle; Soliah, LuAnn; Phifer, Janna T

    2014-10-01

    Family meals are positively associated with increased consumption of fruits and vegetables and numerous nutrients, promoting good eating habits and disease prevention. Families benefiting from home-cooked meals are more likely to consume smaller portions and fewer calories, less fat, less salt, and less sugar. Some Western cultures have lost confidence in preparing meals and tend to rely on foods prepared outside the home. The ability of young adults to prepare foods at home may be impaired. The purpose of our study is to identify motivators and, consequently, barriers to preparing foods at home vs purchasing preprepared foods from a deli or eating in a restaurant. Focus groups of college students (n=239) from two universities were asked questions about motivators to preparing meals at home in two subsequent sessions. The primary motivators among the students were that they desired to save money; had a model in food preparation; were familiar with cooking techniques; and had enough time to shop, cook, and clean up after meals. Food and nutrition practitioners have opportunities to promote cost-effective, simple, and time-saving home food preparation techniques as healthful habits. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Modern foraging: Presence of food and energy density influence motivational processing of food advertisements.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Rachel L

    2016-12-01

    More energy dense foods are preferable from an optimal foraging perspective, which suggests these foods are more motivationally relevant due to their greater capability of fulfilling biological imperatives. This increase in motivational relevance may be exacerbated in circumstances where foraging will be necessary. This study examined how food energy density and presence of food in the immediate environment interacted to influence motivational processing of food advertisements. N = 58 adults viewed advertisements for foods varying in energy density in contexts where the advertised food was actually present in the viewing room or not. Advertisements for more energy dense foods elicited greater skin conductivity level compared to ads for less energy dense foods when food was not present. All ads elicited decreases in corrugator supercilii activation indicating positive emotional response resultant from appetitive motivational activation, though the greatest activation was exhibited toward higher energy density foods when food was present. This supports an optimal foraging perspective and has implications for healthy eating interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Organic food consumption in Poland: Motives and barriers.

    PubMed

    Bryła, Paweł

    2016-10-01

    This paper aims to investigate selected aspects of organic food consumption in Poland. We conducted a survey in a representative sample of 1000 consumers. Polish consumers are convinced that organic food is more expensive, healthier, more environmentally friendly, more tasty and more authentic than conventional food. They believe its arouses more trust, has a better quality, is subject to more strict controls, and is produced in a more traditional way. According to Polish consumers, the most important characteristics of organic food are healthiness and high quality. The perceived authenticity of organic food depends on its natural taste, product quality, labelling, in particular having a European quality sign, as well as the retailer type and a separate exposition place in the points of purchase (merchandising). The critical barrier to the development of the organic food market in Poland is the high price, followed by an insufficient consumer awareness, low availability of organic products, short expiry dates and low visibility in the shop. The principal motives of organic food selection in Poland include: healthiness, ecological character of the product, food safety considerations, superior taste, and quality assurance. We identified the motives for and barriers to organic food consumption in Poland.

  7. Motives for consumer choice of traditional food and European food in mainland China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ou; De Steur, Hans; Gellynck, Xavier; Verbeke, Wim

    2015-04-01

    The demand for European (-style) foods in mainland China has been increasing dramatically during the last decade. Nevertheless, European food producers often appear to be not capable to fully exploit this huge market potential, partially due to the competition with traditional (Chinese) foods. This study examines the determinants of mainland Chinese consumers' choice of traditional food and European food. A web-based survey was administered with 541 consumers from two cities: Shanghai and Xi'an. Thereby, the Food Choice Motives model, predominantly used thus far in a European or developed context, is applied to mainland China in order to address the lack of knowledge on food motives of its consumer market and to detect associations between these motives, attitudes, and purchase intentions. Factor analysis resulted in a new Food Choice Motive construct that is considered more appropriate within the context of mainland Chinese consumers, encompassing six dimensions: Health concern, Time or money saving, Sensory appeal, Availability and familiarity, Mood and Food safety concern. Path analysis demonstrated that Time or money saving was negatively associated with attitude toward traditional food on the one hand and purchase intentions toward European food on the other hand. Availability and familiarity had a positive association with attitude toward traditional food. Mood was a positive factor driving attitude toward European food. For both food types, Sensory appeal and Attitude were positively linked to purchase intentions. Furthermore, Mood was negatively linked to the purchase intention toward traditional food in Shanghai. Food safety concern was positively associated with attitudes toward traditional food in Xi'an. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Convenience on the menu? A typological conceptualization of family food expenditures and food-related time patterns.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Sarah; Glorieux, Ignace; Minnen, Joeri; van Tienoven, T P; Weenas, Djiwo

    2015-05-01

    One of the most fundamental, but also controversial, food trends of the past years is convenience food. This article investigates the underexplored relationship between the heterogeneity in (convenience) food consumption (a feature of a food culture's cuisine) and meal patterns (characteristics of a food culture's structure). This study hopes to illustrate that convenience food can be interpreted both as a means to maintain a food culture's structure and as a means to overturn it. Latent Class Cluster Analysis is performed using data from the HBS 2005 survey on families' food expenditures to conceptualize convenience-orientation and to examine the relationships with families' meal behaviors. Whereas outsourcing cooking is most prevalent among single-person households; two-or more-person households are most likely to buy unprocessed and natural foods and to spend most time cooking and eating in. A higher consumption of convenience food is also more likely to affect individuals' kitchen than table habits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Relationships among Food Label Use, Motivation, and Dietary Quality

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Lisa M. Soederberg; Cassady, Diana L.; Applegate, Elizabeth A.; Beckett, Laurel A.; Wilson, Machelle D.; Gibson, Tanja N.; Ellwood, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition information on packaged foods supplies information that aids consumers in meeting the recommendations put forth in the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans such as reducing intake of solid fats and added sugars. It is important to understand how food label use is related to dietary intake. However, prior work is based only on self-reported use of food labels, making it unclear if subjective assessments are biased toward motivational influences. We assessed food label use using both self-reported and objective measures, the stage of change, and dietary quality in a sample of 392 stratified by income. Self-reported food label use was assessed using a questionnaire. Objective use was assessed using a mock shopping task in which participants viewed food labels and decided which foods to purchase. Eye movements were monitored to assess attention to nutrition information on the food labels. Individuals paid attention to nutrition information when selecting foods to buy. Self-reported and objective measures of label use showed some overlap with each other (r = 0.29, p < 0.001), and both predicted dietary quality (p < 0.001 for both). The stage of change diminished the predictive power of subjective (p < 0.09), but not objective (p < 0.01), food label use. These data show both self-reported and objective measures of food label use are positively associated with dietary quality. However, self-reported measures appear to capture a greater motivational component of food label use than do more objective measures. PMID:25665157

  10. Food Purchase Decision-Making Typologies of Women with Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carla; Warland, Rex; Achterberg, Cheryl

    1997-01-01

    Food selection is a key factor in the nutritional management of diabetes. Criteria that influence point-of-purchase decision making in women with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus were identified. Four types of shoppers were distinguished from interviews; cluster analysis was used to confirm the analysis. Usefulness in patient education is…

  11. Food Purchase Decision-Making Typologies of Women with Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carla; Warland, Rex; Achterberg, Cheryl

    1997-01-01

    Food selection is a key factor in the nutritional management of diabetes. Criteria that influence point-of-purchase decision making in women with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus were identified. Four types of shoppers were distinguished from interviews; cluster analysis was used to confirm the analysis. Usefulness in patient education is…

  12. Convenience, food and family lives. A socio-typological study of household food expenditures in 21st-century Belgium.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Sarah; Glorieux, Ignace

    2015-11-01

    This article aims to uncover the extent to which convenience foods have become embedded in today's diets. The paper focuses on households' food expenditures, collected by Statistics Belgium in 2005. The results show that households' reliance on (semi-) convenience food items and away-from-home consumption clearly differs over the life-course and amongst different social groups. Findings show that single-living households (single men in particular) look for more convenience in their food preparation patterns compared to couples and households with children. The consumption of semi-convenient meal components seems to be more closely related to the conventional definition of home-cooking, with older-generation, lower-educated, non-working and 'traditional' nuclear households being more likely to spend a larger share of their food budget on non-convenient and 'shortcut' ingredients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Food and value motivation: Linking consumer affinities to different types of food products.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Joop; Schösler, Hanna

    2016-08-01

    This study uses the consumer affinity concept to examine the multiple motives that may shape consumers' relationships with food. The concept was applied in a study on four broad product types in the Netherlands, which cover a wide range of the market and may each appeal to consumers with different affinities towards foods. These product types may be denoted as 'conventional', 'efficient', 'gourmet' and 'pure'. A comparative analysis, based on Higgins' Regulatory Focus Theory, was performed to examine whether food-related value motivations could explain different consumer affinities for these product types. The affinities of consumers were measured by means of a non-verbal, visual presentation of four samples of food products in a nationwide survey (n = 742) among consumers who were all involved in food purchasing and/or cooking. The affinities found could be predicted fairly well from a number of self-descriptions relating to food and eating, which expressed different combinations of type of value motivation and involvement with food. The analysis demonstrated the contrasting role of high and low involvement as well as the potential complementarity of promotion- and prevention-focused value motivation. It is suggested that knowledge of the relationships between product types, consumer affinities and value motivation can help improve the effectiveness of interventions that seek to promote healthy and sustainable diets in developed countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Understanding the motives for food choice in Western Balkan Countries.

    PubMed

    Milošević, Jasna; Žeželj, Iris; Gorton, Matthew; Barjolle, Dominique

    2012-02-01

    Substantial empirical evidence exists regarding the importance of different factors underlying food choice in Western Europe. However, research results on eating habits and food choice in the Western Balkan Countries (WBCs) remain scarce. A Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ), an instrument that measures the reported importance of nine factors underlying food choice, was administered to a representative sample of 3085 adult respondents in six WBCs. The most important factors reported are sensory appeal, purchase convenience, and health and natural content; the least important are ethical concern and familiarity. The ranking of food choice motives across WBCs was strikingly similar. Factor analysis revealed eight factors compared to nine in the original FCQ model: health and natural content scales loaded onto one factor as did familiarity and ethical concern; the convenience scale items generated two factors, one related to purchase convenience and the other to preparation convenience. Groups of consumers with similar motivational profiles were identified using cluster analysis. Each cluster has distinct food purchasing behavior and socio-economic characteristics, for which appropriate public health communication messages can be drawn.

  15. Association between traditional food consumption and motives for food choice in six European countries.

    PubMed

    Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Guerrero, Luis; Hersleth, Margrethe

    2009-08-01

    This study investigates the association between traditional food consumption and motives for food choice in six European countries. Cross-sectional data were collected through the TRUEFOOD pan-European consumer survey (n = 4828) with samples representative for age, gender and region in Belgium, France, Italy, Norway, Poland and Spain. Importance attached to familiarity with a product is found to be strongly and positively associated with general attitude toward traditional food as well as traditional food consumption. The importance attached to convenience was negatively related to both general attitude toward traditional food and traditional food consumption, while the importance of weight control negatively influenced the general attitude. Natural content of food was positively associated with the attitude toward traditional food and traditional food consumption. The importance of price when purchasing food failed to be significantly related with general attitude and traditional food consumption both for the pooled sample as well as within each country except in Spain. The proposed model contributes to a better understanding of factors shaping the image and influencing the consumption of traditional foods in Europe. General attitude toward traditional foods, familiarity, and importance of food naturalness emerged as drivers for traditional food consumption. Importance attached to convenience and health acted as direct barriers to traditional food consumption, whereas importance of weight control emerged as an indirect barrier through lowering general attitude toward traditional foods.

  16. Differences in Students' Metacognitive Strategy Knowledge, Motivation, and Strategy Use: A Typology of Self-Regulated Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlen, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Metacognitive strategy knowledge, motivation, and learning strategies play an important role in self-regulated learning (SRL). However, little is known about different profiles of self-regulated learners in schools that prepare students for the university entrance certificate. The aim of this study was to examine intraindividual differences in the…

  17. Differences in Students' Metacognitive Strategy Knowledge, Motivation, and Strategy Use: A Typology of Self-Regulated Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlen, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Metacognitive strategy knowledge, motivation, and learning strategies play an important role in self-regulated learning (SRL). However, little is known about different profiles of self-regulated learners in schools that prepare students for the university entrance certificate. The aim of this study was to examine intraindividual differences in the…

  18. The influence of ethical values and food choice motivations on intentions to purchase sustainably sourced foods.

    PubMed

    Dowd, Kylie; Burke, Karena J

    2013-10-01

    This study examined a three-step adaptation of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) applied to the intention of consumers to purchase sustainably sourced food. The sample consisted of 137 participants, of which 109 were female, who were recruited through a farmers market and an organic produce outlet in an Australian capital city. Participants completed an online questionnaire containing the TPB scales of attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and intention; measures of positive moral attitude and ethical self identity; and food choice motives. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to examine the predictive utility of the TPB in isolation (step 1) and the TPB expanded to include the constructs of moral attitude and ethical self-identity (step 2). The results indicated the expansion of the TPB to include these constructs added significantly to the predictive model measuring intention to purchase sustainably sourced food. The third step in the adaptation utilised this expanded TPB model and added a measure of retail channel (where consumers reported buying fresh produce) and 9 food choice motives, in order to assess the predictive utility of the inclusion of choice motivations in this context. Of the 8 food choice motives examined, only health and ethical values significantly predicted intention to purchase sustainably sourced food. However, with the addition of food choice motives, ethical self-identity was no longer a significant predictor of intention to purchase sustainably sourced food. Overall the adapted TPB model explained 76% of the variance in intention to purchase sustainably sourced food. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A typology of vaping: Identifying differing beliefs, motivations for use, identity and political interest amongst e-cigarette users.

    PubMed

    Farrimond, Hannah

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and differentiate socially shared accounts of e-cigarette use (vaping) using Q-methodology, combining factor analysis with qualitative comments. Seventy statements on e-cigarettes, drawn from media, academic and online discussions, were sorted by participants along a continuum of agreement/disagreement, commenting on strongly ranked items. Each participant thus created their own 'account' of their vaping. A by-person correlation matrix of the sorts was conducted, then factor analysed, to identify similar accounts (p<0.01). Fifty-five UK vapers participated by post, 55% male, mean age of 46, 84% only vaping/16% vaping and smoking, 95% vaping daily. Three accounts of e-cigarettes were identified. The first two were associated with having quit smoking; the third with ongoing tobacco smoking and vaping. In Factor One, 'Vaping as Pleasure', vaping was characterized as enjoyable, with long-term use envisaged and a medical model of vaping rejected. Factor One participants also held a strong vaping identity and were politically motivated to maintain the rights of adults to vape. In Factor Two, 'Vaping as Medical Treatment', vaping was understood as a pragmatic choice about how to medicate one's smoking addiction, with the aim being to treat and ultimately reduce nicotine dependence. In Factor Three, 'Ambivalent E-Cigarette Use', participants reported fewer benefits and harboured more negative beliefs about e-cigarettes; they also strongly rejected a vaper identity, having no interest in online forums or being labelled a 'vaper' themselves. The UK e-cigarette users in this sample were not a homogeneous group; differing in their beliefs, motivations for use, identity and political interest. In particular they diverged on whether they accepted a medicalized account of vaping and identified as a vaper. Public health messages targeted to one group of e-cigarette users may not resonate with others. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by

  20. Exposure to television food advertising primes food-related cognitions and triggers motivation to eat.

    PubMed

    Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika; Hollitt, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of exposure to television food advertising on accessibility of food-related cognitions and motivation to eat. We initially developed a word stem completion task to measure accessibility of food-related cognitions. In two subsequent experiments, 160 female undergraduate students (Experiment 1) and 124 overweight or obese community-dwelling women (Experiment 2) viewed a series of television commercials advertising either food or non-food products. They then completed the word stem task and also rated their desire to eat. Exposure to televised food advertisements led to the completion of word stems with more food- and eating-related words in both experiments. It also increased self-reported desire to eat, but only for overweight and obese individuals (Experiment 2). In both samples, there was a positive association between accessibility of food-related cognitions and reported desire to eat, following priming with television food advertisements. We conclude that an increased activation of food-related cognitions may provide a mechanism for the link between food advertising and consumption. This has implications for tackling pathological (over)eating.

  1. Palatable food consumption in children: interplay between (food) reward motivation and the home food environment.

    PubMed

    De Decker, Annelies; Verbeken, Sandra; Sioen, Isabelle; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Braet, Caroline; Eiben, Gabrielle; Pala, Valeria; Reish, Lucia A; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2017-04-01

    To understand the importance of the home food environment on unhealthy food consumption in children high in reward sensitivity, this study tested the hypothesis that the home availability of unhealthy food moderates the effect of reward sensitivity on children's fast-food consumption frequency, exerted via food cue responsiveness. Children between 7.5 and 14 years (n = 174, 50.6% boys) reported on reward sensitivity and food cue responsiveness (by means of the subscale 'external eating'). Their height and weight were measured. Parents reported on their children's fast-food consumption frequency, food cue responsiveness (by means of the subscale 'food responsiveness'), and on the home availability of unhealthy foods. Two moderated mediation models were conducted, one with the parent- and one with the child-reported food cue responsiveness as mediator. Findings suggested that with a high home availability of unhealthy foods, (a) a higher fast-food consumption frequency was found in children high in reward sensitivity and (b) the relation between reward sensitivity and the fast-food consumption frequency was mediated by external eating.

  2. How food cues can enhance and inhibit motivation to obtain and consume food.

    PubMed

    Colagiuri, Ben; Lovibond, Peter F

    2015-01-01

    Learning may play an important role in over-eating. One example is Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT), whereby reward cues facilitate responding to obtain that reward. Whilst there is increasing research indicating PIT for food in humans, these studies have exclusively tested PIT under instrumental extinction (i.e. when the food is no longer available), which may reduce their ecological validity. To address this, we conducted two experiments exploring PIT for food in humans when tested under instrumental reinforcement. Participants first underwent Pavlovian discrimination training with an auditory cue paired with a chocolate reward (CS+) and another auditory cue unpaired (CS-). In instrumental training participants learnt to press a button to receive the chocolate reward on a VR10 schedule. In the test phase, each CS was presented whilst participants maintained the opportunity to press the button to receive chocolate. In Experiment 1, the PIT test was implemented after up to 20 min of instrumental training (satiation) whereas in Experiment 2 it was implemented after only 4 min of instrumental training. In both experiments there was evidence for differential PIT, but the pattern differed according to the rate of responding at the time of the PIT test. In low baseline responders the CS+ facilitated both button press responding and consumption, whereas in high baseline responders the CS- suppressed responding. These findings suggest that both excitatory and inhibitory associations may be learnt during PIT training and that the expression of these associations depends on motivation levels at the time the cues are encountered. Particularly concerning is that a food-paired cue can elicit increased motivation to obtain and consume food even when the participant is highly satiated and no longer actively seeking food, as this may be one mechanism by which over-consumption is maintained.

  3. Development of a measure of the motives underlying the selection of food: the food choice questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Steptoe, A; Pollard, T M; Wardle, J

    1995-12-01

    A number of factors are thought to influence people's dietary choices, including health, cost, convenience and taste, but there are no measures that address health-related and non-health-related factors in a systematic fashion. This paper describes the development of a multidimensional measure of motives related to food choice. The Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) was developed through factor analysis of responses from a sample of 358 adults ranging in age from 18 to 87 years. Nine factors emerged, and were labelled health, mood, convenience, sensory appeal, natural content, price, weight control, familiarity and ethical concern. The questionnaire structure was verified using confirmatory factor analysis in a second sample (n = 358), and test-retest reliability over a 2- to 3-week period was satisfactory. Convergent validity was investigated by testing associations between FCQ scales and measures of dietary restraint, eating style, the value of health, health locus of control and personality factors. Differences in motives for food choice associated with sex, age and income were found. The potential uses of this measure in health psychology and other areas are discussed.

  4. Influence of gender, age and motives underlying food choice on perceived healthiness and willingness to try functional foods.

    PubMed

    Ares, Gastón; Gámbaro, Adriana

    2007-07-01

    The aims of the present study were to study the effect of different carriers and enrichments on the perceived healthiness and willingness to try functional foods; and to evaluate the effect of age, gender and motives underlying food choice. Participants had to evaluate different functional food concepts and had to answer a food choice questionnaire. Results showed that carrier products had the largest effect on consumers' perception of healthiness and willingness to try of the evaluated functional foods concepts. The highest positive relative utilities were achieved when the enrichment was a functional ingredient inherent in the product. Furthermore, gender, age and motives underlying food choice affected the preference patterns for the evaluated functional foods concepts, but it depended on the carrier and enrichment considered, suggesting that functional foods might not be accepted by all the consumers and that they could be tailored for certain groups.

  5. Varying influences of motivation factors on employees' likelihood to perform safe food handling practices because of demographic differences.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Jason D; Arendt, Susan W; Strohbehn, Catherine H; Meyer, Janell; Paez, Paola

    2010-11-01

    Food safety training has been the primary avenue for ensuring food workers are performing proper food handling practices and thus, serving safe food. Yet, knowledge of safe food handling practices does not necessarily result in actual performance of these practices. This research identified participating food service employees' level of agreement with four factors of motivation (internal motivations, communication, reward-punishment, and resources) and determined if respondents with different demographic characteristics reported different motivating factors. Data were collected from 311 food service employees who did not have any supervisory responsibilities. Intrinsic motivation agreement scores were consistently the highest of all four motivational factors evaluated and did not differ across any of the demographic characteristics considered. In contrast, motivation agreement scores for communication, reward-punishment, and resources did differ based on respondents' gender, age, place of employment, job status, food service experience, completion of food handler course, or possession of a food safety certification. In general, respondents agreed that these motivation factors influenced their likelihood to perform various safe food handling procedures. This research begins to illustrate how employees' demographic characteristics influence their responses to various motivators, helping to clarify the complex situation of ensuring safe food in retail establishments. Future research into why employee willingness to perform varies more for extrinsic motivation than for intrinsic motivation could assist food service managers in structuring employee development programs and the work environment, in a manner that aids in improving external motivation (communication, reward-punishment, and resources) and capitalizing on internal motivation.

  6. Dopamine/adenosine interactions involved in effort-related aspects of food motivation.

    PubMed

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Merce

    2009-12-01

    Nucleus accumbens dopamine (DA) is involved in effort-related aspects of food motivation. Accumbens DA depletions reduce the tendency of rats to work for food, and alter effort-related choice, but leave other aspects of food motivation and appetite intact. DA and adenosine receptors interact to regulate effort-related processes. Adenosine A(2A) antagonists can reverse the effects of DA D(2) antagonists on effort-related choice, and intra-accumbens injections of a adenosine A(2A) agonist produce effects that are similar to those produced by accumbens DA depletion or antagonism. These studies have implications for understanding the neurochemical interactions that underlie activational aspects of motivation.

  7. Food choice and intake: towards a unifying framework of learning and feeding motivation.

    PubMed

    Day, J E; Kyriazakis, I; Rogers, P J

    1998-06-01

    The food choice and intake of animals (including humans) has typically been studied using frameworks of learning and feeding motivation. When used in isolation such frameworks could be criticized because learning paradigms give little consideration to how new food items are included or excluded from an individual's diet, and motivational paradigms do not explain how individuals decide which food to eat when given a choice. Consequently we are posed with the question of whether individuals actively interact with the food items present in their environment to learn about their nutritional properties? The thesis of this review is that individuals are motivated to actively sample food items in order to assess whether they are nutritionally beneficial or harmful. We offer a unifying framework, centred upon the concept of exploratory motivation, which is a synthesis of learning and paradigms of feeding motivation. In this framework information gathering occurs on two levels through exploratory behaviour: (i) the discrimination of food from nonfood items, and (ii) the continued monitoring and storage of information concerning the nutritional properties of these food items. We expect that this framework will advance our understanding of the behavioural control of nutrient intake by explaining how new food items are identified in the environment, and how individuals are able to monitor changes in the nutritional content of their food resource.

  8. Stress, cues, and eating behavior. Using drug addiction paradigms to understand motivation for food.

    PubMed

    Stojek, Monika Kardacz; Fischer, Sarah; MacKillop, James

    2015-09-01

    Eating patterns that lead to overconsumption of high fat, high sugar (HFHS) foods share similar features with addictive behaviors. Application of addiction paradigms, such as stress inductions, cue reactivity and behavioral economic assessments, to the study of motivation for HFHS food consumption may be a promising means of understanding food consumption. To date, few studies have investigated the interaction of stress and environmental cues on craving, and no study leveraged the state relative reinforcing value of foods (RRVfood) under varying conditions of affective states, the foci of the current study. This study used a mixed factorial design (Mood Induction: Neutral, Stress; Cues: Neutral, Food) with repeated measures on time (Baseline, Post-Mood Induction, Post-Cue Exposure). Participants (N = 133) were community adults who endorsed liking of HFHS snacks but denied eating pathology. The primary DVs were subjective craving and RRVfood. Negative and positive affect (NA, PA), the amount of food consumed, and latency to first bite were also examined. Participants in the Stress condition reported no change in craving or RRVfood. Exposure to food cues significantly increased participants' craving and RRVfood, but an interaction of stress and cues was not present. Participants did not differ on how many calories they consumed based on exposure to stress or food cues, but participants in the food cues condition had a shorter latency to the first bite of food. This study highlights the importance of environmental cues in food motivation. It also demonstrates the utility of using RRVfood to further characterize food motivation.

  9. Reciprocal relationships between emotion regulation and motives for eating palatable foods in African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Orihuela, Catheryn A; Mrug, Sylvie; Boggiano, Mary M

    2017-10-01

    This study examines possible bidirectional relationships between emotion regulation and motives related to consuming palatable foods during adolescence. Participants included 79 adolescents (96% African American) who took part in Waves 2 and 3 of the Coping with Violence Study. The youth were recruited from four public middle schools serving low income, urban communities in Birmingham, AL. Participants completed self-report measures of emotion regulation and indicated different motives for consuming tasty foods and drinks at both waves. Results demonstrate that poorer emotion regulation at Wave 2 predicted more frequent endorsement of eating motives related to coping and conforming at Wave 3. Eating motives at Wave 2 were not associated with changes in emotion regulation at Wave 3. The results suggest that emotion regulation problems in adolescence may contribute to obesity and related negative outcomes through greater consumption of unhealthy food for coping and social conformity reasons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Melanocortin 3 Receptor Signaling in Midbrain Dopamine Neurons Increases the Motivation for Food Reward.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Rahul; Omrani, Azar; Luijendijk, Mieneke C M; de Vrind, Véronne A J; Van Rozen, Andrea J; Ophuis, Ralph J A Oude; Garner, Keith; Kallo, Imre; Ghanem, Alexander; Liposits, Zsolt; Conzelmann, Karl-Klaus; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; la Fleur, Susanne E; Adan, Roger A H

    2016-08-01

    The central melanocortin (MC) system mediates its effects on food intake via MC3 (MC3R) and MC4 receptors (MC4R). Although the role of MC4R in meal size determination, satiation, food preference, and motivation is well established, the involvement of MC3R in the modulation of food intake has been less explored. Here, we investigated the role of MC3R on the incentive motivation for food, which is a crucial component of feeding behavior. Dopaminergic neurons within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) have a crucial role in the motivation for food. We here report that MC3Rs are expressed on VTA dopaminergic neurons and that pro-opiomelanocortinergic (POMC) neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (Arc) innervate these VTA dopaminergic neurons. Our findings show that intracerebroventricular or intra-VTA infusion of the selective MC3R agonist γMSH increases responding for sucrose under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement, but not free sucrose consumption in rats. Furthermore, ex vivo electrophysiological recordings show increased VTA dopaminergic neuronal activity upon γMSH application. Consistent with a dopamine-mediated effect of γMSH, the increased motivation for sucrose after intra-VTA infusion of γMSH was blocked by pretreatment with the dopamine receptor antagonist α-flupenthixol. Taken together, we demonstrate an Arc POMC projection onto VTA dopaminergic neurons that modulates motivation for palatable food via activation of MC3R signaling.

  11. Food choice motives and bread liking of consumers embracing hedonistic and traditional values.

    PubMed

    Pohjanheimo, Terhi; Paasovaara, Rami; Luomala, Harri; Sandell, Mari

    2010-02-01

    This study addresses the effect of personal values on consumers' food choice motives and on the liking of bread. A total of 224 consumers participated in the study in three groups: traditional and hedonistic consumers, who presented opposite value types according to the Schwartz value theory, and a control group. Three different rye breads were evaluated for liking and their sensory profiles were determined. The consumer groups' values, food choice motives measured with the Food Choice Questionnaire and a Concern scale, and liking of the breads differed significantly according to the analysis of variance and a partial least squares regression analysis. For hedonistic consumers, rye bread characterized by a soft and porous texture influenced liking positively, and food choice motives "mood" and "price" correlated positively with their values. Traditional consumers were more positive toward different types of rye bread, and food choice motives "natural content", "familiarity" and "health concern" were more important to them than to hedonists. Overall, this study demonstrated that values are connected to food choice motives and, to some extent liking and, thus, values can be utilized both in product development and in advertising. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hedonic and motivational roles of opioids in food reward: implications for overeating disorders.

    PubMed

    Peciña, Susana; Smith, Kyle S

    2010-11-01

    Food reward can be driven by separable mechanisms of hedonic impact (food 'liking') and incentive motivation (food 'wanting'). Brain mu-opioid systems contribute crucially to both forms of food reward. Yet, opioid signals for food 'liking' and 'wanting' diverge in anatomical substrates, in pathways connecting these sites, and in the firing profiles of single neurons. Divergent neural control of hedonic and motivational processes raises the possibility for joint or separable modulation of food intake in human disorders associated with excessive eating and obesity. Early findings confirm an important role for 'liking' and 'wanting' in human appetitive behaviors, and suggest the intriguing possibility that exaggerated signals for 'wanting,' and perhaps 'liking,' may contribute to forms of overeating. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Physiological mechanisms for food-hoarding motivation in animals

    PubMed Central

    Keen-Rhinehart, Erin; Dailey, Megan J.; Bartness, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    The study of ingestive behaviour has an extensive history, starting as early as 1918 when Wallace Craig, an animal behaviourist, coined the terms ‘appetitive’ and ‘consummatory’ for the two-part sequence of eating, drinking and sexual behaviours. Since then, most ingestive behaviour research has focused on the neuroendocrine control of food ingestion (consummatory behaviour). The quantity of food eaten, however, is also influenced by the drive both to acquire and to store food (appetitive behaviour). For example, hamster species have a natural proclivity to hoard food and preferentially alter appetitive ingestive behaviours in response to environmental changes and/or metabolic hormones and neuropeptides, whereas other species would instead primarily increase their food intake. Therefore, with the strong appetitive component to their ingestive behaviour that is relatively separate from their consummatory behaviour, they seem an ideal model for elucidating the neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying the control of food hoarding and foraging. This review focuses on the appetitive side of ingestive behaviour, in particular food hoarding, attempting to integrate what is known about the neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating this relatively poorly studied behaviour. An hypothesis is formed stating that the direction of ‘energy flux’ is a unifying factor for the control of food hoarding. PMID:20156819

  14. Smoking Behavior: A Cross-Sectional Study to Assess the Dimensionality of the Brief Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives and Identify Different Typologies Among Young Daily Smokers

    PubMed Central

    D’Addario, Marco; Cappelletti, Erika Rosa; Greco, Andrea; Monzani, Dario; Steca, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The present study aims to investigate the dimensionality of the brief version of the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (B-WISDM) and identify different smoking motivational profiles among young daily smokers (N = 375). Methods: We tested 3 measurement models of the B-WISDM using confirmatory factor analysis, whereas cluster analysis was used to identify the smokers’ motivational profiles. Furthermore, we compared clusters toward dependence level and the number of cigarettes smoked per day using analysis of variance tests. Results: The results confirmed that the B-WISDM measures 11 first-order intercorrelated factors. The second-order model, originally proposed for the longer version of the questionnaire, showed adequate fit indices but fitted the data significantly worse than the first-order model. Five motivational clusters were identified and differed in terms of tobacco addiction and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Although each cluster had specific features, 2 main smoker groups were distinguished: Group A (composed of 3 clusters), which was mainly characterized by high levels of secondary dependence motives, and Group B (composed of 2 clusters), in which the primary and secondary dependence motives reached similar levels. In general, the clusters of Group B were more addicted to cigarettes than Group A clusters. Conclusions: Using the B-WISDM to identify different smoking motivational profiles has important practical implications because they might help characterize addiction, which represents the first step to help an individual quit smoking. PMID:25168033

  15. Ghrelin increases the motivation to eat, but does not alter food palatability.

    PubMed

    Overduin, Joost; Figlewicz, Dianne P; Bennett-Jay, Jennifer; Kittleson, Sepideh; Cummings, David E

    2012-08-01

    Homeostatic eating cannot explain overconsumption of food and pathological weight gain. A more likely factor promoting excessive eating is food reward and its representation in the central nervous system (CNS). The anorectic hormones leptin and insulin reduce food reward and inhibit related CNS reward pathways. Conversely, the orexigenic gastrointestinal hormone ghrelin activates both homeostatic and reward-related neurocircuits. The current studies were conducted to identify in rats the effects of intracerebroventricular ghrelin infusions on two distinct aspects of food reward: hedonic valuation (i.e., "liking") and the motivation to self-administer (i.e., "wanting") food. To assess hedonic valuation of liquid food, lick motor patterns were recorded using lickometry. Although ghrelin administration increased energy intake, it did not alter the avidity of licking (initial lick rates or lick-cluster size). Several positive-control conditions ruled out lick-rate ceiling effects. Similarly, when the liquid diet was hedonically devalued with quinine supplementation, ghrelin failed to reverse the quinine-associated reduction of energy intake and avidity of licking. The effects of ghrelin on rats' motivation to eat were assessed using lever pressing to self-administer food in a progressive-ratio paradigm. Ghrelin markedly increased motivation to eat, to levels comparable to or greater than those seen following 24 h of food deprivation. Pretreatment with the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390 eliminated ghrelin-induced increases in lever pressing, without compromising generalized licking motor control, indicating a role for D1 signaling in ghrelin's motivational feeding effects. These results indicate that ghrelin increases the motivation to eat via D1 receptor-dependent mechanisms, without affecting perceived food palatability.

  16. Ghrelin increases the motivation to eat, but does not alter food palatability

    PubMed Central

    Overduin, Joost; Figlewicz, Dianne P.; Bennett-Jay, Jennifer; Kittleson, Sepideh

    2012-01-01

    Homeostatic eating cannot explain overconsumption of food and pathological weight gain. A more likely factor promoting excessive eating is food reward and its representation in the central nervous system (CNS). The anorectic hormones leptin and insulin reduce food reward and inhibit related CNS reward pathways. Conversely, the orexigenic gastrointestinal hormone ghrelin activates both homeostatic and reward-related neurocircuits. The current studies were conducted to identify in rats the effects of intracerebroventricular ghrelin infusions on two distinct aspects of food reward: hedonic valuation (i.e., “liking”) and the motivation to self-administer (i.e., “wanting”) food. To assess hedonic valuation of liquid food, lick motor patterns were recorded using lickometry. Although ghrelin administration increased energy intake, it did not alter the avidity of licking (initial lick rates or lick-cluster size). Several positive-control conditions ruled out lick-rate ceiling effects. Similarly, when the liquid diet was hedonically devalued with quinine supplementation, ghrelin failed to reverse the quinine-associated reduction of energy intake and avidity of licking. The effects of ghrelin on rats' motivation to eat were assessed using lever pressing to self-administer food in a progressive-ratio paradigm. Ghrelin markedly increased motivation to eat, to levels comparable to or greater than those seen following 24 h of food deprivation. Pretreatment with the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390 eliminated ghrelin-induced increases in lever pressing, without compromising generalized licking motor control, indicating a role for D1 signaling in ghrelin's motivational feeding effects. These results indicate that ghrelin increases the motivation to eat via D1 receptor-dependent mechanisms, without affecting perceived food palatability. PMID:22673784

  17. Involvement of opioid signaling in food preference and motivation: Studies in laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Morales, I; Font, L; Currie, P J; Pastor, R

    2016-01-01

    Motivation is a complex neurobiological process that initiates, directs, and maintains goal-oriented behavior. Although distinct components of motivated behavior are difficult to investigate, appetitive and consummatory phases of motivation are experimentally separable. Different neurotransmitter systems, particularly the mesolimbic dopaminergic system, have been associated with food motivation. Over the last two decades, however, research focusing on the role of opioid signaling has been particularly growing in this area. Opioid receptors seem to be involved, via neuroanatomically distinct mechanisms, in both appetitive and consummatory aspects of food reward. In the present chapter, we review the pharmacology and functional neuroanatomy of opioid receptors and their endogenous ligands, in the context of food reinforcement. We examine literature aimed at the development of laboratory animal techniques to better understand different components of motivated behavior. We present recent data investigating the effect of opioid receptor antagonists on food preference and effort-related decision making in rats, which indicate that opioid signaling blockade selectively affects intake of relatively preferred foods, resulting in reduced willingness to exert effort to obtain them. Finally, we elaborate on the potential role of opioid system manipulations in disorders associated with excessive eating and obesity. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Motivation for palatable food despite consequences in an animal model of binge eating.

    PubMed

    Oswald, Kimberly D; Murdaugh, Donna L; King, Vinetra L; Boggiano, Mary M

    2011-04-01

    Binge eating involves an abnormal motivation for highly palatable food in that these foods are repeatedly consumed despite their binge-triggering effects and life-affecting consequences associated with binge eating. We determined if rats identified as binge-eating prone (BEP) similarly display abnormal motivation for palatable food. Food-sated BEP and binge-eating resistant (BER) rats were given voluntary access to palatable food paired with increasing intensity of footshock. Later, they were exposed to a period of cyclic caloric restriction-refeeding. BEPs consumed significantly more and tolerated higher levels of footshock for palatable food than BERs. Cyclic restriction-refeeding increased BERs' tolerance of shock for palatable food. Previously observed parallels of the rat BEP model to human binge eating can now be extended to include an abnormal motivation for palatable food. This model should prove useful in identifying specific genes that interact with the nutritional environment to mediate binge eating and may point to novel physiological targets to treat compulsive overeating. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Motivation for Palatable Food Despite Consequences in an Animal Model of Binge-Eating

    PubMed Central

    Oswald, Kimberly D.; Murdaugh, Donna L.; King, Vinetra L.; Boggiano, Mary M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Binge-eating involves an abnormal motivation for highly palatable food in that these foods are repeatedly consumed despite their binge-triggering effects and life-affecting consequences associated with binge-eating. We determined if rats identified as binge-eating prone (BEP) similarly display abnormal motivation for palatable food. Method Food-sated BEP and binge-eating resistant (BER) rats were given voluntary access to palatable food paired with increasing intensity of footshock. Later, they were exposed to a period of cyclic caloric restriction-refeeding. Results BEPs consumed significantly more and tolerated higher levels of footshock for palatable food than BERs. Cyclic restriction-refeeding increased BERs' tolerance of shock for palatable food. Discussion Previously observed parallels of the rat BEP model to human binge-eating can now be extended to include an abnormal motivation for palatable food. This model should prove useful in identifying specific genes that interact with the nutritional environment to mediate binge-eating and may point to novel physiological targets to treat compulsive overeating. PMID:20186718

  20. Organic food consumption in Taiwan: Motives, involvement, and purchase intention under the moderating role of uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Teng, Chih-Ching; Lu, Chi-Heng

    2016-10-01

    Despite the progressive development of the organic food sector in Taiwan, little is known about how consumers' consumption motives will influence organic food decision through various degrees of involvement and whether or not consumers with various degrees of uncertainty will vary in their intention to buy organic foods. The current study aims to examine the effect of consumption motives on behavioral intention related to organic food consumption under the mediating role of involvement as well as the moderating role of uncertainty. Research data were collected from organic food consumers in Taiwan via a questionnaire survey, eventually obtaining 457 valid questionnaires for analysis. This study tested the overall model fit and hypotheses through structural equation modeling method (SEM). The results show that consumer involvement significantly mediates the effects of health consciousness and ecological motives on organic food purchase intention, but not applied to food safety concern. Moreover, the moderating effect of uncertainty is statistical significance, indicating that the relationship between involvement and purchase intention becomes weaker in the condition of consumers with higher degree of uncertainty. Several implications and suggestions are also discussed for organic food providers and marketers. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Regulatory focus and food choice motives. Prevention orientation associated with mood, convenience, and familiarity.

    PubMed

    Pula, Kacy; Parks, Craig D; Ross, Carolyn F

    2014-07-01

    The authors tested the robustness of the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) with a U.S. sample and examined the relationship between individual differences in regulatory focus and everyday food choice motives. Although a popular measure in cross-culture research, the FCQ has seen limited use with U.S. samples, and its psychometric properties have not been tested in this population. American participants (n = 408) completed the Regulatory Focus Questionnaire and a measure of food choice motives. The data did not support the nine-factor FCQ structure. An ad hoc revised measure of food choice motives showed complete measurement invariance (loadings, intercepts, and residuals) across regulatory focus. Regarding everyday food choices, participants with a prevention focus placed greater importance on mood, convenience, and familiarity than participants with a promotion focus. There were no significant differences regarding the importance of health, environmental protection, impression management, natural content, price, and sensory appeal. Several food choice motives were positively correlated. Compared with the promotion-focused participants, the prevention-focused participants more strongly associated the importance of sensory appeal with the importance of natural content and the importance of price. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The biological affects: a typology.

    PubMed

    Buck, R

    1999-04-01

    This typology of biological affects is based on developmental-interactionist theory of motivation, emotion, and cognition. Affects--subjectively experienced feelings and desires--involve interoceptive perceptual systems based on primordial molecules that characterize neurochemicals. Biological affects involve primary motivational-emotional systems (primes) associated with hierarchically organized neurochemical systems in the brain, including subcortical (reptilian) and paleocortical (limbic) brain structures. Affects fulfill individualistic (selfish) functions (arousal, approach-avoidance, agonistic) and prosocial (cooperative) functions. Selfish and cooperative functions are associated respectively with the right and left hemispheres. Biological affects constitute the physiological bases for higher level affects: social affects (e.g., pride, guilt, shame, pity, jealousy), cognitive affects (e.g., curiosity, surprise), and moral affects.

  3. Motivational Influences on Performance Maintained by Food Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, Stephen T.; Iwata, Brian A.

    2005-01-01

    In Study 1, we examined the independent effects of reinforcer consumption during sessions and meal consumption prior to sessions on performance maintained by food reinforcement. Nine individuals with developmental disabilities participated. On alternate days, a preferred edible item was delivered during (a) seven sessions conducted before lunch…

  4. Dietary factors affect food reward and motivation to eat.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Rahul; Mercer, Julian G; Overduin, Joost; la Fleur, Susanne E; Adan, Roger A H

    2012-01-01

    The propensity to indulge in unhealthy eating and overconsumption of palatable food is a crucial determinant in the rising prevalence of obesity in today's society. The tendency to consume palatable foods in quantities that exceed energy requirements has been linked to an addiction-like process. Although the existence of 'food addiction' has not been conclusively proven, evidence points to alterations in the brain reward circuitry induced by overconsumption of palatable foods that are similar to those seen in drug addiction. The diet-induced obesity paradigm is a common procedure to replicate features of human obesity in rodents. Here we review data on the effect of various obesogenic diets (high-fat, Ensure™, cafeteria type, sucrose) on the extent of leptin resistance, hypothalamic-neuropeptidergic adaptations and changes in feeding behavior. We also discuss to what extent such diets and properties such as macronutrient composition, physical structure, sensory stimuli, and post-ingestive effects influence the brain-reward pathways. Understanding the interaction between individual components of diets, feeding patterns, and brain reward pathways could facilitate the design of diets that limit overconsumption and prevent weight gain.

  5. Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, William H.

    1975-01-01

    A systematic approach to the motivation of employees involves two-way communication, involvement, commitment, training, participation, and job enrichment. Demotivation is a pitfall which may occur when motivation is lacking. (BP)

  6. Shedding light on food fraud: spectrophotometric and spectroscopic methods as a tool against economically motivated adulteration of food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petronijević, R. B.; Velebit, B.; Baltić, T.

    2017-09-01

    Intentional modification of food or substitution of food ingredients with the aim of gaining profit is food fraud or economically motivated adulteration (EMA). EMA appeared in the food supply chain, and following the global expansion of the food market, has become a world-scale problem for the global economy. Food frauds have involved oils, milk and meat products, infant formula, honey, juices, spices, etc. New legislation was enacted in the last decade in order to fight EMA. Effective analytical methods for food fraud detection are few and still in development. The majority of the methods in common use today for EMA detection are time consuming and inappropriate for use on the production line or out of the laboratory. The next step in the evolution of analytical techniques to combat food fraud is development of fast, accurate methods applicable using portable or handheld devices. Spectrophotometric and spectroscopic methods combined with chemometric analysis, and perhaps in combination with other rapid physico-chemical techniques, could be the answer. This review discusses some analytical techniques based on spectrophotometry and spectroscopy, which are used to reveal food fraud and EMA.

  7. Motivations for food prohibitions during pregnancy and their enforcement mechanisms in a rural Ghanaian district.

    PubMed

    Arzoaquoi, Samson K; Essuman, Edward E; Gbagbo, Fred Y; Tenkorang, Eric Y; Soyiri, Ireneous; Laar, Amos K

    2015-07-17

    Food taboos are known from virtually all human societies and pregnant women have often been targeted. We qualitatively assessed food taboos during pregnancy, its motivating factors, and enforcement mechanisms in the Upper Manya Krobo district of Ghana. This was an exploratory cross sectional study using qualitative focus group discussions (FGDs). Sixteen FGDs were conducted. Participants were purposively selected using the maximum variation sampling technique. Tape recorded FGDs were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using Malterudian systematic text condensation technique. All the participants were aware of the existence of food prohibitions and beliefs targeting pregnant women in Upper Manya Krobo. The study identified snails, rats, hot foods, and animal lungs as tabooed during pregnancy. Adherence motivators included expectation of safe and timely delivery, avoidance of "monkey babies" (deformed babies); respect for ancestors, parents, and community elders. Enforcement mechanisms identified included constant reminders by parents, family members and significant others. Stigmatization and community sanctions are deployed sparingly. Food taboos and traditional beliefs targeting pregnant women exist in Upper Manya Krobo. Pregnant women are forbidden from eating snails, rats, snakes, hot foods and animal lungs. To a large extent, socio-cultural, and to a lesser, health concerns motivate the practice.

  8. Stakeholder reactions toward iodine biofortified foods. An application of protection motivation theory.

    PubMed

    De Steur, Hans; Mogendi, Joseph Birundu; Wesana, Joshua; Makokha, Anselimo; Gellynck, Xavier

    2015-09-01

    To use Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) to evaluate stakeholders' intention to adopt iodine biofortified foods as an alternative means to improve children's iodine status and overall school performance. A survey was administered with 360 parents of primary school children and 40 school heads. Protection motivation is measured through matching the cognitive processes they use to evaluate iodine deficiency (threat appraisal), as well as iodine biofortified foods to reduce the threat (coping appraisal). Data were analyzed through Robust (Cluster) regression analysis. Gender had a significant effect on coping appraisal for school heads, while age, education, occupation, income, household size and knowledge were significant predictors of threat, coping appraisal and/or protection motivation intention among parents. Nevertheless, in the overall protection motivation model, only two coping factors, namely self-efficacy (parents) and response cost (school heads), influenced the intention to adopt iodine biofortified foods. School feeding programs incorporating iodine biofortification should strive to increase not only consumer knowledge about iodine but also its association to apparent deficiency disorders, boost self-efficacy and ensure that the costs incurred are not perceived as barriers of adoption. The insignificant threat appraisal effects lend support for targeting future communication on biofortification upon the strategies itself, rather than on the targeted micronutrient deficiency. PMT, and coping factors in particular, seem to be valuable in assessing intentions to adopt healthy foods. Nevertheless, research is needed to improve the impacts of threat appraisal factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Motivation.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2007-01-01

    Motivation is short-term focused energy. The oldest theories of motivation explain motivated activity as effort to overcome primary deficiencies, such as hunger or boredom. Such theories are difficult to apply because individuals learn idiosyncratic secondary motives as alternative ways of responding to these needs. Three prominent needs theories are discussed: Herzberg's theory of hygiene and motivational factors; McClelland's needs for achievement, power, and affiliation; and Maslow's hierarchy and theory of self-actualization. A second approach to motivation holds that individuals may be thought of as engaging in rational processes to maximize their self-interests. The presented examples of this approach include Vroom's expectancy theory, Adam's theory of inequality, and the Porter-Lawler model that addresses the question of whether satisfaction leads to high performance or vice versa. Finally, several theories of motivation as life orientation are developed.

  10. Information processing of genetically modified food messages under different motives: an adaptation of the multiple-motive heuristic-systematic model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jooyoung; Paek, Hye-Jin

    2009-12-01

    Recent risk management research has noted the importance of understanding how the lay public processes and reacts to risk-related information. Guided by the multiple-motive heuristic-systematic model, this study examines (1) how individuals process messages in the context of genetically modified foods to change their attitudes and (2) how the persuasion process varies across types of motives. In the three treatment conditions of accuracy, defense, and impression motives, the respondents changed their attitudes through either the heuristic or the systematic mode, depending on their motives. The accuracy-motive group appeared to use the systematic processing mode, while the impression-motive group seemed to employ the heuristic processing mode. The empirical findings highlight the importance of incorporating motives to improve our understanding of the process of attitude change in risk management and communication contexts.

  11. Food Choice Motives among the Students of a Dental Institution in Mysore City, India.

    PubMed

    Sushma, R; Vanamala, N; Nagabhushana, D; Maurya, M; Sunitha, S; Reddy, Cvk

    2014-09-01

    In pursuit of a more "holistic" dentistry and an increasing focus on promoting oral health, dental students are increasingly being trained to take a more active part in health promotion and education. In particular, this incorporates an emphasis on diet and educating people to eat in more healthy ways. This paper works from the premise that if dental students are to engage in oral health promotion, they will do so more effectively if they have first explored their own food choice motivations. A descriptive, cross-sectional questionnaire study. The food choice questionnaire (FCQ) was distributed to a comparative group of 1(st) and 5(th) year dental students in timetabled lecture slots. The FCQ is a previously validated measure designed to assess ten main factors relevant to peoples" food choices. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 18.0 (Chicago, IL, USA) using descriptive statistics and independent sample t-test. Nearly 77% (122/159) students responded. Findings were analyzed using independent sample t-test. Results indicated statistically significant differences in terms of food choice motivations between male and female students of 1(st) and 5(th) year. Awareness and an understanding of the differences in motivational factors affecting food choice between dental students is important as they are increasingly taught to play an active role in oral health promotion.

  12. Food Choice Motives among the Students of a Dental Institution in Mysore City, India

    PubMed Central

    Sushma, R; Vanamala, N; Nagabhushana, D; Maurya, M; Sunitha, S; Reddy, CVK

    2014-01-01

    Background: In pursuit of a more “holistic” dentistry and an increasing focus on promoting oral health, dental students are increasingly being trained to take a more active part in health promotion and education. In particular, this incorporates an emphasis on diet and educating people to eat in more healthy ways. Aim: This paper works from the premise that if dental students are to engage in oral health promotion, they will do so more effectively if they have first explored their own food choice motivations. Subjects and Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional questionnaire study. The food choice questionnaire (FCQ) was distributed to a comparative group of 1st and 5th year dental students in timetabled lecture slots. The FCQ is a previously validated measure designed to assess ten main factors relevant to peoples” food choices. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 18.0 (Chicago, IL, USA) using descriptive statistics and independent sample t-test. Results: Nearly 77% (122/159) students responded. Findings were analyzed using independent sample t-test. Results indicated statistically significant differences in terms of food choice motivations between male and female students of 1st and 5th year. Conclusion: Awareness and an understanding of the differences in motivational factors affecting food choice between dental students is important as they are increasingly taught to play an active role in oral health promotion. PMID:25328797

  13. Typologies of Extreme Longevity Myths

    PubMed Central

    Young, Robert D.; Desjardins, Bertrand; McLaughlin, Kirsten; Poulain, Michel; Perls, Thomas T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Political, national, religious, and other motivations have led the media and even scientists to errantly accept extreme longevity claims prima facie. We describe various causes of false claims of extraordinary longevity. Design and Methods. American Social Security Death Index files for the period 1980–2009 were queried for individuals with birth and death dates yielding ages 110+ years of age. Frequency was compared to a list of age-validated supercentenarians maintained by the Gerontology Research Group who died during the same time period. Age claims of 110+ years and the age validation experiences of the authors facilitated a list of typologies of false age claims. Results. Invalid age claim rates increase with age from 65% at age 110-111 to 98% by age 115 to 100% for 120+ years. Eleven typologies of false claims were: Religious Authority Myth, Village Elder Myth, Fountain of Youth Myth (substance), Shangri-La Myth (geographic), Nationalist Pride, Spiritual Practice, Familial Longevity, Individual and/or Family Notoriety, Military Service, Administrative Entry Error, and Pension-Social Entitlement Fraud. Conclusions. Understanding various causes of false extreme age claims is important for placing current, past, and future extreme longevity claims in context and for providing a necessary level of skepticism. PMID:21461047

  14. Typologies of extreme longevity myths.

    PubMed

    Young, Robert D; Desjardins, Bertrand; McLaughlin, Kirsten; Poulain, Michel; Perls, Thomas T

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Political, national, religious, and other motivations have led the media and even scientists to errantly accept extreme longevity claims prima facie. We describe various causes of false claims of extraordinary longevity. Design and Methods. American Social Security Death Index files for the period 1980-2009 were queried for individuals with birth and death dates yielding ages 110+ years of age. Frequency was compared to a list of age-validated supercentenarians maintained by the Gerontology Research Group who died during the same time period. Age claims of 110+ years and the age validation experiences of the authors facilitated a list of typologies of false age claims. Results. Invalid age claim rates increase with age from 65% at age 110-111 to 98% by age 115 to 100% for 120+ years. Eleven typologies of false claims were: Religious Authority Myth, Village Elder Myth, Fountain of Youth Myth (substance), Shangri-La Myth (geographic), Nationalist Pride, Spiritual Practice, Familial Longevity, Individual and/or Family Notoriety, Military Service, Administrative Entry Error, and Pension-Social Entitlement Fraud. Conclusions. Understanding various causes of false extreme age claims is important for placing current, past, and future extreme longevity claims in context and for providing a necessary level of skepticism.

  15. Olanzapine and sibutramine have opposing effects on the motivation for palatable food.

    PubMed

    van der Zwaal, Esther M; Janhunen, Sanna K; Luijendijk, Mieneke C M; Baclesanu, Roxana; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Adan, Roger A H; La Fleur, Susanne E

    2012-04-01

    Both olanzapine and sibutramine target serotonergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission and influence body weight, but in opposite ways. The second-generation antipsychotic olanzapine, an antagonist at serotonergic and noradrenergic receptors, frequently induces weight gain as a side-effect, whereas sibutramine, a noradrenaline/serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is known as a weight-reducing agent. To investigate whether altered motivation for palatable food influences the effect of these drugs on body weight, we determined their effects on responding for sucrose pellets under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement in rats. We found that a low dose of olanzapine selectively increased responding to sucrose, without affecting free-feeding intake of sucrose. In contrast, sibutramine dose-dependently reduced responding to sucrose and similarly reduced free-feeding intake. Furthermore, coadministration of a dose of sibutramine that failed to affect responding to sucrose when administered alone prevented the increase in motivation by the effective dose of olanzapine. These data show that increased motivation for palatable food is likely to be a significant contributor to olanzapine-induced weight gain. Moreover, the ability of sibutramine to reduce this motivation for palatable food may play an important role in the efficacy of sibutramine as an add-on treatment to counteract olanzapine-induced weight gain.

  16. Comparison of Food Choice Motives between Malay Husbands and Wives in an Urban Community.

    PubMed

    Asma, A; Nawalyah, A G; Rokiah, M Y; Mohd Nasir, M T

    2010-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the motives underlying the selection of foods between husbands and wives in an urban community. Thiscross-sectional study was carried out in Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia among 150 married couples aged 20 and above, who voluntarily agreed to participate and were not on any special diet. Data were collected using the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) which measured the health-related and non health related factor that influence people's food choices. It consisted of 36 items designed to assess the reported importance of nine factors: health, mood, convenience, sensory appeal, natural content, price, weight control, familiarity, and ethical concern. In this study, the FCQ was adapted and a new factor, religion (religious guidelines), was included. Demographic characteristics including age, occupation, education, household income and household size were also collected. Data were analysed using SPSS version 16. Results showed that 40.7% of husbands (mean age= 43.33 + 11.16 years) and 55.3% of wives (mean age= 41.28 + 10.93 years) perceived themselves as the main food shopper while 12.0% of the husbands and 85.3% of the wives perceived themselves as the main meal planner. Husbands rated religion as the most prominent factor in food choice motives with a mean average rating of 4.56 + 0.59 on a 5-point rating scale, followed by health and convenience factor. Meanwhile, the wives rated health as the most essential factor with mean average rating of 4.49 + 0.58, followed by religion and convenience factor. Sensory appeal, ethical concerns and familiarity were rated as the bottom three factors of food choice motives among these two groups. Price of foods was not considered as an important factor in making food choices for the subjects in this study. In conclusion, the husbands and wives of this urban community rated religion, health and convenience as the three most important food choice motives in food selection.

  17. Genetic Subtype Differences in Neural Circuitry of Food Motivation in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Holsen, Laura M.; Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Chambers, Rebecca; Butler, Merlin G.; Bittel, Douglas C.; Brooks, William M.; Thompson, Travis I.; Savage, Cary R.

    2008-01-01

    Background Differences in behavioral phenotypes between the two most common subtypes of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) [chromosome 15q deletions and maternal uniparental disomy 15 (UPD)] indicate that distinct neural networks may be affected. Though both subtypes display hyperphagia, the deletion subgroup demonstrates reduced behavioral inhibition around food, whereas those with UPD are generally more able to maintain cognitive control over food intake impulses. Objective To examine the neural basis of phenotypic differences to better understand relationships between genetic subtypes and behavioral outcomes. We predicted greater food motivation circuitry activity in the deletion subtype and greater activity in higher order cognitive regions in the UPD group, especially after eating. Design and Subjects Nine individuals with PWS due to UPD and 9 individuals with PWS due to (type 2) deletion, matched for age, gender, and BMI, underwent fMRI scanning while viewing food images during two food motivation states: one before (pre-meal) and one after (post-meal) eating a standardized 500 kcal meal. Results Both PWS subgroups demonstrated greater activity in response to food pre- and post-meal compared to the healthy-weight group. Compared to UPD, the deletion subtype showed increased food motivation network activation both pre- and post-meal, especially in the medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala. In contrast, the UPD group demonstrated greater activation than the deletion subtype post-meal in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and parahippocampal gyrus. Conclusion These preliminary findings are the first functional neuroimaging findings to support divergent neural mechanisms associated with behavioral phenotypes in genetic subtypes of PWS. Results are discussed within the framework of genetic mechanisms such as haploinsufficiency and gene dosage effects and their differential influence on deletion and UPD subtypes, respectively. PMID:19048015

  18. Food-choice motives of adolescents in Jakarta, Indonesia: the roles of gender and family income.

    PubMed

    Maulida, Rizka; Nanishi, Keiko; Green, Joseph; Shibanuma, Akira; Jimba, Masamine

    2016-10-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess the reliability and validity of the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) and to determine the factors associated with food-choice motives in public junior-high-school students in Jakarta, Indonesia. Cross-sectional study with self-administered questionnaires. Trained research assistants measured height and weight of the participants on the day of the data collection. Settings Fourteen randomly selected public junior-high schools in East Jakarta, Indonesia. Public junior-high-school students (n 681) in grades 7 and 8, aged 13-14 years (377 girls and 304 boys). Three food-choice motives (subscales) were obtained from factor analysis and reliability testing: (i) comfort; (ii) convenience and price; and (iii) health. The subscale with the greatest mean value was health. Family affluence was inversely associated with the convenience and price subscale (β=-0·05, P=0·01) and with the health subscale (β=-0·04; P=0·02). Females were less likely than males to consider health when choosing foods (β=-0·16; P=0·03). While its factor structure differed from those found in previous studies of adults, the FCQ can provide reliable measures of food-choice motives among these adolescents. Students from less affluent families placed more importance on food's convenience and price, but more affluent students did not necessarily make healthier choices. Compared with females, males were more likely to choose healthy foods. Future interventions should be tailored based on the socio-economic status of the target group.

  19. Comparison of motives underlying food choice and barriers to healthy eating among low medium income consumers in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Ares, Gastón; Machín, Leandro; Girona, Alejandra; Curutchet, María Rosa; Giménez, Ana

    2017-05-18

    Interventions aimed at changing dietary patterns should be designed based on the main motives underlying the food choices of specific target populations. The aim of the present study was to identify motives underlying food choice and barriers to healthy eating among consumers in two socioeconomic levels in Uruguay. Eleven focus groups were carried out with a total of 76 participants. Six of the groups involved low income participants and the others were conducted with middle income participants. Discussions were held around frequently consumed products, motives underlying food choices and barriers to healthy eating. Results confirmed the strong influence of income level on motives underlying food choice and barriers to the adoption of healthy eating. Low income participants described their choices as mainly driven by economic factors and satiety, whereas convenience was the main determinant of food selection for middle income participants. Implications for the design of public policies targeted at each group are discussed.

  20. The effect of REM sleep deprivation on motivation for food reward.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Erin C; Andrzejewski, Matthew E; Harder, Bridgette K; Kelley, Ann E; Benca, Ruth M

    2005-08-30

    Prolonged sleep deprivation in rats produces a characteristic syndrome consisting of an increase in food intake yet a decrease in weight. Moreover, the increase in food intake generally precedes the weight loss, suggesting that sleep deprivation may affect appetitive behaviors. Using the multiple platform method to produce rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation, we investigated the effect of REM sleep deprivation (REMSD) on motivation for food reward utilizing food-reinforced operant tasks. In acquisition or maintenance of an operant task, REM sleep-deprived rats, with or without simultaneous food restriction, decreased responding for sucrose pellet reward in comparison to controls, despite the fact that all REM sleep-deprived rats lost weight. Furthermore, the overall response deficit of the REM sleep-deprived rats was due to a within-session decline in responding. REM sleep-deprived rats showed evidence of understanding the contingency of the task comparable to controls throughout deprivation period, suggesting that the decrements in responding were not primarily related to deficits in learning or memory. Rather, REM sleep deprivation appears to alter systems involved in motivational processes, reward, and/or attention.

  1. Validity of a questionnaire measuring motives for choosing foods including sustainable concerns.

    PubMed

    Sautron, Valérie; Péneau, Sandrine; Camilleri, Géraldine M; Muller, Laurent; Ruffieux, Bernard; Hercberg, Serge; Méjean, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Since the 1990s, sustainability of diet has become an increasingly important concern for consumers. However, there is no validated multidimensional measurement of motivation in the choice of foods including a concern for sustainability currently available. In the present study, we developed a questionnaire that measures food choice motives during purchasing, and we tested its psychometric properties. The questionnaire included 104 items divided into four predefined dimensions (environmental, health and well-being, economic and miscellaneous). It was administered to 1000 randomly selected subjects participating in the Nutrinet-Santé cohort study. Among 637 responders, one-third found the questionnaire complex or too long, while one-quarter found it difficult to fill in. Its underlying structure was determined by exploratory factor analysis and then internally validated by confirmatory factor analysis. Reliability was also assessed by internal consistency of selected dimensions and test-retest repeatability. After selecting the most relevant items, first-order analysis highlighted nine main dimensions: labeled ethics and environment, local and traditional production, taste, price, environmental limitations, health, convenience, innovation and absence of contaminants. The model demonstrated excellent internal validity (adjusted goodness of fit index = 0.97; standardized root mean square residuals = 0.07) and satisfactory reliability (internal consistency = 0.96, test-retest repeatability coefficient ranged between 0.31 and 0.68 over a mean 4-week period). This study enabled precise identification of the various dimensions in food choice motives and proposed an original, internally valid tool applicable to large populations for assessing consumer food motivation during purchasing, particularly in terms of sustainability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Real-time sampling of reasons for hedonic food consumption: further validation of the Palatable Eating Motives Scale

    PubMed Central

    Boggiano, Mary M.; Wenger, Lowell E.; Turan, Bulent; Tatum, Mindy M.; Sylvester, Maria D.; Morgan, Phillip R.; Morse, Kathryn E.; Burgess, Emilee E.

    2015-01-01

    Highly palatable foods play a salient role in obesity and binge-eating, and if habitually eaten to deal with intrinsic and extrinsic factors unrelated to metabolic need, may compromise adaptive coping and interpersonal skills. This study used event sampling methodology (ESM) to examine whether individuals who report eating palatable foods primarily to cope, to enhance reward, to be social, or to conform, as measured by the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS), actually eat these foods primarily for the motive(s) they report on the PEMS. Secondly this study examined if the previously reported ability of the PEMS Coping motive to predict BMI would replicate if the real-time (ESM-reported) coping motive was used to predict BMI. A total of 1691 palatable eating events were collected from 169 college students over 4 days. Each event included the day, time, and types of tasty foods or drinks consumed followed by a survey that included an abbreviated version of the PEMS, hunger as an additional possible motive, and a question assessing general perceived stress during the eating event. Two-levels mixed modeling confirmed that ESM-reported motives correlated most strongly with their respective PEMS motives and that all were negatively associated with eating for hunger. While stress surrounding the eating event was strongly associated with the ESM-coping motive, its inclusion in the model as a predictor of this motive did not abolish the significant association between ESM and PEMS Coping scores. Regression models confirmed that scores on the ESM-coping motive predicted BMI. These findings provide ecological validity for the PEMS to identify true-to-life motives for consuming palatable foods. This further adds to the utility of the PEMS in individualizing, and hence improving, treatment strategies for obesity, binge-eating, dietary nutrition, coping, reward acquisition, and psychosocial skills. PMID:26082744

  3. Real-time sampling of reasons for hedonic food consumption: further validation of the Palatable Eating Motives Scale.

    PubMed

    Boggiano, Mary M; Wenger, Lowell E; Turan, Bulent; Tatum, Mindy M; Sylvester, Maria D; Morgan, Phillip R; Morse, Kathryn E; Burgess, Emilee E

    2015-01-01

    Highly palatable foods play a salient role in obesity and binge-eating, and if habitually eaten to deal with intrinsic and extrinsic factors unrelated to metabolic need, may compromise adaptive coping and interpersonal skills. This study used event sampling methodology (ESM) to examine whether individuals who report eating palatable foods primarily to cope, to enhance reward, to be social, or to conform, as measured by the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS), actually eat these foods primarily for the motive(s) they report on the PEMS. Secondly this study examined if the previously reported ability of the PEMS Coping motive to predict BMI would replicate if the real-time (ESM-reported) coping motive was used to predict BMI. A total of 1691 palatable eating events were collected from 169 college students over 4 days. Each event included the day, time, and types of tasty foods or drinks consumed followed by a survey that included an abbreviated version of the PEMS, hunger as an additional possible motive, and a question assessing general perceived stress during the eating event. Two-levels mixed modeling confirmed that ESM-reported motives correlated most strongly with their respective PEMS motives and that all were negatively associated with eating for hunger. While stress surrounding the eating event was strongly associated with the ESM-coping motive, its inclusion in the model as a predictor of this motive did not abolish the significant association between ESM and PEMS Coping scores. Regression models confirmed that scores on the ESM-coping motive predicted BMI. These findings provide ecological validity for the PEMS to identify true-to-life motives for consuming palatable foods. This further adds to the utility of the PEMS in individualizing, and hence improving, treatment strategies for obesity, binge-eating, dietary nutrition, coping, reward acquisition, and psychosocial skills.

  4. Sociodemographic Factors Differentiating the Consumer and the Motivations for Functional Food Consumption.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Artur; Annunziata, Azzurra; Vecchio, Riccardo

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the (1) role of gender, age, and education in the evaluation of multidimensional criteria of the purchase of functional products, which were (a) quality and organoleptic attributes, (b) attributes of packaging and labeling, (c) healthful properties, (d) functional components, (e) base product (carrier) and (2) most important motives for the purchase and consumption of functional food among consumers of different sociodemographic profiles. The data were collected in direct interviews. The sample (n = 200) consisted of 137 women and 63 men age 18-60 years. The research tool was a questionnaire divided into 4 sections. The first one included quality attributes. The second one included healthful properties, functional components, and carriers. The third one concerned the motives for purchasing functional food and included the consequences and values. In the fourth section the participants were asked about gender, age, and education. Gender, age, and education differentiated the criteria influencing the decision to purchase functional food. Women, older people (35-60 years), and those with university education attach the greatest importance to naturalness, nutritional value, freshness, food safety, and quality guarantee. Clear differences between men and women appear in the field of functional components, which are significantly more important for women than for men. Gender, age, and education essentially differentiate the preferences for base product (carrier). Young men prefer meat products in the role of functional carriers. In turn, women and older men prefer cereal products as basic functional carriers. Young consumers are more open to high-technology food processing. Motivations are differentiated by age and gender. Young men, as opposed to women and older men, attach less importance to functional and psychological consequences: improvement of health, healthy eating, conscious choice, and health promotion. Women and older

  5. Features in grocery stores that motivate shoppers to buy healthier foods, ConsumerStyles 2014

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Latetia V; Pinard, Courtney A.; Yaroch, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We examined nine features in grocery stores shoppers reported motivated them to purchase more healthful foods in the past month. Design Features were compiled from common supermarket practices for each of the 4 Ps of marketing: pricing, placement, promotion, and product. We examined percentages of the features overall and by shopping frequency using chi-square tests from a 2014 cross sectional web-based health attitudes and behaviors survey, ConsumerStyles. The survey was fielded from June to July in 2014. Setting Participants were part of a market research consumer panel that were randomly recruited by probability-based sampling using address-based sampling methods to achieve a sample representative of the U.S. population. Subjects Data from 4,242 adults ages 18 and older were analyzed. Results About 44% of respondents indicated at least one feature motivated them to purchase more healthful foods. Top choices included in-store coupons or specials (20.1%), availability of convenient, ready-to-eat more healthful foods (18.8%), product labels or advertising on packages (15.2%), and labels or signs on shelves that highlighted more healthful options (14.6%). Frequent shoppers reported being motivated to purchase more healthful foods by in-store tastings/recipe demonstrations and coupons/specials more often than infrequent shoppers. Conclusions Enhancing the visibility and appeal of more healthful food items in grocery stores may help improve dietary choices in some populations but additional research is needed to identify the most effective strategies for interventions. PMID:26831484

  6. Features in Grocery Stores that Motivate Shoppers to Buy Healthier Foods, ConsumerStyles 2014.

    PubMed

    Moore, Latetia V; Pinard, Courtney A; Yaroch, Amy L

    2016-08-01

    We examined nine features in grocery stores shoppers reported motivated them to purchase more healthful foods in the past month. Features were compiled from common supermarket practices for each of the 4 Ps of marketing: pricing, placement, promotion, and product. We examined percentages of the features overall and by shopping frequency using Chi square tests from a 2014 cross sectional web-based health attitudes and behaviors survey, ConsumerStyles. The survey was fielded from June to July in 2014. Participants were part of a market research consumer panel that were randomly recruited by probability-based sampling using address-based sampling methods to achieve a sample representative of the U.S. Data from 4242 adults ages 18 and older were analyzed. About 44 % of respondents indicated at least one feature motivated them to purchase more healthful foods. Top choices included in-store coupons or specials (20.1 %), availability of convenient, ready-to-eat more healthful foods (18.8 %), product labels or advertising on packages (15.2 %), and labels or signs on shelves that highlighted more healthful options (14.6 %). Frequent shoppers reported being motivated to purchase more healthful foods by in-store tastings/recipe demonstrations and coupons/specials more often than infrequent shoppers. Enhancing the visibility and appeal of more healthful food items in grocery stores may help improve dietary choices in some populations but additional research is needed to identify the most effective strategies for interventions.

  7. Habituation and within session changes in motivated responding for food in children

    PubMed Central

    Temple, Jennifer L.; Giacomelli, April M.; Roemmich, James N.; Epstein, Leonard H.

    2008-01-01

    Within-session decreases in instrumental responding to obtain food, consistent with habituation, have been reliably demonstrated in adults and children. This study tested the hypothesis that within-session decreases in instrumental responding for food are due to habituation rather than satiation. Thirty-eight 8–12 year old children performed a computer- based operant task to earn points toward access to potato chips for 20 minutes, and for chocolate candies for the final six minutes of the session. Portion size of the food reinforcer (75 vs 225 kcal) and food consumption (consumption/no consumption) were varied during the first 20 minutes. There was no difference in the rate of response decrease between the two portion size conditions. Both the consumption and non-consumption groups showed response decelerations during the first 20 minutes, with responses in the consumption group decreasing at a faster rate. When the novel food was presented, participants in all conditions recovered responding. Although satiation may contribute to reductions in motivated responding for food when food is consumed, habituation provides a more complete explanation for the results observed in this study. PMID:17961817

  8. Universals, Typologies and Interlanguage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckman, Fred R.

    Two questions are raised: Is it possible to characterize the notion human language in terms of absolute and typological universals? And if so, what is the relationship between these universals and those formulated for primary languages? Given these questions, the purpose of the paper is to: (1) investigate some of the methodological considerations…

  9. Dyadic Death: A Typology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Alan L.

    1996-01-01

    Describes and illustrates distinct types of dyadic death (where a second victim acts in consort with or is killed by a person who then commits suicide). Suggests an organizing dynamic of dyadic death and claims that levels of dominance, dependence-enmeshment, and the presence or absence of hostility influence the proposed typology. (RJM)

  10. Verb-Final Typology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogihara, Saeko

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a typological study of verb-final languages, the purpose of which is to examine various grammatical phenomena in verb-final languages to discover whether there are correlations between the final position of the verb and other aspects of grammar. It examines how finality of the verb interacts with argument coding in simple…

  11. A study of the relationship between degree of ethnocentrism and typologies of food purchase in supermarkets in central-southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Schnettler, Berta; Miranda, Horacio; Lobos, Germán; Sepúlveda, José; Denegri, Marianela

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to distinguish different types of consumers according to their level of ethnocentrism in relation to the consumption of foodstuffs in central-southern Chile. To do this a modification of the CETSCALE (Consumer Ethnocentric Tendencies Scale) was applied through direct survey of 800 habitual supermarket shoppers in two cities in central-southern Chile. The modified CETSCALE presented a sufficient level of internal consistency and there were three factors which included the 17 items of the scale. Five typologies of consumer with different degrees of ethnocentrism were distinguished by cluster analysis, based on the values of the factors and items in the CETSCALE. The composition of the typologies of consumers were related to the city and zone of residence, age, socioeconomic level, self-declared life-style, ethnic origin, knowledge of the origin of the foodstuffs purchased, frequency of purchase of imported foodstuffs and reasons for rejection in the case of a low purchase frequency. It may therefore be concluded that different levels of ethnocentrism exist in the consumption of foodstuffs, related with some socio-demographic characteristics of consumers and their attitudes to imported foodstuffs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of food: common characteristics of EMA incidents.

    PubMed

    Everstine, Karen; Spink, John; Kennedy, Shaun

    2013-04-01

    Economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of food, also known as food fraud, is the intentional adulteration of food for financial advantage. A common form of EMA, undeclared substitution with alternative ingredients, is usually a health concern because of allergen labeling requirements. As demonstrated by the nearly 300,000 illnesses in China from melamine adulteration of infant formula, EMA also has the potential to result in serious public health consequences. Furthermore, EMA incidents reveal gaps in quality assurance testing methodologies that could be exploited for intentional harm. In contrast to foodborne disease outbreaks, EMA incidents present a particular challenge to the food industry and regulators because they are deliberate acts that are intended to evade detection. Large-scale EMA incidents have been described in the scientific literature, but smaller incidents have been documented only in media sources. We reviewed journal articles and media reports of EMA since 1980. We identified 137 unique incidents in 11 food categories: fish and seafood (24 incidents), dairy products (15), fruit juices (12), oils and fats (12), grain products (11), honey and other natural sweeteners (10), spices and extracts (8), wine and other alcoholic beverages (7), infant formula (5), plant-based proteins (5), and other food products (28). We identified common characteristics among the incidents that may help us better evaluate and reduce the risk of EMA. These characteristics reflect the ways in which existing regulatory systems or testing methodologies were inadequate for detecting EMA and how novel detection methods and other deterrence strategies can be deployed. Prevention and detection of EMA cannot depend on traditional food safety strategies. Comprehensive food protection, as outlined by the Food Safety Modernization Act, will require innovative methods for detecting EMA and for targeting crucial resources toward the riskiest food products.

  13. Food Restriction-Induced Changes in Gonadotropin-Inhibiting Hormone Cells are Associated with Changes in Sexual Motivation and Food Hoarding, but not Sexual Performance and Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Klingerman, Candice M.; Williams, Wilbur P.; Simberlund, Jessica; Brahme, Nina; Prasad, Ankita; Schneider, Jill E.; Kriegsfeld, Lance J.

    2011-01-01

    We hypothesized that putative anorectic and orexigenic peptides control the motivation to engage in either ingestive or sex behaviors, and these peptides function to optimize reproductive success in environments where energy fluctuates. Here, the putative orexigenic peptide, gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone (GnIH, also known as RFamide-related peptide-3), and the putative anorectic hormones leptin, insulin, and estradiol were examined during the course of food restriction. Groups of female Syrian hamsters were restricted to 75% of their ad libitum food intake or fed ad libitum for 4, 8, or 12 days. Two other groups were food-restricted for 12 days and then re-fed ad libitum for 4 or 8 days. After testing for sex and ingestive behavior, blood was sampled and assayed for peripheral hormones. Brains were immunohistochemically double-labeled for GnIH and the protein product of the immediate early gene, c-fos, a marker of cellular activation. Food hoarding, the number of double-labeled cells, and the percent of GnIH-Ir cells labeled with Fos-Ir were significantly increased at 8 and 12 days after the start of food restriction. Vaginal scent marking and GnIH-Ir cell number significantly decreased after the same duration of restriction. Food hoarding, but not food intake, was significantly positively correlated with cellular activation in GnIH-Ir cells. Vaginal scent marking was significantly negatively correlated with cellular activation in GnIH-Ir cells. There were no significant effects of food restriction on plasma insulin, leptin, estradiol, or progesterone concentrations. In the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) of energetically challenged females, strong projections from NPY-Ir cells were found in close apposition to GnIH-Ir cells. Together these results are consistent with the idea that metabolic signals influence sexual and ingestive motivation via NPY fibers that project to GnIH cells in the DMH. PMID:22649396

  14. The role of work habits in the motivation of food safety behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hinsz, Verlin B; Nickell, Gary S; Park, Ernest S

    2007-06-01

    The authors considered work habits within an integrated framework of motivated behavior. A distinction made between automatic and controlled action led to 2 measures of work habits: a habit strength measure reflecting the 4 characteristics of automaticity and a measure of work routines under conscious control. Workers at a turkey processing plant (N = 162) responded to an extensive survey of these work habits measures with regard to food safety. Results indicated that attitudes and subjective norms predicted food safety intentions. These intentions, along with perceived behavior control and work habits, predicted reports of food safety behaviors. A mediation analysis indicated that the work routines measure accounted for the variance in self-reported behavior and mediated any effect of the habit strength measure.

  15. Preference for natural: instrumental and ideational/moral motivations, and the contrast between foods and medicines.

    PubMed

    Rozin, Paul; Spranca, Mark; Krieger, Zeev; Neuhaus, Ruth; Surillo, Darlene; Swerdlin, Amy; Wood, Katherine

    2004-10-01

    Preference for natural refers to the fact that in a number of domains, especially food, people prefer natural entities to those which have been produced with human intervention. Two studies with undergraduate students and representative American adults indicate that the preference for natural is substantial, and stronger for foods than for medicines. Although healthfulness is often given as a reason for preferring natural foods, even when healthfulness or effectiveness (for medicines) of the natural and artificial exemplars is specified as equivalent, the great majority of people who demonstrate a preference for natural continue to prefer natural. In addition, when the natural and artificial exemplars are specified to be chemically identical, a majority of people who prefer natural continue to prefer it. This suggests that a substantial part of the motivation for preferring natural is ideational (moral or aesthetic), as opposed to instrumental (healthiness/effectiveness or superior sensory properties).

  16. Nucleus accumbens core dopamine signaling tracks the need-based motivational value of food-paired cues.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Tara J; Greenfield, Venuz Y; Wassum, Kate M

    2016-03-01

    Environmental reward-predictive stimuli provide a major source of motivation for instrumental reward-seeking activity and this has been linked to dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core. This cue-induced incentive motivation can be quite general, not restricted to instrumental actions that earn the same unique reward, and is also typically regulated by one's current need state, such that cues only motivate actions when this is adaptive. But it remains unknown whether cue-evoked dopamine signaling is similarly regulated by need state. Here, we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to monitor dopamine concentration changes in the NAc core of rats during a Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer task in which the motivating influence of two cues, each signaling a distinct food reward (sucrose or food pellets), over an action earning a third unique food reward (polycose) was assessed in a state of hunger and of satiety. Both cues elicited a robust NAc dopamine response when hungry. The magnitude of the sucrose cue-evoked dopamine response correlated with the Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer effect that was selectively induced by this stimulus. Satiety attenuated these cue-evoked dopamine responses and behavioral responding, even though rats had never experienced the specific food rewards in this state. These data demonstrate that cue-evoked NAc core responses are sensitive to current need state, one critical variable that determines the current adaptive utility of cue-motivated behavior. Food-predictive stimuli motivate food-seeking behavior. Here, we show that food cues evoke a robust nucleus accumbens core dopamine response when hungry that correlates with the cue's ability to invigorate general food seeking. This response is attenuated when sated, demonstrating that food cue-evoked accumbens dopamine responses are sensitive to the need state information that determines the current adaptive utility of cue-motivated action.

  17. Roles of "Wanting" and "Liking" in Motivating Behavior: Gambling, Food, and Drug Addictions.

    PubMed

    Robinson, M J F; Fischer, A M; Ahuja, A; Lesser, E N; Maniates, H

    2016-01-01

    The motivation to seek out and consume rewards has evolutionarily been driven by the urge to fulfill physiological needs. However in a modern society dominated more by plenty than scarcity, we tend to think of motivation as fueled by the search for pleasure. Here, we argue that two separate but interconnected subcortical and unconscious processes direct motivation: "wanting" and "liking." These two psychological and neuronal processes and their related brain structures typically work together, but can become dissociated, particularly in cases of addiction. In drug addiction, for example, repeated consumption of addictive drugs sensitizes the mesolimbic dopamine system, the primary component of the "wanting" system, resulting in excessive "wanting" for drugs and their cues. This sensitizing process is long-lasting and occurs independently of the "liking" system, which typically remains unchanged or may develop a blunted pleasure response to the drug. The result is excessive drug-taking despite minimal pleasure and intense cue-triggered craving that may promote relapse long after detoxification. Here, we describe the roles of "liking" and "wanting" in general motivation and review recent evidence for a dissociation of "liking" and "wanting" in drug addiction, known as the incentive sensitization theory (Robinson and Berridge 1993). We also make the case that sensitization of the "wanting" system and the resulting dissociation of "liking" and "wanting" occurs in both gambling disorder and food addiction.

  18. Eating ‘Junk-Food' Produces Rapid and Long-Lasting Increases in NAc CP-AMPA Receptors: Implications for Enhanced Cue-Induced Motivation and Food Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Oginsky, Max F; Goforth, Paulette B; Nobile, Cameron W; Lopez-Santiago, Luis F; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2016-01-01

    Urges to eat are influenced by stimuli in the environment that are associated with food (food cues). Obese people are more sensitive to food cues, reporting stronger craving and consuming larger portions after food cue exposure. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) mediates cue-triggered motivational responses, and activations in the NAc triggered by food cues are stronger in people who are susceptible to obesity. This has led to the idea that alterations in NAc function similar to those underlying drug addiction may contribute to obesity, particularly in obesity-susceptible individuals. Motivational responses are mediated in part by NAc AMPA receptor (AMPAR) transmission, and recent work shows that cue-triggered motivation is enhanced in obesity-susceptible rats after ‘junk-food' diet consumption. Therefore, here we determined whether NAc AMPAR expression and function is increased by ‘junk-food' diet consumption in obesity-susceptible vs -resistant populations using both outbred and selectively bred models of susceptibility. In addition, cocaine-induced locomotor activity was used as a general ‘read out' of mesolimbic function after ‘junk-food' consumption. We found a sensitized locomotor response to cocaine in rats that gained weight on a ‘junk-food' diet, consistent with greater responsivity of mesolimbic circuits in obesity-susceptible groups. In addition, eating ‘junk-food' increased NAc calcium-permeable-AMPAR (CP-AMPAR) function only in obesity-susceptible rats. This increase occurred rapidly, persisted for weeks after ‘junk-food' consumption ceased, and preceded the development of obesity. These data are considered in light of enhanced cue-triggered motivation and striatal function in obesity-susceptible rats and the role of NAc CP-AMPARs in enhanced motivation and addiction. PMID:27383008

  19. Eating 'Junk-Food' Produces Rapid and Long-Lasting Increases in NAc CP-AMPA Receptors: Implications for Enhanced Cue-Induced Motivation and Food Addiction.

    PubMed

    Oginsky, Max F; Goforth, Paulette B; Nobile, Cameron W; Lopez-Santiago, Luis F; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2016-12-01

    Urges to eat are influenced by stimuli in the environment that are associated with food (food cues). Obese people are more sensitive to food cues, reporting stronger craving and consuming larger portions after food cue exposure. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) mediates cue-triggered motivational responses, and activations in the NAc triggered by food cues are stronger in people who are susceptible to obesity. This has led to the idea that alterations in NAc function similar to those underlying drug addiction may contribute to obesity, particularly in obesity-susceptible individuals. Motivational responses are mediated in part by NAc AMPA receptor (AMPAR) transmission, and recent work shows that cue-triggered motivation is enhanced in obesity-susceptible rats after 'junk-food' diet consumption. Therefore, here we determined whether NAc AMPAR expression and function is increased by 'junk-food' diet consumption in obesity-susceptible vs -resistant populations using both outbred and selectively bred models of susceptibility. In addition, cocaine-induced locomotor activity was used as a general 'read out' of mesolimbic function after 'junk-food' consumption. We found a sensitized locomotor response to cocaine in rats that gained weight on a 'junk-food' diet, consistent with greater responsivity of mesolimbic circuits in obesity-susceptible groups. In addition, eating 'junk-food' increased NAc calcium-permeable-AMPAR (CP-AMPAR) function only in obesity-susceptible rats. This increase occurred rapidly, persisted for weeks after 'junk-food' consumption ceased, and preceded the development of obesity. These data are considered in light of enhanced cue-triggered motivation and striatal function in obesity-susceptible rats and the role of NAc CP-AMPARs in enhanced motivation and addiction.

  20. FAAH deficiency promotes energy storage and enhances the motivation for food.

    PubMed

    Touriño, C; Oveisi, F; Lockney, J; Piomelli, D; Maldonado, R

    2010-03-01

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is the main degrading enzyme of the fatty acid ethanolamides anandamide (AEA) and oleoylethanolamide (OEA), which have opposite effects on food intake and energy balance. AEA, an endogenous ligand of CB(1) cannabinoid receptors, enhances food intake and energy storage, whereas OEA binds to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-alpha to reduce food intake and promoting lipolysis. To elucidate the role of FAAH in food intake and energy balance, we have evaluated different metabolic and behavioral responses related to feeding in FAAH-deficient (FAAH(-/-)) mice and their wild-type littermates. Total daily food intake was similar in both genotypes, but high-fat food consumption was enhanced during the dark hours and decreased during the light hours in FAAH(-/-) mice. The reinforcing and motivational effects of food were also enhanced in FAAH(-/-) mice as revealed by operant behavioral paradigms. These behavioral responses were reversed by the administration of the selective CB(1) cannabinoid antagonist rimonabant. Furthermore, body weight, total amount of adipose tissue, plasma-free fatty acids and triglyceride content in plasma, liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, were increased in FAAH(-/-) mice. Accordingly, leptin levels were increased and adiponectin levels decreased in these mutants, FAAH(-/-) mice also showed enhanced plasma insulin and blood glucose levels revealing an insulin resistance. As expected, both AEA and OEA levels were increased in hypothalamus, small intestine and liver of FAAH(-/-) mice. These results indicate that the lack of FAAH predominantly promotes energy storage by food intake-independent mechanisms, through the enhancement of AEA levels rather than promoting the anorexic effects of OEA.

  1. Motives underlying food consumption in the Western Balkans: consumers' profiles and public health strategies.

    PubMed

    Mardon, Julie; Thiel, Elise; Laniau, Martine; Sijtsema, Siet; Zimmermann, Karin; Barjolle, Dominique

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to identify subgroups of consumers based on the health motives underlying their food choice in Western Balkan Countries. The survey (n = 2943) was based on the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) and elicited information on socio-demographic characteristics, consumption frequency of healthy food products, nutrition knowledge and impulsiveness. Analysis of the FCQ data focused on items of "health and natural content" and "weight control" factors to identify clusters. The biggest group of the sample was weight control and health-concerned individuals (34 %), mainly urban women older than 50. The second group of respondents (31 %) was moderately motivated about health and weight. A third group was health concerned but paid less attention to weight control (21 %), mainly comprising men and people living with children. The last group consisted of unconcerned young men (14 %) eating less fruit and showing higher impulsiveness. Western Balkan consumers differ in the importance they attach to health and natural content and weight control. This insight is needed to target interventions.

  2. Effects of altering motivation for food in rats trained with food reinforcement to discriminate between d-amphetamine and saline injections.

    PubMed

    Lotfizadeh, Amin D; Redner, Ryan; Edwards, Timothy L; Quisenberry, Amanda J; Baker, Lisa E; Poling, Alan

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that altering motivation typically affects stimulus generalization in animals trained to discriminate exteroceptive stimuli, but few studies have evaluated the effects of manipulating motivation on drug stimuli. In the few published studies, motivation levels were manipulated by arranging different feeding conditions prior to stimulus generalization tests with rats trained to discriminate morphine from vehicle and in pigeons trained to discriminate phencyclidine or pentobarbital from vehicle. In the present study, rats maintained at 80% of free-feeding weights were trained to discriminate between injections of 1.0mg/kg d-amphetamine and saline in a two-lever food-reinforced operant procedure. Generalization tests were then conducted with a range of d-amphetamine doses (0, 0.03, 0.1, and 0.3, 1.0mg/kg) when the rats were not fed before experimental sessions (high motivation) and when they were pre-fed 1g of food (moderate motivation) or their daily ration of food (low motivation) 1h before test sessions. Changing the motivation level significantly affected response rate and latency to the first response in generalizations tests, but did not significantly affect mean percentage of drug-appropriate responding (a continuous measure) or percentage of animals that selected the drug-appropriate lever (a quantal measure). The present findings indicate that manipulating motivation for food minimally impacts d-amphetamine discrimination, however, the range of conditions used to examine the effects of motivating operations on stimulus control by d-amphetamine drugs and other drugs is limited and the topic may warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Evoked activity of the cat hypothalamus and amygdala under food motivation and in emotional stress].

    PubMed

    Pavlova, I V; Vanetsian, G L

    2004-12-01

    Amplitude-latency characteristics of auditory evoked potentials (EPs) recorded in bilateral points of the lateral hypothalamus and amygdala were studied under food motivation, in emotional stress (presentation of dogs) and tentative reactions. In the state of hunger, as compared with safety, the latencies of P1, N2 components of EP in hypothalamus, and P1, N2, N3 in amygdala were decreased and their amplitudes were changed. Changes in the left side of both structures were more pronounced. During presentation of dogs, decreases of latencies of all EP components including N1 occurred in hypothalamus and amygdala, changes in hypothalamic potentials were more pronounced on the right side, whereas in the amygdala--on the left side. During tentative responses to emotional-neutral stimuli, the latency of EP increased. It was concluded that sensory reactivity of hypothalamus and amygdala increased in motivational-emotional states. It was supposed that the side of dominance of structure may be related both to the factors of active or passive behavior during fear and the genesis of emotion (motivational or informational).

  4. The Effect of Depo Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (DMPA) on Cerebral Food Motivation Centers: A Pilot Study using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Basu, Tania; Bao, Pinglei; Lerner, Alexander; Anderson, Lindsey; Page, Kathleen; Stanczyk, Frank; Mishell, Daniel; Segall-Gutierrez, Penina

    2016-10-01

    The primary objective is to examine activation of food motivation centers in the brain before and 8 weeks after depo medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) administration. This prospective experimental pilot study examined the effects of DMPA on food motivation centers utilizing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in eight nonobese, ovulatory subjects. fMRI blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal was measured using a 3-Tesla Scanner while participants viewed images of high-calorie foods, low-calorie foods and nonfood objects. fMRI scans were performed at baseline and 8 weeks after participants received one intramuscular dose of DMPA 150 mg. fMRI data were analyzed using the FMRIB Software Library. Changes in adiposity and circulating leptin and ghrelin levels were also measured. There was a greater BOLD signal response to food cues in brain regions associated with food motivation (anterior cingulate gyrus, orbitofrontal cortex) 8 weeks after DMPA administration compared to baseline (z>2.3, p<.05 whole-brain analysis clustered corrected). No statistically significant change was detected in circulating leptin or ghrelin levels or fat mass 8 weeks after DMPA administration. Analysis of differences in food motivation may guide the development of interventions to prevent weight gain in DMPA users. These data support a neural origin as one of the mechanisms underlying weight gain in DMPA users and may guide future research examining weight gain and contraception. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Food Choice Motives When Purchasing in Organic and Conventional Consumer Clusters: Focus on Sustainable Concerns (The NutriNet-Santé Cohort Study).

    PubMed

    Baudry, Julia; Péneau, Sandrine; Allès, Benjamin; Touvier, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Lairon, Denis; Méjean, Caroline; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2017-01-24

    The purpose of this study was to examine food choice motives associated with various organic and conventional dietary patterns among 22,366 participants of the NutriNet-Santé study. Dietary intakes were estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Food choice motives were assessed using a validated 63-item-questionnaire gathered into nine food choice motive dimension scores: "absence of contaminants", "avoidance for environmental reasons", "ethics and environment", "taste", "innovation", "local and traditional production", "price", "health" and "convenience". Five consumers' clusters were identified: "standard conventional food small eaters", "unhealthy conventional food big eaters", "standard organic food small eaters", "green organic food eaters" and "hedonist moderate organic food eaters". Relationships between food choice motive dimension scores and consumers' clusters were assessed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) models adjusted for sociodemographic factors. "Green organic food eaters" had the highest mean score for the "health" dimension, while "unhealthy conventional food big eaters" obtained the lowest mean score for the "absence of contaminants" dimension. "Standard organic food small eaters", "green organic food eaters" and "hedonist moderate organic food eaters" had comparable scores for the "taste" dimension. "Unhealthy conventional food big eaters" had the highest mean score for the "price" dimension while "green organic food eaters" had the lowest mean scores for the "innovation" and "convenience" dimensions. These results provide new insights into the food choice motives of diverse consumers' profiles including "green" and "hedonist" eaters.

  6. From adolescent to elder rats: Motivation for palatable food and cannabinoids receptors.

    PubMed

    Octavio, Amancio-Belmont; Antonio, Romano-López; Alejandra Evelin, Ruiz-Contreras; Mónica, Méndez-Díaz; Oscar, Prospéro-García

    2016-12-09

    To analyze motivation, food self-administration and decision-making were evaluated in adolescent, adult, and aged rats. Subjects were trained to press a lever (fixed ratio, FR1 and FR5) in an operant chamber, to obtain chocolate flavor pellets. They assessed the progressive ratio (PR), extinction, and reinstatement of the behavior. To estimate decision-making for food, rats were trained in the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm: (a) associating one compartment with lab chow (LCh) one day and the other compartment with rice krisspies (RK), the next day. (b) Training similar to (a) but on the day RK was the reinforcer, it was delivered with a progressive delay. In addition, CB1 and CB2 receptor expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) was estimated by means of Western blot. Adolescent rats consumed higher amounts of RK/body weight than adult and aged rats during FR1, FR5, and PR. Extinction was more prolonged for adolescent rats than for adult and aged rats. First CPP condition, all three groups of rats preferred the RK-associated compartment. Second CPP condition, adolescent rats developed equal preference to both compartments, while adult and aged rats preferred the RK-associated compartment. Rats per group ate a similar amount of either reinforcer. Adolescent rats exhibited low expression of CB1R in the NAcc and low expression of both CB1R and CB2R in the PFC compared with adult and aged rats. Adolescent rats display higher motivation for palatable food and an indiscriminate seeking behavior suggesting involvement of both homeostatic and hedonic systems in their decision-making processes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2017.

  7. A typology of cross-border patient mobility.

    PubMed

    Glinos, Irene A; Baeten, Rita; Helble, Matthias; Maarse, Hans

    2010-11-01

    Based on systematic observation and analysis of available evidence, we propose a typology of cross-border patient mobility (rather than the so-called 'medical tourism') defined as the movement of a patient travelling to another country to seek planned health care. The typology is constructed around two dimensions based on the questions 'why do patients go abroad for planned health care?' and 'how is care abroad paid for?' Four types of patient motivations and two funding types have been identified. Combined in a matrix, they make eight possible scenarios of patient mobility each illustrated with international examples.

  8. A Typology of Intimate Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sager, Clifford J.

    1977-01-01

    A typology of marriages and other intimate relationships is offered based on seven behavioral profiles that partners can exhibit in their interactions with one another. The typology is relatively simple, based upon the main thrust of each partner's behavior in their dyadic system. (Author)

  9. Making healthy food choices using nutrition facts panels. The roles of knowledge, motivation, dietary modifications goals, and age.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lisa M Soederberg; Cassady, Diana L

    2012-08-01

    Nutrition facts panels (NFPs) contain a rich assortment of nutrition information and are available on most food packages. The importance of this information is potentially even greater among older adults due to their increased risk for diet-related diseases, as well as those with goals for dietary modifications that may impact food choice. Despite past work suggesting that knowledge and motivation impact attitudes surrounding and self-reported use of NFPs, we know little about how (i.e., strategies used) and how well (i.e., level of accuracy) younger and older individuals process NFP information when evaluating healthful qualities of foods. We manipulated the content of NFPs and, using eye tracking methodology, examined strategies associated with deciding which of two NFPs, presented side-by-side, was healthier. We examined associations among strategy use and accuracy as well as age, dietary modification status, knowledge, and motivation. Results showed that, across age groups, those with dietary modification goals made relatively more comparisons between NFPs with increasing knowledge and motivation; but that strategy effectiveness (relationship to accuracy) depended on age and motivation. Results also showed that knowledge and motivation may protect against declines in accuracy in later life and that, across age and dietary modification status, knowledge mediates the relationship between motivation and decision accuracy.

  10. Making Healthy Food Choices Using Nutrition Facts Panels: The Roles of Knowledge, Motivation, Dietary Modifications Goals, and Age

    PubMed Central

    Cassady, Diana L.

    2012-01-01

    Nutrition facts panels (NFPs) contain a rich assortment of nutrition information and are available on most food packages. The importance of this information is potentially even greater among older adults due to their increased risk for diet-related diseases, as well as those with goals for dietary modifications that may impact food choice. Despite past work suggesting that knowledge and motivation impact attitudes surrounding and self-reported use of NFPs, we know little about how (i.e., strategies used) and how well (i.e., level of accuracy) younger and older individuals process NFP information when evaluating healthful qualities of foods. We manipulated the content of NFPs and, using eye tracking methodology, examined strategies associated with deciding which of two NFPs, presented side-by-side, was healthier. We examined associations among strategy use and accuracy as well as age, dietary modification status, knowledge, and motivation. Results showed that, across age groups, those with dietary modification goals made relatively more comparisons between NFPs with increasing knowledge and motivation; but that strategy effectiveness (relationship to accuracy) depended on age and motivation. Results also showed that knowledge and motivation may protect against declines in accuracy in later life and that, across age and dietary modification status, knowledge mediates the relationship between motivation and decision accuracy. PMID:22524999

  11. Nucleus accumbens core dopamine signaling tracks the need-based motivational value of food-paired cues

    PubMed Central

    Aitken, Tara J.; Greenfield, Venuz Y.; Wassum, Kate M.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental reward-predictive stimuli provide a major source of motivation for instrumental reward-seeking activity and this has been linked to dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). This cue-induced incentive motivation can be quite general, not restricted to instrumental actions that earn the same unique reward, and is also typically regulated by one’s current need state, such that cues only motivate actions when this is adaptive. But it is unknown whether cue-evoked dopamine signaling is similarly regulated by need state. Here we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to monitor dopamine concentration changes in the NAc core of rats during a Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) task in which the motivating influence of two cues, each signaling a distinct food reward (sucrose or food pellets), over an action earning a third unique food reward (grape-flavored polycose) was assessed in a state of hunger and of satiety. Both cues elicited a robust NAc dopamine response when hungry. The magnitude of the sucrose cue-evoked dopamine response correlated with the PIT effect that was selectively induced by this stimulus. Satiety attenuated these cue-evoked dopamine responses and behavioral responding, even though rats had never experienced the specific food rewards in this state. These data demonstrate that cue-evoked NAc core responses are sensitive to current need state, one critical variable that determines the current adaptive utility of cue-motivated behavior. PMID:26715366

  12. Task-Based and Questionnaire Measures of Inhibitory Control Are Differentially Affected by Acute Food Restriction and by Motivationally Salient Food Stimuli in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bartholdy, Savani; Cheng, Jiumu; Schmidt, Ulrike; Campbell, Iain C.; O'Daly, Owen G.

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive eating behaviors are dependent on an interaction between motivational states (e.g., hunger) and the ability to control one's own behavior (inhibitory control). Indeed, behavioral paradigms are emerging that seek to train inhibitory control to improve eating behavior. However, inhibitory control is a multifaceted concept, and it is not yet clear how different types (e.g., reactive motor inhibition, proactive motor inhibition, reward-related inhibition) are affected by hunger. Such knowledge will provide insight into the contexts in which behavioral training paradigms would be most effective. The present study explored the impact of promoting a “need” state (hunger) together with motivationally salient distracting stimuli (food/non-food images) on inhibitory control in 46 healthy adults. Participants attended two study sessions, once after eating breakfast as usual and once after acute food restriction on the morning of the session. In each session, participants completed questionnaires on hunger, mood and inhibitory control, and undertook task-based measures of inhibitory control, and had physiological measurements (height, weight, and blood glucose) obtained by a researcher. Acute food restriction influenced task-based assessments but not questionnaire measures of inhibitory control, suggesting that hunger affects observable behavioral control but not self-reported inhibitory control. After acute food restriction, participants showed greater temporal discounting (devaluation of future rewards), and subjective hunger and these were inversely correlated with stop accuracy on the stop signal task. Finally, participants generally responded faster when food-related distractor images were presented, compared to non-food images, independent of state. This suggests that although food stimuli motivate approach behavior, stimulus relevance does not impact inhibitory control in healthy individuals, nor interact with motivational state. These findings may provide

  13. Increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal drive is associated with decreased appetite and hypoactivation of food motivation neurocircuitry in anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Elizabeth A.; Holsen, Laura M.; DeSanti, Rebecca; Santin, McKale; Meenaghan, Erinne; Herzog, David B.; Goldstein, Jill M.; Klibanski, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Objective Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)-mediated hypercortisolemia has been demonstrated in anorexia nervosa (anorexia), a psychiatric disorder characterized by food restriction despite low body weight. While CRH is anorexigenic, downstream cortisol stimulates hunger. Using a food-related fMRI paradigm, we have demonstrated hypoactivation of brain regions involved in food motivation in women with anorexia, even after weight-recovery. The relationship between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation and appetite, and the association with food motivation neurocircuitry hypoactivation is unknown in anorexia. We investigated the relationship between HPA activity, appetite and food motivation neurocircuitry hypoactivation in anorexia. Design Cross-sectional study of 36 women [13 anorexia (AN), 10 weight-recovered AN (ANWR), 13 healthy controls (HC)]. Methods Peripheral cortisol and ACTH levels were measured fasting and 30, 60, and 120min after a standardized mixed meal. The Visual Analogue Scale was used to assess homeostatic and hedonic appetite. fMRI was performed during visual processing of food and non-food stimuli to measure brain activation pre- and post-meal. Results In each group, serum cortisol levels decreased following the meal. Mean fasting, 120min post-meal, and nadir cortisol levels were high in AN vs. HC. Mean postprandial ACTH levels were high in ANWR compared to HC and AN. Cortisol levels were associated with lower fasting homeostatic and hedonic appetite, independent of BMI and depressive symptoms. Cortisol levels were also associated with between-group variance in activation in food-motivation brain regions (e.g., hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, OFC and insula). Conclusions HPA activation may contribute to the maintenance of anorexia by suppression of appetitive drive. PMID:23946275

  14. A typology of parasuicide.

    PubMed

    Henderson, A S; Hartigan, J; Davidson, J; Lance, G N; Duncan-Jones, P; Koller, K M; Ritchie, K; McAuley, H; Williams, C L; Slaghuis, W

    1977-12-01

    Parasuicide is not a single syndrome. Subtypes at present recognized are based largely on clinically derived stereotypes. When considering a series of patients, the clinician is unable to handle more than a few attributes at a time. This paper describes the application of three very different clustering algorithms to a material of 350 treated parasuicide patients. Mathematically, three types emerge. Clinically, two of these are interpretable and make sense. The types established are: I (n = 107) a group not characterized by any of the variables we examined; this group is a puzzle, mainly because the reasons for the parasuicidal act are not clear. II (n = 132) a depressed, alienated group with high life-endangerment. III (n = III) a group whose act was highly operant: they felt alienated and were angry with others. These groups did not differ significantly on demographic variables. The usefulness of this typology, particularly for management, after-care and prevention, has now to be assessed.

  15. Cognitive-motivational determinants of fat food consumption in overweight and obese youngsters: the implicit association between fat food and arousal.

    PubMed

    Craeynest, Mietje; Crombez, Geert; Koster, Ernst H W; Haerens, Leen; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2008-09-01

    Cognitive-motivational accounts of fat food intake propose an association between fat food and action dispositions, which are according to the biphasic emotion theory of Lang [(1995). The emotion probe. Studies of motivation and attention. American Psychologist, 50, 372-385; Lang, P.J., Bradley, M.M., & Cuthbert, M.M. (1997). Motivated attention: Affect, activation and action. In P.J. Lang, R.F. Simons & M.T. Balaban (Eds.). Attention and orienting: Sensory and motivational processes (pp. 97-134). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.] characterized by high levels of arousal. In two experiments, this association was investigated in lean and overweight youngsters. In the first experiment, 29 overweight and 29 lean youngsters conducted two Implicit Association Tasks (IAT; Greenwald, A.G., McGhee, D.E., & Schwartz, J.L. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The implicit association test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1464-1480.). In a positive arousal IAT, implicit associations between fat vs. lean food, and high and low arousal words with a positive valence were assessed. In a negative arousal IAT, high and low arousal words with a negative valence were used. A second experiment was conducted to replicate Experiment 1 in 29 youngsters with severe obesity and 29 lean peers. The results revealed strong implicit associations between fat food and arousal in both the overweight and the control group. No differences were found between the groups, nor between the positive and the negative arousal task. These results are related to cognitive-motivational theories of fat food intake.

  16. Examination of Food Choice Motives: The Influence of an Innovative, Interdisciplinary Learning Community Related to Environmental Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billingsley, Kelly J.

    2014-01-01

    What and how much an individual eats largely defines his/her health. The most used dietary intervention models target individuals' concern for personal health, thereby undermining the interdisciplinary trajectory of the nutrition field. The purpose of this study was to compare the food choice motives of students enrolled in an interdisciplinary…

  17. Examination of Food Choice Motives: The Influence of an Innovative, Interdisciplinary Learning Community Related to Environmental Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billingsley, Kelly J.

    2014-01-01

    What and how much an individual eats largely defines his/her health. The most used dietary intervention models target individuals' concern for personal health, thereby undermining the interdisciplinary trajectory of the nutrition field. The purpose of this study was to compare the food choice motives of students enrolled in an interdisciplinary…

  18. Pre-existing differences in motivation for food and sensitivity to cocaine-induced locomotion in obesity-prone rats.

    PubMed

    Vollbrecht, Peter J; Nobile, Cameron W; Chadderdon, Aaron M; Jutkiewicz, Emily M; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2015-12-01

    Obesity is a significant problem in the United States, with roughly one third of adults having a body mass index (BMI) over thirty. Recent evidence from human studies suggests that pre-existing differences in the function of mesolimbic circuits that mediate motivational processes may promote obesity and hamper weight loss. However, few preclinical studies have examined pre-existing neurobehavioral differences related to the function of mesolimbic systems in models of individual susceptibility to obesity. Here, we used selectively bred obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats to examine 1) the effect of a novel "junk-food" diet on the development of obesity and metabolic dysfunction, 2) over-consumption of "junk-food" in a free access procedure, 3) motivation for food using instrumental procedures, and 4) cocaine-induced locomotor activity as an index of general mesolimbic function. As expected, eating a sugary, fatty, "junk-food" diet exacerbated weight gain and increased fasted insulin levels only in obesity-prone rats. In addition, obesity-prone rats continued to over-consume junk-food during discrete access testing, even when this same food was freely available in the home cage. Furthermore, when asked to press a lever to obtain food in an instrumental task, rates of responding were enhanced in obesity-prone versus obesity-resistant rats. Finally, obesity-prone rats showed a stronger locomotor response to 15 mg/kg cocaine compared to obesity-resistant rats prior to any diet manipulation. This enhanced sensitivity to this dose of cocaine is indicative of basal differences in the function of mesolimbic circuits in obesity-prone rats. We speculate that pre-existing differences in motivational systems may contribute to over-consumption and enhanced motivation in susceptible individuals.

  19. Food choice motives including sustainability during purchasing are associated with a healthy dietary pattern in French adults.

    PubMed

    Allès, B; Péneau, S; Kesse-Guyot, E; Baudry, J; Hercberg, S; Méjean, C

    2017-09-18

    Sustainability has become a greater concern among consumers that may influence their dietary intake. Only a few studies investigated the relationship between sustainable food choice motives and diet and they focused on specific food groups. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the associations between food choice motives during purchasing, with a focus on sustainability, and dietary patterns in a large sample of French adults. Food choice motives were collected in 31,842 adults from the NutriNet-Santé study, using a validated 63 items questionnaire gathered into 9 dimension scores: ethics and environment, traditional and local production, taste, price, environmental limitation (i.e. not buying a food for environmental concerns), health, convenience, innovation and absence of contaminants. Dietary intake was assessed using at least three web-based 24-h food records. Three dietary patterns were obtained through factor analysis using principal component analysis. The associations between food choice motive dimension scores and dietary patterns were assessed using linear regression models, stratifying by sex. Individuals were more likely to have a "healthy diet" when they were more concerned by not buying a food for environmental concerns (only for 3(rd) tertile versus 1(st) tertile βwomen=0.18, 95% CI=0.15-0.20, βmen=0.20 95% CI=(0.15-0.25)), ethics and environment (women only, β=0.05, 95% CI=0.02-0.08), absence of contaminants (women only, β=0.05, 95% CI=0.01-0.07), local production (women only, β=0.08, 95% CI=0.04-0.11), health (women only) and innovation (men only), and when they were less concerned by price. Individuals were also less likely to have traditional or western diets when they gave importance to food choice motive dimensions related to sustainability. Individuals, especially women, having higher concerns about food sustainability dimensions such as ethics and environment and local production, appear to have a healthier diet. Further

  20. The prosecution of hate crimes: the limitations of the hate crime typology.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Nickie D

    2009-05-01

    Since the development of bias crime legislation over the past few decades, scholars have debated the merits of the legislation and questioned its enforcement.(1) In light of such concerns, this study presents characteristics of all cases prosecuted as bias crimes in a New Jersey county between 2001 and 2004 and applies the hate crime typology originally developed in 1993. Results show that, in this jurisdiction, the typology is an inadequate tool for classifying cases prosecuted as hate crimes. Approximately one third of the cases are unclassifiable according to the typology. Findings indicate that the typology is useful for understanding cases in which bias is the sole motivation but inadequate for application to the many cases in which bias is a peripheral motivation.

  1. Exploring the motives and mental health correlates of intentional food restriction prior to alcohol use in university students.

    PubMed

    Roosen, Kaley M; Mills, Jennifer S

    2015-06-01

    This study explored the prevalence of and motivations behind 'drunkorexia' – restricting food intake prior to drinking alcohol. For both male and female university students (N = 3409), intentionally changing eating behaviour prior to drinking alcohol was common practice (46%). Analyses performed on a targeted sample of women (n = 226) revealed that food restriction prior to alcohol use was associated with greater symptomology than eating more food. Those who restrict eating prior to drinking to avoid weight gain scored higher on measures of disordered eating, whereas those who restrict to get intoxicated faster scored higher on measures of alcohol abuse.

  2. Effect of Motives for Food Choice on Oral Health among Primary School Children in Mangalore: An Analytical Survey.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Viral Vijay; Rajesh, Gururaghavendran; Rao, Ashwini; Shenoy, Ramya; Pai, Mithun; Nayak, Vijayendranath

    2017-05-01

    Parents influence children's eating behaviours by making some foods available than others and by acting as models of eating behaviour. Food selected by parents influence general and oral health of their children. Aim of this study was to assess oral health parameters among primary school children and motives for food choice among their parents in Mangalore. A total of 759 primary school children aged 5-10 years, and their parents participated in this study. Motives for food choice among parents of children were evaluated by using Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ). Oral health status of students was assessed by using World Health Organisation (WHO) Basic Oral Health Assessment Form. Data pertaining to dietary habits and demographics was also collected. Descriptive and inferential statistics along with Pearson's correlation and Binary logistic regression were executed for the present study and level of significance was fixed at p<0.05. Caries prevalence was 10.8% and 68.9% in permanent and primary dentitions, respectively. Mean Decayed, Missing And Filled Tooth (DMFT) index scores among study subjects were 0.21±0.72 and 3.08±3.11 for permanent and primary dentitions, respectively. Increase in caries prevalence was significantly associated with decrease in total FCQ scores. FCQ domains 'health', 'natural content' and 'weight control' were significantly correlated with dental caries experience. FCQ also showed significant correlation with socio-economic variables. Overall, dental caries experience was found to be high. Parental food choice motives positively influenced dietary patterns and caries experience of their children. Caries experience was less in children whose parents reported higher scores on FCQ. Understanding the barriers, identification of risk factors for poor food choices and targeting interventions might formulate ways by which the desired behaviour can be achieved.

  3. The role of health-related, motivational and sociodemographic aspects in predicting food label use: a comprehensive study.

    PubMed

    Hess, Rebecca; Visschers, Vivianne H M; Siegrist, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Previous studies focused on a limited number of determinants of food label use. We therefore tested a comprehensive model of food label use consisting of sociodemographic, health-related and motivating variables. These three predictor groups were chosen based on the previous literature and completed with new predictors not yet examined in a comprehensive study of frequency of label use. We sent questionnaires to a random sample of households in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. The respondents filled in the questionnaire at home and returned it by mail. We analysed the data of 1162 filled-in questionnaires (response rate = 38 %). Of the respondents, 637 were women (55 %), and their mean age was 53·54 (sd 15·68) years. Health-related variables were the most important group of predictors of label use, followed by motivating factors and sociodemographic variables. Placing importance on health, healthy eating and nutritional value of food, perceived vulnerability for diet-related diseases, nutrition knowledge, numeracy and gender were positively associated with frequency of food label use whereas shopping habits and seeing eating as something positive were negative predictors of frequency of label use. People's health consciousness should be raised in order to increase the frequency of food label use. Furthermore, it should be stressed that reading labels and keeping a healthy diet do not contradict 'good eating', and that both of these aspects can be combined with the help of food labels.

  4. Food Choice Motives When Purchasing in Organic and Conventional Consumer Clusters: Focus on Sustainable Concerns (The NutriNet-Santé Cohort Study)

    PubMed Central

    Baudry, Julia; Péneau, Sandrine; Allès, Benjamin; Touvier, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Lairon, Denis; Méjean, Caroline; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine food choice motives associated with various organic and conventional dietary patterns among 22,366 participants of the NutriNet-Santé study. Dietary intakes were estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Food choice motives were assessed using a validated 63-item-questionnaire gathered into nine food choice motive dimension scores: “absence of contaminants”, “avoidance for environmental reasons”, “ethics and environment”, “taste”, “innovation”, “local and traditional production”, “price”, “health” and “convenience”. Five consumers’ clusters were identified: “standard conventional food small eaters”, “unhealthy conventional food big eaters”, “standard organic food small eaters”, “green organic food eaters” and “hedonist moderate organic food eaters”. Relationships between food choice motive dimension scores and consumers’ clusters were assessed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) models adjusted for sociodemographic factors. “Green organic food eaters” had the highest mean score for the “health” dimension, while “unhealthy conventional food big eaters” obtained the lowest mean score for the “absence of contaminants” dimension. “Standard organic food small eaters”, “green organic food eaters” and “hedonist moderate organic food eaters” had comparable scores for the “taste” dimension. “Unhealthy conventional food big eaters” had the highest mean score for the “price” dimension while “green organic food eaters” had the lowest mean scores for the “innovation” and “convenience” dimensions. These results provide new insights into the food choice motives of diverse consumers’ profiles including “green” and “hedonist” eaters. PMID:28125035

  5. Motivation to obtain a food reward of pregnant ewes in negative energy balance: behavioural, metabolic and endocrine considerations.

    PubMed

    Verbeek, E; Waas, J R; Oliver, M H; McLeay, L M; Ferguson, D M; Matthews, L R

    2012-07-01

    Low food availability often coincides with pregnancy in grazing animals. This study investigated how chronic reductions in food intake affected feeding motivation, and metabolic and endocrine parameters in pregnant sheep, which might be indicative of compromised welfare. Ewes with an initial Body Condition Score of 2.7±0.3 (BCS; 0 indicates emaciation and 5 obesity) were fed to attain low (LBC 2.0±0.0,), medium (MBC 2.9±0.1) or high BCS (HBC 3.7±0.1) in the first trimester of pregnancy. A feeding motivation test in which sheep were required to walk a set distance for a palatable food reward was conducted in the second trimester. LBC and MBC ewes consumed more rewards (P=0.001) and displayed a higher expenditure (P=0.02) than HBC ewes, LBC ewes also tended to consume more rewards than MBC ewes (P=0.09). Plasma leptin and glucose concentrations were inversely correlated to expenditure (both P<0.05) and appear to be associated with hunger in sheep. LBC ewes were in negative energy balance, with lower muscle dimensions, plasma glucose, leptin, insulin, cortisol, and insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations and higher free fatty acids concentrations compared to HBC ewes; metabolic and endocrine parameters of the MBC ewes were intermediate. The high feeding motivation and negative energy balance of low BCS ewes suggested an increased risk of compromised welfare. Imposing even a small cost on a food reward reduced motivation substantially in high BCS ewes (despite high intake when food was freely available). Assessment of a willingness to work for rewards, combined with measures of key metabolic and endocrine parameters, may provide sensitive barometers of welfare in energetically-taxed animals.

  6. A self-determination theory approach to adults' healthy body weight motivation: A longitudinal study focussing on food choices and recreational physical activity.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Christina; Dohle, Simone; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on body weight motivation based on self-determination theory. The impact of body weight motivation on longitudinal changes in food choices, recreational physical activity and body mass index was explored. A sample of adults (N = 2917, 47% men), randomly selected from the telephone book, completed a questionnaire in two consecutive years (2012, 2013), self-reporting food choices, recreational physical activity and body weight motivation. Types of body weight motivation at T1 (autonomous regulation, introjected regulation, and external regulation) were tested with regard to their predictive potential for changes in food choices, recreational physical activity and body mass index (BMI). Autonomous motivation predicted improvements in food choices and long-term adherence to vigorous recreational physical activity in both genders. Introjected motivation predicted long-term adherence to vigorous recreational physical activity only in women. External motivation predicted negative changes in food choices; however, the type of body weight motivation had no impact on BMI in overweight adults in the long term. Autonomous goal-setting regarding body weight seems to be substantial for healthy food choices and adherence to recreational physical activity.

  7. Evoked activity in the hypothalamus and amygdala of the cat in conditions of food-related motivation and emotional tension.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, I V; Vanetsian, G L

    2006-02-01

    The amplitude-time characteristics of potentials evoked by clicks were analyzed in bilateral leads from the lateral hypothalamus and amygdala in cats in conditions of food-related motivation, emotional tension (presentation of dogs), and orientational reactions. In conditions of food-related motivation, as compared with the satiated state, there were decreases in the latent periods and changes in the amplitudes of the P1 and N2 components in the hypothalamus and P1, N2, and N3 in the amygdala. The most marked changes occurred on the left side in both structures. Presentation of dogs induced decreases in the latent periods of all components (including N1) of evoked potentials in the hypothalamus and amygdala, the most marked changes in the hypothalamus occurring on the right side and the most marked changes in the amygdala occurring on the left side. Conversely, orientational reactions to emotionally neutral stimuli induced increases in the latent periods of evoked potentials. It is concluded that there is an increase in sensory reactivity in the hypothalamus and amygdala in motivational-emotional states. It is suggested that the side of dominance in these structures may be associated both with the factor of the activity/passivity of the behavior in conditions of fear and the genesis of the emotion (motivational or informational).

  8. Pre-existing differences in motivation for food and sensitivity to cocaine-induced locomotion in obesity-prone rats

    PubMed Central

    Vollbrecht, Peter J.; Nobile, Cameron W.; Chadderdon, Aaron M.; Jutkiewicz, Emily M.; Ferrario, Carrie R.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a significant problem in the United States, with roughly one third of adults having a body mass index (BMI) over thirty. Recent evidence from human studies suggests that pre-existing differences in the function of mesolimbic circuits that mediate motivational processes may promote obesity and hamper weight loss. However, few preclinical studies have examined pre-existing neurobehavioral differences related to the function of mesolimbic systems in models of individual susceptibility to obesity. Here, we used selectively bred obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats to examine 1) the effect of a novel “junk-food” diet on the development of obesity and metabolic dysfunction, 2) over-consumption of “junk-food” in a free access procedure, 3) motivation for food using instrumental procedures, and 4) cocaine-induced locomotor activity as an index of general mesolimbic function. As expected, eating a sugary, fatty, “junk-food” diet exacerbated weight gain and increased fasted insulin levels only in obesity-prone rats. In addition, obesity-prone rats continued to over-consume junk-food during discrete access testing, even when this same food was freely available in the home cage. Furthermore, when asked to press a lever to obtain food in an instrumental task, rates of responding were enhanced in obesity-prone versus obesity-resistant rats. Finally, obesity-prone rats showed a stronger locomotor response to 15 mg/kg cocaine compared to obesity-resistant rats prior to any diet manipulation. This enhanced sensitivity to this dose of cocaine is indicative of basal differences in the function of mesolimbic circuits in obesity-prone rats. We speculate that pre-existing differences in motivational systems may contribute to over-consumption and enhanced motivation in susceptible individuals. PMID:26423787

  9. Actual use of a front-of-pack nutrition logo in the supermarket: consumers' motives in food choice.

    PubMed

    Vyth, Ellis L; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M; Vlot, Jessica A; Wulp, Anouk; Hogenes, Meefa G; Looije, Danielle H; Brug, Johannes; Seidell, Jacob C

    2010-11-01

    A front-of-pack nutrition logo on products with relatively favourable product compositions might help consumers to make more healthful choices. Studies investigating actual nutrition label use in point-of-purchase settings are scarce. The present study investigates the use of the 'Choices' nutrition logo in Dutch supermarkets. Adults were asked to complete a validated questionnaire about motivation for food choice and their purchased products were scored for the Choices logo after they had done their shopping. Nine supermarkets in The Netherlands. A total of 404 respondents participated. Of the respondents, 62 % reported familiarity with the logo. The motivations for food choice that were positively associated with actually purchasing products with the logo were attention to 'weight control' and 'product information'. The food choice motive 'hedonism' was negatively associated with purchasing products with the logo. This is the first study to investigate actual use of the Choices logo. In order to stimulate consumers to purchase more products with a favourable product composition, extra attention should be paid to hedonistic aspects such as the tastefulness and the image of healthy products.

  10. Typology of ICT Implementation and Technology Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tubin, Dorit

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a typology of information and communication technology (ICT) integration into schools, demonstrates the typology by three case studies, and provides a discussion related to each. Based on the organizational learning approach, the typology will show that ICT use depends more on organizational arrangement than on ICT itself. The…

  11. REM sleep deprivation produces a motivational deficit for food reward that is reversed by intra-accumbens amphetamine in rats.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Erin C; Benca, Ruth M; Baldo, Brian A; Kelley, Ann E

    2010-10-30

    Prolonged sleep deprivation in rats produces a characteristic syndrome of increase in food intake accompanied by, paradoxically, decrease in weight, suggesting a potential alteration in motivation for food reward. Using the multiple platform method to produce REM sleep deprivation (REMSD), we investigated the effect of REMSD on motivation for food reinforcement with a progressive ratio operant task, which yields a measure of the motor effort that a hungry animal is willing to expend to obtain food (the point at which the animal quits responding is termed the "break-point"). We found that REMSD rats decreased the break point for sucrose pellet reinforcement in comparison to controls, as revealed by a within-session decline in responding. This behavioral deficit is similar to that observed in rats with diminished dopamine transmission within the nucleus accumbens (Acb), and, considering that stimulants are frequently used in the clinical setting to reverse the effects of sleepiness, we examined the effect of systemic or intra-Acb amphetamine on break point in REMSD rats. Animals were given either systemic or intra-Acb amphetamine injections on days 3 and 5 of REMSD. Systemic amphetamine (0.1, 0.5, or 2.5mg/kg) did not increase break point in REMSD rats. In contrast, intra-Acb infusions of amphetamine (1, 10, or 30μg/0.5μl bilaterally) reversed the REMSD-induced suppression of progressive ratio responding. Specifically, the two higher doses of intra-Acb amphetamine were able to prolong responding within the session (resulting in an increased break point) on day 3 of REMSD while only the highest dose was sufficient following 5 days of REMSD. These data suggest that decreased motivation for food reward caused by REMSD may result from a suppression of dopamine function in the Acb.

  12. Food choices, perceptions of healthiness, and eating motives of self-identified followers of a low-carbohydrate diet

    PubMed Central

    Jallinoja, Piia; Niva, Mari; Helakorpi, Satu; Kahma, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Background Low-carbohydrate (LC) diets have gained substantial media coverage in many Western countries. Little is, however, known about the characteristics of their followers. Objective The article analyses how those who report following an LC diet differ from the rest of the population in their background, food choices, weight reduction status, as well as food-related perceptions and motives. The data are a part of the Health Behaviour and Health among the Finnish Adult Population survey collected in spring 2012 (n=2,601), covering 15- to 64-year-old Finns. Results Seven per cent of the respondents identified themselves as followers of the LC diet. Gender and education were not associated with following an LC diet. The youngest respondents were the least likely to follow such a diet. The LC diet group preferred butter but also vegetables more commonly than the other respondents and were less likely to use vegetable bread spreads. The followers of the LC diet and the other respondents agreed about the healthiness of whole grain, vegetable oils, vegetables, and fruits and berries, and of the harmfulness of white wheat. Compared to the other respondents, the LC diet group was less likely to regard eating vegetable/low-fat products as important, more likely to regard eating healthy carbohydrates, and the health and weight-managing aspects of foods, as important and placed less value on sociability and pleasures connected to food. The results showed varying food choices among the followers of the LC diet: some even reported that they were not avoiding carbohydrates, sugars, and white wheat in their diet. Conclusions Planners of nutrition policies should follow-up on new diets as they emerge and explore the food choices and motives of their followers and how these diets affect the food choices of the whole population. PMID:25490960

  13. Food choices, perceptions of healthiness, and eating motives of self-identified followers of a low-carbohydrate diet.

    PubMed

    Jallinoja, Piia; Niva, Mari; Helakorpi, Satu; Kahma, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Low-carbohydrate (LC) diets have gained substantial media coverage in many Western countries. Little is, however, known about the characteristics of their followers. The article analyses how those who report following an LC diet differ from the rest of the population in their background, food choices, weight reduction status, as well as food-related perceptions and motives. The data are a part of the Health Behaviour and Health among the Finnish Adult Population survey collected in spring 2012 (n=2,601), covering 15- to 64-year-old Finns. Seven per cent of the respondents identified themselves as followers of the LC diet. Gender and education were not associated with following an LC diet. The youngest respondents were the least likely to follow such a diet. The LC diet group preferred butter but also vegetables more commonly than the other respondents and were less likely to use vegetable bread spreads. The followers of the LC diet and the other respondents agreed about the healthiness of whole grain, vegetable oils, vegetables, and fruits and berries, and of the harmfulness of white wheat. Compared to the other respondents, the LC diet group was less likely to regard eating vegetable/low-fat products as important, more likely to regard eating healthy carbohydrates, and the health and weight-managing aspects of foods, as important and placed less value on sociability and pleasures connected to food. The results showed varying food choices among the followers of the LC diet: some even reported that they were not avoiding carbohydrates, sugars, and white wheat in their diet. Planners of nutrition policies should follow-up on new diets as they emerge and explore the food choices and motives of their followers and how these diets affect the food choices of the whole population.

  14. Food restriction dissociates sexual motivation, sexual performance, and the rewarding consequences of copulation in female Syrian hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Klingerman, Candice M.; Patel, Anand; Hedges, Valerie L.; Meisel, Robert L.; Schneider, Jill E.

    2012-01-01

    Animals can switch their behavioral priorities from ingestive to sex behaviors to optimize reproductive success in environments where energy fluctuates. We hypothesized that energy availability differentially affects the appetitive (motivation), consummatory (performance), and learned (rewarding) components of behavior. In Experiment 1, appetitive and consummatory aspects of sex behavior were dissociated in the majority of female Syrian hamsters restricted to 75% of their ad libitum food intake for 11 days. Food restriction significantly inhibited vaginal scent marking, decreased the preference for spending time with male hamsters vs. spending time with food, and increased food hoarding with no significant effect on consummatory behaviors such as the incidence of lordosis or food intake. In Experiments 2 and 3, we attempted to use a similar level of food restriction to dissociate sexual appetite from sexual reward. In hamsters, formation of a conditioned place preference (CPP) for copulatory reward is reflected in increased nucleus accumbens (NAc) neural activation, measured as immunocytochemical staining for c-Fos, the protein product of the immediate-early gene, c-fos. In Experiment 2, neural activation increased 1 h after copulation in the NAc core and shell, and did not differ significantly between 10-day food-restricted and ad libitum-fed females in any brain area examined. In Experiment 3, females were either food-restricted or fed ad libitum over 8-30 days of conditioning with copulatory stimuli. Food-restricted females showed significantly fewer appetitive behaviors, but no difference in formation of a CPP compared to females fed ad libitum. Together these data are consistent with the idea that mild levels of food restriction that inhibit appetitive behaviors fail to attenuate consummatory behaviors and the rewarding consequences of copulation. Thus, appetitive sex behaviors are, at least partially, neuroanatomically and behaviorally distinct from both

  15. Reduced Motivation in the BACHD Rat Model of Huntington Disease Is Dependent on the Choice of Food Deprivation Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Riess, Olaf; Nguyen, Huu Phuc

    2014-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor, cognitive, psychiatric and metabolic symptoms. Animal models of HD show phenotypes that can be divided into similar categories, with the metabolic phenotype of certain models being characterized by obesity. Although interesting in terms of modeling metabolic symptoms of HD, the obesity phenotype can be problematic as it might confound the results of certain behavioral tests. This concerns the assessment of cognitive function in particular, as tests for such phenotypes are often based on food depriving the animals and having them perform tasks for food rewards. The BACHD rat is a recently established animal model of HD, and in order to ensure that behavioral characterization of these rats is done in a reliable way, a basic understanding of their physiology is needed. Here, we show that BACHD rats are obese and suffer from discrete developmental deficits. When assessing the motivation to lever push for a food reward, BACHD rats were found to be less motivated than wild type rats, although this phenotype was dependent on the food deprivation strategy. Specifically, the phenotype was present when rats of both genotypes were deprived to 85% of their respective free-feeding body weight, but not when deprivation levels were adjusted in order to match the rats' apparent hunger levels. The study emphasizes the importance of considering metabolic abnormalities as a confounding factor when performing behavioral characterization of HD animal models. PMID:25144554

  16. Reduced motivation in the BACHD rat model of Huntington disease is dependent on the choice of food deprivation strategy.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Erik Karl Håkan; Clemens, Laura Emily; Riess, Olaf; Nguyen, Huu Phuc

    2014-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor, cognitive, psychiatric and metabolic symptoms. Animal models of HD show phenotypes that can be divided into similar categories, with the metabolic phenotype of certain models being characterized by obesity. Although interesting in terms of modeling metabolic symptoms of HD, the obesity phenotype can be problematic as it might confound the results of certain behavioral tests. This concerns the assessment of cognitive function in particular, as tests for such phenotypes are often based on food depriving the animals and having them perform tasks for food rewards. The BACHD rat is a recently established animal model of HD, and in order to ensure that behavioral characterization of these rats is done in a reliable way, a basic understanding of their physiology is needed. Here, we show that BACHD rats are obese and suffer from discrete developmental deficits. When assessing the motivation to lever push for a food reward, BACHD rats were found to be less motivated than wild type rats, although this phenotype was dependent on the food deprivation strategy. Specifically, the phenotype was present when rats of both genotypes were deprived to 85% of their respective free-feeding body weight, but not when deprivation levels were adjusted in order to match the rats' apparent hunger levels. The study emphasizes the importance of considering metabolic abnormalities as a confounding factor when performing behavioral characterization of HD animal models.

  17. Motives for eating tasty foods associated with binge-eating. Results from a student and a weight-loss seeking population☆

    PubMed Central

    Boggiano, M.M.; Burgess, E.E.; Turan, B.; Soleymani, T.; Daniel, S.; Vinson, L.D.; Lokken, K.L.; Wingo, B.C.; Morse, A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS) to determine if and what motives for eating tasty foods (e.g., junk food, fast food, and desserts) are associated with binge-eating in two diverse populations. BMI and scores on the PEMS, Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), and Binge-eating Scale (BES) were obtained from 247 undergraduates at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) and 249 weight-loss seeking patients at the UAB EatRight program. Regression analyses revealed that eating tasty foods to forget worries and problems and help alleviate negative feelings (i.e., the 4-item Coping motive) was associated with binge-eating independently of any variance in BES scores due to sex, age, ethnicity, BMI, other PEMS motives, and YFAS scores in both students (R2 = .57) and patients (R2 = .55). Coping also was associated with higher BMI in students (p < 0.01), and in patients despite their truncated BMI range (p < 0.05). Among students, the motives Conformity and Reward Enhancement were also independently associated with binge-eating. For this younger sample with a greater range of BES scores, eating for these motives, but not for Social ones, may indicate early maladaptive eating habits that could later develop into disorders characterized by binge-eating if predisposing factors are present. Thus, identifying one’s tasty food motive or motives can potentially be used to thwart the development of BED and obesity, especially if the motive is Coping. Identifying one’s PEMS motives should also help personalize conventional treatments for binge-eating and obesity toward improved outcomes. PMID:25169880

  18. Motives for eating tasty foods associated with binge-eating. Results from a student and a weight-loss seeking population.

    PubMed

    Boggiano, M M; Burgess, E E; Turan, B; Soleymani, T; Daniel, S; Vinson, L D; Lokken, K L; Wingo, B C; Morse, A

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to use the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS) to determine if and what motives for eating tasty foods (e.g., junk food, fast food, and desserts) are associated with binge-eating in two diverse populations. BMI and scores on the PEMS, Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), and Binge-eating Scale (BES) were obtained from 247 undergraduates at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) and 249 weight-loss seeking patients at the UAB EatRight program. Regression analyses revealed that eating tasty foods to forget worries and problems and help alleviate negative feelings (i.e., the 4-item Coping motive) was associated with binge-eating independently of any variance in BES scores due to sex, age, ethnicity, BMI, other PEMS motives, and YFAS scores in both students (R² = .57) and patients (R² = .55). Coping also was associated with higher BMI in students (p < 0.01), and in patients despite their truncated BMI range (p < 0.05). Among students, the motives Conformity and Reward Enhancement were also independently associated with binge-eating. For this younger sample with a greater range of BES scores, eating for these motives, but not for Social ones, may indicate early maladaptive eating habits that could later develop into disorders characterized by binge-eating if predisposing factors are present. Thus, identifying one's tasty food motive or motives can potentially be used to thwart the development of BED and obesity, especially if the motive is Coping. Identifying one's PEMS motives should also help personalize conventional treatments for binge-eating and obesity toward improved outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Houle's Typology: Time for Reconsideration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Howard R. D.

    According to Houle's 1961 typology, adult learners may be classified as being primarily goal-oriented, activity-oriented, or learning-oriented learners. Since 1961, society has moved from an industrial age to a post-technological era of information and service. In view of the extensive social changes that have occurred since 1961, Houle's typology…

  20. The effect of the magnitude of the food deprivation motivating operation on free operant preference in mice.

    PubMed

    Lewon, Matthew; Hayes, Linda J

    2015-06-01

    A number of recent studies have demonstrated that organisms prefer stimuli correlated with food under high deprivation conditions over stimuli correlated with food under low deprivation conditions. The purpose of the present study was to extend the literature on this phenomenon by testing for preference under extinction conditions, testing for preference at baseline, employing a free operant preference test, and using mice as subjects. Our results appear to support the existing literature in that most subjects preferred a stimulus correlated with food under high deprivation conditions in the post-training preference test. We provide an analysis of this phenomenon based on the concept of the motivating operation (MO) and discuss how this analysis suggests a number of avenues for further research on this topic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Motivation and Its Relationship with Learning Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yunzhen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates motivation that influences heritage and non-heritage students' learning of Chinese, and its relationship with Chinese language learning strategies (LLS). The study uses Deci and Ryan's typology--"Intrinsic Motivation" and "Extrinsic Motivation", for the investigation, examining issues such as: (1) What…

  2. Intermittent Food Absence Motivates Reallocation of Locomotion and Feeding in Spotted Munia (Lonchura punctulata)

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Amrita; Malik, Shalie; Yadav, Garima

    2015-01-01

    Background: Daily feeding and locomotion are interrelated behaviours. The time spent in feeding and rate of food intake depends on food availability. In low food condition, the birds would show intense movement (locomotion) for a longer time throughout the day however during abundant food supply they may chose higher activity and food intake in the morning and evening only. In the present study we hypothesized that in Spotted Munia (Lonchura punctulata), intermittent food availability during day would reallocate their interrelated behaviors, the feeding (food intake) and locomotor activity patterns. Methods: Two groups of birds (N = 6 each) were kept individually in activity cages under 12L:12D. Group 1 (Control; C) had ad libitum food but group 2 (Treatment; T) had food for 6 hours only (2 h presence followed by 2 h absence; 2P:2A) during 12 hour light period. In the first week, group 2 received food with ‘lights on’ (TI; ZT 0–2, 4–6 and 8–10; where ZT 0= zeitgeber time 0, time of lights ON). In the following week, the food was given 2 hours after ‘lights on’ (TII; ZT 2–4, 6–8, 10–12). The food intake and locomotor activity under each condition were observed. Results: The results showed that locomotor activity was induced during food deprivation and suppressed during food availability. Also the food deprivation led to increased food intake. Conclusion: Our results suggest that intermittent food availability/deprivation reallocates the locomotor activity and food intake in Spotted Munia. PMID:27103931

  3. The creation of a healthy eating motivation score and its association with food choice and physical activity in a cross sectional sample of Irish adults.

    PubMed

    Naughton, Paul; McCarthy, Sinéad N; McCarthy, Mary B

    2015-06-06

    This study aimed to develop a healthy eating motivation score and to determine if dietary, lifestyle and activity behaviours vary across levels of motivation to eat a healthy diet with a view to informing health promotion interventions. A cross-sectional survey of food intake, physical activity, lifestyles and food choice attitudes was conducted in a nationally representative sample of 1262 adults in the Republic of Ireland aged 18 years and over. Increasing score for health motivation was significantly and positively related to healthy eating and exercise. Women, increasing age, normal BMI, regular exercise and increasing intakes of fruit and vegetables were associated with a higher odds ratio (OR) for having a high healthy eating motivation score. However, despite a high motivation score only 31% of consumers in the strong motivation group achieved the recommendations for daily fruit and vegetable consumption, while 57% achieved the fat recommendation. A higher intake of calorie dense foods from the top shelf of the food pyramid and increased time spent watching T.V. was associated with a decreased OR for positive motivation towards healthy eating. Healthy eating promotions directed at women and older adults should focus on supporting people's motivations to attain a healthy diet by addressing issues such as dietary self-control and self-regulation. For men and younger adults, healthy eating promotions will need to address the issues underlying their weak attitudes towards healthy eating.

  4. Differential role of hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin neurons in reward seeking motivated by cocaine versus palatable food.

    PubMed

    Martin-Fardon, Rémi; Cauvi, Gabrielle; Kerr, Tony M; Weiss, Friedbert

    2016-08-24

    Hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin (Orx/Hcrt) neurons are thought to mediate both food-reinforced behaviors and behavior motivated by drugs of abuse. However, the relative role of the Orx/Hcrt system in behavior motivated by food versus drugs of abuse remains unclear. This investigation addressed this question by contrasting hypothalamic Orx/Hcrt neuronal activation associated with reinstatement of reward seeking induced by stimuli conditioned to cocaine (COC) versus highly palatable food reward, sweetened condensed milk (SCM). Orx/Hcrt neuronal activation in the lateral hypothalamus, dorsomedial hypothalamus and perifornical area, determined by dual c-fos/orx immunocytochemistry, was quantified in rat brains, following reinstatement of reward seeking induced by a discriminative stimulus (S(+) ) conditioned to COC or SCM. The COC S(+) and SCM S(+) initially produced the same magnitude of reward seeking. However, over four subsequent tests, behavior induced by the SCM S(+) decreased to extinction levels, whereas reinstatement induced by the COC S(+) perseverated at undiminished levels. Following both the first and fourth tests, the percentage of Orx/Hcrt cells expressing Fos was significantly increased in all hypothalamic subregions in rats tested with the COC S(+) but not rats tested with the SCM S(+) . These findings point toward a role for the Orx/Hcrt system in perseverating, compulsive-like COC seeking but not behavior motivated by palatable food. Moreover, analysis of the Orx/Hcrt recruitment patterns suggests that failure of Orx/Hcrt neurons in the lateral hypothalamus to respond to inhibitory inputs from Orx/Hcrt neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus/perifornical area may contribute to the perseverating nature of COC seeking.

  5. Enhanced motivation for food reward induced by stress and attenuation by corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor antagonism in rats: implications for overeating and obesity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiu

    2015-06-01

    Overeating beyond individuals' homeostatic needs critically contributes to obesity. The neurobehavioral mechanisms underlying the motivation to consume excessive foods with high calories are not fully understood. The present study examined whether a pharmacological stressor, yohimbine, enhances the motivation to procure food reward with an emphasis on comparisons between standard lab chow and high-fat foods. The effects of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor blockade by a CRF1-selective antagonist NBI on the stress-enhanced motivation for food reward were also assessed. Male Sprague-Dawley rats with chow available ad libitum in their home cages were trained to press a lever under a progressive ratio schedule for deliveries of either standard or high-fat food pellets. For testing yohimbine stress effects, rats received an intraperitoneal administration of yohimbine 10 min before start of the test sessions. For testing effects of CRF1 receptor blockade on stress responses, NBI was administered 20 min prior to yohimbine challenge. The rats emitted higher levels of lever responses to procure the high-fat food pellets compared with their counterparts on standard food pellets. Yohimbine challenge facilitated lever responses for the reward in all of the rats, whereas the effect was more robust in the rats on high-fat food pellets compared with their counterparts on standard food pellets. An inhibitory effect of pretreatment with NBI was observed on the enhancing effect of yohimbine challenge but not on the responses under baseline condition without yohimbine administration. Stress challenge significantly enhanced the motivation of satiated rats to procure extra food reward, especially the high-fat food pellets. Activation of CRF1 receptors is required for the stress-enhanced motivation for food reward. These results may have implications for our better understanding of the biobehavioral mechanisms of overeating and obesity.

  6. Enhanced motivation for food reward induced by stress and attenuation by corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor antagonism in rats: implications for overeating and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiu

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Overeating beyond individuals’ homeostatic needs critically contributes to obesity. The neurobehavioral mechanisms underlying the motivation to consume excessive foods with high calories are not fully understood. Objective The present study examined whether a pharmacological stressor, yohimbine enhances the motivation to procure food reward with an emphasis on comparisons between standard lab chow and high-fat foods. The effects of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor (CRF1) blockade by a CFR1 selective antagonist NBI on the stress-enhanced motivation for food reward were also assessed. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats with chow available ad libitum in their home cages were trained to press a lever under a progressive-ratio schedule for deliveries of either standard or high-fat food pellets. For testing yohimbine stress effects, rats received an intraperitoneal administration of yohimbine 10 min before start of the test sessions. For testing effects of CRF1 receptor blockade on stress responses, NBI was administered 20 min prior to yohimbine challenge. Results The rats emitted higher levels of lever responses to procure the high-fat food pellets compared with their counterparts on standard food pellets. Yohimbine challenge facilitated lever responses for the reward in all of the rats, whereas the effect was more robust in the rats on high-fat food pellets compared with their counterparts on standard food pellets. An inhibitory effect of pretreatment with NBI was observed on the enhancing effect of yohimbine challenge but not on the responses under baseline condition without yohimbine administration. Conclusions Stress challenge significantly enhanced the motivation of satiated rats to procure extra food reward, especially the high-fat food pellets. Activation of CRF1 receptors is required for the stress-enhanced motivation for food reward. These results may have implications for our better understanding of the biobehavioral mechanisms of overeating

  7. Mu Opioid Receptors in Gamma-Aminobutyric Acidergic Forebrain Neurons Moderate Motivation for Heroin and Palatable Food.

    PubMed

    Charbogne, Pauline; Gardon, Olivier; Martín-García, Elena; Keyworth, Helen L; Matsui, Aya; Mechling, Anna E; Bienert, Thomas; Nasseef, Taufiq; Robé, Anne; Moquin, Luc; Darcq, Emmanuel; Ben Hamida, Sami; Robledo, Patricia; Matifas, Audrey; Befort, Katia; Gavériaux-Ruff, Claire; Harsan, Laura-Adela; von Elverfeldt, Dominik; Hennig, Jurgen; Gratton, Alain; Kitchen, Ian; Bailey, Alexis; Alvarez, Veronica A; Maldonado, Rafael; Kieffer, Brigitte L

    2017-05-01

    Mu opioid receptors (MORs) are central to pain control, drug reward, and addictive behaviors, but underlying circuit mechanisms have been poorly explored by genetic approaches. Here we investigate the contribution of MORs expressed in gamma-aminobutyric acidergic forebrain neurons to major biological effects of opiates, and also challenge the canonical disinhibition model of opiate reward. We used Dlx5/6-mediated recombination to create conditional Oprm1 mice in gamma-aminobutyric acidergic forebrain neurons. We characterized the genetic deletion by histology, electrophysiology, and microdialysis; probed neuronal activation by c-Fos immunohistochemistry and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging; and investigated main behavioral responses to opiates, including motivation to obtain heroin and palatable food. Mutant mice showed MOR transcript deletion mainly in the striatum. In the ventral tegmental area, local MOR activity was intact, and reduced activity was only observed at the level of striatonigral afferents. Heroin-induced neuronal activation was modified at both sites, and whole-brain functional networks were altered in live animals. Morphine analgesia was not altered, and neither was physical dependence to chronic morphine. In contrast, locomotor effects of heroin were abolished, and heroin-induced catalepsy was increased. Place preference to heroin was not modified, but remarkably, motivation to obtain heroin and palatable food was enhanced in operant self-administration procedures. Our study reveals dissociable MOR functions across mesocorticolimbic networks. Thus, beyond a well-established role in reward processing, operating at the level of local ventral tegmental area neurons, MORs also moderate motivation for appetitive stimuli within forebrain circuits that drive motivated behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pleasure, pursuit of health or negotiation of identity? Personality correlates of food choice motives among young and middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Lindeman, M; Stark, K

    1999-08-01

    The clustering of four food choice motives (health, weight concern, pleasure and ideological reasons) and the relationship between personality and the food choice motives were analysed among young and middle-aged women in two studies. The personality variables included personal strivings, magical beliefs about food, awareness and internalization of thinness pressures, appearance and weight dissatisfaction, depression, self-esteem and symptoms of eating disorders. Study 1 was done with 171 young and middle-aged women. In Study 2, with data provided by 118 senior high-school girls, one cluster of girls who did not regard any of the food choice motives as important was found, otherwise the food choice clusters were fairly similar in both studies. They were labelled as health fosterers, gourmets, ideological eaters, health dieters and distressed dieters. Only the second dieter group, distressed dieters, showed low psychological well-being and symptoms of disordered eating. The results also indicated that ideological food choice motives (i.e. expression of one's identity via food) were best predicted by vegetarianism, magical beliefs about food and health, and personal strivings for ecological welfare and for understanding self and the world. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  9. Testing a typology of batterers.

    PubMed

    Waltz, J; Babcock, J C; Jacobson, N S; Gottman, J M

    2000-08-01

    A. Holtzworth-Munroe and G. L. Stuart (1994) proposed a tripartite typology of men who batter their female partners based on the severity of violence, extent of violence, and personality disorder characteristics. The current study attempts to empirically validate this typology using data from 75 domestically violent (DV) men and their partners, and 32 maritally distressed, nonviolent (DNV) comparison couples. Mixture analysis results generally supported the model, although 2 types were not distinguishable on personality disorder characteristics as predicted. Generally violent batterers were significantly more violent within and outside the relationship. The pathological group was moderately violent within and outside the relationship and endorsed numerous psychological symptoms. Family-only batterers endorsed fewer symptoms and were less violent. Violence in the family of origin, attachment, and communication skills also differentiated the 3 types and DNV men.

  10. Development and application of a database of food ingredient fraud and economically motivated adulteration from 1980 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jeffrey C; Spink, John; Lipp, Markus

    2012-04-01

    Food ingredient fraud and economically motivated adulteration are emerging risks, but a comprehensive compilation of information about known problematic ingredients and detection methods does not currently exist. The objectives of this research were to collect such information from publicly available articles in scholarly journals and general media, organize into a database, and review and analyze the data to identify trends. The results summarized are a database that will be published in the US Pharmacopeial Convention's Food Chemicals Codex, 8th edition, and includes 1305 records, including 1000 records with analytical methods collected from 677 references. Olive oil, milk, honey, and saffron were the most common targets for adulteration reported in scholarly journals, and potentially harmful issues identified include spices diluted with lead chromate and lead tetraoxide, substitution of Chinese star anise with toxic Japanese star anise, and melamine adulteration of high protein content foods. High-performance liquid chromatography and infrared spectroscopy were the most common analytical detection procedures, and chemometrics data analysis was used in a large number of reports. Future expansion of this database will include additional publically available articles published before 1980 and in other languages, as well as data outside the public domain. The authors recommend in-depth analyses of individual incidents. This report describes the development and application of a database of food ingredient fraud issues from publicly available references. The database provides baseline information and data useful to governments, agencies, and individual companies assessing the risks of specific products produced in specific regions as well as products distributed and sold in other regions. In addition, the report describes current analytical technologies for detecting food fraud and identifies trends and developments. © 2012 US Pharmacupia Journal of Food Science

  11. An Investigation into Food Preferences and the Neural Basis of Food-Related Incentive Motivation in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, E. C.; Holland, A. J.; Gellatly, M. S. N.; Soni, S.; Owen, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Research into the excessive eating behaviour associated with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) to date has focused on homeostatic and behavioural investigations. The aim of this study was to examine the role of the reward system in such eating behaviour, in terms of both the pattern of food preferences and the neural substrates of incentive…

  12. An Investigation into Food Preferences and the Neural Basis of Food-Related Incentive Motivation in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, E. C.; Holland, A. J.; Gellatly, M. S. N.; Soni, S.; Owen, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Research into the excessive eating behaviour associated with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) to date has focused on homeostatic and behavioural investigations. The aim of this study was to examine the role of the reward system in such eating behaviour, in terms of both the pattern of food preferences and the neural substrates of incentive…

  13. Characterization of attenuated food motivation in high-fat diet-induced obesity: Critical roles for time on diet and reinforcer familiarity.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Andrea L; Wee, Colin J M; Hazeltine, Grace E; Carter, Rebecca A

    2015-03-15

    Prior work using animal models to study the effects of obesogenic diets on food motivation have generated inconsistent results, with some reporting increases and others reporting decreases in responding on food-reinforced tasks. Here, we identified two specific variables that may account for these discrepant outcomes - the length of time on the obesigenic diet and the familiarity of the food reinforcer - and examined the independent roles of these factors. Time on diet was found to be inversely related to food motivation, as rats consuming a 40% high-fat diet (HFD) for only 3weeks did not differ from chow-fed rats when responding for a sucrose reinforcer on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule, but responding was suppressed after 6weeks of ad lib HFD consumption. Explicitly manipulating experience with the sucrose reinforcer by pre-exposing half the rats prior to 10weeks of HFD consumption attenuated the motivational deficit seen in the absence of this familiarity, resulting in obese rats performing at the same level as lean rats. Finally, after 8weeks on a HFD, rats did not express a conditioned place preference for sucrose, indicating a decrement in reward value independent of motivation. These findings are consistent with prior literature showing an increase in food motivation for rats with a shorter time consuming the obesigenic diet, and for those with more prior experience with the reinforcer. This account also helps reconcile these findings with increased food motivation in obese humans due to extensive experience with palatable food and suggests that researchers engaging in non-human animal studies of obesity would better model the conditions under which human obesity develops by using a varied, cafeteria-style diet to increase the breadth of food experiences.

  14. Separation, Motivation, and Depression: Neonatal Isolation Reduces Food-Rewarded Operant Responding in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellner, Margaret R.; Ranaldi, Robert

    2006-01-01

    One symptom of depression is loss of motivation, which can be defined as responsiveness to response-eliciting stimuli and quantified as reward-related behavioral output. Long-term changes in reward-related behavior have been shown to follow early life stress. Most rodent studies investigating the effects of postnatal separation, an early stress,…

  15. Separation, Motivation, and Depression: Neonatal Isolation Reduces Food-Rewarded Operant Responding in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellner, Margaret R.; Ranaldi, Robert

    2006-01-01

    One symptom of depression is loss of motivation, which can be defined as responsiveness to response-eliciting stimuli and quantified as reward-related behavioral output. Long-term changes in reward-related behavior have been shown to follow early life stress. Most rodent studies investigating the effects of postnatal separation, an early stress,…

  16. The Role of Work Habits in the Motivation of Food Safety Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinsz, Verlin B.; Nickell, Gary S.; Park, Ernest S.

    2007-01-01

    The authors considered work habits within an integrated framework of motivated behavior. A distinction made between automatic and controlled action led to 2 measures of work habits: a habit strength measure reflecting the 4 characteristics of automaticity and a measure of work routines under conscious control. Workers at a turkey processing plant…

  17. The Role of Work Habits in the Motivation of Food Safety Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinsz, Verlin B.; Nickell, Gary S.; Park, Ernest S.

    2007-01-01

    The authors considered work habits within an integrated framework of motivated behavior. A distinction made between automatic and controlled action led to 2 measures of work habits: a habit strength measure reflecting the 4 characteristics of automaticity and a measure of work routines under conscious control. Workers at a turkey processing plant…

  18. Impact of Simulated Ostracism on Overweight and Normal-Weight Youths’ Motivation to Eat and Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; Bowker, Julie C.; Nitecki, Lauren A.; Kluczynski, Melissa A.; Germeroth, Lisa J.; Roemmich, James N.

    2010-01-01

    There is growing evidence that the experience of being ostracized can impair individuals abilities to self-regulate, which in turn, leads to negative health behaviors, such as increased unhealthy eating. Research has focused on adults, but deficits in eating regulation in response to ostracism may be particularly detrimental for overweight or obese youth. This study examines the effects of a brief episode of ostracism on the motivation to eat and food intake of overweight and normal-weight young adolescents (M age = 13.6 years). A computerized ball-tossing game (Cyberball) was used to induce ostracism or inclusion. Following the inclusion/ostracism manipulation, all participants completed an operant computer task to earn points exchangeable for portions of food or for time socializing with an unfamiliar peer. Participants’ responses for food and their subsequent energy intake were recorded. As hypothesized, ostracized overweight participants responded more for food and had a greater energy intake than overweight participants in the inclusion/control condition; whereas this was not the case for normal-weight participants. These results are important as studies indicate that overweight and obese youth may be at risk of social isolation and peer difficulties. Social adversity, if left unchanged, may increase the difficulty of promoting long-term changes in overweight youths’ health behaviors. PMID:21094193

  19. Impact of simulated ostracism on overweight and normal-weight youths' motivation to eat and food intake.

    PubMed

    Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; Bowker, Julie C; Nitecki, Lauren A; Kluczynski, Melissa A; Germeroth, Lisa J; Roemmich, James N

    2011-02-01

    There is growing evidence that the experience of being ostracized can impair individuals' abilities to self-regulate, which in turn, leads to negative health behaviors, such as increased unhealthy eating. Research has focused on adults, but deficits in eating regulation in response to ostracism may be particularly detrimental for overweight or obese youth. This study examines the effects of a brief episode of ostracism on the motivation to eat and food intake of overweight and normal-weight young adolescents (M age=13.6 years). A computerized ball-tossing game (Cyberball) was used to induce ostracism or inclusion. Following the inclusion/ostracism manipulation, all participants completed an operant computer task to earn points exchangeable for portions of food or for time socializing with an unfamiliar peer. Participants' responses for food and their subsequent energy intake were recorded. As hypothesized, ostracized overweight participants responded more for food and had a greater energy intake than overweight participants in the inclusion/control condition; whereas this was not the case for normal-weight participants. These results are important as studies indicate that overweight and obese youth may be at risk of social isolation and peer difficulties. Social adversity, if left unchanged, may increase the difficulty of promoting long-term changes in overweight youths' health behaviors.

  20. Regulatory focus, self-efficacy and outcome expectations as drivers of motivation to consume healthy food products.

    PubMed

    Tudoran, Ana Alina; Scholderer, Joachim; Brunsø, Karen

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we apply the principle of Regulatory Focus Theory to investigate the interaction between self-efficacy and outcome expectations on individuals' intentions to adopt health behaviors. The participants, 959 individuals (Survey 1) and 2400 individuals (Survey 2), reported self-efficacy beliefs and outcome expectations with regard to the consumption of omega-3 supplements and omega-3-enriched food products. We found that the relationship prevention outcome expectations-intention was significantly attenuated at low levels of self-efficacy and strengthened at high levels of self-efficacy, respectively; whereas, the relationship promotion outcome expectations-intention was unaffected by the perceived levels of self-efficacy. The implications suggest that consumers' motivation to adopt healthy food products, such as omega-3 supplements and omega-3 enriched products, should be encouraged by stimulating promotion outcome expectations. However, when a prevention frame is used, the individuals' motivation should be significantly enhanced by self-efficacy beliefs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Dyadic Typology of Social Desires in Couples.

    PubMed

    Czikmantori, Thomas; Hagemeyer, Birk; Engeser, Stefan

    2017-08-12

    Employing a couple-centered approach to social motivation in intimate relationships, we developed a dyadic typology based on the ABC model of communal and agentic social desires. Using latent profile analysis, 631 heterosexual couples (age women: M = 39.7, SD = 13.6; age men: M = 42.0, SD = 14.1) were categorized regarding both partners' self-reported desires for closeness with partner, for affiliation with friends, and for being alone. Couple types were described using self-reported indicators of relationship functioning. Relationship stability was assessed after one year, and in stable couples, social desires were reassessed to examine continuity and change. We identified four motivational couple types. Three profiles showed similar orientations between partners and were labelled the communion, closeness, and distance couple types. Additionally, the distanced-man type was characterized by a low desire for closeness and a high desire for being alone in men, but not women. The communion and closeness types showed better relationship functioning than the other types, and the distanced-man type showed an increased rate of relationship break-up. A couple-centered, typological approach provides a viable way of studying complex dyadic motivational constellations and their consequences. This is beneficial for researchers as well as practitioners. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Evening hyperphagia and food motivation: a preliminary study of neural mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Jennifer D; Patrician, Trisha M; Breslin, Florence J; Martin, Laura E; Donnelly, Joseph E; Savage, Cary R

    2013-12-01

    Evening hyperphagia (EH; consumption of ≥25% of total daily calories after the evening meal) is a circadian delay in the pattern of daily food intake and is a core criterion of night eating syndrome (Allison et al., 2010). This preliminary study examined the brain response to food cues using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in seven obese adults with EH compared to seven obese adults without EH. When contrasting food to non-food and blurry baseline images pre-meal, groups differed in brain activation in the inferior frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, cingulate gyrus, superior temporal gyrus and cerebellum. At post meal, groups differed in brain activation in the fusiform gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule and the cerebellum. Significant interactions between time (pre-meal, post-meal) and group (EH, control) when contrasting food to non-food images were also noted in the inferior frontal gyrus and the superior temporal gyrus. Further research is necessary to replicate these findings and determine if they have a mechanistic role in the development of circadian delayed eating behavior in obese adults with EH.

  3. Reflection of induced and amplified food motivation in impulse activity of the masticatory muscles during electrostimulation of the "hunger center" in the lateral hypothalamus in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ignatova, J P; Kromin, A A

    2012-04-01

    We studied reflection of artificially induced and amplified food motivation in impulse activity of the masticatory muscles during electrostimulation of "hunger center" of the lateral hypothalamus in the absence and presence of food. The threshold stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus in hungry and satiated animals in the absence of food induced incessant food-procuring behavior paralleled by regular generation of spike bursts in masticatory muscles with biomodal distributions of intervals between pulses. This reaction of masticatory muscles during stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus in the absence of food was an example of the anticipatory reaction reflecting characteristics of the action result acceptor. Higher level of hunger motivation during threshold stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus in hungry and satiated rabbits in the course of effective food-procuring behavior increased the incidence of spike burst generation during the food capture phase, but did not modify this parameter during the chewing phase. Impulse activity of the masticatory muscles reflected convergent interactions of food motivation and support excitation on neurons of the central generator of chewing pattern.

  4. Motives underlying healthy eating: using the Food Choice Questionnaire to explain variation in dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Pollard, T M; Steptoe, A; Wardle, J

    1998-04-01

    The Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ), which measures the reported importance to a given individual of nine factors underlying food choice, and a food frequency questionnaire, were administered to 241 participants, who were also required to classify their diet as either 'standard', 'low in red meat' or 'vegetarian'. Respondents describing their diet as low in red meat attributed greater importance to health, natural content, weight control and ethical concern in their food choice than did those who described their diets as standard, whereas vegetarians differed significantly from those with a standard diet only on the score for ethical concern. Differences between men and women and between students and non-students in the frequency of consumption of a number of foods were shown to be mediated by differences in the importance attached to FCQ factors. Thus the generally healthier diets of women compared to men appeared to be accounted for by the greater importance attributed by women to weight control, natural content and ethical concerns.

  5. Tikal obsidian: sources and typology

    SciTech Connect

    Moholy-Nagy, H.; Asaro, F.; Stross, F.H.

    1984-01-01

    The obsidian industry of Classic period Tikal, Guatemala, is discussed with regard to geological source determinations and behavioral typology. The potential of these two approaches for cultural reconstruction is greatly extended when they can supplement each other. Recent source determinations of obsidian artifacts from Tikal indicate (1) a behavioral link between locally-produced prismatic blades of Highland Guatemalan stone and ceremonial incised obsidians and eccentrics, and (2) a Central Mexican origin for a seemingly large portion of Tikal's obsidian projectile points and knives. 25 references, 3 figures, 5 tables.

  6. [Motivations and barriers of chilean children; threats or opportunities for the implementation of 2013 food based dietary guidelines].

    PubMed

    Olivares, Sonia; Zacarías, Isabel; González, Carmen Gloria

    2014-08-01

    Implementation of the updated Food Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG) for the Chilean population requires the design of innovative strategies and effective. To determine motivations and barriers for children and mothers of preschool-age children to follow new FBDG messages, aiming to identify challenges and opportunities for designing effective communication and implementation strategies. A qualitative study based on 12 focus groups of 9 to 13 age children and 6 focus groups of mothers of preschool-age children, living in the north, central and south regions of the country, to analyze their reaction to each one of the 2013 FBDG messages. Answers of children and mothers did not show differences by gender (in the case of the children) or region of the country. Results show the most frequent and representative comments regarding each message. Challenges to reducing the consumption of foods high in energy, fat, sugar and salt include advertisements and plentiful supply and low prices for these types of foods, both in the school environment and on the street. Opportunities identified included the advertisement of fruits, vegetables and dairy products to promote their consumption, as well as the coming implementation of Law 20.606, which is expected to be an effective way to support this initiative. The results of this study show that the design of strategies based on values, desires and needs of different groups will contribute to optimizing the implementation of the 2013 Chilean FBDG. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. The Culpable Victim in Mendelsohn's Typology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sengstock, Mary C.

    This paper provides a review of Benjamin Mendelsohn's delineation of a typology of criminal victims. The typology consists of six categories: (1) completely innocent victims; (2) victims with minor guilt; (3) voluntary victims; (4) victims more guilty than the offender; (5) victims who alone are guilty; and (6) the imaginary victims. It is noted…

  8. Motivation, Confidence, and Control; Unraveling Active Learning for Nutrition and Food Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxman, Jenny R.; Nield, Kevin; Hall, Anna C.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Nutrition and food students at Sheffield Hallam University completed an "active learning" assessment as part of a final year module, Applied Nutrition 2. The purpose of the "active learning" assessment was to encourage and enhance learner autonomy. The assessment consisted of 5 main stages: a briefing, thought shower,…

  9. Motivation, Confidence, and Control; Unraveling Active Learning for Nutrition and Food Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxman, Jenny R.; Nield, Kevin; Hall, Anna C.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Nutrition and food students at Sheffield Hallam University completed an "active learning" assessment as part of a final year module, Applied Nutrition 2. The purpose of the "active learning" assessment was to encourage and enhance learner autonomy. The assessment consisted of 5 main stages: a briefing, thought shower,…

  10. [Assessing various aspects of the motivation to eat that can affect food intake and body weight control].

    PubMed

    Bellisle, F

    2009-04-01

    Over the last 30 years, several questionnaires have been developed and validated in order to assess many aspects of the motivation to eat that might be susceptible to impair adequate food intake and body weight control. A few of such questionnaires are described here, in particular, the "Three Factor Eating Questionnaire" also called the "Eating Inventory", and the "Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire". Critical aspects of the motivation to eat assessed by these tools are presented, such as dietary restraint, disinhibition, hunger, vulnerability to eat in response to external cues or emotional states, etc. These questionnaires were developed for use in the general population with the aim to identify critical aspects of the motivation to eat that might predispose to weight gain. They have been widely used in many countries and have allowed an improved understanding of the individual characteristics that predispose to body weight gain or resistance to weight loss. Originally, poor body weight control was attributed to a high level of dietary "restraint", or in other words, the tendency to deliberately restrict one's food intake for body weight control purposes. Such dietary restraint was suspected to lead to a number of physical and psychological difficulties, among which poor self-esteem and a paradoxical tendency to gain weight, resulting from the incapacity to maintain strict restraint over time. More recent studies have established that a motivational trait called "Disinhibition" is a strong predictor of body weight gain over time and of poor outcome of dieting. "Disinhibition" corresponds to a tendency to lose control over one's eating behavior and ingest excessively large quantities of food substances, in response to a variety of cues and circumstances. In addition to its untoward effect on weight, disinhibition also predicts various risk factors and pathologies, such as hypertension and diabetes. Other potentially critical dimensions for adequate body weight

  11. Increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal drive is associated with decreased appetite and hypoactivation of food-motivation neurocircuitry in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Elizabeth A; Holsen, Laura M; Desanti, Rebecca; Santin, McKale; Meenaghan, Erinne; Herzog, David B; Goldstein, Jill M; Klibanski, Anne

    2013-11-01

    Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH)-mediated hypercortisolemia has been demonstrated in anorexia nervosa (AN), a psychiatric disorder characterized by food restriction despite low body weight. While CRH is anorexigenic, downstream cortisol stimulates hunger. Using a food-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm, we have demonstrated hypoactivation of brain regions involved in food motivation in women with AN, even after weight recovery. The relationship between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation and appetite and the association with food-motivation neurocircuitry hypoactivation are unknown in AN. We investigated the relationship between HPA activity, appetite, and food-motivation neurocircuitry hypoactivation in AN. Cross-sectional study of 36 women (13 AN, ten weight-recovered AN (ANWR), and 13 healthy controls (HC)). Peripheral cortisol and ACTH levels were measured in a fasting state and 30, 60, and 120 min after a standardized mixed meal. The visual analog scale was used to assess homeostatic and hedonic appetite. fMRI was performed during visual processing of food and non-food stimuli to measure the brain activation pre- and post-meal. In each group, serum cortisol levels decreased following the meal. Mean fasting, 120 min post-meal, and nadir cortisol levels were high in AN vs HC. Mean postprandial ACTH levels were high in ANWR compared with HC and AN subjects. Cortisol levels were associated with lower fasting homeostatic and hedonic appetite, independent of BMI and depressive symptoms. Cortisol levels were also associated with between-group variance in activation in the food-motivation brain regions (e.g. hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, orbitofrontal cortex, and insula). HPA activation may contribute to the maintenance of AN by the suppression of appetitive drive.

  12. Dispelling myths about a new healthful food can be more motivating than promoting nutritional benefits: the case of Tofu.

    PubMed

    Wansink, Brian; Shimizu, Mitsuru; Brumberg, Adam

    2014-04-01

    This study examines what factors impact the adoption of certain types of healthy foods, such as Tofu, by future nutritional gatekeepers. Information on perceived facilitators and barriers to the utilization of barriers would be obtained via interviews and surveys. In-depth laddering interviews and an online survey during 2012 were utilized. The in-depth laddering interviews were conducted with 83 young women and new mothers (non-vegetarians and non-Asians) who were enthusiastic lovers of Tofu. 502 women from the target demographic (between 20 and 35, non-Asian) were recruited from a national panel and surveyed online in 2012. Based on the interviews, 21 primary reasons for trying Tofu (facilitators) and 10 reasons that might be preventative (barriers) were identified. A key finding was that facilitators were not motivating factors for why women adopted Tofu into their diets. Instead, barriers explained more than 44% of the variance for not adopting tofu. When encouraging nutritional gatekeepers to add Tofu to their household diets, it may be more effective to focus on changing the barriers. This study suggests that nutritionists and health practitioners may be more successful in encouraging the adoption of healthy new foods by dispelling their misconceptions rather than focusing on their nutritional benefits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. From motivation to behaviour: a model of reward sensitivity, overeating, and food preferences in the risk profile for obesity.

    PubMed

    Davis, Caroline; Patte, Karen; Levitan, Robert; Reid, Caroline; Tweed, Stacey; Curtis, Claire

    2007-01-01

    The reinforcing effects of addictive drugs and palatable foods are regulated, at least in part, by a common biological mechanism. The reactivity or sensitivity of these brain reward regions have been found to correlate significantly with the risk for a variety of drug addictions. Sensitivity to Reward (STR) is conceptualised as a psycho-biological personality trait rooted firmly in the availability of dopamine in the mesocorticolimbic ('common reward') pathways, and as such is a good candidate for studying motivational factors and eating behaviours. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether STR was related to behaviours that contribute to excess body weight. Structural equation modelling procedures were used with a sample of healthy adult women (n=151). We hypothesised that STR would positively predict overeating and a preference for foods high in fat and sugar; and that these two behaviour would, in turn, predict a higher Body Mass Index. Results provided an excellent fit of the model to our data confirming our view that a personality trait like STR can only influence a physical condition like body weight indirectly by the way it co-varies with behaviours that contribute directly to variation in the outcome variable.

  14. Food, shelter and safety needs motivating homeless persons' visits to an urban emergency department.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Robert M; Fortman, Jonathan; Chee, Chris; Ng, Valerie; Poon, Daniel

    2009-05-01

    We determine whether homeless persons present to the emergency department (ED) for food, shelter, and safety and whether the availability of alternative sites for provision of these needs might decrease their ED presentations. In July to August 2006 and February to March 2007, adult homeless and control (not homeless) patients, who self-presented (nonambulance) to an urban county ED, were interviewed with a structured instrument. One hundred ninety-one homeless and 63 control subjects were enrolled. Homeless persons spent a mean (standard deviation [SD]) of 3.5 (3.0) nights/week sleeping without shelter and ate a mean (SD) of 2.1 (1.1) meals per day; 51% stated they had been assaulted on the street. On an analog scale, in which 0=no problem and 10=worst possible problem in their daily lives, the mean (SD) homeless subject responses for hunger, lack of shelter, and safety were 4.8 (3.7), 6.1 (4.2), and 5.1 (4.0), respectively. More homeless (29% [55/189]) than not homeless (10% [6/63]) persons replied that hunger, safety concerns, and lack of shelter were reasons they came to the ED (Delta=20%; 95% confidence interval 10% to 29%). If offered a place that would provide food, shelter, and safety at all times, 24% of homeless subjects stated they would not have come to the ED. Homeless persons commonly come to the ED for food, shelter, and safety. Provision of these subsistence needs at all times at another site may decrease their ED presentations.

  15. A typology of organisational cultures

    PubMed Central

    Westrum, R

    2004-01-01

    There is wide belief that organisational culture shapes many aspects of performance, including safety. Yet proof of this relationship in a medical context is hard to find. In contrast to human factors, whose contributions are many and notable, culture's impact remains a commonsense, rather than a scientific, concept. The objectives of this paper are to show that organisational culture bears a predictive relationship with safety and that particular kinds of organisational culture improve safety, and to develop a typology predictive of safety performance. Because information flow is both influential and also indicative of other aspects of culture, it can be used to predict how organisations or parts of them will behave when signs of trouble arise. From case studies and some systematic research it appears that information culture is indeed associated with error reporting and with performance, including safety. Yet this relationship between culture and safety requires more exploration before the connection can be considered definitive. PMID:15576687

  16. Understanding terminological systems. I: Terminology and typology.

    PubMed

    de Keizer, N F; Abu-Hanna, A; Zwetsloot-Schonk, J H

    2000-03-01

    Terminological systems are an important research issue within the field of medical informatics. For precise understanding of existing terminological systems a referential framework is needed that provides a uniform terminology and typology of terminological systems themselves. In this article a uniform terminology is described by putting relevant fundamental notions and definitions used by standard organizations such as CEN and ISO into perspective, and interrelating them to arrive at a useful typology of terminological systems. This typology is illustrated by applying it to five well-known existing terminological systems.

  17. Elder-Abuse Offenders: A Typology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey-Klawsnik, Holly

    2000-01-01

    Addresses some of the perplexing issues involved in understanding and responding to elder-abuse offenders. Offers a typology of offenders to elucidate the dynamics when people mistreat the elderly. (Contains 13 references.) (Author)

  18. Impact of perinatal exposure to high-fat diet and stress on responses to nutritional challenges, food-motivated behaviour and mesolimbic dopamine function.

    PubMed

    Romaní-Pérez, M; Lépinay, A L; Alonso, L; Rincel, M; Xia, L; Fanet, H; Caillé, S; Cador, M; Layé, S; Vancassel, S; Darnaudéry, M

    2017-04-01

    Energy-dense food exposure and stress during development have been suggested to contribute to obesity and metabolic disorders later in life. Although these factors are frequently associated, the effects of their combination have not yet been investigated. In this study, using an animal model, we examined the long-term impact of maternal high-fat diet (HFD) and early-life stress (ELS) on energy homoeostasis control and food motivation. Body weight growth under HFD, adipose tissue, body weight control in response to fasting and refeeding, food-motivated behaviour and mesolimbic dopamine function were examined in adult male offspring exposed to maternal HFD (during gestation and lactation) and/or ELS (maternal separation 3 h per day from postnatal day 2 to 14). Maternal HFD or ELS alone had no significant effect on offspring body weight; however, the combination of these factors exacerbated body weight gain when animals were exposed to HFD after weaning. There are no other significant combinatory effects of these perinatal events. In contrast, independently of the maternal diet, ELS disrupted body weight control during a fasting-refeeding procedure, increased adipose tissue mass and altered lipid metabolism. Finally, maternal HFD and ELS both resulted in exacerbated food-motivated behaviour and blunted dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens during palatable food consumption. We report a synergistic effect of perinatal HFD exposure and stress on the susceptibility to gain weight under HFD. However, ELS has a stronger impact than maternal HFD exposure on energy homoeostasis and food motivation in adult offspring. Altogether, our results suggest a programming effect of stress and nutrition supporting the hypothesis of the developmental origin of health and disease.

  19. Validity of an Evaluator Typology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce

    1980-01-01

    Meltsner classified evaluators as technicians, politicians, entrepreneurs, or pretenders, based upon differing expectations norms, training, and motivations. This role-perception study of evaluators in a large urban school district supported Meltsner, although few technicians or politicians emerged. (CP)

  20. Typologies of Adolescent Dating Violence: Identifying Typologies of Adolescent Dating Violence Perpetration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauman, Karl E.; Linder, Fletcher; Rice, Jennifer; Wilcher, Rose

    2007-01-01

    Acts scales, the most common way of measuring partner violence, have been criticized for being too simplistic to capture the complexities of partner violence. An alternative measurement approach is to use typologies that consider various aspects of context. In this study, the authors identified typologies of dating violence perpetration by…

  1. A typology of street patterns.

    PubMed

    Louf, Rémi; Barthelemy, Marc

    2014-12-06

    We propose a quantitative method to classify cities according to their street pattern. We use the conditional probability distribution of shape factor of blocks with a given area and define what could constitute the 'fingerprint' of a city. Using a simple hierarchical clustering method, these fingerprints can then serve as a basis for a typology of cities. We apply this method to a set of 131 cities in the world, and at an intermediate level of the dendrogram, we observe four large families of cities characterized by different abundances of blocks of a certain area and shape. At a lower level of the classification, we find that most European cities and American cities in our sample fall in their own sub-category, highlighting quantitatively the differences between the typical layouts of cities in both regions. We also show with the example of New York and its different boroughs, that the fingerprint of a city can be seen as the sum of the ones characterizing the different neighbourhoods inside a city. This method provides a quantitative comparison of urban street patterns, which could be helpful for a better understanding of the causes and mechanisms behind their distinct shapes.

  2. A typology of street patterns

    PubMed Central

    Louf, Rémi; Barthelemy, Marc

    2014-01-01

    We propose a quantitative method to classify cities according to their street pattern. We use the conditional probability distribution of shape factor of blocks with a given area and define what could constitute the ‘fingerprint’ of a city. Using a simple hierarchical clustering method, these fingerprints can then serve as a basis for a typology of cities. We apply this method to a set of 131 cities in the world, and at an intermediate level of the dendrogram, we observe four large families of cities characterized by different abundances of blocks of a certain area and shape. At a lower level of the classification, we find that most European cities and American cities in our sample fall in their own sub-category, highlighting quantitatively the differences between the typical layouts of cities in both regions. We also show with the example of New York and its different boroughs, that the fingerprint of a city can be seen as the sum of the ones characterizing the different neighbourhoods inside a city. This method provides a quantitative comparison of urban street patterns, which could be helpful for a better understanding of the causes and mechanisms behind their distinct shapes. PMID:25297318

  3. Behavioral measures of risk tasking, sensation seeking and sensitivity to reward may reflect different motivations for spicy food liking and consumption

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Nadia K.; Hayes, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Based on work a quarter century ago, it is widely accepted personality traits like sensation seeking are related to the enjoyment and intake of spicy foods; however, data supporting this belief is actually quite limited. Recently, we reported strong to moderate correlations between remembered spicy food liking and two personality traits measured with validated questionnaires. Here, participants consumed capsaicin-containing strawberry jelly to generate acute estimates of spicy food liking. Additionally, we used a laboratory-based behavioral measure of risk taking (the momentary Balloon Analogue Risk Task; mBART) to complement a range of validated self-report measures of risk-related personality traits. Present data confirm Sensation Seeking correlates with overall spicy meal liking and liking of the burn of a spicy meal, and extends prior findings by showing novel correlations with the liking of sampled stimuli. Other personality measures, including Sensitivity to Punishment (SP), Sensitivity to Reward (SR), and the Impulsivity and Risk Taking subscales of the DSM5 Personality Inventory (PID5) did not show significant relationships with liking of spicy foods, either sampled or remembered. Our behavioral risk taking measure, the mBART, also failed to show a relationship with remembered or sampled liking. However, significant relationships were observed between reported intake of spicy foods and Sensitivity to Reward, and the Risk Taking subscale of the PID-5 (PID5-RT). Based on the observed patterns among various personality measures, and spicy food liking and intake, we propose that personality measures may exert their influence on intake of spicy food via different mechanisms. We also speculate that Sensation Seeking may reflect motivations for consuming spicy foods that are more intrinsic, while the motivations for eating spicy foods measured by SR and PID5-RT may be more extrinsic. PMID:27137410

  4. Behavioral measures of risk tasking, sensation seeking and sensitivity to reward may reflect different motivations for spicy food liking and consumption.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Nadia K; Hayes, John E

    2016-08-01

    Based on work a quarter century ago, it is widely accepted personality traits like sensation seeking are related to the enjoyment and intake of spicy foods; however, data supporting this belief is actually quite limited. Recently, we reported strong to moderate correlations between remembered spicy food liking and two personality traits measured with validated questionnaires. Here, participants consumed capsaicin-containing strawberry jelly to generate acute estimates of spicy food liking. Additionally, we used a laboratory-based behavioral measure of risk taking (the mobile Balloon Analogue Risk Task; mBART) to complement a range of validated self-report measures of risk-related personality traits. Present data confirm Sensation Seeking correlates with overall spicy meal liking and liking of the burn of a spicy meal, and extends prior findings by showing novel correlations with the liking of sampled stimuli. Other personality measures, including Sensitivity to Punishment (SP), Sensitivity to Reward (SR), and the Impulsivity and Risk Taking subscales of the DSM5 Personality Inventory (PID-5) did not show significant relationships with liking of spicy foods, either sampled or remembered. Our behavioral risk taking measure, the mBART, also failed to show a relationship with remembered or sampled liking. However, significant relationships were observed between reported intake of spicy foods and Sensitivity to Reward, and the Risk Taking subscale of the PID-5 (PID5-RT). Based on the observed patterns among various personality measures, and spicy food liking and intake, we propose that personality measures may exert their influence on intake of spicy food via different mechanisms. We also speculate that Sensation Seeking may reflect motivations for consuming spicy foods that are more intrinsic, while the motivations for eating spicy foods measured by SR and PID5-RT may be more extrinsic.

  5. Fighting food temptations: the modulating effects of short-term cognitive reappraisal, suppression and up-regulation on mesocorticolimbic activity related to appetitive motivation.

    PubMed

    Siep, Nicolette; Roefs, Anne; Roebroeck, Alard; Havermans, Remco; Bonte, Milene; Jansen, Anita

    2012-03-01

    The premise of cognitive therapy is that one can overcome the irresistible temptation of highly palatable foods by actively restructuring the way one thinks about food. Testing this idea, participants in the present study were instructed to passively view foods, up-regulate food palatability thoughts, apply cognitive reappraisal (e.g., thinking about health consequences), or suppress food palatability thoughts and cravings. We examined whether these strategies affect self-reported food craving and mesocorticolimbic activity as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging. It was hypothesized that cognitive reappraisal would most effectively inhibit the mesocorticolimbic activity and associated food craving as compared to suppression. In addition, it was hypothesized that suppression would lead to more prefrontal cortex activity, reflecting the use of more control resources, as compared to cognitive reappraisal. Self-report results indicated that up-regulation increased food craving compared to the other two conditions, but that there was no difference in craving between the suppression and cognitive reappraisal strategy. Corroborating self-report results, the neuroimaging results showed that up-regulation increased activity in important regions of the mesocorticolimbic circuitry, including the ventral tegmental area, ventral striatum, operculum, posterior insular gyrus, medial orbitofrontal cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Contrary to our hypothesis, suppression more effectively decreased activity in the core of the mesocorticolimbic circuitry (i.e., ventral tegmental area and ventral striatum) compared to cognitive reappraisal. Overall, the results support the contention that appetitive motivation can be modulated by the application of short-term cognitive control strategies.

  6. Heterogeneity in barriers regarding the motivation, the opportunity and the ability to choose low-calorie snack foods and beverages: associations with real-life choices.

    PubMed

    Bos, Colin; van der Lans, Ivo A; van Rijnsoever, Frank J; van Trijp, Hans Cm

    2016-06-01

    Employing Rothschild's Motivation-Opportunity-Ability framework, the present study examines the extent to which heterogeneity in barriers regarding the motivation, the perceived opportunity and the perceived ability to choose low-calorie over high-calorie snacks is associated with the proportion of low-calorie snack choices in real life. Furthermore, the study investigates which dominant barrier profiles can be discerned. Data were obtained from a survey about participants' motivation, opportunity and ability to choose low-calorie over high-calorie snacks and an FFQ that measured habitual consumption of snack foods and beverages. Data were analysed using R packages lavaan and NbClust, and IBM SPSS Statistics. A representative sample (n 1318) of the Dutch population based on gender (686 women), age and education level. For both snack foods and beverages, motivation to choose low-calorie over high-calorie snacks was associated strongest with proportions of low-calorie choices. The perceived ability and perceived opportunity were also associated with proportions of low-calorie choices, albeit to a lesser extent. Furthermore, three dominant profiles of barriers were identified: the no-barrier profile, the lack-of-opportunity profile and the lack-of-motivation profile. These profiles differed significantly on proportions of low-calorie snack choices, daily meal consumption and sociodemographic characteristics. Heterogeneity in barriers regarding the motivation, the perceived opportunity and the perceived ability to choose low-calorie over high-calorie snacks is associated with the proportion of low-calorie snack choices in real life. By identifying and appreciating heterogeneity in barriers, the present study provides further incentives for the tailoring of intervention strategies.

  7. Myers-Briggs typology and Jungian individuation.

    PubMed

    Myers, Steve

    2016-06-01

    Myers-Briggs typology is widely seen as equivalent to and representative of Jungian theory by the users of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and similar questionnaires. However, the omission of the transcendent function from the theory, and the use of typological functions as its foundation, has resulted in an inadvertent reframing of the process of individuation. This is despite some attempts to integrate individuation and typology, and reintroduce the transcendent function into Myers-Briggs theory. This paper examines the differing views of individuation in Myers-Briggs and Jungian theory, and some of the challenges of reconciling those differences, particularly in the context of normality. It proposes eight principles, drawn mainly from Jungian and classical post-Jungian work, that show how individuation as a process can be integrated with contemporary Myers-Briggs typology. These principles show individuation as being a natural process that can be encouraged outside of the analytic process. They make use of a wide range of opposites as well as typological functions, whilst being centred on the transcendent function. Central to the process is the alchemical image of the caduceus and a practical interpretation of the axiom of Maria, both of which Jung used to illustrate the process of individuation. © 2016, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  8. Impacts of Diversity on Communication Effectiveness: A Proposed Typology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Willie E.; Hopkins, Shirley A.

    1994-01-01

    Proposes a typology of impacts that greater increases in workforce diversity might have on communication effectiveness in organizations. Proposes the typology to stimulate further interest in the research domain. (SR)

  9. Evaluation of emotion-based messages designed to motivate Hispanic and Asian parents of early adolescents to engage in calcium-rich food and beverage parenting practices

    PubMed Central

    Reicks, Marla; Gunther, Carolyn; Richards, Rickelle; Bruhn, Christine; Cluskey, Mary; Wong, Siew Sun; Misner, Scottie; Hongu, Nobuko; Johnston, N Paul

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Setting healthful beverage expectations, making calcium-rich foods and beverages (CRF/B) available, and role modeling are parenting practices promoting calcium intake among early adolescents. This study aimed to evaluate emotion-based messages designed to motivate parents of early adolescents to perform these practices. SUBJECTS/METHODS Emotion-based messages were developed for each parenting practice and tested in 35 parents from 5 states. Findings were used to modify messages and develop a survey administered via Amazon MechanicalTurk to a convenience sample of Asian (n = 166) and Hispanic (n = 184) parents of children 10-13 years. Main outcome measures were message comprehension, motivation, relevance, acceptability, and novelty. Engagement in the parenting practices was also assessed. RESULTS Message comprehension was acceptable for the majority of parents. Most also agreed that messages were motivational (setting healthful beverage expectations (69.0%), making CRF/B available (67.4%), and role modeling (80.0%)), relevant and acceptable. About 30-50% indicated they had not seen the information before. Many parents indicated they were already engaging in the practices (> 70%). No racial/ethnic differences were observed for responses to messages or engaging in parenting practices. CONCLUSIONS Results indicate that emotion-based messages designed to motivate parents to engage in parenting practices that promote calcium intake among early adolescents were motivating, relevant, and acceptable. PMID:27478554

  10. Typologi of Island City in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maulana, Alvaryan; Benita, Tania

    2017-07-01

    As an archipelagic country, Indonesia consist of thousands of island. Some of them are big enough to contain growth and become the center of settlement and activity in Indonesia. However, growth and habitation are not only mushrooming in main island. Several small island also experience growth and become densely population places and simply become a city within island. This study aims to identify island city in Indonesia and creating the typology of the island city. This study is using exploratory approach and heavily rely on statistical figure of every single autonomous region as data sources. Eventually, this study found twelve (12) island cities in Indonesia, and three distinctive typology of island cities.

  11. Navigating the Web with a Typology of Corporate Uses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoger, Elizabeth A.; Cappel, James J.; Myerscough, Mark A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a typology of business uses of the World Wide Web for electronic commerce. Gives examples of each type. Offers a sample assignment to show how the typology can be used in directing Web exploration, integrating the typology into an analytical assignment that analyzes a Web site using business communication concepts, and presenting the…

  12. Navigating the Web with a Typology of Corporate Uses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoger, Elizabeth A.; Cappel, James J.; Myerscough, Mark A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a typology of business uses of the World Wide Web for electronic commerce. Gives examples of each type. Offers a sample assignment to show how the typology can be used in directing Web exploration, integrating the typology into an analytical assignment that analyzes a Web site using business communication concepts, and presenting the…

  13. Empirical Evidence for a Typology of Lies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hample, Dale

    A study was conducted to test the empirical merit of R. M. Chisholm's and T. D. Feehan's proposed typology of deception: (1) commission versus omission (lies of commission are those where the liar contributes causally to the receiver's believing the lie, perhaps by telling the falsehood; lies of omission would occur if the liar could have…

  14. Applying a Typology to Vocational Aspirations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, John L.; Gottfredson, Gary D.

    The psychological meaning and predictive value of a person's vocational aspirations were examined by applying Holland's typology to the vocational aspirations of high school juniors (N=1,005), college juniors (N=692), employed adults (N=140), and a second sample of college students studied over a 1 year interval (N=624). The aspirational data were…

  15. A Typology of Relapse Promoting Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiffman, Saul

    Outcome data on smoking cessation has emphasized that most people have difficulty not in quitting smoking, but in maintaining cessation. An attempt was made to develop a more meaningful typology of relapse-promoting situations using a sample of 183 exsmokers who called a telephone hotline seeking help to stay away from cigarettes. Two higher order…

  16. A Preliminary Typology of Young Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langstrom, Niklas; Grann, Martin; Lindblad, Frank

    2000-01-01

    Uses data concerning all young sex offenders (N=56) to construct and validate an introductory young sex offender typology based solely on offense characteristics. A 5-cluster solution received optimal support from cluster analysis of 15 offense-related variables. Survival analysis revealed that the clusters differed with respect to sexual but not…

  17. Circadian Typology and Style of Thinking Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabbri, Marco; Antonietti, Alessandro; Giorgetti, Marisa; Tonetti, Lorenzo; Natale, Vincenzo

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study aims to investigate the relationship between circadian typology and learning-thinking styles conceptualised as a preference toward information processing typical of the right vs. the left cerebral hemisphere. A sample of 1254 undergraduates (380 boys and 874 girls; mean age=21.86+/-2.37,) was administered the…

  18. A Typology of Metanarratives in Educational Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Fenwick W.

    This paper examines a typology of metanarratives in educational administration. "Metanarratives" represent "a global, overarching, encompassing set of rules that tell us...the necessary and sufficient conditions for the constructs we use and how to use them." From this perspective, logical positivism is considered one of the…

  19. A Preliminary Typology of Young Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langstrom, Niklas; Grann, Martin; Lindblad, Frank

    2000-01-01

    Uses data concerning all young sex offenders (N=56) to construct and validate an introductory young sex offender typology based solely on offense characteristics. A 5-cluster solution received optimal support from cluster analysis of 15 offense-related variables. Survival analysis revealed that the clusters differed with respect to sexual but not…

  20. A Typology of Statements about Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallotti, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    The article presents a typology of statements that can be made about discourse data. The classification is based on two parameters: level of generality and level of interpretation. Each of these is operationalized into three discrete levels, to yield a nine-cell table containing types of statements going from the presentation of a single case to…

  1. A Typology of Statements about Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallotti, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    The article presents a typology of statements that can be made about discourse data. The classification is based on two parameters: level of generality and level of interpretation. Each of these is operationalized into three discrete levels, to yield a nine-cell table containing types of statements going from the presentation of a single case to…

  2. Male Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Homicide: A Review and Proposed Typology.

    PubMed

    Kivisto, Aaron J

    2015-09-01

    Nearly one in seven homicides worldwide involve killing of an intimate partner, and men are four times more likely to be the perpetrators of these offenses. This article is a review of the literature on male perpetrators of intimate partner homicide (IPH) with an emphasis on the demographic, psychiatric, situational, and motivational characteristics consistently identified across diverse posthomicide samples. The existing literature supports the heterogeneity among male perpetrators of IPH. Based on patterns that emerge in the literature, a preliminary typology is described that includes four generally distinct subtypes of male IPH perpetrators: the mentally ill, the undercontrolled/dysregulated, chronic batterer, and overcontrolled/catathymic subtypes. Forensic implications related to risk assessment, risk management, and criminal intent are considered, and suggestions for future targeted research aimed at validating the proposed typology are offered.

  3. Motives Underlying Food Choice for Children and Perception of Nutritional Information Among Low-Income Mothers in a Latin American Country.

    PubMed

    Machín, Leandro; Giménez, Ana; Curutchet, María Rosa; Martínez, Joseline; Ares, Gastón

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of nutritional information on how low-income mothers select food for their children. Five focus groups, each consisting of 5-10 participants, were conducted. Women, older than 18 years, mothers of young children who were beneficiaries of one of the national food stamps programs in Uruguay. Focus group discussions were held around motives underlying food choices for children and perception of labeling systems. Transcripts of the focus group discussions were analyzed using inductive coding. Forty-two women, aged between 18 and 40 years, participated in 5 focus groups. Results showed that low-income mothers do not consider nutritional information when selecting food their children. Traditional nutritional labeling was perceived as complex, difficult to find, and difficult to understand. Participants stressed that they relied on the nutrition claims included on labels for assessing the healthfulness of food products. Semi-directive and directive front-of-pack labels were positively evaluated in terms of ease of interpretation. Participants preferred the traffic light system over other alternatives. Results suggest the need to implement simplified nutritional labeling and to regulate the use of nutrition claims on products targeted at children. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Relationship between Teachers' Ratings and Students' Self-Reported Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Patricia S.; And Others

    Reported are data from the initial use of the Motivation Checklist, a rating scale for teachers designed to help them think about student motivation problems in terms of an extended, research-based typology. Over 50 teachers rated 261 students in grades one through six who differed in their level of motivation and in their level of achievement.…

  5. Selective serotonin receptor stimulation of the medial nucleus accumbens differentially affects appetitive motivation for food on a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Wayne E; Schall, Megan A; Choi, Eugene

    2012-03-09

    Previously, we reported that stimulation of selective serotonin (5-HT) receptor subtypes in the nucleus accumbens shell differentially affected consumption of freely available food. Specifically, activation of 5-HT(6) receptors caused a dose-dependent increase in food intake, while the stimulation of 5-HT(1/7) receptor subtypes decreased feeding [34]. The current experiments tested whether similar pharmacological activation of nucleus accumbens serotonin receptors would also affect appetitive motivation, as measured by the amount of effort non-deprived rats exerted to earn sugar reinforcement. Rats were trained to lever press for sugar pellets on a progressive ratio 2 schedule of reinforcement. Across multiple treatment days, three separate groups (N=8-10) received bilateral infusions of the 5-HT(6) agonist EMD 386088 (at 0.0, 1.0 and 4.0 μg/0.5 μl/side), the 5-HT(1/7) agonist 5-CT (at 0, 0.5, 1.0, or 4.0 μg/0.5 μl/side), or the 5-HT(2C) agonist RO 60-0175 fumarate (at 0, 2.0, or 5.0 μg/0.5 μl/side) into the anterior medial nucleus accumbens prior to a 1-h progressive ratio session. Stimulation of 5-HT(6) receptors caused a dose-dependent increase in motivation as assessed by break point, reinforcers earned, and total active lever presses. Stimulation of 5-HT(1/7) receptors increased lever pressing at the 0.5 μg dose of 5-CT, but inhibited lever presses and break point at 4.0 μg/side. Injection of the 5-HT(2C) agonist had no effect on motivation within the task. Collectively, these experiments suggest that, in addition to their role in modulating food consumption, nucleus accumbens 5-HT(6) and 5-HT(1/7) receptors also differentially regulate the appetitive components of food-directed motivation.

  6. Selective serotonin receptor stimulation of the medial nucleus accumbens differentially affects appetitive motivation for food on a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Wayne E.; Schall, Megan A.; Choi, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Previously, we reported that stimulation of selective serotonin (5-HT) receptor subtypes in the nucleus accumbens shell differentially affected consumption of freely available food. Specifically, activation of 5-HT6 receptors caused a dose-dependent increase in food intake, while the stimulation of 5-HT1/7 receptor subtypes decreased feeding [34]. The current experiments tested whether similar pharmacological activation of nucleus accumbens serotonin receptors would also affect appetitive motivation, as measured by the amount of effort non-deprived rats exerted to earn sugar reinforcement. Rats were trained to lever press for sugar pellets on a progressive ratio 2 schedule of reinforcement. Across multiple treatment days, three separate groups (N = 8–10) received bilateral infusions of the 5-HT6 agonist EMD 386088 (at 0.0, 1.0 and 4.0 μg/0.5 μl/side), the 5-HT1/7 agonist 5-CT (at 0, 0.5, 1.0, or 4.0 μg/0.5 μl/side), or the 5-HT2C agonist RO 60-0175 fumarate (at 0, 2.0, or 5.0 μg/0.5 μl/side) into the anterior medial nucleus accumbens prior to a 1-hr progressive ratio session. Stimulation of 5-HT6 receptors caused a dose-dependent increase in motivation as assessed by break point, reinforcers earned, and total active lever presses. Stimulation of 5-HT1/7 receptors increased lever pressing at the 0.5 μg dose of 5-CT, but inhibited lever presses and break point at 4.0 μg/side. Injection of the 5- HT2C agonist had no effect on motivation within the task. Collectively, these experiments suggest that, in addition to their role in modulating food consumption, nucleus accumbens 5-HT6 and 5-HT1/7 receptors also differentially regulate the appetitive components of food-directed motivation. PMID:22306095

  7. Eating habits and subjective well-being. A typology of students in Chilean state universities.

    PubMed

    Schnettler, Berta; Miranda, Horacio; Lobos, Germán; Orellana, Ligia; Sepúlveda, José; Denegri, Marianela; Etchebarne, Soledad; Mora, Marcos; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to distinguish and characterize university student typologies according to their life satisfaction and satisfaction with their food-related life. An online survey was applied between June and August 2013 in five state universities in Chile, to 369 university students (mean age = 20.9 years, SD = 2.27). The survey included the Health-related Quality of Life Index-4 (HRQOL), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Satisfaction with Food-related Life Scale (SWFL), as well as questions about the place of residence, importance of food for well-being, frequency of meals in the place of residence and the frequency of consumption of eight food groups. A cluster analysis was used to determine student typologies. Three typologies of students were distinguished with significant differences in the average scores of the SWLS and SWFL scales, self-perception of health, days with mental health problems, number of days of health-related incapacity, place of residence, socioeconomic status, importance of food for well-being, frequency of breakfast and dinner in the place of residence, frequency of consumption of meat, milk, fruits and vegetables. It was found that most students with higher levels of life satisfaction and satisfaction with food-related life live with their parents, eat at home more frequently, report fewer health problems, have healthful eating habits and consider food very important for their well-being. Although it is necessary to promote or improve the campaigns that foster healthful eating in the entire university population, these campaigns must be specifically targeted to students who do not receive direct support from their families. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A sipometer for measuring motivation to consume and reward value of foods and beverages in humans: Description and proof of principle.

    PubMed

    Hogenkamp, P S; Shechter, A; St-Onge, M-P; Sclafani, A; Kissileff, H R

    2017-03-15

    New methods, derived from animal work, for measuring food reward value (i.e. reinforcing value of food), and motivation (i.e. strength of desire) to consume, in humans are described and validated. A sipping device (sipometer) was developed that permits access to a liquid food or beverage on two reward schedules: continuous reinforcement (CR) and progressively increasing time spent exerting pressure on a straw (PR-schedule). In addition, a pictorial scale showing a cup, from which the 'amount wanted' could be marked was used to pre-test potential consumption. Intake, time spent sipping, breakpoint, and pressure exerted were the main dependent variables measured. Three pilot experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, participants (n=8) consumed yogurt shakes after a 1-h or 21-h food deprivation period on both schedules. In Experiment 2, participants (n=8) sham-consumed (i.e. spit out) sweet and non-sweet beverages, utilizing both schedules. In Experiment 3, sham-consuming sweet and non-sweet beverages on both schedules and working for shake on the PR schedule were repeated, after three nights of either habitual sleep or short sleep duration (n=7) in a crossover design. In Experiment 1, participants sipped longer after 21-h vs. 1-h of food deprivation (13±3.0 vs. 8.0±2.1s; p=0.04), on the PR schedule. In Experiment 2, sham-intake (p=0.01) and sipping time (p=0.04) were greater for sweet than non-sweet beverages on the PR schedule and a similar, though not conventionally significant, effect was observed for exerted pressure (p=0.09). In both Experiment 2 and Experiment 3 after habitual sleep, on the PR schedule, cumulative pressure difference between sweet and non-sweet beverage increased with difference in amount wanted in the taste test. In contrast, after short sleep participants were less willing to work for sweet taste as their wanting increased, suggesting that sleep deprivation raises desire, but lowers behavioral output. Taken together these results

  9. Drug user settings: a crack house typology.

    PubMed

    Geter, R S

    1994-06-01

    Both lay persons and members of the scientific community have come to view the inner-city crack house as a facility where drug dealers and crack addicts sell, buy, and use crack cocaine. It is suggested in this article that the term "crack house" be unbundled into four more meaningful terms based on the physical conditions of the house, its functionality, and the social relationships that it supports. Two typologies are proposed. The first separates drug houses into four general categories: (1) Crack House, (2) Cop House, (3) Drug House III, and (4) Drug House IV. The second typology categorizes the Crack House into four types: (A) the Party House, (B) the Hit House, (C) the Smoke House, and (D) the Bandominium. Each of these types is explored in detail.

  10. A typology of specialists' clinical roles.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Christopher B

    2009-06-08

    High use of specialist physicians and specialized procedures coupled with low exposure to primary care are distinguishing traits of the US health care system. Although the tasks of the primary care medical home are well established, consensus on the normative clinical roles of specialist physicians has not been achieved, which makes it unlikely that the specialist workforce is being used most effectively and efficiently. This article describes a typology of specialists' clinical roles that is based on the conceptual basis for health care specialism and empirical evaluations of the specialty referral process. The report concludes with a discussion on the implications of the typology for improving the effectiveness and efficiency of the primary-specialty care interface.

  11. Towards a typology of virtual patients.

    PubMed

    Huwendiek, Sören; De leng, Bas A; Zary, Nabil; Fischer, Martin R; Ruiz, Jorge G; Ellaway, Rachel

    2009-08-01

    Although on-screen "virtual patients (VPs)" have been around for decades it is only now that they are entering the mainstream, and as such they are new to most of the medical education community. There is significant variety in the form, function, and efficacy of different VPs and there is, therefore, a growing need to clarify and distinguish between them. This article seeks to clarify VP concepts and approaches using a typology of VP designs. The authors developed a VP design typology based on the literature, a review of existing VP systems, and their personal experience with VPs. This draft framework was refined using a Delphi study involving experts in the field, and was then validated by applying it in the description of different VP designs. Nineteen factors were synthesized around four categories: general (title, description, language, identifier, provenance, and typical study time); educational (educational level, educational modes, coverage, and objectives); instructional design (path type, user modality, media use, narrative use, interactivity use, and feedback use); technical (originating system, format, integration, and dependence). This empirically derived VP design typology provides a common reference point for all those wishing to report on or study VPs.

  12. [Essentialism and typological thinking in biological systematics].

    PubMed

    Vasil'eva, L N

    2003-01-01

    In biological literature, essentialism and typological thinking are believed to be incompatible with evolutionary ideas. At present, the same considerations underlay the claims to abandon the Linnaean hierarchy, or the fundamental classificatory structure rooted in essentialism. This paper suggests to reconsider the negative views of Plato's typology and Aristotle's essentialism following the narrow interpretations that have nothing to do with the classification of living beings. Plato's theory of 'ideas' (or 'forms') is the basis of classificatory theory; it provided such concepts as 'species', 'genus', 'essence', 'dichotomous division' but the development of this theory in the framework of moral and esthetic values could not be beneficial to biology. Aristotle's essentialism is more complicated and exists in two forms; one of these, or classificatory essentialism, is a modification of Plato's typology; another one, or organismal essentialism, represents the shift of 'essence' from the world of relations between objects to the realm of particular things, where the concept of essence lost its basic meaning. It is senseless to look for unreal 'type of an organism' ('essence of a thing') but precisely this kind of essentialism is attractive for biologists and philosophers. Organismal essentialism is the underlying basis of so-called 'individuality thesis' that is used as a weapon against classificatory essentialism. The same thesis is associated with an extensional vision of taxa that also explains the criticism of Linnaean hierarchy, while the latter is the intentional structure and the first tool suggested for the rank coordination of many unequal taxa.

  13. Food quality and motivation: a refined low-fat diet induces obesity and impairs performance on a progressive ratio schedule of instrumental lever pressing in rats.

    PubMed

    Blaisdell, Aaron P; Lau, Yan Lam Matthew; Telminova, Ekatherina; Lim, Hwee Cheei; Fan, Boyang; Fast, Cynthia D; Garlick, Dennis; Pendergrass, David C

    2014-04-10

    Purified high-fat diet (HFD) feeding causes deleterious metabolic and cognitive effects when compared with unrefined low-fat diets in rodent models. These effects are often attributed to the diet's high content of fat, while less attention has been paid to other mechanisms associated with the diet's highly refined state. Although the effects of HFD feeding on cognition have been explored, little is known about the impact of refined vs. unrefined food on cognition. We tested the hypothesis that a refined low-fat diet (LFD) increases body weight and adversely affects cognition relative to an unrefined diet. Rats were allowed ad libitum access to unrefined rodent chow (CON, Lab Diets 5001) or a purified low-fat diet (REF, Research Diets D12450B) for 6 months, and body weight and performance on an instrumental lever pressing task were recorded. After six months on their respective diets, group REF gained significantly more weight than group CON. REF rats made significantly fewer lever presses and exhibited dramatically lower breaking points than CON rats for sucrose and water reinforcement, indicating a chronic reduction of motivation for instrumental performance. Switching the rats' diet for 9 days had no effect on these measures. Diet-induced obesity produces a substantial deficit in motivated behavior in rats, independent of dietary fat content. This holds implications for an association between obesity and motivation. Specifically, behavioral traits comorbid with obesity, such as depression and fatigue, may be effects of obesity rather than contributing causes. To the degree that refined foods contribute to obesity, as demonstrated in our study, they may play a significant contributing role to other behavioral and cognitive disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Food motivation circuitry hypoactivation related to hedonic and nonhedonic aspects of hunger and satiety in women with active anorexia nervosa and weight-restored women with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Holsen, Laura M; Lawson, Elizabeth A; Blum, Justine; Ko, Eunice; Makris, Nikos; Fazeli, Pouneh K; Klibanski, Anne; Goldstein, Jill M

    2012-09-01

    Previous studies have provided evidence of food motivation circuitry dysfunction in individuals with anorexia nervosa. However, methodological limitations present challenges to the development of a cohesive neurobiological model of anorexia nervosa. Our goal was to investigate the neural circuitry of appetite dysregulation across states of hunger and satiety in active and weight-restored phases of anorexia nervosa using robust methodology to advance our understanding of potential neural circuitry abnormalities related to hedonic and nonhedonic state and trait. We scanned women with active anorexia nervosa, weight-restored women with anorexia nervosa and healthy-weight controls on a 3-T Siemens magnetic resonance scanner while they viewed images of high- and low-calorie foods and objects before (premeal) and after (postmeal) eating a 400 kcal meal. We enrolled 12 women with active disease, 10 weight-restored women with anorexia nervosa and 11 controls in our study. Compared with controls, both weight-restored women and those with active disease demonstrated hypoactivity premeal in the hypothalamus, amygdala and anterior insula in response to high-calorie foods (v. objects). Postmeal, hypoactivation in the anterior insula persisted in women with active disease. Percent signal change in the anterior insula was positively correlated with food stimuli ratings and hedonic and nonhedonic appetite ratings in controls, but not women with active disease. Our findings are limited by a relatively small sample size, which prevented the use of an analysis of variance model and exploration of interaction effects, although our substantial effect sizes of between-group differences suggest adequate power for our statistical analysis approach. Participants taking psychotropic medications were included. Our data provide evidence of potential state and trait hypoactivations in food motivation regions involved in the assessment of food's reward value and integration of these with

  15. Hedonic Hunger Is Related to Increased Neural and Perceptual Responses to Cues of Palatable Food and Motivation to Consume: Evidence from 3 Independent Investigations12

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Kyle S; Sanders, Abigail J; Gilbert, Jennifer R

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Power of Food Scale (PFS) seeks to identify individuals who experience high appetitive drive in response to food cues, which is a construct termed “hedonic hunger.” Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess cross-sectional correlates and predictive power of PFS scores to probe the construct of hedonic hunger. Methods: Separate data from 3 studies (study 1, n = 44; study 2, n = 398; study 3, n = 100) were used to evaluate the construct of hedonic hunger. We examined the correlations between the PFS and neural responsivity during intake and anticipated intake of palatable foods, behavioral food reinforcement, perceptual hedonic ratings of food images, and change in body mass index (BMI) and binge eating over time. Results: Hedonic hunger was strongly related to bilateral brain response in regions implicated in oral somatosensory processing during cue-elicited anticipation of food intake (study 1; right postcentral gyrus: r = 0.67, P < 0.001; left postcentral gyrus: r = 0.64, P < 0.001), and was correlated with behavioral food reinforcement (study 2; r = 0.31, P = 0.03) and perceptual hedonic ratings (study 3; r = 0.24, P = 0.02). Hedonic hunger was not associated with baseline BMI (studies 1–3: P = 0.14, 0.21, and 0.37, respectively) or change in BMI over the 2-y follow-up (studies 1 and 2: P = 0.14 and 0.37, respectively) but was significantly correlated with baseline binge eating in 2 samples (study 1: r = 0.58, P = 0.001; study 2: r = 0.31, P = 0.02; and study 3: P = 0.02). Conclusions: Hedonic hunger was not predictive of weight regulation. However, individuals who report high hedonic hunger are likely to show increased neural and perceptual responses to cues of palatable foods, increased motivation to consume such foods, and a greater likelihood of current binge eating. PMID:27489006

  16. Food motivation circuitry hypoactivation related to hedonic and nonhedonic aspects of hunger and satiety in women with active anorexia nervosa and weight-restored women with anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Holsen, Laura M.; Lawson, Elizabeth A.; Blum, Justine; Ko, Eunice; Makris, Nikos; Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Klibanski, Anne; Goldstein, Jill M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies have provided evidence of food motivation circuitry dysfunction in individuals with anorexia nervosa. However, methodological limitations present challenges to the development of a cohesive neurobiological model of anorexia nervosa. Our goal was to investigate the neural circuitry of appetite dysregulation across states of hunger and satiety in active and weight-restored phases of anorexia nervosa using robust methodology to advance our understanding of potential neural circuitry abnormalities related to hedonic and nonhedonic state and trait. Methods We scanned women with active anorexia nervosa, weight-restored women with anorexia nervosa and healthy-weight controls on a 3-T Siemens magnetic resonance scanner while they viewed images of high- and low-calorie foods and objects before (premeal) and after (postmeal) eating a 400 kcal meal. Results We enrolled 12 women with active disease, 10 weight-restored women with anorexia nervosa and 11 controls in our study. Compared with controls, both weight-restored women and those with active disease demonstrated hypoactivity premeal in the hypothalamus, amygdala and anterior insula in response to high-calorie foods (v. objects). Postmeal, hypoactivation in the anterior insula persisted in women with active disease. Percent signal change in the anterior insula was positively correlated with food stimuli ratings and hedonic and nonhedonic appetite ratings in controls, but not women with active disease. Limitations Our findings are limited by a relatively small sample size, which prevented the use of an analysis of variance model and exploration of interaction effects, although our substantial effect sizes of between-group differences suggest adequate power for our statistical analysis approach. Participants taking psychotropic medications were included. Conclusion Our data provide evidence of potential state and trait hypoactivations in food motivation regions involved in the assessment of food

  17. Motivations to eat are related to diet quality and food intake in overweight and obese, low-income women in early postpartum.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Jodi M; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H; Shah, Bijal S; Lu, Hongxing

    2010-10-01

    Healthful dietary practices and a return to prepregnancy weight are of significant importance in the prevention of obesity for women. The Eating Stimulus Index (ESI) was used to determine the relationship between motivations to eat and diet quality and food intake in 115 overweight/obese, low-income women in early postpartum. In this cross-sectional design, participants completed the ESI and food frequency questionnaire. Diet quality was assessed using the Dietary Guidelines Adherence Index. Diet quality was related to greater fruit and vegetable availability, convenience eating resistance, and vegetable taste preference. Women with high fruit and vegetable availability consumed more vegetables, as compared to those with low availability. High convenience eating resistance was associated with lower discretionary energy intakes. High taste preference for vegetables was related to greater intakes of these foods. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that convenience eating resistance was the strongest predictor of diet quality followed by vegetable taste preference, and fruit and vegetable availability. Convenience eating resistance was also the strongest predictor of discretionary energy intake. In conclusion, women who were less vulnerable to environmental eating cues, had greater fruit and vegetable availability, and preferred the taste of vegetables consumed a more healthful diet. Thus, the ESI may be a useful screening tool for the design of personalized weight loss messages in the treatment of obesity.

  18. L3 Syntactic Transfer Selectivity and Typological Determinacy: The Typological Primacy Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Jason

    2011-01-01

    The present article addresses the following question: what variables condition syntactic transfer? Evidence is provided in support of the position that third language (L3) transfer is selective, whereby, at least under certain conditions, it is driven by the typological proximity of the target L3 measured against the other previously acquired…

  19. L3 Syntactic Transfer Selectivity and Typological Determinacy: The Typological Primacy Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Jason

    2011-01-01

    The present article addresses the following question: what variables condition syntactic transfer? Evidence is provided in support of the position that third language (L3) transfer is selective, whereby, at least under certain conditions, it is driven by the typological proximity of the target L3 measured against the other previously acquired…

  20. Personality Typology in Relation to Muscle Strength

    PubMed Central

    Terracciano, Antonio; Milaneschi, Yuri; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity plays a central role in the age-related decline in muscle strength, an important component in the process leading to disability. Personality, a significant determinant of health behaviors including physical activity, could therefore impact muscle strength throughout adulthood and affect the rate of muscle strength decline with aging. Personality typologies combining “high neuroticism” (N≥55), “low extraversion” (E<45), and “low conscientiousness” (C<45) have been associated with multiple risky health behaviors but have not been investigated with regards to muscle strength. Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate associations between individual and combined typologies consisting of high N, low E, and low C and muscle strength, and whether physical activity and body mass index act as mediators. Method This cross-sectional study includes 1,220 participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Results High N was found among 18%, low E among 31%, and low C among 26% of the sample. High levels of N, particularly when combined with either low E or low C, were associated with lower muscle strength compared with having only one or none of these personality types. Facet analyses suggest an important role for the N components of depression and hostility. Physical activity level appears to partly explain some of these associations. Conclusion Findings provide support for the notion that the typological approach to personality may be useful in identifying specific personality types at risk of low muscle strength and offer the possibility for more targeted prevention and intervention programs. PMID:21614452

  1. Genetics of Lesch's typology of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Samochowiec, Jerzy; Kucharska-Mazur, Jolanta; Grzywacz, Anna; Pelka-Wysiecka, Justyna; Mak, Monika; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Bienkowski, Przemyslaw

    2008-02-15

    It is widely accepted that dopamine and serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission can be critically involved in the development of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. Lesch's typology of alcoholism has been gaining increasing popularity as it qualitatively differentiates patients into different treatment response subgroups. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a possible genetic background of Lesch's typology with special emphasis placed on dopamine- and serotonin-related genes. 122 alcoholics (the mean age: 35+/-9 years) were investigated. According to Lesch's typology, 58 patients were of type I, 36 patients of type II, 11 patients of type III, and 17 patients of type IV. Alcohol drinking and family history was assessed by means of a structured interview, based on the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism. 150 control subjects without psychiatric disorders were also recruited. The control group was ethnically-, age- and gender-matched to the patients. The DRD2 TaqIA, exon 8, and promoter -141C ins/del polymorphisms as well as COMT Val158Met, 5HTT 44 bp del in promoter, and DAT 40 bp VNTR polymorphisms were detected by means of PCR. No significant differences were observed when the whole group of alcoholics and the controls were compared. Similarly, there were no differences between either the Lesch type I or type II alcoholics and the control subjects. No significant differences were observed between type I and type II alcoholics. Alleles frequencies were not calculated for the Lesch type III and type IV alcoholics since the number of patients was too small. The present results argue against any major role of the investigated polymorphisms in either Lesch type I or type II alcoholism. More comprehensive studies are needed to define the role of the investigated polymorphisms in Lesch type III and type IV alcoholism.

  2. Campus Community Involvement in an Experimental Food Research Project Increases Students' Motivation and Improves Perceived Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goto, K.; Bianco-Simeral, S.

    2009-01-01

    Although the effects of pedagogical strategies using collaborative learning on students' perceived learning outcomes have been studied, little has been examined about possible benefits and challenges in collaborating with the campus community in a food science research project conducted by nutrition majors. We examined the effects of involving…

  3. Campus Community Involvement in an Experimental Food Research Project Increases Students' Motivation and Improves Perceived Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goto, K.; Bianco-Simeral, S.

    2009-01-01

    Although the effects of pedagogical strategies using collaborative learning on students' perceived learning outcomes have been studied, little has been examined about possible benefits and challenges in collaborating with the campus community in a food science research project conducted by nutrition majors. We examined the effects of involving…

  4. An information typology for understanding living systems.

    PubMed

    Banathy, B A

    1998-04-01

    It is argued that we can improve our understanding of living systems by focusing on their informational processes. Recent developments, primarily in evolutionary biology, cybernetics and systems theory, suggest that informational processes are of at least two, and probably three, different types; and that the interaction of these types can be seen as a basis for the self-construction of living systems. Following the work of Csanyi and Kampis, a distinction is drawn between referential and nonreferential information. This typology is further extended to include statereferential information. The statereferential type serves to lend stability to informational arrangements (organization) that are viable so that they may be propagated in space and time.

  5. A Typology of Marital Quality of Enduring Marriages in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Orna; Geron, Yael; Farchi, Alva

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a typology of enduring marriages of Israeli couples married for at least 40 years. Based on the view that marital quality is a multidimensional phenomenon, the typology is derived from a cluster analysis of responses of husbands and wives in 51 couples to the ENRICH scale items. Three types of enduring marriages were found:…

  6. A Typology of Marital Quality of Enduring Marriages in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Orna; Geron, Yael; Farchi, Alva

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a typology of enduring marriages of Israeli couples married for at least 40 years. Based on the view that marital quality is a multidimensional phenomenon, the typology is derived from a cluster analysis of responses of husbands and wives in 51 couples to the ENRICH scale items. Three types of enduring marriages were found:…

  7. The Network Form of Implementing Educational Programs: Differences and Typology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobolev, Alexandr Borisovich

    2016-01-01

    The article describes peculiarities of implementation and major differences in network educational programs, currently introduced in Russia. It presents a general typology of models and forms for implementing interaction between educational institutions of Russia, including teacher institutes and federal universities, as well as a typology of…

  8. Deriving a Typology of Web 2.0 Learning Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Matt

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the methods and outcomes of a typological analysis of Web 2.0 technologies. A comprehensive review incorporating over 2000 links led to identification of over 200 Web 2.0 technologies that were suitable for learning and teaching purposes. The typological analysis involved development of relevant Web 2.0 dimensions, grouping…

  9. Who Is Doing Well? A Typology of Newly Homeless Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Norweeta; Liang, Li-Jung; Lee, Sung-Jae; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Rosenthal, Doreen; Mallett, Shelley; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Lester, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    There is growing evidence to support developing new typologies for homeless adolescents. Current typologies focus on the risks associated with being homeless, with less consideration of the positive attributes of homeless adolescents. The authors examined both risk and protective factors in a sample of newly homeless adolescents. Using cluster…

  10. Mentoring: A Typology of Costs for Higher Education Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsford, Laura G.; Baker, Vicki; Griffin, Kimberly A.; Johnson, W. Brad

    2013-01-01

    In this theoretical paper, we apply a social exchange framework to understand mentors' negative experiences. We propose a typology of costs, categorized according to psychosocial and career mentoring functions. Our typology generates testable research propositions. Psychosocial costs of mentoring are burnout, anger, and grief or loss. Career…

  11. Adapting a tourism crime typology: classifying outdoor recreation crime

    Treesearch

    Joanne F. Tynon; Deborah J. Chavez

    2006-01-01

    Using a qualitative aproach, the authors tested a crime typology developed for tourism destinations in a U.S. National Forest recreation setting. Specific objectives were to classify the attributes of crime and violence, examine the effects of crime and violence on visitor demand, and suggest methods of prevention and recovery. A key modification to the crime typology...

  12. Deriving a Typology of Web 2.0 Learning Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Matt

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the methods and outcomes of a typological analysis of Web 2.0 technologies. A comprehensive review incorporating over 2000 links led to identification of over 200 Web 2.0 technologies that were suitable for learning and teaching purposes. The typological analysis involved development of relevant Web 2.0 dimensions, grouping…

  13. The Network Form of Implementing Educational Programs: Differences and Typology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobolev, Alexandr Borisovich

    2016-01-01

    The article describes peculiarities of implementation and major differences in network educational programs, currently introduced in Russia. It presents a general typology of models and forms for implementing interaction between educational institutions of Russia, including teacher institutes and federal universities, as well as a typology of…

  14. Planned Educational Change: A Typology of Overlapping Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Meter, Eddy J.

    As a means of organizing the diverse literature on and approaches to planned educational change, the author proposes a typology that focuses on change perspectives. Whereas previously proposed typologies classified approaches to change according to the change strategies or processes utilized, the current proposal urges using "change…

  15. Evaluation of a Postoperative Pain-Like State on Motivated Behavior in Rats: Effects of Plantar Incision on Progressive-Ratio Food-Maintained Responding.

    PubMed

    Warner, Emily; Krivitsky, Rebecca; Cone, Katherine; Atherton, Phillip; Pitre, Travis; Lanpher, Janell; Giuvelis, Denise; Bergquist, Ivy; King, Tamara; Bilsky, Edward J; Stevenson, Glenn W

    2015-12-01

    There has been recent interest in characterizing the effects of pain-like states on motivated behaviors in order to quantify how pain modulates goal-directed behavior and the persistence of that behavior. The current set of experiments assessed the effects of an incisional postoperative pain manipulation on food-maintained responding under a progressive-ratio (PR) operant schedule. Independent variables included injury state (plantar incision or anesthesia control) and reinforcer type (grain pellet or sugar pellet); dependent variables were tactile sensory thresholds and response breakpoint. Once responding stabilized on the PR schedule, separate groups of rats received a single ventral hind paw incision or anesthesia (control condition). Incision significantly reduced breakpoints in rats responding for grain, but not sugar. In rats responding for sugar, tactile hypersensitivity recovered within 24 hr, indicating a faster recovery of incision-induced tactile hypersensitivity compared to rats responding for grain, which demonstrated recovery at PD2. The NSAID analgesic, diclofenac (5.6 mg/kg) completely restored incision-depressed PR operant responding and tactile sensitivity at 3 hr following incision. The PR schedule differentiated between sucrose and grain, suggesting that relative reinforcing efficacy may be an important determinant in detecting pain-induced changes in motivated behavior.

  16. Evaluation of a post-operative pain-like state on motivated behavior in rats: Effects of plantar incision on progressive-ratio food-maintained responding

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Emily; Krivitsky, Rebecca; Cone, Katherine; Atherton, Phillip; Pitre, Travis; Lanpher, Janell; Giuvelis, Denise; Bergquist, Ivy; King, Tamara; Bilsky, Edward J.; Stevenson, Glenn W.

    2015-01-01

    There has been recent interest in characterizing the effects of pain-like states on motivated behaviors in order to quantify how pain modulates goal-directed behavior and the persistence of that behavior. The current set of experiments assessed the effects of an incisional post-operative pain manipulation on food-maintained responding under a progressive-ratio (PR) operant schedule. Independent variables included injury state (plantar incision or anesthesia control) and reinforcer type (grain pellet or sugar pellet); dependent variables were tactile sensory thresholds and response breakpoint. Once responding stabilized on the PR schedule, separate groups of rats received a single ventral hind paw incision or anesthesia (control condition). Incision significantly reduced breakpoints in rats responding for grain, but not sugar. In rats responding for sugar, tactile hypersensitivity recovered within 24 hrs, indicating a faster recovery of incision-induced tactile hypersensitivity compared to rats responding for grain, which demonstrated recovery at PD2. The NSAID analgesic, diclofenac (5.6 mg/kg) completely restored incision-depressed PR operant responding and tactile sensitivity at 3 hr following incision. The PR schedule differentiated between sucrose and grain, suggesting that relative reinforcing efficacy may be an important determinant in detecting pain-induced changes in motivated behavior. PMID:26494422

  17. Typologies of alcohol dependence. From Jellinek to genetics and beyond.

    PubMed

    Leggio, Lorenzo; Kenna, George A; Fenton, Miriam; Bonenfant, Erica; Swift, Robert M

    2009-03-01

    The goal of typology research is to identify subtypes of alcohol dependent (AD) patients sharing fundamental characteristics and try to match each subtype, with the most precise treatment strategy. This review provides a comprehensive history of the literature on alcohol dependent subtypes starting from the earliest attempt made by Jellinek. The binary models identified most closely with Cloninger and Babor as well as the successively more complex classifications are discussed. Typology classification potentially useful in guiding the treatment of AD patients, especially in the case of the serotonergic medications. Contrasting data suggests that other factors could influence the response to a medication and/or that more complex typologies should be identified. In summary, typology models may assist in the ascertainment criteria for clinical trials performed in behavioral and pharmacotherapeutic interventions. Greater emphasis, however, must be made to more clearly delineate this field of research, while moving toward more standardized typologies.

  18. Neighbourhood typology based on virtual audit of environmental obesogenic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Feuillet, T; Charreire, H; Roda, C; Ben Rebah, M; Mackenbach, J D; Compernolle, S; Glonti, K; Bárdos, H; Rutter, H; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; McKee, M; Brug, J; Lakerveld, J; Oppert, J-M

    2016-01-01

    Virtual audit (using tools such as Google Street View) can help assess multiple characteristics of the physical environment. This exposure assessment can then be associated with health outcomes such as obesity. Strengths of virtual audit include collection of large amount of data, from various geographical contexts, following standard protocols. Using data from a virtual audit of obesity-related features carried out in five urban European regions, the current study aimed to (i) describe this international virtual audit dataset and (ii) identify neighbourhood patterns that can synthesize the complexity of such data and compare patterns across regions. Data were obtained from 4,486 street segments across urban regions in Belgium, France, Hungary, the Netherlands and the UK. We used multiple factor analysis and hierarchical clustering on principal components to build a typology of neighbourhoods and to identify similar/dissimilar neighbourhoods, regardless of region. Four neighbourhood clusters emerged, which differed in terms of food environment, recreational facilities and active mobility features, i.e. the three indicators derived from factor analysis. Clusters were unequally distributed across urban regions. Neighbourhoods mostly characterized by a high level of outdoor recreational facilities were predominantly located in Greater London, whereas neighbourhoods characterized by high urban density and large amounts of food outlets were mostly located in Paris. Neighbourhoods in the Randstad conurbation, Ghent and Budapest appeared to be very similar, characterized by relatively lower residential densities, greener areas and a very low percentage of streets offering food and recreational facility items. These results provide multidimensional constructs of obesogenic characteristics that may help target at-risk neighbourhoods more effectively than isolated features.

  19. Nucleus accumbens neurotransmission and effort-related choice behavior in food motivation: effects of drugs acting on dopamine, adenosine, and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Eric J; Randall, Patrick A; Podurgiel, Samantha; Correa, Mercè; Salamone, John D

    2013-11-01

    Mesolimbic dopamine (DA) is a critical component of the brain circuitry regulating behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Although nucleus accumbens (NAc) DA depletions or antagonism leave aspects of appetite and primary food motivation intact, rats with impaired DA transmission reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks with high response requirements, and instead select less effortful food-seeking behaviors. Previous work showed that adenosine A2A antagonists can reverse the effects of DA D2 antagonists on effort-related choice, and that stimulation of adenosine A2A receptors produces behavioral effects that are similar to those induced by DA antagonism. The present review summarizes the literature on the role of NAc DA and adenosine in effort-related processes, and also presents original data on the effects of local stimulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in NAc core. Local injections of the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine directly into NAc core produces shifts in effort-related choice behavior similar to those induced by DA antagonism or A2A receptor stimulation, decreasing lever pressing but increasing chow intake in rats responding on a concurrent fixed ratio/chow feeding choice task. In contrast, injections into a neostriatal control site dorsal to the NAc were ineffective. The actions of pilocarpine on this task were attenuated by co-administration of the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine. Thus, drugs that act on DA, adenosine A2A, and muscarinic receptors regulate effort-related choice behavior, which may have implications for the treatment of psychiatric symptoms such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia that can be observed in depression and other disorders.

  20. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the detection of economically motivated adulteration in protein-containing foods.

    PubMed

    MacMahon, Shaun; Begley, Timothy H; Diachenko, Gregory W; Stromgren, Selen A

    2012-01-13

    A new analytical method was developed to determine the presence of six (6) compounds with the potential to be used in economic adulteration to enhance the nitrogen content in milk products and bulk proteins. Residues were extracted from the matrix with 2% formic acid, after which acetonitrile (ACN) was added to induce precipitation of the proteins. Extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography using a ZIC-HILIC column with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using electrospray ionization (ESI). Single-laboratory method validation data was collected in six matrices fortified at concentrations down to 1.0 μg/g (ppm). Average recoveries and average relative standard deviations (RSD) using spiked matrix calibration standard curves were the following: cyromazine (CY) 95.9% (7.5% RSD), dicyandiamide (DC) 98.1% (5.6% RSD), urea 102.5% (8.6% RSD), biuret (BU) 97.2% (6.6% RSD), triuret (TU) 97.7% (5.7% RSD), and amidinourea (AU) 93.4% (7.4% RSD). This method provides a rapid and effective approach to proactively combat economically motivated adulteration in protein-containing products.

  1. Motivations to Become Vocational Education and Training Educators: A Person-Oriented Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Jean-Louis; D'Ascoli, Yannick

    2012-01-01

    Given the scarcity of educators in Swiss vocational education and training (VET) and the lack of scientific knowledge about these individuals, the aim of the present study was to investigate motivations to become VET educators. In order to focus on individuals instead of variables, a typological approach was adopted and motivational profiles were…

  2. The Motivation of Problem-Based Teaching and Learning in Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yingxue, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Problem-Based Learning (PBL) has been one of the popular pedagogical strategies these years. PBL is about students connecting disciplinary knowledge to real-world problems--the motivation to solve a problem. To recognize general elements and typological differences of language in translation is the motivation to solve real problems such as…

  3. Neuronal typology of Gallotia galloti optic tectum.

    PubMed

    Morales, M C; Monzón, M; Yanes, C; Diaz, C; Martin, A; Marrero, A

    1989-01-01

    The object of this work has been to show neuronal typology and stratification of the optic tectum in Gallotia galloti adult specimens so as to have a basic model for the neuronal genesis study. As methodology Nissl and Golgi-Stensaas technique were employed. Six strata have been identified that include 14 layers where the neuronal types can be included, poligonals, bipolar, monopolar and stellate types. The stratification of the optic tectum in the 14 layers is corroborated in Reptiles, a fact which is maintained in birds, and is reduced in amphibians, urodels, and fish here the reptil optic tectum presentes an extraordinary importance in the study of the auditive and visual vias in phylogeny.

  4. A predictive typology for characterising hydromorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, H. G.; Large, A. R. G.; Newson, M. D.; Walsh, C. L.

    2008-08-01

    Whilst traditionally poorly quantified, the link between physical habitat and ecological response in rivers is widely recognised, and is currently rising up legislative and policy agendas. In Europe, this is reflected in the Water Framework Directive which dictates that 'hydromorphological' condition of water bodies should be capable of supporting 'Good Ecological Status'. Methods are developed that integrate river system hydrology, geomorphology and ecology (and the complex interplay between these three variables). Whilst hydrological and biological methods for characterisation are relatively well established, geomorphological methods are not. Effective characterisation of geomorphology (physical habitat) with full spatial coverage, at a range of scales, can be used to explore spatial interactions between habitat and biological data and potentially further our understanding of ecological response. Managers need to know what aspects of physical habitat and at which critical locations intervention will lead to greatest improvements in ecological condition. This requires information on hydromorphological character and condition. Existing applied approaches for capturing geomorphological data are highly dependent on intensive fieldwork, which is unlikely to be resourced at sufficiently extensive scales to meet management needs. This paper outlines a typology approach for characterising the physical template of rivers. It draws on a range of hydromorphological data to develop a framework for a channel typology; with data collation from secondary sources followed by targeted fieldwork to (i) assess to what extent individual channel types are characteristic of field conditions and (ii) to collect information on reach-scale variability within each type. Results suggest that characterisation of channel types based on stream power, floodplain width and stream order does result in a distinct set of channel types. Field survey subsequently found that these types had a

  5. Living through gynaecological cancer: three typologies.

    PubMed

    Sekse, Ragnhild J T; Råheim, Målfrid; Blåka, Gunnhild; Gjengedal, Eva

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this qualitative study is to highlight how women experienced living through gynaecological cancer. The increasing number of long-term survivors after cancer has created a greater need for knowledge about how patients live through the illness. A qualitative design, with a phenomenological-hermeneutical perspective, provided the framework for the study. Thirty-two unstructured in-depth interviews with 16 women were conducted. Each woman was interviewed twice: one year apart, and five and six years after treatment, respectively. Stepwise meaning condensation was used to analyse the data. Based on the women's first-hand stories about their experiences with cancer, we identified three typologies, describing different ways in which the women negotiated encountering and living through cancer. These typologies are the emotion- and relationship-oriented women, the activity-oriented women and the self-controlled women. There are substantial differences regarding how women process the experience of cancer. The findings add valuable knowledge about the impact cancer can have on women's lives and can be of help for nurses who support patients during treatment and follow-up. Understanding different ways women can experience living through cancer is fundamental for the development and improvement of cancer care. Allowing time for the women to talk with nurses about their cancer experiences could be essential during treatment and follow-up. Nurses can support the women by listening to their stories, accepting their emotions and informing them in detail. The findings in this study imply that strengthening nurses' listening and conversational competence can be of importance for supporting patients after cancer. By building on the women's own stories, it might be possible to create a follow-up process that is individually tailored for each cancer patient. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Typologies of positive psychotic symptoms in methamphetamine dependence

    PubMed Central

    Bousman, Chad A.; McKetin, Rebecca; Burns, Richard; Woods, Steven Paul; Morgan, Erin E.; Atkinson, J. Hampton; Everall, Ian P.; Grant, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Understanding methamphetamine associated psychotic (MAP) symptom typologies could aid in identifying individuals at risk of progressing to schizophrenia and guide early intervention. Methods Latent class analysis (LCA) of psychotic symptoms collected from 40 methamphetamine dependent individuals with a history of psychotic symptoms but no history of a primary psychotic disorder. Results Three typologies were identified. In one, persecutory delusions dominated (Type 1), in another persecutory delusions were accompanied by hallucinations (Type 2), and in the third a high frequency of all the assessed hallucinatory and delusional symptoms was observed (Type 3). Discussion and Conclusion MAP is a heterogeneous syndrome with positive symptom typologies. Scientific Significance This study represents the first attempt at identifying typologies of MAP and highlights the potential utility of LCA in future large-scale studies. PMID:25864598

  7. Typology of gay consumers' interaction styles on complaining propensity.

    PubMed

    Olson, Eric D; Ro, Heejung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a typology of gay male consumers based on self-concept variables related to social interactions. Openness about sexual orientation, collective self-esteem, stigma-consciousness, and negative evaluation were used to identify clusters of gay male consumers. An initial test sample (n = 125) suggested a three-cluster solution, and a validation sample (n = 247) established reproducibility of the proposed typology. Three clusters with distinct interaction styles emerged: "confident gay," "diffident gay," and "guarded gay." Additionally, the usefulness of the typology is demonstrated by comparing the clusters on the basis of complaining propensity. Typologies of each cluster and implications for research and practice are discussed.

  8. A comprehensive typology for mainstreaming urban green infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Robert; Zanders, Julie; Lieberknecht, Katherine; Fassman-Beck, Elizabeth

    2014-11-01

    During a National Science Foundation (US) funded "International Greening of Cities Workshop" in Auckland, New Zealand, participants agreed an effective urban green infrastructure (GI) typology should identify cities' present stage of GI development and map next steps to mainstream GI as a component of urban infrastructure. Our review reveals current GI typologies do not systematically identify such opportunities. We address this knowledge gap by developing a new typology incorporating political, economic, and ecological forces shaping GI implementation. Applying this information allows symmetrical, place-based exploration of the social and ecological elements driving a city's GI systems. We use this information to distinguish current levels of GI development and clarify intervention opportunities to advance GI into the mainstream of metropolitan infrastructure. We employ three case studies (San Antonio, Texas; Auckland, New Zealand; and New York, New York) to test and refine our typology.

  9. Typologies of positive psychotic symptoms in methamphetamine dependence.

    PubMed

    Bousman, Chad A; McKetin, Rebecca; Burns, Richard; Woods, Steven Paul; Morgan, Erin E; Atkinson, J Hampton; Everall, Ian P; Grant, Igor

    2015-03-01

    Understanding methamphetamine associated psychotic (MAP) symptom typologies could aid in identifying individuals at risk of progressing to schizophrenia and guide early intervention. Latent class analysis (LCA) of psychotic symptoms collected from 40 (n = 40) methamphetamine dependent individuals with a history of psychotic symptoms but no history of a primary psychotic disorder. Three typologies were identified. In one, persecutory delusions dominated (Type 1), in another persecutory delusions were accompanied by hallucinations (Type 2), and in the third a high frequency of all the assessed hallucinatory and delusional symptoms was observed (Type 3). MAP is a heterogeneous syndrome with positive symptom typologies. This study represents the first attempt at identifying typologies of MAP and highlights the potential utility of LCA in future large-scale studies. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  10. Grene and Hull on types and typological thinking in biology.

    PubMed

    Honenberger, Phillip

    2015-04-01

    Marjorie Grene (1910-2009) and David Hull (1935-2010) were among the most influential voices in late twentieth-century philosophy of biology. But, as Grene and Hull pointed out in published discussions of one another's work over the course of nearly forty years, they disagreed strongly on fundamental issues. Among these contested issues is the role of what is sometimes called "typology" and "typological thinking" in biology. In regard to taxonomy and the species problem, Hull joined Ernst Mayr's construal of typological thinking as a backward relic of pre-Darwinian science that should be overcome. Grene, however, treated the suspicion of typological thinking that characterized Hull's views, as well as those of other architects of the New Evolutionary Synthesis, as itself suspicious and even unsustainable. In this paper I review three debates between Grene and Hull bearing on the question of the validity of so-called typological thinking in biology: (1) a debate about the dispensability of concepts of "type" within evolutionary theory, paleontology, and taxonomy; (2) a debate about whether species can be adequately understood as individuals, and thereby independently of those forms of thinking Hull and Mayr had construed as "typological"; and (3) a debate about the prospects of a biologically informed theory of human nature.

  11. [Choice between probability and value of alimentary reinforcement as means for revealing individual typological features of dog behavior].

    PubMed

    Chilingarian, L I

    2005-01-01

    Individual typological features of behavior of dogs were investigated by the method of choice between the low-valuable food available constantly and food of high quality presented with low probability. Animals were subjected to instrumental conditioning with the same conditioned stimuli but different types of reinforcement. Depression of a white pedal was always reinforced with meat-bread-crumb mixture, depression of a black pedal was reinforced with two pieces of liver (with probabilities of 100, 40, 33, 20, or 0%). The choice of reinforcement depended on probability of valuable food and individual typological features of the nervous system of a dog. Decreasing the probability of the reinforcement value to 40-20% revealed differences in behavior of dogs. Dogs of the first group, presumably with the weak type of the nervous system, more frequently pressed the white pedal (always reinforced) than the black pedal thus "avoiding a situation of risk" to receive an empty cup. They displayed symptoms of neurosis: whimper, refusals of food or of the choice of reinforcement, and obtrusive movements. Dogs of the second group, presumably with the strong type of the nervous system, more frequently pressed the black pedal (more valuable food) for the low-probability reward until they obtained the valuable food. They did not show neurosis symptoms and were not afraid of "situation of risk". A decrease in probability of the valuable reinforcement increased a percentage of long-latency depressions of pedals. It can be probably suggested that this phenomenon was associated with increasing involvement of cognitive processes, when contributions of the assessments of probability and value of the reinforcement to decision making became approximately equal. Choice between the probability and value of alimentary reinforcement is a good method for revealing individual typological features of dogs.

  12. All Frames Are Not Created Equal: A Typology and Critical Analysis of Framing Effects.

    PubMed

    Levin; Schneider; Gaeth

    1998-11-01

    Accentuate the positive or accentuate the negative? The literature has been mixed as to how the alternative framing of information in positive or negative terms affects judgments and decisions. We argue that this is because different studies have employed different operational definitions of framing and thus have tapped different underlying processes. We develop a typology to distinguish between three different kinds of valence framing effects. First we discuss the standard risky choice framing effect introduced by Tversky and Kahneman (1981) to illustrate how valence affects willingness to take a risk. Then we discuss attribute framing, which affects the evaluation of object or event characteristics, and goal framing, which affects the persuasiveness of a communication. We describe the distinctions, provide a number of examples of each type, and discuss likely theoretical mechanisms underlying each type of framing effect. Our typology helps explain and resolve apparent confusions in the literature, ties together studies with common underlying mechanisms, and serves as a guide to future research and theory development. We conclude that a broader perspective, focused on the cognitive and motivational consequences of valence-based encoding, opens the door to a deeper understanding of the causes and consequences of framing effects. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  13. A New Qualitative Typology to Classify Treading Water Movement Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Schnitzler, Christophe; Button, Chris; Croft, James L.

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes a new qualitative typology that can be used to classify learners treading water into different skill-based categories. To establish the typology, 38 participants were videotaped while treading water and their movement patterns were qualitatively analyzed by two experienced biomechanists. 13 sport science students were then asked to classify eight of the original participants after watching a brief tutorial video about how to use the typology. To examine intra-rater consistency, each participant was presented in a random order three times. Generalizability (G) and Decision (D) studies were performed to estimate the importance variance due to rater, occasion, video and the interactions between them, and to determine the reliability of the raters’ answers. A typology of five general classes of coordination was defined amongst the original 38 participants. The G-study showed an accurate and reliable assessment of different pattern type, with a percentage of correct classification of 80.1%, an overall Fleiss’ Kappa coefficient K = 0.6, and an overall generalizability φ coefficient of 0.99. This study showed that the new typology proposed to characterize the behaviour of individuals treading water was both accurate and highly reliable. Movement pattern classification using the typology might help practitioners distinguish between different skill-based behaviours and potentially guide instruction of key aquatic survival skills. Key points Treading water behavioral adaptation can be classified along two dimensions: the type of force created (drag vs lift), and the frequency of the force impulses Based on these concepts, 9 behavioral types can be identified, providing the basis for a typology Provided with macroscopic descriptors (movements of the limb relative to the water, and synchronous vs asynchronous movements), analysts can characterize behavioral type accurately and reliably. PMID:26336339

  14. Circadian typology and emotional intelligence in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Antúnez, Juan Manuel; Navarro, José Francisco; Adan, Ana

    2013-10-01

    Several aspects related to health, such as satisfaction with life, perceived well-being, and psychopathological symptomatology have been associated with circadian typology and with emotional intelligence. Nevertheless, the relationships between circadian typology and emotional intelligence have not been explored yet. The purpose of the present study is to examine the relationships between circadian typology and emotional intelligence, taking into account the possible interactions between sex and physical exercise, and controlling for age. A sample of 1011 participants (649 women), aged between 18 and 50 yrs (26.92 ± 6.53) completed the reduced Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (rMEQ) and the Trait Meta-Mood Scale-24 (TMMS-24). The TMMS-24 considers three dimensions of emotional intelligence: emotional attention, emotional clarity, and emotional repair. Women showed higher values for emotional attention, whereas men showed higher values for emotional repair (p < 0.035, in both cases). Subjects who do physical exercise weekly showed higher values for emotional repair (p = 0.001) regardless of circadian typology or sex. Circadian typology presents differences in all scores of emotional intelligence dimensions. Morning-type had lower emotional attention than evening- and neither-type; neither-type had lower emotional repair than morning-type, and lower emotional clarity than both evening- and morning-type (p < 0.046, in all cases). Moreover, circadian typology modulated the sex differences in emotional attention, and only morning-type men showed a low emotional attention score. From the results of emotional intelligence we can conclude that morning typology may be a protective factor in terms of general health, whereas we should be aware that the neither-type may present a possible vulnerability to develop psychological problems.

  15. Disaster Metrics: A Comprehensive Framework for Disaster Evaluation Typologies.

    PubMed

    Wong, Diana F; Spencer, Caroline; Boyd, Lee; Burkle, Frederick Skip; Archer, Frank

    2017-05-08

    Introduction The frequency of disasters is increasing around the world with more people being at risk. There is a moral imperative to improve the way in which disaster evaluations are undertaken and reported with the aim of reducing preventable mortality and morbidity in future events. Disasters are complex events and undertaking disaster evaluations is a specialized area of study at an international level. Hypothesis/Problem While some frameworks have been developed to support consistent disaster research and evaluation, they lack validation, consistent terminology, and standards for reporting across the different phases of a disaster. There is yet to be an agreed, comprehensive framework to structure disaster evaluation typologies. The aim of this paper is to outline an evolving comprehensive framework for disaster evaluation typologies. It is anticipated that this new framework will facilitate an agreement on identifying, structuring, and relating the various evaluations found in the disaster setting with a view to better understand the process, outcomes, and impacts of the effectiveness and efficiency of interventions. Research was undertaken in two phases: (1) a scoping literature review (peer-reviewed and "grey literature") was undertaken to identify current evaluation frameworks and typologies used in the disaster setting; and (2) a structure was developed that included the range of typologies identified in Phase One and suggests possible relationships in the disaster setting. No core, unifying framework to structure disaster evaluation and research was identified in the literature. The authors propose a "Comprehensive Framework for Disaster Evaluation Typologies" that identifies, structures, and suggests relationships for the various typologies detected. The proposed Comprehensive Framework for Disaster Evaluation Typologies outlines the different typologies of disaster evaluations that were identified in this study and brings them together into a single

  16. [Abnormal daytime drowsiness--attempt at typology].

    PubMed

    Meier-Ewert, K

    1991-11-01

    Abnormal drowsiness during the day is defined on the basis of three criteria: 1. subjective feeling of increased tiredness, 2. objective observation of attacks of falling asleep, 3. detection of premature falling asleep in the multiple sleep latency test. About 3 to 4% of the population of modern industrial countries complain of this symptom which very quickly leads to inability to work in numerous occupations (driving instructors, lorry drivers, airline pilots). In many cases, the symptoms can be eliminated by effective methods of treatment. Early diagnosis and therapy is hence an important task of physicians. Clinically suitable tools and methods of measurement for appraising the phenomena are at present: 1. the multiple sleep latency test (Richardson et al., 1978), 2. the multiple staying awake test (Mitler et al., 1982), 3. the vigilance test according to Quatember and Maly from the Vienna test system. In neurophysiological terms, an attempt is made to differentiate between: REM drowsiness, non-REM drowsiness, hypofunction of the arousal systems of the reticular formation, and hyperfunction and overstimulation of the arousal systems of the reticular formation (over-aroused tiredness). Approaches to a clinical typology of abnormal drowsiness are available from two points of departure: 1. Forms of permanent somnolence which are not alleviated but intensified by a brief restorative sleep and resemble the 'oversleeping syndrome' of the healthy individual. 2. Attacks of imperative falling asleep in narcoleptic patients. The characteristic of this form of abnormal drowsiness during the day is that in the interval between the attacks of falling asleep patients can take on any healthy person with regard to alertness, reaction capacity and ready wit. After a brief restorative sleep of less than 5 min., they immediately feel fresh, alert and fit again.

  17. TOWARD A WORKING TYPOLOGY OF DELINQUENT CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KELLY, FRANCIS J.

    THE LACK OF CONSENSUS AMONG MEDICAL-LEGAL AUTHORITIES AS TO THE MEANING OF DELINQUENCY AND THE MANAGEMENT OF DELINQUENT CHILDREN IS DESCRIBED. THIS CONFLICT IS GENERAL IN THAT THE LEGAL DEFINITION EMPHASIZES BEHAVIOR AND ACTION WHILE THE PSYCHOLOGICAL DEFINITION EMPHASIZES THE ENDOPSYCHIC CONFLICT AND NEED MOTIVATING THE BEHAVIOR. EMPHASIS IS…

  18. TOWARD A WORKING TYPOLOGY OF DELINQUENT CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KELLY, FRANCIS J.

    THE LACK OF CONSENSUS AMONG MEDICAL-LEGAL AUTHORITIES AS TO THE MEANING OF DELINQUENCY AND THE MANAGEMENT OF DELINQUENT CHILDREN IS DESCRIBED. THIS CONFLICT IS GENERAL IN THAT THE LEGAL DEFINITION EMPHASIZES BEHAVIOR AND ACTION WHILE THE PSYCHOLOGICAL DEFINITION EMPHASIZES THE ENDOPSYCHIC CONFLICT AND NEED MOTIVATING THE BEHAVIOR. EMPHASIS IS…

  19. Towards a building typology and terminology for Irish hospitals.

    PubMed

    Grey, T; Kennelly, S; de Freine, P; Mahon, S; Mannion, V; O'Neill, D

    2017-02-01

    The physical form of the hospital environment shapes the care setting and influences the relationship of the hospital to the community. Due to ongoing demographic change, evolving public health needs, and advancing medical practice, typical hospitals are frequently redeveloped, retrofitted, or expanded. It is argued that multi-disciplinary and multi-stakeholder approaches are required to ensure that hospital design matches these increasingly complex needs. To facilitate such a conversation across different disciplines, experts, and community stakeholders, it is helpful to establish a hospital typology and associated terminology as part of any collaborative process. Examine the literature around hospital design, and review the layout and overall form of a range of typical Irish acute public hospitals, to outline an associated building typology, and to establish the terminology associated with the planning and design of these hospitals in Ireland. Searches in 'Academic Search Complete', 'Compendex', 'Google', 'Google Scholar', 'JSTOR', 'PADDI', 'Science Direct', 'Scopus', 'Web of Science', and Trinity College Dublin Library. The search terms included: 'hospital design history'; 'hospital typology'; 'hospital design terminology'; and 'hospital design Ireland'. Typical hospitals are composed of different layouts due to development over time; however, various discrete building typologies can still be determined within many hospitals. This paper presents a typology illustrating distinct layout, circulation, and physical form characteristics, along with a hospital planning and design terminology of key terms and definitions. This typology and terminology define the main components of Irish hospital building design to create a shared understanding around design, and support stakeholder engagement, as part of any collaborative design process.

  20. Student Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Practitioner, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Although ability partly explains why some students are eager to learn in school whereas others are disinterested, motivation is another significant factor. This newsletter discusses factors that affect students' motivation to learn, considers techniques that can increase motivation, and identifies schools that have developed activities to enhance…

  1. Student Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Practitioner, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Although ability partly explains why some students are eager to learn in school whereas others are disinterested, motivation is another significant factor. This newsletter discusses factors that affect students' motivation to learn, considers techniques that can increase motivation, and identifies schools that have developed activities to enhance…

  2. Histamine and motivation

    PubMed Central

    Torrealba, Fernando; Riveros, Maria E.; Contreras, Marco; Valdes, Jose L.

    2012-01-01

    Brain histamine may affect a variety of different behavioral and physiological functions; however, its role in promoting wakefulness has overshadowed its other important functions. Here, we review evidence indicating that brain histamine plays a central role in motivation and emphasize its differential involvement in the appetitive and consummatory phases of motivated behaviors. We discuss the inputs that control histaminergic neurons of the tuberomamillary nucleus (TMN) of the hypothalamus, which determine the distinct role of these neurons in appetitive behavior, sleep/wake cycles, and food anticipatory responses. Moreover, we review evidence supporting the dysfunction of histaminergic neurons and the cortical input of histamine in regulating specific forms of decreased motivation (apathy). In addition, we discuss the relationship between the histamine system and drug addiction in the context of motivation. PMID:22783171

  3. An organizational typology for self-help groups.

    PubMed

    Schubert, M A; Borkman, T J

    1991-10-01

    Those investigating the nature and functioning of self-help groups have been handicapped by the lack of a conceptual framework to bridge the diversity among such groups as well as to clarify the boundaries between consumer-owned and professionally owned groups. This paper describes a typology that classifies local units of these groups in terms of differences and similarities in their organizational structures. Rooted in organizational theory, it has two dimensions: external dependence upon resources and internal extent of experiential authority. Using it, the authors identified five types of groups, referred to as Unaffiliated, Federated, Affiliated, Hybrid, and Managed. The typology was validated with actual groups.

  4. Birth outcomes across three rural-urban typologies in the Finger Lakes region of New York.

    PubMed

    Strutz, Kelly L; Dozier, Ann M; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Glantz, J Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The study is a descriptive, population-based analysis of birth outcomes in the New York State Finger Lakes region designed to determine whether perinatal outcomes differed across 3 rural typologies. Hospital birth data for the Finger Lakes region from 2006 to 2007 were used to identify births classified as low birthweight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA), and preterm delivery (PTD). Maternal residences were defined using 3 existing ZIP code-level rural-urban typologies: Census Bureau ZIP codes, Rural-Urban Commuting Area codes, and Primary Service Areas. Within each typology, rural maternal characteristics and birth outcomes were compared to those in urban areas using multivariable logistic regression models. In bivariate analyses, rurality was associated with LBW and SGA for all typologies, whereas PTD was associated with residence in the Census Bureau typology only. After controlling for demographic characteristics, births to mothers in the most rural level of the Census Bureau typology and to all rural mothers in the Rural-Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) and Primary Service Area typologies were more likely to be LBW and PTD. SGA was not consistently associated with residence across typologies. The typologies produced similar results for these outcomes, although effects were of greater magnitude in the RUCA and Primary Service Area typologies than in the Census Bureau typology. Comparison across typologies can have practical implications for researchers and policy makers interested in understanding the dynamics of rurality and birth outcomes in their regions. © 2011 National Rural Health Association.

  5. Birth Outcomes Across Three Rural-Urban Typologies in the Finger Lakes Region of New York

    PubMed Central

    Strutz, Kelly L.; Dozier, Ann M.; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Glantz, J. Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The study is a descriptive, population-based analysis of birth outcomes in the New York State Finger Lakes region designed to determine whether perinatal outcomes differed across 3 rural typologies. Methods Hospital birth data for the Finger Lakes region from 2006-2007 were used to identify births classified as low birthweight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA), and preterm delivery (PTD). Maternal residences were defined using 3 existing zip-code-level rural-urban typologies: Census Bureau zip codes, Rural-Urban Commuting Area codes, and Primary Service Areas. Within each typology, rural maternal characteristics and birth outcomes were compared to those in urban areas using multivariable logistic regression models. Findings In bivariate analyses, rurality was associated with LBW and SGA for all typologies, while PTD was associated with residence in the Census Bureau typology only. After controlling for demographic characteristics, births to mothers in the most rural level of the Census Bureau typology and to all rural mothers in the RUCA and Primary Service Area typologies were more likely to be LBW and PTD. SGA was not consistently associated with residence across typologies. Conclusions The typologies produced similar results for these outcomes, although effects were of greater magnitude in the RUCA and Primary Service Area typologies than in the Census Bureau typology. Comparison across typologies can have practical implications for researchers and policy makers interested in understanding the dynamics of rurality and birth outcomes in their regions. PMID:22458317

  6. Control by quality: proposition of a typology.

    PubMed

    Pujo, P; Pillet, M

    The application of Quality tools and methods in industrial management has always had a fundamental impact on the control of production. It influences the behavior of the actors concerned, while introducing the necessary notions and formalizations, especially for production systems with little or no automation, which constitute a large part of the industrial activity. Several quality approaches are applied in the workshop and are implemented at the level of the control. In this paper, the authors present a typology of the various approaches that have successively influenced control, such as statistical process control, quality assurance, and continuous improvement. First the authors present a parallel between production control and quality organizational structure. They note the duality between control, which is aimed at increasing productivity, and quality, which aims to satisfy the needs of the customer. They also note the hierarchical organizational structure of these two systems of management with, at each level, the notion of a feedback loop. This notion is fundamental to any kind of decision making. The paper is organized around the operational, tactical, and strategic levels, by describing for each level the main methods and tools for control by quality. The overview of these tools and methods starts at the operational level, with the Statistical Process Control, the Taguchi technique, and the "six sigma" approach. On the tactical level, we find a quality system approach, with a documented description of the procedures introduced in the firm. The management system can refer here to Quality Assurance, Total Productive Maintenance, or Management by Total Quality. The formalization through procedures of the rules of decision governing the process control enhances the validity of these rules. This leads to the enhancement of their reliability and to their consolidation. All this counterbalances the human, intrinsically fluctuating, behavior of the control

  7. Motivated explanation

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Richard; Operskalski, Joachim T.; Barbey, Aron K.

    2015-01-01

    Although motivation is a well-established field of study in its own right, and has been fruitfully studied in connection with attribution theory and belief formation under the heading of “motivated thinking,” its powerful and pervasive influence on specifically explanatory processes is less well explored. Where one has a strong motivation to understand some event correctly, one is thereby motivated to adhere as best one can to normative or “epistemic” criteria for correct or accurate explanation, even if one does not consciously formulate or apply such criteria. By contrast, many of our motivations to explain introduce bias into the processes involved in generating, evaluating, or giving explanations. Non-epistemic explanatory motivations, or following Kunda's usage, “directional” motivations, include self-justification, resolution of cognitive dissonance, deliberate deception, teaching, and many more. Some of these motivations lead to the relaxation or violation of epistemic norms; others enhance epistemic motivation, so that one engages in more careful and thorough generational and evaluative processes. We propose that “real life” explanatory processes are often constrained by multiple goals, epistemic and directional, where these goals may mutually reinforce one another or may conflict, and where our explanations emerge as a matter of weighing and satisfying those goals. We review emerging evidence from psychology and neuroscience to support this framework and to elucidate the central role of motivation in human thought and explanation. PMID:26528166

  8. An Empirical Typology of Perfectionism in Gifted Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Felicia A.; Lapsley, Daniel K.; Hanchon, Timothy A.

    2004-01-01

    We document a typology of perfectionism in a sample of academically talented adolescents and directly examine its relationship to indices of psychiatric symptomatology, adjustment, self-esteem, and coping. Adolescents enrolled in a state-funded residential academy for academically gifted high school students (N = 141) responded to the…

  9. Personality heterogeneity in PTSD: distinct temperament and interpersonal typologies.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Katherine M; Hopwood, Christopher J; Donnellan, M Brent; Wright, Aidan G C; Sanislow, Charles A; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Ansell, Emily B; Grilo, Carlos M; McGlashan, Thomas H; Shea, M Tracie; Markowitz, John C; Skodol, Andrew E; Zanarini, Mary C; Morey, Leslie C

    2014-03-01

    Researchers examining personality typologies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have consistently identified 3 groups: low pathology, internalizing, and externalizing. These groups have been found to predict functional severity and psychiatric comorbidity. In this study, we employed Latent Profile Analysis to compare this previously established typology, grounded in temperament traits (negative emotionality; positive emotionality; constraint), to a novel typology rooted in interpersonal traits (dominance; warmth) in a sample of individuals with PTSD (n = 155). Using Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP) traits to create latent profiles, the 3-group temperament model was replicated. Using Interpersonal Circumplex (IPC) traits to create latent profiles, we identified a 4-group solution with groups varying in interpersonal style. These models were nonredundant, indicating that the depiction of personality variability in PTSD depends on how personality is assessed. Whereas the temperament model was more effective for distinguishing individuals based on distress and comorbid disorders, the interpersonal model was more effective for predicting the chronicity of PTSD over the 10 year course of the study. We discuss the potential for integrating these complementary temperament and interpersonal typologies in the clinical assessment of PTSD.

  10. Towards a Risk-Based Typology for Transnational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healey, Nigel Martin

    2015-01-01

    Transnational education (TNE) has been a growth area for UK universities over the last decade. The standard typology classifies TNE by the nature of the activity (i.e., distance learning, international branch campus, franchise, and validation). By analysing a large number of TNE partnerships around the world, this study reveals that the current…

  11. Moved by Music: A Typology of Music Listeners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Mulder, Juul; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse

    2011-01-01

    A typology of music listeners was constructed on the basis of importance attributed to music and four types of music use: mood enhancement; coping with problems; defining personal identity; and marking social identity. Three Listener Groups were identified through Latent Class Analysis of internet survey data of 997 Dutch respondents, aged 12-29.…

  12. Personality Heterogeneity in PTSD: Distinct Temperament and Interpersonal Typologies

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Katherine M.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Sanislow, Charles A.; Ansell, Emily B.; Grilo, Carlos M.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Markowitz, John C.; Zanarini, Mary C.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E.; Shea, M. Tracie; Skodol, Andrew E.; Morey, Leslie C.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers examining personality typologies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have consistently identified 3 groups: low pathology, internalizing, and externalizing. These groups have been found to predict functional severity and psychiatric comorbidity. In this study, we employed Latent Profile Analysis to compare this previously established typology, grounded in temperament traits (negative emotionality; positive emotionality; constraint), to a novel typology rooted in interpersonal traits (dominance; warmth) in a sample of individuals with PTSD (n = 155). Using Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP) traits to create latent profiles, the 3-group temperament model was replicated. Using Interpersonal Circumplex (IPC) traits to create latent profiles, we identified a 4-group solution with groups varying in interpersonal style. These models were nonredundant, indicating that the depiction of personality variability in PTSD depends on how personality is assessed. Whereas the temperament model was more effective for distinguishing individuals based on distress and comorbid disorders, the interpersonal model was more effective for predicting the chronicity of PTSD over the 10 year course of the study. We discuss the potential for integrating these complementary temperament and interpersonal typologies in the clinical assessment of PTSD. PMID:24015858

  13. Life-Course Typology of Adults Who Experienced Sexual Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draucker, Claire; Martsolf, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Two qualitative methodologies were used to develop a life-course typology of individuals who had been exposed to sexual violence. Interview narratives of 121 adult women and men who participated in qualitative study of women's and men's responses to sexual violence provided the data. The authors combined a narrative approach (holistic-content and…

  14. The Morphology and Syntax of Ergativity: A Typological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rill, Justin

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation seeks to answer three loosely-related questions regarding ergativity. First, what is the nature of the morphological phenomena known as ERG=GEN and ERG=POSS? After providing a thorough description with ample data from a wide range of sources, a typological survey of 40 ergative languages concludes that together, they are a fairly…

  15. A typology of teaching roles and relationships for medical education.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Hugh A; Borges, Nicole J

    2016-01-01

    Educational programs involve interactions between the instructors and the learners. In these interactions, instructors may play various roles. However, a nomenclature for relationships with learners appropriate to those roles has not been developed for medical education. This article presents a typology of instructor's roles to facilitate the connection of outcomes with instructional methods and to inform training sessions for instructors. Published articles in general education and medical education were searched for examples of terms used for instructor's roles in developmental interactions. Examples were grouped and classified to develop a two-dimensional typology. The typology has eight categories on two dimensions. One dimension is the purpose for interaction: (1) knowledge transmission, (2) professional identity formation, (3) negotiating the institutional milieu, and (4) relationship building. The other dimension is dichotomous on whether the instructor is a member of the profession to which the learners aspire. Twelve terms were categorized: Advisor, Advocate, Buddy, Coach, Counselor, Facilitator, Guru, Master, Mentor, Role model, Teacher and Tutor. Faculty instructors in medical education are often pressed for time, so clarifying role expectations is a low-cost scheme to enhance results. Using the typology can align instructor behavior with the desired learner outcomes and enhance efficient use of instructional time.

  16. Librarian Status at US Research Universities: Extending the Typology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolin, Mary K.

    2008-01-01

    A typology of librarian status developed for land grant universities is extended to US research universities. Land grant librarians are tenure-track faculty in 70% of institutions. Librarians in the expanded population have that status slightly more than half the time. Institution size, geographic region, and public/private governance are…

  17. Simulations as Active Assessment?: Typologizing by Purpose and Source

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollars, Nina A.; Rosen, Amanda M.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment through simulation is something that political science pedagogy has yet to explore in a robust manner. This article advances analysis of social science simulation and assessment by laying out a typology of active-learning activities that isolates and examines their potential for assessment. In short, we argue that there are essentially…

  18. Typology of State-Level Community College Governance Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Jeffrey A.; Friedel, Janice Nahra

    2017-01-01

    Despite having a well-documented history about community colleges across the United States, relatively few discussions have covered state-level governance structures. To understand the typology of state community college governance structures, it must first be recognized that community college governance is characterized as a complex web of…

  19. Heuristics for Online Information Retrieval: A Typology and Preliminary Listing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Stephen P.; Peters, Anne Rogers

    1985-01-01

    Presents typology of online search heuristics consisting of six main classes: philosophical attitudes and overall approach; language of problem description; record and file structure; concept formulation and reformulation; recall and precision; and cost efficiency. Heuristics in each of the six classes are listed and selected examples are briefly…

  20. Can Houle's Typology of Professionals Predict Participation in Continuing Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervero, Ronald M.; Yang, Baiyin

    1994-01-01

    Cluster analysis of responses from 551 veterinarians (63%) participating in continuing professional education supported Houle's typology of professionals as innovators, pacesetters, middle majority, or laggards, in terms of their attitude toward and previous participation in continuing education, expectations of significant others, and personal…

  1. Typological Features of the Kazakh Ethnic Picture of the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tleubergenov, Arman A.; Jumaniyazova, Raushan K.; Begembetova, Galiya Z.; Nussupova, Aizada S.; Kairbekova, Alima G.; Keshubayeva, Dinara Ye.

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates the problems of self-identification of the Kazakh ethnic group in the post-totalitarian period, which are based on the values of traditional nomadic life of Kazakhs. The research shows the mechanisms of evolution of the ethnic group's worldview paradigms and their typology. The purpose of the research is to investigate…

  2. Explaining Color Term Typology with an Evolutionary Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowman, Mike

    2007-01-01

    An expression-induction model was used to simulate the evolution of basic color terms to test Berlin and Kay's (1969) hypothesis that the typological patterns observed in basic color term systems are produced by a process of cultural evolution under the influence of biases resulting from the special properties of universal focal colors. Ten agents…

  3. A Five-Stage Marketing Typology for Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollar, Douglas O.

    Drawing from a review of pertinent marketing literature and observations of how selected colleges undertake marketing efforts, this paper presents a five-stage typology of community colleges according to their marketing orientation. For the five stages, each representing an increasingly integrated approach to marketing, the paper analyzes how…

  4. Developing Coping Typologies of Minority Adolescents: A Latent Profile Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Arianna A.; Roesch, Scott C.

    2008-01-01

    Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to develop a coping typology of minority adolescents (M = 15.5 years). A multiethnic sample (n = 354) was recruited from a program aimed at serving low-income students. LPA revealed three distinct coping profiles. The first comprised adolescents who used a number of specific coping strategies at a low level…

  5. Moved by Music: A Typology of Music Listeners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Mulder, Juul; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse

    2011-01-01

    A typology of music listeners was constructed on the basis of importance attributed to music and four types of music use: mood enhancement; coping with problems; defining personal identity; and marking social identity. Three Listener Groups were identified through Latent Class Analysis of internet survey data of 997 Dutch respondents, aged 12-29.…

  6. Typology of State-Level Community College Governance Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Jeffrey A.; Friedel, Janice Nahra

    2017-01-01

    Despite having a well-documented history about community colleges across the United States, relatively few discussions have covered state-level governance structures. To understand the typology of state community college governance structures, it must first be recognized that community college governance is characterized as a complex web of…

  7. Towards a Pre-Teen Typology of Digital Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimley, Mick; Allan, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Whilst prior research has identified children as avid users of new technologies, insufficient studies have explored their patterns of use. This paper investigates how New Zealand pre-teens use technology out of school and identifies a typology of technology use. Two hundred and twenty four children between 10 and 12 years of age completed a…

  8. Emotion and Life Threatening Illness: A Typology of Hope Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klenow, Daniel J.

    1992-01-01

    Presents typology of hope sources for patients with life-threatening illness. Details 10 sources of hope, including 5 major sources of hope: religion, medical science, fallibilism, self-discipline, and renewal and deception by others (false hope). Divides hope sources into cognitive and behavioral dimensions. Examines varying hope orientations…

  9. Towards a Risk-Based Typology for Transnational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healey, Nigel Martin

    2015-01-01

    Transnational education (TNE) has been a growth area for UK universities over the last decade. The standard typology classifies TNE by the nature of the activity (i.e., distance learning, international branch campus, franchise, and validation). By analysing a large number of TNE partnerships around the world, this study reveals that the current…

  10. Towards Typology of Stakeholders: A Case of Lithuanian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Švaikauskiene, Simona; Mikulskiene, Birute

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore internal management, advocacy and partnerships of interest groups with the aim of representing their interests in public policy formation with a view to developing a stakeholder typology. This qualitative study involves eight in-depth, semi-structured interviews with representatives from stakeholder…

  11. Interaction Patterns of Premarital Couples: Typological Assessment Over Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norem, Rosalie H.; Olson, David H.

    1983-01-01

    Studied interaction styles of premarital couples (N=148) and developed a typology of couple interaction at two points in time before marriage. Results showed only 7 percent of the couples had the same type of interaction at the two testings, supporting the hypothesis that premarital relationships are fluid. (WAS)

  12. A Five-Stage Marketing Typology for Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollar, Douglas O.

    Drawing from a review of pertinent marketing literature and observations of how selected colleges undertake marketing efforts, this paper presents a five-stage typology of community colleges according to their marketing orientation. For the five stages, each representing an increasingly integrated approach to marketing, the paper analyzes how…

  13. Simulations as Active Assessment?: Typologizing by Purpose and Source

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollars, Nina A.; Rosen, Amanda M.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment through simulation is something that political science pedagogy has yet to explore in a robust manner. This article advances analysis of social science simulation and assessment by laying out a typology of active-learning activities that isolates and examines their potential for assessment. In short, we argue that there are essentially…

  14. A Typology of Nursing Research Activities According to Educational Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Jacqueline

    1985-01-01

    A typology of research activities (generation of basic, applied, and clinical research; dissemination of findings; and use of findings) considered appropriate to nurses with different levels of educational preparation (ADN, BSN, MSN, DNSc/EdD, and PhD) is presented to assist potential researchers and nurse educators in undertaking realistic and…

  15. A Typology of Young People's Internet Use: Implications for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eynon, Rebecca; Malmberg, Lars-Erik

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a nationally representative survey of over a 1000 young people in the UK this paper proposes a typology of the ways young people are using the Internet outside formal educational settings; and examines the individual and contextual factors that help to explain why young people are using the Internet in this way. Specifically, this…

  16. Toward a Video Pedagogy: A Teaching Typology with Learning Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrist, Lester; Chepp, Valerie; Dean, Paul; Miller, Michael V.

    2014-01-01

    Given the massive volume of course-relevant videos now available on the Internet, this article outlines a pedagogy to facilitate the instructional employment of such materials. First, we describe special features of streaming media that have enabled their use in the classroom. Next, we introduce a typology comprised of six categories (conjuncture,…

  17. Towards Typology of Stakeholders: A Case of Lithuanian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Švaikauskiene, Simona; Mikulskiene, Birute

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore internal management, advocacy and partnerships of interest groups with the aim of representing their interests in public policy formation with a view to developing a stakeholder typology. This qualitative study involves eight in-depth, semi-structured interviews with representatives from stakeholder…

  18. Life-Course Typology of Adults Who Experienced Sexual Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draucker, Claire; Martsolf, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Two qualitative methodologies were used to develop a life-course typology of individuals who had been exposed to sexual violence. Interview narratives of 121 adult women and men who participated in qualitative study of women's and men's responses to sexual violence provided the data. The authors combined a narrative approach (holistic-content and…

  19. Explaining Color Term Typology with an Evolutionary Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowman, Mike

    2007-01-01

    An expression-induction model was used to simulate the evolution of basic color terms to test Berlin and Kay's (1969) hypothesis that the typological patterns observed in basic color term systems are produced by a process of cultural evolution under the influence of biases resulting from the special properties of universal focal colors. Ten agents…

  20. Typologies of Cohabitation: Implications for Clinical Practice and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Joshua M.

    2012-01-01

    This article will explore the current evolution in the practice of cohabitation. The intent of this literature- and web-based article is to acquaint counselors with three typologies of cohabitation. These categories can be utilized in the development of psychoeducational and remedial interventions and in the identification of areas of future…

  1. Psychological profile of sasang typology: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chae, Han; Park, Soo Hyun; Lee, Soo Jin; Kim, Myoung-Geun; Wedding, Danny; Kwon, Young-Kyu

    2009-09-01

    A systematic review of studies related to the psychological characteristics of Sasang types was conducted with the goal of delineating generalizable psychological profiles based on Sasang typology, a traditional Korean medical typology with medical herbs and acupuncture that is characterized as personalized medicine. Journal articles pertaining to Sasang typology were collected using five electronic database systems in Korea and in the USA. As a result, 64 potentially relevant studies were identified and 21 peer-reviewed research articles that employed psychometric inventories were included. Beginning with the use of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory in 1992, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, NEO-Personality Inventory, Temperament and Character Inventory and other personality assessment tools were employed in the identified studies. Because data synthesis could not be carried out due to the heterogeneity of the studies, the present review article sought to delineate the mutual relevance of the studies based on research results pertaining to the correlation between the aforementioned psychological assessment instruments. Results of the review indicate that two super-factors, Extraversion and Neuroticism, serve as the foundation in regards to delineating personality constructs, such that the So-Yang type scored high on the Extraversion dimension and low on the Neuroticism dimension, while the So-Eum type scored low on the Extraversion dimension and high on the Neuroticism dimension. The present systematic review indicates that Sasang typology shares similarities with the Western psychological tradition.

  2. A Typology of Nursing Research Activities According to Educational Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Jacqueline

    1985-01-01

    A typology of research activities (generation of basic, applied, and clinical research; dissemination of findings; and use of findings) considered appropriate to nurses with different levels of educational preparation (ADN, BSN, MSN, DNSc/EdD, and PhD) is presented to assist potential researchers and nurse educators in undertaking realistic and…

  3. SVO Languages and the OV:VO Typology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dryer, Matthew S.

    1991-01-01

    Argues that Subject-Verb-Object (SVO) languages exhibit properties that are consistent with the typology of Lehmann and Venneman in which the basic dichotomy is between Object-Verb and Verb-Object languages and that there is no reason to believe that there are fewer exceptionless generalizations to be made about SVO languages than there are about…

  4. A typology of place attachment and activity involvement

    Treesearch

    Andrew J. Mowen; Alan R. Graefe; Randy J. Virden

    1998-01-01

    While previous research suggests that place attachment and activity involvement impact visitor perceptions, it has not examined the simultaneous effects of these affective constructs. This study develops a typology of both place attachment and activity involvement. It examines variations between attachment-involvement levels and visitor evaluations of quality. Results...

  5. Can Houle's Typology of Professionals Predict Participation in Continuing Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervero, Ronald M.; Yang, Baiyin

    1994-01-01

    Cluster analysis of responses from 551 veterinarians (63%) participating in continuing professional education supported Houle's typology of professionals as innovators, pacesetters, middle majority, or laggards, in terms of their attitude toward and previous participation in continuing education, expectations of significant others, and personal…

  6. Psychological Profile of Sasang Typology: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo Hyun; Lee, Soo Jin; Kim, Myoung-geun; Wedding, Danny; Kwon, Young-Kyu

    2009-01-01

    A systematic review of studies related to the psychological characteristics of Sasang types was conducted with the goal of delineating generalizable psychological profiles based on Sasang typology, a traditional Korean medical typology with medical herbs and acupuncture that is characterized as personalized medicine. Journal articles pertaining to Sasang typology were collected using five electronic database systems in Korea and in the USA. As a result, 64 potentially relevant studies were identified and 21 peer-reviewed research articles that employed psychometric inventories were included. Beginning with the use of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory in 1992, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, NEO-Personality Inventory, Temperament and Character Inventory and other personality assessment tools were employed in the identified studies. Because data synthesis could not be carried out due to the heterogeneity of the studies, the present review article sought to delineate the mutual relevance of the studies based on research results pertaining to the correlation between the aforementioned psychological assessment instruments. Results of the review indicate that two super-factors, Extraversion and Neuroticism, serve as the foundation in regards to delineating personality constructs, such that the So-Yang type scored high on the Extraversion dimension and low on the Neuroticism dimension, while the So-Eum type scored low on the Extraversion dimension and high on the Neuroticism dimension. The present systematic review indicates that Sasang typology shares similarities with the Western psychological tradition. PMID:19745008

  7. Typology of Empirical Attributes: Dissimilarity Linkage Analysis (DLA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubin, Robert; Champoux, Joseph E.

    Dissimilarity Linkage Analysis (DLA) is an extremely simple procedure for developing a typology from empirical attributes that permits the clustering of entities. First the procedure develops a taxonomy of types from empirical attributes possessed by entities in the sample. Second, the procedure assigns entities to one, and only one, type in the…

  8. Evolving practices in environmental scenarios: a new scenario typology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Angela; Eidinow, Esther

    2008-10-01

    A new approach to scenarios focused on environmental concerns, changes and challenges, i.e. so-called 'environmental scenarios', is necessary if global environmental changes are to be more effectively appreciated and addressed through sustained and collaborative action. On the basis of a comparison of previous approaches to global environmental scenarios and a review of existing scenario typologies, we propose a new scenario typology to help guide scenario-based interventions. This typology makes explicit the types of and/or the approaches to knowledge ('the epistemologies') which underpin a scenario approach. Drawing on previous environmental scenario projects, we distinguish and describe two main types in this new typology: 'problem-focused' and 'actor-centric'. This leads in turn to our suggestion for a third type, which we call 'RIMA'—'reflexive interventionist or multi-agent based'. This approach to scenarios emphasizes the importance of the involvement of different epistemologies in a scenario-based process of action learning in the public interest. We suggest that, by combining the epistemologies apparent in the previous two types, this approach can create a more effective bridge between longer-term thinking and more immediate actions. Our description is aimed at scenario practitioners in general, as well as those who work with (environmental) scenarios that address global challenges.

  9. Towards a Pre-Teen Typology of Digital Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimley, Mick; Allan, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Whilst prior research has identified children as avid users of new technologies, insufficient studies have explored their patterns of use. This paper investigates how New Zealand pre-teens use technology out of school and identifies a typology of technology use. Two hundred and twenty four children between 10 and 12 years of age completed a…

  10. Toward a Video Pedagogy: A Teaching Typology with Learning Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrist, Lester; Chepp, Valerie; Dean, Paul; Miller, Michael V.

    2014-01-01

    Given the massive volume of course-relevant videos now available on the Internet, this article outlines a pedagogy to facilitate the instructional employment of such materials. First, we describe special features of streaming media that have enabled their use in the classroom. Next, we introduce a typology comprised of six categories (conjuncture,…

  11. Practising Homelessness: A Typology Approach to Young People's Daily Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallett, Shelley; Rosenthal, Doreen; Myers, Paul; Milburn, Norweeta; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2004-01-01

    In a study exploring the relationship between typology and risk, we investigated the daily routines of a heterogeneous sample of young men and women from two sites who had been homeless for varying periods (N=1289). Cluster analysis yielded four groups--"Partnered", "Socially engaged", "Service connected-harm avoidant", and "Transgressive"--based…

  12. The Lesch alcoholism typology – psychiatric and psychosocial treatment approaches

    PubMed Central

    Schlaff, Golda; Walter, Henriette; Lesch, Otto Michael

    2011-01-01

    In the past three decades, researchers have been attempting to replace the obsolete concept of homogeneity of alcohol dependence, by classifying these patients into specific heterogeneous subtypes. Based on 30 years of experience and research, the Lesch Typology has proved to be very useful in clinical daily routine. The aim of the Lesch Typology is to provide targeted subtype-specific treatments to patients, thereby increasing their probability of long-term abstinence and hence improving their prognosis. The Lesch Typology is based on data from a longitudinal prospective study (with follow ups even 19 years later) on alcohol dependent patients (n=436). By observing the long term development of these patients, four distinct courses could be identified. In the meantime, a computerized version of the Lesch Typology had been created and translated into many languages, and is currently being employed in numerous psychiatric institutions while assisting clinicians in quickly determining a patient’s subtype (www.lat-online.at). Based on the patients’ drinking patterns and origin of substance craving, hence according to the Lesch Typology, four subtypes of alcohol dependent patients can be distinguished: 1. the “allergy model” (craving caused by alcohol); 2. the “conflict resolution and anxiety model” (craving caused by stress); 3. the “depressive model” (craving caused by mood); and 4. the “conditioning model” (craving caused by compulsion). Pharmacological treatments are not always the most effective way of preventing relapses in alcohol dependent patients. Many times, a combination with psychosocial as well as psychotherapeutic approaches is necessary and essential for helping patients to stay sober. Depending on the patient’s Lesch Type, certain therapeutic approaches are more appropriate and subsequently lead to better results and higher chances of lasting abstinence. PMID:24713718

  13. The Effects of Florida Master Gardener Characteristics and Motivations on Program Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Robert; Harder, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Master Gardeners are very important in helping Extension deliver horticultural information to local citizens. The theoretical framework of the study reported here was based on Houle's Typology. The purpose was to develop an understanding of adult motivations to participate in the Florida Master Gardener program. The sampled population was 613…

  14. The Effects of Florida Master Gardener Characteristics and Motivations on Program Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Robert; Harder, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Master Gardeners are very important in helping Extension deliver horticultural information to local citizens. The theoretical framework of the study reported here was based on Houle's Typology. The purpose was to develop an understanding of adult motivations to participate in the Florida Master Gardener program. The sampled population was 613…

  15. Motivation and ability to walk for a food reward in fast- and slow-growing broilers to 12 weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Bokkers, Eddie A M; Koene, Paul

    2004-09-30

    Poor physical abilities of broilers may prevent them from performing behaviours for which they are motivated. The aim of this study was to measure the influence of physical ability and motivation on the performance of broilers in short physical tasks. We tested birds from a fast- and a slow-growing broiler strain in a runway to 12 weeks of age. To manipulate motivation, half of the birds of each strain was feed deprived for 3h and the other half for 24h before testing. Each bird was tested in a control and a slalom runway test once a week. With a similar motivation, slow growers had a shorter latency to start walking and walked faster through the runway than fast growers in both tests. In fast growers walking speed decreased faster with age than in slow growers. Slow growers vocalised more in both tests. In the slalom test, 24h deprived birds vocalised more than 3h deprived birds. Although the fast and slow growers have a different genetic background, the results indicated that motivation is the dominant determinative factor for walking in birds with a low body weight, while physical ability is the dominant determinative factor for walking in birds with a high body weight.

  16. Disentangling functions of online aggression: The Cyber-Aggression Typology Questionnaire (CATQ).

    PubMed

    Runions, Kevin C; Bak, Michal; Shaw, Thérèse

    2017-01-01

    Aggression in online contexts has received much attention over the last decade, yet there is a need for measures identifying the proximal psychological drivers of cyber-aggressive behavior. The purpose of this study was to present data on the newly developed Cyber-Aggression Typology Questionnaire (CATQ) designed to distinguish between four distinct types of cyber-aggression on dimensions of motivational valence and self-control. A sample 314 undergraduate students participated in the study. The results confirmed the predicted four-factor structure providing evidence for distinct and independent impulsive-aversive, controlled-aversive, impulsive-appetitive, and controlled-appetitive cyber-aggression types. Further analyses with the Berlin Cyberbullying Questionnaire, Reactive Proactive Aggression Questionnaire, and the Behavior Inhibition and Activation Systems Scale provide support for convergent and divergent validity. Understanding the motivations facilitating cyber-aggressive behavior could aid researchers in the development of new prevention and intervention strategies that focus on individual differences in maladaptive proximal drivers of aggression. Aggr. Behav. 43:74-84, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Motivating Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tager, Shelley

    2002-01-01

    Camp directors can motivate staff by showing they are valued. Acknowledging positive actions, throwing a staff party, providing relief time, and being a good role model are all good motivators. Weekly staff meetings keep staff informed and provide time to air problems and get feedback. Keeping in touch with staff during the off-season is also…

  18. Situating Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolen, Susan Bobbitt; Horn, Ilana Seidel; Ward, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a situative approach to studying motivation to learn in social contexts. We begin by contrasting this perspective to more prevalent psychological approaches to the study of motivation, describing epistemological and methodological differences that have constrained conversation between theoretical groups. We elaborate on…

  19. Evaluation of a Teaching Kit for Family and Consumer Science Classrooms: Motivating Students to Use a Food Thermometer with Small Cuts of Meat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Zena; Edlefsen, Miriam; Hillers, Virginia; McCurdy, Sandra M.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Dept. of Agriculture recommends use of food thermometers to safely cook small cuts of meat, yet most consumers do not use them. Consumers lack knowledge about how and why to use food thermometers with small cuts of meat. Opportunities exist for family and consumer science classes to provide education about thermometers to adolescents, who…

  20. Evaluation of a Teaching Kit for Family and Consumer Science Classrooms: Motivating Students to Use a Food Thermometer with Small Cuts of Meat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Zena; Edlefsen, Miriam; Hillers, Virginia; McCurdy, Sandra M.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Dept. of Agriculture recommends use of food thermometers to safely cook small cuts of meat, yet most consumers do not use them. Consumers lack knowledge about how and why to use food thermometers with small cuts of meat. Opportunities exist for family and consumer science classes to provide education about thermometers to adolescents, who…

  1. [The role of motivation in the performance of a conditioned switching-over of the maze habit in ants Myrmica rubra after a change in the quality of the food reinforcement].

    PubMed

    Udalova, G P; Karas', A Ia

    2005-01-01

    Active foragers Myrmica rubra were trained in a maze under conditions of different levels of colony need in food with carbohydrate (sugar syrup) or protein (ants Lasius niger pupae) reinforcement. Acquisition of the maze habit was better under conditions of reinforcement with pupae, especially by its time indices. Ants were able to modify the acquired habit when the reinforcement quality was changed. It was shown that learning was possible only when the colony and after a change pupae for the syrup was "hungry". Under these conditions, after a change of the syrup for pupae or visa versa the previously acquired optimum habit was transferred. Several hours later, with satiation of the colony, food reactions learned with protein reinforcement switched-over to "stochastic" non-optimized behavior with the dominance of exploratory reactions. Thus, it was shown that higher social insects ants were capable for conditioned switching-over. Different forms of this phenomenon depended on the level of the colony need in food and, consequently, on the level of the social food motivation of foragers ants.

  2. Development of an empirical typology of African American family functioning.

    PubMed

    Mandara, Jelani; Murray, Carolyn B

    2002-09-01

    This study empirically identified types of African American families. Adolescents (N = 111) were assessed on family functioning. With cluster analytic methods, 3 types of families were identified. The cohesive-authoritative type was above average on parental education and income, averaged about 2 children, exhibited a high quality of family functioning and high self-esteem in adolescents. The conflictive-authoritarian type had average parental education and income, an average of 2.7 children, exhibited controlling and rigid discipline, and placed a high emphasis on achievement. The defensive-neglectful type was predominately headed by single mothers with below average education and income and averaged about 3 children. Such families displayed chaotic family processes, and adolescents tended to suffer from low self-esteem. The typology exhibited good reliability. The implications of the typology are discussed.

  3. A structural-phenomenological typology of mind-matter correlations.

    PubMed

    Atmanspacher, Harald; Fach, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    We present a typology of mind-matter correlations embedded in a dual-aspect monist framework as proposed by Pauli and Jung. They conjectured a picture in which the mental and the material arise as two complementary aspects of one underlying psychophysically neutral reality to which they cannot be reduced and to which direct empirical access is impossible. This picture suggests structural, persistent, reproducible mind-matter correlations by splitting the underlying reality into aspects. In addition, it suggests induced, occasional, evasive mind-matter correlations above and below, respectively, those stable baseline correlations. Two significant roles for the concept of meaning in this framework are elucidated. Finally, it is shown that the obtained typology is in perfect agreement with an empirically based classification of the phenomenology of mind-matter correlations as observed in exceptional human experiences. © 2013, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  4. Urban Modelling with Typological Approach. Case Study: Merida, Yucatan, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, A.

    2017-08-01

    In three-dimensional models of urban historical reconstruction, missed contextual architecture faces difficulties because it does not have much written references in contrast to the most important monuments. This is the case of Merida, Yucatan, Mexico during the Colonial Era (1542-1810), which has lost much of its heritage. An alternative to offer a hypothetical view of these elements is a typological - parametric definition that allows a 3D modeling approach to the most common features of this heritage evidence.

  5. Specific phobia among U.S. adolescents: phenomenology and typology.

    PubMed

    Burstein, Marcy; Georgiades, Katholiki; He, Jian-Ping; Schmitz, Anja; Feig, Emily; Khazanov, Gabriela Kattan; Merikangas, Kathleen

    2012-12-01

    Investigators have proposed the diagnostic value of a generalized subtype of specific phobia, with classification based upon the number of phobic fears. However, current and future typologies of specific phobia classify the condition by the nature of phobic fears. This study investigated the clinical relevance of these alternative typologies by: (1) presenting the prevalence and correlates of specific phobia separately by the number and nature of phobia types; and (2) examining the clinical and psychiatric correlates of specific phobia according to these alternative typologies. The National Comorbidity Survey Replication-Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A) is a nationally representative face-to-face survey of 10,123 adolescents aged 13-18 years in the continental United States. Most adolescents with specific phobia met criteria for more than one type of phobia in their lifetime, however rates were fairly similar across DSM-IV/5 subtypes. Sex differences were consistent across DSM-IV/5 subtypes, but varied by the number of phobic types, with a female predominance observed among those with multiple types of phobias. Adolescents with multiple types of phobias exhibited an early age of onset, elevated severity and impairment, and among the highest rates of other psychiatric disorders. However, certain DSM-IV/5 subtypes (i.e. blood-injection-injury and situational) were also uniquely associated with severity and psychiatric comorbidity. Results indicate that both quantitative and DSM-IV/5 typologies of specific phobia demonstrate diagnostic value. Moreover, in addition to certain DSM-IV/5 subtypes, a generalized subtype based on the number of phobias may also characterize youth who are at greatest risk for future difficulties. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Specific Phobia among U.S. Adolescents: Phenomenology and Typology

    PubMed Central

    Burstein, Marcy; Georgiades, Katholiki; He, Jian-Ping; Schmitz, Anja; Feig, Emily; Khazanov, Gabriela Kattan; Merikangas, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Background Investigators have proposed the diagnostic value of a generalized subtype of specific phobia, with classification based upon the number of phobic fears. However, current and future typologies of specific phobia classify the condition by the nature of phobic fears. This study investigated the clinical relevance of these alternative typologies by: (1) presenting the prevalence and correlates of specific phobia separately by the number and nature of phobia types; and (2) examining the clinical and psychiatric correlates of specific phobia according to these alternative typologies. Methods The National Comorbidity Survey Replication-Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A) is a nationally representative face-to-face survey of 10,123 adolescents aged 13–18 years in the continental United States. Results Most adolescents with specific phobia met criteria for more than one type of phobia in their lifetime, however rates were fairly similar across DSM-IV/5 subtypes. Sex differences were consistent across DSM-IV/5 subtypes, but varied by the number of phobic types, with a female predominance observed among those with multiple types of phobias. Adolescents with multiple types of phobias exhibited an early age of onset, elevated severity and impairment, and among the highest rates of other psychiatric disorders. However, certain DSM-IV/5 subtypes (i.e. blood-injection-injury and situational) were also uniquely associated with severity and psychiatric comorbidity. Conclusions Results indicate that both quantitative and DSM-IV/5 typologies of specific phobia demonstrate diagnostic value. Moreover, in addition to certain DSM-IV/5 subtypes, a generalized subtype based on the number of phobias may also characterize youth who are at greatest risk for future difficulties. PMID:23108894

  7. Defining a pelagic typology of the eastern English Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delavenne, Juliette; Marchal, Paul; Vaz, Sandrine

    2013-01-01

    Classifying marine habitats is a growing research field and is of increasing interest to spatial planners and managers. Most studies have predominantly focused on the seabed to determine benthic habitat types, and only limited attention has been paid to the water column. Classification projects aim at identifying candidate management units for the application of various regional or national regulations such as the European Water Framework Directive. Here, we propose a seasonal classification of the water column in the eastern English Channel, which we validated with biological data. For the three tested compartments, phytoplankton, zooplankton and pelagic fishes, the validation results were satisfactory, with recall values (i.e. percentage of observations correctly assigned in a given water type) ranging from 0.5 to 1. This validation was a crucial step to verify that the proposed typology was ecologically relevant and to use it as a biodiversity surrogate in management and conservation plans. Because management plans are generally set on an annual rather than a seasonal basis, we also produced a "multi-seasonal" typology encompassing seasonal variability, which can be used as an appropriate all year round description of the water column attributes in the eastern English Channel. The "multi-seasonal" typology reflected the relative stability of the French waters and the central part of the eastern English Channel and the strongest variability of the English coastal waters and the Dover strait.

  8. Defining a typology of primary care practices: a novel approach.

    PubMed

    Senn, Nicolas; Cohidon, Christine; Zuchuat, Jean-Christophe

    2016-12-01

    To define a typology of primary care (PC) practices based on a mixed inductive/deductive approach that uses a large number of variables describing organizational and demographic characteristics of practices and a priori hierarchical structuring of the data. Secondary analysis of the Swiss part of the QUALICOPC study using a multiple factor analysis approach incorporating 74 variables hierarchically structured and including information on infrastructures, clinical care, workforces, accessibility and geographic location of PC practices. Switzerland. Two hundred randomly selected PC practices. Typology of PC practices based on axes identified through the multiple factorial approach. The factorial analysis extracted two uncorrelated axes summarizing 17% of the global variance. The first axis is mainly associated with two dimensions related to the comprehensiveness of services, namely 'clinical care provided' (Pearson's r = 0.73) and 'available infrastructures' (r = 0.78). The second axis is mainly associated with the workforce in the practice such as the number of general practitioners or other health workers (r = 0.69). Swiss PC practices were mapped using these two axes. This innovative approach allows defining a global typology of PC practices. Based upon Swiss data, two axes were identified to globally describe PC organization: comprehensiveness of services and workforces development. This exploratory study demonstrates a promising way, first to characterize globally one or several PC models that emerge from complex features, second to compare more accurately PC organization between countries and finally to assess how these models might be associated with patients' outcomes.

  9. A Typology of Collaboration Efforts in Environmental Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margerum, Richard D.

    2008-04-01

    Collaboration involves stakeholders and the public in a process of consensus building to address some of the most difficult environmental management problems facing society today. Collaborative groups vary widely, ranging from small watershed councils to regional ecosystem collaboratives to groups addressing large-scale policy issues. While these collaboratives all match the common principles of collaboration, a closer examination reveals many differences. Using institutional theories about levels of decision making provides a way of classifying collaboratives along a spectrum from action level to organizational level to policy level. This typology is applied to thirty-six collaboration case studies in Australia and the United States that were investigated over a series of years through interviews, observation, document analysis, and surveys. The application reveals different tendencies among the case types in terms of population, size, problem significance, institutional setting, and focus of activities. The typology also reveals functional differences in the types of stakeholders involved, the management arrangements for implementation, and the approaches to implementing change. This typology can help practitioners better understand the challenges and appropriate types of collaborations for different settings. It helps highlight differences in the role of government and decentralization of power. It distinguishes the different theoretical foundations for different types of collaboratives. Finally, it elucidates the different evaluation approaches for different types of collaboratives.

  10. Predicting criminality from child maltreatment typologies and posttraumatic stress symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Elklit, Ask; Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Armour, Cherie; Feddern, Dagmar; Christoffersen, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    Background The associations between childhood abuse and subsequent criminality and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are well known. However, a major limitation of research related to childhood abuse and its effects is the focus on one particular type of abuse at the expense of others. Recent work has established that childhood abuse rarely occurs as a unidimensional phenomenon. Therefore, a number of studies have investigated the existence of abuse typologies. Methods The study is based on a Danish stratified random probability survey including 2980 interviews of 24-year-old people. The sample was constructed to include an oversampling of child protection cases. Building on a previous latent class analysis of four types of childhood maltreatment, three maltreatment typologies were used in the current analyses. A criminality scale was constructed based on seven types of criminal behavior. PTSD symptoms were assessed by the PC-PTSD Screen. Results Significant differences were found between the two genders with males reporting heightened rates of criminality. Furthermore, all three maltreatment typologies were associated with criminal behavior with odds ratios (ORs) from 2.90 to 5.32. Female gender had an OR of 0.53 and possible PTSD an OR of 1.84. Conclusion The independent association of participants at risk for PTSD and three types of maltreatment with criminality should be studied to determine if it can be replicated, and considered in social policy and prevention and rehabilitation interventions. PMID:23626869

  11. Beyond Tasks: An Activity Typology for Visual Analytics.

    PubMed

    Edge, Darren; Riche, Nathalie Henry; Larson, Jonathan; White, Christopher

    2017-08-29

    As Visual Analytics (VA) research grows and diversifies to encompass new systems, techniques, and use contexts, gaining a holistic view of analytic practices is becoming ever more challenging. However, such a view is essential for researchers and practitioners seeking to develop systems for broad audiences that span multiple domains. In this paper, we interpret VA research through the lens of Activity Theory (AT)-a framework for modelling human activities that has been influential in the field of Human- Computer Interaction. We first provide an overview of Activity Theory, showing its potential for thinking beyond tasks, representations, and interactions to the broader systems of activity in which interactive tools are embedded and used. Next, we describe how Activity Theory can be used as an organizing framework in the construction of activity typologies, building and expanding upon the tradition of abstract task taxonomies in the field of Information Visualization. We then apply the resulting process to create an activity typology for Visual Analytics, synthesizing a wide range of systems and activity concepts from the literature. Finally, we use this typology as the foundation of an activity-centered design process, highlighting both tensions and opportunities in the design space of VA systems.

  12. Motivational Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langley, James M.

    1994-01-01

    College and university advancement managers offer these keys to motivating employees: open communication, acknowledgement of management style, team building, encouragement of innovation, spreading opportunities broadly, promoting personal growth, creating reward systems, evaluating fairly, and strong leadership. (MSE)

  13. Motivational Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langley, James M.

    1994-01-01

    College and university advancement managers offer these keys to motivating employees: open communication, acknowledgement of management style, team building, encouragement of innovation, spreading opportunities broadly, promoting personal growth, creating reward systems, evaluating fairly, and strong leadership. (MSE)

  14. Reviving Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman-Stephens, Bryan; Goodman-Stephens, Pamela

    1978-01-01

    To revive students' sagging motivation in French class at the end of the term, a four-week project was designed in which the class wrote and produced slide-tape shows and super eight films in French. (SJL)

  15. Motivating pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Donehew, G R

    1979-01-01

    Although pharmacists are developing interest in many types of pharmacy practice, they are still spending the bulk of their time in the prescription dispensing process. Any effort to provide motivation must consider the prescription dispensing process. The pharmacy literature includes only a few studies that dealt with pharmacists as people. The studies usually showed that pharmacists basically were unhappy with their jobs. In developing a motivational climate for pharmacists, pharmacy supervisors have several concepts to consider: the hierarchy of needs by Maslow; the expectancy theory by Hampton; the gygiene-motivator theory by Herzberg; and the Theory Y management approach by McGregor. Because pharmacists must be induced to enter and remain in an organization, supervisors should be aware of the need to use any technique available in developing a motivational climate.

  16. Institutional, individual, and socio-cultural domains of partnerships: a typology of USDA Forest Service recreation partners.

    PubMed

    Seekamp, Erin; Cerveny, Lee K; McCreary, Allie

    2011-09-01

    Federal land management agencies, such as the USDA Forest Service, have expanded the role of recreation partners reflecting constrained growth in appropriations and broader societal trends towards civic environmental governance. Partnerships with individual volunteers, service groups, commercial outfitters, and other government agencies provide the USDA Forest Service with the resources necessary to complete projects and meet goals under fiscal constraints. Existing partnership typologies typically focus on collaborative or strategic alliances and highlight organizational dimensions (e.g., structure and process) defined by researchers. This paper presents a partner typology constructed from USDA Forest Service partnership practitioners' conceptualizations of 35 common partner types. Multidimensional scaling of data from unconstrained pile sorts identified 3 distinct cultural dimensions of recreation partners--specifically, partnership character, partner impact, and partner motivations--that represent institutional, individual, and socio-cultural cognitive domains. A hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis provides further insight into the various domains of agency personnel's conceptualizations. While three dimensions with high reliability (RSQ = 0.83) and corresponding hierarchical clusters illustrate commonality between agency personnel's partnership suppositions, this study also reveals variance in personnel's familiarity and affinity for specific partnership types. This real-world perspective on partner types highlights that agency practitioners not only make strategic choices when selecting and cultivating partnerships to accomplish critical task, but also elect to work with partners for the primary purpose of providing public service and fostering land stewardship.

  17. Student Identification of Academic Cheating Typology and the Link to Shoplifting Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Kevin J.; Hopkins, Christopher D.; Carlson, Les; Raymond, Mary Anne

    2013-01-01

    Employing and testing shoplifting-based constructs, we develop and validate a new multifaceted cheating behavior scale that allows educators to segment cheating behavior into what students perceive as trivial versus serious cheating. Results confirm that shoplifting-based scales perform well as predictors of cheating and also suggest that from…

  18. Student Identification of Academic Cheating Typology and the Link to Shoplifting Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Kevin J.; Hopkins, Christopher D.; Carlson, Les; Raymond, Mary Anne

    2013-01-01

    Employing and testing shoplifting-based constructs, we develop and validate a new multifaceted cheating behavior scale that allows educators to segment cheating behavior into what students perceive as trivial versus serious cheating. Results confirm that shoplifting-based scales perform well as predictors of cheating and also suggest that from…

  19. Relative Clauses in Cantonese-English Bilingual Children: Typological Challenges and Processing Motivations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Virginia; Matthews, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Findings from a longitudinal study of bilingual children acquiring Cantonese and English pose a challenge to the noun phrase accessibility hierarchy (NPAH; Keenan & Comrie, 1977), which predicts that object relatives should not be acquired before subject relatives. In the children's Cantonese, object relatives emerged earlier than or…

  20. Typology of intimate partner homicide: personal, interpersonal, and environmental characteristics of men who murdered their female intimate partner.

    PubMed

    Elisha, Ety; Idisis, Yael; Timor, Uri; Addad, Moshe

    2010-08-01

    Fifteen inmates from Ayalon prison, a maximum-security prison in Israel, who were convicted of murder, attempted murder, or manslaughter of their female intimate partner, have participated in a study designed to examine integrated variables-personal, interpersonal, and environmental-familial-connected with this phenomenon. Analyses of the in-depth interviews demonstrate that despite the different motivations the perpetrators displayed with regard to the murder, they share some common themes. On the basis of these themes, three primary types of female intimate partner murderers have been identified; each of them represents a personal narrative as follows: the betrayed, the abandoned, and the tyrant. The proposed typology might be used for establishing a common language among researchers, scholars, and workers in this field. It can also contribute to the existing clinical tools in terms of prediction, prevention, and treatment initiatives that currently focus on violence.

  1. Fish trophic structure in estuaries, with particular emphasis on estuarine typology and zoogeography.

    PubMed

    Harrison, T D; Whitfield, A K

    2012-11-01

    A comparative analysis of the fish trophic structure was undertaken on some 190 South African estuaries spanning three zoogeographic regions and incorporating three broad estuarine types. Fish biomass trophic guild compositions and biomass trophic spectrum profiles were analysed using multivariate statistical techniques and included both inter-regional (zoogeographic) and intra-regional (estuarine typology) comparisons. Differences in the fish trophic structure of the various estuary types within each zoogeographic region were observed; these were linked to the relative biomass contribution of the various trophic guilds and also to differences in biomass trophic spectrum profiles of the fishes in each estuary type within each region. In spite of these differences in trophic structure, all estuaries were dominated by detritivores, which suggests that the main food source (detritus) is similar in all biogeographic regions. Preliminary indications are that a similar dependence by estuary-associated fishes on detritus food sources exists on a global basis but that detailed studies are required in order to confirm this assertion.

  2. Sexual Partner Typologies among Single Young Men who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Bauermeister, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Using data from a sample of single YMSM (N=1,359; ages 18-24; 65% White; 93% gay), we examined whether the number of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) partners with differed across relationship typologies (e.g., friends with benefits, hookups, romantic interests). We then examined how safer sex self-efficacy, decisional balance to forego condoms, ideal relationship attributes (i.e., intimacy, passion and commitment), and limerence were associated with UAI. Different partner types were associated with greater UAI partners; single partner types were associated with fewer UAI partners, irrespective of how they were categorized. UAI partners was associated with decisional balance (OR=1.89; p<.001), passion ideation (OR=1.38; p<.001), and difficulty negotiating safer sex with romantic partners (OR=1.16; p<.001). Odds of UAI partners decreased with higher scores of commitment ideation (OR=.91; p<.05) and difficulty negotiating safer sex with casual partners (OR=.96; p<.05). We discuss the importance of acknowledging how different sexual partnerships, alongside its motivational correlates, influence UAI risk in order to inform HIV-prevention interventions. PMID:25358726

  3. A TYPOLOGY OF DRUG-RELATED OFFENDING AMONG YOUNG HOMELESS INJECTION DRUG USERS

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Bill; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Jackson Bloom, Jennifer; Hathaz, Dodi S.

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates a link between drug use and offending, particularly amongst high-risk individuals, such as homeless youth. The extent to which such youth interpret their offending as being related to their drug use, though, is understudied. This manuscript investigates the interpretations of drug-related offenses offered by 151 primarily white, male, homeless IDUs aged 16–29 years. Youth were asked specific questions about their drug-related offenses during in-depth interviews as part of a larger study investigating health risks surrounding drug injection between 2004 and 2006. The first section of the manuscript outlines offenses youth revealed committing either in pursuit of or after using a variety of substances. The second part of the manuscript examines the overall context (motivation, environment), and provides a seven-tiered typology of drug-related offending based on youth's interpretations, linking certain drugs to specific offenses within particular contexts. From here, some theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:21423855

  4. Sexual Partner Typologies Among Single Young Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    PubMed

    Bauermeister, José A

    2015-06-01

    Using data from a sample of single young men who have sex with men (N = 1,359, ages 18-24, 65 % White, 93 % gay), we examined whether the number of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) partners with differed across relationship typologies (e.g., friends with benefits, hookups, romantic interests). We then examined how safer sex self-efficacy, decisional balance to forego condoms, ideal relationship attributes (i.e., intimacy, passion and commitment), and limerence were associated with UAI. Different partner types were associated with greater UAI partners; single partner types were associated with fewer UAI partners, irrespective of how they were categorized. UAI partners was associated with decisional balance (OR = 1.89, p < 0.001), passion ideation (OR = 1.38, p < 0.001), and difficulty negotiating safer sex with romantic partners (OR = 1.16, p < 0.001). Odds of UAI partners decreased with higher scores of commitment ideation (OR = 0.91, p < 0.05) and difficulty negotiating safer sex with casual partners (OR = 0.96, p < 0.05). We discuss the importance of acknowledging how different sexual partnerships, alongside its motivational correlates, influence UAI risk in order to inform HIV-prevention interventions.

  5. A typology of educationally focused medical simulation tools.

    PubMed

    Alinier, Guillaume

    2007-10-01

    The concept of simulation as an educational tool in healthcare is not a new idea but its use has really blossomed over the last few years. This enthusiasm is partly driven by an attempt to increase patient safety and also because the technology is becoming more affordable and advanced. Simulation is becoming more commonly used for initial training purposes as well as for continuing professional development, but people often have very different perceptions of the definition of the term simulation, especially in an educational context. This highlights the need for a clear classification of the technology available but also about the method and teaching approach employed. The aims of this paper are to discuss the current range of simulation approaches and propose a clear typology of simulation teaching aids. Commonly used simulation techniques have been identified and discussed in order to create a classification that reports simulation techniques, their usual mode of delivery, the skills they can address, the facilities required, their typical use, and their pros and cons. This paper presents a clear classification scheme of educational simulation tools and techniques with six different technological levels. They are respectively: written simulations, three-dimensional models, screen-based simulators, standardized patients, intermediate fidelity patient simulators, and interactive patient simulators. This typology allows the accurate description of the simulation technology and the teaching methods applied. Thus valid comparison of educational tools can be made as to their potential effectiveness and verisimilitude at different training stages. The proposed typology of simulation methodologies available for educational purposes provides a helpful guide for educators and participants which should help them to realise the potential learning outcomes at different technological simulation levels in relation to the training approach employed. It should also be a useful

  6. Relationships among circadian typology, psychological symptoms, and sensation seeking.

    PubMed

    Prat, Gemma; Adan, Ana

    2013-08-01

    Recently, attention has been focused on the relationship among circadian typology, psychiatric symptoms, and personality traits. This study analyzes the influence of circadian typology on psychological distress, and the sensation-seeking personality trait. Five hundred seventeen college students (173 males), aged 17 to 30, answered the Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM), the General Health Questionnaire 28-item version (GHQ-28), and the Sensation Seeking Scale-V (SSS-V). The evening-type subjects in our sample scored higher than the neither- and morning- type in the GHQ-28 total score, as well as in the four subscales that composed it (Psychosomatic Symptoms, Anxiety and Insomnia, Social Dysfunction, and Severe Depression) (p<0.02 in all cases). The evening-type subjects also had a larger proportion of psychiatric cases than the other two circadian typologies (p<0.0001 in all cases). Moreover, the evening-type subjects obtained higher scores in the SSS-V total score and in the subscales of Disinhibition and Boredom Susceptibility (p<0.001 in all cases). A positive correlation was observed between the GHQ-28 and the SSS-V total scores in the total sample, but only for the evening-type group (r=0.217; p<0.027). In the evening group, several relations were also found between the subscales of the GHQ-28 and the subscales of the SSS-V (r>0.206; p<0.036). All these data point to a relationship between evening-type subjects and the level of psychological distress and the sensation-seeking personality trait. They also suggest that eveningness could be related to developing psychological distress and personality traits that could, in turn, be related to developing other problems, such as drug consumption.

  7. Personal computer wallpaper user segmentation based on Sasang typology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joung-Youn

    2015-03-01

    As human-computer interaction (HCI) is becoming a significant part of all human life, the user's emotional satisfaction is an important factor to consider. These changes have been pointed out by several researchers who claim that a user's personality may become the most important factor in the design. The objective of this study is to examine Sasang typology as a user segmentation method in the area of HCI design. To test HCI usage patterns in terms of the user's personality and temperament, this study focuses on personal computer (PC) or lap-top wallpaper settings. One hundred and four Facebook friends completed a QSCC II survey assessing Sasang typology type and sent a captured image of their personal PC or lap-top wallpaper. To classify the computer usage pattern, folder organization and wallpaper setting were investigated. The research showed that So-Yang type organized folders and icons in an orderly manner, whereas So-Eum type did not organize folders and icons at all. With regard to wallpaper settings, So-Yang type used the default wallpaper provided by the PC but So-Eum type used landscape images. Because So-Yang type was reported to be emotionally stable and extrovert, they tended to be highly concerned with online privacy compared with So-Eum type. So-Eum type use a lot of images of landscapes as the background image, which demonstrates So-Eum's low emotional stability, anxiety, and the desire to obtain analogy throughout the computer screen. Also, So-Yang's wallpapers display family or peripheral figures and this is due to the sociability that extrovert So-Yang types possess. By proposing the Sasang typology as a factor in influencing an HCI usage pattern in this study, it can be used to predict the user's HCI experience, or suggest a native design methodology that can actively cope with the user's psychological environment.

  8. Creation and typology definition of the museum on the Internet.

    PubMed

    Svilicić, Niksa

    2010-06-01

    Through advancing new technology, perspective of museum institution and museum profession is changed. The content analysis and analyze of used terminology by online users will show us which term is the most used between frequently used terms such are: online, electronic, Web, Internet, digital, virtual and cyber museums. This scientific paper suggests that online users don't differ mentioned terms while they search for museums on Web. Using the appropriate 'prefix" in order to better describe the typology of a museum on the Web is the first step in designing the future of the museums and certainly encourages serious approach in to the study of the new museum "entities".

  9. Hepatitis C Avoidance in Injection Drug Users: A Typology of Possible Protective Practices

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, Catherine; Harris, Magdalena; Rhodes, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Hepatitis C virus (HCV) represents a serious public health concern. People who inject drugs (PWID) are at particular risk and nearly half (45%) of PWID in England may be infected. HCV prevention interventions have only had moderate impact on the prevalence of HCV in this population. Using qualitative methods, we sought to detail the protective practices potentially linked to HCV avoidance among PWID, and explore the motivations for these. Methods The study used a life history approach allowing participants to detail their lived experience both before and during the course of their injecting careers. Thirty-seven participants were recruited from drug services in London, and from referrals within local injecting networks. A baseline and follow-up in-depth qualitative interview was carried out with each participant, and for half, a third interview was also undertaken. All underwent testing for HCV antibody. Analyses focused on developing a descriptive typology of protective practices potentially linked to HCV avoidance. Results Practices were deemed to be protective against HCV if they could be expected a priori to reduce the number of overall injections and/or the number of injections using shared injecting equipment. Participants reported engaging in various protective practices which fell into three categories identified through thematic analysis: principles about injecting, preparedness, and flexibility. Conclusions All participants engaged in protective practices irrespective of serostatus. It is important to consider the relative importance of different motivations framing protective practices in order to formulate harm reduction interventions which appeal to the situated concerns of PWID, especially given that these protective practices may also help protect against HIV and other blood borne infections. PMID:24194855

  10. A Typology of UK Slot Machine Gamblers: A Longitudinal Observational and Interview Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    Slot machine gambling is a popular leisure activity worldwide yet there has been very little research into different types of slot machine gamblers. Earlier typologies of slot machine gamblers have only concentrated on adolescents in arcade environments. This study presents a new typology of slot machine players based on over 1000 h of participant…

  11. Multidimensional Typology of Rural Communities as a Means of Studying Employment Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslavskaia, Tatiana Ivanovna; And Others

    The prediction, planning and management of the social development of a rural region presupposed typologization of its communities. This study aimed to: build an overall social typology of the rural communities in Siberia; elucidate the role of employment structure among other type-forming factors of social differentiation; build a special typology…

  12. Exploring Careers with a Typology. What We Have Learned and Some New Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, John L.

    1996-01-01

    Outlines J. L. Holland's (1985) typology of persons and environments, and summarizes the support for this theory in explaining stability and change in careers and work satisfaction. Recent research that strengthens the explanatory power of Holland's typology and links it to the Big Five personality factors is described. Speculations about using…

  13. Minorities linguistiques et interventions. Essai de typologie (Linguistic Minorities and Interventions. Towards a Typology).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abou, Selim; And Others

    This volume contains six major papers on the following topics: (1) the concept of linguistic minority; (2) juridical approaches in linguistics; (3) a typology of interventions in the public sector; (4) a typology of interventions in education; (5) the use of language in private enterprise; and (6) the concept of ethnic group. The necessity of…

  14. Applied Behavioral Typologies: Implications for the Residential Treatment and Community Re-Integration of Juvenile Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannon, James M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigated validity of juvenile offender treatment typology utilized within peer treatment programs of youth services agency with 60 male delinquents. Results suggest behavior typology described in peer treatment literature has basis in psychological theory and can provide information for treatment and community reintegration and program…

  15. A Typology of UK Slot Machine Gamblers: A Longitudinal Observational and Interview Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    Slot machine gambling is a popular leisure activity worldwide yet there has been very little research into different types of slot machine gamblers. Earlier typologies of slot machine gamblers have only concentrated on adolescents in arcade environments. This study presents a new typology of slot machine players based on over 1000 h of participant…

  16. Beliefs Systems and Classroom Practices: Identified Typologies of Elementary School Teachers from the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Margareta Maria; Nietfeld, John L.

    2016-01-01

    In a mixed-methods study, the authors investigate teacher typologies of elementary teachers (N = 132) in the United States based on their reformed science teaching beliefs. Additionally, the identified teacher typologies were compared with respect to their science content knowledge, self-efficacy and epistemic beliefs. Results revealed three…

  17. Developing Learner Concentric Learning Outcome Typologies Using Clustering and Decision Trees of Data Mining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luan, Jing

    This study aims to address learning outcomes from the perspective of learners. The research questions asked were: (1) What learner concentric ideas can be used to indicate the outcomes of learning? (2) How would the new learning outcome index be used to generate typologies? (3) What are the inner relationships of the typologies? and (4) How can…

  18. Motion Encoding in Russian and English: Moving beyond Talmy's Typology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlenko, Aneta; Volynsky, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is twofold. One, we will show that Talmy's (1985, 1991, 2000) motion typology that groups Russian and English together as satellite-framed languages may be justified on linguistic grounds but is inadequate from a psycholinguistic point of view. Two, we will argue that the shortcomings of the typology may account…

  19. Science Teachers' Typology of CPD Activities: A Socio-Constructivist Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EL-Deghaidy, Heba; Mansour, Nasser; Alshamrani, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a typology of continuing professional development (CPD) activities and provides a discussion related to each. The typology includes 2 main themes, which investigate the various types of activities and the content presented in CPD programmes. The study used qualitative methods (open-ended questionnaires in addition to…

  20. Motion Encoding in Russian and English: Moving beyond Talmy's Typology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlenko, Aneta; Volynsky, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is twofold. One, we will show that Talmy's (1985, 1991, 2000) motion typology that groups Russian and English together as satellite-framed languages may be justified on linguistic grounds but is inadequate from a psycholinguistic point of view. Two, we will argue that the shortcomings of the typology may account…

  1. A Typology of Maritally Violent Men and Correlates of Violence in a Community Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delsol, Catherine; Margolin, Gyala; John, Richard S.

    2003-01-01

    Tests A. Holtzworth-Munroe and G. L. Stuart's (1994) typology of male batterers in a community sample. Analyses based on severity of physical aggression, generality of violence, and psychopathology partially replicated the Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart typology by identifying 3 types of violent men: family-only, medium-violence, and generally…

  2. A Typology of Teacher-Rated Child Behavior: Revisiting Subgroups over 10 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiStefano, Christine A.; Kamphaus, Randy W.; Mindrila, Diana L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine a typology of child behavior using the Behavioral Assessment System for Children, Teacher Rating Scale (BASC TRS-C, 2nd edition; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004). The typology was compared with the solution identified from the 1992 BASC TRS-C norm dataset. Using cluster analysis, a seven-cluster solution…

  3. The Development and Testing of a Typology of Adult Education Programs in University Residential Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buskey, John H.

    This study was designed to develop and field test a typology of framework providing for the systematic description, definition, and classification of activities in university continuing education centers. Basic questions pertained to whether such a typology could be developed, and whether other investigators and practitioners could use the…

  4. Learning Biases, Regularization, and the Emergence of Typological Universals in Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation investigates typological patterns of syntax and morphosyntax, and the role that learning biases play in constraining them. A link between learning biases and typology is integral to generative linguistics, however evidence for this connection remains minimal. Using experimental, theoretical, and mathematical tools, I provide…

  5. Factorial versus Typological Models: A Comparison of Methods for Personality Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Davier, Matthias; Naemi, Bobby; Roberts, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes an exploration of the distinction between typological and factorial latent variables in the domain of personality theory. Traditionally, many personality variables have been considered to be factorial in nature, even though there are examples of typological constructs dating back to Hippocrates. Recently, some…

  6. Reliability and Validity Study of a Sufi Personality Typology: The Enneagram.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Jerome; Walker, Ronald E.

    1983-01-01

    Examined a Sufi personality typology that describes nine life strategies depicted by a nine-sided figure called the enneagram. Devised an objective 135-item test instrument to differentiate the nine styles, and obtained positive results. Enneagram typology may have diagnostic, prognostic, and heuristic value for studying personality structure and…

  7. Self-Regulation Mediates the Relationship between Learner Typology and Achievement in At-Risk Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weed, Keri; Keogh, Deborah; Borkowski, John G.; Whitman, Thomas; Noria, Christine W.

    2011-01-01

    A person-centered approach was used to explore the mediating role of self-regulation between learner typology at age 8 and academic achievement at age 14 while controlling for domain-specific achievement in a longitudinal sample of 113 children born to adolescent mothers. Children were classified into one of 5 learner typologies at age 8 based on…

  8. Personality Typologies as a Predictor of Being a Successful Elementary School Principal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendiburu, John G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine personality typologies as a predictor of being a successful elementary school principal. Methodology: A post-hoc analysis design was used to describe the personality typologies as a predictor of being a successful elementary school principal. Eighteen principals were selected to participate in…

  9. Social Environmental Risk and Protection: A Typology with Implications for Practice in Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Natasha K.; Lee, Jung-Sook; Weller, Bridget E.

    2007-01-01

    Social environmental assessments can play a critical role in prevention planning in schools. The purpose of this study was to describe the importance of conducting social environmental assessments, demonstrate that complex social environmental data can be simplified into a useful and valid typology, and illustrate how the typology can guide…

  10. Learning Biases, Regularization, and the Emergence of Typological Universals in Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation investigates typological patterns of syntax and morphosyntax, and the role that learning biases play in constraining them. A link between learning biases and typology is integral to generative linguistics, however evidence for this connection remains minimal. Using experimental, theoretical, and mathematical tools, I provide…

  11. Social Environmental Risk and Protection: A Typology with Implications for Practice in Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Natasha K.; Lee, Jung-Sook; Weller, Bridget E.

    2007-01-01

    Social environmental assessments can play a critical role in prevention planning in schools. The purpose of this study was to describe the importance of conducting social environmental assessments, demonstrate that complex social environmental data can be simplified into a useful and valid typology, and illustrate how the typology can guide…

  12. Factorial versus Typological Models: A Comparison of Methods for Personality Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Davier, Matthias; Naemi, Bobby; Roberts, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes an exploration of the distinction between typological and factorial latent variables in the domain of personality theory. Traditionally, many personality variables have been considered to be factorial in nature, even though there are examples of typological constructs dating back to Hippocrates. Recently, some…

  13. Beliefs Systems and Classroom Practices: Identified Typologies of Elementary School Teachers from the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Margareta Maria; Nietfeld, John L.

    2016-01-01

    In a mixed-methods study, the authors investigate teacher typologies of elementary teachers (N = 132) in the United States based on their reformed science teaching beliefs. Additionally, the identified teacher typologies were compared with respect to their science content knowledge, self-efficacy and epistemic beliefs. Results revealed three…

  14. Sources of Managerial Stress of the Public School Administrators: A Typology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Y. L. Jack

    1984-01-01

    Proposes a 12-celled typology consisting of four stress types (role-based, task-based, boundary-spanning, and conflict-mediating) and three stress sources (extra-organizational, intra-organizational, and intrapersonal). Describes in detail the nature of each cell. Suggests this typology can help synthesize the findings of studies in organization…

  15. A Factor Analytic Test of Houle's Typology of Professionals' Modes of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervero, Ronald M.; Dimmock, Katherine H.

    1987-01-01

    Houle hypothesized three models of professional continuing learning: (1) inquiry, (2) instruction, and (3) performance. A study tested this typology with a population of staff nurses in a community hospital. A revised typology is proposed consisting of (1) inquiry, (2) performance, (3) group instruction, and (4) self-instruction. (Author/CH)

  16. Personality Typologies as a Predictor of Being a Successful Elementary School Principal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendiburu, John G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine personality typologies as a predictor of being a successful elementary school principal. Methodology: A post-hoc analysis design was used to describe the personality typologies as a predictor of being a successful elementary school principal. Eighteen principals were selected to participate in…

  17. Introduction to Psychology and Leadership. Typological Analysis of Student Characteristics: Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bessemer, David W.; Shrage, Jules H.

    Recommendations for an alternative plan, based on typological analysis techniques, for the evaluation of student characteristics related to media, presentation design, and academic performance are presented. Difficulties with present evaluation plans are discussed, and different methods of typological analysis are described. Included are…

  18. A Typology of Teacher-Rated Child Behavior: Revisiting Subgroups over 10 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiStefano, Christine A.; Kamphaus, Randy W.; Mindrila, Diana L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine a typology of child behavior using the Behavioral Assessment System for Children, Teacher Rating Scale (BASC TRS-C, 2nd edition; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004). The typology was compared with the solution identified from the 1992 BASC TRS-C norm dataset. Using cluster analysis, a seven-cluster solution…

  19. Self-Regulation Mediates the Relationship between Learner Typology and Achievement in At - Risk Children

    PubMed Central

    Weed, Keri; Keogh, Deborah; Borkowski, John G.; Whitman, Thomas; Noria, Christine W.

    2010-01-01

    A person-centered approach was used to explore the mediating role of self-regulation between learner typology at age 8 and academic achievement at age 14while controlling for domain-specific achievement in a longitudinal sample of 113 children born to adolescent mothers. Children were classified into one of 5 learner typologies at age 8based on interactive patterns of intellectual, achievement, and adaptive abilities. Typology classification explained significant variance in both reading and mathematics achievement at age 14. A bootstrapping approach confirmed that self-regulation mediated the relationship between typology and reading and mathematical achievement for children from all typologies except those classified as Cognitively and Adaptively Challenged. Implications of person-centered approaches for understanding processes involved with achievement are discussed. PMID:21278904

  20. Refinement of the use of food and fluid control as motivational tools for macaques used in behavioural neuroscience research: report of a Working Group of the NC3Rs.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Mark J; Brown, Verity J; Flecknell, Paul A; Gaffan, David; Garrod, Kate; Lemon, Roger N; Parker, Andrew J; Ryder, Kathy; Schultz, Wolfram; Scott, Leah; Watson, Jayne; Whitfield, Lucy

    2010-11-30

    This report provides practical guidance on refinement of the use of food and fluid control as motivational tools for macaques used in behavioural neuroscience research. The guidance is based on consideration of the scientific literature and, where data are lacking, expert opinion and professional experience, including that of the members of a Working Group convened by the United Kingdom National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs). The report should be useful to researchers, veterinarians and animal care staff responsible for the welfare of macaques used in food and fluid control protocols, as well as those involved with designing, performing and analysing studies that use these protocols. It should also assist regulatory authorities and members of local ethical review processes or institutional animal care and use committees concerned with evaluating such protocols. The report provides a framework for refinement that can be tailored to meet local requirements. It also identifies data gaps and areas for future research and sets out the Working Group's recommendations on contemporary best practice.

  1. Profiling motives behind hedonic eating. Preliminary validation of the Palatable Eating Motives Scale.

    PubMed

    Burgess, E E; Turan, B; Lokken, K L; Morse, A; Boggiano, M M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate a new scale designed to measure individual motives for eating tasty foods and determine if any specific motive(s) are associated with obesity. The "Palatable Eating Motives Scale" (PEMS) is a self-report measure adapted from the Drinking Motives Questionnaire Revised (DMQ-R). N=150 racially-diverse college students (mean age: 24.4, BMI: 16-51kg/m(2)) were administered the PEMS along with the Binge-Eating Scale (BES) and the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) to test for convergent and incremental validity and the Sensitivity to Punishment and Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ) for discriminant validity. The PEMS identified four motives for eating tasty food, the same ones found with the DMQ-R for alcohol intake: Social, Conformity, Enhancement, and Coping motives. The scales had good convergent validity with BES and YFAS scores but discriminated from the broader motivational constructs of inhibition and activation measured by the SPSRQ. Of the PEMS motives, Coping (eating tasty food to deal with problems and negative feelings) accounted for unique variance in BMI, and added to variance in BMI contributed by BES scores, showing incremental validity. YFAS scores did not contribute to BMI after controlling for binge-eating. Coping subscale scores were also significantly higher (p<0.001) among the severely obese (BMI>40). Motives behind palatable food intake are not homogenous and should be considered in personalized weight-loss strategies in future studies. In normal weight individuals, knowing one's dominant motive for eating tasty foods may help promote healthier food choices in times and places where they are most vulnerable to do otherwise.

  2. An empirical typology of private child and family serving agencies

    PubMed Central

    Collins-Camargo, Crystal; McBeath, Bowen; Wells, Rebecca; Bunger, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Differences in how services are organized and delivered can contribute significantly to variation in outcomes experienced by children and families. However, few comparative studies identify the strengths and limitations of alternative delivery system configurations. The current study provides the first empirical typology of private agencies involved with the formal child welfare system. Data collected in 2011 from a national sample of private agencies were used to classify agencies into five distinct groups based on internal management capacity, service diversification, integration, and policy advocacy. Findings reveal considerable heterogeneity in the population of private child and family serving agencies. Cross-group comparisons suggest that differences in agencies’ strategic and structural characteristics correlated with agency directors’ perceptions of different pressures in their external environment. Future research can use this typology to better understand local service systems and the extent to which different agency strategies affect performance and other outcomes. Such information has implications for public agency contracting decisions and could inform system-level assessment and planning of services for children and families. PMID:24648603

  3. A new typology of home-care helpers.

    PubMed

    Porter, Eileen J; Ganong, Lawrence H; Drew, Nancy; Lanes, Tracy I

    2004-12-01

    The formal-informal dichotomy of home care, which has been a theoretical framework in quantitative and qualitative research, might not be descriptive of older persons' views about their home-care providers. This qualitative study explores the perspectives of older women about the characteristics of their home-care providers. Three interviews were conducted with each of 25 women (aged 80-94 years) during the first 4 months of participation in a 3-year phenomenological study. The women described their helpers. We differentiated helper types on the basis of the nature of the help, and we explored variations in compensation arrangements. We delineated a new typology of home-care helpers: regular helpers, on-call helpers, can-will doers, and mainstays. When home-care helpers are categorized by type of assistance provided, the potential value of their efforts is more evident. The association of formal care with paid help and informal care with nonpaid help limits the effectiveness of the dichotomy as a basis for home-care-payment policies. The new home-care-helper typology cuts across the dimensions of the dichotomy, providing an alternative theoretical framework for further research.

  4. Sexual behavior problems in sexually abused children: a preliminary typology.

    PubMed

    Hall, Darlene Kordich; Mathews, Fred; Pearce, John

    2002-03-01

    The goal was to develop an empirically derived typology for sexually abused children exhibiting sexual behavior problems to assist practitioners in differential assessment, treatment, and case planning. Data were systematically gathered from the clinical records of 100 sexually abused children, aged 3 years to 7 years, enrolled in two treatment programs. Twelve indexes were created corresponding to major areas of child and family history, functioning, and treatment response. After initial sorting into subgroups based on the presence or absence of interpersonal sexual behavior problems, further subdivision was based on hierarchical cluster analysis. Five distinctive sexual behavior profiles emerged: (1) developmentally expected; and developmentally problematic (2) interpersonal, unplanned, (3) self-focused, (4) interpersonal, planned (noncoercive), and (5) interpersonal, planned (coercive). Elements of the child's sexual abuse experience, opportunities to learn/practice problematic sexual behavior, and familial variables best differentiated between the types. The five types differed not only in child sexual behavior but in most areas of child and family functioning, including treatment outcome. The findings offer support for the development of an empirically-based typology for children with sexual behavior problems utilizing a range of variables which go beyond typical classification systems based on offender and victim characteristics.

  5. An empirical typology of private child and family serving agencies.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Emmeline; Collins-Camargo, Crystal; McBeath, Bowen; Wells, Rebecca; Bunger, Alicia

    2014-03-01

    Differences in how services are organized and delivered can contribute significantly to variation in outcomes experienced by children and families. However, few comparative studies identify the strengths and limitations of alternative delivery system configurations. The current study provides the first empirical typology of private agencies involved with the formal child welfare system. Data collected in 2011 from a national sample of private agencies were used to classify agencies into five distinct groups based on internal management capacity, service diversification, integration, and policy advocacy. Findings reveal considerable heterogeneity in the population of private child and family serving agencies. Cross-group comparisons suggest that differences in agencies' strategic and structural characteristics correlated with agency directors' perceptions of different pressures in their external environment. Future research can use this typology to better understand local service systems and the extent to which different agency strategies affect performance and other outcomes. Such information has implications for public agency contracting decisions and could inform system-level assessment and planning of services for children and families.

  6. A Typology of Ethnographic Scales for Virtual Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boellstorff, Tom

    This chapter outlines a typology of genres of ethnographic research with regard to virtual worlds, informed by extensive research the author has completed both in Second Life and in Indonesia. It begins by identifying four confusions about virtual worlds: they are not games, they need not be graphical or even visual, they are not mass media, and they need not be defined in terms of escapist role-playing. A three-part typology of methods for ethnographic research in virtual worlds focuses on the relationship between research design and ethnographic scale. One class of methods for researching virtual worlds with regard to ethnographic scale explores interfaces between virtual worlds and the actual world, whereas a second examines interfaces between two or more virtual worlds. The third class involves studying a single virtual world in its own terms. Recognizing that all three approaches have merit for particular research purposes, ethnography of virtual worlds can be a vibrant field of research, contributing to central debates about human selfhood and sociality.

  7. An evaluation of Cloninger's typology of alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Sannibale, C; Hall, W

    1998-08-01

    To evaluate Cloninger's typology of "alcoholism" using the Alcohol Symptom Scale (Gilligan et al., 1987). A sample of 300 Australian men and women with a life-time diagnosis of DSM-III-R alcohol abuse/dependence. The Alcohol Dependence Scale, the Short Alcoholism Screening Test, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) Substance Abuse Module, the Brief Symptom Inventory, the CIDI core modules, the Family History Questionnaire and the Sensation Seeking Scale. The Alcohol Symptom Scale classified only 18% of the sample into either type 1 or type 2. There was mixed support for the hypothesized differences between type 1 and type 2 problem drinkers in pattern of alcohol abuse, gender, personality characteristics and familial aggregation of alcohol abuse. More women than men were classified as type 1 (19% vs. 6%) but, contrary to expectations, similar numbers were classified as type 2 problem drinkers (7% vs. 4%). As predicted, type 2 problem drinkers had more symptoms of antisocial personality disorder, more social consequences of drinking and higher sensation-seeking scores than type 1 problem drinkers. Cloninger's typology failed to classify two types of problem drinkers and it did not predict gender differences in symptoms of alcohol dependence, family history or personality. Schuckit, Irwin & Mahler's (1990) hypothesis that type 2 problem drinkers are more likely to have primary ASPD was supported.

  8. Life Course Typology of Adults Who Experienced Sexual Violence

    PubMed Central

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Martsolf, Donna S.

    2011-01-01

    Two qualitative methodologies were used to develop a life course typology of individuals who had been exposed to sexual violence. Interview narratives of 121 adult women and men who participated in qualitative study of women’s and men’s responses to sexual violence provided the data. The authors combined a narrative approach (holistic-content and holistic-form analysis) to describe the life courses of the participants and a qualitative person-oriented approach (cross-case analysis) to identify meaningful sub-groups within the total sample. The six groups are: (a) life of turmoil, (b) life of struggles, (c) diminished life, (d) taking control of life, (e), finding peace in life, and (f) getting life back to normal. This work exemplifies a promising strategy for identifying sub-groups of violence-exposed individuals within a heterogeneous sample. Such a typology could aid the development of treatment approaches that consider both the substance and the structure of an individual’s life course, rather than target one specific type of violence. PMID:19762554

  9. Materialism and food security.

    PubMed

    Allen, M W; Wilson, M

    2005-12-01

    The present studies examined if materialists have an elevated concern about food availability, presumably stemming from a general survival security motivation. Study 1 found that materialists set a greater life goal of food security, and reported more food insecurity during their childhood. Materialists reported less present-day food insecurity. Study 2 revealed that materialists stored/hoarded more food at home, and that obese persons endorsed materialism more than low/normal weight persons. Study 3 found that experimentally decreasing participants' feelings of survival security (via a mortality salience manipulation) led to greater endorsement of materialism, food security as goal, and using food for emotional comfort. The results imply that materialists overcame the food insecurity of their childhood by making food security a top life goal, but that materialists' current concerns about food security may not wholly stem from genuine threats to their food supply.

  10. Typology reconfigured: from the metaphysics of essentialism to the epistemology of representation.

    PubMed

    Love, Alan C

    2009-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to encourage a reconfiguration of the discussion about typology in biology away from the metaphysics of essentialism and toward the epistemology of classifying natural phenomena for the purposes of empirical inquiry. First, I briefly review arguments concerning 'typological thinking', essentialism, species, and natural kinds, highlighting their predominantly metaphysical nature. Second, I use a distinction between the aims, strategies, and tactics of science to suggest how a shift from metaphysics to epistemology might be accomplished. Typological thinking can be understood as a scientific tactic that involves representing natural phenomena using idealizations and approximations, which facilitates explanation, investigation, and theorizing via abstraction and generalization. Third, a variety of typologies from different areas of biology are introduced to emphasize the diversity of this representational reasoning. One particular example is used to examine how there can be epistemological conflict between typology and evolutionary analysis. This demonstrates that alternative strategies of typological thinking arise due to the divergent explanatory goals of researchers working in different disciplines with disparate methodologies. I conclude with several research questions that emerge from an epistemological reconfiguration of typology.

  11. Digestive system-related pathophysiological symptoms of Sasang typology: Systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi Suk; Sohn, Kyungwoo; Kim, Yun Hee; Hwang, Min-Woo; Kwon, Young Kyu; Bae, Na Young; Chae, Han

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to review clinical studies on digestive system-related pathophysiological symptoms of each Sasang type to obtain the generalizable typespecific clinical features, which are important for the diagnosis of the Sasang type and subsequent disease treatment. Sasang typology and digestive system symptom-related keywords were used to search through eight domestic and foreign databases up to March 2012. The results were organized and analyzed based on four categories [digestive function, appetite, eating pattern, and body mass index (BMI)] to elucidate type-specific symptoms. Sasang type-specific digestive system-related symptoms were identified by reviewing 30 related articles that were gathered by searching through the databases. The Tae-Eum (TE) type had the highest digestive functions and the So-Eum (SE) type had the lowest. The TE type appeared to have larger volume with fast eating speed compared with the SE type and individuals in the TE category preferred fatty or salty food, which is responsible for the high occurrence rates of organic digestive diseases such as gastritis. Moreover, BMI was higher in the TE type and lower in the SE type. We systematically reviewed previously published clinical reports on digestive functions, which can be used to meet the objective of Sasang-type differentiation and pathophysiological pattern identification.

  12. [The Concept of Typology in Psychiatry in the Context of Historical Contributions of Max Weber and Karl Jaspers].

    PubMed

    Jäger, M; Becker, T; Wigand, M E

    2016-08-01

    Against the background of Max Weber's and Karl Jaspers' outstanding historical contributions to the conceptual development of different typologies, the importance of a psychiatric typology is examined. The term "ideal type" was introduced into social science by Weber as an analytical construct to describe and classify cultural phenomena. This concept was adopted for the psychiatric context by Jaspers who proposed to establish a typological system in the field of psychotic disturbances without an organic correlate. He emphasized the importance of the course of psychopathological symptoms for such a typological system. The concept of typology can be regarded as a promising heuristic approach in psychiatry, providing a classification system for complex psychopathological symptoms. Even though several historic typologies exist in psychopathology, their usefulness in the fields of therapy and prognosis needs to be critically assessed. Also, new typologies will have to be developed, taking into account neurobiological knowledge now available.

  13. Food Habits, Lifestyle Factors, and Risk of Prostate Cancer in Central Argentina: A Case Control Study Involving Self-Motivated Health Behavior Modifications after Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Sandaly O. S.; Pacheco, Fabio J.; Zapata, Gimena M. J.; Garcia, Julieta M. E.; Previale, Carlos A.; Cura, Héctor E.; Craig, Winston J.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is the second most important non-communicable disease worldwide and disproportionately impacts low- to middle-income countries. Diet in combination with other lifestyle habits seems to modify the risk for some cancers but little is known about South Americans. Food habits of Argentinean men pre- and post-diagnosis of prostate cancer (n = 326) were assessed along with other lifestyle factors. We studied whether any of the behaviors and risk factors for prostate cancer were found in men with other cancers (n = 394), compared with control subjects (n = 629). Before diagnosis, both cases reported a greater mean consumption of meats and fats and lower intakes of fruits, green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds, and whole grains than the controls (all p < 0.001). After diagnosis, cases significantly reduced the intake of meats and fats, and reported other dietary modifications with increased consumption of fish, fruits (including red fruits in prostate cancer), cruciferous vegetables, legumes, nuts, and black tea (all p < 0.001). Additional lifestyle aspects significantly predominant in cases included a reduced quality of sleep, emotional stress, low physical activity, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, living in rural areas, and being exposed to environmental contaminants. Argentinian men were predisposed to modify their unhealthy dietary habits and other lifestyle factors after cancer diagnosis. PMID:27409631

  14. Food Habits, Lifestyle Factors, and Risk of Prostate Cancer in Central Argentina: A Case Control Study Involving Self-Motivated Health Behavior Modifications after Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Sandaly O S; Pacheco, Fabio J; Zapata, Gimena M J; Garcia, Julieta M E; Previale, Carlos A; Cura, Héctor E; Craig, Winston J

    2016-07-09

    Cancer is the second most important non-communicable disease worldwide and disproportionately impacts low- to middle-income countries. Diet in combination with other lifestyle habits seems to modify the risk for some cancers but little is known about South Americans. Food habits of Argentinean men pre- and post-diagnosis of prostate cancer (n = 326) were assessed along with other lifestyle factors. We studied whether any of the behaviors and risk factors for prostate cancer were found in men with other cancers (n = 394), compared with control subjects (n = 629). Before diagnosis, both cases reported a greater mean consumption of meats and fats and lower intakes of fruits, green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds, and whole grains than the controls (all p < 0.001). After diagnosis, cases significantly reduced the intake of meats and fats, and reported other dietary modifications with increased consumption of fish, fruits (including red fruits in prostate cancer), cruciferous vegetables, legumes, nuts, and black tea (all p < 0.001). Additional lifestyle aspects significantly predominant in cases included a reduced quality of sleep, emotional stress, low physical activity, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, living in rural areas, and being exposed to environmental contaminants. Argentinian men were predisposed to modify their unhealthy dietary habits and other lifestyle factors after cancer diagnosis.

  15. Consumption of a High Quantity and a Wide Variety of Vegetables Are Predicted by Different Food Choice Motives in Older Adults from France, Italy and the UK.

    PubMed

    Appleton, Katherine M; Dinnella, Caterina; Spinelli, Sara; Morizet, David; Saulais, Laure; Hemingway, Ann; Monteleone, Erminio; Depezay, Laurence; Perez-Cueto, Frederico J A; Hartwell, Heather

    2017-08-23

    Consumption of a high quantity and wide variety of vegetables is currently recommended for health. Dietary variety can be low, however, particularly for older adults. This study investigated the affective factors associated with the quantity and variety of vegetables consumed by older adults in France, Italy and the UK. Adults aged 65 years plus completed questionnaires on self-reported vegetable intake (quantity and variety), liking for vegetables, attitudes towards intake, and demographic variables. In 497 older adults (France, n = 187, Italy, n = 152, UK, n = 158), higher quantities of vegetables consumed were associated with a higher age, affluence score and liking for vegetables, and a lower importance in consumption of familiarity (smallest β = 0.11, p = 0.03). Greater variety was associated with a higher liking and importance of health benefits, and a lower importance of familiarity (smallest β = -0.11, p < 0.01). Higher quantity and variety combined (quantity × variety) was associated with a higher age, liking and importance of health benefits, and a lower importance of familiarity (smallest β = 0.14, p = 0.02). Country-specific effects were also found (smallest β = 0.20, p < 0.01). These findings demonstrate a role for liking and a lower concern for eating familiar foods in vegetable consumption, and a particular role for concern for health benefits in the consumption of a greater variety of vegetables.

  16. A typology of structural approaches to HIV prevention

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Alexander C.

    2012-01-01

    Renewed enthusiasm for biomedical HIV prevention strategies has followed the recent publication of several high-profile HIV antiretroviral therapy-based HIV prevention trials. In a recent article, Roberts & Matthews (2012) accurately note some of the shortcomings of these individually targeted approaches to HIV prevention and advocate for increased emphasis on structural interventions that have more fundamental effects on the population distribution of HIV. However, they make some implicit assumptions about the extent to which structural interventions are user-independent and more sustainable than biomedical or behavioral interventions. In this article, I elaborate a simple typology of structural interventions along these two axes and suggest that they may be neither user-independent nor sustainable and therefore subject to the same sustainability concerns, costs, and potential unintended consequences as biomedical and behavioral interventions. PMID:22877933

  17. A test of two typologies of sexual homicide.

    PubMed

    Sewall, Lindsay A; Krupp, Daniel Brian; Lalumière, Martin L

    2013-02-01

    Published typologies of sexual homicide lack theoretical grounding and empirical support. They also conceptualize the phenomenon of sexual homicide as somewhat discrete, though offenders are not typically specialists. Here, we propose a model that situates the phenomenon of sexual killing into broader categories of antisocial behavior, positing three types of perpetrators of serial sexual homicides: competitively disadvantaged, psychopathic, and sadistic offenders. Using biographical data of 82 serial sexual homicide offenders, we tested our model as well as the influential organized/disorganized model. Principal components analysis produced five components consisting of offender and offense characteristics, and cluster analysis revealed three distinct groups of perpetrators (sadistic offenders, competitively disadvantaged offenders, and slashers), as well as a fourth, heterogeneous group; this cluster solution, however, may be unstable. In summary, there is only mixed support for either model.

  18. Differing forms, differing purposes: A typology of health impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Harris-Roxas, Ben Harris, Elizabeth

    2011-07-15

    There is currently considerable diversity in health impact assessment (HIA) practice internationally. Historically this diversity has been described as simple dichotomies, for example the differences between HIAs of projects and policies. However these distinctions have failed to adequately describe the differences that can be observed between different forms of HIAs. This paper describes the three historical and disciplinary fields from which HIA has emerged - environmental health, a social view of health, and health equity. It also puts forward a typology of four different forms of HIA that can be observed in current HIA practice: mandated, decision-support, advocacy, and community-led HIAs. This paper argues that these different forms of HIA serve different purposes and are not necessarily in competition; rather they allow HIA to be responsive to a range of population health concerns and purposes.

  19. The typological approach to submarine groundwater discharge (SGD)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bokuniewicz, H.; Buddemeier, R.; Maxwell, B.; Smith, C.

    2003-01-01

    Coastal zone managers need to factor submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in their integration. SGD provides a pathway for the transfer of freshwater, and its dissolved chemical burden, from the land to the coastal ocean. SGD reduces salinities and provides nutrients to specialized coastal habitats. It also can be a pollutant source, often undetected, causing eutrophication and triggering nuisance algal blooms. Despite its importance, SGD remains somewhat of a mystery in most places because it is usually unseen and difficult to measure. SGD has been directly measured at only about a hundred sites worldwide. A typology generated by the Land-Ocean Interaction in the Coastal Zone (LOICZ) Project is one of the few tools globally available to coastal resource managers for identifying areas in their jurisdiction where SGD may be a confounding process. (LOICZ is a core project of the International Geosphere/Biosphere Programme.) Of the hundreds of globally distributed parameters in the LOICZ typology, a SGD subset of potentially relevant parameters may be culled. A quantitative combination of the relevant hydrological parameters can serve as a proxy for the SGD conditions not directly measured. Web-LOICZ View, geospatial software then provides an automated approach to clustering these data into groups of locations that have similar characteristics. It permits selection of variables, of the number of clusters desired, and of the clustering criteria, and provides means of testing predictive results against independent variables. Information on the occurrence of a variety of SGD indicators can then be incorporated into regional clustering analysis. With such tools, coastal managers can focus attention on the most likely sites of SGD in their jurisdiction and design the necessary measurement and modeling programs needed for integrated management.

  20. Adolescent sexual offenders: the relationship between typology and recidivism.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chi Meng; Thomas, Stuart D M

    2010-06-01

    Adolescent sexual offending represents an ongoing social, judicial, clinical, and policy issue for services. The current study investigated the characteristics, criminal versatility, and rates of recidivism of a cohort of 156 male adolescent sexual offenders who were referred for psychological assessments by the courts between 1996 and 2007 in Singapore. Analyses revealed that specialists (sex-only offenders; n = 71, M(follow-up) = 56.99 months, SD(follow-up) = 31.33) and generalists (criminally versatile offenders; n = 77, M (follow-up) = 67.83 months, SD(follow-up) = 36.55) differed with respect to offense characteristics (e.g., sexually assaulting familial victims) and recidivistic outcomes. Although both groups sexually reoffended at roughly the same rate (14.3% vs. 9.9%), consistent with their typology, significantly more of the generalists reoffended violently (18.2% vs. 1.4%), sexually and/or violently (27.3% vs. 11.3%), nonviolently (37.7% vs. 16.9%), and engaged in any further criminal behaviors (45.5% vs. 23.9%) during follow-up. Adjusting for total number of offenses and age at first sexual offense, Cox regression analyses showed that generalists were significantly more likely than specialists to reoffend violently (hazard ratio = 9.31; 95% confidence interval = 1.15-76.39). The differences between generalists and specialists suggest a valid typological distinction with a higher risk trajectory for the generalists. These findings therefore have important clinical implications for assessment, management, and intervention planning for adolescent sexual offenders.

  1. Developing a social practice‐based typology of British drinking culture in 2009–2011: implications for alcohol policy analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ally, Abdallah K.; Lovatt, Melanie; Meier, Petra S.; Brennan, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and aims The concept of national drinking culture is well established in research and policy debate, but rarely features in contemporary alcohol policy analysis. We aim to demonstrate the value of the alternative concept of social practices for quantitatively operationalizing drinking culture. We discuss how a practice perspective addresses limitations in existing analytical approaches to health‐related behaviour before demonstrating its empirical application by constructing a statistical typology of British drinking occasions. Design Cross‐sectional latent class analysis of drinking occasions derived from retrospective 1‐week drinking diaries obtained from quota samples of a market research panel. Occasions are periods of drinking with no more than 2 hours between drinks. Setting Great Britain, 2009–11. Cases A total of 187 878 occasions nested within 60 215 nationally representative adults (aged 18 + years). Measurements Beverage type and quantity per occasion; location, company and gender composition of company; motivation and reason for occasion; day, start‐time and duration of occasion; and age, sex and social grade. Findings Eight occasion types are derived based primarily on parsimony considerations rather than model fit statistics. These are mixed location heavy drinking (10.4% of occasions), heavy drinking at home with a partner (9.4%), going out with friends (11.1%), get‐together at someone's house (14.4%), going out for a meal (8.6%), drinking at home alone (13.6%), light drinking at home with family (12.8%) and light drinking at home with a partner (19.6%). Conclusions An empirical model of drinking culture, comprising a typology of drinking practices, reveals the dominance of moderate drinking practices in Great Britain. The model demonstrates the potential for a practice perspective to be used in evaluation of how and why drinking cultures change in response to public health interventions. PMID:27095617

  2. Developing a social practice-based typology of British drinking culture in 2009-2011: implications for alcohol policy analysis.

    PubMed

    Ally, Abdallah K; Lovatt, Melanie; Meier, Petra S; Brennan, Alan; Holmes, John

    2016-09-01

    The concept of national drinking culture is well established in research and policy debate, but rarely features in contemporary alcohol policy analysis. We aim to demonstrate the value of the alternative concept of social practices for quantitatively operationalizing drinking culture. We discuss how a practice perspective addresses limitations in existing analytical approaches to health-related behaviour before demonstrating its empirical application by constructing a statistical typology of British drinking occasions. Cross-sectional latent class analysis of drinking occasions derived from retrospective 1-week drinking diaries obtained from quota samples of a market research panel. Occasions are periods of drinking with no more than 2 hours between drinks. Great Britain, 2009-11. A total of 187 878 occasions nested within 60 215 nationally representative adults (aged 18 + years). Beverage type and quantity per occasion; location, company and gender composition of company; motivation and reason for occasion; day, start-time and duration of occasion; and age, sex and social grade. Eight occasion types are derived based primarily on parsimony considerations rather than model fit statistics. These are mixed location heavy drinking (10.4% of occasions), heavy drinking at home with a partner (9.4%), going out with friends (11.1%), get-together at someone's house (14.4%), going out for a meal (8.6%), drinking at home alone (13.6%), light drinking at home with family (12.8%) and light drinking at home with a partner (19.6%). An empirical model of drinking culture, comprising a typology of drinking practices, reveals the dominance of moderate drinking practices in Great Britain. The model demonstrates the potential for a practice perspective to be used in evaluation of how and why drinking cultures change in response to public health interventions. © 2016 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Word classes in the brain: implications of linguistic typology for cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Kemmerer, David

    2014-09-01

    Although recent research on the neural substrates of word classes has generated some valuable findings, significant progress has been hindered by insufficient attention to theoretical issues involving the nature of the lexical phenomena under investigation. This paper shows how insights from linguistic typology can provide cognitive neuroscientists with well-motivated guidelines for interpreting the extant data and charting a future course. At the outset, a fundamental distinction is made between universal and language-particular aspects of word classes. Regarding universals, prototypical nouns involve reference to objects, and their meanings rely primarily on the ventral temporal lobes, which represent the shape features of entities; in contrast, prototypical verbs involve predication of actions, and their meanings rely primarily on posterior middle temporal regions and frontoparietal regions, which represent the visual motion features and somatomotor features of events. Some researchers maintain that focusing on object nouns and action verbs is inappropriate because it conflates the semantic and grammatical properties of each word class. However, this criticism not only ignores the importance of the universal prototypes, but also mistakenly assumes that there are straightforward morphological and/or syntactic criteria for identifying nouns and verbs in particular languages. In fact, at the level of individual languages, the classic method of distributional analysis leads to a proliferation of constructionally based entity-denoting and event-denoting word classes with mismatching memberships, and all of this variation must be taken seriously, not only by linguists, but also by cognitive neuroscientists. Many of these word classes involve remarkably close correspondences between grammar and meaning and hence are highly relevant to the neurobiology of conceptual knowledge, but so far hardly any of them have been investigated from a neurolinguistic perspective.

  4. Using a Typology of Persons and Environments to Explain Careers: Some Extensions and Clarifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, John L.; Gottfredson, Gary D.

    1976-01-01

    The authors present a typology for understanding how people make career choices, become vocational mature, and adjust their occupational choice to their particular life style. Practical implications for vocational assistance by counselors are also presented. (Author/HLM)

  5. The typological approach in child and family psychology: a review of theory, methods, and research.

    PubMed

    Mandara, Jelani

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the theoretical underpinnings, major concepts, and methods of the typological approach. It was argued that the typological approach offers a systematic, empirically rigorous and reliable way to synthesize the nomothetic variable-centered approach with the idiographic case-centered approach. Recent advances in cluster analysis validation make it a promising method for uncovering natural typologies. This paper also reviewed findings from personality and family studies that have revealed 3 prototypical personalities and parenting styles: Adjusted/Authoritative, Overcontrolled/Authoritarian, and Undercontrolled/Permissive. These prototypes are theorized to be synonymous with attractor basins in psychological state space. The connection between family types and personality structure as well as future directions of typological research were also discussed.

  6. Motivations of female Black Hills deer hunters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gigliotti, Larry M.; Covelli Metcalf, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    State fish and wildlife agencies are particularly interested in attracting female participation because of the potential to offset declining participation in hunting. Understanding female hunters’ motivations will be critical for designing effective recruitment and retention programs for women hunters. Although female participation in hunting is increasing, males still outnumber females by about tenfold. Gender differences in deer hunters were explored by comparing ratings of eight motivations (social, nature, excitement, meat, challenge, trophy, extra hunting opportunity, and solitude). Hunter types were defined by hunters’ selection of the most important motivation for why they like Black Hills deer hunting. Overall, females and males were relatively similar in their ratings of the eight motivations, and we found 85% gender similarity in the selection of the most important motivation. Women were slightly more motivated by the food aspect of the hunt while men placed slightly more value on the hunt as a sporting activity.

  7. THE MYSTERIOUS MOTIVATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF MESOLIMBIC DOPAMINE

    PubMed Central

    Salamone, John D.; Correa, Mercè

    2012-01-01

    Summary Nucleus accumbens dopamine is known to play a role in motivational processes, and dysfunctions of mesolimbic dopamine may contribute to motivational symptoms of depression and other disorders, as well as features of substance abuse. Although it has become traditional to label dopamine neurons as “reward” neurons, this is an over-generalization, and it is important to distinguish between aspects of motivation that are differentially affected by dopaminergic manipulations. For example, accumbens dopamine does not mediate primary food motivation or appetite, but is involved in appetitive and aversive motivational processes including behavioral activation, exertion of effort, approach behavior, sustained task engagement, Pavlovian processes and instrumental learning. In this review, we discuss the complex roles of dopamine in behavioral functions related to motivation. PMID:23141060

  8. [Spanish migration to Argentina as seen through "Partes Consulares" 1910. An exercise in regional typology].

    PubMed

    Devoto, F J

    1996-12-01

    "By using the shipping lists contained in Argentine immigration files, it is possible to analyze Spanish immigration in Argentina [in the early twentieth century] by province of origin. In this case, the provinces of Pontevedra, Salamanca and Vizcaya are considered, and three different typologies are presented, showing differences in age structure, family status, occupation and previous migratory experience. The implications for the formulation of European typologies are suggested." (EXCERPT)

  9. Methodologies to Motivate Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Victor C.

    A review of literature on the subject of student motivation identified five areas which could be used to increase motivation among students: (1) using an incentive program; (2) using "fun" or "unusual" activities to motivate students; (3) goal setting; (4) students motivating other students; and (5) using parents to motivate students to learn.…

  10. Behavior analysis in instructional design: A functional typology of verbal tasks

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kent R.; Chase, Philip N.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes and illustrates a typology of verbal instructional tasks for advanced classroom instruction and inservice training. The typology is based upon functional definitions of elementary and conceptual behavior, and incorporates the kinds of goals and objectives that surveys and research have shown to be important for experienced learners. The typology's metastructure is B. F. Skinner's (1957) verbal behavior classification system. This paper describes Skinner's system as a context for understanding and selecting instructional tasks for experienced learners. This paper also discusses rate of response as an important dimension of proficiency or mastery, and procedures for selecting proficiency criteria of tasks in the typology are also described. Results of the first of a series of validation studies indicated that high agreement between typology designer and subjects' classification of tasks can be attained after a short training session. The typology is discussed as a vehicle for standardizing instructional research and practice, and as a basis for research on transfer of control across classes of verbal behavior. Implications for research on building fluency of adult performance, and efficiency in instructional design are also discussed. PMID:22478544

  11. Food reinforcement during infancy

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Kai Ling

    2017-01-01

    The motivation to eat, as operationalized by measuring how hard someone will work for food, is cross-sectionally and prospectively related to obesity. Persons high in food reinforcement consume more calories, and energy intake mediates the relationship between food reinforcement and obesity. Research has shown avid sucking for milk in early infancy predicts later adiposity, and the relationship between food reinforcement and excess body weight has been observed in infants as young as 9 months of age. New methodological developments in studying food reinforcement in infants and young children provide the first opportunity to study the origin of food reinforcement. This review seeks to provide background on the measurement of food reinforcement, and to present, for the first time, prenatal and postnatal predictors of infant food reinforcement. Lastly, potential mechanisms for an increasing trajectory of food reinforcement throughout development are proposed. PMID:27373207

  12. Motivation: The Manager's Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiernan, Donald F.

    1981-01-01

    Drawing from management models of several researchers in behavioral sciences, conclusions about how to motivate employees are presented. Some insight into the factors affecting motivation and managerial action to improve staff motivation are discussed. (Author/MLW)

  13. Healthcare information technology's relativity problems: a typology of how patients' physical reality, clinicians' mental models, and healthcare information technology differ.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sean W; Koppel, Ross

    2014-01-01

    To model inconsistencies or distortions among three realities: patients' physical reality; clinicians' mental models of patients' conditions, laboratories, etc; representation of that reality in electronic health records (EHR). To serve as a potential tool for quality improvement of EHRs. Using observations, literature, information technology (IT) logs, vendor and US Food and Drug Administration reports, we constructed scenarios/models of how patients' realities, clinicians' mental models, and EHRs can misalign to produce distortions in comprehension and treatment. We then categorized them according to an emergent typology derived from the cases themselves and refined the categories based on insights gained from the literature of interactive sociotechnical systems analysis, decision support science, and human computer interaction. Typical of grounded theory methods, the categories underwent repeated modifications. We constructed 45 scenarios of misalignment between patients' physical realities, clinicians' mental models, and EHRs. We then identified five general types of misrepresentation in these cases: IT data too narrowly focused; IT data too broadly focused; EHRs miss critical reality; data multiplicities-perhaps contradictory or confusing; distortions from data reflected back and forth across users, sensors, and others. The 45 scenarios are presented, organized by the five types. With humans, there is a physical reality and actors' mental models of that reality. In healthcare, there is another player: the EHR/healthcare IT, which implicitly and explicitly reflects many mental models, facets of reality, and measures thereof that vary in reliability and consistency. EHRs are both microcosms and shapers of medical care. Our typology and scenarios are intended to be useful to healthcare IT designers and implementers in improving EHR systems and reducing the unintended negative consequences of their use.

  14. A GIS typology to locate sites of submarine groundwater discharge.

    PubMed

    Rapaglia, John; Grant, Carley; Bokuniewicz, Henry; Pick, Tsvi; Scholten, Jan

    2015-07-01

    Although many researchers agree on the importance of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), it remains difficult to locate and quantify this process. A groundwater typology was developed based on local digital elevation models and compared to concurrent radon mapping indicative of SGD in the Niantic River, CT USA. Areas of high radon activity were located near areas of high flow accumulation lending evidence to the utility of this approach to locate SGD. The benefits of this approach are three-fold: fresh terrestrial SGD may be quickly located through widely-available digital elevation models at little or no cost to the investigator; fresh SGD may also be quantified through the GIS approach by multiplying pixelated flow accumulation with the expected annual recharge; and, as these data necessarily quantify only fresh SGD, a comparison of these data with SGD as calculated by Rn activity may allow for the separation of the fresh and circulated fractions of SGD. This exercise was completed for the Niantic River where SGD as calculated by the GIS model is 1.2 m(3)/s, SGD as calculated by Rn activity is 0.73-5.5 m(3)/s, and SGD as calculated via a theoretical approach is 1.8-4.3 m(3)/s. Therefore fresh, terrestrial SGD accounts for 22-100% of total SGD in the Niantic River.

  15. Fertility trends, marriage patterns, and savant typologies in Albanian context.

    PubMed

    Doja, Albert

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on the speculative literalism and typologism in current scholarship to construct a taken-for-granted view, taking issue especially with many points raised in the literature on the subject that have associated fertility rates in Albania more closely with the existence of patriarchal cultural traits. This leads the author to argue that the specific rationale for the myth of many children, high fertility rates, and complex family structures in Albanian context, as elsewhere in patrilineal societies, is an ideological elaboration of patriarchy. Methodologically, the analysis of the standard view of childbearing, based on standard ethnographic methods, traditional historical sources and aggregate demographic data, is aimed to illustrate the inadequacy of the historical-ethnographic paradigm against the available empirical evidence. In turn, understanding how ideological elements are emphasized in cultural activism should lead, against current scholarship claims, to an understanding of the way in which the urgent need for male children must have been to hide away other more troubling reasons.

  16. Body temperature regulation: Sasang typology-based perspective.

    PubMed

    Pham, Duong Duc; Leem, Chae Hun

    2015-12-01

    Global warming induces a dramatic elevation of heat-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Individual variation of heat stress vulnerability depends on various factors such as age, gender, living area and conditions, health status, and individual innate characteristics. Sasang typology is a unique form of Korean traditional medicine, which is based on the hypothesis that constitution-specific traits of an individual determine the particular distinctive tendency in various aspects, including responses to the external environment. Recent scientific evidence shows that Sasang types differ in body composition, metabolic profile, susceptibility to certain disease patterns, and perspiration. This review aims to interpret these findings under the context of heat balance consisting of heat production (Hprod), heat loss (Hloss), and heat load (Hload). Based on the published data, at a given body mass, the TaeEum type tended to have a lower Hprod at rest and at the exhaustion state, which may indicate the lower metabolic efficiency of this type. Meanwhile, the surface-to-mass ratio and heat capacity of the TaeEum type appear to be lower, implying a lower heat dissipation capacity and heat storage tolerance. Thus, because of these characteristics, the TaeEum type seems to be more vulnerable to heat stress than the other constitutions. Differences in temperature regulation across constitutional types should be taken into account in daily physical activity, health management, and medical research.

  17. Ordering theories: Typologies and conceptual frameworks for sociotechnical change.

    PubMed

    Sovacool, Benjamin K; Hess, David J

    2017-06-01

    What theories or concepts are most useful at explaining socio technical change? How can - or cannot - these be integrated? To provide an answer, this study presents the results from 35 semi-structured research interviews with social science experts who also shared more than two hundred articles, reports and books on the topic of the acceptance, adoption, use, or diffusion of technology. This material led to the identification of 96 theories and conceptual approaches spanning 22 identified disciplines. The article begins by explaining its research terms and methods before honing in on a combination of fourteen theories deemed most relevant and useful by the material. These are: Sociotechnical Transitions, Social Practice Theory, Discourse Theory, Domestication Theory, Large Technical Systems, Social Construction of Technology, Sociotechnical Imaginaries, Actor-Network Theory, Social Justice Theory, Sociology of Expectations, Sustainable Development, Values Beliefs Norms Theory, Lifestyle Theory, and the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology. It then positions these theories in terms of two distinct typologies. Theories can be placed into five general categories of being centered on agency, structure, meaning, relations or norms. They can also be classified based on their assumptions and goals rooted in functionalism, interpretivism, humanism or conflict. The article lays out tips for research methodology before concluding with insights about technology itself, analytical processes associated with technology, and the framing and communication of results. An interdisciplinary theoretical and conceptual inventory has much to offer students, analysts and scholars wanting to study technological change and society.

  18. [The human typology: at the origin of the Italian school].

    PubMed

    Bernabeo, R A; D'Este, B R

    1989-01-01

    Figurative arts were the first supporters of typology inequalities. In fact in every time artists felt the need of looking for a system of measures fit for reproducing the armony of the human body as a "whole". Doctors generally neglected the anthropomorphic logic till modern times, mostly limiting themselves to the relationship among the various parts. Only later Quetelet fixed the first law, which allowed the consideration for the human kind unity. Starting from this principle a lot of schools developed at the end of the 20th century they dictated a great variety of typologie classifications. In Italy it was De Giovanni who came to the definition of "constitutional medicine", and later Viola and Pende referred to it. So some categories of individuals (biotypes) were outlined from the most tender years. This method proved to be indispensable, among other things, both to appreciate everybody's sporting bent and to start people in an athletic training, and to discover the causes of the symptoms of the disease--typical of growth--and to interfere with them in a prophylactic way, by means of fitting physical exercises too.

  19. Typology of Alcohol Users Based on Longitudinal Patterns of Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Magdalena; Velicer, Wayne F.; Ramsey, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Worldwide, alcohol is the most commonly used psychoactive substance. However, heterogeneity among alcohol users has been widely recognized. This paper presents a typology of alcohol users based on an implementation of idiographic methodology to examine longitudinal daily and cyclic (weekly) patterns of alcohol use at the individual level. Method A secondary data analysis was performed on the pre-intervention data from a large randomized control trial. A time series analysis was performed at the individual level, and a dynamic cluster analysis was employed to identify homogenous longitudinal patterns of drinking behavior at the group level. The analysis employed 180 daily observations of alcohol use in a sample of 177 alcohol users. Results The first order autocorrelations ranged from −.76 to .72, and seventh order autocorrelations ranged from −.27 to .79. Eight distinct profiles of alcohol users were identified, each characterized by a unique configuration of first and seventh autoregressive terms and longitudinal trajectories of alcohol use. External validity of the profiles confirmed the theoretical relevance of different patterns of alcohol use. Significant differences among the eight subtypes were found on gender, marital status, frequency of drug use, lifetime alcohol dependence, family history of alcohol use and the Short Index of Problems. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that individuals can have very different temporal patterns of drinking behavior. The daily and cyclic patterns of alcohol use may be important for designing tailored interventions for problem drinkers. PMID:24333036

  20. Brokering the Research-Practice Gap: A typology.

    PubMed

    Neal, Jennifer Watling; Neal, Zachary P; Kornbluh, Mariah; Mills, Kristen J; Lawlor, Jennifer A

    2015-12-01

    Despite widespread recognition of a research-practice gap in multiple service sectors, less is known about how pre-existing communication channels facilitate the flow of information between researchers and practitioners. In the current study, we applied an existing typology of brokerage developed by Gould and Fernandez (Sociol Methodol 19:89-126, 1989) to examine what types of brokerage facilitate information spread between researchers and educational practitioners. Specifically, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 19 school administrators and staff in two public school districts regarding their experiences searching for information about instructional, health, and social skills programs. Using deductive content analysis, we found evidence of all five types of brokerage identified by Gould and Fernandez (1989). However, only three types of brokerage-gatekeepers, representatives, and liaisons-were involved in the flow of information between school administrators and researchers. Moreover, information transfer often occurred in longer chains that involved multiple, distinct types of brokerage. We conclude with the broad implications of our findings for narrowing the research-practice gap by improving researchers' dissemination efforts and practitioners' search for information.

  1. Typology of Internet gaming disorder and its clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Yup; Lee, Hae Kook; Choo, Hyekyung

    2016-09-20

    Various perspectives exist regarding Internet gaming disorder. While the concept of behavioral addiction is gaining recognition, some view the phenomenon as merely excessive indulgence in online pastimes. Still, in recent years, complaints from patients or their family members about problems related to Internet use, particularly Internet gaming, have become more common. However, the clinical picture of Internet gaming disorder could be obscured by its heterogeneous manifestations with other intertwined factors, such as psychiatric comorbidities, neurodevelopmental factors, sociocultural factors, and game-related factors, which may influence the pathogenesis as well as the clinical course. To mitigate such problems, clinicians should be able to consider diverse aspects related to Internet gaming disorder. Classifying such a heterogeneous problem into subtypes that share a similar etiology or phenomenology may provide additional clues in the diagnostic process and allow us to designate available clinical resources for particularly vulnerable factors. In this review paper, we suggest a typology of 'impulsive/aggressive,' 'emotionally vulnerable,' 'socially conditioned,' and 'not otherwise specified' as subtypes of the heterogeneous phenomena of pathological Internet gaming. The implications of these subtypes for assessment and treatment planning will also be highlighted.

  2. Pharmacognostic outlooks on medical herbs of Sasang typology.

    PubMed

    Lim, Su Hye; Jeon, Eun Sang; Lee, Jeongyun; Han, Sang Yun; Chae, Han

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the pharmacognostic characteristics of Sasang type-specific medical herbs and suggest biological mechanisms that might be related to the personalized treatment of the East. Major compounds and their pharmacological activities of medical herbs for each Sasang types were systematically reviewed. The pharmacognostic characteristics of its main compounds were systematically analyzed with previous studies and three web-based databases. Sasang type-specific medical herbs were selected, and biological effects of their phytochemicals were reviewed from the pathophysiological features of each Sasang types. Phenolics were dominant in Tae-Yang type-specific herbs, iridoids and triterpenes with antipyretic and diuretic effects were in So-Yang type-specific, saponins (triterpene saponins and steroidal saponins) with antitussive effects were in Tae-Eum type-specific, and monoterpene and sesquiterpenes with stomachic effect were in So-Eum type-specific herbs. Pharmacognostic understandings on Sasang type-specific medical herbs with consideration of type-specific pathophysiological features were provided for the first time. This study would contribute to in-depth understandings on the pathophysiology of Sasang typology and integration of East-Asian and Western personalized medicine.

  3. A criminal careers typology of child sexual abusers.

    PubMed

    Wortley, Richard; Smallbone, Stephen

    2014-12-01

    We present a criminal careers typology of child sexual abusers constructed in terms of their offending persistence (persistent vs. limited) and versatility (specialized vs. versatile). Analyses were conducted on the official records of 362 convicted offenders, 213 of whom also provided confidential self-report data on their personal and offending histories. Forty-one percent of the sample were currently serving sentences for their first sexual offense conviction(s) but had at least one prior conviction for a nonsexual offense (limited/versatile); 36.4% had no previous convictions of any kind (limited/specialized); 17.8% had prior convictions for sexual and nonsexual offenses (persistent/versatile); and 4.8% had prior convictions for sexual offenses only (persistent/specialized). These four groups differed on a range of personal and offense-related variables, including abuse histories, sexual orientation, age at first sexual contact with a child, number of victims, duration of sexual involvement with victims, victim gender, and whether victims were familial or nonfamilial. These differences suggest the need to adopt different treatment and prevention strategies that target the specific characteristics of each group. © The Author(s) 2013.

  4. Typology of public outreach for biodiversity conservation projects in Spain.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Amanda; Iniesta-Arandia, Irene; Muñoz-Santos, Maria; Martín-López, Berta; Jacobson, Susan K; Benayas, Javier

    2014-06-01

    Conservation education and outreach programs are a key approach to promote public understanding of the importance of biodiversity conservation. We reviewed 85 biodiversity conservation projects supported by the Spanish Ministry of Environment's Biodiversity Foundation. Through content analysis and descriptive statistics, we examined how the projects carried out communication, education, and public awareness and participation (CEPA) actions. We also used multivariate statistical analysis to develop a typology of 4 classes of biodiversity conservation projects on the basis of CEPA implementation. The classifications were delineated by purpose of CEPA, level of integration of CEPA actions, type of CEPA goals, main CEPA stakeholders, and aim of conservation. Our results confirm the existence of 2 key positions: CEPA has intrinsic value (i.e., they supposed the implementation of any CEPA action indirectly supported conservation) and CEPA is an instrument for achieving conservation goals. We also found that most CEPA actions addressed general audiences and school children, ignored minority groups and women, and did not include evaluation. The characteristics of the 4 types of projects and their frequency of implementation in the sample reflect the need for better integration of different types of actions (communication, education, and participation) and improved fostering of participation of multiple stakeholders in developing policy and implementing management strategies.

  5. Autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and goal progress.

    PubMed

    Koestner, Richard; Otis, Nancy; Powers, Theodore A; Pelletier, Luc; Gagnon, Hugo

    2008-10-01

    Although the self-concordance of goals has been repeatedly shown to predict better goal progress, recent research suggests potential problems with aggregating autonomous and controlled motivations to form a summary index of self-concordance (Judge, Bono, Erez, & Locke, 2005). The purpose of the present investigation was to further examine the relations among autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and goal progress to determine the relative importance of autonomous motivation and controlled motivation in the pursuit of personal goals. The results of three studies and a meta-analysis indicated that autonomous motivation was substantially related to goal progress whereas controlled motivation was not. Additionally, the relation of autonomous motivation to goal progress was shown to involve implementation planning. Together, the three studies highlight the importance for goal setters of having autonomous motivation and developing implementation plans, especially ones formulated in terms of approach strategies rather than avoidance strategies. The present research suggests that individuals pursuing goals should focus relatively greater attention on enhancing their autonomous motivation rather than reducing their controlled motivation.

  6. Theory and Motivational Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, John W.

    Motivational psychology and test theory are compared in this discussion, which focuses on distinguishing the effects of motivation and of ability on test performance and educational achievement. Recent theory in achievement motivation considers the motivational significance of future goals as they affect present activities that are instrumental in…

  7. Theory and Motivational Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, John W.

    Motivational psychology and test theory are compared in this discussion, which focuses on distinguishing the effects of motivation and of ability on test performance and educational achievement. Recent theory in achievement motivation considers the motivational significance of future goals as they affect present activities that are instrumental in…

  8. Motivation in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Nancy L.

    This paper presents basic principles and theories of motivation, attempts to provide a better understanding of the concept, and explores the role motivation plays in learning. Basic theories of motivation are reviewed including: Freud's belief in motivation by the id, unconscious forces, and sexual stages; Jung and Adler's belief that people are…

  9. The heterogeneity of socially isolated older adults: a social isolation typology.

    PubMed

    Machielse, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Recent statistics show a growing number of older adults who are living alone and are socially isolated. It is against this background that, in recent years, many interventions have been developed to address social isolation among the elderly. Evaluative studies show that most interventions are hardly effective, though. An important reason for this is the heterogeneity of the socially isolated. This article offers insight into this heterogeneity by presenting a typology with different profiles of socially isolated older adults and the intervention implications of this typology. The typology is derived from an extensive qualitative study on socially isolated elderly individuals in the Netherlands. The typology imposes some degree of order to a diversity of circumstances, ambitions, and possibilities of the socially isolated elderly, thereby deepening the understanding of the heterogeneity of this population. The definition of social isolation used in this study starts from a societal angle of incidence, namely the current policy context of Western European welfare states, in which governments emphasize the importance of independence and self-reliance of their citizens. Developed from that perspective, the typology provides a theoretical basis for applying interventions aimed at increasing self-reliance of social isolated elderly. This perspective on social isolation also has consequences for the way in which the effectiveness of interventions to alleviate social isolation is assessed.

  10. Awareness typologies, long-term emotional adjustment and psychosocial outcomes following acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ownsworth, Tamara; Fleming, Jenny; Strong, Jenny; Radel, Michael; Chan, Wilbur; Clare, Linda

    2007-04-01

    Previous research suggests considerable heterogeneity within groups of individuals identified as having low self-awareness or good self-awareness following acquired brain injury (ABI). The present study aimed to identify typologies of individuals according to neuropsychological and psychological factors related to awareness deficits and compare emotional adjustment and psychosocial outcomes at the initial assessment and 12-month follow-up. Eighty-four participants with ABI (mean time since injury = 3.9 years) were assessed on the Self-Awareness of Deficits Interview, Awareness Questionnaire, Symptom Expectancy Checklist, Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, Sydney Psychosocial Reintegration Scale, and an error self-regulation index. A 12-month follow-up assessment of emotional adjustment and psychosocial outcomes was conducted. A hierarchical cluster analysis distinguished four awareness typologies, namely, "poor self-awareness" (n = 12), "high defensiveness" (n = 13), "high symptom reporting" (n = 15), and "good self-awareness" (n = 44). An overall comparison of outcomes indicated that the poor self-awareness and high symptom reporting typologies experienced poorer outcomes than the high defensiveness and good self-awareness typologies. The findings confirm that there are different awareness typologies and highlight the need to tailor interventions according to the nature of awareness deficits.

  11. Integration and Typologies of Vulnerability to Climate Change: A Case Study from Australian Wheat Sheep Zones.

    PubMed

    Huai, Jianjun

    2016-09-27

    Although the integrated indicator methods have become popular for assessing vulnerability to climate change, their proliferation has introduced a confusing array of scales and indicators that cause a science-policy gap. I argue for a clear adaptation pathway in an "integrative typology" of regional vulnerability that matches appropriate scales, optimal measurements and adaptive strategies in a six-dimensional and multi-level analysis framework of integration and typology inspired by the "5W1H" questions: "Who is concerned about how to adapt to the vulnerability of what to what in some place (where) at some time (when)?" Using the case of the vulnerability of wheat, barley and oats to drought in Australian wheat sheep zones during 1978-1999, I answer the "5W1H" questions through establishing the "six typologies" framework. I then optimize the measurement of vulnerability through contrasting twelve kinds of vulnerability scores with the divergence of crops yields from their regional mean. Through identifying the socioeconomic constraints, I propose seven generic types of crop-drought vulnerability and local adaptive strategy. Our results illustrate that the process of assessing vulnerability and selecting adaptations can be enhanced using a combination of integration, optimization and typology, which emphasize dynamic transitions and transformations between integration and typology.

  12. The Music of Mathematics: Toward a New Problem Typology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quarfoot, David

    Halmos (1980) once described problems and their solutions as "the heart of mathematics". Following this line of thinking, one might naturally ask: "What, then, is the heart of problems?". In this work, I attempt to answer this question using techniques from statistics, information visualization, and machine learning. I begin the journey by cataloging the features of problems delineated by the mathematics and mathematics education communities. These dimensions are explored in a large data set of students working thousands of problems at the Art of Problem Solving, an online company that provides adaptive mathematical training for students around the world. This analysis is able to concretely show how the fabric of mathematical problems changes across different subjects, difficulty levels, and students. Furthermore, it locates problems that stand out in the crowd -- those that synergize cognitive engagement, learning, and difficulty. This quantitatively-heavy side of the dissertation is partnered with a qualitatively-inspired portion that involves human scoring of 105 problems and their solutions. In this setting, I am able to capture elusive features of mathematical problems and derive a fuller picture of the space of mathematical problems. Using correlation matrices, principal components analysis, and clustering techniques, I explore the relationships among those features frequently discussed in mathematics problems (e.g., difficulty, creativity, novelty, affective engagement, authenticity). Along the way, I define a new set of uncorrelated features in problems and use these as the basis for a New Mathematical Problem Typology (NMPT). Grounded in the terminology of classical music, the NMPT works to quickly convey the essence and value of a problem, just as terms like "etude" and "mazurka" do for musicians. Taken together, these quantitative and qualitative analyses seek to terraform the landscape of mathematical problems and, concomitantly, the current thinking

  13. Criminal typology of veterans entering substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Nicole R; Blonigen, Daniel; Finlay, Andrea; Timko, Christine

    2015-07-01

    Criminal justice involvement among veterans is a critical and timely concern, yet little is known about criminal histories and clinical characteristics among veterans seeking treatment for substance use disorders (SUDs). The present study examined criminal typology, clinical characteristics, treatment utilization, and 12-step mutual-help group (MHG) participation among veterans (N = 332) at intake to SUD treatment at the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), and 6 months and 1 year post-intake. Cluster analysis yielded three types of criminal histories mild-(78.9%), moderate (13.6%), and severe (7.5%)-distinguished by type of offense, number of convictions, and number of months incarcerated. At intake, participants with mild criminal histories reported more alcohol problems and fewer legal and employment problems than participants with moderate and severe criminal histories. Participants with severe criminal histories were most likely to attend a 12-step MHG meeting in the year post-intake, but all groups had high attendance. When only participants who had attended at least one meeting in the year post-intake were compared, participants with mild criminal histories worked more steps and were more involved in 12-step practices. All groups improved between baseline and follow-up and did not differ at follow-ups on substance use or other clinical outcomes. Multiple regressions identified treatment utilization and MHG attendance, but not baseline criminal history, as significant predictors of improved substance use problem severity at follow-up. Outpatient treatment and 12-step MHG attendance appear to be important components of recovery for veterans with varying criminal histories. Clinicians in SUD treatment programs should screen for criminal histories at treatment intake to ensure appropriate treatment planning. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Typologies for Restructuring Relationships in Cancer Survivorship: Temporal Changes in Social Support and Engagement With Self-Management Practices.

    PubMed

    Henshall, Catherine L; Greenfield, Sheila M; Gale, Nicola K

    2017-09-26

    Cancer survivors with good social support are generally more motivated to undertake self-management behaviors and make lifestyle changes. However, the impact of changes in social support over time, from prediagnosis through treatment and into survivorship, on the health and recovery of cancer survivors with a range of cancer diagnoses has not been explored. The aim of this study was to examine how temporal changes in social support offered to cancer survivors by family and friends influence their engagement with self-management practices and adaptation to lifestyle changes. The interview study took place in a teaching hospital in the West Midlands, United Kingdom. Forty participants were purposively sampled. A narrative approach to data collection was chosen, and data were thematically analyzed. Six typologies of restructuring relationships postcancer were identified. A greater understanding of the changes to social relationships that a cancer diagnosis can incur and the impact of this on people's outlook and ability to self-manage was developed. The restructuring of social relationships by cancer survivors over time can impact their outlook and ability to self-manage in survivorship, shaping their engagement with health promoting activities and reconciling cancer within the wider context of their lives. Appropriate clinical nursing processes and tailored interventions are required to support cancer survivors and promote engagement with self-management practices. Nurses are a vital component of the social support that enables patients to make the best health and lifestyle choices available to them.

  15. Satisfaction with life and food-related life in Ecuadorian older adults.

    PubMed

    Schnettler, Berta; Lobos, Germán; Lapo, María Del Carmen; Adasme-Berríos, Cristian; Hueche, Clementina

    2017-02-01

    To distinguish typologies of seniors according to their levels of satisfaction with life and food-related life, and to characterize them according to the importance assigned to family, health-related aspects, eating habits, nutritional status and sociodemographic characteristics. A survey was administered to a non-probabilistic sample of 817 seniors aged 60 years and over, of both genders, resident in urban and rural zones of the province of Guayas, Ecuador. The instrument included: Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFL), the Health-related Quality of Life Index (HRQOL-4) and the Family Importance Scale (FIS). Eating habits, sociodemographic variables, approximate weight and height were asked about. A cluster analysis was used to distinguish three typologies that differed significantly in the scores on the SWLS, SWFL, FIS, number of days with mental health problems, self-perception of health status, body mass index, eating habits and zone of residence. Two typologies presented high levels of satisfaction with life and food-related life, although the variables associated with overall well-being and in the food domain were different in each typology. The results suggest that high levels of satisfaction with life and food-related life in Ecuadorian seniors are associated with both healthful eating habits and having lunch in company, fewer mental health problems and greater importance assigned to family.

  16. [Laws of typological interactions of clino- and antiorthostatic systemic and cerebral circulation in children].

    PubMed

    Gavrikov, K V; Isupov, I B

    1999-01-01

    Based on P. K. Anokhin's systems approach, the authors analyze the typological features of the mechanisms of clinostatic and anti-orthostatic systemic and cerebral circulation in children aged 7-9 years. Children with eukinetic systemic circulation have stable total peripheral vascular resistance in antiorthostasis, the mechanisms of cerebral hemodynamic regulation ensure constriction of local arterioles, those with hypokinetic systemic circulation have decreased total peripheral vascular resistance and lower constriction of cerebral arteries and arterioles. In hyperkinetic circulation, total peripheral resistance increases with slight constriction of cerebral arterioles and marked deterioration of venous blood outflow from the cerebral pool. The typological features of systemic and cerebral circulation should be borne in mind in pediatric clinical practice. The findings allow one to mathematically predict the changes occurring in anti-orthostatic hemodynamics in the context of its typological features.

  17. Typologies of religiousness/spirituality: implications for health and well-being.

    PubMed

    Park, Nan Sook; Lee, Beom S; Sun, Fei; Klemmack, David L; Roff, Lucinda L; Koenig, Harold G

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop empirically based typologies of religiousness/spirituality (R/S) and to determine whether the typologies were related to health and well-being. The study used a nationally representative sample of adults (N=1,431). Using latent profile analysis, typologies were derived based on religious service attendance, prayer, positive religious coping, and daily spiritual experiences. Multivariate statistical tests were used to examine cluster differences in health and well-being. A four-class model was identified: highly religious, moderately religious, somewhat religious, and minimally religious or non-religious. The four classes were distinctively different in psychological well-being, in that the highly religious class was most likely to be happy and satisfied with finances and least likely to be psychologically distressed.

  18. Identification of typology related to the coastal line changes in Bantul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bintar Saputro, Guridno; Iye Cornelia Marschiavelli, Mone; Ibrahim, Farid; Maulana, Edwin

    2017-01-01

    Typology of coastal associated with landforms and shoreline changes. This study was conducted to determine the relationship typology of coastal especially on the parent material of a coastal with changing shoreline due to changes in the flow of ocean waves. Bantul coastal typology identified using remote sensing data to find the coastal character and patterns. Field surveys conducted for calibration areas undoubtedly result interpretation. The results of this study indicate coastal in Bantul Regency entirely included sandy beaches. The main factor of shoreline change caused by coastal erosion and sedimentation, frequent anomalies shoreline due to erosion and sedimentation. Abrasion occurred in Bantul district south coast will greatly affect reducing the shoreline because of its major parent material is sand. Sedimentation also play a dominant role in influencing increasing in the shoreline in Bantul because many large rivers that flow into the southern coast of Bantul.

  19. Agriculture, nutrition, and health in global development: typology and metrics for integrated interventions and research.

    PubMed

    Masters, William A; Webb, Patrick; Griffiths, Jeffrey K; Deckelbaum, Richard J

    2014-12-01

    Despite rhetoric arguing that enhanced agriculture leads to improved nutrition and health, there is scant empirical evidence about potential synergies across sectors or about the mix of actions that best supports all three sectors. The geographic scale and socioeconomic nature of these interventions require integration of previously separate research methods. This paper proposes a typology of interventions and a metric of integration among them to help researchers build on each other's results, facilitating integration in methods to inform the design of multisector interventions. The typology recognizes the importance of regional effect modifiers that are not themselves subject to randomized assignment, and trade-offs in how policies and programs are implemented, evaluated, and scaled. Using this typology could facilitate methodological pluralism, helping researchers in one field use knowledge generated elsewhere, each using the most appropriate method for their situation.

  20. Typological Approaches to Violence in Couples: A Critique and Alternative Conceptual Approach

    PubMed Central

    Capaldi, Deborah M.; Kim, Hyoun K.

    2006-01-01

    Typological approaches have become highly influential in research on violence in couples, and yet issues related to such approaches have not been well addressed. We review the utility of batterer typologies, both for clinical applications and for understanding violence in couples. The principal types of batterer typologies are discussed, along with a number of issues that might limit their utility for explaining the etiology and developmental course of partner violence in couples. We propose a dyadic model of couples’ aggression, and we explain ways that such a model provides better conceptualization of the development of the couples’ violence over time, including issues of persistence and desistance of violence, and that can help inform prevention and treatment. PMID:17084496

  1. Regulation of the Motivation to Eat.

    PubMed

    Woods, Stephen C; Begg, Denovan P

    2016-01-01

    Although food intake is necessary to provide energy for all bodily activities, considering food intake as a motivated behavior is complex. Rather than being a simple unconditioned reflex to energy need, eating is mediated by diverse factors. These include homeostatic signals such as those related to body fat stores, to food available and being eaten, and to circulating energy-rich compounds like glucose and fatty acids. Eating is also greatly influenced by non-homeostatic signals that convey information related to learning and experience, hedonics, stress, the social situation, opportunity, and many other factors. Recent developments identifying the intricate nature of the relationships between homeostatic and non-homeostatic influences significantly add to the complexity underlying the neural basis of the motivation to eat. The future of research in the field of food intake would seem to lie in the identification of the neural circuitry and interactions between homeostatic and non-homeostatic influences.

  2. The Bird's Eye View of Community Colleges: A Behavioral Typology of First-Time Students Based on Cluster Analytic Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Peter Riley

    2010-01-01

    The development of a typology of community college students is a topic of long-standing and growing interest among educational researchers, policy-makers, administrators, and other stakeholders, but prior work on this topic has been limited in a number of important ways. In this paper, I develop a behavioral typology based on students'…

  3. A School Transfer Typology: Implications for New Theory, Revised Research Design, and Refocused School Policy and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Alan E.

    Student transfers from school to school at the elementary and secondary levels have been increasing for many decades. A proposed typology of major school transfer flows distinguishes between "systemic" transfers, caused by changes in school structures, and "individualistic" transfers, caused by family or individual changes. Within this typology,…

  4. A Study of Black Suburban Youths: Implications of the Major Findings for the Stages of Ethnicity Typology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James A.

    A study was carried out to examine self concept, level of externality, and attitudes toward physical characteristics, neighborhoods and schools of 98 black youths in predominantly white suburbs of the Pacific Northwest region. The method used was based on a conceptual framework of "ethnicity typology." The stages of this typology were…

  5. Choosing Human Resource Interventions: A Typology Linking Country Conditions and Educational Development Strategies. Draft Report for Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulston, Rolland G.

    To assist the Agency for International Development in its decision-making process, a matrix which links sets of conditions in developing nations with appropriate types of educational development was produced. Key issues in the creation and use of typologies are discussed and standards for evaluating typologies are identified. Four typological…

  6. Ancestor of the new archetypal biology: Goethe's dynamic typology as a model for contemporary evolutionary developmental biology.

    PubMed

    Riegner, Mark F

    2013-12-01

    As understood historically, typological thinking has no place in evolutionary biology since its conceptual framework is viewed as incompatible with population thinking. In this article, I propose that what I describe as dynamic typological thinking has been confused with, and has been overshadowed by, a static form of typological thinking. This conflation results from an inability to grasp dynamic typological thinking due to the overlooked requirement to engage our cognitive activity in an unfamiliar way. Thus, analytical thinking alone is unsuited to comprehend the nature of dynamic typological thinking. Over 200 years ago, J. W. von Goethe, in his Metamorphosis of Plants (1790) and other writings, introduced a dynamic form of typological thinking that has been traditionally misunderstood and misrepresented. I describe in detail Goethe's phenomenological methodology and its contemporary value in understanding morphological patterns in living organisms. Furthermore, contrary to the implications of static typological thinking, dynamic typological thinking is perfectly compatible with evolutionary dynamics and, if rightly understood, can contribute significantly to the still emerging field of evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo).

  7. A Typology for Understanding the Career and Technical Education Credit-Taking Experience of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aliaga, Oscar A.; Kotamraju, Pradeep; Stone, James R., III

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a typology that allows us to explore and analyze the career and technical education (CTE) credit-taking experience of all high school students, not just those traditionally considered CTE (or vocational) students. We argue that this new typology provides a better framework for understanding CTE than the more traditional…

  8. The Bird's Eye View of Community Colleges: A Behavioral Typology of First-Time Students Based on Cluster Analytic Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Peter Riley

    2010-01-01

    The development of a typology of community college students is a topic of long-standing and growing interest among educational researchers, policy-makers, administrators, and other stakeholders, but prior work on this topic has been limited in a number of important ways. In this paper, I develop a behavioral typology based on students'…

  9. Motivation in tennis.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Miguel; Reid, Machar M

    2007-11-01

    Motivation underpins successful tennis performance, representing one of the game's foremost psychological skills. This paper elaborates on its role in tennis play, and takes an overview of the current state of motivation research applied to tennis. First, the importance of motivation in player and coach performance is explored. The body of evidence pertaining to players' motives for participation and the relevance of goal achievement motivation in tennis is then examined. Finally, the efficacy of motivational climates created by significant others is discussed in light of current practice.

  10. Motivation in tennis

    PubMed Central

    Crespo, Miguel; Reid, Machar M

    2007-01-01

    Motivation underpins successful tennis performance, representing one of the game's foremost psychological skills. This paper elaborates on its role in tennis play, and takes an overview of the current state of motivation research applied to tennis. First, the importance of motivation in player and coach performance is explored. The body of evidence pertaining to players' motives for participation and the relevance of goal achievement motivation in tennis is then examined. Finally, the efficacy of motivational climates created by significant others is discussed in light of current practice. PMID:17623707

  11. The typology and development of attitude to primary science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Adelaide

    The introduction and development of science within the primary curriculum has been a challenge to teachers, parents and children and a highly politicised decision. Augmenting any difficulties are the images of science within popular culture and the traditions of scientific inquiry that have maintained the Western, male elitist hierarchy of the Vienna circle throughout the last millennium. The Royal Society's committee on the public understanding of science has recognised the difficulty in recruiting students to higher-level science study and embarked on a programme of sponsorship to address this. At the same time major governmental policy changes have provided a new 'market' model of education that has encouraged parental involvement in schools and enforced a new 'transparency' of evaluation on schools through league tables and Ofsted. Set against this backdrop, this research explores the development of attitudes to science and science education in the parent's of primary school aged children. It examines the perceptions of science and science education through the narrative of the parent's and their understanding of the interaction between different areas of science. The use of key events within narrative as a method of exploring attitude and conceptual development is novel to this research and through this exploration the concept of attitude itself is examined and criticised developing a new concept of attitude as process-based rather than static or crystallised. This reconceptualisation allows a more operational understanding of attitude that overcomes the difficulties of the traditional concept, which has only a limited theoretical basis on which to examine behaviour. The research generates a typology for views of science and the more operational compliment to this, stance to science. This framework allows a greater understanding of attitude formation, how science is perceived and how this perception is actualised. It is particularly interesting given the

  12. Who regulates food? Australians' perceptions of responsibility for food safety.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Julie; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Food scares have diminished trust in public institutions to guarantee food safety. Food governance after the food scare era is concerned with institutional independence and transparency leading to a hybrid of public and private sector management and to mechanisms for consumer involvement in food governance. This paper explores Australian consumers' perceptions of who is, and should be responsible for food safety. Forty-seven participants were interviewed as part of a larger study on trust in the food system. Participants associate food governance with government, industry, and the individual. While few participants can name the national food regulator, there is a strong belief that the government is responsible for regulating the quality and safety of food. Participants are wary of the role of the food industry in food safety, believing that profit motives will undermine effective food regulation. Personal responsibility for food safety practices was also identified. While there are fewer mechanisms for consumer involvement and transparency built into the food governance system, Australian consumers display considerable trust in government to protect food safety. There is little evidence of the politicisation of food, reflecting a level of trust in the Australian food governance system that may arise from a lack of exposure to major food scares.

  13. What Motivates Trainees?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Debra J.

    1990-01-01

    A study of five organizations examined employee motivation regarding the pretraining environment. Findings support the assumption that employees will be more motivated of supervisors are supportive and if they view attendance as voluntary. (JOW)

  14. Culture and Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.

    1974-01-01

    A framework is suggested for the cross-cultural study of motivation that stresses the importance of contextual conditions in eliciting achievement motivation and emphasizes cultural relativity in the definition of the concept. (EH)

  15. Understanding Employee Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindner, James R.

    1998-01-01

    Extension employees (n=23) ranked the following as the most important motivational factors: interesting work, good wages, appreciation, job security, and good working conditions. The findings were related to theories of motivation formulated by Herzberg, Adams, and Vroom. (SK)

  16. Motivating Your Development Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Nancy

    1996-01-01

    Suggestions for motivating institutional advancement staff at colleges and universities include nonfinancial motivators (such as appreciation, team building, empowerment, professional development opportunities, flexibility, and formal recognition) and financial rewards (such as bonuses and merit pay). (DB)

  17. Motivating pharmacy employees.

    PubMed

    White, S J; Generali, J A

    1984-07-01

    Concepts from theories of motivation are used to suggest methods for improving the motivational environment of hospital pharmacy departments. Motivation--the state of being stimulated to take action to achieve a goal or to satisfy a need--comes from within individuals, but hospital pharmacy managers can facilitate motivation by structuring the work environment so that it satisfies employees' needs. Concepts from several theories of motivation are discussed, including McGregor's theory X and theory Y assumptions, Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, Herzberg's motivation hygiene theory, and Massey's value system theory. Concepts from the Japanese style of management that can be used to facilitate motivation, such as quality circles, also are described. The autocratic, participative, and laissez faire styles of leadership are discussed in the context of the motivation theories, and suggested applications of theoretical concepts to practice are presented.

  18. Motivation in medical education().

    PubMed

    Pelaccia, Thierry; Viau, Rolland

    2017-02-01

    Motivation is a concept which has fascinated researchers for many decades. The field of medical education has become interested in motivation recently, having always assumed that medical students must be motivated because of their commitment to highly specific training, leading to a very specific profession. However, motivation is a major determinant of the quality of learning and success, the lack of which may well explain why teachers sometimes observe medical students who are discouraged, have lost interest or abandon their studies, with a feeling of powerlessness or resignation. After describing the importance of motivation for learning in medicine, this Guide will define the concept of motivation, setting it within the context of a social cognitive approach. In the second part of this Guide, recommendations are made, based upon the so-called "motivational dynamic model", which provides a multitude of various strategies with positive effects on students' motivation to learn.

  19. The Motivated Project Team

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    Manager, Volume Two , by Vijay Verma). Content Theories of Motivation Content theories of motivation examine factors within indi- viduals that stimulate...address some factors ; others will far exceed your sphere of influence. Motivational Theories Motivational theories are generally categorized as...content” and “process.” Content theories examine factors within in- dividuals that stimulate, inspire, and stop behavior. Process theories , on the

  20. [Motivational interview: supporting change].

    PubMed

    Fond, Guillaume; Ducasse, Déborah

    2015-01-01

    The motivational interview aims to help patients to resolve their ambivalence regarding problematic behaviors and to guide them into change. It differs from other therapeutic approaches mainly through the attitude of the therapist. In motivational interviewing, the therapist defends the statu quo. By reactance, the patient defends the change and enhance her/his motivation. This article provides a summary of the other concepts of motivational interviewing and its applications in the psychiatric daily practice.

  1. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  2. Understanding Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifert, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    Contemporary theories of academic motivation seek to explain students' behaviours in academic settings. While each theory seems to possess its own constructs and unique explanations, these theories are actually closely tied together. In this theoretical study of motivation, several theories of motivation were described and an underlying theme of…

  3. Creating Motivating Job Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilaro, Angie; Rossett, Allison

    1993-01-01

    Explains how to create job aids that employees will be motivated to use, based on a review of pertinent literature and interviews with professionals. Topics addressed include linking motivation with job aids; Keller's ARCS (Attention, Relevance, Confidence, Satisfaction) model of motivation; and design strategies for job aids based on Keller's…

  4. Job Aids and Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grau, Joseph A.

    1986-01-01

    Suggests job aids have motivational benefits and discusses three ways in which they positively affect motivation: increases worker's confidence of success and amount of effort they are willing to invest in attempting tasks; increases expectancy while decreasing amount of motivation needed; and reinforces task importance. (MBR)

  5. Theme: Motivating Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartin, Stacy A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "How Do I Turn Your Crank to Get You Going?" (Gartin); "How Do You Say 'I Don't Know' and Not Feel Guilty?" (Dickson); "Basics of Motivation" (Rankin); "Challenge to Lead Motivates Students" (D'Haem, Krueger); "Don't Just Tell Me, Teach Me!" (Custer, Leugers); "The 'I' in Motivation" (Woody); and "Student Self Discipline Scale" (Coffman).…

  6. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  7. Motivation in Work Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Edward E., III

    Written with the student audience in mind, this book is about the motivational determinants of behavior in work organizations. For practicing managers, helpful information may be found in the chapters dealing with day-to-day motivational problems. Three chapters deal specifically with motivational theory, and five chapters emphasize research and…

  8. Boys and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores key gender differences in motivation from a quantitative perspective and presents findings from a qualitative study into boys' perceptions of motivating teachers and motivating pedagogy. Data collected from 3773 high school students suggest that girls score significantly higher than boys in their belief in the value of school,…

  9. Creating Motivating Job Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilaro, Angie; Rossett, Allison

    1993-01-01

    Explains how to create job aids that employees will be motivated to use, based on a review of pertinent literature and interviews with professionals. Topics addressed include linking motivation with job aids; Keller's ARCS (Attention, Relevance, Confidence, Satisfaction) model of motivation; and design strategies for job aids based on Keller's…

  10. Hydrogeological typologies of the Indo-Gangetic basin alluvial aquifer, South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonsor, H. C.; MacDonald, A. M.; Ahmed, K. M.; Burgess, W. G.; Basharat, M.; Calow, R. C.; Dixit, A.; Foster, S. S. D.; Gopal, K.; Lapworth, D. J.; Moench, M.; Mukherjee, A.; Rao, M. S.; Shamsudduha, M.; Smith, L.; Taylor, R. G.; Tucker, J.; van Steenbergen, F.; Yadav, S. K.; Zahid, A.

    2017-08-01

    The Indo-Gangetic aquifer is one of the world's most important transboundary water resources, and the most heavily exploited aquifer in the world. To better understand the aquifer system, typologies have been characterized for the aquifer, which integrate existing datasets across the Indo-Gangetic catchment basin at a transboundary scale for the first time, and provide an alternative conceptualization of this aquifer system. Traditionally considered and mapped as a single homogenous aquifer of comparable aquifer properties and groundwater resource at a transboundary scale, the typologies illuminate significant spatial differences in recharge, permeability, storage, and groundwater chemistry across the aquifer system at this transboundary scale. These changes are shown to be systematic, concurrent with large-scale changes in sedimentology of the Pleistocene and Holocene alluvial aquifer, climate, and recent irrigation practices. Seven typologies of the aquifer are presented, each having a distinct set of challenges and opportunities for groundwater development and a different resilience to abstraction and climate change. The seven typologies are: (1) the piedmont margin, (2) the Upper Indus and Upper-Mid Ganges, (3) the Lower Ganges and Mid Brahmaputra, (4) the fluvially influenced deltaic area of the Bengal Basin, (5) the Middle Indus and Upper Ganges, (6) the Lower Indus, and (7) the marine-influenced deltaic areas.

  11. Studying Faculty Behavior: An Activity-Driven Typology. ASHE 1986 Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, W. Shapard, Jr.; Richardson, Richard C., Jr.

    A new typology for faculty is proposed, based on their expressed priorities toward activities in which research universities engage. Responses of 617 faculty to a survey of 66 statements about university activities were factor analyzed, and scores on eight factors obtained were used in a cluster analysis that produced three clusters of faculty.…

  12. Managing diversity and European policy: Towards a typology for sport pedagogy.

    PubMed

    Dinold, Maria; Diketmüller, Rosa; Grix, Jonathan; Phillpots, Lesley

    2013-01-01

    This article adds to the growing body of knowledge in sport pedagogy and focuses specifically upon the intersection of gender and disability. Its purpose is twofold, to create a typology for examining good practice in sport pedagogy that is reflective and inclusive and raises awareness of the diverse needs of all participants in physical activity 'regardless' of gender and ability for all children. We acknowledge that access to physical activity, education and sport are complex and multifaceted, however, the main purpose of this paper is to raise awareness of 'diversity' by focusing specifically upon the role of gender and ability. Through an examination of gender and disability policies in official European Union (EU) policy documents and commercial examples of policy-in-practice we propose a typology for diversity and diversity management. A close look at EU level is instructive because national policies of the member countries vary a lot with respect to diversity issues but should be in accordance in the main areas. Such a reading enables the building of a typology of recommendations for how such policy can be rendered in sport pedagogy practice. We suggest six significant, but related principles that include (1) mainstreaming; (2) teaching and coaching sensitive to difference; (3) empowerment; (4) inclusion; (5) adaptation; and (6) inner differentiation. This holistic typology seeks to 'mainstream' issues of gender and disability policy by providing a set of principles that can be applied to a range of teaching and coaching settings.

  13. What Translation Tells Us about Motion: A Contrastive Study of Typologically Different Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibarretxe, Iraide

    2003-01-01

    Slobin (1991, 1996a,b, 1997) has argued that the typological differences between languages with either a satellite-framed or a verb-framed lexicalisation pattern (Talmy, 2000) have important discourse and rhetorical consequences for the expression of "paths of movement" and "manner of movement". These differences are especially…

  14. Hydrogeological typologies of the Indo-Gangetic basin alluvial aquifer, South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonsor, H. C.; MacDonald, A. M.; Ahmed, K. M.; Burgess, W. G.; Basharat, M.; Calow, R. C.; Dixit, A.; Foster, S. S. D.; Gopal, K.; Lapworth, D. J.; Moench, M.; Mukherjee, A.; Rao, M. S.; Shamsudduha, M.; Smith, L.; Taylor, R. G.; Tucker, J.; van Steenbergen, F.; Yadav, S. K.; Zahid, A.

    2017-02-01

    The Indo-Gangetic aquifer is one of the world's most important transboundary water resources, and the most heavily exploited aquifer in the world. To better understand the aquifer system, typologies have been characterized for the aquifer, which integrate existing datasets across the Indo-Gangetic catchment basin at a transboundary scale for the first time, and provide an alternative conceptualization of this aquifer system. Traditionally considered and mapped as a single homogenous aquifer of comparable aquifer properties and groundwater resource at a transboundary scale, the typologies illuminate significant spatial differences in recharge, permeability, storage, and groundwater chemistry across the aquifer system at this transboundary scale. These changes are shown to be systematic, concurrent with large-scale changes in sedimentology of the Pleistocene and Holocene alluvial aquifer, climate, and recent irrigation practices. Seven typologies of the aquifer are presented, each having a distinct set of challenges and opportunities for groundwater development and a different resilience to abstraction and climate change. The seven typologies are: (1) the piedmont margin, (2) the Upper Indus and Upper-Mid Ganges, (3) the Lower Ganges and Mid Brahmaputra, (4) the fluvially influenced deltaic area of the Bengal Basin, (5) the Middle Indus and Upper Ganges, (6) the Lower Indus, and (7) the marine-influenced deltaic areas.

  15. A Study of Perceptional Typologies on Computer Based Assessment (CBA): Instructor and Student Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jin-Young

    2015-01-01

    This study explores and describes different viewpoints on Computer Based Assessment (CBA) by using Q methodology to identify perspectives of students and instructors and classify these into perceptional typologies. Thirty undergraduate students taking CBA courses and fifteen instructors adopting CBA into their curriculum at a university in Korea,…

  16. AGE AT ONSET TYPOLOGY IN OPIOID DEPENDENT MEN: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY

    PubMed Central

    De, Biswajit; Mattoo, Surendra K.; Basu, Debasish

    2002-01-01

    This study attempted to apply age at onset typology in ICD-10 diagnosed opioid dependence. The sample comprised 80 men seeking treatment at an addiction clinic. The measures included socio-demographic and clinical profile, Severity of Opioid Dependence Questionnaire, Modified Sensation Seeking Scale, Multiphasic Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) and Family History Assessment Module. A cut-off age of 20/21 years for an early-onset late-onset typology of opioid dependence was obtained using two methods - the modal age at onset method and one-third sample by age at onset method. The early onset group showed significant differences in terms of it being more often younger, urban, unmarried, wage earning or students, using oral opioids (not heroin or injectables), showing higher lifetime use and dependence of sedatives, earlier onset of use and dependence of sedatives and tobacco, and higher global psychopathology in terms of MPQ. The early onset group also showed statistically insignificant trends for lesser use and dependence of alcohol, higher severity of opioid dependence, more legal and less social complications, higher sensation seeking (except boredom susceptibility), and more frequent substance dependence in first degree relatives. The age at onset typology in opioid dependence appears to be feasible and having some similarities to similar typology in alcoholism. PMID:21206561

  17. A Typology of Child School Behavior: Investigation Using Latent Profile Analysis and Cluster Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mindrila, Diana L.

    2016-01-01

    To describe and facilitate the identification of child school behavior patterns, we developed a typology of child school behavior (ages 6-11 years) using the norming data (N = 2,338) for the second edition of the Behavior Assessment System for Children Teacher Rating-Child form). Latent profile analysis was conducted with the entire data set,…

  18. Social Capital and Youth Development: Toward a Typology of Program Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Mary

    2013-01-01

    As part of our inquiry into how youth development and 4-H programming can affect the development of social capital for youth and for the community, we engaged youth in ripple mapping. Based on this information, we provide a typology of participation structures in youth development activities and the expected bridging and bonding social capital…

  19. Who Are You Going After? A Practical Typology to Generate Engagement in Professional Student Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Laura; Miller, Richard J.; Poole, Sonja Martin

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of experiential learning theory and Cialdini's principles of influence, two psychological streams focused on providing hands-on experiences and on effectively influencing individuals, this article identifies a typology of students to engage them in professional student organizations. Exploratory factor analysis and cluster analysis…

  20. A Community-Engaged Faculty Typology: A Self-Referent Approach to Understanding Faculty Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Emily; Wagner, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    While there are various theories about faculty involvement in community-engaged scholarship (CES), there is little understanding of how faculty approach and make meaning of CES for themselves (Morrison & Wagner, 2016). The purpose of this study was (a) to determine if a typology can represent the variety of ways in which faculty approach and…

  1. An Empirical Typology of Narcissism and Mental Health in Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapsley, Daniel K.; Aalsma, Matthew C.

    2006-01-01

    A two-step cluster analytic strategy was used in two studies to identify an empirically derived typology of narcissism in late adolescence. In Study 1, late adolescents (N=204) responded to the profile of narcissistic dispositions and measures of grandiosity (''superiority'') and idealization (''goal instability'') inspired by Kohut's theory,…

  2. A Typology for Observing Children's Engagement with eBooks at Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roskos, Kathleen; Burstein, Karen; You, Byeong-Keun

    2012-01-01

    This research reports a two-phase descriptive study of young children's engagement with ebooks conducted in Head Start classrooms. Phase 1 focused on the development of a typology as an analytic framework for observing engagement with ebooks in different formats (shared book; independent book browsing) and across devices (stationary touch screen;…

  3. Birth Outcomes across Three Rural-Urban Typologies in the Finger Lakes Region of New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strutz, Kelly L.; Dozier, Ann M.; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Glantz, J. Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The study is a descriptive, population-based analysis of birth outcomes in the New York State Finger Lakes region designed to determine whether perinatal outcomes differed across 3 rural typologies. Methods: Hospital birth data for the Finger Lakes region from 2006 to 2007 were used to identify births classified as low birthweight (LBW),…

  4. A Study of Perceptional Typologies on Computer Based Assessment (CBA): Instructor and Student Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jin-Young

    2015-01-01

    This study explores and describes different viewpoints on Computer Based Assessment (CBA) by using Q methodology to identify perspectives of students and instructors and classify these into perceptional typologies. Thirty undergraduate students taking CBA courses and fifteen instructors adopting CBA into their curriculum at a university in Korea,…

  5. A Typology of Cancer Information Seeking, Scanning and Avoiding: Results from an Exploratory Cluster Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelissen, Sara; Van den Bulck, Jan; Beullens, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study aims to (a) construct a typology of how individuals acquire cancer information, and (b) examine whether these types differ regarding socio-demographics and cancer-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour. Method: A standardized, cross-sectional survey among cancer diagnosed and non-diagnosed individuals in Flanders,…

  6. Examination of the Predictors of Latent Class Typologies of Bullying Involvement among Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovegrove, Peter J.; Henry, Kimberly L.; Slater, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    This study employs latent class analysis to construct bullying involvement typologies among 3,114 students (48% male, 58% White) in 40 middle schools across the United States. Four classes were constructed: victims (15%); bullies (13%); bully/victims (13%); and noninvolved (59%). Respondents who were male and participated in fewer conventional…

  7. An Emerging Typology of Academic Interdisciplinary Gerontology Centers in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertz, Judith E.; Douglass, Carolinda; Johnson, Angela; Richmond, Shirley S.

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the organization, characteristics or services offered by academic interdisciplinary gerontology centers located in higher education institutions. This article presents a description and an emerging typology of academic interdisciplinary gerontology centers based on information collected from the Websites of 47 centers. The…

  8. Toward a Psychology of Social Change: A Typology of Social Change.

    PubMed

    de la Sablonnière, Roxane

    2017-01-01

    Millions of people worldwide are affected by dramatic social change (DSC). While sociological theory aims to understand its precipitants, the psychological consequences remain poorly understood. A large-scale literature review pointed to the desperate need for a typology of social change that might guide theory and research toward a better understanding of the psychology of social change. Over 5,000 abstracts from peer-reviewed articles were assessed from sociological and psychological publications. Based on stringent inclusion criteria, a final 325 articles were used to construct a novel, multi-level typology designed to conceptualize and categorize social change in terms of its psychological threat to psychological well-being. The typology of social change includes four social contexts: Stability, Inertia, Incremental Social Change and, finally, DSC. Four characteristics of DSC were further identified: the pace of social change, rupture to the social structure, rupture to the normative structure, and the level of threat to one's cultural identity. A theoretical model that links the characteristics of social change together and with the social contexts is also suggested. The typology of social change as well as our theoretical proposition may serve as a foundation for future investigations and increase our understanding of the psychologically adaptive mechanisms used in the wake of DSC.

  9. Examination of the Predictors of Latent Class Typologies of Bullying Involvement among Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovegrove, Peter J.; Henry, Kimberly L.; Slater, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    This study employs latent class analysis to construct bullying involvement typologies among 3,114 students (48% male, 58% White) in 40 middle schools across the United States. Four classes were constructed: victims (15%); bullies (13%); bully/victims (13%); and noninvolved (59%). Respondents who were male and participated in fewer conventional…

  10. A Typological Approach to Translation of English and Chinese Motion Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Yu; Chen, Huifang

    2012-01-01

    English and Chinese are satellite-framed languages in which Manner is usually incorporated with Motion in the verb and Path is denoted by the satellite. Based on Talmy's theory of motion event and typology, the research probes into translation of English and Chinese motion events and finds that: (1) Translation of motion events in English and…

  11. Patterns of Exclusionary Discipline by School Typology, Ethnicity, and Their Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noltemeyer, Amity; Mcloughlin, Caven S.

    2010-01-01

    Although exclusionary discipline has been linked to a variety of negative student outcomes, it continues to be utilized by schools. This study investigates two critical variables as they relate to exclusionary discipline: School typology (i.e., urban, rural, suburban) and student ethnicity. Using data from 326 Ohio school districts, a MANCOVA…

  12. Goal-Source Asymmetry and Crosslinguistic Grammaticalization Patterns: A Cognitive-Typological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabata, Kaori

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the patterns of semantic extensions of allative markers are compared with those of ablative markers from a cognitive-typological perspective. Despite the symmetry the two notions appear to exhibit semantically, goal and source exhibit asymmetry and the prevalence of the former over the latter can be seen in a wide range of…

  13. Typologies of Childhood Exposure to Violence: Associations with College Student Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Graff, Laura E.; Howell, Kathryn H.; Martinez-Torteya, Cecilia; Hunter, Erin C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examined typologies of childhood violence exposure (CVE) and the associations of profiles with current demographic characteristics and mental health in emerging adulthood. Participants: The study evaluated a sample of college students from 2 US geographic regions (Midwest, n = 195; Southeast, n = 200). Methods: An online…

  14. New Century, New Identities: Building on a Typology of Nonheterosexual College Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilley, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on recent ethnographic studies of nonheterosexual youth, nonheterosexual identity development, and online collegiate identity management, this article outlines an extension of prior typological work concerning nonheterosexual male college students proposed by the author. Two new types ("Twitter Twinks" and "Lads Without Labels") are…

  15. The Australian Science Teacher: A Typology of Teacher-Student Interpersonal Behaviour in Australian Science Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickards, Tony; Den Brok, Perry; Fisher, Darrell

    2005-01-01

    This study reports the first development in Australia of science teacher typologies of teacher-student interpersonal behaviour. Students' perceptions of teacher-student interpersonal behaviour were measured using the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction (QTI). Earlier work with the QTI in The Netherlands has revealed eight different interpersonal…

  16. Exploring the Potential of Role Play in Higher Education: Development of a Typology and Teacher Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Deepa; Stupans, Ieva

    2012-01-01

    Role-play, in which learners act out roles in case scenarios, appears to be used across a broad range of discipline areas to address learning across the cognitive, psychomotor and affective domains. This paper describes the development of a prospective typology of role-play learning opportunities derived from role-play scenarios used at one large…

  17. Relational Personality Theory and Holland's Typology among Women: An Exploratory Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Amy M.; Luzzo, Darrell Anthony; Gridley, Betty E.; Doyle, Carol

    2007-01-01

    Relational personality theorists propose that women have a tendency to view themselves in the context of relationships with others and to make decisions to optimize and maintain relationships. The current study explored whether relational identity may underlie women's career interests as measured by Holland's typology and examined possible…

  18. Birth Outcomes across Three Rural-Urban Typologies in the Finger Lakes Region of New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strutz, Kelly L.; Dozier, Ann M.; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Glantz, J. Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The study is a descriptive, population-based analysis of birth outcomes in the New York State Finger Lakes region designed to determine whether perinatal outcomes differed across 3 rural typologies. Methods: Hospital birth data for the Finger Lakes region from 2006 to 2007 were used to identify births classified as low birthweight (LBW),…

  19. The Freedoms and Limits of Tenure: An Ideal Typology of Educational Researchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClafferty, Karen Ann

    A study was conducted to explore the factors that have impact on the individual freedom and autonomy of academics in the changing university climate. Through the development of an ideal typology of educational researchers, based on the work of Max Weber, the study reveals the ways in which individuals within these changing institutions make…

  20. Typology of Emotional and Behavioral Adjustment for Low-Income Children: A Child-Centered Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J.; Fantuzzo, John W.; McDermott, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    An empirical typology of classroom emotional and behavioral adjustment was developed for preschool children living in urban poverty. Multistage hierarchical cluster analyses were applied to identify six distinct and reliable subtypes of classroom adjustment, differentiated by high and low levels of behavioral (aggressive, inattentive,…