Science.gov

Sample records for food resource utilization

  1. Direct utilization of geothermal energy resources in food processing. Final report, May 17, 1978-May 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, J.C.

    1982-05-01

    In early 1978 financial assistance was granted for a project to utilize geothermal energy at Ore-Ida Foods, Inc.'s food processing plant in Ontario, Oregon. Specifically, the project included exploring, testing, and developing the potential geothermal resource; retrofitting the existing gas/oil-fired steam system; utilizing the geothermal resource for food processing, space heating, and hot potable water; and injecting the spent geothermal water back into a disposal well. Based on preliminary investigations which indicated the presence of a local geothermal resource, drilling began in August 1979. Although the anticipated resource temperature of 380/sup 0/F was reached at total well depth (10,054 feet), adequate flow to meet processing requirements could not be obtained. Subsequent well testing and stimulation techniques also failed to produce the necessary flow, and the project was eventually abandoned. However, throughout the duration of the project, all activities were carefully monitored and recorded to ensure the program's value for future evaluation. This report presents a culmination of data collected during the Ore-Ida project.

  2. Measuring Resource Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Leggett, Laura E.; Khadaroo, Rachel G.; Holroyd-Leduc, Jayna; Lorenzetti, Diane L.; Hanson, Heather; Wagg, Adrian; Padwal, Raj; Clement, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A variety of methods may be used to obtain costing data. Although administrative data are most commonly used, the data available in these datasets are often limited. An alternative method of obtaining costing is through self-reported questionnaires. Currently, there are no systematic reviews that summarize self-reported resource utilization instruments from the published literature. The aim of the study was to identify validated self-report healthcare resource use instruments and to map their attributes. A systematic review was conducted. The search identified articles using terms like “healthcare utilization” and “questionnaire.” All abstracts and full texts were considered in duplicate. For inclusion, studies had to assess the validity of a self-reported resource use questionnaire, to report original data, include adult populations, and the questionnaire had to be publically available. Data such as type of resource utilization assessed by each questionnaire, and validation findings were extracted from each study. In all, 2343 unique citations were retrieved; 2297 were excluded during abstract review. Forty-six studies were reviewed in full text, and 15 studies were included in this systematic review. Six assessed resource utilization of patients with chronic conditions; 5 assessed mental health service utilization; 3 assessed resource utilization by a general population; and 1 assessed utilization in older populations. The most frequently measured resources included visits to general practitioners and inpatient stays; nonmedical resources were least frequently measured. Self-reported questionnaires on resource utilization had good agreement with administrative data, although, visits to general practitioners, outpatient days, and nurse visits had poorer agreement. Self-reported questionnaires are a valid method of collecting data on healthcare resource utilization. PMID:26962773

  3. Resource utilization by desert quail: time and energy, food and water

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, D.L.; Nagy, K.A.

    1985-04-01

    Time-energy budgets (TEB) of Gambel's Quail (Callipepla gambelii) were compiled during two summers in the Colorado Desert of California. Quail spent 6.77 h/d foraging, 6.2 h/d inactive during daylight hours, and 11.02 h/d inactive at night. Field metabolic rate (FMR) calculated from this activity budget was 81.8 kJ/d. Of this, 47.3 kJ/d was expended during foraging, 12.6 kJ/d in daytime inactivity, and 20.4 kJ/d in nighttime inactivity. Despite the extremely hot thermal environment (maximum ambient temperature approx. =45/sup 0/C), there was no energy cost above resting levels for thermoregulation. FMR was also measured simultaneously with doubly labeled water (DLW), and averaged 90.8 kJ/d. The FMR of C. gambelii was only 40% of that predicted for a bird of its body mass. Energy assimilation efficiency, measured in laboratory feeding experiments with a mixed seed and arthropod diet, was 60.3%. An individual quail in the field thus required 150.3 kJ/d in its diet, representing a dry matter intake of 8.1 g/d. It was calculated that over the course of a year, a population of Gambel's Quail consumes seeds with a total energy content approx. =15% as great as that in seeds consumed by a population of desert rodents or harvester ants in the same area. Gambel's Quail thus may be important factors in the competition for resources among desert granivores, particularly because they can eat one of their competitors (harvester ants). 44 references, 2 figures, 7 tables.

  4. Space Resources Utilization Roundtable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts on various topics. These topics include; Economics of Lunar Mineral Exploration; Lunar Solar Power System and Lunar Development; Space Resource Roundtable Rationale; Successfully Mining Asteroids and Comets; Lunar Polar Ice: Method for Mining the New Resource for Exploration; Acoustic Shaping: Enabling Technology for a Space-based Economy; Return to the Moon: A New Strategic Evaluation; Spacewatch Discovery and Study of Accessible Asteroids; Role of Mining in Space Development; A Commercial/Lunar Resources Exploration Concept; Radar Reconnaissance of Near-Earth Asteroids; Solar Energy Conversion Using In Situ Lunar Soil; The Application of Thermal Plasmas to Ore Reduction for In Situ Resource Utilization; Prospecting Near-Earth Asteroids from the Ground; Some Implications of Space Tourism for Extraterrestrial Resources; An Overview of NASA's Current In Situ Consumable Production (ISCP) Development Activities and Goals; Prospectives on Lunar Helium-3; Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis for In Situ Materials Processing; Subsurface Exploration from Lander and Rover Platforms with Seismic Surface Waves; Space Weathering and the Formation of Lunar Soil: The Moon as the Model for all Airless Bodies in the Solar System; and Acoustic Shaping in Microgravity: Technology Issues.

  5. Space Resources Utilization Roundtable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the Space Resources Utilization Roundtable, October 27-29, 1999, in Golden, Colorado. The program committee consisted of M. B. Duke (Lunar and Planetary Institute), G. Baughman (Colorado School of Mines), D. Criswell (University of Houston), C. Graham (Canadian Mining Industry Research Organization), H. H. Schmitt (Apollo Astronaut), W. Sharp (Colorado School of Mines), L. Taylor (University of Tennessee), and a space manufacturing representative. Administration and publications support for this meeting were provided by the staff of the Publications and Program Services Department at the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

  6. Resource recovery utility

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.L.

    1987-02-17

    This patent describes a resource recovery utility comprising: (i) a landfill; (ii) a continuous wall surrounding the perimeter of the landfill; (iii) a containment structure extending completely over the landfill and affixed to the continuous wall; (iv) means for introducing refuse into the landfill; (v) means for compacting the refuse; (vi) means for removing and recovering methane generated by anaerobic bacterial digestion of organic materials contained in the refuse; and (vii) means for removing at least a portion of the compacted refuse from the landfill.

  7. Utilization of hospital resources.

    PubMed

    Black, C D; Roos, N P; Burchill, C A

    1995-12-01

    A population-based approach was used to analyze the utilization patterns of hospital care by Manitoba residents during the fiscal year 1991/1992. Patterns were analyzed for eight administrative regions, with use assigned to the patient's region of residence, regardless of the location of the hospitalization. Regional boundaries consistent with those used for presentation of data on health status and socioeconomic risk permitted integration of findings across the Population Health Information System. Marked differences in acute hospital use were found. Residents of the urban Winnipeg ("good health") region had the lowest rates of use of acute care overall, and northern rural ("poor health") regions had significantly higher rates of use. However, almost one half of hospital days by Winnipeg residents were used in long-stay care (60+ days), while rural residents were more likely to use short-stay hospital care. Despite a concentration of surgical specialists in Winnipeg, there were only small regional differences in overall rates of surgery. PMID:7500670

  8. Reconciling resource utilization and resource selection functions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooten, Mevin B.; Hanks, Ephraim M.; Johnson, Devin S.; Alldredge, Mat W.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: 1. Analyses based on utilization distributions (UDs) have been ubiquitous in animal space use studies, largely because they are computationally straightforward and relatively easy to employ. Conventional applications of resource utilization functions (RUFs) suggest that estimates of UDs can be used as response variables in a regression involving spatial covariates of interest. 2. It has been claimed that contemporary implementations of RUFs can yield inference about resource selection, although to our knowledge, an explicit connection has not been described. 3. We explore the relationships between RUFs and resource selection functions from a hueristic and simulation perspective. We investigate several sources of potential bias in the estimation of resource selection coefficients using RUFs (e.g. the spatial covariance modelling that is often used in RUF analyses). 4. Our findings illustrate that RUFs can, in fact, serve as approximations to RSFs and are capable of providing inference about resource selection, but only with some modification and under specific circumstances. 5. Using real telemetry data as an example, we provide guidance on which methods for estimating resource selection may be more appropriate and in which situations. In general, if telemetry data are assumed to arise as a point process, then RSF methods may be preferable to RUFs; however, modified RUFs may provide less biased parameter estimates when the data are subject to location error.

  9. Reconciling resource utilization and resource selection functions.

    PubMed

    Hooten, Mevin B; Hanks, Ephraim M; Johnson, Devin S; Alldredge, Mat W

    2013-11-01

    1. Analyses based on utilization distributions (UDs) have been ubiquitous in animal space use studies, largely because they are computationally straightforward and relatively easy to employ. Conventional applications of resource utilization functions (RUFs) suggest that estimates of UDs can be used as response variables in a regression involving spatial covariates of interest. 2. It has been claimed that contemporary implementations of RUFs can yield inference about resource selection, although to our knowledge, an explicit connection has not been described. 3. We explore the relationships between RUFs and resource selection functions from a hueristic and simulation perspective. We investigate several sources of potential bias in the estimation of resource selection coefficients using RUFs (e.g. the spatial covariance modelling that is often used in RUF analyses). 4. Our findings illustrate that RUFs can, in fact, serve as approximations to RSFs and are capable of providing inference about resource selection, but only with some modification and under specific circumstances. 5. Using real telemetry data as an example, we provide guidance on which methods for estimating resource selection may be more appropriate and in which situations. In general, if telemetry data are assumed to arise as a point process, then RSF methods may be preferable to RUFs; however, modified RUFs may provide less biased parameter estimates when the data are subject to location error.

  10. Alternative scenarios utilizing nonterrestrial resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldred, Charles H.; Roberts, Barney B.

    A collection of alternative scenarios that are enabled or substantially enhanced by the utilization of nonterrestrial resources is provided. We take a generalized approach to scenario building so that our report will have value in the context of whatever goals are eventually chosen. Some of the topics covered include the following: lunar materials processing; asteroid mining; lunar resources; construction of a large solar power station; solar dynamic power for the space station; reduced gravity; mission characteristics and options; and tourism.

  11. Alternative scenarios utilizing nonterrestrial resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldred, Charles H.; Roberts, Barney B.

    1992-01-01

    A collection of alternative scenarios that are enabled or substantially enhanced by the utilization of nonterrestrial resources is provided. We take a generalized approach to scenario building so that our report will have value in the context of whatever goals are eventually chosen. Some of the topics covered include the following: lunar materials processing; asteroid mining; lunar resources; construction of a large solar power station; solar dynamic power for the space station; reduced gravity; mission characteristics and options; and tourism.

  12. Recovery and Utilization of Extraterrestrial Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This special bibliography includes the extraction, processing, and utilization of lunar, planetary, and asteroid resources; mining and excavation equipment, oxygen and propellant production; and in situ resource utilization.

  13. Resource utilization during software development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelkowitz, Marvin V.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses resource utilization over the life cycle of software development and discusses the role that the current 'waterfall' model plays in the actual software life cycle. Software production in the NASA environment was analyzed to measure these differences. The data from 13 different projects were collected by the Software Engineering Laboratory at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and analyzed for similarities and differences. The results indicate that the waterfall model is not very realistic in practice, and that as technology introduces further perturbations to this model with concepts like executable specifications, rapid prototyping, and wide-spectrum languages, we need to modify our model of this process.

  14. Cascade Reservoirs Floodwater Resources Utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    A reasonable floodwater resources utilization method is put forward by dynamic controlling of cascade reservoirs flood control limited level in this paper. According to the probability distribution of the beginning time of the first flood and the ending time of the final flood from July to September, the Fuzzy Statistic Analysis was used to divide the main flood season. By fitting the flood season membership functions of each period, the cascade reservoirs flood control limited water level for each period were computed according to the characteristic data of reservoirs. In terms of the benefit maximization and risk minimum principle, the reasonable combination of flood control limited water level of cascade reservoirs was put forward.

  15. Food insecurity: limitations of emergency food resources for our patients.

    PubMed

    Gany, Francesca; Bari, Sehrish; Crist, Michael; Moran, Alyssa; Rastogi, Natasha; Leng, Jennifer

    2013-06-01

    Rates of food insecurity are high among medically underserved patients. We analyzed food pantry responsiveness to the needs of medically ill cancer patients in New York City with the intent ofidentifying barriers to available food resources. Our data, collected from 60 pantries, suggest that the emergency food system is currently unable to accommodate patient needs. Accessibility issues include restricted service hours and documentation requirements. Food services were limited in quantity of food provided and the number of nutritious, palatable options. Additional emergency food resources and long-term approaches that provide ongoing food support to patients throughout their treatment period are needed.

  16. [Comparison of potential yield and resource utilization efficiency of main food crops in three provinces of Northeast China under climate change].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-yu; Yang, Xiao-guang; Sun, Shuang; Xie, Wen-juan

    2015-10-01

    Based on the daily data of 65 meteorological stations from 1961 to 2010 and the crop phenology data in the potential cultivation zones of thermophilic and chimonophilous crops in Northeast China, the crop potential yields were calculated through step-by-step correction method. The spatio-temporal distribution of the crop potential yields at different levels was analyzed. And then we quantified the limitations of temperature and precipitation on the crop potential yields and compared the differences in the climatic resource utilization efficiency. The results showed that the thermal potential yields of six crops (including maize, rice, spring wheat, sorghum, millet and soybean) during the period 1961-2010 deceased from west to east. The climatic potential yields of the five crops (spring wheat not included) were higher in the south than in the north. The potential yield loss rate due to temperature limitations of the six crops presented a spatial distribution pattern and was higher in the east than in the west. Among the six main crops, the yield potential loss rate due to temperature limitation of the soybean was the highest (51%), and those of the other crops fluctuated within the range of 33%-41%. The potential yield loss rate due to water limitation had an obvious regional difference, and was high in Songnen Plain and Changbai Mountains. The potential yield loss rate of spring wheat was the highest (50%), and those of the other four rainfed crops fluctuated within the range of 8%-10%. The solar energy utilization efficiency of the six main crops ranged from 0.9% to 2.7%, in the order of maize> sorghum>rice>millet>spring wheat>soybean. The precipitation utilization efficiency of the maize, sorghum, spring wheat, millet and soybean under rainfed conditions ranged from 8 to 35 kg . hm-2 . mm-1, in the order of maize>sorghum>spring wheat>millet>soybean. In those areas with lower efficiency of solar energy utilization and precipitation utilization, such as Changbai

  17. Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…

  18. Lunar resources: possibilities for utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, Vladislav

    Introduction: With the current advanced orbiters sent to the Moon by the United States, Europe, Japan, China, and India, we are opening a new era of lunar studies. The International Academy of Aeronautics (IAA) has begun a study on opportunities and challenges of developing and using space mineral resources (SRM). This study will be the first international interdisciplinary assessment of the technology, economics and legal aspects of using space mineral resources for the benefit of humanity. The IAA has approved a broad outline of areas that the study will cover including type, location and extent of space mineral resources on the Moon, asteroids and others. It will be studied current technical state of the art in the identification, recovery and use of SRM in space and on the Earth that identifies all required technical processes and systems, and that makes recommendations for specific technology developments that should be addressed near term at the system and subsystem level to make possible prospecting, mineral extraction, beneficiation, transport, delivery and use of SMR. Particular attention will be dedicated to study the transportation and retrieval options available for SRM. Lunar polar volatile: ROSCOSMOS places a high priority on studying lunar polar volatiles, and has outlined a few goals related to the study of such volatiles. Over the course of several years, NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter scanned the Moon’s South Pole using its Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND - IKI Russia) to measure how much hydrogen is trapped within the lunar soil. Areas exhibiting suppressed neutron activity indicate where hydrogen atoms are concentrated most, strongly suggesting the presence of water molecules. Current survey of the Moon’s polar regions integrated geospatial data for topography, temperature, and hydrogen abundances from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Chandrayaan-1, and Lunar Prospector to identify several landing sites near both the North and

  19. SLURM: Simplex Linux Utility for Resource Management

    SciTech Connect

    Jette, M; Grondona, M

    2003-04-22

    Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management (SLURM) is an open source, fault-tolerant, and highly scalable cluster management and job scheduling system for Linux clusters of thousands of nodes. Components include machine status, partition management, job management, scheduling, and stream copy modules. This paper presents an overview of the SLURM architecture and functionality.

  20. SLURM: Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management

    SciTech Connect

    Jette, M; Grondona, M

    2002-12-19

    Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management (SLURM) is an open source, fault-tolerant, and highly scalable cluster management and job scheduling system for Linux clusters of thousands of nodes. Components include machine status, partition management, job management, scheduling and stream copy modules. This paper presents an overview of the SLURM architecture and functionality.

  1. SLURM: Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management

    SciTech Connect

    Jette, M; Dunlap, C; Garlick, J; Grondona, M

    2002-07-08

    Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management (SLURM) is an open source, fault-tolerant, and highly scalable cluster management and job scheduling system for Linux clusters of thousands of nodes. Components include machine status, partition management, job management, scheduling and stream copy modules. The design also includes a scalable, general-purpose communication infrastructure. This paper presents a overview of the SLURM architecture and functionality.

  2. Climate Change and Global Food Security: Food Access, Utilization, and the US Food System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M. E.; Antle, J. M.; Backlund, P. W.; Carr, E. R.; Easterling, W. E.; Walsh, M.; Ammann, C. M.; Attavanich, W.; Barrett, C. B.; Bellemare, M. F.; Dancheck, V.; Funk, C.; Grace, K.; Ingram, J. S. I.; Jiang, H.; Maletta, H.; Mata, T.; Murray, A.; Ngugi, M.; Ojima, D. S.; O'Neill, B. C.; Tebaldi, C.

    2015-12-01

    This paper will summarize results from the USDA report entitled 'Climate change, Global Food Security and the U.S. Food system'. The report focuses on the impact of climate change on global food security, defined as "when all people at all times have physical, social, and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life". The assessment brought together authors and contributors from twenty federal, academic, nongovernmental, intergovernmental, and private organizations in four countries to identify climate change effects on food security through 2100, and analyze the U.S.'s likely connections with that world. This talk will describe how climate change will likely affect food access and food utilization, and summarize how the U.S. food system contributes to global food security, and will be affected by climate change.

  3. Optimizing Resource Utilization in Grid Batch Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellrich, Andreas

    2012-12-01

    On Grid sites, the requirements of the computing tasks (jobs) to computing, storage, and network resources differ widely. For instance Monte Carlo production jobs are almost purely CPU-bound, whereas physics analysis jobs demand high data rates. In order to optimize the utilization of the compute node resources, jobs must be distributed intelligently over the nodes. Although the job resource requirements cannot be deduced directly, jobs are mapped to POSIX UID/GID according to the VO, VOMS group and role information contained in the VOMS proxy. The UID/GID then allows to distinguish jobs, if users are using VOMS proxies as planned by the VO management, e.g. ‘role=production’ for Monte Carlo jobs. It is possible to setup and configure batch systems (queuing system and scheduler) at Grid sites based on these considerations although scaling limits were observed with the scheduler MAUI. In tests these limitations could be overcome with a home-made scheduler.

  4. Contextualizing Embodied Resources in Global Food Trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, G. K.; Brauman, K. A.; Sun, S.; West, P. C.; Carlson, K. M.; Cassidy, E. S.; Gerber, J. S.; Ray, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    Trade in agricultural commodities has created increasingly complex linkages between resource use and food supplies across national borders. Understanding the degree to which food production and consumption relies on trade is vital to understanding how to sustainably meet growing food demands across scales. We use detailed bilateral trade statistics and data on agricultural management to examine the land use and water consumption embodied in agricultural trade, which we relate to basic nutritional indicators to show how trade contributes to food availability worldwide. Agricultural trade carries enough calories to provide >1.7 billion people a basic diet each year. We identify key commodities and producer-consumer relationships that disproportionately contribute to embodied resource use and flows of food nutrition at the global scale. For example, just 15 disproportionately large soybean trades comprised ~10% the total harvested area embodied in export production. We conclude by framing these results in terms of the fraction of each country's food production and consumption that is linked to international trade. These findings help to characterize how countries allocate resources to domestic versus foreign food demand.

  5. Mars in Situ Resource Utilization Technology Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.; Santago-Maldonado, Edgardo

    2012-01-01

    We have examined the technologies required to enable Mars In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) because our understanding of Mars resources has changed significantly in the last five years as a result of recent robotic missions to the red planet. Two major developments, (1) confirmation of the presence of near-surface water in the form of ice in very large amounts at high latitudes by the Phoenix Lander and (2) the likely existence of water at lower latitudes in the form of hydrates or ice in the top one meter of the regolith, have the potential to change ISRU technology selection. A brief technology assessment was performed for the most promising Mars atmospheric gas processing techniques: Reverse Water Gas Shift (RWGS) and Methanation (aka Sabatier), as well as an overview of soil processing technology to extract water from Martian soil.

  6. The utilization of wind-energy resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorov, V. I.; Sidorov, V. V.; Kuznetsov, V. M.

    1980-06-01

    A review of developments in wind-energy in the Soviet Union, U.S., and West Europe is presented. The resources of the USSR are evaluated in three zones with the highest wind-energy potential, and designs of a 5 MW wind generator are analyzed along with a multirotor unit of 40 MW which will serve as the basis of an experimental 1000 MW system. The latter will be used as the first stage of utilization of wind-energy resources for electrical power generation. The wind-energy programs in the U.S., West Germany, Denmark, and Sweden are described which plan to produce 2 to 10% of electrical energy from wind energy by the year 2000.

  7. SLURM: Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management

    SciTech Connect

    Jette, M; Dunlap, C; Garlick, J; Grondona, M

    2002-04-24

    Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management (SLURM) is an open source, fault-tolerant, and highly scalable cluster management and job scheduling system for Linux clusters of thousands of nodes. Components include machine status, partition management, job management, and scheduling modules. The design also includes a scalable, general-purpose communication infrastructure. Development will take place in four phases: Phase I results in a solid infrastructure; Phase II produces a functional but limited interactive job initiation capability without use of the interconnect/switch; Phase III provides switch support and documentation; Phase IV provides job status, fault-tolerance, and job queuing and control through Livermore's Distributed Production Control System (DPCS), a meta-batch and resource management system.

  8. Food security and sustainable resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, Dennis; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang

    2015-07-01

    The projected growth in global food demand until mid-century will challenge our ability to continue recent increases in crop yield and will have a significant impact on natural resources. The water and land requirements of current agriculture are significantly less than global reserves but local shortages are common and have serious impacts on food security. Recent increases in global trade have mitigated some of the effects of spatial and temporal variability. However, trade has a limited impact on low-income populations who remain dependent on subsistence agriculture and local resources. Potential adverse environmental impacts of increased agricultural production include unsustainable depletion of water and soil resources, major changes in the global nitrogen and phosphorous cycles, human health problems related to excessive nutrient and pesticide use, and loss of habitats that contribute to agricultural productivity. Some typical case studies from China illustrate the connections between the need for increased food production and environmental stress. Sustainable options for decreasing food demand and for increasing production include reduction of food losses on both the producer and consumer ends, elimination of unsustainable practices such as prolonged groundwater overdraft, closing of yield gaps with controlled expansions of fertilizer application, increases in crop yield and pest resistance through advances in biotechnology, and moderate expansion of rain fed and irrigated cropland. Calculations based on reasonable assumptions suggest that such measures could meet the food needs of an increasing global population while protecting the environment.

  9. Resources: food waste is energy waste

    SciTech Connect

    Borghese, A.

    1981-07-01

    Americans waste energy when they waste energy-intensive food, which requires one-sixth of the nation's energy resources to produce, distribute, and prepare. A two-year University of Arizona study of household food waste that divided refuse into straight waste and plate scrapings found that 9% of purchased food was thrown away, and over half that was discarded untouched. Samplings from schools, restaurants, and other institutions reveal similar habits. More food is discarded in the fields and processing plants. A California group (the Gleaners) is among those trying to eliminate harvesting waste, while urban groups are salvaging store and restaurant throwouts. A conscious effort by an informed public can lead to a more-efficient use of food and energy. (DCK)

  10. Food Cravings Consume Limited Cognitive Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika; Grigg, Megan

    2008-01-01

    Using Tiffany's (1990) cognitive model of drug use and craving as a theoretical basis, the present experiments investigated whether cravings for food expend limited cognitive resources. Cognitive performance was assessed by simple reaction time (Experiment 1) and an established measure of working memory capacity, the operation span task…

  11. Food Processing Curriculum Material and Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge.

    Intended for secondary vocational agriculture teachers, this curriculum guide contains a course outline and a resource manual for a seven-unit food processing course on meats. Within the course outline, units are divided into separate lessons. Materials provided for each lesson include preparation for instruction (student objectives, review of…

  12. [Trends in the utilization of food additives].

    PubMed

    Szűcs, Viktória; Bánáti, Diána

    2013-11-17

    The frequent media reports on food additives weakened consumers' trust in food producers and food control authorities as well. Furthermore, consumers' uncertainty is also raised by the fact that they obtain their information from inadequate, mistrustful sources and, therefore, consumers might avoid the consumption of certain foodstuffs. While food producers may react by replacing artificial components by natural ones, they try to emphasize the favourable characteristics of their products. The authors describe the main trends and efforts related to food additives. On the basis of the overview it can be concluded that - besides taking into consideration consumers' needs - product development and research directions are promising. Food producers' efforts may help to restore consumer confidence and trust and they may help them to have informed choice. PMID:24212041

  13. [Trends in the utilization of food additives].

    PubMed

    Szűcs, Viktória; Bánáti, Diána

    2013-11-17

    The frequent media reports on food additives weakened consumers' trust in food producers and food control authorities as well. Furthermore, consumers' uncertainty is also raised by the fact that they obtain their information from inadequate, mistrustful sources and, therefore, consumers might avoid the consumption of certain foodstuffs. While food producers may react by replacing artificial components by natural ones, they try to emphasize the favourable characteristics of their products. The authors describe the main trends and efforts related to food additives. On the basis of the overview it can be concluded that - besides taking into consideration consumers' needs - product development and research directions are promising. Food producers' efforts may help to restore consumer confidence and trust and they may help them to have informed choice.

  14. Lunar Magnetic Fields: Implications for Resource Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.

    1992-01-01

    It is well known that solar-wind-implanted hydrogen and helium-3 in lunar soils are potentially usable resources for future manned activities. For economical mining of these implanted gases, it is desirable that relative concentrations exceed that of typical soils. It has previously been noted that the monthly variation of solar wind flux on the surface due to lunar immersion in the geomagnetic tail may have measurable consequences for resource utilization. It is pointed out that, for a constant external flux, locally strong lunar crustal magnetic fields will exert the dominant influence on solar wind volatile implantation rates. In particular, the strongest lunar crustal magnetic fields will both deflect and focus incident ions in local regions leading to local enhancements of the incident ion flux. Thus, the most economical sites for extraction of solar-wind-implanted volatiles may be within or adjacent to strong crustal magnetic fields. In addition, solar wind ion deflection by crustal magnetic fields must be considered in evaluating the issue of whether remnant cometary ice or water-bearing minerals have survived in permanently shadowed regions near the lunar poles. This is because sputter erosion of water ice by solar wind ions has been suggested to be an important ice loss mechanism within permanently shadowed regions. Thus, permanently shadowed regions that are also shielded from the solar wind by locally strong crustal fields could be the most promising locations for the survival of cometary ice. Additional numerical simulations are employed to show that solar wind ion deflection by strong lunar magnetic anomalies can produce local increases in the implantation rate of solar wind gases such as hydrogen.

  15. Lunar magnetic fields: Implications for resource utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, L. L.

    1992-09-01

    It is well known that solar-wind-implanted hydrogen and helium-3 in lunar soils are potentially usable resources for future manned activities. For economical mining of these implanted gases, it is desirable that relative concentrations exceed that of typical soils. It has previously been noted that the monthly variation of solar wind flux on the surface due to lunar immersion in the geomagnetic tail may have measurable consequences for resource utilization. It is pointed out that, for a constant external flux, locally strong lunar crustal magnetic fields will exert the dominant influence on solar wind volatile implantation rates. In particular, the strongest lunar crustal magnetic fields will both deflect and focus incident ions in local regions leading to local enhancements of the incident ion flux. Thus, the most economical sites for extraction of solar-wind-implanted volatiles may be within or adjacent to strong crustal magnetic fields. In addition, solar wind ion deflection by crustal magnetic fields must be considered in evaluating the issue of whether remnant cometary ice or water-bearing minerals have survived in permanently shadowed regions near the lunar poles. This is because sputter erosion of water ice by solar wind ions has been suggested to be an important ice loss mechanism within permanently shadowed regions. Thus, permanently shadowed regions that are also shielded from the solar wind by locally strong crustal fields could be the most promising locations for the survival of cometary ice. Additional numerical simulations are employed to show that solar wind ion deflection by strong lunar magnetic anomalies can produce local increases in the implantation rate of solar wind gases such as hydrogen.

  16. Food production: technology and the resource base.

    PubMed

    Wittwer, S H

    1975-05-01

    Despite a growing population and increasing demands of that population for improved diets, it appears that the world is not close to universal famine (3, 53). There is enough food now produced to feed the world's hungry (54). That people are malnourished or starving is a question of distribution, delivery, and economics, not agricultural limits. The problem is putting the food where the people are and providing an income so that they can buy it. As to the future, there are clouds on the far horizon. Only increased scientific and technological innovation, coupled with a change in human behavior and in national policy with regard to increased investments in agricultural research, can avert a growing food and population crisis. Only scientists develop new technology. Only farmers produce food. Motivation and incentives are important both for scientific discovery and food production. Agricultural research is also a process. There is no finite beginning or end. It is a continuing search to unravel mysteries. We must force the pace of agricultural development, but technology must be tailored to local conditions. Thiscan be done by scientists who also know how to farm. Individual dedication and sustained government commitments are important. Rapidity of information transfer and of acceptance of technology is also crucial (55). There is a wide gap between progress in research and the point of application for human benefit (Table 5). What accounts for the vast time differences in rapidity of technology acceptance? The current avalanche of new knowledge coupled with problems of food, feed, and fiber supplies, and issues of availability, preservation, protection, renewability, and costs of resources should bring to the front the urgency of rapid information transfer and reassessment of information systems for agricultural and other renewable resources.

  17. Preservation Methods Utilized for Space Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vodovotz, Yael; Bourland, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Food for manned space flight has been provided by NASA-Johnson Space Center since 1962. The various mission scenarios and space craft designs dictated the type of food preservation methodologies required to meet mission objectives. The preservation techniques used in space flight include freeze-dehydration, thermostabilization, irradiation, freezing and moisture adjustment. Innovative packaging material and techniques enhanced the shelf-stability of the food items. Future space voyages may include extended duration exploration missions requiring new packaging materials and advanced preservation techniques to meet mission goals of up to 5-year shelf-life foods.

  18. Developing a Program for the Utilization of Community Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Marleen

    The document serves as a step-by-step guide for career education administrators, consultants, and directors in preparing a program for the utilization of community resources in schools. Two methods of utilizing resources are the operation of a service which keeps a file of persons willing to serve as resources in the classroom, and the publication…

  19. Utilization of functional food components from pulses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry beans, peas, and lentils (pulses) are a principle source of protein in many parts of the world and have long been known to be healthy foods. Their use in traditional ethnic foods is well established; however, unlike grains, meat, dairy products, and other vegetables, they are not universally pre...

  20. Maya utilization of karst groundwater resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veni, George

    1990-07-01

    Much of the Maya civilization in pre-Columbian Meso-America was established on karst terrain that included parts of what are now Belize, Guatemala, northern Honduras and southern Mexico. By definition, little surface water exists in karst, so for the Maya to flourish on that terrain they had to effectively and efficiently utilize all their water resources. Access to groundwater was by means of springs and caves. Maya life, urban and rural, lay and elite, religious and secular was often a function of groundwater exploitation and surface water development. The Maya's use of groundwater was predominantly to supplement enhanced surface water supplies and was used more often in semiarid zones than in humid zones. The pattern of Maya settlements, especially in the semiarid zones, occurred in areas with greater access to the groundwater. Maya groundwater retrieval methods were primitive, inefficient, labor intensive, and uninnovative, as compared to their other technologic achievements. Groundwater contamination, from human effluent, could have resulted in widespread disease and contributed to the Maya's downfall.

  1. Food resources of the California condor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilbur, S.R.

    1972-01-01

    Conclusions and Recommendations: Although much of the above information is imprecise and inconclusive, it is evident that the condors foraging habitat is diminishing. Food supply probably is still adequate for free-ranging nonbreeding birds, but could become limited if current land use trends continue. Congregating condors on fewer and fewer acres could be detrimental in other ways. It seems the needs of condors can best be met by maintaining a continuous band of :foraging country throughout the species' horseshoe-shaped range. Public needs for open space and livestock agriculture can also be served by land use zoning, cooperative agreements, easements or other land controls implemented with consideration :for the condors' welfare. Of immediate concern is the declining food situation in the general vicinity of the active condor nests in the Sespe-Piru region. Reproduction is definitely depressed, and the reduced local food supply is the only apparent cause. Predicted future developments can only worsen the situation. A concerted effort should be made immediately to slow the loss of food and foraging area closest to the Sespe Condor Sanctuary including: (1) the Big Mountain-Newhall Ranch regions of southern Ventura County; (2) the arc of grassland around the southern and eastern boundaries of the Sespe Sanctuary; and (3) the Tejon Ranch. Within these areas efforts should be made to increase the amount of condor food by: (1) increasing the amount of livestock, if compatible with proper land use; (2) modifying procedures for disposal of dead livestock, so that more are available to condors; (3) encouraging (subsidizing) ranchers to sacrifice livestock for condor food at certain times o:f the year; and (4) developing a state or Federal supplemental feeding program utilizing cattle, deer or other carrion regularly distributed at close, protected feeding sites. If a convenient food supply is as important to reproduction as it appears, those nest sites closest to the best

  2. Acquiring and Utilizing Food Animal Teaching Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Kirk, John H.

    1978-01-01

    The Caldwell Veterinary Teaching Center provides veterinary students with experiences in food animal medicine through a system of practitioner referrals, clinical studies, and field visits to farms. Although treatment of cases is emphasized, the main concern is the progression of examinations and tests leading to a diagnosis. (JMD)

  3. [Evaluation of sustainable utilization of fishery resources in Guangdong Province].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zuo-Zhi; Lin, Zhao-Jin; Qiu, Yong-Song

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable utilization of fishery resources is the key for the sustainable development of fisheries, and its evaluation is a critical topic in the management of fisheries. Based on the theories of sustainable utilization, an index system suitable for the evaluation of the sustainable utilization of fishery resources in Guangdong Province was established, and a hierarchy and comprehensive grey evaluation model was adopted to evaluate this sustainable utilization in 1978-2007. In the study period, the utilization level of fishery resources in this province had an overall decrease, being the lowest in 1998, only 37.3% of that in 1978; but in the nearest 10 years, this utilization level had an increasing trend, with that in 2007 being 55.1% of 1978. The results of comprehensive evaluation were consistent with the observed facts, indicating that the model was feasible to evaluate the sustainable utilization of regional fishery resources.

  4. Treatment of Solar Generation in Electric Utility Resource Planning (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Cory, K.; Sterling, J.; Taylor, M.; McLaren, J.

    2014-01-01

    Today's utility planners have a different market and economic context than their predecessors, including planning for the growth of renewable energy. Through interviews and a questionnaire, the authors gathered information on utility supply planning and how solar is represented. Utilities were asked to provide their resource planning process details, key assumptions (e.g. whether DG is represented as supply or negative load), modeling methodology (e.g. type of risk analytics and candidate portfolio development), capacity expansion and production simulation model software, and solar project representation (project size, capacity value and integration cost adder). This presentation aims to begin the exchange of information between utilities, regulators and other stakeholders by capturing utility-provided information about: 1) how various utilities approach long-range resource planning; 2) methods and tools utilities use to conduct resource planning; and, 3) how solar technologies are considered in the resource planning process.

  5. In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Capability Roadmap Progress Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Gerald B.; Duke, Michael

    2005-01-01

    A progress review on In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) capability is presented. The topics include: 1) In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Capability Roadmap: Level 1; 2) ISRU Emphasized Architecture Overview; 3) ISRU Capability Elements: Level 2 and below; and 4) ISRU Capability Roadmap Wrap-up.

  6. Challenges of utilizing healthy fats in foods.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Samantha A; McClements, David Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2015-05-01

    Over the past few decades, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans has consistently recommended that consumers decrease consumption of saturated fatty acids due to the correlation of saturated fatty acid intake with coronary artery disease. This recommendation has not been easy to achieve because saturated fatty acids play an important role in the quality, shelf life, and acceptability of foods. This is because solid fats are critical to producing desirable textures (e.g., creaminess, lubrication, and melt-away properties) and are important in the structure of foods such as frozen desserts, baked goods, and confectionary products. In addition, replacement of saturated fats with unsaturated fats is limited by their susceptibility to oxidative rancidity, which decreases product shelf life, causes destruction of vitamins, and forms potentially toxic compounds. This article will discuss the fundamental chemical and physical properties in fats and how these properties affect food texture, structure, flavor, and susceptibility to degradation. The current sources of solid fats will be reviewed and potential replacements for solid fats will be discussed.

  7. Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management

    2008-03-10

    SLURM is an open source, fault-tolerant, and highly scalable cluster management and job scheduling system for large and small computer clusters. As a cluster resource manager, SLURM has three key functions. First, it allocates exclusive and/or non-exclusive access to resources (compute nodes) to users for some duration of time so they can perform work. Second, it provides a framework for starting, executing, and monitoring work 9normally a parallel job) on the set of allocated nodes.more » Finally, it arbitrates conflicting requests for resources by managing a queue of pending work.« less

  8. Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Amjad Majid; Albert, Don; Andersson, Par; Artiaga, Ernest; Auble, Daniel; Balle, Susanne; Blanchard, Anton; Cao, Hongjia; Christians, Daniel; Civario, Gilles; Clouston, Chuck; Dunlap, Chris; Ekstrom, Joseph; Garlick, James; Grondona, Mark; Hatazaki, Takao; Holmes, Christopher; Huff, Nathan; Jackson, David; Jette, Morris; Johnson, Greg; King, Jason; Kritkausky, Nancy; Lee, Puenlap; Li, Bernard; McDougall, Steven; Mecozzi, Donna; Morrone, Christopher; Munt, Pere; O'Sullivan, Bryan; Oliva, Gennaro; palermo, Daniel; Phung, Daniel; Pittman, Ashley; Riebs, Andrew; Sacerdoti, Federico; Squyers, Jeff; Tamraparni, Prashanth; Tew, Kevin; Windley, Jay; Wunderlin, Anne-Marie

    2008-03-10

    SLURM is an open source, fault-tolerant, and highly scalable cluster management and job scheduling system for large and small computer clusters. As a cluster resource manager, SLURM has three key functions. First, it allocates exclusive and/or non-exclusive access to resources (compute nodes) to users for some duration of time so they can perform work. Second, it provides a framework for starting, executing, and monitoring work 9normally a parallel job) on the set of allocated nodes. Finally, it arbitrates conflicting requests for resources by managing a queue of pending work.

  9. Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management

    SciTech Connect

    Jette, M.

    2009-09-09

    SLURM is an open source, fault-tolerant, and highly scalable cluster management and job scheduling system for large and small computer clusters. As a cluster resource manager, SLURM has three key functions. First, it allocates exclusive and/or non exclusive access to resources (compute nodes) to users for some duration of time so they can perform work. Second, it provides a framework for starting, executing, and monitoring work (normally a parallel job) on the set of allciated nodes. Finally, it arbitrates conflicting requests for resouces by managing a queue of pending work.

  10. Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management

    2009-09-09

    SLURM is an open source, fault-tolerant, and highly scalable cluster management and job scheduling system for large and small computer clusters. As a cluster resource manager, SLURM has three key functions. First, it allocates exclusive and/or non exclusive access to resources (compute nodes) to users for some duration of time so they can perform work. Second, it provides a framework for starting, executing, and monitoring work (normally a parallel job) on the set of allciatedmore » nodes. Finally, it arbitrates conflicting requests for resouces by managing a queue of pending work.« less

  11. Developing an Actuarial Track Utilizing Existing Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Kathy V.; Sarol, Yalçin

    2014-01-01

    Students earning a degree in mathematics often seek information on how to apply their mathematical knowledge. One option is to follow a curriculum with an actuarial emphasis designed to prepare students as an applied mathematician in the actuarial field. By developing only two new courses and utilizing existing courses for Validation by…

  12. Comparative economics of space resource utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutler, Andrew Hall

    1991-01-01

    Physical economic factors such as mass payback ratio, total payback ratio, and capital payback time are discussed and used to compare the economics of using resources from the Moon, Mars and its moons, and near Earth asteroids to serve certain near term markets such as propellant in low Earth orbit or launched mass reduction for lunar and Martian exploration. Methods for accounting for the time cost of money in simple figures of merit such as MPRs are explored and applied to comparisons such as those between lunar, Martian, and asteroidal resources. Methods for trading off capital and operating costs to compare schemes with substantially different capital to operating cost ratio are presented and discussed. Areas where further research or engineering would be extremely useful in reducing economic uncertainty are identified, as are areas where economic merit is highly sensitive to engineering performance - as well as areas where such sensitivity is surprisingly low.

  13. Non-electric utilization of geothermal resources

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1981-05-01

    Direct utilization of geothermal energy has been used by many countries in the past on a small scale for bathing, cooking, and heating. Today, there are still many small-scale individual uses; however, many large-scale projects have been developed for district heating, greenhouse complexes, and industrial processing. The number of large-scale projects will continue to grow due to the escalation of fossil fuel costs and the proven technology of using insulated transmission lines and efficient heat exchangers for geothermal fluids. Today, over 3000 MW (thermal) of geothermal energy are used in direct applications, mainly in Iceland, New Zealand, USSR, Japan, and Hungary. In all cases, the cost of geothermal utilization is below that of comparable fossil fuel energy.

  14. Treatment of Solar Generation in Electric Utility Resource Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Sterling, J.; McLaren, J.; Taylor, M.; Cory, K.

    2013-10-01

    Today's utility planners have a different market and economic context than their predecessors, including planning for the growth of renewable energy. State and federal support policies, solar photovoltaic (PV) price declines, and the introduction of new business models for solar PV 'ownership' are leading to increasing interest in solar technologies (especially PV); however, solar introduces myriad new variables into the utility resource planning decision. Most, but not all, utility planners have less experience analyzing solar than conventional generation as part of capacity planning, portfolio evaluation, and resource procurement decisions. To begin to build this knowledge, utility staff expressed interest in one effort: utility exchanges regarding data, methods, challenges, and solutions for incorporating solar in the planning process. Through interviews and a questionnaire, this report aims to begin this exchange of information and capture utility-provided information about: 1) how various utilities approach long-range resource planning; 2) methods and tools utilities use to conduct resource planning; and, 3) how solar technologies are considered in the resource planning process.

  15. Utilization of the Space food in Space Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Space Agriculture Task Force

    2012-07-01

    It is important that we think about the utilization of the Space food in the space agriculture. In addition, these studies may lead the food problem on the earth on the solution. This study thought about the utilization of the food and thought about doing a stem and the root of vegetables performed water culture of with food. I order Japan Food Research Laboratories to do the nutritional analysis of the root of a lettuce cultivated by water culture. The analysis items were lipid, carbohydrates, energy, protein, water, ash, Na, P, Fe, Ca, K, Mg, Cu, Zn, Mn, vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin D, dietary fiber(water soluble or insoluble). Most were water, but, as for the root of the lettuce, it was revealed that it was rich in a mineral (calcium, iron and magnesium).To eat the root of the lettuce will be good nutritional supply of minerals (calcium, iron) in the space life. In the result, water and mineral supply could make good use of in low calorie at loots of the lettuce. We want to think about the utilization of each food more in future.

  16. Effects of resource acquisitions on electric-utility shareholders

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, E.; Hadley, S.

    1994-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to see how shareholders fare when the utility acquires different kinds of resources. The resources considered are utility-built, -operated, and -owned power plants with different combinations of construction and operation costs; purchases of power; and DSM programs. We calculated the net present value of realized (cash) return on equity as the primary factor used to represent shareholder interests. We examined shareholder returns for these resources as functions of public utility commission regulation, taxes, and the utility`s operating environment. Our treatment of regulation considers the frequency and type (future vs historic test year) of rate cases, inclusion of construction work in progress in ratebase vs allowance for funds used during construction, ratebase vs expensing of DSM programs, book and tax depreciation schedules, possible disallowances of ``excess`` power-plant or DSM capital costs, and possible lack of adjustment for ``excess`` fuel or purchased power costs. The tax policies we studied include the existence and rates for property, sales, and income taxes and the existence and regulatory treatment of deferred taxes. The utility`s operating environment includes the overall inflation rate, load-growth rate, escalation in nonproduction expenses, and nongeneration construction (capital) requirements. Finally, given the increasingly competitive nature of electricity markets, we briefly considered alternatives to traditional cost-of-service regulation. We examined shareholder returns for the resources described above in an environment where the utility competes with other suppliers solely on the basis of electricity price.

  17. Utilizing the rich resources of a diverse workplace.

    PubMed

    Miller, E K

    1993-01-01

    The dynamic and ever-increasing diversity of the U.S. workforce challenges those in executive management to utilize human resources in a manner that maximizes those resources and produces optimal results. A diverse organization is itself laden with rich resources of human capital waiting to be tapped in creative ways. In order to be competitive and remain so, physician executives in today's market must engage in the management of diversity on a continuous basis.

  18. Utilizing the rich resources of a diverse workplace.

    PubMed

    Miller, E K

    1993-01-01

    The dynamic and ever-increasing diversity of the U.S. workforce challenges those in executive management to utilize human resources in a manner that maximizes those resources and produces optimal results. A diverse organization is itself laden with rich resources of human capital waiting to be tapped in creative ways. In order to be competitive and remain so, physician executives in today's market must engage in the management of diversity on a continuous basis. PMID:10161026

  19. Direct heat utilization of geothermal resources

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1996-08-01

    Direct or non-electric utilization of geothermal energy refers to the immediate use of the heat energy rather than to its conversion to some other form such as electrical energy. The primary forms of direct use include swimming, bathing and balneology (therapeutic use), space heating and cooling including district heating, agriculture (mainly greenhouse heating and some animal husbandry), aquaculture (mainly fish pond and raceway heating), industrial processes, and heat pumps (for both heating and cooling). In general, the geothermal fluid temperatures required for direct heat use are lower than those for economic electric power generation. Most direct use applications use geothermal fluids in the low-to-moderate temperature range between 50{degrees} and 150{degrees}C, and in general, the reservoir can be exploited by conventional water well drilling equipment. Low-temperature systems are also more widespread than high-temperature systems (above 150{degrees}C), so they are more likely to be located near potential users. In the US, for example, of the 1,350 known or identified geothermal systems, 5% are above 150{degrees}C, and 85% are below 90{degrees}C (Muffler, 1979). In fact, almost every country in the world has some low-temperature systems; while, only a few have accessible high-temperature systems.

  20. Towards synthetic biological approaches to resource utilization on space missions

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Amor A.; Cumbers, John; Hogan, John A.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the significant utility of deploying non-traditional biological techniques to harness available volatiles and waste resources on manned missions to explore the Moon and Mars. Compared with anticipated non-biological approaches, it is determined that for 916 day Martian missions: 205 days of high-quality methane and oxygen Mars bioproduction with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum can reduce the mass of a Martian fuel-manufacture plant by 56%; 496 days of biomass generation with Arthrospira platensis and Arthrospira maxima on Mars can decrease the shipped wet-food mixed-menu mass for a Mars stay and a one-way voyage by 38%; 202 days of Mars polyhydroxybutyrate synthesis with Cupriavidus necator can lower the shipped mass to three-dimensional print a 120 m3 six-person habitat by 85% and a few days of acetaminophen production with engineered Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 can completely replenish expired or irradiated stocks of the pharmaceutical, thereby providing independence from unmanned resupply spacecraft that take up to 210 days to arrive. Analogous outcomes are included for lunar missions. Because of the benign assumptions involved, the results provide a glimpse of the intriguing potential of ‘space synthetic biology’, and help focus related efforts for immediate, near-term impact. PMID:25376875

  1. Towards synthetic biological approaches to resource utilization on space missions.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Amor A; Cumbers, John; Hogan, John A; Arkin, Adam P

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the significant utility of deploying non-traditional biological techniques to harness available volatiles and waste resources on manned missions to explore the Moon and Mars. Compared with anticipated non-biological approaches, it is determined that for 916 day Martian missions: 205 days of high-quality methane and oxygen Mars bioproduction with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum can reduce the mass of a Martian fuel-manufacture plant by 56%; 496 days of biomass generation with Arthrospira platensis and Arthrospira maxima on Mars can decrease the shipped wet-food mixed-menu mass for a Mars stay and a one-way voyage by 38%; 202 days of Mars polyhydroxybutyrate synthesis with Cupriavidus necator can lower the shipped mass to three-dimensional print a 120 m(3) six-person habitat by 85% and a few days of acetaminophen production with engineered Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 can completely replenish expired or irradiated stocks of the pharmaceutical, thereby providing independence from unmanned resupply spacecraft that take up to 210 days to arrive. Analogous outcomes are included for lunar missions. Because of the benign assumptions involved, the results provide a glimpse of the intriguing potential of 'space synthetic biology', and help focus related efforts for immediate, near-term impact.

  2. Towards synthetic biological approaches to resource utilization on space missions.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Amor A; Cumbers, John; Hogan, John A; Arkin, Adam P

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the significant utility of deploying non-traditional biological techniques to harness available volatiles and waste resources on manned missions to explore the Moon and Mars. Compared with anticipated non-biological approaches, it is determined that for 916 day Martian missions: 205 days of high-quality methane and oxygen Mars bioproduction with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum can reduce the mass of a Martian fuel-manufacture plant by 56%; 496 days of biomass generation with Arthrospira platensis and Arthrospira maxima on Mars can decrease the shipped wet-food mixed-menu mass for a Mars stay and a one-way voyage by 38%; 202 days of Mars polyhydroxybutyrate synthesis with Cupriavidus necator can lower the shipped mass to three-dimensional print a 120 m(3) six-person habitat by 85% and a few days of acetaminophen production with engineered Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 can completely replenish expired or irradiated stocks of the pharmaceutical, thereby providing independence from unmanned resupply spacecraft that take up to 210 days to arrive. Analogous outcomes are included for lunar missions. Because of the benign assumptions involved, the results provide a glimpse of the intriguing potential of 'space synthetic biology', and help focus related efforts for immediate, near-term impact. PMID:25376875

  3. Internet - a resource for nuclear utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Slone, B.J. III; Richardson, C.E. )

    1993-01-01

    Internet is the name of the largest computer network in the world. It is actually a collection of many networks all running the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) protocol suite, connected through gateways and sharing common names and address spaces. Its purpose is to facilitate sharing of resources at participating organizations, which include government agencies, educational institutions, and private corporations. The Internet roots begin with the creation of the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) within the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) in 1958. In 1969, the DOD formed a computer network for ARPA and gave it the name ARPANET. It was designed to help government scientists communicate and share information by allowing remote computer log-in and program execution, but it quickly became a tool for sharing information through file transfer, electronic mail, and interest-group mailing lists. In 1970, ARPA became the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and ARPANET became DARPANET. By 1980, the DARPANET had grown in size, and other connecting networks were being developed. To support system growth and performance, it was recognized that a new communication protocol was required. In 1983, DARPANET split into DARPANET and MILNET (Military Network), and the Internet was formed when the Defense Communications Agency, which managed both networks, mandated the use of TCP/IP for connected hosts. In 1986, the National Science Foundation (NSF) joined Internet. The NSF created NSFNET to link several national supercomputer centers to support scholarly research. It now comprises 17 networks, connecting to 23 midlevel wide-area networks across the continent. In turn, the midlevel networks link computers in more than 1000 university, government, and commercial research organizations throughout the world.

  4. Scheduling in the Face of Uncertain Resource Consumption and Utility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor); Frank, Jeremy; Dearden, Richard

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the problem of scheduling tasks that consume a resource with known capacity and where the tasks have varying utility. We consider problems in which the resource consumption and utility of each activity is described by probability distributions. In these circumstances, we would like to find schedules that exceed a lower bound on the expected utility when executed. We first show that while some of these problems are NP-complete, others are only NP-Hard. We then describe various heuristic search algorithms to solve these problems and their drawbacks. Finally, we present empirical results that characterize the behavior of these heuristics over a variety of problem classes.

  5. Utility of Component-Resolved Diagnostics in Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Tuano, Karen S; Davis, Carla M

    2015-06-01

    Allergen component-resolved diagnostic testing (CRD) is a new methodology in clinical food allergy diagnosis, improving the ability to identify specific clinical phenotypes. Instead of relying on the crude allergen extracts used in standard allergy diagnostics, CRD utilizes purified or recombinant allergens for identification of specific molecules causing sensitization or allergy. This method is able to determine risk of the severity of allergic reactions in specific cases, like soy, peanut, and hazelnut allergy. The severity of allergic reaction can be predicted in peanut allergy with Ara h 2, and clinically relevant disease in pollen-allergic patients can be identified. However, age and geographic differences affect CRD results and it should always be utilized in the context of a clinical history. In the future, clinical phenotypes may be differentiated with larger prospective studies utilizing food challenges.

  6. Warming and Resource Availability Shift Food Web Structure and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Mary I.; Piehler, Michael F.; Leech, Dina M.; Anton, Andrea; Bruno, John F.

    2009-01-01

    Climate change disrupts ecological systems in many ways. Many documented responses depend on species' life histories, contributing to the view that climate change effects are important but difficult to characterize generally. However, systematic variation in metabolic effects of temperature across trophic levels suggests that warming may lead to predictable shifts in food web structure and productivity. We experimentally tested the effects of warming on food web structure and productivity under two resource supply scenarios. Consistent with predictions based on universal metabolic responses to temperature, we found that warming strengthened consumer control of primary production when resources were augmented. Warming shifted food web structure and reduced total biomass despite increases in primary productivity in a marine food web. In contrast, at lower resource levels, food web production was constrained at all temperatures. These results demonstrate that small temperature changes could dramatically shift food web dynamics and provide a general, species-independent mechanism for ecological response to environmental temperature change. PMID:19707271

  7. A 'figure-of-merit' approach to extraterrestrial resource utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar; Kirsch, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    An approach for interrelated optimizations in space missions that utilize extraterrestrial resources is developed, consisting in the concept of an overall mission 'figure-of-merit' leading to more realistic designs than through individual performance maximizations. After a brief discussion of this concept, the synthesis of four major components of any future space mission is considered. The four major components are: orbital mechanics of the transportation; performance of the rocket motors; support systems including power, thermal and process controls, and instruments; and in situ resource utilization plant equipment. The Mars Sample Return mission is the basis of an illustration of the proposed concept. A popular spreadsheet is used to quantitatively demonstrate the interdependent nature of the mission optimization. Future prospects are outlined, that promise great economy through extraterrestrial resource utilization and a quick evaluation technique.

  8. Direct utilization of a moderate temperature geothermal resource in agribusiness

    SciTech Connect

    Zeller, T.J.; Grams, W.H.; Howard, S.M.

    1980-09-01

    A demonstration project of the direct utilization of geothermal energy in a South Dakota agribusiness was undertaken. Off-the-shelf hardware was used in demonstrating that the technology was available today to develop geothermal energy resources. An existing artesian well into the Madison Formation having an energy resource of 67/sup 0/C and a flow rate of 655 liters per minute was developed into an energy for grain drying and space heating. The Diamond Ring Ranch structures and the wellhead are 2500 meters apart at the farthest point and the distribution of the highly corrosive, moderate temperature resource presented several unique problems. With the completion of the construction and the operation of the system through the first heating season, the direct utilization of geothermal resources is proving economically feasible and environmentally compatible. Compatible with the ranch operations.

  9. Resource utilization model for the algorithm to architecture mapping model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoughton, John W.; Patel, Rakesh R.

    1993-01-01

    The analytical model for resource utilization and the variable node time and conditional node model for the enhanced ATAMM model for a real-time data flow architecture are presented in this research. The Algorithm To Architecture Mapping Model, ATAMM, is a Petri net based graph theoretic model developed at Old Dominion University, and is capable of modeling the execution of large-grained algorithms on a real-time data flow architecture. Using the resource utilization model, the resource envelope may be obtained directly from a given graph and, consequently, the maximum number of required resources may be evaluated. The node timing diagram for one iteration period may be obtained using the analytical resource envelope. The variable node time model, which describes the change in resource requirement for the execution of an algorithm under node time variation, is useful to expand the applicability of the ATAMM model to heterogeneous architectures. The model also describes a method of detecting the presence of resource limited mode and its subsequent prevention. Graphs with conditional nodes are shown to be reduced to equivalent graphs with time varying nodes and, subsequently, may be analyzed using the variable node time model to determine resource requirements. Case studies are performed on three graphs for the illustration of applicability of the analytical theories.

  10. Pneumatic Regolith Transfer Systems for In Situ Resource Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, R. P.; Townsend, I. I.; Mantovani, J. G.; Zacny, Kris A.; Craft, Jack

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the testing of a pneumatic system for transfering regolith, to be used for In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). Using both the simulated microgravity of parabolic flight and ground testing, the tests demonstrated that lunar regolith can be conveyed pneumatically into a simulated ISRU oxygen production plant reactor. The ground testing also demonstrated that the regolith can be expelled from the ISRU reactor for disposal or for other resource processing.

  11. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU II) Technical Interchange Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, David (Compiler); Saunders, Stephen R. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    This volume contains extended abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU II) Technical Interchange Meeting, November 18-19, 1997, at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, Texas. Included are topics which include: Extraterrestrial resources, in situ propellant production, sampling of planetary surfaces, oxygen production, water vapor extraction from the Martian atmosphere, gas generation, cryogenic refrigeration, and propellant transport and storage.

  12. Scheduling in the Face of Uncertain Resource Consumption and Utility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy; Dearden, Richard

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the problem of scheduling tasks that consume uncertain amounts of a resource with known capacity and where the tasks have uncertain utility. In these circumstances, we would like to find schedules that exceed a lower bound on the expected utility when executed. We show that the problems are NP- complete, and present some results that characterize the behavior of some simple heuristics over a variety of problem classes.

  13. Effect of food processing and preparation on mineral utilization.

    PubMed

    Johnson, P E

    1991-01-01

    While effects of various nutrients and certain non-nutrient components of food on mineral utilization have been intensively studied, less is known about the effects of food processing and preparation procedures. Fermentation during the production of beer, wine, yogurt, and African tribal foods affects bioavailability of Zn and Fe. Baking affects the chemical form of Fe in fortified bread products and these changes can affect its bioavailability. Availability of Fe in milk-based infant formula depends on whether Fe is added before or after heat processing. Food packaging (e.g., tin cans) can alter food composition and thus potentially affects mineral bioavailability. Maillard browning has been reported to cause slight decreases in Zn availability both in vitro and in humans. However, we found that feeding of highly browned casein-glucose products to rats as 5% of diet produced no effect on Zn absorption (59.5 +/- 8.2% vs 54.1 +/- 7.3%) or Fe absorption (45.6 +/- 7.7% vs 46.9 +/- 12.6%) for browned vs control, respectively; nor did we find any of the adverse health effects reported by others. We found no effect on stable Zn or Cu absorption in seven men when browned foods were fed, compared to the same diets without browning. Zinc absorption was 34 +/- 13% (browned) vs 24 +/- 15% (unbrowned), and Cu absorption was 55 +/- 5% vs 55 +/- 8% (p greater than 0.05). PMID:1897405

  14. Space Resource Utilization: Technologies and Potential Synergism with Terrestrial Mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Gerald B.

    2015-01-01

    Space Resources and Their Uses: The idea of using resources in space to support human exploration and settlement or for economic development and profit beyond the surface of Earth has been proposed and discussed for decades. Work on developing a method to extract oxygen from lunar regolith started even before humans set foot on the Moon for the first time. The use of space resources, commonly referred to as In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), involves the processes and operations to harness and utilize resources in space (both natural and discarded) to create products for subsequent use. Potential space resources include water, solar wind implanted volatiles (hydrogen, helium, carbon, nitrogen, etc.), vast quantities of metals and minerals in extraterrestrial soils, atmospheric constituents, unlimited solar energy, regions of permanent light and darkness, the vacuum and zero-gravity of space itself, trash and waste from human crew activities, and discarded hardware that has completed its primary purpose. ISRU covers a wide variety of concepts, technical disciplines, technologies, and processes. When considering all aspects of ISRU, there are 5 main areas that are relevant to human space exploration and the commercialization of space: 1. Resource Characterization and Mapping, 2. In Situ Consumables Production, 3. Civil Engineering and Construction, 4. In Situ Energy Production and Storage, and 5. In Situ Manufacturing.

  15. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU 3) Technical Interchange Meeting: Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU III) Technical Interchange Meeting, February 11-12, 1999, hosted by the Lockheed Martin Astronautics Waterton Facility, Denver, Colorado. Administration and publication support for this meeting were provided by the staff of the Publications and Program Services Department at the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

  16. Maize Genetic Resources Collections – Utilizing a Treasure Trove

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The maize genetic resource collection managed by the USDA-ARS's National Plant Germplasm System is heavily utilized by researchers and educators. A collection of landraces, inbred lines from public and private sector sources, synthetics and key populations, it serves both as a living snapshot of th...

  17. Issue Space Utilization in State Natural Resource Magazines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromp, Bruce A.

    State natural resource magazines' tremendous potential as information sources and their unique economic situation led to this study of space utilization in individual issues. Three issues from each of 40 state magazines published in the summer of 1977 were divided into five subscription-rate and four staff-size categories. Category averages for…

  18. Utilization of space resources in the space transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Michael C.

    1992-01-01

    Utilization of space resources (i.e., raw materials obtained from nonterrestrial sources) has often been cited as a prerequisite for large-scale industrialization and habitation of space. While transportation of extremely large quantities of material from Earth would be costly and potentially destructive to our environment, vast quantities of usable resources might be derived from the Moon, the asteroids, and other celestial objects in a cost-effective and environmentally benign manner. The primary purpose of the parametric cost model developed as part of this study is to identify the factors that have the greatest influence on the economics of space resource utilization. In the near term, this information can be used to devise strategies for technology development so that capabilities developed will produce cost-effective results.

  19. Utilization of space resources in the space transportation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Michael C.

    Utilization of space resources (i.e., raw materials obtained from nonterrestrial sources) has often been cited as a prerequisite for large-scale industrialization and habitation of space. While transportation of extremely large quantities of material from Earth would be costly and potentially destructive to our environment, vast quantities of usable resources might be derived from the Moon, the asteroids, and other celestial objects in a cost-effective and environmentally benign manner. The primary purpose of the parametric cost model developed as part of this study is to identify the factors that have the greatest influence on the economics of space resource utilization. In the near term, this information can be used to devise strategies for technology development so that capabilities developed will produce cost-effective results.

  20. Differential resource utilization by extant great apes and australopithecines: towards solving the C4 conundrum.

    PubMed

    Sponheimer, Matt; Lee-Thorp, Julia A

    2003-09-01

    Morphological and biogeochemical evidence suggest that australopithecines had diets markedly different from those of extant great apes. Stable carbon isotope analysis, for example, has shown that significant amounts of the carbon consumed by australopithecines were derived from C(4) photosynthesis in plants. This means that australopithecines were eating large quantities of C(4) plants such as tropical grasses and sedges, or were eating animals that were themselves eating C(4) plants. In contrast, there is no evidence that modern apes consume appreciable amounts of any of these foods, even in the most arid extents of their ranges where these foods are most prevalent. Environmental reconstructions of early australopithecine environments overlap with modern chimpanzee habitats. This, in conjunction with the stable isotope evidence, suggests that australopithecines and great apes, even in similar environments, would utilize available resources differently. Thus, the desire or capacity to use C(4) foods may be a basal character of our lineage. We do not know, however, which of the nutritionally disparate C(4) foods were utilized by hominids. Here we discuss which C(4) resources were most likely consumed by australopithecines, as well as the potential nutritional, physiological, and social consequences of eating these foods. PMID:14527627

  1. Differential resource utilization by extant great apes and australopithecines: towards solving the C4 conundrum.

    PubMed

    Sponheimer, Matt; Lee-Thorp, Julia A

    2003-09-01

    Morphological and biogeochemical evidence suggest that australopithecines had diets markedly different from those of extant great apes. Stable carbon isotope analysis, for example, has shown that significant amounts of the carbon consumed by australopithecines were derived from C(4) photosynthesis in plants. This means that australopithecines were eating large quantities of C(4) plants such as tropical grasses and sedges, or were eating animals that were themselves eating C(4) plants. In contrast, there is no evidence that modern apes consume appreciable amounts of any of these foods, even in the most arid extents of their ranges where these foods are most prevalent. Environmental reconstructions of early australopithecine environments overlap with modern chimpanzee habitats. This, in conjunction with the stable isotope evidence, suggests that australopithecines and great apes, even in similar environments, would utilize available resources differently. Thus, the desire or capacity to use C(4) foods may be a basal character of our lineage. We do not know, however, which of the nutritionally disparate C(4) foods were utilized by hominids. Here we discuss which C(4) resources were most likely consumed by australopithecines, as well as the potential nutritional, physiological, and social consequences of eating these foods.

  2. Distributed generation from biomass resources: Emerging potential for utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Whittier, J.; Haase, S.; Badger, P.C.

    1996-12-31

    Distributed generation (DG) offers potential to enhance the range of services provided by electric utilities. Competitive pressures experienced by the utility industry are sending simultaneous, and often conflicting, signals to planners concerned with busbar costs, market share and customer retention. DG technologies allow planners to address concurrent utility and customer concerns. DG will also open markets for additional commercial applications of diverse biomass technologies. Distributed generation offers multiple benefits both to utilities and to end users. Utilities may site new power production resources more readily and with lower capital costs and reduced financial risk than with larger power generation systems. Important benefits may accrue to the transmission and distribution (T&D) system including various forms of grid support (e.g., reduced line losses, voltage support, and power quality improvement), deferral of upgrades to substations, and provision of power in increments that match projected demand patterns. Other DG benefits may include assistance with customer waste disposal problems, fuel diversity, reduction in emissions of NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and CO{sub 2}, and increases in system reliability. Substantial changes in utility planning practices are required to accommodate DG. The utility must re-think planning procedures to begin from the customer and extend back to the system rather than beginning from comprehensive system planning at the power plant level. As competitive pressures encourage utilities to redefine business practices, DG may help to focus strategic responses to the market.

  3. Analysis of Low-Temperature Utilization of Geothermal Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Brian

    2015-06-30

    Full realization of the potential of what might be considered “low-grade” geothermal resources will require that we examine many more uses for the heat than traditional electricity generation. To demonstrate that geothermal energy truly has the potential to be a national energy source we will be designing, assessing, and evaluating innovative uses for geothermal-produced water such as hybrid biomass-geothermal cogeneration of electricity and district heating and efficiency improvements to the use of cellulosic biomass in addition to utilization of geothermal in district heating for community redevelopment projects. The objectives of this project were: 1) to perform a techno-economic analysis of the integration and utilization potential of low-temperature geothermal sources. Innovative uses of low-enthalpy geothermal water were designed and examined for their ability to offset fossil fuels and decrease CO2 emissions. 2) To perform process optimizations and economic analyses of processes that can utilize low-temperature geothermal fluids. These processes included electricity generation using biomass and district heating systems. 3) To scale up and generalize the results of three case study locations to develop a regionalized model of the utilization of low-temperature geothermal resources. A national-level, GIS-based, low-temperature geothermal resource supply model was developed and used to develop a series of national supply curves. We performed an in-depth analysis of the low-temperature geothermal resources that dominate the eastern half of the United States. The final products of this study include 17 publications, an updated version of the cost estimation software GEOPHIRES, and direct-use supply curves for low-temperature utilization of geothermal resources. The supply curves for direct use geothermal include utilization from known hydrothermal, undiscovered hydrothermal, and near-hydrothermal EGS resources and presented these results at the Stanford

  4. Linking water resources to food security through virtual water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamea, Stefania

    2014-05-01

    The largest use of global freshwater resources is related to food production. While each day we drink about 2 liters of water, we consume (eating) about 4000 liters of ''virtual water'', which represents the freshwater used to produce crop-based and livestock-based food. Considering human water consumption as a whole, most part originates from agriculture (85.8%), and only minor parts come from industry (9.6%) or households (4.6%). These numbers shed light on the great pressure of humanity on global freshwater resources and justify the increasing interest towards this form of environmental impact, usually known as ''water footprint''. Virtual water is a key variable in establishing the nexus between water and food. In fact, water resources used for agricultural production determine local food availability, and impact the international trade of agricultural goods. Trade, in turn, makes food commodities available to nations which are not otherwise self-sufficient, in terms of water resources or food, and it establishes an equilibrium between food demand and production at the global scale. Therefore, food security strongly relies on international food trade, but also on the use of distant and foreign water resources, which need to be acknowledged and investigated. Virtual water embedded in production and international trade follows the fate of food on the trade network, generating virtual flows of great magnitude (e.g., 2800 km3 in 2010) and defining local and global virtual water balances worldwide. The resulting water-food nexus is critical for the societal and economic development, and it has several implications ranging from population dynamics to the competing use of freshwater resources, from dietary guidelines to globalization of trade, from externalization of pollution to policy making and to socio-economic wealth. All these implications represent a great challenge for future research, not only in hydrology but in the many fields related to this

  5. Food for Thought: Resourcing Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standish, Paul

    2009-01-01

    J.M. Coetzee's "Elizabeth Costello" is an overtly philosophical novel, at the heart of which are questions concerning the relation of human beings to animals and the discussion of animal rights. The nature of its subject matter and the prominence it gives to dialogue, sometimes of an almost Platonic kind, make it a rich potential resource for…

  6. Resource physiology of conifers: Acquisition, allocation, and utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.K.; Hinckley, T.M.

    1995-03-01

    This book focuses on a synthetic view of the resource physiology of conifer trees with an emphasis on developing a perspective that can integrate across the biological hierarchy. This objective is in concert with more scientific goals of maintaining biological diversity and the sustainability of forest systems. The preservation of coniferous forest ecosystems is a major concern today. This volume deals with the topics of resource acquisition, allocation, and utilization in conifers. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  7. In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Jerry

    1998-01-01

    The question "Why In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU)?" is addressed in this presentation. The reasons given concentrate on Cost reduction, Mass reduction, Risk reduction, the expansion of human exploration and presence and the enabling of industrial exploitation. A review of the Martian and Lunar resources available for ISRU is presented. Other ISRU concepts (i.e., In-Situ Consumable production (ISCP) and In-Situ Propellant Production (ISPP)) are introduced and further explained. The objectives of a Mars ISRU System Technology (MIST) include (1) the characterization of technology and subsystem performance for mission modeling and technology funding planning, (2) reduce risk and concerns arising from sample return and human missions utilizing ISRU, and (3) demonstrate the environmental suitability of ISRU components/processes and systems. A proof of concept demonstration schedule and a facility overview for MIST is presented.

  8. Balancing water resource conservation and food security in China

    PubMed Central

    Dalin, Carole; Qiu, Huanguang; Hanasaki, Naota; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    China’s economic growth is expected to continue into the next decades, accompanied by sustained urbanization and industrialization. The associated increase in demand for land, water resources, and rich foods will deepen the challenge of sustainably feeding the population and balancing agricultural and environmental policies. We combine a hydrologic model with an economic model to project China’s future food trade patterns and embedded water resources by 2030 and to analyze the effects of targeted irrigation reductions on this system, notably on national agricultural water consumption and food self-sufficiency. We simulate interprovincial and international food trade with a general equilibrium welfare model and a linear programming optimization, and we obtain province-level estimates of commodities’ virtual water content with a hydrologic model. We find that reducing irrigated land in regions highly dependent on scarce river flow and nonrenewable groundwater resources, such as Inner Mongolia and the greater Beijing area, can improve the efficiency of agriculture and trade regarding water resources. It can also avoid significant consumption of irrigation water across China (up to 14.8 km3/y, reduction by 14%), while incurring relatively small decreases in national food self-sufficiency (e.g., by 3% for wheat). Other researchers found that a national, rather than local, water policy would have similar effects on food production but would only reduce irrigation water consumption by 5%. PMID:25825748

  9. Balancing water resource conservation and food security in China.

    PubMed

    Dalin, Carole; Qiu, Huanguang; Hanasaki, Naota; Mauzerall, Denise L; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2015-04-14

    China's economic growth is expected to continue into the next decades, accompanied by sustained urbanization and industrialization. The associated increase in demand for land, water resources, and rich foods will deepen the challenge of sustainably feeding the population and balancing agricultural and environmental policies. We combine a hydrologic model with an economic model to project China's future food trade patterns and embedded water resources by 2030 and to analyze the effects of targeted irrigation reductions on this system, notably on national agricultural water consumption and food self-sufficiency. We simulate interprovincial and international food trade with a general equilibrium welfare model and a linear programming optimization, and we obtain province-level estimates of commodities' virtual water content with a hydrologic model. We find that reducing irrigated land in regions highly dependent on scarce river flow and nonrenewable groundwater resources, such as Inner Mongolia and the greater Beijing area, can improve the efficiency of agriculture and trade regarding water resources. It can also avoid significant consumption of irrigation water across China (up to 14.8 km(3)/y, reduction by 14%), while incurring relatively small decreases in national food self-sufficiency (e.g., by 3% for wheat). Other researchers found that a national, rather than local, water policy would have similar effects on food production but would only reduce irrigation water consumption by 5%.

  10. Balancing water resource conservation and food security in China.

    PubMed

    Dalin, Carole; Qiu, Huanguang; Hanasaki, Naota; Mauzerall, Denise L; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2015-04-14

    China's economic growth is expected to continue into the next decades, accompanied by sustained urbanization and industrialization. The associated increase in demand for land, water resources, and rich foods will deepen the challenge of sustainably feeding the population and balancing agricultural and environmental policies. We combine a hydrologic model with an economic model to project China's future food trade patterns and embedded water resources by 2030 and to analyze the effects of targeted irrigation reductions on this system, notably on national agricultural water consumption and food self-sufficiency. We simulate interprovincial and international food trade with a general equilibrium welfare model and a linear programming optimization, and we obtain province-level estimates of commodities' virtual water content with a hydrologic model. We find that reducing irrigated land in regions highly dependent on scarce river flow and nonrenewable groundwater resources, such as Inner Mongolia and the greater Beijing area, can improve the efficiency of agriculture and trade regarding water resources. It can also avoid significant consumption of irrigation water across China (up to 14.8 km(3)/y, reduction by 14%), while incurring relatively small decreases in national food self-sufficiency (e.g., by 3% for wheat). Other researchers found that a national, rather than local, water policy would have similar effects on food production but would only reduce irrigation water consumption by 5%. PMID:25825748

  11. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Technical Interchange Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Technical Interchange Meeting, February 4-5, 1997, at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, Texas. Abstracts are arranged in order of presentation at the meetings, with corresponding page numbers shown in the enclosed agenda. Logistics, administration, and publication support for this meeting were provided by the staff of the Publications and Program Services Department at the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

  12. A figure-of-merit approach to extraterrestrial resource utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, K.; Kirsch, T.

    1990-01-01

    A concept is developed for interrelated optimizations in space missions that utilize extraterrestrial resources. It is shown that isolated (component) optimizations may not result in the best mission. It is shown that substantial benefits can be had through less than the best propellants, propellant combinations, propulsion hardware, and actually, some waste in the traditional sense. One ready example is the possibility of discarding hydrogen produced extraterrestrially by water splitting and using only the oxygen to burn storable fuels. The gains in refrigeration and leak-proof equipment mass (elimination) outweigh the loss in specific impulse. After a brief discussion of this concept, the synthesis of the four major components of any future space mission is developed. The four components are: orbital mechanics of the transportation; performance of the rocket motor; support systems that include power; thermal and process controls, and instruments; and in situ resource utilization plant equipment. This paper's main aim is to develop the concept of a figure-of-merit for the mission. The Mars Sample Return Mission is used to illustrate the new concept. At this time, a popular spreadsheet is used to quantitatively indicate the interdependent nature of the mission optimization. Future prospects are outlined that promise great economy through extraterrestrial resource utilization and a technique for quickly evaluating the same.

  13. Advanced Water Purification System for In Situ Resource Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, Stephen M.; Jolley, Scott T.; Captain, James G.

    2013-01-01

    One of NASA's goals is to enable longterm human presence in space, without the need for continuous replenishment of consumables from Earth. In situ resource utilization (ISRU) is the use of extraterrestrial resources to support activities such as human life-support, material fabrication and repair, and radiation shielding. Potential sources of ISRU resources include lunar and Martian regolith, and Martian atmosphere. Water and byproducts (including hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids) can be produced from lunar regolith via a high-temperature hydrogen reduction reaction and passing the produced gas through a condenser. center dot Due to the high solubility of HCI and HF in water, these byproducts are expected to be present in the product stream (up to 20,000 ppm) and must be removed (less than 10 ppm) prior to water consumption or electrolysis.

  14. RESOLVE Mission Architecture for Lunar Resource Prospecting and Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, J. A.; Mattes, G. W.; Rogers, K. N.; Magruder, D. F.; Paz, A. J.; Vaccaro, H. M.; Baird, R. S.; Sanders, G. B.; Smith, J. T.; Quinn, J. W.; Larson, W. E.; Colaprete, A.; Elphic, R. C.; Suaris, T. R.

    2012-01-01

    Design Reference Mission (DRM) evaluations were performed for The Regolith & Environment Science, and Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) project to determine future flight mission feasibility and understand potential mission environment impacts on hardware requirements, science/resource assessment objectives, and mission planning. DRM version 2.2 (DRM 2.2) is presented for a notional flight of the RESOLVE payload for lunar resource ground truth and utilization (Figure 1) [1]. The rover/payload deploys on a 10 day surface mission to the Cabeus crater near the lunar south pole in May of 2016. A drill, four primary science instruments, and a high temperature chemical reactor will acquire and characterize water and other volatiles in the near sub-surface, and perform demonstrations of In-Situ Re-source Utilization (ISRU). DRM 2.2 is a reference point, and will be periodically revised to accommodate and incorporate changes to project approach or implementation, and to explore mission alternatives such as landing site or opportunity.

  15. Zipf's law in city size from a resource utilization model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Asim; Chatterjee, Arnab; Chakrabarti, Anindya S.; Chakrabarti, Bikas K.

    2014-10-01

    We study a resource utilization scenario characterized by intrinsic fitness. To describe the growth and organization of different cities, we consider a model for resource utilization where many restaurants compete, as in a game, to attract customers using an iterative learning process. Results for the case of restaurants with uniform fitness are reported. When fitness is uniformly distributed, it gives rise to a Zipf law for the number of customers. We perform an exact calculation for the utilization fraction for the case when choices are made independent of fitness. A variant of the model is also introduced where the fitness can be treated as an ability to stay in the business. When a restaurant loses customers, its fitness is replaced by a random fitness. The steady state fitness distribution is characterized by a power law, while the distribution of the number of customers still follows the Zipf law, implying the robustness of the model. Our model serves as a paradigm for the emergence of Zipf law in city size distribution.

  16. Enhancing food-safety education through shared teaching resources.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jeannette

    2008-01-01

    The American public is concerned about food safety, and there is a growing realization that we are ill equipped to handle major food-borne illness outbreaks and bioterrorism. Since veterinary medicine plays an important role in assuring the safety of our nation's food supply, we would like to present to veterinary and public health educators a newly emerging resource for food-safety educational materials. This article describes an integrative collaborative approach for the creation and dissemination of engaging food-safety teaching resources for veterinary faculty. This USDA-funded project, Design to Dissemination: Developing Materials and Repository for Integrative Veterinary Food Safety Education, involves expert teachers in diverse fields and from many veterinary schools. The purpose of the project is to create materials that teach students food safety from farm to fork, and it offers teachers clinically relevant teaching resources that are difficult to create or locate. The educational materials are being created as smaller "building blocks" of content, commonly referred to as "learning objects" (LOs), focused on individual learning objectives. These learning objects are placed in the Veterinary Food Safety Education Learning Object Repository, where they are catalogued, stored, and kept accessible and where faculty can search, evaluate, and download teaching materials to use in their courses. In this way the learning objects can be more easily shared and reused or repurposed for other courses and applications. With this article we hope to excite faculty in veterinary schools and public-health programs and encourage them to use the repository and participate in piloting the educational materials.

  17. Market study for direct utilization of geothermal resources by selected sectors of economy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    A comprehensive analysis is presented of industrial markets potential for direct use of geothermal energy by a total of six industry sectors: food and kindred products; tobacco manufactures; textile mill products; lumber and wood products (except furniture); chemicals and allied products; and leather and leather products. A brief statement is presented regarding sectors of the economy and major manufacturing processes which can readily utilize direct geothermal energy. Previous studies on plant location determinants are summarized and appropriate empirical data provided on plant locations. Location determinants and potential for direct use of geothermal resources are presented. The data was gathered through interviews with 30 senior executives in the six sectors of economy selected for study. Probable locations of plants in geothermal resource areas and recommendations for geothermal resource marketing are presented. Appendix A presents factors which impact on industry location decisions. Appendix B presents industry executives interviewed during the course of this study. (MHR)

  18. Development of space manufacturing systems concepts utilizing lunar resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bock, E. H.

    1979-01-01

    Results of a NASA sponsored study to evaluate the merits of constructing solar power satellites using lunar and terrestrial resources are reviewed. Three representative lunar resources utilization (LRU) concepts were developed and compared with a previously designed earth baseline concept, and major system hardware elements as well as personnel requirements were defined. LRU for space construction was shown to be competitive with earth baseline approach for a program requiring 10 to the 5th metric tons per year of completed satellites. Results also indicated that LRU can reduce earth launched cargo requirements to less than 10% of that needed to build satellites exclusively from earth materials, with a significant percentage of the reduction due to the use of liquid oxygen derived from lunar soil. A concept using the mass driver to catapult lunar material into space was found to be superior to the other LRU logistics techniques investigated.

  19. Mars In-Situ Resource Utilization Technology Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo; Muscatello, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    We have examined the technologies required to enable Mars Tn-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) because our understanding of Mars resources has changed significantly in the last five years as a result of recent robotic missions to the red planet [1-4]. Two major developments, (1) confirmation of the presence of near-surface water in the form of ice in very large amounts at high latitudes by the Phoenix Lander and (2) the likely existence of water at lower latitudes in the form of hydrates or ice in the top one meter of the regolith, have the potential to change ISRU technology selection. A brief technology assessment was performed for the most promising Mars atmospheric gas processing techniques: Reverse Water Gas Shift (RWGS) and Methanation (aka Sabatier), as well as an overview of soil.processing technology to extract water from Martian soil.

  20. Accurate Documentation of Malnutrition Diagnosis Reflects Increased Healthcare Resource Utilization.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Wendy

    2015-10-01

    Nutrition support professionals often care for the sickest of hospitalized patients. An understanding of healthcare payment models can help the nutrition support professional know how documentation of nutrition status can ensure maximum resources are available to care for these patients. Medicare is the major funding source for many hospitals in the United States. Hospitals receive payments using the Acute Care Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment System, which classifies patients into Medical Severity Diagnosis-Related Groups (MS-DRGs) to determine payment amounts. Documentation of comorbidities and complications can increase the payment hospitals receive to offset increased resource utilization. This article explains how malnutrition documentation and coding can influence the case mix index, an indicator of level of acuity of patients treated at the hospital, and the payment the hospital receives to care for the patient.

  1. In-situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) and Lunar Surface Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Jerry; Larson, Bill; Sacksteder, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the benefits of In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) on the surface of the moon. Included in this review is the commercialization of Lunar ISRU. ISRU will strongly influence architecture and critical technologies. ISRU is a critical capability and key implementation of the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE). ISRU will strongly effects lunar outpost logistics, design and crew safety. ISRU will strongly effect outpost critical technologies. ISRU mass investment is minimal compared to immediate and long-term architecture delivery mass and reuse capabilities provided. Therefore, investment in ISRU constitutes a commitment to the mid and long term future of human exploration.

  2. NEO Targets for Biological In Situ Resource Utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grace, J. M.; Ernst, S. M.; Navarrete, J. U.; Gentry, D.

    2014-12-01

    We are investigating a mission architecture concept for low-cost pre-processing of materials on long synodic period asteroids using bioengineered microbes delivered by small spacecraft. Space exploration opportunities, particularly those requiring a human presence, are sharply constrained by the high cost of launching resources such as fuel, construction materials, oxygen, water, and foodstuffs. Near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) have been proposed for supporting a human space presence. However, the combination of high initial investment requirements, delayed potential return, and uncertainty in resource payoff currently prevents their effective utilization.Biomining is the process in which microorganisms perform useful material reduction, sequestration or separation. It is commonly used in terrestrial copper extraction. Compared to physical and chemical methods of extraction it is slow, but very low cost, thus rendering economical even very poor ores. These advantages are potentially extensible to asteroid in situ resource utilization (ISRU).One of the first limiting factors for the use of biology in these environments is temperature. A survey of NEA data was conducted to identify those NEAs whose projected interior temperatures remained within both potential (-5 - 100 ºC) and preferred (15 - 45 ºC) ranges for the minimum projected time per synodic period without exceeding 100 ºC at any point. Approximately 2800 of the 11000 NEAs (25%) are predicted to remain within the potential range for at least 90 days, and 120 (1%) in the preferred range.A second major factor is water availability and stability. We have evaluated a design for a small-spacecraft-based injector which forces low-temperature fluid into the NEA interior, creating potentially habitable microniches. The fluid contains microbes genetically engineered to accelerate the degradation rates of a desired fraction of the native resources, allowing for more efficient material extraction upon a subsequent

  3. Wellhead to wire utilization of remote gas resources

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.A.; Hines, T.L.

    1998-12-31

    Utilization of remote gas resources in developing countries continues to offer challenges and opportunities to producers and contractors. The Aguaytia Gas and Power Project is an example where perseverance and creativity resulted in successful utilization of natural gas resources in the Ucayali Region of Central Peru, a country which previously had no natural gas infrastructure. The resource for the project was first discovered by Mobil in 1961, and remained undeveloped for over thirty years due to lack of infrastructure and markets. Maple Gas won a competitively bid contract to develop the Aguaytia gas reserves in March of 1993. The challenges facing Maple Gas were to develop downstream markets for the gas, execute contracts with Perupetro S.A. and other Peruvian government entities, raise financing for the project, and solicit and execute engineering procurement and construction (EPC) contracts for the execution of the project. The key to development of the downstream markets was the decision to generate electric power and transmit the power over the Andes to the main electrical grid along the coast of Peru. Supplemental revenue could be generated by gas sales to a small regional power plant and extraction of LPG and natural gasoline for consumption in the Peruvian market. Three separate lump sum contracts were awarded to Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) companies for the gas project, power project and transmission project. Each project presented its unique challenges, but the commonalities were the accelerated schedule, high rainfall in a prolonged wet season and severe logistics due to lack of infrastructure in the remote region. This presentation focuses on how the gas plant contractor, ABB Randall, working in harmony with the developer, Maple Gas, tackled the challenges to monetize a remote gas resource.

  4. Feed, Need, Greed: Food Resources & Population. A High School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science for the People, Cambridge, MA. Boston Chapter.

    Four units, teacher's notes, and a comprehensive glossary provide background information and activities aimed at raising the awareness of high school students and teachers regarding the nature of the food system and its relationship to nutrition, population, and resources. These non-sequential units analyze the economic and political factors…

  5. Resource Utilization and Site Selection for a Self-Sufficient Martian Outpost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, Donald; Chamitoff, Gregory; James, George

    1998-01-01

    As a planet with striking similarities to Earth, Mars is an important focus for scientific research aimed at understanding the processes of planetary evolution and the formation of our solar system. Fortunately, Mars is also a planet with abundant natural resources, including assessible materials that can be used to support human life and to sustain a self-sufficient martian outpost. Resources required include water, breathable air, food, shelter, energy, and fuel. Through a mission design based on in situ resource development, we can establish a permanent outpost on Mars beginning with the first manned mission. This paper examines the potential for supporting the first manned mission with the objective of achieving self-sufficiency through well-understood resource development and a program of rigorous scientific research aimed at extending that capability. We examine the potential for initially extracting critical resources from the martian environment, and discuss the scientific investigations required to identify additional resources in the atmosphere, on the surface, and within the subsurface. We also discuss our current state of knowledge of Mars, technical considerations of resource utilization, and using unmanned missions' data for selecting an optimal site. The primary goal of achieving self-sufficiency on Mars would accelerate the development of human colonization beyond Earth, while providing a robust and permanent martian base from which humans can explore and conduct long-term research on planetary evolution, the solar system, and life itself.

  6. Management considerations and environmental benefit analysis for turning food garbage into agricultural resources.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Tien

    2008-09-01

    The management of food garbage is of great importance because of its high energy consumption, potential environmental hazards and public health risks. In Taiwan, through the competent authorities at all levels and the citizens' participation in sorting household wastes, many recycling efforts have recently been implemented to further utilize it as available resources such as swine feeds and organic fertilizer by composting. As a result, a total of approximately 570 thousand metric tons was recycled with a recycling ratio of about 21.2% on a basis of food garbage generation in 2006, rising over 22% from a year earlier. These figures showed that compulsory garbage sorting has indeed dramatically increased the recycling of food garbage. The objective of this paper is to present and discuss some management considerations in turning food garbage into agricultural resources due to the compulsory garbage sorting directive in Taiwan. The description first aims at the current status in food garbage generation and its recycling, and at the regulatory polices which have become effective since 2000. It also centers on the environmental and agricultural measures on upgrading food garbage recycling. Based on the preliminary analysis of environmental benefit by the Revised 1996 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, it is obvious that composting food garbage is superior to that by traditional treatments (i.e., incineration and sanitary landfill) from the viewpoint of reducing greenhouse gases (i.e., CO(2) and CH(4)) emissions. PMID:18178429

  7. Management considerations and environmental benefit analysis for turning food garbage into agricultural resources.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Tien

    2008-09-01

    The management of food garbage is of great importance because of its high energy consumption, potential environmental hazards and public health risks. In Taiwan, through the competent authorities at all levels and the citizens' participation in sorting household wastes, many recycling efforts have recently been implemented to further utilize it as available resources such as swine feeds and organic fertilizer by composting. As a result, a total of approximately 570 thousand metric tons was recycled with a recycling ratio of about 21.2% on a basis of food garbage generation in 2006, rising over 22% from a year earlier. These figures showed that compulsory garbage sorting has indeed dramatically increased the recycling of food garbage. The objective of this paper is to present and discuss some management considerations in turning food garbage into agricultural resources due to the compulsory garbage sorting directive in Taiwan. The description first aims at the current status in food garbage generation and its recycling, and at the regulatory polices which have become effective since 2000. It also centers on the environmental and agricultural measures on upgrading food garbage recycling. Based on the preliminary analysis of environmental benefit by the Revised 1996 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, it is obvious that composting food garbage is superior to that by traditional treatments (i.e., incineration and sanitary landfill) from the viewpoint of reducing greenhouse gases (i.e., CO(2) and CH(4)) emissions.

  8. National projects on direct utilization of geothermal resources in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Sekioka, M.; Fujitomi, M.

    1981-10-01

    The two national projects on direct utilization of geothermal resources are mentioned. The merit of the projects is to utilize geothermal water which discharges, with team, from existing production wells of the geothermal power plants before injection underground. The two power plants, Kakkonda (50 MW), Iwate, and Onuma (10 MW), Akita, supply 1000 t/h of 150/sup 0/C and 400 t/h of 94/sup 0/C of thermal water to heat-exchange with fresh water and send 800 t/h of 115/sup 0/C and 150 t/h of 70/sup 0/C of fresh-heated water to Shizukuishi, Iwate, and Kazuno, Akita, respectively. Financial supports of 4.5 billion and 1.6 billion yen are offered to the Iwate and the Kazuno projects, respectively, by the Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, for drilling of injection wells, constructing of heat exchangers and laying of transportation pipelines.

  9. Easing food waste could reduce pressure on natural resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-09-01

    Calls to reduce food waste and enhance agricultural water efficiency were among the points raised during the 27 August opening session of World Water Week in Stockholm, Sweden. “More than one fourth of all the water we use worldwide is taken to grow over one billion tons of food that nobody eats. That water, together with the billions of dollars spent to grow, ship, package, and purchase the food, is sent down the drain,” said Torgny Holmgren, executive director of the Stockholm International Water Institute, which organizes World Water Week. “Reducing the waste of food is the smartest and most direct route to relieve pressure on water and land resources. It's an opportunity we cannot afford to overlook,” he added.

  10. Water Electrolysis for In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Kristopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Sending humans to Mars for any significant amount of time will require capabilities and technologies that enable Earth independence. To move towards this independence, the resources found on Mars must be utilized to produce the items needed to sustain humans away from Earth. To accomplish this task, NASA is studying In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) systems and techniques to make use of the atmospheric carbon dioxide and the water found on Mars. Among other things, these substances can be harvested and processed to make oxygen and methane. Oxygen is essential, not only for sustaining the lives of the crew on Mars, but also as the oxidizer for an oxygen-methane propulsion system that could be utilized on a Mars ascent vehicle. Given the presence of water on Mars, the electrolysis of water is a common technique to produce the desired oxygen. Towards this goal, NASA designed and developed a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) water electrolysis system, which was originally slated to produce oxygen for propulsion and fuel cell use in the Mars Atmosphere and Regolith COllector/PrOcessor for Lander Operations (MARCO POLO) project. As part of the Human Exploration Spacecraft Testbed for Integration and Advancement (HESTIA) project, this same electrolysis system, originally targeted at enabling in situ propulsion and power, operated in a life-support scenario. During HESTIA testing at Johnson Space Center, the electrolysis system supplied oxygen to a chamber simulating a habitat housing four crewmembers. Inside the chamber, oxygen was removed from the atmosphere to simulate consumption by the crew, and the electrolysis system's oxygen was added to replenish it. The electrolysis system operated nominally throughout the duration of the HESTIA test campaign, and the oxygen levels in the life support chamber were maintained at the desired levels.

  11. Utilizing AI in Temporal, Spatial, and Resource Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stottler, Richard; Kalton, Annaka; Bell, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    Aurora is a software system enabling the rapid, easy solution of complex scheduling problems involving spatial and temporal constraints among operations and scarce resources (such as equipment, workspace, and human experts). Although developed for use in the International Space Station Processing Facility, Aurora is flexible enough that it can be easily customized for application to other scheduling domains and adapted as the requirements change or become more precisely known over time. Aurora s scheduling module utilizes artificial-intelligence (AI) techniques to make scheduling decisions on the basis of domain knowledge, including knowledge of constraints and their relative importance, interdependencies among operations, and possibly frequent changes in governing schedule requirements. Unlike many other scheduling software systems, Aurora focuses on resource requirements and temporal scheduling in combination. For example, Aurora can accommodate a domain requirement to schedule two subsequent operations to locations adjacent to a shared resource. The graphical interface allows the user to quickly visualize the schedule and perform changes reflecting additional knowledge or alterations in the situation. For example, the user might drag the activity corresponding to the start of operations to reflect a late delivery.

  12. Natural resources - food nexus: food-related environmental footprints in the mediterranean countries.

    PubMed

    Lacirignola, Cosimo; Capone, Roberto; Debs, Philipp; El Bilali, Hamid; Bottalico, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Immediate action is required in the Mediterranean to address environmental degradation that is mainly driven by consumption patterns. Increasing stress on biological and social systems is put by unsustainable consumption patterns. Food consumption patterns are important drivers of environment degradation. The objective of this review paper is to explore natural resources-food nexus in the Mediterranean region by highlighting the environmental footprints of the current consumption and production patterns. Secondary data from different sources such as FAOSTAT, the World Bank, Water Footprint Network (WFN), and Global Footprint Network were used to analyze the situation in 21 Mediterranean countries. The region faces many environmental challenges, e.g., land degradation, water scarcity, environment pollution, biodiversity loss, and climate change. The current consumption patterns imply high ecological, carbon, and water footprints of consumption and unfavorable national virtual-water balances. Food Balance Sheets data show that the contribution of vegetal and animal-based food product groups to food supply is variable among the Mediterranean countries. This has implications also in terms of the WF of food supply, which was calculated for Bosnia, Egypt, Italy, Morocco, and Turkey. The WF of the current diet resulted lower than that of the proposed Mediterranean one in the case of Italy. There is a strong scientific evidence supporting assumption that it is so also for other Mediterranean countries. The Mediterranean is characterized by a high resource use intensity that is further exacerbated by food losses and waste (FLW). In fact, FLW implies the loss of precious resources (water, land, energy) and inputs (fertilizers). Therefore, it is crucial to increase adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet and to reduce FLW in order to foster transition to more sustainable food consumption patterns thus reducing pressure on the scarce resources of the Mediterranean

  13. Natural ResourcesFood Nexus: Food-Related Environmental Footprints in the Mediterranean Countries

    PubMed Central

    Lacirignola, Cosimo; Capone, Roberto; Debs, Philipp; El Bilali, Hamid; Bottalico, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Immediate action is required in the Mediterranean to address environmental degradation that is mainly driven by consumption patterns. Increasing stress on biological and social systems is put by unsustainable consumption patterns. Food consumption patterns are important drivers of environment degradation. The objective of this review paper is to explore natural resources-food nexus in the Mediterranean region by highlighting the environmental footprints of the current consumption and production patterns. Secondary data from different sources such as FAOSTAT, the World Bank, Water Footprint Network (WFN), and Global Footprint Network were used to analyze the situation in 21 Mediterranean countries. The region faces many environmental challenges, e.g., land degradation, water scarcity, environment pollution, biodiversity loss, and climate change. The current consumption patterns imply high ecological, carbon, and water footprints of consumption and unfavorable national virtual-water balances. Food Balance Sheets data show that the contribution of vegetal and animal-based food product groups to food supply is variable among the Mediterranean countries. This has implications also in terms of the WF of food supply, which was calculated for Bosnia, Egypt, Italy, Morocco, and Turkey. The WF of the current diet resulted lower than that of the proposed Mediterranean one in the case of Italy. There is a strong scientific evidence supporting assumption that it is so also for other Mediterranean countries. The Mediterranean is characterized by a high resource use intensity that is further exacerbated by food losses and waste (FLW). In fact, FLW implies the loss of precious resources (water, land, energy) and inputs (fertilizers). Therefore, it is crucial to increase adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet and to reduce FLW in order to foster transition to more sustainable food consumption patterns thus reducing pressure on the scarce resources of the Mediterranean

  14. Banana by-products: an under-utilized renewable food biomass with great potential.

    PubMed

    Padam, Birdie Scott; Tin, Hoe Seng; Chye, Fook Yee; Abdullah, Mohd Ismail

    2014-12-01

    Banana (Musaceae) is one of the world's most important fruit crops that is widely cultivated in tropical countries for its valuable applications in food industry. Its enormous by-products are an excellent source of highly valuable raw materials for other industries by recycling agricultural waste. This prevents an ultimate loss of huge amount of untapped biomass and environmental issues. This review discusses extensively the breakthrough in the utilization of banana by-products such as peels, leaves, pseudostem, stalk and inflorescence in various food and non-food applications serving as thickening agent, coloring and flavor, alternative source for macro and micronutrients, nutraceuticals, livestock feed, natural fibers, and sources of natural bioactive compounds and bio-fertilizers. Future prospects and challenges are the important key factors discussed in association to the sustainability and feasibility of utilizing these by-products. It is important that all available by-products be turned into highly commercial outputs in order to sustain this renewable resource and provide additional income to small scale farming industries without compromising its quality and safety in competing with other commercial products. PMID:25477622

  15. Banana by-products: an under-utilized renewable food biomass with great potential.

    PubMed

    Padam, Birdie Scott; Tin, Hoe Seng; Chye, Fook Yee; Abdullah, Mohd Ismail

    2014-12-01

    Banana (Musaceae) is one of the world's most important fruit crops that is widely cultivated in tropical countries for its valuable applications in food industry. Its enormous by-products are an excellent source of highly valuable raw materials for other industries by recycling agricultural waste. This prevents an ultimate loss of huge amount of untapped biomass and environmental issues. This review discusses extensively the breakthrough in the utilization of banana by-products such as peels, leaves, pseudostem, stalk and inflorescence in various food and non-food applications serving as thickening agent, coloring and flavor, alternative source for macro and micronutrients, nutraceuticals, livestock feed, natural fibers, and sources of natural bioactive compounds and bio-fertilizers. Future prospects and challenges are the important key factors discussed in association to the sustainability and feasibility of utilizing these by-products. It is important that all available by-products be turned into highly commercial outputs in order to sustain this renewable resource and provide additional income to small scale farming industries without compromising its quality and safety in competing with other commercial products.

  16. In-space Fabrication and Repair Utilizing In Space Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, Peter A.

    2003-01-01

    Abstract: The microgravity research program, simply put, has the goal of doing science (which is essentially finding out something previously unknown about nature) utilizing the unique long-term microgravity environment in Earth orbit. Our new "strategic research" program is scientific research that enables safe and economical capabilities to enable humans to live, work and do science beyond Earth orbit. One new strategic research area focuses on In Space Fabrication and Repair. This research is to enable materials processing in space for use in space. The goal of this program is to provide scientific and technical research resulting in proof-of-concept experiments providing humans in space with an energy rich, resource rich, self sustaining infrastructure at the earliest possible time and with minimum risk, launch mass and program cost. The customers could include large space science experiments, human exploration, and space commercialization.

  17. A resource and technology assessment of coal utilization in India

    SciTech Connect

    Chikkatur, A.P.

    2008-10-15

    Electricity production in India is projected to expand dramatically in the near term to energize new industrial development, while also easing the energy shortages throughout the country. Much of the new growth in electricity production will be fueled by domestic coal resources; however, there is worldwide concern about increased coal use, as greater carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion will exacerbate climate change. At the same time, there are now a number of different existing and emerging technological options for coal conversion and greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction worldwide that could potentially be useful for the Indian coal-power sector. This paper reviews coal utilization in India and examines current and emerging coal power technologies with near- and long-term potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from coal power generation. 107 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Utilization of geothermal resources at United States Air Force bases

    SciTech Connect

    Grogger, P.K.

    1980-09-01

    The Air Force installations on the continental United States as well as Alaska and Hawaii, were evaluated as to the possibility of utilizing geothermal energy to develop electricity, produce process steam, or heat and/or cool buildings. Twenty-five bases have suspected geothermal resources available. Because of either need or available technology seven installations were rated priority I, six were rated priority II and priority III and IV totaled ten. Geological and geophysical data indicated further investigation of the priority I installations, Saylor Creek Range, Idaho, Ellsworth AFB, South Dakota, Charleston AFB, South Carolina, Kirkland AFB, New Mexico, Vandenberg AFB, California, Luke AFB, Arizona, and Williams AFB, Arizona, should be accomplished as soon as possible. The use of geothermal energy will decrease the need for fossil fuels by the USAF and during times of short supply allow such fuels to be used for the Air Force's primary mission, military defense.

  19. Pneumatic Regolith Transfer Systems for In-Situ Resource Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Townsend, Ivan I., III; Mantovani, James G.

    2010-01-01

    One aspect of In-Situ Resource Utilization (lSRU) in a lunar environment is to extract oxygen and other elements from the minerals that make up the lunar regolith. Typical ISRU oxygen production processes include but are not limited to hydrogen reduction, carbothermal and molten oxide electrolysis. All of these processes require the transfer of regolith from a supply hopper into a reactor for chemical reaction processing, and the subsequent extraction of the reacted regolith from the reactor. This paper will discuss recent activities in the NASA ISRU project involved with developing pneumatic conveying methods to achieve lunar regolith simulant transfer under I-g and 1/6-g gravitational environments. Examples will be given of hardware that has been developed and tested by NASA on reduced gravity flights. Lessons learned and details of pneumatic regolith transfer systems will be examined as well as the relative performance in a 1/6th G environment

  20. Atmospheric In-Situ Resource Utilization For Mars Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, Macy; Muscatello, Anthony; Hintze, Paul; Meier, Anne; Bayliss, Jon; Petersen, Elspeth

    2016-01-01

    NASA now looks to Mars as the next step in human space exploration. A couple of challenges of such a destination include affordability and weight/volume limitations. As a way to solve these issues NASA is looking into the practice of In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). Instead of manufacturing and bringing all the supplies necessary for a Mars mission and return trip, the goal is to send a preliminary mission to produce reserves of propellant, water, and oxygen on site. Part of this effort includes the Atmospheric Processing Module (APM). The APM is part of a lander that is composed of multiple compartments, each having a unique function; regolith collection/processing, water processing, atmospheric processing, and product storage. The overall goal is to develop the capability to produce methane (CH4) and oxygen as a fuel/oxidizer combo via a Sabatier reaction using resources from the Martian environment. The APM still must undergo modifications in design, and perhaps method, to become flight-ready to produce methane at the level of purity and quantity needed for a vehicle.

  1. Optimal utilization of heterogeneous resources for biomolecular simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Hampton, Scott S; Agarwal, Pratul K

    2010-01-01

    Biomolecular simulations have traditionally benefited from increases in the processor clock speed and coarse-grain inter-node parallelism on large-scale clusters. With stagnating clock frequencies, the evolutionary path for performance of microprocessors is maintained by virtue of core multiplication. Graphical processing units (GPUs) offer revolutionary performance potential at the cost of increased programming complexity. Furthermore, it has been extremely challenging to effectively utilize heterogeneous resources (host processor and GPU cores) for scientific simulations, as underlying systems, programming models and tools are continually evolving. In this paper, we present a parametric study demonstrating approaches to exploit resources of heterogeneous systems to reduce time-to-solution of a production-level application for biological simulations. By overlapping and pipelining computation and communication, we observe up to 10-fold application acceleration in multi-core and multi-GPU environments illustrating significant performance improvements over code acceleration approaches, where the host-to-accelerator ratio is static, and is constrained by a given algorithmic implementation.

  2. A strategy for investment in space resource utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendell, Wendell W.

    1992-01-01

    Considerations governing a strategy for investment in the utilization of space resources are discussed. It is suggested on the basis of an examination of current trends in terms of historical processes which operate on new frontiers that the limited markets and unfamiliar technologies associated with space commercialization today may change dramatically in 20 years when lunar resources are accessible. It is argued that the uncertainty of such projections discourages investment at a useful scale unless a strategy for technology development can be implemented which provides tangible and marketable benefits in the intermediate term. At present, technologies can be identified which will be required (and therefore valuable) at the time of lunar settlement, and whose development can be planned to yield marketable intermediate products on earth. It is concluded that the formation of precompetitive collaborative research consortia in the industrial sector could reduce technical and economic risk in the early stages and could promote a favorable political environment for the future growth of space activities.

  3. Scoping study of integrated resource planning needs in the public utility sector

    SciTech Connect

    Garrick, C J; Garrick, J M; Rue, D R

    1993-06-01

    Integrated resource planning (IRP) is an approach to utility resource planning that integrates the evaluation of supply- and demand-site options for providing energy services at the least cost. Many utilities practice IRP; however, most studies about IRP focus on investor-owned utilities (IOUs). This scoping study investigates the IRP activities and needs of public utilities (not-for-profit utilities, including federal, state, municipal, and cooperative utilities). This study (1) profiles IRP-related characteristics of the public utility sector, (2) articulates the needs of public utilities in understanding and implementing IRP, and (3) identifies strategies to advance IRP principles in public utility planning.

  4. Usage and Recall of the Food Stamp Office Resource Kit (FSORK) by Food Stamp Applicants in 4 California Counties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghirardelli, Alyssa; Linares, Amanda; Fong, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate recall and usage of the Food Stamp Office Resource Kit (FSORK), a set of nutrition education materials designed for use in food stamp offices. Design: Client intercept exit surveys, an environmental scan, and individual observations of clients in the food stamp office. Setting: Four food stamp offices in California.…

  5. Aggression and Food Resource Competition between Sympatric Hermit Crab Species

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Mark V.; O’Grady, Matthew; Colborn, Jeremiah; Van Ness, Kimberly; Hill, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    The vertical zonation patterns of intertidal organisms have been topics of interest to marine ecologists for many years, with interspecific food competition being implicated as a contributing factor to intertidal community organization. In this study, we used behavioral bioassays to examine the potential roles that interspecific aggression and food competition have on the structuring of intertidal hermit crab assemblages. We studied two ecologically similar, sympatric hermit crab species, Clibanarius digueti [1] and Paguristes perrieri [2], which occupy adjacent zones within the intertidal region of the Gulf of California. During the search phase of foraging, C. digueti showed higher frequencies of aggressive behaviors than P. perrieri. In competition assays, C. digueti gained increased access to food resources compared to P. perrieri. The results suggest that food competition may play an important role in structuring intertidal hermit crab assemblages, and that the zonation patterns of Gulf of California hermit crab species may be the result of geographical displacement by the dominant food competitor (C. digueti). PMID:24632897

  6. National Chemistry Week 2000: JCE Resources in Food Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Erica K.

    2000-10-01

    November brings another National Chemistry Week, and this year's theme is food chemistry. I was asked to collect and evaluate JCE resources for use with this theme, a project that took me deep into past issues of JCE and yielded many treasures. Here we present the results of searches for food chemistry information and activities. While the selected articles are mainly at the high school and college levels, there are some excellent ones for the elementary school level and some that can be adapted for younger students. The focus of all articles is on the chemistry of food itself. Activities that only use food to demonstrate a principle other than food chemistry are not included. Articles that cover household products such as cleansers and pharmaceuticals are also not included. Each article has been characterized as a demonstration, experiment, calculation, activity, or informational item; several fit more than one classification. Also included are keywords and an evaluation as to which levels the article may serve.

  7. Resource Prospector (RP: )A Lunar Volatiles Prospecting and In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Demonstration Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Efficient expansion of human presence beyond low-Earth orbit to asteroids and Mars will require the maximum possible use of local materials, so-called in-situ resources. The moon presents a unique destination to conduct robotic investigations that advance ISRU capabilities, as well as provide significant exploration and science value. Since the moons polar regions have confirmed the presence of volatiles, as revealed by the LCROSS and LRO missions, the next step is to understand the nature and distribution of those candidate resources and how they might be extracted. Recent studies have even indicated that if those volatiles are practically available for harvesting, they could be processed into propellants and human life-support resources, significantly reducing the cost of human missions to Mars maybe by as much as 50!Resource Prospector (RP) is an in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) technology demonstration mission under study by the NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorates (HEOMD). This clever mission is currently planned to launch as early as 2021 and will demonstrate extraction of oxygen, water and other volatiles, as well measure mineralogical content such as silicon and light metals from lunar regolith.

  8. Optimizing Virtual Land and Water Resources Flow Through Global Trade to Meet World Food and Biofuel Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Cai, X.; Zhu, T.

    2013-12-01

    Biofuels is booming in recent years due to its potential contributions to energy sustainability, environmental improvement and economic opportunities. Production of biofuels not only competes for land and water with food production, but also directly pushes up food prices when crops such as maize and sugarcane are used as biofuels feedstock. Meanwhile, international trade of agricultural commodities exports and imports water and land resources in a virtual form among different regions, balances overall water and land demands and resource endowment, and provides a promising solution to the increasingly severe food-energy competition. This study investigates how to optimize water and land resources uses for overall welfare at global scale in the framework of 'virtual resources'. In contrast to partial equilibrium models that usually simulate trades year-by-year, this optimization model explores the ideal world where malnourishment is minimized with optimal resources uses and trade flows. Comparing the optimal production and trade patterns with historical data can provide meaningful implications regarding how to utilize water and land resources more efficiently and how the trade flows would be changed for overall welfare at global scale. Valuable insights are obtained in terms of the interactions among food, water and bioenergy systems. A global hydro-economic optimization model is developed, integrating agricultural production, market demands (food, feed, fuel and other), and resource and environmental constraints. Preliminary results show that with the 'free market' mechanism and land as well as water resources use optimization, the malnourished population can be reduced by as much as 65%, compared to the 2000 historical value. Expected results include: 1) optimal trade paths to achieve global malnourishment minimization, 2) how water and land resources constrain local supply, 3) how policy affects the trade pattern as well as resource uses. Furthermore, impacts of

  9. Utilization of Selected Vitality Staple Foods by Low Income Households in Ebonyi State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igba, Chimezie Elizabeth; Okoro, M. O.

    2015-01-01

    The study focused on the utilization of selected vitality foods among low income household in Ebonyi State. Specifically the study aimed at identifying vitality foods that are available, accessible and utilized by low income household in state. Descriptive survey design was used for the study. The population of the study is 2,173,501 households…

  10. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Experiments for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marone, Matt

    2005-01-01

    In situ resource utilization can best be described as living off the land. In our case the land is the planet Mars. ISRU is based on the idea that some fraction of the consumables, life support and propellant materials do not have to be flown from earth. Rather, they can be manufactured or extracted from resources already present on Mars. The primary resources on Mars are the atmosphere, polar caps and regolith. The atmosphere of Mars is mostly carbon dioxide as shown in the table below. The proportion of oxygen on the other hand is quite small. Still, there is quite a bit of oxygen in the Martian atmosphere, but it is unfortunately tied up with carbon. Thus, one of the goals of ISRU is the separation of breathable oxygen from the carbon dioxide. Several means of separation have been proposed. We have begun experiments on another approach for production of oxygen with carbon monoxide as a useful by product. Our work on a CO2 separator is described later in this report. Regolith melting is another means of obtaining materials. Two materials of interest are iron and silicon. Iron oxide is plentiful on Mars and is of obvious importance for structural components. Silicon is the foundation of solid state devices. Power generation on Mars may be accomplished using silicon solar cells. There is discussion of the feasibility of in situ production of solar cells. This would require a means of extracting silicon from the regolith. We have conducted several experiments concerning melting and glassification of the Mars soil simulant. Other summer faculty fellows have tried various means of processing the stimulant material. These include furnace melting, microwave melting and laser ablation. We have conducted several furnace melting experiments in both air and carbon dioxide environments. We have also carried out experiments to test spark melting in a carbon dioxide atmosphere. These experiments suggest the possibility of using arc melting in a reducing atmosphere. It is

  11. Food security: increasing yield and improving resource use efficiency.

    PubMed

    Parry, Martin A J; Hawkesford, Malcolm J

    2010-11-01

    Food production and security will be a major issue for supplying an increasing world population. The problem will almost certainly be exacerbated by climate change. There is a projected need to double food production by 2050. In recent times, the trend has been for incremental modest yield increases for most crops. There is an urgent need to develop integrated and sustainable approaches that will significantly increase both production per unit land area and the resource use efficiency of crops. This review considers some key processes involved in plant growth and development with some examples of ways in which molecular technology, plant breeding and genetics may increase the yield and resource use efficiency of wheat. The successful application of biotechnology to breeding is essential to provide the major increases in production required. However, each crop and each specific agricultural situation presents specific requirements and targets for optimisation. Some increases in production will come about as new varieties are developed which are able to produce satisfactory crops on marginal land presently not considered appropriate for arable crops. Other new varieties will be developed to increase both yield and resource use efficiency on the best land.

  12. Analysis of Water Resource Utilization Potential for Jiangsu Coastal Area ' in Nantong City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Li; Liu, Jin-Tao; Ni, Jian-Jun

    2015-04-01

    Along with the advance of the growth of population and social economy, requirements for water quality and quantity in coastal areas is getting higher and higher, but due to the uneven distribution of rainfall years and water exploitation, use and management level, the influence of the shortage of water resources is increasingly prominent, seriously restricting the social and economic sustainable development in this region. Accordingly, water resource utilization potential in Jiangsu coastal region is vital for water security in the region. Taking Nantong City as the study area, the regional water resources development and utilization status were evaluated. In this paper, the meaning of water resources, water resources development and utilization, and water resources development and utilization of the three stages of concepts such as system were discussed. Then the development and utilization of regional water resource evaluation were carried out, and the significance of regional society, economy, resources and environment and its development status quo of water resources were exploited. According to conditions and area source, an evaluation index system for development and utilization of water resources of Nantong was built up. The index layer was composed of 16 indicators. In this study, analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was used to determine of weights of indicators at all levels in the index system. Multistage fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model was selected to evaluate the water resources development and utilization status of Nantong, and then water resource utilization potential of Nantong was analyzed.

  13. In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU): Surface systems program area of the exploration technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, David S.

    1991-01-01

    The topics presented are covered in viewgraph form and include the following: (1) utilization of Lunar and Mars resources; (2) oxygen - an example of cost savings; (3) In Space Resource Utilization (ISRU); (4) basic resource processing methods; (5) planetary mining; (6) raw materials preparation; (7) validation, testbeds, and flight experiments; (8) mission readiness schedule; and (9) ISRU budget guideline.

  14. One-Year Postoperative Resource Utilization in Sarcopenic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Peter S.; Friedman, Jeffrey F.; Cron, David C.; Terjimanian, Michael N.; Wang, Stewart C.; Campbell, Darrell A.; Englesbe, Michael J.; Werner, Nicole L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction It is well established that sarcopenic patients are at higher risk of postoperative complications and short-term healthcare utilization. Less well understood is how these patients fare over the long-term after surviving the immediate postoperative period. We explored costs over the first postoperative year among sarcopenic patients. Methods We identified 1,279 patients in the Michigan Surgical Quality Collaborative database who underwent inpatient elective surgery at a single institution from 2006 to 2011. Sarcopenia, defined by gender-stratified tertiles of lean psoas area, was determined from preoperative CT scans using validated analytic morphomics. Data were analyzed to assess sarcopenia’s relationship to costs, readmissions, discharge location, intensive care unit admissions, hospital length of stay, and mortality. Multivariate models adjusted for patient demographics and surgical risk factors. Results Sarcopenia was independently associated with increased adjusted costs at 30, 90, and 180 but not 365 days. The difference in adjusted postsurgical costs between sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic patients was $16,455 at 30 days and $14,093 at one year. Sarcopenic patients were more likely to be discharged somewhere other than home (p <0.001). Sarcopenia was not an independent predictor of increased readmission rates in the postsurgical year. Conclusion The effects of sarcopenia on healthcare costs are concentrated in the immediate postoperative period. It may be appropriate to allocate additional resources to sarcopenic patients in the perioperative setting to reduce the incidence of negative postoperative outcomes. PMID:25990695

  15. Advanced Water Purification System for In Situ Resource Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, Stephen M.; Jolley, Scott T.; Captain, James G.

    2013-01-01

    A main goal in the field of In Situ Resource Utilization is to develop technologies that produce oxygen from regolith to provide consumables to an extraterrestrial outpost. The processes developed reduce metal oxides in the regolith to produce water, which is then electrolyzed to produce oxygen. Hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids are byproducts of the reduction processes, which must be removed to meet electrolysis purity standards. We previously characterized Nation, a highly water selective polymeric proton-exchange membrane, as a filtration material to recover pure water from the contaminated solution. While the membranes successfully removed both acid contaminants, the removal efficiency of and water flow rate through the membranes were not sufficient to produce large volumes of electrolysis-grade water. In the present study, we investigated electrodialysis as a potential acid removal technique. Our studies have shown a rapid and significant reduction in chloride and fluoride concentrations in the feed solution, while generating a relatively small volume of concentrated waste water. Electrodialysis has shown significant promise as the primary separation technique in ISRU water purification processes.

  16. The Kolkata Paise Restaurant problem and resource utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Anindya Sundar; Chakrabarti, Bikas K.; Chatterjee, Arnab; Mitra, Manipushpak

    2009-06-01

    We study the dynamics of the “Kolkata Paise Restaurant problem”. The problem is the following: In each period, N agents have to choose between N restaurants. Agents have a common ranking of the restaurants. Restaurants can only serve one customer. When more than one customer arrives at the same restaurant, one customer is chosen at random and is served; the others do not get the service. We first introduce the one-shot versions of the Kolkata Paise Restaurant problem which we call one-shot KPR games. We then study the dynamics of the Kolkata Paise Restaurant problem (which is a repeated game version of any given one shot KPR game) for large N. For statistical analysis, we explore the long time steady state behavior. In many such models with myopic agents we get under-utilization of resources, that is, we get a lower aggregate payoff compared to the social optimum. We study a number of myopic strategies, focusing on the average occupation fraction of restaurants.

  17. Advanced Water Purification System for In Situ Resource Utilization Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    A main goal in the field of In Situ Resource Utilization is to develop technologies that produce oxygen from regolith to provide consumables to an extratrrestrial outpost. The processes developed reduce metal oxides in the regolith to produce water, which is then electrolyzed to produce oxygen. Hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids are byproducts of the reduction processes, which must be removed to meet electrolysis purity standards. We previously characterized Nation, a highly water selective polymeric proton-exchange membrane, as a filtrtion material to recover pure water from the contaminated solution. While the membranes successfully removed both acid contaminants, the removal efficiency of and water flow rate through the membranes were not sufficient to produce large volumes of electrolysis-grade water. In the present study, we investigated electrodialysis as a potential acid removable technique. Our studies have show a rapid and significant reduction in chloride and fluoride concentrations in the feed solution, while generating a relatively small volume of concentrated waste water. Electrodialysis has shown significant promise as the primary separation technique in ISRU water purification processes.

  18. Utilizing Antecedent Manipulations and Reinforcement in the Treatment of Food Selectivity by Texture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Najdowski, Adel C.; Tarbox, Jonathan; Wilke, Arthur E.

    2012-01-01

    Food selectivity by texture is relatively common in children. Treatments for food selectivity by texture have included components such as stimulus fading, reinforcement, and escape extinction. The purpose of the current study was to attempt to treat food selectivity by texture utilizing antecedent manipulations and reinforcement in the absence of…

  19. The utilization and management of plant resources in rural areas of the Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most rural people in the Limpopo Province depend on plant resources to meet their livelihood needs. However, there is insufficient recorded information regarding their use and management. The current study therefore was carried out in selected villages of the Limpopo Province, to close this knowledge gap. Methods Information was collected from 60 people residing in two villages, using a semi-structured questionnaire, supplemented with field observations. Results A total of 47 wild plant species (95% indigenous and 5% exotics) from 27 families, mostly from the Fabaceae (17%), Anacardiaceae (9%), and Combretaceae (9%) were documented. These species were used primarily for firewood (40%), food (36%) and medicine (29%). Significantly used species included Sclerocarya birrea (85%), Combretum kraussii (35%) and Harpephyllum caffrum (35%). Local traditional rules and regulations including taboos, social beliefs and fines are in place to aid in the management of communal resources. However, a significant number (67%) of participants mentioned that they were not pleased with these rules and regulations. Conclusion The current study concluded that plant resources still play an important role in the surveyed rural areas of the Limpopo Province. Furthermore, for sustainable utilization and long-term conservation of plants in these areas the government should assist communities in the management of their plant resources. PMID:23590903

  20. Regional secondary resource utilization parks: The industrial parks of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Kuusinen, T.L.; Beck, J.E.; Holter, G.M.

    1992-11-01

    Obstacles currently facing the solid waste recycling industry are often related to lack of public and investor confidence, issues of profitability and liability, and insufficient consumer identification with products made from recycled materials. Resolution of these issues may not be possible without major changes in the way the solid waste recycling business is structured. One potential solution takes the form of the secondary resource utilization park. The premise is simple: Provide a strategically located facility where a broad range of secondary resources are separated, refined or converted, and made into new products on the site. The secondary material resources would come from municipal solid waste, demolition waste, landscape trimmings, used tires, scrap metal, agricultural waste, food processing waste, and other non-hazardous forms. The park would consist of separation and conversion facilities, research and product standards laboratories, and industries that convert the materials into products and fuels. Energy conversion systems using some waste streams as fuel could be located at the park to supplement energy demands of the industrial operations. The strategic co-location of the resource providers and user industries would also minimize transportation costs and could provide a test case for an ``industrial ecology`` approach to sustainable economic development.

  1. Regional secondary resource utilization parks: The industrial parks of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Kuusinen, T.L.; Beck, J.E.; Holter, G.M.

    1992-11-01

    Obstacles currently facing the solid waste recycling industry are often related to lack of public and investor confidence, issues of profitability and liability, and insufficient consumer identification with products made from recycled materials. Resolution of these issues may not be possible without major changes in the way the solid waste recycling business is structured. One potential solution takes the form of the secondary resource utilization park. The premise is simple: Provide a strategically located facility where a broad range of secondary resources are separated, refined or converted, and made into new products on the site. The secondary material resources would come from municipal solid waste, demolition waste, landscape trimmings, used tires, scrap metal, agricultural waste, food processing waste, and other non-hazardous forms. The park would consist of separation and conversion facilities, research and product standards laboratories, and industries that convert the materials into products and fuels. Energy conversion systems using some waste streams as fuel could be located at the park to supplement energy demands of the industrial operations. The strategic co-location of the resource providers and user industries would also minimize transportation costs and could provide a test case for an industrial ecology'' approach to sustainable economic development.

  2. Wetlands or aquatic ape? Availability of food resources.

    PubMed

    Ellis, D V

    1993-01-01

    A human evolutionary scenario including an ape inhabiting marine wetlands is rational in a number of contexts. The concept is viable ecologically due to the availability of abundant animal foods in a variety of habitats ranging from mangrove forests to coral reefs. The food resources include mollusks, crustacea and fish abundant in wet zones and pools between high and low tide levels. There is seasonal abundance of swarming marsh insects, turtles, eggs and chicks of colonial birds, and occasional beached and dying marine mammals. Some of these foods would provide an enriched source of polyunsaturated essential fatty acids needed for brain development, and thus allow a spiral of increasing brain development, tool utilisation for better food gathering, and vocal communication for group action. The concept is viable also in terms of availability of the ape-human stock in the African Rift Valley, isolated from montane forests during the late Pliocene, and as an adaptive explanation for many of the species-specific human characters not found in other ground living primates.

  3. [Research on resources chemistry of Chinese medicinal materials and resources recycling utilization ways and goals and tasks].

    PubMed

    Duan, Jin-ao; Su, Shu-lan; Guo, Sheng; Jiang, Shu; Liu, Pei; Yan, Hui; Qian, Da-wei; Zhu, Hua-xu; Tang, Yu-ping; Wu, Qi-nan

    2015-09-01

    The objects of research on the resources chemistry of Chinese medicinal materials (RCCMM) are promotion of efficient production, rational utilization and improving quality of CMM and natural products. The development of TCM cause depends on the efficient utilization and sustainable development of CMM, hinges on the technologies and methods for using and discovering medicinal biological resources, stand or fall on the extension of industy chains, detailed utilizaion of resource chemical components by multi-way, multi-level. All of these may help to the recycling utilization and sound development of RCMM. In this article, five respects were discussed to the RCCMM researches and resources recycling utilization ways and goals and tasks. First, based on the principle of resource scarcity, discovering or replacing CMM resources, protecting the rare or endangered species or resources. Second, based on the multifunctionality of CMM, realizing the value-added and value compensation, and promoting the utilization efficiency through systermatic and detailed exploitation and utilization. Third, based on the resource conservation and environment-friendly, reducing raw material consumption, lowering cost, promoting recycling utilization and elevating utilization efficiency. Fourth, based on the stratege of turning harm into good, using the invasive alien biological resources by multi-ways and enriching the medicial resources. Fifth, based on the method of structure modification of chemical components, exploring and enhancing the utility value of resouces chemical substances. These data should provide references and attention for improving the utilization efficiency, promoting the development of recycling economy, and changing the mode of economic growth of agriculture and industry of CMM fundamentally.

  4. The parasitoid, Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), influences food consumption and utilization by larval Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Rossi, Guilherme Duarte; Salvador, Gabriela; Cônsoli, Fernando Luis

    2014-10-01

    Parasitoids exploit host insects for food and other resources; they alter host development and physiology to optimize conditions to favor parasitoid development. Parasitoids influence their hosts by injecting eggs, along with a variety of substances, including venoms, polydnaviruses, ovarian fluids, and other maternal factors, into hosts. These factors induce profound changes in hosts, such as behavior, metabolism, endocrine events, and immune defense. Because endoparasitoids develop and consume tissues from within their hosts, it is reasonable to suggest that internal parasitization would also influence host food consumption and metabolism. We report on the effects of parasitism by Cotesia flavipes on the food consumption and utilization of its host, Diatraea saccharalis. Cotesia flavipes reduces the host food consumption, but parasitized larvae considered a unit with their parasitoid's attained the same final weight as the nonparasitized larvae. Nutritional indices, midgut activities of carbohydrases, and trypsin of parasitized and nonparasitized D. saccharalis were assessed. Parasitized larvae had reduced relative food consumption, metabolic and growth rates, coupled with higher efficiency for conversion of the digested, but not ingested, food into body mass. Parasitism also affected food flux through the gut and protein contents in the midgut of parasitized larvae. The activity of α-amylase and trehalase in parasitized host was enhanced in the first day after parasitism relative to control larvae. Saccharase activity remained unchanged during larval development. Trypsin activity was reduced from the fifth to ninth day after parasitism. We argue on the mechanisms involved in host food processing after parasitism.

  5. Habitat and food resources of otters (Mustelidae) in Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Patah, P.; Nur-Syuhada, N.; Md-Nor, S.; Sasaki, H.; Md-Zain, B. M.

    2014-09-01

    Habitat and food resources of otters were studied in several locations in Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 210 fecal samples were collected from April 2010 to March 2011 believed to be of otter's were analyzed for their diet composition and their habitat preferences. The DNA testing conducted revealed that only 126 samples were identified as Lultrogale perspicillata and Aonyx cinereus with 105 and 21 samples, respectively. Habitat analyses revealed that these two species preferred paddy fields and mangroves as their main habitats but L. perspicillata preferred to hunt near habitat with large water bodies, such as mangroves, rivers, ponds, and lakes. A. cinereus on the other hand, were mainly found near land-based habitat, such as paddy fields, casuarinas forest and oil palms near mangroves. Habitats chosen were influenced by their food preferences where L. perspicillata consumed a variety of fish species with a supplementary diet of prawns, small mammals, and amphibians, compared to A. cinereus which consumed less fish and more non-fish food items, such as insects, crabs, and snails. Since, the most of the otter habitats in this study are not located within the protected areas, conservation effort involving administrations, landowners, private organizations and public are necessary.

  6. Water resources transfers through Chinese interprovincial and foreign food trade

    PubMed Central

    Dalin, Carole; Hanasaki, Naota; Qiu, Huanguang; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    China’s water resources are under increasing pressure from socioeconomic development, diet shifts, and climate change. Agriculture still concentrates most of the national water withdrawal. Moreover, a spatial mismatch in water and arable land availability—with abundant agricultural land and little water resources in the north—increases water scarcity and results in virtual water transfers from drier to wetter regions through agricultural trade. We use a general equilibrium welfare model and linear programming optimization to model interprovincial food trade in China. We combine these trade flows with province-level estimates of commodities’ virtual water content to build China’s domestic and foreign virtual water trade network. We observe large variations in agricultural water-use efficiency among provinces. In addition, some provinces particularly rely on irrigation vs. rainwater. We analyze the virtual water flow patterns and the corresponding water savings. We find that this interprovincial network is highly connected and the flow distribution is relatively homogeneous. A significant share of water flows is from international imports (20%), which are dominated by soy (93%). We find that China’s domestic food trade is efficient in terms of rainwater but inefficient regarding irrigation, meaning that dry, irrigation-intensive provinces tend to export to wetter, less irrigation-intensive ones. Importantly, when incorporating foreign imports, China’s soy trade switches from an inefficient system to a particularly efficient one for saving water resources (20 km3/y irrigation water savings, 41 km3/y total). Finally, we identify specific provinces (e.g., Inner Mongolia) and products (e.g., corn) that show high potential for irrigation productivity improvements. PMID:24958864

  7. Water resources transfers through Chinese interprovincial and foreign food trade.

    PubMed

    Dalin, Carole; Hanasaki, Naota; Qiu, Huanguang; Mauzerall, Denise L; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2014-07-01

    China's water resources are under increasing pressure from socioeconomic development, diet shifts, and climate change. Agriculture still concentrates most of the national water withdrawal. Moreover, a spatial mismatch in water and arable land availability--with abundant agricultural land and little water resources in the north--increases water scarcity and results in virtual water transfers from drier to wetter regions through agricultural trade. We use a general equilibrium welfare model and linear programming optimization to model interprovincial food trade in China. We combine these trade flows with province-level estimates of commodities' virtual water content to build China's domestic and foreign virtual water trade network. We observe large variations in agricultural water-use efficiency among provinces. In addition, some provinces particularly rely on irrigation vs. rainwater. We analyze the virtual water flow patterns and the corresponding water savings. We find that this interprovincial network is highly connected and the flow distribution is relatively homogeneous. A significant share of water flows is from international imports (20%), which are dominated by soy (93%). We find that China's domestic food trade is efficient in terms of rainwater but inefficient regarding irrigation, meaning that dry, irrigation-intensive provinces tend to export to wetter, less irrigation-intensive ones. Importantly, when incorporating foreign imports, China's soy trade switches from an inefficient system to a particularly efficient one for saving water resources (20 km(3)/y irrigation water savings, 41 km(3)/y total). Finally, we identify specific provinces (e.g., Inner Mongolia) and products (e.g., corn) that show high potential for irrigation productivity improvements. PMID:24958864

  8. Water resources transfers through Chinese interprovincial and foreign food trade.

    PubMed

    Dalin, Carole; Hanasaki, Naota; Qiu, Huanguang; Mauzerall, Denise L; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2014-07-01

    China's water resources are under increasing pressure from socioeconomic development, diet shifts, and climate change. Agriculture still concentrates most of the national water withdrawal. Moreover, a spatial mismatch in water and arable land availability--with abundant agricultural land and little water resources in the north--increases water scarcity and results in virtual water transfers from drier to wetter regions through agricultural trade. We use a general equilibrium welfare model and linear programming optimization to model interprovincial food trade in China. We combine these trade flows with province-level estimates of commodities' virtual water content to build China's domestic and foreign virtual water trade network. We observe large variations in agricultural water-use efficiency among provinces. In addition, some provinces particularly rely on irrigation vs. rainwater. We analyze the virtual water flow patterns and the corresponding water savings. We find that this interprovincial network is highly connected and the flow distribution is relatively homogeneous. A significant share of water flows is from international imports (20%), which are dominated by soy (93%). We find that China's domestic food trade is efficient in terms of rainwater but inefficient regarding irrigation, meaning that dry, irrigation-intensive provinces tend to export to wetter, less irrigation-intensive ones. Importantly, when incorporating foreign imports, China's soy trade switches from an inefficient system to a particularly efficient one for saving water resources (20 km(3)/y irrigation water savings, 41 km(3)/y total). Finally, we identify specific provinces (e.g., Inner Mongolia) and products (e.g., corn) that show high potential for irrigation productivity improvements.

  9. Multiple Intimate Partner Violence Experiences: Knowledge, Access, Utilization and Barriers to Utilization of Resources by Women of the African Diaspora

    PubMed Central

    Sabri, Bushra; Huerta, Julia; Alexander, Kamila A.; St.Vil, Noelle M.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Callwood, Gloria B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study examined knowledge, access, utilization, and barriers to use of resources among Black women exposed to multiple types of intimate partner violence in Baltimore, Maryland and the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). Methods We analyzed quantitative survey data collected by 163 women recruited from primary care, prenatal or family planning clinics in Baltimore and the USVI. In addition we analyzed qualitative data from in-depth interviews with 11 women. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results A substantial proportion of Black women with multiple types of violence experiences lacked knowledge of, did not have access to, and did not use resources. Barriers to resource use were identified at the individual, relationship, and community levels. Conclusion There is need for programs to develop awareness, promote access and utilization of resources, and eliminate barriers to resource use among abused Black women. PMID:26548679

  10. Community Design for Optimal Energy and Resource Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilenky, Stephen; And Others

    Presented is a study which investigated the energy and resource dynamics of a semi-autonomous domestic system for 30 people. The investigation is organized on three levels: (1) developing a preliminary design and design parameters; (2) development and quantification of the energy and resource dynamics; and (3) designing a model to extrapolate…

  11. A Sushi Science Module in Food Production Systems and Aquatic Resource Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livengood, Elisa J.; Chapman, Frank A.

    2009-01-01

    No other food industry depends so heavily on a wild caught resource than those associated with aquatic food products. Domestication of fish, shellfish, and other aquatic resources production has lagged behind other terrestrial livestock products; however, demand for these aquatic natural resources has continued to increase dramatically. Teaching…

  12. Academic Library Resource Sharing through Bibliographic Utility Program Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trochim, Mary Kane

    Information on the growth of bibliographic utilities and academic library networking is presented in this report, as well as profiles of interlibrary loan activity at six academic libraries who are members of a major bibliographic utility. Applications of computer technology and network participation in academic libraries, and the major events in…

  13. Using Forecasting to Predict Long-Term Resource Utilization for Web Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoas, Daniel W.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have spent years understanding resource utilization to improve scheduling, load balancing, and system management through short-term prediction of resource utilization. Early research focused primarily on single operating systems; later, interest shifted to distributed systems and, finally, into web services. In each case researchers…

  14. Challenges of Utilizing Healthy Fats in Foods123

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Samantha A; McClements, David Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans has consistently recommended that consumers decrease consumption of saturated fatty acids due to the correlation of saturated fatty acid intake with coronary artery disease. This recommendation has not been easy to achieve because saturated fatty acids play an important role in the quality, shelf life, and acceptability of foods. This is because solid fats are critical to producing desirable textures (e.g., creaminess, lubrication, and melt-away properties) and are important in the structure of foods such as frozen desserts, baked goods, and confectionary products. In addition, replacement of saturated fats with unsaturated fats is limited by their susceptibility to oxidative rancidity, which decreases product shelf life, causes destruction of vitamins, and forms potentially toxic compounds. This article will discuss the fundamental chemical and physical properties in fats and how these properties affect food texture, structure, flavor, and susceptibility to degradation. The current sources of solid fats will be reviewed and potential replacements for solid fats will be discussed. PMID:25979504

  15. Utilization of Peanut Skin Extracts as Functional Food Ingredients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut skins are a by-product of the blanching industry that have not been utilized to their full potential. They have been found to contain significant quantities of compounds containing phenolic moieties such as catechins, procyanidins, and other polyphenols that have positive associations with h...

  16. OUR's: Optimum Utilization of Resources; A Guide to Instructional Resources in Occupational Education. Research Pub. 77-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beamish, Eric; And Others

    This resource guide contains over 300 entries which are available through the Optimum Utilization of Resources (OUR's) exchange system. The entries describe learning materials, such as slides, video tapes, audio tapes, films, print material, and computer assisted instructional programs, which have been developed primarily by faculty of the…

  17. How to use the world's scarce selenium resources efficiently to increase the selenium concentration in food

    PubMed Central

    Haug, Anna; Graham, Robin D.; Christophersen, Olav A.; Lyons, Graham H.

    2007-01-01

    The world's rare selenium resources need to be managed carefully. Selenium is extracted as a by-product of copper mining and there are no deposits that can be mined for selenium alone. Selenium has unique properties as a semi-conductor, making it of special value to industry, but it is also an essential nutrient for humans and animals and may promote plant growth and quality. Selenium deficiency is regarded as a major health problem for 0.5 to 1 billion people worldwide, while an even larger number may consume less selenium than required for optimal protection against cancer, cardiovascular diseases and severe infectious diseases including HIV disease. Efficient recycling of selenium is difficult. Selenium is added in some commercial fertilizers, but only a small proportion is taken up by plants and much of the remainder is lost for future utilization. Large biofortification programmes with selenium added to commercial fertilizers may therefore be a fortification method that is too wasteful to be applied to large areas of our planet. Direct addition of selenium compounds to food (process fortification) can be undertaken by the food industry. If selenomethionine is added directly to food, however, oxidation due to heat processing needs to be avoided. New ways to biofortify food products are needed, and it is generally observed that there is less wastage if selenium is added late in the production chain rather than early. On these bases we have proposed adding selenium-enriched, sprouted cereal grain during food processing as an efficient way to introduce this nutrient into deficient diets. Selenium is a non-renewable resource. There is now an enormous wastage of selenium associated with large-scale mining and industrial processing. We recommend that this must be changed and that much of the selenium that is extracted should be stockpiled for use as a nutrient by future generations. PMID:18833333

  18. Global warming, population growth, and natural resources for food production.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, D

    1991-01-01

    Destruction of forests and the considerable burning of fossil fuels is directly causing the level of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases including methane, carbon monoxide, and nitrous oxide in the atmosphere to rise. Population growth in the US and the world indirectly contributes to this global warming. This has led the majority of scientists interested in weather and climate to predict that the planet's temperature will increase from 1.5 to 4.5 degrees Celsius by 2050. These forecasted climactic changes will most likely strongly affect crop production. Specifically these scientists expect the potential changes in temperature, moisture, carbon dioxide, and pests to decrease food production in North America. The degree of changes hinges on each crop and its environmental needs. If farmers begin using improved agricultural technology, the fall in crop yields can be somewhat counterbalanced. Even without global warming, however, agriculture in North America must embrace sensible ecological resource management practices such as conserving soil, water, energy, and biological resources. These sustainable agricultural practices would serve agriculture, farmers, the environment, and society. Agriculturalists, farmers, and society are already interested in sustainable agriculture. Still scientists must conduct more research on the multiple effects of potential global climate change on many different crops under various environmental conditions and on new technologies that farmers might use in agricultural production. We must cut down our consumption of fossil fuel, reduce deforestation, erase poverty, and protect our soil, water, and biological resources. The most important action we need to take, however, is to check population growth. PMID:12344889

  19. Development, Characterization, and Utilization of Food-Grade Polymer Oleogels.

    PubMed

    Davidovich-Pinhas, M; Barbut, Shai; Marangoni, A G

    2016-01-01

    The potential of organogels (oleogels) for oil structuring has been identified and investigated extensively using different gelator-oil systems in recent years. This review provides a comprehensive summary of all oil-structuring systems found in the literature, with an emphasis on ethyl-cellulose (EC), the only direct food-grade polymer oleogelator. EC is a semicrystalline material that undergoes a thermoreversible sol-gel transition in the presence of liquid oil. This unique behavior is based on the polymer's ability to associate through physical bonds. These interactions are strongly affected by external fields such as shear and temperature, as well as by solvent chemistry, which in turn strongly affect final gel properties. Recently, EC-based oleogels have been used as a replacement for fats in foods, as heat-resistance agents in chocolate, as oil-binding agents in bakery products, and as the basis for cosmetic pastes. Understanding the characteristics of the EC oleogel is essential for the development of new applications. PMID:26735799

  20. Quality and utilization of food co-products and residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, P.; Bao, G.; Broderick, C.; Fishman, M.; Liu, L.; Onwulata, C.

    2010-06-01

    Some agricultural industries generate large amounts of low value co-products/residues, including citrus peel, sugar beet pulp and whey protein from the production of orange juice, sugar and cheese commodities, respectively. National Program #306 of the USDA Agricultural Research Service aims to characterize and enhance quality and develop new processes and uses for value-added foods and bio-based products. In parallel projects, we applied scanning microscopies to examine the molecular organization of citrus pectin gels, covalent crosslinking to reduce debonding in sugar beet pulp-PLA composites and functional modification of whey protein through extrusion in order to evaluate new methods of processing and formulating new products. Also, qualitative attributes of fresh produce that could potentially guide germ line development and crop management were explored through fluorescence imaging: synthesis and accumulation of oleoresin in habanero peppers suggest a complicated mechanism of secretion that differs from the classical scheme. Integrated imaging appears to offer significant structural insights to help understand practical properties and features of important food co-products/residues.

  1. Utilization of on-site resources for regenerative life support systems at Lunar and Martian outposts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Golden, D. C.; Henninger, Donald L.

    1993-01-01

    Lunar and martian materials can be processed and used at planetary outposts to reduce the need (and thus the cost) of transportng supplies from Earth. A variety of uses for indigenous, on-site materials have been suggested, including uses as rocket propellants, construction materials, and life support materials. Utilization of on-site resources will supplement Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) that will be needed to regenerate air, water, wastes, and to produce food (e.g., plants) for human consumption during long-duration space missions. Natural materials on the Moon and/or Mars may be used for a variety of RLSS needs including (1) soils or solid-support substrate for plant growth, (2) sources for extraction of essential plant-growth nutrients, (3) sources of O2, H2, CO2, and water, (4) substrates for microbial populations in the degradation of wastes, and (5) shielding materials surrounding outpost structures to protect humans, plants, and microorganisms from radiation. In addition to the regolith, the martian atmosphere will provide additional resources at a Mars outpost, including water, CO2 and other atmospheric gases.

  2. Energy Efficiency in Western Utility Resource Plans: Impacts onRegional Resources Assessment and Support for WGA Policies

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, Nicole; Goldman, Charles; Schlegal, Jeff

    2006-08-01

    In the aftermath of the consumer price shocks and short-term power shortages of the 2000-01 electricity crisis, policymakers and regulators in Western states are placing increased emphasis on integrated resource planning (IRP), resource adequacy and assessment and a diversified portfolio of resources to meet the needs of electricity consumers. In some states, this has led to a resurgence in state and utility commitments to energy efficiency. Increasing interest in acquiring energy efficiency as a power-system resource is also driven by the desire to dampen high growth rates in electricity demand in some Western states, rapid increases in natural gas prices, concerns about the environmental impacts of electricity generation (e.g. water consumption by power plants, air quality), and the potential of energy efficiency to provide utility bill savings for households and businesses (WGA CDEAC 2006). Recognizing the cost-competitiveness and environmental benefits of energy efficiency, the Western Governor's Association (WGA) has set a high priority for energy efficiency, establishing a goal of reducing projected electricity demand by 20% across the West by 2020 in a policy resolution on Clean and Diversified Energy for the West (WGA 2004). Nationally, the need for improved tracking of demand-side resources in load forecasting is formalized in the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC)'s recently adopted reliability standards, which utilities and regional reliability organizations will need to comply with (NERC 2005a and 2005b). In this study, we examine the treatment of energy efficiency in recent resource plans issued by fourteen investor-owned utilities (IOUs) in the Western United States and Canada. The goals of this study are to: (1) summarize energy-efficiency resources as represented in a large sample of recent resource plans prepared by Western utilities and identify key issues; (2) evaluate the extent to which the information provided in current

  3. Food Insecurity and Health Care Utilization Among Older Adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Vibha; Lee, Jung Sun

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between food insecurity and utilization of four health services among older Americans: office visits, inpatient hospital nights, emergency department visits, and home health care. Nationally representative data from the 2011 and 2012 National Health Interview Survey were used (N = 13,589). Nearly 83.0% of the sample had two or more office visits, 17.0% reported at least one hospital night, 23.0% had at least one emergency room visit, and 8.1% used home health care during the past 12 months. Adjusting for confounders, food-insecure older adults had higher odds of using more office visits, inpatient hospital nights, and emergency department visits than food-secure older adults, but similar odds of home health care utilization. The findings of this study suggest that programs and policies aimed at reducing food insecurity among older adults may have a potential to reduce utilization of health care services.

  4. West Texas geothermal resource assessment. Part II. Preliminary utilization assessment of the Trans-Pecos geothermal resource. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gilliland, M.W.; Fenner, L.B.

    1980-01-01

    The utilization potential of geothermal resources in Trans-Pecos, Texas was assessed. The potential for both direct use and electric power generation were examined. As with the resource assessment work, the focus was on the Hueco Tanks area in northeastern El Paso County and the Presidio Bolson area in Presidio County. Suitable users of the Hueco Tanks and Presidio Bolson resource areas were identified by matching postulated temperature characteristics of the geothermal resource to the need characteristics of existing users in each resource area. The amount of geothermal energy required and the amount of fossil fuel that geothermal energy would replace were calculated for each of the users identified as suitable. Current data indicate that temperatures in the Hueco Tanks resource area are not high enough for electric power generation, but in at least part of the Presidio Bolson resource area, they may be high enough for electric power generation.

  5. Factors Influencing Post-Adoptive Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinnis, Thomas C.

    2011-01-01

    Organizations expend a great deal of time, effort and money on the implementation of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems. They are considered the price of entry for large organizations to do business. Yet the success rate of ERP systems is poor. IS literature suggests that one possible reason for this is the underutilization of these…

  6. Geothermal Energy: Resource and Utilization. A Teaching Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Van Thanh

    The search for new energy resources as alternatives to fossil fuels have generated new interest in the heat of the earth itself. New geothermal areas with a variety of characteristics are being explored, as are new ways of extracting work from naturally heated steam and hot water. Some of this effort is discussed in this three-part module. Five…

  7. Symbiosis of sea anemones and hermit crabs: different resource utilization patterns in the Aegean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vafeiadou, Anna-Maria; Antoniadou, Chryssanthi; Chintiroglou, Chariton

    2012-09-01

    The small-scale distribution and resource utilization patterns of hermit crabs living in symbiosis with sea anemones were investigated in the Aegean Sea. Four hermit crab species, occupying shells of nine gastropod species, were found in symbiosis with the sea anemone Calliactis parasitica. Shell resource utilization patterns varied among hermit crabs, with Dardanus species utilizing a wide variety of shells. The size structure of hermit crab populations also affected shell resource utilization, with small-sized individuals inhabiting a larger variety of shells. Sea anemone utilization patterns varied both among hermit crab species and among residence shells, with larger crabs and shells hosting an increased abundance and biomass of C. parasitica. The examined biometric relationships suggested that small-sized crabs carry, proportionally to their weight, heavier shells and increased anemone biomass than larger ones. Exceptions to the above patterns are related either to local resource availability or to other environmental factors.

  8. Demand-Side Management and Integrated Resource Planning: Findings from a Survey of 24 Electric Utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, M.

    1991-01-01

    Integrated resource planning differs from traditional utility planning practices primarily in its increased attention to demand-side management (DSM) programs and its integration of supply- and demand-side resources into a combined resource portfolio. This report details the findings from an Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) survey of 24 electric utilities that have well-developed integrated planning processes. These utilities account for roughly one-third of total capacity, electricity generation, and DSM-program expenditures nationwide. The ORNL survey was designed to obtain descriptive data on a national sample of utilities and to test a number of hypothesized relationships between selected utility characteristics and the mix of resources selected for the integrated plan, with an emphasis on the use of DSM resources and the processes by which they are chosen. The survey solicited information on each utility's current and projected resource mix, operating environment, procedures used to screen potential DSM resources, techniques used to obtain public input and to integrate supply- and demand-side options into a unified plan, and procedures used in the final selection of resources for the plan.

  9. Managing Carbon Regulatory Risk in Utility Resource Planning: Current Practices in the Western United States

    SciTech Connect

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles

    2008-07-11

    Concerns about global climate change have substantially increased the likelihood that future policy will seek to minimize carbon dioxide emissions. As such, even today, electric utilities are making resource planning and investment decisions that consider the possible implications of these future carbon regulations. In this article, we examine the manner in which utilities assess the financial risks associated with future carbon regulations within their long-term resource plans. We base our analysis on a review of the most recent resource plans filed by fifteen electric utilities in the Western United States. Virtually all of these utilities made some effort to quantitatively evaluate the potential cost of future carbon regulations when analyzing alternate supply- and demand-side resource options for meeting customer load. Even without Federal climate regulation in the U.S., the prospect of that regulation is already having an impact on utility decision-making and resource choices. That said, the methods and assumptions used by utilities to analyze carbon regulatory risk, and the impact of that analysis on their choice of a particular resource strategy, vary considerably, revealing a number of opportunities for analytic improvement. Though our review focuses on a subset of U.S. electric utilities, this work holds implications for all electric utilities and energy policymakers who are seeking to minimize the compliance costs associated with future carbon regulations.

  10. Managing Carbon Regulatory Risk in Utility Resource Planning:Current Practices in the Western United States

    SciTech Connect

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles

    2008-05-16

    Concerns about global climate change have substantially increased the likelihood that future policy will seek to minimize carbon dioxide emissions. Assuch, even today, electric utilities are making resource planning and investment decisions that consider the possible implications of these future carbon regulations. In this article, we examine the manner in which utilities assess the financial risks associated with future carbon regulations within their long-term resource plans. We base our analysis on a review of the most recent resource plans filed by fifteen electric utilities in the Western United States. Virtually all of these utilities made some effort to quantitatively evaluate the potential cost of future carbon regulations when analyzing alternate supply- and demand-side resource options for meeting customer load. Even without Federal climate regulation in the U.S., the prospect of that regulation is already having an impact on utility decision-making and resource choices. That said, the methods and assumptions used by utilities to analyze carbon regulatory risk, and the impact of that analysis on their choice of a particular resource strategy, vary considerably, revealing a number of opportunities for analytic improvement. Though our review focuses on a subset of U.S. electric utilities, this work holds implications for all electric utilities and energy policymakers who are seeking to minimize the compliance costs associated with future carbon regulations

  11. Using the Food Guide Pyramid: A Resource for Nutrition Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Anne; Fulton, Lois; Davis, Carole; Hogbin, Myrtle

    This booklet provides information to assist nutrition educators in helping their audiences use the Food Guide Pyramid to plan and prepare foods for a healthy diet. It reviews the objectives set in developing the Food Guide Pyramid and illustrates their impact on the application of the Food Guide Pyramid to planning menus. In particular, the…

  12. Effect of Larval Density on Food Utilization Efficiency of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Morales-Ramos, Juan A; Rojas, M Guadalupe

    2015-10-01

    Crowding conditions of larvae may have a significant impact on commercial production efficiency of some insects, such as Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Although larval densities are known to affect developmental time and growth in T. molitor, no reports were found on the effects of crowding on food utilization. The effect of larval density on food utilization efficiency of T. molitor larvae was studied by measuring efficiency of ingested food conversion (ECI), efficiency of digested food conversion (EDC), and mg of larval weight gain per gram of food consumed (LWGpFC) at increasing larval densities (12, 24, 36, 48, 50, 62, 74, and 96 larvae per dm(2)) over four consecutive 3-wk periods. Individual larval weight gain and food consumption were negatively impacted by larval density. Similarly, ECI, ECD, and LWGpFC were negatively impacted by larval density. Larval ageing, measured as four consecutive 3-wk periods, significantly and independently impacted ECI, ECD, and LWGpFC in a negative way. General linear model analysis showed that age had a higher impact than density on food utilization parameters of T. molitor larvae. Larval growth was determined to be responsible for the age effects, as measurements of larval mass density (in grams of larvae per dm(2)) had a significant impact on food utilization parameters across ages and density treatments (in number of larvae per dm(2)). The importance of mass versus numbers per unit of area as measurements of larval density and the implications of negative effects of density on food utilization for insect biomass production are discussed. PMID:26453714

  13. Space Resource Utilization and Extending Human Presence Across the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, Peter A.

    2005-01-01

    The Presidents Vision for Exploration is not a single mission, but an open ended journey that seeks to answer "How can we live on other worlds?" Using space resources is the only known approach for affordable, sustained, flexible, and self sufficient, human occupation beyond Earth orbit. Earth is a large planet. A simple analysis using the rocket equation shows that if Earth were a bit larger, chemical propulsion as a mechanism to access space would become impractical. Thus, even with the most efficient chemical rocket launch capability, the cost of lifting massive payloads into space will remain very steep (currently about $l00k/lb to the Moon and greater than $500k/lb to Mars). Space resource utilization should begin with an aggressive broad based demonstration program as afforded by the precursor missions implementation of the President's Vision of Exploration. Ion engine upper stages, for example, were studied for over 30 years, but only implemented in design after the Deep Space 1 in space demonstration. These demonstrations should include: extraction of elements from lunar regolith, and Martian soil and atmosphere, demonstration of power break even and growth from lunar or Mars moons derived photovoltaics, oxygen extraction for life support and propellant, and metals and alloys for in space repair and the production of habits and radiation shielding. Space resource utilization yields operational dividends through the subsequent programs including: propellant from lunar oxygen which could cut transportation costs from Earth in half, mega watts per year of power grown from lunar photovoltaics at decreasing cost per kW, decreased cost for human Mars missions by a factor of 10 by using propellant derived from Mars atmosphere for return, and in space manufacturing and food production with space resources yielding safe sustained and eventually self sufficient human presence in space. After the demonstration and implementation, the space resource utilization

  14. NASA Space Engineering Research Center for utilization of local planetary resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar; Lewis, John S.

    1990-01-01

    The University of Arizona and NASA have joined to form the UA/NASA Space Engineering Research Center. The purpose of the Center is to discover, characterize, extract, process, and fabricate useful products from the extraterrestrial resources available in the inner solar system (the moon, Mars, and nearby asteroids). Individual progress reports covering the center's research projects are presented and emphasis is placed on the following topics: propellant production, oxygen production, ilmenite, lunar resources, asteroid resources, Mars resources, space-based materials processing, extraterrestrial construction materials processing, resource discovery and characterization, mission planning, and resource utilization.

  15. Land utilization and water resource inventories over extended test sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M.

    1972-01-01

    In addition to the work on the corn blight this year, several other analysis tests were completed which resulted in significant findings. These aspects are discussed as follows: (1) field spectral measurements of soil conditions; (2) analysis of extended test site data; this discussion involves three different sets of data analysis sequences; (3) urban land use analysis, for studying water runoff potentials; and (4) thermal data quality study, as an expansion of our water resources studies involving temperature calibration techniques.

  16. Early lunar resource utilization - A key to human exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joosten, B. K.; Guerra, Lisa A.

    1993-09-01

    Lunar exploration attempts have suffered from high projected costs of spaceflight hardware development and production. A method of reducing these costs is proposed: the utilization of propellant produced on the moon at program inception. This technique permits down-sizing of the required transportation systems and should enable lunar missions using a single STS-derived launch vehicle. The technical feasibility of this concept has been validated by preliminary space transportation and surface system design efforts. The required technologies emphasize electric surface vehicles, automation and robotics, and reliable chemical processing. Cost assessments were performed and compared to estimates based on a lunar exploration scheme to evaluate the effectiveness of this strategy. Results indicate that early production and utilization of lunar propellant leads to lower hardware development costs, lower cost uncertainties, and a reduction in human transportation costs of approximately fifty percent.

  17. NASA In-Situ Resource Utilization Project-and Seals Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacksteder, Kurt; Linne, Diane

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on NASA's In-Situ Resource Utilization Project and Seals Challenges is shown. The topics include: 1) What Are Space Resources?; 2) Space Resource Utilization for Exploration; 3) ISRU Enables Affordable, Sustainable & Flexible Exploration; 4) Propellant from the Moon Could Revolutionize Space Transportation; 5) NASA ISRU Capability Roadmap Study, 2005; 6) Timeline for ISRU Capability Implementation; 7) Lunar ISRU Implementation Approach; 8) ISRU Technical-to-Mission Capability Roadmap; 9) ISRU Resources & Products of Interest; and 10) Challenging Seals Requirements for ISRU.

  18. Effects of adjusting cropping systems on utilization efficiency of climatic resources in Northeast China under future climate scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jianping; Zhao, Junfang; Xu, Yanhong; Chu, Zheng; Mu, Jia; Zhao, Qian

    Quantitatively evaluating the effects of adjusting cropping systems on the utilization efficiency of climatic resources under climate change is an important task for assessing food security in China. To understand these effects, we used daily climate variables obtained from the regional climate model RegCM3 from 1981 to 2100 under the A1B scenario and crop observations from 53 agro-meteorological experimental stations from 1981 to 2010 in Northeast China. Three one-grade zones of cropping systems were divided by heat, water, topography and crop-type, including the semi-arid areas of the northeast and northwest (III), the one crop area of warm-cool plants in semi-humid plain or hilly regions of the northeast (IV), and the two crop area in irrigated farmland in the Huanghuaihai Plain (VI). An agro-ecological zone model was used to calculate climatic potential productivities. The effects of adjusting cropping systems on climate resource utilization in Northeast China under the A1B scenario were assessed. The results indicated that from 1981 to 2100 in the III, IV and VI areas, the planting boundaries of different cropping systems in Northeast China obviously shifted toward the north and the east based on comprehensively considering the heat and precipitation resources. However, due to high temperature stress, the climatic potential productivity of spring maize was reduced in the future. Therefore, adjusting the cropping system is an effective way to improve the climatic potential productivity and climate resource utilization. Replacing the one crop in one year model (spring maize) by the two crops in one year model (winter wheat and summer maize) significantly increased the total climatic potential productivity and average utilization efficiencies. During the periods of 2011-2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100, the average total climatic potential productivities of winter wheat and summer maize increased by 9.36%, 11.88% and 12.13% compared to that of spring maize

  19. Impact of teaching intensity and academic status on medical resource utilization by teaching hospitals in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sato, Daisuke; Fushimi, Kiyohide

    2012-11-01

    Teaching hospitals require excess medical resources to maintain high-quality care and medical education. To evaluate the appropriateness of such surplus costs, we examined the impact of teaching intensity defined as activities for postgraduate training, and academic status as functions of medical research and undergraduate teaching on medical resource utilization. Administrative data for 47,397 discharges from 40 academic and 12 non-academic teaching hospitals in Japan were collected. Hospitals were classified into three groups according to intern/resident-to-bed (IRB) ratio. Resource utilization of medical services was estimated using fee-for-service charge schedules and normalized with case mix grouping. 15-24% more resource utilization for laboratory examinations, radiological imaging, and medications were observed in hospitals with higher IRB ratios. With multivariate adjustment for case mix and academic status, higher IRB ratios were associated with 10-15% more use of radiological imaging, injections, and medications; up to 5% shorter hospital stays; and not with total resource utilization. Conversely, academic status was associated with 21-33% more laboratory examinations, radiological imaging, and medications; 13% longer hospital stays; and 10% more total resource utilization. While differences in medical resource utilization by teaching intensity may not be associated with indirect educational costs, those by academic status may be. Therefore, academic hospitals may need efficiency improvement and financial compensation.

  20. Utility of Squeeze Flow in the Food Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T. A.

    2008-07-01

    Squeeze flow for obtaining shear viscosity on Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids has long been established in the literature. Rotational shear flow using cone/plate, a set of parallel plates, or concentric cylinders all develop wall slip, shear fracture, or instability on food related materials such as peanut butter or mayonnaise. Viscosity data obtained using any one of the above mentioned set-ups is suspect or potentially results in significant error. They are unreliable to support or predict the textural differences perceived by consumer evaluation. RMS-800, from Rheometrics Inc., was employed to conduct the squeezing flow under constant speeds on a set of parallel plates. Viscosity data, over a broad range of shear rates, is compared between Hellmann's real (HRM) and light mayonnaise (HLM). The Consistency and shear-thinning indices, as defined in the Power-Law Model, were determined. HRM exhibits a more pronounced shear-thinning when compared to HLM yet the Consistency of HRM is significantly higher. Sensory evaluation by a trained expert panel ranked that adhesiveness and cohesiveness of HLM are significantly higher. It appears that the degree of shear thinning is one of the key rheological parameters in predicting the above mentioned difference in textural attributes. Error involved in determining viscosity from non-parallelism between two plates can be significant to affect the accuracy of the viscosity, in particular, shear-thinning index. Details are a subject for the next presentation. Nevertheless, the method is proven to be fast, rugged, simple, and reliable. It can be developed as a QC tool.

  1. Hawaiian spinner dolphins aggregate midwater food resources through cooperative foraging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit-Bird, Kelly; Au, Whitlow

    2003-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that spinner dolphins in Hawaii may actively aggregate their prey through cooperative foraging, a 200-kHz multi-beam sonar (Simrad MS2000) was used to observe 323 groups of spinner dolphins foraging within a midwater, micronekton sound-scattering layer off Oahu. Strong cooperation was observed in groups of 8-14 pairs of spinner dolphins. The dolphin group size was highest at midnight when the density of prey was highest and was significantly higher in Makua Beach, where the prey density was higher, than Electric Beach, where the prey density was lower. Cooperative groups of dolphins aggregated their food resources, apparently using their preys' avoidance behavior to create distinct, high-density patches in the prey. Prey aggregation was strongly stereo-typed, regardless of the distribution of the scattering layer. Dolphins swam around the edge of a 28-40 m diameter circle at least 5 times, concentrating prey within this area before pairs of dolphins on opposite sides of the circle swapped positions in the circle, swimming through the high density prey 'donut' they had formed. The hypothesis that nocturnal animals aggregate prey in midwater could not have been tested without the three-dimensional information on prey distribution and dolphin geometry provided by the multi-beam.

  2. [Research practices of conversion efficiency of resources utilization model of castoff from Chinese material medica industrialization].

    PubMed

    Duan, Jin-Ao; Su, Shu-Lan; Guo, Sheng; Liu, Pei; Qian, Da-Wei; Jiang, Shu; Zhu, Hua-Xu; Tang, Yu-Ping; Wu, Qi-Nan

    2013-12-01

    The industrialization chains and their products, which were formed from the process of the production of medicinal materials-prepared drug in pieces and deep processed product of Chinese material medica (CMM) resources, have generated large benefits of social and economic. However, The large of herb-medicine castoff of "non-medicinal parts" and "rejected materials" produced inevitably during the process of Chinese medicinal resources produce and process, and the residues, waste water and waste gas were produced during the manufactured and deep processed product of CMM. These lead to the waste of resources and environmental pollution. Our previous researches had proposed the "three utilization strategies" and "three types of resources models" of herb-medicine castoff according to the different physicochemical property of resources constitutes, resources potential and utility value of herb-medicine castoff. This article focus on the conversion efficiency of resources model and analysis the ways, technologies, practices, and application in herb-medicine cast off of the conversion efficiency of resources model based on the recycling economy theory of resources and thoughts of resources chemistry of CMM. These data may be promote and resolve the key problems limited the industrialization of Chinese material medica for long time and promote the realization of herb-medicine castoff resources utilization.

  3. Utility of stochastic decadal simulations in water resource planning (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, A. M.; Goddard, L. M.; Gonzalez, P. L.

    2010-12-01

    State-of-the-art decadal forecasts from initialized general circulation models (GCMs) are examined in several regional settings, in the context of water resource planning. A strategy is then discussed for providing useful information on decadal time scales, even in the absence of skillful GCM-based predictions. This information takes the form of an ensemble of stochastic simulations. Desirable properties of such ensembles are considered and several generative methods compared. A detailed application to the Berg River watershed, Western Cape province, South Africa is provided.

  4. Martian resource utilization. 1: Plant design and transportation selection criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaloupis, Peter; Nolan, Peter E.; Cutler, Andrew H.

    1992-01-01

    Indigenous Space Materials Utilization (ISMU) provides an opportunity to make Mars exploration mission scenarios more affordable by reducing the initial mass necessary in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Martian propellant production is discussed in terms of simple design and economic tradeoffs. Fuel and oxidizer combinations included are H2/O2, CH4/O2, and CO/O2. Process flow diagrams with power and mass flow requirements are presented for a variety of processes, and some design requirements are derived. Maximum allowable plant masses for single use amortization are included.

  5. Assessing global resource utilization efficiency in the industrial sector.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Marc A

    2013-09-01

    Designing efficient energy systems, which also meet economic, environmental and other objectives and constraints, is a significant challenge. In a world with finite natural resources and large energy demands, it is important to understand not just actual efficiencies, but also limits to efficiency, as the latter identify margins for efficiency improvement. Energy analysis alone is inadequate, e.g., it yields energy efficiencies that do not provide limits to efficiency. To obtain meaningful and useful efficiencies for energy systems, and to clarify losses, exergy analysis is a beneficial and useful tool. Here, the global industrial sector and industries within it are assessed by using energy and exergy methods. The objective is to improve the understanding of the efficiency of global resource use in the industrial sector and, with this information, to facilitate the development, prioritization and ultimate implementation of rational improvement options. Global energy and exergy flow diagrams for the industrial sector are developed and overall efficiencies for the global industrial sector evaluated as 51% based on energy and 30% based on exergy. Consequently, exergy analysis indicates a less efficient picture of energy use in the global industrial sector than does energy analysis. A larger margin for improvement exists from an exergy perspective, compared to the overly optimistic margin indicated by energy.

  6. Planetary science and resource utilization at a lunar outpost - Chemical analytical facility requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.

    1992-01-01

    Unresolved issues of lunar geology are reviewed and the role of a lunar outpost in helping to address them is considered. Plans for in situ resource utilization of lunar materials are examined. Concepts for a lunar outpost are described.

  7. Pneumatic Planetary Regolith Feed System for In-Situ Resource Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantovani, James G.; Mueller, Robert P.; Townsend, Ivan I.; Craft, Jack; Zacny, Kris

    2010-01-01

    The NASA In-situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project requires a regolith feed system that can transfer lunar regolith several meters vertically into a chemical reactor for oxygen production on the moon.

  8. A Study of Aerospace Education Workshops Which Utilize NASA Materials and Resource Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helton, Robert Dale

    1974-01-01

    Reports findings from two questionnaires administered to participants of aerospace workshops which utilized the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) materials and resource personnel. The findings gave a broad picture of aerospace workshops across the United States. (BR)

  9. 78 FR 79567 - Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations: Income Deductions and Resource Eligibility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... Request (ICR). SUMMARY: The final rule entitled Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations: Income... Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Part 253 RIN 0584-AE05 Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations: Income Deductions and Resource Eligibility; Approval of Information Collection Request...

  10. Solar resource-utility load matching assessment: NREL photovoltaic project summary

    SciTech Connect

    1993-11-01

    Many utility planners may be unfamiliar with the potential for the development of photovoltaics (PV) in their service areas. The goal of the research summarized in this document is to provide information on the match existing between the output of PV powder plants and the load requirements of US utilities. This material indicates whether or not the effective capacity (hence the value) of this renewable resource should be higher than that traditionally assigned to an intermittent resource.

  11. The Space Resource Exploration and Utilization Act: A move forward or a step back?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tronchetti, F.

    2015-11-01

    On May 21, 2015, the US House of Representatives passed a revised version of the ASTEROIDS Act, now labeled the Space Resource Exploration ad Utilization Act. If endorsed also by the US Senate the Act may be formally enacted into law by the President of the United States. In the light of this important development it seems appropriate to analyze the content and the legal and political implications of the Space Resource Exploration and Utilization Act.

  12. 9 CFR 315.2 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking. 315.2 Section 315.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.2 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food...

  13. 9 CFR 315.2 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking. 315.2 Section 315.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.2 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food...

  14. 9 CFR 315.2 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking. 315.2 Section 315.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.2 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food...

  15. 9 CFR 315.2 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking. 315.2 Section 315.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.2 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food...

  16. 9 CFR 315.2 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking. 315.2 Section 315.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.2 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food...

  17. Utilization of market research in managing hospital pharmacy resources.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, L; McNamara, E J

    1984-10-01

    A market research survey of staff physicians and nurses was completed to obtain information on customer preference to be used in making planning and development decisions about the allocation of the pharmacy department's resources. Survey questionnaires were mailed to representative samples of each professional group and included the optimum mix of open-ended and closed-ended questions that would result in the highest response rate. The survey responses identified differences in wants and needs between the nurses and physicians that demonstrate the value of market research. Data obtained from the survey are being used by a staff advisory committee and management to develop departmental goals and objectives that will reduce costs and increase profit margins under the ever-increasing restrictions of prospective reimbursement. PMID:10268317

  18. Resource utilization patterns in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Okello, D O

    1994-12-01

    A survey in 1991 of resource use patterns and factors affecting the cost of care for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda, revealed that drugs constitute 97% of the mean cost of care of affected individuals in the outpatient and 37% in hospitalized patients. The cost of drugs per treatment episode was Ug.Sh.5785.00 in the outpatient and Ug.Sh.8309.00 for inpatients. (The exchange rate for 1991 was US$ = Ug.Sh.910.00). Analysis of an attempt to provide essential drugs for the growing number of AIDS subjects shows that drugs alone could consume the entire health budget of the Ministry of Health in Uganda. There is therefore need to critically consider options to control the high cost for drugs in AIDS care.

  19. Resource utilization patterns in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Okello, D O

    1994-12-01

    A survey in 1991 of resource use patterns and factors affecting the cost of care for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda, revealed that drugs constitute 97% of the mean cost of care of affected individuals in the outpatient and 37% in hospitalized patients. The cost of drugs per treatment episode was Ug.Sh.5785.00 in the outpatient and Ug.Sh.8309.00 for inpatients. (The exchange rate for 1991 was US$ = Ug.Sh.910.00). Analysis of an attempt to provide essential drugs for the growing number of AIDS subjects shows that drugs alone could consume the entire health budget of the Ministry of Health in Uganda. There is therefore need to critically consider options to control the high cost for drugs in AIDS care. PMID:7705257

  20. Resource partitioning among top predators in a Miocene food web.

    PubMed

    Domingo, M Soledad; Domingo, Laura; Badgley, Catherine; Sanisidro, Oscar; Morales, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The exceptional fossil sites of Cerro de los Batallones (Madrid Basin, Spain) contain abundant remains of Late Miocene mammals. From these fossil assemblages, we have inferred diet, resource partitioning and habitat of three sympatric carnivorous mammals based on stable isotopes. The carnivorans include three apex predators: two sabre-toothed cats (Felidae) and a bear dog (Amphicyonidae). Herbivore and carnivore carbon isotope (δ(13)C) values from tooth enamel imply the presence of a woodland ecosystem dominated by C(3) plants. δ(13)C values and mixing-model analyses suggest that the two sabre-toothed cats, one the size of a leopard and the other the size of a tiger, consumed herbivores with similar δ(13)C values from a more wooded portion of the ecosystem. The two sabre-toothed cats probably hunted prey of different body sizes, and the smaller species could have used tree cover to avoid encounters with the larger felid. For the bear dog, δ(13)C values are higher and differ significantly from those of the sabre-toothed cats, suggesting a diet that includes prey from more open woodland. Coexistence of the sabre-toothed cats and the bear dog was likely facilitated by prey capture in different portions of the habitat. This study demonstrates the utility of stable isotope analysis for investigating the behaviour and ecology of members of past carnivoran guilds.

  1. Resource partitioning among top predators in a Miocene food web

    PubMed Central

    Domingo, M. Soledad; Domingo, Laura; Badgley, Catherine; Sanisidro, Oscar; Morales, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The exceptional fossil sites of Cerro de los Batallones (Madrid Basin, Spain) contain abundant remains of Late Miocene mammals. From these fossil assemblages, we have inferred diet, resource partitioning and habitat of three sympatric carnivorous mammals based on stable isotopes. The carnivorans include three apex predators: two sabre-toothed cats (Felidae) and a bear dog (Amphicyonidae). Herbivore and carnivore carbon isotope (δ13C) values from tooth enamel imply the presence of a woodland ecosystem dominated by C3 plants. δ13C values and mixing-model analyses suggest that the two sabre-toothed cats, one the size of a leopard and the other the size of a tiger, consumed herbivores with similar δ13C values from a more wooded portion of the ecosystem. The two sabre-toothed cats probably hunted prey of different body sizes, and the smaller species could have used tree cover to avoid encounters with the larger felid. For the bear dog, δ13C values are higher and differ significantly from those of the sabre-toothed cats, suggesting a diet that includes prey from more open woodland. Coexistence of the sabre-toothed cats and the bear dog was likely facilitated by prey capture in different portions of the habitat. This study demonstrates the utility of stable isotope analysis for investigating the behaviour and ecology of members of past carnivoran guilds. PMID:23135673

  2. Federated and Cloud Enabled Resources for Data Management and Utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankin, R.; Gordon, M.; Potter, R. G.; Satchwill, B.

    2011-12-01

    The emergence of cloud computing over the past three years has led to a paradigm shift in how data can be managed, processed and made accessible. Building on the federated data management system offered through the Canadian Space Science Data Portal (www.cssdp.ca), we demonstrate how heterogeneous and geographically distributed data sets and modeling tools have been integrated to form a virtual data center and computational modeling platform that has services for data processing and visualization embedded within it. We also discuss positive and negative experiences in utilizing Eucalyptus and OpenStack cloud applications, and job scheduling facilitated by Condor and Star Cluster. We summarize our findings by demonstrating use of these technologies in the Cloud Enabled Space Weather Data Assimilation and Modeling Platform CESWP (www.ceswp.ca), which is funded through Canarie's (canarie.ca) Network Enabled Platforms program in Canada.

  3. Eulusmap: An international land resources map utilizing satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paludan, T.; Csati, E.

    1978-01-01

    In 1972, the International Geographical Union's Commission on World Land Use Survey adopted a project for a land-use map of Europe. Such a map, under the name Eulusmap was started earlier under sponsorship of several government offices in Hungary. Although there was great response from a number of contributors in many countries, it became evident by mid-1974 that the map would contain gaps and some inaccuracies unless additional data sources were utilized. By then, the satellite Landsat-1 had obtained imagery of most of Europe. Using theme extraction techniques, the map was completed in draft form and portions of it displayed at the 23d International Geographical Congress in Moscow during July 1976. Printing of the completed map was accomplished in May 1978.

  4. 44 CFR 206.34 - Request for utilization of Department of Defense (DOD) resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Department of Defense (DOD) resources. 206.34 Section 206.34 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE The Declaration Process § 206.34 Request for utilization of Department of Defense (DOD) resources....

  5. 44 CFR 206.34 - Request for utilization of Department of Defense (DOD) resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Department of Defense (DOD) resources. 206.34 Section 206.34 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE The Declaration Process § 206.34 Request for utilization of Department of Defense (DOD) resources....

  6. 44 CFR 206.34 - Request for utilization of Department of Defense (DOD) resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Department of Defense (DOD) resources. 206.34 Section 206.34 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE The Declaration Process § 206.34 Request for utilization of Department of Defense (DOD) resources....

  7. Instructional Strategies and Resource Utility in Language Teaching among Basic Educators in 21st Century Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofodu, Graceful Onovughe

    2012-01-01

    Learning in the twenty-first century demands learning skills, strategies and utilizing resources which learners can deploy when they leave the school environment. The paper investigates the instructional strategies and resources employed by teachers in teaching and learning English Studies at the basic level of Nigeria's educational system. It…

  8. The CRU System: A Model for the Development and Utilization of Community Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byard, William D.

    1974-01-01

    The CRU project identified and selected four Illinois secondary educational institutions effectively utilizing community resources (Mattoon, Orion, and Sycamore High Schools and the Little Wabash Cooperative Vocational Center) and provided on-site visitation of models. A published manual covers identification, development and utilization, and…

  9. Hybrid Propulsion In-Situ Resource Utilization Test Facility Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Ashley A.; Gatto, Corinne; Nakazono, Barry; Grayson, Kristian; Vaughan, David

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid propulsion could be a potential game changing technology for several Mars applications, such as Mars Sample Return (MSR) and human exploration. A flexible hybrid test facility has been built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to provide data relevant to the design of such systems. This paper presents the motivations for such a system and its design. The facility is capable of testing 5 cm diameter fuel grains with gaseous oxygen and Mars in situ propellant production simulating oxidizer (varying mixtures of GO2, CO2 and CO). All currently planned tests utilize paraffin based fuels; however, alternative hybrid fuels may be used in the future. Variable length to outer diameter (L/D) ratios may also be tested to give insight on potential packaging constraints. The goal of this research is to enable the inclusion of hybrid propulsion systems in future mission design studies by determining the empirical constants in the regression rate equation for paraffin-based fuels with space storable and/or in situ oxidizers and to investigate the effect of L/D on combustion efficiency. Test results will be reported separately.

  10. A widely adaptable habitat construction system utilizing space resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wykes, Harry B.

    1993-01-01

    This study suggests that the cost of providing accommodations for various manned activities in space may be reduced by the extensive use of resources that are commonly found throughout the solar system. Several concepts are proposed for converting these resources into simple products with many uses. Concrete is already being considered as a possible moonbase material. Manufacturing equipment should be as small and simple as possible, which leads to the idea of molding it into miniature modules that can be produced and assembled in large numbers to create any conceivable shape. Automated equipment could build up complex structures by laying down layer after layer in a process resembling stereolithography. These tiny concrete blocks handle compression loads and provide a barrier to harmful radiation. They are joined by a web of tension members that could be made of wire or fiber-reinforced plastic. The finished structure becomes air-tight with the addition of a flexible liner. Wire can be made from the iron modules found in lunar soil. In addition to its structural role, a relatively simple apparatus can bend and weld it into countless products like chairs and shelving that would otherwise need to be supplied from Earth. Wire woven into a loose blanket could be an effective micrometeoroid shield, tiny wire compression beams could be assembled into larger beams which in turn form larger beams to create very large space-frame structures. A technology developed with lunar materials could be applied to the moons of Mars or the asteroids. To illustrate its usefulness several designs for free-flying habitats are presented. They begin with a minimal self-contained living unit called the Cubicle. It may be multiplied into clusters called Condos. These are shown in a rotating tether configuration that provides a substitute for gravity. The miniature block proposal is compared with an alternate design based on larger triangular components and a tetrahedral geometry. The

  11. Information resources: How they are utilized by Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, S.

    1990-12-31

    Louisiana, now in a developmental stage of policy and planning, has completed a project aimed at reducing hazardous releases of air toxics in thee state. The state is also conducting a Comparative Risk Project and is using risk assessment practices to develop its waste quality standards. In developing an air toxic list, Louisiana incorporated four major criteria into the ranking: emission levels, human health effects, potential population exposure, and persistence or accumulation in the environment. For the human health effects criterion, data for each substance was gathered from numerous sources, although the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database was used as a primary source for toxicological information. Following guidelines established by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Office of Water Resources, Water Pollution Control Division, has developed numerical criteria for human health protection based on risk assessment procedures in the 1989 Water Quality Standards Revision. Currently over 30 toxic substances have risk-based criteria for th protection of human health in the standards. Numerical criteria were calculated for carcinogenic substances having an EPA Classification of A, B1, B2, or C. Cancer class designations along with cancer potency slopes and reference doses were extracted from the IRIS database, with the exception of those chemicals that had not been assessed in IRIS as of December 1, 1988. The parameters necessary for calculating human health criteria for the missing chemicals were taken from 1980, 1984, and 1985 ambient water quality criteria documents: data on bioconcentration factors were included. Currently, Louisiana is working on a Comparative Risk Project, a ranking of the environmental issues in the state relative to potential risk to the public, which is the basis for a widespread 1991 public outreach effort.

  12. 78 FR 68461 - Guidance for Industry: Studies To Evaluate the Utility of Anti-Salmonella Chemical Food Additives...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... Anti- Salmonella Chemical Food Additives in Feeds; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug... Chemical Food Additives in Feeds,'' and is seeking comments on this guidance before revisions are made... Guidance for Industry: Studies to Evaluate the Utility of Anti-Salmonella Chemical Food Additives in...

  13. Energy Efficiency as a Preferred Resource: Evidence from Utility Resource Plans in the Western United States and Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, Nichole; Barbose, Galen; Goldman, Charles; Schlegel, Jeff

    2008-09-15

    This article examines the future role of energy efficiency as a resource in the Western United States and Canada, as envisioned in the most recent resource plans issued by 16 utilities, representing about 60percent of the region's load. Utility and third-party administered energy efficiency programs proposed by 15 utilities over a ten-year horizon would save almost 19,000 GWh annually, about 5.2percent of forecast load. There are clear regional trends in the aggressiveness of proposed energy savings. California's investor-owned utilities (IOUs) had the most aggressive savings targets, followed by IOUs in the Pacific Northwest, and the lowest savings were proposed by utilities in Inland West states and by two public utilities on the West coast. The adoption of multiple, aggressive policies targeting energy efficiency and climate change appear to produce sizeable energy efficiency commitments. Certain specific policies, such as mandated energy savings goals for California's IOUs and energy efficiency provisions in Nevada's Renewable Portfolio Standard had a direct impact on the level of energy savings included in the resource plans. Other policies, such as revenue decoupling and shareholder incentives, and voluntary or legislatively mandated greenhouse gas emission reduction policies, may have also impacted utilities' energy efficiency commitments, though the effects of these policies are not easily measured. Despite progress among the utilities in our sample, more aggressive energy efficiency strategies that include high-efficiency standards for additional appliances and equipment, tighter building codes for new construction and renovation, as well as more comprehensive ratepayer-funded energy efficiency programs are likely to be necessary to achieve a region-wide goal of meeting 20percent of electricity demand with efficiency in 2020.

  14. Online Learning Resources "Do" Make a Difference: Mediating Effects of Resource Utilization on Course Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostager, Todd J.

    2014-01-01

    The author explores the extent to which online learning resources help level the playing field through mediating the effects of grade point average (GPA) and gender in determining course grades. Study findings reveal that a greater use of online resources can fully offset the effects of gender and partially offset the effects of GPA on the grades…

  15. Balancing Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy in Western Utility Resource Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-08-10

    Markets for renewable energy have historically been motivated primarily by policy efforts, but a less widely recognized driver is poised to also play a major role in the coming years: utility integrated resource planning (IRP). Resource planning has re-emerged in recent years as an important tool for utilities and regulators, particularly in regions where retail competition has failed to take root. In the western United States, the most recent resource plans contemplate a significant amount of renewable energy additions. These planned additions--primarily coming from wind power--are motivated by the improved economics of wind power, a growing acceptance of wind by electric utilities, and an increasing recognition of the inherent risks (e.g., natural gas price risk, environmental compliance risk) in fossil-based generation portfolios. This report examines how twelve western utilities treat renewable energy in their recent resource plans. In aggregate, these utilities supply approximately half of all electricity demand in the western United States. Our purpose is twofold: (1) to highlight the growing importance of utility IRP as a current and future driver of renewable energy, and (2) to identify methodological/modeling issues, and suggest possible improvements to methods used to evaluate renewable energy as a resource option. Here we summarize the key findings of the report, beginning with a discussion of the planned renewable energy additions called for by the twelve utilities, an overview of how these plans incorporated renewables into candidate portfolios, and a review of the specific technology cost and performance assumptions they made, primarily for wind power. We then turn to the utilities' analysis of natural gas price and environmental compliance risks, and examine how the utilities traded off portfolio cost and risk in selecting a preferred portfolio.

  16. [Protection, exploitation and utilization states of specialized Mongolian folk medicine resources and related development strategy].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun-hong; Man, Da; Wu, Guo-dong; Li, Zhen-hua; Zhao, Dong-dong; Liu, Yong; Li, Min-hui

    2015-03-01

    Mongolian folk medicine resource is the origin of Mongolian medicine development, even more important of which is the specialized Mongolian folk medicine resources with regional and high medicine quality, it processes distinctive national characteristics with irreplaceable important position in traditional Mongolian medicine. Nevertheless, due to the serious destroy of ecological environment and sharp increase of demands, etc. A lot of specialized Mongolian folk medicine resources were endangered, and there still existed some problems in the protection and exploitation and utilization. This paper intends to provide comprehensive insight into the species protection and exploitation and utilization states of specialized Mongolian folk medicine resources. The application and protection status and the existing problems were reviewed, and the development strategies of Mongolian folk medicine resource were analyzed.

  17. Utilization of agricultural by-products in healthful food products: Organogelators, antioxidants, and spreadable products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It was found that several agricultural by-products could be utilized for healthful food products. Three major applications that our research group has been focusing on will be discussed: 1) plant waxes for trans-fat free, low saturated fat-containing margarine and spread products, 2) extracts of cor...

  18. Effects of amino-acid mixtures on food utilization and growth in Tenebrio molitor L.

    PubMed

    Davis, G R

    1985-06-01

    Ten holidic diets, varying in amino-acid concentration or composition, were fed to larvae of Tenebrio molitor for four weeks at 27 +/- 0.25 degrees C and 65 +/- 5% r.h. Effects of diet on growth, food utilization and energy utilization were recorded for individual larvae. Differences in gains in fresh weight or in dry matter among larvae fed diets containing 0% to 5% of the amino-acid mixture were not demonstrated. However, larvae fed 10% or 20% of this mixture gained more than the former, but less than larvae fed a diet of ground whole wheat and brewer's yeast (9:1, w/w). When the amino-acid mixture was supplemented with alanine, aspartic acid, and serine, or with these three and asparagine, and was fed to larvae at the 10% level, growth was slower than with the unsupplemented mixture. Supplementation of the amino-acid mixture with the first three amino acids did not reduce larval growth when fed at the 20% level. Amounts of food and of energy utilized were positively correlated with larval fresh-weight and dry-matter gains. Energy utilization was negatively correlated with dietary amino-acid level. Food and energy utilization and larval growth were influenced by dietary amino acids, either metabolically or through phagostimulation.

  19. Heart failure in primary care: co-morbidity and utilization of health care resources

    PubMed Central

    Carmona, Montserrat; García-Olmos, Luis M; García-Sagredo, Pilar; Alberquilla, Ángel; López-Rodríguez, Fernando; Pascual, Mario; Muñoz, Adolfo; Salvador, Carlos H; Monteagudo, José L; Otero-Puime, Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Background. In order to ensure proper management of primary care (PC) services, the efficiency of the health professionals tasked with such services must be known. Patients with heart failure (HF) are characterized by advanced age, high co-morbidity and high resource utilization. Objective. To ascertain PC resource utilization by HF patients and variability in the management of such patients by GPs. Methods. Descriptive, cross-sectional study targeting a population attended by 129 GPs over the course of 1 year. All patients with diagnosis of HF in their clinical histories were included, classified using the Adjusted Clinical Group system and then grouped into six resource utilization bands (RUBs). Resource utilization and Efficiency Index were both calculated. Results. One hundred per cent of patients with HF were ranked in RUBs 3, 4 and 5. The highest GP visit rate was 20 and the lowest in excess of 10 visits per year. Prescription drug costs for these patients ranged from €885 to €1422 per patient per year. Health professional efficiency varied notably, even after adjustment for co-morbidity (Efficiency Index Variation Ratio of 28.27 for visits and 404.29 for prescription drug cost). Conclusions. Patients with HF register a high utilization of resources, and there is great variability in the management of such patients by health professionals, which cannot be accounted for by the degree of case complexity. PMID:23776041

  20. Children's traditional ecological knowledge of wild food resources: a case study in a rural village in Northeast Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Setalaphruk, Chantita; Price, Lisa Leimar

    2007-01-01

    Consuming wild foods is part of the food ways of people in many societies, including farming populations throughout the world. Knowledge of non-domesticated food resources is part of traditional and tacit ecological knowledge, and is largely transmitted through socialization within cultural and household contexts. The context of this study, a small village in Northeast Thailand, is one where the community has experienced changes due to the migration of the parental generation, with the children being left behind in the village to be raised by their grandparents. A case study approach was used in order to gain holistic in-depth insight into children's traditional ecological knowledge as well as patterns of how children acquire their knowledge regarding wild food resources. Techniques used during field data collection are free-listing conducted with 30 village children and the use of a sub-sample of children for more in-depth research. For the sub-sample part of the study, wild food items consisted of a selection of 20 wild food species consisting of 10 species of plants and 10 species of animals. Semi-structured interviews with photo identification, informal interviews and participatory observation were utilized, and both theoretical and practical knowledge scored. The sub-sample covers eight households with boys and girls aged between 10–12 years old from both migrant families and non-migrant families. The knowledge of children was compared and the transmission process was observed. The result of our study shows that there is no observable difference among children who are being raised by grandparents and those being raised by their parents, as there are different channels of knowledge transmission to be taken into consideration, particularly grandparents and peers. The basic ability (knowledge) for naming wild food species remains among village children. However, the practical in-depth knowledge, especially about wild food plants, shows some potential eroding

  1. Market study for direct utilization of geothermal resources by selected sectors of economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-08-01

    A comprehensive analysis is presented of industrial markets potential for direct use of geothermal energy by a total of six industry sectors: food and kindred products; tobacco manufactures; textile mill products; lumber and wood products (except furniture); chemicals and allied products; and leather and leather products. Location determinants and potential for direct use of geothermal resources are presented. The data was gathered through interviews with 30 senior executives in the six sectors of economy selected for study. Probable locations of plants in geothermal resource areas and recommendations for geothermal resource marketing are presented.

  2. Asymptotic stability of tri-trophic food chains sharing a common resource.

    PubMed

    Vrkoč, Ivo; Křivan, Vlastimil

    2015-12-01

    One of the key results of the food web theory states that the interior equilibrium of a tri-trophic food chain described by the Lotka-Volterra type dynamics is globally asymptotically stable whenever it exists. This article extends this result to food webs consisting of several food chains sharing a common resource. A Lyapunov function for such food webs is constructed and asymptotic stability of the interior equilibrium is proved. Numerical simulations show that as the number of food chains increases, the real part of the leading eigenvalue, while still negative, approaches zero. Thus the resilience of such food webs decreases with the number of food chains in the web. PMID:26498384

  3. In-Situ Resource Utilization: Laying the Foundation for "Living off the Land"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, D. I.

    2000-01-01

    The technology to manufacture rocket propellants, breathing and life-support gases, fuel cell reagents, and other consumables on Mars using indigenous Martian resources as feedstock in the production process is known as In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). Several studies of the long-term, committed exploration of Mars by humans show that ISRU is essential ... an enabling technology. The recognized value of ISRU to human exploration is reflected in the NASA Strategic Plan. In the description of the "Strategies and Outcomes" of the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise, the NASA Strategic Plan states: The [HEDS] Enterprise relies on the robotic missions of the Space Science Enterprise to provide extensive knowledge of the geology, environment, and resources of planetary bodies. The Space Science Enterprise missions will also demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing local resources to "live off the land."

  4. Biotechnologies for the management of genetic resources for food and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Lidder, Preetmoninder; Sonnino, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the land area under agriculture has declined as also has the rate of growth in agricultural productivity while the demand for food continues to escalate. The world population now stands at 7 billion and is expected to reach 9 billion in 2045. A broad range of agricultural genetic diversity needs to be available and utilized in order to feed this growing population. Climate change is an added threat to biodiversity that will significantly impact genetic resources for food and agriculture (GRFA) and food production. There is no simple, all-encompassing solution to the challenges of increasing productivity while conserving genetic diversity. Sustainable management of GRFA requires a multipronged approach, and as outlined in the paper, biotechnologies can provide powerful tools for the management of GRFA. These tools vary in complexity from those that are relatively simple to those that are more sophisticated. Further, advances in biotechnologies are occurring at a rapid pace and provide novel opportunities for more effective and efficient management of GRFA. Biotechnology applications must be integrated with ongoing conventional breeding and development programs in order to succeed. Additionally, the generation, adaptation, and adoption of biotechnologies require a consistent level of financial and human resources and appropriate policies need to be in place. These issues were also recognized by Member States at the FAO international technical conference on Agricultural Biotechnologies for Developing Countries (ABDC-10), which took place in March 2010 in Mexico. At the end of the conference, the Member States reached a number of key conclusions, agreeing, inter alia, that developing countries should significantly increase sustained investments in capacity building and the development and use of biotechnologies to maintain the natural resource base; that effective and enabling national biotechnology policies and science-based regulatory frameworks can

  5. Water resources transfers through southern African food trade: water efficiency and climate signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalin, C.; Conway, D.

    2015-12-01

    Temporal and spatial variability of precipitation in Southern Africa is particularly high. The associated drought and flood risks, combined with a largely rainfed agriculture, pose a challenge for water and food security in this region. It is thus important to understand both how climate variability affects agricultural productivity and how intra- and extra-regional trade can contribute to the region's capacity to deal with climate-related shocks. We combine international food trade data and a global hydrological model to quantify the water resources embedded in international food trade in southern Africa and with the rest of the world, from 1986-2011. We analyze the impacts of socio-economic, political and climatic changes on agricultural trade and embedded water resources during that period. We find that regional food trade is efficient in terms of water resources but may be unsustainable because water-productive exporters, like South Africa, rely on increasingly scarce water resources. The role of imports from the rest of the world in the region's food supply is important, in particular during severe droughts. This reflects how trade can efficiently redistribute water resources across continents in response to a sudden gap in food production and water productivity. As regional collaboration strengthens through the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) and trade with other regions increases, our results point out opportunities for improved water-efficiency and sustainability of the region's food production via trade.

  6. Closing the cycle on food and energy resource flows in order to create a more sustainable rural economy in Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casillas, C. E.

    2009-12-01

    The ecologically sustainable development of economies is often discussed at the urban scale and framed in terms of the environmental threats that accompany rapid growth. The dynamics of rural economies are less complex and provide valuable insights into how resource flows may be better utilized, as well what are the critical roles and relationships of government and society. This paper will present a case study of economic and ecologically appropriate innovations that can be made to the production and consumption behavior within a community on the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua. Orinoco is a small Garifuna community situated on the Pearl Lagoon basin. It has a population of over 1000 people and its economy is primarily based on the exploitation of declining shrimp and fish resources. This paper will quantify the monetary and material resource flows comprising the current economy, and present technically viable alternatives that would utilize the abundant natural resources in a more ecologically sustainable manner, while decreasing the dependence on imported food and fuels. Specifically, the paper will describe how recently implemented projects of energy conservation can be coupled with improved agricultural and fishing practices in order to meet local and external market demands for fish and vegetable oil. Secondary products can be utilized to eliminate the dependence on imported liquid and gas fossil fuels for cooking and electricity generation.

  7. Cost and resource utilization in cervical cancer management: a real-world retrospective cost analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cromwell, I.; Ferreira, Z.; Smith, L.; van der Hoek, K.; Ogilvie, G.; Coldman, A.; Peacock, S.J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We set out to assess the health care resource utilization and cost of cervical cancer from the perspective of a single-payer health care system. Methods Retrospective observational data for women diagnosed with cervical cancer in British Columbia between 2004 and 2009 were analyzed to calculate patient-level resource utilization patterns from diagnosis to death or 5-year discharge. Domains of resource use within the scope of this cost analysis were chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and brachytherapy administered by the BC Cancer Agency; resource utilization related to hospitalization and outpatient visits as recorded by the B.C. Ministry of Health; medically required services billed under the B.C. Medical Services Plan; and prescriptions dispensed under British Columbia’s health insurance programs. Unit costs were applied to radiotherapy and brachytherapy, producing per-patient costs. Results The mean cost per case of treating cervical cancer in British Columbia was $19,153 (standard error: $3,484). Inpatient hospitalizations, at 35%, represented the largest proportion of the total cost (95% confidence interval: 32.9% to 36.9%). Costs were compared for subgroups of the total cohort. Conclusions As health care systems change the way they manage, screen for, and prevent cervical cancer, cost-effectiveness evaluations of the overall approach will require up-to-date data for resource utilization and costs. We provide information suitable for such a purpose and also identify factors that influence costs. PMID:26985142

  8. Advanced pressurized water reactor for improved resource utilization, part II - composite advanced PWR concept

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, S.E.; Gurley, M.K.; Kirby, K.D.; Mitchell, W III

    1981-09-15

    This report evaluates the enhanced resource utilization in an advanced pressurized water reactor (PWR) concept using a composite of selected improvements identified in a companion study. The selected improvements were in the areas of reduced loss of neutrons to control poisons, reduced loss of neutrons in leakage from the core, and improved blanket/reflector concepts. These improvements were incorporated into a single composite advanced PWR. A preliminary assessment of resource requirements and costs and impact on safety are presented.

  9. Married Women's Resource Position and Household Food Expenditures in Cebu, Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmeer, Kammi K

    2005-01-01

    This study analyzes how married women use their access to and control over economic resources to increase household spending on food. Using data from Cebu, Philippines, where child malnutrition is high, this study finds that the more income women earn and control, the more households spend on food. Women's control over their income is particularly…

  10. Water resources transfers through southern African food trade: water efficiency and climate signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalin, Carole; Conway, Declan

    2016-01-01

    Temporal and spatial variability of precipitation in southern Africa is particularly high. The associated drought and flood risks, combined with a largely rain-fed agriculture, pose a challenge for water and food security in the region. As regional collaboration strengthens through the Southern Africa Development Community and trade with other regions increases, it is thus important to understand both how climate variability affects agricultural productivity and how food trade (regional and extra-regional) can contribute to the region's capacity to deal with climate-related shocks. We combine global hydrological model simulations with international food trade data to quantify the water resources embedded in international food trade in southern Africa and with the rest of the world, from 1986-2011. We analyze the impacts of socio-economic changes and climatic variability on agricultural trade and embedded water resources during this period. We find that regional food trade is efficient in terms of water use but may be unsustainable because water-productive exporters, like South Africa, rely on increasingly stressed water resources. The role of imports from the rest of the world in the region's food supply is important, in particular during severe droughts. This reflects how trade can efficiently redistribute water resources across continents in response to a sudden gap in food production. In a context of regional and global integration, our results highlight opportunities for improved water-efficiency and sustainability of the region's food supply via trade.

  11. Food First Resource Guide: Documentation on the Roots of World Hunger and Rural Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Food and Development Policy, San Francisco, CA.

    This guide reviews resources used to develop the analysis of world hunger in "Food First: Beyond the Myth of Scarcity," Houghton Mifflin, 1977. The objectives are to help people understand the economic and political factors that contribute to food deprivation, document this analysis with credible sources, and inform high school, college, and…

  12. Assessing Student Attitudes toward Animal Welfare, Resource Use, and Food Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordstrom, Patricia A.; Richards, Martha J.; Wilson, Lowell L.; Coe, Brenda L.; Fivek, Marianne L.; Brown, Michele B.

    2000-01-01

    Students participating in the Pennsylvania Governor's School for Agricultural Sciences (n=192) studied animal welfare, resource use, and food safety. They ranked food safety as a primary concern. Students with and without agricultural backgrounds showed positive changes in knowledge and perception of issues after the course. (SK)

  13. Utilization of household food waste for the production of ethanol at high dry material content

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Environmental issues and shortage of fossil fuels have turned the public interest to the utilization of renewable, environmentally friendly fuels, such as ethanol. In order to minimize the competition between fuels and food production, researchers are focusing their efforts to the utilization of wastes and by-products as raw materials for the production of ethanol. household food wastes are being produced in great quantities in European Union and their handling can be a challenge. Moreover, their disposal can cause severe environmental issues (for example emission of greenhouse gasses). On the other hand, they contain significant amounts of sugars (both soluble and insoluble) and they can be used as raw material for the production of ethanol. Results Household food wastes were utilized as raw material for the production of ethanol at high dry material consistencies. A distinct liquefaction/saccharification step has been included to the process, which rapidly reduced the viscosity of the high solid content substrate, resulting in better mixing of the fermenting microorganism. This step had a positive effect in both ethanol production and productivity, leading to a significant increase in both values, which was up to 40.81% and 4.46 fold, respectively. Remaining solids (residue) after fermentation at 45% w/v dry material (which contained also the unhydrolyzed fraction of cellulose), were subjected to a hydrothermal pretreatment in order to be utilized as raw material for a subsequent ethanol fermentation. This led to an increase of 13.16% in the ethanol production levels achieving a final ethanol yield of 107.58 g/kg dry material. Conclusions In conclusion, the ability of utilizing household food waste for the production of ethanol at elevated dry material content has been demonstrated. A separate liquefaction/saccharification process can increase both ethanol production and productivity. Finally, subsequent fermentation of the remaining solids could

  14. Animal waste utilization: Effective use of manure as a soil resource

    SciTech Connect

    Hatfield, J.L.; Stewart, B.A.

    1998-12-31

    This unique book examines the beneficial aspects of animal waste as a soil resource--not simply as an agricultural by-product with minimal practical use. Topics include: types of livestock waste--swine, poultry, dairy; methods and management of waste utilization; storage, handling, processing and application of animal waste; economics of waste utilization; new modeling and management techniques; and nonpoint source pollution, water quality, leaching, and air quality.

  15. Preface: Terrestrial Fieldwork to Support in situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) and Robotic Resource Prospecting for Future Activities in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Gerald B.

    2015-05-01

    Finding, extracting, and using resources at the site of robotic and human exploration activities holds the promise of enabling sustainable and affordable exploration of the Moon, Mars, and asteroids, and eventually allow humans to expand their economy and habitation beyond the surface of the Earth. Commonly referred to as in situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), mineral and volatile resources found in space can be converted into oxygen, water, metals, fuels, and manufacturing and construction materials (such as plastics and concrete) for transportation, power, life support, habitation construction, and part/logistics manufacturing applications. For every kilogram of payload landed on the surface of the Moon or Mars, 7.5-11 kg of payload (mostly propellant) needs to be launched into low Earth orbit. Therefore, besides promising long-term self-sufficiency and infrastructure growth, ISRU can provide significant reductions in launch costs and the number of launches required. Key to being able to use space resources is knowing where they are located, how much is there, and how the resources are distributed. While ISRU holds great promise, it has also never been demonstrated in an actual space mission. Therefore, operations and hardware associated with each ISRU prospecting, excavation, transportation, and processing step must be examined, tested, and finally integrated to enable the end goal of using space resources in future human space missions.

  16. Implications of Postharvest Food Loss/Waste Prevention to Energy and Resources Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, X.; Shafiee-Jood, M.

    2015-12-01

    World's growing demand for food is driven by population and income growth, dietary changes, and the ever-increasing competition between food, feed and bioenergy challenges food security; meanwhile agricultural expansion and intensification threats the environment by the various detrimental impacts. Researchers have attempted to explore strategies to overcome this grand challenge. One of the promising solutions that have attracted considerable attention recently is to increase the efficiency of food supply chain by reducing food loss and waste (FLW). According to recent studies conducted by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), United Nation, almost one third of the food produced for human consumption globally is lost or wasted along the food supply chain. This amount of food discarded manifests a missing, yet potential, opportunity to sustainably enhance both food security and environmental sustainability. However, implementing the strategies and technologies for tackling FLW does not come up as an easy solution since it requires economic incentives, benefit and cost analysis, infrastructure development, and appropriate market mechanism. In this presentation I will provide a synthesis of knowledge on the implications of postharvest food loss/waste prevention to energy and resource conservation, environmental protection, as well as food security. I will also discuss how traditional civil and environmental engineering can contribute to the reduction of postharvest food loss, an important issue of sustainable agriculture.

  17. Balancing Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy inWestern Utility Resource Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2005-09-01

    Markets for renewable electricity have grown significantly in recent years, motivated in part by federal tax incentives and in part by state renewables portfolio standards and renewable energy funds. State renewables portfolio standards, for example, motivated approximately 45% of the 4,300 MW of wind power installed in the U.S. from 2001 through 2004, while renewable energy funds supported an additional 15% of these installations. Despite the importance of these state policies, a less widely recognized driver for renewable energy market growth is poised to also play an important role in the coming years: utility integrated resource planning (IRP). Formal resource planning processes have re-emerged in recent years as an important tool for utilities and regulators, particularly in regions where retail competition has failed to take root. In the western United States, recent resource plans contemplate a significant amount of renewable energy additions. These planned additions - primarily coming from wind power - are motivated by the improved economics of wind power, a growing acceptance of wind by electric utilities, and an increasing recognition of the inherent risks (e.g., natural gas price risk, environmental compliance risk) in fossil-based generation portfolios. The treatment of renewable energy in utility resource plans is not uniform, however. Assumptions about the direct and indirect costs of renewable resources, as well as resource availability, differ, as do approaches to incorporating such resources into the candidate portfolios that are analyzed in utility IRPs. The treatment of natural gas price risk, as well as the risk of future environmental regulations, also varies substantially. How utilities balance expected portfolio cost versus risk in selecting a preferred portfolio also differs. Each of these variables may have a substantial effect on the degree to which renewable energy contributes to the preferred portfolio of each utility IRP. This article

  18. Online Resources for Teaching Units on: Ecological Footprint of Human Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrocco, Aldo T.

    2011-01-01

    The modern food system involves high consumption of natural resources and other forms of environmental degradation. This paper is a presentation of internet resources such as scientific contributions, graphics, tables, images, animations and interactive atlases that can help to teach this subject. The discussion contains some subjects considered…

  19. The role of synthetic biology for in situ resource utilization (ISRU).

    PubMed

    Montague, Michael; McArthur, George H; Cockell, Charles S; Held, Jason; Marshall, William; Sherman, Louis A; Wang, Norman; Nicholson, Wayne L; Tarjan, Daniel R; Cumbers, John

    2012-12-01

    A persistent presence in space can either be supported from Earth or generate the required resources for human survival from material already present in space, so called "in situ material." Likely, many of these resources such as water or oxygen can best be liberated from in situ material by conventional physical and chemical processes. However, there is one critical resource required for human life that can only be produced in quantity by biological processes: high-protein food. Here, recent data concerning the materials available on the Moon and common asteroid types is reviewed with regard to the necessary materials to support the production of food from material in situ to those environments. These materials and their suitability as feedstock for the biological production of food are reviewed in a broad and general way such that terminology that is often a barrier to understanding such material by interdisciplinary readers is avoided. The waste products available as in situ materials for feasibility studies on the International Space Station are also briefly discussed. The conclusion is that food production in space environments from in situ material proven to exist there is quite feasible.

  20. The role of synthetic biology for in situ resource utilization (ISRU).

    PubMed

    Montague, Michael; McArthur, George H; Cockell, Charles S; Held, Jason; Marshall, William; Sherman, Louis A; Wang, Norman; Nicholson, Wayne L; Tarjan, Daniel R; Cumbers, John

    2012-12-01

    A persistent presence in space can either be supported from Earth or generate the required resources for human survival from material already present in space, so called "in situ material." Likely, many of these resources such as water or oxygen can best be liberated from in situ material by conventional physical and chemical processes. However, there is one critical resource required for human life that can only be produced in quantity by biological processes: high-protein food. Here, recent data concerning the materials available on the Moon and common asteroid types is reviewed with regard to the necessary materials to support the production of food from material in situ to those environments. These materials and their suitability as feedstock for the biological production of food are reviewed in a broad and general way such that terminology that is often a barrier to understanding such material by interdisciplinary readers is avoided. The waste products available as in situ materials for feasibility studies on the International Space Station are also briefly discussed. The conclusion is that food production in space environments from in situ material proven to exist there is quite feasible. PMID:23140229

  1. World Food Resources and Population: The Narrowing Margin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.

    1981-01-01

    This bulletin examines the narrowing margin between global food production and population growth. Between 1950 and 1971, world grain production nearly doubled and per capita production increased 31 percent. During the 1970s, gains in output barely kept pace with population growth, consumption per person declined in sub-Saharan Africa and parts of…

  2. Food Security: Selected Global and U.S. Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocher, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Food security is researched and dealt with on local, regional, national, and global levels with solutions ranging from local farmers' market initiatives to increasing crop yields through genetically modified plants to streamlining global supply chains. Because of its broad, interdisciplinary nature, it is necessary to narrow the focus of this…

  3. A new concept for utility integrated resource planning: ``Start with the customer``

    SciTech Connect

    Arsali, N.; Neelakanta, P.S.

    1998-04-01

    The competitive restructuring of the electric power industry is intensifying pressures for electric utilities to control costs through improved utilization of existing assets and by minimizing capital investment in new generation, transmission, and distribution capacity. This article introduces a new planning approach that can provide more informed business decisions, resulting in higher asset utilization, lower overall costs, and enhanced customer service. Unlike traditional planning methods, which assumed captive customer load growth, this process starts at the customer, focusing on how the customer`s energy service needs can best be met. Experience garnered from utilities on four continents illustrates the potential of this new approach to reduce capital expenditure for energy resource additions, often at less than one-half the cost of conventional solutions. By reorienting how utilities think, plan, and are internally organized, this new approach can assist utilities in making the fundamental transition to a customer-driven industry. Additional benefits include accurate costing of energy resources and wheeling, reduced vulnerability to conflicts over facility siting, reduced risk in a time of rapid industry change. The process proposed here may not be the best IRP process for utilities in the future but could be of significant benefit during the restructuring period.

  4. The smell of good food: volatile infochemicals as resource quality indicators.

    PubMed

    Moelzner, Jana; Fink, Patrick

    2014-09-01

    Foraging success generally depends on various environmental and physiological factors. Particularly for organisms with limited motility such as gastropods, food searching is a very cost-intensive process. As energy gain through foraging is dependent on both resource quality and quantity, consumers have to be able to differentiate between varying resource items. The effectiveness of food searching could be increased through the perception of diet-derived chemical signals that convey information about a food resource's quality over a certain distance. This strategy would clearly help to optimize movement decisions. In this study, we investigated the foraging behaviour of a freshwater gastropod towards volatile signal substances released from benthic algae grown under high and low nutrient availability, representing high and low food quality, using behavioural assays in the laboratory. Our results demonstrate that volatile organic compounds (VOCs) serve as foraging kairomones for these aquatic, benthic herbivores. Further, we were able to show for the first time that snails are able to differentiate between high- and low-quality food sources, only by the perception of food odours alone (volatile infochemicals). Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry demonstrated quantitative as well as qualitative differences in the chemical composition of the VOCs bouquet, dependent on algal nutrient content. Our results suggest that the recognition of resource quality via the reception of signal substances is likely to be adaptive for consumers with low mobility to maximize ingestion of high-quality resources. PMID:24666400

  5. The smell of good food: volatile infochemicals as resource quality indicators.

    PubMed

    Moelzner, Jana; Fink, Patrick

    2014-09-01

    Foraging success generally depends on various environmental and physiological factors. Particularly for organisms with limited motility such as gastropods, food searching is a very cost-intensive process. As energy gain through foraging is dependent on both resource quality and quantity, consumers have to be able to differentiate between varying resource items. The effectiveness of food searching could be increased through the perception of diet-derived chemical signals that convey information about a food resource's quality over a certain distance. This strategy would clearly help to optimize movement decisions. In this study, we investigated the foraging behaviour of a freshwater gastropod towards volatile signal substances released from benthic algae grown under high and low nutrient availability, representing high and low food quality, using behavioural assays in the laboratory. Our results demonstrate that volatile organic compounds (VOCs) serve as foraging kairomones for these aquatic, benthic herbivores. Further, we were able to show for the first time that snails are able to differentiate between high- and low-quality food sources, only by the perception of food odours alone (volatile infochemicals). Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry demonstrated quantitative as well as qualitative differences in the chemical composition of the VOCs bouquet, dependent on algal nutrient content. Our results suggest that the recognition of resource quality via the reception of signal substances is likely to be adaptive for consumers with low mobility to maximize ingestion of high-quality resources.

  6. Efficient utilization of medical practice resources: a framework and case analysis.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Dipankar; Alvis, Whitney

    2003-01-01

    In the present environment of cost containment, physicians need to better understand their practice cost of providing patient care. The objectives of this study are to provide a control framework to help physicians assess the effectiveness of resource utilization of their practices and to discuss a case illustrating the application of this framework at a practice clinic. PMID:12967243

  7. Effect of Personality on the Use and Perceived Utility of Web-Based Health Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hruska, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Studies document numerous threats to human health exacerbated by multiple factors, including inadequate access to health-related information. The Internet has developed as one resource to provide health information; however, there remains a significant gap in understanding how personality differences influence the use and perceived utility of the…

  8. Assessment of Utilization of ICT Resources in Teaching among Tertiary Institution Business Educators in South Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okolocha, Chimezie Comfort; Nwadiani, Comfort Onaigho

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the utilization of ICT resources in teaching among business educators in tertiary institutions in south Nigeria. Two research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The population and sample for the study comprised all 240 business educators in colleges…

  9. The Resource Utilization of Women Who Use Violence in Intimate Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Suzanne C.; Sullivan, Tami P.

    2009-01-01

    Studies have found high rates of help seeking among domestic violence victims. However, little research has investigated the help-seeking patterns of women who use violence (many of whom are also abused). Understanding the resources utilized by women who are violent toward their partners may aid in designing interventions that will reduce the…

  10. High School Administrative Staffing in Washington State: Principal Perspectives on Resource Needs and Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steach, John C.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed methods study explored how high school principals prioritize their work and utilize available human resources to adjust to inadequate administrative staffing. Analysis of staffing levels across the state of Washington and specifically inside two eastern Washington districts framed interview questions for central office administration…

  11. Linking Resource Allocation to Student Achievement: A Study of Title 1 and Title 1 Stimulus Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumpe, Kati P.

    2012-01-01

    With the emphasis on high standards and fiscal accountability, there is a heightened need to inform the research linking student achievement to the allocation of resources. This mixed methods inquiry sought to study how schools utilized Title 1 and Title 1 stimulus funding from 2009-2011 to determine if correlations existed between areas of…

  12. Towards Designing an Integrated Architecture for NEO Characterization, Mitigation, Scientific Evaluation, and Resource Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Robert B.; LaPointe, Michael; Wilks, Rod; Allen, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This poster reviews the planning and design for an integrated architecture for characterization, mitigation, scientific evaluation and resource utilization of near earth objects. This includes tracks to observe and characterize the nature of the threat posed by a NEO, and deflect if a significant threat is posed. The observation stack can also be used for a more complete scientific analysis of the NEO.

  13. [Relationships between urbanization and water resource utilization in Dongting Lake District of South-central China].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing-Zhi; Zhu, Xiang; Li, Jing-Bao; Xu, Mei

    2013-06-01

    By using analytic hierarchy process and entropy method, the evaluation index system and the response relationship model of comprehensive development level of urbanization and comprehensive development and utilization potential of water resources in Dongting Lake District were constructed, with the key affecting factors, their change characteristics, and response characteristics from 2001 to 2010 analyzed. During the study period, the Dongting Lake District was undergoing a rapid development of urbanization, and at a scale expansion stage. The economic and social development level was lagged behind the population and area increase, and the quality and efficiency of urbanization were still needed to be improved. With the advance of urbanization, the water consumption increased yearly, and the water resources utilization efficiency and management level improved steadily. However, the background condition of water resources and their development and utilization level were more affected by hydrological environment rather than urbanization. To a certain extent, the development of urbanization in 2001, 2002, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009 was slowed down by the shortage of water resources. At present, Dongting Lake region was confronted with the dual task of improving the level and quality of urbanization, and hence, it would be necessary to reform the traditional epitaxial expansion of urbanization and to enhance the water resource support capability.

  14. Integrating fisheries approaches and household utility models for improved resource management

    PubMed Central

    Milner-Gulland, E. J.

    2011-01-01

    Natural resource management is littered with cases of overexploitation and ineffectual management, leading to loss of both biodiversity and human welfare. Disciplinary boundaries stifle the search for solutions to these issues. Here, I combine the approach of management strategy evaluation, widely applied in fisheries, with household utility models from the conservation and development literature, to produce an integrated framework for evaluating the effectiveness of competing management strategies for harvested resources against a range of performance metrics. I demonstrate the strengths of this approach with a simple model, and use it to examine the effect of manager ignorance of household decisions on resource management effectiveness, and an allocation tradeoff between monitoring resource stocks to reduce observation uncertainty and monitoring users to improve compliance. I show that this integrated framework enables management assessments to consider household utility as a direct metric for system performance, and that although utility and resource stock conservation metrics are well aligned, harvest yield is a poor proxy for both, because it is a product of household allocation decisions between alternate livelihood options, rather than an end in itself. This approach has potential far beyond single-species harvesting in situations where managers are in full control; I show that the integrated approach enables a range of management intervention options to be evaluated within the same framework. PMID:21205895

  15. Reduction of potential food interference in two sympatric carnivores by sequential use of shared resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrientos, Rafael; Virgós, Emilio

    2006-07-01

    The common genet ( Genetta genetta) and the stone marten ( Martes foina) are two species that overlap extensively in their distribution ranges in southwest Europe. Available diet data from these species allow us to predict some interference competition for food resources in sympatric populations. We checked the food interference hypothesis in a sympatric population. The diet of both predators was analyzed through scat collection. Seasonal differences in biomass consumption were compared between both species in those items considered as key resources according to biomass consumption. Strawberry tree fruits can be considered as key resource exclusively for genets whereas fungi, blackberries and rabbits are keys for stone martens only. For other key resources consumed by both species (wood mouse and figs) we suggest that a possible mechanism to reduce diet overlap could be the sequential use of these resources: no intensive exploitation by both species of the same key resource during the same season was detected. Figs and wood mouse were used alternatively. Although strawberry tree fruits and blackberry are exclusive key resources of one of the species, their consumptions showed the same pattern. Diet niche overlap in our study is low compared with other carnivore communities suggesting that exclusive use of some key resources and sequential use of shared ones is an optimal scenario to reduce overall competition for food resources.

  16. Use of Hawaii Analog Sites for Lunar Science and In-Situ Resource Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, G. B.; Larson, W. E.; Picard, M.; Hamilton, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) and lunar science share similar objectives with respect to analyzing and characterizing the physical, mineral, and volatile materials and resources at sites of robotic and human exploration. To help mature and stress instruments, technologies, and hardware and to evaluate operations and procedures, space agencies have utilized demonstrations at analog sites on Earth before use in future missions. The US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), and the German Space Agency (DLR) have utilized an analog site on the slope of Mauna Kea on the Big Island of Hawaii to test ISRU and lunar science hardware and operations in two previously held analog field tests. NASA and CSA are currently planning on a 3rd analog field test to be held in June, 2012 in Hawaii that will expand upon the successes from the previous two field tests.

  17. Use of Hawaii Analog Sites for Lunar Science and In-Situ Resource Utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, G. B.; Larson, W. E.; Picard, M.; Hamilton, J. C.

    2011-10-01

    In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) and lunar science share similar objectives with respect to analyzing and characterizing the physical, mineral, and volatile materials and resources at sites of robotic and human exploration. To help mature and stress instruments, technologies, and hardware and to evaluate operations and procedures, space agencies have utilized demonstrations at analog sites on Earth before use in future missions. The US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), and the German Space Agency (DLR) have utilized an analog site on the slope of Mauna Kea on the Big Island of Hawaii to test ISRU and lunar science hardware and operations in two previously held analog field tests. NASA and CSA are currently planning on a 3rd analog field test to be held in June, 2012 in Hawaii that will expand upon the successes from the previous two field tests.

  18. Lost water and nitrogen resources due to EU consumer food waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanham, D.; Bouraoui, F.; Leip, A.; Grizzetti, B.; Bidoglio, G.

    2015-08-01

    The European Parliament recently called for urgent measures to halve food waste in the EU, where consumers are responsible for a major part of total waste along the food supply chain. Due to a lack of data on national food waste statistics, uncertainty in (consumer) waste quantities (and the resulting associated quantities of natural resources) is very high, but has never been previously assessed in studies for the EU. Here we quantify: (1) EU consumer food waste, and (2) associated natural resources required for its production, in term of water and nitrogen, as well as estimating the uncertainty of these values. Total EU consumer food waste averages 123 (min 55-max 190) kg/capita annually (kg/cap/yr), i.e. 16% (min 7-max 24%) of all food reaching consumers. Almost 80%, i.e. 97 (min 45-max 153) kg/cap/yr is avoidable food waste, which is edible food not consumed. We have calculated the water and nitrogen (N) resources associated with avoidable food waste. The associated blue water footprint (WF) (the consumption of surface and groundwater resources) averages 27 litre per capita per day (min 13-max 40 l/cap/d), which slightly exceeds the total blue consumptive EU municipal water use. The associated green WF (consumptive rainwater use) is 294 (min 127-max 449) l/cap/d, equivalent to the total green consumptive water use for crop production in Spain. The nitrogen (N) contained in avoidable food waste averages 0.68 (min 0.29-max 1.08) kg/cap/yr. The food production N footprint (any remaining N used in the food production process) averages 2.74 (min 1.02-max 4.65) kg/cap/yr, equivalent to the use of mineral fertiliser by the UK and Germany combined. Among all the food product groups wasted, meat accounts for the highest amounts of water and N resources, followed by wasted cereals. The results of this study provide essential insights and information on sustainable consumption and resource efficiency for both EU policies and EU consumers.

  19. Construction and Resource Utilization Explorer (CRUX): Implementing Instrument Suite Data Fusion to Characterize Regolith Hydrogen Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haldemann, Albert F. C.; Johnson, Jerome B.; Elphic, Richard C.; Boynton, William V.; Wetzel, John

    2006-01-01

    CRUX is a modular suite of geophysical and borehole instruments combined with display and decision support system (MapperDSS) tools to characterize regolith resources, surface conditions, and geotechnical properties. CRUX is a NASA-funded Technology Maturation Program effort to provide enabling technology for Lunar and Planetary Surface Operations (LPSO). The MapperDSS uses data fusion methods with CRUX instruments, and other available data and models, to provide regolith properties information needed for LPSO that cannot be determined otherwise. We demonstrate the data fusion method by showing how it might be applied to characterize the distribution and form of hydrogen using a selection of CRUX instruments: Borehole Neutron Probe and Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer data as a function of depth help interpret Surface Neutron Probe data to generate 3D information. Secondary information from other instruments along with physical models improves the hydrogen distribution characterization, enabling information products for operational decision-making.

  20. Utilizing Existing Clinical and Population Biospecimen Resources for Discovery or Validation of Markers for Early Cancer Detection

    Cancer.gov

    Utilizing Existing Clinical and Population Biospecimen Resources for Discovery or Validation of Markers for Early Cancer Detection, a 2013 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  1. Fitness Effects of Food Resources on the Polyphagous Aphid Parasitoid, Aphidius colemani Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae)

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Jennifer J.; Paine, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation biological control involving the polyphagous aphid parasitoid, Aphidius colemani Viereck, may include provisioning resources from a variety of plant sources. The fitness of adult A. colemani was enhanced with the provision of food resources such as floral nectar from a range of both native and introduced plant species and aphid honeydew under laboratory conditions. However, enhanced fitness appeared to be species specific rather than associated with the whether the plant was a native or an introduced species. Parasitoid survival and fecundity were enhanced significantly in response to the availability of floral nectar and honeydew compared to the response to available extrafloral nectar. These positive effects on the parasitoid’s reproductive activity can improve the effectiveness of conservation biological control in nursery production systems because of the abundance and diversity of floral resources within typical production areas. Additionally, surrounding areas of invasive weeds and native vegetation could serve as both floral resources and honeydew food resources for A. colemani. PMID:26808191

  2. Fitness Effects of Food Resources on the Polyphagous Aphid Parasitoid, Aphidius colemani Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae).

    PubMed

    Charles, Jennifer J; Paine, Timothy D

    2016-01-01

    Conservation biological control involving the polyphagous aphid parasitoid, Aphidius colemani Viereck, may include provisioning resources from a variety of plant sources. The fitness of adult A. colemani was enhanced with the provision of food resources such as floral nectar from a range of both native and introduced plant species and aphid honeydew under laboratory conditions. However, enhanced fitness appeared to be species specific rather than associated with the whether the plant was a native or an introduced species. Parasitoid survival and fecundity were enhanced significantly in response to the availability of floral nectar and honeydew compared to the response to available extrafloral nectar. These positive effects on the parasitoid's reproductive activity can improve the effectiveness of conservation biological control in nursery production systems because of the abundance and diversity of floral resources within typical production areas. Additionally, surrounding areas of invasive weeds and native vegetation could serve as both floral resources and honeydew food resources for A. colemani.

  3. Mental imagery interventions reduce subsequent food intake only when self-regulatory resources are available

    PubMed Central

    Missbach, Benjamin; Florack, Arnd; Weissmann, Lukas; König, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that imagining food consumption leads to food-specific habituation effects. In the present research, we replicated these effects and further examined whether the depletion of self-regulatory resources would reduce the habituation effects of imagined food consumption. Since self-regulatory resources have been shown to reduce habituation effects during the perception of emotional stimuli, we expected a reduction in habituation effects from imagined food consumption when self-regulatory resources were depleted. In Study 1, we replicated habituation effects as a response to imagining gummy bear consumption with a high (36) and medium number (18) of repetitions in a camouflaged taste test. Participants imagining gummy bear intake showed decreased food intake compared with participants who imagined putting a coin into a laundry machine. The number of repetitions did not significantly moderate the observed habituation effect. In Study 2, we investigated whether self-regulatory depletion would impede habituation effects evoked by the imagination of walnut consumption. Participants in a depleted state did not show a reduction in food intake after imagining walnut intake compared with participants in a non-depleted state. We discuss directions for future research and processes that might underlie the observed moderating effect of self-regulatory resources. PMID:25506337

  4. Environmental challenges improve resource utilization for asexual reproduction and maintenance in hydra.

    PubMed

    Schaible, Ralf; Ringelhan, Felix; Kramer, Boris H; Miethe, Tanja

    2011-10-01

    Variation in life history can reflect genetic differences, and may be caused by environmental effects on phenotypes. Understanding how these two sources of life history variation interact to express an optimal allocation of resources in a changing environment is central to life history theory. This study addresses variation in the allocation of resources to asexual reproduction and to maintenance of Hydra magnipapillata in relation to differences in temperature and food availability. Hydra is a non-senescent, persistent species with primarily clonal reproduction. We recorded changes in budding rate and mean survival under starvation, which indicate changes in the allocation of resources to asexual reproduction and maintenance. In constant conditions we observed a clear trade-off between asexual reproduction and maintenance, where budding increased linearly with food intake while starvation survival stayed rather constant. In contrast, an environment with fluctuations in temperature or food availability promotes maintenance and increases the survival chances of hydra under starvation. Surprisingly, asexual reproduction also tends to be positively affected by fluctuating environmental conditions, which suggests that in this case there is no clear trade-off between asexual reproduction and maintenance in hydra. Environmental stresses have a beneficial impact on the fitness-related phenotypical traits of the basal metazoan hydra. The results indicate that, if the stress occurs in hormetic doses, variable stressful and fluctuating environments can be salutary for hydra. A closer examination of this dynamic can therefore enable us to develop a deeper understanding of the evolution of aging and longevity.

  5. Synthesis: comparing effects of resource and consumer fluxes into recipient food webs using meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Allen, Daniel C; Wesner, Jeff S

    2016-03-01

    Here we synthesize empirical research using meta-analysis to compare how consumer and resource fluxes affect recipient food webs. We tested the following hypotheses: (H1) The direct effects of resource fluxes (bottom-up) should be stronger than the direct effects of consumer fluxes (top-down), because resource fluxes are permanent (do not return to the food web in which they were produced) but consumer fluxes may not be (consumers can leave). (H2) Following H1, the indirect effects should attenuate (weaken) more quickly for consumer fluxes than for resource fluxes due to their direct effects being weaker, (H3) The effects of resource fluxes should be stronger when recipient food webs are in different ecosystems than donor food webs due to differences in elevation that accompany cross-ecosystem food web interfaces, often increasing flux quantity due to gravity, while the effects of consumer fluxes should be stronger when donor and recipient food webs are in the same ecosystem as they should more easily assimilate into the recipient food web. We found no differences in the magnitude of bottom-up and top-down direct effects for resource and consumer fluxes, but top-down direct effects were 122% stronger than top-down indirect effects. Indirect effects of prey and predator fluxes quickly attenuated while indirect effects of non-prey resource and herbivore fluxes did not, as the overall direct effects of prey and predator fluxes were 123% and 163% stronger than their indirect effects, respectively. This result suggests that the magnitude of indirect effects decrease as the trophic level of resource and consumer fluxes increases, and also contrasts with results from studies showing in situ top-down indirect effects are stronger than in situ bottom-up indirect effects. We found that resource and consumer flux effect sizes were similar when they occurred between ecosystems, but when they occurred within ecosystems predator flux effects were 107% stronger than nutrient flux

  6. Synthesis: comparing effects of resource and consumer fluxes into recipient food webs using meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Allen, Daniel C; Wesner, Jeff S

    2016-03-01

    Here we synthesize empirical research using meta-analysis to compare how consumer and resource fluxes affect recipient food webs. We tested the following hypotheses: (H1) The direct effects of resource fluxes (bottom-up) should be stronger than the direct effects of consumer fluxes (top-down), because resource fluxes are permanent (do not return to the food web in which they were produced) but consumer fluxes may not be (consumers can leave). (H2) Following H1, the indirect effects should attenuate (weaken) more quickly for consumer fluxes than for resource fluxes due to their direct effects being weaker, (H3) The effects of resource fluxes should be stronger when recipient food webs are in different ecosystems than donor food webs due to differences in elevation that accompany cross-ecosystem food web interfaces, often increasing flux quantity due to gravity, while the effects of consumer fluxes should be stronger when donor and recipient food webs are in the same ecosystem as they should more easily assimilate into the recipient food web. We found no differences in the magnitude of bottom-up and top-down direct effects for resource and consumer fluxes, but top-down direct effects were 122% stronger than top-down indirect effects. Indirect effects of prey and predator fluxes quickly attenuated while indirect effects of non-prey resource and herbivore fluxes did not, as the overall direct effects of prey and predator fluxes were 123% and 163% stronger than their indirect effects, respectively. This result suggests that the magnitude of indirect effects decrease as the trophic level of resource and consumer fluxes increases, and also contrasts with results from studies showing in situ top-down indirect effects are stronger than in situ bottom-up indirect effects. We found that resource and consumer flux effect sizes were similar when they occurred between ecosystems, but when they occurred within ecosystems predator flux effects were 107% stronger than nutrient flux

  7. Benefit-cost analysis of DOE's Current Federal Program to increase hydrothermal resource utilization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-10

    The impact of DOE's Current Federal Program on the commercialization of hydrothermal resources between 1980 and 2000 is analyzed. The hydrothermal resources of the United States and the types of DOE activities used to stimulate the development of these resources for both electric power and direct heat use are described briefly. The No Federal Program and the Current Federal Program are then described in terms of funding levels and the resultant market penetration estimates through 2000. These market penetration estimates are also compared to other geothermal utilization forecasts. The direct benefits of the Current Federal Program are next presented for electric power and direct heat use applications. An analysis of the external impacts associated with the additional hydrothermal resource development resulting from the Current Federal Program is also provided. Included are environmental effects, national security/balance-of-payments improvements, socioeconomic impacts and materials requirements. A summary of the analysis integrating the direct benefits, external impacts and DOE program costs concludes the report.

  8. Internest food sharing within wood ant colonies: resource redistribution behavior in a complex system

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Elva J.H.

    2016-01-01

    Resource sharing is an important cooperative behavior in many animals. Sharing resources is particularly important in social insect societies, as division of labor often results in most individuals including, importantly, the reproductives, relying on other members of the colony to provide resources. Sharing resources between individuals is therefore fundamental to the success of social insects. Resource sharing is complicated if a colony inhabits several spatially separated nests, a nesting strategy common in many ant species. Resources must be shared not only between individuals in a single nest but also between nests. We investigated the behaviors facilitating resource redistribution between nests in a dispersed-nesting population of wood ant Formica lugubris. We marked ants, in the field, as they transported resources along the trails between nests of a colony, to investigate how the behavior of individual workers relates to colony-level resource exchange. We found that workers from a particular nest “forage” to other nests in the colony, treating them as food sources. Workers treating other nests as food sources means that simple, pre-existing foraging behaviors are used to move resources through a distributed system. It may be that this simple behavioral mechanism facilitates the evolution of this complex life-history strategy. PMID:27004016

  9. Limiting resources in sessile systems: food enhances diversity and growth of suspension feeders despite available space.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Robin J; Marshall, Dustin J

    2015-03-01

    Much of our understanding of competition comes trom onservations in sessue systems, such as rainforests and marine invertebrate communities. In terrestrial systems, sessile species often compete for multiple limiting resources (i.e., space, light, and nutrients), but in marine systems, space is viewed as the primary or sole limiting resource. Competition theory, on the other hand, suggests that competition for a single limiting resource is unlikely to maintain high species diversity, but manipulative tests of competition for other resources in marine benthic systems are exceedingly rare. Here, we manipulate the availability of food for a classic system, marine sessile invertebrate communities, and investigate the effects on species diversity, abundance, and composition during early succession as well as on the growth of bryozoan populations in the field. We found the number of species to be greater, available space to be lower, and the community composition to be different in assemblages subjected to increased food availability compared to controls. Similarly, laboratory-settled bryozoans deployed into the field grew more in the presence of enhanced food. Our results suggest that food can act as a limiting resource, affecting both diversity and abundance, even when bare space is still available in hard-substratum communities. Consequently, broadening the view of resource limitation beyond solely space may increase our understanding and predictability of marine sessile systems.

  10. Limiting resources in sessile systems: food enhances diversity and growth of suspension feeders despite available space.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Robin J; Marshall, Dustin J

    2015-03-01

    Much of our understanding of competition comes trom onservations in sessue systems, such as rainforests and marine invertebrate communities. In terrestrial systems, sessile species often compete for multiple limiting resources (i.e., space, light, and nutrients), but in marine systems, space is viewed as the primary or sole limiting resource. Competition theory, on the other hand, suggests that competition for a single limiting resource is unlikely to maintain high species diversity, but manipulative tests of competition for other resources in marine benthic systems are exceedingly rare. Here, we manipulate the availability of food for a classic system, marine sessile invertebrate communities, and investigate the effects on species diversity, abundance, and composition during early succession as well as on the growth of bryozoan populations in the field. We found the number of species to be greater, available space to be lower, and the community composition to be different in assemblages subjected to increased food availability compared to controls. Similarly, laboratory-settled bryozoans deployed into the field grew more in the presence of enhanced food. Our results suggest that food can act as a limiting resource, affecting both diversity and abundance, even when bare space is still available in hard-substratum communities. Consequently, broadening the view of resource limitation beyond solely space may increase our understanding and predictability of marine sessile systems. PMID:26236877

  11. A retrospective study to assess resource utilization in patients with cervical dystonia in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Raluy-Callado, Mireia; Gabriel, Sylvie; Dinet, Jérôme; Wang, Meng; Wasiak, Radek

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cervical dystonia (CD) is a hypertonic condition caused by damage to the central nervous system. Very few studies have assessed the overall economic burden of the disease. The objective of this study was to describe the utilization of health care resources of patients with CD in the UK primary care setting, using a large population-based database. Patients and methods Adults with a first diagnosis of CD between January 1, 2007 and January 31, 2011, who were registered to a general practitioner (GP) practice contributing to The Health Improvement Network (THIN), were included. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were assessed at the time of diagnosis. Health care resource utilization and pharmacological treatment were investigated at the end of the first and second year after diagnosis. Results Overall, 4,024 newly diagnosed patients with CD were identified, with average age at diagnosis of 45 years old; 65.3% were female. Depression in the year prior to diagnosis was the most common comorbidity. Primary care utilization was high in the first year, with 99.2% of patients visiting their GP (on average 6.2 times), and 43% visiting a nurse (on average 2.5 times). Patients were most commonly referred to an orthopedic surgeon, and 15.9% reported at least one physiotherapy visit. In the second year, utilization was similar. Prescriptions of at least one of the investigated treatments were found in 82.0% and 45.3%, in the first and second year, respectively. Conclusion Findings suggest a high number of new CD cases are being identified in primary care, but not all will be referred to secondary care. Health care resource utilization was compared with that of all patients registered in THIN, which is representative of the UK, and the adjusted usage of primary care resources was found to be similar to that of the THIN population. PMID:25834443

  12. Lunar Polar In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) as a Stepping Stone for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Gerald B.

    2013-01-01

    A major emphasis of NASA is to extend and expand human exploration across the solar system. While specific destinations are still being discussed as to what comes first, it is imperative that NASA create new technologies and approaches that make space exploration affordable and sustainable. Critical to achieving affordable and sustainable exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) are the development of technologies and approaches for advanced robotics, power, propulsion, habitats, life support, and especially, space resource utilization systems. Space resources and how to use them, often called In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), can have a tremendous beneficial impact on robotic and human exploration of the Moon, Mars, Phobos, and Near Earth Objects (NEOs), while at the same time helping to solve terrestrial challenges and enabling commercial space activities. The search for lunar resources, demonstration of extraterrestrial mining, and the utilization of resource-derived products, especially from polar volatiles, can be a stepping stone for subsequent human exploration missions to other destinations of interest due to the proximity of the Moon, complimentary environments and resources, and the demonstration of critical technologies, processes, and operations. ISRU and the Moon: There are four main areas of development interest with respect to finding, obtaining, extracting, and using space resources: Prospecting for resources, Production of mission critical consumables like propellants and life support gases, Civil engineering and construction, and Energy production, storage, and transfer. The search for potential resources and the production of mission critical consumables are the primary focus of current NASA technology and system development activities since they provide the greatest initial reduction in mission mass, cost, and risk. Because of the proximity of the Moon, understanding lunar resources and developing, demonstrating, and implementing lunar ISRU

  13. Concepts of Operations for Asteroid Rendezvous Missions Focused on Resources Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Sibille, Laurent; Sanders, Gerald B.; Jones, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Several asteroids are the targets of international robotic space missions currently manifested or in the planning stage. This global interest reflects a need to study these celestial bodies for the scientific information they provide about our solar system, and to better understand how to mitigate the collision threats some of them pose to Earth. Another important objective of these missions is providing assessments of the potential resources that asteroids could provide to future space architectures. In this paper, we examine a series of possible mission operations focused on advancing both our knowledge of the types of asteroids suited for different forms of resource extraction, and the capabilities required to extract those resources for mission enhancing and enabling uses such as radiation protection, propulsion, life support, shelter and manufacturing. An evolutionary development and demonstration approach is recommended within the framework of a larger campaign that prepares for the first landings of humans on Mars. As is the case for terrestrial mining, the development and demonstration approach progresses from resource prospecting (understanding the resource, and mapping the 'ore body'), mining/extraction feasibility and product assessment, pilot operations, to full in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). Opportunities to gather specific knowledge for ISRU via resource prospecting during science missions to asteroids are also examined to maximize the pace of development of needed ISRU capabilities and technologies for deep space missions.

  14. Optimizing Land and Water Use at the Local Level to Enhance Global Food Security through Virtual Resources Trade in the World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, X.; Zhang, X.; Zhu, T.

    2014-12-01

    Global food security is constrained by local and regional land and water availability, as well as other agricultural input limitations and inappropriate national and global regulations. In a theoretical context, this study assumes that optimal water and land uses in local food production to maximize food security and social welfare at the global level can be driven by global trade. It follows the context of "virtual resources trade", i.e., utilizing international trade of agricultural commodities to reduce dependency on local resources, and achieves land and water savings in the world. An optimization model based on the partial equilibrium of agriculture is developed for the analysis, including local commodity production and land and water resources constraints, demand by country, and global food market. Through the model, the marginal values (MVs) of social welfare for water and land at the level of so-called food production units (i.e., sub-basins with similar agricultural production conditions) are derived and mapped in the world. In this personation, we will introduce the model structure, explain the meaning of MVs at the local level and their distribution around the world, and discuss the policy implications for global communities to enhance global food security. In particular, we will examine the economic values of water and land under different world targets of food security (e.g., number of malnourished population or children in a future year). In addition, we will also discuss the opportunities on data to improve such global modeling exercises.

  15. Cyanobacteria to Link Closed Ecological Systems and In-Situ Resources Utilization Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Igor

    Introduction: A major goal for the Vision of Space Exploration is to extend human presence across the solar sys-tem. With current technology, however, all required consumables for these missions (propellant, air, food, water) as well as habitable volume and shielding to support human explorers will need to be brought from Earth. In-situ pro-duction of consumables (In-Situ Resource Utilization-ISRU) will significantly facilitate current plans for human ex-ploration and colonization of the solar system, especially by reducing the logistical overhead such as recurring launch mass. The production of oxygen from lunar materials is generally recognized as the highest priority process for lunar ISRU, for both human metabolic and fuel oxidation needs. The most challenging technology developments for future lunar settlements may lie in the extraction of elements (O, Fe, Mn, Ti, Si, etc) from local rocks and soils for life support, industrial feedstock and the production of propellants. With few exceptions (e.g., Johannson, 1992), nearly all technology development to date has employed an ap-proach based on inorganic chemistry (e.g. Allen et al., 1996). None of these technologies include concepts for inte-grating the ISRU system with a bioregenerative life support system and a food production systems. Bioregenerative life support efforts have recently been added to the Constellation ISRU development program (Sanders et al, 2007). Methods and Concerns: The European Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) is an ad-vanced concept for organizing a bioregenerative system for long term space flights and extraterrestrial settlements (Hendrickx, De Wever et al., 2005). However the MELiSSA system is a net consumer of ISRU products without a net return to in-situ technologies, e.g.. to extract elements as a result of complete closure of MELiSSA. On the other hand, the physical-chemical processes for ISRU are typically massive (relative to the rate of oxygen

  16. Renewable-energy-resource options for the food-processing industry

    SciTech Connect

    Eakin, D.E.; Clark, M.A.; Inaba, L.K.

    1981-09-01

    The food processing industry generates significant quantities of organic process wastes which often require treatment prior to disposal or result in additional expenses for disposal. The food processing industry also requires fuel and electricity to provide the process energy to convert raw materials into finished food products. Depending on the particular process, organic wastes can represent a potential resource for conversion to energy products that can be used for providing process energy or other energy products. This document reports the results of an evaluation of renewable energy resource options for the food processing industry. The options evaluated were direct combustion for providing process heat, fermentation for ethanol production and anaerobic digestion for generation of methane.

  17. Examining the Utility of Stable Hydrogen Isotopes in Aquatic Food-Web Ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doucett, R. R.; Blinn, D. W.; Caron, M.; Ellis, B. K.; Marks, J. C.; Hungate, B. A.

    2005-05-01

    The utility of stable hydrogen isotopes (dD) in hydrology and terrestrial ecology is well understood, but it has not been sufficiently examined in the field of aquatic ecology. Here, we present initial results from: (1) the Colorado River (AZ), Fossil Creek (AZ) and Devil's Hole (NV), where we examined the usefulness of dD to distinguish between allochthonous and autochthonous inputs to aquatic food webs, and (2) from the Sopochnaya River, Russia, where we tested the ability of dD to discern between anadromous and freshwater steelhead trout. In general, aquatic inputs (-320 to -168 per mil) were much more depleted than terrestrial inputs (-166 to -105 per mil). Macroinvertebrates displayed dD values similar to presumed food sources (e.g., baetid mayflies ranged from -299 to -222 per mil). In some cases, mixing models suggested that dD was a better predictor of food-source origin than d13C. As expected, dD values for anadromous trout (-121 to -103 per mil) were more enriched than those of freshwater residents (-161 to -123 per mil), and strong correlations existed between dD, d34S, and d13C. Methodological considerations (e.g., exchangeable hydrogen) and certain assumptions (e.g., importance of food vs. water on tissue dD) will be discussed.

  18. In-Situ Resource Utilization for the Moon, Mars and Beyond...

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trigwell, Steve

    2010-01-01

    For any future manned exploration to the moon, Mars, or beyond, there is a significant need to reduce the cost and logistics of transporting the raw materials such as oxygen, water, and fuel required to sustain human activity. Current research at Kennedy Space Center is focused on utilizing the resources at the destination to produce these requirements on-site, i.e. to live off the land. This program, known as In-situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), is the focus of the Applied Science and Technology research group here at KSC. This slide presentation will introduce the laboratories and highlight current research in ISRU to produce oxygen, water, and fuel components from lunar and Martian regolith.

  19. Can Focused Trauma Education Initiatives Reduce Mortality or Improve Resource Utilization in a Low-Resource Setting?

    PubMed Central

    Petroze, Robin T.; Byiringiro, Jean Claude; Ntakiyiruta, Georges; Briggs, Susan M.; Deckelbaum, Dan L.; Razek, Tarek; Riviello, Robert; Kyamanywa, Patrick; Reid, Jennifer; Sawyer, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Over 90 % of injury deaths occur in low-income countries. Evaluating the impact of focused trauma courses in these settings is challenging. We hypothesized that implementation of a focused trauma education initiative in a low-income country would result in measurable differences in injury-related outcomes and resource utilization. Methods Two 3-day trauma education courses were conducted in the Rwandan capital over a one-month period (October–November, 2011). An ATLS provider demonstration course was delivered to 24 faculty surgeons and 15 Rwandan trauma nurse auditors, and a Canadian Network for International Surgery Trauma Team Training (TTT) course was delivered to 25 faculty, residents, and nurses. Trauma registry data over the 6 months prior to the courses were compared to the 6 months afterward with emergency department (ED) mortality as the primary endpoint. Secondary endpoints included radiology utilization and early procedural interventions. Univariate analyses were conducted using x2 and Fisher’s exact test. Results A total of 798 and 575 patients were prospectively studied during the pre-intervention and post-intervention periods, respectively. Overall mortality of injured patients decreased after education implementation from 8.8 to 6.3 %, but was not statistically significant (p = 0.09). Patients with an initial Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) of 3–8 had the highest injury-related mortality, which significantly decreased from 58.5 % (n = 55) to 37.1 % (n = 23), (p = 0.009, OR 0.42, 95 % CI 0.22–0.81). There was no statistical difference in the rates of early intubation, cervical collar use, imaging studies, or transfusion in the overall cohort or the head injury subset. When further stratified by GCS, patients with an initial GCS of 3–5 in the post-intervention period had higher utilization of head CT scans and chest X-rays. Conclusions The mortality of severely injured patients decreased after initiation of focused trauma education

  20. Applying Resource Utilization Groups (RUG-III) in Hong Kong Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Kee-Lee; Chi, Iris; Leung, Joe C. B.

    2008-01-01

    Resource Utilization Groups III (RUG-III) is a case-mix system developed in the United States for categorization of nursing home residents and the financing of residential care services. In Hong Kong, RUG-III is based on several board groups of residents. The aim of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the RUG-III in Hong Kong…

  1. NASA's In-Situ Resource Utilization Project: Current Accomplishments and Exciting Future Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, William E.; Sanders, Gerald B.; Sacksteder, Kurt R.

    2010-01-01

    The utilization of Space resources has been identified in publications for over 40 years for its potential as a "game changing" technology for the human exploration of Space. It is called "game changing" because of the mass leverage possible when local resources at the exploration destination arc used to reduce or even eliminate resources that are brought from the Earth. NASA, under the Exploration Technology Development Program has made significant investments in the development of Space resource utilization technologies as a part of the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project. Over the last four years, the ISRU project has taken what was essentially an academic topic with lots of experimentation but little engineering and produced near-full-scale systems that have been demonstrated. In 2008 & again in early 2010, systems that could produce oxygen from lunar soils (or their terrestrial analogs) were tested at a lunar analog site on a volcano in Hawaii. These demonstrations included collaborations with International Partners that made significant contributions to the tests. The proposed federal budget for Fiscal Year 2011 encourages the continued development and demonstration of ISRU. However it goes beyond what the project is currently doing and directs that the scope of the project be expanded to cover destinations throughout the inner solar system with the potential for night demonstrations. This paper will briefly cover the past accomplishments of the ISRU project then move to a di scussion of the plans for the project's future as NASA moves to explore a new paradigm for Space Exploration that includes orbital fuel depots and even refueling on other planetary bodies in the solar system.

  2. A brief review of chemical and mineralogical resources on the Moon and likely initial in situ resource utilization (ISRU) applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, M.; Crawford, I. A.; Balat-Pichelin, M.; Abanades, S.; van Westrenen, W.; Péraudeau, G.; Jaumann, R.; Seboldt, W.

    2012-12-01

    In situ resource utilization (ISRU) refers to the in situ generation of consumables for autonomous or human activities from raw materials found on the Moon or other planetary bodies. The use of ISRU on the Moon may provide a means of reducing the cost and risk of human exploration of the Moon and beyond, and an impetus for commercial contributions to lunar exploration. Potential products include O2 and H2O for life support, H2 and O2 for fuel and propellant, and other elements and compounds for metallurgic and chemical production processes. If ISRU is to be applied successfully on the Moon, it is important that landing site selection, surface operations and suitable ISRU technologies are identified using knowledge of the availability and distribution of lunar resources and detailed understanding of the workings of the various processes available. Here, we review current knowledge of chemical and mineralogical resources on the Moon which can be used in the development of ISRU as a realistic component of future lunar exploration.

  3. A food waste utilization study for removing lead(II) from drinks.

    PubMed

    Kaplan Ince, Olcay; Ince, Muharrem; Yonten, Vahap; Goksu, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This is the first study about removal of lead (Pb(II)) from energy drinks. In this paper, food waste, namely eggshell (hydroxyapatite) utilization, was used to remove Pb(II) from mineral water and energy drinks. Mineral water and energy drinks were chosen for removal of lead since the latter is severely hazardous to human health even in small amounts. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was performed to optimize the application process by practice of the quadratic model united with the Central Composite Design (CCD) and quadratic combined program was utilized to study the most effective parameters on aforementioned liquids. Through the application of variance analysis (ANOVA) factors critical to removing of lead were identified for each experimental design response. Maximum adsorption capacity of eggshell was achieved as 923mgg(-1) for Pb(II). The obtained optimum conditions were applied to drinks. Results showed that used adsorbent was quite effective in removing Pb(II) from drinks. PMID:27507520

  4. A food waste utilization study for removing lead(II) from drinks.

    PubMed

    Kaplan Ince, Olcay; Ince, Muharrem; Yonten, Vahap; Goksu, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This is the first study about removal of lead (Pb(II)) from energy drinks. In this paper, food waste, namely eggshell (hydroxyapatite) utilization, was used to remove Pb(II) from mineral water and energy drinks. Mineral water and energy drinks were chosen for removal of lead since the latter is severely hazardous to human health even in small amounts. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was performed to optimize the application process by practice of the quadratic model united with the Central Composite Design (CCD) and quadratic combined program was utilized to study the most effective parameters on aforementioned liquids. Through the application of variance analysis (ANOVA) factors critical to removing of lead were identified for each experimental design response. Maximum adsorption capacity of eggshell was achieved as 923mgg(-1) for Pb(II). The obtained optimum conditions were applied to drinks. Results showed that used adsorbent was quite effective in removing Pb(II) from drinks.

  5. FESTERING FOOD: CHYTRIDIOMYCETE PATHOGEN REDUCES QUALITY OF DAPHNIA HOST AS A FOOD RESOURCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    When parasitic infections are severe or highly prevalent among prey, a significant component of the predator’s diet may consist of parasitized hosts. However, despite the ubiquity of parasites in most food webs, comparisons of the nutritional quality of prey as a function of inf...

  6. Utility functions and resource management in an oversubscribed heterogeneous computing environment

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Khemka, Bhavesh; Friese, Ryan; Briceno, Luis Diego; Siegel, Howard Jay; Maciejewski, Anthony A.; Koenig, Gregory A.; Groer, Christopher S.; Hilton, Marcia M.; Poole, Stephen W.; Okonski, G.; et al

    2014-09-26

    We model an oversubscribed heterogeneous computing system where tasks arrive dynamically and a scheduler maps the tasks to machines for execution. The environment and workloads are based on those being investigated by the Extreme Scale Systems Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Utility functions that are designed based on specifications from the system owner and users are used to create a metric for the performance of resource allocation heuristics. Each task has a time-varying utility (importance) that the enterprise will earn based on when the task successfully completes execution. We design multiple heuristics, which include a technique to drop lowmore » utility-earning tasks, to maximize the total utility that can be earned by completing tasks. The heuristics are evaluated using simulation experiments with two levels of oversubscription. The results show the benefit of having fast heuristics that account for the importance of a task and the heterogeneity of the environment when making allocation decisions in an oversubscribed environment. Furthermore, the ability to drop low utility-earning tasks allow the heuristics to tolerate the high oversubscription as well as earn significant utility.« less

  7. Utility functions and resource management in an oversubscribed heterogeneous computing environment

    SciTech Connect

    Khemka, Bhavesh; Friese, Ryan; Briceno, Luis Diego; Siegel, Howard Jay; Maciejewski, Anthony A.; Koenig, Gregory A.; Groer, Christopher S.; Hilton, Marcia M.; Poole, Stephen W.; Okonski, G.; Rambharos, R.

    2014-09-26

    We model an oversubscribed heterogeneous computing system where tasks arrive dynamically and a scheduler maps the tasks to machines for execution. The environment and workloads are based on those being investigated by the Extreme Scale Systems Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Utility functions that are designed based on specifications from the system owner and users are used to create a metric for the performance of resource allocation heuristics. Each task has a time-varying utility (importance) that the enterprise will earn based on when the task successfully completes execution. We design multiple heuristics, which include a technique to drop low utility-earning tasks, to maximize the total utility that can be earned by completing tasks. The heuristics are evaluated using simulation experiments with two levels of oversubscription. The results show the benefit of having fast heuristics that account for the importance of a task and the heterogeneity of the environment when making allocation decisions in an oversubscribed environment. Furthermore, the ability to drop low utility-earning tasks allow the heuristics to tolerate the high oversubscription as well as earn significant utility.

  8. Solar System Exploration Augmented by In-Situ Resource Utilization: Human Mercury and Saturn Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Human and robotic missions to Mercury and Saturn are presented and analyzed. Unique elements of the local planetary environments are discussed and included in the analyses and assessments. Using historical studies of space exploration, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and industrialization all point to the vastness of natural resources in the solar system. Advanced propulsion benefitted from these resources in many way. While advanced propulsion systems were proposed in these historical studies, further investigation of nuclear options using high power nuclear thermal and nuclear pulse propulsion as well as advanced chemical propulsion can significantly enhance these scenarios. Updated analyses based on these historical visions will be presented. Nuclear thermal propulsion and ISRU enhanced chemical propulsion landers are assessed for Mercury missions. At Saturn, nuclear pulse propulsion with alternate propellant feed systems and Titan exploration with chemical propulsion options are discussed.

  9. The industrial consortium for the utilization of the geopressured-geothermal resource

    SciTech Connect

    Negus-de Wys, J.

    1991-02-15

    Four feasibility studies have been developed by the INEL on thermal enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) Use of Supercritical Fluid processes for Detoxification of Pollutants, and Hydraulic Conversion to Electricity, and Direct Use. The studies provide information bases for potential industrial partners in the resource utilization. A joint proposal from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and INEL on supercritical fluid processes in going forward. Western Resources Technology has begun development of a dozen geopressured well projects. An hydraulic turbine test will be conducted at Pleasant Bayou in Summer of 1991. Dr. Wayne Steele of Anglewood, TX, a retired medical doctor, is proposing to raise fresh water Australian lobsters in the Pleasant Bayou Well fire water pond. Additional projects such as catfish farming, crayfish, desalintion plant and agricultural greenhouse use of the resource heat are waiting in the wings'' for the DOE wells to become available for pilot use projects. 2 figs.

  10. Lunar Resource Utilization: Development of a Reactor for Volatile Extraction from Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinhenz, Julie E.; Sacksteder, Kurt R.; Nayagam, Vedha

    2007-01-01

    The extraction and processing of planetary resources into useful products, known as In- Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), will have a profound impact on the future of planetary exploration. One such effort is the RESOLVE (Regolith and Environment Science, Oxygen and Lunar Volatiles Extraction) Project, which aims to extract and quantify these resources. As part of the first Engineering Breadboard Unit, the Regolith Volatiles Characterization (RVC) reactor was designed and built at the NASA Glenn Research Center. By heating and agitating the lunar regolith, loosely bound volatiles, such as hydrogen and water, are released and stored in the reactor for later analysis and collection. Intended for operation on a robotic rover, the reactor features a lightweight, compact design, easy loading and unloading of the regolith, and uniform heating of the regolith by means of vibrofluidization. The reactor performance was demonstrated using regolith simulant, JSC1, with favorable results.

  11. Sustainable Utilization of Traditional Chinese Medicine Resources: Systematic Evaluation on Different Production Modes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiwen; Chen, Yuning; Yang, Qing; Wang, Yitao

    2015-01-01

    The usage amount of medicinal plant rapidly increased along with the development of traditional Chinese medicine industry. The higher market demand and the shortage of wild herbal resources enforce us to carry out large-scale introduction and cultivation. Herbal cultivation can ease current contradiction between medicinal resources supply and demand while they bring new problems such as pesticide residues and plant disease and pests. Researchers have recently placed high hopes on the application of natural fostering, a new method incorporated herbal production and diversity protecting practically, which can solve the problems brought by artificial cultivation. However no modes can solve all problems existing in current herbal production. This study evaluated different production modes including cultivation, natural fostering, and wild collection to guide the traditional Chinese medicine production for sustainable utilization of herbal resources. PMID:26074987

  12. Minimal support technology and in situ resource utilization for risk management of planetary spaceflight missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, K.; Rygalov, V.; Johnson, S.

    All artificial systems and components in space degrade at higher rates than on Earth depending in part on environmental conditions design approach assembly technologies and the materials used This degradation involves not only the hardware and software systems but the humans that interact with those systems All technological functions and systems can be expressed through functional dependence Function sim ERU RUIS ISR DR where newline ERU Efficiency Rate of Environmental Resources Utilization newline RUIS Resource Utilization Infra-Structure ISR In Situ Resources newline DR Degradation Rate The limited resources of spaceflight and open space for autonomous missions require a high reliability approaching 100 for system functioning and operation and must minimize the rate of any system degradation To date only a continuous human presence with a system in the spaceflight environment can absolutely mitigate those degradations This mitigation is based on environmental amelioration for both the technology systems as repair data and spare parts and the humans as exercise and psychological support Such maintenance requires huge infrastructures including research and development complexes and management agencies which currently cannot move beyond the Earth When considering what is required to move manned spaceflight from near Earth stations to remote locations such as Mars what are the minimal technologies and infrastructures necessary for autonomous restoration of a degrading system in space In

  13. Improving hospital bed occupancy and resource utilization through queuing modeling and evolutionary computation.

    PubMed

    Belciug, Smaranda; Gorunescu, Florin

    2015-02-01

    Scarce healthcare resources require carefully made policies ensuring optimal bed allocation, quality healthcare service, and adequate financial support. This paper proposes a complex analysis of the resource allocation in a hospital department by integrating in the same framework a queuing system, a compartmental model, and an evolutionary-based optimization. The queuing system shapes the flow of patients through the hospital, the compartmental model offers a feasible structure of the hospital department in accordance to the queuing characteristics, and the evolutionary paradigm provides the means to optimize the bed-occupancy management and the resource utilization using a genetic algorithm approach. The paper also focuses on a "What-if analysis" providing a flexible tool to explore the effects on the outcomes of the queuing system and resource utilization through systematic changes in the input parameters. The methodology was illustrated using a simulation based on real data collected from a geriatric department of a hospital from London, UK. In addition, the paper explores the possibility of adapting the methodology to different medical departments (surgery, stroke, and mental illness). Moreover, the paper also focuses on the practical use of the model from the healthcare point of view, by presenting a simulated application.

  14. Asteroid and Lava Tube In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Prospecting Free Flyer Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falker, John; Zeitlin, Nancy; Mueller, Robert; Dupuis, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This project seeks to develop a small free flyer that can be used to safely and effectively prospect on an Asteroid while being controlled by the crew. This will enable the characterization of the Asteroid for the In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). Lava tubes can be explored remotely from the outside Asteroids can contain vast amounts of resources such as water for propellants and metals for feed stocks. Lava Tubes on Mars and the Moon may contain frozen volatile resources. Before the resources can be used, they must be found with a prospecting method. The NASA Agency Asteroid Grand Challenge seeks new ideas for Asteroid retrieval mission technologies for exploration and utilization of asteroids in a Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO). This project will develop a small free flying platform that can be used to safely and effectively prospect on an Asteroid with limited autonomy while being controlled by the crew. This will enable the characterization of the Asteroid for ISRU. Lava tubes can be explored remotely from the outside as well using this same technology.

  15. Asteroid Redirect Mission Concept: A Bold Approach for Utilizing Space Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Brophy, John R.; Mueller, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    The utilization of natural resources from asteroids is an idea that is older than the Space Age. The technologies are now available to transform this endeavour from an idea into reality. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is a mission concept which includes the goal of robotically returning a small Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) or a multi-ton boulder from a large NEA to cislunar space in the mid 2020's using an advanced Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) vehicle and currently available technologies. The paradigm shift enabled by the ARM concept would allow in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) to be used at the human mission departure location (i.e., cislunar space) versus exclusively at the deep-space mission destination. This approach drastically reduces the barriers associated with utilizing ISRU for human deep-space missions. The successful testing of ISRU techniques and associated equipment could enable large-scale commercial ISRU operations to become a reality and enable a future space-based economy utilizing processed asteroidal materials. This paper provides an overview of the ARM concept and discusses the mission objectives, key technologies, and capabilities associated with the mission, as well as how the ARM and associated operations would benefit humanity's quest for the exploration and settlement of space.

  16. Asteroid Redirect Mission concept: A bold approach for utilizing space resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Brophy, John R.; Mueller, Robert P.

    2015-12-01

    The utilization of natural resources from asteroids is an idea that is older than the Space Age. The technologies are now available to transform this endeavor from an idea into reality. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is a mission concept which includes the goal of robotically returning a small Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) or a multi-ton boulder from a large NEA to cislunar space in the mid-2020s using an advanced Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) vehicle and currently available technologies. The paradigm shift enabled by the ARM concept would allow in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) to be used at the human mission departure location (i.e., cislunar space) versus exclusively at the deep-space mission destination. This approach drastically reduces the barriers associated with utilizing ISRU for human deep-space missions. The successful testing of ISRU techniques and associated equipment could enable large-scale commercial ISRU operations to become a reality and enable a future space-based economy utilizing processed asteroidal materials. This paper provides an overview of the ARM concept and discusses the mission objectives, key technologies, and capabilities associated with the mission, as well as how the ARM and associated operations would benefit humanity's quest for the exploration and settlement of space.

  17. Biochemical tracers reveal intra-specific differences in the food webs utilized by individual seabirds.

    PubMed

    Hebert, Craig E; Weseloh, D V Chip; Gauthier, Lewis T; Arts, Michael T; Letcher, Robert J

    2009-05-01

    Food web structure regulates the pathways and flow rates of energy, nutrients, and contaminants to top predators. Ecologically and physiologically meaningful biochemical tracers provide a means to characterize and quantify these transfers within food webs. In this study, changes in the ratios of stable N isotopes (e.g., delta(15)N), fatty acids (FA), and persistent contaminants were used to trace food web pathways utilized by herring gulls (Larus argentatus) breeding along the shores of the St Lawrence River, Canada. Egg delta(15)N values varied significantly among years and were used as an indicator of gull trophic position. Temporal trends in egg delta(15)N values were related to egg FA profiles. In years when egg delta(15)N values were greater, egg FA patterns reflected the consumption of more aquatic prey. Egg delta(15)N values were also correlated with annual estimates of prey fish abundance. These results indicated that temporal changes in aquatic prey availability were reflected in the gull diet (as inferred from ecological tracer profiles in gull eggs). Analysis of individual eggs within years confirmed that birds consuming more aquatic prey occupied higher trophic positions. Furthermore, increases in trophic position were associated with increased concentrations of most persistent organic contaminants in eggs. However, levels of highly brominated polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners, e.g, 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5',6,6'-decabromoDE (BDE-209), showed a negative relationship with trophic position. These contrasting findings reflected differences among contaminant groups/homologs in terms of their predominant routes of transfer, i.e., aquatic versus terrestrial food webs. High trophic level omnivores, e.g., herring gulls, are common in food webs. By characterizing ecological tracer profiles in such species we can better understand spatial, temporal, and individual differences in pathways of contaminant, energy, and nutrient flow.

  18. Theme--Achieving 2020. Goal 3: All Students Are Conversationally Literate in Agriculture, Food, Fiber, and Natural Resource Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trexler, Cary, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Nine theme articles focus on the need for students to be conversationally literate about agriculture, food, fiber, and natural resources systems. Discusses the definition of conversational literacy, the human and institutional resources needed, and exemplary models for promoting literacy. (JOW)

  19. Time Utility Functions for Modeling and Evaluating Resource Allocations in a Heterogeneous Computing System

    SciTech Connect

    Briceno, Luis Diego; Khemka, Bhavesh; Siegel, Howard Jay; Maciejewski, Anthony A; Groer, Christopher S; Koenig, Gregory A; Okonski, Gene D; Poole, Stephen W

    2011-01-01

    This study considers a heterogeneous computing system and corresponding workload being investigated by the Extreme Scale Systems Center (ESSC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The ESSC is part of a collaborative effort between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Department of Defense (DoD) to deliver research, tools, software, and technologies that can be integrated, deployed, and used in both DOE and DoD environments. The heterogeneous system and workload described here are representative of a prototypical computing environment being studied as part of this collaboration. Each task can exhibit a time-varying importance or utility to the overall enterprise. In this system, an arriving task has an associated priority and precedence. The priority is used to describe the importance of a task, and precedence is used to describe how soon the task must be executed. These two metrics are combined to create a utility function curve that indicates how valuable it is for the system to complete a task at any given moment. This research focuses on using time-utility functions to generate a metric that can be used to compare the performance of different resource schedulers in a heterogeneous computing system. The contributions of this paper are: (a) a mathematical model of a heterogeneous computing system where tasks arrive dynamically and need to be assigned based on their priority, precedence, utility characteristic class, and task execution type, (b) the use of priority and precedence to generate time-utility functions that describe the value a task has at any given time, (c) the derivation of a metric based on the total utility gained from completing tasks to measure the performance of the computing environment, and (d) a comparison of the performance of resource allocation heuristics in this environment.

  20. Results from the NASA Capability Roadmap Team for In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Gerald B.; Romig, Kris A.; Larson, William E.; Johnson, Robert; Rapp, Don; Johnson, Ken R.; Sacksteder, Kurt; Linne, Diane; Curreri, Peter; Duke, Michael; Blair, Brad; Gertsch, Leslie; Boucher, Dale; Rice, Eric; Clark, Larry; McCullough, Ed; Zubrin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    On January 14, 2004, the President of the United States unveiled a new vision for robotic and human exploration of space entitled, "A Renewed Spirit of Discovery". As stated by the President in the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE), NASA must "... implement a sustained and affordable human and robotic program to explore the solar system and beyond " and ".. .develop new technologies and harness the moon's abundant resources to allow manned exploration of more challenging environments." A key to fulfilling the goal of sustained and affordable human and robotic exploration will be the ability to use resources that are available at the site of exploration to "live off the land" instead of bringing everything from Earth, known as In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). ISRU can significantly reduce the mass, cost, and risk of exploration through capabilities such as: mission consumable production (propellants, fuel cell reagents, life support consumables, and feedstock for manufacturing & construction); surface construction (radiation shields, landing pads, walls, habitats, etc.); manufacturing and repair with in-situ resources (spare parts, wires, trusses, integrated systems etc.); and space utilities and power from space resources. On January 27th, 2004 the President's Commission on Implementation of U.S. Space Exploration Policy (Aldridge Committee) was created and its final report was released in June 2004. One of the report's recommendations was to establish special project teams to evaluate enabling technologies, of which "Planetary in situ resource utilization" was one of them. Based on the VSE and the commission's final report, NASA established fifteen Capability Roadmap teams, of which ISRU was one of the teams established. From Oct. 2004 to May 2005 the ISRU Capability Roadmap team examined the capabilities, benefits, architecture and mission implementation strategy, critical decisions, current state-of-the-art (SOA), challenges, technology gaps, and risks of

  1. Appropriate and safe utilization of helicopter emergency medical services: a joint position statement with resource document.

    PubMed

    Floccare, Douglas J; Stuhlmiller, David F E; Braithwaite, Sabina A; Thomas, Stephen H; Madden, John F; Hankins, Daniel G; Dhindsa, Harinder; Millin, Michael G

    2013-01-01

    This position statement with accompanying resource document is the result of a collaborative effort of a writing group comprised of members of the Air Medical Physician Association (AMPA), the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP), the National Association of EMS Physicians (NAEMSP), and the American Academy of Emergency Medicine (AAEM). This document has been jointly approved by the boards of all four organizations. Patients benefit from the appropriate utilization of helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS). EMS and regional health care systems must have and follow guidelines for HEMS utilization to facilitate proper patient selection and ensure clinical benefit. Clinical benefit can be provided by Meaningfully shortening the time to delivery of definitive care to patients with time-sensitive medical conditions Providing necessary specialized medical expertise or equipment to patients before and/or during transport Providing transport to patients inaccessible by other means of transport The decision to use HEMS is a medical decision, separate from the aviation determination whether a transport can be completed safely. Physicians with specialized training and experience in EMS and air medical transport must be integral to HEMS utilization decisions, including guideline development and quality improvement activities. Safety management systems must be developed, adopted, and adhered to by air medical operators when making decisions to accept and continue every HEMS transport. HEMS must be fully integrated within the local, regional, and state emergency health care systems. HEMS programs cannot operate independently of the surrounding health care environment. The EMS and health care systems must be involved in the determination of the number of HEMS assets necessary to provide appropriate coverage for their region. Excessive resources may lead to competitive practices that can affect utilization and negatively impact safety. Inadequate resources will

  2. Appropriate and safe utilization of helicopter emergency medical services: a joint position statement with resource document.

    PubMed

    Floccare, Douglas J; Stuhlmiller, David F E; Braithwaite, Sabina A; Thomas, Stephen H; Madden, John F; Hankins, Daniel G; Dhindsa, Harinder; Millin, Michael G

    2013-01-01

    This position statement with accompanying resource document is the result of a collaborative effort of a writing group comprised of members of the Air Medical Physician Association (AMPA), the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP), the National Association of EMS Physicians (NAEMSP), and the American Academy of Emergency Medicine (AAEM). This document has been jointly approved by the boards of all four organizations. Patients benefit from the appropriate utilization of helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS). EMS and regional health care systems must have and follow guidelines for HEMS utilization to facilitate proper patient selection and ensure clinical benefit. Clinical benefit can be provided by Meaningfully shortening the time to delivery of definitive care to patients with time-sensitive medical conditions Providing necessary specialized medical expertise or equipment to patients before and/or during transport Providing transport to patients inaccessible by other means of transport The decision to use HEMS is a medical decision, separate from the aviation determination whether a transport can be completed safely. Physicians with specialized training and experience in EMS and air medical transport must be integral to HEMS utilization decisions, including guideline development and quality improvement activities. Safety management systems must be developed, adopted, and adhered to by air medical operators when making decisions to accept and continue every HEMS transport. HEMS must be fully integrated within the local, regional, and state emergency health care systems. HEMS programs cannot operate independently of the surrounding health care environment. The EMS and health care systems must be involved in the determination of the number of HEMS assets necessary to provide appropriate coverage for their region. Excessive resources may lead to competitive practices that can affect utilization and negatively impact safety. Inadequate resources will

  3. Food Web Architecture and Basal Resources Interact to Determine Biomass and Stoichiometric Cascades along a Benthic Food Web

    PubMed Central

    Guariento, Rafael D.; Carneiro, Luciana S.; Caliman, Adriano; Leal, João J. F.; Bozelli, Reinaldo L.; Esteves, Francisco A.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the effects of predators and resources on primary producers has been a major focus of interest in ecology. Within this context, the trophic cascade concept especially concerning the pelagic zone of lakes has been the focus of the majority of these studies. However, littoral food webs could be especially interesting because base trophic levels may be strongly regulated by consumers and prone to be light limited. In this study, the availability of nutrients and light and the presence of an omnivorous fish (Hyphessobrycon bifasciatus) were manipulated in enclosures placed in a humic coastal lagoon (Cabiúnas Lagoon, Macaé – RJ) to evaluate the individual and interactive effects of resource availability (nutrients and light) and food web configuration on the biomass and stoichiometry of periphyton and benthic grazers. Our findings suggest that light and nutrients interact to determine periphyton biomass and stoichiometry, which propagates to the consumer level. We observed a positive effect of the availability of nutrients on periphytic biomass and grazers' biomass, as well as a reduction of periphytic C∶N∶P ratios and an increase of grazers' N and P content. Low light availability constrained the propagation of nutrient effects on periphyton biomass and induced higher periphytic C∶N∶P ratios. The effects of fish presence strongly interacted with resource availability. In general, a positive effect of fish presence was observed for the total biomass of periphyton and grazer's biomass, especially with high resource availability, but the opposite was found for periphytic autotrophic biomass. Fish also had a significant effect on periphyton stoichiometry, but no effect was observed on grazers' stoichiometric ratios. In summary, we observed that the indirect effect of fish predation on periphyton biomass might be dependent on multiple resources and periphyton nutrient stoichiometric variation can affect consumers' stoichiometry. PMID:21789234

  4. Environmental impacts of food trade via resource use and greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalin, Carole; Rodríguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2016-03-01

    Agriculture will need to significantly intensify in the next decades to continue providing essential nutritive food to a growing global population. However, it can have harmful environmental impacts, due to the use of natural and synthetic resources and the emission of greenhouse gases, which alter the water, carbon and nitrogen cycles, and threaten the fertility, health and biodiversity of landscapes. Because of the spatial heterogeneity of resource productivity, farming practices, climate, and land and water availability, the environmental impact of producing food is highly dependent on its origin. For this reason, food trade can either increase or reduce the overall environmental impacts of agriculture, depending on whether or not the impact is greater in the exporting region. Here, we review current scientific understanding of the environmental impacts of food trade, focusing on water and land use, pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. In the case of water, these impacts are mainly beneficial. However, in the cases of pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, this conclusion is not as clear. Overall, there is an urgent need for a more comprehensive, integrated approach to estimate the global impacts of food trade on the environment. Second, research is needed to improve the evaluation of some key aspects of the relative value of each resource depending on the local and regional biophysical and socio-economic context. Finally, to enhance the impact of such evaluations and their applicability in decision-making, scenario analyses and accounting of key issues like deforestation and groundwater exhaustion will be required.

  5. Honeydew and insecticide-bait as competing food resources for a fruit fly and common parasitoids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honeydew from phloem-feeding insects and fruit fly insecticidal baits may both serve as adult food resources for some insect species. In California olive orchards the black scale, Saissetia oleae (Olivier), is a common honeydew-producer, while spinosad-based fruit fly bait (GF-120) is used to contro...

  6. Frontier In-Situ Resource Utilization for Enabling Sustained Human Presence on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Robert W.; Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2016-01-01

    The currently known resources on Mars are massive, including extensive quantities of water and carbon dioxide and therefore carbon, hydrogen and oxygen for life support, fuels and plastics and much else. The regolith is replete with all manner of minerals. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) applicable frontier technologies include robotics, machine intelligence, nanotechnology, synthetic biology, 3-D printing/additive manufacturing and autonomy. These technologies combined with the vast natural resources should enable serious, pre- and post-human arrival ISRU to greatly increase reliability and safety and reduce cost for human colonization of Mars. Various system-level transportation concepts employing Mars produced fuel would enable Mars resources to evolve into a primary center of trade for the inner solar system for eventually nearly everything required for space faring and colonization. Mars resources and their exploitation via extensive ISRU are the key to a viable, safe and affordable, human presence beyond Earth. The purpose of this paper is four-fold: 1) to highlight the latest discoveries of water, minerals, and other materials on Mars that reshape our thinking about the value and capabilities of Mars ISRU; 2) to summarize the previous literature on Mars ISRU processes, equipment, and approaches; 3) to point to frontier ISRU technologies and approaches that can lead to safe and affordable human missions to Mars; and 4) to suggest an implementation strategy whereby the ISRU elements are phased into the mission campaign over time to enable a sustainable and increasing human presence on Mars.

  7. Ethanolamine Utilization Contributes to Proliferation of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in Food and in Nematodes▿

    PubMed Central

    Srikumar, Shabarinath; Fuchs, Thilo M.

    2011-01-01

    Only three pathogenic bacterial species, Salmonella enterica, Clostridium perfringens, and Listeria monocytogenes, are able to utilize both ethanolamine and 1,2-propanediol as a sole carbon source. Degradation of these substrates, abundant in food and the gut, depends on cobalamin, which is synthesized de novo only under anaerobic conditions. Although the eut, pdu, and cob-cbi gene clusters comprise 40 kb, the conditions under which they confer a selection advantage on these food-borne pathogens remain largely unknown. Here we used the luciferase reporter system to determine the response of the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium promoters PeutS, PpocR, PpduF, and PpduA to a set of carbon sources, to egg yolk, to whole milk, and to milk protein or fat fractions. Depending on the supplements, specific inductions up to 3 orders of magnitude were observed for PeutS and PpduA, which drive the expression of most eut and pdu genes. To correlate these significant expression data with growth properties, nonpolar deletions of pocR, regulating the pdu and cob-cbi genes, and of eutR, involved in eut gene activation, were constructed in S. Typhimurium strain 14028. During exponential growth of the mutants 14028ΔpocR and 14028ΔeutR, 2- to 3-fold-reduced proliferation in milk and egg yolk was observed. Using the Caenorhabditis elegans infection model, we could also demonstrate that the proliferation of S. Typhimurium in the nematode is supported by an active ethanolamine degradation pathway. Taking these findings together, this study quantifies the differential expression of eut and pdu genes under distinct conditions and provides experimental evidence that the ethanolamine utilization pathway allows salmonellae to occupy specific metabolic niches within food environments and within their host organisms. PMID:21037291

  8. In-situ resource utilization in the design of advanced lunar facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Resource utilization will play an important role in the establishment and support of a permanently manned lunar base. At the University of Houston - College of Architecture and the Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture, a study team recently investigated the potential use of lunar in-situ materials in the design of lunar facilities. The team identified seven potential lunar construction materials; concrete, sulfur concrete, cast basalt, sintered basalt, glass, fiberglass, and metals. Analysis and evaluation of these materials with respect to their physical properties, processes, energy requirements, resource efficiency, and overall advantages and disadvantages lead to the selection of basalt materials as the more likely construction material for initial use on a lunar base. Basalt materials can be formed out of in-situ lunar regolith, with minor material beneficiation, by a simple process of heating and controlled cooling. The team then conceptualized a construction system that combines lunar regolith sintering and casting to make pressurized structures out of lunar resources. The design uses a machine that simultaneously excavates and sinters the lunar regolith to create a cylindrical hole, which is then enclosed with cast basalt slabs, allowing the volume to be pressurized for use as a living or work environment. Cylinder depths of up to 4 to 6 m in the lunar mare or 10 to 12 m in the lunar highlands are possible. Advantages of this construction system include maximum resource utilization, relatively large habitable volumes, interior flexibility, and minimal construction equipment needs. Conclusions of this study indicate that there is significant potential for the use of basalt, a lunar resource derived construction material, as a low cost alternative to Earth-based materials. It remains to be determined when in lunar base phasing this construction method should be implemented.

  9. In-situ resource utilization in the design of advanced lunar facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-11-01

    Resource utilization will play an important role in the establishment and support of a permanently manned lunar base. At the University of Houston - College of Architecture and the Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture, a study team recently investigated the potential use of lunar in-situ materials in the design of lunar facilities. The team identified seven potential lunar construction materials; concrete, sulfur concrete, cast basalt, sintered basalt, glass, fiberglass, and metals. Analysis and evaluation of these materials with respect to their physical properties, processes, energy requirements, resource efficiency, and overall advantages and disadvantages lead to the selection of basalt materials as the more likely construction material for initial use on a lunar base. Basalt materials can be formed out of in-situ lunar regolith, with minor material beneficiation, by a simple process of heating and controlled cooling. The team then conceptualized a construction system that combines lunar regolith sintering and casting to make pressurized structures out of lunar resources. The design uses a machine that simultaneously excavates and sinters the lunar regolith to create a cylindrical hole, which is then enclosed with cast basalt slabs, allowing the volume to be pressurized for use as a living or work environment. Cylinder depths of up to 4 to 6 m in the lunar mare or 10 to 12 m in the lunar highlands are possible. Advantages of this construction system include maximum resource utilization, relatively large habitable volumes, interior flexibility, and minimal construction equipment needs. Conclusions of this study indicate that there is significant potential for the use of basalt, a lunar resource derived construction material, as a low cost alternative to Earth-based materials. It remains to be determined when in lunar base phasing this construction method should be implemented.

  10. Utilization of high-carbohydrate food wastes as the feedstock for degradable plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, S.P.; Coleman, R.D.; Tsai, TenLin S.; Bonsignore, P.V.

    1989-01-01

    Wastestreams from food processing industries have become an economic burden as well as a serious environmental problem. In the United States, billions of pounds of potato processed each year is typically discarded or sold as cattle feed at $3-6/ton. For large food processing plants, removal of more than 1 million gallons of waste/day/plant is required. As a potential solution to this economic and environmental problem, Argonne National Laboratory is developing technology that (1) bioconverts existing food processing wastestream into lactic acid, and (2) utilizes lactic acid for making environmentally safe, degradable plastics. Although the initial substrate for Argonne's process development is potato waste, the process will be applied to many other high-carbohydrate food wastes. Argonne has developed a process to bioconvert greater than 90% of the fermentable starch in solid potato waste to glucose. Lactic acid is produced from glucose via fermentation and subsequently recovered/purified for plastic synthesis. A continuous lactic acid fermentation and recovery process has been designed. Batch fermentation data showed good cell growth and excellent yields (greater than 95%) of lactic acid production from the hydrolyzed potato waste. Three product recovery processes (electrodialysis, liquid-liquid extraction, and esterification) are being evaluated. Plastics containing lactic acid can be designed to have various mechanical properties and degradation rates. Argonne is developing lactic acid plastics that have some novel features. These environmentally-safe, degradable plastics have many attractive applications such as composting bags and agriculture mulch films. Other potential applications of lactic acid polymers include programmable pesticide and fertilizer delivery systems.

  11. Future water resources for food production in five South Asian river basins and potential for adaptation--a modeling study.

    PubMed

    Biemans, H; Speelman, L H; Ludwig, F; Moors, E J; Wiltshire, A J; Kumar, P; Gerten, D; Kabat, P

    2013-12-01

    The Indian subcontinent faces a population increase from 1.6 billion in 2000 towards 2 billion around 2050. Therefore, expansion of agricultural area combined with increases in productivity will be necessary to produce the food needed in the future. However, with pressure on water resources already being high, and potential effects of climate change still uncertain, the question rises whether there will be enough water resources available to sustain this production. The objective of this study is to make a spatially explicit quantitative analysis of water requirements and availability for current and future food production in five South Asian basins (Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra, Godavari and Krishna), in the absence or presence of two different adaptation strategies: an overall improvement in irrigation efficiency, and an increase of reservoir storage capacity. The analysis is performed by using the coupled hydrology and crop production model LPJmL. It is found that the Godavari and Krishna basins will benefit most from an increased storage capacity, whereas in the Ganges and the Indus water scarcity mainly takes place in areas where this additional storage would not provide additional utility. Increasing the irrigation efficiency will be beneficial in all basins, but most in the Indus and Ganges, as it decreases the pressure on groundwater resources and decreases the fraction of food production that would become at risk because of water shortage. A combination of both options seems to be the best strategy in all basins. The large-scale model used in this study is suitable to identify hotspot areas and support the first step in the policy process, but the final design and implementation of adaptation options requires supporting studies at finer scales. PMID:23928370

  12. Stochastic simulation of power systems with integrated renewable and utility-scale storage resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degeilh, Yannick

    The push for a more sustainable electric supply has led various countries to adopt policies advocating the integration of renewable yet variable energy resources, such as wind and solar, into the grid. The challenges of integrating such time-varying, intermittent resources has in turn sparked a growing interest in the implementation of utility-scale energy storage resources ( ESRs), with MWweek storage capability. Indeed, storage devices provide flexibility to facilitate the management of power system operations in the presence of uncertain, highly time-varying and intermittent renewable resources. The ability to exploit the potential synergies between renewable and ESRs hinges on developing appropriate models, methodologies, tools and policy initiatives. We report on the development of a comprehensive simulation methodology that provides the capability to quantify the impacts of integrated renewable and ESRs on the economics, reliability and emission variable effects of power systems operating in a market environment. We model the uncertainty in the demands, the available capacity of conventional generation resources and the time-varying, intermittent renewable resources, with their temporal and spatial correlations, as discrete-time random processes. We deploy models of the ESRs to emulate their scheduling and operations in the transmission-constrained hourly day-ahead markets. To this end, we formulate a scheduling optimization problem (SOP) whose solutions determine the operational schedule of the controllable ESRs in coordination with the demands and the conventional/renewable resources. As such, the SOP serves the dual purpose of emulating the clearing of the transmission-constrained day-ahead markets (DAMs ) and scheduling the energy storage resource operations. We also represent the need for system operators to impose stricter ramping requirements on the conventional generating units so as to maintain the system capability to perform "load following'', i

  13. Drivers of conservation and utilization of pineapple genetic resources in Benin.

    PubMed

    Achigan-Dako, Enoch G; Adjé, Charlotte Abike; N'Danikou, Sognigbé; Hotegni, Nicodème V Fassinou; Agbangla, Clément; Ahanchédé, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Valuation of farmer knowledge has been seen as a route to promote sustainable use of plant genetic resources. In pineapple production systems in Benin, inadequate knowledge of cultivation practices can lead to a number of inconveniences including abandon of some varieties and cultivars. To understand how farmer's knowledge and cultivation practices impact the sustainable utilization of pineapple genetic resources, we surveyed 177 pineapple farmers in southern Benin. We assessed farmers' knowledge and analyzed the relationship between their knowledge and factors such as age, education, and locality of provenance. Pineapple production system was dominated by men (96% respondents). According to farmers, Smooth cayenne is international market-oriented while Sugarloaf mainly targets domestic and regional markets. All farmers recognized that Smooth cayenne provided more income (USD 5,750/ha) than sugarloaf (USD 3,950/ha) in the production systems of southern Benin. The high value of median scores in comparison with the range of possible score showed that most farmers agreed and shared relatively similar knowledge. Correlation matrix and multiple linear regressions showed a significant relationship between farmers' practices and their knowledge of the plant; their knowledge of pineapple varieties is based on fruits traits. Also, farmer's knowledge was associated with locality of provenance. Constraints and options for genetic resources conservation and utilization in the pineapple production systems in Southern Benin were discussed based on current knowledge.

  14. Electrostatic Beneficiation of Lunar Regolith: Applications in In-Situ Resource Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trigwell, Steve; Captain, James; Weis, Kyle; Quinn, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Upon returning to the moon, or further a field such as Mars, presents enormous challenges in sustaining life for extended periods of time far beyond the few days the astronauts experienced on the moon during the Apollo missions. A stay on Mars is envisioned to last several months, and it would be cost prohibitive to take all the requirements for such a stay from earth. Therefore, future exploration missions will be required to be self-sufficient and utilize the resources available at the mission site to sustain human occupation. Such an exercise is currently the focus of intense research at NASA under the In-situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) program. As well as oxygen and water necessary for human life, resources for providing building materials for habitats, radiation protection, and landing/launch pads are required. All these materials can be provided by the regolith present on the surface as it contains sufficient minerals and metals oxides to meet the requirements. However, before processing, it would be cost effective if the regolith could be enriched in the mineral(s) of interest. This can be achieved by electrostatic beneficiation in which tribocharged mineral particles are separated out and the feedstock enriched or depleted as required. The results of electrostatic beneficiation of lunar simulants and actual Apollo regolith, in lunar high vacuum are reported in which various degrees of efficient particle separation and mineral enrichment up to a few hundred percent were achieved.

  15. Pattern of healthcare resource utilization and direct costs associated with manic episodes in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Although some studies indicate that bipolar disorder causes high health care resources consumption, no study is available addressing a cost estimation of bipolar disorder in Spain. The aim of this observational study was to evaluate healthcare resource utilization and the associated direct cost in patients with manic episodes in the Spanish setting. Methods Retrospective descriptive study was carried out in a consecutive sample of patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of bipolar type I disorder with or without psychotic symptoms, aged 18 years or older, and who were having an active manic episode at the time of inclusion. Information regarding the current manic episode was collected retrospectively from the medical record and patient interview. Results Seven hundred and eighty-four evaluable patients, recruited by 182 psychiatrists, were included in the study. The direct cost associated with healthcare resource utilization during the manic episode was high, with a mean cost of nearly €4,500 per patient, of which approximately 55% corresponded to the cost of hospitalization, 30% to the cost of psychopharmacological treatment and 10% to the cost of specialized care. Conclusions Our results show the high cost of management of the patient with a manic episode, which is mainly due to hospitalizations. In this regard, any intervention on the management of the manic patient that could reduce the need for hospitalization would have a significant impact on the costs of the disease. PMID:20426814

  16. Enhancement of existing geothermal resource utilization by cascading to intensive aquaculture

    SciTech Connect

    Zachritz, W.H., II; Polka, R.; Schoenmackers

    1996-04-01

    A demonstration high rate aquaculture production system utilizing a cascaded geothermal resource was designed, constructed and operated to fulfill the objectives of this project. Analysis of the energy and water balances for the system indicated that the addition of an Aquaculture Facility expanded the use of the existing resource. This expanded use in no way affected the up- stream processes. Analysis of the system`s energy and water requirements indicated that the present resource was under-utilized and could be expanded. Energy requirements appeared more limiting than water use, but the existing system could be expanded to a culture volume of 72,000 gal. This system would have a potential production capacity of 93,600 lb/yr with a potential market value of $280,00/yr. Based on the results of this study, the heat remaining in the geothermal fluid from one square foot of operating greenhouse is sufficient to support six gallons of culture water for a high density aquaculture facility. Thus, the over 1.5M ft{sup 2} of existing greenhouse space in New Mexico, has the potential to create an aquaculture industry of nearly 9M gal. This translates to an annual production potential of 11.7M lb with a market value of $35.lM.

  17. Expanding Geothermal Resource Utilization through Directed Research, Education, and Public Outreach

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, Wendy

    2015-06-29

    The Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy (GBCGE or the Center) was established at the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR) in May 2000 to promote research and utilization of geothermal resources. The Center received funding through this grant to promote increased geothermal development in the Great Basin, with most of the funding used for peerreviewed research. Funding to the Center and work under the contract were initiated in March 2002, with supplemental funding in subsequent years. The Center monitored the research projects that were competitively awarded in a series of proposal calls between 2002 and 2007. Peer-reviewed research promoted identification and utilization of geothermal resources in Nevada. Projects used geology, geochemistry, geophysics, remote sensing, and the synthesis of multi-disciplinary information to produce new models of geothermal systems in the Western U.S. and worldwide. Funds were also used to support graduate student research and training. Part of the grant was used to support public outreach activities, including webpages, online maps and data resources, and informational workshops for stakeholders.

  18. On the Relationship between Multicast/Broadcast Throughput and Resource Utilizations in Wireless Mesh Networks

    PubMed Central

    Valaee, Shahrokh

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of multicast/broadcast throughput in multi-channel multi-radio wireless mesh networks that suffer from the resource constraints. We provide a formulation to capture the utilization of the network resources and derive analytical relationships for the network's throughput in terms of the node utilization, the channel utilization, and the number of transmissions. Our model relies on the on-demand quality of service multicast/broadcast sessions, where each admitted session creates a unique tree with a specific bandwidth. As an advantage, the derived relationships are independent of the type of tree built for each session and can be used for different protocols. The proposed formulation considers the channel assignment strategy and reflects both the wireless broadcast advantage and the interference constraint. We also offer a comprehensive discussion to evaluate the effects of load-balancing and number of transmissions on the network's throughput. Numerical results confirm the accuracy of the presented analysis. PMID:24348188

  19. Reading the Tea Leaves: How Utilities in the West Are Managing Carbon Regulatory Risk in their Resource Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles

    2008-02-01

    The long economic lifetime and development lead-time of many electric infrastructure investments requires that utility resource planning consider potential costs and risks over a lengthy time horizon. One long-term -- and potentially far-reaching -- risk currently facing the electricity industry is the uncertain cost of future carbon dioxide (CO2) regulations. Recognizing the importance of this issue, many utilities (sometimes spurred by state regulatory requirements) are beginning to actively assess carbon regulatory risk within their resource planning processes, and to evaluate options for mitigating that risk. However, given the relatively recent emergence of this issue and the rapidly changing political landscape, methods and assumptions used to analyze carbon regulatory risk, and the impact of this analysis on the selection of a preferred resource portfolio, vary considerably across utilities. In this study, we examine the treatment of carbon regulatory risk in utility resource planning, through a comparison of the most-recent resource plans filed by fifteen investor-owned and publicly-owned utilities in the Western U.S. Together, these utilities account for approximately 60percent of retail electricity sales in the West, and cover nine of eleven Western states. This report has two related elements. First, we compare and assess utilities' approaches to addressing key analytical issues that arise when considering the risk of future carbon regulations. Second, we summarize the composition and carbon intensity of the preferred resource portfolios selected by these fifteen utilities and compare them to potential CO2 emission benchmark levels.

  20. Implementing the EuroFIR Document and Data Repositories as accessible resources of food composition information.

    PubMed

    Unwin, Ian; Jansen-van der Vliet, Martine; Westenbrink, Susanne; Presser, Karl; Infanger, Esther; Porubska, Janka; Roe, Mark; Finglas, Paul

    2016-02-15

    The EuroFIR Document and Data Repositories are being developed as accessible collections of source documents, including grey literature, and the food composition data reported in them. These Repositories will contain source information available to food composition database compilers when selecting their nutritional data. The Document Repository was implemented as searchable bibliographic records in the Europe PubMed Central database, which links to the documents online. The Data Repository will contain original data from source documents in the Document Repository. Testing confirmed the FoodCASE food database management system as a suitable tool for the input, documentation and quality assessment of Data Repository information. Data management requirements for the input and documentation of reported analytical results were established, including record identification and method documentation specifications. Document access and data preparation using the Repositories will provide information resources for compilers, eliminating duplicated work and supporting unambiguous referencing of data contributing to their compiled data.

  1. Implementing the EuroFIR Document and Data Repositories as accessible resources of food composition information.

    PubMed

    Unwin, Ian; Jansen-van der Vliet, Martine; Westenbrink, Susanne; Presser, Karl; Infanger, Esther; Porubska, Janka; Roe, Mark; Finglas, Paul

    2016-02-15

    The EuroFIR Document and Data Repositories are being developed as accessible collections of source documents, including grey literature, and the food composition data reported in them. These Repositories will contain source information available to food composition database compilers when selecting their nutritional data. The Document Repository was implemented as searchable bibliographic records in the Europe PubMed Central database, which links to the documents online. The Data Repository will contain original data from source documents in the Document Repository. Testing confirmed the FoodCASE food database management system as a suitable tool for the input, documentation and quality assessment of Data Repository information. Data management requirements for the input and documentation of reported analytical results were established, including record identification and method documentation specifications. Document access and data preparation using the Repositories will provide information resources for compilers, eliminating duplicated work and supporting unambiguous referencing of data contributing to their compiled data. PMID:26433292

  2. Cyanobacteria to Link Closed Ecological Systems and In-Situ Resources Utilization Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Igor

    Introduction: A major goal for the Vision of Space Exploration is to extend human presence across the solar sys-tem. With current technology, however, all required consumables for these missions (propellant, air, food, water) as well as habitable volume and shielding to support human explorers will need to be brought from Earth. In-situ pro-duction of consumables (In-Situ Resource Utilization-ISRU) will significantly facilitate current plans for human ex-ploration and colonization of the solar system, especially by reducing the logistical overhead such as recurring launch mass. The production of oxygen from lunar materials is generally recognized as the highest priority process for lunar ISRU, for both human metabolic and fuel oxidation needs. The most challenging technology developments for future lunar settlements may lie in the extraction of elements (O, Fe, Mn, Ti, Si, etc) from local rocks and soils for life support, industrial feedstock and the production of propellants. With few exceptions (e.g., Johannson, 1992), nearly all technology development to date has employed an ap-proach based on inorganic chemistry (e.g. Allen et al., 1996). None of these technologies include concepts for inte-grating the ISRU system with a bioregenerative life support system and a food production systems. Bioregenerative life support efforts have recently been added to the Constellation ISRU development program (Sanders et al, 2007). Methods and Concerns: The European Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) is an ad-vanced concept for organizing a bioregenerative system for long term space flights and extraterrestrial settlements (Hendrickx, De Wever et al., 2005). However the MELiSSA system is a net consumer of ISRU products without a net return to in-situ technologies, e.g.. to extract elements as a result of complete closure of MELiSSA. On the other hand, the physical-chemical processes for ISRU are typically massive (relative to the rate of oxygen

  3. Community Resource Utilization, Psychosocial Health, and Sociodemographic Factors Associated with Diet and Physical Activity among Low-Income Obese Latino Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Drieling, Rebecca Lucia; Rosas, Lisa Goldman; Ma, Jun; Stafford, Randall Scott

    2013-01-01

    Low-socioeconomic-status (SES) Latinos are disproportionately represented among the 78 million obese Americans. Tailored behavioral weight-loss interventions show promise, but there is limited adaptation to lower-SES Latino immigrants. This study provides guidance for tailoring obesity-reduction strategies for this population by evaluating food security, educational community resource utilization, education level, depression, sex, and length of US residence as predictors of diet and physical activity. The cross-sectional study used baseline data collected in July 2009 through September 2010 for a weight-loss trial among lower-SES obese (body mass index 30 to 55) Latino immigrants who were enrolled at a community health clinic (n=207). Physical activity was measured using 7-day pedometer recording. Dietary intake was measured using an interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire. Factors assessed by questionnaire included education community resource use (nutrition and physical activity classes), education level, US residence (years), food security, and depressive symptoms. Data were analyzed using multivariate-adjusted linear regression models. More than one third of participants were sedentary (<5,000 steps/day), and 41% had low fruit and vegetable intake (<5 servings/day). In multivariate-adjusted models, educational community resource use, male sex, less education, fewer depressive symptoms, and shorter US residence time were associated with more physical activity (all, P±0.05). Educational community resource use was positively associated with fruit and vegetable intake (P=0.05). Male sex was associated with more sweet-beverage intake (P=0.02) and fast-food intake (P=0.04). Fewer depressive symptoms were associated with lower sweet-beverage intake (P=0.05). In conclusion, obesity-reduction strategies among low-SES Latino immigrants might effectively emphasize educational community resource use and interventions tailored for psychosocial and

  4. Idiosyncratic responses of grizzly bear habitat to climate change based on projected food resource changes.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David R; Nielsen, Scott E; Stenhouse, Gordon B

    2014-07-01

    Climate change vulnerability assessments for species of conservation concern often use species distribution and ecological niche modeling to project changes in habitat. One of many assumptions of these approaches is that food web dependencies are consistent in time and environmental space. Species at higher trophic levels that rely on the availability of species at lower trophic levels as food may be sensitive to extinction cascades initiated by changes in the habitat of key food resources. Here we assess climate change vulnerability for Ursus arctos (grizzly bears) in the southern Canadian Rocky Mountains using projected changes to 17 of the most commonly consumed plant food items. We used presence-absence information from 7088 field plots to estimate ecological niches and to project changes in future distributions of each species. Model projections indicated idiosyncratic responses among food items. Many food items persisted or even increased, although several species were found to be vulnerable based on declines or geographic shifts in suitable habitat. These included Hedysarum alpinum (alpine sweet vetch), a critical spring and autumn root-digging resource when little else is available. Potential habitat loss was also identified for three fruiting species of lower importance to bears: Empetrum nigrum (crowberry), Vaccinium scoparium (grouseberry), and Fragaria virginiana (strawberry). A general trend towards uphill migration of bear foods may result in higher vulnerability to bear populations at low elevations, which are also those that are most likely to have human-bear conflict problems. Regardless, a wide diet breadth of grizzly bears, as well as wide environmental niches of most food items, make climate change a much lower threat to grizzly bears than other bear species such as polar bears and panda bears. We cannot exclude, however, future alterations in human behavior and land use resulting from climate change that may reduce survival rates.

  5. Idiosyncratic responses of grizzly bear habitat to climate change based on projected food resource changes.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David R; Nielsen, Scott E; Stenhouse, Gordon B

    2014-07-01

    Climate change vulnerability assessments for species of conservation concern often use species distribution and ecological niche modeling to project changes in habitat. One of many assumptions of these approaches is that food web dependencies are consistent in time and environmental space. Species at higher trophic levels that rely on the availability of species at lower trophic levels as food may be sensitive to extinction cascades initiated by changes in the habitat of key food resources. Here we assess climate change vulnerability for Ursus arctos (grizzly bears) in the southern Canadian Rocky Mountains using projected changes to 17 of the most commonly consumed plant food items. We used presence-absence information from 7088 field plots to estimate ecological niches and to project changes in future distributions of each species. Model projections indicated idiosyncratic responses among food items. Many food items persisted or even increased, although several species were found to be vulnerable based on declines or geographic shifts in suitable habitat. These included Hedysarum alpinum (alpine sweet vetch), a critical spring and autumn root-digging resource when little else is available. Potential habitat loss was also identified for three fruiting species of lower importance to bears: Empetrum nigrum (crowberry), Vaccinium scoparium (grouseberry), and Fragaria virginiana (strawberry). A general trend towards uphill migration of bear foods may result in higher vulnerability to bear populations at low elevations, which are also those that are most likely to have human-bear conflict problems. Regardless, a wide diet breadth of grizzly bears, as well as wide environmental niches of most food items, make climate change a much lower threat to grizzly bears than other bear species such as polar bears and panda bears. We cannot exclude, however, future alterations in human behavior and land use resulting from climate change that may reduce survival rates. PMID:25154102

  6. Impact of a Bundled Payment System on Resource Utilization During Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Maximilian; Smith, Harvey E.; Sciubba, Daniel M.; Passias, Peter G.; Schoenfeld, Andrew; Isaacs, Robert E.; Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Radcliff, Kris E.

    2016-01-01

    Background In a bundled payment system, a single payment covers all costs associated with a single episode of care. Spine surgery may be well suited for bundled payments because of clearly defined episodes of care, but the impact on current practice has not been studied. We sought to examine how a theoretical bundled payment strategy with financial disincentives to resource utilization would impact practice patterns. Methods A multiple-choice survey was administered to spine surgeons describing eight clinical scenarios. Respondents were asked about their current practice, and then their practice in a hypothetical bundled payment system. Respondents could choose from multiple types of implants, bone grafts, and other resources utilized at the surgeon's discretion. Results Forty-three respondents completed the survey. Within each scenario, 24%-49% of respondents changed at least one aspect of management. The proportion of cases performed without implants was unchanged for four scenarios and increased in four by an average of 8%. Use of autologous iliac crest bone graft increased across all scenarios by an average of 18%. Use of neuromonitoring decreased in all scenarios by an average of 21%. Differences in costs were not statistically significant. Conclusions Financial disincentives to resource utilization may result in some changes to surgeons’ practices but these appear limited to items with less clear benefits to patients. Choices of implants, which account for the majority of intra-operative costs, did not change meaningfully. A bundling strategy targeting peri-operative costs solely related to surgical practice may not yield substantive savings while rationing potentially beneficial treatments to patient care. Level of Evidence: 5. PMID:27441177

  7. Preliminary System Analysis of In Situ Resource Utilization for Mars Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, Donald; Andringa, Jason; Easter, Robert; Smith, Jeffrey H .; Wilson, Thomas; Clark, D. Larry; Payne, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    We carried out a system analysis of processes for utilization of Mars resources to support human exploration of Mars by production of propellants from indigenous resources. Seven ISRU processes were analyzed to determine mass. power and propellant storage volume requirements. The major elements of each process include C02 acquisition, chemical conversion, and storage of propellants. Based on a figure of merit (the ratio of the mass of propellants that must be brought from Earth in a non-ISRU mission to the mass of the ISRU system. tanks and feedstocks that must be brought from Earth for a ISRU mission) the most attractive process (by far); is one where indigenous Mars water is accessible and this is processed via Sabatier/Electrolysis to methane and oxygen. These processes are technically relatively mature. Other processes with positive leverage involve reverse water gas shift and solid oxide electrolysis.

  8. Toward a sustainable utilization of land resources in China: problems, policies, and practices.

    PubMed

    Hong, Wuyang; Li, Feixue; Li, Manchun; Zhang, Fangfang; Tong, Lihua; Huang, Qiuhao

    2014-10-01

    China's economy is growing explosively with double-digit rates of growth. However, behind the scenes of this economic miracle, a dark underbelly exists. The potential impact of the unsustainable use of land resources is increasing. Each parcel of land has a stationary geographic location, while its utilization is optional. The re-adjustment and optimization of land use patterns ought to be encouraged. Spatial reconstruction refers to the combination of various land elements, which can promote the rational and efficient allocation of land resources through a four-layer action framework: the development of unused land, urban renewal, ecological reconstruction, and spatial displacement. The feasibility and validity of these methods are illustrated by practical cases in different provinces in China. We thus propose that pursuing sustainable development and building an ecological civilization will be necessary for China in future decades.

  9. Joint Access Control Based on Access Ratio and Resource Utilization for High-Speed Railway Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yuzhe; Ai, Bo

    2015-05-01

    The fast development of high-speed rails makes people's life more and more convenient. However, provisioning of quality of service of multimedia applications for users on the high-speed train is a critical task for wireless communications. Therefore, new solutions are desirable to be found to address this kind of problem. Current researches mainly focus on providing seamless broadband wireless access for high-speed mobile terminals. In this paper, an algorithm to calculate the optimal resource reservation fraction of handovers is proposed. A joint access control scheme for high-speed railway communication handover scenario is proposed. Metrics of access ratio and resource utilization ratio are considered jointly in the analysis and the performance evaluation. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm and the scheme improve quality of service compared with other conventional schemes.

  10. In-Situ Resource Utilization Experiment for the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, J.; Fries, M.; Love, S.; Sellar, R. G.; Voecks, G.; Wilson, D.

    2015-10-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) represents a unique opportunity to perform in-situ testing of concepts that could lead to full-scale exploitation of asteroids for their valuable resources [1]. This paper describes a concept for an astronautoperated "suitcase" experiment to would demonstrate asteroid volatile extraction using a solar-heated oven and integral cold trap in a configuration scalable to full-size asteroids. Conversion of liberated water into H2 and O2 products would also be demonstrated through an integral processing and storage unit. The plan also includes development of a local prospecting system consisting of a suit-mounted multi-spectral imager to aid the crew in choosing optimal samples, both for In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) and for potential return to Earth.

  11. Novel resource utilization of refloated algal sludge to improve the quality of organic fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Li, Rong; Liu, Hongjun; Wang, Beibei; Zhang, Chenmin; Shen, Qirong

    2014-08-01

    Without further management, large amounts of refloated algal sludge from Taihu Lake to retrieve nitrogen and phosphorus resources may result in serious secondary environmental pollution. The possibility of utilization of algal sludge to improve the quality of organic fertilizer was investigated in this study. Variations of physicochemical properties, germination index (GI) and microcystin (MC) content were analysed during the composting process. The results showed that the addition of algal sludge improved the contents of nutrients, common free amino acids and total common amino acids in the novel organic fertilizer. Rapid degradation rates of MC-LR and MC-RR, a high GI value and more abundance of culturable protease-producing bacteria were observed during the composting process added with algal sludge. Growth experiments showed that the novel organic fertilizer efficiently promoted plant growth. This study provides a novel resource recovery method to reclaim the Taihu Lake algal sludge and highlights a novel method to produce a high-quality organic fertilizer.

  12. In situ Resource Utilization for Processing of Metal Alloys on Lunar and Mars Bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanescu, D. M.; Grugel, R. N.; Curreri, P. A.

    1998-01-01

    Current plans for practical missions leading to a sustained human presence on our Moon and Mars rely on utilizing their in situ resources. Initially, resource availability must be assessed followed by the development of economically acceptable and technically feasible extractive processes. In regard to metals processing and fabrication, the lower gravity level on the Moon (0.125 g) and Mars (0.369 g) will dramatically change the presently accepted hierarchy of materials in terms of specific properties, a factor which must be understood and exploited. Furthermore, significant changes are expected in the behavior of liquid metals during processing. In metal casting, for example, mold filling and associated solidification processes have to be reevaluated. Finally, microstructural development and therefore material properties, presently being documented through ongoing research in microgravity science and applications, needs to be understood and scaled to the reduced gravity environments. These and other issues are addressed in this paper.

  13. Linguistic confusion in economics: utility, causality, product differentiation, and the supply of natural resources.

    PubMed

    Simon, J L

    1982-01-01

    Lack of careful attention to the language used in the discussion of economic concepts has resulted in considerable confusion and error. 2 frequent sources of confusion include tautology and the absence of operational definitions of concepts. This paper outlines a more effective scientific practice through reference to 2 economic examples: 1) the concept of utility, where it is demonstrated that choice of an operational definition of the concept facilitates interpersonal comparisons; and 2) causality, where a multidimensional operational definition is needed to discriminate among the various meanings of the term in theoretical, empirical, and policy contexts. The paper further discusses the example of natural resource scarcity, where application of the term "finite" reveals that there is no empirical evidence of physical limits to growth in the use of resources. A more appropriate measure of scarcity is the economic concept of price.

  14. A Lunar Electromagnetic Launch System for In-Situ Resource Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Michael R.; Kuznetsov, Steven B.; Kloesel, Kurt J.

    2010-01-01

    Future human exploration of the moon will require the development of capabilities for in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). Transport of lunar-derived commodities such as fuel and oxygen to orbiting resource depots has been proposed to enable refueling landers or other vehicles. A lunar electromagnetic launch (LEML) system could be an effective means of transporting materials, as an alternative to non-renewable chemical-based propulsion systems. An example LEML concept is presented based on previous studies, existing EML technologies, and NASA's human exploration architecture. A preliminary assessment of the cost-versus-benefit of such a system is also offered; the conclusion, however, is not as favorable for LEML as originally suggested.

  15. Results from utility wind resource assessment programs in Nebraska, Colorado, and Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Drapeau, C.L.

    1997-12-31

    Global Energy Concepts (GEC) has been retained by utilities in Colorado, Nebraska, and Arizona to site, install, and operate 21 wind monitoring stations as part of the Utility Wind Resource Assessment Program (U*WRAP). Preliminary results indicate wind speed averages at 40 meters (132 ft) of 6.5 - 7.4 m/s (14.5-16.5 mph) in Nebraska and 7.6 - 8.9 m/s (17.0-19.9 mph) in Colorado. The Arizona stations are not yet operational. This paper presents the history and current status of the 21 monitoring stations as well as preliminary data results. Information on wind speeds, wind direction, turbulence intensity, wind shear, frequency distribution, and data recovery rates are provided.

  16. The In-Situ Resource Utilization Project Under the New Exploration Enterprise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, William E.; Sanders, Gerald B.

    2010-01-01

    The In Situ Resource Utilization Project under the Exploration Technology Development Program has been investing in technologies to produce Oxygen from the regolith of the moon for the last few years. Much of this work was demonstrated in a lunar analog field demonstration in February of 2010. This paper will provide an overview of the key technologies demonstrated at the field demonstration will be discussed a long with the changes expected in the ISRU project as a result of the new vision for Space Exploration proposed by the President and enacted by the Congress in the NASA Authorization Act of2010.

  17. Exploring patterns in resource utilization prior to the formal identification of homelessness in recently returned veterans.

    PubMed

    Gundlapalli, Adi V; Redd, Andrew; Carter, Marjorie E; Palmer, Miland; Peterson, Rachel; Samore, Matthew H

    2014-01-01

    There are limited data on resources utilized by US Veterans prior to their identification as being homeless. We performed visual analytics on longitudinal medical encounter data prior to the official recognition of homelessness in a large cohort of OEF/OIF Veterans. A statistically significant increase in numbers of several categories of visits in the immediate 30 days prior to the recognition of homelessness was noted as compared to an earlier period. This finding has the potential to inform prediction algorithms based on structured data with a view to intervention and mitigation of homelessness among Veterans.

  18. Research strategy to permit greater utilization of domestic fossil energy resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohare, T.

    1982-03-01

    Discussed are 3 approaches taken for developing fossil energy resources: carbon monoxide and synthesis gas; coal-water slurries; and cntrol of ashes. Carbon monoxide and synthesis gas serve as clean multipurpose feedstocks for use as a source of future industrial raw material and fuels. Coal-water slurries are a poor man's synfuel. It makes practical the use of coai in oil-fired utility boilers, industrial heaters, and furnaces. Ash is a deterrent to the use of coal because it is burdensome to dispose of and has serious effects on equipment, the environment, and man. An objective of coal cleaning should be ash removal as well as sulfur.

  19. The Effects of Colony Structure and Resource Abundance on Food Dispersal in Tapinoma sessile (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    PubMed Central

    VanWeelden, M. T.; Bennett, G.; Buczkowski, G.

    2015-01-01

    The odorous house ant, Tapinoma sessile (Say) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), exhibits a high degree of variation in colony spatial structure which may have direct and indirect effects on foraging. Protein marking and mark–release–recapture techniques were utilized to examine the effect of colony spatial structure on food dispersal. Sucrose water spiked with rabbit IgG protein was presented to colonies with varying spatial configurations in laboratory and field experiments. In monodomous lab colonies, the rate and extent of food dispersal was rapid due to a decrease in foraging area. In polydomous colonies, food dispersal was slower because conspecifics were forced to forage and share food over longer distances. However, over time, food was present in all extremities of the colony. Experiments conducted in the field produced similar results, with nests in close proximity to food yielding higher percentages of workers scoring positive for the marker. However, the percentage of workers possessing the marker decreased over time. Results from this study provide experimental data on mechanisms of food dispersal in monodomous and polydomous colonies of ants, and may be important for increasing the efficacy of management strategies against T. sessile and other pest ant species. PMID:25688088

  20. The effects of colony structure and resource abundance on food dispersal in Tapinoma sessile (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    VanWeelden, M T; Bennett, G; Buczkowski, G

    2015-01-01

    The odorous house ant, Tapinoma sessile (Say) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), exhibits a high degree of variation in colony spatial structure which may have direct and indirect effects on foraging. Protein marking and mark-release-recapture techniques were utilized to examine the effect of colony spatial structure on food dispersal. Sucrose water spiked with rabbit IgG protein was presented to colonies with varying spatial configurations in laboratory and field experiments. In monodomous lab colonies, the rate and extent of food dispersal was rapid due to a decrease in foraging area. In polydomous colonies, food dispersal was slower because conspecifics were forced to forage and share food over longer distances. However, over time, food was present in all extremities of the colony. Experiments conducted in the field produced similar results, with nests in close proximity to food yielding higher percentages of workers scoring positive for the marker. However, the percentage of workers possessing the marker decreased over time. Results from this study provide experimental data on mechanisms of food dispersal in monodomous and polydomous colonies of ants, and may be important for increasing the efficacy of management strategies against T. sessile and other pest ant species. PMID:25688088

  1. Healthcare resource utilization and epidemiology of pediatric burn-associated hospitalizations, United States, 2000.

    PubMed

    Shields, Brenda J; Comstock, R Dawn; Fernandez, Soledad A; Xiang, Huiyun; Smith, Gary A

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology and financial burden of burn-associated hospitalizations for children younger than 18 years in the United States. Retrospective data analysis of pediatric burn-associated hospitalizations was done using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Kids' Inpatient Database for 2000. An estimated 10,000 children younger than 18 years were hospitalized for burn-associated injuries in the United States in 2000. These children spent an estimated 66,200 days in the hospital with associated hospital charges equal to USD 211,772,700. Total charges and length of stay for pediatric burn-associated hospitalizations in the United States during 2000 were associated with degree of burn, percentage of total body surface area burned, child's age, region of the United States, hospital location, and hospital type. Children 2 years old or younger were more likely to be nonwhite, be hospitalized for burns, and burn their hands/wrists, compared with children 3 to 17 years of age. Male children in both age groups were more likely to be hospitalized for burns than female children. Children 2 years old or younger were more likely to be burned by hot liquids/vapors and contact with hot substances/objects, while children 3 to 17 years were more likely to be burned by fire/flames. This study is the first national study on healthcare resource utilization for pediatric burn-associated hospitalizations to utilize the KID database. Burns are a major source of pediatric morbidity and are associated with significant national healthcare resource utilization annually. Future burn prevention efforts should emphasize implementing passive injury prevention strategies, especially for young children who are nonwhite and live in low-income communities.

  2. Resources

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breastfeeding - resources Bulimia - resources Burns - resources Cancer - resources Cerebral palsy - resources Celiac disease - resources Child abuse - resources Chronic fatigue syndrome - resources Chronic pain - ...

  3. Executive control resources and snack food consumption in the presence of restraining versus facilitating cues.

    PubMed

    Hall, Peter A; Lowe, Cassandra; Vincent, Corita

    2014-08-01

    Prior studies have documented a negative relationship between strength of executive control resources (ECRs) and frequency of snack food consumption. However, little is known about what effect environmental cues (restraining versus facilitating) have on the engagement of such control resources. We presented 88 healthy adults with standardized tests of ECRs followed by a bogus taste test for three appetitive snack foods. Participants were randomly assigned to receive instructions to eat the bare minimum to make their ratings ("restraint condition"), eat as much as they like ("facilitation condition") or no special instructions. We surreptitiously measured the weight of food consumed during the taste test. Findings revealed a main effect of treatment condition, such that those in the restraint condition ate significantly less than those in either of the other conditions; however, this main effect was qualified by an ECR by treatment condition interaction. Specifically, those in the facilitation condition showed a strong negative association between ECR strength and amount of food consumed, whereas those in the restraint and control conditions did not. Findings suggest that the effect of ECR strength on consumption of snack food varies substantially by the characteristics of contextual cues.

  4. The impact of personal resources and their goal relevance on satisfaction with food-related life among the elderly.

    PubMed

    Dean, Moira; Grunert, Klaus G; Raats, Monique M; Nielsen, Niels Asger; Lumbers, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    The study explored how actual resources, perceived levels of different types of resources and goal relevance of these resources affect older people's satisfaction with food-related life using a survey in eight European countries, where 3291 participants above 65 years of age and living in their own homes took part. Satisfaction with food-related life was measured using Satisfaction With Food-related Life (SWFL) scale developed by Grunert, Raats, Dean, Nielsen, Lumbers and The Food in Later Life Team. [(2007). A measure of satisfaction with food-related life. Appetite, 49, 486-493]. Results showed that older people rated the resources that they believed to have plentiful of as being highly relevant to achieve their goals. The individuals who rated the relevance and their level of different resources as high were also more satisfied with their food-related quality of life. Further, satisfaction with food-related life, as was expected, was predicted by income, health measures and living circumstances. However, the study also showed that perceived levels of other resources such as support of family and friends, food knowledge, storage facilities also added to the individuals' satisfaction with food-related life. In addition, the congruence between perceived level and relevance of a resource was also shown to add to people's satisfaction with food-related life, implying that older people's satisfaction with food-related life depends not only on the level of resources they think they have but also on their goals and how important they think these resources are to achieving their goals. PMID:17913297

  5. Food Security and Women's Access to Natural Resources workshop; a brief report.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the workshop on Food Security and Women's Access to Natural Resources, held in January 1997 in Mumbai, India. The workshop was organized jointly by the Tata Institute of Social Sciences and the Indian Association of Women's Studies. The aim was to examine the food security situation in Maharashtra and Gujarat states in the west, the initiative to build alternative institutions, legal changes augmenting industrialization, and how traditional rights to common property resources can be legalized and how the poor can have access to new resources. The workshop organizers were unable to obtain experts on some topics. Core discussion centered on changes in industrialization, natural resources, gender and food security; access to natural resources and poverty alleviation programs; initiatives to create food security; and laws related to access to land and water. Discussions revealed the alienation of small and marginal farmers, landless laborers, and artisans from their livelihoods and survival strategies for these disenfranchised groups. The design of drought eradication and water conservation programs did not permit women and men working at construction sites to have access to the program assets. Case studies revealed situations in which women won the right of access to community water and then negotiated for land in lease. The women used landowners to negotiate credit and access development program assets, but normal channels of the National Bank of Agricultural Research and Development could have provided these benefits. Participants discussed how governments can be held accountable and how public funds could be used to revamp poverty alleviation and asset creation programs. All agreed that macrolevel development should give priority to agricultural development and legal constraints or problems. Five follow-up activities are identified.

  6. Utilization of biobased polymers in food packaging: Assessment of materials, production and commercialization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food packaging contains and protects food, keeps it safe and secure, retains food quality and freshness, and increases shelf-life of food. Packaging should be affordable and biodegradable. Packaging is the core of the businesses of fast-foods, ready meals, on-the-go beverages, snacks and manufacture...

  7. Progress Made in Lunar In-Situ Resource Utilization Under NASA's Exploration Technology and Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Gerald B.; Larson, William E.

    2012-01-01

    Incorporation of In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) and the production of mission critical consumables for 9 propulsion, power, and life support into mission architectures can greatly reduce the mass, cost, and risk of missions 10 leading to a sustainable and affordable approach to human exploration beyond Earth. ISRU and its products can 11 also greatly affect how other exploration systems are developed, including determining which technologies are 12 important or enabling. While the concept of lunar ISRU has existed for over 40 years, the technologies and systems 13 had not progressed much past simple laboratory proof-of-concept tests. With the release of the Vision for Space 14 Exploration in 2004 with the goal of harnessing the Moon.s resources, NASA initiated the ISRU Project in the 15 Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) to develop the technologies and systems needed to meet 16 this goal. In the five years of work in the ISRU Project, significant advancements and accomplishments occurred in 17 several important areas of lunar ISRU. Also, two analog field tests held in Hawaii in 2008 and 2010 demonstrated 18 all the steps in ISRU capabilities required along with the integration of ISRU products and hardware with 19 propulsion, power, and cryogenic storage systems. This paper will review the scope of the ISRU Project in the 20 ETDP, ISRU incorporation and development strategies utilized by the ISRU Project, and ISRU development and 21 test accomplishments over the five years of funded project activity.

  8. The Impact of Obesity on Perioperative Resource Utilization after Elective Spine Surgery for Degenerative Disease.

    PubMed

    Planchard, Ryan F; Higgins, Dominique M; Mallory, Grant W; Puffer, Ross C; Jacob, Jeffrey T; Curry, Timothy B; Kor, Daryl J; Clarke, Michelle J

    2015-08-01

    Study Design Retrospective case series. Objective To determine the effect of obesity on the resource utilization and cost in 3270 consecutive patients undergoing elective noninstrumented decompressive surgeries for degenerative spine disease at Mayo Clinic Rochester between 2005 and 2012. Methods Groups were assessed for baseline differences (age, gender, and American Society of Anesthesiologists [ASA] classification, procedure type, and number of operative levels). Outcome variables included the transfusion requirements during surgery, the total anesthesia and surgical times, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, standardized costs, as well as the ICU and hospital length of stay (LOS). Regression analysis was used to evaluate for strength of association between obesity and outcome variables. Results Baseline differences between the groups (nonobese: n = 1,853; obese: n = 1,417) were found with respect to age, ASA class, gender, procedure type, and number of operative levels. After correcting for differences, we found significant associations between obesity and surgical (p < 0.0001) and anesthesia times (p < 0.0001) and hospital LOS (p < 0.0001). Additionally, ICU admission rates (p = 0.02) and requirement for postoperative ventilation (p = 0.048) were significantly higher in obese patients. Finally, mean difference in total cost ($1,632, p < 0.0001) was significantly higher for the obese cohort. Conclusion Obesity is associated with increased resource utilization and cost in patients undergoing a noninstrumented decompressive surgery for degenerative spine disease.

  9. Standard Lunar Regolith Simulants for Space Resource Utilization Technologies Development: Effects of Materials Choices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibille, Laurent; Carpenter, Paul K.

    2006-01-01

    As NASA turns its exploration ambitions towards the Moon once again, the research and development of new technologies for lunar operations face the challenge of meeting the milestones of a fastpace schedule, reminiscent of the 1960's Apollo program. While the lunar samples returned by the Apollo and Luna missions have revealed much about the Moon, these priceless materials exist in too scarce quantities to be used for technology development and testing. The need for mineral materials chosen to simulate the characteristics of lunar regoliths is a pressing issue that is being addressed today through the collaboration of scientists, engineers and NASA program managers. The issue of reproducing the properties of lunar regolith for research and technology development purposes was addressed by the recently held 2005 Workshop on Lunar Regolith Simulant Materials at Marshall Space Flight Center. The recommendation of the workshop of establishing standard simulant materials to be used in lunar technology development and testing will be discussed here with an emphasis on space resource utilization. The variety of techniques and the complexity of functional interfaces make these simulant choices critical in space resource utilization.

  10. Stochastic simulation of power systems with integrated renewable and utility-scale storage resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degeilh, Yannick

    The push for a more sustainable electric supply has led various countries to adopt policies advocating the integration of renewable yet variable energy resources, such as wind and solar, into the grid. The challenges of integrating such time-varying, intermittent resources has in turn sparked a growing interest in the implementation of utility-scale energy storage resources ( ESRs), with MWweek storage capability. Indeed, storage devices provide flexibility to facilitate the management of power system operations in the presence of uncertain, highly time-varying and intermittent renewable resources. The ability to exploit the potential synergies between renewable and ESRs hinges on developing appropriate models, methodologies, tools and policy initiatives. We report on the development of a comprehensive simulation methodology that provides the capability to quantify the impacts of integrated renewable and ESRs on the economics, reliability and emission variable effects of power systems operating in a market environment. We model the uncertainty in the demands, the available capacity of conventional generation resources and the time-varying, intermittent renewable resources, with their temporal and spatial correlations, as discrete-time random processes. We deploy models of the ESRs to emulate their scheduling and operations in the transmission-constrained hourly day-ahead markets. To this end, we formulate a scheduling optimization problem (SOP) whose solutions determine the operational schedule of the controllable ESRs in coordination with the demands and the conventional/renewable resources. As such, the SOP serves the dual purpose of emulating the clearing of the transmission-constrained day-ahead markets (DAMs ) and scheduling the energy storage resource operations. We also represent the need for system operators to impose stricter ramping requirements on the conventional generating units so as to maintain the system capability to perform "load following'', i

  11. Robustness of empirical food webs with varying consumer's sensitivities to loss of resources.

    PubMed

    Bellingeri, Michele; Vincenzi, Simone

    2013-09-21

    Food web responses to species loss have been mostly studied in binary food webs, thus without accounting for the amount of energy transferred in consumer-resource interactions. We introduce an energetic criterion, called extinction threshold, for which a species goes secondarily extinct when a certain fraction of its incoming energy is lost. We study the robustness to random node loss of 10 food webs based on empirically-derived weightings. We use different extinction scenarios (random removal and from most- to least-connected species), and we simulate 10(5) replicates for each extinction threshold to account for stochasticity of extinction dynamics. We quantified robustness on the basis of how many additional species (i.e. secondary extinctions) were lost after the direct removal of species (i.e. primary extinctions). For all food webs, the expected robustness linearly decreases with extinction threshold, although a large variance in robustness is observed. The sensitivity of robustness to variations in extinction threshold increases with food web species richness and quantitative unweighted link density, while we observed a nonlinear relationship when the predictor is food web connectance and no relationship with the proportion of autotrophs.

  12. National Trends in Resource Utilization Associated with Emergency Department Visits for Syncope

    PubMed Central

    Probst, Marc A.; Kanzaria, Hemal K.; Gbedemah, Misato; Richardson, Lynne D.; Sun, Benjamin C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Over the last 20 years, numerous research articles and clinical guidelines aimed at optimizing resource utilization for emergency department (ED) patients presenting with syncope have been published. Hypothesis We hypothesized there would be temporal trends in syncope-related ED visits and associated trends in imaging, hospital admissions, and diagnostic frequencies. Methods The ED component of National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey was analyzed from 2001 through 2010, comprising over 358,000 visits (representing an estimated 1.18 billion visits nationally). We selected ED visits with a reason for visit of syncope or fainting and calculated nationally representative weighted estimates for prevalence of such visits, and associated rates of advanced imaging utilization and admission. For admitted patients from 2005 to 2010, the most frequent hospital discharge diagnoses were tabulated. Results During the study period, there were over 3,500 actual ED visits (representing 11.9 million visits nationally) related to syncope, representing roughly 1% of all ED visits. Admission rates for syncope patients ranged from 27% to 35% and showed no significant downward trend (p=0.1). Advanced imaging rates increased from about 21% to 45% and showed a significant upward trend (p < 0.001). For admitted patients, the most common hospital discharge diagnosis was the symptomatic diagnosis of “syncope and collapse” (36.4%). Conclusions Despite substantial efforts by medical researchers and professional societies, resource utilization associated with ED visits for syncope appears to have actually increased. There have been no apparent improvements in diagnostic yield for admissions. Novel strategies may be needed to change practice patterns for such patients. PMID:25943042

  13. Minimal support technology and in situ resource utilization for risk management of planetary spaceflight missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, K. L.; Rygalov, V. Ye.; Johnson, S. B.

    2009-04-01

    All artificial systems and components in space degrade at higher rates than on Earth, depending in part on environmental conditions, design approach, assembly technologies, and the materials used. This degradation involves not only the hardware and software systems but the humans that interact with those systems. All technological functions and systems can be expressed through functional dependence: [Function]˜[ERU]∗[RUIS]∗[ISR]/[DR];where [ERU]efficiency (rate) of environmental resource utilization[RUIS]resource utilization infrastructure[ISR]in situ resources[DR]degradation rateThe limited resources of spaceflight and open space for autonomous missions require a high reliability (maximum possible, approaching 100%) for system functioning and operation, and must minimize the rate of any system degradation. To date, only a continuous human presence with a system in the spaceflight environment can absolutely mitigate those degradations. This mitigation is based on environmental amelioration for both the technology systems, as repair of data and spare parts, and the humans, as exercise and psychological support. Such maintenance now requires huge infrastructures, including research and development complexes and management agencies, which currently cannot move beyond the Earth. When considering what is required to move manned spaceflight from near Earth stations to remote locations such as Mars, what are the minimal technologies and infrastructures necessary for autonomous restoration of a degrading system in space? In all of the known system factors of a mission to Mars that reduce the mass load, increase the reliability, and reduce the mission’s overall risk, the current common denominator is the use of undeveloped or untested technologies. None of the technologies required to significantly reduce the risk for critical systems are currently available at acceptable readiness levels. Long term interplanetary missions require that space programs produce a craft

  14. Industrial Consortium for the Utilization of the Geopressured-Geothermal Resource. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Negus-deWys, J.

    1990-03-01

    The Geopressured-Geothermal Program, now in its fifteenth year, is entering the transition period to commercial use. The industry cost-shared proposals to the consortium, represented in the presentations included in these proceedings, attest to the interest developing in the industrial community in utilizing the geopressured-geothermal resource. Sixty-five participants attended these sessions, two-thirds of whom represented industry. The areas represented by cost-shared proposals include (1) thermal enhanced oil recovery, (2) direct process use of thermal energy, e.g., aquaculture and agriculture, (3) conversion of thermal energy to electricity, (4) environment related technologies, e.g., use of supercritical processes, and (5) operational proposals, e.g., a field manual for scale inhibitors. It is hoped that from this array of potential use projects, some will persist and be successful in proving the viability of using the geopressured-geothermal resource. Such industrial use of an alternative and relatively clean energy resource will benefit our nation and its people.

  15. Industrial Consortium for the Utilization of the Geopressured-Geothermal Resource. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Negus-deWys, J.

    1990-03-01

    The Geopressured-Geothermal Program, now in its fifteenth year, is entering the transition period to commercial use. The industry cost-shared proposals to the consortium, represented in the presentations included in these proceedings, attest to the interest developing in the industrial community in utilizing the geopressured-geothermal resource. Sixty-five participants attended these sessions, two-thirds of whom represented industry. The areas represented by cost-shared proposals include (1) thermal enhanced oil recovery, (2) direct process use of thermal energy, e.g., aquaculture and agriculture, (3) conversion of thermal energy to electricity, (4) environment related technologies, e.g., use of supercritical processes, and (5) operational proposals, e.g., a field manual for scale inhibitors. It is hoped that from this array of potential use projects, some will persist and be successful in proving the viability of using the geopressured-geothermal resource. Such industrial use of an alternative and relatively clean energy resource will benefit our nation and its people.

  16. Final review of analog field campaigns for In Situ Resource Utilization technology and capability maturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Gerald B.; Larson, William E.

    2015-05-01

    A key aspect of enabling an affordable and sustainable program of human exploration beyond low Earth orbit is the ability to locate, extract, and harness the resources found in space to reduce what needs to be launched from Earth's deep gravity well and to minimize the risk of dependence on Earth for survival. Known as In Situ Resource Utilization or ISRU, the ability to convert space resources into useful and mission critical products has been shown in numerous studies to be mission and architecture enhancing or enabling. However at the time of the release of the US Vision for Space Exploration in 2004, only concept feasibility hardware for ISRU technologies and capabilities had been built and tested in the laboratory; no ISRU hardware had ever flown in a mission to the Moon or Mars. As a result, an ISRU development project was established with phased development of multiple generations of hardware and systems. To bridge the gap between past ISRU feasibility hardware and future hardware needed for space missions, and to increase confidence in mission and architecture planners that ISRU capabilities would meet exploration needs, the ISRU development project incorporated extensive ground and analog site testing to mature hardware, operations, and interconnectivity with other exploration systems linked to ISRU products. This report documents the series of analog test activities performed from 2008 to 2012, the stepwise progress achieved, and the end-to-end system and mission demonstrations accomplished in this test program.

  17. Utilization of on-site resources for Regenerative Life Support Systems at a lunar outpost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, D. W.; Golden, D. C.; Henninger, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    Regenerative life support systems (RLSS) will be required to regenerate air, water, and wastes, and to produce food for human consumption during long-duration stays on the moon. It may be possible to supplement some of the materials needed for RLSS from resources on the moon. Natural materials at the lunar surface may be used for a variety of lunar RLSS needs, including (i) soils or solid-support substrates for plant growth, (ii) sources for extraction of essential, plant-growth nutrients, (iii) substrates for microbial populations in the degradation of wastes, (iv) sources of O2 and H, which may be used to manufacture water, (v) feed stock materials for the synthesis of useful minerals (e.g., molecular sieves), and (vi) shielding materials surrounding the outpost structure to protect humans, plants, and microorganisms from harmful radiation.

  18. Appropriate Importation and Effective Utilization of Top Quality Foreign Higher Education Resources for Sino-Foreign Cooperation in Running Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jinhui, Lin; Zhiping, Liu

    2009-01-01

    The appropriate importation and effective utilization of superior-quality foreign higher education resources are crucial to enhance the level and quality of school administration cooperation with foreign partners because it can not only make up for the shortage in domestic education resources and push forward China's higher education reform but…

  19. Job satisfaction in relation to energy resource consciousness and perceptions of energy utilization in selected Illinois manufacturing firms

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, T.S.

    1986-01-01

    This study was developed through a synthesis and review of literature and research related to the current status of job satisfaction, energy resources, and perceptions of how energy is utilized in the manufacturing work environment. This synthesis and review revolved around several proven contributing factors of job satisfaction, such as age, education, and challenge from work itself. Quality of work life programs and their components are discussed in relation to their impact on job satisfaction. The nature of energy resource utilization is traced back through history with an emphasis on the limitations of current resources and options for the future. The review highlights the current debate over what should be the future path of energy resource development. The concept of satisfaction of human needs is reviewed and related to job satisfaction and energy resources. The purpose of this research study was to contribute to the understanding of how perceptions of energy resources relate to job satisfaction. Results of the study indicated that there were no significant differences between an individual's energy resource consciousness and perceptions of energy utilization in the work place, energy resource consciousness and job satisfaction, and job satisfaction and perceptions of energy utilization in the workplace.

  20. Prevalence of Food Insecurity and Utilization of Food Assistance Program: An Exploratory Survey of a Vermont Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Shamima; Pinckney, Richard G.; Keeney, Dorigen; Frankowski, Barbara; Carney, Jan K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Access to sufficient food--in terms of both quality and quantity--is especially critical for children. Undernourishment during childhood and adolescence can have health implications, both short and long term. The prevalence of food insecurity was assessed in a sample of Vermont school children, as well as the relationship between food…

  1. Predators and Resources Influence Phosphorus Transfer along an Invertebrate Food Web through Changes in Prey Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Calizza, Edoardo; Rossi, Loreto; Costantini, Maria Letizia

    2013-01-01

    Predators play a fundamental role in prey trophic behaviour, with indirect consequences for species coexistence and ecosystem functioning. Resource quality and availability also influence prey trophic behaviour, with potential effects on predator-prey dynamics. Although many studies have addressed these topics, little attention has been paid to the combined effects of predators and resources on prey species coexistence and nutrient transfer along food chains, especially in detritus-based systems. To determine the influence of predators and resource quality on the movement and P uptake of detritivores, we carried out a field experiment on the River Kelvin (Scotland) using 32P to test the hypothesis of reduced prey vagility among resource patches as a strategy to avoid predation. Thirty leaf sacks containing alder leaves and two detritivore prey populations (Asellus aquaticus and Lymnaea peregra) were placed in cages, half of them with two predator species (Dendrocoelum lacteum and Erpobdella octoculata) and the other half without predators. Five alder leaf bags, each individually inoculated with a different fungus strain to simulate a patchy habitat, were placed inside each leaf sack. One bag in each sack was labelled with 32P, in order to assess the proportion of detritivores using it as food and thus their movement among the five resource patches. Three replicates for each labelled fungus and each predation treatment (i.e. with and without predators) were left on the riverbed for 7 days. The presence of predators had negligible effects on the number of detritivores in the leaf bags, but it did reduce the proportion of 32P-labelled detritivores and their P uptake. The most strongly affected species was A. aquaticus, whose vagility, trophic overlap with L. peregra and P uptake were all reduced. The results confirm the importance of bottom-up and top-down forces acting simultaneously to regulate nutrient transfer along food chains in patchy habitats. PMID:23750242

  2. Urban food consumption and associated water resources: The example of Dutch cities.

    PubMed

    Vanham, D; Mak, T N; Gawlik, B M

    2016-09-15

    Full self-sufficiency in cities is a major concern. Cities import resources for food, water and energy security. They are however key to global sustainability, as they concentrate a rapidly increasing and urbanising population (or number of consumers). In this paper, we analysed the dependency of urban inhabitants on the resource water for food consumption, by means of Dutch cities. We found that in extremely urbanised municipalities like Amsterdam and Rotterdam, people eat more meat and cereals and less potatoes than in other Dutch municipalities. Their current water footprint (WF) related to food consumption is therefore higher (3245l/cap/day) than in strongly urbanised cities (3126l/cap/day). Dutch urban citizens who eat too many animal products, crop oils and sugar can reduce their WF (with 29 to 32%) by shifting to a healthier diet. Recommended less meat consumption has the largest impact on the total WF reduction. A shift to a pesco-vegetarian or vegetarian diet would require even less water resources, where the WF can be reduced by 36 to 39% and 40 to 42% respectively. Dutch cities such as Amsterdam have always scored very high in international sustainability rankings for cities, partly due to a long history in integrated (urban) water management in the Netherlands. We argue that such existing rankings only show a certain - undoubtedly very important - part of urban environmental sustainability. To communicate the full picture to citizens, stakeholders and policy makers, indicators on external resource usage need to be employed. The fact that external resource dependency can be altered through changing dietary behaviour should be communicated.

  3. Urban food consumption and associated water resources: The example of Dutch cities.

    PubMed

    Vanham, D; Mak, T N; Gawlik, B M

    2016-09-15

    Full self-sufficiency in cities is a major concern. Cities import resources for food, water and energy security. They are however key to global sustainability, as they concentrate a rapidly increasing and urbanising population (or number of consumers). In this paper, we analysed the dependency of urban inhabitants on the resource water for food consumption, by means of Dutch cities. We found that in extremely urbanised municipalities like Amsterdam and Rotterdam, people eat more meat and cereals and less potatoes than in other Dutch municipalities. Their current water footprint (WF) related to food consumption is therefore higher (3245l/cap/day) than in strongly urbanised cities (3126l/cap/day). Dutch urban citizens who eat too many animal products, crop oils and sugar can reduce their WF (with 29 to 32%) by shifting to a healthier diet. Recommended less meat consumption has the largest impact on the total WF reduction. A shift to a pesco-vegetarian or vegetarian diet would require even less water resources, where the WF can be reduced by 36 to 39% and 40 to 42% respectively. Dutch cities such as Amsterdam have always scored very high in international sustainability rankings for cities, partly due to a long history in integrated (urban) water management in the Netherlands. We argue that such existing rankings only show a certain - undoubtedly very important - part of urban environmental sustainability. To communicate the full picture to citizens, stakeholders and policy makers, indicators on external resource usage need to be employed. The fact that external resource dependency can be altered through changing dietary behaviour should be communicated. PMID:27173841

  4. An assessment of the mental health care needs and utilization by families of children with a food allergy.

    PubMed

    Annunziato, Rachel A; Shemesh, Eyal; Weiss, Christopher C; Izzo, Genevieve N; D'Urso, Christine; Sicherer, Scott H

    2013-11-01

    The present study aimed to examine whether caretakers of children with a food allergy experience distress and to determine their family's mental health-care needs and utilization. An anonymous survey was given to a sample of 454 caretakers during conferences hosted by the Food Allergy & Anaphylaxis Network. Overall, 32 percent of caretakers reported above threshold levels of distress while 70 percent stated that mental health support would have been helpful, but only 23 percent sought it. Even when mental health support was desired and available, few received it. Routine discussion of mental health needs with families receiving medical care may help address barriers to utilization.

  5. Trends in Emergency Department Resource Utilization for Poisoning-Related Visits, 2003-2011.

    PubMed

    Mazer-Amirshahi, Maryann; Sun, Christie; Mullins, Peter; Perrone, Jeanmarie; Nelson, Lewis; Pines, Jesse M

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in poisoning-related emergency department (ED) visits. This study examines trends in ED resource utilization for poisoning-related visits over time. A retrospective review of data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 2003-2011, was conducted. All ED visits with a reason for visit or ICD-9 code related to poisoning were included. We examined the number of ED visits and resources used including diagnostic studies and procedures performed, medications provided, admission rates, and length of stay. The proportion of visits involving resource use was tabulated and trends analyzed using survey-weighted logistic regression, grouping into 2-year periods to ensure adequate sample size. Of an estimated 843 million ED visits between 2003 and 2011, 8 million (0.9 %) were related to poisoning. Visits increased from 1.8 million (0.8 %) visits in 2003-2004 to 2.9 million (1.1 %) visits in 2010-2011, p = 0.001. Use of laboratory studies, EKGs, plain radiographs, and procedures remained stable across the study period. CT use was more than doubled, increasing from 5.2 to 13.7 % of visits, p = 0.001. ED length of stay increased by 35.5 % from 254 to 344 min, p = 0.001. Admission rates increased by 45.3 %, from 15.0 to 21.8 %, p = 0.046. Over the entire study period, 52.0 % of poisoned patients arrived via ambulance, and 3.0 % of patients had been discharged from the hospital within the previous 7 days. Poisoning-related ED visits increased over the 8-year study period; poisonings are resource-intensive visits and require increasingly longer lengths of ED stay or hospital admission. PMID:27342464

  6. Space Resource Utilization: Near-Term Missions and Long-Term Plans for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Gerald B.

    2015-01-01

    A primary goal of all major space faring nations is to explore space: from the Earth with telescopes, with robotic probes and space telescopes, and with humans. For the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), this pursuit is captured in three important strategic goals: 1. Ascertain the content, origin, and evolution of the solar system and the potential for life elsewhere, 2. Extend and sustain human activities across the solar system (especially the surface of Mars), and 3. Create innovative new space technologies for exploration, science, and economic future. While specific missions and destinations are still being discussed as to what comes first, it is imperative for NASA that it foster the development and implementation of new technologies and approaches that make space exploration affordable and sustainable. Critical to achieving affordable and sustainable human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) is the development of technologies and systems to identify, extract, and use resources in space instead of bringing everything from Earth. To reduce the development and implementation costs for space resource utilization, often called In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), it is imperative to work with terrestrial mining companies to spin-in/spin-off technologies and capabilities, and space mining companies to expand our economy beyond Earth orbit. In the last two years, NASA has focused on developing and implementing a sustainable human space exploration program with the ultimate goal of exploring the surface of Mars with humans. The plan involves developing technology and capability building blocks critical for sustained exploration starting with the Space Launch System (SLS) and Orion crew spacecraft and utilizing the International Space Station as a springboard into the solar system. The evolvable plan develops and expands human exploration in phases starting with missions that are reliant on Earth, to performing ever more challenging and

  7. Space Resource Utilization: Near-Term Missions and Long-Term Plans for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Gerald B.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Human Exploration Plans: A primary goal of all major space faring nations is to explore space: from the Earth with telescopes, with robotic probes and space telescopes, and with humans. For the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), this pursuit is captured in three important strategic goals: 1. Ascertain the content, origin, and evolution of the solar system and the potential for life elsewhere, 2. Extend and sustain human activities across the solar system (especially the surface of Mars), and 3. Create innovative new space technologies for exploration, science, and economic future. While specific missions and destinations are still being discussed as to what comes first, it is imperative for NASA that it foster the development and implementation of new technologies and approaches that make space exploration affordable and sustainable. Critical to achieving affordable and sustainable human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) is the development of technologies and systems to identify, extract, and use resources in space instead of bringing everything from Earth. To reduce the development and implementation costs for space resource utilization, often called In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), it is imperative to work with terrestrial mining companies to spin-in/spin-off technologies and capabilities, and space mining companies to expand our economy beyond Earth orbit. In the last two years, NASA has focused on developing and implementing a sustainable human space exploration program with the ultimate goal of exploring the surface of Mars with humans. The plan involves developing technology and capability building blocks critical for sustained exploration starting with the Space Launch System (SLS) and Orion crew spacecraft and utilizing the International Space Station as a springboard into the solar system. The evolvable plan develops and expands human exploration in phases starting with missions that are reliant on Earth, to

  8. Deficit irrigation and sustainable water-resource strategies in agriculture for China's food security.

    PubMed

    Du, Taisheng; Kang, Shaozhong; Zhang, Jianhua; Davies, William J

    2015-04-01

    More than 70% of fresh water is used in agriculture in many parts of the world, but competition for domestic and industrial water use is intense. For future global food security, water use in agriculture must become sustainable. Agricultural water-use efficiency and water productivity can be improved at different points from the stomatal to the regional scale. A promising approach is the use of deficit irrigation, which can both save water and induce plant physiological regulations such as stomatal opening and reproductive and vegetative growth. At the scales of the irrigation district, the catchment, and the region, there can be many other components to a sustainable water-resources strategy. There is much interest in whether crop water use can be regulated as a function of understanding of physiological responses. If this is the case, then agricultural water resources can be reallocated to the benefit of the broader community. We summarize the extent of use and impact of deficit irrigation within China. A sustainable strategy for allocation of agricultural water resources for food security is proposed. Our intention is to build an integrative system to control crop water use during different cropping stages and actively regulate the plant's growth, productivity, and development based on physiological responses. This is done with a view to improving the allocation of limited agricultural water resources.

  9. Deficit irrigation and sustainable water-resource strategies in agriculture for China’s food security

    PubMed Central

    Du, Taisheng; Kang, Shaozhong; Zhang, Jianhua; Davies, William J.

    2015-01-01

    More than 70% of fresh water is used in agriculture in many parts of the world, but competition for domestic and industrial water use is intense. For future global food security, water use in agriculture must become sustainable. Agricultural water-use efficiency and water productivity can be improved at different points from the stomatal to the regional scale. A promising approach is the use of deficit irrigation, which can both save water and induce plant physiological regulations such as stomatal opening and reproductive and vegetative growth. At the scales of the irrigation district, the catchment, and the region, there can be many other components to a sustainable water-resources strategy. There is much interest in whether crop water use can be regulated as a function of understanding of physiological responses. If this is the case, then agricultural water resources can be reallocated to the benefit of the broader community. We summarize the extent of use and impact of deficit irrigation within China. A sustainable strategy for allocation of agricultural water resources for food security is proposed. Our intention is to build an integrative system to control crop water use during different cropping stages and actively regulate the plant’s growth, productivity, and development based on physiological responses. This is done with a view to improving the allocation of limited agricultural water resources. PMID:25873664

  10. Pedagogical Utilization and Assessment of the Statistic Online Computational Resource in Introductory Probability and Statistics Courses.

    PubMed

    Dinov, Ivo D; Sanchez, Juana; Christou, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    Technology-based instruction represents a new recent pedagogical paradigm that is rooted in the realization that new generations are much more comfortable with, and excited about, new technologies. The rapid technological advancement over the past decade has fueled an enormous demand for the integration of modern networking, informational and computational tools with classical pedagogical instruments. Consequently, teaching with technology typically involves utilizing a variety of IT and multimedia resources for online learning, course management, electronic course materials, and novel tools of communication, engagement, experimental, critical thinking and assessment.The NSF-funded Statistics Online Computational Resource (SOCR) provides a number of interactive tools for enhancing instruction in various undergraduate and graduate courses in probability and statistics. These resources include online instructional materials, statistical calculators, interactive graphical user interfaces, computational and simulation applets, tools for data analysis and visualization. The tools provided as part of SOCR include conceptual simulations and statistical computing interfaces, which are designed to bridge between the introductory and the more advanced computational and applied probability and statistics courses. In this manuscript, we describe our designs for utilizing SOCR technology in instruction in a recent study. In addition, present the results of the effectiveness of using SOCR tools at two different course intensity levels on three outcome measures: exam scores, student satisfaction and choice of technology to complete assignments. Learning styles assessment was completed at baseline. We have used three very different designs for three different undergraduate classes. Each course included a treatment group, using the SOCR resources, and a control group, using classical instruction techniques. Our findings include marginal effects of the SOCR treatment per individual

  11. Genomic paradigms for food-borne enteric pathogen analysis at the USFDA: case studies highlighting method utility, integration and resolution.

    PubMed

    Elkins, C A; Kotewicz, M L; Jackson, S A; Lacher, D W; Abu-Ali, G S; Patel, I R

    2013-01-01

    Modern risk control and food safety practices involving food-borne bacterial pathogens are benefiting from new genomic technologies for rapid, yet highly specific, strain characterisations. Within the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN), optical genome mapping and DNA microarray genotyping have been used for several years to quickly assess genomic architecture and gene content, respectively, for outbreak strain subtyping and to enhance retrospective trace-back analyses. The application and relative utility of each method varies with outbreak scenario and the suspect pathogen, with comparative analytical power enhanced by database scale and depth. Integration of these two technologies allows high-resolution scrutiny of the genomic landscapes of enteric food-borne pathogens with notable examples including Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Salmonella enterica serovars from a variety of food commodities. Moreover, the recent application of whole genome sequencing technologies to food-borne pathogen outbreaks and surveillance has enhanced resolution to the single nucleotide scale. This new wealth of sequence data will support more refined next-generation custom microarray designs, targeted re-sequencing and "genomic signature recognition" approaches involving a combination of genes and single nucleotide polymorphism detection to distil strain-specific fingerprinting to a minimised scale. This paper examines the utility of microarrays and optical mapping in analysing outbreaks, reviews best practices and the limits of these technologies for pathogen differentiation, and it considers future integration with whole genome sequencing efforts.

  12. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 4. Western Solar Utilization Network Region

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Western Solar Utilization Network Region. (WHK)

  13. Planetary materials and resource utilization: An interdisciplinary engineering design course at Michigan Technological University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, W. I.; Paces, J. B.; Chesner, C. A.; Pletka, B. J.; Hellawell, A.; Kawatra, S. K.; Pilling, J. E.

    1990-01-01

    A new course was developed and instituted in the spring quarter of 1989 dealing with topics related to space resource utilization and related engineering. The course development required a concerted, coordinated effort, because a similar course which might be used as a guide could not be identified anywhere and the interdisciplinary perspective that was required was not identified anywhere on the university campus. Students in the class worked on interdisciplinary design projects which culminated in papers and oral presentations. Each of the six design groups consisted of several engineers with different disciplinary roots. The entire course lecture sequence, about 50 hours in all, was videotaped. Discussed here are the authors' experiences in developing the course, including the course syllabus and speaker list.

  14. Scenario-based water resources planning for utilities in the Lake Victoria region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, V. K.; Aslam, O.; Dale, L.; Miller, N.; Purkey, D.

    2010-12-01

    Cities in the Lake Victoria (LV) region are experiencing the highest growth rates in Africa, at the same time that their water resource is threatened by domestic waste and industrial pollution. Urban centers use local springs, wetlands and Lake Victoria as source waters. As efforts to meet increasing demand accelerate, integrated water resources management (IWRM) tools provide opportunities for utilities and other stakeholders to develop a planning framework comprehensive enough to include short term (e.g. landuse change), as well as longer term (e.g. climate change) scenarios. This paper presents IWRM models built using the Water Evaluation And Planning (WEAP) decision support system, for three pilot towns in the LV region - Bukoba (Tanzania), Masaka (Uganda), and Kisii (Kenya). Their current populations are 100,000, 70,000 and 200,000 respectively. Demand coverage is ~70% in Masaka and Bukoba, and less than 50% in Kisii. IWRM models for each town were calibrated under current system performance based on site visits, utility reporting and interviews. Projected water supply, demand, revenues and costs were then evaluated against a combination of climate, demographic and infrastructure scenarios upto 2050. In Masaka, flow and climate data were available to calibrate a runoff model to simulate streamflow at water intake. In Masaka, without considering climate change, the system is infrastructure-limited and not water availability (hydrology) limited until 2035, under projected population growth of 2.17%. Under a wet climate scenario as projected by GCM’s for the LV region, the current wetland source could supply all expected demands until 2050. Even under a drought scenario, the wetland could supply all demand until 2032, if the supply infrastructure is updated at an estimated cost of USD 10.8 million. However, demand targets can only be met at the expense of almost no water returning to the wetland downstream of the intake by 2035, unless substantial investments

  15. Outcome and resource utilization of infants born with hypoplastic left heart syndrome in the Intermountain West.

    PubMed

    Menon, Shaji C; Keenan, Heather T; Weng, Hsin-Yi Cindy; Lambert, Linda M; Burch, Philip T; Edwards, Reggi; Spackman, Alison; Korgenski, Kent E; Tani, Lloyd Y

    2012-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterize the outcomes and resource utilization of all infants born with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) in the Intermountain West. This was a retrospective cohort study of all infants born with HLHS in the Intermountain West from January 1995 and January 2010. The cohort was divided into 3 eras: era 1, 1995 to 1999; era 2, 2000 to 2004; and era 3, 2005 to 2010. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to assess mortality. The lifetime hospitalization days and charges were also determined. Of the 245 infants identified, 65% were male infants and 172 (70%) underwent Stage 1 palliation. The transplant-free survival rate for the entire cohort was 33% at 14 years. The 1-year transplant-free survival rate for the surgical cohort was 60% in era 3. The infants whose initial presentation included shock, restrictive or intact atrial septum, chromosomal defects, or multiorgan dysfunction had an increased risk of death. A recent era of birth, greater birthweight, and older gestational age were associated with improved survival. The factors associated with mortality after stage 1 included surgical procedure type (Blalock-Taussig vs Sano shunt, hazard ratio 2.1), requirement for postoperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (hazard ratio 4.2), postoperative renal dysfunction (hazard ratio 3.0), anomalous pulmonary venous return (hazard ratio 2.9), and moderate or greater tricuspid valve regurgitation at any point (hazard ratio 2.0). For patients who had undergone stage 1, 2, or 3 palliation, the median cumulative lifetime hospitalization was 32, 48, and 65 days, and the median cumulative lifetime charges for hospitalization were $201,812, $253,183, and $296,213, respectively. In conclusion, although hospital-based studies of HLHS have shown significantly improved survival after surgical palliation, population-based studies have shown that HLHS continues to have a high mortality and high resource

  16. Resource Utilization for Noncardiac Admissions in Pediatric Patients With Single Ventricle Disease.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Ian D; Seckeler, Michael D

    2016-05-15

    Patients with single ventricle (SV) congenital heart disease (CHD) incur high hospital costs during staged surgical palliation. Health care resource utilization for noncardiac admissions in patients with SV has not been reported. This study sought to compare costs and outcomes for common noncardiac hospital admissions between patients with SV and patients without CHD. Hospital discharge data from the University Health System Consortium from January 2011 to December 2013 was queried for patients aged ≤18 years with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes for SV lesions: hypoplastic left heart syndrome (746.7), tricuspid atresia (746.1), or common ventricle (745.3). Primary diagnosis, direct cost, length of stay (LOS), intensive care unit admission rate and mortality data were obtained. The 10 most common noncardiac admission diagnoses were compared between patients with SV and patients without CHD using t test and Fisher's exact test. Total direct cost, LOS, and intensive care unit admission rate were higher for patients with SV for all diagnoses with the exception of LOS for dehydration, which was not different between groups. Hospital mortality was significantly higher for patients with SV admitted for acute kidney injury, esophageal reflux, failure to thrive, respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis and pneumonia. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that patients with SV CHD admitted with noncardiac diagnoses have higher health care resource utilization compared to those without CHD. As long-term survival increases, it can be expected that this patient group will use a disproportionate amount of medical dollars. Further characterization of costs will be important so steps can be taken to reduce or prevent hospitalization in these patients. PMID:27018934

  17. Influence of Temperature on Intra- and Interspecific Resource Utilization within a Community of Lepidopteran Maize Stemborers

    PubMed Central

    Ntiri, Eric Siaw; Calatayud, Paul-Andre; Van Den Berg, Johnnie; Schulthess, Fritz; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Competition or facilitation characterises intra- and interspecific interactions within communities of species that utilize the same resources. Temperature is an important factor influencing those interactions and eventual outcomes. The noctuid stemborers, Busseola fusca and Sesamia calamistis and the crambid Chilo partellus attack maize in sub-Saharan Africa. They often occur as a community of interacting species in the same field and plant at all elevations. The influence of temperature on the intra- and interspecific interactions among larvae of these species, was studied using potted maize plants exposed to varying temperatures in a greenhouse and artificial stems kept at different constant temperatures (15°C, 20°C, 25°C and 30°C) in an incubator. The experiments involved single- and multi-species infestation treatments. Survival and relative growth rates of each species were assessed. Both intra- and interspecific competitions were observed among all three species. Interspecific competition was stronger between the noctuids and the crambid than between the two noctuids. Temperature affected both survival and relative growth rates of the three species. Particularly at high temperatures, C. partellus was superior in interspecific interactions shown by higher larval survival and relative growth rates. In contrast, low temperatures favoured survival of B. fusca and S. calamistis but affected the relative growth rates of all three species. Survival and relative growth rates of B. fusca and S. calamistis in interspecific interactions did not differ significantly across temperatures. Temperature increase caused by future climate change is likely to confer an advantage on C. partellus over the noctuids in the utilization of resources (crops). PMID:26859748

  18. Influence of Temperature on Intra- and Interspecific Resource Utilization within a Community of Lepidopteran Maize Stemborers.

    PubMed

    Ntiri, Eric Siaw; Calatayud, Paul-Andre; Van Den Berg, Johnnie; Schulthess, Fritz; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Competition or facilitation characterises intra- and interspecific interactions within communities of species that utilize the same resources. Temperature is an important factor influencing those interactions and eventual outcomes. The noctuid stemborers, Busseola fusca and Sesamia calamistis and the crambid Chilo partellus attack maize in sub-Saharan Africa. They often occur as a community of interacting species in the same field and plant at all elevations. The influence of temperature on the intra- and interspecific interactions among larvae of these species, was studied using potted maize plants exposed to varying temperatures in a greenhouse and artificial stems kept at different constant temperatures (15°C, 20°C, 25°C and 30°C) in an incubator. The experiments involved single- and multi-species infestation treatments. Survival and relative growth rates of each species were assessed. Both intra- and interspecific competitions were observed among all three species. Interspecific competition was stronger between the noctuids and the crambid than between the two noctuids. Temperature affected both survival and relative growth rates of the three species. Particularly at high temperatures, C. partellus was superior in interspecific interactions shown by higher larval survival and relative growth rates. In contrast, low temperatures favoured survival of B. fusca and S. calamistis but affected the relative growth rates of all three species. Survival and relative growth rates of B. fusca and S. calamistis in interspecific interactions did not differ significantly across temperatures. Temperature increase caused by future climate change is likely to confer an advantage on C. partellus over the noctuids in the utilization of resources (crops). PMID:26859748

  19. Evaluation of a black-footed ferret resource utilization function model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eads, D.A.; Millspaugh, J.J.; Biggins, D.E.; Jachowski, D.S.; Livieri, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Resource utilization function (RUF) models permit evaluation of potential habitat for endangered species; ideally such models should be evaluated before use in management decision-making. We evaluated the predictive capabilities of a previously developed black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) RUF. Using the population-level RUF, generated from ferret observations at an adjacent yet distinct colony, we predicted the distribution of ferrets within a black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colony in the Conata Basin, South Dakota, USA. We evaluated model performance, using data collected during post-breeding spotlight surveys (2007-2008) by assessing model agreement via weighted compositional analysis and count-metrics. Compositional analysis of home range use and colony-level availability, and core area use and home range availability, demonstrated ferret selection of the predicted Very high and High occurrence categories in 2007 and 2008. Simple count-metrics corroborated these findings and suggested selection of the Very high category in 2007 and the Very high and High categories in 2008. Collectively, these results suggested that the RUF was useful in predicting occurrence and intensity of space use of ferrets at our study site, the 2 objectives of the RUF. Application of this validated RUF would increase the resolution of habitat evaluations, permitting prediction of the distribution of ferrets within distinct colonies. Additional model evaluation at other sites, on other black-tailed prairie dog colonies of varying resource configuration and size, would increase understanding of influences upon model performance and the general utility of the RUF. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  20. Pediatric Dental Clinic Location and Utilization in a High Resource Setting

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, S. Amanda; Polk, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Examine dental utilization by Medicaid-insured children living in a high resource area. Characterize distance and travel-related variables to accessing care. METHODS Cross-sectional data was collected on dental clinics in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, caring for Medicaid-insured children ≥1 year. Shortest distances, drive times, and bus travel between dental clinics and high-poverty census tracts was determined through geographical information systems analysis. Primary care clinic (PCC) survey data was analyzed for children’s dental use. Demographic characteristics and travel-related variables were compared between children who had and had not been to a dentist. RESULTS Ten dental clinics accepted Medicaid-insured children ≥1 year. Mean distance between high-poverty census tracts and their nearest clinic was 1.2 miles (±0.2 miles), with mean bus travel time 15.6 minutes (±12.3 minutes). Overall, 46% of PCC children reported a dental visit, and this was not significantly different between those who lived in a high poverty census tract versus those who did not (41% and 35%, respectively, P=.58). Children traveled a mean distance of 4.75 miles (SD 2.37 miles) to their dental clinic. Mean distance to their nearest dental clinic was 2.81 miles (SD 2.12 miles). CONCLUSION Dental clinics in a high resource area are in close proximity to where young Medicaid-insured children live; and distances between children’s homes and dental clinics are not significantly different between children who had and had not reported a dental visit, suggesting that barriers persist despite close proximity. Regardless, closer proximity may contribute to the higher utilization of services observed compared with national rates. PMID:25664477

  1. Food resources influence spatial ecology, habitat selection, and foraging behavior in an ambush-hunting snake (Viperidae: Bothrops asper): an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Wasko, Dennis K; Sasa, Mahmood

    2012-06-01

    Prey availability affects many aspects of predators' life history and is considered a primary factor influencing individuals' decisions regarding spatial ecology and behavior, but few experimental data are currently available. Snakes may represent ideal model organisms relative to other animal groups for addressing such resource dependency, due to a presumably more direct link between food resources and many aspects of behavior and natural history. We experimentally investigated the relationship between food intake and spatial behavior in a population of the snake Bothrops asper in a Costa Rican lowland rainforest. Six adult snakes were allowed to forage naturally while six were offered supplemental food in the field, with both groups monitored using radiotelemetry. Mean home range size did not differ between groups presumably due to small sample size, but supplementally fed snakes demonstrated altered patterns of macro- and microhabitat selection, shorter and less frequent movements, and increased mass acquisition. Fed snakes also devoted less time to foraging efforts, instead more frequently remaining inactive and utilizing shelter. Because snakes were always fed in situ and not at designated feeding stations, observed shifts in habitat selection are not explained by animals simply moving to areas of higher food availability. Rather, B. asper may have moved to swamps in order to feed on amphibians when necessary, but remained in preferred forest habitat when food was otherwise abundant. The strong behavioral and spatiotemporal responses of snakes in this population may have been influenced by an overall scarcity of mammalian prey during the study period. PMID:22440190

  2. Potential Lunar In-Situ Resource Utilization Experiments and Mission Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Gerald B.

    2010-01-01

    The extraction and use of resources on the Moon, known as In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), can potentially reduce the cost and risk of human lunar exploration while also increasing science achieved. By not having to bring all of the shielding and mission consumables from Earth and being able to make products on the Moon, missions may require less mass to accomplish the same objectives, carry more science equipment, go to more sites of exploration, and/or provide options to recover from failures not possible with delivery of spares and consumables from Earth alone. While lunar ISRU has significant potential for mass, cost, and risk reduction for human lunar missions, it has never been demonstrated before in space. To demonstrate that ISRU can meet mission needs and to increase confidence in incorporating ISRU capabilities into mission architectures, terrestrial laboratory and analog field testing along with robotic precursor missions are required. A stepwise approach with international collaboration is recommended. This paper will outline the role of ISRU in future lunar missions, and define the approach and possible experiments to increase confidence in ISRU applications for future human lunar exploration

  3. Balancing antagonistic time and resource utilization constraints in over-subscribed scheduling problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Stephen F.; Pathak, Dhiraj K.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, we report work aimed at applying concepts of constraint-based problem structuring and multi-perspective scheduling to an over-subscribed scheduling problem. Previous research has demonstrated the utility of these concepts as a means for effectively balancing conflicting objectives in constraint-relaxable scheduling problems, and our goal here is to provide evidence of their similar potential in the context of HST observation scheduling. To this end, we define and experimentally assess the performance of two time-bounded heuristic scheduling strategies in balancing the tradeoff between resource setup time minimization and satisfaction of absolute time constraints. The first strategy considered is motivated by dispatch-based manufacturing scheduling research, and employs a problem decomposition that concentrates local search on minimizing resource idle time due to setup activities. The second is motivated by research in opportunistic scheduling and advocates a problem decomposition that focuses attention on the goal activities that have the tightest temporal constraints. Analysis of experimental results gives evidence of differential superiority on the part of each strategy in different problem solving circumstances. A composite strategy based on recognition of characteristics of the current problem solving state is then defined and tested to illustrate the potential benefits of constraint-based problem structuring and multi-perspective scheduling in over-subscribe scheduling problems.

  4. Novel resource utilization of refloated algal sludge to improve the quality of organic fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Li, Rong; Liu, Hongjun; Wang, Beibei; Zhang, Chenmin; Shen, Qirong

    2014-08-01

    Without further management, large amounts of refloated algal sludge from Taihu Lake to retrieve nitrogen and phosphorus resources may result in serious secondary environmental pollution. The possibility of utilization of algal sludge to improve the quality of organic fertilizer was investigated in this study. Variations of physicochemical properties, germination index (GI) and microcystin (MC) content were analysed during the composting process. The results showed that the addition of algal sludge improved the contents of nutrients, common free amino acids and total common amino acids in the novel organic fertilizer. Rapid degradation rates of MC-LR and MC-RR, a high GI value and more abundance of culturable protease-producing bacteria were observed during the composting process added with algal sludge. Growth experiments showed that the novel organic fertilizer efficiently promoted plant growth. This study provides a novel resource recovery method to reclaim the Taihu Lake algal sludge and highlights a novel method to produce a high-quality organic fertilizer. PMID:24956756

  5. New national projects on the direct utilization of geothermal resources in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Seikoko, M.; Fujitomi, M.

    1981-06-01

    In Japan, the two national projects concerning direct utilization of geothermal resources have started in fiscal 1980 under the financial support of the Agency of Natural Resources and Energy and the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. Investigations of the geothermal water supply associated with each project are aimed at verification of: (1) heat extraction, through heat exchangers, from a relatively large quantity of geothermal water discharged from the existing production wells of the geothermal power plants; (2) transportation of fresh-heated water to distant places where it will be used for various space heating and agribusiness applications; and (3) injection of geothermal water, after heat extraction into the aquifer. Since almost all the production wells in Japan are the water-dominated type, a large quantity of geothermal water, suitable for direct applications, is expected to be available for use as an alternative energy source. Two power stations, Kakkonda geothermal power plant (50 MW) and Onuma geothermal power plant (10 MW) (near the Hachimantai volcano) were selected to supply geothermal water to Shizukuishi, Iwate, and Kazuno, Akita, respectively.

  6. Promoting utilization of Saccharum spp. genetic resources through genetic diversity analysis and core collection construction.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Spurthi N; Song, Jian; Villa, Andrea; Pathak, Bhuvan; Ayala-Silva, Tomas; Yang, Xiping; Todd, James; Glynn, Neil C; Kuhn, David N; Glaz, Barry; Gilbert, Robert A; Comstock, Jack C; Wang, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and other members of Saccharum spp. are attractive biofuel feedstocks. One of the two World Collections of Sugarcane and Related Grasses (WCSRG) is in Miami, FL. This WCSRG has 1002 accessions, presumably with valuable alleles for biomass, other important agronomic traits, and stress resistance. However, the WCSRG has not been fully exploited by breeders due to its lack of characterization and unmanageable population. In order to optimize the use of this genetic resource, we aim to 1) genotypically evaluate all the 1002 accessions to understand its genetic diversity and population structure and 2) form a core collection, which captures most of the genetic diversity in the WCSRG. We screened 36 microsatellite markers on 1002 genotypes and recorded 209 alleles. Genetic diversity of the WCSRG ranged from 0 to 0.5 with an average of 0.304. The population structure analysis and principal coordinate analysis revealed three clusters with all S. spontaneum in one cluster, S. officinarum and S. hybrids in the second cluster and mostly non-Saccharum spp. in the third cluster. A core collection of 300 accessions was identified which captured the maximum genetic diversity of the entire WCSRG which can be further exploited for sugarcane and energy cane breeding. Sugarcane and energy cane breeders can effectively utilize this core collection for cultivar improvement. Further, the core collection can provide resources for forming an association panel to evaluate the traits of agronomic and commercial importance.

  7. Promoting Utilization of Saccharum spp. Genetic Resources through Genetic Diversity Analysis and Core Collection Construction

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Bhuvan; Ayala-Silva, Tomas; Yang, Xiping; Todd, James; Glynn, Neil C.; Kuhn, David N.; Glaz, Barry; Gilbert, Robert A.; Comstock, Jack C.; Wang, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and other members of Saccharum spp. are attractive biofuel feedstocks. One of the two World Collections of Sugarcane and Related Grasses (WCSRG) is in Miami, FL. This WCSRG has 1002 accessions, presumably with valuable alleles for biomass, other important agronomic traits, and stress resistance. However, the WCSRG has not been fully exploited by breeders due to its lack of characterization and unmanageable population. In order to optimize the use of this genetic resource, we aim to 1) genotypically evaluate all the 1002 accessions to understand its genetic diversity and population structure and 2) form a core collection, which captures most of the genetic diversity in the WCSRG. We screened 36 microsatellite markers on 1002 genotypes and recorded 209 alleles. Genetic diversity of the WCSRG ranged from 0 to 0.5 with an average of 0.304. The population structure analysis and principal coordinate analysis revealed three clusters with all S. spontaneum in one cluster, S. officinarum and S. hybrids in the second cluster and mostly non-Saccharum spp. in the third cluster. A core collection of 300 accessions was identified which captured the maximum genetic diversity of the entire WCSRG which can be further exploited for sugarcane and energy cane breeding. Sugarcane and energy cane breeders can effectively utilize this core collection for cultivar improvement. Further, the core collection can provide resources for forming an association panel to evaluate the traits of agronomic and commercial importance. PMID:25333358

  8. Greening Industrial Production through Waste Recovery: "Comprehensive Utilization of Resources" in China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junming; Chertow, Marian R

    2016-03-01

    Using nonhazardous wastes as inputs to production creates environmental benefits by avoiding disposal impacts, mitigating manufacturing impacts, and conserving virgin resources. China has incentivized reuse since the 1980s through the "Comprehensive Utilization of Resources (CUR)" policy. To test whether and to what extent environmental benefits are generated, 862 instances in Jiangsu, China are analyzed, representing eight industrial sectors and 25 products that qualified for tax relief through CUR. Benefits are determined by comparing life cycle inventories for the same product from baseline and CUR-certified production, adjusted for any difference in the use phase. More than 50 million tonnes of solid wastes were reused, equivalent to 51% of the provincial industrial total. Benefits included reduction of 161 petajoules of energy, 23 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent, 75 000 tonnes of SO2 equivalent, 33 000 tonnes of NOX, and 28 000 tonnes of PM10 equivalent, which were 2.5%-7.3% of the provincial industrial consumption and emissions. The benefits vary substantially across industries, among products within the same industry, and when comparing alternative reuse processes for the same waste. This first assessment of CUR results shows that CUR has established a firm foundation for a circular economy, but also suggest additional opportunities to refine incentives under CUR to increase environmental gain. PMID:26789437

  9. Greening Industrial Production through Waste Recovery: "Comprehensive Utilization of Resources" in China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junming; Chertow, Marian R

    2016-03-01

    Using nonhazardous wastes as inputs to production creates environmental benefits by avoiding disposal impacts, mitigating manufacturing impacts, and conserving virgin resources. China has incentivized reuse since the 1980s through the "Comprehensive Utilization of Resources (CUR)" policy. To test whether and to what extent environmental benefits are generated, 862 instances in Jiangsu, China are analyzed, representing eight industrial sectors and 25 products that qualified for tax relief through CUR. Benefits are determined by comparing life cycle inventories for the same product from baseline and CUR-certified production, adjusted for any difference in the use phase. More than 50 million tonnes of solid wastes were reused, equivalent to 51% of the provincial industrial total. Benefits included reduction of 161 petajoules of energy, 23 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent, 75 000 tonnes of SO2 equivalent, 33 000 tonnes of NOX, and 28 000 tonnes of PM10 equivalent, which were 2.5%-7.3% of the provincial industrial consumption and emissions. The benefits vary substantially across industries, among products within the same industry, and when comparing alternative reuse processes for the same waste. This first assessment of CUR results shows that CUR has established a firm foundation for a circular economy, but also suggest additional opportunities to refine incentives under CUR to increase environmental gain.

  10. Food utilization of adult flatfishes co-occurring in the Bohai Sea of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuozeng, Dou

    Stomach contents were examined of 4527 adult individuals of 12 flatfish species collected during the 1982-1983 Bohai Sea Fisheries Resources Investigation. Their food habits, diet diversity, similarity of prey taxa, trophic niche breadth and diet overlap were systematically analysed. Ninety-seven prey species belonging to the Coelenterata, Nemertinea, Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea, Echinodermata, Hemichordata and fish were found and five of them were considered to be principal prey for flatfishes: Alpheus japonicus, Oratosquilla oratoria, Alpheus distinguendus, Loligo japonicus and Crangon affinis. Among the flatfishes, Paralichthys olivaceus was piscivorous, whereas Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae and Pseudopleuronectes herzensteini both had polychaetes and molluscs as their main prey groups. Pleuronichthys cornutus was classified as a polychaete-mollusc eater, with a strong preference for crustaceans. Verasper variegatus, Cynoglossus semilaevis, Eopsetta grigorjewi and Cleisthenes herzensteini ate crustaceans. Kareius bicoloratus was classified as a mollusc-crustacean eater. Cynoglossus abbreviatus, Cynoglossus joyneri and Zebrias zebra were grouped as crustacean-fish eaters. However, Z. zebra also took polychaetes and C. abbreviatus and C. joyneri preyed on some molluscs. Trophic relationships among the flatfishes were complicated, but they occupied distinctive microhabitats in different seasons and selected their specific prey items, which was favourable to the stability of the flatfish community in the Bohai Sea.

  11. The effect of ambulatory oncology nursing practice models on health resource utilization. Part 2, Different practice models--different use of health resources?

    PubMed

    Porter, H B

    1995-02-01

    The continuous rise in healthcare expenditures concerns providers, recipients, and payers alike, all of whom seek to explain, justify, or contain these costs. Although nurses are major healthcare providers in ambulatory oncology settings, the efficiency or productivity of nursing, expressed as frequency and cost of services (resource utilization), has not been addressed. Part 1 presented findings from a retrospective comparative study that delineated two different models of oncology nursing practice, the Nurse Complement Model and the Nurse Substitute Model of practice. Part 2 discusses these differences in the economic effectiveness of ambulatory oncology nursing in terms of health resource utilization. PMID:7844628

  12. Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor for Improved Resource Utilization: Part I - Survey of Potential Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, S.E.; Gurley, M.K.; Kirby, K.D.; Mitchell, W. III

    1981-09-15

    This document is an interim report under ACDA BOA AC9NX707, Task Order 80-03, which covers the evaluation of certain potential improvements in pressurized water reactor designs intended to enhance uranium fuel utilization. The objective of these evaluations is to seek advanced, non-retrofittable improvements that could possibly be commercialized by the end of the century, and, on the basis of a preliminary evaluation, to select compatible improvements for incorporation into a composite advanced pressurized water reactor concept. The principal areas of investigation include reduced parasitic absorption of neutrons (Task 1), reduced neutron leakage (Task 2), and alternative fuel design concepts (Task 3). To the extent possible, the advanced concept developed in an earlier study (Retrofittable Modifications to Pressurized Water Reactors for Improved Resource Utilization, SSA-128, October 1980) is used as a basis in developing the advanced composite concept. The reference design considered typical of present PWR commercial practice is the system described in RESAR-414, Reference Safety Analysis Report, Westinghouse Nuclear Energy Systems, October 1976.

  13. Scenario-based water resources planning for utilities in the Lake Victoria region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Vishal K.; Aslam, Omar; Dale, Larry; Miller, Norman; Purkey, David R.

    Urban areas in the Lake Victoria (LV) region are experiencing the highest growth rates in Africa. As efforts to meet increasing demand accelerate, integrated water resources management (IWRM) tools provide opportunities for utilities and other stakeholders to develop a planning framework comprehensive enough to include short term (e.g. landuse change), as well as longer term (e.g. climate change) scenarios. This paper presents IWRM models built using the Water Evaluation And Planning (WEAP) decision support system, for three towns in the LV region - Bukoba (Tanzania), Masaka (Uganda), and Kisii (Kenya). Each model was calibrated under current system performance based on site visits, utility reporting and interviews. Projected water supply, demand, revenues and costs were then evaluated against a combination of climate, demographic and infrastructure scenarios up to 2050. Our results show that water supply in all three towns is currently infrastructure limited; achieving existing design capacity could meet most projected demand until 2020s in Masaka beyond which new supply and conservation strategies would be needed. In Bukoba, reducing leakages would provide little performance improvement in the short-term, but doubling capacity would meet all demands until 2050. In Kisii, major infrastructure investment is urgently needed. In Masaka, streamflow simulations show that wetland sources could satisfy all demand until 2050, but at the cost of almost no water downstream of the intake. These models demonstrate the value of IWRM tools for developing water management plans that integrate hydroclimatology-driven supply to demand projections on a single platform.

  14. In Situ Resource Utilization Technologies for Enhancing and Expanding Mars Scientific and Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, K. R.; Finn, J. E.

    2000-01-01

    The primary objectives of the Mars exploration program are to collect data for planetary science in a quest to answer questions related to Origins, to search for evidence of extinct and extant life, and to expand the human presence in the solar system. The public and political engagement that is critical for support of a Mars exploration program is based on all of these objectives. In order to retain and to build public and political support, it is important for NASA to have an integrated Mars exploration plan, not separate robotic and human plans that exist in parallel or in sequence. The resolutions stemming from the current architectural review and prioritization of payloads may be pivotal in determining whether NASA will have such a unified plan and retain public support. There are several potential scientific and technological links between the robotic-only missions that have been flown and planned to date, and the combined robotic and human missions that will come in the future. Taking advantage of and leveraging those links are central to the idea of a unified Mars exploration plan. One such link is in situ resource utilization (ISRU) as an enabling technology to provide consumables such as fuels, oxygen, sweep and utility gases from the Mars atmosphere.

  15. Production of green biocellulose nanofibers by Gluconacetobacter xylinus through utilizing the renewable resources of agriculture residues.

    PubMed

    Al-Abdallah, Wahib; Dahman, Yaser

    2013-11-01

    The present study demonstrates the ability to produce green biocellulose nanofibers using the renewable resources of agriculture residues. Locally grown wheat straws (WS) were hydrolyzed under different conditions. Their hydrolysates were utilized to produce the nanofibers in separate hydrolysis fermentation process by Gluconacetobacter xylinus strain bacterium. Highest biocellulose production of ~10.6 g/L was achieved with samples that were enzymatically hydrolyzed. Moreover, acidic hydrolyzed WS produced up to 9.7 g/L, with total sugar concentrations in culture media of 43 g/L. Generally, enzymatic hydrolysis of WS resulted in more total sugar concentration than the acidic hydrolysis (i.e., 52.12 g/L), while water hydrolysis produced the least. This can be related to utilizing Xylanase in addition to Cellulase and Beta-glucosidase that helps to hydrolyse WS dry basis of cellulose and hemicelluloses. Sugar mixtures produced under all hydrolysis conditions were mainly composed of glucose and xylose with average percentages of 56 and 28 %, respectively. Acidic hydrolysis at higher acid concentration, as well as soaking WS in the acidic solution for longer time, improved the total sugar concentration in the culture media by 18 %. Conducting thermal treatment at more intense conditions of higher temperature or heating time improved the total sugar produced with acidic hydrolysis. These conditions, however, resulted in further production of furfural, which considerably affected bacterial cells proliferation. This resulted in lowest sugar consumption in the range of 62-64 % that affected final BC production.

  16. Solar System Exploration Augmented by Lunar and Outer Planet Resource Utilization: Historical Perspectives and Future Possibilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Establishing a lunar presence and creating an industrial capability on the Moon may lead to important new discoveries for all of human kind. Historical studies of lunar exploration, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) and industrialization all point to the vast resources on the Moon and its links to future human and robotic exploration. In the historical work, a broad range of technological innovations are described and analyzed. These studies depict program planning for future human missions throughout the solar system, lunar launched nuclear rockets, and future human settlements on the Moon, respectively. Updated analyses based on the visions presented are presented. While advanced propulsion systems were proposed in these historical studies, further investigation of nuclear options using high power nuclear thermal propulsion, nuclear surface power, as well as advanced chemical propulsion can significantly enhance these scenarios. Robotic and human outer planet exploration options are described in many detailed and extensive studies. Nuclear propulsion options for fast trips to the outer planets are discussed. To refuel such vehicles, atmospheric mining in the outer solar system has also been investigated as a means of fuel production for high energy propulsion and power. Fusion fuels such as helium 3 (3He) and hydrogen (H2) can be wrested from the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune and either returned to Earth or used in-situ for energy production. Helium 3 and H2 (deuterium, etc.) were the primary gases of interest with hydrogen being the primary propellant for nuclear thermal solid core and gas core rocket-based atmospheric flight. A series of analyses have investigated resource capturing aspects of atmospheric mining in the outer solar system. These analyses included the gas capturing rate, storage options, and different methods of direct use of the captured gases. While capturing 3He, large amounts of hydrogen and 4He are produced. With these two additional

  17. Solar System Exploration Augmented by Lunar and Outer Planet Resource Utilization: Historical Perspectives and Future Possibilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Establishing a lunar presence and creating an industrial capability on the Moon may lead to important new discoveries for all of human kind. Historical studies of lunar exploration, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) and industrialization all point to the vast resources on the Moon and its links to future human and robotic exploration. In the historical work, a broad range of technological innovations are described and analyzed. These studies depict program planning for future human missions throughout the solar system, lunar launched nuclear rockets, and future human settlements on the Moon, respectively. Updated analyses based on the visions presented are presented. While advanced propulsion systems were proposed in these historical studies, further investigation of nuclear options using high power nuclear thermal propulsion, nuclear surface power, as well as advanced chemical propulsion can significantly enhance these scenarios. Robotic and human outer planet exploration options are described in many detailed and extensive studies. Nuclear propulsion options for fast trips to the outer planets are discussed. To refuel such vehicles, atmospheric mining in the outer solar system has also been investigated as a means of fuel production for high energy propulsion and power. Fusion fuels such as Helium 3 (3He) and hydrogen can be wrested from the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune and either returned to Earth or used in-situ for energy production. Helium 3 and hydrogen (deuterium, etc.) were the primary gases of interest with hydrogen being the primary propellant for nuclear thermal solid core and gas core rocket-based atmospheric flight. A series of analyses have investigated resource capturing aspects of atmospheric mining in the outer solar system. These analyses included the gas capturing rate, storage options, and different methods of direct use of the captured gases. While capturing 3He, large amounts of hydrogen and 4He are produced. With these two additional

  18. Analysis and utilization of plasma treated water for food and agricultural interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sanghoo; Lim, Youbong; Park, Joo Young; Choe, Wonho; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Yong, Hae In; Jo, Cheorun; Jung, Samooel

    2015-09-01

    Attention on aqueous chemical species produced in plasma-treated solutions through plasma-liquid interactions has been increased because of its strong relation to bio/medical and food applications. The long-lived and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species such as hydrogen peroxide, ozone, superoxide anion, and oxyacids play a crucial role in those applications. The plasma treatment brings about absorption of these species into the target liquid and also induces changes in liquid characteristics and composition via photolysis by plasma UV emission and post-discharge reactions. In this presentation, we discuss the result of our investigation of the chemical properties related to the two main oxyacids, HNO2 and HNO3, in plasma treated water (PTW). Water was treated in close proximity by our SDBD system developed specifically to meet the application requirements. The chemical properties of the solution varied gradually over the treatment time and storage time. Here we report the result of our experiment, theoretical analysis, and their consistency. Furthermore, the dependence of the nitrite ion production yield on the dissipated power, treatment time, and dielectric material will be discussed. Based on the revealed fundamental characteristics, the utilization of PTW in the meat curing process as one of the nitrite sources will be briefly demonstrated. In terms of sausage quality, there were no noticeable effects of PTW on the total aerobic bacteria counts, color, and peroxide values of sausages compared with those using celery powder and sodium nitrite.

  19. Comparison through a LCA evaluation analysis of food waste disposal options from the perspective of global warming and resource recovery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Hyung; Kim, Jung-Wk

    2010-09-01

    This study evaluated feed manufacturing including dry feeding and wet feeding, composting, and landfilling for food waste disposal options from the perspective of global warming and resource recovery. The method of the expanded system boundaries was employed in order to compare different by-products. The whole stages of disposal involved in the systems such as separate discharge, collection, transportation, treatment, and final disposal, were included in the system boundary and evaluated. The Global Warming Potential generated from 1tonne of food wastes for each disposal system was analyzed by the life cycle assessment method. The results showed that 200kg of CO(2)-eq could be produced from dry feeding process, 61kg of CO(2)-eq from wet feeding process, 123kg of CO(2)-eq from composting process, and 1010kg of CO(2)-eq from landfilling. Feed manufacturing and composting, the common treatment methods currently employed, have been known to be environment friendlier than other methods. However, this study shows that they can negatively affect the environment if their by-products are not appropriately utilized as intended.

  20. Livestock feed resources utilization practices in Tanqua-Abergelle district of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebremariam, Tikabo; Belay, Shumuye

    2016-08-01

    A study was carried out with the objective to assess the utilization practices of local feed resources. It was implemented in Tanqua-Abergelle district of the Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia. Lemlem and Gera peasant associations (PAs) were selected purposively based on their potentiality in livestock resources and road access for household (HH) interview purpose. Likewise, Sheka-Tekli and Hadinet PAs were chosen for the purpose of focus group discussion (FGD). A total of 60 HHs (30 from each PA) were selected randomly for interview using semi-structured questionnaire. About 16 % of the respondents were female HHs. Two FGDs were held with key informants. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS (2013, version 21) statistical software procedures. The study area is characterized by mixed crop-livestock farming system with high interaction between crop and livestock. Livestock are the mainstay for the farm community with many benefits as sources of draught, meat, milk, income, and manures. Cattle are kept primarily for the purpose of draught power with meat and milk as secondary products, whereas shoats are kept mainly for cash income, manure, meat, and milk. The land holding size per HH was 1.44 ha while the herd size was 4.93 tropical livestock unit (TLU). Almost all the land holding (97 %) is allocated for crop cultivation with lesser for forage production (<1 %) indicating poor attention for fodder harvesting. The cattle herd is composed of local breeds (99 %) with less exotic/crossbred (1 %), indicating that the livestock rearing is practiced using local breed. Crop residues, natural pastures, stubble grazing, hay, and browsing are the main feed resources for animals. The availability and contribution of each feed vary with season and areas. Sorghum stover is the main feed source in the area and followed by maize stover, Eragrostis tef straw, and pulse straws. Crop residues are fed as basal diet with no or less supplementation using local concentrates

  1. Integrating resource utilization and temperature in metabolic scaling of riverine bacterial production.

    PubMed

    Sinsabaugh, Robert L; Shah, Jennifer J Follstad

    2010-05-01

    The study of metabolic scaling in stream ecosystems is complicated by their openness to external resource inputs. For heterotrophic bacteria, which are a large component of stream metabolism, it may be possible to integrate the effects of resource availability and temperature on production using metabolic scaling theory and the kinetics of extracellular enzyme activity (EEA) associated with the degradation of major nutrient pools. With this goal, we analyzed previously published data on EEA and bacterial production for two rivers in northwestern Ohio, USA. The EEA data included estimates of apparent Vmax, a measure of catalytic capacity, and apparent Km, a measure of available substrate concentration, for six extracellular enzymes (alpha-glucosidase, beta-glucosidase, aminopeptidase, protease, phosphatase, and acetyl esterase). Sampling was done over an annual cycle with a temperature range of 4 31 degrees C, while EEA assays were conducted at 20 degrees C. The EEA kinetic measures were scaled to ambient stream temperature using an activation energy (Ea) of 0.5 eV (8.01 x 10(-20) J) and converted to estimates of the turnover rate (St) of their associated substrate pools. The St values associated with protein utilization, the largest substrate pool, had the strongest relationship to bacterial production (r2 = 0.49-0.52); those for carbohydrate utilization, the smallest substrate pool, had the weakest (r2= 0.09-0.15). Comparisons of apparent Ea over the annual cycle showed that the trophic basis of bacterial production switched from relatively high carbohydrate consumption in autumn and winter to relatively high protein consumption in spring and summer, corresponding to seasonal dynamics in plant litter inputs and algal production, respectively. Over the annual cycle, the summed substrate generation rate of the six enzymes was similar in magnitude and strongly correlated with bacterial production (r2 = 0.56). This approach combines effects of substrate pool size

  2. Livestock feed resources utilization practices in Tanqua-Abergelle district of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebremariam, Tikabo; Belay, Shumuye

    2016-08-01

    A study was carried out with the objective to assess the utilization practices of local feed resources. It was implemented in Tanqua-Abergelle district of the Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia. Lemlem and Gera peasant associations (PAs) were selected purposively based on their potentiality in livestock resources and road access for household (HH) interview purpose. Likewise, Sheka-Tekli and Hadinet PAs were chosen for the purpose of focus group discussion (FGD). A total of 60 HHs (30 from each PA) were selected randomly for interview using semi-structured questionnaire. About 16 % of the respondents were female HHs. Two FGDs were held with key informants. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS (2013, version 21) statistical software procedures. The study area is characterized by mixed crop-livestock farming system with high interaction between crop and livestock. Livestock are the mainstay for the farm community with many benefits as sources of draught, meat, milk, income, and manures. Cattle are kept primarily for the purpose of draught power with meat and milk as secondary products, whereas shoats are kept mainly for cash income, manure, meat, and milk. The land holding size per HH was 1.44 ha while the herd size was 4.93 tropical livestock unit (TLU). Almost all the land holding (97 %) is allocated for crop cultivation with lesser for forage production (<1 %) indicating poor attention for fodder harvesting. The cattle herd is composed of local breeds (99 %) with less exotic/crossbred (1 %), indicating that the livestock rearing is practiced using local breed. Crop residues, natural pastures, stubble grazing, hay, and browsing are the main feed resources for animals. The availability and contribution of each feed vary with season and areas. Sorghum stover is the main feed source in the area and followed by maize stover, Eragrostis tef straw, and pulse straws. Crop residues are fed as basal diet with no or less supplementation using local concentrates

  3. In-Situ Resource Utilization for Space Exploration: Resource Processing, Mission-Enabling Technologies, and Lessons for Sustainability on Earth and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, A. F.; Palaszewski, B. A.; Landis, G. A.; Jaworske, D. A.; Colozza, A. J.; Kulis, M. J.; Heller, R. S.

    2015-01-01

    As humanity begins to reach out into the solar system, it has become apparent that supporting a human or robotic presence in transit andor on station requires significant expendable resources including consumables (to support people), fuel, and convenient reliable power. Transporting all necessary expendables is inefficient, inconvenient, costly, and, in the final analysis, a complicating factor for mission planners and a significant source of potential failure modes. Over the past twenty-five years, beginning with the Space Exploration Initiative, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), academic collaborators, and industrial partners have analyzed, researched, and developed successful solutions for the challenges posed by surviving and even thriving in the resource limited environment(s) presented by near-Earth space and non-terrestrial surface operations. In this retrospective paper, we highlight the efforts of the co-authors in resource simulation and utilization, materials processing and consumable(s) production, power systems and analysis, fuel storage and handling, propulsion systems, and mission operations. As we move forward in our quest to explore space using a resource-optimized approach, it is worthwhile to consider lessons learned relative to efficient utilization of the (comparatively) abundant natural resources and improving the sustainability (and environment) for life on Earth. We reconsider Lunar (and briefly Martian) resource utilization for potential colonization, and discuss next steps moving away from Earth.

  4. In-Situ Resource Utilization for Space Exploration: Resource Processing, Mission-Enabling Technologies, and Lessons for Sustainability on Earth and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, A. F.; Palaszewski, B. A.; Landis, G. A.; Jaworske, D. A.; Colozza, A. J.; Kulis, M. J.; Heller, Richard S.

    2014-01-01

    As humanity begins to reach out into the solar system, it has become apparent that supporting a human or robotic presence in transit and/or on station requires significant expendable resources including consumables (to support people), fuel, and convenient reliable power. Transporting all necessary expendables is inefficient, inconvenient, costly, and, in the final analysis, a complicating factor for mission planners and a significant source of potential failure modes. Over the past twenty-five years, beginning with the Space Exploration Initiative, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), academic collaborators, and industrial partners have analyzed, researched, and developed successful solutions for the challenges posed by surviving and even thriving in the resource limited environment(s) presented by near-Earth space and non-terrestrial surface operations. In this retrospective paper, we highlight the efforts of the co-authors in resource simulation and utilization, materials processing and consumable(s) production, power systems and analysis, fuel storage and handling, propulsion systems, and mission operations. As we move forward in our quest to explore space using a resource-optimized approach, it is worthwhile to consider lessons learned relative to efficient utilization of the (comparatively) abundant natural resources and improving the sustainability (and environment) for life on Earth. We reconsider Lunar (and briefly Martian) resource utilization for potential colonization, and discuss next steps moving away from Earth.

  5. Intermediate-consumer identity and resources alter a food web with omnivory.

    PubMed

    Kneitel, Jamie M

    2007-07-01

    1. Omnivory is an important interaction that has been the centre of numerous theoretical and empirical studies in recent years. Most of these studies examine the conditions necessary for coexistence between an omnivore and an intermediate consumer. Trait variation in ecological interactions (competition and predator tolerance) among intermediate consumers has not been considered in previous empirical studies despite the evidence that variation in species-specific traits can have important community-level effects. 2. I conducted a multifactorial microcosm experiment using species from the Sarracenia purpurea phytotelmata community, organisms that inhabit the water collected within its modified leaves. The basal trophic level consisted of bacterial decomposers, the second trophic level (intermediate consumers) consisted of protozoa and rotifers, and the third trophic level (omnivore) were larvae of the pitcher plant mosquito Wyeomyia smithii. Trophic level number (1, 2 and 3), resources (low and high), omnivore density (low and high) and intermediate consumer (monoculture of five protozoa and rotifers) identity were manipulated. Abundance of the basal trophic level, intermediate consumers, and growth of the omnivore were measured, as well as time to extinction (intermediate consumers) and time to pupation (mosquito larvae). 3. The presence of different intermediate consumers affected both bacteria abundance and omnivore growth. At high resource levels, Poteriochromonas, Colpidium and Habrotrocha rosa reduced bacteria densities greater than omnivore reduction of bacteria. Mosquito larvae did not pupate at low resource levels except when Poteriochromonas and Colopoda were present as intermediate consumers. Communities with H. rosa were the only ones consistent with the prediction that omnivores should exclude intermediate consumers at high resources. 4. These results had mixed support for predictions from omnivory food web theory. Intermediate consumers responded and

  6. Environmentally sustainable production of food, feed and fuel from natural resources in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Preston, T Reg

    2009-10-01

    Responding to the challenges posed by global warming, peak oil and biofuels will require a paradigm shift in the practice of agriculture and in the role of live stock within the farming system. Farming systems should aim at maximizing plant biomass production from locally available diversified resources, processing of the biomass on farm to provide food, feed and energy and recycling of all waste materials. The approach that is the subject of this paper is that the generation of electricity can be a by-product of food/feed production. The concept is the fractionation of biomass into inedible cell wall material that can be converted to an inflammable gas by gasification, the gas in turn being the source of fuel for internal combustion engines driving electrical generators. The cell contents and related structures such as tree leaves are used as human food or animal feed. As well as providing food and feed the model is highly appropriate for decentralized small scale production of electricity in rural areas. It also offers opportunities for sequestration of carbon in the form of biochar the solid residue remaining after gasification of the biomass.

  7. Environmentally sustainable production of food, feed and fuel from natural resources in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Preston, T Reg

    2009-08-01

    Responding to the challenges posed by global warming, peak oil and biofuels will require a paradigm shift in the practice of agriculture and in the role of live stock within the farming system. Farming systems should aim at maximizing plant biomass production from locally available diversified resources, processing of the biomass on farm to provide food, feed and energy and recycling of all waste materials. The approach that is the subject of this paper is that the generation of electricity can be a by-product of food/feed production. The concept is the fractionation of biomass into inedible cell wall material that can be converted to an inflammable gas by gasification, the gas in turn being the source of fuel for internal combustion engines driving electrical generators. The cell contents and related structures such as tree leaves are used as human food or animal feed. As well as providing food and feed the model is highly appropriate for decentralized small scale production of electricity in rural areas. It also offers opportunities for sequestration of carbon in the form of biochar the solid residue remaining after gasification of the biomass.

  8. Environmentally sustainable production of food, feed and fuel from natural resources in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Preston, T Reg

    2009-10-01

    Responding to the challenges posed by global warming, peak oil and biofuels will require a paradigm shift in the practice of agriculture and in the role of live stock within the farming system. Farming systems should aim at maximizing plant biomass production from locally available diversified resources, processing of the biomass on farm to provide food, feed and energy and recycling of all waste materials. The approach that is the subject of this paper is that the generation of electricity can be a by-product of food/feed production. The concept is the fractionation of biomass into inedible cell wall material that can be converted to an inflammable gas by gasification, the gas in turn being the source of fuel for internal combustion engines driving electrical generators. The cell contents and related structures such as tree leaves are used as human food or animal feed. As well as providing food and feed the model is highly appropriate for decentralized small scale production of electricity in rural areas. It also offers opportunities for sequestration of carbon in the form of biochar the solid residue remaining after gasification of the biomass. PMID:19728132

  9. Environmentally sustainable production of food, feed and fuel from natural resources in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Preston, T Reg

    2009-08-01

    Responding to the challenges posed by global warming, peak oil and biofuels will require a paradigm shift in the practice of agriculture and in the role of live stock within the farming system. Farming systems should aim at maximizing plant biomass production from locally available diversified resources, processing of the biomass on farm to provide food, feed and energy and recycling of all waste materials. The approach that is the subject of this paper is that the generation of electricity can be a by-product of food/feed production. The concept is the fractionation of biomass into inedible cell wall material that can be converted to an inflammable gas by gasification, the gas in turn being the source of fuel for internal combustion engines driving electrical generators. The cell contents and related structures such as tree leaves are used as human food or animal feed. As well as providing food and feed the model is highly appropriate for decentralized small scale production of electricity in rural areas. It also offers opportunities for sequestration of carbon in the form of biochar the solid residue remaining after gasification of the biomass. PMID:19011987

  10. Do Birds Select Habitat or Food Resources? Nearctic-Neotropic Migrants in Northeastern Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Jared D.; Johnson, Matthew D.; Ralph, C. John

    2014-01-01

    Nearctic-neotropic migrant birds need to replenish energy reserves during stopover periods to successfully complete their semiannual movements. In this study we used linear models to examine the habitat use of 11 migrant species in northeastern Costa Rica to better understand the influence of food and structural resources on the presence of birds during stopover periods. Our models indicated that frugivorous migrants primarily used food abundance, while insectivorous migrants chiefly used vegetation structure as cues for habitat use during stopover. In addition to habitat use models, we documented fruiting plant phenology and found a general relationship between migrant arrival and the timing of ripe fruit availability. Our results suggest that insectivorous migrants probably rely on structural features when using habitat because it may be inherently difficult to assess cryptic-arthropod availability during a short period of time in a novel habitat, such as stopover periods. PMID:24489701

  11. Assessing future risks to agricultural productivity, water resources and food security: How can remote sensing help?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Knox, Jerry W.; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Gumma, Murali Krishna; Congalton, Russell G.; Wu, Zhuoting; Milesi, Cristina; Finkral, Alex; Marshall, Mike; Mariotto, Isabella; You, Songcai; Giri, Chandra; Nagler, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    of changing dietary consumption patterns, a changing climate and the growing scarcity of water and land (Beddington, 2010). The impact from these changes wi ll affect the viability of both dryland subsistence and irrigated commodity food production (Knox, et al., 2010a). Since climate is a primary determinant of agricultural productivity, any changes will influence not only crop yields, but also the hydrologic balances, and supplies of inputs to managed farming systems as well as potentially shifting the geographic location for specific crops . Unless concerted and collective action is taken, society risks worldwide food shortages, scarcity of water resources and insufficient energy. This has the potential to unleash public unrest, cross-border conflicts and migration as people flee the worst-affected regions to seck refuge in "safe havens", a situation that Beddington described as the "perfect storm" (2010).

  12. The role of food-security solutions in the protection of natural resources and environment of developing countries.

    PubMed

    Lashgarara, Farhad; Mirdamadi, Seyyed Mehdi; Hosseini, Seyyed Jamal Farajollah; Chizari, Mohammad

    2008-10-01

    The majority of the countries of the world, especially developing countries, face environmental problems. Limitations of basic resources (water and soil) and population growth have been the cause of these environmental problems that countries are confronted with. Developing countries have numerous problems, including destruction of forests, vegetable and animal species, and pollution of the environment. Damage to natural resources and the environment can influence the food-security situation. One of the main millennium development goals (MDGs) is protection of the environment and people's health. This cannot obtained unless there is ensured food security. Food security has been defined as a situation when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food needed to maintain a healthy and active life. At the same time, with ensured food security, we can hope to protect the natural resources and environment. The methodology used is descriptive-analytical, and its main purpose is determining the importance and role of food-security solutions in the reduction of environmental hazards and improvement of natural resources and the environmental situation in developing countries. Therefore, some of the most important food-security solutions that can play an important role in this relation were discussed, including conventional research-based technology, biotechnology, information and communication technologies (ICTs), alternative energy sources, and food irradiation.

  13. The World Food Situation: Resource and Environmental Issues in the Developing Countries and the United States. Research Paper R-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosson, Pierre R.; Frederick, Kenneth D.

    The book provides an overview of the food situation in developing nations and in the United States as it will be until the end of the 20th century. Specifically, the research focuses on interrelationships among world food needs, resources, and environmental issues. The document is presented in seven chapters. Chapter I presents background on the…

  14. Increasing of Food and Bioenergy Potato Resources by Microbial Influence on Tubers Phytohormonal Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiprushkina, Elena I.; Baranenko, Denis A.

    2014-12-01

    Potato and its by-products became a promising both food and bioenergy resource. The determination of the bacteriaantagonists influence on phytohormone status and productivity of potato tubers was studied. The indole-3-acetic acid content during the dormancy end and germinating in the tubers treated with Bacillus subtilis Ch-13 was fewer than in the control samples. L-tryptophan significant quantity compared to the control was found in the treated tubers in a state of physiological dormancy (more than 2-fold) and especially during active germination (43 times greater). Average potato yield increase at treated fields was of 18.8 %.

  15. Missions to Near-Earth Asteroids: Implications for Exploration, Science, Resource Utilization, and Planetary Defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, P. A.; Sanders, G. B.; Mazanek, D. D.; Barbee, B. W.; Mink, R. G.; Landis, R. R.; Adamo, D. R.; Johnson, L. N.; Yeomans, D. K.; Reeves, D. M.; Drake, B. G.; Friedensen, V. P.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: In 2009 the Augustine Commission identified near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. More recently the U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010. NEA Space-Based Survey and Robotic Precursor Missions: The most suitable targets for human missions are NEAs in Earth-like orbits with long synodic periods. However, these mission candidates are often not observable from Earth until the timeframe of their most favorable human mission opportunities, which does not provide an appropriate amount of time for mission development. A space-based survey telescope could more efficiently find these targets in a timely, affordable manner. Such a system is not only able to discover new objects, but also track and characterize objects of interest for human space flight consideration. Those objects with characteristic signatures representative of volatile-rich or metallic materials will be considered as top candidates for further investigation due to their potential for resource utilization and scientific discovery. Once suitable candidates have been identified, precursor spacecraft are required to perform basic reconnaissance of a few NEAs under consideration for the human-led mission. Robotic spacecraft will assess targets for potential hazards that may pose a risk to the deep space transportation vehicle, its deployable assets, and the crew. Additionally, the information obtained about the NEA's basic physical characteristics will be crucial for planning operational activities, designing in-depth scientific/engineering investigations, and identifying sites on the NEA for sample collection. Human Exploration

  16. Integration of In-Situ Resource Utilization Into Lunar/Mars Exploration Through Field Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Gerald B.; Larson, William E.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA project to develop In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) technologies, in partnership with commercial and international collaborators, has achieved full system demonstrations of oxygen production using native regolith simulants. These demonstrations included robotic extraction of material from the terrain, sealed encapsulation of material in a pressurized reactor; chemical extraction of oxygen from the material in the form of water, and the electrolysis of water into oxygen and hydrogen for storage and reuse. These successes have provided growing confidence in the prospects of ISRU oxygen production as a credible source for critical mission consumables in preparation for and during crewed missions to the moon and other destinations. Other ISRU processes, especially relevant to early lunar exploration scenarios, have also been shown to be practical, including the extraction of subsurface volatiles, especially water, and the thermal processing of surface materials for civil engineering uses and for thermal energy storage. This paper describes these recent achievements and current NASA ISRU development and demonstration activity. The ability to extract and process resources at the site of exploration into useful products such as propellants, life support and power system consumables; and radiation and rocket exhaust plume debris shielding, known as In-Situ Resource Utilization or ISRU, has the potential to significantly reduce the launch mass, risk, and cost of robotic and human exploration of space. The incorporation of ISRU into missions can also significantly influence technology selection and system development in other areas such as power, life support, and propulsion. For example. the ability to extract or produce large amounts of oxygen and/or water in-situ could minimize the need to completely close life support air and water processing system cycles, change thermal and radiation protection of habitats, and influence propellant selection for ascent

  17. Missions to Near-Earth Asteroids: Implications for Exploration, Science, Resource Utilization, and Planetary Defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, P. A.; Sanders, G. B.; Mazanek, D. D.; Barbee, B. W.; Mink, R. G.; Landis, R. R.; Adamo, D. R.; Johnson, L. N.; Yeomans, D. K.; Reeves, D. M.; Drake, B. G.; Friedensen, V. P.

    2012-12-01

    Introduction: In 2009 the Augustine Commission identified near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. More recently the U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010. NEA Space-Based Survey and Robotic Precursor Missions: The most suitable targets for human missions are NEAs in Earth-like orbits with long synodic periods. However, these mission candidates are often not observable from Earth until the timeframe of their most favorable human mission opportunities, which does not provide an appropriate amount of time for mission development. A space-based survey telescope could more efficiently find these targets in a timely, affordable manner. Such a system is not only able to discover new objects, but also track and characterize objects of interest for human space flight consideration. Those objects with characteristic signatures representative of volatile-rich or metallic materials will be considered as top candidates for further investigation due to their potential for resource utilization and scientific discovery. Once suitable candidates have been identified, precursor spacecraft are required to perform basic reconnaissance of a few NEAs under consideration for the human-led mission. Robotic spacecraft will assess targets for potential hazards that may pose a risk to the deep space transportation vehicle, its deployable assets, and the crew. Additionally, the information obtained about the NEA's basic physical characteristics will be crucial for planning operational activities, designing in-depth scientific/engineering investigations, and identifying sites on the NEA for sample collection. Human Exploration

  18. Potential Lunar In-Situ Resource Utilization Experiments and Mission Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Gerald B.

    2010-01-01

    The extraction and use of resources on the Moon, known as In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), can potentially reduce the cost and risk of human lunar exploration while also increasing science achieved. By not having to bring all of the shielding and mission consumables from Earth and being able to make products on the Moon, missions may require less mass to accomplish the same objectives, carry more science equipment, go to more sites of exploration, and/or provide options to recover from failures not possible with delivery of spares and consumables from Earth alone. The concept of lunar ISRU has been considered and studied for decades, and scientists and engineers were theorizing and even testing concepts for how to extract oxygen from lunar soil even before the Apollo 11 mission to the Moon. There are four main areas where ISRU can significantly impact how human missions to the Moon will be performed: mission consumable production, civil engineering and construction, energy production, storage, and transfer, and manufacturing and repair. The area that has the greatest impact on mission mass, hardware design and selection, and mission architecture is mission consumable production, in particular, the ability to make propellants, life support consumables, and fuel cell reagents. Mission consumable production allows for refueling and reuse of spacecraft, increasing power production and storage, and increased capabilities and failure tolerance for crew life support. The other three areas allow for decreased mission risk due to radiation and plume damage, alternative power systems, and failure recover capabilities while also enabling infrastructure growth over Earth delivered assets. However, while lunar ISRU has significant potential for mass, cost, and risk reduction for human lunar missions, it has never been demonstrated before in space. To demonstrate that ISRU can meet mission needs and to increase confidence in incorporating ISRU capabilities into mission

  19. Cascading effects from predator removal depend on resource availability in a benthic food web.

    PubMed

    Sieben, Katrin; Rippen, Anneke D; Eriksson, Britas Klemens

    2011-01-01

    We tested joint effects of predator loss and increased resource availability on the grazers' trophic level and the propagation of trophic interactions in a benthic food web by excluding larger predatory fish from cages and manipulating nutrients in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea. The combination of nutrient enrichment and excluding larger predators induced an increase in medium-sized predatory fish (three-spined stickleback). The meso-predator fish in turn did not change the total abundance of the invertebrate herbivores, but did cause a substantial shift in their community composition towards the dominance of gastropods by reducing amphipods by 40-60%, while gastropods were left unchanged. The shift in grazer composition generated a 23 times higher producer biomass, but only under nutrient enrichment. Our results show that top-predator declines can substantially shift the species composition at the grazers' level, but that cascading effects on producers by a trophic cascade strongly depend on resource availability.

  20. The Water-Energy-Food Nexus in a Rapidly Developing Resource Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, D. M.; Kirste, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Technological advances and access to global markets have changed the rate at which resource exploitation takes place. The environmental impact of the rapid development and distribution of resources such as minerals and hydrocarbons has led to a greater potential for significant stress on water resources both in terms of quality and quantity. How and where those impacts manifest is crucial to determining appropriate risk management strategies. North East British Columbia has an abundance of shale gas reserves that are anticipated to be exploited at a large scale in coming years, primarily for export as liquefied natural gas (LNG). However, there is growing concern that fracking and other activities related to shale gas development pose risks to water quality and quantity in the region. Water lies at the center of the water-energy-food nexus, with an accelerating water demand for fracking and industrial operations as well as for domestic, environmental and agricultural uses. Climate change is also anticipated to alter the hydrologic regime, posing added stress to the water resource. This case study examines the water-energy-food nexus in the context of a region that is impacted by a rapidly developing resource sector, encompassing water demand/supply, climate change, interaction between deep aquifers and shallow aquifers/surface waters, water quality concerns related to fracking, land use disturbance, and community impacts. Due to the rapid rate of development, there are significant knowledge gaps in our understanding of the water resource. Currently agencies are undertaking water resource assessments and establishing monitoring sites. This research aims to assess water security in North East British Columbia in a coordinated fashion through various partnerships. In addition to collecting baseline knowledge and data, the study will evaluate risk and resilience indicators in relation to water security. A risk assessment framework specific to the shale gas development

  1. Integration of In-Situ Resource Utilization Into Lunar/Mars Exploration Through Field Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Gerald

    The ability to extract and process resources at the site of exploration into useful products such as propellants, life support and power system consumables, and radiation and rocket exhaust plume debris shielding, known as In-Situ Resource Utilization or ISRU, has the potential to significantly reduce the launch mass, risk, and cost of robotic and human exploration of space. The incorporation of ISRU into missions can also significantly influence technology selection and system development in other areas such as power, life support, and propulsion. For ex-ample, the ability to extract or produce large amounts of oxygen and/or water in-situ could minimize the need to completely close life support air and water processing system cycles, change thermal and radiation protection of habitats, and influence propellant selection for as-cent vehicles and surface propulsive hoppers. While concepts and even laboratory work on evaluating and developing ISRU techniques such as oxygen extraction from lunar regolith have been going on since before the Apollo 11 Moon landing, no ISRU system has ever flown in space, and only recently have ISRU technologies been developed at a scale and at a system level that is relevant to actual robotic and human mission applications. Because ISRU hardware and systems have never been demonstrated or utilized before on robotic or human missions, architecture and mission planners and surface system hardware developers are hesitant to rely on ISRU products and services that are critical to mission and system implementation success. To build confidence in ISRU systems for future missions and assess how ISRU systems can best influence and integrate with other surface system elements, NASA, with international partners, are performing analog field tests to understand how to take advantage of ISRU capabilities and benefits with the minimum of risk associated with introducing this game-changing approach to exploration. This paper will describe and review

  2. Integration of In-Situ Resource Utilization into lunar/Mars exploration through field analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Gerald B.; Larson, William E.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to extract and process resources at the site of exploration into useful products such as propellants, life support and power system consumables, and radiation and rocket exhaust plume debris shielding, known as In-Situ Resource Utilization or ISRU, has the potential to significantly reduce the launch mass, risk, and cost of robotic and human exploration of space. The incorporation of ISRU into missions can also significantly influence technology selection and system development in other areas such as power, life support, and propulsion. For example, the ability to extract or produce large amounts of oxygen and/or water in-situ could minimize the need to completely close life support air and water processing system cycles, change thermal and radiation protection of habitats, and influence propellant selection for ascent vehicles and surface propulsive hoppers. While concepts and even laboratory work on evaluating and developing ISRU techniques such as oxygen extraction from lunar regolith have been going on since before the Apollo 11 Moon landing, no ISRU system has ever flown in space, and only recently have ISRU technologies been developed at a scale and at a system level that is relevant to actual robotic and human mission applications. Because ISRU hardware and systems have never been demonstrated or utilized before on robotic or human missions, architecture and mission planners and surface system hardware developers are hesitant to rely on ISRU products and services that are critical to mission and system implementation success. To build confidence in ISRU systems for future missions and assess how ISRU systems can best influence and integrate with other surface system elements, NASA, with international partners, are performing analog field tests to understand how to take advantage of ISRU capabilities and benefits with the minimum of risk associated with introducing this game-changing approach to exploration. This paper will describe and review the

  3. Hospital Resource Utilization for Common Noncardiac Diagnoses in Adult Survivors of Single Cardiac Ventricle.

    PubMed

    Seckeler, Michael D; Moe, Tabitha G; Thomas, Ian D; Meziab, Omar; Andrews, Jennifer; Heller, Elissa; Klewer, Scott E

    2015-12-01

    Single ventricle congenital heart disease (SV CHD) has transformed from a nearly universally fatal condition to a chronic illness. As the number of adults living with SV CHD continues to increase, there needs to be an understanding of health care resource utilization (HCRU), particularly for noncardiac conditions, for this patient population. We performed a retrospective database review of the University HealthSystem Consortium Clinical Database/Resource Manager for adult patients with SV CHD hospitalized for noncardiac conditions from January 2011 to November 2014. Patients with SV CHD were identified using International Classification of Disease (ICD)-9 codes associated with SV CHD (hypoplastic left heart, tricuspid atresia, and SV) and stratified into 2 groups by age (18 to 29 years and 30 to 40 years). Direct cost, length of stay (LOS), intensive care unit (ICU) admission rate and mortality data were compared with age-matched patients without CHD. There were 2,083,651 non-CHD and 590 SV CHD admissions in Group 1 and 2,131,046 non-CHD and 297 SV CHD admissions in Group 2. There was no difference in LOS in Group 1, but there were higher costs for several diagnoses. LOS and costs were higher for several diagnoses in Group 2. ICU admission rate and in-hospital mortality were higher for several diagnoses for patients with SV CHD in both groups. In conclusion, adults with SV CHD admitted for noncardiac diagnoses have higher HCRU (longer LOS and higher ICU admission rates) compared with similarly aged patients without CHD. These findings stress the importance of good primary care in this population with complex, chronic cardiac disease to prevent hospitalizations and higher HCRU. PMID:26455384

  4. Utilizing Internet-based Community Collaboration Tools and Geobrowsers to Address Issues of Water Resource Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agnese, F. A.

    2007-12-01

    More frequently society is demanding that earth- and environmental-resource issues be evaluated and addressed by interdisciplinary investigators from the scientific, engineering, planning, and regulatory communities. Often these investigators are required to interact with a larger community of public stakeholders. Also, these investigators, by necessity, develop databases and models derived from disparate data sets that are often large, complex, and vary dramatically in scale and quality. The tools to facilitate the interactions of these communities of individuals have only recently garnered the appropriate sophistication to enable real-time data viewing, encoding, browsing, and modeling. At the same time, the advent of second-generation internet, or Web 2.0, technologies found in web-based communities and hosted services (such as social-networking, wikis, weblogs, social bookmarking, podcasts, and RSS web feeds) have fused with the more traditional two- and three-dimensional geographic information systems. This "mash-up" of web-based and stand-alone tools and services creates a highly interactive user environment that is favorable to real-time collaboration, community discussion, and broad public dissemination in a wide-area distributed network. These tools and services are being utilized to facilitate the investigations and conversations of scientists and other stakeholders addressing water resource sustainability issues in the desert southwestern United States. The data and models derived from these investigations are visualized using industry standard tools like ArcGIS, Google Earth, and Google Maps to enable ease-of-use by both the technical and the public stakeholder communities.

  5. Conserving water in and applying solar power to haemodialysis: 'green dialysis' through wiser resource utilization.

    PubMed

    Agar, John W M

    2010-06-01

    Natural resources are under worldwide pressure, water and sustainable energy being the paramount issues. Haemodialysis, a water-voracious and energy-hungry healthcare procedure, thoughtlessly wastes water and leaves a heavy carbon footprint. In our service, 100 000 L/week of previously discarded reverse osmosis reject water--water which satisfies all World Health Organisation criteria for potable (drinking) water--no longer drains to waste but is captured for reuse. Reject water from the hospital-based dialysis unit provides autoclave steam for instrument sterilization, ward toilet flushing, janitor stations and garden maintenance. Satellite centre reject water is tanker-trucked to community sporting fields, schools and aged-care gardens. Home-based nocturnal dialysis patient reuse reject water for home domestic utilities, gardens and animal watering. Although these and other potential water reuse practices should be mandated through legislation for all dialysis services, this is yet to occur. In addition, we now are piloting the use of solar power for the reverse osmosis plant and the dialysis machines in our home dialysis training service. If previously attempted, these have yet to be reported. After measuring the power requirements of both dialytic processes and modelling the projected costs, a programme has begun to solar power all dialysis-related equipment in a three-station home haemodialysis training unit. Income-generation with the national electricity grid via a grid-share and reimbursement arrangement predicts a revenue stream back to the dialysis service. Dialysis services must no longer ignore the non-medical aspects of their programmes but plan, trial, implement and embrace 'green dialysis' resource management practices.

  6. Consumer-resource body-size relationships in natural food webs.

    PubMed

    Brose, Ulrich; Jonsson, Tomas; Berlow, Eric L; Warren, Philip; Banasek-Richter, Carolin; Bersier, Louis-Félix; Blanchard, Julia L; Brey, Thomas; Carpenter, Stephen R; Blandenier, Marie-France Cattin; Cushing, Lara; Dawah, Hassan Ali; Dell, Tony; Edwards, Francois; Harper-Smith, Sarah; Jacob, Ute; Ledger, Mark E; Martinez, Neo D; Memmott, Jane; Mintenbeck, Katja; Pinnegar, John K; Rall, Björn C; Rayner, Thomas S; Reuman, Daniel C; Ruess, Liliane; Ulrich, Werner; Williams, Richard J; Woodward, Guy; Cohen, Joel E

    2006-10-01

    It has been suggested that differences in body size between consumer and resource species may have important implications for interaction strengths, population dynamics, and eventually food web structure, function, and evolution. Still, the general distribution of consumer-'resource body-size ratios in real ecosystems, and whether they vary systematically among habitats or broad taxonomic groups, is poorly understood. Using a unique global database on consumer and resource body sizes, we show that the mean body-size ratios of aquatic herbivorous and detritivorous consumers are several orders of magnitude larger than those of carnivorous predators. Carnivorous predator-prey body-size ratios vary across different habitats and predator and prey types (invertebrates, ectotherm, and endotherm vertebrates). Predator-prey body-size ratios are on average significantly higher (1) in freshwater habitats than in marine or terrestrial habitats, (2) for vertebrate than for invertebrate predators, and (3) for invertebrate than for ectotherm vertebrate prey. If recent studies that relate body-size ratios to interaction strengths are general, our results suggest that mean consumer-resource interaction strengths may vary systematically across different habitat categories and consumer types.

  7. Utilization of mathematical models to manage risk of holding cold food without temperature control.

    PubMed

    Schaffner, Donald W

    2013-06-01

    This document describes the development of a tool to manage the risk of the transportation of cold food without temperature control. The tool uses predictions from ComBase predictor and builds on the 2009 U.S. Food and Drug Administration Model Food Code and supporting scientific data in the Food Code annex. I selected Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes as the organisms for risk management. Salmonella spp. were selected because they are associated with a wide variety of foods and grow rapidly at temperatures >17°C. L. monocytogenes was selected because it is frequently present in the food processing environment, it was used in the original analysis contained in the Food Code Annex, and it grows relatively rapidly at temperatures <17°C. The suitability of a variety of growth models under changing temperature conditions is largely supported by the published literature. The ComBase predictions under static temperature conditions were validated using 148 ComBase database observations for Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes in real foods. The times and temperature changes encompassed by ComBase Predictor models for Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes are consistent with published data on consumer food transport to the home from the grocery store and on representative foods from a wholesale cash and carry food service supplier collected as part of this project. The resulting model-based tool will be a useful aid to risk managers and customers of wholesale cash and carry food service suppliers, as well as to anyone interested in assessing and managing the risks posed by holding cold foods out of temperature control in supermarkets, delis, restaurants, cafeterias, and homes. PMID:23726207

  8. NASA In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Technology and Development Project Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Gerald B.; Lason, William E.; Sacksteder, Kurt R.; Mclemore, Carole; Johnson, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Since the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) was released in 2004, NASA, in conjunction with international space agencies, industry, and academia, has continued to define and refine plans for sustained and affordable robotic and human exploration of the Moon and beyond. With the goal of establishing a lunar Outpost on the Moon to extend human presence, pursue scientific activities, use the Moon to prepare for future human missions to Mars, and expand Earth s economic sphere, a change in how space exploration is performed is required. One area that opens up the possibility for the first time of breaking our reliance on Earth supplied consumables and learn to live off the land is In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). ISRU, which involves the extraction and processing of space resources into useful products, can have a substantial impact on mission and architecture concepts. In particular, the ability to make propellants, life support consumables, and fuel cell reagents can significantly reduce the cost, mass, and risk of sustained human activities beyond Earth. However, ISRU is an unproven capability for human lunar exploration and can not be put in the critical path of lunar Outpost success until it has been proven. Therefore, ISRU development and deployment needs to take incremental steps toward the desired end state. To ensure ISRU capabilities are available for pre-Outpost and Outpost deployment by 2020, and mission and architecture planners are confident that ISRU can meet initial and long term mission requirements, the ISRU Project is developing technologies and systems in three critical areas: (1) Regolith Excavation, Handling and Material Transportation; (2) Oxygen Extraction from Regolith; and (3) Volatile Extraction and Resource Prospecting, and in four development stages: (I) Demonstrate feasibility; (II) Evolve system w/ improved technologies; (III) Develop one or more systems to TRL 6 before start of flight development; and (IV) Flight development for

  9. Resource utilization in patients with schizophrenia who initiated risperidone long-acting therapy: results from the Schizophrenia Outcomes Utilization Relapse and Clinical Evaluation (SOURCE)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia is a chronic mental health disorder associated with increased hospital admissions and excessive utilization of outpatient services and long-term care. This analysis examined health care resource utilization from a 24-month observational study of patients with schizophrenia initiated on risperidone long-acting therapy (RLAT). Methods Schizophrenia Outcomes Utilization Relapse and Clinical Evaluation (SOURCE) was a 24-month observational study designed to examine real-world treatment outcomes by prospectively following patients with schizophrenia initiated on RLAT. At baseline visit, prior hospitalization and ER visit dates were obtained for the previous 12 months and subsequent hospitalization visit dates were obtained at 3-month visits, if available. The health care resource utilization outcomes measures observed in this analysis were hospitalizations for any reason, psychiatric-related hospitalizations, and emergency room (ER) visits. Incidence density analysis was used to assess pre-event and postevent rates per person-year (PY). Results The primary medical resource utilization analysis included 435 patients who had a baseline visit, ≥1 postbaseline visits after RLAT initiation, and valid hospitalization dates. The number of hospitalizations and ER visits per PY declined significantly (p < .0001) after initiation with RLAT. A 41% decrease (difference of -0.29 hospitalizations per PY [95% CI: -0.39 to -0.18] from baseline) in hospitalizations for any reason, a 56% decrease (a difference of -0.35 hospitalizations per PY [95% CI: -0.44 to -0.26] from baseline) in psychiatric-related hospitalizations, and a 40% decrease (-0.26 hospitalizations per PY [95% CI: -0.44 to -0.10] from baseline) in ER visits were observed after the baseline period. The percentage of psychiatric-related hospitalizations decreased significantly after RLAT initiation, and patients had fewer inpatient hospitalizations and ER visits (all p < .0001). Conclusion The

  10. Dust Removal Technolgy for a Mars In Situ Resource Utilization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, C. I.; Johansen, M. R.; Williams, B. S.; Hogue, M. D.; Mackey, P. J.; Clements, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    Several In Situ Resource Utilization (lSRU) systems being considered to enable future manned exploration of Mars require capture of Martian atmospheric gas to extract oxygen and other commodities. However, the Martian atmosphere contains relatively large amounts of dust which must be removed in tbe collection systems of the ISRU chambers. The amount of atmospheric dust varies largely with the presence of daily dust devils and the less frequent but much more powerful global dust storms. A common and mature dust removal technology for terrestrial systems is the electrostatic precipitator. With this technology, dust particles being captured are imparted an electrostatic charge by means of a corona discharge. Charged dust particles are then driven to a region of high electric field which forces the particles onto a collector for capture. Several difficulties appear when this technology is adapted to the Martian atmospheric environment At the low atmospheric pressure of Mars, electrical breakdown occurs at much lower voltages than on Earth and corona discharge is difficult to sustain. In this paper, we report on our efforts to obtain a steady corona/glow discharge in a simulated Martian atmosphere of carbon dioxide at 9 millibars of pressure. We also present results on the design of a dust capture system under these atmospheric conditions.

  11. Micro Thermal and Chemical Systems for In Situ Resource Utilization on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegeng, Robert S.; Sanders, Gerald

    2000-01-01

    Robotic sample return missions and postulated human missions to Mars can be greatly aided through the development and utilization of compact chemical processing systems that process atmospheric gases and other indigenous resources to produce hydrocarbon propellants/fuels, oxygen, and other needed chemicals. When used to reduce earth launch mass, substantial cost savings can result. Process Intensification and Process Miniaturization can simultaneously be achieved through the application of microfabricated chemical process systems, based on the rapid heat and mass transport in engineered microchannels. Researchers at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) and the Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are collaboratively developing micro thermal and chemical systems for NASA's Mission to Mars program. Preliminary results show that many standard chemical process components (e.g., heat exchangers, chemical reactors and chemical separations units) can be reduced in hardware volume without a corresponding reduction in chemical production rates. Low pressure drops are also achievable when appropriate scaling rules are applied. This paper will discuss current progress in the development of engineered microchemical systems for space and terrestrial applications, including fabrication methods, expected operating characteristics, and specific experimental results.

  12. Construction and Resource Utilization Explorer: Regolith Characterization Using a Modular Instrument Suite and Analysis Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Jerome B.; Boynton, William V.; Davis, Keil; Elphic, Richard; Glass, Brian; Haldemann, Albert F. C.; Adams, Frederick W.

    2005-01-01

    The Construction Resource Utilization Explorer (CRUX) is a technology maturation project for the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration to provide enabling technology for lunar and planetary surface operations (LPSO). The CRUX will have 10 instruments, a data handling function (Mapper - with features of data subscription, fusion, interpretation, and publication through geographical information system [GIs] displays), and a decision support system DSS) to provide information needed to plan and conduct LPSO. Six CRUX instruments are associated with an instrumented drill to directly measure regolith properties (thermal, electrical, mechanical, and textural) and to determine the presence of water and other hydrogen sources to a depth of about 2 m (Prospector). CRUX surface and geophysical instruments (Surveyor) are designed to determine the presence of hydrogen, delineate near subsurface properties, stratigraphy, and buried objects over a broad area through the use of neutron and seismic probes, and ground penetrating radar. Techniques to receive data from existing space qualified stereo pair cameras to determine surface topography will also be part of the CRUX. The Mapper will ingest information from CRUX instruments and other lunar and planetary data sources, and provide data handling and display features for DSS output. CRUX operation will be semi-autonomous and near real-time to allow its use for either planning or operations purposes.

  13. Multisource geological data mining and its utilization of uranium resources exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie-lin

    2009-10-01

    Nuclear energy as one of clear energy sources takes important role in economic development in CHINA, and according to the national long term development strategy, many more nuclear powers will be built in next few years, so it is a great challenge for uranium resources exploration. Research and practice on mineral exploration demonstrates that utilizing the modern Earth Observe System (EOS) technology and developing new multi-source geological data mining methods are effective approaches to uranium deposits prospecting. Based on data mining and knowledge discovery technology, this paper uses multi-source geological data to character electromagnetic spectral, geophysical and spatial information of uranium mineralization factors, and provides the technical support for uranium prospecting integrating with field remote sensing geological survey. Multi-source geological data used in this paper include satellite hyperspectral image (Hyperion), high spatial resolution remote sensing data, uranium geological information, airborne radiometric data, aeromagnetic and gravity data, and related data mining methods have been developed, such as data fusion of optical data and Radarsat image, information integration of remote sensing and geophysical data, and so on. Based on above approaches, the multi-geoscience information of uranium mineralization factors including complex polystage rock mass, mineralization controlling faults and hydrothermal alterations have been identified, the metallogenic potential of uranium has been evaluated, and some predicting areas have been located.

  14. Flexible CoScheduling : mitigating load imbalance and improving utilization of heterogeneous resources

    SciTech Connect

    Frachtenberg, E.; Feitelson, Dror G.; Petrini, F.; Fernández, J. C.

    2002-01-01

    Fine-grained parallel applications require all their processes to run simultaneously on distinct processors to achieve good efficiency. This is typically accomplished by space slicing, wherein nodes are dedicated for the duration of the run, or by gang scheduling, wherein time slicing is coordinated across processors. Both schemes suffer from fragmentation, where processors are left idle because jobs cannot be packed with perfect efficiency. Obviously, this leads to reduced utilization and sub-optimal performance. Flexible coscheduling (FCS) solves this problem by monitoring each job's granularity and communication activity, and using gang scheduling only for those jobs that require it. Processes from other jobs, which can be scheduled without any constraints, are used as filler to reduce fragmentation. In addition, inefficiencies due to load imbalance and hardware heterogeneity are also reduced because the classification is done on a per-process basis. FCS has been fully implemented as part of the STORM resource manager, and shown to be competitive with gang scheduling and implicit coscheduling. Keywords: Cluster computing, load balancing, job scheduling, gang scheduling, parallel architectures, heterogeneous clusters, STORM

  15. Contaminant Removal from Oxygen Production Systems for In Situ Resource Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, Stephen M.; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo; Captain, James G.; Pawate, Ashtamurthy S.; Kenis, Paul J. A.

    2012-01-01

    The In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project has been developing technologies to produce oxygen from lunar regolith to provide consumables to a lunar outpost. The processes developed reduce metal oxides in the regolith to produce water, which is then electrolyzed to produce oxygen. Hydrochloic and hydrofluoric acids are byproducts of the reduction processes, as halide minerals are also reduced at oxide reduction conditions. Because of the stringent water quality requirements for electrolysis, there is a need for a contaminant removal process. The Contaminant Removal from Oxygen Production Systems (CROPS) team has been developing a separation process to remove these contaminants in the gas and liquid phase that eliminates the need for consumables. CROPS has been using Nafion, a highly water selective polymeric proton exchange membrane, to recover pure water from the contaminated solution. Membrane thickness, product stream flow rate, and acid solution temperature and concentration were varied with the goal of maximizing water permeation and acid rejection. The results show that water permeation increases with increasing solution temperature and product stream flow rate, while acid rejection increases with decreasing solution temperature and concentration. Thinner membranes allowed for higher water flux and acid rejection than thicker ones. These results were used in the development of the hardware built for the most recent Mars ISRU demonstration project.

  16. In-situ resource utilization technologies for Mars life support systems.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, K R; Finn, J E; Kliss, M H

    2000-01-01

    The atmosphere of Mars has many of the ingredients that can be used to support human exploration missions. It can be "mined" and processed to produce oxygen, buffer gas, and water, resulting in significant savings on mission costs. The use of local materials, called ISRU (for in-situ resource utilization), is clearly an essential strategy for a long-term human presence on Mars from the standpoints of self-sufficiency, safety, and cost. Currently a substantial effort is underway by NASA to develop technologies and designs of chemical plants to make propellants from the Martian atmosphere. Consumables for life support, such as oxygen and water, will probably benefit greatly from this ISRU technology development for propellant production. However, the buffer gas needed to dilute oxygen for breathing is not a product of a propellant production plant. The buffer gas needs on each human Mars mission will probably be in the order of metric tons, primarily due to losses during airlock activity. Buffer gas can be separated, compressed, and purified from the Mars atmosphere. This paper discusses the buffer gas needs for a human mission to Mars and consider architectures for the generation of buffer gas including an option that integrates it to the propellant production plant. PMID:11542809

  17. Utility Integrated Resource Planning: An Emerging Driver of NewRenewable Generation in the Western United States

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-09-25

    In the United States, markets for renewable generation--especially wind power--have grown substantially in recent years. This growth is typically attributed to technology improvements and resulting cost reductions, the availability of federal tax incentives, and aggressive state policy efforts. But another less widely recognized driver of new renewable generation is poised to play a major role in the coming years: utility integrated resource planning (IRP). Common in the late-1980s to mid-1990s, but relegated to lesser importance as many states took steps to restructure their electricity markets in the late-1990s, IRP has re-emerged in recent years as an important tool for utilities and regulators, particularly in regions such as the western United States, where retail competition has failed to take root. As practiced in the United States, IRP is a formal process by which utilities analyze the costs, benefits, and risks of all resources available to them--both supply- and demand-side--with the ultimate goal of identifying a portfolio of resources that meets their future needs at lowest cost and/or risk. Though the content of any specific utility IRP is unique, all are built on a common basic framework: (1) development of peak demand and load forecasts; (2) assessment of how these forecasts compare to existing and committed generation resources; (3) identification and characterization of various resource portfolios as candidates to fill a projected resource deficiency; (4) analysis of these different ''candidate'' resource portfolios under base-case and alternative future scenarios; and finally, (5) selection of a preferred portfolio, and creation of a near-term action plan to begin to move towards that portfolio. Renewable resources were once rarely considered seriously in utility IRP. In the western United States, however, the most recent resource plans call for a significant amount of new wind power capacity. These planned additions appear to be motivated by the

  18. Cross-ecosystem impacts of stream pollution reduce resource and contaminant flux to riparian food webs.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Johanna M; Schmidt, Travis S; Walters, David M; Wanty, Richard B; Zuellig, Robert E; Wolf, Ruth E

    2014-03-01

    The effects of aquatic contaminants are propagated across ecosystem boundaries by aquatic insects that export resources and contaminants to terrestrial food webs; however, the mechanisms driving these effects are poorly understood. We examined how emergence, contaminant concentration, and total contaminant flux by adult aquatic insects changed over a gradient of bioavailable metals in streams and how these changes affected riparian web-building spiders. Insect emergence decreased 97% over the metal gradient, whereas metal concentrations in adult insects changed relatively little. As a result, total metal exported by insects (flux) was lowest at the most contaminated streams, declining 96% among sites. Spiders were affected by the decrease in prey biomass, but not by metal exposure or metal flux to land in aquatic prey. Aquatic insects are increasingly thought to increase exposure of terrestrial consumers to aquatic contaminants, but stream metals reduce contaminant flux to riparian consumers by strongly impacting the resource linkage. Our results demonstrate the importance of understanding the contaminant-specific effects of aquatic pollutants on adult insect emergence and contaminant accumulation in adults to predict impacts on terrestrial food webs. PMID:24689137

  19. Cross-ecosystem impacts of stream pollution reduce resource and contaminant flux to riparian food webs.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Johanna M; Schmidt, Travis S; Walters, David M; Wanty, Richard B; Zuellig, Robert E; Wolf, Ruth E

    2014-03-01

    The effects of aquatic contaminants are propagated across ecosystem boundaries by aquatic insects that export resources and contaminants to terrestrial food webs; however, the mechanisms driving these effects are poorly understood. We examined how emergence, contaminant concentration, and total contaminant flux by adult aquatic insects changed over a gradient of bioavailable metals in streams and how these changes affected riparian web-building spiders. Insect emergence decreased 97% over the metal gradient, whereas metal concentrations in adult insects changed relatively little. As a result, total metal exported by insects (flux) was lowest at the most contaminated streams, declining 96% among sites. Spiders were affected by the decrease in prey biomass, but not by metal exposure or metal flux to land in aquatic prey. Aquatic insects are increasingly thought to increase exposure of terrestrial consumers to aquatic contaminants, but stream metals reduce contaminant flux to riparian consumers by strongly impacting the resource linkage. Our results demonstrate the importance of understanding the contaminant-specific effects of aquatic pollutants on adult insect emergence and contaminant accumulation in adults to predict impacts on terrestrial food webs.

  20. Illinois biomass resources: annual crops and residues; canning and food-processing wastes. Preliminary assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Antonopoulos, A A

    1980-06-01

    Illinois, a major agricultural and food-processing state, produces vast amounts of renewable plant material having potential for energy production. This biomass, in the form of annual crops, crop residues, and food-processing wastes, can be converted to alternative fuels (such as ethanol) and industrial chemicals (such as furfural, ethylene, and xylene). The present study provides a preliminary assessment of these Illinois biomass resources, including (a) an appraisal of the effects of their use on both agriculture and industry; (b) an analysis of biomass conversion systems; and (c) an environmental and economic evaluation of products that could be generated from biomass. It is estimated that, of the 39 x 10/sup 6/ tons of residues generated in 1978 in Illinois from seven main crops, about 85% was collectible. The thermal energy equivalent of this material is 658 x 10/sup 6/ Btu, or 0.66 quad. And by fermenting 10% of the corn grain grown in Illinois, some 323 million gallons of ethanol could have been produced in 1978. Another 3 million gallons of ethanol could have been produced in the same year from wastes generated by the state's food-processing establishments. Clearly, Illinois can strengthen its economy substantially by the development of industries that produce biomass-derived fuels and chemicals. In addition, a thorough evaluation should be made of the potential for using the state's less-exploitable land for the growing of additional biomass.

  1. Developing a Contemporary Dairy Foods Extension Program: A Training and Technical Resource Needs Assessment of Pennsylvania Dairy Foods Processors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syrko, Joseph; Kaylegian, Kerry E.

    2015-01-01

    Growth in the dairy industry and the passage of the Food Safety Modernization Act have renewed interest in dairy foods processing extension positions. A needs assessment survey was sent to Pennsylvania dairy processors and raw milk providers to guide priorities for a dairy foods extension program. The successful development and delivery of…

  2. The Availability and Utilization of School Library Resources in Some Selected Secondary Schools (High School) in Rivers State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owate, C. N.; Iroha, Okpa

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the availability and utilization of school library resources by Secondary School (High School) Students. Eight Selected Secondary Schools in Rivers State, Nigeria were chosen based on their performance in external examinations and geographic locations. In carrying out the research, questionnaires were administered to both…

  3. Utilization of Electronic Information Resources by Undergraduate Students of University of Ibadan: A Case Study of Social Sciences and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owolabi, Sola; Idowu, Oluwafemi A.; Okocha, Foluke; Ogundare, Atinuke Omotayo

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluated utilization of electronic information resources by undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a study population of 1872 undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan, from which a…

  4. Impact of Performance Contracts on the Utilization of Teaching and Learning Resources in Technical Institutes in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosomi, Biutha Manwa; Kindiki, Jonah N.; Boit, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Performance contracting has been acclaimed as an effective and promising means of improving the performance of public enterprises as well as government departments. The government of Kenya introduced performance contract signing in 2004. The aim of performance contracts was to improve resource utilization in public institutions among other…

  5. Foraging in subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): how do Heterotermes tenuis and Coptotermes gestroi behave when they locate equivalent food resources?

    PubMed

    Lima, J T; Costa-Leonardo, A M

    2014-08-01

    A previous research suggests that when subterranean termites locate equivalent food they consume the initial food resource. However, little is known about the movement of foragers among these food sources. For this reason, this study analyzed the feeding behavior of Heterotermes tenuis and Coptotermes gestroi in the presence of equivalent foods. The experimental arenas were composed of a release chamber connected to food chambers. The consumption of each wood block and percentage of the foraging individuals recruited for the food chambers were observed in relation to the total survival rate. The results showed that in the multiple-choice tests, wood block consumptions and the recruitment of individuals did not differ between replicates of each termite species. However, in different tests of tenacity, the chambers with the first food presented higher feeding rates by both H. tenuis and C. gestroi and resulted in a higher recruitment of workers and soldiers. In these conditions, it may be concluded that foragers of either species do not concentrate their efforts on the consumption of only one food resource when they are able to reach multiple cellulosic sources simultaneously. Additionally, the data concerning tenacity tests suggest that there is a chronologic priority of consumption in relation to the discovery of available food sources. Knowledge about the foraging biology of subterranean termites is important for future studies of their feeding behavior, and it is indispensable for improving control strategies. PMID:24783950

  6. Foraging in subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): how do Heterotermes tenuis and Coptotermes gestroi behave when they locate equivalent food resources?

    PubMed

    Lima, J T; Costa-Leonardo, A M

    2014-08-01

    A previous research suggests that when subterranean termites locate equivalent food they consume the initial food resource. However, little is known about the movement of foragers among these food sources. For this reason, this study analyzed the feeding behavior of Heterotermes tenuis and Coptotermes gestroi in the presence of equivalent foods. The experimental arenas were composed of a release chamber connected to food chambers. The consumption of each wood block and percentage of the foraging individuals recruited for the food chambers were observed in relation to the total survival rate. The results showed that in the multiple-choice tests, wood block consumptions and the recruitment of individuals did not differ between replicates of each termite species. However, in different tests of tenacity, the chambers with the first food presented higher feeding rates by both H. tenuis and C. gestroi and resulted in a higher recruitment of workers and soldiers. In these conditions, it may be concluded that foragers of either species do not concentrate their efforts on the consumption of only one food resource when they are able to reach multiple cellulosic sources simultaneously. Additionally, the data concerning tenacity tests suggest that there is a chronologic priority of consumption in relation to the discovery of available food sources. Knowledge about the foraging biology of subterranean termites is important for future studies of their feeding behavior, and it is indispensable for improving control strategies.

  7. Mixotrophs combine resource use to outcompete specialists: implications for aquatic food webs.

    PubMed

    Tittel, Jörg; Bissinger, Vera; Zippel, Barbara; Gaedke, Ursula; Bell, Elanor; Lorke, Andreas; Kamjunke, Norbert

    2003-10-28

    The majority of organisms can be grouped into those relying solely on photosynthesis (phototrophy) or those relying solely on the assimilation of organic substances (heterotrophy) to meet their requirements for energy and carbon. However, a special life history trait exists in which organisms combine both phototrophy and heterotrophy. Such "mixotrophy" is a widespread phenomenon in aquatic habitats and is observed in many protozoan and metazoan organisms. The strategy requires investment in both photosynthetic and heterotrophic cellular apparatus, and the benefits must outweigh these costs. In accordance with mechanistic resource competition theory, laboratory experiments revealed that pigmented mixotrophs combined light, mineral nutrients, and prey as substitutable resources. Thereby, they reduced prey abundance below the critical food concentration of competing specialist grazers [Rothhaupt, K. O. (1996) Ecology 77, 716-724]. Here, we demonstrate the important consequences of this strategy for an aquatic community. In the illuminated surface strata of a lake, mixotrophs reduced prey abundance steeply. The data suggest that, as a consequence, grazers from higher trophic levels, consuming both the mixotrophs and their prey, could not persist. Thus, the mixotrophs escaped from competition with and losses to higher grazers. Furthermore, the mixotrophs structured prey abundance along the vertical light gradient, creating low densities near the surface and a pronounced maximum of their algal prey at depth. Such deep algal accumulations are typical features of nutrient-poor aquatic habitats, previously explained by resource availability. We hypothesize instead that the mixotrophic grazing strategy is responsible for deep algal accumulations in many aquatic environments. PMID:14569026

  8. Temporal occurrence of two morpho butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae): influence of weather and food resources.

    PubMed

    Freire, Geraldo; Nascimento, André Rangel; Malinov, Ivan Konstantinov; Diniz, Ivone R

    2014-04-01

    The seasonality of fruit-feeding butterflies is very well known. However, few studies have analyzed the influence of climatic variables and resource availability on the temporal distributions of butterflies. Morpho helenor achillides (C. Felder and R. Felder 1867) and Morpho menelaus coeruleus (Perry 1810) (Nymphalidae) were used as models to investigate the influences of climatic factors and food resources on the temporal distribution of these Morphinae butterflies. These butterflies were collected weekly from January 2005 to December 2006 in the Parque Nacional de Brasília (PNB). In total, 408 individuals were collected, including 274 of M. helenor and 134 of M. menelaus. The relative abundance of the two species was similar in 2005 (n = 220) and 2006 (n = 188). Of the variables considered, only the relative humidity and resource availability measured in terms of phenology of zoochorous fruits of herbaceous plants explained a large proportion of the variation in the abundance of these butterflies. Both of the explanatory variables were positively associated with the total abundance of individuals and with the abundances of M. helenor and M. menelaus considered separately. The phenology of anemochorous fruits was negatively associated with butterfly abundance. The temporal distribution of the butterflies was better predicted by the phenology of the zoochorous fruits of herbaceous plants than by the climatic predictors.

  9. Assessing the land resource-food price nexus of the Sustainable Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Obersteiner, Michael; Walsh, Brian; Frank, Stefan; Havlík, Petr; Cantele, Matthew; Liu, Junguo; Palazzo, Amanda; Herrero, Mario; Lu, Yonglong; Mosnier, Aline; Valin, Hugo; Riahi, Keywan; Kraxner, Florian; Fritz, Steffen; van Vuuren, Detlef

    2016-09-01

    The 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) call for a comprehensive new approach to development rooted in planetary boundaries, equity, and inclusivity. The wide scope of the SDGs will necessitate unprecedented integration of siloed policy portfolios to work at international, regional, and national levels toward multiple goals and mitigate the conflicts that arise from competing resource demands. In this analysis, we adopt a comprehensive modeling approach to understand how coherent policy combinations can manage trade-offs among environmental conservation initiatives and food prices. Our scenario results indicate that SDG strategies constructed around Sustainable Consumption and Production policies can minimize problem-shifting, which has long placed global development and conservation agendas at odds. We conclude that Sustainable Consumption and Production policies (goal 12) are most effective at minimizing trade-offs and argue for their centrality to the formulation of coherent SDG strategies. We also find that alternative socioeconomic futures-mainly, population and economic growth pathways-generate smaller impacts on the eventual achievement of land resource-related SDGs than do resource-use and management policies. We expect that this and future systems analyses will allow policy-makers to negotiate trade-offs and exploit synergies as they assemble sustainable development strategies equal in scope to the ambition of the SDGs. PMID:27652336

  10. Assessing the land resource-food price nexus of the Sustainable Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Obersteiner, Michael; Walsh, Brian; Frank, Stefan; Havlík, Petr; Cantele, Matthew; Liu, Junguo; Palazzo, Amanda; Herrero, Mario; Lu, Yonglong; Mosnier, Aline; Valin, Hugo; Riahi, Keywan; Kraxner, Florian; Fritz, Steffen; van Vuuren, Detlef

    2016-09-01

    The 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) call for a comprehensive new approach to development rooted in planetary boundaries, equity, and inclusivity. The wide scope of the SDGs will necessitate unprecedented integration of siloed policy portfolios to work at international, regional, and national levels toward multiple goals and mitigate the conflicts that arise from competing resource demands. In this analysis, we adopt a comprehensive modeling approach to understand how coherent policy combinations can manage trade-offs among environmental conservation initiatives and food prices. Our scenario results indicate that SDG strategies constructed around Sustainable Consumption and Production policies can minimize problem-shifting, which has long placed global development and conservation agendas at odds. We conclude that Sustainable Consumption and Production policies (goal 12) are most effective at minimizing trade-offs and argue for their centrality to the formulation of coherent SDG strategies. We also find that alternative socioeconomic futures-mainly, population and economic growth pathways-generate smaller impacts on the eventual achievement of land resource-related SDGs than do resource-use and management policies. We expect that this and future systems analyses will allow policy-makers to negotiate trade-offs and exploit synergies as they assemble sustainable development strategies equal in scope to the ambition of the SDGs.

  11. An unmanned mission to Mars with sample collection and in-situ resource utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-05-01

    The design for the Mars Analysis and Return Vehicle with In-Situ Resource Utilization (MARVIN) project is outlined. The MARVIN mission is designed to collect samples of the Martian environment; to produce fuel from local Martian resources; and to use the fuel produced to return the samples to earth. It uses only existing technologies. Exploratory Technologies' mission-design efforts have focused on methods of orbit determination, sample collection, fuel production, power, communications, control, and structural design. Lambert Targeting provided Delta-V's, launch dates, and travel times. The landing site is the Tharsis Plateau, to the southeast of Olympus Mons, chosen for its substantial scientific value. Samples of soil, dust, and atmosphere are collected with lander-based collection devices: the soil sample, with a robotic arm similar to those used in the Viking missions; the atmospheric sample, from a bleed line to the compressor in the fuel-production facility; a dust sample, from the dust-collection container in the fuel-production facility; and a redundant dust sample, with a with a passive filter system, which relies upon neither a power source nor other collection methods. The sample-return capsule (SRC) houses these samples, which are triply contained to prevent contamination. Proven technology can be used to produce methane and oxygen for fuel with relative ease at the landing site: the Sabatier reactor produces methane and water by combining carbon dioxide and hydrogen (brought from earth); the Reverse Water-Gas Shift unit combines carbon dioxide and hydrogen to form carbon monoxide and water; a water-electrolysis unit splits the water into hydrogen and oxygen. The Mars-lander vehicle (MLV) transports the equipment from earth to Mars. The Mars-ascent vehicle (MAV) contains the SRC and the engine, which is the same for both the MLV and the MAV. All equipment that is unnecessary for the Mars-Earth trajectory remains on Mars. This report presents detailed

  12. From Oxygen Generation to Metals Production: In Situ Resource Utilization by Molten Oxide Electrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khetpal, Deepak; Ducret, Andrew C.; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2003-01-01

    situ resource utilization on the Moon and Mars. In parallel, there may be commercial applications here on earth, such as new green technologies for metals extraction and for treatment of hazardous waste, e.g., fixing heavy metals.

  13. An unmanned mission to Mars with sample collection and in-situ resource utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The design for the Mars Analysis and Return Vehicle with In-Situ Resource Utilization (MARVIN) project is outlined. The MARVIN mission is designed to collect samples of the Martian environment; to produce fuel from local Martian resources; and to use the fuel produced to return the samples to earth. It uses only existing technologies. Exploratory Technologies' mission-design efforts have focused on methods of orbit determination, sample collection, fuel production, power, communications, control, and structural design. Lambert Targeting provided Delta-V's, launch dates, and travel times. The landing site is the Tharsis Plateau, to the southeast of Olympus Mons, chosen for its substantial scientific value. Samples of soil, dust, and atmosphere are collected with lander-based collection devices: the soil sample, with a robotic arm similar to those used in the Viking missions; the atmospheric sample, from a bleed line to the compressor in the fuel-production facility; a dust sample, from the dust-collection container in the fuel-production facility; and a redundant dust sample, with a with a passive filter system, which relies upon neither a power source nor other collection methods. The sample-return capsule (SRC) houses these samples, which are triply contained to prevent contamination. Proven technology can be used to produce methane and oxygen for fuel with relative ease at the landing site: the Sabatier reactor produces methane and water by combining carbon dioxide and hydrogen (brought from earth); the Reverse Water-Gas Shift unit combines carbon dioxide and hydrogen to form carbon monoxide and water; a water-electrolysis unit splits the water into hydrogen and oxygen. The Mars-lander vehicle (MLV) transports the equipment from earth to Mars. The Mars-ascent vehicle (MAV) contains the SRC and the engine, which is the same for both the MLV and the MAV. All equipment that is unnecessary for the Mars-Earth trajectory remains on Mars. This report presents detailed

  14. Case studies for utilizing groundwater-source and low-enthalpy geothermal resources in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.-H.; Shin, J.; Lee, K.-K.; Lee, T. J.

    2012-04-01

    As one of the top 10 oil-consuming countries in the world, Korea recently has had a great interest in extending the ways to utilize renewable energy. In this regard, geothermal energy resource is attracting more concerns from both of the government and the research field. Korea has neither active volcanic sites nor areas with abnormally higher heat flow. In spite of these natural conditions, many efforts have been exerted to utilize geothermal energy. Here, we introduce two case studies of using groundwater-source geothermal energy with relatively low-enthalpy: One is a riverbank filtration facility, which has been using some of its riverbank filtrate water for the indoor air-conditioning. The other is the first EGS plant planning site, where a few fault-related artesian wells reaching 70C were discovered lately. Numerical simulations to predict the temperature evolution of the two sites, which is dominated by several hydrogeologic factors, were carried out and compared. Simulation of temperature profile of riverbank filtrate water using HydroGeoSphere shows that the primary factor in determining filtrate water temperature is the pumping rate. It also shows that maintaining the facility operation with present pumping rate for the next 30 years will not cause any significant change of water temperature. However, following the new plan of the facility to install additional 37 wells with 6 times higher pumping rate than the current rate might cause about 2C decrease in filtrate water temperature in 10 years after the extension. Simulation for the temperature evolution in a faulted geothermal reservoir in EGS planning site under the supposed injection-extraction operating conditions were carried out using TOUGH2. A MINC model including a hydraulic discontinuity, which reflected the analysis from several geophysical explorations, was generated. Temperature distribution calculated from the simulation shows a rise of relatively hot geothermal water along the fault plane

  15. Integrated Resources Management Approach to Ensuring Sustainable Food Security in Nigeria-The Nexus of Rice Production in Niger State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omotoso, T.

    2015-12-01

    By 2050, the world will need to feed 9 billion people. This will require a 60% increase in agricultural production and subsequently a 6% increase in water use by the agricultural sector alone. By 2030, global water demand is expected to increase by 40%, mostly in developing countries like Nigeria (Addams, Boccaletti, Kerlin, & Stuchtey, 2009) and global energy demand is expected to increase by 33% in 2035, also, mostly in emerging economies (IEA, 2013). These resources have to be managed efficiently in preparation for these future demands. Population growth leads to increased demand for water, energy and food. More food production will lead to more water-for-food and energy-for-food usage; and more demand for energy will lead to more water-for-energy needs. This nexus between water, energy and food is poorly understood and furthermore, complicated by external drivers such as climate change. Niger State Nigeria, which is blessed with abundant water and arable land resources, houses the three hydropower dams in Nigeria and one of the governments' proposed Staple Crops Processing Zones (SCPZ) for rice production. Both of these capital intensive investments depend heavily on water resources and are all highly vulnerable to changes in climate. Thus, it is essential to know how the local climate in this state will likely change and its impacts on water, energy and food security, so that policy makers can make informed mitigation/adaptation plans; operational and investment decisions. The objective of this project is to provide information, using an integrated resources management approach, on the effects of future climate changes on water, energy (hydropower) and food resources in Niger State, Nigeria and improve knowledge on the interlinkages between water, energy and food at a local scale.

  16. The influence of food intake and ambient temperature on the rate of thyroxine utilization.

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, D L; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H

    1977-01-01

    Young growing pigs of both sexes were subjected to changes in (1) energy intake, (2) ambient temperature, and (3) bulk of food. The rate of disappearance of injected 125I-labelled thyroxine from the plasma (K) was measured. An analysis of variance revealed that the effect attributable to changes in the energy content of the food intake was statistically significant (P less 0-01). A change in ambient temperature had no statistically significant effect on K, nor did a change in the bulk of food when energy intake was constant (P less than 0-05). PMID:903901

  17. Design and testing of fish drier system utilizing geothermal energy resource in Ie Suum, Aceh Besar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mubarak, Amir Zaki; Maulana, M. Ilham; Syuhada, Ahmad

    2016-03-01

    In an effort to increase the value of fish produced by the community in Krueng Raya Sub-district, it has been designed and tested a fish drier system utilizing geothermal energy resource in IeSuum Village, Krueng Raya Sub-district, Aceh Besar District. The geothermal energy is in the form of hot water with the temperature range is between 86 and 86.4 °C. Based on the design consideration, it is used a terraced rack type drier system. The drier system consists of a heat exchanger, drying chamber, and a blower to blow the air. Hot water from the geothermal source is passed into the heat exchanger to increase the air temperature outside it. The air is then blown into the drying chamber. Based on the design analysis is obtained that to dry 200 kg of fish in 24 hour, it is required a drying chamber with 1m long, 1 m width and 0.4 m high, the temperature of hot water entering the exchanger is 80 °C and the temperature of the air entering the drying chamber is maintained at 60°C. The average time required to dry fish till 10% of water level is 18-20 jam. The research is then continued by developing and testing the drying system with three layer rack to put in the fish. From the experimental result is obtained that the average water temperature flows out of the chamber is in the range of 76-78 °C and the temperature in the chamber is in the range of 57-62 °C. In addition, the weight of the fish, which initially is 20 kg, becomes12 kg in average after 18 hours drying process.

  18. The Role of Latin America’s Land and Water Resources for Global Food Security: Environmental Trade-Offs of Future Food Production Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Flachsbarth, Insa; Willaarts, Bárbara; Xie, Hua; Pitois, Gauthier; Mueller, Nathaniel D.; Ringler, Claudia; Garrido, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    One of humanity’s major challenges of the 21st century will be meeting future food demands on an increasingly resource constrained-planet. Global food production will have to rise by 70 percent between 2000 and 2050 to meet effective demand which poses major challenges to food production systems. Doing so without compromising environmental integrity is an even greater challenge. This study looks at the interdependencies between land and water resources, agricultural production and environmental outcomes in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), an area of growing importance in international agricultural markets. Special emphasis is given to the role of LAC’s agriculture for (a) global food security and (b) environmental sustainability. We use the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT)—a global dynamic partial equilibrium model of the agricultural sector—to run different future production scenarios, and agricultural trade regimes out to 2050, and assess changes in related environmental indicators. Results indicate that further trade liberalization is crucial for improving food security globally, but that it would also lead to more environmental pressures in some regions across Latin America. Contrasting land expansion versus more intensified agriculture shows that productivity improvements are generally superior to agricultural land expansion, from an economic and environmental point of view. Finally, our analysis shows that there are trade-offs between environmental and food security goals for all agricultural development paths. PMID:25617621

  19. The role of Latin America's land and water resources for global food security: environmental trade-offs of future food production pathways.

    PubMed

    Flachsbarth, Insa; Willaarts, Bárbara; Xie, Hua; Pitois, Gauthier; Mueller, Nathaniel D; Ringler, Claudia; Garrido, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    One of humanity's major challenges of the 21st century will be meeting future food demands on an increasingly resource constrained-planet. Global food production will have to rise by 70 percent between 2000 and 2050 to meet effective demand which poses major challenges to food production systems. Doing so without compromising environmental integrity is an even greater challenge. This study looks at the interdependencies between land and water resources, agricultural production and environmental outcomes in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), an area of growing importance in international agricultural markets. Special emphasis is given to the role of LAC's agriculture for (a) global food security and (b) environmental sustainability. We use the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT)-a global dynamic partial equilibrium model of the agricultural sector-to run different future production scenarios, and agricultural trade regimes out to 2050, and assess changes in related environmental indicators. Results indicate that further trade liberalization is crucial for improving food security globally, but that it would also lead to more environmental pressures in some regions across Latin America. Contrasting land expansion versus more intensified agriculture shows that productivity improvements are generally superior to agricultural land expansion, from an economic and environmental point of view. Finally, our analysis shows that there are trade-offs between environmental and food security goals for all agricultural development paths.

  20. Micrometeorological Technique for Monitoring of Geological Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage: Methodology, Workflow and Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burba, G. G.; Madsen, R.; Feese, K.

    2013-12-01

    The eddy covariance (EC) method is a micrometeorological technique for direct high-speed measurements of the transport of gases and energy between land or water surfaces and the atmosphere [1]. This method allows for observations of gas transport scales from 20-40 times per second to multiple years, represents gas exchange integrated over a large area, from hundreds of square meters to tens of square kilometres, and corresponds to gas exchange from the entire surface, including canopy, and soil or water layers. Gas fluxes, emission and exchange rates are characterized from single-point in situ measurements using permanent or mobile towers, or moving platforms such as automobiles, helicopters, airplanes, etc. Presently, over 600 eddy covariance stations are in operation in over 120 countries [1]. EC is now recognized as an effective method in regulatory and industrial applications, including CCUS [2-10]. Emerging projects utilize EC to continuously monitor large areas before and after the injections, to locate and quantify leakages where CO2 may escape from the subsurface, to improve storage efficiency, and for other CCUS characterizations [5-10]. Although EC is one of the most direct and defensible micrometeorological techniques measuring gas emission and transport, and complete automated stations and processing are readily available, the method is mathematically complex, and requires careful setup and execution specific to the site and project. With this in mind, step-by-step instructions were created in [1] to introduce a novice to the EC method, and to assist in further understanding of the method through more advanced references. In this presentation we provide brief highlights of the eddy covariance method, its application to geological carbon capture, utilization and storage, key requirements, instrumentation and software, and review educational resources particularly useful for carbon sequestration research. References: [1] Burba G. Eddy Covariance Method

  1. Food-grade protein-based nanoparticles and microparticles for bioactive delivery: fabrication, characterization, and utilization.

    PubMed

    Davidov-Pardo, Gabriel; Joye, Iris J; McClements, David Julian

    2015-01-01

    Proteins can be used to fabricate nanoparticles and microparticles suitable for use as delivery systems for bioactive compounds in pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic, and other products. Food proteins originate from various animal or vegetal sources and exhibit a wide diversity of molecular and physicochemical characteristics, e.g., molecular weight, conformation, flexibility, polarity, charge, isoelectric point, solubility, and interactions. As a result, protein particles can be assembled using numerous different preparation methods, from one or more types of protein or from a combination of a protein and another type of biopolymer (usually a polysaccharide). The final characteristics of the particles produced are determined by the proteins and/or polysaccharides used, as well as the fabrication techniques employed. This chapter provides an overview of the functional properties of food proteins that can be used to assemble nanoparticles and microparticles, the fabrication techniques available to create those particles, the factors that influence their stability, and their potential applications within the food industry.

  2. Utilization of Food Processing By-products as Dietary, Functional, and Novel Fiber: A Review.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Satish Kumar; Bansal, Sangita; Mangal, Manisha; Dixit, Anil Kumar; Gupta, Ram K; Mangal, A K

    2016-07-26

    Fast growing food processing industry in most countries across the world, generates huge quantity of by-products, including pomace, hull, husk, pods, peel, shells, seeds, stems, stalks, bran, washings, pulp refuse, press cakes, etc., which have less use and create considerable environmental pollution. With growing interest in health promoting functional foods, the demand of natural bioactives has increased and exploration for new sources is on the way. Many of the food processing industrial by-products are rich sources of dietary, functional, and novel fibers. These by-products can be directly (or after certain modifications for isolation or purification of fiber) used for the manufacture of various foods, i.e. bread, buns, cake, pasta, noodles, biscuit, ice creams, yogurts, cheese, beverages, milk shakes, instant breakfasts, ice tea, juices, sports drinks, wine, powdered drink, fermented milk products, meat products and meat analogues, synthetic meat, etc. A comprehensive literature survey has been carried on this topic to give an overview in the field dietary fiber from food by-products. In this article, the developments in the definition of fiber, fiber classification, potential sources of dietary fibers in food processing by-products, their uses, functional properties, caloric content, energy values and the labelling regulations have been discussed. PMID:25748244

  3. Utilization of Food Processing By-products as Dietary, Functional, and Novel Fiber: A Review.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Satish Kumar; Bansal, Sangita; Mangal, Manisha; Dixit, Anil Kumar; Gupta, Ram K; Mangal, A K

    2016-07-26

    Fast growing food processing industry in most countries across the world, generates huge quantity of by-products, including pomace, hull, husk, pods, peel, shells, seeds, stems, stalks, bran, washings, pulp refuse, press cakes, etc., which have less use and create considerable environmental pollution. With growing interest in health promoting functional foods, the demand of natural bioactives has increased and exploration for new sources is on the way. Many of the food processing industrial by-products are rich sources of dietary, functional, and novel fibers. These by-products can be directly (or after certain modifications for isolation or purification of fiber) used for the manufacture of various foods, i.e. bread, buns, cake, pasta, noodles, biscuit, ice creams, yogurts, cheese, beverages, milk shakes, instant breakfasts, ice tea, juices, sports drinks, wine, powdered drink, fermented milk products, meat products and meat analogues, synthetic meat, etc. A comprehensive literature survey has been carried on this topic to give an overview in the field dietary fiber from food by-products. In this article, the developments in the definition of fiber, fiber classification, potential sources of dietary fibers in food processing by-products, their uses, functional properties, caloric content, energy values and the labelling regulations have been discussed.

  4. Nutrient composition and nutritional importance of green leaves and wild food resources in an agricultural district, Koutiala, in southern Mali.

    PubMed

    Nordeide, M B; Hatløy, A; Følling, M; Lied, E; Oshaug, A

    1996-11-01

    This paper discusses the nutrient composition and the nutritional importance of green leaves and wild gathered foods in an area with surplus food production in Mali. In this West African country, there is little information about the nutrient composition and the nutritional quality of foods in general, and of wild gathered foods in particular. Food frequency was collected in two cross-sectional surveys. Focus group discussions with women in the area were used to collect information about seasonality, availability and preparation of various foods. Selected food samples were collected for chemical analysis of nutrient composition. The food samples of green leaves (Adansonia digitata, Amaranthus viridis, Tamarindus indica, Allium cepa), seeds and flour (Parkia biglobosa) and fruits (Tamarindus indica) were analysed for water, energy, fat, protein, minerals, amino acids and carotenoids. Availability and use of the foods varied with seasons. In the rainy season, wild gathered foods (e.g. A. digitata) were used as much as fresh cultivated foods (e.g., A. viridis and A. cepa). The wild food resources were more frequently used in rural than in urban areas, with A. digitata as the dominating green leaves. Green leaves were rich in energy, protein and minerals (calcium, iron). Leaves of A. viridis were, in particular, rich in beta-carotene (3290 micrograms/100 g). Chemical score in dried green leaves varied from 47 (A. cepa) to 81 (A. digitata), with lysine as the first limiting amino acid. P. biglobosa fermented seeds, with 35% fat and 37% protein were a complementary source of lysine in the diet. Based on the seasonality, the frequency of use and the nutrient contents of selected green leaves and wild gathered foods in Koutiala district, it is concluded that these traditional and locally produced foods are valuable and important nutrient contributors in the diet both in rural and urban areas, but most important in rural areas.

  5. The Utilization of Banana Peel in the Fermentation Liquid in Food Waste Composting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, A. A.; Rahman, N. A.; Azhari, N. W.

    2016-07-01

    Municipal solid waste in Malaysia contains a high amount of organic matters, particularly food waste. Food waste represents almost 60% from the total municipal solid waste disposed in the landfill. Food waste can be converted into useful materials such as compost. However, source separation of food waste for recycling is not commonly practiced in Malaysia due to various constraints. These constraints include low awareness among the waste generators and low demand of the products produced from the food waste such as composts. Composting is one of the alternatives that can be used in food waste disposal from Makanan Ringan Mas. The aim of the study is to convert food waste generated from Makanan Ringan Mas which is a medium sale industry located at Parit Kuari Darat, Batu Pahat by using composting method. The parameters which include temperature, pH value, NPK (Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium) values has been examined. Banana peel is being used as the fermentation liquid whilst soil and coconut husk were used as the composting medium. Based on the results during the composting process, most of the pH value in each reactor is above 5 and approximately at neutral. This shown that the microbial respiration in the well controlled composting reactor was inhibited and had approached the mature phase. On the other hand, during the period of composting, the overall temperature range from 25 °C to 47 °C which shown the active phase for composting will occoured. As for NPK content Nitrogen value range is 35325 mg/L to 78775 mg/L, Phosphorus, 195.83 mg/L to 471 mg/L and potassium is 422.3 mg/L to 2046 mg/L which is sufficient to use for agricultural purpose. The comparison was made with available organic compost in the market and only showed slightly difference. Nevertheless, in comparison with common fertilizer, the NPK value of organic compost are considerably very low.

  6. NASA Space Engineering Research Center for Utilization of Local Planetary Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar; Lewis, John S.

    1991-01-01

    In the processing of propellants, volatiles, and metals subject area, the following topics are discussed: reduction of lunar regolith; reduction of carbon dioxide; and reduction of carbonaceous materials. Other areas addressed include: (1) production of structural and refractory materials; (2) resource discovery and characterization; (3) system automation and optimization; and (4) database development. The majority of these topics are discussed with respect to the development of lunar and mars bases. Some main topics of interest include: asteroid resources, lunar resources, mars resources, materials processing, construction materials, propellant production, oxygen production, and space-based oxygen production plants.

  7. Direct utilization of geothermal resources field experiments at Monroe, Utah. Final report, July 14, 1978-July 13, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, C.K.; Owen, L.B.

    1982-12-01

    The City of Monroe, Utah undertook a project to demonstrate the economic and technical viability of utilizing a low temperature geothermal resource to provide space and hot water heating to commercial, municipal, and domestic users within the community. During the course of the project, resource development and assessment, including drilling of a production well, was successfully completed. Upon completion of the field development and assessment phase of the program and of a preliminary design of the district heating system, it was determined that the project as proposed was not economically viable. This was due to: (1) a significant increase in estimated capital equipment costs resulting from the general inflation in construction costs, the large area/low population density in Monroe, and a more remote fluid disposal well site than planned, could not balance increased construction costs, (2) a lower temperature resource than predicted, and (3) due to predicted higher pumping and operating costs. After a thorough investigation of alternatives for utilizing the resource, further project activities were cancelled because the project was no longer economical and an alternative application for the resource could not be found within the constraints of the project. The City of Monroe, Utah is still seeking a beneficial use for the 600 gpm, 164/sup 0/F geothermal well. A summary of project activities included.

  8. Vultures of the Seas: Hyperacidic Stomachs in Wandering Albatrosses as an Adaptation to Dispersed Food Resources, including Fishery Wastes

    PubMed Central

    Grémillet, David; Prudor, Aurélien; le Maho, Yvon; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2012-01-01

    Animals are primarily limited by their capacity to acquire food, yet digestive performance also conditions energy acquisition, and ultimately fitness. Optimal foraging theory predicts that organisms feeding on patchy resources should maximize their food loads within each patch, and should digest these loads quickly to minimize travelling costs between food patches. We tested the prediction of high digestive performance in wandering albatrosses, which can ingest prey of up to 3 kg, and feed on highly dispersed food resources across the southern ocean. GPS-tracking of 40 wandering albatrosses from the Crozet archipelago during the incubation phase confirmed foraging movements of between 475–4705 km, which give birds access to a variety of prey, including fishery wastes. Moreover, using miniaturized, autonomous data recorders placed in the stomach of three birds, we performed the first-ever measurements of gastric pH and temperature in procellariformes. These revealed surprisingly low pH levels (average 1.50±0.13), markedly lower than in other seabirds, and comparable to those of vultures feeding on carrion. Such low stomach pH gives wandering albatrosses a strategic advantage since it allows them a rapid chemical breakdown of ingested food and therefore a rapid digestion. This is useful for feeding on patchy, natural prey, but also on fishery wastes, which might be an important additional food resource for wandering albatrosses. PMID:22701581

  9. Vultures of the seas: hyperacidic stomachs in wandering albatrosses as an adaptation to dispersed food resources, including fishery wastes.

    PubMed

    Grémillet, David; Prudor, Aurélien; le Maho, Yvon; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2012-01-01

    Animals are primarily limited by their capacity to acquire food, yet digestive performance also conditions energy acquisition, and ultimately fitness. Optimal foraging theory predicts that organisms feeding on patchy resources should maximize their food loads within each patch, and should digest these loads quickly to minimize travelling costs between food patches. We tested the prediction of high digestive performance in wandering albatrosses, which can ingest prey of up to 3 kg, and feed on highly dispersed food resources across the southern ocean. GPS-tracking of 40 wandering albatrosses from the Crozet archipelago during the incubation phase confirmed foraging movements of between 475-4705 km, which give birds access to a variety of prey, including fishery wastes. Moreover, using miniaturized, autonomous data recorders placed in the stomach of three birds, we performed the first-ever measurements of gastric pH and temperature in procellariformes. These revealed surprisingly low pH levels (average 1.50±0.13), markedly lower than in other seabirds, and comparable to those of vultures feeding on carrion. Such low stomach pH gives wandering albatrosses a strategic advantage since it allows them a rapid chemical breakdown of ingested food and therefore a rapid digestion. This is useful for feeding on patchy, natural prey, but also on fishery wastes, which might be an important additional food resource for wandering albatrosses.

  10. Robotic Lunar Drilling Development for the Construction and Resource Utilization Explorer (CRUX) Project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacny, K.; Bartlett, P. W.; Glaser, D.

    2005-12-01

    The Construction Resource Utilization eXplorer (CRUX) Project is a NASA funded R&D project intended to provide technology for the exploration of lunar and planetary surfaces and subsurfaces. CRUX will have ten instruments, six of which will require subsurface access. Central to the CRUX project is a low power, low mass, robotic drilling system capable of reaching, and delivering scientific instruments to, a target depth currently set at 2 m. Two drilling methods for lunar application have been investigated thus far. The first uses purely rotary drilling, and the second rotary-percussive drilling, similar to what was used by the Apollo astronauts. Both drilling methods utilize an auger for the removal of drilled cuttings. A breadboard drilling system able to function in rotary-drag and rotary-percussive modes was produced to develop and prove out the approach through testing. Spacecraft weight, power, soil properties, and environments are among the key design constraints. The drilling algorithm, rotation and penetration rates, drill bit designs, and auger designs are among the key design variables. The test results presented demonstrate the progress made in simulating the environment, designing an automated system to perform in it, and characterizing the performance of the system. During the initial phase of the research effort, drilling tests were performed in two different lunar soil simulants (FJS-1 and JSC-1, made in Japan and the USA respectively) that were prepared in the following manner. Each soil sample was first mixed with 10wt% distilled water, compacted to 2 g/cc using the Modified Proctor Test (ASTM D1557), and then frozen at 190K. Under these conditions, the soil became as hard as sandstone and served to simulate the water-rich soils that are theorized to exist in permanently shaded craters at the lunar poles. The high bulk density, high water concentration, and binding nature of the water within the regolith were all chosen to serve as a worst case to

  11. MDRS 137 study - Utilization of dry disaster products as space food -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Space Agriculture Task Force

    We became able to stay in the space for a long term. We must be able to save the space foods at normal temperature more than three years. We need the meal which we can store a long term when we have the problem of the disaster on the earth. Therefore development of the meals which I can store a long term is a very important study not only in the space, but also in the earth. We were able to get cooperation of U.S.A. and Japanese Mars association in this time. We ate disaster foods during two weeks by using MDRS.I can eat this disaster foods by pouring hot water or water.We can prepare meals with minimum water. We get cheers when we eat delicious meal in MDRS during 14 days. We want to report various thing of the MDRS study

  12. Potential utilization of algal protein concentrate as a food ingredient in space habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakhost, Z.; Karel, M.

    1989-01-01

    Green alga Scenedesmus obliquus was studied as one of the potential sources of macronutrients in a space habitat. Algal protein concentrate (70.5% protein) was incorporated into a variety of food products such as bran muffins, fettuccine (spinach noodle imitation) and chocolate chip cookies. Food products containing 20 to 40% of incorporated algal proteins were considered. In the sensory analysis the greenish color of the bran muffins and cookies was not found to be objectional. The mild spinachy flavor (algae flavor) was less detectable in chocolate chip cookies than in bran muffins. The color and taste of the algae noodles were found to be pleasant and compared well with commercially available spinach noodles. Commercially available spray-dried Spirulina algae was also incorporated so the products can be compared with those containing Scenedesmus obliquus concentrate. Food products containing commercial algae had a dark green color and a "burnt after taste" and were less acceptable to the panelists.

  13. Potential utilization of algal protein concentrate as a food ingredient in space habitats.

    PubMed

    Nakhost, Z; Karel, M

    1989-01-01

    Green alga Scenedesmus obliquus was studied as one of the potential sources of macronutrients in a space habitat. Algal protein concentrate (70.5% protein) was incorporated into a variety of food products such as bran muffins, fettuccine (spinach noodle imitation) and chocolate chip cookies. Food products containing 20 to 40% of incorporated algal proteins were considered. In the sensory analysis the greenish color of the bran muffins and cookies was not found to be objectional. The mild spinachy flavor (algae flavor) was less detectable in chocolate chip cookies than in bran muffins. The color and taste of the algae noodles were found to be pleasant and compared well with commercially available spinach noodles. Commercially available spray-dried Spirulina algae was also incorporated so the products can be compared with those containing Scenedesmus obliquus concentrate. Food products containing commercial algae had a dark green color and a "burnt after taste" and were less acceptable to the panelists.

  14. New Technologies for Reliable, Low-Cost In Situ Resource Utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar

    1998-01-01

    New technologies can dramatically alter overall mission feasibility, architecture, window-of-opportunity, and science return. In the specific context of planetary exploration/development, several new technologies have been recently developed. It is significant that every one of these new technologies won a NASA NTR award in 1997-1998. In the area of low-cost space access and planetary transportation, hybrids are discussed. Whether we carry all of the fuel and oxidizer from Earth, or we make some or all of it in situ, mass advantages are shown through calculations. The hybrisol concept, where a solid fuel is cast over a state-of-the-art solid propellant, is introduced as a further advance in these ideas,. Thus, the motor operates as a controllable, high Isp rocket initially, and transitions to a high-thrust rocket after ascent, at which time the empty oxidizer tank is jettisoned. Again, calculations show significant advantages. In the area of efficient energy use for various mechanical actuations and robotic movements, muscle wires are introduced. Not only do we present detailed systems-level schemes, but we also present results from a hardware mechanism that has seen more than 18,000 cycles of operation. Recognizing that power is the real issue in planetary exploration/ development, the concept of LORPEX is introduced as a means of converting low-level energy accumulation into sudden bursts of power that can give factors of millions (in power magnification) in the process; this robot employs a low-power In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) unit to accumulate ISRU-generated fuel and oxidizer to be consumed at a rapid rate, chemically in an engine. Drilling, hopping, jumping, and ascent, or even return to Earth, are possible. Again, the hardware has been built and initial systems checkout demonstrated. Long-duration exploration and long-distance travel are made possible through aerobots, as is well known for planets with an atmosphere. However, power has again been a

  15. Accessibility and Utilization of WSR-88D Radar Precipitation Data for Natural Resource Modeling Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardegree, S. P.

    2001-12-01

    The National Weather Service (NWS) operates approximately 160 WSR-88D radar-precipitation stations as part of a Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) program that began implementation in 1992. Among other products, these radar sites provide spatial rainfall estimates, at approximately 4 km2 resolution (Stage 1, Level 3 data), with nominal coverage of 96% of the coterminous United States. Effective coverage is much less than this in a given radar domain depending upon storm type and topography. As the original intent of this network was to support operational objectives of the Departments of Defense, Transportation and Commerce, the production of these data have been optimized for detection and mitigation of severe weather events that might result in flooding, destruction of property and loss of life. The primary hydrologic application has been river and flood forecast modeling by 13 NWS River Forecast Centers (RFC). As each RFC is responsible for a large river drainage, data processing and quality control of these data are geared toward optimization over a relatively large spatial domain (>100,000 km2). Use of these data for other hydrologic and natural resource applications is hampered by a lack of tools for data access and manipulation. NWRC has modified decoding and geo-referencing programs to facilitate utilization of these data for other research and management applications. Stage 1, Level 3 Digital Precipitation Array (DPA) files were obtained for the Boise, Idaho radar location (CBX) for the period of January 1998 to December 2000. Nine rain-gauge locations in the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed and Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area, south of Boise, were georeferenced relative to the CBX Hydrologic Rainfall Analysis Project (HRAP) grid. NEXRAD estimates of total cumulative rainfall at these sites averaged only 20% of that measured by the local gauge network. This underestimate was attributed in the most part to truncation of low intensity

  16. Plasticity of rhizosphere hydraulic properties as a key for efficient utilization of scarce resources

    PubMed Central

    Carminati, Andrea; Vetterlein, Doris

    2013-01-01

    experimental methods need to be developed and applied to different plant species and soil types, in order to understand whether such dualism in rhizosphere properties is an important mechanism for efficient utilization of scarce resources and drought tolerance. PMID:23235697

  17. Geospatial Relationships between Awareness and Utilization of Community Exercise Resources and Physical Activity Levels in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dondzila, Christopher J.; Swartz, Ann M.; Keenan, Kevin G.; Harley, Amy E.; Azen, Razia; Strath, Scott J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. It is unclear if community-based fitness resources (CBFR) translate to heightened activity levels within neighboring areas. The purpose of this study was to determine whether awareness and utilization of fitness resources and physical activity differed depending on residential distance from CBFR. Methods. Four hundred and seventeen older adults (72.9 ± 7.7 years) were randomly recruited from three spatial tiers (≤1.6, >1.6 to ≤3.2, and >3.2 to 8.0 km) surrounding seven senior centers, which housed CBFR. Participants completed questionnaires on health history, CBFR, and physical activity, gathering data on CBFR awareness, utilization, and barriers, overall levels, and predictors to engagement in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Results. Across spatial tiers, there were no differences in positive awareness rates of CBFR or CBFR utilization. Engagement in MVPA differed across spatial tiers (P < 0.001), with the >3.2 to 8.0 km radius having the highest mean energy expenditure. Across all sites, age and income level (P < 0.05) were significant predictors of low and high amounts of MVPA, respectively, and current health status and lack of interest represented barriers to CBFR utilization (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Closer proximity to CBFR did not impact awareness or utilization rates and had an inverse relationship with physical activity. PMID:25386363

  18. The water-energy-food-climate-economics nexus: solving hunger and resource scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lall, U.

    2011-12-01

    A nexus refers to the core or to interconnectivity across issues. Addressing the boundary interactions of traditional sectors in an interconnected world as human activities change the physical boundaries of land and climate is an emerging academic and governance discourse. Through contrasting examples from the US and India, I shed light on the descriptive aspects of these connections and feedbacks that define potential impacts or traps for societies, and ponder whether a massive conceptual or numerical Earth System Model can help inform outcomes, or whether there are dominant links at particular scales (physical, social, economic or biological) that characterize the emergent dynamics and define critical equilibrium or transient solutions in certain places. However, the real question is what next given the definition of the nexus? Here, I argue that given the current valuation and management structure of different resource sectors and the associated information flows and sensitivities, the interlinked energy-climate issues can emerge as useful drivers of improved productivity in water-food systems, thus promoting resource and environmental sustainability while promoting economic development. Thus, levers can be found that help steer the course of these complex interacting systems towards desirable sectoral outcomes.

  19. High Resource Utilization Does Not Affect Mortality in Acute Respiratory Failure Patients Managed With Tracheostomy

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Bradley D; Stwalley, Dustin; Lambert, Dennis; Edler, Joshua; Morris, Peter E; Medvedev, Sofia; Hohmann, Samuel F; Kymes, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Tracheostomy practice in patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) varies greatly among institutions. This variability has the potential to be reflected in the resources expended providing care. In various healthcare environments, increased resource expenditure has been associated with a favorable effect on outcome. OBJECTIVE To examine the association between institutional resource expenditure and mortality in ARF patients managed with tracheostomy. METHODS We developed analytic models employing the University Health Systems Consortium (Oakbrook, Illinois) database. Administrative coding data were used to identify patients with the principal diagnosis of ARF, procedures, complications, post-discharge destination, and survival. Mean resource intensity of participating academic medical centers was determined using risk-adjusted estimates of costs. Mortality risk was determined using a multivariable approach that incorporated patient-level demographic and clinical variables and institution-level resource intensity. RESULTS We analyzed data from 44,124 ARF subjects, 4,776 (10.8%) of whom underwent tracheostomy. Compared to low-resource-intensity settings, treatment in high-resource-intensity academic medical centers was associated with increased risk of mortality (odds ratio 1.11, 95% CI 1.05–1.76), including those managed with tracheostomy (odds ratio high-resource-intensity academic medical center with tracheostomy 1.10, 95% CI 1.04 –1.17). We examined the relationship between complication development and outcome. While neither the profile nor number of complications accumulated differed comparing treatment environments (P > .05 for both), mortality for tracheostomy patients experiencing complications was greater in high-resource-intensity (95/313, 30.3%) versus low-resource-intensity (552/2,587, 21.3%) academic medical centers (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS We were unable to demonstrate a positive relationship between resource expenditure and outcome in

  20. Correlate of Resource Utilization and Students' Learning Outcome in Colleges of Education in South West Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibukun, W. O.; Akinfolarin, C. A.; Alimi, O. S.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated resource utilisation in vocational and technical education as a correlate of student learning outcome in selected colleges of education in south west Nigeria. The study examined the relationship between time, space and physical resource utilisation and perceived student learning outcome. The study used the descriptive…

  1. The Idea Tree: Booklet II in the Series, Utilizing Community Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Barbara

    The Idea Tree suggests a variety of ideas for using community resources in classroom activities. Several suggestions are made under each of the following headings: student assignments (individual activities, for later sharing, dealing with enrichment of the resource topic or to supplement background information); small group assignments; whole…

  2. Utilization of a Microcomputer in an Elementary School Learning Resource Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonton Public Schools (Alberta).

    A microcomputer and hard disk were used to set up an automated card catalog in an Edmonton (Alberta) elementary school learning resource center to determine if a computerized card catalog would help elementary students to access learning resource materials, thereby enhancing their learning. Instead of using a traditional card catalog, students…

  3. Health resource utilization and the economic burden of patients with wet age-related macular degeneration in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Dilokthornsakul, Piyameth; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Ruamviboonsuk, Paisan; Ratanasukon, Mansing; Ausayakhun, Somsanguan; Tungsomeroengwong, Akrapope; Pokawattana, Nattapol; Chanatittarat, Chalakorn

    2014-01-01

    AIM To determine healthcare resource utilization and the economic burden associated with wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Thailand METHODS This study included patients diagnosed with wet AMD that were 60 years old or older, and had best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) measured at least two times during the follow-up period. We excluded patients having other eye diseases. Two separate sub-studies were conducted. The first sub-study was a retrospective cohort study; electronic medical charts were reviewed to estimate the direct medical costs. The second sub-study was a cross-sectional survey estimating the direct non-medical costs based on face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. For the first sub-study, direct medical costs, including the cost of drugs, laboratory, procedures, and other treatments were obtained. For the second sub-study, direct non-medical costs, e.g. transportation, food, accessories, home renovation, and caregiver costs, were obtained from face-to-face interviews with patients and/or caregivers. RESULTS For the first sub-study, sixty-four medical records were reviewed. The annual average number of medical visits was 11.1±6.0. The average direct medical costs were $3 604±4 530 per year. No statistically-significant differences of the average direct medical costs among the BCVA groups were detected (P=0.98). Drug costs accounted for 77% of total direct medical costs. For direct non-medical costs, 67 patients were included. Forty-eight patients (71.6%) required the accompaniment of a person during the out-patient visit. Seventeen patients (25.4%) required a caregiver at home. The average direct non-medical cost was $2 927±6 560 per year. There were no statistically-significant differences in the average costs among the BCVA groups (P=0.74). Care-giver cost accounted for 87% of direct non-medical costs. CONCLUSION Our study indicates that wet AMD is associated with a substantial economic burden, especially concerning

  4. Memory and foraging theory: Chimpanzee utilization of optimality heuristics in the rank-order recovery of hidden foods

    PubMed Central

    Sayers, Ken; Menzel, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    Many models from foraging theory and movement ecology assume that resources are encountered randomly. If food locations, types and values are retained in memory, however, search time could be significantly reduced, with concurrent effects on biological fitness. Despite this, little is known about what specific characteristics of foods, particularly those relevant to profitability, nonhuman animals can remember. Building upon previous observations, we hypothesized that chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), after observing foods being hidden in a large wooded test area they could not enter, and after long delays, would direct (through gesture and vocalization) experimentally naïve humans to the reward locations in an order that could be predicted beforehand by the spatial and physical characteristics of those items. In the main experiment, various quantities of almonds, both in and out of shells and sealed in transparent bags, were hidden in the test area. The chimpanzees later directed searchers to those items in a nonrandom order related to quantity, shell presence/absence, and the distance they were hidden from the subject. The recovery sequences were closely related to the actual e/h profitability of the foods. Predicted recovery orders, based on the energetic value of almonds and independently-measured, individual-specific expected pursuit and processing times, were closely related to observed recovery orders. We argue that the information nonhuman animals possess regarding their environment can be extensive, and that further comparative study is vital for incorporating realistic cognitive variables into models of foraging and movement. PMID:23226837

  5. Potential utilization of Artemia franciscana eggs as food for Coleomegilla maculata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested the hypothesis that Artemia franciscana Kellogg (brine shrimp, Anostraca: Artemiidae) eggs are suitable factitious, i.e., alternative, food to support the life history of a predatory ladybird beetle, Coleomegilla maculata DeGeer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Using progeny from a stock colo...

  6. Estuarine consumers utilize marine, estuarine and terrestrial organic matter and provide connectivity among these food webs

    EPA Science Inventory

    The flux of organic matter (OM) across ecosystem boundaries can influence estuarine food web dynamics and productivity. However, this process is seldom investigated taking into account all the adjacent ecosystems (e.g. ocean, river, land) and different hydrological settings (i.e....

  7. Academic Library Resource Sharing through Bibliographic Utility Program Participation. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trochim, Mary Kane

    This summary briefly outlines a separate report containing information on the growth of bibliographic utilities and academic library networking, as well as profiles of interlibrary loan activity at six academic libraries who are members or users of a major bibliographic utility. Applications of computer technology and network participation in…

  8. Diagnostic Utility of Total IgE in Foods, Inhalant, and Multiple Allergies in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Mughales, Jamil A

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the diagnostic significance of total IgE in foods, inhalant, and multiple allergies. Methods. Retrospective review of the laboratory records of patients who presented with clinical suspicion of food or inhalant allergy between January 2013 and December 2014. Total IgE level was defined as positive for a value >195 kU/L; and diagnosis was confirmed by the detection of specific IgE (golden standard) for at least one food or inhalant allergen and at least two allergens in multiple allergies. Results. A total of 1893 (male ratio = 0.68, mean age = 39.0 ± 19.2 years) patients were included. Total IgE had comparable sensitivity (55.8% versus 59.6%) and specificity (83.9% versus 84.4%) in food versus inhalant allergy, respectively, but a superior PPV in inhalant allergy (79.1% versus 54.4%). ROC curve analysis showed a better diagnostic value in inhalant allergies (AUC = 0.817 (95% CI = 0.796-0.837) versus 0.770 (95% CI = 0.707-0.833)). In multiple allergies, total IgE had a relatively good sensitivity (78.6%), while negative IgE testing (<195 kU/L) predicted the absence of multiple allergies with 91.5% certitude. Conclusion. Total IgE assay is not efficient as a diagnostic test for foods, inhalant, or multiple allergies. The best strategy should refer to specific IgE testing guided by a comprehensive atopic history. PMID:27314052

  9. Fabrication and Performance of Zirconia Electrolysis Cells for Carbon Dioxide Reduction for Mars In Situ Resource Utilization Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minh, N. Q.; Chung, B. W.; Doshi, R.; Lear, G. R.; Montgomery, K.; Ong, E. T.

    1999-01-01

    The use of the Martian atmosphere (95% CO2) to produce oxygen (for propellant and life support) can significantly lower the required launch mass and dramatically reduce the total cost for Mars missions. Zirconia electrolysis cells are one of the technologies being considered for oxygen generation from carbon dioxide in Mars In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) production plants. The attractive features of the zirconia cell for this application include simple operation and lightweight, low volume system.

  10. Natural resources assessment and their utilization: analyses from a Himalayan state.

    PubMed

    Uniyal, Sanjay Kr; Singh, Rakesh D

    2012-08-01

    The present paper quantifies and reviews the natural resource use in the Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh (HP). Twenty-five percent of the geographical area of HP is under forests and harbour ca. 3,400 plant species. The available bioresources not only support the livelihood of nearly 6 million people but also fulfill the forage requirement of 5.2 million livestock. Thus, dependence on bioresources is manifold. Based on field surveys to different localities of HP and analyses of published information, two types of resource use patterns have been identified. One, the direct use of forest resources which is represented by extraction of timber, fuelwood and fodder; and the second represents indirect resource use from the forest that is represented by activities related to agriculture, tourism and industry. Amongst the direct resource use, annual timber requirement of the local people works out to be 310,063 m(3). On the other hand, annual fuelwood and fodder requirement of local people is to the tune of 3,646,348.8 and 10,294,116.5 tons, respectively. Extraction of fodder therefore appears to be one of the main reasons for forest degradation in HP as opposed to timber and fuelwood extraction. However, compared to direct resource use, indirect resource use and pressures have far more pronounced effect on the forests. Of the indirect pressures, shifts in agriculture patterns and increased tourism seem to be the most prominent.

  11. Exploring the dynamics of agricultural climatic resource utilization of spring maize over the past 50 years in Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Junfang; Guo, Jianping; Mu, Jia; Xu, Yanhong

    Exploring the dynamics of the utilization of agricultural climatic resources (i.e., environmental factors that affect crop productivity such as light, temperature, and water) can provide a theoretical basis for modifying agricultural practices and distributions of agricultural production in the future. Northeast China is one of the major agricultural production areas in China and also an obvious region of climatic warming. We were motivated to analyze the utilization dynamics of agricultural climatic resource during spring maize cultivation from 1961 to 2010 in Northeast China. To understand these dynamics, we used the daily data from 101 meteorological stations in Northeast China between 1961 and 2010. The demands on agricultural climatic resources in Northeast China imposed by the cultivation of spring maize were combined and agricultural climatic suitability theory was applied. The growth period of spring maize was further detailedly divided into four stages: germination to emergence, emergence to jointing, jointing to tasseling, and tasseling to maturity. The average resource utilization index was established to evaluate the effects. Over the past five decades, Northeast China experienced increases in daily average temperature of 0.246 °C every decade during the growing season (May-September). At the same time, strong fluctuating decreases were observed in average total precipitation of 8.936 mm every decade and an average sunshine hour of 0.122 h every decade. Significant temporal and spatial changes occurred in K from 1961 to 2010. The K showed decreasing trends in Liaoning province and increasing trends in Jilin and especially in Heilongjiang province, which increased by 0.11. Spatial differences were visible in different periods, and the most obvious increase was found in the period 2001-2010. The areas with high values of K shifted northeastward over the past 50 years, indicating more efficient use of agricultural climatic resources in Northeast China.

  12. [Resource situation investigation about Rheum tanguticum and its sustainable utilization analysis in main production area of China].

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Liu, Kai; Wei, Sheng-Li; Cheng, Xiao-Li; Liu, Juan; Ren, Guang-Xi; Wang, Wen-Quan

    2014-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the wild and cultivated resource situation of Rheum tanguticum in main production area of China, estimate its reserves, and put forward the feasible approach for the sustainable utilization of R. tanguticum. On the basis of the literature data about R. tanguticum, conbined with interview, investigation and sampling investigation, the total reserve of resources is estimated using the route-quadrat method and the vegetation and soil-type map area method proposed by our research group. The results indicate that there is no obvious change between the present distribution ranges of the wild R. tanguticum and its historical records, but its population density has changed clearly. The reserve of the wild R. tanguticum has seriously declined in lots of place, even faced the exhaustion in some regions. According to the investigation, the resource reserve of the wild R. tanguticum is no more than 5 000 t, and the cultivated is about 1 607 t. The resource reserve of the wild R. tanguticum is nearly depleted, and this suggests that the wild R. tanguticum should be enrolled in the protection plant list, and the cultivated will become the main resource of Rhubarb in the future. So it is extremely neccessary to collect and protect the germplasm resource of R. tanguticum, establish the germplasm nursery and repository, and conduct breeding research on those bases.

  13. The phosphorus footprint of China's food chain: implications for food security, natural resource management, and environmental quality.

    PubMed

    Wang, F; Sims, J T; Ma, L; Ma, W; Dou, Z; Zhang, F

    2011-01-01

    Efficient use of phosphorus (P) for producing food, preventing water pollution, and managing a dwindling rock P reserve are major challenges for China. We analyzed P stocks and flows in the Chinese food chain to identify where P use efficiency can be improved, where P leaks to the environment, and the research, technologies, and policies needed to improve P use. We found a high degree of inefficiency; of 6652 Gg P entering the food chain, only 1102 Gg P (18%) exit as food for humans. The greatest inefficiencies were a large build-up of soil P (3670 Gg P yr; 52% of P inputs) and high P losses to the environment from animal production (1582 Gg P yr; 60% of excreted P). Improving P use in China must focus on national-scale nutrient management strategies, better animal nutrition, and adoption of technologies and policies to reduce P discharges from the animal sector and recycle P as manures in agriculture.

  14. The phosphorus footprint of China's food chain: implications for food security, natural resource management, and environmental quality.

    PubMed

    Wang, F; Sims, J T; Ma, L; Ma, W; Dou, Z; Zhang, F

    2011-01-01

    Efficient use of phosphorus (P) for producing food, preventing water pollution, and managing a dwindling rock P reserve are major challenges for China. We analyzed P stocks and flows in the Chinese food chain to identify where P use efficiency can be improved, where P leaks to the environment, and the research, technologies, and policies needed to improve P use. We found a high degree of inefficiency; of 6652 Gg P entering the food chain, only 1102 Gg P (18%) exit as food for humans. The greatest inefficiencies were a large build-up of soil P (3670 Gg P yr; 52% of P inputs) and high P losses to the environment from animal production (1582 Gg P yr; 60% of excreted P). Improving P use in China must focus on national-scale nutrient management strategies, better animal nutrition, and adoption of technologies and policies to reduce P discharges from the animal sector and recycle P as manures in agriculture. PMID:21712576

  15. Pohnpei, FSM case study in a global health project documents its local food resources and successfully promotes local food for health.

    PubMed

    Englberger, L; Kuhnlein, H V; Lorens, A; Pedrus, P; Albert, K; Currie, J; Pretrick, M; Jim, R; Kaufer, L

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a summary of Pohnpei, Federated States Micronesia's involvement in a global health study focused on documenting traditional food systems in different parts of the world and providing evidence that local resources are critical for food security, nutrition and health. The Pohnpei study was based in Mand Community, Madolenihmw. The study found that there was a great diversity of foods locally available (381 food items documented), but these were underused. Overweight, obesity, diabetes, and vitamin A deficiency were identified as serious problems. Interventions included community meetings, school activities, and agriculture workshops, cooking classes, charcoal oven development, weight loss and planting competitions, poster campaigns and other relevant mass media. Significant dietary improvements were achieved following the intervention efforts, as well as positive changes in attitude towards local food including: decrease in average daily rice consumption from 846 g/person in 2005 to 544 g/person in 2007 (p = 0.0002); increase in provitamin A carotenoid intake from 227 microg/person in 2005 to 475 microg/person in 2007 (p = 0.02); increased frequency of consumption of local banana (53%), giant swamp taro (476%), local vegetables (130%); and increased dietary diversity (4.8 local food groups consumed in 2005 to 5.5 in 2007). Another positive outcome in Pohnpei was the popularization of the slogan "Let's Go Local."

  16. Revisiting the 'Buy versus Build' Decision for Publicly Owned Utilities in California Considering Wind and Geothermal Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

    2001-12-11

    The last two decades have seen a dramatic increase in the market share of independent, nonutility generators (NUGs) relative to traditional, utility-owned generation assets. Accordingly, the ''buy versus build'' decision facing utilities--i.e., whether a utility should sign a power purchase agreement (PPA) with a NUG, or develop and own the generation capacity itself--has gained prominence in the industry. Very little of this debate, however, has focused specifically on publicly owned electric utilities, and with few exceptions, renewable sources of supply have received similarly scant attention. Contrary to historical treatment, however, the buy versus build debate is quite relevant to publicly owned utilities and renewables because publicly owned utilities are able to take advantage of some renewable energy incentives only in a ''buy'' situation, while others accrue only in a ''build'' situation. In particular, possible economic advantages of public utility ownership include: (1) the tax-free status of publicly owned utilities and the availability of low-cost debt, and (2) the renewable energy production incentive (REPI) available only to publicly owned utilities. Possible economic advantages to entering into a PPA with a NUG include: (1) the availability of federal tax credits and accelerated depreciation schedules for certain forms of NUG-owned renewable energy, and (2) the California state production incentives available to NUGs but not utilities. This article looks at a publicly owned utility's decision to buy or build new renewable energy capacity--specifically wind and geothermal power--in California. To examine the economic aspects of this decision, we used a 20-year financial cash-flow model to assess the levelized cost of electricity under four supply options: (1) public utility ownership of new geothermal capacity, (2) public utility ownership of new wind capacity, (3) a PPA for new geothermal capacity, and (4) a PPA for new wind capacity. We focus on

  17. Perspectives on the utilization of aquaculture coproduct in Europe and Asia: prospects for value addition and improved resource efficiency.

    PubMed

    Newton, Richard; Telfer, Trevor; Little, Dave

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture has often been criticized for its environmental impacts, especially efficiencies concerning global fisheries resources for use in aquafeeds among others. However, little attention has been paid to the contribution of coproducts from aquaculture, which can vary between 40% and 70% of the production. These have often been underutilized and could be redirected to maximize the efficient use of resource inputs including reducing the burden on fisheries resources. In this review, we identify strategies to enhance the overall value of the harvested yield including noneffluent processing coproducts for three of the most important global aquaculture species, and discuss the current and prospective utilization of these resources for value addition and environmental impact reduction. The review concludes that in Europe coproducts are often underutilized because of logistical reasons such as the disconnected nature of the value chain, and perceived legislative barriers. However, in Asia, most coproducts are used, often innovatively but not to their full economic potential and sometimes with possible human health and biosecurity risks. These include possible spread of diseased material and low traceability in some circumstances. Full economic and environmental appraisal is long overdue for the current and potential strategies available for coproduct utilization.

  18. Association between Food Insecurity and Procurement Methods among People Living with HIV in a High Resource Setting

    PubMed Central

    Anema, Aranka; Fielden, Sarah J.; Shurgold, Susan; Ding, Erin; Messina, Jennifer; Jones, Jennifer E.; Chittock, Brian; Monteith, Ken; Globerman, Jason; Rourke, Sean B.; Hogg, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective People living with HIV in high-resource settings suffer severe levels of food insecurity; however, limited evidence exists regarding dietary intake and sub-components that characterize food insecurity (i.e. food quantity, quality, safety or procurement) in this population. We examined the prevalence and characteristics of food insecurity among people living with HIV across British Columbia, Canada. Design This cross-sectional analysis was conducted within a national community-based research initiative. Methods Food security was measured using the Health Canada Household Food Security Scale Module. Logistic regression was used to determine key independent predictors of food insecurity, controlling for potential confounders. Results Of 262 participants, 192 (73%) reported food insecurity. Sub-components associated with food insecurity in bivariate analysis included: < RDI consumption of protein (p = 0.046); being sick from spoiled/unsafe food in the past six months (p = 0.010); and procurement of food using non-traditional methods (p <0.05). In multivariable analyses, factors significantly associated with food insecurity included: procurement of food using non-traditional methods [AOR = 11.11, 95% CI: 4.79–25.68, p = <0.001]; younger age [AOR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.86–0.96, p = <0.001]; unstable housing [AOR = 4.46, 95% CI: 1.15–17.36, p = 0.031]; household gross annual income [AOR = 4.49, 95% CI: 1.74–11.60, p = 0.002]; and symptoms of depression [AOR = 2.73, 95% CI: 1.25–5.96, p = 0.012]. Conclusions Food insecurity among people living with HIV in British Columbia is characterized by poor dietary quality and food procurement methods. Notably, participants who reported procuring in non-traditional manners were over 10 times more likely to be food insecure. These findings suggest a need for tailored food security and social support interventions in this setting. PMID:27487041

  19. Nanostructured Materials Utilized in Biopolymer-based Plastics for Food Packaging Applications.

    PubMed

    Ghanbarzadeh, Babak; Oleyaei, Seyed Amir; Almasi, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Most materials currently used for food packaging are nondegradable, generating environmental problems. Several biopolymers have been exploited to develop materials for ecofriendly food packaging. However, the use of biopolymers has been limited because of their usually poor mechanical and barrier properties, which may be improved by adding reinforcing compounds (fillers), forming composites. Most reinforced materials present poor matrix-filler interactions, which tend to improve with decreasing filler dimensions. The use of fillers with at least one nanoscale dimension (nanoparticles) produces nanocomposites. Nanoparticles have proportionally larger surface area than their microscale counterparts, which favors the filler-matrix interactions and the performance of the resulting material. Besides nanoreinforcements, nanoparticles can have other functions when added to a polymer, such as antimicrobial activity, etc. in this review paper, the structure and properties of main kinds of nanostructured materials which have been studied to use as nanofiller in biopolymer matrices are overviewed, as well as their effects and applications.

  20. Utilization of non-conventional systems for conversion of biomass to food components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karel, M.; Nakhost, Z.

    1989-01-01

    The potential use of micro-algae in yielding useful macronutrients for the CELSS is investigated. Algal proteins were isolated and characterized from green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus) grown under controlled conditions. The RNA and DNA contents were determined, and methodology for reduction of the nucleic acid content to acceptable levels developed. Lipid extraction procedures using supercritical fluids were tailored to removal of undesirable lipids and pigments. Initial steps toward preparation of model foods for potential use in the CELSS were taken. The goal was to fabricate food products which contain isolated algal macronutrients such as proteins and lipids and also some components derived from higher plants including wheat flour, soy flour, potato powder (flakes), soy oil, and corn syrup.