Science.gov

Sample records for food standards plague

  1. Plague

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bubonic plague causes the tonsils, adenoids, spleen, and thymus to become inflamed. Symptoms include fever, aches, chills, and tender lymph glands. In septicemic plague, bacteria multiply in the blood. ...

  2. Plague

    MedlinePlus

    ... U.S. Department of Defense, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the U.S. Department of Energy to develop promising antibiotics and intervention strategies to treat and prevent plague infection. Featured Research ...

  3. Plague

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tests Tests that may be done include: Blood culture Culture of lymph node aspirate (fluid taken from an affected lymph node or bubo) Sputum culture Treatment People with the plague need immediate treatment. ...

  4. Plague

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, Rachel C.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2012-01-01

    Plague offers readers an overview of this highly complex disease caused by the bacteria Yersinia pestis. The history of the disease, as well as information about Yersinia pestis and its transmission by fleas, is described. The section Geographic Distribution presents areas of the world and United States where plague occurs most commonly in rodents and humans. Species Susceptibility describes infection and disease rates in rodents, humans, and other animals. Disease Ecology considers the complex relationship among rodents, domestic and wild animals, and humans and explores possible routes of transmission and maintenance of the organism in the environment. The effects of climate change, the potential for Y. pestis to be used as a bioweapon, and the impact of plague on conservation of wildlife are considered in Points to Ponder. Disease Prevention and Control outlines methods of prevention and treatment including vaccination for prairie dogs and black-footed ferrets. A glossary of technical terms is included. Tonie E. Rocke, the senior author and an epizootiologist at the USGS National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC), is a prominent researcher on oral vaccination of prairie dogs to prevent plague. She is currently working to transfer her success in the laboratory to the field to control plague in prairie dogs. Rachel C. Abbott, a biologist at the NWHC, is assisting Dr. Rocke in this process and will coordinate field trials of the vaccine. Milt Friend, first director of the NWHC, wrote the foreword. Plague is intended for scholars and the general public. The material is presented in a simple, straightforward manner that serves both audiences. Numerous illustrations and tables provide easily understood summaries of key points and information.

  5. [Pulmonic plague].

    PubMed

    Hovette, P; Burgel, P R; Camara, P; Sane, M; Auregan, G; Klotz, F

    1998-12-01

    One hundred years after Yersin discovered Yersinia pestis during the plague epidemic in Hong Kong in 1894, human plague still has not been eliminated. The epidemic in 1994 in India, a country where no cases had been observed since 1996, raised great concern. Plague is an epizootic bacterial infection caused by a Gram negative coccobacillus, Y. pestis, transmitted by the bite of infected fleas. Bubonic plague is the most common form. Other clinical presentations include asymptomatic plague, abortive plague, pharyngeal plague, septicemic plague, meningeal plague, and primary or secondary pneumonic plague which is observed in 5 to 20% of cases. Plague is a highly communicable disease between humans despite antibiotic therapy which has reduced mortality by 80%. The prognosis depends on early diagnosis. Streptomycin and cyclines are the gold standard treatment.

  6. Plague studies*

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1953-01-01

    In examining the control and prevention of plague, the author pays particular attention to the control of commensal rodents and their fleas. The various rat poisons in current use, their efficacy and practical application, and the dangers involved in their manipulation are described in great detail. The author also discusses other anti-rodent measures such as fumigation, rat-proofing, sanitation, protection of food, etc. The second part of the study deals with: vector control—the outstanding value of DDT application in rodent-flea control is emphasized—, the direct control of bubonic and pneumonic plague, and the control of the spread of plague at a distance. PMID:20603968

  7. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10... (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food additives in standardized foods. (a) The... inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of identity, the provisions of the regulations...

  8. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food additives... the Act, which proposes the inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of identity...

  9. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food additives... the Act, which proposes the inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of identity...

  10. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10 Section 170.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food additives...

  11. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10 Section 170.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food additives...

  12. Plague Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Plague Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Plague Home Ecology & Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis & Treatment Maps & Statistics ...

  13. Plague studies*

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1953-01-01

    Epidemiological aspects of (a) bubonic plague and (b) primary pneumonic plague are discussed separately in this study. The cause, spread, and persistence of bubonic outbreaks are dealt with. In the case of primary pneumonic plague, the author systematically reviews the factors influencing the spread of the disease: climatic and social conditions, infectivity of the patients, immunity, and control measures. In discussing the cause of pneumonic plague outbreaks, the author deals with the possible influence of a special virulence of pneumonic strains, the role of the rodent and flea species involved, and the possibility of a pneumotropismus acquired by Pasteurella pestis. The periodicity (cyclical and secular) of bubonic plague epidemics is discussed with a view to the possible forecasting of future epidemics. The author indicates the influence of race, age, sex, and occupation on the incidence of both forms of the disease. PMID:13082391

  14. Plague studies*

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1953-01-01

    The author examines in detail the symptomatology, diagnosis, and treatment of plague, and outlines the problem of the length of the incubation period. The clinical features commonly met with in all severely-affected plague patients, regardless of the primary localization of the infection, are described. The author then deals with the symptomatology and manifestations of bubonic plague as compared to those of primary pneumonic plague. The importance of a clinical diagnosis, from the point of view of prevention, is stressed, and the differential diagnosis of various forms of the disease is described. The study contains a detailed discussion of the respective merits of antibiotic treatment, serotherapy, and sulfonamide treatment. The author points out that the outstanding success of streptomycin and some other antibiotics will probably relegate the sulfonamides to the second rank in the treatment of bubonic plague. PMID:13082390

  15. Plague Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Plague Home Ecology & Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis & Treatment Maps & Statistics Info for ... soon as possible. Do not allow dogs or cats that roam free in endemic areas to sleep ...

  16. Plague Factsheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... southwestern states. For the Pacific states, the California ground squirrel and its fleas are the most common source. ... instance, prairie dogs, wood rats, chipmunks, and other ground squirrels and their fleas, suffer plague outbreaks and some ...

  17. Food safety regulations in Australia and New Zealand Food Standards.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Dilip

    2014-08-01

    Citizens of Australia and New Zealand recognise that food security is a major global issue. Food security also affects Australia and New Zealand's status as premier food exporting nations and the health and wellbeing of the Australasian population. Australia is uniquely positioned to help build a resilient food value chain and support programs aimed at addressing existing and emerging food security challenges. The Australian food governance system is fragmented and less transparent, being largely in the hands of government and semi-governmental regulatory authorities. The high level of consumer trust in Australian food governance suggests that this may be habitual and taken for granted, arising from a lack of negative experiences of food safety. In New Zealand the Ministry of Primary Industries regulates food safety issues. To improve trade and food safety, New Zealand and Australia work together through Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and other co-operative agreements. Although the potential risks to the food supply are dynamic and constantly changing, the demand, requirement and supply for providing safe food remains firm. The Australasian food industry will need to continually develop its system that supports the food safety program with the help of scientific investigations that underpin the assurance of what is and is not safe. The incorporation of a comprehensive and validated food safety program is one of the total quality management systems that will ensure that all areas of potential problems are being addressed by industry. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Sardine cycles, krill declines, and locust plagues: revisiting 'wasp-waist' food webs.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Angus; Hill, Simeon L; Barange, Manuel; Pakhomov, Evgeny A; Raubenheimer, David; Schmidt, Katrin; Simpson, Stephen J; Reiss, Christian

    2014-06-01

    'Wasp-waist' systems are dominated by a mid trophic-level species that is thought to exert top-down control on its food and bottom-up control on its predators. Sardines, anchovy, and Antarctic krill are suggested examples, and here we use locusts to explore whether the wasp-waist concept also applies on land. These examples also display the traits of mobile aggregations and dietary diversity, which help to reduce the foraging footprint from their large, localised biomasses. This suggests that top-down control on their food operates at local aggregation scales and not at wider scales suggested by the original definition of wasp-waist. With this modification, the wasp-waist framework can cross-fertilise marine and terrestrial approaches, revealing how seemingly disparate but economically important systems operate.

  19. Food standards: the cacophony of governance.

    PubMed

    Busch, Lawrence

    2011-06-01

    Although long distance trade in food goes back at least as far as Columbus, the recent wave of food globalization is unprecedented in human history. But despite the existence of the Codex Alimentarius, the Food and Agriculture Organization, and the World Trade Organization, there is no central authority that governs the many facets of food. Instead, we have arrived at a food network that is governed by a plethora of public and private standards including those for productivity, food safety, food quality, packaging, and nutritional value. However, standards are both epistemological and ontological devices; they make the realities that they claim to describe. Moreover, once accepted they tend to become 'second nature,' often obscuring growing problems and conflicts, including (perhaps especially) those arising out of the very standards themselves. On the one hand, standards for productivity obscure the weak and rapidly eroding premises on which current productivity is based. On the other hand, standards for quality tend to rigidify production regimes. Both tend to inhibit innovations of the sort necessary for us to realize food security globally.

  20. 21 CFR 130.9 - Sulfites in standardized food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfites in standardized food. 130.9 Section 130.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD STANDARDS: GENERAL General Provisions § 130.9 Sulfites in standardized food...

  1. 21 CFR 130.9 - Sulfites in standardized food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sulfites in standardized food. 130.9 Section 130.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD STANDARDS: GENERAL General Provisions § 130.9 Sulfites in standardized food...

  2. 21 CFR 130.9 - Sulfites in standardized food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sulfites in standardized food. 130.9 Section 130.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD STANDARDS: GENERAL General Provisions § 130.9 Sulfites in standardized food...

  3. 21 CFR 130.9 - Sulfites in standardized food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sulfites in standardized food. 130.9 Section 130.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD STANDARDS: GENERAL General Provisions § 130.9 Sulfites in standardized food...

  4. 21 CFR 130.9 - Sulfites in standardized food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD STANDARDS: GENERAL General Provisions § 130.9 Sulfites in standardized food... functional and provided for in the applicable standard or that is present in the finished food at a... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sulfites in standardized food. 130.9 Section 130.9...

  5. Food and Shelter Standards in Humanitarian Action.

    PubMed

    Pothiawala, Sohil

    2015-10-01

    The number of disasters, both natural as well as man-made, has been increasing in frequency in the recent years. This leads to short as well as long-term effects on food security and shelter, requiring humanitarian assistance. This article aims to identify the principles and standards that are applicable to food and shelter related aid that needs to be provided by the co-operation of the local government as well as the relevant supporting organizations. Also, food and shelter security during a disaster response is achieved through better preparedness. The level of preparedness must include risk assessment, contingency planning, stockpiling of equipment and supplies, emergency services and stand-by arrangements, communications, information management and coordination arrangements between various agencies involved. Discussing these issues would contribute to a better understanding of the implications of the right to adequate food and shelter, which in complex humanitarian emergencies, is one of the key necessities of the affected population.

  6. Successful Treatment of Human Plague with Oral Ciprofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Apangu, Titus; Griffith, Kevin; Abaru, Janet; Candini, Gordian; Apio, Harriet; Okoth, Felix; Okello, Robert; Kaggwa, John; Acayo, Sarah; Ezama, Geoffrey; Yockey, Brook; Sexton, Christopher; Schriefer, Martin; Mbidde, Edward Katongole; Mead, Paul

    2017-03-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration recently approved ciprofloxacin for treatment of plague (Yersina pestis infection) based on animal studies. Published evidence of efficacy in humans is sparse. We report 5 cases of culture-confirmed human plague treated successfully with oral ciprofloxacin, including 1 case of pneumonic plague.

  7. Successful Treatment of Human Plague with Oral Ciprofloxacin

    PubMed Central

    Apangu, Titus; Griffith, Kevin; Abaru, Janet; Candini, Gordian; Apio, Harriet; Okoth, Felix; Okello, Robert; Kaggwa, John; Acayo, Sarah; Ezama, Geoffrey; Yockey, Brook; Sexton, Christopher; Schriefer, Martin; Mbidde, Edward Katongole

    2017-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration recently approved ciprofloxacin for treatment of plague (Yersina pestis infection) based on animal studies. Published evidence of efficacy in humans is sparse. We report 5 cases of culture-confirmed human plague treated successfully with oral ciprofloxacin, including 1 case of pneumonic plague. PMID:28125398

  8. Molecular history of plague.

    PubMed

    Drancourt, M; Raoult, D

    2016-11-01

    Plague, a deadly zoonose caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, has been firmly documented in 39 historical burial sites in Eurasia that date from the Bronze Age to two historical pandemics spanning the 6th to 18th centuries. Palaeomicrobiologic data, including gene and spacer sequences, whole genome sequences and protein data, confirmed that two historical pandemics swept over Europe from probable Asian sources and possible two-way-ticket journeys back from Europe to Asia. These investigations made it possible to address questions regarding the potential sources and routes of transmission by completing the standard rodent and rodent-flea transmission scheme. This suggested that plague was transmissible by human ectoparasites such as lice, and that Y. pestis was able to persist for months in the soil, which is a source of reinfection for burrowing mammals. The analyses of seven complete genome sequences from the Bronze Age indicated that Y. pestis was probably not an ectoparasite-borne pathogen in these populations. Further analyses of 14 genomes indicated that the Justinian pandemic strains may have formed a clade distinct from the one responsible for the second pandemic, spanning in Y. pestis branch 1, which also comprises the third pandemic strains. Further palaeomicrobiologic studies must tightly connect with historical and anthropologic studies to resolve questions regarding the actual sources of plague in ancient populations, alternative routes of transmission and resistance traits. Answering these questions will broaden our understanding of plague epidemiology so we may better face the actuality of this deadly infection in countries where it remains epidemic.

  9. Plague: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Plague Home Ecology & Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis & Treatment Maps & Statistics Info for ... periods in the fleas. An illustration of plague ecology in the United States is available. Top of ...

  10. Plague Diagnosis and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Plague Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Plague Home Ecology & Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis & Treatment Maps & Statistics ...

  11. [Yersinia pestis and plague - an update].

    PubMed

    Stock, Ingo

    2014-12-01

    The plague of man is a severe, systemic bacterial infectious disease. Without antibacterial therapy, the disease is associated with a high case fatality rate, ranging from 40% (bubonic plague) to nearly 100% (septicemic and pneumonic plague). The disease is caused by Yersinia pestis, a non-motile, gram-negative, facultative anaerobic bacterium belonging to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. In nature, Y. pestis has been found in several rodent species and some other small animals such as shrews. Within its reservoir host, Y. pestis circulates via flea bites. Transmission of Y. pestis to humans occurs by the bite of rat fleas, other flea vectors or by non vectorial routes, e. g., handling infected animals or consumption of contaminated food. Human-to-human transmission of the pathogen occurs primarily through aerosol droplets. Compared to the days when plague was a pandemic scourge, the disease is now relatively rare and limited to some rural areas of Africa. During the last ten years, however, plague outbreaks have been registered repea- tedly in some African regions. For treatment of plague, streptomycin is still considered the drug of choice. Chloramphenicol, doxycycline, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin are also promising drugs. Recombinant vaccines against plague are in clinical development.

  12. State Skill Standards: Foods and Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Jeanette; Black, Sara; Capdeville, Elsie; Grover, Janice; Killion, Marlene; Martin, Jan; Mathews, Carol; Moen, Julie; Reynolds, Penny; Chessell, Karen

    2008-01-01

    The mission of Foods and Nutrition Education is to prepare students for family life, community life and careers in the foods and nutrition fields by creating opportunities to develop the knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviors needed to: (1) Analyze career paths within the foods and nutrition industry; (2) Examine factors that influence food…

  13. 21 CFR 130.20 - Food additives proposed for use in foods for which definitions and standards of identity are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Food additives proposed for use in foods for which...: GENERAL Food Additives in Standardized Foods § 130.20 Food additives proposed for use in foods for which... the act, which proposes the inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of identity...

  14. 21 CFR 130.20 - Food additives proposed for use in foods for which definitions and standards of identity are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Food additives proposed for use in foods for which...: GENERAL Food Additives in Standardized Foods § 130.20 Food additives proposed for use in foods for which... the act, which proposes the inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of identity...

  15. 21 CFR 130.20 - Food additives proposed for use in foods for which definitions and standards of identity are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Food additives proposed for use in foods for which...: GENERAL Food Additives in Standardized Foods § 130.20 Food additives proposed for use in foods for which... the act, which proposes the inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of identity...

  16. 21 CFR 130.20 - Food additives proposed for use in foods for which definitions and standards of identity are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Food additives proposed for use in foods for which...: GENERAL Food Additives in Standardized Foods § 130.20 Food additives proposed for use in foods for which... the act, which proposes the inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of identity...

  17. 21 CFR 130.20 - Food additives proposed for use in foods for which definitions and standards of identity are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Food additives proposed for use in foods for which...: GENERAL Food Additives in Standardized Foods § 130.20 Food additives proposed for use in foods for which... the act, which proposes the inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of identity...

  18. 7 CFR 210.11 - Competitive food service and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 210.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NATIONAL SCHOOL LUNCH PROGRAM Requirements for School Food... records that document compliance with the nutrition standards for all competitive food available for sale...

  19. Food Service Refrigerators and Food Service Storage Freezers. Standard No. 7, Revised April 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI.

    This standard covers the sanitation and performance requirements for new food service refrigerators and food service storage freezers of the type generally used in the food service industry. It covers cabinets operating in the freezers, above or below freezing temperature, designed for the storage or display of varieties of food products. Topics…

  20. Enzootic plague foci, Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Malek, M.A.; Hammani, A.; Beneldjouzi, A.; Bitam, I.

    2014-01-01

    In Algeria, PCR sequencing of pla, glpD and rpoB genes found Yersinia pestis in 18/237 (8%) rodents of five species, including Apodemus sylvaticus, previously undescribed as pestiferous; and disclosed three new plague foci. Multiple spacer typing confirmed a new Orientalis variant. Rodent survey should be reinforced in this country hosting reemerging plague. PMID:25834736

  1. Military Standard: Sanitation Standards for Food Storage Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-31

    act or process of exposing the product to an adulterant or unwholesome material, live or dead insects, rodent feces, or rodent hairs . 3.5 Critical...3 3. DEFINITIONS------------------------------------- 4 3.1 Adequate-------------------------------... 4 3.2 Adulterated ... Adulterated . Adulterated shall mean the condition of a food (a) if it bears or contains any poisonous or deleterious substance in a quantity which may

  2. 21 CFR 130.11 - Label designations of ingredients for standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD STANDARDS: GENERAL General Provisions § 130.11 Label designations of ingredients for standardized foods. Some definitions and standards of identity for foods set... standardized food significantly differentiate between two or more foods that comply with the same standard by...

  3. 21 CFR 130.11 - Label designations of ingredients for standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD STANDARDS: GENERAL General Provisions § 130.11 Label designations of ingredients for standardized foods. Some definitions and standards of identity for foods set... standardized food significantly differentiate between two or more foods that comply with the same standard by...

  4. 21 CFR 130.11 - Label designations of ingredients for standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD STANDARDS: GENERAL General Provisions § 130.11 Label designations of ingredients for standardized foods. Some definitions and standards of identity for foods set... standardized food significantly differentiate between two or more foods that comply with the same standard by...

  5. 21 CFR 130.11 - Label designations of ingredients for standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD STANDARDS: GENERAL General Provisions § 130.11 Label designations of ingredients for standardized foods. Some definitions and standards of identity for foods set... standardized food significantly differentiate between two or more foods that comply with the same standard by...

  6. 21 CFR 130.11 - Label designations of ingredients for standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD STANDARDS: GENERAL General Provisions § 130.11 Label designations of ingredients for standardized foods. Some definitions and standards of identity for foods set... standardized food significantly differentiate between two or more foods that comply with the same standard by...

  7. Implementation of California state school competitive food and beverage standards.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Sarah E; Hutchinson, Krista S; Craypo, Lisa; Barry, Jason; Bullock, Sally L

    2010-12-01

    Competitive foods and beverages are available on most US school campuses. States and school districts are adopting nutrition standards to regulate these products, but few studies have reported on the extent to which schools are able to adhere to competitive regulations. The purpose of this study was to describe the extent to which schools in disadvantaged communities were able to implement California competitive food and beverage standards. Data on the competitive foods (n = 1019) and beverages (n = 572) offered for sale on 19 school campuses were collected in 2005 and 2008. Descriptive statistics were generated on overall adherence rates to school nutrition standards and adherence rates by venue and school level. Logistic regression models tested predictors of adherence by continuous and categorical variables (eg, venue, item selling price). Data show an increase from 2005 to 2008 in average adherence to the California standards. Several predictors had statistically significant associations with adherence or nonadherence. Adherence was higher for competitive foods sold in school stores than foods sold in vending machines. Higher selling price was associated with lower adherence. Competitive foods classified as entrees were more likely to adhere than snack items, and larger total size (in fluid ounces) beverages were associated with higher adherence. Schools have begun to implement competitive food and beverage policies. However, school environments, particularly in secondary schools, are not 100% compliant with school nutrition standards. These findings can inform policymakers and school officials about the feasibility of implementing competitive food standards in schools. © 2010, American School Health Association.

  8. Plagues at the Gate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siebert, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Discusses efforts to prevent the global expansion of killer viruses that threaten humans and livestock populations. Focuses on virus research efforts conducted at Plum Island. Profiles the most worrisome of potential plagues. (LZ)

  9. Plague Maps and Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... introduced into the United States in 1900, by rat–infested steamships that had sailed from affected areas, ... 1924 through 1925. Plague then spread from urban rats to rural rodent species, and became entrenched in ...

  10. Plagues at the Gate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siebert, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Discusses efforts to prevent the global expansion of killer viruses that threaten humans and livestock populations. Focuses on virus research efforts conducted at Plum Island. Profiles the most worrisome of potential plagues. (LZ)

  11. Apples: A Standard Food for Determining Potential Residential Pesticide Transfers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Children’s unstructured eating behaviors lend themselves to potential dietary exposures to synthetic pyrethroid pesticides applied in the home. To determine the potential for excess dietary exposure of children from handling food during consumption, a standard food has been de...

  12. Apples: A Standard Food for Determining Potential Residential Pesticide Transfers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Children’s unstructured eating behaviors lend themselves to potential dietary exposures to synthetic pyrethroid pesticides applied in the home. To determine the potential for excess dietary exposure of children from handling food during consumption, a standard food has been de...

  13. 21 CFR 130.6 - Review of Codex Alimentarius food standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Review of Codex Alimentarius food standards. 130.6... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD STANDARDS: GENERAL General Provisions § 130.6 Review of Codex Alimentarius food standards. (a) All food standards adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission will be...

  14. 21 CFR 130.6 - Review of Codex Alimentarius food standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Review of Codex Alimentarius food standards. 130.6... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD STANDARDS: GENERAL General Provisions § 130.6 Review of Codex Alimentarius food standards. (a) All food standards adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission will be...

  15. 21 CFR 130.6 - Review of Codex Alimentarius food standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Review of Codex Alimentarius food standards. 130.6... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD STANDARDS: GENERAL General Provisions § 130.6 Review of Codex Alimentarius food standards. (a) All food standards adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission will be...

  16. 21 CFR 130.5 - Procedure for establishing a food standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Procedure for establishing a food standard. 130.5... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD STANDARDS: GENERAL General Provisions § 130.5 Procedure for establishing a food standard. (a) The procedure for establishing a food standard under section 401 of the act...

  17. 21 CFR 130.5 - Procedure for establishing a food standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Procedure for establishing a food standard. 130.5... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD STANDARDS: GENERAL General Provisions § 130.5 Procedure for establishing a food standard. (a) The procedure for establishing a food standard under section 401 of the act...

  18. 21 CFR 130.5 - Procedure for establishing a food standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Procedure for establishing a food standard. 130.5... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD STANDARDS: GENERAL General Provisions § 130.5 Procedure for establishing a food standard. (a) The procedure for establishing a food standard under section 401 of the act...

  19. 21 CFR 130.6 - Review of Codex Alimentarius food standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Review of Codex Alimentarius food standards. 130.6... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD STANDARDS: GENERAL General Provisions § 130.6 Review of Codex Alimentarius food standards. (a) All food standards adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission will be...

  20. 21 CFR 130.5 - Procedure for establishing a food standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Procedure for establishing a food standard. 130.5... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD STANDARDS: GENERAL General Provisions § 130.5 Procedure for establishing a food standard. (a) The procedure for establishing a food standard under section 401 of the act...

  1. 21 CFR 130.5 - Procedure for establishing a food standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedure for establishing a food standard. 130.5... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD STANDARDS: GENERAL General Provisions § 130.5 Procedure for establishing a food standard. (a) The procedure for establishing a food standard under section 401 of the act...

  2. 21 CFR 130.6 - Review of Codex Alimentarius food standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Review of Codex Alimentarius food standards. 130.6... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD STANDARDS: GENERAL General Provisions § 130.6 Review of Codex Alimentarius food standards. (a) All food standards adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission will be...

  3. Standardized food images: A photographing protocol and image database.

    PubMed

    Charbonnier, Lisette; van Meer, Floor; van der Laan, Laura N; Viergever, Max A; Smeets, Paul A M

    2016-01-01

    The regulation of food intake has gained much research interest because of the current obesity epidemic. For research purposes, food images are a good and convenient alternative for real food because many dietary decisions are made based on the sight of foods. Food pictures are assumed to elicit anticipatory responses similar to real foods because of learned associations between visual food characteristics and post-ingestive consequences. In contemporary food science, a wide variety of images are used which introduces between-study variability and hampers comparison and meta-analysis of results. Therefore, we created an easy-to-use photographing protocol which enables researchers to generate high resolution food images appropriate for their study objective and population. In addition, we provide a high quality standardized picture set which was characterized in seven European countries. With the use of this photographing protocol a large number of food images were created. Of these images, 80 were selected based on their recognizability in Scotland, Greece and The Netherlands. We collected image characteristics such as liking, perceived calories and/or perceived healthiness ratings from 449 adults and 191 children. The majority of the foods were recognized and liked at all sites. The differences in liking ratings, perceived calories and perceived healthiness between sites were minimal. Furthermore, perceived caloric content and healthiness ratings correlated strongly (r ≥ 0.8) with actual caloric content in both adults and children. The photographing protocol as well as the images and the data are freely available for research use on http://nutritionalneuroscience.eu/. By providing the research community with standardized images and the tools to create their own, comparability between studies will be improved and a head-start is made for a world-wide standardized food image database. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Codex Alimentarius: food quality and safety standards for international trade.

    PubMed

    Randell, A W; Whitehead, A J

    1997-08-01

    Since 1962, the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) of the Food and Agriculture Organisation/World Health Organisation has been responsible for developing standards, guidelines and other recommendations on the quality and safety of food to protect the health of consumers and to ensure fair practices in food trade. The mission of the CAC remains relevant, but a number of factors have shown the need for new techniques to form the basis of food standards, the most important of which is risk analysis. The authors give a brief description of the role and work of the CAC and the efforts deployed by the Commission to respond to the challenges posed by new approaches to government regulation, harmonisation of national requirements based on international standards and the role of civil society.

  5. School food standards in the UK: implementation and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Ashley; Spence, Suzanne; Reed, Lowri; Conway, Ruth; Palmer, Alison; Stewart, Eve; McBratney, Jennifer; Carter, Lynne; Beattie, Shirley; Nelson, Michael

    2013-06-01

    To outline the evolution of school food standards and their implementation and evaluation in each of the four countries of the UK since 2000. Review of relevant policies, surveys and evaluations, including country-specific surveys and regional evaluations. UK: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Primary and secondary schools and schoolchildren. By September 2013 standards will have been introduced in all primary and secondary schools in the UK. Evaluations have varied in their scope and timing, relating to government forward planning, appropriate baselines and funding. Where standards have been implemented, the quality and nutritional value of food provided have improved. Emerging evidence shows improved overall diet and nutrient intake by school-aged children as a result. The re-introduction of school food standards in the UK has not been centrally coordinated, but by September 2013 will be compulsory across all four countries in the UK, except in England where academies are now exempt. Provision of improved school food has had a demonstrable impact on diet and nutrition beyond the school dining room and the school gate, benefiting children from all socio-economic groups. Improved school food and dining environments are associated with higher levels of school lunch take up. Implementation of school food standards requires investment. It is critical to policy development that the value of this investment is measured and protected using planned, appropriate, robust and timely evaluations. Where appropriate, evaluations should be carried out across government departments and between countries.

  6. A perspective on food energy standards for nutrition labelling.

    PubMed

    Livesey, G

    2001-03-01

    Food energy values used for nutrition labelling and other purposes are traditionally based on the metabolisable energy (ME) standard, which has recent support from. By reference to current practices and published data, the present review critically examines the ME standard and support for it. Theoretical and experimental evidence on the validity of ME and alternatives are considered. ME and alternatives are applied to 1189 foods to assess outcomes. The potential impact of implementing a better standard in food labelling, documentation of energy requirements and food tables, and its impact on users including consumers, trade and professionals, are also examined. Since 1987 twenty-two expert reviews, reports and regulatory documents have fully or partly dropped the ME standard. The principal reason given is that ME only approximates energy supply by nutrients, particularly fermentable carbohydrates. ME has been replaced by net metabolisable energy (NME), which accounts for the efficiency of fuel utilisation in metabolism. Data collated from modern indirect calorimetry studies in human subjects show NME to be valid and applicable to each source of food energy, not just carbohydrates. NME is robust; two independent approaches give almost identical results (human calorimetry and calculation of free energy or net ATP yield) and these approaches are well supported by studies in animals. By contrast, the theoretical basis of ME is totally flawed. ME incompletely represents the energy balance equation, with substantial energy losses in a missing term. In using NME factors an account is made of frequent over-approximations by the ME system, up to 25 % of the NME for individual foods among 1189 foods in British tables, particularly low-energy-density traditional foods. A new simple general factor system is possible based on NME, yet the minimal experimental methodology is no more than that required for ME. By accounting for unavailable carbohydrate the new factor system

  7. [Expert investigation on food safety standard system framework construction in China].

    PubMed

    He, Xiang; Yan, Weixing; Fan, Yongxiang; Zeng, Biao; Peng, Zhen; Sun, Zhenqiu

    2013-09-01

    Through investigating food safety standard framework among food safety experts, to summarize the basic elements and principles of food safety standard system, and provide policy advices for food safety standards framework. A survey was carried out among 415 experts from government, professional institutions and the food industry/enterprises using the National Food Safety Standard System Construction Consultation Questionnaire designed in the name of the Secretariat of National Food Safety Standard Committee. Experts have different advices in each group about the principles of food product standards, food additive product standards, food related product standards, hygienic practice, test methods. According to the results, the best solution not only may reflect experts awareness of the work of food safety standards situation, but also provide advices for setting and revision of food safety standards for the next. Through experts investigation, the framework and guiding principles of food safety standard had been built.

  8. [Petrarca and the plague].

    PubMed

    Bergdolt, K

    1992-01-01

    The author presents a synopsis of Petrarch's reflections and experiences during the plague of 1348 and the following alterations in Italian society. The great humanist and celebrated poet was an excellent observer of the reactions of his contemporaries and the various cultural and moral consequences of the "Black Death" catastrophe. He feels deep desperation but emphasizes stoic acceptance of fate and Christian humility. His letters concerning plague and death are impressive documents of the "interior life" of European intellectuals in midfourteenth century. They reveal the helplessness of scholastic medical doctors and the crisis of contemporary medicine.

  9. Linking rights and standards: the process of developing "rights-based" minimum standards on food security, nutrition and food aid.

    PubMed

    Young, Helen; Taylor, Anna; Way, Sally-Anne; Leaning, Jennifer

    2004-06-01

    This article examines the recent revision of the Sphere Minimum Standards in disaster response relating to food security, nutrition and food aid. It describes how the revision attempted to incorporate the principles of the Humanitarian Charter, as well as relevant human rights principles and values into the Sphere Minimum Standards. The initial aim of the revision was to ensure that the Sphere Minimum Standards better reflected the principles embodied in the Humanitarian Charter. This was later broadened to ensure that key legal standards and principles from human rights and humanitarian law were considered and also incorporated, in part to fill the "protection gap" within the existing standards. In relation to the food security, nutrition and food aid standards, it was agreed by participants in the process that the human right to adequate food and freedom from hunger should be incorporated. In relation to more general principles underlying the Humanitarian Charter, itself drawn largely from human rights and humanitarian law, it was agreed that there was a need to strengthen "protection" elements within the standards and a need to incorporate the basic principles of the right to life with dignity, non-discrimination, impartiality and participation, as well as to explore the relevance of the concept of the progressive realisation of the right to food. The questions raised in linking rights to operational standards required thought, on the one hand, about whether the technical standards reflected a deep understanding of the values expressed within the legal instruments, and whether the existing standards were adequate in relation to those legal rights. On the other hand, it also required reflection on how operational standards like Sphere could give concrete content to human rights, such as the right to food and the right to be free from hunger. However, there remain challenges in examining what a rights-based approach will mean in terms of the role of humanitarian

  10. Plague Masquerading as Gastrointestinal Illness

    PubMed Central

    Hull, Harry F.; Montes, Jean M.; Mann, Jonathan M.

    1986-01-01

    In clinical descriptions of human plague, fever and tender lymphadenitis are emphasized and gastrointestinal manifestations are rarely mentioned. A review of 71 human plague cases showed that gastrointestinal symptoms occurred commonly (57%). Vomiting (39%) was the most frequent symptom, with nausea (34%), diarrhea (28%) and abdominal pain (17%) occurring less often. Physicians treating patients who reside in or have recently visited plague-endemic areas should include plague in the differential diagnosis in the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms and fever. PMID:3788132

  11. Food allergy--science and policy needs--The UK Food Standards Agency Research Programme.

    PubMed

    Buck, Joelle; Hattersley, Sue; Kimber, Ian

    2010-12-30

    Food allergy is a significant health issue in the UK, affecting between 1 and 2% of adults and 5 and 8% of children. The UK Food Standards Agency seeks to ensure the safety of food allergic consumers by providing them with information and guidance on food choices. Since 1995, with the aim of addressing important policy issues and improving the quality of the support and guidance available for food allergic consumers, the Agency (and before that the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food), has had a programme of research dedicated to investigating the causes and mechanisms of food allergy and delivering benefits for UK consumers. In this paper, we outline some of the major scientific challenges that the programme has sought to address. We reflect on how the findings have been used as a basis for the development of sound, evidence-based policy and advice for UK consumers, and the current direction of research being supported by the programme.

  12. Mountain plover responses to plague in Montana.

    PubMed

    Dinsmore, Stephen J; Smith, Mark D

    2010-01-01

    Plague is a bacterial (Yersinia pestis) disease that causes epizootic die-offs in black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) populations in the North American Great Plains. Through their grazing and burrowing, prairie dogs modify vegetation and landscape structure on their colonies in ways that affect other grassland species. Plague epizootics on prairie dog colonies can have indirect effects on species associated with colonies. The mountain plover (Charadrius montanus) preferentially nests on black-tailed prairie dog colonies and is thus negatively impacted by the loss of prairie dogs. We studied the effects of plague and colony spatial characteristics on the occupancy of 81 prairie dog colonies by nesting plovers in Phillips County, Montana, during a 13-year period (1995-2007). We used a robust design patch occupancy model to investigate how colony occupancy and extinction and colonization rates were affected by plague history, colony size, and colony shape. Here extinction and colonization rates refer to the probability that a colony loses/gains plovers in a subsequent nesting season, given that it had/lacked plovers in that breeding season. Colony occupancy was best explained by a model with no annual variation or plague effects. Colony extinction rates were driven by a combination of a quadratic of colony area, a 3-year plague response, and a measure of colony shape. Conversely, colonization rates were best explained by a model with a 4-year plague response. The estimated annual proportion of colonies occupied by plovers was 0.75 (95% confidence interval = 0.57-0.87). Estimated extinction probability ranged from a low of 0.07 (standard error [SE] = 0.02) in 2002 to a high of 0.25 (SE = 0.03) in 1995; colonization probability ranged from 0.24 (SE = 0.05) in 2006 to 0.35 (SE = 0.05) in 2000. Our results highlight how a bird that depends on prairie dogs for nesting habitat responds to plague history and other spatial characteristics of the colony. Ultimately

  13. The bubonic plague.

    PubMed

    McEvedy, C

    1988-02-01

    In A.D. 1346 some 100 million people inhabited Europe, northern Africa and the Near East. Five years later 25 million were dead--victims of the Black Death. The plague kept reappearing, but the epidemics did not spread as widely: apparently a new and milder strain of Yersinia pestis evolved that made at least some people immune to the virulent strain.

  14. Plague's partners in crime.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kimberly M; Isberg, Ralph R

    2014-09-18

    The hallmark of bubonic plague is the presence of grotesquely swollen lymph nodes, called buboes. This frenzied inflammatory response to Yersinia pestis is poorly understood. In this issue of Immunity, St. John et al. (2014) explore the mechanism by which Y. pestis spreads and thus leads to this striking lymphadenopathy.

  15. Human plague in 1992.

    PubMed

    1994-01-14

    Trends in the incidence of human plague cases reported to the World Health Organization were provided for 1992 and between 1978 and 1992 by country. Not all countries report or record plague. In 1992, there were 9 countries reporting a total of 1582 cases, of which 138 were deaths. In 1991, there were 10 countries reporting a total of 1966 cases, of which 133 were deaths. The case fatality rate in 1992 was 8.7% and 10.4% averaged over the previous 10 years. Between 1978 and 1992, 14,856 cases of plague were reported, of which 1451 cases were fatal. Countries reporting totaled 21, but only 6 reported almost annually: Brazil, Madagascar, Myanmar, the United Republic of Tanzania, the USA, and Viet Nam. Peak numbers of cases occurred in 1984, 1988, and 1990-92. Africa totaled 61% of cases and 77% of deaths. In 1992, Madagascar and Zaire reported 412 cases, of which 102 were fatal. Plague in Madagascar was concentrated in the provinces of Antananarivo, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, and Toamasina. Most of the cases in 1991 were from Antananarivo Province (61 cases and 19 deaths) and Fianarantsoa Province (99 case and 5 deaths). Plague peaks occurred in January through May and November and December. Zaire deaths were concentrated in Upper Zaire in 5 rural Heath Zones: Logo (125 cases and 47 deaths), Rethy (54 cases and 4 deaths), Nyarembe (22 cases and 9 deaths), Rimba (11 cases and 4 deaths), and Bunia (2 cases and 1 death). Almost 60% of all deaths occurred during May to July and included bubonic, septicemic, and pulmonary plague. American plague cases totaled 158 and 6 deaths (Peru, Brazil, and the USA). Asia reported 1012 cases and 26 cases (China, Mongolia, Myanmar, and Viet Nam). In the USA, the 13 cases were recorded as 1 each in Frenso County, California; Owyhee County, Idaho; Douglas County, Nevada; Utah County, Utah; and Sheridan County, Wyoming; 2 in New Mexico (Santa Fe, and Albuquerque and San Miguel Counties); and Arizona (3 in Apache County and 1 in Pima County

  16. Determination of vitamins in food-matrix Standard Reference Materials.

    PubMed

    Sharpless, K E; Margolis, S; Thomas, J B

    2000-06-09

    In recent years, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has developed several food-matrix Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) characterized for vitamins and other organic nutrients. NIST uses several "modes" for assignment of analyte concentrations in SRMs, one of which includes the use of data provided by collaborating laboratories. Certification modes and liquid chromatographic methods that were used by NIST for value assignment of vitamin concentrations in recently introduced food-matrix SRMs are described in this paper. These materials and methods include vitamins D and E in coconut oil (SRM 1563) by gravimetry and multi-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC); vitamins A, E, and several B vitamins by reversed-phase LC and vitamin C by ion-exchange chromatography in infant formula (SRM 1846); and carotenoids and vitamins A and E by reversed-phase liquid chromatography in a baby food composite (SRM 2383).

  17. Implementation of California State School Competitive Food and Beverage Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Sarah E.; Hutchinson, Krista S.; Craypo, Lisa; Barry, Jason; Bullock, Sally L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Competitive foods and beverages are available on most US school campuses. States and school districts are adopting nutrition standards to regulate these products, but few studies have reported on the extent to which schools are able to adhere to competitive regulations. The purpose of this study was to describe the extent to which…

  18. Standardized Curriculum for Food Production, Management and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized vocational education course titles and core contents for two courses in Mississippi are provided: food production, management, and services I and II. The first course contains the following units: (1) Vocational Industrial Clubs of America (VICA); (2) sanitation; (3) safety; (4) front of the house operations; (5) beverages; (6) food…

  19. Standardized Curriculum for Food Production, Management and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized vocational education course titles and core contents for two courses in Mississippi are provided: food production, management, and services I and II. The first course contains the following units: (1) Vocational Industrial Clubs of America (VICA); (2) sanitation; (3) safety; (4) front of the house operations; (5) beverages; (6) food…

  20. 78 FR 77327 - Standards for Condition of Food Containers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0;Rules and Regulations #0; Federal Register #0; #0; #0;This section of the FEDERAL REGISTER contains regulatory documents #0... Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 42 Standards for Condition of Food Containers CFR Correction In Title 7 of...

  1. Application of the British Food Standards Agency nutrient profiling system in a French food composition database.

    PubMed

    Julia, Chantal; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Touvier, Mathilde; Méjean, Caroline; Fezeu, Léopold; Hercberg, Serge

    2014-11-28

    Nutrient profiling systems are powerful tools for public health initiatives, as they aim at categorising foods according to their nutritional quality. The British Food Standards Agency (FSA) nutrient profiling system (FSA score) has been validated in a British food database, but the application of the model in other contexts has not yet been evaluated. The objective of the present study was to assess the application of the British FSA score in a French food composition database. Foods from the French NutriNet-Santé study food composition table were categorised according to their FSA score using the Office of Communication (OfCom) cut-off value ('healthier' ≤ 4 for foods and ≤ 1 for beverages; 'less healthy' >4 for foods and >1 for beverages) and distribution cut-offs (quintiles for foods, quartiles for beverages). Foods were also categorised according to the food groups used for the French Programme National Nutrition Santé (PNNS) recommendations. Foods were weighted according to their relative consumption in a sample drawn from the NutriNet-Santé study (n 4225), representative of the French population. Classification of foods according to the OfCom cut-offs was consistent with food groups described in the PNNS: 97·8 % of fruit and vegetables, 90·4 % of cereals and potatoes and only 3·8 % of sugary snacks were considered as 'healthier'. Moreover, variability in the FSA score allowed for a discrimination between subcategories in the same food group, confirming the possibility of using the FSA score as a multiple category system, for example as a basis for front-of-pack nutrition labelling. Application of the FSA score in the French context would adequately complement current public health recommendations.

  2. Food irradiation: Standards, regulations and world-wide trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Peter B.

    2016-12-01

    There is an established framework of international standards for food irradiation covering human health, plant protection, labelling, dose delivery, quality assurance and facility management. Approximately 60 countries permit irradiation of one or more food or food classes. National regulations are briefly reviewed. Decontamination of spices, herbs and condiments remains the single largest application of irradiation. However, in recent years the market for irradiated fresh and processed meat has become firmly established in several countries including China and the USA. At least 10 countries have recently established bi-lateral agreements for trade in irradiated fresh fruits and vegetables using phytosanitary irradiation. Irradiated fresh produce volumes now exceed 20,000 t per year. Rationalization and greater consistency in labelling regulations would be advantageous to the future growth of applications of food irradiation.

  3. Plague: history and contemporary analysis.

    PubMed

    Raoult, Didier; Mouffok, Nadjet; Bitam, Idir; Piarroux, Renaud; Drancourt, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Plague has caused ravaging outbreaks, including the Justinian plague and the "black death" in the Middle Ages. The causative agents of these outbreaks have been confirmed using modern molecular tests. The vector of plague during pandemics remains the subject of controversy. Nowadays, plague must be suspected in all areas where plague is endemic in rodents when patients present with adenitis or with pneumonia with a bloody expectorate. Diagnosis is more difficult in the situation of the reemergence of plague, as in Algeria for example, told by the first physician involved in that outbreak (NM). When in doubt, it is preferable to prescribe treatment with doxycycline while waiting for the test results because of the risk of fatality in individuals with plague. The typical bubo is a type of adenitis that is painful, red and nonfluctuating. The diagnosis is simple when microbiological analysis is conducted. Plague is a likely diagnosis when one sees gram-negative bacilli in lymph node aspirate or biopsy samples. Yersinia pestis grows very easily in blood cultures and is easy to identify by biochemical tests and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Pneumonic plague and septicemic plague without adenitis are difficult to diagnose, and these diagnoses are often made by chance or retrospectively when cases are not part of an epidemic or related to another specific epidemiologic context. The treatment of plague must be based on gentamicin or doxycycline. Treatment with one of these antibiotics must be started as soon as plague is suspected. Analysis of past plague epidemics by using modern laboratory tools illustrated the value of epidemic buboes for the clinical diagnosis of plague; and brought new concepts regarding its transmission by human ectoparasites.

  4. Meeting school food standards - students' food choice and free school meals.

    PubMed

    Ensaff, Hannah; Russell, Jean; Barker, Margo E

    2013-12-01

    To examine students’ school food choice in relation to school food standards and entitlement to free school meals (FSM). Cross-sectional analysis of students’ school food choices. Two large secondary schools in Yorkshire, England. Students (n 2660) aged 11–18 years. Sandwiches and pizza were the most popular main food items: 40·4 % and 31·2 %, respectively, in School A; 48·3 % and 27·3 %, respectively, in School B. More nutritionally valuable ‘dishes of the day’ accounted for 8·7 % and 8·3 % of main foods for School A and School B, respectively. FSM students were more likely (P < 0·0 0 1) to choose main foods (School A: FSM 87·04 %, non-FSM 70·28 %; School B: FSM 75·43 %, non-FSM 56·13 %). Dishes of the day were chosen on a significantly greater (P < 0·0 0 1) percentage of days by FSM v. non-FSM students (School A: FSM 15·67 %, non-FSM 7·11 %; School B: FSM 19·42 %, non-FSM 5·17 %). Despite the availability of nutritionally valuable dishes of the day, the most popular food items were sandwiches, pizza and desserts. FSM students were more likely to choose the more nutritionally valuable dish of the day. School food standards should be reassessed in light of students’ preferences.

  5. METHODS OF PLAGUE CONTROL

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Friench

    1920-01-01

    If we are economically and efficiently to ward off plague we must rid ourselves of the rat. This demands coördination of effort, management, organization and funds. Rat destruction and rat-proofing are preventive measures that fortunately do not involve financial loss, while they will eliminate the dangerous rodent from the homes and environment of men. Imagesp850-ap850-bp850-cp850-d PMID:18010390

  6. Folate bioavailability: UK Food Standards Agency workshop report.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Peter; McNulty, Helene; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; McDowell, Ian F W; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Finglas, Paul M; Gregory, Jess F

    2003-08-01

    The UK Food Standards Agency convened a group of expert scientists to review current research investigating folate bioavailability. The workshop aimed to overview current research and establish priorities for future research. Discrepancies were observed in the evidence base for folate bioavailability, especially with regard to the relative bioavailability of natural folates compared with folic acid. A substantial body of evidence shows folic acid to have superior bioavailability relative to food folates; however, the exact relative bioavailability still needs to be determined, and in particular with regard to mixed diets. The bioavailability of folate in a mixed diet is probably not a weighted average of that in the various foods consumed; thus the workshop considered that assessment of folate bioavailability of whole diets should be a high priority for future research.

  7. Plague in Guinea pigs and its prevention by subunit vaccines.

    PubMed

    Quenee, Lauriane E; Ciletti, Nancy; Berube, Bryan; Krausz, Thomas; Elli, Derek; Hermanas, Timothy; Schneewind, Olaf

    2011-04-01

    Human pneumonic plague is a devastating and transmissible disease for which a Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccine is not available. Suitable animal models may be adopted as a surrogate for human plague to fulfill regulatory requirements for vaccine efficacy testing. To develop an alternative to pneumonic plague in nonhuman primates, we explored guinea pigs as a model system. On intranasal instillation of a fully virulent strain, Yersinia pestis CO92, guinea pigs developed lethal lung infections with hemorrhagic necrosis, massive bacterial replication in the respiratory system, and blood-borne dissemination to other organ systems. Expression of the Y. pestis F1 capsule was not required for the development of pulmonary infection; however, the capsule seemed to be important for the establishment of bubonic plague. The mean lethal dose (MLD) for pneumonic plague in guinea pigs was estimated to be 1000 colony-forming units. Immunization of guinea pigs with the recombinant forms of LcrV, a protein that resides at the tip of Yersinia type III secretion needles, or F1 capsule generated robust humoral immune responses. Whereas LcrV immunization resulted in partial protection against pneumonic plague challenge with 250 MLD Y. pestis CO92, immunization with recombinant F1 did not. rV10, a vaccine variant lacking LcrV residues 271-300, elicited protection against pneumonic plague, which seemed to be based on conformational antibodies directed against LcrV. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Plague in Guinea Pigs and Its Prevention by Subunit Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Quenee, Lauriane E.; Ciletti, Nancy; Berube, Bryan; Krausz, Thomas; Elli, Derek; Hermanas, Timothy; Schneewind, Olaf

    2011-01-01

    Human pneumonic plague is a devastating and transmissible disease for which a Food and Drug Administration–approved vaccine is not available. Suitable animal models may be adopted as a surrogate for human plague to fulfill regulatory requirements for vaccine efficacy testing. To develop an alternative to pneumonic plague in nonhuman primates, we explored guinea pigs as a model system. On intranasal instillation of a fully virulent strain, Yersinia pestis CO92, guinea pigs developed lethal lung infections with hemorrhagic necrosis, massive bacterial replication in the respiratory system, and blood-borne dissemination to other organ systems. Expression of the Y. pestis F1 capsule was not required for the development of pulmonary infection; however, the capsule seemed to be important for the establishment of bubonic plague. The mean lethal dose (MLD) for pneumonic plague in guinea pigs was estimated to be 1000 colony-forming units. Immunization of guinea pigs with the recombinant forms of LcrV, a protein that resides at the tip of Yersinia type III secretion needles, or F1 capsule generated robust humoral immune responses. Whereas LcrV immunization resulted in partial protection against pneumonic plague challenge with 250 MLD Y. pestis CO92, immunization with recombinant F1 did not. rV10, a vaccine variant lacking LcrV residues 271-300, elicited protection against pneumonic plague, which seemed to be based on conformational antibodies directed against LcrV. PMID:21406168

  9. Plague: Clinics, Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Nikiforov, Vladimir V; Gao, He; Zhou, Lei; Anisimov, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    Plague still poses a significant threat to human health and as a reemerging infection is unfamiliar to the majority of the modern medical doctors. In this chapter, the plague is described according to Dr. Nikiforov's experiences in the diagnosis and treatment of patients, and also a review of the relevant literature on this subject is provided. The main modern methods and criteria for laboratory diagnosis of plague are briefly described. The clinical presentations include the bubonic and pneumonic form, septicemia, rarely pharyngitis, and meningitis. Early diagnosis and the prompt initiation of treatment reduce the mortality rate associated with bubonic plague and septicemic plague to 5-50 %; although a delay of more than 24 h in the administration of antibiotics and antishock treatment can be fatal for plague patients. Most human cases can successfully be treated with antibiotics.

  10. Plague and Climate: Scales Matter

    PubMed Central

    Ben Ari, Tamara; Neerinckx, Simon; Gage, Kenneth L.; Kreppel, Katharina; Laudisoit, Anne; Leirs, Herwig; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2011-01-01

    Plague is enzootic in wildlife populations of small mammals in central and eastern Asia, Africa, South and North America, and has been recognized recently as a reemerging threat to humans. Its causative agent Yersinia pestis relies on wild rodent hosts and flea vectors for its maintenance in nature. Climate influences all three components (i.e., bacteria, vectors, and hosts) of the plague system and is a likely factor to explain some of plague's variability from small and regional to large scales. Here, we review effects of climate variables on plague hosts and vectors from individual or population scales to studies on the whole plague system at a large scale. Upscaled versions of small-scale processes are often invoked to explain plague variability in time and space at larger scales, presumably because similar scale-independent mechanisms underlie these relationships. This linearity assumption is discussed in the light of recent research that suggests some of its limitations. PMID:21949648

  11. Plague and climate: scales matter.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ari, Tamara; Ben Ari, Tamara; Neerinckx, Simon; Gage, Kenneth L; Kreppel, Katharina; Laudisoit, Anne; Leirs, Herwig; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2011-09-01

    Plague is enzootic in wildlife populations of small mammals in central and eastern Asia, Africa, South and North America, and has been recognized recently as a reemerging threat to humans. Its causative agent Yersinia pestis relies on wild rodent hosts and flea vectors for its maintenance in nature. Climate influences all three components (i.e., bacteria, vectors, and hosts) of the plague system and is a likely factor to explain some of plague's variability from small and regional to large scales. Here, we review effects of climate variables on plague hosts and vectors from individual or population scales to studies on the whole plague system at a large scale. Upscaled versions of small-scale processes are often invoked to explain plague variability in time and space at larger scales, presumably because similar scale-independent mechanisms underlie these relationships. This linearity assumption is discussed in the light of recent research that suggests some of its limitations.

  12. Bichat guidelines for the clinical management of plague and bioterrorism-related plague.

    PubMed

    Bossi, Philippe; Tegnell, Anders; Baka, Agoritsa; Van Loock, Frank; Hendriks, Jan; Werner, Albrecht; Maidhof, Heinrich; Gouvras, Georgios

    2004-12-15

    Yersinia pestis appears to be a good candidate agent for a bioterrorist attack. The use of an aerosolised form of this agent could cause an explosive outbreak of primary plague pneumonia. The bacteria could be used also to infect the rodent population and then spread to humans. Most of the therapeutic guidelines suggest using gentamicin or streptomycin as first line therapy with ciprofloxacin as optional treatment. Persons who come in contact with patients with pneumonic plague should receive antibiotic prophylaxis with doxycycline or ciprofloxacin for 7 days. Prevention of human-to-human transmission via patients with plague pneumonia can be achieved by implementing standard isolation procedures until at least 4 days of antibiotic treatment have been administered. For the other clinical types of the disease, patients should be isolated for the first 48 hours after the initiation of treatment.

  13. Plague in Tanzania: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ziwa, Michael H; Matee, Mecky I; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Lyamuya, Eligius F; Kilonzo, Bukheti S

    2013-10-01

    Human plague remains a public health concern in Tanzania despite its quiescence in most foci for years, considering the recurrence nature of the disease. Despite the long-standing history of this problem, there have not been recent reviews of the current knowledge on plague in Tanzania. This work aimed at providing a current overview of plague in Tanzania in terms of its introduction, potential reservoirs, possible causes of plague persistence and repeated outbreaks in the country. Plague is believed to have been introduced to Tanzania from the Middle East through Uganda with the first authentication in 1886. Xenopsylla brasiliensis, X. cheopis, Dinopsyllus lypusus, and Pulex irritans are among potential vectors while Lophuromys spp, Praomys delectorum, Graphiurus murinus, Lemniscomys striatus, Mastomys natalensis, and Rattus rattus may be the potential reservoirs. Plague persistence and repeated outbreaks in Tanzania are likely to be attributable to a complexity of factors including cultural, socio-economical, environmental and biological. Minimizing or preventing people's proximity to rodents is probably the most effective means of preventing plague outbreaks in humans in the future. In conclusion, much has been done on plague diagnosis in Tanzania. However, in order to achieve new insights into the features of plague epidemiology in the country, and to reorganize an effective control strategy, we recommend broader studies that will include the ecology of the pathogen, vectors and potential hosts, identifying the reservoirs, dynamics of infection and landscape ecology.

  14. Advances in food composition tables in Japan-Standard Tables Of Food Composition in Japan - 2015 - (Seventh Revised Edition).

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tomoko; Kawai, Ryoko

    2018-01-01

    The latest version of the Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan-2015- comprises the main food composition table (Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan-2015-[Seventh revised Edition)) and three supplementary books. The supplementary books are Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan - 2015 - (Seventh Revised Edition) - Amino Acids -, Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan - 2015 - (Seventh Revised Edition) - Fatty Acids - and Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan - 2015 - (Seventh Revised Edition) - Available Carbohydrates, Polyols and Organic Acids-. We believe understanding these food composition tables can give greater insight into Japan's gastronomic culture and changes in eating habits. We expect them to play important roles as part of the East Asia food composition tables. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. 76 FR 30051 - Food Labeling; Nutrition Labeling of Standard Menu Items in Restaurants and Similar Retail Food...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ...; Nutrition Labeling of Standard Menu Items in Restaurants and Similar Retail Food Establishments; Extension... 19192). In that document, FDA proposed requirements for providing nutrition information for standard...: Geraldine A. June, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-820), Food and Drug Administration...

  16. Viper Plague Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    City-Base, Texas 78235. v List of Figures Figure 1 a. Characteristic plaque formation produced by the Viper Plague bacterium in VH2 cells...10x…………….…..2 Figure 1 b. Characteristic plaque formation produced by the Viper Plaque retrovirus in VH2 cells, 10x………………… 2 Figure 1c. Uninfected...infection lines were also performed. After working with the infected cell lines, it was noted that the bacterium produced a cell-fusion plaque

  17. 77 FR 2481 - United States Standards for Condition of Food Containers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... for Condition of Food Containers AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule... States (U.S.) Standards for Condition of Food Containers. The proposed revisions would remove the..., Food Technologist, Processed Products Division, Fruit and Vegetable Programs, Agricultural Marketing...

  18. StandFood: Standardization of Foods Using a Semi-Automatic System for Classifying and Describing Foods According to FoodEx2.

    PubMed

    Eftimov, Tome; Korošec, Peter; Koroušić Seljak, Barbara

    2017-05-26

    The European Food Safety Authority has developed a standardized food classification and description system called FoodEx2. It uses facets to describe food properties and aspects from various perspectives, making it easier to compare food consumption data from different sources and perform more detailed data analyses. However, both food composition data and food consumption data, which need to be linked, are lacking in FoodEx2 because the process of classification and description has to be manually performed-a process that is laborious and requires good knowledge of the system and also good knowledge of food (composition, processing, marketing, etc.). In this paper, we introduce a semi-automatic system for classifying and describing foods according to FoodEx2, which consists of three parts. The first involves a machine learning approach and classifies foods into four FoodEx2 categories, with two for single foods: raw (r) and derivatives (d), and two for composite foods: simple (s) and aggregated (c). The second uses a natural language processing approach and probability theory to describe foods. The third combines the result from the first and the second part by defining post-processing rules in order to improve the result for the classification part. We tested the system using a set of food items (from Slovenia) manually-coded according to FoodEx2. The new semi-automatic system obtained an accuracy of 89% for the classification part and 79% for the description part, or an overall result of 79% for the whole system.

  19. FDA Procedures for Standardization and Certification of Retail Food Inspection/Training Officers, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Drug Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This document provides information, standards, and behavioral objectives for standardization and certification of retail food inspection personnel in the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The procedures described in the document are based on the FDA Food Code, updated to reflect current Food Code provisions and to include a more refined focus on…

  20. 78 FR 57033 - United States Standards for Condition of Food Containers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 42 RIN 0581-AC52 United States Standards for Condition of Food Containers... Food Containers. The revisions to existing tables, removal of operating characteristic (OC) curves and updating language in the standards would enable the standards to be applicable to most types of food...

  1. 76 FR 30050 - Food Labeling; Nutrition Labeling of Standard Menu Items in Restaurants and Similar Retail Food...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ...; Nutrition Labeling of Standard Menu Items in Restaurants and Similar Retail Food Establishments; Correction... 2010 (Affordable Care Act), FDA proposed requirements for providing certain nutrition information for...

  2. Developing live vaccines against plague.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Roland, Kenneth L; Curtiss, Roy

    2011-09-14

    Three great plague pandemics caused by the gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis have killed nearly 200 million people and it has been linked to biowarfare in the past. Plague is endemic in many parts of the world. In addition, the risk of plague as a bioweapon has prompted increased research to develop plague vaccines against this disease. Injectable subunit vaccines are being developed in the United States and United Kingdom.  However, the live attenuated Y. pestis-EV NIIEG strain has been used as a vaccine for more than 70 years in the former Soviet Union and in some parts of Asia and provides a high degree of efficacy against plague.  This vaccine has not gained general acceptance because of safety concerns.  In recent years, modern molecular biological techniques have been applied to Y. pestis to construct strains with specific defined mutations designed to create safe, immunogenic vaccines with potential for use in humans and as bait vaccines to reduce the load of Y. pestis in the environment.  In addition, a number of live, vectored vaccines have been reported using attenuated viral vectors or attenuated Salmonella strains to deliver plague antigens. Here we summarize the progress of live attenuated vaccines against plagu.

  3. Metapopulation dynamics of bubonic plague.

    PubMed

    Keeling, M J; Gilligan, C A

    2000-10-19

    Bubonic plague is widely regarded as a disease of mainly historical importance; however, with increasing reports of incidence and the discovery of antibiotic-resistant strains of the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis, it is re-emerging as a significant health concerns. Here we bypass the conventional human-disease models, and propose that bubonic plague is driven by the dynamics of the disease in the rat population. Using a stochastic, spatial metapopulation model, we show that bubonic plague can persist in relatively small rodent populations from which occasional human epidemics arise, without the need for external imports. This explains why historically the plague persisted despite long disease-free periods, and how the disease re-occurred in cities with tight quarantine control. In a contemporary setting, we show that human vaccination cannot eradicate the plague, and that culling of rats may prevent or exacerbate human epidemics, depending on the timing of the cull. The existence of plague reservoirs in wild rodent populations has important public-health implications for the transmission to urban rats and the subsequent risk of human outbreaks.

  4. Sodium content of foods contributing to sodium intake: A comparison between selected foods from the CDC Packaged Food Database and the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sodium concentration (mg/100g) for 23 of 125 Sentinel Foods were identified in the 2009 CDC Packaged Food Database (PFD) and compared with data in the USDA’s 2013 Standard Reference 26 (SR 26) database. Sentinel Foods are foods and beverages identified by USDA to be monitored as primary indicat...

  5. Plague Outbreak in Libya, 2009, Unrelated to Plague in Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Cabanel, Nicolas; Leclercq, Alexandre; Chenal-Francisque, Viviane; Annajar, Badereddin; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Bekkhoucha, Souad; Bertherat, Eric

    2013-01-01

    After 25 years of no cases of plague, this disease recurred near Tobruk, Libya, in 2009. An epidemiologic investigation identified 5 confirmed cases. We determined ribotypes, Not1 restriction profiles, and IS100 and IS1541 hybridization patterns of strains isolated during this outbreak. We also analyzed strains isolated during the 2003 plague epidemic in Algeria to determine whether there were epidemiologic links between the 2 events. Our results demonstrate unambiguously that neighboring but independent plague foci coexist in Algeria and Libya. They also indicate that these outbreaks were most likely caused by reactivation of organisms in local or regional foci believed to be dormant (Libya) or extinct (Algeria) for decades, rather than by recent importation of Yersinia pestis from distant foci. Environmental factors favorable for plague reemergence might exist in this area and lead to reactivation of organisms in other ancient foci. PMID:23347743

  6. Plague outbreak in Libya, 2009, unrelated to plague in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Cabanel, Nicolas; Leclercq, Alexandre; Chenal-Francisque, Viviane; Annajar, Badereddin; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Bekkhoucha, Souad; Bertherat, Eric; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2013-02-01

    After 25 years of no cases of plague, this disease recurred near Tobruk, Libya, in 2009. An epidemiologic investigation identified 5 confirmed cases. We determined ribotypes, Not1 restriction profiles, and IS100 and IS1541 hybridization patterns of strains isolated during this outbreak. We also analyzed strains isolated during the 2003 plague epidemic in Algeria to determine whether there were epidemiologic links between the 2 events. Our results demonstrate unambiguously that neighboring but independent plague foci coexist in Algeria and Libya. They also indicate that these outbreaks were most likely caused by reactivation of organisms in local or regional foci believed to be dormant (Libya) or extinct (Algeria) for decades, rather than by recent importation of Yersinia pestis from distant foci. Environmental factors favorable for plague reemergence might exist in this area and lead to reactivation of organisms in other ancient foci.

  7. Workshop on funding opportunities within the Food Standards Agency.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, Margaret

    2004-11-01

    During this workshop, held as part of a joint Nutrition Society and Food Standards Agency (Agency) meeting on Micronutrient interactions and public health, several precepts for a successful funding application to the Agency were discussed. These precepts, many of which can be used as guiding principles for project proposals to other funding bodies, are summarised as follows: remember that the Agency only supports research that will help them formulate or change human food policy; read the research requirements document thoroughly and plan your project to answer the call; remember that the Agency issues contracts, not grants; your project will be just one project within a focused and coordinated programme; collaborative work is encouraged, but this type of approach is not a licence to double or treble your costs; write a one-page executive summary and attach it to the front of the form;the statistical basis for your experimental design and proposed statistical analysis of your results are important criteria in the evaluation of your proposal; your plans for dissemination and exploitation are very important;match your project duration against your research plan; abide by the Agency plan for quality assurance for the management of research; make full use of the programme adviser and the Agency policy contact and the 'feedback' stage to refine your scientific ideas in line with Agency policy.

  8. Plague Vaccines: Status and Future.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Three major plague pandemics caused by the gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis have killed nearly 200 million people in human history. Due to its extreme virulence and the ease of its transmission, Y. pestis has been used purposefully for biowarfare in the past. Currently, plague epidemics are still breaking out sporadically in most of parts of the world, including the United States. Approximately 2000 cases of plague are reported each year to the World Health Organization. However, the potential use of the bacteria in modern times as an agent of bioterrorism and the emergence of a Y. pestis strain resistant to eight antibiotics bring out severe public health concerns. Therefore, prophylactic vaccination against this disease holds the brightest prospect for its long-term prevention. Here, we summarize the progress of the current vaccine development for counteracting plague.

  9. Plague in Vienna.

    PubMed

    Velimirovic, B; Velimirovic, H

    1989-01-01

    The history of plague in one city--Vienna, Austria--has been traced from records beginning in the fourteenth century until its disappearance in the eighteenth century. Much of the source material for this review is published for the first time in English and is drawn from records maintained by the city of Vienna at the time of each outbreak. The historical context illustrates the reaction of large populations to deadly disease: fear, helplessness, and acceptance of an ever present threat. Concepts of prophylaxis to ward off the infection were haphazard, empiric, and often dependent on the use of medicaments and treatments that were, in modern terms, irrational. The medical and hygienic concepts of the time were principal impediments to more successful control, as is demonstrated by quotations from official documents dealing with attempts to cope with the epidemic. The development of control measures was painfully slow, and ultimate control was not achieved until socioeconomic improvement and concepts of hygiene both reached the point at which the conditions for the spread of the disease could be minimized.

  10. Comparison of School Food Allergy Emergency Plans to the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network's Standard Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Jill; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Finnegan, Lorna

    2007-01-01

    Eighty-four percent of children with food allergies have a reaction in school, and 25% of first food reactions occur in schools. An evaluation was conducted comparing food allergy emergency plans to the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network's (FAAN) Food Allergy Action Plan. Of the 94 respondents, 60 provided food allergy emergency plans for…

  11. Comparison of School Food Allergy Emergency Plans to the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network's Standard Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Jill; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Finnegan, Lorna

    2007-01-01

    Eighty-four percent of children with food allergies have a reaction in school, and 25% of first food reactions occur in schools. An evaluation was conducted comparing food allergy emergency plans to the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network's (FAAN) Food Allergy Action Plan. Of the 94 respondents, 60 provided food allergy emergency plans for…

  12. The cause of the plague of Athens: plague, typhoid, typhus, smallpox, or measles?

    PubMed

    Cunha, Burke A

    2004-03-01

    The plague of Athens raged for 4 years and resulted in the defeat of Athens. The cause of the plague of Athens continues to be debated. Infectious diseases most often cited as causes of the plague include influenza, epidemic typhus, typhoid fever, bubonic plague, smallpox, and measles. Thucydides provides the only available description of the plague of Athens. Given the nuances of the translation, bubonic plague, smallpox, and measles are the most likely causes of the plague. In my view, measles is the most likely cause of the plague of Athens.

  13. 78 FR 79567 - National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010; Approval of Information Collection Request AGENCY: Food and...: Nutrition Standards for All Foods Sold in Schools as required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of...

  14. Plague: from natural disease to bioterrorism

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of plague, an enzootic vectorborne disease usually infecting rodents (rats) and fleas. Humans can become infected after being bitten by fleas that have fed on infected rodents. In humans, the disease usually occurs in the form of bubonic plague. In rare cases, the infection spreads to the lungs via the bloodstream and causes secondary pneumonic plague. Person-to-person transmission has been described for pneumonic plague but is rare in primary bubonic plague. Bubonic plague can usually be treated successfully with antibiotics; however, pneumonic plague develops rapidly and carries a high fatality rate despite immediate treatment with antibiotics. Plague is also recognized as a potential agent of bioterrorism. It has been used, or considered for use, as a biologic weapon on several occasions. It is important for the medical community to be familiar with the epidemiology, diagnosis, and symptoms of plague so it can deliver an appropriate and calm response should the unthinkable happen. PMID:16200159

  15. Plague pneumonia disease caused by Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Cleri, D J; Vernaleo, J R; Lombardi, L J; Rabbat, M S; Mathew, A; Marton, R; Reyelt, M C

    1997-03-01

    Plague is a zoonotic infection caused by Yersina pesits, a pleomorphic, gram-negative non-spore-forming coccobacillus that is more accurately classified as a subspecies of Y pseudotuberculosis. Animal reservoirs include rodents, rabbits, and occasionally larger animals. Cats become ill and have spread pneumonic disease to man. Dogs may be a significant sentinel animal as well as a reservoir, although do not usually become ill. Flea bites commonly spread disease to man. Person to person spread has not been a recent feature until the purported outbreak of plague and plague pneumonia in India in 1994. Other factors that increase risk of infection in endemic areas are occupation-veterinarians and assistants, pet ownership, direct animal-reservoir contact especially during the hunting season, living in households with an index case, and, mild winters, cool moist springs, and early summers. Clinical presentations include subclinical plague (positive serology without disease); plague pharyngitis; pestis minor (abortive bubonic plague); bubonic plague; septicemic plague; pneumonic plague; and plague meningitis. Most prominent of plague's differential diagnosis are Reye's syndrome, other causes of lymphadenitis, bacterial pneumonias, tularemia, and acute surgical abdomen. Treatment has reduced mortality from 40-90% to 5-18%. The drug of choice (except for plague meningitis) is streptomycin, with tetracyclines being alternatives. Parenteral cholamphenicol is the treatment of choice for plague meningitis. A tetracycline should be administered as chemoprophylaxis to all contacts over the age of 8 years. Plague vaccine is available, but is only partially protective.

  16. [The Justinian plague (part one)].

    PubMed

    Sabbatani, Sergio; Manfredi, Roberto; Fiorino, Sirio

    2012-06-01

    In their medical-historical review, the authors assess the evolution of bubonic plague epidemics: after breaking out in the Egyptian port of Pelusium in October 541 AD, the epidemics hit several regions in the Mediterranean basin in a succession of waves. The so-called Justinian plague took its name from the Byzantine emperor of the period, and seriously conditioned the expansionary aims of the Eastern Roman empire towards Italy (which was occupied by Goths), and Northern Africa (where the Vandals had settled), during the first decades of its spread. In the Eastern Empire the plague played a considerable role in reducing the tensions between Persians and Byzantines, especially on the Syrian and Anatolian fronts. It had a major demographic impact, reducing the possibility of recruitment to the Roman legions and leading to a significant drop in tax revenues, which were essential to sustain the state and its military machine. Finally, the plague also took its toll on economic resources (especially agriculture), indirectly leading to a vicious inflationary circle. In the space of over two centuries, plague epidemics paralyzed most trade and commercial exchanges. Furthermore, the Justinian plague, halting the consolidation of the influence of the Eastern Roman empire over some Western regions (including Italy and Northern Africa, which were ruled by Barbarians), supported the development and rise of a number of Roman-Barbarian kingdoms. It may therefore be suggested that the Justinian plague occurred at a very critical historical moment, which represents the real watershed between the Ancient World and the upcoming Middle Ages.

  17. "Pink plague" changes course.

    PubMed

    Chauvin, L

    1993-03-01

    By October 1992, the government's Special Program to Control AIDS (PECOS) registered 717 cases of the disease in Peru; however, the number of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cases could number thousands. PECOS estimates that the number of cases of HIV is doubling every 2 years. One of the main reasons for the continued spread of HIV is the common perception that the pink plague, as AIDS is called here, affects only homosexuals. While 85% of sexually transmitted HIV and AIDS cases are among gay and bisexual men, in the past 4 years a large number of new cases has been registered among heterosexuals, especially women. In 1987, the ratio of AIDS cases among men and women was approximately 15 to 1. Today, the male to female ratio is 7 to 1. Most people working on AIDS say that the changing profile of the epidemic in Peru is caused by the high costs of prevention programs and the lack of information on the disease, which drastically raise the number of people in high risk groups. Peru's ongoing economic crisis has eaten into the budgets of nongovernment organization's (NGOs) AIDS prevention campaigns and has pushed treatment out of the reach of many people. In 1991, 3 television commercials developed by PECOS to promote the use of condoms were blocked by the Health Ministry. One of the groups that fought against campaigns promoting condom use was the Association of Catholic Doctors. The only way to organize an effective program is through a joint effort that brings together the government, NGOs, and other private and public institutions. Cooperation was demonstrated through the actions carried out for World AIDS Day, when more than 16 public, NGO, and government organizations were involved in a variety of AIDS information activities. In 1993, about 30 NGOs will begin actively working with Peru's Health Ministry to coordinate activities.

  18. The threatened plague.

    PubMed

    Epstein, P

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses changes in disease patterns affecting human health that may be related to environmental and social changes in the world. The World Health Report reveals that 30 new diseases emerged in the past 20 years. Old diseases are becoming resistant to new drugs. Infectious diseases that were in decline are spreading: diphtheria, whooping cough, and measles. Illnesses such as malaria, fevers, cholera, and rodent-borne viruses are becoming more frequent. Diseases that are transmitted by animals or water are related to environmental and social changes. Degraded environments are susceptible to the appearance of opportunistic species, such as weeds, rodents, insects, and microorganisms. Stable environments support the welfare of large predators and control opportunistic species. Owls, coyotes, and snakes eat rodents that carry Lyme disease ticks and a variety of viruses, plague, and bacteria. Reptiles, birds, spiders, ladybugs, bats, and fish consume larvae and mosquitoes that cause malaria and fevers. Habitat loss and fragmentation, monocultures, excessive use of toxic chemicals, climate change, and weather instability are widespread global changes that reduce the predator population. Small wilderness habitats favor pests. Monocultures reduce genetic diversity and increase vulnerability. Excessive use of pesticides harms birds and helpful insects. A sign of a failing ecosystem is the population explosion of pests and disequilibrium. The Environmental Distress Syndrome is characterized as: 1) emerging infectious diseases, 2) loss of biodiversity, 3) increased generalist species and decreased specialist species, 4) declines in specific specialists, such as pollinators responsible for preservation of flowering plants, and 5) increased coastal algal blooms. The impacts of disease mean considerable costs to humans, agriculture, and livestock. Loss of resources is also costly.

  19. 21 CFR 130.10 - Requirements for foods named by use of a nutrient content claim and a standardized term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Requirements for foods named by use of a nutrient content claim and a standardized term. 130.10 Section 130.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD STANDARDS:...

  20. 21 CFR 130.10 - Requirements for foods named by use of a nutrient content claim and a standardized term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for foods named by use of a nutrient content claim and a standardized term. 130.10 Section 130.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD STANDARDS:...

  1. 21 CFR 130.10 - Requirements for foods named by use of a nutrient content claim and a standardized term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD STANDARDS: GENERAL... standardized term. (a) Description. The foods prescribed by this general definition and standard of identity... used. The food shall comply with the relevant standard in all other respects except as provided in...

  2. Nutrition Standards for Food Service Guidelines for Foods Served or Sold in Municipal Government Buildings or Worksites, United States, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Zaganjor, Hatidza; Moore, Latetia V; Carlson, Susan; Kimmons, Joel; Galuska, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The Institute of Medicine and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have recommended that government agencies use nutrition standards for foods and beverages sold and provided at their facilities. In this study, we examine written nutrition standards for foods sold or served in local government buildings or worksites among US municipalities. Methods We used data from a 2014 national survey of 1,945 municipal governments serving populations of 1,000 or more to assess the presence of written nutrition standards, the food groups or nutrients addressed by standards, and the populations served by facilities where standards are applied. The prevalence of standards was estimated by municipality population size, rural–urban status, census region, poverty prevalence, education level, and racial/ethnic composition. Results Overall, 3.2% of US municipalities reported nutrition standards with greater prevalence observed among large municipalities (12.8% of municipalities with ≥50,000 people vs 2.2% of municipalities with <2,500 people, P < .001). Prevalence differed by region, and standards were most common in the West (6.6%) and least common in the Midwest (2.0%, P = .003).The most common nutrition topics addressed in standards were offering low-calorie beverages, fruits and vegetables, and free drinking water. Most standards applied to facilities serving government employees (67%) or the general public (66%), with fewer serving institutionalized populations (23%). Conclusion Few municipal governments reported having written nutrition standards for foods and beverages sold in their facilities in 2014. Implementing nutrition standards for foods sold or served by local governments is a strategy for increasing access to healthier foods and beverages among municipal employees and local residents. PMID:28005531

  3. Nutrition Standards for Food Service Guidelines for Foods Served or Sold in Municipal Government Buildings or Worksites, United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Onufrak, Stephen J; Zaganjor, Hatidza; Moore, Latetia V; Carlson, Susan; Kimmons, Joel; Galuska, Deborah

    2016-12-22

    The Institute of Medicine and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have recommended that government agencies use nutrition standards for foods and beverages sold and provided at their facilities. In this study, we examine written nutrition standards for foods sold or served in local government buildings or worksites among US municipalities. We used data from a 2014 national survey of 1,945 municipal governments serving populations of 1,000 or more to assess the presence of written nutrition standards, the food groups or nutrients addressed by standards, and the populations served by facilities where standards are applied. The prevalence of standards was estimated by municipality population size, rural-urban status, census region, poverty prevalence, education level, and racial/ethnic composition. Overall, 3.2% of US municipalities reported nutrition standards with greater prevalence observed among large municipalities (12.8% of municipalities with ≥50,000 people vs 2.2% of municipalities with <2,500 people, P < .001). Prevalence differed by region, and standards were most common in the West (6.6%) and least common in the Midwest (2.0%, P = .003).The most common nutrition topics addressed in standards were offering low-calorie beverages, fruits and vegetables, and free drinking water. Most standards applied to facilities serving government employees (67%) or the general public (66%), with fewer serving institutionalized populations (23%). Few municipal governments reported having written nutrition standards for foods and beverages sold in their facilities in 2014. Implementing nutrition standards for foods sold or served by local governments is a strategy for increasing access to healthier foods and beverages among municipal employees and local residents.

  4. Red Plague Control Plan (RPCP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    SCOPE: Prescribes the minimum requirements for the control of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) of silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. PURPOSE: Targeted for applications where exposure to assembly processes, environmental conditions, and contamination may promote the development of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) in silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. Does not exclude any alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes that meet or exceed the baseline of requirements established by this document. Use of alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes shall require review and prior approval of the procuring NASA activity.

  5. [Tholozan and plague in Persia].

    PubMed

    Mollaret, H H

    1998-09-01

    In Persia since 1858, Tholozan studied between 1870 and 1882 the plague foci of the iranian Kurdistan which shall be dealt a century later (1947-1963) with Dr. M. Baltazard and his co-workers from the Pasteur Institute of Teheran. Tholozan had already pointed out the localization of the disease in some well defined villages and gave a good clinical description mentioning the traces of flea bites on the patients skin. One knows nowadays that wild rodents (Meriones) are the storing places of the plague bacilli in the Kurdistan. Tholozan's observations confirmed by modern ones allow to consider him a great loïmologist of modern times.

  6. 75 FR 61604 - Small Business Size Standards; Accommodation and Food Services Industries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN: 3245-AF71 Small Business Size Standards; Accommodation and Food Services... American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Sector 72, Accommodation and Food Services--namely NAICS... 722212, Cafeterias, from $7.0 million to $25.5 million; and NAICS 722310, Food Service Contractors, from...

  7. Plague - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Plague URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/plague.html Other topics A-Z A B C ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Plague - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  8. Development of a standard methodology for assessing the satiating effect of foods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    No standard methodology is currently utilized for assessing the relative satiating value of food items. Our goal was to evaluate the validity and reliability of satiety responses in order to develop a standardized methodology for determining the relative satiating capacity of specific food items. A ...

  9. MANUAL FOOD AND BEVERAGE DISPENSING EQUIPMENT. NATIONAL SANITATION FOUNDATION STANDARD NO. 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI.

    THIS STANDARD COVERS THE SANITATION REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT AND DEVICES WHICH DISPENSE FOOD OR BEVERAGE EITHER IN BULK OR PORTIONS. VENDING MACHINES OR BULK MILK DISPENSING EQUIPMENT ARE NOT COVERED IN THIS STANDARD. ITEMS COVERED INCLUDE THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION, FOOD PROTECTION AND FREEDOM FROM HARBORAGES. MINIMUM…

  10. Food labeling; nutrition labeling of standard menu items in restaurants and similar retail food establishments. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-12-01

    To implement the nutrition labeling provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (Affordable Care Act or ACA), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is requiring disclosure of certain nutrition information for standard menu items in certain restaurants and retail food establishments. The ACA, in part, amended the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), among other things, to require restaurants and similar retail food establishments that are part of a chain with 20 or more locations doing business under the same name and offering for sale substantially the same menu items to provide calorie and other nutrition information for standard menu items, including food on display and self-service food. Under provisions of the ACA, restaurants and similar retail food establishments not otherwise covered by the law may elect to become subject to these Federal requirements by registering every other year with FDA. Providing accurate, clear, and consistent nutrition information, including the calorie content of foods, in restaurants and similar retail food establishments will make such nutrition information available to consumers in a direct and accessible manner to enable consumers to make informed and healthful dietary choices.

  11. AN EPIDEMIC OF PNEUMONIC PLAGUE

    PubMed Central

    Kellogg, W. H.

    1920-01-01

    Dr. Kellogg calls on health authorities to wake from their apathy with reference to plague in California, and instead of restrictive measures to adopt an aggressive warfare. He points out that there is real danger to the country and urges adequate appropriations to exterminate the animal disease carriers while this may be done with certainty. PMID:18010342

  12. Zoonotic Focus of Plague, Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Bitam, Idir; Baziz, Belkacem; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Belkaid, Miloud

    2006-01-01

    After an outbreak of human plague, 95 Xenopsylla cheopis fleas from Algeria were tested for Yersinia pestis with PCR methods. Nine fleas were definitively confirmed to be infected with Y. pestis biovar orientalis. Our results demonstrate the persistence of a zoonotic focus of Y. pestis in Algeria. PMID:17326957

  13. Plague in the genomic area.

    PubMed

    Drancourt, M

    2012-03-01

    With plague being not only a subject of interest for historians, but still a disease of public health concern in several countries, mainly in Africa, there were hopes that analyses of the Yersinia pestis genomes would put an end to this deadly epidemic pathogen. Genomics revealed that Y. pestis isolates evolved from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in Central Asia some millennia ago, after the acquisition of two Y. pestis-specific plasmids balanced genomic reduction parallel with the expansion of insertion sequences, illustrating the modern concept that, except for the acquisition of plasmid-borne toxin-encoding genes, the increased virulence of Y. pestis resulted from gene loss rather than gene acquisition. The telluric persistence of Y. pestis reminds us of this close relationship, and matters in terms of plague epidemiology. Whereas biotype Orientalis isolates spread worldwide, the Antiqua and Medievalis isolates showed more limited expansion. In addition to animal ectoparasites, human ectoparasites such as the body louse may have participated in this expansion and in devastating historical epidemics. The recent analysis of a Black Death genome indicated that it was more closely related to the Orientalis branch than to the Medievalis branch. Modern Y. pestis isolates grossly exhibit the same gene content, but still undergo micro-evolution in geographically limited areas by differing in the genome architecture, owing to inversions near insertion sequences and the stabilization of the YpfPhi prophage in Orientalis biotype isolates. Genomics have provided several new molecular tools for the genotyping and phylogeographical tracing of isolates and description of plague foci. However, genomics and post-genomics approaches have not yet provided new tools for the prevention, diagnosis and management of plague patients and the plague epidemics still raging in some sub-Saharan countries. © 2012 The Author. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2012 European Society of

  14. Sodium Content of Foods Contributing to Sodium Intake: Comparison between Selected Foods from the CDC Packaged Food Database and the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference

    PubMed Central

    Maalouf, Joyce; Cogswell, Mary E.; Yuan, Keming; Martin, Carrie; Gillespie, Cathleen; Ahuja, Jaspreet KC; Pehrsson, Pamela; Merritt, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The sodium concentration (mg/100g) for 23 of 125 Sentinel Foods (e.g. white bread) were identified in the 2009 CDC Packaged Food Database (PFD) and compared with data in the USDA’s 2013 National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference(SR 26). Sentinel Foods are foods identified by USDA to be monitored as primary indicators to assess the changes in the sodium content of commercially processed foods from stores and restaurants. Overall, 937 products were evaluated in the CDC PFD, and between 3 (one brand of ready-to-eat cereal) and 126 products (white bread) were evaluated per selected food. The mean sodium concentrations of 17 of the 23 (74%) selected foods in the CDC PFD were 90%–110% of the mean sodium concentrations in SR 26 and differences in sodium concentration were statistically significant for 6 Sentinel Foods. The sodium concentration of most of the Sentinel Foods, as selected in the PFD, appeared to represent the sodium concentrations of the corresponding food category. The results of our study help improve the understanding of how nutrition information compares between national analytic values and the label and whether the selected Sentinel Foods represent their corresponding food category as indicators for assessment of change of the sodium content in the food supply. PMID:26484010

  15. Sodium Content of Foods Contributing to Sodium Intake: Comparison between Selected Foods from the CDC Packaged Food Database and the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference.

    PubMed

    Maalouf, Joyce; Cogswell, Mary E; Yuan, Keming; Martin, Carrie; Gillespie, Cathleen; Ahuja, Jaspreet Kc; Pehrsson, Pamela; Merritt, Robert

    The sodium concentration (mg/100g) for 23 of 125 Sentinel Foods (e.g. white bread) were identified in the 2009 CDC Packaged Food Database (PFD) and compared with data in the USDA's 2013 National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference(SR 26). Sentinel Foods are foods identified by USDA to be monitored as primary indicators to assess the changes in the sodium content of commercially processed foods from stores and restaurants. Overall, 937 products were evaluated in the CDC PFD, and between 3 (one brand of ready-to-eat cereal) and 126 products (white bread) were evaluated per selected food. The mean sodium concentrations of 17 of the 23 (74%) selected foods in the CDC PFD were 90%-110% of the mean sodium concentrations in SR 26 and differences in sodium concentration were statistically significant for 6 Sentinel Foods. The sodium concentration of most of the Sentinel Foods, as selected in the PFD, appeared to represent the sodium concentrations of the corresponding food category. The results of our study help improve the understanding of how nutrition information compares between national analytic values and the label and whether the selected Sentinel Foods represent their corresponding food category as indicators for assessment of change of the sodium content in the food supply.

  16. 78 FR 10107 - Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Proposed Rules To Establish Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for Human Food...: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is providing public meeting registration information for two... hazard analysis and risk- based preventive controls for human food (the preventive controls proposed rule...

  17. 78 FR 6762 - Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Proposed Rules To Establish Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for Human Food...-based preventive controls for human food (the preventive controls proposed rule), which are the first of... modernized, prevention-based food safety system. Among other things, FSMA requires FDA to issue...

  18. Are carnivores universally good sentinels of plague?

    PubMed

    Brinkerhoff, R Jory; Collinge, Sharon K; Bai, Ying; Ray, Chris

    2009-10-01

    Sylvatic plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is a flea-borne disease that primarily affects rodents but has been detected in over 200 mammal species worldwide. Mammalian carnivores are routinely surveyed as sentinels of local plague activity, since they can present antibodies to Y. pestis infection but show few clinical signs. In Boulder County, Colorado, USA, plague epizootic events are episodic and occur in black-tailed prairie dogs. Enzootic hosts are unidentified as are plague foci. For three years, we systematically sampled carnivores in two distinct habitat types to determine whether carnivores may play a role in maintenance or transmission of Y. pestis and to identify habitats associated with increased plague prevalence. We sampled 83 individuals representing six carnivore species and found only two that had been exposed to Y. pestis. The low overall rate of plague exposure in carnivores suggests that plague may be ephemeral in this study system, and thus we cannot draw any conclusions regarding habitat-associated plague foci or temporal changes in plague activity. Plague epizootics involving prairie dogs were confirmed in this study system during two of the three years of this study, and we therefore suggest that the targeting carnivores to survey for plague may not be appropriate in all ecological systems.

  19. Are Carnivores Universally Good Sentinels of Plague?

    PubMed Central

    Collinge, Sharon K.; Bai, Ying; Ray, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Sylvatic plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is a flea-borne disease that primarily affects rodents but has been detected in over 200 mammal species worldwide. Mammalian carnivores are routinely surveyed as sentinels of local plague activity, since they can present antibodies to Y. pestis infection but show few clinical signs. In Boulder County, Colorado, USA, plague epizootic events are episodic and occur in black-tailed prairie dogs. Enzootic hosts are unidentified as are plague foci. For three years, we systematically sampled carnivores in two distinct habitat types to determine whether carnivores may play a role in maintenance or transmission of Y. pestis and to identify habitats associated with increased plague prevalence. We sampled 83 individuals representing six carnivore species and found only two that had been exposed to Y. pestis. The low overall rate of plague exposure in carnivores suggests that plague may be ephemeral in this study system, and thus we cannot draw any conclusions regarding habitat-associated plague foci or temporal changes in plague activity. Plague epizootics involving prairie dogs were confirmed in this study system during two of the three years of this study, and we therefore suggest that the targeting carnivores to survey for plague may not be appropriate in all ecological systems. PMID:18973449

  20. The regulation of protein content and quality in national and international food standards.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Janine L

    2012-08-01

    Food regulation aims to protect public health through a safe and nutritious food supply produced by a compliant food industry. Food standards of developed countries generally do not regulate protein content or protein quality because the risk of dietary protein inadequacy in their national populations is very low. Protein is nevertheless regulated for reasons of product quality or protein labelling or to minimise assessed health risks associated with consumption of certain animal- and vegetable-protein foods; analogue products that extend or simulate commonly available animal-protein foods; and special purpose foods such as infant formula and foods, supplementary and medical foods, and foods for weight loss. The extent and approach to protein regulation varies greatly among jurisdictions but where it occurs, it is applied through minimum and sometimes maximum limits on protein content or quality measures or both using an inter-related approach. Protein quality measures range from amino acid profiles and digestibility corrected scores to protein rating, a rat bioassay and reference proteins not further described. Regulatory methods for protein quality determination are referenced to the published scientific literature or developed nationally. Internationally, the Codex Alimentarius regulates the protein content and quality of some foods. The Codex approach varies according to the food but is similar to the approaches used in national and regional food regulation. This paper provides a comparison of the regulation of protein in foods using examples from the food regulations of Australia New Zealand, Canada, the European Union, the United States of America and the Codex Alimentarius.

  1. 76 FR 19191 - Food Labeling; Nutrition Labeling of Standard Menu Items in Restaurants and Similar Retail Food...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ...To implement the menu labeling provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (Affordable Care Act), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is proposing requirements for providing certain nutrition information for standard menu items in certain chain restaurants and similar retail food establishments. The Affordable Care Act, in part, amended the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act), among other things, to require restaurants and similar retail food establishments that are part of a chain with 20 or more locations doing business under the same name and offering for sale substantially the same menu items to provide calorie and other nutrition information for standard menu items, including food on display and self-service food. Under provisions of the Affordable Care Act, restaurants and similar retail food establishments not otherwise covered by the law may elect to become subject to the Federal requirements by registering every other year with the FDA. Providing calorie and other nutrition information in restaurants and similar retail food establishments would assist consumers in making healthier dietary choices.

  2. Food control from farm to fork: implementing the standards of Codex and the OIE.

    PubMed

    Hathaway, S C

    2013-08-01

    The Codex Alimentarius (Codex) international food standards help to ensure food safety and promote fair practices in the international food trade. Implementing these standards using a risk management framework (RMF) approach to decision-making is an increasingly common aspect of the food control programmes of national governments. The Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) provides guidance at both the system and food commodity levels. In the case of zoonoses, similarities in the risk analysis methodologies used to underpin standard setting by the CAC and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) are highly enabling of integrated food control systems. The CAC and the OIE are increasingly working together to develop their respective standards for foodborne zoonoses and other hazards so that they are non-duplicative, cohesive and utilise the whole food chain. There is a clear need for effective integration of food safety and animal health monitoring and surveillance information to better control foodborne zoonoses. This is increasingly supported by Codex and OIE standards working together in a variety of ways and realisation of benefits is highly dependent on coordination and sharing of information between Competent Authorities and other food safety stakeholders at the national level.

  3. [Food Security in Europe: comparison between the "Hygiene Package" and the British Retail Consortium (BRC) & International Food Standard (IFS) protocols].

    PubMed

    Stilo, A; Parisi, S; Delia, S; Anastasi, F; Bruno, G; Laganà, P

    2009-01-01

    The birth of Hygiene Package and of the Reg. CE no 2073/2005 in the food production field signalled a change in Italy. This process started in Italy in 1997 with the legislative decree no 155 on Self-control but in reality, it was implemented in the UK in 1990 with the promulgation of the Food Safety Act. This legal act was influenced by some basic rules corresponding to the application of HACCP standards. Since 1990 the British chains of distribution (Retailers) have involved all aspects of the food line in this type of responsibility. Due to this growing awareness for a need for greater regulation, a protocol, edited by British Retail Consortium was created in 1998. This protocol acted as a "stamp" of approval for food products and it is now known as the BRC Global Food Standard. In July 2008, this protocol became effective in its fifth version. After the birth of BRC, also French and German Retailers have established a standard practically equivalent and perhaps more pertinent to safety food, that is International Food Standard (IFS). The new approach is specific to the food field and strictly applies criteria which will ensure "safety, quality and legality" of food products, similarly to ISO 22000:2005 (mainly based on BRC & IFS past experiences). New standards aim to create a sort of green list with fully "proper and fit" Suppliers only, because of comprehensible exigencies of Retailers. It is expected, as we have shown, that Auditor authorities who are responsible for ensuring that inspections are now carried out like the Hygiene Package, will find these new standards useful. The advantages of streamlining this system is that it will allow enterprises to diligently enforce food safety practices without fear of upset or legal consequence, to improve the quality (HACCP) of management & traceability system; to restrict wastes, reprocessing and withdrawal of products. However some discordances about the interpretation of certain sub-field norms (e.g., water

  4. Bubonic and pneumonic plague - Uganda, 2006.

    PubMed

    2009-07-24

    Plague is a life-threatening fleaborne disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. The most common clinical form is bubonic plague, which is characterized by high fever and regional lymphadenitis. Without treatment, infection can spread from lymph nodes to the lungs, resulting in pneumonic plague and the potential for person-to-person transmission through respiratory droplets. In November 2006, the Uganda Ministry of Health received reports of an increase in bubonic plague cases and a possible outbreak of pneumonic plague among residents in the Arua and Nebbi districts. In response, the Uganda Ministry of Health and CDC conducted a joint investigation in the two districts during November 28-December 30, 2006. Overall, 127 clinical plague cases were identified, along with evidence of a focal pneumonic outbreak in Nebbi District. Median age of the patients was 14 years (range: 2 weeks-65 years); 65 (51%) were female. Twenty-eight (22%) of the 127 patients died. Among the 102 patients with documented symptoms, 90 (88%) had bubonic plague, and 12 (12%) had pneumonic plague. The results of this investigation underscore the need to 1) continue efforts to educate residents of rural Uganda regarding the source, signs, and symptoms of plague and the life-saving importance of seeking treatment; 2) strengthen plague surveillance and diagnostic capabilities; and 3) improve emergency response and vector-control capacity, especially in remote regions of the country.

  5. Immune defense against pneumonic plague

    PubMed Central

    Smiley, Stephen T.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Yersinia pestis is one of the world's most virulent human pathogens. Inhalation of this Gram-negative bacterium causes pneumonic plague, a rapidly progressing and usually fatal disease. Extensively antibiotic-resistant strains of Y. pestis exist and have significant potential for exploitation as agents of terrorism and biowarfare. Subunit vaccines comprised of the Y. pestis F1 and LcrV proteins are well-tolerated and immunogenic in humans but cannot be tested for efficacy, because pneumonic plague outbreaks are uncommon and intentional infection of humans is unethical. In animal models, F1/LcrV-based vaccines protect mice and cynomolgus macaques but have failed, thus far, to adequately protect African green monkeys. We lack an explanation for this inconsistent efficacy. We also lack reliable correlate assays for protective immunity. These deficiencies are hampering efforts to improve vaccine efficacy. Here, I review the immunology of pneumonic plague, focusing on evidence that humoral and cellular defense mechanisms collaborate to defend against pulmonary Y. pestis infection. PMID:18837787

  6. The Impact of Nutrition Standards on Competitive Food Offerings and Purchasing Behaviors of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snelling, Anastasia M.; Kennard, Teha

    2009-01-01

    Background: With adolescent obesity rates on the rise, the school food environment is receiving closer scrutiny. This study looks at the effects of nutrient standards as part of a wellness policy that was implemented in 3 public high schools in 1 county, by analyzing the nutritional value of competitive food offerings and purchases before and…

  7. The Impact of Nutrition Standards on Competitive Food Offerings and Purchasing Behaviors of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snelling, Anastasia M.; Kennard, Teha

    2009-01-01

    Background: With adolescent obesity rates on the rise, the school food environment is receiving closer scrutiny. This study looks at the effects of nutrient standards as part of a wellness policy that was implemented in 3 public high schools in 1 county, by analyzing the nutritional value of competitive food offerings and purchases before and…

  8. 75 FR 70011 - Guidance for Industry, Mammography Quality Standards Act Inspectors, and Food and Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... approved accreditation body and certified by the Secretary of Health and Human Services (the Secretary) or... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry, Mammography Quality Standards Act...: Modifications and Additions to Policy Guidance Help System 13; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug...

  9. Microchip problems plague DOD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. J.

    1984-10-01

    The major issues in the controversy over the discovery of millions of defective microchips sold to the DOD by the Texas Instruments (TI) corporation are outlined. Defects in the microcircuits are blamed on inadequate testing procedures performed by TI during manufacture, and on inadequate testing procedures used by a subcontractor especially contracted to test the chips. Because the problem persisted over a period of years, defects might be possible in as many as 100 million chips used in a broad range of military applications including the Trident submarine, the B-52, B-1B, F-15, F-111, F-4, A-6, and A-7 aircraft, the Harpoon and HARM missile systems, and the Space Shuttles Discovery and Challenger. It is pointed out that although TI has accepted responsibility for the defective chips, little will be done by the DOD to compel the company to replace them, or to upgrade testing procedures. It is concluded that the serious nature of the problem could renew interest in recommendations for the standardization of military microcircuits.

  10. Nutrition Standards for Away-from-home Foods in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Deborah A.; Bhatia, Rajiv

    2012-01-01

    Away-from-home foods are regulated with respect to the prevention of food-borne diseases and potential contaminants, but not for their contribution to dietary-related chronic diseases. Away-from-home foods have more calories, salt, sugar, and fat and provide fewer fruits and vegetables than recommended by national nutrition guidelines; thus, frequent consumption of away-from-home foods contributes to obesity, hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, and cancer. In light of this, many localities are already adopting regulations or sponsoring programs to improve the quality of away-from-home foods. We review the rationale for developing nutritional performance standards for away-from-home foods in light of limited human capacity to regulate intake or physiologically compensate for a poor diet. We offer a set of model performance standards to be considered as a new area of environmental regulation. Models for voluntary implementation of consumer standards exist in the environmental domain and may be useful templates for implementation. Implementing such standards, whether voluntarily or via regulations, will require addressing a number of practical and ideological challenges. Politically, regulatory standards contradict the belief that adults should be able to navigate dietary risks in away-from-home settings unaided. PMID:22329431

  11. Nutrition standards for away-from-home foods in the USA.

    PubMed

    Cohen, D A; Bhatia, R

    2012-07-01

    Away-from-home foods are regulated with respect to the prevention of food-borne diseases and potential contaminants, but not for their contribution to dietary-related chronic diseases. Away-from-home foods have more calories, salt, sugar and fat, and include fewer fruits and vegetables than recommended by national nutrition guidelines. Thus, frequent consumption of away-from-home foods contributes to obesity, hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, and cancer. In light of this, many localities are already adopting regulations or sponsoring programs to improve the quality of away-from-home foods. We review the rationale for developing nutritional performance standards for away-from-home foods in light of limited human capacity to regulate intake or physiologically compensate for a poor diet. We offer a set of model performance standards to be considered as a new area of environmental regulation. Models for voluntary implementation of consumer standards exist in the environmental domain and may be useful templates for implementation. Implementing such standards, whether voluntarily or via regulations, will require addressing a number of practical and ideological challenges. Politically, regulatory standards contradict the belief that adults should be able to navigate dietary risks in away-from-home settings unaided.

  12. Influence of human activity patterns on epidemiology of plague in Western Usambara Mountains, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Hubeau, Marianne; Gulinck, Hubert; Kimaro, Didas N; Hieronimo, Proches; Meliyo, Joel

    2014-07-01

    Human plague has been a recurring public health threat in some villages in the Western Usambara Mountains, Tanzania, in the period between 1980 and 2004. Despite intensive past biological and medical research, the reasons for the plague outbreaks in the same set of villages remain unknown. Plague research needs to broaden its scope and formulate new hypotheses. This study was carried out to establish relationships between the nature and the spatial extent of selected human activities on one hand, and the reported plague cases on the other hand. Three outdoor activities namely, fetching water, collecting firewood and going to the market, were selected. Through enquiries the activity patterns related to these activities were mapped in 14 villages. Standard deviation ellipses represent the extent of action spaces. Over 130 activity types were identified and listed. Of these, fetching water, collecting firewood and going to the market were used for further analysis. The results indicate a significant correlation between the plague frequency and the size of these action spaces. Different characteristics of land use and related human activities were correlated with the plague frequency at village and hamlet levels. Significant relationships were found between plague frequency and specific sources of firewood and water, and specific market places.

  13. USDA snack food and beverage standards: how big of a stretch for the states?

    PubMed

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Piekarz, Elizabeth; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2014-06-01

    The USDA snack food and beverage standards take effect in school year (SY) 2014-2015. Although the USDA standards will provide nationwide requirements, concerns exist about compliance. This study examined whether existing state laws are aligned with the USDA standards to determine whether some states may be better positioned to facilitate compliance. Codified state statutory and regulatory laws effective for SY 2012-2013 for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia were identified through Boolean keyword searches using the Westlaw and LexisNexis databases. Laws were analyzed for alignment with 18 snack food and beverage provisions contained within the USDA standards. Thirty-eight states had snack food and beverage standards; 33 states' laws exceeded restrictions on foods of minimal nutritional value. Of the 33 states, no states' laws fully met the USDA's standards, 16 states' laws fully met and 10 states' laws partially met at least one USDA provision, and seven states' laws met no USDA provisions. One state's law met 9 of 18 provisions. On average, states met 4 of 18 provisions. States were more likely to meet individual USDA beverage than snack provisions. Implementation and compliance with the USDA standards may be facilitated in states with laws already containing provisions aligned with the USDA standards and may be more difficult in states with fewer or no provisions in alignment, suggesting possible geographic areas for the USDA to target with technical assistance and training efforts and for advocates to work in to facilitate compliance.

  14. Proposed Rule: Nutrition Standards for All Foods Sold in School. Legislative Brief 13-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Boards of Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The Healthy Hunger Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFK) requires the Secretary of Agriculture to establish standards for foods sold in schools other than those provided as part of the National School Lunch Program or School Breakfast Program. According to the HHFK, these standards are to be consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the…

  15. Proposed Rule: Nutrition Standards for All Foods Sold in School. Legislative Brief 13-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Boards of Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The Healthy Hunger Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFK) requires the Secretary of Agriculture to establish standards for foods sold in schools other than those provided as part of the National School Lunch Program or School Breakfast Program. According to the HHFK, these standards are to be consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the…

  16. Human Plague - United States, 2015.

    PubMed

    Kwit, Natalie; Nelson, Christina; Kugeler, Kiersten; Petersen, Jeannine; Plante, Lydia; Yaglom, Hayley; Kramer, Vicki; Schwartz, Benjamin; House, Jennifer; Colton, Leah; Feldpausch, Amanda; Drenzek, Cherie; Baumbach, Joan; DiMenna, Mark; Fisher, Emily; Debess, Emilio; Buttke, Danielle; Weinburke, Matthew; Percy, Christopher; Schriefer, Martin; Gage, Ken; Mead, Paul

    2015-08-28

    Since April 1, 2015, a total of 11 cases of human plague have been reported in residents of six states: Arizona (two), California (one), Colorado (four), Georgia (one), New Mexico (two), and Oregon (one). The two cases in Georgia and California residents have been linked to exposures at or near Yosemite National Park in the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. Nine of the 11 patients were male; median age was 52 years (range = 14-79 years). Three patients aged 16, 52, and 79 years died.

  17. Raising food hygiene standards--could customer power and the new laws hold the key?

    PubMed

    Leach, J C

    1996-12-01

    In September 1995 new general food hygiene regulations came into force. The new law, quite rightly, requires proprietors of food businesses to focus their thoughts and actions on risks to food safety. Proprietors are required to identify and assess risks and ensure that adequate management procedures are put into place to ensure food safety. This is a welcome move as contributing factors in most cases of food poisoning involve poor food hygiene practices. At the same time there has been a large increase in the amount of advice and guidance to local authority enforcement officers, particularly to assess risks to food safety when considering what action to take in any situation - the lower the risk the less appropriate it is to take legal action. However, there are many conditions found in food premises which present little or no risk to health, such as routine cleanliness in non-high risk areas, but lower standards on these might be viewed by the public as inappropriate for food businesses. With an increasing amount of choice available to customers, proprietors and managers of food businesses need to be more aware than ever of the complex pattern of consumer demands including that of supplying a clean and safe product in its broadest sense. The notion of consumer sovereignty is not a new concept. Combined with the new laws could it hold the key to genuine improved standards in food hygiene? This article reviews the subject and draws attention to a research programme being undertaken at the University of Brighton to identify, compare and contrast factors which the public perceive as important in terms of food hygiene in public eating places with those considered important by professionals with an interest in the subject. The results could bring benefits to the catering industry and customers.

  18. [Is not plague a "protonosis"? (the role of Protozoa in the epizootiology of plague)].

    PubMed

    Domaradskiĭ, I V

    1999-01-01

    The author expounds the idea that soil protozoa, whose vegetative forms and cysts can harbor the plague agent for fairly prolonged periods of time, can be a major player in the epizootiology of plague. It is also postulated that the symbiotic protozoa of the digestive tract of rodents and lagomorpha can also be a reservoir of the plague agent. If this is so, among apparent epizootic cycles in mammalians in wild plague foci one should look for Yersinia pestis in the protozoa from the burrows of their primary and secondary carriers. Because parasitism of bacteria in one-celled animals is essentially epizootic, plague epizootics are presumed to be a permanent process.

  19. United States Government Regulations and International Standards Related to Food Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    Knowledge of government regulations relevant to the chemical analysis of foods is extremely important to persons working in the food industry. Federal laws and regulations reinforce the efforts of the food industry to provide wholesome foods, to inform consumers about the nutritional composition of foods, and to eliminate economic frauds. In some cases, they dictate what ingredients a food must contain, what must be tested, and the procedures used to analyze foods for safety factors and quality attributes. This chapter describes the US federal regulations related to the composition of foods. The reader is referred to references (1-4) for comprehensive coverage of US food laws and regulations. Many of the regulations referred to in this chapter are published in the various titles of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) (5). This chapter also includes information about food standards and safety practices established by international organizations. Internet addresses are given at the end of this chapter for many of the government agencies, organizations, and documents discussed.

  20. Investigating How to Align Schools' Marketing Environments With Federal Standards for Competitive Foods.

    PubMed

    Polacsek, Michele; O'Brien, Liam M; Pratt, Elizabeth; Whatley-Blum, Janet; Adler, Sabrina

    2017-03-01

    Limiting food and beverage marketing to children is a promising approach to influence children's nutrition behavior. School-based marketing influences nutrition behavior and studies have consistently found marketing for nonnutritious foods and beverages in schools. No studies have examined the resources necessary to align school marketing environments with federal school nutrition standards. The purpose of this study was to determine how to improve school marketing environments so that they align with new federal competitive food nutrition standards. We assessed food marketing environments in 3 Portland, Maine schools using the Food and Beverage Marketing Survey (FBMS) and provided technical assistance to bring their marketing environments into conformity with the federal competitive food regulations, tracking resources and strategies for marketing removal. Noncompliant marketing was significantly reduced pre- to postintervention. Intervention strategies were facilitated by the School Health Coordinator and school-based wellness teams. Low monetary resources were required to remove marketing not compliant with federal nutrition standards for foods sold in schools. Several key challenges remain to sustain efforts. This study provides timely information for policymakers to support crafting policies that address the realities of school nutrition environments and universal enforcement challenges. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  1. Standardization of the Food Composition Database Used in the Latin American Nutrition and Health Study (ELANS)

    PubMed Central

    Kovalskys, Irina; Fisberg, Mauro; Gómez, Georgina; Rigotti, Attilio; Cortés, Lilia Yadira; Yépez, Martha Cecilia; Pareja, Rossina G.; Herrera-Cuenca, Marianella; Zimberg, Ioná Z.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Koletzko, Berthold; Pratt, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Between-country comparisons of estimated dietary intake are particularly prone to error when different food composition tables are used. The objective of this study was to describe our procedures and rationale for the selection and adaptation of available food composition to a single database to enable cross-country nutritional intake comparisons. Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS) is a multicenter cross-sectional study of representative samples from eight Latin American countries. A standard study protocol was designed to investigate dietary intake of 9000 participants enrolled. Two 24-h recalls using the Multiple Pass Method were applied among the individuals of all countries. Data from 24-h dietary recalls were entered into the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R) program after a harmonization process between countries to include local foods and appropriately adapt the NDS-R database. A food matching standardized procedure involving nutritional equivalency of local food reported by the study participants with foods available in the NDS-R database was strictly conducted by each country. Standardization of food and nutrient assessments has the potential to minimize systematic and random errors in nutrient intake estimations in the ELANS project. This study is expected to result in a unique dataset for Latin America, enabling cross-country comparisons of energy, macro- and micro-nutrient intake within this region. PMID:26389952

  2. Standardization of the Food Composition Database Used in the Latin American Nutrition and Health Study (ELANS).

    PubMed

    Kovalskys, Irina; Fisberg, Mauro; Gómez, Georgina; Rigotti, Attilio; Cortés, Lilia Yadira; Yépez, Martha Cecilia; Pareja, Rossina G; Herrera-Cuenca, Marianella; Zimberg, Ioná Z; Tucker, Katherine L; Koletzko, Berthold; Pratt, Michael

    2015-09-16

    Between-country comparisons of estimated dietary intake are particularly prone to error when different food composition tables are used. The objective of this study was to describe our procedures and rationale for the selection and adaptation of available food composition to a single database to enable cross-country nutritional intake comparisons. Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS) is a multicenter cross-sectional study of representative samples from eight Latin American countries. A standard study protocol was designed to investigate dietary intake of 9000 participants enrolled. Two 24-h recalls using the Multiple Pass Method were applied among the individuals of all countries. Data from 24-h dietary recalls were entered into the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R) program after a harmonization process between countries to include local foods and appropriately adapt the NDS-R database. A food matching standardized procedure involving nutritional equivalency of local food reported by the study participants with foods available in the NDS-R database was strictly conducted by each country. Standardization of food and nutrient assessments has the potential to minimize systematic and random errors in nutrient intake estimations in the ELANS project. This study is expected to result in a unique dataset for Latin America, enabling cross-country comparisons of energy, macro- and micro-nutrient intake within this region.

  3. Energy content estimation by collegians for portion standardized foods frequently consumed in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin; Lee, Hee Jung; Lee, Hyun Jung; Lee, Sun Ha; Yun, Jee-Young; Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate Korean collegians' knowledge of energy content in the standard portion size of foods frequently consumed in Korea and to investigate the differences in knowledge between gender groups. A total of 600 collegians participated in this study. Participants' knowledge was assessed based on their estimation on the energy content of 30 selected food items with their actual-size photo images. Standard portion size of food was based on 2010 Korean Dietary Reference Intakes, and the percentage of participants who accurately estimated (that is, within 20% of the true value) the energy content of the standard portion size was calculated for each food item. The food for which the most participants provided the accurate estimation was ramyun (instant noodles) (67.7%), followed by cooked rice (57.8%). The proportion of students who overestimated the energy content was highest for vegetables (68.8%) and beverages (68.1%). The proportion of students who underestimated the energy content was highest for grains and starches (42.0%) and fruits (37.1%). Female students were more likely to check energy content of foods that they consumed than male students. From these results, it was concluded that the knowledge on food energy content was poor among collegians, with some gender difference. Therefore, in the future, nutrition education programs should give greater attention to improving knowledge on calorie content and to helping them apply this knowledge in order to develop effective dietary plans.

  4. Energy Content Estimation by Collegians for Portion Standardized Foods Frequently Consumed in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin; Lee, Hee Jung; Lee, Hyun Jung; Lee, Sun Ha; Yun, Jee-Young; Choi, Mi-Kyeong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate Korean collegians' knowledge of energy content in the standard portion size of foods frequently consumed in Korea and to investigate the differences in knowledge between gender groups. A total of 600 collegians participated in this study. Participants' knowledge was assessed based on their estimation on the energy content of 30 selected food items with their actual-size photo images. Standard portion size of food was based on 2010 Korean Dietary Reference Intakes, and the percentage of participants who accurately estimated (that is, within 20% of the true value) the energy content of the standard portion size was calculated for each food item. The food for which the most participants provided the accurate estimation was ramyun (instant noodles) (67.7%), followed by cooked rice (57.8%). The proportion of students who overestimated the energy content was highest for vegetables (68.8%) and beverages (68.1%). The proportion of students who underestimated the energy content was highest for grains and starches (42.0%) and fruits (37.1%). Female students were more likely to check energy content of foods that they consumed than male students. From these results, it was concluded that the knowledge on food energy content was poor among collegians, with some gender difference. Therefore, in the future, nutrition education programs should give greater attention to improving knowledge on calorie content and to helping them apply this knowledge in order to develop effective dietary plans. PMID:24527417

  5. [Ecological-geographic landscapes of natural plague foci in China VIII. Typing of natural plague foci].

    PubMed

    Fang, Xi-ye; Liu, Qi-yong; Xu, Lei; Zhou, Dong-sheng; Cui, Yu-jun; Dong, Xing-qi; Zhang, Rong-zu; Gu, Shao-hua; Ye, Cai-de; Yang, Rui-fu

    2013-01-01

    Since plague is an important natural focus zoonosis, the typing of natural plague foci becomes one of the elements in understanding the nature and developing related prevention program of the disease. Natural foci of plague are composed by four fundamental parts which include Eco-geographical landscape (natural plague foci), hosts, vectors and pathogens (Yersinia pestis) that comprehensively interact through the large temporal scale of evolution. Human activities have had great impact on the foci of natural plague. Based on the published serial research papers, we tried to integrate the knowledge of each factor in natural plague foci and focusing on theoretical aspects, so as to strengthen the prevention and surveillance programs of plague to be extrapolated to other zoonosis.

  6. Food intake in laboratory rats provided standard and fenbendazole-supplemented diets.

    PubMed

    Vento, Peter J; Swartz, Megan E; Martin, Lisa Be; Daniels, Derek

    2008-11-01

    The benzimidazole anthelmintic fenbendazole (FBZ) is a common and effective treatment for pinworm infestation in laboratory animal colonies. Although many investigators have examined the potential for deleterious biologic effects of FBZ, more subtle aspects of the treatment remain untested. Accordingly, we evaluated differences in food intake when healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were provided a standard nonmedicated laboratory rodent chow or the same chow supplemented with FBZ. We also tested for a preference for either food type when subjects were provided a choice of the 2 diets. Data from these experiments showed no differences in food intake or body weight when rats were maintained on either standard or FBZ-supplemented chow. When the rats were given access to both the standard and FBZ-supplemented diets, they showed a clear preference for the standard diet. The preference for the standard diet indicates that the rats can discriminate between the 2 foods and may avoid the FBZ-supplemented chow when possible. Investigators conducting experiments during treatment with FBZ in which differences in food preference are relevant should be aware of these data and plan their studies accordingly.

  7. [Eco-geographic landscapes of natural plague foci in China I. Eco-geographic landscapes of natural plague foci].

    PubMed

    Fang, Xi-ye; Xu, Lei; Liu, Qi-yong; Zhang, Rong-zu

    2011-12-01

    To study the eco-geographic landscapes of natural plague foci, in China. According to the surveillance records on plague epidemics and the eco-geographic landscapes of natural plague foci based on the county level, the criterion for classifying the ecological geographic zone of Chinese natural plague foci was established. 12 types and 19 subtypes of eco-geographic landscapes on Chinese natural plague foci were identified. Scientific basis for Chinese natural plague foci classification was provided.

  8. New records of sylvatic plague in Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cully, J.F.; Carter, L.G.; Gage, K.L.

    2000-01-01

    Sylvatic plague, or plague of wild rodents is caused by Yersinia pestis and entered California (USA) from Asia about 1899. Extensive sampling during the 1930's and 1940's documented the spread of plague to approximately its current distribution in North America. Records from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention document plague in Kansas (USA) between 1945 and 1950, but since then there has been no documentation of plague in the state. Following a die-off of a black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colony on the Cimarron National Grassland, in the southwestern corner of Kansas (37??10???N, 101??45???W), we sampled fleas from burrows in June 1997, and tested them for Yersinia pestis. Twelve of 13 pools of Oropsyla hirsuta and one of two Pulex sp. were positive. A similar sample of fleas, from another colony where black-tailed prairie dogs were active at the time, yielded no positive fleas.

  9. Plague dynamics are driven by climate variation.

    PubMed

    Stenseth, Nils Chr; Samia, Noelle I; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Kausrud, Kyrre Linné; Begon, Mike; Davis, Stephen; Leirs, Herwig; Dubyanskiy, V M; Esper, Jan; Ageyev, Vladimir S; Klassovskiy, Nikolay L; Pole, Sergey B; Chan, Kung-Sik

    2006-08-29

    The bacterium Yersinia pestis causes bubonic plague. In Central Asia, where human plague is still reported regularly, the bacterium is common in natural populations of great gerbils. By using field data from 1949-1995 and previously undescribed statistical techniques, we show that Y. pestis prevalence in gerbils increases with warmer springs and wetter summers: A 1 degrees C increase in spring is predicted to lead to a >50% increase in prevalence. Climatic conditions favoring plague apparently existed in this region at the onset of the Black Death as well as when the most recent plague pandemic arose in the same region, and they are expected to continue or become more favorable as a result of climate change. Threats of outbreaks may thus be increasing where humans live in close contact with rodents and fleas (or other wildlife) harboring endemic plague.

  10. [Cost-benefit analysis in setting up limitation standards of aflatoxins in foods].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Xiumei

    2011-03-01

    To explore a reasonable limitation standard for aflatoxins in foods to protect the health of people in China with a cost-benefit analysis. A traditional mathematical model and MOE (margin of exposure) method was used to assess the effect of different limiting standards on health for total aflatoxins and aflatoxin B1 in peanut, corn and rice, and the loss of foods under different limiting standard levels was also calculated. The change of limiting standards for total aflatoxins and aflatoxin B1 in peanut and corn might have no significant influence on reducing the prevalence of liver cancer in China, but the loss of foods was significantly different. The change of limiting standards for total aflatoxins and aflatoxin B1 in ice might have significant influence both on reducing liver cancer and losing foods. The following limiting standards is advisable: 20 microg/kg for total aflatoxins and 15 microg/kg for Aflatoxin B1 in peanut and its products, 20 microg/kg for total aflatoxins and 15 microg/kg for aflatoxin B1 in corn, 10 microg/kg for total aflatoxins and 5 microg/kg or 10 microg/kg for aflatoxin B1 in rice.

  11. Validity of food consumption indicators in the Lao context: moving toward cross-cultural standardization.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Soo Mee; Webb, Patrick; Zeller, Manfred

    2013-03-01

    Cross-cultural validity of food security indicators is commonly presumed without questioning the suitability of generic indicators in different geographic settings. However, ethnic differences in the perception of and reporting on, food insecurity, as well as variations in consumption patterns, may limit the comparability of results. Although research on correction factors for standardization of food security indicators is in process, so far no universal indicator has been identified. The current paper considers the ability of the Food Consumption Score (FCS) developed by the World Food Programme in southern Africa in 1996 to meet the requirement of local cultural validity in a Laotian context. The analysis is based on research that seeks to identify options for correcting possible biases linked to cultural disparities. Based on the results of a household survey conducted in different agroecological zones of Laos in 2009, the FCS was validated against a benchmark of calorie consumption. Changing the thresholds and excluding small amounts of food items consumed were tested as options to correct for biases caused by cultural disparities. The FCS in its original form underestimates the food insecurity level in the surveyed villages. However, the closeness of fit of the FCS to the benchmark classification improves when small amounts of food items are excluded from the assessment. Further research in different cultural settings is required to generate more insight into the extent to which universal thresholds can be applied to dietary diversity indicators with or without locally determined correction factors such as the exclusion of small amounts of food items.

  12. Identification of Risk Factors for Plague in the West Nile Region of Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Eisen, Rebecca J.; MacMillan, Katherine; Atiku, Linda A.; Mpanga, Joseph T.; Zielinski-Gutierrez, Emily; Graham, Christine B.; Boegler, Karen A.; Enscore, Russell E.; Gage, Kenneth L.

    2014-01-01

    Plague is an often fatal, primarily flea-borne rodent-associated zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis. We sought to identify risk factors for plague by comparing villages with and without a history of human plague cases within a model-defined plague focus in the West Nile Region of Uganda. Although rat (Rattus rattus) abundance was similar inside huts within case and control villages, contact rates between rats and humans (as measured by reported rat bites) and host-seeking flea loads were higher in case villages. In addition, compared with persons in control villages, persons in case villages more often reported sleeping on reed or straw mats, storing food in huts where persons sleep, owning dogs and allowing them into huts where persons sleep, storing garbage inside or near huts, and cooking in huts where persons sleep. Compared with persons in case villages, persons in control villages more commonly reported replacing thatch roofing, and growing coffee, tomatoes, onions, and melons in agricultural plots adjacent to their homesteads. Rodent and flea control practices, knowledge of plague, distance to clinics, and most care-seeking practices were similar between persons in case villages and persons in control villages. Our findings reinforce existing plague prevention recommendations and point to potentially advantageous local interventions. PMID:24686743

  13. Identification of risk factors for plague in the West Nile Region of Uganda.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Rebecca J; MacMillan, Katherine; Atiku, Linda A; Mpanga, Joseph T; Zielinski-Gutierrez, Emily; Graham, Christine B; Boegler, Karen A; Enscore, Russell E; Gage, Kenneth L

    2014-06-01

    Plague is an often fatal, primarily flea-borne rodent-associated zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis. We sought to identify risk factors for plague by comparing villages with and without a history of human plague cases within a model-defined plague focus in the West Nile Region of Uganda. Although rat (Rattus rattus) abundance was similar inside huts within case and control villages, contact rates between rats and humans (as measured by reported rat bites) and host-seeking flea loads were higher in case villages. In addition, compared with persons in control villages, persons in case villages more often reported sleeping on reed or straw mats, storing food in huts where persons sleep, owning dogs and allowing them into huts where persons sleep, storing garbage inside or near huts, and cooking in huts where persons sleep. Compared with persons in case villages, persons in control villages more commonly reported replacing thatch roofing, and growing coffee, tomatoes, onions, and melons in agricultural plots adjacent to their homesteads. Rodent and flea control practices, knowledge of plague, distance to clinics, and most care-seeking practices were similar between persons in case villages and persons in control villages. Our findings reinforce existing plague prevention recommendations and point to potentially advantageous local interventions. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  14. [Exploration on the fulminating plague in Bianjing in 1232 and the climatic factors].

    PubMed

    Mou, Zhong-Xing

    2008-01-01

    The plague occurred in Bianjing in 1232 was a serious event in the history of Chinese epidemic. It lasted for over 50 days, with a death toll of over 900,000. It is speculated that this is a mass epidemic of pneumonic plague and the pathogen was carried by the Mongolian Army when attacking Bianjing. At that time, the plague spread in Mongolian Army camp and finally involved the suburbs of Bianjing. After the army withdrawal, when Bianjing residents and soldiers went out of the city to collect foods and were unfortunately infected, and thus this dangerous infectious disease was transmitted into the city from the suburbs. Soon, the plague broke out and became epidemic in Bianjing during the 27-day period of 5 May-1 June, because of the cold snap rushed upon Bianjing on 1 June, the unusual weather was the motive for the mass epidemic of the plague. By then, it was popularly recognized as "exogenous cold damage". At present, facing the global climatologic changes, it is of great practical significance to explore the rich materials of plague and the climatic records accumulated in Chinese medicine.

  15. Standard versus rapid food reintroduction after exclusive enteral nutritional therapy in paediatric Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Faiman, Abi; Mutalib, Mohamed; Moylan, Alexander; Morgan, Natalie; Crespi, Daniel; Furman, Mark; Kader, Ajmal

    2014-03-01

    In paediatric Crohn's disease (PCD), 6-8 weeks of exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is effective in 60-80% cases. EEN is followed by gradual food reintroduction over variable (1-5 weeks) periods. Currently, there is no recommended duration or method for food reintroduction. The rationale for slow reintroduction is unclear and may be because of concerns about food intolerance or to maintain longer remission. The aims of this study were as follows: to compare relapse rates following standard and rapid reintroduction of food after EEN in PCD and to determine the duration of maintained remission in two groups of PCD patients. Two groups with PCD were compared: group A received standard food reintroduction over 5 weeks and group B received rapid reintroduction over 3 days. Data were collected over two consecutive time periods: group A (2005-2009) and group B (2009-2011). Only patients with a new diagnosis of PCD were included. Those with strictures and those on steroids or biologicals during EEN were excluded. The minimum duration of follow-up was 1 year. Group A included 20 patients and group B included 19 patients. In these groups, EEN led to clinical remission in 80% of the patients in group A and in 76% of the patients in group B. At 6 months, one-third of the patients from each group had developed relapse and a year after EEN, 50% of the patients in group A and 47% of the patients in group B developed relapse. Time to first relapse was 188 days (group A) and 136 days (group B). None of these results were statistically significant. In PCD, rapid food reintroduction following 6-week EEN is safe and equally effective as longer food reintroduction. We propose that a rapid food reintroduction schedule be recommended as the most tolerable approach for food reintroduction. Relapse rate and duration of remission are uninfluenced by the type of food reintroduction.

  16. Understanding the complexities of private standards in global agri-food chains as they impact developing countries.

    PubMed

    Henson, Spencer; Humphrey, John

    2010-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of private standards governing food safety, food quality and environmental and social impacts of agri-food systems has raised concerns about the effects on developing countries, as well as the governance of agri-food value chains more broadly. It is argued that current debates have been 'clouded' by a failure to recognise the diversity of private standards in terms of their institutional form, who develops and adopts these standards and why. In particular, there is a need to appreciate the close inter-relationships between public regulations and private standards and the continuing ways in which private standards evolve.

  17. Prospects for new plague vaccines.

    PubMed

    Feodorova, Valentina A; Corbel, Michael J

    2009-12-01

    The potential application of Yersinia pestis for bioterrorism emphasizes the urgent need to develop more effective vaccines against airborne infection. The current status of plague vaccines has been reviewed. The present emphasis is on subunit vaccines based on the F1 and LcrV antigens. These provide good protection in animal models but may not protect against F1 strains with modifications to the type III secretion system. The duration of protection against pneumonic infection is also uncertain. Other strategies under investigation include defined live-attenuated vaccines, DNA vaccines, mucosal delivery systems and heterologous immunization. The live-attenuated strain Y. pestis EV NIIEG protects against aerosol challenge in animal models and, with further modification to reduce residual virulence and to optimize respiratory protection, it could provide a shortcut to improved vaccines. The regulatory problems inherent in licensing vaccines for which efficacy data are unavailable and their possible solutions are discussed herein.

  18. Vaccination against bubonic and pneumonic plague.

    PubMed

    Titball, R W; Williamson, E D

    2001-07-20

    Yersinia pestis is the etiological agent of bubonic and pneumonic plague, diseases which have caused over 200 milllion human deaths in the past. Plague still occurs throughout the world today, though for reasons that are not fully understood pandemics of disease do not develop from these outbreaks. Antibiotic treatment of bubonic plague is usually effective, but pneumonic plague is difficult to treat and even with antibiotic therapy death often results. A killed whole cell plague vaccine has been used in the past, but recent studies in animals have shown that this vaccine offers poor protection against pneumonic disease. A live attenuated vaccine is also available. Whilst this vaccine is effective, it retains some virulence and in most countries it is not considered to be suitable for use in humans. We review here work to develop improved sub-unit and live attenuated vaccines against plague. A sub-unit vaccine based on the F1- and V-antigens is highly effective against both bubonic and pneumonic plague, when tested in animal models of disease. This vaccine has been used to explore the utility of different intranasal and oral delivery systems, based on the microencapsulation or Salmonella delivery of sub-units.

  19. 9 CFR 319.10 - Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient content claim and a standardized term... Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient content claim... results from reduction of a constituent that is described by an expressed nutrient content claim that...

  20. 9 CFR 319.10 - Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient content claim and a standardized term... Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient content claim... results from reduction of a constituent that is described by an expressed nutrient content claim that...

  1. 9 CFR 319.10 - Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient content claim and a standardized term... Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient content claim... results from reduction of a constituent that is described by an expressed nutrient content claim that...

  2. 9 CFR 319.10 - Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient content claim and a standardized term... Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient content claim... results from reduction of a constituent that is described by an expressed nutrient content claim that...

  3. 9 CFR 319.10 - Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient content claim and a standardized term... Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient content claim... results from reduction of a constituent that is described by an expressed nutrient content claim that...

  4. Microbiological standards and handling codes for chilled and frozen foods. A review.

    PubMed

    ELLIOTT, R P; MICHENER, H D

    1961-09-01

    The usefulness of microbiological standards for frozen foods is now a controversy in the trade and scientific literature. Most reviewers have given arguments both for and against, and have concluded that they should be applied with great caution. Such standards have the advantage of putting questions of safety on a convenient numerical basis. Canadian workers have reported that promulgation of standards has invariably raised the hygienic level of the products controlled. Bacteriological standards have often been associated with the question of safety to the consumer. Everyone recognizes that food poisoning bacteria are a potential danger in any food. But many have argued that the history of food poisoning outbreaks from frozen foods is excellent and that there is no need for standards; on the other hand, proponents of standards have pointed to the incomplete investigation and reporting of outbreaks, and have argued that there may be more outbreaks than we realize. They have pointed to laboratory studies that have shown grossly mishandled precooked frozen foods to be truly dangerous. Some have proposed that pathogens should be absent from foods; but others have questioned that a microbiological standard can accomplish this end. Some pathogens, such as Salmonella or Staphylococcus have been shown to be so ubiquitous that their presence in some commercial foods is unavoidable. Also, sampling and analytical methods have been described as inadequate to guarantee that pathogens present will be detected. Some have argued that control at the source is a better way-through inspections of the plant operation, by enforcement of handling codes, or by processing procedures such as pasteurization, which would be more certain to result in a pathogen-free food.A most important part of any of the proposed standards is a "total count" of viable aerobic bacteria. English workers have found that foods causing poisoning outbreaks usually had total viable counts above 10 million per

  5. Impact of Nutrition Standards on Competitive Food Quality in Massachusetts Middle and High Schools.

    PubMed

    Gorski, Mary T; Cohen, Juliana F W; Hoffman, Jessica A; Rosenfeld, Lindsay; Chaffee, Ruth; Smith, Lauren; Rimm, Eric B

    2016-06-01

    To examine changes in competitive foods (items sold in à la carte lines, vending machines, and school stores that "compete" with school meals) in Massachusetts middle and high schools before and after implementation of a statewide nutrition law in 2012. We photographed n = 10 782 competitive foods and beverages in 36 Massachusetts school districts and 7 control state districts to determine availability and compliance with the law at baseline (2012), 1 year (2013), and 2 years (2014) after the policy (overall enrollment: 71 202 students). We examined availability and compliance trends over time. By 2014, 60% of competitive foods and 79% of competitive beverages were compliant. Multilevel models showed an absolute 46.2% increase for foods (95% confidence interval = 36.2, 56.3) and 46.8% increase for beverages (95% confidence interval = 39.2, 54.4) in schools' alignment with updated standards from 2012 to 2014. The law's implementation resulted in major improvements in the availability and nutritional quality of competitive foods and beverages, but schools did not reach 100% compliance. This law closely mirrors US Department of Agriculture Smart Snacks in School standards, suggesting that complying with strict nutrition standards is feasible, and schools may experience challenges and improvements over time.

  6. Epizootiologic parameters for plague in Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Begon, Michael

    2006-02-01

    Reliable estimates are lacking of key epizootiologic parameters for plague caused by Yersinia pestis infection in its natural reservoirs. We report results of a 3-year longitudinal study of plague dynamics in populations of a maintenance host, the great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus), in 2 populations in Kazakhstan. Serologic results suggest a mid-summer peak in the abundance of infectious hosts and possible transmission from the reservoir to humans. Decrease in antibody titer to an undetectable level showed no seasonal pattern. Our findings did not support the use of the nitroblue-tetrazolium test characterization of plague-infected hosts. Y. pestis infection reduced survival of otherwise asymptomatic hosts.

  7. Epizootiologic Parameters for Plague in Kazakhstan

    PubMed Central

    Klassovskiy, Nikolay; Ageyev, Vladimir; Suleimenov, Bakhtiar; Atshabar, Bakhyt; Bennett, Malcolm

    2006-01-01

    Reliable estimates are lacking of key epizootiologic parameters for plague caused by Yersinia pestis infection in its natural reservoirs. We report results of a 3-year longitudinal study of plague dynamics in populations of a maintenance host, the great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus), in 2 populations in Kazakhstan. Serologic results suggest a mid-summer peak in the abundance of infectious hosts and possible transmission from the reservoir to humans. Decrease in antibody titer to an undetectable level showed no seasonal pattern. Our findings did not support the use of the nitroblue-tetrazolium test characterization of plague-infected hosts. Y. pestis infection reduced survival of otherwise asymptomatic hosts. PMID:16494753

  8. Predictive thresholds for plague in Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Davis, Stephen; Begon, Mike; De Bruyn, Luc; Ageyev, Vladimir S; Klassovskiy, Nikolay L; Pole, Sergey B; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Leirs, Herwig

    2004-04-30

    In Kazakhstan and elsewhere in central Asia, the bacterium Yersinia pestis circulates in natural populations of gerbils, which are the source of human cases of bubonic plague. Our analysis of field data collected between 1955 and 1996 shows that plague invades, fades out, and reinvades in response to fluctuations in the abundance of its main reservoir host, the great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus). This is a rare empirical example of the two types of abundance thresholds for infectious disease-invasion and persistence- operating in a single wildlife population. We parameterized predictive models that should reduce the costs of plague surveillance in central Asia and thereby encourage its continuance.

  9. Discovery of the Plague Pathogen: Lessons Learned.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruifu; Butler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Plague resulted in three pandemics in history; however, its causative pathogen was isolated until the third pandemic in Hong Kong in 1894. At that time, two famous researchers, Dr. Alexandre Yersin and Dr. Shibasaburo Kitasato, went to HK, in order to identify the pathogen. The two great researchers had done a lot of work to isolate and identify the causative pathogen. However, Dr. Alexandre Yersin reported the real pathogen for plague, and we now acknowledge his work by nominating the pathogen's genus as Yersinia. In this chapter, we discussed the lessons learned from the two researchers' experience on isolation and identification of plague pathogen.

  10. Microbiological Standards and Handling Codes for Chilled and Frozen Foods. A Review

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, R. Paul; Michener, H. David

    1961-01-01

    The usefulness of microbiological standards for frozen foods is now a controversy in the trade and scientific literature. Most reviewers have given arguments both for and against, and have concluded that they should be applied with great caution. Such standards have the advantage of putting questions of safety on a convenient numerical basis. Canadian workers have reported that promulgation of standards has invariably raised the hygienic level of the products controlled. Bacteriological standards have often been associated with the question of safety to the consumer. Everyone recognizes that food poisoning bacteria are a potential danger in any food. But many have argued that the history of food poisoning outbreaks from frozen foods is excellent and that there is no need for standards; on the other hand, proponents of standards have pointed to the incomplete investigation and reporting of outbreaks, and have argued that there may be more outbreaks than we realize. They have pointed to laboratory studies that have shown grossly mishandled precooked frozen foods to be truly dangerous. Some have proposed that pathogens should be absent from foods; but others have questioned that a microbiological standard can accomplish this end. Some pathogens, such as Salmonella or Staphylococcus have been shown to be so ubiquitous that their presence in some commercial foods is unavoidable. Also, sampling and analytical methods have been described as inadequate to guarantee that pathogens present will be detected. Some have argued that control at the source is a better way—through inspections of the plant operation, by enforcement of handling codes, or by processing procedures such as pasteurization, which would be more certain to result in a pathogen-free food. A most important part of any of the proposed standards is a “total count” of viable aerobic bacteria. English workers have found that foods causing poisoning outbreaks usually had total viable counts above 10 million

  11. 78 FR 9529 - National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... create an environment that reinforces the development of healthy eating habits. DATES: Online comments... environment that reinforces the development of healthy eating habits. The standards for food and beverages... the kind of healthful eating habits and lifestyles that will enable them to live healthier,...

  12. Nutrition Health Promotion in Schools in the UK: Learning from Food Standards Agency Funded Schools Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolfe, Jennifer; Stockley, Lynn

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To test the feasibility and effectiveness of dietary change interventions in UK school-based settings. This overview draws out the main lessons that were learnt from these studies, for both practitioners and researchers. Design: A review and analysis of the final reports from five studies commissioned by the Food Standards Agency.…

  13. Sylvatic plague vaccine: combating plague in prarie dogs and black-footed ferrets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Abbott, Rachel C.

    2012-01-01

    After achieving promising results in laboratory trials, researchers at the USGS National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) and University of Wisconsin at Madison will soon begin field testing a new oral vaccine for sylvatic plague, a devastating disease affecting prairie dogs and other mammals, particularly the endangered black-footed ferret. Our team has developed and is currently registering a sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) that uses raccoon poxvirus (RCN) to express two key antigens of the Yersinia pestis bacterium, the causative agent of plague.

  14. [The arrival of the plague in São Paulo in 1899].

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Dilene Raimundo

    2011-01-01

    In October 1899, the bubonic plague arrived in Brazil through the port of Santos. A city of intensive port activity, Santos was the gateway for a plague epidemic that devastated several cities in Brazil in the early 20th century and prompted joint action by several states to fight it. More importantly, given the difficulties and delays in importing anti-plague serum from Europe, it led to the creation of the Butantan Institute in Sao Paulo (in 1899) and the Municipal Serotherapeutic Institute in Rio de Janeiro (in 1900), which developed and standardized anti-plague serum and vaccines according to the particular conditions of the country. Until then, public health efforts had been isolated and had not reached the whole country. Oswaldo Cruz, newly arrived after three years of specialization at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, worked with scientists Adolfo Lutz and Vital Brazil on identifying the plague in Santos. This article analyzes the arrival of the bubonic plague epidemic in the state of Sao Paulo and the public health measures taken to combat the disease and provide patient care in the early part of the 20th century. The primary sources for this analysis were the São Paulo newspapers, especially O Estado de Sao Paulo, and reports from the Ministry of Justice and the President of the State of Sao Paulo.

  15. A Field Study of Plague and Tularemia in Rodents, Western Iran.

    PubMed

    Mostafavi, Ehsan; Shahraki, Abdolrazagh Hashemi; Japoni-Nejad, Alireza; Esmaeili, Saber; Darvish, Jamshid; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Mohammadi, Ali; Mohammadi, Zeinolabedin; Mahmoudi, Ahmad; Pourhossein, Behzad; Ghasemi, Ahmad; Gyuranecz, Miklós; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2017-04-01

    Kurdistan Province in Iran is a historical focus for plague and tularemia. This study aimed at assessing the current status of these two foci by studying their rodent reservoirs. Rodents were trapped and their ectoparasites were collected. The genus and species of both rodents and ectoparasites were determined. Serological analyses of rodent blood samples were done by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for plague and by standard tube agglutination assay for tularemia. Rodent spleen samples were subjected to bacterial culture, microscopic examination, and real-time PCR to search for active plague or tularemia infection. During this study, 245 rodents were trapped, of which the most abundant genera were Apodemus (40%), Mus (24.49%), and Meriones (12.65%). One hundred fifty-three fleas, 37 mites, and 54 ticks were collected on these rodents. The results of all direct and indirect tests were negative for plague. Serological tests were positive for tularemia in 4.8% of trapped rodents. This study is the first report on the presence of tularemia infection in rodents in Western Iran. Since Meriones persicus is a known reservoir for plague and tularemia, and this rodent carried plague and tularemia vectors in Marivan and Sanandaj districts, there is a real potential for the occurrence of these two diseases in this region.

  16. Mortality risk factors show similar trends in modern and historic populations exposed to plague.

    PubMed

    Rubini, Mauro; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela; Manzon, Vanessa S; Rinaldo, Natascia; Bianucci, Raffaella

    2016-05-31

    Plague has been responsible for two major historic pandemics (6th-8th century CE; 14th-19th century CE) and a modern one. The recent Malagasy plague outbreaks raised new concerns on the deadly potential of the plague-causing bacteria Yersinia pestis. Between September 2014 and April 2015, outbreaks of bubonic and pneumonic plague hit the Malagasy population. Two hundred and sixty-three cases, including 71 deaths, have been reported in 16 different districts with a case fatality rate of 27%. The scope of our study was to ascertain whether the risk factors for health in modern-day populations exposed to plague and in ancient populations that faced the two historic pandemics varied or remained substantially unaltered. The risk of mortality of the Malagasy population with those obtained from the reconstruction of three samples of European populations exposed to the historic pandemics was contrasted. The evidence shows that the risks of death are not uniform across age neither in modern nor in historic populations exposed to plague and shows precise concentrations in specific age groups (children between five and nine years of age and young adults). Although in the post-antibiotic era, the fatality rates have drastically reduced, both modern and historic populations were exposed to the same risk factors that are essentially represented by a low standard of environmental hygiene, poor nutrition, and weak health systems.

  17. Pneumonic Plague Outbreak, Northern Madagascar, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Vincent; Herindrainy, Perlinot; Soanandrasana, Rahelinirina; Ratsitoharina, Maherisoa; Rakotomanana, Fanjasoa; Andrianalimanana, Samuel; Scholz, Holger C.; Rajerison, Minoarisoa

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is endemic to Madagascar, particularly to the central highlands. Although plague has not been previously reported in northern Madagascar, an outbreak of pneumonic plague occurred in this remote area in 2011. Over a 27-day period, 17 suspected, 2 presumptive, and 3 confirmed human cases were identified, and all 15 untreated 20 patients died. Molecular typing of Y. pestis isolated from 2 survivors and 5 Rattus rattus rat samples identified the Madagascar-specific 1.ORI3-k single-nucleotide polymorphism genotype and 4 clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat patterns. This outbreak had a case-fatality rate of 100% for nontreated patients. The Y. pestis 1.ORI3-k single-nucleotide polymorphism genotype might cause larger epidemics. Multidrug-resistant strains and persistence of the pathogen in natural foci near human settlements pose severe risks to populations in plague-endemic regions and require outbreak response strategies. PMID:25530466

  18. Pneumonic plague outbreak, Northern Madagascar, 2011.

    PubMed

    Richard, Vincent; Riehm, Julia M; Herindrainy, Perlinot; Soanandrasana, Rahelinirina; Ratsitoharina, Maherisoa; Rakotomanana, Fanjasoa; Andrianalimanana, Samuel; Scholz, Holger C; Rajerison, Minoarisoa

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is endemic to Madagascar, particularly to the central highlands. Although plague has not been previously reported in northern Madagascar, an outbreak of pneumonic plague occurred in this remote area in 2011. Over a 27-day period, 17 suspected, 2 presumptive, and 3 confirmed human cases were identified, and all 15 untreated 20 patients died. Molecular typing of Y. pestis isolated from 2 survivors and 5 Rattus rattus rat samples identified the Madagascar-specific 1.ORI3-k single-nucleotide polymorphism genotype and 4 clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat patterns. This outbreak had a case-fatality rate of 100% for nontreated patients. The Y. pestis 1.ORI3-k single-nucleotide polymorphism genotype might cause larger epidemics. Multidrug-resistant strains and persistence of the pathogen in natural foci near human settlements pose severe risks to populations in plague-endemic regions and require outbreak response strategies.

  19. The plague and its place in history.

    PubMed

    Leavesley, J H

    1979-09-01

    An outline is presented of the various pan-epidemics of a disease which has been in the past one of mankind's greatest scourges--the plague. Its pathogenesis, spread and effect on the course of history from biblical times until the seventeenth century is traced with a detailed review of the origins of the Black Death. The opinion is forwarded that plague has had a greater impact on the course of human history than any war or any other single disease.

  20. Human Plague Risk: Spatial-Temporal Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinzon, Jorge E.

    2010-01-01

    This chpater reviews the use of spatial-temporal models in identifying potential risks of plague outbreaks into the human population. Using earth observations by satellites remote sensing there has been a systematic analysis and mapping of the close coupling between the vectors of the disease and climate variability. The overall result is that incidence of plague is correlated to positive El Nino/Southem Oscillation (ENSO).

  1. DIAGNOSIS AND DETECTION OF RODENT PLAGUE

    PubMed Central

    Williams, C. L.

    1920-01-01

    Stories of his own observations by one who has had experience are the most valuable kind of lessons. This authority places before his readers details of the diagnosis of plague and practical laboratory methods. He outlines the essential features of technique and determination clearly and accurately and has here really a preparatory course in plague detection that it is not easy to get from books. Imagesp864-a PMID:18010391

  2. Pneumonic Plague Transmission, Moramanga, Madagascar, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Ramasindrazana, Beza; Andrianaivoarimanana, Voahangy; Rakotondramanga, Jean Marius; Birdsell, Dawn N.; Ratsitorahina, Maherisoa

    2017-01-01

    During a pneumonic plague outbreak in Moramanga, Madagascar, we identified 4 confirmed, 1 presumptive, and 9 suspected plague case-patients. Human-to-human transmission among close contacts was high (reproductive number 1.44) and the case fatality rate was 71%. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Yersinia pestis isolates belonged to group q3, different from the previous outbreak. PMID:28221119

  3. Filling the AOAC triangle with food-matrix standard reference materials.

    PubMed

    Sharpless, Katherine E; Greenberg, Robert R; Schantz, Michele M; Welch, Michael J; Wise, Stephen A; Ihnat, Milan

    2004-03-01

    Well-characterized reference materials are needed by laboratories in the food testing and nutrition communities to facilitate compliance with nutritional labeling laws, to provide traceability for food exports needed for acceptance in many foreign markets, and to improve the accuracy of nutrition information that is provided to assist consumers in making sound dietary choices. As a result of the enactment of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 and the Infant Formula Act of 1980, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has developed a suite of food-matrix Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) characterized for nutrient concentrations. These include SRM 1544 Fatty Acids and Cholesterol in a Frozen Diet Composite, SRM 1546 Meat Homogenate, SRM 1548a Typical Diet, SRM 1566b Oyster Tissue, SRM 1846 Infant Formula, SRM 1946 Lake Superior Fish Tissue, SRM 2383 Baby Food Composite, SRM 2384 Baking Chocolate, SRM 2385 Spinach, and SRM 2387 Peanut Butter. Many of these materials were developed at the request of the food industry to populate a nine-sectored fat-protein-carbohydrate triangle developed by AOAC International. With the completion of SRM 2387, SRMs representing each sector of the triangle are now available. These food-matrix reference materials are intended primarily for validation of analytical methods for the measurement of proximates, fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, and so on in foods of similar composition. They may also be used as "primary control materials" in the value-assignment of in-house, secondary, control materials to confirm accuracy as well as to establish traceability to NIST.

  4. Landscape and Residential Variables Associated with Plague-Endemic Villages in the West Nile Region of Uganda

    PubMed Central

    MacMillan, Katherine; Enscore, Russell E.; Ogen-Odoi, Asaph; Borchert, Jeff N.; Babi, Nackson; Amatre, Gerald; Atiku, Linda A.; Mead, Paul S.; Gage, Kenneth L.; Eisen, Rebecca J.

    2011-01-01

    Plague, caused by the bacteria Yersinia pestis, is a severe, often fatal disease. This study focuses on the plague-endemic West Nile region of Uganda, where limited information is available regarding environmental and behavioral risk factors associated with plague infection. We conducted observational surveys of 10 randomly selected huts within historically classified case and control villages (four each) two times during the dry season of 2006 (N = 78 case huts and N = 80 control huts), which immediately preceded a large plague outbreak. By coupling a previously published landscape-level statistical model of plague risk with this observational survey, we were able to identify potential residence-based risk factors for plague associated with huts within historic case or control villages (e.g., distance to neighboring homestead and presence of pigs near the home) and huts within areas previously predicted as elevated risk or low risk (e.g., corn and other annual crops grown near the home, water storage in the home, and processed commercial foods stored in the home). The identified variables are consistent with current ecologic theories on plague transmission dynamics. This preliminary study serves as a foundation for future case control studies in the area. PMID:21363983

  5. Landscape and residential variables associated with plague-endemic villages in the West Nile region of Uganda.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, Katherine; Enscore, Russell E; Ogen-Odoi, Asaph; Borchert, Jeff N; Babi, Nackson; Amatre, Gerald; Atiku, Linda A; Mead, Paul S; Gage, Kenneth L; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2011-03-01

    Plague, caused by the bacteria Yersinia pestis, is a severe, often fatal disease. This study focuses on the plague-endemic West Nile region of Uganda, where limited information is available regarding environmental and behavioral risk factors associated with plague infection. We conducted observational surveys of 10 randomly selected huts within historically classified case and control villages (four each) two times during the dry season of 2006 (N = 78 case huts and N = 80 control huts), which immediately preceded a large plague outbreak. By coupling a previously published landscape-level statistical model of plague risk with this observational survey, we were able to identify potential residence-based risk factors for plague associated with huts within historic case or control villages (e.g., distance to neighboring homestead and presence of pigs near the home) and huts within areas previously predicted as elevated risk or low risk (e.g., corn and other annual crops grown near the home, water storage in the home, and processed commercial foods stored in the home). The identified variables are consistent with current ecologic theories on plague transmission dynamics. This preliminary study serves as a foundation for future case control studies in the area.

  6. Ecology of plague in Africa: response of indigenous wild rodents to experimental plague infection

    PubMed Central

    Isaäcson, Margaretha; Taylor, Paul; Arntzen, Lorraine

    1983-01-01

    The Mastomys natalensis species complex, subdivided into genetically distinct species having diploid chromosome numbers 2n = 32 and 2n = 36, is a reservoir for several zoonoses including Lassa fever and plague. This report describes a study to determine whether these sibling species and three other rodent species have different potential as reservoirs for plague. It was found that M. natalensis (2n = 32) was significantly more resistant to experimental plague infection (50% survived inoculation with 120 000 Yersinia pseudotuberculosis subsp. pestis) than was M. coucha (2n = 36) (none of which survived doses of 190 Y. pseudotuberculosis subsp.pestis). In descending order of resistance were M. natalensis, Aethomys chrysophilus, M. coucha, Tatera leucogaster and A. namaquensis. No A. namaquensis survived inoculation of 10 or more plague bacilli. Previous reports on susceptibility to plague or other infections, which were based exclusively on findings in the universally distributed laboratory-bred Mastomys, are thus not necessarily applicable to the M. natalensis species as a whole but probably only to M. coucha. The Y. pseudotuberculosis subsp. pestis fraction-1 passive haemagglutination test appeared to be relatively insensitive in that only 5 out of 47 animals surviving experimental plague infection showed specific antibodies 6 weeks after challenge. The geographic distribution of human plague in southern Africa corresponds closely with that of the plague-susceptible species, M. coucha, while the resistant species, M. natalensis, predominates in areas where human plague has not been recorded. The role of A. namaquensis in the ecology of plague needs to be carefully studied and its possible importance in plague research should be investigated further. PMID:6345015

  7. Ecology of plague in Africa: response of indigenous wild rodents to experimental plague infection.

    PubMed

    Isaäcson, M; Taylor, P; Arntzen, L

    1983-01-01

    The Mastomys natalensis species complex, subdivided into genetically distinct species having diploid chromosome numbers 2n = 32 and 2n = 36, is a reservoir for several zoonoses including Lassa fever and plague. This report describes a study to determine whether these sibling species and three other rodent species have different potential as reservoirs for plague. It was found that M. natalensis (2n = 32) was significantly more resistant to experimental plague infection (50% survived inoculation with 120 000 Yersinia pseudotuberculosis subsp. pestis) than was M. coucha (2n = 36) (none of which survived doses of 190 Y. pseudotuberculosis subsp.pestis). In descending order of resistance were M. natalensis, Aethomys chrysophilus, M. coucha, Tatera leucogaster and A. namaquensis. No A. namaquensis survived inoculation of 10 or more plague bacilli.Previous reports on susceptibility to plague or other infections, which were based exclusively on findings in the universally distributed laboratory-bred Mastomys, are thus not necessarily applicable to the M. natalensis species as a whole but probably only to M. coucha. The Y. pseudotuberculosis subsp. pestis fraction-1 passive haemagglutination test appeared to be relatively insensitive in that only 5 out of 47 animals surviving experimental plague infection showed specific antibodies 6 weeks after challenge.The geographic distribution of human plague in southern Africa corresponds closely with that of the plague-susceptible species, M. coucha, while the resistant species, M. natalensis, predominates in areas where human plague has not been recorded. The role of A. namaquensis in the ecology of plague needs to be carefully studied and its possible importance in plague research should be investigated further.

  8. OIE philosophy, policy and procedures for the development of food safety standards.

    PubMed

    Droppers, W F G L

    2006-08-01

    Food safety was identified as a high priority area in the 2001-2005 World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Strategic Plan. Member Countries of the OIE considered that the organisation should be more active in issues of public health and consumer protection and that this should include more involvement in the area of diseases or pathogens transmissible through food, whether or not animals are affected by such diseases or pathogens. A permanent Working Group on Animal Production Food Safety was established in 2002 to coordinate the OIE's activities in food safety. The Working Group was requested to focus on food safety measures applicable at farm level and to monitor the ongoing cooperation between the OIE and Codex Alimentarius. More emphasis is now placed on the public health aspects of a disease when OIE standards are developed or revised. For example, the revised chapter on bovine tuberculosis in the Terrestrial Animal Health Code includes food safety recommendations for meat and meat products and for milk and milk products. The revised chapter was approved by the OIE International Committee of Member Countries at their 73rd General Session in May 2005. More chapters will follow, beginning with a chapter addressing bovine brucellosis.

  9. Food security of older children can be assessed using a standardized survey instrument.

    PubMed

    Connell, Carol L; Nord, Mark; Lofton, Kristi L; Yadrick, Kathy

    2004-10-01

    Cognitive interviewing methods were used to adapt questions from the U.S. Food Security Survey Module for administration to children. Individual concurrent probing techniques using standardized probes were utilized to assess understanding of the items with 20 African American children (10 males, 10 females, aged 11-13 y). Item wording and response sets were revised, and small groups of boys (n = 5) and girls (n = 14) aged 12-15 y were asked to complete the 9-item survey. Retrospective probing techniques were then used to assess comprehension of items and response sets. Nine items were then piloted in a middle school using a self-administered format. Three hundred forty-five surveys were returned. The majority of the students were between 12 and 15 y (n = 215). Scaling analysis of the 345 completed surveys using statistical methods based on the Rasch measurement model indicated that the module measured a single underlying phenomenon (food insecurity) with sufficient reliability to be a useful tool. The measurable range of food insecurity was about 6 times the estimated measurement error, indicating that the scale could identify 3 categories of food security with reasonable reliability. A survey instrument that reliably measures food security status of individual children can provide researchers with an important tool to assess more accurately the individual-level effects of food security on nutritional status and mental and physical health among this population.

  10. 78 FR 36711 - Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act Title VII-Drug Supply Chain; Standards for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Chapter I Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act Title VII--Drug Supply Chain; Standards for Admission of Imported Drugs, Registration of...: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notification of public meeting; request for...

  11. Assessing Agricultural Literacy Elements of Project Food Land and People in K-5 Using the Food and Fiber Systems Literacy Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, David V.; Agnew, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural literacy has been evolving as a discipline for over 25 years. In agriculture, as other disciplines of education, the body of knowledge can be identified and measured by a set of standards. The Food and Fiber Systems Literacy Standards, developed in the 1990s, have been widely accepted as the standards for agricultural literacy. Also…

  12. Yersinia--flea interactions and the evolution of the arthropod-borne transmission route of plague.

    PubMed

    Chouikha, Iman; Hinnebusch, B Joseph

    2012-06-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is unique among the enteric group of Gram-negative bacteria in relying on a blood-feeding insect for transmission. The Yersinia-flea interactions that enable plague transmission cycles have had profound historical consequences as manifested by human plague pandemics. The arthropod-borne transmission route was a radical ecologic change from the food-borne and water-borne transmission route of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, from which Y. pestis diverged only within the last 20000 years. Thus, the interactions of Y. pestis with its flea vector that lead to colonization and successful transmission are the result of a recent evolutionary adaptation that required relatively few genetic changes. These changes from the Y. pseudotuberculosis progenitor included loss of insecticidal activity, increased resistance to antibacterial factors in the flea midgut, and extending Yersinia biofilm-forming ability to the flea host environment. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Yersinia-flea interactions and the evolution of the arthropod-borne transmission route of plague

    PubMed Central

    Chouikha, Iman; Hinnebusch, B. Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is unique among the enteric group of Gram-negative bacteria in relying on a blood-feeding insect for transmission. The Yersinia-flea interactions that enable plague transmission cycles have had profound historical consequences as manifested by human plague pandemics. The arthropod-borne transmission route was a radical ecologic change from the food- and water-borne transmission route of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, from which Y. pestis diverged only within the last 20,000 years. Thus, the interactions of Y. pestis with its flea vector that lead to colonization and successful transmission are the result of a recent evolutionary adaptation that required relatively few genetic changes. These changes from the Y. pseudotuberculosis progenitor included loss of insecticidal activity, increased resistance to antibacterial factors in the flea midgut, and extending Yersinia biofilm-forming ability to the flea host environment. PMID:22406208

  14. How to Build a Standardized Country-Specific Environmental Food Database for Nutritional Epidemiology Studies

    PubMed Central

    Bertoluci, Gwenola; Masset, Gabriel; Gomy, Catherine; Mottet, Julien; Darmon, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of standardized country-specific environmental data to combine with nutritional and dietary data for assessing the environmental impact of individual diets in epidemiology surveys, which are consequently reliant on environmental food datasets based on values retrieved from a heterogeneous literature. The aim of this study was to compare and assess the relative strengths and limits of a database of food greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) values estimated with a hybrid method combining input/output and LCA approaches, with a dataset of GHGE values retrieved from the literature. France is the geographical perimeter considered in this study, but the methodology could be applied to other countries. The GHGE of 402 foodstuffs, representative of French diet, were estimated using the hybrid method. In parallel, the GHGE of individual foods were collected from existing literature. Median per-food-category GHGE values from the hybrid method and the reviewed literature were found to correlate strongly (Spearman correlation was 0.83), showing similar rankings of food categories. Median values were significantly different for only 5 (out of 29) food categories, including the ruminant meats category for which the hybrid method gave lower estimates than those from existing literature. Analysis also revealed that literature values came from heterogeneous studies that were not always sourced and that were conducted under different LCA modeling hypotheses. In contrast, the hybrid method helps build reliably-sourced, representative national standards for product-based datasets. We anticipate this hybrid method to be a starting point for better environmental impact assessments of diets. PMID:27054565

  15. How to Build a Standardized Country-Specific Environmental Food Database for Nutritional Epidemiology Studies.

    PubMed

    Bertoluci, Gwenola; Masset, Gabriel; Gomy, Catherine; Mottet, Julien; Darmon, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of standardized country-specific environmental data to combine with nutritional and dietary data for assessing the environmental impact of individual diets in epidemiology surveys, which are consequently reliant on environmental food datasets based on values retrieved from a heterogeneous literature. The aim of this study was to compare and assess the relative strengths and limits of a database of food greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) values estimated with a hybrid method combining input/output and LCA approaches, with a dataset of GHGE values retrieved from the literature. France is the geographical perimeter considered in this study, but the methodology could be applied to other countries. The GHGE of 402 foodstuffs, representative of French diet, were estimated using the hybrid method. In parallel, the GHGE of individual foods were collected from existing literature. Median per-food-category GHGE values from the hybrid method and the reviewed literature were found to correlate strongly (Spearman correlation was 0.83), showing similar rankings of food categories. Median values were significantly different for only 5 (out of 29) food categories, including the ruminant meats category for which the hybrid method gave lower estimates than those from existing literature. Analysis also revealed that literature values came from heterogeneous studies that were not always sourced and that were conducted under different LCA modeling hypotheses. In contrast, the hybrid method helps build reliably-sourced, representative national standards for product-based datasets. We anticipate this hybrid method to be a starting point for better environmental impact assessments of diets.

  16. Plague in Africa from 1935 to 1949

    PubMed Central

    Davis, D. H. S.

    1953-01-01

    The history of plague in Africa during the period 1935-49 is reviewed. Much of the information derives from a questionnaire sent to all African territories in 1950. The annual incidence of plague in Africa declined, particularly from 1946 onwards. In 1949, under 400 cases were reported, as compared with over 6,000 in 1935. By the end of 1949, plague was still active in the Belgian Congo, Kenya and Tanganyika, Madagascar, and southern Africa. No cases were reported from Egypt, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Senegal, or Uganda during 1949. A comparison of the seasonal incidence of plague with prevailing atmospheric conditions (temperature and rainfall) in African territories shows that human plague is more frequent in warm moist weather—60°-80°F (15°-27°C)—than in hot dry, or cold, weather—over 80°F (27°C) or under 60°F (15°C). The highlands of equatorial Africa and of Madagascar appear to provide the optimum environment for the persistence of plague on the domestic (murine) plane and the high-veld and Kalahari of southern Africa on the sylvatic plane. The rat (Rattus rattus) and the multimammate mouse (R. (Mastomys) natalensis) and their fleas Xenopsylla brasiliensis and X. cheopis appear to be mainly responsible for the persistence of the reservoir in the East African highlands; R. rattus and X. cheopis play this role in Madagascar. The gerbils (Tatera and Desmodillus) and their burrow fleas X. philoxera and X. piriei are the main reservoirs of plague in southern Africa. Within these areas, Pasteurella pestis finds an environment suitable for its continued survival; the conditions seem to be comparable to those defined as obtaining in endemic centres in India. Elsewhere in Africa such endemic centres do not appear to exist. PMID:13115987

  17. Effects of early life exposure to methylmercury in Daphnia pulex on standard and reduced food ration

    PubMed Central

    Doke, Dzigbodi A.; Hudson, Sherri L.; Dawson, John A.; Gohlke, Julia M.

    2015-01-01

    As a well-known eco-toxicological model organism, Daphnia pulex may also offer advantages in human health research for assessing long-term effects of early life exposures to coupled stressors. Here, we examine consequences of early life exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) under standard and reduced food ration. We exposed Daphnia for 24 h in early life to varying concentrations of methylmercury(II) chloride (0, 200, 400, 800 and 1600 ng/L) and thereafter kept Daphnia on either a standard or a reduced food ration. The data suggests an additive effect of MeHg concentration and food ration on decreasing lifespan, although MeHg concentration does not affect survival linearly. Food ration and MeHg concentration were predictive of reduced reproduction, and there is some evidence of an interaction (p = 0.048). Multi-stressor work in alternative model systems may be useful for prioritizing research, taking into account potential antagonistic, additive or synergistic effects that nutritional status may have on chemical toxicity. PMID:25263226

  18. Burrowing Owls, Pulex irritans, and Plague.

    PubMed

    Belthoff, James R; Bernhardt, Scott A; Ball, Christopher L; Gregg, Michael; Johnson, David H; Ketterling, Rachel; Price, Emily; Tinker, Juliette K

    2015-09-01

    Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) are small, ground-dwelling owls of western North America that frequent prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) towns and other grasslands. Because they rely on rodent prey and occupy burrows once or concurrently inhabited by fossorial mammals, the owls often harbor fleas. We examined the potential role of fleas found on burrowing owls in plague dynamics by evaluating prevalence of Yersinia pestis in fleas collected from burrowing owls and in owl blood. During 2012-2013, fleas and blood were collected from burrowing owls in portions of five states with endemic plague-Idaho, Oregon, Washington, Colorado, and South Dakota. Fleas were enumerated, taxonomically identified, pooled by nest, and assayed for Y. pestis using culturing and molecular (PCR) approaches. Owl blood underwent serological analysis for plague antibodies and nested PCR for detection of Y. pestis. Of more than 4750 fleas collected from owls, Pulex irritans, a known plague vector in portions of its range, comprised more than 99.4%. However, diagnostic tests for Y. pestis of flea pools (culturing and PCR) and owl blood (PCR and serology) were negative. Thus, even though fleas were prevalent on burrowing owls and the potential for a relationship with burrowing owls as a phoretic host of infected fleas exists, we found no evidence of Y. pestis in sampled fleas or in owls that harbored them. We suggest that studies similar to those reported here during plague epizootics will be especially useful for confirming these results.

  19. Yersinia pestis halotolerance illuminates plague reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Maliya Alia; Bitam, Idir; Levasseur, Anthony; Terras, Jérôme; Gaudart, Jean; Azza, Said; Flaudrops, Christophe; Robert, Catherine; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2017-01-01

    The plague agent Yersinia pestis persists for years in the soil. Two millennia after swiping over Europe and North Africa, plague established permanent foci in North Africa but not in neighboring Europe. Mapping human plague foci reported in North Africa for 70 years indicated a significant location at <3 kilometers from the Mediterranean seashore or the edge of salted lakes named chotts. In Algeria, culturing 352 environmental specimens naturally containing 0.5 to 70 g/L NaCl yielded one Y. pestis Orientalis biotype isolate in a 40 g/L NaCl chott soil specimen. Core genome SNP analysis placed this isolate within the Y. pestis branch 1, Orientalis biovar. Culturing Y. pestis in broth steadily enriched in NaCl indicated survival up to 150 g/L NaCl as L-form variants exhibiting a distinctive matrix assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry peptide profile. Further transcriptomic analyses found the upregulation of several outer-membrane proteins including TolC efflux pump and OmpF porin implied in osmotic pressure regulation. Salt tolerance of Y. pestis L-form may play a role in the maintenance of natural plague foci in North Africa and beyond, as these geographical correlations could be extended to 31 plague foci in the northern hemisphere (from 15°N to 50°N). PMID:28054667

  20. Plague in China 2014-All sporadic case report of pneumonic plague.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun-Fang; Li, De-Biao; Shao, Hong-Sheng; Li, Hong-Jun; Han, Yue-Dong

    2016-02-19

    Yersinia pestis is the pathogen of the plague and caused three pandemics worldwide. Pneumonic plague is rarer than bubonic and septicemic plague. We report detailed clinical and pathogenic data for all the three sporadic cases of pneumonic plagues in China in 2014. All the three patients are herders in Gansu province of China. They were all infected by Yersinia pestis and displayed in the form of pneumonic plague respectively without related. We tested patient specimens from the upper (nasopharyngeal swabs) or the lower (sputum) respiratory tract and whole blood, plasma, and serum specimens for Yersinia pestis. All patients had fever, cough and dyspnea, and for patient 2 and 3, unconscious. Respiratory symptoms were predominant with acute respiratory failure. The chest X-ray showed signs consistent with necrotizing inflammation with multiple lobar involvements. Despite emergency treatment, all patients died of refractory multiple organ failure within 24 h after admission to hospital. All the contacts were quarantined immediately and there were no secondary cases. Nowadays, the plague is epidemic in animals and can infect people who contact with the infected animals which may cause an epidemic in human. We think dogs maybe an intermediate vector for plague and as a source of risk for humans who are exposed to pet animals or who work professionally with canines. If a patient has been exposed to a risk factor and has fever and dyspnea, plague should be considered. People who had contact with a confirmed case should be isolated and investigated for F1 antigen analysis and receive post-exposure preventive treatment. A vaccination strategy might be useful for individuals who are occupationally exposed in areas where endemically infected reservoirs of plague-infected small mammals co-exist.

  1. Characterization of NIST food-matrix Standard Reference Materials for their vitamin C content.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jeanice B; Yen, James H; Sharpless, Katherine E

    2013-05-01

    The vitamin C concentrations in three food-matrix Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have been determined by liquid chromatography (LC) with absorbance detection. These materials (SRM 1549a Whole Milk Powder, SRM 1849a Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula, and SRM 3233 Fortified Breakfast Cereal) have been characterized to support analytical measurements made by food processors that are required to provide information about their products' vitamin C content on the labels of products distributed in the United States. The SRMs are primarily intended for use in validating analytical methods for the determination of selected vitamins, elements, fatty acids, and other nutrients in these materials and in similar matrixes. They can also be used for quality assurance in the characterization of test samples or in-house control materials, and for establishing measurement traceability. Within-day precision of the LC method used to measure vitamin C in the food-matrix SRMs characterized in this study ranged from 2.7% to 6.5%.

  2. A review of plague persistence with special emphasis on fleas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wimsatt, Jeffrey; Biggins, Dean E.

    2009-01-01

    Here, we note a potentially pivotal role for fleas. These epizootic plague vectors should be closely studied with newer more exacting methods to determine their potential to serve as participants in or accomplices to a plague persistence reservoir.

  3. Impact of the plague in Ancient Greece.

    PubMed

    Soupios, M A

    2004-03-01

    Disease as a pivotal factor in determining the course of human events may be one og the least considered historical variables. When assessing the critical junctures of history, historians seem more inclined to focus on the impact of conquering armies, economic revolutions, and technologic breakthroughs. This analysis attempts to illustrate the seminal effects of the great plague of Athens. By depleting Athenian military personnel, depriving Athens of its charismatic leadership, and dissolving the system of ideals and principles that distinguished Athens from the rest of antiquity, the plague materially altered the outcome of the Peloponnesian War, which in turn deflected the flow of all subsequent Hellenic history.

  4. Current Perspectives on Plague Vector Control in Madagascar: Susceptibility Status of Xenopsylla cheopis to 12 Insecticides.

    PubMed

    Miarinjara, Adélaïde; Boyer, Sébastien

    2016-02-01

    Plague is a rodent disease transmissible to humans by infected flea bites, and Madagascar is one of the countries with the highest plague incidence in the world. This study reports the susceptibility of the main plague vector Xenopsylla cheopis to 12 different insecticides belonging to 4 insecticide families (carbamates, organophosphates, pyrethroids and organochlorines). Eight populations from different geographical regions of Madagascar previously resistant to deltamethrin were tested with a World Health Organization standard bioassay. Insecticide susceptibility varied amongst populations, but all of them were resistant to six insecticides belonging to pyrethroid and carbamate insecticides (alphacypermethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, etofenprox, deltamethrin, bendiocarb and propoxur). Only one insecticide (dieldrin) was an efficient pulicide for all flea populations. Cross resistances were suspected. This study proposes at least three alternative insecticides (malathion, fenitrothion and cyfluthrin) to replace deltamethrin during plague epidemic responses, but the most efficient insecticide may be different for each population studied. We highlight the importance of continuous insecticide susceptibility surveillance in the areas of high plague risk in Madagascar.

  5. Diverse Genotypes of Yersinia pestis Caused Plague in Madagascar in 2007.

    PubMed

    Riehm, Julia M; Projahn, Michaela; Vogler, Amy J; Rajerison, Minoaerisoa; Andersen, Genevieve; Hall, Carina M; Zimmermann, Thomas; Soanandrasana, Rahelinirina; Andrianaivoarimanana, Voahangy; Straubinger, Reinhard K; Nottingham, Roxanne; Keim, Paul; Wagner, David M; Scholz, Holger C

    2015-06-01

    Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of human plague and is endemic in various African, Asian and American countries. In Madagascar, the disease represents a significant public health problem with hundreds of human cases a year. Unfortunately, poor infrastructure makes outbreak investigations challenging. DNA was extracted directly from 93 clinical samples from patients with a clinical diagnosis of plague in Madagascar in 2007. The extracted DNAs were then genotyped using three molecular genotyping methods, including, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing, multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) analysis. These methods provided increasing resolution, respectively. The results of these analyses revealed that, in 2007, ten molecular groups, two newly described here and eight previously identified, were responsible for causing human plague in geographically distinct areas of Madagascar. Plague in Madagascar is caused by numerous distinct types of Y. pestis. Genotyping method choice should be based upon the discriminatory power needed, expense, and available data for any desired comparisons. We conclude that genotyping should be a standard tool used in epidemiological investigations of plague outbreaks.

  6. Current Perspectives on Plague Vector Control in Madagascar: Susceptibility Status of Xenopsylla cheopis to 12 Insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Miarinjara, Adélaïde; Boyer, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Plague is a rodent disease transmissible to humans by infected flea bites, and Madagascar is one of the countries with the highest plague incidence in the world. This study reports the susceptibility of the main plague vector Xenopsylla cheopis to 12 different insecticides belonging to 4 insecticide families (carbamates, organophosphates, pyrethroids and organochlorines). Eight populations from different geographical regions of Madagascar previously resistant to deltamethrin were tested with a World Health Organization standard bioassay. Insecticide susceptibility varied amongst populations, but all of them were resistant to six insecticides belonging to pyrethroid and carbamate insecticides (alphacypermethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, etofenprox, deltamethrin, bendiocarb and propoxur). Only one insecticide (dieldrin) was an efficient pulicide for all flea populations. Cross resistances were suspected. This study proposes at least three alternative insecticides (malathion, fenitrothion and cyfluthrin) to replace deltamethrin during plague epidemic responses, but the most efficient insecticide may be different for each population studied. We highlight the importance of continuous insecticide susceptibility surveillance in the areas of high plague risk in Madagascar. PMID:26844772

  7. Current challenges in the development of vaccines for pneumonic plague

    PubMed Central

    Smiley, Stephen T

    2008-01-01

    Inhalation of Yersinia pestis bacilli causes pneumonic plague, a rapidly progressing and exceptionally virulent disease. Extensively antibiotic-resistant Y. pestis strains exist and we currently lack a safe and effective pneumonic plague vaccine. These facts raise concern that Y. pestis may be exploited as a bioweapon. Here, I review the history and status of plague vaccine research and advocate that pneumonic plague vaccines should strive to prime both humoral and cellular immunity. PMID:18324890

  8. Under the law, FDA must grant different standards for new dietary ingredients and food additives.

    PubMed

    Mister, Steven; Hathcock, John

    2012-04-01

    The FDA's draft Guidance on notifications for new dietary ingredients attempts to narrow the scope of "old" dietary ingredients that do not require notification to FDA and repeats some mistakes from the past by going beyond what is required or permitted by the Food, Drug & Cosmetic Act, as amended by the Dietary Supplements Health and Education Act of 1994. The draft Guidance attempts to apply the notification requirement to new supplements, not just new ingredients, and it expands the working definition of "chemically altered" to include many changes that were not foreseen in the Congressional Record in 1994. Through these misinterpretations, FDA attempts to impose a food additives-like safety standard, and gain de facto premarket approval against the overt wishes of Congress.

  9. Wild felids as hosts for human plague, Western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bevins, S.N.; Tracey, J.A.; Franklin, S.P.; Schmit, V.L.; MacMillan, M.L.; Gage, K.L.; Schriefer, M.E.; Logan, K.A.; Sweanor, L.L.; Alldredge, M.W.; Krumm, C.; Boyce, W.M.; Vickers, W.; Riley, S.P.D.; Lyren, L.M.; Boydston, E.E.; Fisher, R.N.; Roelke, M.E.; Salman, M.; Crooks, K.R.; VandeWoude, S.

    2009-01-01

    Plague seroprevalence was estimated in populations pumas and bobcats in the western United States. High levels of exposure in plague-endemic regions indicate the need to consider the ecology and pathobiology of plague nondomestic felid hosts to better understand the role of these species in disease persistence and transmission.

  10. Wild Felids as Hosts for Human Plague, Western United States

    PubMed Central

    Tracey, Jeff A.; Franklin, Sam P.; Schmit, Virginia L.; MacMillan, Martha L.; Gage, Kenneth L.; Schriefer, Martin E.; Logan, Kenneth A.; Sweanor, Linda L.; Alldredge, Mat W.; Krumm, Caroline; Boyce, Walter M.; Vickers, Winston; Riley, Seth P.D.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Boydston, Erin E.; Fisher, Robert N.; Roelke, Melody E.; Salman, Mo; Crooks, Kevin R.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2009-01-01

    Plague seroprevalence was estimated in populations of pumas and bobcats in the western United States. High levels of exposure in plague-endemic regions indicate the need to consider the ecology and pathobiology of plague in nondomestic felid hosts to better understand the role of these species in disease persistence and transmission. PMID:19961691

  11. [A molecular basis of the plague vaccine development].

    PubMed

    Dentovskaia, S V; Kopylov, P Kh; Ivanov, S A; Ageev, S A; Anisimov, A P

    2013-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms of the Yersinia pestis pathogenicity and peculiarities of maturation of specific immunity to plague are reviewed. The history and modern state of the plague vaccine development are described. Special attention is focused on the prospects in the area of the plague vaccine development. The possible approaches to improvement of vaccine preparations are discussed.

  12. UK Food Standards Agency Optimal Nutrition Status Workshop: environmental factors that affect bone health throughout life.

    PubMed

    Burns, Lynn; Ashwell, Margaret; Berry, Jacqueline; Bolton-Smith, Caroline; Cassidy, Aedin; Dunnigan, Matthew; Khaw, Kay Tee; Macdonald, Helen; New, Susan; Prentice, Ann; Powell, Jonathan; Reeve, Jonathan; Robins, Simon; Teucher, Birgit

    2003-06-01

    The UK Food Standards Agency (FSA) convened a group of expert scientists to discuss and review UK FSA- and Department of Health-funded research on diet and bone health. This research focused on the lifestyle factors that are amenable to change and may significantly affect bone health and the risk of osteoporotic fracture. The potential benefits of fruits and vegetables, meat, Ca, vitamins D and K and phyto-oestrogens were presented and discussed. Other lifestyle factors were also discussed, particularly the effect of physical activity and possible gene-nutrient interactions affecting bone health.

  13. Workshop Report UK Food Standards Agency Workshop Report: carbohydrate and cardiovascular risk

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, Emma; Stanley, John; Calder, Philip C.; Jebb, Susan A.; Thies, Frank; Seal, Chris J.; Woodside, Jayne V.; Sanders, Tom A. B.

    2012-01-01

    This report summarises a workshop convened by the UK Food Standards Agency (FSA) on 14 October 2008 to discuss current FSA-funded research on carbohydrates and cardiovascular health. The objective of this workshop was to discuss the results of recent research and to identify any areas which could inform future FSA research calls. This workshop highlighted that the FSA is currently funding some of the largest, well-powered intervention trials investigating the type of fat and carbohydrate, whole grains and fruit and vegetables, on various CVD risk factors. Results of these trials will make a substantive contribution to the evidence on diet and cardiovascular risk. PMID:20236556

  14. National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference - Find Nutrient Value of Common Foods by Nutrient

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service USDA Food Composition Databases NDL Home Food Search Nutrients List Ground Beef Calculator Documentation and Help Food Composition Databases API SR28 Documentation USDA Branded Food Products Documentation ...

  15. [The plague in Finland in 1710].

    PubMed

    Engström, N G

    1994-01-01

    In the autumn of 1710 Helsinki was struck by the so-called oriental plague during four months. The infection was transferred by black rats which harboured fleas. The flea-bites caused boils. It was believed that the plague was air-borne, and the air was very humid that autumn. Big fires were lit in order to reduce the humidity, the purpose being to make it easier for the infected to breathe. Attempts were also made to dissect the boils. The carriers of the contamination came as refugees from Estland over the Gulf of Finland. The infection had spread from Turkey to Poland and Balticum after the defeat of the Finnish-Swedish army in the summer of 1709 at Poltava in Ucraine. Helsingfors (Helsinki) was struck extremely hard. About two-thirds of the inhabitants died of the pestilence. Some escaped by fleeing to the countryside. The plague spread through the country as far north as to Uleåborg (Oulu) and Cajana (Kajaani). Marketplaces became important centres of infection. With the advent of the frost in December the plague dwindled. At that time Helsinki was practically a dead town.

  16. Saving Resources with Plagues in Genetic Algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    de Vega, F F; Cantu-Paz, E; Lopez, J I; Manzano, T

    2004-06-15

    The population size of genetic algorithms (GAs) affects the quality of the solutions and the time required to find them. While progress has been made in estimating the population sizes required to reach a desired solution quality for certain problems, in practice the sizing of populations is still usually performed by trial and error. These trials might lead to find a population that is large enough to reach a satisfactory solution, but there may still be opportunities to optimize the computational cost by reducing the size of the population. This paper presents a technique called plague that periodically removes a number of individuals from the population as the GA executes. Recently, the usefulness of the plague has been demonstrated for genetic programming. The objective of this paper is to extend the study of plagues to genetic algorithms. We experiment with deceptive trap functions, a tunable difficult problem for GAs, and the experiments show that plagues can save computational time while maintaining solution quality and reliability.

  17. [Role of burrow microbiocenosis in plague enzootia].

    PubMed

    Udovikov, A I; Grigor'eva, G V; Tolokonnikova, S I; Iakovlev, S A; Tarasov, M A; Sludskiĭ, A A

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyzes relationships of the plague bacilli to the representatives of different types of living organisms inhabiting the burrows. The authors give their own data on the qualitative and quantitative composition of indicoles of the burrow of little sousliks (Spermophillus pygmaeus). They assess the role of mutagenic agents in burrow microbiocenoses.

  18. 21 CFR 130.10 - Requirements for foods named by use of a nutrient content claim and a standardized term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... properties, flavor characteristics, functional properties, shelf life) of the food shall be similar to those... addition of nutrients shall be reflected in the ingredient statement. (c) Performance characteristics... performance characteristics similar to those of the standardized food. Deviations from ingredient and...

  19. 21 CFR 130.10 - Requirements for foods named by use of a nutrient content claim and a standardized term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... properties, flavor characteristics, functional properties, shelf life) of the food shall be similar to those... addition of nutrients shall be reflected in the ingredient statement. (c) Performance characteristics... performance characteristics similar to those of the standardized food. Deviations from ingredient and...

  20. Selection of reference foods for a scale of standards for use in assessing the transitional process from milk to solid food in infants and pre-school children.

    PubMed

    Sakashita, R; Inoue, N; Tatsuki, T

    2003-07-01

    This paper describes the development of a reliable scale of standards for use in evaluating the progress of the transition from milk to solid food in infants and preschool children. The maturation of chewing and swallowing behavior in infants and young children, which enables processing of solid food, varies, and a scale would assist not only in the instruction of mothers and nurses but also in preventing delay in the introduction of solid food. A range of 159 reference foods were selected on the basis of intake during the period of transition from liquid to solid food. These foods were listed in our previous study, Validity and reliability were tested to create a scale. Foods were selected on the basis of 50% of the subjects studied being able to eat them, and on the food groups classified by cluster analyses using the Varclus procedure of SAS. Validity, of the scale was tested by using Pearson's correlation coefficient between the scale score of selected food items and the total score of all 159 food items. The total score of 159 food items was calculated using the general linear models (GLM) procedure of SAS. Reliability was tested using Cronbach's coefficient alpha. Public health centers in Aomori, Tokyo, Saitama, Nagano, and Okinawa (Japan). Five hundred and eighty healthy mothers and children from 2 to 46 months were randomly selected and 470 (81.0%) completed the study. To avoid regional bias, subjects were drawn from northern to southern prefectures in Japan, namely Aomori, Tokyo, Saitama, Nagano, and Okinawa. Twenty food items were selected. By analyzing the score correlation using Pearson's correlation coefficient (R =0.97, P <0.001) and GLM (R2 =0.95, P <0.001), it was confirmed that these 20 food items adequately represented the original 159. The reliability was also found to be sufficient (Cronbach's coefficient alpha=0.96). The findings demonstrate that a scale of standards for measuring progress in chewing ability can be created using 20 food items

  1. The plague of Athens: epidemiology and paleopathology.

    PubMed

    Littman, Robert J

    2009-10-01

    In 430 BC, a plague struck the city of Athens, which was then under siege by Sparta during the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC). In the next 3 years, most of the population was infected, and perhaps as many as 75,000 to 100,000 people, 25% of the city's population, died. The Athenian general and historian Thucydides left an eye-witness account of this plague and a detailed description to allow future generations to identify the disease should it break out again. Because of the importance of Thucydides and Athens in Western history and culture, the Plague of Athens has taken a prominent position in the history of the West for the past 2500 years. Despite Thucydides' careful description, in the past 100 years, scholars and physicians have disagreed about the identification of the disease. Based on clinical symptoms, 2 diagnoses have dominated the modern literature on the Athenian plague: smallpox and typhus. New methodologies, including forensic anthropology, demography, epidemiology, and paleopathogy, including DNA analysis, have shed new light on the problem. Mathematical modeling has allowed the examination of the infection and attack rates and the determination of how long it takes a disease to spread in a city and how long it remains endemic. The highly contagious epidemic exhibited a pustular rash, high fever, and diarrhea. Originating in Ethiopia, it spread throughout the Mediterranean. It spared no segment of the population, including the statesman Pericles. The epidemic broke in early May 430 BC, with another wave in the summer of 428 BC and in the winter of 427-426 BC, and lasted 4.5 to 5 years. Thucydides portrays a virgin soil epidemic with a high attack rate and an unvarying course in persons of different ages, sexes, and nationalities.The epidemiological analysis excludes common source diseases and most respiratory diseases. The plague can be limited to either a reservoir diseases (zoonotic or vector-borne) or one of the respiratory diseases associated

  2. Oral vaccination against plague using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Demeure, Christian E; Derbise, Anne; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2017-04-01

    Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague, is among the deadliest bacterial pathogens affecting humans, and is a potential biological weapon. Because antibiotic resistant strains of Yersinia pestis have been observed or could be engineered for evil use, vaccination against plague might become the only means to reduce mortality. Although plague is re-emerging in many countries, a vaccine with worldwide license is currently lacking. The vaccine strategy described here is based on an oral vaccination with an attenuated strain of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Indeed, this species is genetically almost identical to Y. pestis, but has a much lower pathogenicity and a higher genomic stability. Gradual modifications of the wild-type Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strain IP32953 were performed to generate a safe and immunogenic vaccine. Genes coding for three essential virulence factors were deleted from this strain. To increase cross-species immunogenicity, an F1-encapsulated Y. pseudotuberculosis strain was then generated. For this, the Y. pestis caf operon, which encodes F1, was inserted first on a plasmid, and subsequently into the chromosome. The successive steps achieved to reach maximal vaccine potential are described, and how each step affected bacterial virulence and the development of a protective immune response is discussed. The final version of the vaccine, named VTnF1, provides a highly efficient and long-lasting protection against both bubonic and pneumonic plague after a single oral vaccine dose. Since a Y. pestis strain deprived of F1 exist or could be engineered, we also analyzed the protection conferred by the vaccine against such strain and found that it also confers full protection against the two forms of plague. Thus, the properties of VTnF1 makes it one of the most efficient candidate vaccine for mass vaccination in tropical endemic areas as well as for populations exposed to bioterrorism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [The people's mentality confronting plague in the Ming Dynasty].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu

    2013-03-01

    The social influence of plague was not only confined to its pathogenicity, but also its close relationship with the people's mentality. According to the historical materials of the Ming Dynasty, there were 2 kinds of mentalities when confronting with the prevalence of plague: negative and positive. The former included fear, helplessness, depression and superstition etc., and the latter included intelligence, consolation, thanksgiving and vigour etc. The negative passive mentality didn't help to fight effectively against the plague, or might even aggravate its prevalence. However, the positive mentality helped ameliorate and control the plague, and also the rehabilitation of the order of production and living order after the plague.

  4. Animal production food safety: priority pathogens for standard setting by the World Organisation for Animal Health.

    PubMed

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Mylrea, G E; Kahn, S

    2010-12-01

    In this short study, expert opinion and a literature review were used to identify the pathogens that should be prioritised by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) for the development of future standards for animal production food safety. Prioritisation was based on a pathogen's impact on human health and amenability to control using on-farm measures. As the OIE mandate includes alleviation of global poverty, the study focused on developing countries and those with 'in-transition' economies. The regions considered were Eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, Africa and South America. Salmonella (from species other than poultry) and pathogenic Escherichia coli were considered to be top priorities. Brucella spp., Echinococcus granulosus and Staphylococcus aureus were also mentioned by experts. As Salmonella, and to a lesser extent pathogenic E. coli, can be controlled by on-farm measures, these pathogens should be considered for prioritisation in future standard setting. On-farm control measures for Brucella spp. will be addressed in 2010-2011 in a review of the OLE Terrestrial Animal/Health Code chapter on brucellosis. In Africa, E. granulosus, the causative agent of hydatidosis, was estimated to have the greatest impact of all pathogens that could potentially be transmitted by food (i.e. via contamination). It was also listed for the Middle East and thought to be of importance by both South American experts consulted. Taenia saginata was thought to be of importance in South America and Africa and by one expert in the Middle East.

  5. Patterns of Human Plague in Uganda, 2008-2016.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Joseph D; Apangu, Titus; Griffith, Kevin; Acayo, Sarah; Yockey, Brook; Kaggwa, John; Kugeler, Kiersten J; Schriefer, Martin; Sexton, Christopher; Ben Beard, C; Candini, Gordian; Abaru, Janet; Candia, Bosco; Okoth, Jimmy Felix; Apio, Harriet; Nolex, Lawrence; Ezama, Geoffrey; Okello, Robert; Atiku, Linda; Mpanga, Joseph; Mead, Paul S

    2017-09-01

    Plague is a highly virulent fleaborne zoonosis that occurs throughout many parts of the world; most suspected human cases are reported from resource-poor settings in sub-Saharan Africa. During 2008-2016, a combination of active surveillance and laboratory testing in the plague-endemic West Nile region of Uganda yielded 255 suspected human plague cases; approximately one third were laboratory confirmed by bacterial culture or serology. Although the mortality rate was 7% among suspected cases, it was 26% among persons with laboratory-confirmed plague. Reports of an unusual number of dead rats in a patient's village around the time of illness onset was significantly associated with laboratory confirmation of plague. This descriptive summary of human plague in Uganda highlights the episodic nature of the disease, as well as the potential that, even in endemic areas, illnesses of other etiologies might be being mistaken for plague.

  6. Pneumonic Plague: The Darker Side of Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Pechous, Roger D; Sivaraman, Vijay; Stasulli, Nikolas M; Goldman, William E

    2016-03-01

    Inhalation of the bacterium Yersinia pestis results in primary pneumonic plague. Pneumonic plague is the most severe manifestation of plague, with mortality rates approaching 100% in the absence of treatment. Its rapid disease progression, lethality, and ability to be transmitted via aerosol have compounded fears of the intentional release of Y. pestis as a biological weapon. Importantly, recent epidemics of plague have highlighted a significant role for pneumonic plague during outbreaks of Y. pestis infections. In this review we describe the characteristics of pneumonic plague, focusing on its disease progression and pathogenesis. The rapid time-course, severity, and difficulty of treating pneumonic plague highlight how differences in the route of disease transmission can enhance the lethality of an already deadly pathogen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Thinking extreme social violence: the model of the literary plague.

    PubMed

    Priel, Beatriz

    2007-12-01

    The author uses literary plagues as a model for thinking psychoanalytically about the basic anxieties activated among perpetrators of sanctioned massacres. The model of the plague allows abstracting an underlying primitive psychological organization characterized by syncretism and a powerful anxiety of de-differentiation and confusion, leading characteristically to imitative behavior within the in-group as well as to the disavowal of the out-group members similarities to oneself, i.e. the disavowal of the other's humanity. Recognizing the historical and social foundations of discrimination and genocide, the author analyzes the interaction between group and individual processes that allow ordinary people to join daily acts of immoral violence. She dramatizes the model of the plague through a psychoanalytic reading of three literary plagues: Thebes' plague according to Sophocles, Camus's chronicle of the plague in Oran, and Saramago's meditation on the plague of white blindness.

  8. Evidence that rodent control strategies ought to be improved to enhance food security and reduce the risk of rodent-borne illnesses within subsistence farming villages in the plague-endemic West Nile region, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Eisen, Rebecca J.; Enscore, Russell E.; Atiku, Linda A.; Zielinski-Gutierrez, Emily; Mpanga, Joseph T.; Kajik, Ezekiel; Andama, Vincent; Mungujakisa, Cyrus; Tibo, Emmanuel; MacMillan, Katherine; Borchert, Jeff N.; Gage, Kenneth L.

    2015-01-01

    Rodents pose serious threats to human health and economics, particularly in developing countries where the animals play a dual role as pests: they are reservoirs of human pathogens, and they inflict damage levels to stored products sufficient to cause food shortages. To assess the magnitude of the damage caused by rodents to crops, their level of contact with humans, and to better understand current food storage and rodent control practices, we conducted a survey of 37 households from 17 subsistence farming villages within the West Nile region of Uganda. Our survey revealed that rodents cause both pre- and post-harvest damage to crops. Evidence of rodent access to stored foods was reported in conjunction with each of the reported storage practices. Approximately half of the respondents reported that at least one family member had been bitten by a rat within the previous three months. Approximately two-thirds of respondents practiced some form of rodent control in their homes. The abundance of rodents was similar within homes that practiced or did not practice rodent control. Together, our results show that current efforts are inadequate for effectively reducing rodent abundance in homes. PMID:26500395

  9. Development and testing of a rapid diagnostic test for bubonic and pneumonic plague.

    PubMed

    Chanteau, Suzanne; Rahalison, Lila; Ralafiarisoa, Lalao; Foulon, Jeanine; Ratsitorahina, Mahery; Ratsifasoamanana, Lala; Carniel, Elisabeth; Nato, Farida

    2003-01-18

    Plague is often fatal without prompt and appropriate treatment. It affects mainly poor and remote populations. Late diagnosis is one of the major causes of human death and spread of the disease, since it limits the effectiveness of control measures. We aimed to develop and assess a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for plague. We developed a test that used monoclonal antibodies to the F1 antigen of Yersinia pestis. Sensitivity and specificity were assessed with a range of bacterial cultures and clinical samples, and compared with findings from available ELISA and bacteriological tests for plague. Samples from patients thought to have plague were tested with the RDT in the laboratory and by health workers in 26 pilot sites in Madagascar. The RDT detected concentrations of F1 antigen as low as 0.5 ng/mL in up to 15 min, and had a shelf life of 21 days at 60 degrees C. Its sensitivity and specificity were both 100%. RDT detected 41.6% and 31% more positive clinical specimens than did bacteriological methods and ELISA, respectively. The agreement rate between tests done at remote centres and in the laboratory was 89.8%. With the combination of bacteriological methods and F1 ELISA as reference standard, the positive and negative predictive values of the RDT were 90.6% and 86.7%, respectively. Our RDT is a specific, sensitive, and reliable test that can easily be done by health workers at the patient's bedside, for the rapid diagnosis of pneumonic and bubonic plague. This test will be of key importance for the control of plague in endemic countries.

  10. [Study on the spatial and temporal distribution of animal plague in Junggar Basin plague focus].

    PubMed

    Guo, Rong; Dai, Xiang; Cao, Hanli; Xia, Lianxu; Abuli, Miti; Abuli, Kemu; Wang, Xinhui; Aza, Ti; Jiang, Wei; Li, Bing; Zhang, Xiaobing; Lei, Gang; Wang, Qiguo; Luo, Tao; Meng, Weiwei; Buren, Mingde; Re, Na; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Yujiang

    2014-02-01

    To explore the spatial and temporal distributions of animal plague in Junggar Basin natural plague focus. Data regarding plague antibody (F1) in serum of Great Gerbil (Rhombomys opimus, R. opimus) which were collected from 2005 to 2012 in Junggar Basin and analyzed. The changing rates on the positivity of F1 that appeared spatially and temporally were also analyzed. A total of 4 825 R. opimus serum samples were collected in 13 administrative regions in Junggar Basin. showed that plague R. opimus existed in two areas-Gurbantonggut desert in the eastern-center and the clay desert of western Junggar Basin. However, in these two areas, the intensity of animal plague prevalence was different. In the former region where Yesinia pestis positive serum was detected from R. opimus, the detected rate of R. opimus was 8.39%. However, in the latter areas, the average positive rate was 1.56%. The changing trends of R. opimus plague prevalence were also varied annually. In the western Junggar Basin, the trend showed a slowly downward profile. The serum positive rate of R. opimus for Yesinia pestis decreased, from 7.59% in 2005 to 0.61% in 2008, and appeared as a resting state that none of the positive sample could be found since then. However, in the eastern-center Junggar Basin area-also named as Gurbantonggut desert which had been divided into 3 segments(western, central and eastern, according to related geographical characteristics), the changing trends of animal plague seemed quite complex. In the western segment, the animal plague had two epidemic peaks-in 2006 and 2010, with the interval of 4 years, with the higher peak of all the three geographic segments as 45.65% in 2010 and the positive serum of R. opimus for plague could be detected each year from 2006 to 2012. However, there were 3 epidemic peaks in the same period in the central and eastern segments. In the central segment, the peaks appeared in 2006, 2009 and 2011, with the intervals as 2.5 years and the average

  11. A plague on five of your houses - statistical re-assessment of three pneumonic plague outbreaks that occurred in Suffolk, England, between 1906 and 1918

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plague is a re-emerging disease and its pneumonic form is a high priority bio-terrorist threat. Epidemiologists have previously analysed historical outbreaks of pneumonic plague to better understand the dynamics of infection, transmission and control. This study examines 3 relatively unknown outbreaks of pneumonic plague that occurred in Suffolk, England, during the first 2 decades of the twentieth century. Methods The Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistical test is used to compare the symptomatic period and the length of time between successive cases (i.e. the serial interval) with previously reported values. Consideration is also given to the case fatality ratio, the average number of secondary cases resulting from each primary case in the observed minor outbreaks (termed Rminor), and the proportion of individuals living within an affected household that succumb to pneumonic plague via the index case (i.e. the household secondary attack rate (SAR)). Results 2 of the 14 cases survived giving a case fatality ratio of 86% (95% confidence interval (CI) = {57%, 98%}). For the 12 fatal cases, the average symptomatic period was 3.3 days (standard deviation (SD) = 1.2 days) and, for the 11 non index cases, the average serial interval was 5.8 days (SD = 2.0 days). Rminor was calculated to be 0.9 (SD = 1.0) and, in 2 households, the SAR was approximately 14% (95% CI = {0%, 58%}) and 20% (95% CI = {1%, 72%}), respectively. Conclusions The symptomatic period was approximately 1 day longer on average than in an earlier study but the serial interval was in close agreement with 2 previously reported values. 2 of the 3 outbreaks ended without explicit public health interventions; however, non-professional caregivers were particularly vulnerable - an important public health consideration for any future outbreak of pneumonic plague. PMID:20973955

  12. Protecting Black-Footed Ferrets and Prairie Dogs Against Sylvatic Plague

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, Tonie E.

    2008-01-01

    Scientists at the USGS National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC), in collaboration with colleagues at other federal agencies and the University of Wisconsin, are developing and testing vaccines that can be used to protect black-footed ferrets and prairie dogs against plague. The black-footed ferret is commonly regarded as the most endangered mammal in North America, and sylvatic plague is a major impediment to its recovery. The three prairie dog species (Gunnison's, black-tailed, and white-tailed prairie dogs), upon which the ferret depends for food and whose burrows they use for shelter, have been drastically reduced from historical levels, resulting in the near extinction of the ferret. All three species are considered 'at risk' and have been petitioned for listing as 'threatened' or 'endangered' by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). Additionally, the Utah prairie dog is listed as threatened and the Mexican prairie dog is considered endangered in Mexico. Like the black-footed ferret, all five prairie dog species are highly susceptible to plague and regularly experience outbreaks with devastating losses. Controlling plague outbreaks in prairie dogs and ferrets is a vital concern for ongoing recovery programs and conservation efforts for both species.

  13. Protecting Black-Footed Ferrets and Prairie Dogs Against Sylvatic Plague

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, Tonie E.

    2008-01-01

    Scientists at the USGS National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC), in collaboration with colleagues at other federal agencies and the University of Wisconsin, are developing and testing vaccines that can be used to protect black-footed ferrets and prairie dogs against plague. The black-footed ferret is commonly regarded as the most endangered mammal in North America, and sylvatic plague is a major impediment to its recovery. The three prairie dog species (Gunnison's, black-tailed, and white-tailed prairie dogs), upon which the ferret depends for food and whose burrows they use for shelter, have been drastically reduced from historical levels, resulting in the near extinction of the ferret. All three species are considered 'at risk' and have been petitioned for listing as 'threatened' or 'endangered' by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). Additionally, the Utah prairie dog is listed as threatened and the Mexican prairie dog is considered endangered in Mexico. Like the black-footed ferret, all five prairie dog species are highly susceptible to plague and regularly experience outbreaks with devastating losses. Controlling plague outbreaks in prairie dogs and ferrets is a vital concern for ongoing recovery programs and conservation efforts for both species.

  14. [Two decades of the Brazilian Standard for Marketing of Baby Food: are there reasons to celebrate?].

    PubMed

    Cyrillo, Denise Cavallini; Sarti, Flavia Mori; Farina, Elizabeth Mercier Querido; Mazzon, José Afonso

    2009-02-01

    To assess the impact that the Brazilian Standard for Marketing of Baby Food (Norma Brasileira de Comercialização de Alimentos para Lactentes) have had on breastfeeding rates and regulating the marketing of breast-milk substitutes. Data were retrieved from a national survey conducted in 2000 that administered structured questionnaires to nine different groups. A total of 2 848 surveys were completed. Cluster sampling was employed to randomly select a sample from 159 towns located in the 26 Brazilian states and the Federal District. The survey showed that participants possess satisfactory knowledge regarding the importance of breastfeeding and its ideal duration period. During the past two decades, the median duration of breastfeeding has increased, but it is still below desired levels. The mother's return to work, maternal health issues, perception of insufficient breast milk, and information provided by health professionals were among reasons given for early termination of breastfeeding. Knowledge of the Brazilian standard was very limited, even among health professionals. Breastfeeding promotion in Brazil should focus on overcoming the cultural, educational, and economic barriers identified from among the various groups assessed. Interagency cooperation should include public, private, and third parties, and focus on disseminating breastfeeding information and promoting the desirability of breastfeeding. Barriers to cooperation should be tackled in order to ensure that the main goal of the Brazilian standard--protection of infant health--can be achieved.

  15. Assuring food safety: the complementary tasks and standards of the World Organisation for Animal Health and the Codex Alimentarius Commission.

    PubMed

    Slorach, S A

    2006-08-01

    The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures of the World Trade Organization specifically recognises the international standards developed by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). OIE standards focus on animal health and zoonoses and those of the CAC on food safety, but since zoonoses can affect food safety, it is vital that the two organisations cooperate closely to avoid duplication of effort, gaps and conflicting standards. The OIE has established an Animal Production Food Safety Working Group to promote cooperation with the CAC and to act as a steering committee for the OIE's work programme on the development of standards aimed at protecting consumers from foodborne hazards arising from animals at the production level of the food chain. This paper describes briefly how standards are developed by the OIE and the CAC and gives examples of how the tasks and standards of the two organisations complement each other in helping to assure food safety. The areas covered include meat hygiene, the identification and traceability of live animals, model certificates for international trade, antimicrobial resistance, veterinary drugs, animal feed, and salmonellosis.

  16. Description of the food safety system in hotels and how it compares with HACCP standards.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Stephanie M; Maharaj, Satnarine R; James, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Tourism is an important earner of foreign exchange in Jamaica; hence, the protection of the visitors' health is very important. A study of travelers to Jamaica in 1996 to 1997 found that travelers' diarrhea (TD) affected almost 25% of visitors. The Ministry of Health (Jamaica) initiated a program for the prevention and control of TD aimed at reducing attack rates from 25.0% to 12.0% over a 5-year period through environmental health and food safety standards of hotels. This article examines the food safety systems in Jamaican hotels located in a popular resort area to find out how comparable they are with the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) strategy. A cross-sectional study was done of hotels in St. Mary and St. Ann. Quantitative data were obtained from food and beverage/sanitation staff and qualitative data through in-depth interviews with hotel managers. Observation of the food safety operations was also done. The majority (75%) of larger hotels used a combination of HACCP and Ministry of Health food safety strategies (p = 0.02) and offered all-inclusive services (r =-0.705, p = 0.001). Larger hotels were more likely to have a better quality team approach, HACCP plan, and monitoring of critical control points (CCPs) and more likely to receive higher scores (p < 0.05). More than two thirds of hotel staff were knowledgeable of HACCP. Significantly smaller hotels (87.5%) received less than 70% in overall score (r = 0.75, p = 0.01). Identification of CCPs and monitoring of CCPs explained 96.6% of the change in the overall HACCP scores (p = 0.001). Hotel managers felt that some hotels' systems were comparable with HACCP and that larger properties were ready for mandatory implementation. Conclusions. While some components of the HACCP system were observed in larger hotels, there were serious shortcomings in its comparison. Mandatory implementation of HACCP would require that sector-specific policies be developed for smaller hotels and implemented on a

  17. A review of recent literature on plague

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1960-01-01

    In his comprehensive monograph on plague, published by WHO in 1954, Dr Pollitzer pointed out that despite the marked drop in the incidence of this disease in recent years, he considered it impossible for various reasons to be complacent about the situation. Since this monograph appeared, plague has shown a truly spectacular decrease, but in case this is partly the outcome of a natural periodicity of the infection, the author still feels that the disease ”should be given continued attention by those interested in global public health”. To this end he summarizes here the latest information on the subject, his review covering not only works published since 1954, but also some earlier literature (particularly from the USSR) which was not available to him at the time of preparation of his monograph. PMID:13736873

  18. Yersinia pestis--etiologic agent of plague.

    PubMed Central

    Perry, R D; Fetherston, J D

    1997-01-01

    Plague is a widespread zoonotic disease that is caused by Yersinia pestis and has had devastating effects on the human population throughout history. Disappearance of the disease is unlikely due to the wide range of mammalian hosts and their attendant fleas. The flea/rodent life cycle of Y. pestis, a gram-negative obligate pathogen, exposes it to very different environmental conditions and has resulted in some novel traits facilitating transmission and infection. Studies characterizing virulence determinants of Y. pestis have identified novel mechanisms for overcoming host defenses. Regulatory systems controlling the expression of some of these virulence factors have proven quite complex. These areas of research have provide new insights into the host-parasite relationship. This review will update our present understanding of the history, etiology, epidemiology, clinical aspects, and public health issues of plague. PMID:8993858

  19. Aberdeen's plague epidemic of 1647-48.

    PubMed

    Jillings, K

    2010-08-01

    This article discusses the plague epidemic that broke out in Scotland in the mid 1640s, particularly its effects on the city of Aberdeen where it remained virulent from April 1647 until the end of the following year. Prevailing medical understandings of disease causation and transmission will be discussed, and it will be shown that governments attempted to restrict outbreaks in accordance with these beliefs. The spread of plague throughout Scotland from 1644 will be summarised, with the focus on the impact of the disease on Aberdeen in 1647-48. The surviving council registers and other primary sources will be used to show how the city's governors responded to the dual threat of miasma and contagion in well-established ways.

  20. Range-wide Determinants of Plague Distribution in North America

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Sean P.; Ellis, Christine; Gage, Kenneth L.; Enscore, Russell E.; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2010-01-01

    Plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is established across western North America, and yet little is known of what determines the broad-scale dimensions of its overall range. We tested whether its North American distribution represents a composite of individual host–plague associations (the “Host Niche Hypothesis”), or whether mammal hosts become infected only at sites overlapping ecological conditions appropriate for plague transmission and maintenance (the “Plague Niche Hypothesis”). We took advantage of a novel data set summarizing plague records in wild mammals newly digitized from paper-based records at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to develop range-wide tests of ecological niche similarity between mammal host niches and plague-infected host niches. Results indicate that plague infections occur under circumstances distinct from the broader ecological distribution of hosts, and that plague-infected niches are similar among hosts; hence, evidence coincides with the predictions of the Plague Niche Hypothesis, and contrasts with those of the Host Niche Hypothesis. The “plague niche” is likely driven by ecological requirements of vector flea species. PMID:20889857

  1. Mapping risk of plague in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Qian, Quan; Zhao, Jian; Fang, Liqun; Zhou, Hang; Zhang, Wenyi; Wei, Lan; Yang, Hong; Yin, Wenwu; Cao, Wuchun; Li, Qun

    2014-07-10

    Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau of China is known to be the plague endemic region where marmot (Marmota himalayana) is the primary host. Human plague cases are relatively low incidence but high mortality, which presents unique surveillance and public health challenges, because early detection through surveillance may not always be feasible and infrequent clinical cases may be misdiagnosed. Based on plague surveillance data and environmental variables, Maxent was applied to model the presence probability of plague host. 75% occurrence points were randomly selected for training model, and the rest 25% points were used for model test and validation. Maxent model performance was measured as test gain and test AUC. The optimal probability cut-off value was chosen by maximizing training sensitivity and specificity simultaneously. We used field surveillance data in an ecological niche modeling (ENM) framework to depict spatial distribution of natural foci of plague in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Most human-inhabited areas at risk of exposure to enzootic plague are distributed in the east and south of the Plateau. Elevation, temperature of land surface and normalized difference vegetation index play a large part in determining the distribution of the enzootic plague. This study provided a more detailed view of spatial pattern of enzootic plague and human-inhabited areas at risk of plague. The maps could help public health authorities decide where to perform plague surveillance and take preventive measures in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  2. Mapping risk of plague in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau of China is known to be the plague endemic region where marmot (Marmota himalayana) is the primary host. Human plague cases are relatively low incidence but high mortality, which presents unique surveillance and public health challenges, because early detection through surveillance may not always be feasible and infrequent clinical cases may be misdiagnosed. Methods Based on plague surveillance data and environmental variables, Maxent was applied to model the presence probability of plague host. 75% occurrence points were randomly selected for training model, and the rest 25% points were used for model test and validation. Maxent model performance was measured as test gain and test AUC. The optimal probability cut-off value was chosen by maximizing training sensitivity and specificity simultaneously. Results We used field surveillance data in an ecological niche modeling (ENM) framework to depict spatial distribution of natural foci of plague in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Most human-inhabited areas at risk of exposure to enzootic plague are distributed in the east and south of the Plateau. Elevation, temperature of land surface and normalized difference vegetation index play a large part in determining the distribution of the enzootic plague. Conclusions This study provided a more detailed view of spatial pattern of enzootic plague and human-inhabited areas at risk of plague. The maps could help public health authorities decide where to perform plague surveillance and take preventive measures in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. PMID:25011940

  3. Reducing the population's sodium intake: the UK Food Standards Agency's salt reduction programme.

    PubMed

    Wyness, Laura A; Butriss, Judith L; Stanner, Sara A

    2012-02-01

    To describe the UK Food Standards Agency's (FSA) salt reduction programme undertaken between 2003 and 2010 and to discuss its effectiveness. Relevant scientific papers, campaign materials and evaluations and consultation responses to the FSA's salt reduction programme were used. Adult salt intakes, monitored using urinary Na data collected from UK-wide surveys, indicate a statistically significant reduction in the population's average salt intake from 9·5 g/d in 2000-2001 to 8·6 g/d in 2008, which is likely to have health benefits. Reducing salt intake will have an impact on blood pressure; an estimated 6 % of deaths from CHD in the UK can be avoided if the number of people with high blood pressure is reduced by 50 %. Salt levels in food, monitored using commercial label data and information collected through an industry self-reporting framework, indicated that substantial reductions of up to 70 % in some foods had been achieved. The FSA's consumer campaign evaluation showed increased awareness of the benefits of reducing salt intake on health, with 43 % of adults in 2009 claiming to have made a special effort to reduce salt in their diet compared with 34 % of adults in 2004, before the campaign commenced. The UK's salt reduction programme successfully reduced the average salt intake of the population and increased consumers' awareness. Significant challenges remain in achieving the population average salt intake of 6 g/d recommended by the UK's Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition. However, the UK has demonstrated the success of its programme and this approach is now being implemented elsewhere in the world.

  4. [Human plague and pneumonic plague : pathogenicity, epidemiology, clinical presentations and therapy].

    PubMed

    Riehm, Julia M; Löscher, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Yersinia pestis is a highly pathogenic gram-negative bacterium and the causative agent of human plague. In the last 1500 years and during three dreaded pandemics, millions of people became victims of Justinian's plague, the Black Death, or modern plague. Today, Y. pestis is endemic in natural foci of Asian, African and American countries. Due to its broad dissemination in mammal species and fleas, eradication of the pathogen will not be possible in the near future. In fact, plague is currently classified as a "re-emerging disease". Infection may occur after the bite of an infected flea, but also after oral ingestion or inhalation of the pathogen. The clinical presentations comprise the bubonic and pneumonic form, septicemia, rarely pharyngitis, and meningitis. Most human cases can successfully be treated with antibiotics. However, the high transmission rate and lethality of pneumonic plague require international and mandatory case notification and quarantine of patients. Rapid diagnosis, therapy and barrier nursing are not only crucial for the individual patient but also for the prevention of further spread of the pathogen or of epidemics. Therefore, WHO emergency schedules demand the isolation of cases, identification and surveillance of contacts as well as control of zoonotic reservoir animals and vectors. These sanctions and effective antibiotic treatment usually allow a rapid containment of outbreaks. However, multiple antibiotic resistant strains of Y. pestis have been isolated from patients in the past. So far, no outbreaks with such strains have been reported.

  5. Flea diversity as an element for persistence of plague bacteria in an East African plague focus.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Rebecca J; Borchert, Jeff N; Mpanga, Joseph T; Atiku, Linda A; MacMillan, Katherine; Boegler, Karen A; Montenieri, John A; Monaghan, Andrew; Gage, Kenneth L

    2012-01-01

    Plague is a flea-borne rodent-associated zoonotic disease that is caused by Yersinia pestis and characterized by long quiescent periods punctuated by rapidly spreading epidemics and epizootics. How plague bacteria persist during inter-epizootic periods is poorly understood, yet is important for predicting when and where epizootics are likely to occur and for designing interventions aimed at local elimination of the pathogen. Existing hypotheses of how Y. pestis is maintained within plague foci typically center on host abundance or diversity, but little attention has been paid to the importance of flea diversity in enzootic maintenance. Our study compares host and flea abundance and diversity along an elevation gradient that spans from low elevation sites outside of a plague focus in the West Nile region of Uganda (~725-1160 m) to higher elevation sites within the focus (~1380-1630 m). Based on a year of sampling, we showed that host abundance and diversity, as well as total flea abundance on hosts was similar between sites inside compared with outside the plague focus. By contrast, flea diversity was significantly higher inside the focus than outside. Our study highlights the importance of considering flea diversity in models of Y. pestis persistence.

  6. Molecular insights into the history of plague.

    PubMed

    Drancourt, Michel; Raoult, Didier

    2002-01-01

    Because of the limits inherent in historical sources on ancient plague epidemics, many questions concerning their etiology and epidemiology remain unanswered. Molecular biology tools and the use of dental pulp as a preserved source of bacterial DNA enabled us to demonstrate that Yersinia pestis was the etiologic agent of the 1347 European Black Death and of two additional epidemics in 1590 and 1722 in southern France.

  7. Field efficacy trials with sylvatic plague vaccine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richgels, Katherine; Russell, Robin E.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2017-01-01

    These data were collected as part of a field trial to test the efficacy of a sylvatic plague vaccine. Treatment and control sites were selected randomly from the available sites at each location. Site pairs were a minimum of 20 acres, (with a few exceptions). Prairie dog trapping took place a minimum of two weeks post-baiting and trapping procedures were approved by the NWHC Animal Care and Use Committee as well as individual states as required.

  8. Developing a standard definition of whole-grain foods for dietary recommendations: summary report of a multidisciplinary expert roundtable discussion.

    PubMed

    Ferruzzi, Mario G; Jonnalagadda, Satya S; Liu, Simin; Marquart, Len; McKeown, Nicola; Reicks, Marla; Riccardi, Gabriele; Seal, Chris; Slavin, Joanne; Thielecke, Frank; van der Kamp, Jan-Willem; Webb, Densie

    2014-03-01

    Although the term "whole grain" is well defined, there has been no universal standard of what constitutes a "whole-grain food," creating challenges for researchers, the food industry, regulatory authorities, and consumers around the world. As part of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, the U.S. Dietary Guidelines Technical Advisory Committee issued a call to action to develop definitions for whole-grain foods that could be universally accepted and applied to dietary recommendations and planning. The Committee's call to action, and the lack of a global whole-grain food definition, was the impetus for the Whole Grain Roundtable held 3-5 December 2012 in Chicago, Illinois. The objective was to develop a whole-grain food definition that is consistent with the quartet of needs of science, food product formulation, consumer behavior, and label education. The roundtable's expert panel represented a broad range of expertise from the United States and Europe, including epidemiology and dietary intervention researchers, consumer educators, government policy makers, and food and nutrition scientists from academia and the grain food industry. Taking into account the totality, quality, and consistency of available scientific evidence, the expert panel recommended that 8 g of whole grain/30 g serving (27 g/100 g), without a fiber requirement, be considered a minimum content of whole grains that is nutritionally meaningful and that a food providing at least 8 g of whole grains/30-g serving be defined as a whole-grain food. Having an established whole-grain food definition will encourage manufacturers to produce foods with meaningful amounts of whole grain, allow consistent product labeling and messaging, and empower consumers to readily identify whole-grain foods and achieve whole-grain dietary recommendations.

  9. Plague cycles in two rodent species from China: Dry years might provide context for epizootics in wet years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eads, David; Biggins, Dean E.; Xu, Lei; Liu, Qiyong

    2016-01-01

    Plague, a rodent-associated, flea-borne zoonosis, is one of the most notorious diseases in history. Rates of plague transmission can increase when fleas are abundant. Fleas commonly desiccate and die when reared under dry conditions in laboratories, suggesting fleas will be suppressed during droughts in the wild, thus reducing the rate at which plague spreads among hosts. In contrast, fleas might increase in abundance when precipitation is plentiful, producing epizootic outbreaks during wet years. We tested these hypotheses using a 27-yr data set from two rodents in Inner Mongolia, China: Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) and Daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus). For both species of rodents, fleas were most abundant during years preceded by dry growing seasons. For gerbils, the prevalence of plague increased during wet years preceded by dry growing seasons. If precipitation is scarce during the primary growing season, succulent plants decline in abundance and, consequently, herbivorous rodents can suffer declines in body condition. Fleas produce more offspring and better survive when parasitizing food-limited hosts, because starving animals tend to exhibit inefficient behavioral and immunological defenses against fleas. Further, rodent burrows might buffer fleas from xeric conditions aboveground during dry years. After a dry year, fleas might be abundant due to the preceding drought, and if precipitation and succulent plants become more plentiful, rodents could increase in density, thereby creating connectivity that facilitates the spread of plague. Moreover, in wet years, mild temperatures might increase the efficiency at which fleas transmit the plague bacterium, while also helping fleas to survive as they quest among hosts. In this way, dry years could provide context for epizootics of plague in wet years.

  10. The USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference: Sodium in Foods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sodium in foods primarily comes from food processing (77%) but also from salting at the table, home cooking, and inherent food sodium. Excessive sodium intake in the U.S. is a public health concern. Comprehensive data on the sodium content of the U.S. food supply is essential to assessing levels of ...

  11. Column preconcentration and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of rhodium in some food and standard samples.

    PubMed

    Taher, Mohammad Ali; Pourmohammad, Fatemeh; Fazelirad, Hamid

    2015-12-01

    In the present work, an electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric method has been developed for the determination of ultra-trace amounts of rhodium after adsorption of its 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol/tetraphenylborate ion associated complex at the surface of alumina. Several factors affecting the extraction efficiency such as the pH, type of eluent, sample and eluent flow rates, sorption capacity of alumina and sample volume were investigated and optimized. The relative standard deviation for eight measurements of 0.1 ng/mL of rhodium was ±6.3%. In this method, the detection limit was 0.003 ng/mL in the original solution. The sorption capacity of alumina and the linear range for Rh(III) were evaluated as 0.8 mg/g and 0.015-0.45 ng/mL in the original solution, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the extraction and determination of rhodium content in some food and standard samples with high recovery values.

  12. Food and sustainability: do consumers recognize, understand and value on-package information on production standards?

    PubMed

    Hoogland, Carolien T; de Boer, Joop; Boersema, Jan J

    2007-07-01

    We tested how consumers recognize, understand and value on-package information about food production methods that may contribute to a more sustainable agriculture. Nine copy tests were formed, each containing one out of three products and one out of three panels of information. The products were (1) fillet of chicken, (2) semi-skimmed milk and (3) fillet of salmon. The panels of information were (a) a certified organic logo and details about the animal welfare standards of organic products, (b) just the logo, or (c) a statement in which the product was attributed to the world market. About 371 customers of a supermarket in the city of Amsterdam filled in a questionnaire, which included a subset of three copy tests. The results showed that many consumers did not realize that the organic logo already covers all the standards. They were inclined to underestimate the distinctive advantage of the logo; products with logo and details got higher ratings of positive attributes but were also considered more expensive. As a consequence, the detailed information panels enabled consumers to choose more in agreement with their personal values but the net impacts on purchase intentions were small.

  13. Ecology and Geography of Plague Transmission Areas in Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Giles, John; Peterson, A. Townsend; Almeida, Alzira

    2011-01-01

    Plague in Brazil is poorly known and now rarely seen, so studies of its ecology are difficult. We used ecological niche models of historical (1966-present) records of human plague cases across northeastern Brazil to assess hypotheses regarding environmental correlates of plague occurrences across the region. Results indicate that the apparently focal distribution of plague in northeastern Brazil is indeed discontinuous, and that the causes of the discontinuity are not necessarily only related to elevation—rather, a diversity of environmental dimensions correlate to presence of plague foci in the region. Perhaps most interesting is that suitable areas for plague show marked seasonal variation in photosynthetic mass, with peaks in April and May, suggesting links to particular land cover types. Next steps in this line of research will require more detailed and specific examination of reservoir ecology and natural history. PMID:21245925

  14. Ecology and geography of plague transmission areas in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Giles, John; Peterson, A Townsend; Almeida, Alzira

    2011-01-04

    Plague in Brazil is poorly known and now rarely seen, so studies of its ecology are difficult. We used ecological niche models of historical (1966-present) records of human plague cases across northeastern Brazil to assess hypotheses regarding environmental correlates of plague occurrences across the region. Results indicate that the apparently focal distribution of plague in northeastern Brazil is indeed discontinuous, and that the causes of the discontinuity are not necessarily only related to elevation-rather, a diversity of environmental dimensions correlate to presence of plague foci in the region. Perhaps most interesting is that suitable areas for plague show marked seasonal variation in photosynthetic mass, with peaks in April and May, suggesting links to particular land cover types. Next steps in this line of research will require more detailed and specific examination of reservoir ecology and natural history.

  15. A Decade of Plague in Mahajanga, Madagascar: Insights into the Global Maritime Spread of Pandemic Plague

    PubMed Central

    Vogler, Amy J.; Chan, Fabien; Nottingham, Roxanne; Andersen, Genevieve; Drees, Kevin; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M.; Wagner, David M.; Chanteau, Suzanne; Keim, Paul

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT A cluster of human plague cases occurred in the seaport city of Mahajanga, Madagascar, from 1991 to 1999 following 62 years with no evidence of plague, which offered insights into plague pathogen dynamics in an urban environment. We analyzed a set of 44 Mahajanga isolates from this 9-year outbreak, as well as an additional 218 Malagasy isolates from the highland foci. We sequenced the genomes of four Mahajanga strains, performed whole-genome sequence single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery on those strains, screened the discovered SNPs, and performed a high-resolution 43-locus multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis of the isolate panel. Twenty-two new SNPs were identified and defined a new phylogenetic lineage among the Malagasy isolates. Phylogeographic analysis suggests that the Mahajanga lineage likely originated in the Ambositra district in the highlands, spread throughout the northern central highlands, and was then introduced into and became transiently established in Mahajanga. Although multiple transfers between the central highlands and Mahajanga occurred, there was a locally differentiating and dominant subpopulation that was primarily responsible for the 1991-to-1999 Mahajanga outbreaks. Phylotemporal analysis of this Mahajanga subpopulation revealed a cycling pattern of diversity generation and loss that occurred during and after each outbreak. This pattern is consistent with severe interseasonal genetic bottlenecks along with large seasonal population expansions. The ultimate extinction of plague pathogens in Mahajanga suggests that, in this environment, the plague pathogen niche is tenuous at best. However, the temporary large pathogen population expansion provides the means for plague pathogens to disperse and become ecologically established in more suitable nonurban environments. PMID:23404402

  16. Standard metabolic rate predicts growth trajectory of juvenile Chinese crucian carp (Carassius auratus) under changing food availability.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ling-Qing; Zhang, An-Jie; Killen, Shaun S; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Wang, Yu-Xiang; Fu, Shi-Jian

    2017-09-15

    Phenotypic traits vary greatly within populations and can have a significant influence on aspects of performance. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of individual variation in standard metabolic rate (SMR) on growth rate and tolerance to food deprivation in juvenile Chinese crucian carp (Carassius auratus) under varying levels of food availability. To address this issue, 19 high and 16 low SMR individuals were randomly assigned to a satiation diet for 3 weeks, whereas another 20 high and 16 low SMR individuals were assigned to a restricted diet (approximately 50% of satiation) for the same period. Then, all fish were completely food-deprived for another 3 weeks. High SMR individuals showed a higher growth rate when fed to satiation, but this advantage of SMR did not exist in food-restricted fish. This result was related to improved feeding efficiency with decreased food intake in low SMR individuals, due to their low food processing capacity and maintenance costs. High SMR individuals experienced more mass loss during food deprivation as compared to low SMR individuals. Our results here illustrate context-dependent costs and benefits of intraspecific variation in SMR whereby high SMR individuals show increased growth performance under high food availability but had a cost under stressful environments (i.e. food shortage). © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Establishment and advances in the online Serbian food and recipe data base harmonized with EuroFIR™ standards.

    PubMed

    Gurinović, Mirjana; Milešević, Jelena; Kadvan, Agnes; Djekić-Ivanković, Marija; Debeljak-Martačić, Jasmina; Takić, Marija; Nikolić, Marina; Ranković, Slavica; Finglas, Paul; Glibetić, Maria

    2016-02-15

    Within the European Food Information Resource Network of Excellence (EuroFIR NoE; FP6) and EuroFIR Nexus (FP7) project paucity in food composition databases (FCDB) in the Central Eastern Europe/Balkan (CEE/B) region was identified. As a member of EuroFIR NoE, the Centre of Research Excellence in Nutrition and Metabolism, Serbia initiated creation of the 1st online Serbian FCDB employing EuroFIR quality framework and CEN Food Data Standard requirements, supporting capacity development and designing the web-based Food Composition Data Management (FCDM) software for FCDB building. The 1st online version of Serbian FCDB was launched in 2007, and then extended with food composition data from other Balkan countries (Balkan Food Platform-Regional FCDB). All foods are indexed using LanguaL Thesaurus and coded with EFSA FoodEx2 coding system. To date, upgraded Serbian FCDB with 1046 foods and 129 traditional/common Serbian composite dishes is a prerequisite for nutritional research in Serbia, CEE/B region and wider Europe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Measures taken against the plague in Diest in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries].

    PubMed

    De Backer, C

    1999-01-01

    Older literature about the city of Diest reveals that in 1348 the plague wiped out half of the population; in 1439, 1523 and 1578-1579, the plague struck again. In the course of time the municipal authorities issued ordinances which were aimed at combating the disease and stopping it spreading. These ordinances were first published and then renewed or modified several times. This was done in the years 1469, 1483 and 1519. These texts have virtually the same contents and all contain about twenty articles of a prophylactic nature. A house where people had died of the plague had to remain shut for a number of months, and the relatives were not allowed in public for a while. Dirty water could not be emptied into the gutters, food had to be placed by the door, the clothes of those who were sick or who had died could not be washed in wells or in the river Demer and could not be sold, people caring for the sick had to wear a white sign, no one was allowed to take in any sick person from outside Diest, etc. Other articles are about refuse in the streets and pigs roaming around freely. Infringements were made punishable by fines, or if the perpetrators were insolvent, they had to make a pilgrimage to Strasbourg, Cologne or Rome. The ordinance of 1469 was issued again in 1472. It seems to be based on an ordinance of the city of Louvain, as this indication of the origin in the text was replaced by the word "Diest", and references to places in Diest were added. The ordinance of 1519 was confirmed in 1523, 1532, 1543-1544, 1558, 1574 and 1579. Separate regulations were issued in 1530, 1532-1533, 1573, 1578-1579, 1599. They relate to infected clothes and household articles, dung heaps, dead animals in the Demer, people who came into contact with anyone suffering from the plague, epidemics in the area, such as Beringen (1556) and Turnhout (1571). Diest also had municipal plague masters; these were surgeons. A number of names and data are known to us from municipal accounts from

  19. The emergence of international food safety standards and guidelines: understanding the current landscape through a historical approach.

    PubMed

    Ramsingh, Brigit

    2014-07-01

    Following the Second World War, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) teamed up to construct an International Codex Alimentarius (or 'food code') which emerged in 1963. The Codex Committee on Food Hygiene (CCFH) was charged with the task of developing microbial hygiene standards, although it found itself embroiled in debate with the WHO over the nature these standards should take. The WHO was increasingly relying upon the input of biometricians and especially the International Commission on Microbial Specifications for Foods (ICMSF) which had developed statistical sampling plans for determining the microbial counts in the final end products. The CCFH, however, was initially more focused on a qualitative approach which looked at the entire food production system and developed codes of practice as well as more descriptive end-product specifications which the WHO argued were 'not scientifically correct'. Drawing upon historical archival material (correspondence and reports) from the WHO and FAO, this article examines this debate over microbial hygiene standards and suggests that there are many lessons from history which could shed light upon current debates and efforts in international food safety management systems and approaches.

  20. Potency of killed plague vaccines prepared from avirulent Yersinia pestis*

    PubMed Central

    Williams, James E.; Altieri, Patricia L.; Berman, Sanford; Lowenthal, Joseph P.; Cavanaugh, Dan C.

    1980-01-01

    Killed plague vaccines prepared from avirulent strains A1122 and EV76S of Yersinia pestis were more effective in mouse potency tests than samples of Plague Vaccine, USP, prepared from killed Y. pestis of the virulent strain 195/P. Manufacture of vaccine from avirulent Y. pestis would obviate requirements for the large containment facilities that are currently needed for producing Plague Vaccine, USP. PMID:6975184

  1. Use of Insecticide Delivery Tubes for Controlling Rodent-Associated Fleas in a Plague Endemic Region of West Nile, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    BOEGLER, KAREN A.; ATIKU, LINDA A.; MPANGA, JOSEPH TENDO; CLARK, REBECCA J.; DELOREY, MARK J.; GAGE, KENNETH L.; EISEN, REBECCA J.

    2015-01-01

    Plague is a primarily flea-borne rodent-associated zoonosis that is often fatal in humans. Our study focused on the plague-endemic West Nile region of Uganda where affordable means for the prevention of human plague are currently lacking. Traditional hut construction and food storage practices hinder rodent exclusion efforts, and emphasize the need for an inexpensive but effective host-targeted approach for controlling fleas within the domestic environment. Here we demonstrate the ability of an insecticide delivery tube that is made from inexpensive locally available materials to reduce fleas on domestic rodents. Unbaited tubes were treated with either an insecticide alone (fipronil) or in conjunction with an insect growth regulator [(S)-methoprene], and placed along natural rodent runways within participant huts. Performance was similar for both treatments throughout the course of the study, and showed significant reductions in the proportion of infested rodents relative to controls for at least 100 d posttreatment. PMID:26309315

  2. Ecology of Yersinia pestis and the Epidemiology of Plague.

    PubMed

    Dubyanskiy, Vladimir M; Yeszhanov, Aidyn B

    2016-01-01

    This chapter summarizes information about the natural foci of plague in the world. We describe the location, main hosts, and vectors of Yersinia pestis. The ecological features of the hosts and vectors of plague are listed, including predators - birds and mammals and their role in the epizootic. The epizootic process in plague and the factors affecting the dynamics of epizootic activity of natural foci of Y. pestis are described in detail. The mathematical models of the epizootic process in plague and predictive models are briefly described. The most comprehensive list of the hosts and vectors of Y. pestis in the world is presented as well.

  3. Disease Limits Populations: Plague and Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Tammi L.; Collinge, Sharon K.; Ray, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Plague is an exotic vector-borne disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis that causes mortality rates approaching 100% in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). We mapped the perimeter of the active portions of black-tailed prairie dog colonies annually between 1999 and 2005 at four prairie dog colony complexes in areas with a history of plague, as well as at two complexes that were located outside the distribution of plague at the time of mapping and had therefore never been affected by the disease. We hypothesized that the presence of plague would significantly reduce overall black-tailed prairie dog colony area, reduce the sizes of colonies on these landscapes, and increase nearest-neighbor distances between colonies. Within the region historically affected by plague, individual colonies were smaller, nearest-neighbor distances were greater, and the proportion of potential habitat occupied by active prairie dog colonies was smaller than at plague-free sites. Populations that endured plague were composed of fewer large colonies (>100 ha) than populations that were historically plague free. We suggest that these differences among sites in colony size and isolation may slow recolonization after extirpation. At the same time, greater intercolony distances may also reduce intercolony transmission of pathogens. Reduced transmission among smaller and more distant colonies may ultimately enhance long-term prairie dog population persistence in areas where plague is present. PMID:20158327

  4. Disease limits populations: plague and black-tailed prairie dogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cully, Jack F.; Johnson, T.; Collinge, S.K.; Ray, C.

    2010-01-01

    Plague is an exotic vector-borne disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis that causes mortality rates approaching 100% in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). We mapped the perimeter of the active portions of black-tailed prairie dog colonies annually between 1999 and 2005 at four prairie dog colony complexes in areas with a history of plague, as well as at two complexes that were located outside the distribution of plague at the time of mapping and had therefore never been affected by the disease. We hypothesized that the presence of plague would significantly reduce overall black-tailed prairie dog colony area, reduce the sizes of colonies on these landscapes, and increase nearest-neighbor distances between colonies. Within the region historically affected by plague, individual colonies were smaller, nearest-neighbor distances were greater, and the proportion of potential habitat occupied by active prairie dog colonies was smaller than at plague-free sites. Populations that endured plague were composed of fewer large colonies (>100 ha) than populations that were historically plague free. We suggest that these differences among sites in colony size and isolation may slow recolonization after extirpation. At the same time, greater intercolony distances may also reduce intercolony transmission of pathogens. Reduced transmission among smaller and more distant colonies may ultimately enhance long-term prairie dog population persistence in areas where plague is present.

  5. Disease limits populations: plague and black-tailed prairie dogs.

    PubMed

    Cully, Jack F; Johnson, Tammi L; Collinge, Sharon K; Ray, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Plague is an exotic vector-borne disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis that causes mortality rates approaching 100% in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). We mapped the perimeter of the active portions of black-tailed prairie dog colonies annually between 1999 and 2005 at four prairie dog colony complexes in areas with a history of plague, as well as at two complexes that were located outside the distribution of plague at the time of mapping and had therefore never been affected by the disease. We hypothesized that the presence of plague would significantly reduce overall black-tailed prairie dog colony area, reduce the sizes of colonies on these landscapes, and increase nearest-neighbor distances between colonies. Within the region historically affected by plague, individual colonies were smaller, nearest-neighbor distances were greater, and the proportion of potential habitat occupied by active prairie dog colonies was smaller than at plague-free sites. Populations that endured plague were composed of fewer large colonies (>100 ha) than populations that were historically plague free. We suggest that these differences among sites in colony size and isolation may slow recolonization after extirpation. At the same time, greater intercolony distances may also reduce intercolony transmission of pathogens. Reduced transmission among smaller and more distant colonies may ultimately enhance long-term prairie dog population persistence in areas where plague is present.

  6. Protecting against plague: towards a next-generation vaccine.

    PubMed

    Williamson, E D; Oyston, P C F

    2013-04-01

    The causative organism of plague is the bacterium Yersinia pestis. Advances in understanding the complex pathogenesis of plague infection have led to the identification of the F1- and V-antigens as key components of a next-generation vaccine for plague, which have the potential to be effective against all forms of the disease. Here we review the roles of F1- and V-antigens in the context of the range of virulence mechanisms deployed by Y. pestis, in order to develop a greater understanding of the protective immune responses required to protect against plague.

  7. Protecting against plague: towards a next-generation vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, E D; Oyston, P C F

    2013-01-01

    The causative organism of plague is the bacterium Yersinia pestis. Advances in understanding the complex pathogenesis of plague infection have led to the identification of the F1- and V-antigens as key components of a next-generation vaccine for plague, which have the potential to be effective against all forms of the disease. Here we review the roles of F1- and V-antigens in the context of the range of virulence mechanisms deployed by Y. pestis, in order to develop a greater understanding of the protective immune responses required to protect against plague. PMID:23480179

  8. Drinking water quality standards and standard tests: Worldwide. (Latest citations from Food Science & Technology Abstracts (FSTA)). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the laws, regulations, standards, and testing methods for drinking water from domestic and international sources. Citations discuss quality standardization and control. Topics include safety codes for drinking water systems and installations, contaminated water and toxicity analyses, biological and chemical standards, diseases derived from drinking water, plastic materials for water packaging, and natural mineral drinking water. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  9. Efficacy of the UK Recombinant Plague Vaccine to Protect Against Pneumonic Plague in the Nonhuman Primate, Macaca Fascicularis (PRIVATE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-05

    Alhydrogel. They were challenged on day 60 with a lethal aerosol challen survived. 2 1 INTRODUCTION Plague is an infection caused by the gram negative...Testing has been completed and shown Plague is an infection of small rodents and mammals - for example the ra popu ess. Plague has been responsible for...protective against challenge 28 of the immunization schedule through to week 53 after two compete with mpetitive ELISA. The competitive binding data

  10. Broader investigation into the external environment of the specific antigen of the infectious agent in epizootiological observation and study of the structure of natural foci of plague.

    PubMed

    Cherchenko, I I; Dyatlov, A I

    1976-01-01

    The possibilities of detection of the infectious agent in natural foci of plague can be expanded to some extent by using the method of search for the specific FI capsular antigen of the plague microbe in such objects of the external environment which have not yet been subjected to laboratory analysis and serological analysis in particular. Such objects include soil from the burrow and the substrate of the nest of the rodent as well as the fleas of rodents and regurgitations of birds of prey. The effectivity and suitability of examination of these objects using immuno-adsorption reactions with standard erythrocyte diagnostics (passive haemagglutination reaction, antibody neutralization reaction) were demonstrated experimentally and confirmed under field conditions in various geographical and ecological zones of the Caucasus. Thus in 1971, an earlier unknown natural focus of plague was found in the Mount Elbrus massif by means of serological analysis of the substrate of the nest and of the soil from the burrows of rodents. It can be expected that broadened serological search for the FI antigen of plague will prove useful in the study of the structure of natural foci of plague, in the reconnaissance or retrospective investigation of poorly explored territories and in the solution of some questions concerning the epizootiology of plague, such as the survival of the infectious agent in the inter-epizootic period, telluric plague, etc.

  11. Evaluation of the uptake of the Australian standardized terminology and definitions for texture modified foods and fluids.

    PubMed

    Jukes, Sarah; Cichero, Julie A Y; Haines, Terrence; Wilson, Christina; Paul, Kate; O'Rourke, Michelle

    2012-06-01

    This paper discusses the uptake of standardized terminology and definitions for texture modified foods and fluids. The Australian dietetic and speech-language pathology associations endorsed national standards in 2007. This project sought to determine the barriers and enablers for use of the national standards in clinical practice. Cross-sectional online surveys were developed, including open- and closed-response questions. The surveys targeted different professional groups in Australia including speech-language pathologists, dietitians, nurses, and food service personnel. Australian accredited universities were contacted to determine penetration of the standards. A total of 574 surveys were received. Sixty-five per cent of respondents indicated full implementation, 23% partial implementation, and 10% no implementation of the standards in their workplace. Speech-language pathologists and dietitians were most likely to have championed implementation of the standards. Barriers to implementation included: lack of knowledge about the standards, time, and resistance to change. Enablers included: encouragement to use the standards and 'buy-in' from stakeholders. Benefits of implementation included: consistent terminology and perceived improvements in patient safety. It was concluded that the standards have been successfully implemented in a majority of facilities and Australian universities. This study provides insight into the complexity of introducing and managing change in healthcare environments.

  12. Standardized inspections of food premises during the 2004 Athens Olympic Games: descriptive analysis and risk factors for unsatisfactory results.

    PubMed

    Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Mouchtouri, Varvara; Varzakas, Theodoros; Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis; Kremastinou, Jenny

    2008-08-01

    Standardized inspections of food premises are part of environmental health systems implemented worldwide. The food safety strategy for the 2004 Olympic Games included standardized inspections to ensure uniformity and consistency of procedures and effective electronic management of data. Inspections were carried out by 196 inspectors in the five Olympic cities: Athens, Thessalonica, Volos, Iraklio, and Patra. From January 2003 to September 2004, a total of 1,249 food premises were inspected. An unsatisfactory inspection result (C grade) was received by 347 (27.8%) food premises, a relatively satisfactory result (B grade) was received by 332 (26.6%), and a satisfactory result (A grade) was received by 570 (45.6%). About 16% of inspected premises did not hold a valid permit. Unsatisfactory inspection results were more frequent for premises located in the two largest Greek cities in comparison with the other smaller cities (relative risk = 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.36 to 2.80). Based on logistic regression analysis, unsatisfactory inspection results were positively associated with food premises that were not located on a ground floor (odds ratio [OR] = 2.56, 95% CI = 1.39 to 4.73) and negatively associated with application of hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) principles (OR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.10 to 0.71). Food hygiene education through formal training programs should be encouraged to improve compliance of food premises. Food premises located on hotel floors and serving buffet meals are at higher risk for unsatisfactory conditions. Businesses that implemented a HACCP system within their operations to ensure food safety operated under more hygienic conditions. Future inspections by Public Health Authorities should involve elements of audit after the legislation for the application of HACCP principles.

  13. A review of plague persistence with special emphasis on fleas.

    PubMed

    Wimsatt, Jeffrey; Biggins, Dean E

    2009-06-01

    Sylvatic plague is highly prevalent during infrequent epizootics that ravage the landscape of western North America. During these periods, plague dissemination is very efficient. Epizootics end when rodent and flea populations are decimated and vectored transmission declines. A second phase (enzootic plague) ensues when plague is difficult to detect from fleas, hosts or the environment, and presents less of a threat to public health. Recently, researchers have hypothesized that the bacterium (Yersinia pestis) responsible for plague maintains a continuous state of high virulence and thus only changes in transmission efficiency explain the shift between alternating enzootic and epizootic phases. However, if virulent transmission becomes too inefficient, strong selection might favor an alternate survival strategy. Another plausible non-exclusive hypothesis, best supported from Asian field studies, is that Y. pestis persists (locally) at foci by maintaining a more benign relationship within adapted rodents during the long expanses of time between outbreaks. From this vantage, it can revert to the epizootic (transmission efficient) form. Similarly, in the United States (US), enzootic plague persistence has been proposed to develop sequestered within New World rodent carriers. However, the absence of clear support for rodent carriers in North America has encouraged a broader search for alternative explanations. A telluric plague existence has been proposed. However, the availability of flea life stages and their hosts could critically supplement environmental plague sources, or fleas might directly represent a lowlevel plague reservoir. Here, we note a potentially pivotal role for fleas. These epizootic plague vectors should be closely studied with newer more exacting methods to determine their potential to serve as participants in or accomplices to a plague persistence reservoir.

  14. [Transylvanian refugees and the plague in 1708-1709].

    PubMed

    Kis, D

    1993-01-01

    Owing to the overwhelming military power of the Habsburg forces Transylvanian sympathizers fled twice to Hungary during the Rákóczi uprising (1704-1711): first in 1704-1706 and then in 1707-1711. In the autumn of 1707 they numbered as much as ten thousand people, and according to the decrees of the diet at Kisvárda, they were settled down in smaller units in around Szabolcs, Szatmár, Bereg, Ung, Ugocsa and Máramaros counties. Though always short of money, the leaders of the ukprising created a system that satisfied the basic needs of these refugees. By the end of the rebellion, nevertheless, as the territory controlled by Rákóczi's armies decreased considerably, the refugees were forced to move on and on, which certainly led to a corruption of their food supplies, accommodation and hygienic conditions. The worst among all came with the plague. The author examines the effects of the epidemic and the counter-measures taken by the individual and the authorities of the uprising. Kis has consulted the main Hungarian books of that age that referred to black death (among others Anna Zay's Herbarium [1719], Samuel Köleséri's Pestis Daicae, György Komáromi Csipkés's Pestis pestise, Ferenc Pápai Páriz's Pax Corporis and A [estos betegség etc., and Máté Tsanaki's A Döghalálról, etc.), as well as many archival papers (the correspondence of Count Sándor Károlyi with his wife Krisztina Barkóczy, thos of General Bercsényi to his wife and Prince Rákóczi, and some doctors' reports, etc.). His main source, however, is Zsigmond Szaniszló's diary. Szaniszló was a former fobiró (chief-sheriff) of the Transsylvanian Torda city, an Anti-Trinitarian stronghold, and remained a leader of his people during the emigration. According to his notes, which the author has compared with the data given by the others, there were hardly any measures taken against plague in this community. Although Szaniszló gives detailed descriptions about the everyday life of the

  15. School lunches v. packed lunches: a comparison of secondary schools in England following the introduction of compulsory school food standards.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Lesley; Nicholas, Jo; Wood, Lesley; Nelson, Michael

    2013-06-01

    To compare food choices and nutrient intakes of pupils taking a school lunch or a packed lunch in eighty secondary schools in England, following the introduction of the food-based and nutrient-based standards for school food. Cross-sectional data collected between October 2010 and April 2011. Pupils' lunchtime food choices were recorded over five consecutive days. Secondary schools, England. A random selection of 5925 pupils having school lunches and 1805 pupils having a packed lunch in a nationally representative sample of eighty secondary schools in England. The differences in the specific types of food and drink consumed by the two groups of pupils are typical of differences between a hot and cold meal. On average, school lunches as eaten contained significantly more energy, carbohydrate, protein, fibre, vitamin A, folate, Fe and Zn than packed lunches, and 8 % less Na. Although neither school lunches nor packed lunches provided the balance of nutrients required to meet the nutrient-based standards (based on about one-third of daily energy and nutrient requirements), school lunches generally had a healthier nutrient profile, with lower Na and percentage of energy from fat, and higher fibre and micronutrient content. These differences were greater than those reported prior to the introduction of compulsory standards for school lunches. In order to ensure more pupils have a healthy lunch, schools could introduce and enforce a packed lunch policy or make school meals the only option at lunchtime.

  16. Stakeholder insights on the planning and development of an independent benchmark standard for responsible food marketing.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Georgina; Macdonald, Laura

    2016-06-01

    A mixed methods qualitative survey investigated stakeholder responses to the proposal to develop an independently defined, audited and certifiable set of benchmark standards for responsible food marketing. Its purpose was to inform the policy planning and development process. A majority of respondents were supportive of the proposal. A majority also viewed the engagement and collaboration of a broad base of stakeholders in its planning and development as potentially beneficial. Positive responses were associated with views that policy controls can and should be extended to include all form of marketing, that obesity and non-communicable diseases prevention and control was a shared responsibility and an urgent policy priority and prior experience of independent standardisation as a policy lever for good practice. Strong policy leadership, demonstrable utilisation of the evidence base in its development and deployment and a conceptually clear communications plan were identified as priority targets for future policy planning. Future research priorities include generating more evidence on the feasibility of developing an effective community of practice and theory of change, the strengths and limitations of these and developing an evidence-based step-wise communications strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Common methodologies in the evaluation of food allergy: pitfalls and prospects of food allergy prevalence studies.

    PubMed

    Shu, Shang-an; Chang, Christopher; Leung, Patrick S C

    2014-06-01

    Global and regional studies on the prevalence of food allergies are plagued by inconsistent methodologies, variations in interpretation of results, and non-standardized study design. Hence, it becomes difficult to compare the prevalence of food allergies in different communities. This information would be useful in providing critical data that will enhance research to elucidate the nature of food allergies, and the role of gene-environment interactions in the sensitization of children and adults to foods. Testing methodologies range from questionnaires to objective in vitro and in vivo testing, to the gold standard, double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). Although considered the most accurate and reliable method in detecting the prevalence of food allergy, DBPCFC is not always practical in epidemiological studies of food allergy. On the other hand, multiple logistic regression studies have been done to determine predictability of the outcome of food challenges, and it appears that skin prick testing and in vitro-specific serum IgE are the best predictors. Future studies directed towards confirming the validity of these methods as well as developing algorithms to predict the food challenge outcomes are required, as they may someday become accessory tools to complement DBPCFC.

  18. DETERMINATION OF A STANDARD FOOD ITEM FOR ANALYSIS OF PESTICIDE CONSUMPTION IN THE DIETARY INTAKE OF YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to establish a standard food item for the collection of residential use pesticides from household surfaces commonly encountered by young children while eating. The amount of a pesticide that young children ingest during eating is influenced by the ...

  19. DETERMINATION OF A STANDARD FOOD ITEM FOR ANALYSIS OF PESTICIDE CONSUMPTION IN THE DIETARY INTAKE OF YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to establish a standard food item for the collection of residential use pesticides from household surfaces commonly encountered by young children while eating. The amount of a pesticide that young children ingest during eating is influenced by the ...

  20. The Food Industry and Self-Regulation: Standards to Promote Success and to Avoid Public Health Failures

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Lisa L.; Teret, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    Threatened by possible government regulation and critical public opinion, industries often undertake self-regulatory actions, issue statements of concern for public welfare, and assert that self-regulation is sufficient to protect the public. The food industry has made highly visible pledges to curtail children's food marketing, sell fewer unhealthy products in schools, and label foods in responsible ways. Ceding regulation to industry carries opportunities but is highly risky. In some industries (e.g., tobacco), self-regulation has been an abject failure, but in others (e.g., forestry and marine fisheries), it has been more successful. We examined food industry self-regulation in the context of other self-regulatory successes and failures and defined 8 standards that should be met if self-regulation is to be effective. PMID:20019306

  1. A Deadly Path: Bacterial Spread During Bubonic Plague

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Rodrigo J.; Miller, Virginia L.

    2016-01-01

    Yersinia pestis causes bubonic plague, a fulminant disease where host immune responses are abrogated. Recently developed in vivo models of plague have resulted in new ideas regarding bacterial spread in the body. Deciphering bacterial spread is key to understanding Y. pestis and the immune responses it encounters during infection. PMID:26875618

  2. A Deadly Path: Bacterial Spread During Bubonic Plague.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Rodrigo J; Miller, Virginia L

    2016-04-01

    Yersinia pestis causes bubonic plague, a fulminant disease where host immune responses are abrogated. Recently developed in vivo models of plague have resulted in new ideas regarding bacterial spread in the body. Deciphering bacterial spread is key to understanding Y. pestis and the immune responses it encounters during infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Plague: Infections of Companion Animals and Opportunities for Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Oyston, Petra C.F.; Williamson, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary Plague is a notorious disease of humans, typically transmitted from rodents to man by the bite of infected fleas. However, plague can also be brought into the home by domestic animals. Cats are acutely susceptible to plague and can pose a significant hazard to close contacts. Dogs are relatively resistant to plague, but can import infected fleas into the home. This review discusses options available for vaccinating cats and dogs, to protect the animals, their owners and veterinarians from infection. Abstract Plague is a zoonotic disease, normally circulating in rodent populations, transmitted to humans most commonly through the bite of an infected flea vector. Secondary infection of the lungs results in generation of infectious aerosols, which pose a significant hazard to close contacts. In enzootic areas, plague infections have been reported in owners and veterinarians who come into contact with infected pets. Dogs are relatively resistant, but can import infected fleas into the home. Cats are acutely susceptible, and can present a direct hazard to health. Reducing roaming and hunting behaviours, combined with flea control measures go some way to reducing the risk to humans. Various vaccine formulations have been developed which may be suitable to protect companion animals from contracting plague, and thus preventing onward transmission to man. Since transmission has resulted in a number of fatal cases of plague, the vaccination of domestic animals such as cats would seem a low cost strategy for reducing the risk of infection by this serious disease in enzootic regions. PMID:26486314

  4. Perceptions and reactions with regard to pneumonic plague.

    PubMed

    Rubin, G James; Amlot, Richard; Rogers, M Brooke; Hall, Ian; Leach, Steve; Simpson, John; Wessely, Simon

    2010-01-01

    We assessed perceptions and likely reactions of 1,005 UK adults to a hypothetical terrorist attack involving pneumonic plague. Likely compliance with official recommendations ranged from good (98% would take antimicrobial drugs) to poor (76% would visit a treatment center). Perceptions about plague were associated with these intentions.

  5. Perceptions and Reactions with Regard to Pneumonic Plague

    PubMed Central

    Amlôt, Richard; Rogers, M. Brooke; Hall, Ian; Leach, Steve; Simpson, John; Wessely, Simon

    2010-01-01

    We assessed perceptions and likely reactions of 1,005 UK adults to a hypothetical terrorist attack involving pneumonic plague. Likely compliance with official recommendations ranged from good (98% would take antimicrobial drugs) to poor (76% would visit a treatment center). Perceptions about plague were associated with these intentions. PMID:20031056

  6. [Experience of justification of hygienic standards of food safety with the use of criteria for the risk population health].

    PubMed

    Zaytseva, N V; Tutelyan, V A; Shur, P Z; Khotimchenko, S A; Sheveleva, S A

    2014-01-01

    In the article there is presented the experience of justification of hygienic standards of food safety with the use of criteria for the risk for population health. Health risk assessment under the impact of tetracyclines with food showed that the content of residual amounts of these antibiotics at the level of 10 mg/kg (permissible residual tetracycline accepted in Customs Union Member Countries (CUMC) will not increase the risk to public health, including the most sensitive groups of the population. The assessment ofthe health risk associated with the receipt of ractopamine with food, showed that eating foods containing ractopamine at ADI level (0-1 mg/kg body weight), and even at the limit of quantification levels in meat products, is inadmissible because of unacceptable risk of functional disorders and diseases of the cardiovascular system. The results of the substantiation of the permissible levels of nitrates content in crop production showed that at the level of exposure according to hygienic standards established in the CUMC as at the recommended and actual consumption levels of products ofplant origin, the health risk as carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic, does not exceed acceptable levels. The results of the assessment of the risk associated with the permissible levels of L. monocytogenes in certain food groups showed that an exposure level of hygienic standards established in the CUMC, standards of Codex Alimentarius Commission and EU documents (before release to the market by the manufacturer) the health risk does not exceed the maximum permissible level of the appearance of serious diseases. Adoption of standards of Codex Alimentarius Commission and the EU (for handling products in the market) is not acceptable because it can lead to an unacceptable risk of listeriosis for the population of the Russian Federation as a whole, and for the most sensitive groups.

  7. The Availability of Competitive Foods and Beverages to Middle School Students in Appalachian Virginia Before Implementation of the 2014 Smart Snacks in School Standards

    PubMed Central

    Kraak, Vivica; Serrano, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The study objective was to examine the nutritional quality of competitive foods and beverages (foods and beverages from vending machines and à la carte foods) available to rural middle school students, before implementation of the US Department of Agriculture’s Smart Snacks in School standards in July 2014. In spring 2014, we audited vending machines and à la carte cafeteria foods and beverages in 8 rural Appalachian middle schools in Virginia. Few schools had vending machines. Few à la carte and vending machine foods met Smart Snacks in School standards (36.6%); however, most beverages did (78.2%). The major challenges to meeting standards were fat and sodium content of foods. Most competitive foods (63.4%) did not meet new standards, and rural schools with limited resources will likely require assistance to fully comply. PMID:26378899

  8. The Availability of Competitive Foods and Beverages to Middle School Students in Appalachian Virginia Before Implementation of the 2014 Smart Snacks in School Standards.

    PubMed

    Mann, Georgianna; Kraak, Vivica; Serrano, Elena

    2015-09-17

    The study objective was to examine the nutritional quality of competitive foods and beverages (foods and beverages from vending machines and à la carte foods) available to rural middle school students, before implementation of the US Department of Agriculture's Smart Snacks in School standards in July 2014. In spring 2014, we audited vending machines and à la carte cafeteria foods and beverages in 8 rural Appalachian middle schools in Virginia. Few schools had vending machines. Few à la carte and vending machine foods met Smart Snacks in School standards (36.5%); however, most beverages did (78.2%). The major challenges to meeting standards were fat and sodium content of foods. Most competitive foods (62.2%) did not meet new standards, and rural schools with limited resources will likely require assistance to fully comply.

  9. Nathaniel Hodges (1629-1688): Plague doctor.

    PubMed

    Duffin, Christopher J

    2016-02-01

    Nathaniel Hodges was the son of Thomas Hodges (1605-1672), an influential Anglican preacher and reformer with strong connections in the political life of Carolingian London. Educated at Westminster School, Trinity College Cambridge and Christ Church College, Oxford, Nathaniel established himself as a physician in Walbrook Ward in the City of London. Prominent as one of a handful of medical men who remained in London during the time of the Great Plague of 1665, he wrote the definitive work on the outbreak. His daily precautions against contracting the disease included fortifying himself with Théodore de Mayerne's antipestilential electuary and the liberal consumption of Sack. Hodges' approach to the treatment of plague victims was empathetic and based on the traditional Galenic method rather than Paracelsianism although he was pragmatic in the rejection of formulae and simples which he judged from experience to be ineffective. Besieged by financial problems in later life, his practice began to fail in the 1680s and he eventually died in a debtor's prison. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. [The great plague of Athens 430 BC].

    PubMed

    Frøland, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The plague of Athens in 430-426 BC has puzzled scholars and doctors for generations as to the aetiology of this deadly disease that had profound influence on the outcome of the Great Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC). Like several thousand soldiers and civilians, Pericles succumbed to the plague in 429. The main opponent to Athens was Sparta. Sparta had a formidable land based army, whereas Athens dominated at sea. Pericles' strategy was to shelter the whole of Attica's population within the protecting walls of Athens and Piraeus and the long walls connecting the two cities, while the Spartans ravaged Attica during the summer months. The result was a tremendous overcrowding in the two cities. The number of inhabitants rose from 145,000 to more than half a million. Therefore optimal conditions for the outbreak of an epidemic of any contagious disease were present. The Athenian general and historian Thucydides (455-396 BC), though not a medical man himself, has provided us with a very clear and precise description of the disease, which he himself contracted but survived. A huge number of modern aetiologies has been proposed, but none has so far been able to match Thucydides' clinical picture in all details. Presumably the disease has changed so much during the past 2400 years as not to be recognisable any more or it has totally disappeared.

  11. Plague epizootic cycles in Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Reijniers, Jonas; Begon, Mike; Ageyev, Vladimir S.; Leirs, Herwig

    2014-01-01

    Infection thresholds, widely used in disease epidemiology, may operate on host abundance and, if present, on vector abundance. For wildlife populations, host and vector abundances often vary greatly across years and consequently the threshold may be crossed regularly, both up- and downward. Moreover, vector and host abundances may be interdependent, which may affect the infection dynamics. Theory predicts that if the relevant abundance, or combination of abundances, is above the threshold, then the infection is able to spread; if not, it is bound to fade out. In practice, though, the observed level of infection may depend more on past than on current abundances. Here, we study the temporal dynamics of plague (Yersinia pestis infection), its vector (flea) and its host (great gerbil) in the PreBalkhash region in Kazakhstan. We describe how host and vector abundances interact over time and how this interaction drives the dynamics of the system around the infection threshold, consequently affecting the proportion of plague-infected sectors. We also explore the importance of the interplay between biological and detectability delays in generating the observed dynamics. PMID:24966205

  12. Plague epizootic cycles in Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Reijniers, Jonas; Begon, Mike; Ageyev, Vladimir S; Leirs, Herwig

    2014-06-01

    Infection thresholds, widely used in disease epidemiology, may operate on host abundance and, if present, on vector abundance. For wildlife populations, host and vector abundances often vary greatly across years and consequently the threshold may be crossed regularly, both up- and downward. Moreover, vector and host abundances may be interdependent, which may affect the infection dynamics. Theory predicts that if the relevant abundance, or combination of abundances, is above the threshold, then the infection is able to spread; if not, it is bound to fade out. In practice, though, the observed level of infection may depend more on past than on current abundances. Here, we study the temporal dynamics of plague (Yersinia pestis infection), its vector (flea) and its host (great gerbil) in the PreBalkhash region in Kazakhstan. We describe how host and vector abundances interact over time and how this interaction drives the dynamics of the system around the infection threshold, consequently affecting the proportion of plague-infected sectors. We also explore the importance of the interplay between biological and detectability delays in generating the observed dynamics.

  13. Experimental plague infection in South African wild rodents.

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, A. J.; Leman, P. A.; Hummitzsch, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    Susceptibility studies were undertaken to determine the response of some South African wild rodent species to experimental plague (Yersinia pestis) infection. A degree of plague resistance was found in three gerbil species captured in the plague enzootic region of the northern Cape Province, these being the Namaqua gerbil, Desmodillus auricularis, (LD50 1 X 10(6) organisms), the bushveld gerbil, Tatera leucogaster, (LD50 9.1 X 10(5)) and the highveld gerbil, T. brantsii (LD50 4 X 10(2)). Animals from a population of the four-striped mouse, Rhabdomys pumilio, captured in the plague area of Port Elizabeth, proved moderately resistant to experimental plague infection (LD50 1.3 X 10(4)) while those from another population of the same species captured in a plague-free area of the Orange Free State were extremely susceptible (LD50, 5 organisms). The response of both populations however was a heterogeneous one. Marked differences in susceptibility were also found between two populations of multimammate mice, Mastomys natalensis (2n = 32) although both originated from areas outwith the known distribution of plague in southern Africa. The 50% infectious dose was relatively high in T. leucogaster (3.2 X 10(2)) and D. auricularis (1.7 X 10(3)), but was low (2-16 organisms) in the other rodent species tested. The plague antibody response, determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), was extremely short-lived in T. leucogaster, only 10% of inoculated animals remaining seropositive at low titres after 11 weeks. Antibodies persisted for only slightly longer in the sera of T. brantsii which were reinoculated with 2 X 10(3) plague organisms 6 weeks after initial challenge. The demonstration of the existence of both susceptible and resistant populations of R. pumilio and M. natalensis indicates that these species must be considered as potential plague reservoir hosts in parts of South Africa. The results suggest that resistance to plague infection in previously epizootic

  14. Hereditary Hemochromatosis Restores the Virulence of Plague Vaccine Strains

    PubMed Central

    Quenee, Lauriane E.; Hermanas, Timothy M.; Ciletti, Nancy; Louvel, Helene; Miller, Nathan C.; Elli, Derek; Blaylock, Bill; Mitchell, Anthony; Schroeder, Jay; Krausz, Thomas; Kanabrocki, Joseph; Schneewind, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Nonpigmented Yersinia pestis (pgm) strains are defective in scavenging host iron and have been used in live-attenuated vaccines to combat plague epidemics. Recently, a Y. pestis pgm strain was isolated from a researcher with hereditary hemochromatosis who died from laboratory-acquired plague. We used hemojuvelin-knockout (Hjv−/−) mice to examine whether iron-storage disease restores the virulence defects of nonpigmented Y. pestis. Unlike wild-type mice, Hjv−/− mice developed lethal plague when challenged with Y. pestis pgm strains. Immunization of Hjv−/− mice with a subunit vaccine that blocks Y. pestis type III secretion generated protection against plague. Thus, individuals with hereditary hemochromatosis may be protected with subunit vaccines but should not be exposed to live-attenuated plague vaccines. PMID:22896664

  15. Hong Kong Junk: Plague and the Economy of Chinese Things.

    PubMed

    Peckham, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Histories of the Third Plague Pandemic, which diffused globally from China in the 1890s, have tended to focus on colonial efforts to regulate the movement of infected populations, on the state's draconian public health measures, and on the development of novel bacteriological theories of disease causation. In contrast, this article focuses on the plague epidemic in Hong Kong and examines colonial preoccupations with Chinese "things" as sources of likely contagion. In the 1890s, laboratory science invested plague with a new identity as an object to be collected, cultivated, and depicted in journals. At the same time, in the increasingly vociferous anti-opium discourse, opium was conceived as a contagious Chinese commodity: a plague. The article argues that rethinking responses to the plague through the history of material culture can further our understanding of the political consequences of disease's entanglement with economic and racial categories, while demonstrating the extent to which colonial agents "thought through things."

  16. Hereditary hemochromatosis restores the virulence of plague vaccine strains.

    PubMed

    Quenee, Lauriane E; Hermanas, Timothy M; Ciletti, Nancy; Louvel, Helene; Miller, Nathan C; Elli, Derek; Blaylock, Bill; Mitchell, Anthony; Schroeder, Jay; Krausz, Thomas; Kanabrocki, Joseph; Schneewind, Olaf

    2012-10-01

    Nonpigmented Yersinia pestis (pgm) strains are defective in scavenging host iron and have been used in live-attenuated vaccines to combat plague epidemics. Recently, a Y. pestis pgm strain was isolated from a researcher with hereditary hemochromatosis who died from laboratory-acquired plague. We used hemojuvelin-knockout (Hjv(-/-)) mice to examine whether iron-storage disease restores the virulence defects of nonpigmented Y. pestis. Unlike wild-type mice, Hjv(-/-) mice developed lethal plague when challenged with Y. pestis pgm strains. Immunization of Hjv(-/-) mice with a subunit vaccine that blocks Y. pestis type III secretion generated protection against plague. Thus, individuals with hereditary hemochromatosis may be protected with subunit vaccines but should not be exposed to live-attenuated plague vaccines.

  17. Children's lunchtime food choices following the introduction of food-based standards for school meals: observations from six primary schools in Sheffield.

    PubMed

    Golley, Rebecca; Pearce, Jo; Nelson, Michael

    2011-02-01

    To describe the lunchtime choices and nutritional intake of primary-school-aged children in England 4 months after the introduction of interim food-based standards for school lunches. Cross-sectional 2 d weighed food records collected in January and February 2007. Six primary schools in Sheffield, England. One hundred and twenty-three pupils aged 8-10 years. Vegetables (81 % v. 8 %) and cakes and biscuits (43 % v. 23 %) were chosen more frequently by pupils consuming a school lunch, while fruit (40 % v. 36 %), meat products (18 % v. 14 %), confectionery (72 % v. 0 %), savoury snacks (69 % v. 0 %) and drinks not meeting the school food standards (40 % v. 0 %) were chosen more often by pupils eating a packed lunch. Mean energy intake was lower in the school lunch group compared with the packed lunch group (1402 (sd 573) v. 2192 (sd 619), P = 0·005). Nutrient density (per MJ energy) was significantly better in school meals for key nutrients including protein (9·8 (sd 2·7) v. 6·3 (sd 1·9) g), fat (7·4 (sd 2·7) v. 10·6 (sd 2·8) g), NSP (2·8 (sd 1·3) v. 1·1 (sd 0·4) g), vitamin A (151·3 (sd 192·8) v. 69·1 (sd 55·6) μg), folate (29·6 (sd 11·6) v. 17·0 (sd 7·0) μg), iron (1·3 (sd 0·3) v. 0·9 (sd 0·3) mg) and zinc (1·1 (sd 0·4) v. 0·7 (sd 0·3) mg). Schools were largely compliant with the interim food-based standards for school meals 4 months after their introduction. Within the context of the new standards, children taking a school lunch are more likely to eat a more nutritious lunch, in terms of less high-fat/salt/sugar foods and nutrient density. The introduction of nutrient-based standards is warranted. Efforts to improve the lunchtime intake of children taking a packed lunch are also required.

  18. Where does human plague still persist in Latin America?

    PubMed

    Schneider, Maria Cristina; Najera, Patricia; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Galan, Deise I; Bertherat, Eric; Ruiz, Alfonso; Dumit, Elsy; Gabastou, Jean Marc; Espinal, Marcos A

    2014-02-01

    Plague is an epidemic-prone disease with a potential impact on public health, international trade, and tourism. It may emerge and re-emerge after decades of epidemiological silence. Today, in Latin America, human cases and foci are present in Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru. The objective of this study is to identify where cases of human plague still persist in Latin America and map areas that may be at risk for emergence or re-emergence. This analysis will provide evidence-based information for countries to prioritize areas for intervention. Evidence of the presence of plague was demonstrated using existing official information from WHO, PAHO, and Ministries of Health. A geo-referenced database was created to map the historical presence of plague by country between the first registered case in 1899 and 2012. Areas where plague still persists were mapped at the second level of the political/administrative divisions (counties). Selected demographic, socioeconomic, and environmental variables were described. Plague was found to be present for one or more years in 14 out of 25 countries in Latin America (1899-2012). Foci persisted in six countries, two of which have no report of current cases. There is evidence that human cases of plague still persist in 18 counties. Demographic and poverty patterns were observed in 11/18 counties. Four types of biomes are most commonly found. 12/18 have an average altitude higher than 1,300 meters above sea level. Even though human plague cases are very localized, the risk is present, and unexpected outbreaks could occur. Countries need to make the final push to eliminate plague as a public health problem for the Americas. A further disaggregated risk evaluation is recommended, including identification of foci and possible interactions among areas where plague could emerge or re-emerge. A closer geographical approach and environmental characterization are suggested.

  19. Where Does Human Plague Still Persist in Latin America?

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Maria Cristina; Najera, Patricia; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Galan, Deise I.; Bertherat, Eric; Ruiz, Alfonso; Dumit, Elsy; Gabastou, Jean Marc; Espinal, Marcos A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Plague is an epidemic-prone disease with a potential impact on public health, international trade, and tourism. It may emerge and re-emerge after decades of epidemiological silence. Today, in Latin America, human cases and foci are present in Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru. Aims The objective of this study is to identify where cases of human plague still persist in Latin America and map areas that may be at risk for emergence or re-emergence. This analysis will provide evidence-based information for countries to prioritize areas for intervention. Methods Evidence of the presence of plague was demonstrated using existing official information from WHO, PAHO, and Ministries of Health. A geo-referenced database was created to map the historical presence of plague by country between the first registered case in 1899 and 2012. Areas where plague still persists were mapped at the second level of the political/administrative divisions (counties). Selected demographic, socioeconomic, and environmental variables were described. Results Plague was found to be present for one or more years in 14 out of 25 countries in Latin America (1899–2012). Foci persisted in six countries, two of which have no report of current cases. There is evidence that human cases of plague still persist in 18 counties. Demographic and poverty patterns were observed in 11/18 counties. Four types of biomes are most commonly found. 12/18 have an average altitude higher than 1,300 meters above sea level. Discussion Even though human plague cases are very localized, the risk is present, and unexpected outbreaks could occur. Countries need to make the final push to eliminate plague as a public health problem for the Americas. A further disaggregated risk evaluation is recommended, including identification of foci and possible interactions among areas where plague could emerge or re-emerge. A closer geographical approach and environmental characterization are suggested. PMID:24516682

  20. Development, implementation and outcome of standards to restrict fatty meat in the food supply and prevent NCDs: learning from an innovative trade/food policy in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diet-related noncommunicable diseases represent a major global public health challenge, and require a multisectoral policy response. However, the use of trade policy in this context has met with varied success in the face of strong global trade liberalization agendas. The Government of Ghana has implemented an innovative food standards policy to limit the amount of fat in meat and meat cuts, in response to rising imports of low quality fatty meat cuts. This paper presents an analysis of the policy process and outcomes, as well as contextual factors in policy development, to enable policy learning in other jurisdictions. Methods We conducted 28 semi-structured policy analysis interviews with 37 stakeholders at the national and regional level in Ghana, and collated relevant documents. We analysed the data using the health policy analysis triangle and policy theories related to lesson drawing. Results The standards were developed in response to health concerns related to fatty meat (particularly turkey tails), in a context of rising meat imports and a generalised concern about the low quality and high fat content of imported meats. The standards were the result of collaboration between the trade and health sectors. The standards apply to both imported and domestic meat, and were designed to be compliant with Ghana’s multilateral trade commitments. The overall effect of the ban has been to reduce availability of specific ‘low quality’ high-fat meats in the Ghanaian food supply, namely turkey tails and chicken feet. Conclusions This study indicates that the use of standards can reduce availability of high-fat meat in a national food supply. The main strength of a standards approach to reducing fatty meat (mainly imported) in the food supply is compliance with global trade law, while the main challenge is effective enforcement. However, the Government of Ghana appears to have developed a functional and flexible application of the policy. Features of this

  1. Development, implementation and outcome of standards to restrict fatty meat in the food supply and prevent NCDs: learning from an innovative trade/food policy in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Thow, Anne Marie; Annan, Reginald; Mensah, Laudina; Chowdhury, Syeda Nafisa

    2014-03-13

    Diet-related noncommunicable diseases represent a major global public health challenge, and require a multisectoral policy response. However, the use of trade policy in this context has met with varied success in the face of strong global trade liberalization agendas. The Government of Ghana has implemented an innovative food standards policy to limit the amount of fat in meat and meat cuts, in response to rising imports of low quality fatty meat cuts. This paper presents an analysis of the policy process and outcomes, as well as contextual factors in policy development, to enable policy learning in other jurisdictions. We conducted 28 semi-structured policy analysis interviews with 37 stakeholders at the national and regional level in Ghana, and collated relevant documents. We analysed the data using the health policy analysis triangle and policy theories related to lesson drawing. The standards were developed in response to health concerns related to fatty meat (particularly turkey tails), in a context of rising meat imports and a generalised concern about the low quality and high fat content of imported meats. The standards were the result of collaboration between the trade and health sectors. The standards apply to both imported and domestic meat, and were designed to be compliant with Ghana's multilateral trade commitments. The overall effect of the ban has been to reduce availability of specific 'low quality' high-fat meats in the Ghanaian food supply, namely turkey tails and chicken feet. This study indicates that the use of standards can reduce availability of high-fat meat in a national food supply. The main strength of a standards approach to reducing fatty meat (mainly imported) in the food supply is compliance with global trade law, while the main challenge is effective enforcement. However, the Government of Ghana appears to have developed a functional and flexible application of the policy. Features of this policy approach useful for policy learning

  2. Investigating How to Align Schools' Marketing Environments with Federal Standards for Competitive Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polacsek, Michele; O'Brien, Liam M.; Pratt, Elizabeth; Whatley-Blum, Janet; Adler, Sabrina

    2017-01-01

    Background: Limiting food and beverage marketing to children is a promising approach to influence children's nutrition behavior. School-based marketing influences nutrition behavior and studies have consistently found marketing for nonnutritious foods and beverages in schools. No studies have examined the resources necessary to align school…

  3. Children's Eating Behavior: The Importance of Nutrition Standards for Foods in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevans, Katherine B.; Sanchez, Betty; Teneralli, Rachel; Forrest, Christopher B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: To enhance the impact of school nutrition programs on children's health, more information is needed on the associations between healthy and unhealthy food offerings during school lunch periods and children's eating behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the contributions of food offerings and participation in school lunch…

  4. Investigating How to Align Schools' Marketing Environments with Federal Standards for Competitive Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polacsek, Michele; O'Brien, Liam M.; Pratt, Elizabeth; Whatley-Blum, Janet; Adler, Sabrina

    2017-01-01

    Background: Limiting food and beverage marketing to children is a promising approach to influence children's nutrition behavior. School-based marketing influences nutrition behavior and studies have consistently found marketing for nonnutritious foods and beverages in schools. No studies have examined the resources necessary to align school…

  5. Children's Eating Behavior: The Importance of Nutrition Standards for Foods in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevans, Katherine B.; Sanchez, Betty; Teneralli, Rachel; Forrest, Christopher B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: To enhance the impact of school nutrition programs on children's health, more information is needed on the associations between healthy and unhealthy food offerings during school lunch periods and children's eating behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the contributions of food offerings and participation in school lunch…

  6. Prevalence and determinants of non-standard motorcycle safety helmets amongst food delivery workers in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Kulanthayan, S; See, Lai Git; Kaviyarasu, Y; Nor Afiah, M Z

    2012-05-01

    Almost half of the global traffic crashes involve vulnerable groups such as pedestrian, cyclists and two-wheeler users. The main objective of this study was to determine the factors that influence standard of the safety helmets used amongst food delivery workers by presence of Standard and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia (SIRIM) certification label. A cross sectional study was conducted amongst 150 food delivery workers from fast food outlets in the vicinity of Selangor and Kuala Lumpur. During observation, safety helmets were classified as standard safety helmet in the presence of SIRIM label and non-standard in the absence of the label. They were approached for questionnaire participation once consent was obtained and were requested to exchange their safety helmet voluntarily with a new one after the interview. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS. Chi square and logistic regression analysis was applied to determine the significance and odds ratio of the variables studied, respectively (penetration test, age, education level, knowledge, crash history, types of safety helmet, marital status and years of riding experience) against the presence of SIRIM label. The response rate for this study was 85.2%. The prevalence of non-standard helmets use amongst fast food delivery workers was 55.3%. Safety helmets that failed the penetration test had higher odds of being non-standard helmets compared with safety helmets passing the test. Types of safety helmet indicated half-shell safety helmets had higher odds to be non-standard safety helmets compared to full-shell safety helmets. Riders with more years of riding experience were in high odds of wearing non-standard safety helmets compared to riders with less riding experience. Non-standard (non-SIRIM approved) helmets were more likely to be half-shell helmets, were more likely to fail the standards penetration test, and were more likely to be worn by older, more experienced riders. The implications of these

  7. Standardized toxicity testing may underestimate ecotoxicity: Environmentally relevant food rations increase the toxicity of silver nanoparticles to Daphnia.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Louise M; Krattenmaker, Katherine E; Johnson, Erica; Bowers, Alexandra J; Adeleye, Adeyemi S; McCauley, Edward; Nisbet, Roger M

    2017-05-29

    Daphnia in the natural environment experience fluctuations in algal food supply, with periods when algal populations bloom and seasons when Daphnia have very little algal food. Standardized chronic toxicity tests, used for ecological risk assessment, dictate that Daphnia must be fed up to 400 times more food than they would experience in the natural environment (outside of algal blooms) for a toxicity test to be valid. This disconnect can lead to underestimating the toxicity of a contaminant. We followed the growth, reproduction, and survival of Daphnia exposed to 75 and 200 µg/L silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) at 4 food rations for up to 99 d and found that AgNP exposure at low, environmentally relevant food rations increased the toxicity of AgNPs. Exposure to AgNP at low food rations decreased the survival and/or reproduction of individuals, with potential consequences for Daphnia populations (based on calculated specific population growth rates). We also found tentative evidence that a sublethal concentration of AgNPs (75 µg/L) caused Daphnia to alter energy allocation away from reproduction and toward survival and growth. The present findings emphasize the need to consider resource availability, and not just exposure, in the environment when estimating the effect of a toxicant. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;9999:1-11. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  8. Children's food and satiety responsiveness in association with post-prandial glucose following a standardized liquid meal.

    PubMed

    Gowey, M A; Chandler-Laney, P C

    2017-08-23

    Children's responsiveness to food cues and satiety may put them at greater risk for obesity; however, little is known about the physiological mechanisms underlying children's responsiveness to food and satiety. The objective of this study was to examine the association between children's post-prandial glucose responses and maternal report of their eating behaviours. A secondary data analysis was conducted using partial correlation analyses adjusted for gender in a sample of children aged 5-10 years and their mothers (N = 28 dyads). Standardized liquid meal tests were administered to children and blood samples were obtained over the following 4 h. Mothers completed the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. An earlier post-prandial peak glucose concentration was associated with greater food responsiveness (r = -0.39, P = 0.04) but not satiety responsiveness. The percent increase in glucose from fasting to peak also tended to be inversely associated with greater food responsiveness (r = -0.38, P = 0.05). Results suggest that earlier and smaller post-prandial glucose excursions may be related to children's response to food cues. Future research should use objective methods to examine whether the association of post-prandial glucose with food responsiveness prospectively contributes to weight gain. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  9. Evaluation of protective potential of Yersinia pestis outer membrane protein antigens as possible candidates for a new-generation recombinant plague vaccine.

    PubMed

    Erova, Tatiana E; Rosenzweig, Jason A; Sha, Jian; Suarez, Giovanni; Sierra, Johanna C; Kirtley, Michelle L; van Lier, Christina J; Telepnev, Maxim V; Motin, Vladimir L; Chopra, Ashok K

    2013-02-01

    Plague caused by Yersinia pestis manifests itself in bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic forms. Although the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recently approved levofloxacin, there is no approved human vaccine against plague. The capsular antigen F1 and the low-calcium-response V antigen (LcrV) of Y. pestis represent excellent vaccine candidates; however, the inability of the immune responses to F1 and LcrV to provide protection against Y. pestis F1(-) strains or those which harbor variants of LcrV is a significant concern. Here, we show that the passive transfer of hyperimmune sera from rats infected with the plague bacterium and rescued by levofloxacin protected naive animals against pneumonic plague. Furthermore, 10 to 12 protein bands from wild-type (WT) Y. pestis CO92 reacted with the aforementioned hyperimmune sera upon Western blot analysis. Based on mass spectrometric analysis, four of these proteins were identified as attachment invasion locus (Ail/OmpX), plasminogen-activating protease (Pla), outer membrane protein A (OmpA), and F1. The genes encoding these proteins were cloned, and the recombinant proteins purified from Escherichia coli for immunization purposes before challenging mice and rats with either the F1(-) mutant or WT CO92 in bubonic and pneumonic plague models. Although antibodies to Ail and OmpA protected mice against bubonic plague when challenged with the F1(-) CO92 strain, Pla antibodies were protective against pneumonic plague. In the rat model, antibodies to Ail provided protection only against pneumonic plague after WT CO92 challenge. Together, the addition of Y. pestis outer membrane proteins to a new-generation recombinant vaccine could provide protection against a wide variety of Y. pestis strains.

  10. Evaluation of Protective Potential of Yersinia pestis Outer Membrane Protein Antigens as Possible Candidates for a New-Generation Recombinant Plague Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Erova, Tatiana E.; Rosenzweig, Jason A.; Sha, Jian; Suarez, Giovanni; Sierra, Johanna C.; Kirtley, Michelle L.; van Lier, Christina J.; Telepnev, Maxim V.; Motin, Vladimir L.

    2013-01-01

    Plague caused by Yersinia pestis manifests itself in bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic forms. Although the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recently approved levofloxacin, there is no approved human vaccine against plague. The capsular antigen F1 and the low-calcium-response V antigen (LcrV) of Y. pestis represent excellent vaccine candidates; however, the inability of the immune responses to F1 and LcrV to provide protection against Y. pestis F1− strains or those which harbor variants of LcrV is a significant concern. Here, we show that the passive transfer of hyperimmune sera from rats infected with the plague bacterium and rescued by levofloxacin protected naive animals against pneumonic plague. Furthermore, 10 to 12 protein bands from wild-type (WT) Y. pestis CO92 reacted with the aforementioned hyperimmune sera upon Western blot analysis. Based on mass spectrometric analysis, four of these proteins were identified as attachment invasion locus (Ail/OmpX), plasminogen-activating protease (Pla), outer membrane protein A (OmpA), and F1. The genes encoding these proteins were cloned, and the recombinant proteins purified from Escherichia coli for immunization purposes before challenging mice and rats with either the F1− mutant or WT CO92 in bubonic and pneumonic plague models. Although antibodies to Ail and OmpA protected mice against bubonic plague when challenged with the F1− CO92 strain, Pla antibodies were protective against pneumonic plague. In the rat model, antibodies to Ail provided protection only against pneumonic plague after WT CO92 challenge. Together, the addition of Y. pestis outer membrane proteins to a new-generation recombinant vaccine could provide protection against a wide variety of Y. pestis strains. PMID:23239803

  11. Human Anti-Plague Monoclonal Antibodies Protect Mice from Yersinia pestis in a Bubonic Plague Model

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xiaodong; Zhu, Zhongyu; Dankmeyer, Jennifer L.; Wormald, Michael M.; Fast, Randy L.; Worsham, Patricia L.; Cote, Christopher K.; Amemiya, Kei; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.

    2010-01-01

    Yersinia pestis is the etiologic agent of plague that has killed more than 200 million people throughout the recorded history of mankind. Antibiotics may provide little immediate relief to patients who have a high bacteremia or to patients infected with an antibiotic resistant strain of plague. Two virulent factors of Y. pestis are the capsid F1 protein and the low-calcium response (Lcr) V-protein or V-antigen that have been proven to be the targets for both active and passive immunization. There are mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the F1- and V-antigens that can passively protect mice in a murine model of plague; however, there are no anti-Yersinia pestis monoclonal antibodies available for prophylactic or therapeutic treatment in humans. We identified one anti-F1-specific human mAb (m252) and two anti-V-specific human mAb (m253, m254) by panning a naïve phage-displayed Fab library against the F1- and V-antigens. The Fabs were converted to IgG1s and their binding and protective activities were evaluated. M252 bound weakly to peptides located at the F1 N-terminus where a protective mouse anti-F1 mAb also binds. M253 bound strongly to a V-antigen peptide indicating a linear epitope; m254 did not bind to any peptide from a panel of 53 peptides suggesting that its epitope may be conformational. M252 showed better protection than m253 and m254 against a Y, pestis challenge in a plague mouse model. A synergistic effect was observed when the three antibodies were combined. Incomplete to complete protection was achieved when m252 was given at different times post-challenge. These antibodies can be further studied to determine their potential as therapeutics or prophylactics in Y. pestis infection in humans. PMID:20976274

  12. Human anti-plague monoclonal antibodies protect mice from Yersinia pestis in a bubonic plague model.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiaodong; Zhu, Zhongyu; Dankmeyer, Jennifer L; Wormald, Michael M; Fast, Randy L; Worsham, Patricia L; Cote, Christopher K; Amemiya, Kei; Dimitrov, Dimiter S

    2010-10-13

    Yersinia pestis is the etiologic agent of plague that has killed more than 200 million people throughout the recorded history of mankind. Antibiotics may provide little immediate relief to patients who have a high bacteremia or to patients infected with an antibiotic resistant strain of plague. Two virulent factors of Y. pestis are the capsid F1 protein and the low-calcium response (Lcr) V-protein or V-antigen that have been proven to be the targets for both active and passive immunization. There are mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the F1- and V-antigens that can passively protect mice in a murine model of plague; however, there are no anti-Yersinia pestis monoclonal antibodies available for prophylactic or therapeutic treatment in humans. We identified one anti-F1-specific human mAb (m252) and two anti-V-specific human mAb (m253, m254) by panning a naïve phage-displayed Fab library against the F1- and V-antigens. The Fabs were converted to IgG1s and their binding and protective activities were evaluated. M252 bound weakly to peptides located at the F1 N-terminus where a protective mouse anti-F1 mAb also binds. M253 bound strongly to a V-antigen peptide indicating a linear epitope; m254 did not bind to any peptide from a panel of 53 peptides suggesting that its epitope may be conformational. M252 showed better protection than m253 and m254 against a Y, pestis challenge in a plague mouse model. A synergistic effect was observed when the three antibodies were combined. Incomplete to complete protection was achieved when m252 was given at different times post-challenge. These antibodies can be further studied to determine their potential as therapeutics or prophylactics in Y. pestis infection in humans.

  13. Microbial Genomics of Ancient Plagues and Outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Andam, Cheryl P; Worby, Colin J; Chang, Qiuzhi; Campana, Michael G

    2016-12-01

    The recent use of next-generation sequencing methods to investigate historical disease outbreaks has provided us with an unprecedented ability to address important and long-standing questions in epidemiology, pathogen evolution, and human history. In this review, we present major findings that illustrate how microbial genomics has provided new insights into the nature and etiology of infectious diseases of historical importance, such as plague, tuberculosis, and leprosy. Sequenced isolates collected from archaeological remains also provide evidence for the timing of historical evolutionary events as well as geographic spread of these pathogens. Elucidating the genomic basis of virulence in historical diseases can provide relevant information on how we can effectively understand the emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases today and in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Plague: A Millenary Infectious Disease Reemerging in the XXI Century

    PubMed Central

    Grácio, A. J. dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    Plague, in the Middle Ages known as Black Death, continues to occur at permanent foci in many countries, in Africa, Asia, South America, and even the USA. During the last years outbreaks were reported from at least 3 geographical areas, in all cases after tens of years without reported cases. The recent human plague outbreaks in Libya and Algeria suggest that climatic and other environmental changes in Northern Africa may be favourable for Y. pestis epidemiologic cycle. If so, other Northern Africa countries with plague foci also may be at risk for outbreaks in the near future. It is important to remember that the danger of plague reoccurrence is not limited to the known natural foci, for example, those of Algeria, Angola, and Madagascar. In a general context, it is important that governments know the dangerous impact that this disease may have and that the health and medical community be familiar with the epidemiology, symptoms, treatment, and control of plague, so an appropriated and timely response can be delivered should the worst case happen. Plague can be used as a potential agent of bioterrorism. We have concluded that plague is without a doubt a reemerging infectious disease. PMID:28904964

  15. Plague: A Millenary Infectious Disease Reemerging in the XXI Century.

    PubMed

    Grácio, A J Dos Santos; Grácio, Maria Amélia A

    2017-01-01

    Plague, in the Middle Ages known as Black Death, continues to occur at permanent foci in many countries, in Africa, Asia, South America, and even the USA. During the last years outbreaks were reported from at least 3 geographical areas, in all cases after tens of years without reported cases. The recent human plague outbreaks in Libya and Algeria suggest that climatic and other environmental changes in Northern Africa may be favourable for Y. pestis epidemiologic cycle. If so, other Northern Africa countries with plague foci also may be at risk for outbreaks in the near future. It is important to remember that the danger of plague reoccurrence is not limited to the known natural foci, for example, those of Algeria, Angola, and Madagascar. In a general context, it is important that governments know the dangerous impact that this disease may have and that the health and medical community be familiar with the epidemiology, symptoms, treatment, and control of plague, so an appropriated and timely response can be delivered should the worst case happen. Plague can be used as a potential agent of bioterrorism. We have concluded that plague is without a doubt a reemerging infectious disease.

  16. Interspecific comparisons of sylvatic plague in prairie dogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cully, J.F.; Williams, E.S.

    2001-01-01

    Of the 3 major factors (habitat loss, poisoning, and disease) that limit abundance of prairie dogs today, sylvatic plague caused by Yersinia pestis is the 1 factor that is beyond human control. Plague epizootics frequently kill >99% of prairie dogs in infected colonies. Although epizootics of sylvatic plague occur throughout most of the range of prairie dogs in the United States and are well described, long-term maintenance of plague in enzootic rodent species is not well documented or understood. We review dynamics of plague in white-tailed (Cynomys leucurus), Gunnison's (C. gunnisoni), and black-tailed (C. ludovicianus) prairie dogs, and their rodent and flea associates. We use epidemiologic concepts to support an enzootic hypothesis in which the disease is maintained in a dynamic state, which requires transmission of Y. pestis to be slower than recruitment of new susceptible mammal hosts. Major effects of plague are to reduce colony size of black-tailed prairie dogs and increase intercolony distances within colony complexes. In the presence of plague, black-tailed prairie dogs will probably survive in complexes of small colonies that are usually >3 km from their nearest neighbor colonies.

  17. Diagnosis of duck plague in waterfowl by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Hansen, W R; Nashold, S W; Docherty, D E; Brown, S E; Knudson, D L

    2000-01-01

    A recently developed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used for diagnosis of duck plague in waterfowl tissues from past and current cases of waterfowl mortality and to identify duck plague virus in combined cloacal/oral-pharyngeal swab samples from healthy mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) after a disease outbreak. The PCR was able to detect viral DNA from all the individual or pooled tissues assayed from 10 waterfowl, including liver and spleen samples from three Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata domesticus) that did not yield virus isolates. The strong staining intensity of the PCR products from the waterfowl tissues indicated that large amounts of virus were present, even when virus was not isolated. Duck plague DNA was also detected in a cloacal swab sample from a wood duck (Aix sponsa) carcass submitted for diagnosis. The PCR assay identified duck plague DNA in 13 swab samples that produced virus isolates from carrier mallards sampled in 1981 after a duck plague die-off. The duck plague PCR clearly demonstrated the ability to quickly diagnose duck plague in suspect mortality cases and to detect virus shed by carrier waterfowl.

  18. Diagnosis of duck plague in waterfowl by polymerase chain reaction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, W.R.; Nashold, S.W.; Docherty, D.E.; Brown, S.E.; Knudson, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    A recently developed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used for diagnosis of duck plague in waterfowl tissues from past and current cases of waterfowl mortality and to identify duck plague virus in combined cloacal/oral-pharyngeal swab samples from healthy mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) after a disease outbreak. The PCR was able to detect viral DNA from all the individual or pooled tissues assayed from 10 waterfowl, including liver and spleen samples from three Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata domesticus) that did not yield virus isolates. The strong staining intensity of the PCR products from the waterfowl tissues indicated that large amounts of virus were present, even when virus was not isolated. Duck plague DNA was also detected in a cloacal swab sample from a wood duck (Aix sponsa) carcass submitted for diagnosis. The PCR assay identified duck plague DNA in 13 swab samples that produced virus isolates from carrier mallards sampled in 1981 after a duck plague die-off. The duck plague PCR clearly demonstrated the ability to quickly diagnose duck plague in suspect mortality cases and to detect virus shed by carrier waterfowl.

  19. Plague in Iran: its history and current status.

    PubMed

    Hashemi Shahraki, Abdolrazagh; Carniel, Elizabeth; Mostafavi, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Plague remains a public health concern worldwide, particularly in old foci. Multiple epidemics of this disease have been recorded throughout the history of Iran. Despite the long-standing history of human plague in Iran, it remains difficult to obtain an accurate overview of the history and current status of plague in Iran. In this review, available data and reports on cases and outbreaks of human plague in the past and present in Iran and in neighboring countries were collected, and information was compiled regarding when, where, and how many cases occurred. This paper considers the history of plague in Persia (the predecessor of today's Iran) and has a brief review of plague in countries in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region, including a range of countries in the Middle East and North Africa. Since Iran has experienced outbreaks of plague for several centuries, neighboring countries have reported the disease in recent years, the disease can be silent for decades, and the circulation of Yersinia pestis has been reported among rodents and dogs in western Iran, more attention should be paid to disease monitoring in areas with previously reported human cases and in high-risk regions with previous epizootic and enzootic activity.

  20. Plague in Iran: its history and current status

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Plague remains a public health concern worldwide, particularly in old foci. Multiple epidemics of this disease have been recorded throughout the history of Iran. Despite the long-standing history of human plague in Iran, it remains difficult to obtain an accurate overview of the history and current status of plague in Iran. METHODS: In this review, available data and reports on cases and outbreaks of human plague in the past and present in Iran and in neighboring countries were collected, and information was compiled regarding when, where, and how many cases occurred. RESULTS: This paper considers the history of plague in Persia (the predecessor of today’s Iran) and has a brief review of plague in countries in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region, including a range of countries in the Middle East and North Africa. CONCLUSIONS: Since Iran has experienced outbreaks of plague for several centuries, neighboring countries have reported the disease in recent years, the disease can be silent for decades, and the circulation of Yersinia pestis has been reported among rodents and dogs in western Iran, more attention should be paid to disease monitoring in areas with previously reported human cases and in high-risk regions with previous epizootic and enzootic activity. PMID:27457063

  1. Identification of duck plague virus by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Hansen, W R; Brown, S E; Nashold, S W; Knudson, D L

    1999-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for detecting duck plague virus. A 765-bp EcoRI fragment cloned from the genome of the duck plague vaccine (DP-VAC) virus was sequenced for PCR primer development. The fragment sequence was found by GenBank alignment searches to be similar to the 3' ends of an undefined open reading frame and the gene for DNA polymerase protein in other herpesviruses. Three of four primers sets were found to be specific for the DP-VAC virus and 100% (7/7) of field isolates but did not amplify DNA from inclusion body disease of cranes virus. The specificity of one primer set was tested with genome templates from other avian herpesviruses, including those from a golden eagle, bald eagle, great horned owl, snowy owl, peregrine falcon, prairie falcon, pigeon, psittacine, and chicken (infectious laryngotracheitis), but amplicons were not produced. Hence, this PCR test is highly specific for duck plague virus DNA. Two primer sets were able to detect 1 fg of DNA from the duck plague vaccine strain, equivalent to five genome copies. In addition, the ratio of tissue culture infectious doses to genome copies of duck plague vaccine virus from infected duck embryo cells was determined to be 1:100, making the PCR assay 20 times more sensitive than tissue culture for detecting duck plague virus. The speed, sensitivity, and specificity of this PCR provide a greatly improved diagnostic and research tool for studying the epizootiology of duck plague.

  2. Plague and landscape resilience in premodern Iceland

    PubMed Central

    Streeter, Richard; Dugmore, Andrew J.; Vésteinsson, Orri

    2012-01-01

    In debates on societal collapse, Iceland occupies a position of precarious survival, defined by not becoming extinct, like Norse Greenland, but having endured, sometimes by the narrowest of margins. Classic decline narratives for late medieval to early modern Iceland stress compounding adversities, where climate, trade, political domination, unsustainable practices, and environmental degradation conspire with epidemics and volcanism to depress the Icelanders and turn the once-proud Vikings and Saga writers into one of Europe's poorest nations. A mainstay of this narrative is the impact of incidental setbacks such as plague and volcanism, which are seen to have compounded and exacerbated underlying structural problems. This research shows that this view is not correct. We present a study of landscape change that uses 15 precisely dated tephra layers spanning the whole 1,200-y period of human settlement in Iceland. These tephras have provided 2,625 horizons of known age within 200 stratigraphic sections to form a high-resolution spatial and temporal record of change. This finding shows short-term (50 y) declines in geomorphological activity after two major plagues in A.D. 15th century, variations that probably mirrored variations in the population. In the longer term, the geomorphological impact of climate changes from the 14th century on is delayed, and landscapes (as well as Icelandic society) exhibit resilience over decade to century timescales. This finding is not a simple consequence of depopulation but a reflection of how Icelandic society responded with a scaling back of their economy, conservation of core functionality, and entrenchment of the established order. PMID:22371601

  3. Plague and landscape resilience in premodern Iceland.

    PubMed

    Streeter, Richard; Dugmore, Andrew J; Vésteinsson, Orri

    2012-03-06

    In debates on societal collapse, Iceland occupies a position of precarious survival, defined by not becoming extinct, like Norse Greenland, but having endured, sometimes by the narrowest of margins. Classic decline narratives for late medieval to early modern Iceland stress compounding adversities, where climate, trade, political domination, unsustainable practices, and environmental degradation conspire with epidemics and volcanism to depress the Icelanders and turn the once-proud Vikings and Saga writers into one of Europe's poorest nations. A mainstay of this narrative is the impact of incidental setbacks such as plague and volcanism, which are seen to have compounded and exacerbated underlying structural problems. This research shows that this view is not correct. We present a study of landscape change that uses 15 precisely dated tephra layers spanning the whole 1,200-y period of human settlement in Iceland. These tephras have provided 2,625 horizons of known age within 200 stratigraphic sections to form a high-resolution spatial and temporal record of change. This finding shows short-term (50 y) declines in geomorphological activity after two major plagues in A.D. 15th century, variations that probably mirrored variations in the population. In the longer term, the geomorphological impact of climate changes from the 14th century on is delayed, and landscapes (as well as Icelandic society) exhibit resilience over decade to century timescales. This finding is not a simple consequence of depopulation but a reflection of how Icelandic society responded with a scaling back of their economy, conservation of core functionality, and entrenchment of the established order.

  4. Determination of fortified and endogenous folates in food-based Standard Reference Materials by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Camara, Johanna E; Lowenthal, Mark S; Phinney, Karen W

    2013-05-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is developing a wide variety of Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) to support measurements of vitamins and other nutrients in foods. Previously, NIST has provided SRMs with values assigned for the folate vitamer, folic acid (pteroylglutamic acid), which is fortified in several foods due to its role in prevention of neural tube defects. In order to expand the number of food-based SRMs with values assigned for folic acid, as well as additional endogenous folates, NIST has developed methods that include trienzyme digestion and isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Sample preparation was optimized for each individual food type, but all samples were analyzed under the same LC-MS/MS conditions. The application of these methods resulted in folic acid values for SRM 1849a Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula and SRM 3233 Fortified Breakfast Cereal of (2.33 ± 0.06) μg/g and (16.0 ± 0.7) μg/g, respectively. In addition, the endogenous folate vitamer 5-methlytetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) was detected and quantified in SRM 1849a Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula, candidate SRM 1549a Whole Milk Powder, and candidate SRM 1845a Whole Egg Powder, resulting in values of (0.0839 ± 0.0071) μg/g, (0.211 ± 0.014) μg/g, and (0.838 ± 0.044) μg/g, respectively. SRM 1849a Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula is the first food-based NIST SRM to possess a reference value for 5-MTHF and the first certified reference material to have an assigned 5-MTHF value based on LC-MS/MS. The values obtained for folic acid and 5-MTHF by LC-MS/MS will be incorporated into the final value assignments for all these food-based SRMs.

  5. Value assignment of retinol, retinyl palmitate, tocopherol, and carotenoid concentrations in Standard Reference Material 2383 (Baby Food Composite).

    PubMed

    Sharpless, K E; Arce-Osuna, M; Thomas, J B; Gill, L M

    1999-01-01

    In 1997, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) released Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2383 Baby Food Composite. This SRM can be used as a control material when assigning values to in-house control materials and when validating analytical methods for the measurement of proximates, vitamins, minerals, and trace elements in baby foods and similar matrixes. The Certificate of Analysis for SRM 2383 provides certified and reference values for concentrations of lutein, zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, delta-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, alpha-tocopherol, retinol, and retinyl palmitate for 2 types of sample preparation--extraction and saponification. The assigned values were based on the agreement of measurements made by NIST and collaborating laboratories. The Certificate of Analysis also provides reference and information values for concentrations of proximates, minerals, and additional vitamins; assignment of these values is discussed in a companion paper (this issue, page 276).

  6. Clean Air Act Standards and Guidelines for Agriculture, Food and Forestry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains the stationary sources of air pollution for the agriculture, food, and forestry industries, and their corresponding air pollution regulations. To learn more about the regulations for each industry, just click on the links below.

  7. A solitary case of duck plague in a wild mallard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wobeser, G.; Docherty, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Duck plague was diagnosed on the basis of pathology and virus isolation in a wild female mallard Anas platyrhynchos found dead near Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Day-old Pekin ducklings and one of two adult mallards died with lesions typical of duck plague following inoculation of tissue from the wild bird. This is believed to be the only reported case of duck plague in a wild bird since a major outbreak occurred in South Dakota in 1973, and the fourth such report in North America.

  8. [Regulations in the struggle against the plague. Geneva facing the Great Plague of Marseille (1720-1723)].

    PubMed

    Wenger, Alexandre

    2003-01-01

    In 1721, when Geneva is threatened by a terrible epidemic devastating the south of France, the physician Jean-Jaques Manget states that "The Magistrates must establish a good Policy in time of plague"; and asks himself how it is possible to carry on "without good Regulations?". The State Archives of Geneva hold a draft consisting of 72 articles concerning health policy meant to be applied in case of plague. This is a remarkable document that enables an overview of the city's organisation in times of plague; it also allows to analyse some of the medical and sanitary theories this organisation is based on.

  9. Immuno-PCR - A New Tool for Paleomicrobiology: The Plague Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Nappez, Claude; Signoli, Michel; Le Forestier, Cyrille; Castex, Dominique; Drancourt, Michel; Raoult, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Background The cause of past plague pandemics was controversial but several research teams used PCR techniques and dental pulp as the primary material to reveal that they were caused by Yersinia pestis. However, the degradation of DNA limits the ability to detect ancient infections. Methods We used for the first time immuno-PCR to detect Yersinia pestis antigens; it can detect protein concentrations 70 times lower than the standard ELISA. After determining the cut-off value, we tested 34 teeth that were obtained from mass graves of plague, and compared previous PCR results with ELISA and immuno-PCR results. Results The immuno-PCR technique was the most sensitive (14 out of 34) followed by the PCR technique (10 out of 34) and ELISA (3 out of 34). The combination of these three methods identified 18 out of 34 (53%) teeth as presumably being from people with the plague. Conclusion Immuno-PCR is specific (no false-positive samples were found) and more sensitive than the currently used method to detect antigens of ancient infections in dental pulp. The combination of three methods, ELISA, PCR and immuno-PCR, increased the capacity to identify ancient pathogens in dental pulp. PMID:22347507

  10. Solar Variability and the Decline of the Bubonic Plague

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-10-01

    The bubonic plague was responsible for the deaths of a very large percentage of the population of Europe in ancient times. Leaders of state made promises to “kill off” the plague, were all unsuccessful. It wasn’t the grand promise of a politician, or some new medicinal invention that was responsible for the final decline of the plague. It appears that a chain of events that began 93,000,000 miles away from Earth exerted an impact that lead to the end of the plague’s activity. Some simple changes in solar activity that began in the early 1300’s started the final to break the stranglehold that the plague had on most of Europe. This chain of events will be presented and discussed in this paper.

  11. Understanding the persistence of plague foci in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Andrianaivoarimanana, Voahangy; Kreppel, Katharina; Elissa, Nohal; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Carniel, Elisabeth; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Jambou, Ronan

    2013-11-01

    Plague, a zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis, is still found in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Madagascar reports almost one third of the cases worldwide. Y. pestis can be encountered in three very different types of foci: urban, rural, and sylvatic. Flea vector and wild rodent host population dynamics are tightly correlated with modulation of climatic conditions, an association that could be crucial for both the maintenance of foci and human plague epidemics. The black rat Rattus rattus, the main host of Y. pestis in Madagascar, is found to exhibit high resistance to plague in endemic areas, opposing the concept of high mortality rates among rats exposed to the infection. Also, endemic fleas could play an essential role in maintenance of the foci. This review discusses recent advances in the understanding of the role of these factors as well as human behavior in the persistence of plague in Madagascar.

  12. Plague in camels and its prevention in the USSR*

    PubMed Central

    Fedorov, V. N.

    1960-01-01

    In 1954-56 a series of experiments was carried out in Central Asia, under the guidance of the author, in which camels were infected with plague by infesting them with Ixodes and Argas ticks which had previously fed on plague-infected laboratory animals. Subcutaneous, intradermal and intravenous injection was also used. The experiments showed that the camels varied markedly in their susceptibility to plague, which in any case was relatively low. Special investigations on plague prevention in camels are also reported. Vaccination with dried live vaccine injected in a single dose of 30 000 million organisms created a sufficiently high degree of immunity in adult animals. Spraying of the camels' coats with insecticide is also recommended. PMID:13821869

  13. Plague in Arab Maghreb, 1940–2015: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Maliya Alia; Bitam, Idir; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed the epidemiology of 49 plague outbreaks that resulted in about 7,612 cases in 30 localities in the Arabic Maghreb (Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt) over 75 years. Between 1940 and 1950, most cases recorded in Morocco (75%) and Egypt (20%), resulted from plague imported to Mediterranean harbors and transmitted by rat ectoparasites. By contrast, the re-emergence of plague in the southern part of Western Sahara in 1953 and in northeast Libya in 1976 was traced to direct contact between nomadic populations and infected goats and camels in natural foci, including the consumption of contaminated meat, illustrating this neglected oral route of contamination. Further familial outbreaks were traced to human ectoparasite transmission. Efforts to identify the factors contributing to natural foci may guide where to focus the surveillance of sentinel animals in order to eradicate human plague, if not Yersinia pestis from the Arab Maghreb. PMID:27376053

  14. Understanding the Persistence of Plague Foci in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Andrianaivoarimanana, Voahangy; Kreppel, Katharina; Elissa, Nohal; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Carniel, Elisabeth; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Jambou, Ronan

    2013-01-01

    Plague, a zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis, is still found in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Madagascar reports almost one third of the cases worldwide. Y. pestis can be encountered in three very different types of foci: urban, rural, and sylvatic. Flea vector and wild rodent host population dynamics are tightly correlated with modulation of climatic conditions, an association that could be crucial for both the maintenance of foci and human plague epidemics. The black rat Rattus rattus, the main host of Y. pestis in Madagascar, is found to exhibit high resistance to plague in endemic areas, opposing the concept of high mortality rates among rats exposed to the infection. Also, endemic fleas could play an essential role in maintenance of the foci. This review discusses recent advances in the understanding of the role of these factors as well as human behavior in the persistence of plague in Madagascar. PMID:24244760

  15. Automated identification of drug and food allergies entered using non-standard terminology.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Richard H; St Jacques, Paul; Stockin, Michael; Rothman, Brian; Ehrenfeld, Jesse M; Denny, Joshua C

    2013-01-01

    An accurate computable representation of food and drug allergy is essential for safe healthcare. Our goal was to develop a high-performance, easily maintained algorithm to identify medication and food allergies and sensitivities from unstructured allergy entries in electronic health record (EHR) systems. An algorithm was developed in Transact-SQL to identify ingredients to which patients had allergies in a perioperative information management system. The algorithm used RxNorm and natural language processing techniques developed on a training set of 24 599 entries from 9445 records. Accuracy, specificity, precision, recall, and F-measure were determined for the training dataset and repeated for the testing dataset (24 857 entries from 9430 records). Accuracy, precision, recall, and F-measure for medication allergy matches were all above 98% in the training dataset and above 97% in the testing dataset for all allergy entries. Corresponding values for food allergy matches were above 97% and above 93%, respectively. Specificities of the algorithm were 90.3% and 85.0% for drug matches and 100% and 88.9% for food matches in the training and testing datasets, respectively. The algorithm had high performance for identification of medication and food allergies. Maintenance is practical, as updates are managed through upload of new RxNorm versions and additions to companion database tables. However, direct entry of codified allergy information by providers (through autocompleters or drop lists) is still preferred to post-hoc encoding of the data. Data tables used in the algorithm are available for download. A high performing, easily maintained algorithm can successfully identify medication and food allergies from free text entries in EHR systems.

  16. Sylvatic plague vaccine and management of prairie dogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, Tonie E.

    2012-01-01

    Scientists at the USGS National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC), in collaboration with colleagues at the University of Wisconsin (UW), have developed a sylvatic plague vaccine that shows great promise in protecting prairie dogs against plague (Mencher and others, 2004; Rocke and others, 2010). Four species of prairie dogs reside in the United States and Canada, and all are highly susceptible to plague and regularly experience outbreaks with devastating losses. Along with habitat loss and poisoning, plague has contributed to a significant historical decline in prairie dog populations. By some estimates, prairie dogs now occupy only 1 to 2 percent of their former range (Proctor and others, 2006), with prairie dog colonies being now much smaller and fragmented than they were historically, making individual colonies more vulnerable to elimination by plague (Antolin and others, 2002). At least one species, the Utah prairie dog (Cynomys parvidens) is listed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) as "threatened." Controlling plague is a vital concern for ongoing management and conservation efforts for prairie dogs. Current efforts to halt the spread of plague in prairie dog colonies typically rely on dusting individual prairie dog burrows with pesticides to kill plague-infected fleas. Although flea-control insecticides, such as deltamethrin, are useful in stopping plague outbreaks in these prairie dog colonies, dusting of burrows is labor intensive and time consuming and may affect other insects and arthropods. As an alternative approach, NWHC and UW scientists developed a sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) for prairie dogs that can be delivered via oral bait. Laboratory studies have shown that consumption of this vaccine-laden bait by different prairie dog species results in significant protection against plague infection that can last for at least 9 months (Rocke and others, 2010; Rocke, unpublished). Work has now shifted to optimizing baits and distribution methods for

  17. [The pathogenic ecology research on plague in Qinghai plateau].

    PubMed

    Dai, Rui-xia; Wei, Bai-qing; Li, Cun-xiang; Xiong, Hao-ming; Yang, Xiao-yan; Fan, Wei; Qi, Mei-ying; Jin, Juan; Wei, Rong-jie; Feng, Jian-ping; Jin, Xing; Wang, Zu-yun

    2013-12-01

    To study the pathogenic ecology characteristics of plague in Qinghai plateau. Applied molecular biology techniques, conventional technologies and geographic information system (GIS) to study phenotypic traits, plasmid spectrum, genotype, infected host and media spectrum etc.of 952 Yersinia pestis strains in Qinghai plateau plague foci, which were separated from different host and media in different regions during 1954 to 2012. The ecotypes of these strains were Qingzang plateau (91.49%, 871/952),Qilian mountain (6.41%, 61/952) and Microtus fuscus (1.26%, 12/952).83.6% (796/952) of these strains contained all the 4 virulence factors (Fr1, Pesticin1,Virulence antigen, and Pigmentation), 93.26% (367/392) were velogenic strains confirmed by virulence test.725 Yersinia pestis strains were separated from Qinghai plateau plague foci carried 9 kinds of plasmid, among which 713 strains from Marmot himalayan plague foci carried 9 kinds of plasmid, the Mr were 6×10(6), 7×10(6), 23×10(6), 27×10(6), 30×10(6), 45×10(6), 52×10(6), 65×10(6) and 92×10(6) respectively. 12 Yersinia pestis strains were separated from Microtus fuscus plague foci carried only 3 kinds of plasmid, the Mr were 6×10(6), 45×10(6), 65×10(6). Meanwhile, the strains carrying large plasmid (52×10(6), 65×10(6) and 92×10(6)) were only distributed in particular geographical location, which had the category property. The research also confirmed that 841 Yersinia pestis strains from two kinds of plague foci in Qinghai plateau had 11 genomovars. The strains of Marmot himalayan plague foci were given priority to genomovar 5 and 8, amounted to 611 strains, genomovar 8 accounted for 56.00% (471/841), genomovar 5 accounted for 23.07% (194/841). Besides, 3 new genomovars, including new 1(62 strains), new 2(52 strains), new 3(48 strains) were newly founded, and 12 strains of Microtus fuscus plague foci were genomovar 14. The main host and media of Qinghai plateau plague foci directly affected the spatial

  18. Bibliographic Index to the Plague (1965-1970)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-11-18

    34). 346. Orlova, G. MI. and B. N. 𔃾ishan’kin, Dynamics of the frowth of the Plague Microbe and the Accumulation of Fraction I (C-psalar Antigen) in a...T. Voronina and L. 1. Kalmykova, The Effect of Iron on the Growth and Biological Properties of Vaccine Strain FV in Conditions of Aeration. Prot...I., The Ability of Plague Microbes to Accumulate Mouse Toxin Under Various Cultural Conditions. Prob. Dread Dis., Issue 2 (12), pp. 96- 99, 1970

  19. Paleoclimate and bubonic plague: a forewarning of future risk?

    PubMed

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2010-08-27

    Pandemics of bubonic plague have occurred in Eurasia since the sixth century AD. Climatic variations in Central Asia affect the population size and activity of the plague bacterium's reservoir rodent species, influencing the probability of human infection. Using innovative time-series analysis of surrogate climate records spanning 1,500 years, a study in BMC Biology concludes that climatic fluctuations may have influenced these pandemics. This has potential implications for health risks from future climate change.

  20. Plagued by kindness: contagious sympathy in Shakespearean drama.

    PubMed

    Langley, Eric

    2011-12-01

    This article considers Shakespeare's metaphors of transmission, contagion and infection in the light of period plague tracts, medical treatises and plague time literature. The author demonstrates how period conceptions of disease are predicated upon a notion of sympathetic transference and, consequently, how kindness, likeness and communication between characters in Shakespearean drama are complicated and fraught with period specific anxiety. This article situates Shakespearean literary texts within a precise historical and medical moment, considering how scientific conceptions contaminate dramatic text.

  1. Are self-reported unhealthy food choices associated with an increased risk of breast cancer? Prospective cohort study using the British Food Standards Agency nutrient profiling system.

    PubMed

    Deschasaux, Mélanie; Julia, Chantal; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Lécuyer, Lucie; Adriouch, Solia; Méjean, Caroline; Ducrot, Pauline; Péneau, Sandrine; Latino-Martel, Paule; Fezeu, Léopold K; Fassier, Philippine; Hercberg, Serge; Touvier, Mathilde

    2017-06-08

    French authorities are considering the implementation of a simplified nutrition labelling system on food products to help consumers make healthier food choices. One of the most documented candidates (Five-Colour Nutrition Label/Nutri-score) is based on the British Food Standards Agency Nutrient Profiling System (FSA-NPS), a score calculated for each food/beverage using the 100 g amount of energy, sugar, saturated fatty acid, sodium, fibres, proteins, and fruits and vegetables. To assess its potential public health relevance, studies were conducted on the association between the nutritional quality of the diet, measured at the individual level by an energy-weighted mean of all FSA-NPS scores of foods usually consumed (FSA-NPS dietary index (FSA-NPS DI)), and the risk of chronic diseases. The present study aimed at investigating the relationship between the FSA-NPS DI and breast cancer risk. Prospective study. Population based, NutriNet-Santé cohort, France. 46 864 women aged ≥35 years who completed ≥3 24-hour dietary records during their first 2 year of follow-up. Associations between FSA-NPS DI and breast cancer risk (555 incident breast cancers diagnosed between 2009 and 2015) were characterised by multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models. A higher FSA-NPS DI (lower nutritional quality of the diet) was associated with an increased breast cancer risk (HR1-point increment=1.06 (1.02-1.11), p=0.005; HRQ5vs.Q1=1.52 (1.11-2.08), p trend=0.002). Similar trends were observed in premenopausal and postmenopausal women (HR1-point increment=1.09 (1.01-1.18) and 1.05 (1.00-1.11), respectively).This study was based on an observational cohort using self-reported dietary data, thus residual confounding cannot be entirely ruled out. Finally, this holistic approach does not allow investigating which factors in the diet most specifically influence breast cancer risk. These results suggested that unhealthy food choices, as characterised by the FSA-NPS, may be

  2. The origins of a global standard for food quality and safety: Codex Alimentarius Austriacus and FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius.

    PubMed

    Vojir, Franz; Schübl, Erwin; Elmadfa, Ibrahim

    2012-06-01

    In the second half of the 19(th) century the incidence of food adulterations increased very rapidly, prompting many European countries to put into force food laws to fight these practices. A number of parallel attempts were undertaken to establish a collection of instructions for the assessment of food samples to warrant the comparability of results obtained and interpreted by different experts. The first official steps towards such a standardization was made in 1891 at an international meeting of food chemists and microscopic scientists in Vienna. As a consequence, Austria installed a “Scientific Commission” in 1891, which drafted chapters for a future Codex Alimentarius Austriacus. In 1907, a Codex Commission was installed by the Ministry of Interior, but it took about four years, from 1907 to 1911, before the first edition of this compendium was published. So far, four editions have followed. The Codex Alimentarius Austriacus is a set of standards and guidelines for stakeholders, authorities, and law courts as a base for their activities. It has evolved over the past 100 years to become a flexible instrument, which has become indispensable for Austria. After 1945, attempts were made in different parts of the world to develop standardized rules for the testing of food samples to prevent trade barriers within the respective region. In Europe for instance, the development of a Codex Alimentarius Europaeus initiated by the Austrian Hans Frenzel, and based upon the model of the Codex Alimentarius Austriacus, made good progress. A number of other European countries were involved in this project. However, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) of the United Nations were intent on impeding such regional activities to prevent trade barriers at a global level. Between 1960 and 1963, steps were taken to install a FAO/WHO Codex partly in close cooperation with the Codex Alimentarius Europaeus. Since 1963, the FAO/WHO Codex

  3. 78 FR 39067 - National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... fundraising through vending machines, school stores, snack bars, la carte sales and any other exclusions... through vending machines, school stores, snack bars, la carte sales and any other exclusions determined by... foods sold la carte, in school stores, snack bars, or vending machines. The principal benefit of such a...

  4. Resistance to plague among black-tailed prairie dog populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Williamson, Judy; Cobble, Kacy R.; Busch, Joseph D.; Antolin, Michael F.; Wagner, David M.

    2012-01-01

    In some rodent species frequently exposed to plague outbreaks caused by Yersinia pestis, resistance to the disease has evolved as a population trait. As a first step in determining if plague resistance has developed in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), animals captured from colonies in a plague-free region (South Dakota) and two plague-endemic regions (Colorado and Texas) were challenged with Y. pestis at one of three doses (2.5, 250, or 2500 mouse LD50s). South Dakota prairie dogs were far more susceptible to plague than Colorado and Texas prairie dogs (p<0.001), with a mortality rate of nearly 100% over all doses. Colorado and Texas prairie dogs were quite similar in their response, with overall survival rates of 50% and 60%, respectively. Prairie dogs from these states were heterogenous in their response, with some animals dying at the lowest dose (37% and 20%, respectively) and some surviving even at the highest dose (29% and 40%, respectively). Microsatellite analysis revealed that all three groups were distinct genetically, but further studies are needed to establish a genetic basis for the observed differences in plague resistance.

  5. Resistance to plague among black-tailed prairie dog populations.

    PubMed

    Rocke, Tonie E; Williamson, Judy; Cobble, Kacy R; Busch, Joseph D; Antolin, Michael F; Wagner, David M

    2012-02-01

    In some rodent species frequently exposed to plague outbreaks caused by Yersinia pestis, resistance to the disease has evolved as a population trait. As a first step in determining if plague resistance has developed in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), animals captured from colonies in a plague-free region (South Dakota) and two plague-endemic regions (Colorado and Texas) were challenged with Y. pestis at one of three doses (2.5, 250, or 2500 mouse LD50s). South Dakota prairie dogs were far more susceptible to plague than Colorado and Texas prairie dogs (p<0.001), with a mortality rate of nearly 100% over all doses. Colorado and Texas prairie dogs were quite similar in their response, with overall survival rates of 50% and 60%, respectively. Prairie dogs from these states were heterogeneous in their response, with some animals dying at the lowest dose (37% and 20%, respectively) and some surviving even at the highest dose (29% and 40%, respectively). Microsatellite analysis revealed that all three groups were distinct genetically, but further studies are needed to establish a genetic basis for the observed differences in plague resistance.

  6. Resistance to Plague Among Black-Tailed Prairie Dog Populations

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Judy; Cobble, Kacy R.; Busch, Joseph D.; Antolin, Michael F.; Wagner, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In some rodent species frequently exposed to plague outbreaks caused by Yersinia pestis, resistance to the disease has evolved as a population trait. As a first step in determining if plague resistance has developed in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), animals captured from colonies in a plague-free region (South Dakota) and two plague-endemic regions (Colorado and Texas) were challenged with Y. pestis at one of three doses (2.5, 250, or 2500 mouse LD50s). South Dakota prairie dogs were far more susceptible to plague than Colorado and Texas prairie dogs (p<0.001), with a mortality rate of nearly 100% over all doses. Colorado and Texas prairie dogs were quite similar in their response, with overall survival rates of 50% and 60%, respectively. Prairie dogs from these states were heterogenous in their response, with some animals dying at the lowest dose (37% and 20%, respectively) and some surviving even at the highest dose (29% and 40%, respectively). Microsatellite analysis revealed that all three groups were distinct genetically, but further studies are needed to establish a genetic basis for the observed differences in plague resistance. PMID:21923261

  7. Resistance to plague among black-tailed prairie dog populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, T.E.; Williamson, J.; Cobble, K.R.; Busch, J.D.; Antolin, M.F.; Wagner, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    In some rodent species frequently exposed to plague outbreaks caused by Yersinia pestis, resistance to the disease has evolved as a population trait. As a first step in determining if plague resistance has developed in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), animals captured from colonies in a plague-free region (South Dakota) and two plague-endemic regions (Colorado and Texas) were challenged with Y. pestis at one of three doses (2.5, 250, or 2500 mouse LD50s). South Dakota prairie dogs were far more susceptible to plague than Colorado and Texas prairie dogs (p<0.001), with a mortality rate of nearly 100% over all doses. Colorado and Texas prairie dogs were quite similar in their response, with overall survival rates of 50% and 60%, respectively. Prairie dogs from these states were heterogenous in their response, with some animals dying at the lowest dose (37% and 20%, respectively) and some surviving even at the highest dose (29% and 40%, respectively). Microsatellite analysis revealed that all three groups were distinct genetically, but further studies are needed to establish a genetic basis for the observed differences in plague resistance. ?? 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  8. Are plague pits of particular use to palaeoepidemiologists?

    PubMed

    Waldron, H A

    2001-02-01

    The demography and pattern of disease of skeletal assemblages may not accurately reflect those of the living population of which they were once a part. The hypothesis tested here was that skeletons from a mass disaster would more closely approximate to a living population than those from a conventional cemetery. Six hundred skeletons recovered from a Black Death plague pit in London were compared with 236 skeletons recovered from an overlying medieval cemetery. Age and sex were determined by standard anthropological means by a single observer and adjustments were made to correct for those skeletons for which either or both could not be established. An estimate of age structure of the living medieval population of London was made, using model life tables. The age and sex distribution and the pattern of disease in the Black Death skeletons did not differ substantially from those in the control group of skeletons. Both assemblages tended to overestimate the numbers in the younger age groups of the model population and underestimate the numbers in the oldest age group. On the evidence from this single site, a skeletal assemblage from a mass disaster does not provide a better representation of the living population from which it was derived than that from a conventional cemetery.

  9. Toward an International Standard for PCR-Based Detection of Food-Borne Thermotolerant Campylobacters: Assay Development and Analytical Validation

    PubMed Central

    Lübeck, P. S.; Wolffs, P.; On, S. L. W.; Ahrens, P.; Rådström, P.; Hoorfar, J.

    2003-01-01

    As part of a European research project (FOOD-PCR), we developed a standardized and robust PCR detection assay specific for the three most frequently reported food-borne pathogenic Campylobacter species, C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari. Fifteen published and unpublished PCR primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene were tested in all possible pairwise combinations, as well as two published primers targeting the 23S rRNA gene. A panel of 150 strains including target and nontarget strains was used in an in-house validation. Only one primer pair, OT1559 plus 18-1, was found to be selective. The inclusivity and exclusivity were 100 and 97%, respectively. In an attempt to find a thermostable DNA polymerase more resistant than Taq to PCR inhibitors present in chicken samples, three DNA polymerases were evaluated. The DNA polymerase Tth was not inhibited at a concentration of 2% (vol/vol) chicken carcass rinse, unlike both Taq DNA polymerase and DyNAzyme. Based on these results, Tth was selected as the most suitable enzyme for the assay. The standardized PCR test described shows potential for use in large-scale screening programs for food-borne Campylobacter species under the assay conditions specified. PMID:12957958

  10. Opinions on Fresh Produce Food Safety and Quality Standards by Fresh Produce Supply Chain Experts from the Global South and North.

    PubMed

    Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Van Boxstael, Sigrid; Nanyunja, Jessica; Jordaan, Danie; Luning, Pieternel; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-10-01

    This study describes the results of an on-line survey of fresh produce supply chain experts who work with producers from the Global North (n = 41, 20 countries) and the Global South (n = 63, 29 countries). They expressed their opinion using 1 to 5 Likert scales on several items related to four types of food safety and quality standards and legislation: Codex Alimentarius standards, European Union legislation, national legislation, and private standards. The results reflect the different circumstances under which the Southern and Northern producers operate in relation to the local organization, regulation, and support of the sector; but they also indicate similar challenges, in particular, the challenge of private standards, which were perceived to demand a higher implementation effort than the other three types of standards. Private standards were also strongly perceived to exclude Southern and Northern small- and medium-scale producers from high-value markets, whereas European Union legislation was perceived to strongly exclude, in particular, small- and medium-scale Southern producers. The results further highlight concerns about costly control measures and third-party certification that are required by downstream buyers but that are mostly paid for by upstream suppliers. Food standards are seen in their dual role as a catalyst for implementation of structured food safety management systems on the one hand and as a nontariff barrier to trade on the other hand. The results of the survey also pointed up the advantages of enforcing food safety and food quality standards in terms of knowledge spillover to noncertified activities, increased revenues, and improved food safety of delivered produce. Survey results highlight the importance of technical assistance and support of producers by governments and producer cooperatives or trade associations in the implementation and certification of food standards, along with increased awareness of and training of individuals in

  11. Duck plague: a carrier state in waterfowl.

    PubMed

    Burgess, E C; Ossa, J; Yuill, T M

    1979-01-01

    Healthy waterfowl were found to be carriers of duck plague (DP) virus. Black ducks (Anas rubripes) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis) surviving a natural outbreak of DP at Coloma, Wisconsin, in 1973 yielded DP virus in cloacal swabs taken four years postinfection. Experimental infection of previously unexposed mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynochos) with the Coloma strain of DP virus CO-WI (73) also produced cloacal virus shedding for up to four years after infection. A second DP virus strain, LA-SD (73) from the Lake Andes, South Dakota, epornitic, was detected from cloacal swabs of pintail ducks (Anas acuta), gadwall ducks (Anas strepera), wood ducks (Aix sponsa), and Canada geese infected experimentally one year before. The frequency of swabs positive for DP virus varied between individuals within each of the tested species. The amount of detectable DP virus shed was about 100 plaqueforming units of virus percloacal swab. Oral erosions were present in all species tested except Canada geese and gadwall ducks. Erosions occurred at the openings of the sublingual salivary gland ducts. DP virus was isolated from erosions. All ducks with lesions proved to shed DP virus, although not necessarily at the time they had the lesion.

  12. Evaluation of the International Organization for Standardization-International Dairy Federation (ISO-IDF) draft standard method for detection of Enterobacter sakazakii in powdered infant food formulas.

    PubMed

    Besse, Nathalie Gnanou; Leclercq, Alexandre; Maladen, Véronique; Tyburski, Corinne; Bertrand, Lombard

    2006-01-01

    As a result of the growing recognition of Enterobacter sakazakii as an emergent pathogen, the International Dairy Federation (IDF) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) have standardized a reference method for the detection of E. sakazakii in milk powder products and powdered infant food formulas (IFF). The objectives of this study were to assess the applicability of the ISO-IDF draft standard, and to compare several chromogenic selective media for E. sakazakii [ready-to-use ESIATM, homemade E. sakazakii isolation agar, and Druggan-Forsythe-lversen (DFI) agar], and a selective media for Enterobacteriaceae Violet Red Bile Glucose (VRBG). We found that the method is sensitive, selective, and applicable to the analysis of powdered IFF, provided that some modifications are added. In particular, definition of typical colonies on chromogenic media should be less restrictive, and the possibility of using chromogenic media other than ESIA should be introduced. Any of the chromogenic media tested here could be used initially, since their performances were similar. In these media, alpha-glucosidase-positive but non-yellow-pigmented isolates should be also considered. Consequently, the yellow pigmentation test should be abandoned, or completed with another test in order to select colonies to confirm. Although the specificity of VRBG was relatively poor, it could be used as a second nonchromogenic medium.

  13. Potential corridors and barriers for plague spread in Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Wilschut, Liesbeth I; Addink, Elisabeth A; Heesterbeek, Hans; Heier, Lise; Laudisoit, Anne; Begon, Mike; Davis, Stephen; Dubyanskiy, Vladimir M; Burdelov, Leonid A; de Jong, Steven M

    2013-10-31

    Plague (Yersinia pestis infection) is a vector-borne disease which caused millions of human deaths in the Middle Ages. The hosts of plague are mostly rodents, and the disease is spread by the fleas that feed on them. Currently, the disease still circulates amongst sylvatic rodent populations all over the world, including great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus) populations in Central Asia. Great gerbils are social desert rodents that live in family groups in burrows, which are visible on satellite images. In great gerbil populations an abundance threshold exists, above which plague can spread causing epizootics. The spatial distribution of the host species is thought to influence the plague dynamics, such as the direction of plague spread, however no detailed analysis exists on the possible functional or structural corridors and barriers that are present in this population and landscape. This study aims to fill that gap. Three 20 by 20 km areas with known great gerbil burrow distributions were used to analyse the spatial distribution of the burrows. Object-based image analysis was used to map the landscape at several scales, and was linked to the burrow maps. A novel object-based method was developed - the mean neighbour absolute burrow density difference (MNABDD) - to identify the optimal scale and evaluate the efficacy of using landscape objects as opposed to square cells. Multiple regression using raster maps was used to identify the landscape-ecological variables that explain burrow density best. Functional corridors and barriers were mapped using burrow density thresholds. Cumulative resistance of the burrow distribution to potential disease spread was evaluated using cost distance analysis. A 46-year plague surveillance dataset was used to evaluate whether plague spread was radially symmetric. The burrow distribution was found to be non-random and negatively correlated with Greenness, especially in the floodplain areas. Corridors and barriers showed a mostly NWSE

  14. Potential corridors and barriers for plague spread in central Asia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Plague (Yersinia pestis infection) is a vector-borne disease which caused millions of human deaths in the Middle Ages. The hosts of plague are mostly rodents, and the disease is spread by the fleas that feed on them. Currently, the disease still circulates amongst sylvatic rodent populations all over the world, including great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus) populations in Central Asia. Great gerbils are social desert rodents that live in family groups in burrows, which are visible on satellite images. In great gerbil populations an abundance threshold exists, above which plague can spread causing epizootics. The spatial distribution of the host species is thought to influence the plague dynamics, such as the direction of plague spread, however no detailed analysis exists on the possible functional or structural corridors and barriers that are present in this population and landscape. This study aims to fill that gap. Methods Three 20 by 20 km areas with known great gerbil burrow distributions were used to analyse the spatial distribution of the burrows. Object-based image analysis was used to map the landscape at several scales, and was linked to the burrow maps. A novel object-based method was developed – the mean neighbour absolute burrow density difference (MNABDD) – to identify the optimal scale and evaluate the efficacy of using landscape objects as opposed to square cells. Multiple regression using raster maps was used to identify the landscape-ecological variables that explain burrow density best. Functional corridors and barriers were mapped using burrow density thresholds. Cumulative resistance of the burrow distribution to potential disease spread was evaluated using cost distance analysis. A 46-year plague surveillance dataset was used to evaluate whether plague spread was radially symmetric. Results The burrow distribution was found to be non-random and negatively correlated with Greenness, especially in the floodplain areas. Corridors and

  15. Applying the food safety objective and related standards to thermal inactivation of Salmonella in poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Membré, Jeanne-Marie; Bassett, John; Gorris, Leon G M

    2007-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the practicality of designing a heat treatment process in a food manufacturing operation for a product governed by a Food Safety Objective (FSO). Salmonella in cooked poultry meat was taken as the working example. Although there is no FSO for this product in current legislation, this may change in the (near) future. Four different process design calculations were explored by means of deterministic and probabilistic approaches to mathematical data handling and modeling. It was found that the probabilistic approach was a more objective, transparent, and quantifiable approach to establish the stringency of food safety management systems. It also allowed the introduction of specific prevalence rates. The key input analyzed in this study was the minimum time required for the heat treatment at a fixed temperature to produce a product that complied with the criterion for product safety, i.e., the FSO. By means of the four alternative process design calculations, the minimum time requirement at 70 degrees C was established and ranged from 0.26 to 0.43 min. This is comparable to the U.S. regulation recommendations and significantly less than that of 2 min at 70 degrees C used, for instance, in the United Kingdom regulation concerning vegetative microorganisms in ready-to-eat foods. However, the objective of this study was not to challenge existing regulations but to provide an illustration of how an FSO established by a competent authority can guide decisions on safe product and process designs in practical operation; it hopefully contributes to the collaborative work between regulators, academia, and industries that need to continue learning and gaining experience from each other in order to translate risk-based concepts such as the FSO into everyday operational practice.

  16. Comparison of commercially available kits with standard methods for the detection of coliforms and Escherichia coli in foods.

    PubMed Central

    Venkateswaran, K; Murakoshi, A; Satake, M

    1996-01-01

    Three commercially available kits that were supplemented with substrates for enzyme reactions were evaluated to determine their abilities to detect coliforms and fecal coliforms in foods. Japanese and U.S. Food and Drug Administration standard methods, as well as two agar plate methods, were compared with the three commercial kits. A total of 50 food samples from various retailers were examined. The levels of detection of coliforms were high with the commercial kits (78 to 98%) compared with the levels of detection with the standard methods (80 to 83%) and the agar plate methods (56 to 83%). Among the kits tested, the Colilert kit had highest level of recovery of coliforms (98%), and the level of recovery of Escherichia coli as determined by beta-glucuronidase activity with the Colilert kit (83%) was comparable to the level of recovery obtained by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration method (87%). Isolation of E. coli on the basis of the beta-glucuronidase enzyme reaction was found to be good. Levine's eosine methylene blue agar, which has been widely used in various laboratories to isolate E. coli was compared with 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide (MUG)-supplemented agar for isolation of E. coli. Only 47% of the E. coli was detected when eosine methylene blue agar was used; however, when violet red bile (VRB)-MUG agar was used, the E. coli detection rate was twice as high. Of the 200 E. coli strains isolated, only 2 were found to be MUG negative, and the gene responsible for beta-glucuronidase activity (uidA gene) was detected by the PCR method in these 2 strains. Of the 90 false-positive strains isolated that exhibited various E. coli characteristic features, only 2 non-E.coli strains hydrolyzed MUG and produced fluorescent substrate in VRB-MUG agar. However, the PCR did not amplify uidA gene products in these VRB-MUG fluorescence-positive strains. PMID:8779561

  17. INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ON FOOD AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY MEASUREMENT FOR RADIOLOGICAL PROTECTION: STATUS AND PERSPECTIVES.

    PubMed

    Calmet, D; Ameon, R; Bombard, A; Brun, S; Byrde, F; Chen, J; Duda, J-M; Forte, M; Fournier, M; Fronka, A; Haug, T; Herranz, M; Husain, A; Jerome, S; Jiranek, M; Judge, S; Kim, S B; Kwakman, P; Loyen, J; LLaurado, M; Michel, R; Porterfield, D; Ratsirahonana, A; Richards, A; Rovenska, K; Sanada, T; Schuler, C; Thomas, L; Tokonami, S; Tsapalov, A; Yamada, T

    2017-04-01

    Radiological protection is a matter of concern for members of the public and thus national authorities are more likely to trust the quality of radioactivity data provided by accredited laboratories using common standards. Normative approach based on international standards aims to ensure the accuracy or validity of the test result through calibrations and measurements traceable to the International System of Units. This approach guarantees that radioactivity test results on the same types of samples are comparable over time and space as well as between different testing laboratories. Today, testing laboratories involved in radioactivity measurement have a set of more than 150 international standards to help them perform their work. Most of them are published by the International Standardization Organization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). This paper reviews the most essential ISO standards that give guidance to testing laboratories at different stages from sampling planning to the transmission of the test report to their customers, summarizes recent activities and achievements and present the perspectives on new standards under development by the ISO Working Groups dealing with radioactivity measurement in connection with radiological protection. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Clinical and epidemiological observations on an outbreak of plague in Nepal*

    PubMed Central

    Laforce, F. Marc; Acharya, I. L.; Stott, Gordon; Brachman, Philip S.; Kaufman, Arnold F.; Clapp, Richard F.; Shah, N. K.

    1971-01-01

    In the autumn of 1967, plague broke out among hill people in western Nepal, a country that had not previously reported human plague. Two persons were infected from an active sylvatic focus at a grazing area 5 km from Nawra, the village where the epidemic occurred. The second patient introduced plague into the village where the rest of the cases occurred. Clinical and epidemiological evidence suggests that plague was spread both by the airborne route, resulting in 6 cases of tonsillar plague and 1 case of primary pneumonic plague, as well as by infected fleas, resulting in 17 cases of bubonic plague. Since no evidence of a rodent epizootic was uncovered in the village itself, and because of the distinct clustering of the bubonic cases, human-to-human spread of plague by infected ectoparasite vectors, presumably Pulex irritans, is thought to have occurred. This focus probably represents the most southerly boundary of the central Asian plague area yet identified. PMID:5317008

  19. Standardization of UV-visible data in a food adulteration classification problem.

    PubMed

    Di Anibal, Carolina V; Ruisánchez, Itziar; Fernández, Mailén; Forteza, Rafel; Cerdà, Victor; Pilar Callao, M

    2012-10-15

    This study evaluates the performance of multivariate calibration transfer methods in a classification context. The spectral variation caused by some experimental conditions can worsen the performance of the initial multivariate classification model but this situation can be solved by implementing standardization methods such as Piecewise Direct Standardization (PDS). This study looks at the adulteration of culinary spices with banned dyes such as Sudan I, II, III and IV. The samples are characterised by their UV-visible spectra and Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) is used to discriminate between unadulterated samples and samples adulterated with any of the four Sudan dyes. Two different datasets that need to be standardised are presented. The standardization process yields positive classification results comparable to those obtained from the initial PLS-DA model, in which high classification performance was achieved.

  20. Carrots and Sticks: Compliance Provisions in State Competitive Food Laws--Examples for State and Local Implementation of the Updated USDA Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gourdet, Camille K.; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Piekarz, Elizabeth; Dang, Quang; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Competitive foods remain prevalent in schools even though the majority of states' laws have addressed this for several years. Whereas updated federal standards take effect during school year 2014-2015, aspects of competitive food regulation will remain relegated to the states and districts and concerns exist about compliance with…

  1. Carrots and Sticks: Compliance Provisions in State Competitive Food Laws--Examples for State and Local Implementation of the Updated USDA Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gourdet, Camille K.; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Piekarz, Elizabeth; Dang, Quang; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Competitive foods remain prevalent in schools even though the majority of states' laws have addressed this for several years. Whereas updated federal standards take effect during school year 2014-2015, aspects of competitive food regulation will remain relegated to the states and districts and concerns exist about compliance with…

  2. Secondary analysis of anthropometric data from a South African national food consumption survey, using different growth reference standards.

    PubMed

    Bosman, L; Herselman, M G; Kruger, H S; Labadarios, D

    2011-11-01

    The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) references were used to analyse anthropometric data from the 1999 National Food Consumption Survey (NFCS) of South Africa. Since then, however, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2000 reference and the World Health Organization (WHO) 2006 standards were released. It was anticipated that these reference and standards may lead to differences in the previous estimates of stunting, wasting, underweight and obesity in the study population. The aim was to compare the anthropometric status of children using the 1977 NCHS, the 2000 CDC growth references and the 2006 WHO standards. All children 12-60 months of age with a complete set of anthropometric data were included in the analyses. Data for 1,512 children were analysed with SAS 9.1 for Windows. A Z-score was calculated for each child for weight-for-age (W/A), weight-for-length/height (W/H), length/height-for-age (H/A) and body mass index (BMI)-for-age, using each of the three reference or standards for comparison. The prevalence of stunting, obesity and overweight were significantly higher and the prevalence of underweight and wasting were lower when using the WHO standards compared to the NCHS and the CDC references. The higher than previously established prevalence of stunting at 20.1% and combined overweight/obesity at 30% poses a challenge to South African policy makers to implement nutrition programmes to decrease the prevalence of both stunting and overweight. The 2006 WHO growth standard should be the standard used for assessment of growth of infants and children younger than 5 years in developing countries.

  3. Droughts may increase susceptibility of prairie dogs to fleas: Incongruity with hypothesized mechanisms of plague cycles in rodents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eads, David; Biggins, Dean E.; Long, Dustin H.; Gage, Kenneth L.; Antolin, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Plague is a reemerging, rodent-associated zoonosis caused by the flea-borne bacterium Yersinia pestis. As a vector-borne disease, rates of plague transmission may increase when fleas are abundant. Fleas are highly susceptible to desiccation under hot-dry conditions; we posited that their densities decline during droughts. We evaluated this hypothesis with black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in New Mexico, June–August 2010–2012. Precipitation was relatively plentiful during 2010 and 2012 but scarce during 2011, the driest spring–summer on record for the northeastern grasslands of New Mexico. Unexpectedly, fleas were 200% more abundant in 2011 than in 2010 and 2012. Prairie dogs were in 27% better condition during 2010 and 2012, and they devoted 287% more time to grooming in 2012 than in 2011. During 2012, prairie dogs provided with supplemental food and water were in 23% better condition and carried 40% fewer fleas. Collectively, these results suggest that during dry years, prairie dogs are limited by food and water, and they exhibit weakened defenses against fleas. Long-term data are needed to evaluate the generality of whether droughts increase flea densities and how changes in flea abundance during sequences of dry and wet years might affect plague cycles in mammalian hosts.

  4. The Nutrient Profile of Foods Consumed Using the British Food Standards Agency Nutrient Profiling System Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in the SU.VI.MAX Cohort.

    PubMed

    Julia, Chantal; Fézeu, Léopold K; Ducrot, Pauline; Méjean, Caroline; Péneau, Sandrine; Touvier, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2015-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS), comprising high waist circumference, blood pressure, glycemia, and triglycerides, and lower HDL cholesterol could in part be prevented by adequate nutrition. Nutrient profiling systems could be useful public health tools to help consumers make healthier food choices. An individual dietary index (DI) based on nutrient profiling of foods consumed could characterize dietary patterns in relation to the onset of MetS. The objective of this study was to prospectively investigate the association between the Food Standards Agency (FSA) Nutrient Profiling System (NPS) DI and the onset of MetS in a middle-aged French cohort. Participants from the SUpplémentation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants cohort (SU.VI.MAX, n = 3741) were included in the present study. The FSA NPS DI was computed by using dietary data from 24 h records at inclusion. MetS was identified at baseline and at year 13 of follow-up with the use of self-reported medication, data from clinical investigations, and biological measurements. A prospective association between the FSA NPS DI (in quartiles and continuous) and the onset of MetS was investigated by using logistic regression. Poorer diets identified with the use of the FSA NPS DI were significantly associated with a higher risk of developing MetS (OR for poorer vs. healthier FSA NPS DI: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.89; P-trend across quartiles = 0.02). The FSA NPS DI was significantly associated with the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) components of MetS (difference between healthier vs. poorer FSA NPS DI: 2.16 mm Hg for SBP and 1.5 mm Hg for DBP, P-trend across quartiles = 0.02). The FSA NPS DI was prospectively associated with the onset of MetS in a middle-aged French population. The application of NPSs in public health initiatives may help the population make healthier food choices, which might reduce the risk of developing MetS. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Zoonoses As Ecological Entities: A Case Review of Plague

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Alzira Maria Paiva; Cordeiro-Estrela, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    As a zoonosis, Plague is also an ecological entity, a complex system of ecological interactions between the pathogen, the hosts, and the spatiotemporal variations of its ecosystems. Five reservoir system models have been proposed: (i) assemblages of small mammals with different levels of susceptibility and roles in the maintenance and amplification of the cycle; (ii) species-specific chronic infection models; (ii) flea vectors as the true reservoirs; (iii) Telluric Plague, and (iv) a metapopulation arrangement for species with a discrete spatial organization, following a source-sink dynamic of extinction and recolonization with naïve potential hosts. The diversity of the community that harbors the reservoir system affects the transmission cycle by predation, competition, and dilution effect. Plague has notable environmental constraints, depending on altitude (500+ meters), warm and dry climates, and conditions for high productivity events for expansion of the transmission cycle. Human impacts are altering Plague dynamics by altering landscape and the faunal composition of the foci and adjacent areas, usually increasing the presence and number of human cases and outbreaks. Climatic change is also affecting the range of its occurrence. In the current transitional state of zoonosis as a whole, Plague is at risk of becoming a public health problem in poor countries where ecosystem erosion, anthropic invasion of new areas, and climate change increase the contact of the population with reservoir systems, giving new urgency for ecologic research that further details its maintenance in the wild, the spillover events, and how it links to human cases. PMID:27711205

  6. [ON SOME DEBATABLE PROBLEMS OF THE NATURAL NIDALITY OF PLAGUE].

    PubMed

    Verzhutsky, D B; Balakhonov, S V

    2016-01-01

    The communication substantiates the opinion that the theory of natural nidality of plague; which is based on the fundamental recognition that fleas play a leading role in the transmission and accumulation of the plague pathogen, cannot be disproved or substantially changed on the alternative weakly reasoned assumptions and hypotheses. All its "bottlenecks" are quite understandable when considering the long-term volumetric materials that have been gathered directly in nature and generalized in multiple publications. Plague is an obligate transmissive infection; its, agent is a highly specialized parasite that is completely associated in its vital activity with the only group of the blood-sucking insects--fleas and that is transmitted through periodic colonization of warm-blooded animals for a short time. All other types of plague microbe persistence in nature are either occasional or minor and do not play any significant role in pathogen persistence in the natural foci of this disease. There are no strong grounds for seriously considering the attempts to revise the main points of the theory of natural nidality of plague, which are widely held in current academic publications.

  7. Zoonoses As Ecological Entities: A Case Review of Plague.

    PubMed

    Zeppelini, Caio Graco; de Almeida, Alzira Maria Paiva; Cordeiro-Estrela, Pedro

    2016-10-01

    As a zoonosis, Plague is also an ecological entity, a complex system of ecological interactions between the pathogen, the hosts, and the spatiotemporal variations of its ecosystems. Five reservoir system models have been proposed: (i) assemblages of small mammals with different levels of susceptibility and roles in the maintenance and amplification of the cycle; (ii) species-specific chronic infection models; (ii) flea vectors as the true reservoirs; (iii) Telluric Plague, and (iv) a metapopulation arrangement for species with a discrete spatial organization, following a source-sink dynamic of extinction and recolonization with naïve potential hosts. The diversity of the community that harbors the reservoir system affects the transmission cycle by predation, competition, and dilution effect. Plague has notable environmental constraints, depending on altitude (500+ meters), warm and dry climates, and conditions for high productivity events for expansion of the transmission cycle. Human impacts are altering Plague dynamics by altering landscape and the faunal composition of the foci and adjacent areas, usually increasing the presence and number of human cases and outbreaks. Climatic change is also affecting the range of its occurrence. In the current transitional state of zoonosis as a whole, Plague is at risk of becoming a public health problem in poor countries where ecosystem erosion, anthropic invasion of new areas, and climate change increase the contact of the population with reservoir systems, giving new urgency for ecologic research that further details its maintenance in the wild, the spillover events, and how it links to human cases.

  8. Plague, policy, saints and terrorists: a historical survey.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Donatella; Conti, Andrea A

    2002-05-01

    Plague is an infectious disease of humans and animals caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. During the Middle Ages millions of people in Europe died from plague, whose current mortality-if untreated-ranges from 50% to 90%. The plague has been a great protagonist in history because it has often been grimly present in the collective events of humans. Its plurisecular history, tied to the whole chain of ecological balance, has had a strong influence on the collective imagination on account of its sudden occurrence and unavoidable mortality. In the past, the passage from contagion to illness ended in death, as human remedies had no effect. The only way to conquer it was invoke the incorruptible spirit of a saint. Therefore, in the past, the major plague icons were saints to whom ordinary people attributed a fame for healing. More recently, many epidemic diseases have ceded place to biological weapons, and terrorists have become the modern icons of such a threatening reality. As a matter of fact, bioterrorism has become a great public health and infection control threat, and, among the number of potential biological agents, plague has assumed a key role. Copyright 2002 The British Infection Society.

  9. Population decline and plague in late medieval Norway.

    PubMed

    Brothen, J A

    1996-01-01

    Norwegian scholars have engaged in considerable research over the last half century in an attempt to assess the impact of the Black Plague of 1349 on population and society in Norway. Evidence has been put forward relating the incidence of plague to a continuance of population decline over the two centuries following its initial introduction. Estimates of population decline in Norway between 1350 and 1550 indicate a reduction by as much as 65%. Two directions of study have emerged, one concentrating on land abandonment known as the "Ødegard Project." The other is represented by the recent works of Ole Jørgen Benedictow presenting epidemiological and osteo-archaeological research. An examination of the available literature raises questions concerning the degree to which plague, and its recurrence, directly affected population decline in Norway during the Late Middle Ages. While evidence of the virulence of the plague and the degree of farm abandonment is compelling, a direct relationship to population decline may not be as great as implied by the research. Other explanatory factors, especially social and economic responses to plague, have been given limited attention.

  10. Emerging analytical methods to determine gluten markers in processed foods--method development in support of standard setting.

    PubMed

    Weber, Dorcas; Cléroux, Chantal; Godefroy, Samuel Benrejeb

    2009-09-01

    The availability of analytical methods to detect and determine levels of markers of priority allergens in foods is of the utmost importance to support standard setting initiatives, the development of compliance and enforcement activities, as well as to provide guidance to industry on implementation of quality control practices, ensuring the effectiveness of allergen-related sanitation techniques. This paper describes the development and implementation of a mass-spectrometry-based technique to determine markers for individual sources of gluten in beer products. This methodology was shown to answer the requirements of Health Canada's proposed labeling standard for individual gluten source declaration, in order to achieve its policy objectives (i.e., protection of sensitive consumers, while promoting choice). Minimal sample work-up was required and the results obtained by ELISA were further complemented using the LC-MS/MS method. This paper aims to demonstrate the feasibility of alternative techniques to ELISA-based methodologies to determine allergen and gluten markers in food.

  11. A Taxonomic Update of Small Mammal Plague Reservoirs in South America.

    PubMed

    Bonvicino, Cibele R; Oliveira, João A; Cordeiro-Estrela, Pedro; D'andrea, Paulo S; Almeida, Alzira M P

    2015-10-01

    Plague is a disease of epidemic potential that may emerge with discontinuous outbreaks. In South America, 50 wild rodent species have been identified as plague reservoirs, in addition to one lagomorph and two marsupials. To review the nomenclature of plague reservoirs, we examined specimens collected in plague foci, carried out new surveys in Brazilian plague regions, and re-evaluated the nomenclature of South American reservoirs on the basis of the current literature. Five of the 15 species involved with plague in Argentina, three of 10 species involved with plague in Bolivia, three of the seven species involved with plague in Peru, five of the nine species involved with plague in Ecuador, and six of the nine species involved with plague in Brazil have undergone taxonomic changes. In the last 20 years, plague cases were recorded in Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru. These four countries have a high rodent species richness in plague foci, a fact that may be decisive for the maintenance of plague in the wild.

  12. CCR5 polymorphism and plague resistance in natural populations of the black rat in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Tollenaere, C; Rahalison, L; Ranjalahy, M; Rahelinirina, S; Duplantier, J-M; Brouat, C

    2008-12-01

    Madagascar remains one of the world's largest plague foci. The black rat, Rattus rattus, is the main reservoir of plague in rural areas. This species is highly susceptible to plague in plague-free areas (low-altitude regions), whereas rats from the plague focus areas (central highlands) have evolved a disease-resistance polymorphism. We used the candidate gene CCR5 to investigate the genetic basis of plague resistance in R. rattus. We found a unique non-synonymous substitution (H184R) in a functionally important region of the gene. We then compared (i) CCR5 genotypes of dying and surviving plague-challenged rats and (ii) CCR5 allelic frequencies in plague focus and plague-free populations. Our results suggested a higher prevalence of the substitution in resistant animals compared to susceptible individuals, and a tendency for higher frequencies in plague focus areas compared to plague-free areas. Therefore, the CCR5 polymorphism may be involved in Malagasy black rat plague resistance. CCR5 and other undetermined plague resistance markers may provide useful biological information about host evolution and disease dynamics.

  13. Plague in camels and goats: their role in human epidemics.

    PubMed

    Christie, A B; Chen, T H; Elberg, S S

    1980-06-01

    In 1976, in a small, remote Libyan village, one apparently sick camel was slaughtered and skinned, and the camel meat was distributed for human comsumption. A few days later, 15 villagers suffered a severe febrile illness. Of the five individuals who had participated in the killing and dispensation of the camel, all were dead within four days. When samples of serum from nine of the remaining patients were examined, seven were found to be positive for plague as determined by the passive hemagglutination test. Another six persons became ill after killing two goats, and the serum of one goat contained antibodies to Yersinia pestis. Because all of the remaining patients except one were treated early enough, they recovered. These incidents confirm previous reports that the camel and the goat are susceptible to naturally occurring plague infection and have a significant role in the dissemination of human plague.

  14. Wet climate and transportation routes accelerate spread of human plague.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lei; Stige, Leif Chr; Kausrud, Kyrre Linné; Ben Ari, Tamara; Wang, Shuchun; Fang, Xiye; Schmid, Boris V; Liu, Qiyong; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Zhang, Zhibin

    2014-04-07

    Currently, large-scale transmissions of infectious diseases are becoming more closely associated with accelerated globalization and climate change, but quantitative analyses are still rare. By using an extensive dataset consisting of date and location of cases for the third plague pandemic from 1772 to 1964 in China and a novel method (nearest neighbour approach) which deals with both short- and long-distance transmissions, we found the presence of major roads, rivers and coastline accelerated the spread of plague and shaped the transmission patterns. We found that plague spread velocity was positively associated with wet conditions (measured by an index of drought and flood events) in China, probably due to flood-driven transmission by people or rodents. Our study provides new insights on transmission patterns and possible mechanisms behind variability in transmission speed, with implications for prevention and control measures. The methodology may also be applicable to studies of disease dynamics or species movement in other systems.

  15. Wet climate and transportation routes accelerate spread of human plague

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lei; Stige, Leif Chr.; Kausrud, Kyrre Linné; Ben Ari, Tamara; Wang, Shuchun; Fang, Xiye; Schmid, Boris V.; Liu, Qiyong; Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Zhang, Zhibin

    2014-01-01

    Currently, large-scale transmissions of infectious diseases are becoming more closely associated with accelerated globalization and climate change, but quantitative analyses are still rare. By using an extensive dataset consisting of date and location of cases for the third plague pandemic from 1772 to 1964 in China and a novel method (nearest neighbour approach) which deals with both short- and long-distance transmissions, we found the presence of major roads, rivers and coastline accelerated the spread of plague and shaped the transmission patterns. We found that plague spread velocity was positively associated with wet conditions (measured by an index of drought and flood events) in China, probably due to flood-driven transmission by people or rodents. Our study provides new insights on transmission patterns and possible mechanisms behind variability in transmission speed, with implications for prevention and control measures. The methodology may also be applicable to studies of disease dynamics or species movement in other systems. PMID:24523275

  16. [The spread of the plague: A sciento-historiographic review].

    PubMed

    Cuadrada, Coral

    2015-01-01

    There is still uncertainty about the diagnosis and nature of the plague; some scholars have been forced to abandon certainties and be filled with doubts: from believing that the mediaeval Black Plague was, in reality, the bubonic plague (although with unusual characteristics) to stating that there is very little evidence to support a retro-diagnosis. This article looks at this in depth, not only reviewing the historiography but also giving new interpretations which question previous hypotheses through research on images of the time, comparing them to the most recent investigative data. Two primary sources are analysed: Renaissance treaties written by four Italian doctors: Michele Savonarola, Marsilio Ficino, Leonardo Fioravanti and Gioseffo Daciano; and iconography: an illustrated manuscript of the Decameron by Giovanni Boccaccio and a Hebrew Haggadah from the XIVth century. The results are compared to the most recent research on DNA and in micropaleontology.

  17. Plague: A Disease Which Changed the Path of Human Civilization.

    PubMed

    Bramanti, Barbara; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Walløe, Lars; Lei, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Plague caused by Yersinia pestis is a zoonotic infection, i.e., it is maintained in wildlife by animal reservoirs and on occasion spills over into human populations, causing outbreaks of different entities. Large epidemics of plague, which have had significant demographic, social, and economic consequences, have been recorded in Western European historical documents since the sixth century. Plague has remained in Europe for over 1400 years, intermittently disappearing, yet it is not clear if there were reservoirs for Y. pestis in Western Europe or if the pathogen was rather reimported on different occasions from Asian reservoirs by human agency. The latter hypothesis thus far seems to be the most plausible one, as it is sustained by both ecological and climatological evidence, helping to interpret the phylogeny of this bacterium.

  18. Plague Reappearance in Algeria after 50 Years, 2003

    PubMed Central

    Bekhoucha, Souad; Chougrani, Saada; Razik, Fathia; Duchemin, Jean B.; Houti, Leila; Deharib, Larbi; Fayolle, Corinne; Makrerougrass, Banaouda; Dali-Yahia, Radia; Bellal, Ramdan; Belhabri, Leila; Chaieb, Amina; Tikhomirov, Evgueni; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    An outbreak of plague occurred in the region of Oran, Algeria, from June to July 2003. Algeria had not reported this disease for >50 years. Eighteen bubonic cases were identified, and Yersinia pestis was isolated from 6 patients. Except for the index case-patient, all patients recovered. Targeted chemoprophylaxis, sanitation, and vector control played a crucial role in controlling the outbreak. Epidemiologic and biomolecular findings strongly suggested the existence of a local animal reservoir during this period, but its origin (resurgence or re-importation) could not be determined. This sudden and unexpected reemergence of plague, close to an important commercial seaport, is a textbook illustration of a public health event of international importance. It also demonstrates that the danger of plague reoccurrence is not limited to the currently indexed natural foci. PMID:18257987

  19. A victory over the plague in Moscow 1770-1772.

    PubMed

    Sorokina, Tatiana

    2013-06-01

    The Great Plague in Moscow 1770-1772 was suppressed in four months due to the strict and effective administrative measures and outstanding efforts of the doctors in Moscow. For many decades of the previous century the role of the Russian nobility in this victory was "forgotten". In this paper, based on the original documents published just after the Plague in 1775, a real historical picture of that Great Victory has been reconstructed. Many errors and inaccuracies in our historical-medical literature have been corrected and the forgotten role of the Russian nobility in suppressing this serious epidemic has been resurrected. This includes the role of the Senate, the Empress Catherine the Great and Count Gregory Orlov who had been sent by her to Moscow with unlimited power "to put everything in due order", as well as contribution of the Russian scientists in the worldwide struggle against plague.

  20. Reflections on crisis burials related to past plague epidemics.

    PubMed

    Signoli, M

    2012-03-01

    Drawing its etymology from the Latin pestis (curse), plague, over the centuries, has been more dreaded by humankind than any other epidemic. The Apocalypse had recognized plague as the archetypal divine curse, 'the power to kill over a fourth of the earth'. Plague is thus a particular topic of study, insofar that it is one of the rare epidemics that has had recurrent major consequences on demography and human societies. Its highly transmissible nature, the brutality of its action, its high pathogenicity, marked by strong lethality and great swiftness, and the complete absence of treatment options before the 20th century conferred on it a sinister aspect. Generating a series of severe demographic crises, well known in the Western world, it has necessarily influenced the evolution of societies at both the biological and cultural levels. © 2012 The Author. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  1. Implementation of Competitive Food and Beverage Standards in a Sample of Massachusetts Schools: The NOURISH Study (Nutrition Opportunities to Understand Reforms Involving Student Health)

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Jessica A.; Rosenfeld, Lindsay; Schmidt, Nicole; Cohen, Juliana F. W.; Gorski, Mary; Chaffee, Ruth; Smith, Lauren; Rimm, Eric B.

    2015-01-01

    Background During 2012, Massachusetts adopted comprehensive school competitive food and beverage standards that closely align with Institute of Medicine recommendations and Smart Snacks in School national standards. Objective We examined the extent to which a sample of Massachusetts middle schools and high schools sold foods and beverages that were compliant with the state competitive food and beverage standards after the first year of implementation, and complied with four additional aspects of the regulations. Design Observational cohort study with data collected before implementation (Spring 2012) and 1 year after implementation (Spring 2013). Participants/setting School districts (N=37) with at least one middle school and one high school participated. Main outcome measures Percent of competitive foods and beverages that were compliant with Massachusetts standards and compliance with four additional aspects of the regulations. Data were collected via school site visits and a foodservice director questionnaire. Statistical analyses performed Multilevel models were used to examine change in food and beverage compliance over time. Results More products were available in high schools than middle schools at both time points. The number of competitive beverages and several categories of competitive food products sold in the sample of Massachusetts schools decreased following the implementation of the standards. Multilevel models demonstrated a 47-percentage-point increase in food and 46-percentage-point increase in beverage compliance in Massachusetts schools from 2012 to 2013. Overall, total compliance was higher for beverages than foods. Conclusions This study of a group of Massachusetts schools demonstrated the feasibility of schools making substantial changes in response to requirements for healthier competitive foods, even in the first year of implementation. PMID:26210085

  2. Implementation of Competitive Food and Beverage Standards in a Sample of Massachusetts Schools: The NOURISH Study (Nutrition Opportunities to Understand Reforms Involving Student Health).

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jessica A; Rosenfeld, Lindsay; Schmidt, Nicole; Cohen, Juliana F W; Gorski, Mary; Chaffee, Ruth; Smith, Lauren; Rimm, Eric B

    2015-08-01

    During 2012, Massachusetts adopted comprehensive school competitive food and beverage standards that closely align with Institute of Medicine recommendations and Smart Snacks in School national standards. We examined the extent to which a sample of Massachusetts middle schools and high schools sold foods and beverages that were compliant with the state competitive food and beverage standards after the first year of implementation, and complied with four additional aspects of the regulations. Observational cohort study with data collected before implementation (Spring 2012) and 1 year after implementation (Spring 2013). School districts (N=37) with at least one middle school and one high school participated. Percent of competitive foods and beverages that were compliant with Massachusetts standards and compliance with four additional aspects of the regulations. Data were collected via school site visits and a foodservice director questionnaire. Multilevel models were used to examine change in food and beverage compliance over time. More products were available in high schools than middle schools at both time points. The number of competitive beverages and several categories of competitive food products sold in the sample of Massachusetts schools decreased following the implementation of the standards. Multilevel models demonstrated a 47-percentage-point increase in food and 46-percentage-point increase in beverage compliance in Massachusetts schools from 2012 to 2013. Overall, total compliance was higher for beverages than foods. This study of a group of Massachusetts schools demonstrated the feasibility of schools making substantial changes in response to requirements for healthier competitive foods, even in the first year of implementation. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Predicting Potential Risk Areas of Human Plague for the Western Usambara Mountains, Lushoto District, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Neerinckx, Simon; Peterson, A. Townsend; Gulinck, Hubert; Deckers, Jozef; Kimaro, Didas; Leirs, Herwig

    2010-01-01

    A natural focus of plague exists in the Western Usambara Mountains of Tanzania. Despite intense research, questions remain as to why and how plague emerges repeatedly in the same suite of villages. We used human plague incidence data for 1986–2003 in an ecological-niche modeling framework to explore the geographic distribution and ecology of human plague. Our analyses indicate that plague occurrence is related directly to landscape-scale environmental features, yielding a predictive understanding of one set of environmental factors affecting plague transmission in East Africa. Although many environmental variables contribute significantly to these models, the most important are elevation and Enhanced Vegetation Index derivatives. Projections of these models across broader regions predict only 15.5% (under a majority-rule threshold) or 31,997 km2 of East Africa as suitable for plague transmission, but they successfully anticipate most known foci in the region, making possible the development of a risk map of plague. PMID:20207880

  4. The Effect of Nutrient-Based Standards on Competitive Foods in 3 Schools: Potential Savings in Kilocalories and Grams of Fat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snelling, Anastasia M.; Yezek, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Background: The study investigated how nutrient standards affected the number of kilocalories and grams of fat and saturated fat in competitive foods offered and sold in 3 high schools. Methods: The study is a quasi-experimental design with 3 schools serving as the units of assignment and analysis. The effect of the nutrient standards was measured…

  5. The Effect of Nutrient-Based Standards on Competitive Foods in 3 Schools: Potential Savings in Kilocalories and Grams of Fat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snelling, Anastasia M.; Yezek, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Background: The study investigated how nutrient standards affected the number of kilocalories and grams of fat and saturated fat in competitive foods offered and sold in 3 high schools. Methods: The study is a quasi-experimental design with 3 schools serving as the units of assignment and analysis. The effect of the nutrient standards was measured…

  6. Assessment of the immune response to duck plague vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, D D; James, P C; Sulochana, S

    1998-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess the immune responses of ducks to duck plague (DP) vaccinations employing one commercial and one laboratory-adapted (LA) DP vaccines. Virus neutralisation and leucocyte migration-inhibition tests were conducted at regular intervals before and after vaccinations. Similarly, ducks in vaccinated and control groups were subjected to challenge infection with virulent DP virus. The commercial vaccine yielded a poor immune response and partial protection on challenge whereas satisfactory responses were obtained in ducks receiving two doses of LA vaccine. The humoral as well as cellular factors were stimulated indicating possible involvement of both the immune responses in the protection from duck plague.

  7. Plague mortality and demographic depression in later medieval England.

    PubMed

    Poos, L R

    1981-01-01

    Both direct and indirect evidence implies that England experienced a lengthy period of stagnant or declining population during the later fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. The Black Death of 1348-1349 had brought about profound changes in England's agrarian economy, and this subsequent demographic depression is most commonly interpreted by historians as the result of plague mortality, recurring in severe outbreaks after the disease's introduction into the country. This paper reviews the evidence and assumptions behind this interpretation, in light of recent research by historical demographers and epidemiologists into bubonic plague epidemics and general mortality crises during the post-medieval period.

  8. [Establishment of the plague control system in Russia].

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, G G; Monisov, A A; Fedorov, Iu M; Kutyrev, V V; Kokushkin, A M

    1999-01-01

    The specialized plague control facilities which began being founded as a system of institutions in Russia in 1897 have made a great contribution to epidemiological well-being against quarantine and particularly menacing diseases. The developmental stages of plague control service in different periods of the country's social life and its place in the general governmental preventive and antiepidemic measures are shown. The paper emphasizes that it is expedient to maintain the antiepidemic readiness of plaque control facilities due the fact that the epidemic situation is due menacing and zoonosis is expected to aggravate in the late 20th to the early 21st centuries.

  9. [The plague of the third pandemic and its current remergence].

    PubMed

    Barry, Stéphane

    2008-12-01

    The reappearance of the plague in the 19th century, in what is generally referred to as the third pandemic, brought back painful memories of the great plague outbreaks of the past that had killed tens of millions of people. At the same time, this new pandemic opened the era of great discoveries, such as identification of the Yersinia pestis bacterium, of transmission vectors and the first effective treatments. With these advances it became possible to control a disease which had, because of progress in maritime transport, spread almost throughout the world.

  10. Plague mortality and demographic depression in later medieval England.

    PubMed Central

    Poos, L. R.

    1981-01-01

    Both direct and indirect evidence implies that England experienced a lengthy period of stagnant or declining population during the later fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. The Black Death of 1348-1349 had brought about profound changes in England's agrarian economy, and this subsequent demographic depression is most commonly interpreted by historians as the result of plague mortality, recurring in severe outbreaks after the disease's introduction into the country. This paper reviews the evidence and assumptions behind this interpretation, in light of recent research by historical demographers and epidemiologists into bubonic plague epidemics and general mortality crises during the post-medieval period. PMID:7027638

  11. [The epidemiology and etiology research of Tibetan sheep plague in Qinghai plateau].

    PubMed

    Wei, Baiqing; Xiong, Haoming; Yang, Xiaoyan; Yang, Yonghai; Qi, Meiying; Jin, Juan; Xin, Youquan; Li, Xiang; Yang, Hanqing; Han, Xiumin; Dai, Ruixia

    2015-03-01

    To identify the epidemiology and etiology characteristics of Tibetan sheep plague in Qinghai plateau. The background materials of Qinghai Tibetan sheep plague found during 1975 to 2009 were summarized, the regional, time and interpersonal distribution, infection routes, ecological factors for the spread were used to analyze; followed by choosing 14 Yersinia pestis strains isolated from such sheep for biochemical test, toxicity test, virulence factors identification, plasmid analysis, and DFR genotype. From 1975 to 2009, 14 Yersinia pestis strains were isolated from Tibetan sheep in Qinghai province. Tibetan sheep, as the infection source, had caused 10 cases of human plague, 25 plague patients, and 13 cases of death. All of the initial cases were infected due to eating Tibetan sheep died of plague; followed by cases due to contact of plague patients, while all the initial cases were bubonic plague. Cases of bubonic plague developed into secondary pneumonic plague and septicemia plague were most popular and with high mortality. Most of the Tibetan sheep plague and human plague occurred in Gannan ecological zone in southern Gansu province, which was closely related to its unique ecological and geographical landscape. Tibetan sheep plague coincided with human plague caused by Tibetan sheep, especially noteworthy was that November (a time for marmots to start their dormancy) witnesses the number of Yersinia pestis strains isolated from Tibetan sheep and human plague cases caused by Tibetan sheep. This constituted the underlying cause that the epidemic time of Tibetan sheep plague lags obviously behind that of the Marmot plague. It was confirmed in the study that all the 14 strains were of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau ecotype, with virulence factors evaluation and toxicity test demonstrating strains as velogenic. As found in the (Different Region) DFR genotyping, the strains isolated from Yushu county and Zhiduo county were genomovar 5, the two strain isolated from Nangqian

  12. Fitness components of Drosophila melanogaster developed on a standard laboratory diet or a typical natural food source.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard; Henningsen, Astrid Kallestrup; Aastrup, Christian; Bech-Hansen, Mads; Bjerre, Lise B Hoberg; Carlsen, Benjamin; Hagstrup, Marie; Jensen, Sofie Graarup; Karlsen, Pernille; Kristensen, Line; Lundsgaard, Cecillie; Møller, Tine; Nielsen, Lise D; Starcke, Camilla; Sørensen, Christine Riisager; Schou, Mads Fristrup

    2016-10-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is often used as a model organism in evolutionary biology and ecophysiology to study evolutionary processes and their physiological mechanisms. Diets used to feed Drosophila cultures differ between laboratories and are often nutritious and distinct from food sources in the natural habitat. Here we rear D. melanogaster on a standard diet used in our laboratory and a field diet composed of decomposing apples collected in the field. Flies developed on these two diet compositions are tested for heat, cold, desiccation, and starvation resistance as well as developmental time, dry body mass and fat percentage. The nutritional compositions of the standard and field diets were analyzed, and discussed in relation to the phenotypic observations. Results showed marked differences in phenotype of flies from the two types of diets. Flies reared on the field diet are more starvation resistant and they are smaller, leaner, and have lower heat resistance compared to flies reared on the standard diet. Sex specific effects of diet type are observed for several of the investigated traits and the strong sexual dimorphism usually observed in desiccation resistance in D. melanogaster disappeared when rearing the flies on the field diet. Based on our results we conclude that care should be taken in extrapolating results from one type of diet to another and especially from laboratory to field diets.

  13. Present susceptibility status of rat flea Xenopsylla cheopis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), vector of plague against organochlorine, organophosphate and synthetic pyrethroids 1. The Nilgiris District, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Shyamal, Biswas; Ravi Kumar, R; Sohan, Lal; Balakrishnan, N; Veena, Mittal; Shiv, Lal

    2008-03-01

    The susceptibility status of Xenopsylla cheopis, the efficient vector of human plague in India was assessed in erstwhile plague endemic areas of Nilgiris district, Tamil Nadu following standard WHO techniques. The studies revealed the development of resistance in rat fleas to DDT--4.0%, Malathion--5.0%, Deltamethrin--0.05% and tolerance to Permethrin--0.75% in all the four blocks of Nilgiris hill district. Development of resistance may be due to the extensive use of insecticides in tea plantations and agricultural sectors where the domestic/peri-domestic rodents find their natural habitats and intermingle with each other.

  14. [Advance to the research of the climate factor effect on the distribution of plague].

    PubMed

    Zhang, A P; Wei, R J; Xiong, H M; Wang, Z Y

    2016-05-01

    Plague is an anthropozoonotic disease caused by the Yersinia pestis ,which developed by many factors including local climate factors. In recent years, more and more studies on the effects of climate on plague were conducted. According to the researches, climate factors (mainly the rainfall and temperature) affected the development and distribution of plague by influencing the abundance of plague host animals and fleas index. The climate also affected the epidemic dynamics and the scope of plague. There were significant differences existing in the influence of climate on the palgue developed in the north and south China. In the two different plague epidemic systems, the solitary Daurian ground squirrel-flea-plague and the social Mongolian gerbil-flea-plague, the obvious population differences existed among the responses of the host animal to the climate changes. Although the internal relationship between the rainfall, the flea index, the density of rodents and the plague supported the nutritional cascade hypothesis, it can not prove that there is a clear causality between the occurrence of plague and rainfall. So the influence of climate factors on plague distribution can only be used for early forecasting and warning of the plague.

  15. Susceptibility to Yersinia pestis experimental infection in wild Rattus rattus, reservoir of plague in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Tollenaere, C; Rahalison, L; Ranjalahy, M; Duplantier, J-M; Rahelinirina, S; Telfer, S; Brouat, C

    2010-06-01

    In Madagascar, the black rat, Rattus rattus, is the main reservoir of plague (Yersinia pestis infection), a disease still responsible for hundreds of cases each year in this country. This study used experimental plague challenge to assess susceptibility in wild-caught rats to better understand how R. rattus can act as a plague reservoir. An important difference in plague resistance between rat populations from the plague focus (central highlands) and those from the plague-free zone (low altitude area) was confirmed to be a widespread phenomenon. In rats from the plague focus, we observed that sex influenced plague susceptibility, with males slightly more resistant than females. Other individual factors investigated (weight and habitat of sampling) did not affect plague resistance. When infected at high bacterial dose (more than 10⁵ bacteria injected), rats from the plague focus died mainly within 3-5 days and produced specific antibodies, whereas after low-dose infection (< 5,000 bacteria), delayed mortality was observed and surviving seronegative rats were not uncommon. These results concerning plague resistance level and the course of infection in the black rat would contribute to a better understanding of plague circulation in Madagascar.

  16. [ON THE ORIGIN OF HYPERVIRULENCE OF THE CAUSATIVE AGENT OF PLAGUE].

    PubMed

    Anisimov, N V; Kislichkina, A A; Platonov, M E; Evseeva, V V; Kadnikova, L A; Lipatnikova, N A; Bogun, A G; Dentovskaya, S V; Anisimov, A P

    2016-01-01

    The attempt to combine Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis into one species has been unsupported by microbiologists due to the specific features of the epidemiology and clinical presentations of their induced diseases and to basic differences in their virulence. Pseudotuberculosis is predominantly a relatively mild human intestinal infection transmitted through contaminated food and plague is an acute generalized disease with high mortality, which is most frequently transmitted by the bites of infected fleas. Y. pestis hypervirulence, the ability of single bacteria to ensure the development of predagonal bacteriemia in rodents, which is sufficient to contaminate the fleas, is one of the main events during pathogen adaptation to a new ecological niche. By analyzing the data of molecular typing of the representative kits of naturally occurring Y. pestis isolates, the authois consider the issues of formation of intraspecies groups with universal hypervirulence, as well as biovars that are highly virulent only to their major host. A strategy for searching for selective virulence factors, the potential molecular targets for vaccination and etiotropic treatment of plague, is discussed.

  17. PFGE standard operating procedures for Listeria monocytogenes: harmonizing the typing of food and clinical strains in Europe.

    PubMed

    Michelon, Damien; Félix, Benjamin; Vingadassalon, Noemie; Mariet, Jean-François; Larsson, Jonas T; Møller-Nielsen, Eva; Roussel, Sophie

    2015-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen responsible for a severe disease known as listeriosis. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) coordinates a network of national public health laboratories (NPHLs) in charge of typing clinical strains. In food, it is the European Union Reference Laboratory for L. monocytogenes (EURL Lm), which manages a network of National Reference Laboratories (NRLs). A pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) standard operating procedure (EURL SOP) has been used routinely at the EURL Lm since 2007. The EURL Lm has recommended that NRLs use the EURL SOP, whereas the Statens Serum Institut (SSI), under contract for ECDC, requested that NPHLs use Halpins' SOP (HSOP) published in 2010 for the PulseNet USA network. An update of Halpins' SOP (uHSOP) was published in 2013. To facilitate the exchange of profiles among human and food European reference laboratories, it is crucial to ensure that the PFGE profiles obtained with these different SOPs are comparable. The aim here was to compare the EURL SOP with HSOP and uHSOP. The panel comprised 114 well-characterized SSI/EURL strains. All were characterized at the EURL using both the EURL SOP and uHSOP. Seventy of the 114 strains were also characterized at the SSI using HSOP. The EURL SOP and uHSOP produced indistinguishable combined (ApaI/AscI) profiles for the 114 strains tested. The EURL SOP and HSOP produced indistinguishable combined profiles for 69 of the 70 strains tested. One strain displayed for the AscI profile an additional low-intensity band at 184 kbp with HSOP. For this strain, SSI and EUR Lm had already observed the same profile from NPHLs and NRLs. However, this deviation is minor as it accounted for about 1% of all the 114 combined profiles. This study should facilitate the exchange of reproducible PFGE profiles among human and food reference laboratories.

  18. Fast and Simple Detection of Yersinia pestis Applicable to Field Investigation of Plague Foci

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Stéphanie; Demeure, Christian; Lamourette, Patricia; Filali, Sofia; Plaisance, Marc; Créminon, Christophe; Volland, Hervé; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the plague bacillus, has a rodent-flea-rodent life cycle but can also persist in the environment for various periods of time. There is now a convenient and effective test (F1-dipstick) for the rapid identification of Y. pestis from human patient or rodent samples, but this test cannot be applied to environmental or flea materials because the F1 capsule is mostly produced at 37°C. The plasminogen activator (PLA), a key virulence factor encoded by a Y. pestis-specific plasmid, is synthesized both at 20°C and 37°C, making it a good candidate antigen for environmental detection of Y. pestis by immunological methods. A recombinant PLA protein from Y. pestis synthesized by an Escherichia coli strain was used to produce monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). PLA-specific mAbs devoid of cross-reactions with other homologous proteins were further cloned. A pair of mAbs was selected based on its specificity, sensitivity, comprehensiveness, and ability to react with Y. pestis strains grown at different temperatures. These antibodies were used to develop a highly sensitive one-step PLA-enzyme immunoassay (PLA-EIA) and an immunostrip (PLA-dipstick), usable as a rapid test under field conditions. These two PLA-immunometric tests could be valuable, in addition to the F1-disptick, to confirm human plague diagnosis in non-endemic areas (WHO standard case definition). They have the supplementary advantage of allowing a rapid and easy detection of Y. pestis in environmental and flea samples, and would therefore be of great value for surveillance and epidemiological investigations of plague foci. Finally, they will be able to detect natural or genetically engineered F1-negative Y. pestis strains in human patients and environmental samples. PMID:23383008

  19. Fast and simple detection of Yersinia pestis applicable to field investigation of plague foci.

    PubMed

    Simon, Stéphanie; Demeure, Christian; Lamourette, Patricia; Filali, Sofia; Plaisance, Marc; Créminon, Christophe; Volland, Hervé; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the plague bacillus, has a rodent-flea-rodent life cycle but can also persist in the environment for various periods of time. There is now a convenient and effective test (F1-dipstick) for the rapid identification of Y. pestis from human patient or rodent samples, but this test cannot be applied to environmental or flea materials because the F1 capsule is mostly produced at 37°C. The plasminogen activator (PLA), a key virulence factor encoded by a Y. pestis-specific plasmid, is synthesized both at 20°C and 37°C, making it a good candidate antigen for environmental detection of Y. pestis by immunological methods. A recombinant PLA protein from Y. pestis synthesized by an Escherichia coli strain was used to produce monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). PLA-specific mAbs devoid of cross-reactions with other homologous proteins were further cloned. A pair of mAbs was selected based on its specificity, sensitivity, comprehensiveness, and ability to react with Y. pestis strains grown at different temperatures. These antibodies were used to develop a highly sensitive one-step PLA-enzyme immunoassay (PLA-EIA) and an immunostrip (PLA-dipstick), usable as a rapid test under field conditions. These two PLA-immunometric tests could be valuable, in addition to the F1-disptick, to confirm human plague diagnosis in non-endemic areas (WHO standard case definition). They have the supplementary advantage of allowing a rapid and easy detection of Y. pestis in environmental and flea samples, and would therefore be of great value for surveillance and epidemiological investigations of plague foci. Finally, they will be able to detect natural or genetically engineered F1-negative Y. pestis strains in human patients and environmental samples.

  20. Use of Insecticide Delivery Tubes for Controlling Rodent-Associated Fleas in a Plague Endemic Region of West Nile, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Boegler, Karen A; Atiku, Linda A; Mpanga, Joseph Tendo; Clark, Rebecca J; Delorey, Mark J; Gage, Kenneth L; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2014-11-01

    Plague is a primarily flea-borne rodent-associated zoonosis that is often fatal in humans. Our study focused on the plague-endemic West Nile region of Uganda where affordable means for the prevention of human plague are currently lacking. Traditional hut construction and food storage practices hinder rodent exclusion efforts, and emphasize the need for an inexpensive but effective host-targeted approach for controlling fleas within the domestic environment. Here we demonstrate the ability of an insecticide delivery tube that is made from inexpensive locally available materials to reduce fleas on domestic rodents. Unbaited tubes were treated with either an insecticide alone (fipronil) or in conjunction with an insect growth regulator [(S)-methoprene], and placed along natural rodent runways within participant huts. Performance was similar for both treatments throughout the course of the study, and showed significant reductions in the proportion of infested rodents relative to controls for at least 100 d posttreatment. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  1. A Bivalent Anthrax–Plague Vaccine That Can Protect against Two Tier-1 Bioterror Pathogens, Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Pan; Mahalingam, Marthandan; Zhu, Jingen; Moayeri, Mahtab; Kirtley, Michelle L.; Fitts, Eric C.; Andersson, Jourdan A.; Lawrence, William S.; Leppla, Stephen H.; Chopra, Ashok K.; Rao, Venigalla B.

    2017-01-01

    Bioterrorism remains as one of the biggest challenges to global security and public health. Since the deadly anthrax attacks of 2001 in the United States, Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis, the causative agents of anthrax and plague, respectively, gained notoriety and were listed by the CDC as Tier-1 biothreat agents. Currently, there is no Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccine against either of these threats for mass vaccination to protect general public, let alone a bivalent vaccine. Here, we report the development of a single recombinant vaccine, a triple antigen consisting of all three target antigens, F1 and V from Y. pestis and PA from B. anthracis, in a structurally stable context. Properly folded and soluble, the triple antigen retained the functional and immunogenicity properties of all three antigens. Remarkably, two doses of this immunogen adjuvanted with Alhydrogel® elicited robust antibody responses in mice, rats, and rabbits and conferred complete protection against inhalational anthrax and pneumonic plague. No significant antigenic interference was observed. Furthermore, we report, for the first time, complete protection of animals against simultaneous challenge with Y. pestis and the lethal toxin of B. anthracis, demonstrating that a single biodefense vaccine can protect against a bioterror attack with weaponized B. anthracis and/or Y. pestis. This bivalent anthrax–plague vaccine is, therefore, a strong candidate for stockpiling, after demonstration of its safety and immunogenicity in human clinical trials, as part of national preparedness against two of the deadliest bioterror threats. PMID:28694806

  2. A Bivalent Anthrax-Plague Vaccine That Can Protect against Two Tier-1 Bioterror Pathogens, Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Tao, Pan; Mahalingam, Marthandan; Zhu, Jingen; Moayeri, Mahtab; Kirtley, Michelle L; Fitts, Eric C; Andersson, Jourdan A; Lawrence, William S; Leppla, Stephen H; Chopra, Ashok K; Rao, Venigalla B

    2017-01-01

    Bioterrorism remains as one of the biggest challenges to global security and public health. Since the deadly anthrax attacks of 2001 in the United States, Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis, the causative agents of anthrax and plague, respectively, gained notoriety and were listed by the CDC as Tier-1 biothreat agents. Currently, there is no Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccine against either of these threats for mass vaccination to protect general public, let alone a bivalent vaccine. Here, we report the development of a single recombinant vaccine, a triple antigen consisting of all three target antigens, F1 and V from Y. pestis and PA from B. anthracis, in a structurally stable context. Properly folded and soluble, the triple antigen retained the functional and immunogenicity properties of all three antigens. Remarkably, two doses of this immunogen adjuvanted with Alhydrogel(®) elicited robust antibody responses in mice, rats, and rabbits and conferred complete protection against inhalational anthrax and pneumonic plague. No significant antigenic interference was observed. Furthermore, we report, for the first time, complete protection of animals against simultaneous challenge with Y. pestis and the lethal toxin of B. anthracis, demonstrating that a single biodefense vaccine can protect against a bioterror attack with weaponized B. anthracis and/or Y. pestis. This bivalent anthrax-plague vaccine is, therefore, a strong candidate for stockpiling, after demonstration of its safety and immunogenicity in human clinical trials, as part of national preparedness against two of the deadliest bioterror threats.

  3. Developing a Standard Definition of Whole-Grain Foods for Dietary Recommendations: Summary Report of a Multidisciplinary Expert Roundtable Discussion12

    PubMed Central

    Ferruzzi, Mario G.; Jonnalagadda, Satya S.; Liu, Simin; Marquart, Len; McKeown, Nicola; Reicks, Marla; Riccardi, Gabriele; Seal, Chris; Slavin, Joanne; Thielecke, Frank; van der Kamp, Jan-Willem; Webb, Densie

    2014-01-01

    Although the term “whole grain” is well defined, there has been no universal standard of what constitutes a “whole-grain food,” creating challenges for researchers, the food industry, regulatory authorities, and consumers around the world. As part of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, the U.S. Dietary Guidelines Technical Advisory Committee issued a call to action to develop definitions for whole-grain foods that could be universally accepted and applied to dietary recommendations and planning. The Committee’s call to action, and the lack of a global whole-grain food definition, was the impetus for the Whole Grain Roundtable held 3–5 December 2012 in Chicago, Illinois. The objective was to develop a whole-grain food definition that is consistent with the quartet of needs of science, food product formulation, consumer behavior, and label education. The roundtable’s expert panel represented a broad range of expertise from the United States and Europe, including epidemiology and dietary intervention researchers, consumer educators, government policy makers, and food and nutrition scientists from academia and the grain food industry. Taking into account the totality, quality, and consistency of available scientific evidence, the expert panel recommended that 8 g of whole grain/30 g serving (27 g/100 g), without a fiber requirement, be considered a minimum content of whole grains that is nutritionally meaningful and that a food providing at least 8 g of whole grains/30-g serving be defined as a whole-grain food. Having an established whole-grain food definition will encourage manufacturers to produce foods with meaningful amounts of whole grain, allow consistent product labeling and messaging, and empower consumers to readily identify whole-grain foods and achieve whole-grain dietary recommendations. PMID:24618757

  4. Mortality from duck plague virus in immunosuppressed adult mallard ducks

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, D.R.; Yuill, T.M.; Burgess, E.C. )

    1990-07-01

    Environmental contaminants contain chemicals that, if ingested, could affect the immunological status of wild birds, and in particular, their resistance to infectious disease. Immunosuppression caused by environmental contaminants, could have a major impact on waterfowl populations, resulting in increased susceptibility to contagious disease agents. Duck plague virus has caused repeated outbreaks in waterfowl resulting in mortality. In this study, several doses of cyclophosphamide (CY), a known immunosuppressant, were administered to adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) to determine if a resultant decrease in resistance to a normally sub-lethal strain of duck plague virus would occur, and induce mortality in these birds. Death occurred in birds given CY only, and in birds given virus and CY, but not in those given virus only. There was significantly greater mortality and more rapid deaths in the duck plague virus-infected groups than in groups receiving only the immunosuppressant. A positively correlated dose-response effect was observed with CY mortalities, irrespective of virus exposure. A fuel oil and a crude oil, common environmental contaminants with immunosuppressive capabilities, were tested to determine if they could produce an effect similar to that of CY. Following 28 days of oral oil administration, the birds were challenged with a sub-lethal dose of duck plague virus. No alteration in resistance to the virus (as measured by mortality) was observed, except in the positive CY control group.

  5. Plague Vaccine Development: Current Research and Future Trends

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Shailendra Kumar; Tuteja, Urmil

    2016-01-01

    Plague is one of the world’s most lethal human diseases caused by Yersinia pestis, a Gram-negative bacterium. Despite overwhelming studies for many years worldwide, there is no safe and effective vaccine against this fatal disease. Inhalation of Y. pestis bacilli causes pneumonic plague, a fast growing and deadly dangerous disease. F1/LcrV-based vaccines failed to provide adequate protection in African green monkey model in spite of providing protection in mice and cynomolgus macaques. There is still no explanation for this inconsistent efficacy, and scientists leg behind to search reliable correlate assays for immune protection. These paucities are the main barriers to improve the effectiveness of plague vaccine. In the present scenario, one has to pay special attention to elicit strong cellular immune response in developing a next-generation vaccine against plague. Here, we review the scientific contributions and existing progress in developing subunit vaccines, the role of molecular adjuvants; DNA vaccines; live delivery platforms; and attenuated vaccines developed to counteract virulent strains of Y. pestis. PMID:28018363

  6. Mortality from duck plague virus in immunosuppressed adult mallard ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, D.R.; Yuill, Thomas M.; Burgess, E.C.

    1990-01-01

    Environmental contaminants contain chemicals that, if ingested, could affect the immunological status of wild birds, and in particular, their resistance to infectious disease. Immunosuppression caused by environmental contaminants, could have a major impact on waterfowl populations, resulting in increased susceptibility to contagious disease agents. Duck plague virus has caused repeated outbreaks in waterfowl resulting in mortality. In this study, several doses of cyclophosphamide (CY), a known immunosuppressant, were administered to adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) to determine if a resultant decrease in resistance to a normally sub-lethal strain of duck plague virus would occur, and induce mortality in these birds. Death occurred in birds given CY only, and in birds given virus and CY, but not in those given virus only. There was significantly greater mortality and more rapid deaths in the duck plague virus-infected groups than in groups receiving only the immunosuppressant. A positively correlated dose-response effect was observed with CY mortalities, irrespective of virus exposure. A fuel oil and a crude oil, common environmental contaminants with immunosuppressive capabilities, were tested to determine if they could produce an effect similar to that of CY. Following 28 days of oral oil administration, the birds were challenged with a sub-lethal dose of duck plague virus. No alteration in resistance to the virus (as measured by mortality) was observed, except in the positive CY control group.

  7. Shutt up: bubonic plague and quarantine in early modern England.

    PubMed

    Newman, Kira L S

    2012-01-01

    The outbreak of bubonic plague that struck London and Westminster in 1636 provoked the usual frenzied response to epidemics, including popular flight and government-mandated quarantine. The government asserted that plague control measures were acts of public health for the benefit of all. However, contrary to this government narrative of disease prevention there was a popular account that portrayed quarantine and isolation as personal punishment rather than prudent policy. In examining the 1636 outbreak on the parish as well as the individual level, reasons for this inconsistency between official and unofficial perspectives emerge. Quarantine and its effects were not classless, and its implementation was not always strictly in the name of public health. Government application of quarantine was remarkably effective, but it could never be uncontroversial both because of circumstances and because of misuse. The flight of the wealthiest from London and Westminster left only the more socially vulnerable to be quarantined. Though plague policy was financially sensitive to the poorest, it was costly to the middling sort. Another cause of controversy was the government's use of quarantine as a punishment to control individuals found breaking other laws. Though not widely publicized, popular narratives continually included grievances about the cruelty and inequity of quarantine and the militaristic nature of its implementation. Despite these objections, quarantine remained a staple of the government response to plague outbreaks throughout the seventeenth century.

  8. Changing Socioeconomic Indicators of Human Plague, New Mexico, USA

    PubMed Central

    Eisen, Rebecca J.; Kugeler, Kiersten J.; Ettestad, Paul; Reynolds, Pamela J.; Brown, Ted; Enscore, Russell E.; Cheek, James; Bueno, Rudy; Targhetta, Joseph; Montenieri, John A.; Gage, Kenneth L.

    2012-01-01

    Socioeconomic indicators associated with temporal changes in the distribution of human plague cases in New Mexico were investigated for 1976–2007. In the 1980s, cases were more likely in census block groups with poor housing conditions, but by the 2000s, cases were associated with affluent areas concentrated in the Santa Fe–Albuquerque region. PMID:22709463

  9. Changing socioeconomic indicators of human plague, New Mexico, USA.

    PubMed

    Schotthoefer, Anna M; Eisen, Rebecca J; Kugeler, Kiersten J; Ettestad, Paul; Reynolds, Pamela J; Brown, Ted; Enscore, Russell E; Cheek, James; Bueno, Rudy; Targhetta, Joseph; Montenieri, John A; Gage, Kenneth L

    2012-07-01

    Socioeconomic indicators associated with temporal changes in the distribution of human plague cases in New Mexico were investigated for 1976-2007. In the 1980s, cases were more likely in census block groups with poor housing conditions, but by the 2000s, cases were associated with affluent areas concentrated in the Santa Fe-Albuquerque region.

  10. Empirical assessment of a threshold model for sylvatic plague.

    PubMed

    Davis, S; Leirs, H; Viljugrein, H; Stenseth, N Chr; De Bruyn, L; Klassovskiy, N; Ageyev, V; Begon, M

    2007-08-22

    Plague surveillance programmes established in Kazakhstan, Central Asia, during the previous century, have generated large plague archives that have been used to parameterize an abundance threshold model for sylvatic plague in great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus) populations. Here, we assess the model using additional data from the same archives. Throughout the focus, population levels above the threshold were a necessary condition for an epizootic to occur. However, there were large numbers of occasions when an epizootic was not observed even though great gerbils were, and had been, abundant. We examine six hypotheses that could explain the resulting false positive predictions, namely (i) including end-of-outbreak data erroneously lowers the estimated threshold, (ii) too few gerbils were tested, (iii) plague becomes locally extinct, (iv) the abundance of fleas was too low, (v) the climate was unfavourable, and (vi) a high proportion of gerbils were resistant. Of these, separate thresholds, fleas and climate received some support but accounted for few false positives and can be disregarded as serious omissions from the model. Small sample size and local extinction received strong support and can account for most of the false positives. Host resistance received no support here but should be subject to more direct experimental testing.

  11. Prospective association between cancer risk and an individual dietary index based on the British Food Standards Agency Nutrient Profiling System.

    PubMed

    Donnenfeld, Mathilde; Julia, Chantal; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Méjean, Caroline; Ducrot, Pauline; Péneau, Sandrine; Deschasaux, Mélanie; Latino-Martel, Paule; Fezeu, Léopold; Hercberg, Serge; Touvier, Mathilde

    2015-11-28

    The Food Standards Agency Nutrient Profiling System (FSA-NPS) constitutes the basis for the Five-Colour Nutrition Label suggested in France to be put on the front-of-pack of food products. At the individual level, a dietary index (FSA-NPS DI) has been derived and validated and corresponds to a weighted mean of all FSA-NPS scores of foods usually consumed by the individual, reflecting the nutritional quality of his/her diet. Our aim was to investigate the association between the FSA-NPS DI and cancer risk in a large cohort. This prospective study included 6435 participants to the SUpplémentation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants cohort (1994-2007) who completed at least six 24 h dietary records during the first 2 years of follow-up. FSA-NPS DI was computed for each subject (higher values representing lower nutritional quality of the diet). After a median follow-up of 12·6 years, 453 incident cancers were diagnosed. Associations were characterised by multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. The FSA-NPS DI was directly associated with overall cancer risk (hazard ratio (HR)for a 1-point increment=1·08 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·15), P trend=0·02; HRQ5 v. Q1=1·34 (95 % CI 1·00, 1·81), P trend=0·03). This association tended to be more specifically observed in subjects with moderate energy intake (≤median, HRfor a 1-point increment=1·10 (95 % CI 1·01-1·20), P trend=0·03). No association was observed in subjects with higher energy intake (P trend=0·3). Results were not statistically significant for breast and prostate cancer risks. For the first time, this study investigated the prospective association between the FSA-NPS individual score and cancer risk. The results suggest that unhealthy food choices may be associated with a 34 % increase in overall cancer risk, supporting the public health relevance of developing front-of-pack nutrition labels based on this score.

  12. Immunogenicity and protective immunity against bubonic plague and pneumonic plague by immunization of mice with the recombinant V10 antigen, a variant of LcrV.

    PubMed

    DeBord, Kristin L; Anderson, Deborah M; Marketon, Melanie M; Overheim, Katie A; DePaolo, R William; Ciletti, Nancy A; Jabri, Bana; Schneewind, Olaf

    2006-08-01

    In contrast to Yersinia pestis LcrV, the recombinant V10 (rV10) variant (lacking residues 271 to 300) does not suppress the release of proinflammatory cytokines by immune cells. Immunization with rV10 generates robust antibody responses that protect mice against bubonic plague and pneumonic plague, suggesting that rV10 may serve as an improved plague vaccine.

  13. School lunch menus and 11 to 12 year old children's food choice in three secondary schools in England-are the nutritional standards being met?

    PubMed

    Gould, Rebecca; Russell, Jean; Barker, Margo E

    2006-01-01

    To determine if the lunchtime food provided to schoolchildren adheres to nutritional standards and to examine the influence of children's food choice on nutrient intake at lunchtime. Seventy-four children aged 11-12 years were recruited from three secondary schools. The school populations spanned a spectrum of socio-economic deprivation. Lunchtime food and nutrient intake was assessed over a 5 day period. Cross-sectional study of menu composition and children's food choice in relation to nutrient intake. Dietary recording was by an indirect weighing method of menu composition and nutrient intake over a 5 day period. Statistical analysis was carried out using general linear modelling techniques including: t-test, one-way ANOVA and ANCOVA. One school met the standards on food group provision. Intakes of total fat, saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids were greater in boys. Intake of folate was greater in girls. There were between-school differences (independent of gender) for intake of fatty acids, starch, calcium and folate, with socio-economic deprivation associated with a lesser nutrient intake. Children could have chosen meals higher in calcium, iron, folate and zinc and lower in starch and fat, from the extensive cafeteria menu of between 26 and 42 food. For some nutrients, providing 'healthier' food influences intake of those nutrients whilst for other nutrients, children's food choice predominates. The majority of children did not meet the recommended targets for lunchtime nutrient intake, especially for micronutrients. Food provision in two out of three schools did not meet government guidelines and socio-economic deprivation was associated with worse food provision. Children from deprived areas were more likely to choose those foods of limited nutritional value than those from more privileged backgrounds. The statutory nutritional standards on their own, without a pricing policy to encourage healthier food choice or restrictions in food

  14. Levofloxacin Cures Experimental Pneumonic Plague in African Green Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jacob D.; Brasel, Trevor L.; Barr, Edward B.; Gigliotti, Andrew P.; Koster, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Background Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague, is considered a potential bioweapon due to rapid lethality when delivered as an aerosol. Levofloxacin was tested for primary pneumonic plague treatment in a nonhuman primate model mimicking human disease. Methods and Results Twenty-four African Green monkeys (AGMs, Chlorocebus aethiops) were challenged via head-only aerosol inhalation with 3–145 (mean = 65) 50% lethal (LD50) doses of Y. pestis strain CO92. Telemetered body temperature >39°C initiated intravenous infusions to seven 5% dextrose controls or 17 levofloxacin treated animals. Levofloxacin was administered as a “humanized” dose regimen of alternating 8 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg 30-min infusions every 24-h, continuing until animal death or 20 total infusions, followed by 14 days of observation. Fever appeared at 53–165 h and radiographs found multilobar pneumonia in all exposed animals. All control animals died of severe pneumonic plague within five days of aerosol exposure. All 16 animals infused with levofloxacin for 10 days survived. Levofloxacin treatment abolished bacteremia within 24 h in animals with confirmed pre-infusion bacteremia, and reduced tachypnea and leukocytosis but not fever during the first 2 days of infusions. Conclusion Levofloxacin cures established pneumonic plague when treatment is initiated after the onset of fever in the lethal aerosol-challenged AGM nonhuman primate model, and can be considered for treatment of other forms of plague. Levofloxacin may also be considered for primary presumptive-use, multi-agent antibiotic in bioterrorism events prior to identification of the pathogen. PMID:21347450

  15. Need for accurate and standardized determination of amino acids and bioactive peptides for evaluating protein quality and potential health effects of foods and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Gilani, G Sarwar; Xiao, Chaowu; Lee, Nora

    2008-01-01

    Accurate standardized methods for the determination of amino acid in foods are required to assess the nutritional safety and compositional adequacy of sole source foods such as infant formulas and enteral nutritionals, and protein and amino acid supplements and their hydrolysates, and to assess protein claims of foods. Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS), which requires information on amino acid composition, is the official method for assessing protein claims of foods and supplements sold in the United States. PDCAAS has also been adopted internationally as the most suitable method for routine evaluation of protein quality of foods by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization. Standardized methods for analysis of amino acids by ion-exchange chromatography have been developed. However, there is a need to develop validated methods of amino acid analysis in foods using liquid chromatographic techniques, which have replaced ion-exchange methods for quantifying amino acids in most laboratories. Bioactive peptides from animal and plant proteins have been found to potentially impact human health. A wide range of physiological effects, including blood pressure-lowering effects, cholesterol-lowering ability, antithrombotic effects, enhancement of mineral absorption, and immunomodulatory effects have been described for bioactive peptides. There is considerable commercial interest in developing functional foods containing bioactive peptides. There is also a need to develop accurate standardized methods for the characterization (amino acid sequencing) and quantification of bioactive peptides and to carry out dose-response studies in animal models and clinical trials to assess safety, potential allergenicity, potential intolerance, and efficacy of bioactive peptides. Information from these studies is needed for determining the upper safe levels of bioactive peptides and as the basis for developing potential health claims for bioactive

  16. Pathogenicity of duck plague and innate immune responses of the Cherry Valley ducks to duck plague virus.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Hong, Tianqi; Li, Rong; Guo, Mengjiao; Wang, Yao; Zhang, Jinzhou; Liu, Jiyuan; Cai, Yumei; Liu, Sidang; Chai, Tongjie; Wei, Liangmeng

    2016-08-24

    Duck plague caused by duck plague virus (DPV) is an acute and contagious disease. To better understand the pathogenic mechanism of duck plague virus in ducklings, an infection experiment was performed. Our results showed that typical symptoms were observed in the infected ducklings. DPV could replicate quickly in many tissues, leading to pathological lesions, especially on the spleen. Real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that expression of many innate immune-related genes was mostly up-regulated in the brain, and the antiviral innate immune response was established, but not sufficient to restrict viral replication. In contrast, although the expression of many major pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) increased in the spleen, the expression of most cytokines was declined. Our study indicates that DPV is a pantropic virus that can replicate rapidly in tissues, causing serious pathological lesions but the immune responses are different in the spleen and brain. To our knowledge, this is the first report to systematically explore the expression profiles of the immune genes in the DPV-infected ducks. Our data provide a foundation for further study of the pathogenicity of duck plague.

  17. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: revised 2014 standards of professional performance for registered dietitian nutritionists in management of food and nutrition systems.

    PubMed

    Berthelsen, Rita M; Barkley, William C; Oliver, Patricia M; McLymont, Veronica; Puckett, Ruby

    2014-07-01

    Management in food and nutrition systems is presented with an ever-challenging tension between effective utilization of manpower resources, mechanical equipment, financial management, material production, and time constraints to produce optimal products. Management drives opportunities for personal development for multiple levels of its employee workforce. Given an increasing need to deliver high-quality food and services to satisfied customers, the Management in Food and Nutrition Systems Dietetic Practice Group, with guidance from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Quality Management Committee, has developed the Revised 2014 Standards of Professional Performance, which replace the 2009 Standards, as a tool for registered dietitian nutritionists working in food and nutrition systems management within health care and non-health care organizations. These Standards of Professional Performance consist of six domains of professionalism: Quality in Practice, Competence and Accountability, Provision of Services, Application of Research, Communication and Application of Knowledge, and Utilization and Management of Resources. Within each standard, specific indicators provide measurable action statements that illustrate how strong communication skills, attention to customer satisfaction, use of various resources, and application of personnel management principles can be applied to practice. The indicators describe three skill levels (ie, competent, proficient, and expert) for registered dietitian nutritionists managing food and nutrition systems.

  18. Lunchtime food and nutrient intakes of secondary-school pupils; a comparison of school lunches and packed lunches following the introduction of mandatory food-based standards for school lunch.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Jo; Wood, Lesley; Nelson, Michael

    2013-06-01

    To compare the key differences between school lunches and packed lunches as eaten in eleven secondary schools in England, 21 months after the food-based standards for school lunch became mandatory, but before the introduction of nutrient-based standards. Data on 358 school lunches and 139 packed lunches were collected in May and June 2008 from pupils attending secondary schools in Sheffield, Manchester, Leicester City and Essex. Fieldwork was conducted over five consecutive school days at each school. Fieldworkers randomly selected five pupils taking a school lunch and five pupils bringing a packed lunch each day. All food and drink items chosen by pupils were weighed and recorded. Leftovers were also weighed. Eleven state-maintained, co-educational secondary schools from four local authorities in England. Four hundred and ninety-seven pupils aged 11-16 years. Pupils taking school lunches, on average, had significantly higher intakes of energy, protein, carbohydrate, NSP, vitamin C, folate, Fe and Zn than pupils bringing a packed lunch to school. Mean intakes of protein, fat and vitamin C from both types of lunch met the nutrient-based standards and school lunches also met standards for carbohydrate, NSP and energy. Nutrient intakes from school lunches were more favourable than those from packed lunches, but typically failed to meet nutrient-based standards for school food. A combination of continued improvements to school food, educating pupils to make healthier choices and policies to encourage pupils to eat at school or bring healthier packed lunches is needed.

  19. Plague bacterium as a transformer species in prairie dogs and the grasslands of western North America.

    PubMed

    Eads, David A; Biggins, Dean E

    2015-08-01

    Invasive transformer species change the character, condition, form, or nature of ecosystems and deserve considerable attention from conservation scientists. We applied the transformer species concept to the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis in western North America, where the pathogen was introduced around 1900. Y. pestis transforms grassland ecosystems by severely depleting the abundance of prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) and thereby causing declines in native species abundance and diversity, including threatened and endangered species; altering food web connections; altering the import and export of nutrients; causing a loss of ecosystem resilience to encroaching invasive plants; and modifying prairie dog burrows. Y. pestis poses an important challenge to conservation biologists because it causes trophic-level perturbations that affect the stability of ecosystems. Unfortunately, understanding of the effects of Y. pestis on ecosystems is rudimentary, highlighting an acute need for continued research. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Ecological Opportunity, Evolution, and the Emergence of Flea-Borne Plague.

    PubMed

    Hinnebusch, B Joseph; Chouikha, Iman; Sun, Yi-Cheng

    2016-07-01

    The plague bacillus Yersinia pestis is unique among the pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae in utilizing an arthropod-borne transmission route. Transmission by fleabite is a recent evolutionary adaptation that followed the divergence of Y. pestis from the closely related food- and waterborne enteric pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis A combination of population genetics, comparative genomics, and investigations of Yersinia-flea interactions have disclosed the important steps in the evolution and emergence of Y. pestis as a flea-borne pathogen. Only a few genetic changes, representing both gene gain by lateral transfer and gene loss by loss-of-function mutation (pseudogenization), were fundamental to this process. The emergence of Y. pestis fits evolutionary theories that emphasize ecological opportunity in adaptive diversification and rapid emergence of new species. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Ecological Opportunity, Evolution, and the Emergence of Flea-Borne Plague

    PubMed Central

    Chouikha, Iman; Sun, Yi-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    The plague bacillus Yersinia pestis is unique among the pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae in utilizing an arthropod-borne transmission route. Transmission by fleabite is a recent evolutionary adaptation that followed the divergence of Y. pestis from the closely related food- and waterborne enteric pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. A combination of population genetics, comparative genomics, and investigations of Yersinia-flea interactions have disclosed the important steps in the evolution and emergence of Y. pestis as a flea-borne pathogen. Only a few genetic changes, representing both gene gain by lateral transfer and gene loss by loss-of-function mutation (pseudogenization), were fundamental to this process. The emergence of Y. pestis fits evolutionary theories that emphasize ecological opportunity in adaptive diversification and rapid emergence of new species. PMID:27160296

  2. Pet Food Palatability Evaluation: A Review of Standard Assay Techniques and Interpretation of Results with a Primary Focus on Limitations.

    PubMed

    Aldrich, Gregory C; Koppel, Kadri

    2015-01-16

    The pet food industry continues to grow steadily as a result of new innovative products. Quality control and product development tests for pet foods are typically conducted through palatability testing with dogs and cats. Palatability is the measure of intake of a food that indicates acceptance or the measure of preference of one food over another. Pet food palatability is most commonly measured using a single-bowl or a two-bowl assay. While these tests answer some questions about the animals' perception of the food, there are many limitations as well. This review addresses some of these limitations and indicates opportunities for future research.

  3. Comparative tests for detection of plague antigen and antibody in experimentally infected wild rodents.

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, A J; Hummitzsch, D E; Leman, P A; Swanepoel, R; Searle, L A

    1986-01-01

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was compared with other standard tests for detection of plague (Yersinia pestis) antibody and antigen in multimammate mice (Mastomys coucha and M. natalensis) which were experimentally infected and then killed at daily intervals postinoculation. For detection of antibody in sera from M. natalensis, the immunoglobulin G (IgG) ELISA was equivalent in sensitivity to passive hemagglutination and more sensitive than the IgM ELISA and complement fixation. Antibody was first detected on postinfection day 6 by all four tests, but IgM ELISA titers had declined to undetectable levels after 8 weeks. For detection of fraction 1 Y. pestis antigen in rodent organs, the ELISA was less sensitive than fluorescent antibody but more sensitive than complement fixation or immunodiffusion. Plague fraction 1 antigen was detected in 16 of 34 bacteremic sera from M. coucha and M. natalensis. The threshold sensitivity of the ELISA was approximately 10(5) Y. pestis per ml. PMID:3097065

  4. Typhoid fever in Fiji: a reversible plague?

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Corinne N; Kama, Mike; Acharya, Shrish; Bera, Una; Clemens, John; Crump, John A; Dawainavesi, Aggie; Dougan, Gordon; Edmunds, W John; Fox, Kimberley; Jenkins, Kylie; Khan, M Imran; Koroivueta, Josefa; Levine, Myron M; Martin, Laura B; Nilles, Eric; Pitzer, Virginia E; Singh, Shalini; Raiwalu, Ratu Vereniki; Baker, Stephen; Mulholland, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The country of Fiji, with a population of approximately 870 000 people, faces a growing burden of several communicable diseases including the bacterial infection typhoid fever. Surveillance data suggest that typhoid has become increasingly common in rural areas of Fiji and is more frequent amongst young adults. Transmission of the organisms that cause typhoid is facilitated by faecal contamination of food or water and may be influenced by local behavioural practices in Fiji. The Fijian Ministry of Health, with support from Australian Aid, hosted a meeting in August 2012 to develop comprehensive control and prevention strategies for typhoid fever in Fiji. International and local specialists were invited to share relevant data and discuss typhoid control options. The resultant recommendations focused on generating a clearer sense of the epidemiology of typhoid in Fiji and exploring the contribution of potential transmission pathways. Additionally, the panel suggested steps such as ensuring that recommended ciprofloxacin doses are appropriate to reduce the potential for relapse and reinfection in clinical cases, encouraging proper hand hygiene of food and drink handlers, working with water and sanitation agencies to review current sanitation practices and considering a vaccination policy targeting epidemiologically relevant populations. PMID:25066005

  5. Typhoid fever in Fiji: a reversible plague?

    PubMed

    Thompson, Corinne N; Kama, Mike; Acharya, Shrish; Bera, Una; Clemens, John; Crump, John A; Dawainavesi, Aggie; Dougan, Gordon; Edmunds, W John; Fox, Kimberley; Jenkins, Kylie; Khan, M Imran; Koroivueta, Josefa; Levine, Myron M; Martin, Laura B; Nilles, Eric; Pitzer, Virginia E; Singh, Shalini; Raiwalu, Ratu Vereniki; Baker, Stephen; Mulholland, Kim

    2014-10-01

    The country of Fiji, with a population of approximately 870 000 people, faces a growing burden of several communicable diseases including the bacterial infection typhoid fever. Surveillance data suggest that typhoid has become increasingly common in rural areas of Fiji and is more frequent amongst young adults. Transmission of the organisms that cause typhoid is facilitated by faecal contamination of food or water and may be influenced by local behavioural practices in Fiji. The Fijian Ministry of Health, with support from Australian Aid, hosted a meeting in August 2012 to develop comprehensive control and prevention strategies for typhoid fever in Fiji. International and local specialists were invited to share relevant data and discuss typhoid control options. The resultant recommendations focused on generating a clearer sense of the epidemiology of typhoid in Fiji and exploring the contribution of potential transmission pathways. Additionally, the panel suggested steps such as ensuring that recommended ciprofloxacin doses are appropriate to reduce the potential for relapse and reinfection in clinical cases, encouraging proper hand hygiene of food and drink handlers, working with water and sanitation agencies to review current sanitation practices and considering a vaccination policy targeting epidemiologically relevant populations. © 2014 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Quick control of bubonic plague outbreak in Uttar Kashi, India.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Veena; Rana, U V S; Jain, S K; Kumar, Kaushal; Pal, I S; Arya, R C; Ichhpujani, R L; Lal, Shiv; Agarwal, S P

    2004-12-01

    A localized outbreak of bubonic plague occurred in village Dangud (population 332), district Uttar Kashi, Uttaranchal, India in the second week of October 2004. 8 cases were considered outbreak associated based on their clinical and epidemiological characteristics; 3 (27.3%) of them died within 48 hours of developing illness. All the 3 fatal cases and five surviving cases had enlargement of inguinal lymph nodes. None of them had pneumonia. The age of the cases ranged from 23-70 years and both sexes were affected. No such illness was reported from adjoining villages. The outbreak was fully contained within two weeks of its onset by supervised comprehensive chemoprophylaxis using tetracycline. A total of approximately 1250 persons were given chemoprophylaxis in three villages. There was no clear history of rat fall in the village. No flea was found on rodents or animals. 16 animal serum samples were found to be negative for antibodies against F-1 antigen of Y. pestis. However, Y. pestis was isolated from two rodents (Rattus rattus and Mus musculus) trapped in the village. One case and three animal sera showed borderline sero-positivity against rickettsial infection. The diagnosis of plague was confirmed by detection of four fold rise of antibody titre against F-1 antigen of Yersinia pestis in paired sera of three cases (one of the WHO approved criteria of diagnosis of confirmed plague). This outbreak and the occurrence of earlier outbreaks of plague in Surat (Gujarat) and Beed (Maharashtra) in 1994 and in district Shimla (Himachal Pradesh) in 2002 confirm that plague infection continue to exist in sylvatic foci in many parts of India which is transmitted to humans occasionally. Thus, there is a strong need for the States to monitor the plague activity in known sylvatic foci regularly and have a system of surveillance to facilitate prompt diagnosis and treatment of cases to control the disease. This investigation highlights that with high index of suspicion the

  7. [The Antonine Plague and the decline of the Roman Empire].

    PubMed

    Sabbatani, S; Fiorino, S

    2009-12-01

    The Antonine Plague, which flared up during the reign of Marcus Aurelius from 165 AD and continued under the rule of his son Commodus, played such a major role that the pathocenosis in the Ancient World was changed. The spread of the epidemic was favoured by the occurrence of two military episodes in which Marcus Aurelius himself took part: the Parthian War in Mesopotamia and the wars against the Marcomanni in northeastern Italy, in Noricum and in Pannonia. Accounts of the clinical features of the epidemic are scant and disjointed, with the main source being Galen, who witnessed the plague. Unfortunately, the great physician provides us with only a brief presentation of the disease, his aim being to supply therapeutic approaches, thus passing over the accurate description of the disease symptoms. Although the reports of some clinical cases treated by Galen lead us to think that the Antonine plague was caused by smallpox, palaeopathological confirmation is lacking. Some archaeological evidence (such as terracotta finds) from Italy might reinforce this opinion. In these finds, some details can be observed, suggesting the artist's purpose to represent the classic smallpox pustules, typical signs of the disease. The extent of the epidemic has been extensively debated: the majority of authors agree that the impact of the plague was severe, influencing military conscription, the agricultural and urban economy, and depleting the coffers of the State. The Antonine plague affected ancient Roman traditions, also leaving a mark on artistic expression; a renewal of spirituality and religiousness was recorded. These events created the conditions for the spread of monotheistic religions, such as Mithraism and Christianity. This period, characterized by health, social and economic crises, paved the way for the entry into the Empire of neighbouring barbarian tribes and the recruitment of barbarian troops into the Roman army; these events particularly favoured the cultural and

  8. Pet Food Palatability Evaluation: A Review of Standard Assay Techniques and Interpretation of Results with a Primary Focus on Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Aldrich, Gregory C.; Koppel, Kadri

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Palatability of pet foods is typically measured using a single-bowl or a two-bowl test. While these tests give a general understanding of the liking or preference of one food over another, opportunities exist for further method development. Abstract The pet food industry continues to grow steadily as a result of new innovative products. Quality control and product development tests for pet foods are typically conducted through palatability testing with dogs and cats. Palatability is the measure of intake of a food that indicates acceptance or the measure of preference of one food over another. Pet food palatability is most commonly measured using a single-bowl or a two-bowl assay. While these tests answer some questions about the animals’ perception of the food, there are many limitations as well. This review addresses some of these limitations and indicates opportunities for future research. PMID:26479136

  9. Development and UFLC-MS/MS Characterization of a Product-Specific Standard for Phenolic Quantification of Maple-Derived Foods.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongqiang; Ma, Hang; Seeram, Navindra P

    2016-05-04

    The phenolic contents of plant foods are commonly quantified by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay based on gallic acid equivalents (GAEs). However, this may lead to inaccuracies because gallic acid is not always representative of the structural heterogeneity of plant phenolics. Therefore, product-specific standards have been developed for the phenolic quantification of several foods. Currently, maple-derived foods (syrup, sugar, sap/water, and extracts) are quantified for phenolic contents based on GAEs. Because lignans are the predominant phenolics present in maple, herein, a maple phenolic lignan-enriched standard (MaPLES) was purified (by chromatography) and characterized (by UFLC-MS/MS with lignans previously isolated from maple syrup). Using MaPLES and secoisolariciresinol (a commercially available lignan), the phenolic contents of the maple-derived foods increased 3-fold compared to GAEs. Therefore, lignan-based standards are more appropriate for phenolic quantification of maple-derived foods versus GAEs. Also, MaPLES can be utilized for the authentication and detection of fake label claims on maple products.

  10. Comparison of Nutrition Standards and Other Recommended Procurement Practices for Improving Institutional Food Offerings in Los Angeles County, 2010–2012123

    PubMed Central

    Robles, Brenda; Wood, Michelle; Kimmons, Joel; Kuo, Tony

    2013-01-01

    National, state, and local institutions that procure, distribute, sell, and/or serve food to employees, students, and the public are increasingly capitalizing on existing operational infrastructures to create healthier food environments. Integration of healthy nutrition standards and other recommended practices [e.g., energy (kilocalories) postings at point-of-purchase, portion size restrictions, product placement guidelines, and signage] into new or renewing food service and vending contracts codifies an institution’s commitment to increasing the availability of healthful food options in their food service venues and vending machines. These procurement requirements, in turn, have the potential to positively influence consumers’ food-purchasing behaviors. Although these strategies are becoming increasingly popular, much remains unknown about their context, the processes required to implement them effectively, and the factors that facilitate their sustainability, especially in such broad and diverse settings as schools, county government facilities, and cities. To contribute to this gap in information, we reviewed and compared nutrition standards and other best practices implemented recently in a large school district, in a large county government, and across 10 municipalities in Los Angeles County. We report lessons learned from these efforts. PMID:23493535

  11. Comparison of nutrition standards and other recommended procurement practices for improving institutional food offerings in Los Angeles County, 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Robles, Brenda; Wood, Michelle; Kimmons, Joel; Kuo, Tony

    2013-03-01

    National, state, and local institutions that procure, distribute, sell, and/or serve food to employees, students, and the public are increasingly capitalizing on existing operational infrastructures to create healthier food environments. Integration of healthy nutrition standards and other recommended practices [e.g., energy (kilocalories) postings at point-of-purchase, portion size restrictions, product placement guidelines, and signage] into new or renewing food service and vending contracts codifies an institution's commitment to increasing the availability of healthful food options in their food service venues and vending machines. These procurement requirements, in turn, have the potential to positively influence consumers' food-purchasing behaviors. Although these strategies are becoming increasingly popular, much remains unknown about their context, the processes required to implement them effectively, and the factors that facilitate their sustainability, especially in such broad and diverse settings as schools, county government facilities, and cities. To contribute to this gap in information, we reviewed and compared nutrition standards and other best practices implemented recently in a large school district, in a large county government, and across 10 municipalities in Los Angeles County. We report lessons learned from these efforts.

  12. Offsetting the Effects of Medical Expenses on Older Adults' Household Food Budgets: An Analysis of the Standard Medical Expense Deduction.

    PubMed

    Adams, Grace Bagwell; Lee, Jung Sun; Bhargava, Vibha; Super, David A

    2016-12-07

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) provides critical nutrition assistance to over 40 million Americans each month. Low-income older adults (60 and older) and disabled participants experience additional budgetary constraints because of high out-of-pocket medical expenses. In recent years, some states have adopted a "Standard Medical Expense Deduction" (SMED) for senior and disabled beneficiaries, making it easier to report medical expenses in the SNAP application process. We conduct a descriptive national analysis that shows increases in benefit levels and reporting of medical expenses for states that have implemented SMED. We then present descriptive findings from Medicare claims data among a sample of low-income older adults in need of food assistance in Georgia. Average medical expenses among this sample approach $200 per month, whereas those for persons diagnosed with multiple chronic conditions exceed $300 per month. Policy implications of this analysis include the need for more states to consider adoption of SMED or alternative estimating approaches, leading to increases in benefit levels for the neediest beneficiaries and decreases in administrative burden among state agencies. We present two possible policy approaches states might take to receive approval for these changes from U.S. Department of Agriculture.

  13. Nutrition and bone health projects funded by the UK Food Standards Agency: have they helped to inform public health policy?

    PubMed

    Ashwell, Margaret; Stone, Elaine; Mathers, John; Barnes, Stephen; Compston, Juliet; Francis, Roger M; Key, Tim; Cashman, Kevin D; Cooper, Cyrus; Khaw, Kay Tee; Lanham-New, Susan; Macdonald, Helen; Prentice, Ann; Shearer, Martin; Stephen, Alison

    2008-01-01

    The UK Food Standards Agency convened an international group of expert scientists to review the Agency-funded projects on diet and bone health in the context of developments in the field as a whole. The potential benefits of fruit and vegetables, vitamin K, early-life nutrition and vitamin D on bone health were presented and reviewed. The workshop reached two conclusions which have public health implications. First, that promoting a diet rich in fruit and vegetable intakes might be beneficial to bone health and would be very unlikely to produce adverse consequences on bone health. The mechanism(s) for any effect of fruit and vegetables remains unknown, but the results from these projects did not support the postulated acid-base balance hypothesis. Secondly, increased dietary consumption of vitamin K may contribute to bone health, possibly through its ability to increase the gamma-carboxylation status of bone proteins such as osteocalcin. A supplementation trial comparing vitamin K supplementation with Ca and vitamin D showed an additional effect of vitamin K against baseline levels of bone mineral density, but the benefit was only seen at one bone site. The major research gap identified was the need to investigate vitamin D status to define deficiency, insufficiency and depletion across age and ethnic groups in relation to bone health.

  14. Nutrition and bone health projects funded by the UK Food Standards Agency: have they helped to inform public health policy?

    PubMed Central

    Ashwell, Margaret; Stone, Elaine; Mathers, John; Barnes, Stephen; Compston, Juliet; Francis, Roger M.; Key, Tim; Cashman, Kevin D.; Cooper, Cyrus; Khaw, Kay Tee; Lanham-New, Susan; Macdonald, Helen; Prentice, Ann; Shearer, Martin; Stephen, Alison

    2009-01-01

    The UK Food Standards Agency convened an international group of expert scientists to review the Agency-funded projects on diet and bone health in the context of developments in the field as a whole. The potential benefits of fruit and vegetables, vitamin K, early-life nutrition and vitamin D on bone health were presented and reviewed. The workshop reached two conclusions which have public health implications. First, that promoting a diet rich in fruit and vegetable intakes might be beneficial to bone health and would be very unlikely to produce adverse consequences on bone health. The mechanism(s) for any effect of fruit and vegetables remains unknown, but the results from these projects did not support the postulated acid–base balance hypothesis. Secondly, increased dietary consumption of vitamin K may contribute to bone health, possibly through its ability to increase the γ-carboxylation status of bone proteins such as osteocalcin. A supplementation trial comparing vitamin K supplementation with Ca and vitamin D showed an additional effect of vitamin K against baseline levels of bone mineral density, but the benefit was only seen at one bone site. The major research gap identified was the need to investigate vitamin D status to define deficiency, insufficiency and depletion across age and ethnic groups in relation to bone health. PMID:18086331

  15. Peer-led approaches to dietary change: report of the Food Standards Agency seminar held on 19 July 2006.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Sigrid

    2007-10-01

    To summarise the discussions of a seminar on peer-led approaches to dietary change held at the Food Standards Agency (FSA) on 19 July 2006. Following presentations on three FSA-commissioned research projects involving peer-led dietary interventions, discussions in small workshop groups identified learning points for researchers, policy-makers and practitioners and considered how the findings of such studies can be effectively communicated to each of these groups. The target groups in the three separate projects were: older people living in sheltered accommodation; mothers and babies during the weaning period; and people with diabetes. The projects discussed here were quite different from one another, involving three separate populations, having different aims and approaches and different styles of peer leading. Their effectiveness in achieving quantitative dietary change was disappointing. However, results for some of the qualitative outcomes (social, psychological, behavioural) were more positive. Process evaluation, whether built in or post hoc, provided useful learning to inform future projects and potentially improve their effectiveness and usefulness for researchers, policy-makers and health promotion practitioners. The projects discussed here showed that peer-led interventions can achieve positive changes in outcomes such as knowledge, confidence and attitudes, as well as small improvements in diet. They also demonstrated that there is a need for a more sophisticated analysis of peer-led interventions that recognises the diversity of approaches and their suitability in different situations.

  16. Predicting small mammal and flea abundance using landform and soil properties in a plague endemic area in Lushoto District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Meliyo, Joel L; Kimaro, Didas N; Msanya, Balthazar M; Mulungu, Loth S; Hieronimo, Proches; Kihupi, Nganga I; Gulinck, Hubert; Deckers, Jozef A

    2014-07-01

    Small mammals particularly rodents, are considered the primary natural hosts of plague. Literature suggests that plague persistence in natural foci has a root cause in soils. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between on the one hand landforms and associated soil properties, and on the other hand small mammals and fleas in West Usambara Mountains in Tanzania, a plague endemic area. Standard field survey methods coupled with Geographical Information System (GIS) technique were used to examine landform and soils characteristics. Soil samples were analysed in the laboratory for physico-chemical properties. Small mammals were trapped on pre-established landform positions and identified to genus/species level. Fleas were removed from the trapped small mammals and counted. Exploration of landform and soil data was done using ArcGIS Toolbox functions and descriptive statistical analysis. The relationships between landforms, soils, small mammals and fleas were established by generalised linear regression model (GLM) operated in R statistics software. Results show that landforms and soils influence the abundance of small mammals and fleas and their spatial distribution. The abundance of small mammals and fleas increased with increase in elevation. Small mammal species richness also increases with elevation. A landform-soil model shows that available phosphorus, slope aspect and elevation were statistically significant predictors explaining richness and abundance of small mammals. Fleas' abundance and spatial distribution were influenced by hill-shade, available phosphorus and base saturation. The study suggests that landforms and soils have a strong influence on the richness and evenness of small mammals and their fleas' abundance hence could be used to explain plague dynamics in the area.

  17. Plague, pox and the physician in Aberdeen, 1495-1516.

    PubMed

    Jillings, K

    2010-03-01

    This article discusses responses to disease in Aberdeen during a formative period in the provision of healthcare within the city. The foundation of King's College was followed, in 1497, by the establishment of the first royally endowed university Chair of Medicine in the British Isles, and its first incumbent, James Cumming, was employed by the local government as the first city doctor in 1503. His appointment had been preceded in 1497 by another legislative innovation in Aberdeen, when its council became the first civic body in the British Isles to implement regulations against the threat of the Great Pox (usually considered to be syphilis). It had subsequently to pass measures to prevent the spread of plague to the city, and these were typical of those already imposed elsewhere in Scotland and on the continent. Their apparent success in staving off plague lasted until 1514, when the city was struck by a severe outbreak which lasted two years.

  18. [Use of nested PCR in detection of the plague pathogen].

    PubMed

    Glukhov, A I; Gordeev, S A; Al'tshuler, M L; Zykova, I E; Severin, S E

    2003-07-01

    Causative agents of plague, i.e. bacterium Yersina pestis (in the subcutaneous tissues of rodents) and their cutaneous parasites need to be isolated to enable plague prevention. A comparatively new method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) opens up new possibilities of determining Y. pestis just within several hours and without any cultivation. The article contains a description of the PCR-method, which makes it possible to distinguish the culture of Y. pestis from cultures of other microorganism, including speci of Yersina. The method is of the cluster-type, i.e. it is made up of subsequent PC reactions with the substrate for the second reaction being the product of the first one. The cluster nature of the method preconditions a higher sensitivity and specificity versus the ordinary PCR.

  19. "When Does It Stop Being Peanut Butter?": FDA Food Standards of Identity, Ruth Desmond, and the Shifting Politics of Consumer Activism, 1960s-1970s.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Angie M

    2016-01-01

    This article uses a historical controversy over the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's standard of identity for peanut butter as a site for investigating three topics of high importance for historians of technology, consumption, and food activism: how new industrial food-processing technologies have become regulatory problems; how government, industry, and consumer actors negotiate standards development; and how laypeople try to shape technological artifacts in spaces dominated by experts. It examines the trajectory of consumer activist Ruth Desmond, co-founder of the organization the Federation of Homemakers. By following Desmond's evolving strategies, the article shows how the broader currents of the 1960s-70s consumer movement played out in a particular case. Initially Desmond used a traditional style that heavily emphasized her gendered identity, working within a grassroots organization to promote legislative and regulatory reforms. Later, she moved to a more modern advocacy approach, using adversarial legal methods to fight for consumer protections.

  20. Sylvatic plague vaccine: A new tool for conservation of threatened and endangered species?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, Rachel C.; Osorio, Jorge E.; Bunck, Christine M.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2012-01-01

    Plague, a disease caused by Yersinia pestis introduced into North America about 100 years ago, is devastating to prairie dogs and the highly endangered black-footed ferret. Current attempts to control plague in these species have historically relied on insecticidal dusting of prairie dog burrows to kill the fleas that spread the disease. Although successful in curtailing outbreaks in most instances, this method of plague control has significant limitations. Alternative approaches to plague management are being tested, including vaccination. Currently, all black-footed ferret kits released for reintroduction are vaccinated against plague with an injectable protein vaccine, and even wild-born kits are captured and vaccinated at some locations. In addition, a novel, virally vectored, oral vaccine to prevent plague in wild prairie dogs has been developed and will soon be tested as an alternative, preemptive management tool. If demonstrated to be successful, oral vaccination of selected prairie dog populations could decrease the occurrence of plague epizootics in key locations, thereby reducing the source of bacteria while avoiding the indiscriminate environmental effects of dusting. Just as rabies in wild carnivores has largely been controlled through an active surveillance and oral vaccination program, we believe an integrated plague management strategy would be similarly enhanced with the addition of a cost-effective, bait-delivered, sylvatic plague vaccine for prairie dogs. Control of plague in prairie dogs, and potentially other rodents, would significantly advance prairie dog conservation and black-footed ferret recovery.

  1. Sylvatic plague vaccine: a new tool for conservation of threatened and endangered species?

    PubMed

    Abbott, Rachel C; Osorio, Jorge E; Bunck, Christine M; Rocke, Tonie E

    2012-09-01

    Plague, a disease caused by Yersinia pestis introduced into North America about 100 years ago, is devastating to prairie dogs and the highly endangered black-footed ferret. Current attempts to control plague in these species have historically relied on insecticidal dusting of prairie dog burrows to kill the fleas that spread the disease. Although successful in curtailing outbreaks in most instances, this method of plague control has significant limitations. Alternative approaches to plague management are being tested, including vaccination. Currently, all black-footed ferret kits released for reintroduction are vaccinated against plague with an injectable protein vaccine, and even wild-born kits are captured and vaccinated at some locations. In addition, a novel, virally vectored, oral vaccine to prevent plague in wild prairie dogs has been developed and will soon be tested as an alternative, preemptive management tool. If demonstrated to be successful, oral vaccination of selected prairie dog populations could decrease the occurrence of plague epizootics in key locations, thereby reducing the source of bacteria while avoiding the indiscriminate environmental effects of dusting. Just as rabies in wild carnivores has largely been controlled through an active surveillance and oral vaccination program, we believe an integrated plague management strategy would be similarly enhanced with the addition of a cost-effective, bait-delivered, sylvatic plague vaccine for prairie dogs. Control of plague in prairie dogs, and potentially other rodents, would significantly advance prairie dog conservation and black-footed ferret recovery.

  2. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Standards of professional performance for Registered Dietitian Nutritionists (Competent, Proficient, and Expert) in Sustainable, Resilient, and Healthy Food and Water Systems.

    PubMed

    Tagtow, Angie; Robien, Kim; Bergquist, Erin; Bruening, Meg; Dierks, Lisa; Hartman, Barbara E; Robinson-O'Brien, Ramona; Steinitz, Tamara; Tahsin, Bettina; Underwood, Teri; Wilkins, Jennifer

    2014-03-01

    Sustainability is the ability of a system to be maintained over the long term. Resilience is the ability of a system to withstand disturbances and continue to function in a sustainable manner. Issues of sustainability and resilience apply to all aspects of nutrition and dietetics practice, can be practiced at both the program and systems level, and are broader than any one specific practice setting or individual intervention. Given an increasing need to apply principles of sustainability and resilience to nutrition and dietetics practice, as well as growing interest among the public and by Registered Dietitian Nutritionists of health issues related to food and water systems, the Hunger and Environmental Nutrition Dietetic Practice Group, with guidance from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Quality Management Committee, has developed the Standards of Professional Performance as a tool for Registered Dietitian Nutritionists working in sustainable, resilient, and healthy food and water systems to assess their current skill levels and to identify areas for further professional development in this emerging practice area. This Standards of Professional Performance document covers six standards of professional performance: quality in practice, competence and accountability, provision of services, application of research, communication and application of knowledge, and utilization and management of resources. Within each standard, specific indicators provide measurable action statements that illustrate how sustainable, resilient, and healthy food and water systems principles can be applied to practice. The indicators describe three skill levels (competent, proficient, and expert) for Registered Dietitian Nutritionists working in sustainable, resilient, and healthy food and water systems.

  3. Testing the generality of a trophic-cascade model for plague

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collinge, S.K.; Johnson, W.C.; Ray, C.; Matchett, R.; Grensten, J.; Cully, J.F.; Gage, K.L.; Kosoy, M.Y.; Loye, J.E.; Martin, A.P.

    2005-01-01

    Climate may affect the dynamics of infectious diseases by shifting pathogen, vector, or host species abundance, population dynamics, or community interactions. Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are highly susceptible to plague, yet little is known about factors that influence the dynamics of plague epizootics in prairie dogs. We investigated temporal patterns of plague occurrence in black-tailed prairie dogs to assess the generality of links between climate and plague occurrence found in previous analyses of human plague cases. We examined long-term data on climate and plague occurrence in prairie dog colonies within two study areas. Multiple regression analyses revealed that plague occurrence in prairie dogs was not associated with climatic variables in our Colorado study area. In contrast, plague occurrence was strongly associated with climatic variables in our Montana study area. The models with most support included a positive association with precipitation in April-July of the previous year, in addition to a positive association with the number of "warm" days and a negative association with the number of "hot" days in the same year as reported plague events. We conclude that the timing and magnitude of precipitation and temperature may affect plague occurrence in some geographic areas. The best climatic predictors of plague occurrence in prairie dogs within our Montana study area are quite similar to the best climatic predictors of human plague cases in the southwestern United States. This correspondence across regions and species suggests support for a (temperature-modulated) trophic-cascade model for plague, including climatic effects on rodent abundance, flea abundance, and pathogen transmission, at least in regions that experience strong climatic signals. ?? 2005 EcoHealth Journal Consortium.

  4. A non-stationary relationship between global climate phenomena and human plague incidence in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Kreppel, Katharina S; Caminade, Cyril; Telfer, Sandra; Rajerison, Minoarison; Rahalison, Lila; Morse, Andy; Baylis, Matthew

    2014-10-01

    Plague, a zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis, is found in Asia and the Americas, but predominantly in Africa, with the island of Madagascar reporting almost one third of human cases worldwide. Plague's occurrence is affected by local climate factors which in turn are influenced by large-scale climate phenomena such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The effects of ENSO on regional climate are often enhanced or reduced by a second large-scale climate phenomenon, the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). It is known that ENSO and the IOD interact as drivers of disease. Yet the impacts of these phenomena in driving plague dynamics via their effect on regional climate, and specifically contributing to the foci of transmission on Madagascar, are unknown. Here we present the first analysis of the effects of ENSO and IOD on plague in Madagascar. We use a forty-eight year monthly time-series of reported human plague cases from 1960 to 2008. Using wavelet analysis, we show that over the last fifty years there have been complex non-stationary associations between ENSO/IOD and the dynamics of plague in Madagascar. We demonstrate that ENSO and IOD influence temperature in Madagascar and that temperature and plague cycles are associated. The effects on plague appear to be mediated more by temperature, but precipitation also undoubtedly influences plague in Madagascar. Our results confirm a relationship between plague anomalies and an increase in the intensity of ENSO events and precipitation. This work widens the understanding of how climate factors acting over different temporal scales can combine to drive local disease dynamics. Given the association of increasing ENSO strength and plague anomalies in Madagascar it may in future be possible to forecast plague outbreaks in Madagascar. The study gives insight into the complex and changing relationship between climate factors and plague in Madagascar.

  5. A Non-Stationary Relationship between Global Climate Phenomena and Human Plague Incidence in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Kreppel, Katharina S.; Caminade, Cyril; Telfer, Sandra; Rajerison, Minoarison; Rahalison, Lila; Morse, Andy; Baylis, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Background Plague, a zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis, is found in Asia and the Americas, but predominantly in Africa, with the island of Madagascar reporting almost one third of human cases worldwide. Plague's occurrence is affected by local climate factors which in turn are influenced by large-scale climate phenomena such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The effects of ENSO on regional climate are often enhanced or reduced by a second large-scale climate phenomenon, the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). It is known that ENSO and the IOD interact as drivers of disease. Yet the impacts of these phenomena in driving plague dynamics via their effect on regional climate, and specifically contributing to the foci of transmission on Madagascar, are unknown. Here we present the first analysis of the effects of ENSO and IOD on plague in Madagascar. Methodology/principal findings We use a forty-eight year monthly time-series of reported human plague cases from 1960 to 2008. Using wavelet analysis, we show that over the last fifty years there have been complex non-stationary associations between ENSO/IOD and the dynamics of plague in Madagascar. We demonstrate that ENSO and IOD influence temperature in Madagascar and that temperature and plague cycles are associated. The effects on plague appear to be mediated more by temperature, but precipitation also undoubtedly influences plague in Madagascar. Our results confirm a relationship between plague anomalies and an increase in the intensity of ENSO events and precipitation. Conclusions/significance This work widens the understanding of how climate factors acting over different temporal scales can combine to drive local disease dynamics. Given the association of increasing ENSO strength and plague anomalies in Madagascar it may in future be possible to forecast plague outbreaks in Madagascar. The study gives insight into the complex and changing relationship between climate factors and plague in Madagascar. PMID

  6. Human bubonic plague transmitted by a domestic cat scratch.

    PubMed

    Weniger, B G; Warren, A J; Forseth, V; Shipps, G W; Creelman, T; Gorton, J; Barnes, A M

    1984-02-17

    Bubonic plague was transmitted to a 10-year-old girl in Oregon by a scratch wound inflicted by a domestic cat. The cat probably was infected by contact with infected wild rodents or their fleas. Yersinia pestis was identified in Diamanus montanus fleas collected from an abandoned burrow near the patient's home. Domestic cats may infect humans with Y pestis by inoculation from a scratch.

  7. Microevolution and History of the Plague Bacillus, Yersinia pestis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    recognized by the three methods, and we propose an evolutionary tree for these populations, rooted on Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. The tree in- vokes...were recognized by the three methods, and we propose an evolutionary tree for these populations, rooted on Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. The tree invokes...Microevolution and history of the plague bacillus, Yersinia pestis Mark Achtman*†, Giovanna Morelli*, Peixuan Zhu*‡, Thierry Wirth*§, Ines Diehl

  8. Enhancing the Immune Response to Recombinant Plague Antigens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    CONTRACT NUMBER Enhancing the Immune Response to Recombinant Plague Antigens 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-02-2-0058 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...mally integrated copy of the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen gene protects mice against an anthrax spore challenge. Infect Im- mun 2003;71(7):3831...multiplying the empirically determined aerosol exposure concentration (CFU/liter air) in the chamber by the amount of air that was estimated to have been

  9. Ancient Egyptian doctors and the nature of the biblical plagues.

    PubMed

    Trevisanato, Siro Igino

    2005-01-01

    Paragraph 55 of the London Medical Papyrus describes burns derived from red waters and which later became infected with larvae in the wounds. The prescribed treatment for the burn is unusual as it calls for no rinsing and requires bandaging with alkaline materials only. Refraining from washing in the Nile (the single most readily available source of water in ancient Egypt), and the use of alkali-neutralizing agents indicates that the red caustic waters came from the river, and were acid in nature. A red, acid Nile is consistent with the first biblical plague of Egypt, which killed fish, and kept people from drinking from the river. In turn, the sulfate-laced waters of the medical document also offer a plausible insight into the subsequent biblical plagues. Amphibians would have stayed away from the deadly river, left to die on the banks, just as described in the second biblical plague. Similarly, the larvae in the wounds mentioned by the medical document re-echo the third and fourth biblical plagues: the kînnîm invertebrates and the subsequent 'arob (varied insects) are consistent with larvae and the subsequent adults thereof. In pre-industrial Ancient Egypt, sulfates from a massive volcanic fall out provide the simplest and most exhaustive origin for such waters. A massive precipitation that would account for the waters in the medical document and the biblical texts is known from sediments at the bottom of lakes along the Nile Delta. The site is downwind from the island of Santorini, and the deposit of volcanic ashes took place during the Middle Bronze Age, i.e. at a time consistent with the eruption at the Greek volcanic island.

  10. Privet is a plague: You can help stop it

    Treesearch

    James H. Miller; Tim Albritton

    2004-01-01

    Have you noticed how privet appears to be exploding across the landscape? Privet is that rampant small-leaved shrub that stays green in winter and can be seen along many fencerows and forest edges, as well as invading interior forests. What at one time was considered the staple farm house shrub is now completely out of control. It has become a plague. In fact, it is...

  11. The Acridian plagues, a new Holocene and Pleistocene palaeoclimatic indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meco, Joaquín; Petit-Maire, Nicole; Ballester, Javier; Betancort, Juan F.; Ramos, Antonio J. G.

    2010-07-01

    Five palaeosols, intercalated within the Quaternary dune beds of Fuerteventura and Lanzarote (Canary Islands), off the Moroccan coast, mark wetter climatic episodes. In all of them, billions of calcified insect ootheca testify to past occurrences of Acridian plagues, such as those reaching the western Sahara following heavy rainfall events over the Sahel. The most massive infestation is in the Holocene, and should coincide with the climax of Saharo-Sahelian humidity at the peak of the present interglacial.

  12. Plague: the dreadful visitation occupying the human mind for centuries.

    PubMed

    Khan, Iqbal Akhtar

    2004-05-01

    Plague is one of mankind's greatest scourges, which has swept away millions of people over the centuries. The first available record of the occurrence of this calamity, in humans, is from the Bible, in 1000 bc, in the city of Ashdod. The first definitely identified pandemic originated in Egypt in ad 542 (the Justinian Plague) and is estimated to have caused 100 million deaths. The second one, lasting for three centuries and claiming over 25 million lives appeared in 1334 in China spreading to many spots on the globe. The third pandemic occurred in Europe from the fifteenth to eighteenth century. The current pandemic began around 1860, in the Chinese province Yunnan; it reached Hong Kong in 1894 killing 100 000 individuals. Within 20 years the disease spread from southern Chinese ports throughout the world resulting in more than 10 million deaths. Since the discovery of the causative agent in 1894, there have been remarkable advancements in immunoprophylaxis and chemoprophylaxis. However, the disease is still active in Africa, in Asia and in Americas and has been classified as a currently re-emerging disease. A 'Plague-free World' will probably remain a dream for an indefinite period.

  13. Puerto Cabello and the Bubonic Plague epidemic (1903-1908).

    PubMed

    Merida, M T

    1999-12-01

    Epidemics have a social-economic character which affect certain historic periods. The Bubonic Plague, known as the Black Death, in the Middle Ages, caused the deaths of a quarter of Europe's population. The last plague epidemic originated in China, in the year 1893, and then spread to Europe at the end of the century. The French port of Marseille, in 1903, was the open door to the American Continent, the plague being detected in Panama in 1905 and officially recognised by Cipriano Castro's Government in 1908. The Venezuelan epidemic occurred during the Liberal Restoration Period. It was met by the Sanitary Authorities with a vision of 'medical positivism'. In our present research, we analyze the importance of Puerto Cabello, together with La Guaira and Cumana, the ports of arrival for the major quanity of European imports by steamships during 1903-1908. The sanitary strategy of medical health advisors and the nonfulfilment of proposed rules within the framework of the crisis of the Venezuelan Liberalism allowed the illness to enter and spread.

  14. Plague foci in Viet Nam: zoological and parasitological aspects.

    PubMed

    Suntsov, V V; Huong, L T; Suntsova, N I; Gratz, N G

    1997-01-01

    Reported are the results of studies over the period 1989-94 on host-flea complexes in small mammals and their flea ectoparasites in and around a number of human settlements in Viet Nam in which human cases of plague had been found. Collections were also made in savanna and tropical forest areas within a 10-km radius of the settlements. The greatest numbers of small mammals, for the most part Rattus spp., and of the flea ectoparasite Xenopsylla cheopis were found in inhabited areas. X. cheopis was not found on any feral or sylvan mammal further than 0.6 km from settlements. A possible link between wild and commensal mammals may be provided by the flea Lentistivalius klossi, a specific parasite of squirrels and tree-shrews but also found in very small numbers on commensal rats. No zoonotic foci of plague were found in the immediate vicinity of the villages studied and it is most likely that plague persists in a commensal rat-X. cheopis cycle in and around human settlements in Viet Nam.

  15. The Eleventh Plague: The Politics of Biological and Chemical Warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovac, Jeffrey

    1997-07-01

    Leonard A. Cole. W. H. Freeman: New York, 1997. 250 pp. ISBN 0-7167-2950-4. $22.95 hc. The Eleventh Plague begins with a recitation of the ten plagues brought down upon Egypt, part of the Passover Seder celebrated each spring by Jews all over the world. Spring is also the anniversary of the first use of chemical weapons. On April 22, 1915, German soldiers released chlorine gas from 5,739 cylinders installed along the battle line at Ypres in southeastern Belgium. Germany achieved complete surprise. The gas drifted across no man's land, causing widespread terror and creating ten thousand serious casualties and five thousand deaths. Chlorine, of course, was a poor weapon, easily neutralized, but German scientists, including future Nobel laureates Fritz Haber, Otto Hahn, and James Franck, and the German chemical industry created ever more dangerous chemical weapons, culminating with the introduction of mustard gas in 1917. Despite cries of moral outrage, the Allies countered with their own chemical weapons efforts. The eleventh plague had been unleashed.

  16. The concept of quarantine in history: from plague to SARS.

    PubMed

    Gensini, Gian Franco; Yacoub, Magdi H; Conti, Andrea A

    2004-11-01

    The concept of 'quarantine' is embedded in health practices, attracting heightened interest during episodes of epidemics. The term is strictly related to plague and dates back to 1377, when the Rector of the seaport of Ragusa (then belonging to the Venetian Republic) officially issued a 30-day isolation period for ships, that became 40 days for land travellers. During the next 100 years similar laws were introduced in Italian and in French ports, and they gradually acquired other connotations with respect to their original implementation. Measures analogous to those employed against the plague have been adopted to fight against the disease termed the Great White Plague, i.e. tuberculosis, and in recent times various countries have set up official entities for the identification and control of infections. Even more recently (2003) the proposal of the constitution of a new European monitoring, regulatory and research institution has been made, since the already available system of surveillance has found an enormous challenge in the global emergency of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). In the absence of a targeted vaccine, general preventive interventions have to be relied upon, including high healthcare surveillance and public information. Quarantine has, therefore, had a rebound of celebrity and updated evidence strongly suggests that its basic concept is still fully valid.

  17. UK Food Standards Agency Workshop Report: an investigation of the relative contributions of diet and sunlight to vitamin D status.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, Margaret; Stone, Elaine M; Stolte, Heiko; Cashman, Kevin D; Macdonald, Helen; Lanham-New, Susan; Hiom, Sara; Webb, Ann; Fraser, David

    2010-08-01

    The UK Food Standards Agency (FSA) convened an international group of scientific experts to review three Agency-funded projects commissioned to provide evidence for the relative contributions of two sources, dietary vitamin D intake and skin exposure to UVB rays from sunlight, to vitamin D status. This review and other emerging evidence are intended to inform any future risk assessment undertaken by the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition. Evidence was presented from randomised controlled trials to quantify the amount of vitamin D required to maintain a serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD) concentration >25 nmol/l, a threshold that is regarded internationally as defining the risk of rickets and osteomalacia. Longitudinal evidence was also provided on summer sunlight exposure required to maintain 25OHD levels above this threshold in people living in the British Isles (latitude 51 degrees-57 degrees N). Data obtained from multi-level modelling of these longitudinal datasets showed that UVB exposure (i.e. season) was the major contributor to changes in 25OHD levels; this was a consistent finding in two Caucasian groups in the north and south of the UK, but was less apparent in the one group of British women of South Asian origin living in the south of the UK. The FSA-funded research suggested that the typical daily intake of vitamin D from food contributed less than UVB exposure to average year-round 25OHD levels in both Caucasian and Asian women. The low vitamin D status of Asian women has been acknowledged for some time, but the limited seasonal variation in Asian women is a novel finding. The Workshop also considered the dilemma of balancing the risks of vitamin D deficiency (from lack of skin exposure to sunlight in summer) and skin cancer (from excessive exposure to sunlight with concomitant sunburn and erythema). Cancer Research UK advises that individuals should stay below their personal sunburn threshold to minimise their skin cancer risk. The evidence

  18. Marine Corps Shelterized Expeditionary Food Service System. Marine Corps ISO (International Organization for Standardization) Galley and Sanitation Unit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    Tray Pack Lifters 4 Can Opener Edlund Model 1-R 4 Pan, Baking & Roasting NSN 7330-00-634-4494 8 Board, Food Slicing & Chopping NSN 7330-00-078-5706 3... plans to support from a single unit. The food service goal is to provide these men with three A Ration meals per day and to serve these meals on reusable...CORPS SHELTERIZED EXPEDITIONARY FOOD Technical Report SERVICE SYSTEM MARINE CORPS ISO GALLEY AND SANITATION UNIT 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER

  19. Identification of Chinese plague foci from long-term epidemiological data

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Ari, Tamara; Neerinckx, Simon; Agier, Lydiane; Cazelles, Bernard; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Zhibin; Fang, Xiye; Wang, Shuchun; Liu, Qiyong; Stenseth, Nils C.

    2012-01-01

    Carrying out statistical analysis over an extensive dataset of human plague reports in Chinese villages from 1772 to 1964, we identified plague endemic territories in China (i.e., plague foci). Analyses rely on (i) a clustering method that groups time series based on their time-frequency resemblances and (ii) an ecological niche model that helps identify plague suitable territories characterized by value ranges for a set of predefined environmental variables. Results from both statistical tools indicate the existence of two disconnected plague territories corresponding to Northern and Southern China. Altogether, at least four well defined independent foci are identified. Their contours compare favorably with field observations. Potential and limitations of inferring plague foci and dynamics using epidemiological data is discussed. PMID:22570501

  20. Vaccines for Conservation: Plague, Prairie Dogs & Black-Footed Ferrets as a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Salkeld, Daniel J

    2017-09-06

    The endangered black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) is affected by plague, caused by Yersinia pestis, both directly, as a cause of mortality, and indirectly, because of the impacts of plague on its prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) prey base. Recent developments in vaccines and vaccine delivery have raised the possibility of plague control in prairie dog populations, thereby protecting ferret populations. A large-scale experimental investigation across the western US shows that sylvatic plague vaccine delivered in oral baits can increase prairie dog survival. In northern Colorado, an examination of the efficacy of insecticides to control fleas and plague vaccine shows that timing and method of plague control is important, with different implications for long-term and large-scale management of Y. pestis delivery. In both cases, the studies show that ambitious field-work and cross-sectoral collaboration can provide potential solutions to difficult issues of wildlife management, conservation and disease ecology.

  1. Identification of Chinese plague foci from long-term epidemiological data.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ari, Tamara; Neerinckx, Simon; Agier, Lydiane; Cazelles, Bernard; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Zhibin; Fang, Xiye; Wang, Shuchun; Liu, Qiyong; Stenseth, Nils C

    2012-05-22

    Carrying out statistical analysis over an extensive dataset of human plague reports in Chinese villages from 1772 to 1964, we identified plague endemic territories in China (i.e., plague foci). Analyses rely on (i) a clustering method that groups time series based on their time-frequency resemblances and (ii) an ecological niche model that helps identify plague suitable territories characterized by value ranges for a set of predefined environmental variables. Results from both statistical tools indicate the existence of two disconnected plague territories corresponding to Northern and Southern China. Altogether, at least four well defined independent foci are identified. Their contours compare favorably with field observations. Potential and limitations of inferring plague foci and dynamics using epidemiological data is discussed.

  2. Comparison of the hydrophobic grid-membrane filter DNA probe method and the Health Protection Branch standard method for the detection of Listeria monocytogenes in foods.

    PubMed

    Yan, W; Malik, M N; Peterkin, P I; Sharpe, A N

    1996-07-01

    The standard Health Protection Branch (HPB) method for the detection of L. monocytogenes in foods involves lengthy enrichment, selection and biochemical testing, requiring up to 8 days to complete. A hydrophobic grid-membrane filter (HGMF) method employing a digoxigenin-labelled listeriolysin O probe required 5 days to complete, and included an image-analysis system for electronic data acquisition. A total of 200 food samples encompassing 8 high-risk food groups (soft and semi-soft cheeses, packaged raw vegetables, frozen cooked shrimp, ground poultry, ground pork, ground beef, jellied meats, and pâté) were screened for the presence of L. monocytogenes by the two methods. Overall, 32 (16%) and 30 (15%) of the naturally-contaminated food samples tested positive for L. monocytogenes by the HPB and DNA methods, respectively. The DNA probe method was highly specific in discriminating L. monocytogenes from other Listeria spp. present in 50 of the samples tested. Results showed 94% sensitivity and 100% specificity between the two methods. The HGMF DNA probe method is an efficient and reliable alternative to the HPB standard method for detecting L. monocytogenes in foods.

  3. Identification of duck plague virus by polymerase chain reaction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, W.R.; Brown, Sean E.; Nashold, S.W.; Knudson, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for detecting duck plague virus. A 765-bp EcoRI fragment cloned from the genome of the duck plague vaccine (DP-VAC) virus was sequenced for PCR primer development. The fragment sequence was found by GenBank alignment searches to be similar to the 3a?? ends of an undefined open reading frame and the gene for DNA polymerase protein in other herpesviruses. Three of four primer sets were found to be specific for the DP-VAC virus and 100% (7/7) of field isolates but did not amplify DNA from inclusion body disease of cranes virus. The specificity of one primer set was tested with genome templates from other avian herpesviruses, including those from a golden eagle, bald eagle, great horned owl, snowy owl, peregrine falcon, prairie falcon, pigeon, psittacine, and chicken (infectious laryngotracheitis), but amplicons were not produced. Hence, this PCR test is highly specific for duck plague virus DNA. Two primer sets were able to detect 1 fg of DNA from the duck plague vaccine strain, equivalent to five genome copies. In addition, the ratio of tissue culture infectious doses to genome copies of duck plague vaccine virus from infected duck embryo cells was determined to be 1:100, making the PCR assay 20 times more sensitive than tissue culture for detecting duck plague virus. The speed, sensitivity, and specificity of this PCR provide a greatly improved diagnostic and research tool for studying the epizootiology of duck plague. /// Se desarroll?? una prueba de reacci??n en cadena por la polimerasa para detectar el virus de la peste del pato. Un fragmento EcoRI de 765 pares de bases clonado del genoma del virus vacunal de la peste del pato fue secuenciado para la obtenci??n de los iniciadores de la prueba de la reacci??n en cadena por la polimerasa. En investigaciones de alineaci??n en el banco de genes ('GenBank') se encontr?? que la secuencia del fragmento era similar a los extremos 3a?? de un marco de lectura abierto

  4. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy introduced into the International Standard Organization (ISO) regulations as an alternative method for detection and identification of pathogens in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Witkowska, Evelin; Korsak, Dorota; Kowalska, Aneta; Księżopolska-Gocalska, Monika; Niedziółka-Jönsson, Joanna; Roźniecka, Ewa; Michałowicz, Weronika; Albrycht, Paweł; Podrażka, Marta; Hołyst, Robert; Waluk, Jacek; Kamińska, Agnieszka

    2017-02-01

    We show that surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) coupled with principal component analysis (PCA) can serve as a fast, reliable, and easy method for detection and identification of food-borne bacteria, namely Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Cronobacter spp., in different types of food matrices (salmon, eggs, powdered infant formula milk, mixed herbs, respectively). The main aim of this work was to introduce the SERS technique into three ISO (6579:2002; 11290-1:1996/A1:2004; 22964:2006) standard procedures required for detection of these bacteria in food. Our study demonstrates that the SERS technique is effective in distinguishing very closely related bacteria within a genus grown on solid and liquid media. The advantages of the proposed ISO-SERS method for bacteria identification include simplicity and reduced time of analysis, from almost 144 h required by standard methods to 48 h for the SERS-based approach. Additionally, PCA allows one to perform statistical classification of studied bacteria and to identify the spectrum of an unknown sample. Calculated first and second principal components (PC-1, PC-2) account for 96, 98, and 90% of total variance in the spectra and enable one to identify the Salmonella spp., L. monocytogenes, and Cronobacter spp., respectively. Moreover, the presented study demonstrates the excellent possibility for simultaneous detection of analyzed food-borne bacteria in one sample test (98% of PC-1 and PC-2) with a goal of splitting the data set into three separated clusters corresponding to the three studied bacteria species. The studies described in this paper suggest that SERS represents an alternative to standard microorganism diagnostic procedures. Graphical Abstract New approach of the SERS strategy for detection and identification of food-borne bacteria, namely S. enterica, L. monocytogenes, and C. sakazakii in selected food matrices.

  5. Enzootic Plague Reduces Black-Footed Ferret (Mustela nigripes) Survival in Montana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    and prey. Epizootic plague kills both prairie dogs and ferrets and is a major factor limiting recovery of the highly endangered ferret. In addition to...and probably trans- mission, of plague at enzootic levels. Other studies have demonstrated similar effects of flea control on several species of...2006a). Plague is a major obstacle to recovery of endangered ferrets, and epizootics have an easily noticed and dramatic effect, especially on black

  6. Rodent and Flea Abundance Fail to Predict a Plague Epizootic in Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Collinge, Sharon K.; Ray, Chris; Gage, Ken L.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Small rodents are purported to be enzootic hosts of Yersinia pestis and may serve as sources of infection to prairie dogs or other epizootic hosts by direct or flea-mediated transmission. Recent research has shown that small rodent species composition and small rodent flea assemblages are influenced by the presence of prairie dogs, with higher relative abundance of both small rodents and fleas at prairie dog colony sites compared to grasslands without prairie dogs. However, it is unclear if increased rodent or flea abundance predisposes prairie dogs to infection with Y. pestis. We tracked rodent and flea occurrence for 3 years at a number of prairie dog colony sites in Boulder County, Colorado, before, during, and after a local plague epizootic to see if high rodent or flea abundance was associated with plague-affected colonies when compared to colonies that escaped infection. We found no difference in preepizootic rodent abundance or flea prevalence or abundance between plague-positive and plague-negative colonies. Further, we saw no significant before-plague/after-plague change in these metrics at either plague-positive or plague-negative sites. We did, however, find that small rodent species assemblages changed in the year following prairie dog die-offs at plague-affected colonies when compared to unaffected colonies. In light of previous research from this system that has shown that landscape features and proximity to recently plagued colonies are significant predictors of plague occurrence in prairie dogs, we suggest that landscape context is more important to local plague occurrence than are characteristics of rodent or flea species assemblages. PMID:20158331

  7. Rodent and flea abundance fail to predict a plague epizootic in black-tailed prairie dogs.

    PubMed

    Brinkerhoff, Robert Jory; Collinge, Sharon K; Ray, Chris; Gage, Ken L

    2010-01-01

    Small rodents are purported to be enzootic hosts of Yersinia pestis and may serve as sources of infection to prairie dogs or other epizootic hosts by direct or flea-mediated transmission. Recent research has shown that small rodent species composition and small rodent flea assemblages are influenced by the presence of prairie dogs, with higher relative abundance of both small rodents and fleas at prairie dog colony sites compared to grasslands without prairie dogs. However, it is unclear if increased rodent or flea abundance predisposes prairie dogs to infection with Y. pestis. We tracked rodent and flea occurrence for 3 years at a number of prairie dog colony sites in Boulder County, Colorado, before, during, and after a local plague epizootic to see if high rodent or flea abundance was associated with plague-affected colonies when compared to colonies that escaped infection. We found no difference in preepizootic rodent abundance or flea prevalence or abundance between plague-positive and plague-negative colonies. Further, we saw no significant before-plague/after-plague change in these metrics at either plague-positive or plague-negative sites. We did, however, find that small rodent species assemblages changed in the year following prairie dog die-offs at plague-affected colonies when compared to unaffected colonies. In light of previous research from this system that has shown that landscape features and proximity to recently plagued colonies are significant predictors of plague occurrence in prairie dogs, we suggest that landscape context is more important to local plague occurrence than are characteristics of rodent or flea species assemblages.

  8. Primary plague pneumonia contracted from a domestic cat at South Lake Tahoe, Calif.

    PubMed

    Werner, S B; Weidmer, C E; Nelson, B C; Nygaard, G S; Goethals, R M; Poland, J D

    1984-02-17

    Primary plague pneumonia occurred in a 47-year-old South Lake Tahoe woman shortly after face-to-face exposure to her plague pneumonia-infected cat. Both died. Field investigation revealed a recent plague epizootic in squirrels and chipmunks around the patient's home. Control measures included active surveillance and chemoprophylaxis of 197 contacts to the victim, a community alert on methods of self- and pet protection, and application of insecticide to reduce rodent flea populations. No secondary cases occurred.

  9. Modeled changes in US sodium intake from reducing sodium concentrations of commercially processed and prepared foods to meet voluntary standards established in North America: NHANES.

    PubMed

    Cogswell, Mary E; Patel, Sheena M; Yuan, Keming; Gillespie, Cathleen; Juan, WenYen; Curtis, Christine J; Vigneault, Michel; Clapp, Jenifer; Roach, Paula; Moshfegh, Alanna; Ahuja, Jaspreet; Pehrsson, Pamela; Brookmire, Lauren; Merritt, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Background: Approximately 2 in 3 US adults have prehypertension or hypertension that increases their risk of cardiovascular disease. Reducing sodium intake can decrease blood pressure and prevent hypertension. Approximately 9 in 10 Americans consume excess sodium (≥2300 mg/d). Voluntary sodium standards for commercially processed and prepared foods were established in North America, but their impact on sodium intake is unclear.Objective: We modelled the potential impact on US sodium intake of applying voluntary sodium standards for foods.Design: We used NHANES 2007-2010 data for 17,933 participants aged ≥1 y to model predicted US daily mean sodium intake and the prevalence of excess sodium intake with the use of the standards of the New York City's National Salt Reduction Initiative (NSRI) and Health Canada for commercially processed and prepared foods. The Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies food codes corresponding to foods reported by NHANES participants were matched to NSRI and Health Canada food categories, and the published sales-weighted mean percent reductions were applied.Results: The US population aged ≥1 y could have reduced their usual daily mean sodium intake of 3417 mg by 698 mg (95% CI: 683, 714 mg) by applying NSRI 2014 targets and by 615 mg (95% CI: 597, 634 mg) by applying Health Canada's 2016 benchmarks. Significant reductions could have occurred, regardless of age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, education, or hypertension status, up to a mean reduction in sodium intake of 850 mg/d in men aged ≥19 y by applying NSRI targets. The proportion of adults aged ≥19 y who consume ≥2300 mg/d would decline from 88% (95% CI: 86%, 91%) to 71% (95% CI: 68%, 73%) by applying NSRI targets and to 74% (95% CI: 71%, 76%) by applying Health Canada benchmarks.Conclusion: If established sodium standards are applied to commercially processed and prepared foods, a significant reduction of US sodium intake could occur. © 2017 American Society for

  10. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF FOOD PREPARATION SURFACE WIPE SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.17)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method for collection of the food preparation surface wipe samples for the measurement of persistent organic pollutants (POP). This method uses a wipe to collect POP residues from a surface where a study participant prepares food the most often (i.e., kitch...

  11. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF FOOD PREPARATION SURFACE WIPE SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.17)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method for collection of the food preparation surface wipe samples for the measurement of persistent organic pollutants (POP). This method uses a wipe to collect POP residues from a surface where a study participant prepares food the most often (i.e., kitch...

  12. Prevention of pneumonic plague in mice, rats, guinea pigs and non-human primates with clinical grade rV10, rV10-2 or F1-V vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Quenee, Lauriane E.; Ciletti, Nancy A.; Elli, Derek; Hermanas, Timothy M.; Schneewind, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Yersinia pestis causes plague, a disease with high mortality in humans that can be transmitted by fleabite or aerosol. A US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-licensed plague vaccine is currently not available. Vaccine developers have focused on two subunits of Y. pestis: LcrV, a protein at the tip of type III secretion needles, and F1, the fraction 1 pilus antigen. F1-V, a hybrid generated via translational fusion of both antigens, is being developed for licensure as a plague vaccine. The rV10 vaccine is a non-toxigenic variant of LcrV lacking residues 271–300. Here we developed Current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) protocols for rV10. Comparison of clinical grade rV10 with F1-V did not reveal significant differences in plague protection in mice, guinea pigs or cynomolgus macaques. We also developed cGMP protocols for rV10-2, a variant of rV10 with an altered affinity tag. Immunization with rV10-2 adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide elicited antibodies against LcrV and conferred pneumonic plague protection in mice, rats, guinea pigs, cynomolgus macaques and African Green monkeys. The data support further development of rV10-2 for FDA Investigational New Drug (IND) authorization review and clinical testing. PMID:21763383

  13. Prevention of pneumonic plague in mice, rats, guinea pigs and non-human primates with clinical grade rV10, rV10-2 or F1-V vaccines.

    PubMed

    Quenee, Lauriane E; Ciletti, Nancy A; Elli, Derek; Hermanas, Timothy M; Schneewind, Olaf

    2011-09-02

    Yersinia pestis causes plague, a disease with high mortality in humans that can be transmitted by fleabite or aerosol. A US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-licensed plague vaccine is currently not available. Vaccine developers have focused on two subunits of Y. pestis: LcrV, a protein at the tip of type III secretion needles, and F1, the fraction 1 pilus antigen. F1-V, a hybrid generated via translational fusion of both antigens, is being developed for licensure as a plague vaccine. The rV10 vaccine is a non-toxigenic variant of LcrV lacking residues 271-300. Here we developed Current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) protocols for rV10. Comparison of clinical grade rV10 with F1-V did not reveal significant differences in plague protection in mice, guinea pigs or cynomolgus macaques. We also developed cGMP protocols for rV10-2, a variant of rV10 with an altered affinity tag. Immunization with rV10-2 adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide elicited antibodies against LcrV and conferred pneumonic plague protection in mice, rats, guinea pigs, cynomolgus macaques and African Green monkeys. The data support further development of rV10-2 for FDA Investigational New Drug (IND) authorization review and clinical testing.

  14. An Evaluation of Foods Processed in Tray Pack versus Two Standard Food Service Containers. Part 1. Sensory, Container and Bacteriological Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    Paprika Oleoresin Paprika Artificial Color Citric Acid Onion Garlic Natural Flavor **Hydrolyzed Vegetable Protein Monosodium Glutamate Hydrogenated...Pepper Salt Food Starch-Modified Salt Wheat Flour Salt Sugar Sugar Dehydrated Onions Paprika Paprika Spices Dehydrated Onion Onion Flavoring Flavoring...Monosodium Glutamate Oleoresin Paprika Spice Garlic Monosodium Glutamate Monosodium Glutamate Artificial Color Citric Acid - -...- *Chili Pepper Cumin

  15. Plague vaccines and the molecular basis of immunity against Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Quenee, Lauriane E; Schneewind, Olaf

    2009-12-01

    Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of bubonic and pneumonic plague, human diseases with high mortality. Due to the microbe's ability to spread rapidly, plague epidemics present a serious public health threat. A search for prophylactic measures was initially based on historical reports of bubonic plague survivors and their apparent immunity. Due to safety and efficacy concerns, killed whole-cell preparations or live-attenuated plague vaccines are no longer considered in the United States. Vaccine developers have focused on specific subunits of plague bacteria. LcrV, a protein at the tip of type III secretion needles, and F1, the capsular pilus antigen, are both recognized as plague protective antigens. Antibodies against LcrV and F1 interfere with Y. pestis type III injection of host cells. While LcrV is absolutely essential for Y. pestis virulence, expression of F1 is dispensable for plague pathogenesis in small animals, non-human primates and presumably also in humans. Several subunit vaccines, for example rF1+rV (rYP002), rF1V or rV10, are being developed to generate plague protection in humans. Efficacy testing and licensure for human use requires the establishment of correlates for plague immunity.

  16. Landscape ecology of plague in the American southwest, September 19-20, 2000, Fort Collins, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brand, Christopher J.

    2002-01-01

    During September 19-20, 2000, a workshop titled "Landscape Ecology of Plague in the American Southwest" was held in Fort Collins, Colorado. The workshop was funded by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)-Earth Surface Processes Team and sponsored by the USGS National Wildlife Health Center. Forty scientists and natural resource managers and administrators representing 8 federal agencies, 4 state agencies, 6 universities, and other local agencies and nongovernment organizations met to discuss historical and current status of plague in the United States, current activities in plague surveillance, research, and management in wildlife, and research and information needs relative to plague control and management. Eleven individual presentations on plague history, status, and trends; diagnostic technologies; epizootiological studies and observations; and control and management strategies and studies, followed by a panel discussion on the impact of plague on wildlife and ecosystems, led the way to extensive group discussions on important plague-related questions, issues and problems. Workshop attendees participated in identifying important research and information needs relevant to control and management of plague in wildlife, and in the process, established new cooperative and collaborative partnerships and enhanced existing relationships upon which future research and information needs can be met. The proceedings from this workshop are intended to be used by the natural resource managers and researchers from the various participating agencies, research facilities, as well as other stakeholders to aid in the development of future research and information programs and funding initiatives related to both zoonotic and sylvatic plague.

  17. Nonlinear effect of climate on plague during the third pandemic in China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lei; Liu, Qiyong; Stige, Leif Chr.; Ben Ari, Tamara; Fang, Xiye; Chan, Kung-Sik; Wang, Shuchun; Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Zhang, Zhibin

    2011-01-01

    Over the years, plague has caused a large number of deaths worldwide and subsequently changed history, not the least during the period of the Black Death. Of the three plague pandemics, the third is believed to have originated in China. Using the spatial and temporal human plague records in China from 1850 to 1964, we investigated the association of human plague intensity (plague cases per year) with proxy data on climate condition (specifically an index for dryness/wetness). Our modeling analysis demonstrates that the responses of plague intensity to dry/wet conditions were different in northern and southern China. In northern China, plague intensity generally increased when wetness increased, for both the current and the previous year, except for low intensity during extremely wet conditions in the current year (reflecting a dome-shaped response to current-year dryness/wetness). In southern China, plague intensity generally decreased when wetness increased, except for high intensity during extremely wet conditions of the current year. These opposite effects are likely related to the different climates and rodent communities in the two parts of China: In northern China (arid climate), rodents are expected to respond positively to high precipitation, whereas in southern China (humid climate), high precipitation is likely to have a negative effect. Our results suggest that associations between human plague intensity and precipitation are nonlinear: positive in dry conditions, but negative in wet conditions. PMID:21646523

  18. [The complex plague--reconsiderations of an epidemic from the past].

    PubMed

    Moseng, Ole Georg

    2007-12-13

    Speculations have arisen about the black plague in recent years - was it a disease caused by YERSINIA PESTIS: or something else? Extensive outbreaks in India in the 1890s have formed the basis for descriptions of the plague, both for those who believe that the medieval plagues and modern plague were different diseases and for those who claim that the plague has been one and the same disease throughout history. The plague was more or less defined as a disease in the 1890s, and the understanding of its clinical course and dissemination at the time has uncritically been understood as the general model for spreading of the plague. But plague is a many-faceted disease. It has spread to five continents in modern times, through an array of ecosystems and under widely different climatic conditions. It can also be passed on to man, and from one individual to another, in different ways. The biological conditions that prevailed in India have not been relevant for medieval Norway. The preconditions for spreading of plague epidemics of the past in a Nordic climate must therefore have been different. It can only be expected that contemporary descriptions of historic epidemics are different from those in modern times.

  19. Nonlinear effect of climate on plague during the third pandemic in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lei; Liu, Qiyong; Stige, Leif Chr; Ben Ari, Tamara; Fang, Xiye; Chan, Kung-Sik; Wang, Shuchun; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Zhang, Zhibin

    2011-06-21

    Over the years, plague has caused a large number of deaths worldwide and subsequently changed history, not the least during the period of the Black Death. Of the three plague pandemics, the third is believed to have originated in China. Using the spatial and temporal human plague records in China from 1850 to 1964, we investigated the association of human plague intensity (plague cases per year) with proxy data on climate condition (specifically an index for dryness/wetness). Our modeling analysis demonstrates that the responses of plague intensity to dry/wet conditions were different in northern and southern China. In northern China, plague intensity generally increased when wetness increased, for both the current and the previous year, except for low intensity during extremely wet conditions in the current year (reflecting a dome-shaped response to current-year dryness/wetness). In southern China, plague intensity generally decreased when wetness increased, except for high intensity during extremely wet conditions of the current year. These opposite effects are likely related to the different climates and rodent communities in the two parts of China: In northern China (arid climate), rodents are expected to respond positively to high precipitation, whereas in southern China (humid climate), high precipitation is likely to have a negative effect. Our results suggest that associations between human plague intensity and precipitation are nonlinear: positive in dry conditions, but negative in wet conditions.

  20. Climatic and evolutionary drivers of phase shifts in the plague epidemics of colonial India

    PubMed Central

    Lewnard, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    Immune heterogeneity in wild host populations indicates that disease-mediated selection is common in nature. However, the underlying dynamic feedbacks involving the ecology of disease transmission, evolutionary processes, and their interaction with environmental drivers have proven challenging to characterize. Plague presents an optimal system for interrogating such couplings: Yersinia pestis transmission exerts intense selective pressure driving the local persistence of disease resistance among its wildlife hosts in endemic areas. Investigations undertaken in colonial India after the introduction of plague in 1896 suggest that, only a decade after plague arrived, a heritable, plague-resistant phenotype had become prevalent among commensal rats of cities undergoing severe plague epidemics. To understand the possible evolutionary basis of these observations, we developed a mathematical model coupling environmentally forced plague dynamics with evolutionary selection of rats, capitalizing on extensive archival data from Indian Plague Commission investigations. Incorporating increased plague resistance among rats as a consequence of intense natural selection permits the model to reproduce observed changes in seasonal epidemic patterns in several cities and capture experimentally observed associations between climate and flea population dynamics in India. Our model results substantiate Victorian era claims of host evolution based on experimental observations of plague resistance and reveal the buffering effect of such evolution against environmental drivers of transmission. Our analysis shows that historical datasets can yield powerful insights into the transmission dynamics of reemerging disease agents with which we have limited contemporary experience to guide quantitative modeling and inference. PMID:27791071