Science.gov

Sample records for food storage material

  1. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  2. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2014-11-25

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material, such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  3. Chilled storage of foods - principles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chilled storage is the most common method for preserving perishable foods. The consumers’ increasing demand for convenient, minimally processed foods has caused food manufacturers to increase production of refrigerated foods worldwide. This book chapter reviews the development of using low tempera...

  4. Food Storage Guide for Schools and Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC. Div. of Child Nutrition.

    This booklet has been prepared as a guide to show good methods of handling and storing USDA-donated and locally purchased foods. The information was drawn from many resources and includes latest research data available on types of storage facilities and equipment needed for handling and storing foods. The material is organized in five parts: (1)…

  5. Microwavable thermal energy storage material

    SciTech Connect

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1998-09-08

    A microwavable thermal energy storage material is provided which includes a mixture of a phase change material and silica, and a carbon black additive in the form of a conformable dry powder of phase change material/silica/carbon black, or solid pellets, films, fibers, moldings or strands of phase change material/high density polyethylene/ethylene-vinyl acetate/silica/carbon black which allows the phase change material to be rapidly heated in a microwave oven. The carbon black additive, which is preferably an electrically conductive carbon black, may be added in low concentrations of from 0.5 to 15% by weight, and may be used to tailor the heating times of the phase change material as desired. The microwavable thermal energy storage material can be used in food serving applications such as tableware items or pizza warmers, and in medical wraps and garments.

  6. Microwavable thermal energy storage material

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, I.O.

    1998-09-08

    A microwavable thermal energy storage material is provided which includes a mixture of a phase change material and silica, and a carbon black additive in the form of a conformable dry powder of phase change material/silica/carbon black, or solid pellets, films, fibers, moldings or strands of phase change material/high density polyethylene/ethylene vinyl acetate/silica/carbon black which allows the phase change material to be rapidly heated in a microwave oven. The carbon black additive, which is preferably an electrically conductive carbon black, may be added in low concentrations of from 0.5 to 15% by weight, and may be used to tailor the heating times of the phase change material as desired. The microwavable thermal energy storage material can be used in food serving applications such as tableware items or pizza warmers, and in medical wraps and garments. 3 figs.

  7. Thermal energy storage material

    DOEpatents

    Leifer, Leslie

    1976-01-01

    A thermal energy storage material which is stable at atmospheric temperature and pressure and has a melting point higher than 32.degree.F. is prepared by dissolving a specific class of clathrate forming compounds, such as tetra n-propyl or tetra n-butyl ammonium fluoride, in water to form a substantially solid clathrate. The resultant thermal energy storage material is capable of absorbing heat from or releasing heat to a given region as it transforms between solid and liquid states in response to temperature changes in the region above and below its melting point.

  8. Reversible hydrogen storage materials

    DOEpatents

    Ritter, James A.; Wang, Tao; Ebner, Armin D.; Holland, Charles E.

    2012-04-10

    In accordance with the present disclosure, a process for synthesis of a complex hydride material for hydrogen storage is provided. The process includes mixing a borohydride with at least one additive agent and at least one catalyst and heating the mixture at a temperature of less than about 600.degree. C. and a pressure of H.sub.2 gas to form a complex hydride material. The complex hydride material comprises MAl.sub.xB.sub.yH.sub.z, wherein M is an alkali metal or group IIA metal, Al is the element aluminum, x is any number from 0 to 1, B is the element boron, y is a number from 0 to 13, and z is a number from 4 to 57 with the additive agent and catalyst still being present. The complex hydride material is capable of cyclic dehydrogenation and rehydrogenation and has a hydrogen capacity of at least about 4 weight percent.

  9. Chemical Effects during Storage of Frozen Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powrie, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses (1) characteristics, interrelationships, and distribution of food constituents (including water) in unfrozen food systems; (2) the freezing process; and (3) chemical changes in food during frozen storage. Protein alterations and lipid oxidation are emphasized. (JN)

  10. Tritium Storage Material

    SciTech Connect

    Cowgill, Donald F.; Luo, Weifang; Smugeresky, John E.; Robinson, David B.; Fares, Stephen James; Ong, Markus D.; Arslan, Ilke; Tran, Kim L.; McCarty, Kevin F.; Sartor, George B.; Clift, W. Miles

    2008-09-01

    Nano-structured palladium is examined as a tritium storage material with the potential to release beta-decay-generated helium at the generation rate, thereby mitigating the aging effects produced by enlarging He bubbles. Helium retention in proposed structures is modeled by adapting the Sandia Bubble Evolution model to nano-dimensional material. The model shows that even with ligament dimensions of 6-12 nm, elevated temperatures will be required for low He retention. Two nanomaterial synthesis pathways were explored: de-alloying and surfactant templating. For de-alloying, PdAg alloys with piranha etchants appeared likely to generate the desired morphology with some additional development effort. Nano-structured 50 nm Pd particles with 2-3 mn pores were successfully produced by surfactant templating using PdCl salts and an oligo(ethylene oxide) hexadecyl ether surfactant. Tests were performed on this material to investigate processes for removing residual pore fluids and to examine the thermal stability of pores. A tritium manifold was fabricated to measure the early He release behavior of this and Pd black material and is installed in the Tritium Science Station glove box at LLNL. Pressure-composition isotherms and particle sizes of a comercial Pd black were measured.

  11. 12 Secrets of Smart Food Buying. Keep Foods Safe. Guide to Refrigerator Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Univ., Logan. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This package consists of various bilingual instructional materials for use in helping Indochinese refugees learn basic food purchasing and food storage skills. Included in the package are a Vietnamese/English bilingual booklet explaining 12 secrets of wise food buying and translations of guidelines for keeping foods safe (English, Vietnamese, Lao)…

  12. Lightweight hydride storage materials

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, G.J.; Guthrie, S.E.; Bauer, W.

    1995-09-01

    The need for lightweight hydrides in vehicular applications has prompted considerable research into the use of magnesium and its alloys. Although this earlier work has provided some improved performance in operating temperature and pressure, substantial improvements are needed before these materials will significantly enhance the performance of an engineered system on a vehicle. We are extending the work of previous investigators on Mg alloys to reduce the operating temperature and hydride heat of formation in light weight materials. Two important results will be discussed in this paper: (1) a promising new alloy hydride was found which has better pressure-temperature characteristics than any previous Mg alloy and, (2) a new fabrication process for existing Mg alloys was developed and demonstrated. The new alloy hydride is composed of magnesium, aluminum and nickel. It has an equilibrium hydrogen overpressure of 1.3 atm. at 200{degrees}C and a storage capacity between 3 and 4 wt.% hydrogen. A hydrogen release rate of approximately 5 x 10{sup -4} moles-H{sub 2}/gm-min was measured at 200{degrees}C. The hydride heat of formation was found to be 13.5 - 14 kcal/mole-H{sub 2}, somewhat lower than Mg{sub 2}Ni. The new fabrication method takes advantage of the high vapor transport of magnesium. It was found that Mg{sub 2}Ni produced by our low temperature process was better than conventional materials because it was single phase (no Mg phase) and could be fabricated with very small particle sizes. Hydride measurements on this material showed faster kinetic response than conventional material. The technique could potentially be applied to in-situ hydride bed fabrication with improved packing density, release kinetics, thermal properties and mechanical stability.

  13. 36 CFR 13.1322 - Food storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Food storage. 13.1322 Section 13.1322 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Area (egda) § 13.1322 Food storage. Cooking, consuming, storing or preparing food in the Exit...

  14. 36 CFR 13.1322 - Food storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Food storage. 13.1322 Section 13.1322 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Area (egda) § 13.1322 Food storage. Cooking, consuming, storing or preparing food in the Exit...

  15. Nanostructured materials for hydrogen storage

    DOEpatents

    Williamson, Andrew J.; Reboredo, Fernando A.

    2007-12-04

    A system for hydrogen storage comprising a porous nano-structured material with hydrogen absorbed on the surfaces of the porous nano-structured material. The system of hydrogen storage comprises absorbing hydrogen on the surfaces of a porous nano-structured semiconductor material.

  16. Advanced materials for energy storage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Li, Feng; Ma, Lai-Peng; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2010-02-23

    Popularization of portable electronics and electric vehicles worldwide stimulates the development of energy storage devices, such as batteries and supercapacitors, toward higher power density and energy density, which significantly depends upon the advancement of new materials used in these devices. Moreover, energy storage materials play a key role in efficient, clean, and versatile use of energy, and are crucial for the exploitation of renewable energy. Therefore, energy storage materials cover a wide range of materials and have been receiving intensive attention from research and development to industrialization. In this Review, firstly a general introduction is given to several typical energy storage systems, including thermal, mechanical, electromagnetic, hydrogen, and electrochemical energy storage. Then the current status of high-performance hydrogen storage materials for on-board applications and electrochemical energy storage materials for lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors is introduced in detail. The strategies for developing these advanced energy storage materials, including nanostructuring, nano-/microcombination, hybridization, pore-structure control, configuration design, surface modification, and composition optimization, are discussed. Finally, the future trends and prospects in the development of advanced energy storage materials are highlighted.

  17. 36 CFR 13.1322 - Food storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Kenai Fjords National Park Exit Glacier Developed Area (egda) § 13.1322 Food storage. Cooking, consuming, storing or preparing food in the Exit...

  18. 36 CFR 13.1322 - Food storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Kenai Fjords National Park Exit Glacier Developed Area (egda) § 13.1322 Food storage. Cooking, consuming, storing or preparing food in the Exit...

  19. 36 CFR 13.1322 - Food storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Kenai Fjords National Park Exit Glacier Developed Area (egda) § 13.1322 Food storage. Cooking, consuming, storing or preparing food in the Exit...

  20. Nuclear materials management storage study

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, G.W. Jr.

    1994-02-01

    The Office of Weapons and Materials Planning (DP-27) requested the Planning Support Group (PSG) at the Savannah River Site to help coordinate a Departmental complex-wide nuclear materials storage study. This study will support the development of management strategies and plans until Defense Programs` Complex 21 is operational by DOE organizations that have direct interest/concerns about or responsibilities for nuclear material storage. They include the Materials Planning Division (DP-273) of DP-27, the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Facilities (DP-60), the Office of Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (DP-40), and other program areas, including Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). To facilitate data collection, a questionnaire was developed and issued to nuclear materials custodian sites soliciting information on nuclear materials characteristics, storage plans, issues, etc. Sites were asked to functionally group materials identified in DOE Order 5660.1A (Management of Nuclear Materials) based on common physical and chemical characteristics and common material management strategies and to relate these groupings to Nuclear Materials Management Safeguards and Security (NMMSS) records. A database was constructed using 843 storage records from 70 responding sites. The database and an initial report summarizing storage issues were issued to participating Field Offices and DP-27 for comment. This report presents the background for the Storage Study and an initial, unclassified summary of storage issues and concerns identified by the sites.

  1. Examination of Foods for Extraneous Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    Extraneous materials are any foreign substances in foods that are associated with objectionable conditions or practices in production, storage, or distribution of foods. Extraneous materials include: (a) filth or objectionable matter contributed by animal contamination (rodent, insect, or bird matter) or unsanitary conditions; (b) decomposed material or decayed tissues due to parasitic or nonparasitic causes; and (c) miscellaneous matter (sand, soil, glass, rust, or other foreign substances). Bacterial contamination is excluded from these substances.

  2. 36 CFR 13.1228 - Food storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Food storage. 13.1228 Section 13.1228 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Developed Area § 13.1228 Food storage. In the BCDA, all fish must be stored in designated facilities and...

  3. 36 CFR 13.1228 - Food storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Food storage. 13.1228 Section 13.1228 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Developed Area § 13.1228 Food storage. In the BCDA, all fish must be stored in designated facilities and...

  4. 36 CFR 13.1228 - Food storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Food storage. 13.1228 Section 13.1228 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Developed Area § 13.1228 Food storage. In the BCDA, all fish must be stored in designated facilities and...

  5. 36 CFR 13.1228 - Food storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Food storage. 13.1228 Section 13.1228 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Developed Area § 13.1228 Food storage. In the BCDA, all fish must be stored in designated facilities and...

  6. 36 CFR 13.1228 - Food storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Food storage. 13.1228 Section 13.1228 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Developed Area § 13.1228 Food storage. In the BCDA, all fish must be stored in designated facilities and...

  7. Food Packaging Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The photos show a few of the food products packaged in Alure, a metallized plastic material developed and manufactured by St. Regis Paper Company's Flexible Packaging Division, Dallas, Texas. The material incorporates a metallized film originally developed for space applications. Among the suppliers of the film to St. Regis is King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Ma'ssachusetts. Initially used by NASA as a signal-bouncing reflective coating for the Echo 1 communications satellite, the film was developed by a company later absorbed by King-Seeley. The metallized film was also used as insulating material for components of a number of other spacecraft. St. Regis developed Alure to meet a multiple packaging material need: good eye appeal, product protection for long periods and the ability to be used successfully on a wide variety of food packaging equipment. When the cost of aluminum foil skyrocketed, packagers sought substitute metallized materials but experiments with a number of them uncovered problems; some were too expensive, some did not adequately protect the product, some were difficult for the machinery to handle. Alure offers a solution. St. Regis created Alure by sandwiching the metallized film between layers of plastics. The resulting laminated metallized material has the superior eye appeal of foil but is less expensive and more easily machined. Alure effectively blocks out light, moisture and oxygen and therefore gives the packaged food long shelf life. A major packaging firm conducted its own tests of the material and confirmed the advantages of machinability and shelf life, adding that it runs faster on machines than materials used in the past and it decreases product waste; the net effect is increased productivity.

  8. Carbon material for hydrogen storage

    DOEpatents

    Bourlinos, Athanasios; Steriotis, Theodore; Stubos, Athanasios; Miller, Michael A

    2016-09-13

    The present invention relates to carbon based materials that are employed for hydrogen storage applications. The material may be described as the pyrolysis product of a molecular precursor such as a cyclic quinone compound. The pyrolysis product may then be combined with selected transition metal atoms which may be in nanoparticulate form, where the metals may be dispersed on the material surface. Such product may then provide for the reversible storage of hydrogen. The metallic nanoparticles may also be combined with a second metal as an alloy to further improve hydrogen storage performance.

  9. Storage containers for radioactive material

    DOEpatents

    Groh, E.F.; Cassidy, D.A.; Dates, L.R.

    1980-07-31

    A radioactive material storage system is claimed for use in the laboratory having a flat base plate with a groove in one surface thereof and a hollow pedestal extending perpendicularly away from the other surface thereof, a sealing gasket in the groove, a cover having a filter therein and an outwardly extending flange which fits over the plate, the groove and the gasket, and a clamp for maintaining the cover and the plate sealed together. The plate and the cover and the clamp cooperate to provide a storage area for radioactive material readily accessible for use or inventory. Wall mounts are provided to prevent accidental formation of critical masses during storage.

  10. Storage containers for radioactive material

    DOEpatents

    Groh, Edward F.; Cassidy, Dale A.; Dates, Leon R.

    1981-01-01

    A radioactive material storage system for use in the laboratory having a flat base plate with a groove in one surface thereof and a hollow pedestal extending perpendicularly away from the other surface thereof, a sealing gasket in the groove, a cover having a filter therein and an outwardly extending flange which fits over the plate, the groove and the gasket, and a clamp for maintaining the cover and the plate sealed together, whereby the plate and the cover and the clamp cooperate to provide a storage area for radioactive material readily accessible for use or

  11. Improved Food Drying and Storage Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zweig, Peter R.; And Others

    This manual is intended to serve as a guide for those who are helping future Peace Corps volunteers to acquire basic food drying and storage skills. Included in the guide are lesson outlines and handouts for use in each of the 30 sessions of the course. Representative topics discussed in the individual sessions are scheduling, solar dryers,…

  12. Storage depot for radioactive material

    DOEpatents

    Szulinski, Milton J.

    1983-01-01

    Vertical drilling of cylindrical holes in the soil, and the lining of such holes, provides storage vaults called caissons. A guarded depot is provided with a plurality of such caissons covered by shielded closures preventing radiation from penetrating through any linear gap to the atmosphere. The heat generated by the radioactive material is dissipated through the vertical liner of the well into the adjacent soil and thus to the ground surface so that most of the heat from the radioactive material is dissipated into the atmosphere in a manner involving no significant amount of biologically harmful radiation. The passive cooling of the radioactive material without reliance upon pumps, personnel, or other factor which might fail, constitutes one of the most advantageous features of this system. Moreover this system is resistant to damage from tornadoes or earthquakes. Hermetically sealed containers of radioactive material may be positioned in the caissons. Loading vehicles can travel throughout the depot to permit great flexibility of loading and unloading radioactive materials. Radioactive material can be shifted to a more closely spaced caisson after ageing sufficiently to generate much less heat. The quantity of material stored in a caisson is restricted by the average capacity for heat dissipation of the soil adjacent such caisson.

  13. 36 CFR 1002.10 - Camping and food storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Camping and food storage... USE AND RECREATION § 1002.10 Camping and food storage. (a) The Board may require permits, designate... result in the suspension or revocation of the permit. (d) Food storage. The Board may designate all or...

  14. 36 CFR 1002.10 - Camping and food storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Camping and food storage... USE AND RECREATION § 1002.10 Camping and food storage. (a) The Board may require permits, designate... result in the suspension or revocation of the permit. (d) Food storage. The Board may designate all or...

  15. 36 CFR 2.10 - Camping and food storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Camping and food storage. 2... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.10 Camping and food storage. (a) The superintendent may... revocation of the permit. (d) Food storage. The superintendent may designate all or a portion of a park...

  16. 36 CFR 2.10 - Camping and food storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Camping and food storage. 2... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.10 Camping and food storage. (a) The superintendent may... revocation of the permit. (d) Food storage. The superintendent may designate all or a portion of a park...

  17. 36 CFR 2.10 - Camping and food storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Camping and food storage. 2... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.10 Camping and food storage. (a) The superintendent may... revocation of the permit. (d) Food storage. The superintendent may designate all or a portion of a park...

  18. 36 CFR 1002.10 - Camping and food storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Camping and food storage. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.10 Camping and food storage. (a) The Board may require permits, designate sites... result in the suspension or revocation of the permit. (d) Food storage. The Board may designate all or...

  19. 36 CFR 1002.10 - Camping and food storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Camping and food storage... USE AND RECREATION § 1002.10 Camping and food storage. (a) The Board may require permits, designate... result in the suspension or revocation of the permit. (d) Food storage. The Board may designate all or...

  20. 36 CFR 2.10 - Camping and food storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Camping and food storage. 2... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.10 Camping and food storage. (a) The superintendent may... revocation of the permit. (d) Food storage. The superintendent may designate all or a portion of a park...

  1. 36 CFR 2.10 - Camping and food storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Camping and food storage. 2... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.10 Camping and food storage. (a) The superintendent may... revocation of the permit. (d) Food storage. The superintendent may designate all or a portion of a park...

  2. 36 CFR 1002.10 - Camping and food storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Camping and food storage... USE AND RECREATION § 1002.10 Camping and food storage. (a) The Board may require permits, designate... result in the suspension or revocation of the permit. (d) Food storage. The Board may designate all or...

  3. Phase change material storage heater

    DOEpatents

    Goswami, D. Yogi; Hsieh, Chung K.; Jotshi, Chand K.; Klausner, James F.

    1997-01-01

    A storage heater for storing heat and for heating a fluid, such as water, has an enclosure defining a chamber therein. The chamber has a lower portion and an upper portion with a heating element being disposed within the enclosure. A tube through which the fluid flows has an inlet and an outlet, both being disposed outside of the enclosure, and has a portion interconnecting the inlet and the outlet that passes through the enclosure. A densely packed bed of phase change material pellets is disposed within the enclosure and is surrounded by a viscous liquid, such as propylene glycol. The viscous liquid is in thermal communication with the heating element, the phase change material pellets, and the tube and transfers heat from the heating element to the pellets and from the pellets to the tube. The viscous fluid has a viscosity so that the frictional pressure drop of the fluid in contact with the phase change material pellets substantially reduces vertical thermal convection in the fluid. As the fluid flows through the tube heat is transferred from the viscous liquid to the fluid flowing through the tube, thereby heating the fluid.

  4. Study on Hydrogen Storage Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Complex hydrides have been heavily investigated as a hydrogen storage material, particularly for future vehicular applications. The present major problem of such complex hydrides is their relatively high hydrogen desorption temperature (Td). In order to find a predominant parameter for determining Td, we have investigated internal nuclear magnetic fields in several complex hydrides, such as, lithium and sodium alanates, borohydrides, and magnesium hydrides, with a muon spin rotation and relaxation (μ+SR) technique. At low temperatures, the μ+SR spectrum obtained in a zero external field (ZF) exhibits a clear oscillation due to the formation of a three spin 1/2 system, HμH, besides Mg(BH4)2 and Sc(BH4)2. Such oscillatory signal becomes weaker and weaker with increasing temperature, and finally disappears above around room temperature. However, the volume fraction of the HμH signal to the whole asymmetry at 5 K is found to be a good indicator for Td in borohydrides. At high temperatures, on the contrary, the ZF-spectrum for MgH2 shows a Kubo-Toyabe like relaxation due to a random nuclear magnetic field of 1H. Such nuclear magnetic field becomes dynamic well below Td in the milled MgH2, indicating a significant role on H-diffusion in solids for determining Td.

  5. High capacity hydrogen storage nanocomposite materials

    DOEpatents

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Wellons, Matthew S

    2015-02-03

    A novel hydrogen absorption material is provided comprising a mixture of a lithium hydride with a fullerene. The subsequent reaction product provides for a hydrogen storage material which reversibly stores and releases hydrogen at temperatures of about 270.degree. C.

  6. Influence of oxygen and long term storage on the profile of volatile compounds released from polymeric multilayer food contact materials sterilized by gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Salafranca, Jesús; Clemente, Isabel; Isella, Francesca; Nerín, Cristina; Bosetti, Osvaldo

    2015-06-01

    The profile of volatile compounds released from 13 different multilayer polymeric materials for food use, before and after their exposure to gamma radiation, has been assessed by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Thermosealed bags of different materials were filled with either air or nitrogen to evaluate the oxygen influence. One-third of the samples were analyzed without irradiation, whereas the rest were irradiated at 15 and 25 kGy. Half of the samples were processed just after preparation and the other half was stored for 8 months at room temperature prior to analysis. Very significant differences between unirradiated and irradiated bags were found. About 60-80 compounds were released and identified per sample. A huge peak of 1,3-ditertbutylbenzene was present in most of the irradiated samples. An outstanding reproducibility in all the variables evaluated (chromatograms, oxygen percentage, volume of bags) was noticed. Independently of filling gas, the results of unirradiated materials were almost identical. In contrast, the chromatographic profile and the odor of irradiated bags filled with nitrogen were completely different to those filled with air. Principal component analysis was performed and 86.9% of the accumulated variance was explained with the first two components. The migration of compounds from irradiated materials to the vapor phase was much lower than the limits established in the Commission Regulation (EU) No 10/2011. PMID:26002333

  7. Influence of oxygen and long term storage on the profile of volatile compounds released from polymeric multilayer food contact materials sterilized by gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Salafranca, Jesús; Clemente, Isabel; Isella, Francesca; Nerín, Cristina; Bosetti, Osvaldo

    2015-06-01

    The profile of volatile compounds released from 13 different multilayer polymeric materials for food use, before and after their exposure to gamma radiation, has been assessed by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Thermosealed bags of different materials were filled with either air or nitrogen to evaluate the oxygen influence. One-third of the samples were analyzed without irradiation, whereas the rest were irradiated at 15 and 25 kGy. Half of the samples were processed just after preparation and the other half was stored for 8 months at room temperature prior to analysis. Very significant differences between unirradiated and irradiated bags were found. About 60-80 compounds were released and identified per sample. A huge peak of 1,3-ditertbutylbenzene was present in most of the irradiated samples. An outstanding reproducibility in all the variables evaluated (chromatograms, oxygen percentage, volume of bags) was noticed. Independently of filling gas, the results of unirradiated materials were almost identical. In contrast, the chromatographic profile and the odor of irradiated bags filled with nitrogen were completely different to those filled with air. Principal component analysis was performed and 86.9% of the accumulated variance was explained with the first two components. The migration of compounds from irradiated materials to the vapor phase was much lower than the limits established in the Commission Regulation (EU) No 10/2011.

  8. Food Service Refrigerators and Food Service Storage Freezers. Standard No. 7, Revised April 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI.

    This standard covers the sanitation and performance requirements for new food service refrigerators and food service storage freezers of the type generally used in the food service industry. It covers cabinets operating in the freezers, above or below freezing temperature, designed for the storage or display of varieties of food products. Topics…

  9. Methane storage in advanced porous materials.

    PubMed

    Makal, Trevor A; Li, Jian-Rong; Lu, Weigang; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2012-12-01

    The need for alternative fuels is greater now than ever before. With considerable sources available and low pollution factor, methane is a natural choice as petroleum replacement in cars and other mobile applications. However, efficient storage methods are still lacking to implement the application of methane in the automotive industry. Advanced porous materials, metal-organic frameworks and porous organic polymers, have received considerable attention in sorptive storage applications owing to their exceptionally high surface areas and chemically-tunable structures. In this critical review we provide an overview of the current status of the application of these two types of advanced porous materials in the storage of methane. Examples of materials exhibiting high methane storage capacities are analyzed and methods for increasing the applicability of these advanced porous materials in methane storage technologies described.

  10. Photorefractive materials for optical storage and display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, R. R.; Kim, D. M.; Rabson, T. A.; Tittel, F. K.

    1976-01-01

    Real-time data storage and processing using optical techniques have been considered in recent years. Of particular interest are photosensitive electro-optic crystals which permit volume storage in the form of phase holograms, by means of a charge transfer process. A survey of the state of the art of such holographic memories is presented. The physical mechanism responsible for the formation of phase holograms in such crystals is discussed. Attention is focused on various aspects of materials characterization, development and utilization. Experimental reversible holographic read-write memory systems with fast random access and high storage capacity employing this new class of photosensitive materials have already been demonstrated.

  11. Economic performance of water storage capacity expansion for food security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohar, Abdelaziz A.; Ward, Frank A.; Amer, Saud A.

    2013-03-01

    SummaryContinued climate variability, population growth, and rising food prices present ongoing challenges for achieving food and water security in poor countries that lack adequate water infrastructure. Undeveloped storage infrastructure presents a special challenge in northern Afghanistan, where food security is undermined by highly variable water supplies, inefficient water allocation rules, and a damaged irrigation system due three decades of war and conflict. Little peer-reviewed research to date has analyzed the economic benefits of water storage capacity expansions as a mechanism to sustain food security over long periods of variable climate and growing food demands needed to feed growing populations. This paper develops and applies an integrated water resources management framework that analyzes impacts of storage capacity expansions for sustaining farm income and food security in the face of highly fluctuating water supplies. Findings illustrate that in Afghanistan's Balkh Basin, total farm income and food security from crop irrigation increase, but at a declining rate as water storage capacity increases from zero to an amount equal to six times the basin's long term water supply. Total farm income increases by 21%, 41%, and 42% for small, medium, and large reservoir capacity, respectively, compared to the existing irrigation system unassisted by reservoir storage capacity. Results provide a framework to target water infrastructure investments that improve food security for river basins in the world's dry regions with low existing storage capacity that face ongoing climate variability and increased demands for food security for growing populations.

  12. ALUMINUM HYDRIDE: A REVERSIBLE STORAGE MATERIAL FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Zidan, R; Christopher Fewox, C; Brenda Garcia-Diaz, B; Joshua Gray, J

    2009-01-09

    One of the challenges of implementing the hydrogen economy is finding a suitable solid H{sub 2} storage material. Aluminium (alane, AlH{sub 3}) hydride has been examined as a potential hydrogen storage material because of its high weight capacity, low discharge temperature, and volumetric density. Recycling the dehydride material has however precluded AlH{sub 3} from being implemented due to the large pressures required (>10{sup 5} bar H{sub 2} at 25 C) and the thermodynamic expense of chemical synthesis. A reversible cycle to form alane electrochemically using NaAlH{sub 4} in THF been successfully demonstrated. Alane is isolated as the triethylamine (TEA) adduct and converted to unsolvated alane by heating under vacuum. To complete the cycle, the starting alanate can be regenerated by direct hydrogenation of the dehydrided alane and the alkali hydride (NaH) This novel reversible cycle opens the door for alane to fuel the hydrogen economy.

  13. Porous polymeric materials for hydrogen storage

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Luping; Liu, Di-Jia; Yuan, Shengwen; Yang, Junbing

    2013-04-02

    A porous polymer, poly-9,9'-spirobifluorene and its derivatives for storage of H.sub.2 are prepared through a chemical synthesis method. The porous polymers have high specific surface area and narrow pore size distribution. Hydrogen uptake measurements conducted for these polymers determined a higher hydrogen storage capacity at the ambient temperature over that of the benchmark materials. The method of preparing such polymers, includes oxidatively activating solids by CO.sub.2/steam oxidation and supercritical water treatment.

  14. 13. Interior view of food storage area looking towards hallway; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Interior view of food storage area looking towards hallway; southeast corner of building on lower floor; view to north. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Mess & Administration Building, 1561 Ellsworth Street, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

  15. NREL Advances Spillover Materials for Hydrogen Storage (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-12-01

    This fact sheet describes NREL's accomplishments in advancing spillover materials for hydrogen storage and improving the reproducible synthesis, long-term durability, and material costs of hydrogen storage materials. Work was performed by NREL's Chemical and Materials Science Center.

  16. LIGHT-WEIGHT NANOCRYSTALLINE HYDROGEN STORAGE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    S. G. Sankar; B. Zande; R.T. Obermyer; S. Simizu

    2005-11-21

    During Phase I of this SBIR Program, Advanced Materials Corporation has addressed two key issues concerning hydrogen storage: 1. We have conducted preliminary studies on the effect of certain catalysts in modifying the hydrogen absorption characteristics of nanocrystalline magnesium. 2. We have also conducted proof-of-concept design and construction of a prototype instrument that would rapidly screen materials for hydrogen storage employing chemical combinatorial technique in combination with a Pressure-Composition Isotherm Measurement (PCI) instrument. 3. Preliminary results obtained in this study approach are described in this report.

  17. Energy storage materials synthesized from ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Gebresilassie Eshetu, Gebrekidan; Armand, Michel; Scrosati, Bruno; Passerini, Stefano

    2014-12-01

    The advent of ionic liquids (ILs) as eco-friendly and promising reaction media has opened new frontiers in the field of electrochemical energy storage. Beyond their use as electrolyte components in batteries and supercapacitors, ILs have unique properties that make them suitable as functional advanced materials, media for materials production, and components for preparing highly engineered functional products. Aiming at offering an in-depth review on the newly emerging IL-based green synthesis processes of energy storage materials, this Review provides an overview of the role of ILs in the synthesis of materials for batteries, supercapacitors, and green electrode processing. It is expected that this Review will assess the status quo of the research field and thereby stimulate new thoughts and ideas on the emerging challenges and opportunities of IL-based syntheses of energy materials.

  18. 8. Interior view of former food service and storage area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Interior view of former food service and storage area looking towards hall way; showing closed and open doorways to walk-in storage; near southwest corner of building on main floor; view to southwest. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Mess & Administration Building, 1561 Ellsworth Street, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

  19. Microwave impregnation of porous materials with thermal energy storage materials

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Burrows, Richard W.

    1993-01-01

    A method for impregnating a porous, non-metallic construction material with a solid phase-change material is described. The phase-change material in finely divided form is spread onto the surface of the porous material, after which the porous material is exposed to microwave energy for a time sufficient to melt the phase-change material. The melted material is spontaneously absorbed into the pores of the porous material. A sealing chemical may also be included with the phase-change material (or applied subsequent to the phase-change material) to seal the surface of the porous material. Fire retardant chemicals may also be included with the phase-change materials. The treated construction materials are better able to absorb thermal energy and exhibit increased heat storage capacity.

  20. Microwave impregnation of porous materials with thermal energy storage materials

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Burrows, R.W.

    1993-04-13

    A method for impregnating a porous, non-metallic construction material with a solid phase-change material is described. The phase-change material in finely divided form is spread onto the surface of the porous material, after which the porous material is exposed to microwave energy for a time sufficient to melt the phase-change material. The melted material is spontaneously absorbed into the pores of the porous material. A sealing chemical may also be included with the phase-change material (or applied subsequent to the phase-change material) to seal the surface of the porous material. Fire retardant chemicals may also be included with the phase-change materials. The treated construction materials are better able to absorb thermal energy and exhibit increased heat storage capacity.

  1. Microwave impregnation of porous materials with thermal energy storage materials

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, D.K.; Burrows, R.W.

    1991-03-13

    A method for impregnating a porous, non-metallic construction material with a solid phase-change material is described. The phase-change material in finely divided form is spread onto the surface of the porous material, after which the porous material is exposed to microwave energy for a time sufficient to melt the phase-change material. The melted material is spontaneously absorbed into the pores of the porous material. A sealing chemical may also be included with the phase-change material (or applied subsequent tc the phase-change material) to seal the surface of the porous material. Fire retardant chemicals may also be included with the phase-change materials. The treated construction materials are better able to absorb thermal energy and exhibit increased heat storage capacity.

  2. Microwave impregnation of porous materials with thermal energy storage materials

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, D.K.; Burrows, R.W.

    1992-12-31

    A method for impregnating a porous, non-metallic construction material with a solid phase-change material is described. The phase-change material in finely divided form is spread onto the surface of the porous material, after which the porous material is exposed to microwave energy for a time sufficient to melt the phase-change material. The melted material is spontaneously absorbed into the pores of the porous material. A sealing chemical may also be included with the phase-change material (or applied subsequent to the phase-change material) to seal the surface of the porous material. Fire retardant chemicals may also be included with the phase-change materials. The treated construction materials are better able to absorb thermal energy and exhibit increased heat storage capacity.

  3. 7 CFR 250.59 - Storage and inventory management of donated foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Storage and inventory management of donated foods. 250... school food authorities must meet the requirements for storage and inventory of donated foods in § 250.14... foods in this part. (c) Storage by school food authorities. The school food authority may store...

  4. 7 CFR 250.59 - Storage and inventory management of donated foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Storage and inventory management of donated foods. 250... school food authorities must meet the requirements for storage and inventory of donated foods in § 250.14... foods in this part. (c) Storage by school food authorities. The school food authority may store...

  5. 7 CFR 250.59 - Storage and inventory management of donated foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Storage and inventory management of donated foods. 250... school food authorities must meet the requirements for storage and inventory of donated foods in § 250.14... foods in this part. (c) Storage by school food authorities. The school food authority may store...

  6. 7 CFR 250.59 - Storage and inventory management of donated foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Storage and inventory management of donated foods. 250... school food authorities must meet the requirements for storage and inventory of donated foods in § 250.14... foods in this part. (c) Storage by school food authorities. The school food authority may store...

  7. Solar heat storage in phase change material

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, H.J.

    1984-02-28

    The objective of this project was to develop a chemical heat storage system that had a phase change with release of latent heat at about 105/sup 0/F. The primary reason this kind on system was sought was that heat storage capacity of commonly used storage systems do not match the heat collection capacity of open air collectors. In addition to the phase change three other factors were considered: the cost of the material, the amount of heat the system would hold per unit volume, and the rate at which the system released sensible and latent heat. One hundred nineteen tests were made on 32 systems. Only data on six of the more promising are presented. In the six systems, borax was used as the major component with other materials used as nucleating agents toraise the temperature of phase change.

  8. Pyrophoricity of tritium-storage bed materials

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, G. R.

    1988-03-01

    Experiments were conducted on samples of depleted uranium and on intermetallic compounds of zirconium--cobalt and lanthanum--nickel--aluminide to evaluate the pyrophoricity of the activated materials and their hydrides and deuterides on exposure to air. It was found that none of the materials spontaneously ignited when exposed to room temperature air, but the uranium and the zirconium--cobalt both ignited in air at moderately elevated temperatures. Activated (dehydrided) materials showed stronger reactions than did the hydrides, but they ignited at essentially the same temperatures. Deuterides showed effectively the same characteristics as the hydrides except the ignition temperature of zirconium--cobalt deuteride was reduced by 20--50 K from that of the hydride. The possibility of a fire in tritium storage beds is real, especially if uranium or zirconium--cobalt are used as storage materials, but fires may not occur until the bed is heated. 9 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Storage Stability of Food Protein Hydrolysates-A Review.

    PubMed

    Rao, Qinchun; Klaassen Kamdar, Andre; Labuza, Theodore P

    2016-05-18

    In recent years, mainly due to the specific health benefits associated with (1) the discovery of bioactive peptides in protein hydrolysates, (2) the reduction of protein allergenicity by protein hydrolysis, and (3) the improved protein digestibility and absorption of protein hydrolysates, the utilization of protein hydrolysates in functional foods and beverages has significantly increased. Although the specific health benefits from different hydrolysates are somewhat proven, the delivery and/or stability of these benefits is debatable during distribution, storage, and consumption. In this review, we discuss (1) the quality changes in different food protein hydrolysates during storage; (2) the resulting changes in the structure and texture of three food matrices, i.e., low moisture foods (LMF, aw < 0.6), intermediate moisture foods (IMF, 0.6 ≤ aw < 0.85), and high moisture foods (HMF, aw ≥ 0.85); and (3) the potential solutions to improve storage stability of food protein hydrolysates. In addition, we note there is a great need for evaluation of biofunction availability of bioactive peptides in food protein hydrolysates during storage.

  10. Materials used for Seed Storage Containers: Response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efficient seed storage is a shared concern among the growing number of seed banks established for crop improvement or ex situ conservation. Container properties greatly affect seed interactions with the environment and the overall cost and success of seed banking operations. Several material proper...

  11. Carbon nanotube materials from hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, A.C.; Bekkedahl, T.A.; Cahill, A.F.

    1995-09-01

    The lack of convenient and cost-effective hydrogen storage is a major impediment to wide scale use of hydrogen in the United States energy economy. Improvements in the energy densities of hydrogen storage systems, reductions in cost, and increased compatibility with available and forecasted systems are required before viable hydrogen energy use pathways can be established. Carbon-based hydrogen adsorption materials hold particular promise for meeting and exceeding the U.S. Department of Energy hydrogen storage energy density targets for transportation if concurrent increases in hydrogen storage capacity and carbon density can be achieved. These two goals are normally in conflict for conventional porous materials, but may be reconciled by the design and synthesis of new adsorbent materials with tailored pore size distributions and minimal macroporosity. Carbon nanotubes offer the possibility to explore new designs for adsorbents because they can be fabricated with small size distributions, and naturally tend to self-assemble by van der Waals forces. This year we report heats of adsorption for hydrogen on nanotube materials that are 2 and 3 times greater than for hydrogen on activated carbon. The hydrogen which is most strongly bound to these materials remains on the carbon surface to temperatures greater than 285 K. These results suggest that nanocapillary forces are active in stabilizing hydrogen on the surfaces of carbon nanotubes, and that optimization of the adsorbent will lead to effective storage at higher temperatures. In this paper we will also report on our activities which are targeted at understanding and optimizing the nucleation and growth of single wall nanotubes. These experiments were made possible by the development of a unique feedback control circuit which stabilized the plasma-arc during a synthesis run.

  12. Porous polymeric materials for hydrogen storage

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Luping; Liu, Di-Jia; Yuan, Shengwen; Yang, Junbing

    2011-12-13

    Porous polymers, tribenzohexazatriphenylene, poly-9,9'-spirobifluorene, poly-tetraphenyl methane and their derivatives for storage of H.sub.2 prepared through a chemical synthesis method. The porous polymers have high specific surface area and narrow pore size distribution. Hydrogen uptake measurements conducted for these polymers determined a higher hydrogen storage capacity at the ambient temperature over that of the benchmark materials. The method of preparing such polymers, includes oxidatively activating solids by CO.sub.2/steam oxidation and supercritical water treatment.

  13. Composite materials for thermal energy storage

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Burrows, Richard W.; Shinton, Yvonne D.

    1986-01-01

    The present invention discloses composite material for thermal energy storage based upon polyhydric alcohols, such as pentaerythritol, trimethylol ethane (also known as pentaglycerine), neopentyl glycol and related compounds including trimethylol propane, monoaminopentaerythritol, diamino-pentaerythritol and tris(hydroxymethyl)acetic acid, separately or in combinations, which provide reversible heat storage through crystalline phase transformations. These phase change materials do not become liquid during use and are in contact with at least one material selected from the group consisting of metals, carbon siliceous, plastic, cellulosic, natural fiber, artificial fiber, concrete, gypsum, porous rock, and mixtures thereof. Particulate additions, such as aluminum or graphite powders, as well as metal and carbon fibers can also be incorporated therein. Particulate and/or fibrous additions can be introduced into molten phase change materials which can then be cast into various shapes. After the phase change materials have solidified, the additions will remain dispersed throughout the matrix of the cast solid. The polyol is in contact with at least one material selected from the group consisting of metals, carbon siliceous, plastic, cellulosic, natural fiber, artificial fiber, concrete, gypsum, and mixtures thereof.

  14. Materials compatibility of hydride storage materials with austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.A.

    1992-09-21

    This task evaluated the materials compatibility of LaNi{sub 5-x}Al{sub x} (x= 0.3, 0.75) hydrides and palladium coated kieselguhr with austenitic stainless steel in hydrogen and tritium process environments. Based on observations of retired prototype hydride storage beds and materials exposure testing samples designed for this study, no materials compatibility problem was indicated. Scanning electron microscopy observations of features on stainless steel surfaces after exposure to hydrides are also commonly found on as-received materials before hydriding. These features are caused by either normal heat treating and acid cleaning of stainless steel or reflect the final machining operation.

  15. Materials compatibility of hydride storage materials with austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.A.

    1992-09-21

    This task evaluated the materials compatibility of LaNi[sub 5-x]Al[sub x] (x= 0.3, 0.75) hydrides and palladium coated kieselguhr with austenitic stainless steel in hydrogen and tritium process environments. Based on observations of retired prototype hydride storage beds and materials exposure testing samples designed for this study, no materials compatibility problem was indicated. Scanning electron microscopy observations of features on stainless steel surfaces after exposure to hydrides are also commonly found on as-received materials before hydriding. These features are caused by either normal heat treating and acid cleaning of stainless steel or reflect the final machining operation.

  16. Corrosion resistant storage container for radioactive material

    DOEpatents

    Schweitzer, Donald G.; Davis, Mary S.

    1990-01-01

    A corrosion resistant long-term storage container for isolating radioactive waste material in a repository. The container is formed of a plurality of sealed corrosion resistant canisters of different relative sizes, with the smaller canisters housed within the larger canisters, and with spacer means disposed between judxtaposed pairs of canisters to maintain a predetermined spacing between each of the canisters. The combination of the plural surfaces of the canisters and the associated spacer means is effective to make the container capable of resisting corrosion, and thereby of preventing waste material from leaking from the innermost canister into the ambient atmosphere.

  17. Corrosion resistant storage container for radioactive material

    DOEpatents

    Schweitzer, D.G.; Davis, M.S.

    1984-08-30

    A corrosion resistant long-term storage container for isolating high-level radioactive waste material in a repository is claimed. The container is formed of a plurality of sealed corrosion resistant canisters of different relative sizes, with the smaller canisters housed within the larger canisters, and with spacer means disposed between juxtaposed pairs of canisters to maintain a predetermined spacing between each of the canisters. The combination of the plural surfaces of the canisters and the associated spacer means is effective to make the container capable of resisting corrosion, and thereby of preventing waste material from leaking from the innermost canister into the ambient atmosphere.

  18. Optimizing nanoporous materials for gas storage.

    PubMed

    Simon, Cory M; Kim, Jihan; Lin, Li-Chiang; Martin, Richard L; Haranczyk, Maciej; Smit, Berend

    2014-03-28

    In this work, we address the question of which thermodynamic factors determine the deliverable capacity of methane in nanoporous materials. The deliverable capacity is one of the key factors that determines the performance of a material for methane storage in automotive fuel tanks. To obtain insights into how the molecular characteristics of a material are related to the deliverable capacity, we developed several statistical thermodynamic models. The predictions of these models are compared with the classical thermodynamics approach of Bhatia and Myers [Bhatia and Myers, Langmuir, 2005, 22, 1688] and with the results of molecular simulations in which we screen the International Zeolite Association (IZA) structure database and a hypothetical zeolite database of over 100,000 structures. Both the simulations and our models do not support the rule of thumb that, for methane storage, one should aim for an optimal heat of adsorption of 18.8 kJ mol(-1). Instead, our models show that one can identify an optimal heat of adsorption, but that this optimal heat of adsorption depends on the structure of the material and can range from 8 to 23 kJ mol(-1). The different models we have developed are aimed to determine how this optimal heat of adsorption is related to the molecular structure of the material.

  19. Optimizing nanoporous materials for gas storage.

    PubMed

    Simon, Cory M; Kim, Jihan; Lin, Li-Chiang; Martin, Richard L; Haranczyk, Maciej; Smit, Berend

    2014-03-28

    In this work, we address the question of which thermodynamic factors determine the deliverable capacity of methane in nanoporous materials. The deliverable capacity is one of the key factors that determines the performance of a material for methane storage in automotive fuel tanks. To obtain insights into how the molecular characteristics of a material are related to the deliverable capacity, we developed several statistical thermodynamic models. The predictions of these models are compared with the classical thermodynamics approach of Bhatia and Myers [Bhatia and Myers, Langmuir, 2005, 22, 1688] and with the results of molecular simulations in which we screen the International Zeolite Association (IZA) structure database and a hypothetical zeolite database of over 100,000 structures. Both the simulations and our models do not support the rule of thumb that, for methane storage, one should aim for an optimal heat of adsorption of 18.8 kJ mol(-1). Instead, our models show that one can identify an optimal heat of adsorption, but that this optimal heat of adsorption depends on the structure of the material and can range from 8 to 23 kJ mol(-1). The different models we have developed are aimed to determine how this optimal heat of adsorption is related to the molecular structure of the material. PMID:24394864

  20. Composite materials for thermal energy storage

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Burrows, R.W.; Shinton, Y.D.

    1985-01-04

    A composite material for thermal energy storage based upon polyhydric alcohols, such as pentaerythritol, trimethylol ethane (also known as pentaglycerine), neopentyl glycol and related compounds including trimethylol propane, monoaminopentaerythritol, diamino-pentaerythritol and tris(hydroxymethyl)acetic acid, separately or in combinations, which provide reversible heat storage through crystalline phase transformations. These PCM's do not become liquid during use and are in contact with at least one material selected from the group consisting of metals, carbon, siliceous, plastic, cellulosic, natural fiber, artificial fiber, concrete, gypsum, porous rock, and mixtures thereof. Particulate additions such as aluminum or graphite powders, as well as metal and carbon fibers can also be incorporated therein. Particulate and/or fibrous additions can be introduced into molten phase change materials which can then be cast into various shapes. After the phase change materials have solidified, the additions will remain dispersed throughout the matrix of the cast solid. The polyol is in contact with at least one material selected from the group consisting of metals, carbon, siliceous, plastic, cellulosic, natural fiber, artificial fiber, concrete, gypsum, and mixtures thereof.

  1. Composite materials for thermal energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, D. K.; Burrows, R. W.; Shinton, Y. D.

    1985-01-01

    A composite material for thermal energy storage based upon polyhydric alcohols, such as pentaerythritol, trimethylol ethane (also known as pentaglycerine), neopentyl glycol and related compounds including trimethylol propane, monoaminopentaerythritol, diamino-pentaerythritol and tris(hydroxymethyl)acetic acid, separately or in combinations, which provide reversible heat storage through crystalline phase transformations are discussed. These PCM's do not become liquid during use and are in contact with at least one material selected from the group consisting of metals, carbon, siliceous, plastic, cellulosic, natural fiber, artificial fiber, concrete, gypsum, porous rock, and mixtures thereof. Particulate additions such as aluminum or graphite powders, as well as metal and carbon fibers can also be incorporated therein. Particulate and/or fibrous additions can be introduced into molten phase change materials which can then be cast into various shapes. After the phase change materials have solidified, the additions will remain dispersed throughout the matrix of the cast solid. The polyol is in contact with at least one material selected from the group consisting of metals, carbon, siliceous, plastic, cellulosic, natural fiber, artificial fiber, concrete, gypsum, and mixtures thereof.

  2. Carbon nanotube materials for hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, A.C.; Jones, K.M.; Heben, M.J.

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen burns pollution-free and may be produced from renewable energy resources. It is therefore an ideal candidate to replace fossil fuels as an energy carrier. However, the lack of a convenient and cost-effective hydrogen storage system greatly impedes the wide-scale use of hydrogen in both domestic and international markets. Although several hydrogen storage options exist, no approach satisfies all of the efficiency, size, weight, cost and safety requirements for transportation or utility use. A material consisting exclusively of micropores with molecular dimensions could simultaneously meet all of the requirements for transportation use if the interaction energy for hydrogen was sufficiently strong to cause hydrogen adsorption at ambient temperatures. Small diameter ({approx}1 mm) carbon single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) are elongated micropores of molecular dimensions, and materials composed predominantly of SWNTs may prove to be the ideal adsorbent for ambient temperature storage of hydrogen. Last year the authors reported that hydrogen could be adsorbed on arc-generated soots containing 12{Angstrom} diameter nanotubes at temperatures in excess of 285K. In this past year they have learned that such adsorption does not occur on activated carbon materials, and that the cobalt nanoparticles present in their arc-generated soots are not responsible for the hydrogen which is stable at 285 K. These results indicate that enhanced adsorption forces within the internal cavities of the SWNTs are active in stabilizing hydrogen at elevated temperatures. This enhanced stability could lead to effective hydrogen storage under ambient temperature conditions. In the past year the authors have also demonstrated that single-wall carbon nanotubes in arc-generated soots may be selectively opened by oxidation in H{sub 2}O resulting in improved hydrogen adsorption, and they have estimated experimentally that the amount of hydrogen stored is {approximately}10% of the nanotube weight.

  3. Pyrophoricity of tritium-storage bed materials

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, G.R.

    1988-09-01

    Experiments were conducted on samples of depleted uranium and on intermetallic compounds of zirconium-cobalt and lanthanum-nickel-aluminide to evaluate the pyrophoricity of the activated materials and their hydrides and deuterides on exposure to air. None of the materials spontaneously ignited when exposed to room temperature air, but the uranium and the zirconium-cobalt both ignited in air at moderately elevated temperatures. Activated dehyrdided materials ignited at essentially the same temperatures. Deuterides showed effectively the same characteristics as the hydrides except the ignition temperature of zirconium-cobalt deuteride was reduced by 20 - 50 K from that of the hydride. The pyrophoricity of these materials raises concern about the possibility of fires in tritium-storage beds with attendant damage to the bed and dispersal of tritiated debris, but fires may not occur until the bed is heated.

  4. Phase change material for temperature control and material storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessling, Jr., Francis C. (Inventor); Blackwood, James M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A phase change material comprising a mixture of water and deuterium oxide is described, wherein the mole fraction of deuterium oxide is selected so that the mixture has a selected phase change temperature within a range between 0.degree. C. and 4.degree. C. The mixture is placed in a container and used for passive storage and transport of biomaterials and other temperature sensitive materials. Gels, nucleating agents, freezing point depression materials and colorants may be added to enhance the characteristics of the mixture.

  5. Hydrogen-storage materials for mobile applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlapbach, Louis; Züttel, Andreas

    2001-11-01

    Mobility - the transport of people and goods - is a socioeconomic reality that will surely increase in the coming years. It should be safe, economic and reasonably clean. Little energy needs to be expended to overcome potential energy changes, but a great deal is lost through friction (for cars about 10 kWh per 100 km) and low-efficiency energy conversion. Vehicles can be run either by connecting them to a continuous supply of energy or by storing energy on board. Hydrogen would be ideal as a synthetic fuel because it is lightweight, highly abundant and its oxidation product (water) is environmentally benign, but storage remains a problem. Here we present recent developments in the search for innovative materials with high hydrogen-storage capacity.

  6. 30 CFR 57.16003 - Storage of hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Storage of hazardous materials. 57.16003 Section 57.16003 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 57.16003 Storage of hazardous materials. Materials that can create hazards...

  7. 30 CFR 56.16003 - Storage of hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Storage of hazardous materials. 56.16003 Section 56.16003 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 56.16003 Storage of hazardous materials. Materials that can create hazards...

  8. 30 CFR 57.16003 - Storage of hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Storage of hazardous materials. 57.16003 Section 57.16003 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 57.16003 Storage of hazardous materials. Materials that can create hazards...

  9. 30 CFR 56.16003 - Storage of hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Storage of hazardous materials. 56.16003 Section 56.16003 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 56.16003 Storage of hazardous materials. Materials that can create hazards...

  10. 30 CFR 56.6102 - Explosive material storage practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosive material storage practices. 56.6102... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage § 56.6102 Explosive material storage practices. (a) Explosive material shall be— (1) Stored in...

  11. 30 CFR 56.6102 - Explosive material storage practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosive material storage practices. 56.6102... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage § 56.6102 Explosive material storage practices. (a) Explosive material shall be— (1) Stored in...

  12. 30 CFR 56.6102 - Explosive material storage practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosive material storage practices. 56.6102... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage § 56.6102 Explosive material storage practices. (a) Explosive material shall be— (1) Stored in...

  13. 30 CFR 56.6102 - Explosive material storage practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosive material storage practices. 56.6102... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage § 56.6102 Explosive material storage practices. (a) Explosive material shall be— (1) Stored in...

  14. 30 CFR 56.6102 - Explosive material storage practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosive material storage practices. 56.6102... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage § 56.6102 Explosive material storage practices. (a) Explosive material shall be— (1) Stored in...

  15. 7 CFR 250.52 - Storage and inventory management of donated foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Storage and inventory management of donated foods. 250... Donated Foods in Contracts With Food Service Management Companies § 250.52 Storage and inventory... general requirements in § 250.14(b) for the storage and inventory management of donated foods. (b)...

  16. 7 CFR 250.52 - Storage and inventory management of donated foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Storage and inventory management of donated foods. 250... Donated Foods in Contracts With Food Service Management Companies § 250.52 Storage and inventory... general requirements in § 250.14(b) for the storage and inventory management of donated foods. (b)...

  17. 7 CFR 250.52 - Storage and inventory management of donated foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Storage and inventory management of donated foods. 250... Donated Foods in Contracts With Food Service Management Companies § 250.52 Storage and inventory... general requirements in § 250.14(b) for the storage and inventory management of donated foods. (b)...

  18. 7 CFR 250.52 - Storage and inventory management of donated foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Storage and inventory management of donated foods. 250... Donated Foods in Contracts With Food Service Management Companies § 250.52 Storage and inventory... general requirements in § 250.14(b) for the storage and inventory management of donated foods. (b)...

  19. 7 CFR 250.52 - Storage and inventory management of donated foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Storage and inventory management of donated foods. 250... Donated Foods in Contracts With Food Service Management Companies § 250.52 Storage and inventory... general requirements in § 250.14(b) for the storage and inventory management of donated foods. (b)...

  20. Carbon nanotube materials for hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, A.C.; Parilla, P.A.; Jones, K.M.; Riker, G.; Heben, M.J.

    1998-08-01

    Carbon single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) are essentially elongated pores of molecular dimensions and are capable of adsorbing hydrogen at relatively high temperatures and low pressures. This behavior is unique to these materials and indicates that SWNTs are the ideal building block for constructing safe, efficient, and high energy density adsorbents for hydrogen storage applications. In past work the authors developed methods for preparing and opening SWNTs, discovered the unique adsorption properties of these new materials, confirmed that hydrogen is stabilized by physical rather than chemical interactions, measured the strength of interaction to be {approximately} 5 times higher than for adsorption on planar graphite, and performed infrared absorption spectroscopy to determine the chemical nature of the surface terminations before, during, and after oxidation. This year the authors have made significant advances in synthesis and characterization of SWNT materials so that they can now prepare gram quantities of high-purity SWNT samples and measure and control the diameter distribution of the tubes by varying key parameters during synthesis. They have also developed methods which purify nanotubes and cut nanotubes into shorter segments. These capabilities provide a means for opening the tubes which were unreactive to the oxidation methods that successfully opened tubes, and offer a path towards organizing nanotube segments to enable high volumetric hydrogen storage densities. They also performed temperature programmed desorption spectroscopy on high purity carbon nanotube material obtained from collaborator Prof. Patrick Bernier and finished construction of a high precision Seivert`s apparatus which will allow the hydrogen pressure-temperature-composition phase diagrams to be evaluated for SWNT materials.

  1. 41 CFR 50-204.3 - Material handling and storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... storage. 50-204.3 Section 50-204.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... CONTRACTS General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.3 Material handling and storage. (a) Where mechanical... aisles and passageways shall be appropriately marked. (b) Storage of material shall not create a...

  2. 41 CFR 50-204.3 - Material handling and storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... storage. 50-204.3 Section 50-204.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... CONTRACTS General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.3 Material handling and storage. (a) Where mechanical... aisles and passageways shall be appropriately marked. (b) Storage of material shall not create a...

  3. 30 CFR 56.6130 - Explosive material storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosive material storage facilities. 56.6130... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage § 56.6130 Explosive material storage facilities. (a) Detonators and explosives shall be stored...

  4. 30 CFR 57.6102 - Explosive material storage practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosive material storage practices. 57.6102... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage-Surface and Underground § 57.6102 Explosive material storage practices. (a) Explosive...

  5. 30 CFR 57.6130 - Explosive material storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosive material storage facilities. 57.6130... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage-Surface Only § 57.6130 Explosive material storage facilities. (a) Detonators and explosives...

  6. 30 CFR 56.6130 - Explosive material storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosive material storage facilities. 56.6130... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage § 56.6130 Explosive material storage facilities. (a) Detonators and explosives shall be stored...

  7. 30 CFR 57.6102 - Explosive material storage practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosive material storage practices. 57.6102... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage-Surface and Underground § 57.6102 Explosive material storage practices. (a) Explosive...

  8. 30 CFR 57.6102 - Explosive material storage practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosive material storage practices. 57.6102... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage-Surface and Underground § 57.6102 Explosive material storage practices. (a) Explosive...

  9. 30 CFR 57.6130 - Explosive material storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosive material storage facilities. 57.6130... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage-Surface Only § 57.6130 Explosive material storage facilities. (a) Detonators and explosives...

  10. 30 CFR 57.6102 - Explosive material storage practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosive material storage practices. 57.6102... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage-Surface and Underground § 57.6102 Explosive material storage practices. (a) Explosive...

  11. 30 CFR 56.6130 - Explosive material storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosive material storage facilities. 56.6130... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage § 56.6130 Explosive material storage facilities. (a) Detonators and explosives shall be stored...

  12. 30 CFR 57.6130 - Explosive material storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosive material storage facilities. 57.6130... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage-Surface Only § 57.6130 Explosive material storage facilities. (a) Detonators and explosives...

  13. 30 CFR 56.6130 - Explosive material storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosive material storage facilities. 56.6130... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage § 56.6130 Explosive material storage facilities. (a) Detonators and explosives shall be stored...

  14. 30 CFR 57.6130 - Explosive material storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosive material storage facilities. 57.6130... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage-Surface Only § 57.6130 Explosive material storage facilities. (a) Detonators and explosives...

  15. 30 CFR 57.6102 - Explosive material storage practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosive material storage practices. 57.6102... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage-Surface and Underground § 57.6102 Explosive material storage practices. (a) Explosive...

  16. 30 CFR 56.6130 - Explosive material storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosive material storage facilities. 56.6130... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage § 56.6130 Explosive material storage facilities. (a) Detonators and explosives shall be stored...

  17. 30 CFR 57.6130 - Explosive material storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosive material storage facilities. 57.6130... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage-Surface Only § 57.6130 Explosive material storage facilities. (a) Detonators and explosives...

  18. Effectiveness of antimicrobial food packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Cooksey, K

    2005-10-01

    Antimicrobial additives have been used successfully for many years as direct food additives. The literature provides evidence that some of these additives may be effective as indirect food additives incorporated into food packaging materials. Antimicrobial food packaging is directed toward the reduction of surface contamination of processed, prepared foods such as sliced meats and Frankfurter sausages (hot dogs). The use of such packaging materials is not meant to be a substitute for good sanitation practices, but it should enhance the safety of food as an additional hurdle for the growth of pathogenic and/or spoilage microorganisms. Studies have focused on establishing methods for coating low-density polyethylene film or barrier films with methyl cellulose as a carrier for nisin. These films have significantly reduced the presence of Listeria monocytogenes in solutions and in vacuum packaged hot dogs. Other research has focused on the use of chitosan to inhibit L. monocytogenes and chlorine dioxide sachets for the reduction of Salmonella on modified atmosphere-packaged fresh chicken breasts. Overall, antimicrobial packaging shows promise as an effective method for the inhibition of certain bacteria in foods, but barriers to their commercial implementation continue to exist. PMID:16227182

  19. The Arrhenius Law and Storage of Food in a Freezer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leenson, I. A.

    1999-04-01

    This article contains a brief review of some "unconventional" applications of the Arrhenius law. One such example is proposed as a problem concerning the shelf-life of frozen food (Italian pizza) at temperatures ranging from 0 to -18 °C. The effective activation energy (180 kJ/mole) calculated from the information presented by the manufacturer implies that the most probable mechanism of pizza deterioration on storage is enzyme and microbial destruction.

  20. Hydrogen storage materials and method of making by dry homogenation

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, Craig M.; Zidan, Ragaiy A.

    2002-01-01

    Dry homogenized metal hydrides, in particular aluminum hydride compounds, as a material for reversible hydrogen storage is provided. The reversible hydrogen storage material comprises a dry homogenized material having transition metal catalytic sites on a metal aluminum hydride compound, or mixtures of metal aluminum hydride compounds. A method of making such reversible hydrogen storage materials by dry doping is also provided and comprises the steps of dry homogenizing metal hydrides by mechanical mixing, such as be crushing or ball milling a powder, of a metal aluminum hydride with a transition metal catalyst. In another aspect of the invention, a method of powering a vehicle apparatus with the reversible hydrogen storage material is provided.

  1. The study of importance of the storage method of the space foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Providing foods to space crew is the important requirements to support long term manned space exploration. Foods fill not only physiological requirements to sustain life, but psychological needs for refreshment and joy during the long and hard mission to extraterrestrial planets. In the space stay of the long term, the storage technology of the food is important. Surplus food and the establishment of a safe save method of the food are essential. However, in Moon and Mars base or spaceship, there are limited spaces. We need to think about how to use the storage food when we have the time of emergency. The fundamental composition of our recipe is unpolished rice, barley, soybean, sweat potato and green-yellow vegetables. Supplement food materials to fulfill the nutritional requirements we chose are loach, silkworm pupa, termite, snail, mud snail, bee, cassava and quinoa. The pupa of the silkworm becomes the important nourishment source as protein and lipid. The silk thread uses it as clothing and cosmetics and medical supplies. However, we can use the silk thread as food as protein. The silk thread is mad of sericin and fibroin. The sericin is used for cosmetics mainly, but can make sheet food by mixing it with rice flour. We can make Japanese rolled sushi with this product. In addition, we can make spring roll and gyoza and shao-mai. As for the fibroin which is the subject of the silk thread, is to extract it high pressure heat; of the protein can powder it, and can use it as food. Even if there is the silk thread in this way after having made it clothes once, we can do it to food again. We can reuse the cotton thread as carbohydrates equally, too. We can use the wood as carbohydrates, also. Based upon the foregoing, we use the pupa of the silkworm as protein and lipid, and the silk thread as protein, and the cotton thread and wood as carbohydrates. It is recommended as healthy meal balance; Protein: Lipid: Carbohydrate ratio equal 15We succeeded to develop joyful

  2. Functional Carbon Materials for Electrochemical Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Huihui

    The ability to harvest and convert solar energy has been associated with the evolution of human civilization. The increasing consumption of fossil fuels since the industrial revolution, however, has brought to concerns in ecological deterioration and depletion of the fossil fuels. Facing these challenges, humankind is forced to seek for clean, sustainable and renewable energy resources, such as biofuels, hydraulic power, wind power, geothermal energy and other kinds of alternative energies. However, most alternative energy sources, generally in the form of electrical energy, could not be made available on a continuous basis. It is, therefore, essential to store such energy into chemical energy, which are portable and various applications. In this context, electrochemical energy-storage devices hold great promises towards this goal. The most common electrochemical energy-storage devices are electrochemical capacitors (ECs, also called supercapacitors) and batteries. In comparison to batteries, ECs posses high power density, high efficiency, long cycling life and low cost. ECs commonly utilize carbon as both (symmetric) or one of the electrodes (asymmetric), of which their performance is generally limited by the capacitance of the carbon electrodes. Therefore, developing better carbon materials with high energy density has been emerging as one the most essential challenges in the field. The primary objective of this dissertation is to design and synthesize functional carbon materials with high energy density at both aqueous and organic electrolyte systems. The energy density (E) of ECs are governed by E = CV 2/2, where C is the total capacitance and V is the voltage of the devices. Carbon electrodes with high capacitance and high working voltage should lead to high energy density. In the first part of this thesis, a new class of nanoporous carbons were synthesized for symmetric supercapacitors using aqueous Li2SO4 as the electrolyte. A unique precursor was adopted to

  3. Microporous Metal Organic Materials for Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect

    S. G. Sankar; Jing Li; Karl Johnson

    2008-11-30

    We have examined a number of Metal Organic Framework Materials for their potential in hydrogen storage applications. Results obtained in this study may, in general, be summarized as follows: (1) We have identified a new family of porous metal organic framework materials with the compositions M (bdc) (ted){sub 0.5}, {l_brace}M = Zn or Co, bdc = biphenyl dicarboxylate and ted = triethylene diamine{r_brace} that adsorb large quantities of hydrogen ({approx}4.6 wt%) at 77 K and a hydrogen pressure of 50 atm. The modeling performed on these materials agree reasonably well with the experimental results. (2) In some instances, such as in Y{sub 2}(sdba){sub 3}, even though the modeling predicted the possibility of hydrogen adsorption (although only small quantities, {approx}1.2 wt%, 77 K, 50 atm. hydrogen), our experiments indicate that the sample does not adsorb any hydrogen. This may be related to the fact that the pores are extremely small or may be attributed to the lack of proper activation process. (3) Some samples such as Zn (tbip) (tbip = 5-tert butyl isophthalate) exhibit hysteresis characteristics in hydrogen sorption between adsorption and desorption runs. Modeling studies on this sample show good agreement with the desorption behavior. It is necessary to conduct additional studies to fully understand this behavior. (4) Molecular simulations have demonstrated the need to enhance the solid-fluid potential of interaction in order to achieve much higher adsorption amounts at room temperature. We speculate that this may be accomplished through incorporation of light transition metals, such as titanium and scandium, into the metal organic framework materials.

  4. 41 CFR 50-204.3 - Material handling and storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CONTRACTS General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.3 Material handling and storage. (a) Where mechanical... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Material handling and... aisles and passageways shall be appropriately marked. (b) Storage of material shall not create a...

  5. 41 CFR 50-204.28 - Storage of radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Storage of radioactive materials. 50-204.28 Section 50-204.28 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.28 Storage of radioactive materials. Radioactive materials stored...

  6. 41 CFR 50-204.28 - Storage of radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Storage of radioactive materials. 50-204.28 Section 50-204.28 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.28 Storage of radioactive materials. Radioactive materials stored...

  7. 41 CFR 50-204.28 - Storage of radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Storage of radioactive materials. 50-204.28 Section 50-204.28 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.28 Storage of radioactive materials. Radioactive materials stored...

  8. 41 CFR 50-204.28 - Storage of radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Storage of radioactive materials. 50-204.28 Section 50-204.28 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.28 Storage of radioactive materials. Radioactive materials stored...

  9. 41 CFR 50-204.28 - Storage of radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Storage of radioactive materials. 50-204.28 Section 50-204.28 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.28 Storage of radioactive materials. Radioactive materials stored...

  10. Food Processing Curriculum Material and Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge.

    Intended for secondary vocational agriculture teachers, this curriculum guide contains a course outline and a resource manual for a seven-unit food processing course on meats. Within the course outline, units are divided into separate lessons. Materials provided for each lesson include preparation for instruction (student objectives, review of…

  11. Outlook and challenges for hydrogen storage in nanoporous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broom, D. P.; Webb, C. J.; Hurst, K. E.; Parilla, P. A.; Gennett, T.; Brown, C. M.; Zacharia, R.; Tylianakis, E.; Klontzas, E.; Froudakis, G. E.; Steriotis, Th. A.; Trikalitis, P. N.; Anton, D. L.; Hardy, B.; Tamburello, D.; Corgnale, C.; van Hassel, B. A.; Cossement, D.; Chahine, R.; Hirscher, M.

    2016-03-01

    Considerable progress has been made recently in the use of nanoporous materials for hydrogen storage. In this article, the current status of the field and future challenges are discussed, ranging from important open fundamental questions, such as the density and volume of the adsorbed phase and its relationship to overall storage capacity, to the development of new functional materials and complete storage system design. With regard to fundamentals, the use of neutron scattering to study adsorbed H2, suitable adsorption isotherm equations, and the accurate computational modelling and simulation of H2 adsorption are discussed. The new materials covered include flexible metal-organic frameworks, core-shell materials, and porous organic cage compounds. The article concludes with a discussion of the experimental investigation of real adsorptive hydrogen storage tanks, the improvement in the thermal conductivity of storage beds, and new storage system concepts and designs.

  12. Outlook and Challenges for Hydrogen Storage in Nanoporous Materials

    DOE PAGES

    Broom, D. P.; Webb, C. J.; Hurst, Katherine E.; Parilla, Philip A.; Gennett, Thomas; Brown, C. M.; Zacharia, R.; Tylianakis, E.; Klontzas, E.; Froudakis, G. E.; et al

    2016-02-16

    Considerable progress has been made recently in the use of nanoporous materials for hydrogen storage. In our article, the current status of the field and future challenges are discussed, ranging from important open fundamental questions, such as the density and volume of the adsorbed phase and its relationship to overall storage capacity, to the development of new functional materials and complete storage system design. With regard to fundamentals, the use of neutron scattering to study adsorbed H2, suitable adsorption isotherm equations, and the accurate computational modelling and simulation of H2 adsorption are discussed. We cover new materials and they includemore » flexible metal–organic frameworks, core–shell materials, and porous organic cage compounds. The article concludes with a discussion of the experimental investigation of real adsorptive hydrogen storage tanks, the improvement in the thermal conductivity of storage beds, and new storage system concepts and designs.« less

  13. Efficient Heat Storage Materials: Metallic Composites Phase-Change Materials for High-Temperature Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    2011-11-21

    HEATS Project: MIT is developing efficient heat storage materials for use in solar and nuclear power plants. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun’s not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. MIT is designing nanostructured heat storage materials that can store a large amount of heat per unit mass and volume. To do this, MIT is using phase change materials, which absorb a large amount of latent heat to melt from solid to liquid. MIT’s heat storage materials are designed to melt at high temperatures and conduct heat well—this makes them efficient at storing and releasing heat and enhances the overall efficiency of the thermal storage and energy-generation process. MIT’s low-cost heat storage materials also have a long life cycle, which further enhances their efficiency.

  14. Research on medium and high temperature solar heat storage materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heine, D.; Jucker, J.; Koch, D.; Krahling, H.; Supper, W.

    1979-01-01

    Characteristics of solar heat storage materials, preliminary tests in which melting and solidification characteristics are tested, and service life and cycling tests are reported. Various aspects of corrosion are discussed as well as decision about ultimate selection of materials. A program for storage and evaluation of data is included.

  15. Food safety concerns deriving from the use of silver based food packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Pezzuto, Alessandra; Losasso, Carmen; Mancin, Marzia; Gallocchio, Federica; Piovesana, Alessia; Binato, Giovanni; Gallina, Albino; Marangon, Alberto; Mioni, Renzo; Favretti, Michela; Ricci, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    The formulation of innovative packaging solutions, exerting a functional antimicrobial role in slowing down food spoilage, is expected to have a significant impact on the food industry, allowing both the maintenance of food safety criteria for longer periods and the reduction of food waste. Different materials are considered able to exert the required antimicrobial activity, among which are materials containing silver. However, challenges exist in the application of silver to food contact materials due to knowledge gaps in the production of ingredients, stability of delivery systems in food matrices and health risks caused by the same properties which also offer the benefits. Aims of the present study were to test the effectiveness and suitability of two packaging systems, one of which contained silver, for packaging and storing Stracchino cheese, a typical Italian fresh cheese, and to investigate if there was any potential for consumers to be exposed to silver, via migration from the packaging to the cheese. Results did not show any significant difference in the effectiveness of the packaging systems on packaged Stracchino cheese, excluding that the active packaging systems exerted an inhibitory effect on the growth of spoilage microorganisms. Moreover, silver migrated into the cheese matrix throughout the storage time (24 days). Silver levels in cheese finally exceeded the maximum established level for the migration of a non-authorised substance through a functional barrier (Commission of the European Communities, 2009). This result poses safety concerns and strongly suggests the need for more research aimed at better characterizing the new packaging materials in terms of their potential impacts on human health and the environment.

  16. Food safety concerns deriving from the use of silver based food packaging materials

    PubMed Central

    Pezzuto, Alessandra; Losasso, Carmen; Mancin, Marzia; Gallocchio, Federica; Piovesana, Alessia; Binato, Giovanni; Gallina, Albino; Marangon, Alberto; Mioni, Renzo; Favretti, Michela; Ricci, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    The formulation of innovative packaging solutions, exerting a functional antimicrobial role in slowing down food spoilage, is expected to have a significant impact on the food industry, allowing both the maintenance of food safety criteria for longer periods and the reduction of food waste. Different materials are considered able to exert the required antimicrobial activity, among which are materials containing silver. However, challenges exist in the application of silver to food contact materials due to knowledge gaps in the production of ingredients, stability of delivery systems in food matrices and health risks caused by the same properties which also offer the benefits. Aims of the present study were to test the effectiveness and suitability of two packaging systems, one of which contained silver, for packaging and storing Stracchino cheese, a typical Italian fresh cheese, and to investigate if there was any potential for consumers to be exposed to silver, via migration from the packaging to the cheese. Results did not show any significant difference in the effectiveness of the packaging systems on packaged Stracchino cheese, excluding that the active packaging systems exerted an inhibitory effect on the growth of spoilage microorganisms. Moreover, silver migrated into the cheese matrix throughout the storage time (24 days). Silver levels in cheese finally exceeded the maximum established level for the migration of a non-authorised substance through a functional barrier (Commission of the European Communities, 2009). This result poses safety concerns and strongly suggests the need for more research aimed at better characterizing the new packaging materials in terms of their potential impacts on human health and the environment. PMID:26500642

  17. Food safety concerns deriving from the use of silver based food packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Pezzuto, Alessandra; Losasso, Carmen; Mancin, Marzia; Gallocchio, Federica; Piovesana, Alessia; Binato, Giovanni; Gallina, Albino; Marangon, Alberto; Mioni, Renzo; Favretti, Michela; Ricci, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    The formulation of innovative packaging solutions, exerting a functional antimicrobial role in slowing down food spoilage, is expected to have a significant impact on the food industry, allowing both the maintenance of food safety criteria for longer periods and the reduction of food waste. Different materials are considered able to exert the required antimicrobial activity, among which are materials containing silver. However, challenges exist in the application of silver to food contact materials due to knowledge gaps in the production of ingredients, stability of delivery systems in food matrices and health risks caused by the same properties which also offer the benefits. Aims of the present study were to test the effectiveness and suitability of two packaging systems, one of which contained silver, for packaging and storing Stracchino cheese, a typical Italian fresh cheese, and to investigate if there was any potential for consumers to be exposed to silver, via migration from the packaging to the cheese. Results did not show any significant difference in the effectiveness of the packaging systems on packaged Stracchino cheese, excluding that the active packaging systems exerted an inhibitory effect on the growth of spoilage microorganisms. Moreover, silver migrated into the cheese matrix throughout the storage time (24 days). Silver levels in cheese finally exceeded the maximum established level for the migration of a non-authorised substance through a functional barrier (Commission of the European Communities, 2009). This result poses safety concerns and strongly suggests the need for more research aimed at better characterizing the new packaging materials in terms of their potential impacts on human health and the environment. PMID:26500642

  18. Chemical hydrogen storage material property guidelines for automotive applications

    SciTech Connect

    Semelsberger, Troy; Brooks, Kriston P.

    2015-04-01

    Chemical hydrogen storage is the sought after hydrogen storage media for automotive applications because of the expected low pressure operation (<20 atm), moderate temperature operation (<200 C), system gravimetric capacities (>0.05 kg H2/kg system), and system volumetric capacities (>0.05 kg H2/L system). Currently, the primary shortcomings of chemical hydrogen storage are regeneration efficiency, fuel cost and fuel phase (i.e., solid or slurry phase). Understanding the required material properties to meet the DOE Technical Targets for Onboard Hydrogen Storage Systems is a critical knowledge gap in the hydrogen storage research community. This study presents a set of fluid-phase chemical hydrogen storage material property guidelines for automotive applications meeting the 2017 DOE technical targets. Viable material properties were determined using a boiler-plate automotive system design. The fluid phase chemical hydrogen storage media considered in this study were neat liquids, solutions, and non-settling homogeneous slurries. Material properties examined include kinetics, heats of reaction, fuel-cell impurities, gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen storage capacities, and regeneration efficiency. The material properties, although not exhaustive, are an essential first step in identifying viable chemical hydrogen storage material propertiesdand most important, their implications on system mass, system volume and system performance.

  19. Recommended Best Practices for the Characterization of Storage Properties of Hydrogen Storage Materials

    SciTech Connect

    2010-03-01

    This is a reference guide to common methodologies and protocols for measuring critical performance properties of advanced hydrogen storage materials. It helps users to communicate clearly the relevant performance properties of new materials as they are discovered and tested.

  20. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Phase Transformations in Hydrogen Storage Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ceder, Gerbrand; Marzari, Nicola

    2011-08-31

    The aim of this project is to develop and apply computational materials science tools to determine and predict critical properties of hydrogen storage materials. By better understanding the absorption/desorption mechanisms and characterizing their physical properties it is possible to explore and evaluate new directions for hydrogen storage materials. Particular emphasis is on the determination of the structure and thermodynamics of hydrogen storage materials, the investigation of microscopic mechanisms of hydrogen uptake and release in various materials and the role of catalysts in this process. As a team we have decided to focus on a single material, NaAlH{sub 4}, in order to fully be able to study the many aspects of hydrogen storage. We have focused on phase stability, mass transport and size-dependent reaction mechanisms in this material.

  1. 7 CFR 250.14 - Warehousing, distribution and storage of donated foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... against theft, spoilage and other loss; (3) Maintain foods at proper storage temperatures; (4) Excepting... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Warehousing, distribution and storage of donated foods. 250.14 Section 250.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD...

  2. 7 CFR 250.14 - Warehousing, distribution and storage of donated foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... against theft, spoilage and other loss; (3) Maintain foods at proper storage temperatures; (4) Excepting... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Warehousing, distribution and storage of donated foods. 250.14 Section 250.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD...

  3. 7 CFR 250.14 - Warehousing, distribution and storage of donated foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... against theft, spoilage and other loss; (3) Maintain foods at proper storage temperatures; (4) Excepting... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Warehousing, distribution and storage of donated foods. 250.14 Section 250.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD...

  4. 7 CFR 250.14 - Warehousing, distribution and storage of donated foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... against theft, spoilage and other loss; (3) Maintain foods at proper storage temperatures; (4) Excepting... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Warehousing, distribution and storage of donated foods. 250.14 Section 250.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD...

  5. 7 CFR 250.14 - Warehousing, distribution and storage of donated foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... against theft, spoilage and other loss; (3) Maintain foods at proper storage temperatures; (4) Excepting... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Warehousing, distribution and storage of donated foods. 250.14 Section 250.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD...

  6. 7 CFR 250.59 - Storage and inventory management of donated foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and Other Child Nutrition Programs § 250.59 Storage and inventory... NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION DONATION OF... school food authorities must meet the requirements for storage and inventory of donated foods in §...

  7. Experimental study of optical storage characteristics of photochromic material: pyrrylfulgide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Ming; Yao, Baoli; Chen, Yi; Han, Yong; Wang, Congmin; Wang, Yingli; Menke, Neimule; Chen, Guofu; Fan, Meigong

    2003-04-01

    Optical data storage is a frontier in the information science. Currently, there are mainly two kinds of storage materials, i.e., thermal-optic and photonic materials. The storage methods are divided into serial and parallel modes. In the market, the mature technique is CD-RW, which uses the thermal-optic material and serial method. The storage density of the CD-RW is restricted by the size of material particles, the conduction of heat, etc. Besides, the recording speed is seriously limited by the process of heating. Photonic materials and parallel method will be the trend in the optical data storage. Because it is based on the photon reaction on the molecule scale, the storage density and speed will be greatly increased. In this paper, a new kind of organic photochromic material -- pyrrylfulgide was studied. A parallel optical data storage system was established. Using the pyrrylfulgide/PMMA film as a recording medium, micro-images and binary digital information could be recorded, readout and erased in this parallel system. The recorded information on the film can be kept for at least 8 months in dark at room temperature. So far, the storage density is 3 x 107 bit/cm2.

  8. Nanoclay migration from food packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Echegoyen, Yolanda; Rodríguez, Silvia; Nerín, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    A recent trend is to use nanocomposites materials for food-packaging applications. Different kinds of nanoparticles are incorporated into the polymers to improve their characteristics, and, among them, nanoclay is used to improve their barrier properties to gases. In this work, the results of migration studies with different food simulants (ethanol 10% and acetic acid 3%), temperatures and times (40 ºC for 10 days and 70 ºC for 2 h) from two commercialised LDPE nanocomposite bags are presented. The migration solutions thus obtained were analysed by ICP-MS to evaluate the amount of aluminium which migrated into the solutions both in dissolved form and as a part of nanoparticles. Aluminium migration was observed for both samples with a maximum migration value of 51.65 ng cm(-)(2) for the Aisaika bags and 24.14 ng cm(-)(2) for the Debbie Meyer bags. The presence of spikes working in single-particle mode using ICP-MS indicated that part of this aluminium was present as nanoparticles. The size and morphology of the nanoclay, in both the original material and the migration solutions, was studied by scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction (SEM-EDX). In this manner, nanoparticles of different morphologies and sizes were found to migrate into the food simulants. PMID:26751017

  9. 2S Albumin Storage Proteins: What Makes them Food Allergens?

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, F. Javier; Clemente, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    2S albumin storage proteins are becoming of increasing interest in nutritional and clinical studies as they have been reported as major food allergens in seeds of many mono- and di-cotyledonous plants. This review describes the main biochemical, structural and functional properties of these proteins thought to play a role in determining their potential allergenicity. 2S albumins are considered to sensitize directly via the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The high stability of their intrinsic protein structure, dominated by a well-conserved skeleton of cysteine residues, to the harsh conditions present in the GIT suggests that these proteins are able to cross the gut mucosal barrier to sensitize the mucosal immune system and/or elicit an allergic response. The flexible and solvent-exposed hypervariable region of these proteins is immunodominant and has the ability to bind IgE from allergic patients´ sera. Several linear IgE-binding epitopes of 2S albumins spanning this region have been described to play a major role in allergenicity; the role of conformational epitopes of these proteins in food allergy is far from being understood and need to be investigated. Finally, the interaction of these proteins with other components of the food matrix might influence the absorption rates of immunologically reactive 2S albumins but also in their immune response. PMID:18949071

  10. Graphene and graphene-based materials for energy storage applications.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jixin; Yang, Dan; Yin, Zongyou; Yan, Qingyu; Zhang, Hua

    2014-09-10

    With the increased demand in energy resources, great efforts have been devoted to developing advanced energy storage and conversion systems. Graphene and graphene-based materials have attracted great attention owing to their unique properties of high mechanical flexibility, large surface area, chemical stability, superior electric and thermal conductivities that render them great choices as alternative electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage systems. This Review summarizes the recent progress in graphene and graphene-based materials for four energy storage systems, i.e., lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors, lithium-sulfur batteries and lithium-air batteries.

  11. Multi-component hydrogen storage material

    DOEpatents

    Faheem, Syed A.; Lewis, Gregory J.; Sachtler, J.W. Adriaan; Low, John J.; Lesch, David A.; Dosek, Paul M.; Wolverton, Christopher M.; Siegel, Donald J.; Sudik, Andrea C.; Yang, Jun

    2010-09-07

    A reversible hydrogen storage composition having an empirical formula of: Li.sub.(x+z)N.sub.xMg.sub.yB.sub.zH.sub.w where 0.4.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.8; 0.2.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.0.6; 0storage compared to binary systems such as MgH.sub.2--LiNH.sub.2.

  12. NORTH ELEVATION. HAZARDOUS MATERIAL STORAGE SHED IS VISIBLE AT THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH ELEVATION. HAZARDOUS MATERIAL STORAGE SHED IS VISIBLE AT THE FAR RIGHT. DOCKSIDE STORAGE SHED IS VISIBLE IN THE DISTANCE. LAKE WORTH INLET AND THE TOWN OF PALM BEACH ARE IN THE BACKGROUND. - U.S. Coast Guard Lake Worth Inlet Station, Boathouse, Peanut Island, Riviera Beach, Palm Beach County, FL

  13. Open Government, Closed Stacks: Onsite Storage of Depository Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Aimee C.; Haslam, Michaelyn

    1998-01-01

    Examines the use of automated storage and retrieval systems in industry and in libraries. Highlights include intellectual content; and a system being built for the University of Nevada Las Vegas that takes into account selection criteria, limited stack space, and storage of federal depository materials. (LRW)

  14. Optical Storage and Retrieval of Library Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folen, Doris R.; Stackpole, Laurie E.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the newly installed optical disk storage system at the Naval Research Laboratory's Research Library and Technical Information Center. Planning and design of the system, the conversion of 140,000 reports to optical disk, the information retrieval process, and future plans are covered. (Contains nine references.) (KRN)

  15. Bases for extrapolating materials durability in fuel storage pools

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1994-12-01

    A major body of evidence indicates that zirconium alloys have the most consistent and reliable durability in wet storage, justifying projections of safe wet storage greater than 50 y. Aluminum alloys have the widest range of durabilities in wet storage; systematic control and monitoring of water chemistry have resulted in low corrosion rates for more than two decades on some fuels and components. However, cladding failures have occurred in a few months when important parameters were not controlled. Stainless steel is extremely durable when stress, metallurgical and water chemistry factors are controlled. LWR SS cladding has survived for 25 y in wet storage. However, sensitized, stressed SS fuels and components have seriously degraded in fuel storage pools (FSPs) at {approximately} 30 C. Satisfactory durability of fuel assembly and FSP component materials in extended wet storage requires investments in water quality management and surveillance, including chemical and biological factors. The key aspect of the study is to provide storage facility operators and other decision makers a basis to judge the durability of a given fuel type in wet storage as a prelude to basing other fuel management plans (e.g. dry storage) if wet storage will not be satisfactory through the expected period of interim storage.

  16. PFP Commercial Grade Food Pack Cans for Plutonium Handling and Storage Critical Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    BONADIE, E.P.

    2000-08-22

    This screening addresses the critical characteristics for food industry type cans and containers used for handling and storage of special nuclear materials at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). HNF-5460, Revision 0 specified a minimum tin plate of 0.50 Ib./base box. Since the food pack cans currently used and that have been tested have a listed tin plate of 0.20 lbs. per base box, Revision 1 reduced the tin plate to {ge} 0.20 Ib./base box (i.e., No. 20 tinned commercial steel or heavier). This revision lists Critical Characteristics for two (2) large filtered containers, and associated shielding over-packs. These new containers are called ''Nuclear Material Containers'' (NMCs). They are supplied in various sizes, which can be nested, one inside another. The PFP will use NMCs with volumes up to 8-quarts as needed to over-pack largely bulged containers.

  17. New perspectives on potential hydrogen storage materials using high pressure.

    PubMed

    Song, Yang

    2013-09-21

    In addressing the global demand for clean and renewable energy, hydrogen stands out as the most suitable candidate for many fuel applications that require practical and efficient storage of hydrogen. Supplementary to the traditional hydrogen storage methods and materials, the high-pressure technique has emerged as a novel and unique approach to developing new potential hydrogen storage materials. Static compression of materials may result in significant changes in the structures, properties and performance that are important for hydrogen storage applications, and often lead to the formation of unprecedented phases or complexes that have profound implications for hydrogen storage. In this perspective article, 22 types of representative potential hydrogen storage materials that belong to four major classes--simple hydride, complex hydride, chemical hydride and hydrogen containing materials--were reviewed. In particular, their structures, stabilities, and pressure-induced transformations, which were reported in recent experimental works together with supporting theoretical studies, were provided. The important contextual aspects pertinent to hydrogen storage associated with novel structures and transitions were discussed. Finally, the summary of the recent advances reviewed and the insight into the future research in this direction were given.

  18. SOUTH ELEVATION. THE DWELLING, FLAG TOWER, AND HAZARDOUS MATERIAL STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH ELEVATION. THE DWELLING, FLAG TOWER, AND HAZARDOUS MATERIAL STORAGE SHED ARE VISIBLE IN THE BACKGROUND. - U.S. Coast Guard Lake Worth Inlet Station, Boathouse, Peanut Island, Riviera Beach, Palm Beach County, FL

  19. 21 CFR 2.35 - Use of secondhand containers for the shipment or storage of food and animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of secondhand containers for the shipment or storage of food and animal feed. 2.35 Section 2.35 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Foods § 2.35 Use of secondhand containers for the shipment or storage of food and animal feed....

  20. 21 CFR 2.35 - Use of secondhand containers for the shipment or storage of food and animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of secondhand containers for the shipment or storage of food and animal feed. 2.35 Section 2.35 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Foods § 2.35 Use of secondhand containers for the shipment or storage of food and animal feed....

  1. 21 CFR 2.35 - Use of secondhand containers for the shipment or storage of food and animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of secondhand containers for the shipment or storage of food and animal feed. 2.35 Section 2.35 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Foods § 2.35 Use of secondhand containers for the shipment or storage of food and animal feed....

  2. 108. View showing storage yard where material is received and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    108. View showing storage yard where material is received and sorted: also shows derrick framed to raise material from tracks and land on deck of approach. Material is then moved by narrow gage locomotive out to erection traveler. - Carquinez Bridge, Spanning Carquinez Strait at Interstate 80, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  3. Polyaniline as a material for hydrogen storage applications.

    PubMed

    Attia, Nour F; Geckeler, Kurt E

    2013-07-12

    The main challenge of commercialization of the hydrogen economy is the lack of convenient and safe hydrogen storage materials, which can adsorb and release a significant amount of hydrogen at ambient conditions. Finding and designing suitable cost-effective materials are vital requirements to overcome the drawbacks of investigated materials. Because of its outstanding electronic, thermal, and chemical properties, the electrically conducting polyaniline (PANI) has a high potential in hydrogen storage applications. In this review, the progress in the use of different structures of conducting PANI, its nanocomposites as well as activated porous materials based on PANI as hydrogen storage materials is presented and discussed. The effect of the unique electronic properties based on the π-electron system in the backbone of these materials in view of the hydrogen uptake and the relevant mechanisms are highlighted.

  4. Electron Charged Graphite-based Hydrogen Storage Material

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Chinbay Q. Fan R&D Manager Office of Technology and Innovations Phone: 847 768 0812

    2012-03-14

    The electron-charge effects have been demonstrated to enhance hydrogen storage capacity using materials which have inherent hydrogen storage capacities. A charge control agent (CCA) or a charge transfer agent (CTA) was applied to the hydrogen storage material to reduce internal discharge between particles in a Sievert volumetric test device. GTI has tested the device under (1) electrostatic charge mode; (2) ultra-capacitor mode; and (3) metal-hydride mode. GTI has also analyzed the charge distribution on storage materials. The charge control agent and charge transfer agent are needed to prevent internal charge leaks so that the hydrogen atoms can stay on the storage material. GTI has analyzed the hydrogen fueling tank structure, which contains an air or liquid heat exchange framework. The cooling structure is needed for hydrogen fueling/releasing. We found that the cooling structure could be used as electron-charged electrodes, which will exhibit a very uniform charge distribution (because the cooling system needs to remove heat uniformly). Therefore, the electron-charge concept does not have any burden of cost and weight for the hydrogen storage tank system. The energy consumption for the electron-charge enhancement method is quite low or omitted for electrostatic mode and ultra-capacitor mode in comparison of other hydrogen storage methods; however, it could be high for the battery mode.

  5. Food Acquisition: Food Ingredients, Raw Materials and Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheat, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    The kind of food supply system that will serve the space station in coming years is considered. The direction and rate of evolution of space food service systems is also considered and what is needed to supply appropriate food to space station crews. Innovations in food sourcing, recipe development, pre-preparation, packaging, preservation, presentation, consumption and waste disposal are discussed. The development and validation of preparation systems and ingredients which minimize demands on crew time and provide maximum eating enjoyment is outlined.

  6. Recognizing the importance of hazardous material storage and handling

    SciTech Connect

    Strycula, J.

    1994-12-31

    Hazardous material storage and handling, of both waste and raw material, is fast becoming the greatest concern of industry, government and the general public. These concerns are compounded in fixed manufacturing facilities due to the already tremendous pressure and scrutiny of government agencies and public watchdogs. Meeting hazardous material management regulations and guidelines head-on minimizes risk and practically eliminates penalties and fines. The Safety or Environmental Director at the facility must not only be concerned with the safe methods of storage and handling of these materials, but also aware of the methods that must be implemented to most effectively minimize and control accidents involving fluid spills, fires, explosions, or air contamination.

  7. DOE nuclear material packaging manual: storage container requirements for plutonium oxide materials

    SciTech Connect

    Veirs, D Kirk

    2009-01-01

    Loss of containment of nuclear material stored in containers such as food-pack cans, paint cans, or taped slip lid cans has generated concern about packaging requirements for interim storage of nuclear materials in working facilities such as the plutonium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In response, DOE has recently issued DOE M 441.1 'Nuclear Material Packaging Manual' with encouragement from the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. A unique feature compared to transportation containers is the allowance of filters to vent flammable gases during storage. Defining commonly used concepts such as maximum allowable working pressure and He leak rate criteria become problematic when considering vented containers. Los Alamos has developed a set of container requirements that are in compliance with 441.1 based upon the activity of heat-source plutonium (90% Pu-238) oxide, which bounds the requirements for weapons-grade plutonium oxide. The pre and post drop-test He leak rates depend upon container size as well as the material contents. For containers that are routinely handled, ease of handling and weight are a major consideration. Relatively thin-walled containers with flat bottoms are desired yet they cannot be He leak tested at a differential pressure of one atmosphere due to the potential for plastic deformation of the flat bottom during testing. The He leak rates and He leak testing configuration for containers designed for plutonium bearing materials will be presented. The approach to meeting the other manual requirements such as corrosion and thermal degradation resistance will be addressed. The information presented can be used by other sites to evaluate if their conditions are bounded by LANL requirements when considering procurement of 441.1 compliant containers.

  8. Phase Change Material Systems for High Temperature Heat Storage.

    PubMed

    Perraudin, David Y S; Binder, Selmar R; Rezaei, Ehsan; Ortonaa, Alberto; Haussener, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Efficient, cost effective, and stable high-temperature heat storage material systems are important in applications such as high-temperature industrial processes (metal processing, cement and glass manufacturing, etc.), or electricity storage using advanced adiabatic compressed air energy storage. Incorporating phase change media into heat storage systems provides an advantage of storing and releasing heat at nearly constant temperature, allowing steady and optimized operation of the downstream processes. The choice of, and compatibility of materials and encapsulation for the phase change section is crucial, as these must guarantee good and stable performance and long lifetime at low cost. Detailed knowledge of the material properties and stability, and the coupled heat transfer, phase change, and fluid flow are required to allow for performance and lifetime predictions. We present coupled experimental-numerical techniques allowing prediction of the long-term performance of a phase change material-based high-temperature heat storage system. The experimental investigations focus on determination of material properties (melting temperature, heat of fusion, etc.) and phase change material and encapsulation interaction (stability, interface reactions, etc.). The computational investigations focus on an understanding of the multi-mode heat transfer, fluid flow, and phase change processes in order to design the material system for enhanced performance. The importance of both the experimental and numerical approaches is highlighted and we give an example of how both approaches can be complementarily used for the investigation of long-term performance. PMID:26842330

  9. SRS K-AREA MATERIAL STORAGE - EXPANDING CAPABILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, R.

    2013-07-02

    In support of the Department of Energy’s continued plans to de-inventory and reduce the footprint of Cold War era weapons’ material production sites, the K-Area Material Storage (KAMS) facility, located in the K-Area Complex (KAC) at the Savannah River Site reservation, has expanded since its startup authorization in 2000 to accommodate DOE’s material consolidation mission. During the facility’s growth and expansion, KAMS will have expanded its authorization capability of material types and storage containers to allow up to 8200 total shipping containers once the current expansion effort completes in 2014. Recognizing the need to safely and cost effectively manage other surplus material across the DOE Complex, KAC is constantly evaluating the storage of different material types within K area. When modifying storage areas in KAC, the Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) must undergo extensive calculations and reviews; however, without an extensive and proven security posture the possibility for expansion would not be possible. The KAC maintains the strictest adherence to safety and security requirements for all the SNM it handles. Disciplined Conduct of Operations and Conduct of Projects are demonstrated throughout this historical overview highlighting various improvements in capability, capacity, demonstrated cost effectiveness and utilization of the KAC as the DOE Center of Excellence for safe and secure storage of surplus SNM.

  10. Biomimetic materials for protein storage and transport

    DOEpatents

    Firestone, Millicent A.; Laible, Philip D.

    2012-05-01

    The invention provides a method for the insertion of protein in storage vehicles and the recovery of the proteins from the vehicles, the method comprising supplying isolated protein; mixing the isolated protein with a fluid so as to form a mixture, the fluid comprising saturated phospholipids, lipopolymers, and a surfactant; cycling the mixture between a first temperature and a second temperature; maintaining the mixture as a solid for an indefinite period of time; diluting the mixture in detergent buffer so as to disrupt the composition of the mixture, and diluting to disrupt the fluid in its low viscosity state for removal of the guest molecules by, for example, dialysis, filtering or chromatography dialyzing/filtering the emulsified solid.

  11. Food Service Course. Bilingual Vocational Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Cox, Guadalupe

    This course in food services, one of a series of bilingual English-Spanish vocational education courses, is designed to familiarize the student with the food service operation of a restaurant, cafeteria, fast-food operation, hospital, nursing home, industrial or educational facility, food caterer, or bakery. The student should become versatile in…

  12. Thermal Analysis of Storage Cans Containing Special Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jerrell, J.W.

    2000-11-17

    A series of thermal analyses have been completed for ten storage can configurations representing various cases of materials stored in F-Area. The analyses determine the temperatures of the cans, the special nuclear material, and the air sealed within the cans. Analyses to aid in understanding the effect of oxide accumulation and metal aging on temperatures are also included.

  13. Sterol oxidation in ready-to-eat infant foods during storage.

    PubMed

    García-Llatas, Guadalupe; Cercaci, Luisito; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Lagarda, M Jesús; Farré, Rosaura; Lercker, Giovanni

    2008-01-23

    The effect of storage on sterol oxidation of ready-to-eat infant foods was evaluated. Two different liquid infant foods (honey or fruits flavors), prepared with milk and cereals, were stored for 0, 2, 4, 7 and 9 months at 25 degrees C. Sterol oxidation products (SOP) were isolated by cold saponification, purified by silica solid-phase extraction, and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry. beta-Sitosterol was the most representative sterol, followed by cholesterol and campesterol. No significant differences in the total and single SOP content (0.8-1 mg/kg of product) were observed with respect to storage time and type of sample; the main SOP found was 7-ketositosterol (<0.2 mg/kg of product). The extent of stigmasterol oxidation (2.9%) was higher than that of cholesterol (1.9%) and beta-sitosterol (1.4%). The type and quality of raw materials, as well as the processing conditions, seem to greatly influence SOP formation and accumulation in infant foods.

  14. PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS IN FLOOR TILES FOR THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas C. Hittle

    2002-10-01

    Passive solar systems integrated into residential structures significantly reduce heating energy consumption. Taking advantage of latent heat storage has further increased energy savings. This is accomplished by the incorporation of phase change materials into building materials used in passive applications. Trombe walls, ceilings and floors can all be enhanced with phase change materials. Increasing the thermal storage of floor tile by the addition of encapsulated paraffin wax is the proposed topic of research. Latent heat storage of a phase change material (PCM) is obtained during a change in phase. Typical materials use the latent heat released when the material changes from a liquid to a solid. Paraffin wax and salt hydrates are examples of such materials. Other PCMs that have been recently investigated undergo a phase transition from one solid form to another. During this process they will release heat. These are known as solid-state phase change materials. All have large latent heats, which makes them ideal for passive solar applications. Easy incorporation into various building materials is must for these materials. This proposal will address the advantages and disadvantages of using these materials in floor tile. Prototype tile will be made from a mixture of quartz, binder and phase change material. The thermal and structural properties of the prototype tiles will be tested fully. It is expected that with the addition of the phase change material the structural properties will be compromised to some extent. The ratio of phase change material in the tile will have to be varied to determine the best mixture to provide significant thermal storage, while maintaining structural properties that meet the industry standards for floor tile.

  15. A single-component liquid-phase hydrogen storage material.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wei; Campbell, Patrick G; Zakharov, Lev N; Liu, Shih-Yuan

    2011-12-01

    The current state-of-the-art for hydrogen storage is compressed H(2) at 700 bar. The development of a liquid-phase hydrogen storage material has the potential to take advantage of the existing liquid-based distribution infrastructure. We describe a liquid-phase hydrogen storage material that is a liquid under ambient conditions (i.e., at 20 °C and 1 atm pressure), air- and moisture-stable, and recyclable; releases H(2) controllably and cleanly at temperatures below or at the proton exchange membrane fuel cell waste-heat temperature of 80 °C; utilizes catalysts that are cheap and abundant for H(2) desorption; features reasonable gravimetric and volumetric storage capacity; and does not undergo a phase change upon H(2) desorption.

  16. Method of encapsulating solid radioactive waste material for storage

    DOEpatents

    Bunnell, Lee Roy; Bates, J. Lambert

    1976-01-01

    High-level radioactive wastes are encapsulated in vitreous carbon for long-term storage by mixing the wastes as finely divided solids with a suitable resin, formed into an appropriate shape and cured. The cured resin is carbonized by heating under a vacuum to form vitreous carbon. The vitreous carbon shapes may be further protected for storage by encasement in a canister containing a low melting temperature matrix material such as aluminum to increase impact resistance and improve heat dissipation.

  17. Carbon Materials for Chemical Capacitive Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai, Yunpu; Dou, Yuqian; Zhao, Dongyuan; Fulvio, Pasquale F.; Mayes, Richard T.; Dai, Sheng

    2011-09-26

    Carbon materials have attracted intense interests as electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors, because of their high surface area, electrical conductivity, chemical stability and low cost. Activated carbons produced by different activation processes from various precursors are the most widely used electrodes. Recently, with the rapid growth of nanotechnology, nanostructured electrode materials, such as carbon nanotubes and template-synthesized porous carbons have been developed. Their unique electrical properties and well controlled pore sizes and structures facilitate fast ion and electron transportation. In order to further improve the power and energy densities of the capacitors, carbon-based composites combining electrical double layer capacitors (EDLC)-capacitance and pseudo-capacitance have been explored. They show not only enhanced capacitance, but as well good cyclability. In this review, recent progresses on carbon-based electrode materials are summarized, including activated carbons, carbon nanotubes, and template-synthesized porous carbons, in particular mesoporous carbons. Their advantages and disadvantages as electrochemical capacitors are discussed. At the end of this review, the future trends of electrochemical capacitors with high energy and power are proposed.

  18. Carbon materials for chemical capacitive energy storage.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yunpu; Dou, Yuqian; Zhao, Dongyuan; Fulvio, Pasquale F; Mayes, Richard T; Dai, Sheng

    2011-11-01

    Carbon materials have attracted intense interests as electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors, because of their high surface area, electrical conductivity, chemical stability and low cost. Activated carbons produced by different activation processes from various precursors are the most widely used electrodes. Recently, with the rapid growth of nanotechnology, nanostructured electrode materials, such as carbon nanotubes and template-synthesized porous carbons have been developed. Their unique electrical properties and well controlled pore sizes and structures facilitate fast ion and electron transportation. In order to further improve the power and energy densities of the capacitors, carbon-based composites combining electrical double layer capacitors (EDLC)-capacitance and pseudo-capacitance have been explored. They show not only enhanced capacitance, but as well good cyclability. In this review, recent progresses on carbon-based electrode materials are summarized, including activated carbons, carbon nanotubes, and template-synthesized porous carbons, in particular mesoporous carbons. Their advantages and disadvantages as electrochemical capacitors are discussed. At the end of this review, the future trends of electrochemical capacitors with high energy and power are proposed. PMID:21953940

  19. Carbon materials for chemical capacitive energy storage.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yunpu; Dou, Yuqian; Zhao, Dongyuan; Fulvio, Pasquale F; Mayes, Richard T; Dai, Sheng

    2011-11-01

    Carbon materials have attracted intense interests as electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors, because of their high surface area, electrical conductivity, chemical stability and low cost. Activated carbons produced by different activation processes from various precursors are the most widely used electrodes. Recently, with the rapid growth of nanotechnology, nanostructured electrode materials, such as carbon nanotubes and template-synthesized porous carbons have been developed. Their unique electrical properties and well controlled pore sizes and structures facilitate fast ion and electron transportation. In order to further improve the power and energy densities of the capacitors, carbon-based composites combining electrical double layer capacitors (EDLC)-capacitance and pseudo-capacitance have been explored. They show not only enhanced capacitance, but as well good cyclability. In this review, recent progresses on carbon-based electrode materials are summarized, including activated carbons, carbon nanotubes, and template-synthesized porous carbons, in particular mesoporous carbons. Their advantages and disadvantages as electrochemical capacitors are discussed. At the end of this review, the future trends of electrochemical capacitors with high energy and power are proposed.

  20. Halloysite nanotubes as hydrogen storage materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jiao; Zhang, Yi; Ouyang, Jing; Yang, Huaming

    2014-05-01

    The hydrogen adsorption capacities of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), subjected to different treatments, were investigated at room temperature. The three different treatments included thermal, acid, and palladium modification. The hydrogen adsorption capacity of the HNTs was 0.436 % at 2.63 MPa and 298 K whereas those of the thermally treated HNTs, palladium-modified HNTs (Pd-HNTs), and acid-treated HNTs (A-HNTs), under the same conditions, were 0.263, 1.143, and 1.371 %, respectively. The hydrogen adsorption capacities of both HNTs and treated HNTs are among the highest values reported in the literature so far. Large surface areas were advantageous in promoting hydrogen adsorption via a physisorption mechanism, which was directly related to the aluminosilicate structure of HNTs. It was also possible to enhance the hydrogen adsorption capacity through a chemisorption or spillover mechanism by modifying HNTs with Pd. The HNTs and treated HNTs show potential as physisorption-based mediums for hydrogen storage at room temperature, in particular HNTs and A-HNTs show excellent stability and high hydrogen adsorption capacities.

  1. Magnetic Resonance Studies of Energy Storage Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez Reina, Rafael

    In today's society there is high demand to have access to energy for portable devices in different forms. Capacitors with high performance in small package to achieve high charge/discharge rates, and batteries with their ability to store electricity and make energy mobile are part of this demand. The types of internal dielectric material strongly affect the characteristics of a capacitor, and its applications. In a battery, the choice of the electrolyte plays an important role in the Solid Electrolyte Interphase (SEI) formation, and the cathode material for high output voltage. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy are research techniques that exploit the magnetic properties of the electron and certain atomic nuclei to determine physical and chemical properties of the atoms or molecules in which they are contained. Both EPR and NMR spectroscopy technique can yield meaningful structural and dynamic information. Three different projects are discussed in this dissertation. First, High energy density capacitors where EPR measurements described herein provide an insight into structural and chemical differences in the dielectric material of a capacitor. Next, as the second project, Electrolyte solutions where an oxygen-17 NMR study has been employed to assess the degree of preferential solvation of Li+ ions in binary mixtures of EC (ethylene carbonate) and DMC (dimethyl carbonate) containing LiPF6 (lithium hexafluo-rophosphate) which may be ultimately related to the SEI formation mechanism. The third project was to study Bismuth fluoride as cathode material for rechargeable batteries. The objective was to study 19F and 7Li MAS NMR of some nanocomposite cathode materials as a conversion reaction occurring during lithiation and delithation of the BiF3/C nanocomposite.

  2. Inventory extension considerations for long-term storage at the nuclear materials storage facility

    SciTech Connect

    Olinger, C.T.; Stanbro, W.D.; Longmire, V.; Argo, P.E.; Nielson, S.M.

    1996-09-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is in the process of modifying its nuclear materials storage facility to a long-term storage configuration. In support of this effort, we examined technical and administrative means to extend periods between physical inventories. Both the frequency and sample size during a physical inventory could significantly impact required sizing of the non-destructive assay (NDA) laboratory as well as material handling capabilities. Several options are being considered, including (1) treating each storage location as a separate vault, (2) minimizing the number of items returned for quantitative analysis by optimizing the use of in situ confirmatory measurements, and (3) utilizing advanced monitoring technologies. Careful consideration of these parameters should allow us to achieve and demonstrate safe and secure storage while minimizing the impact on facility operations and without having to increase the size of the NDA laboratory beyond that required for anticipated shipping and receiving activities.

  3. Fluid Latent Heat Storage Material Using Ethanol Water Mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkubo, Hidetoshi; Yasunari, Yuki

    Ethanol water mixture has a liquidus line ( or crystallizing line) and a solidus line (or melting line) that are separated, and therefore it can have both liquid and solid phases existing together. With advances in low temperature technology in recent days, ethanol water mixture is attaching more and more attention as an environment-friendly coolant or as a thermal storage material. In the present study, we observed the crystallization process in the mixture and carried out experiments to evaluate fluidity of the mixture, with the objective of utilizing an ethanol water mixture as a coolant or a thermal energy storage material. Crystal formation and growing process within a minute droplet of a binary mixture was modeled. As a result, we found a novel method to produce a fluid latent heat storage material continuously and an apparent coefficient of viscosity show that rotational speed and solid phase fraction have a strong effect on the fluidity of the mixture.

  4. Types, production and assessment of biobased food packaging materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food packaging performs an essential function, but packaging materials can have a negative impact on the environment. This book describes the latest advances in bio-based food packaging materials. Book provides a comprehensive review on bio-based, biodegradable and recycled materials and discusses t...

  5. Automation in a material processing/storage facility

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, K.; Gordon, J.

    1997-05-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently developing a new facility, the Actinide Packaging and Storage Facility (APSF), to process and store legacy materials from the United States nuclear stockpile. A variety of materials, with a variety of properties, packaging and handling/storage requirements, will be processed and stored at the facility. Since these materials are hazardous and radioactive, automation will be used to minimize worker exposure. Other benefits derived from automation of the facility include increased throughput capacity and enhanced security. The diversity of materials and packaging geometries to be handled poses challenges to the automation of facility processes. In addition, the nature of the materials to be processed underscores the need for safety, reliability and serviceability. The application of automation in this facility must, therefore, be accomplished in a rational and disciplined manner to satisfy the strict operational requirements of the facility. Among the functions to be automated are the transport of containers between process and storage areas via an Automatic Guided Vehicle (AGV), and various processes in the Shipping Package Unpackaging (SPU) area, the Accountability Measurements (AM) area, the Special Isotope Storage (SIS) vault and the Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) vault. Other areas of the facility are also being automated, but are outside the scope of this paper.

  6. Mesoporous materials for energy conversion and storage devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Liu, Jun; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2016-06-01

    To meet the growing energy demands in a low-carbon economy, the development of new materials that improve the efficiency of energy conversion and storage systems is essential. Mesoporous materials offer opportunities in energy conversion and storage applications owing to their extraordinarily high surface areas and large pore volumes. These properties may improve the performance of materials in terms of energy and power density, lifetime and stability. In this Review, we summarize the primary methods for preparing mesoporous materials and discuss their applications as electrodes and/or catalysts in solar cells, solar fuel production, rechargeable batteries, supercapacitors and fuel cells. Finally, we outline the research and development challenges of mesoporous materials that need to be overcome to increase their contribution in renewable energy applications.

  7. Inventory extension at the Nuclear Materials Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Stanbro, W.D.; Longmire, V.; Olinger, C.T.; Argo, P.E.

    1996-09-01

    The planned renovation of the Nuclear Material Storage Facility (NMSF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory will be a significant addition to the plutonium storage capacity of the nuclear weapons complex. However, the utility of the facility may be impaired by an overly conservative approach to performing inventories of material in storage. This report examines options for taking advantage of provisions in Department of Energy orders to extend the time between inventories. These extensions are based on a combination of modern surveillance technology, facility design features, and revised operational procedures. The report also addresses the possibility that NMSF could be the site of some form of international inspection as part of the US arms control and nonproliferation policy.

  8. The Study of Importance of the Balance Space Food -Storage Method -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Providing foods to space crew is the important requirements to support long term manned space exploration. Foods fill not only physiological requirements to sustain life, but psychological needs for refreshment and joy during the long and hard mission to extraterrestrial planets. We designed joyful and healthy recipe with materials, which can be produced by the bio-regenerative agricultural system operated at limited resources available in Mars base, Moon base and spaceship. We need to think about how to use the storage food when we have the time of emergency. The pupa of the silkworm becomes the important nourishment source as protein and lipid. The silk thread uses it as clothing and cosmetics and medical supplies. However, we can use the silk thread as food as protein. The silk thread is mad of sericin and fibroin. The sericin is used for cosmetics mainly, but can make sheet food by mixing it with rice flour. We can make Japanese rolled sushi with this product. In addition, we can make spring roll and gyoza and shao-mai. As for the fibroin which is the subject of the silk thread, is to extract it high pressure heat; of the protein can powder it, and can use it as food. Even if there is the silk thread in this way after having made it clothes once, we can do it to food again. We can reuse the cotton thread as carbohydrates equally, too. We can use the wood as carbohydrates, also. Based upon the foregoing, we use the pupa of the silkworm as protein and lipid, and the silk thread as protein, and the cotton thread and wood as carbohydrates. It is recommended as healthy meal balance; Protein: Lipid: Carbohydrate ratio equal 15-20We succeeded to develop joyful and nutritious space recipe at the end. Since energy consumption for physical exercise activities under micro-or sub-gravity is less than the terrestrial case, choice of our space foods is essencial to suppress blood sugar level, and prevent the metabolic syndrome. Because of less need of agricultural resources

  9. Composite Materials for Thermal Energy Storage: Enhancing Performance through Microstructures

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Zhiwei; Ye, Feng; Ding, Yulong

    2014-01-01

    Chemical incompatibility and low thermal conductivity issues of molten-salt-based thermal energy storage materials can be addressed by using microstructured composites. Using a eutectic mixture of lithium and sodium carbonates as molten salt, magnesium oxide as supporting material, and graphite as thermal conductivity enhancer, the microstructural development, chemical compatibility, thermal stability, thermal conductivity, and thermal energy storage performance of composite materials are investigated. The ceramic supporting material is essential for preventing salt leakage and hence provides a solution to the chemical incompatibility issue. The use of graphite gives a significant enhancement on the thermal conductivity of the composite. Analyses suggest that the experimentally observed microstructural development of the composite is associated with the wettability of the salt on the ceramic substrate and that on the thermal conduction enhancer. PMID:24591286

  10. Composite materials for thermal energy storage: enhancing performance through microstructures.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zhiwei; Ye, Feng; Ding, Yulong

    2014-05-01

    Chemical incompatibility and low thermal conductivity issues of molten-salt-based thermal energy storage materials can be addressed by using microstructured composites. Using a eutectic mixture of lithium and sodium carbonates as molten salt, magnesium oxide as supporting material, and graphite as thermal conductivity enhancer, the microstructural development, chemical compatibility, thermal stability, thermal conductivity, and thermal energy storage performance of composite materials are investigated. The ceramic supporting material is essential for preventing salt leakage and hence provides a solution to the chemical incompatibility issue. The use of graphite gives a significant enhancement on the thermal conductivity of the composite. Analyses suggest that the experimentally observed microstructural development of the composite is associated with the wettability of the salt on the ceramic substrate and that on the thermal conduction enhancer. PMID:24591286

  11. Storage of nuclear materials by encapsulation in fullerenes

    DOEpatents

    Coppa, Nicholas V.

    1994-01-01

    A method of encapsulating radioactive materials inside fullerenes for stable long-term storage. Fullerenes provide a safe and efficient means of disposing of nuclear waste which is extremely stable with respect to the environment. After encapsulation, a radioactive ion is essentially chemically isolated from its external environment.

  12. Depolarization of ultracold neutrons during their storage in material bottles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serebrov, A. P.; Lasakov, M. S.; Vassiljev, A. V.; Krasnoschekova, I. A.; Rudnev, Yu. P.; Fomin, A. K.; Varlamov, V. E.; Geltenbort, P.; Butterworth, J.; Young, A. R.; Pesavento, U.

    2003-07-01

    The depolarization of ultracold neutrons (UCN) during their storage in traps has been investigated. The neutron spin-flip probability for the materials studied amounts to ∼(1-2)×10 -5 per collision and does not depend on the temperature. The possible connection between the phenomenon of UCN depolarization and that of anomalous losses is discussed.

  13. Diffused holographic information storage and retrieval using photorefractive optical materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillen, Deanna Kay

    Holography offers a tremendous opportunity for dense information storage, theoretically one bit per cubic wavelength of material volume, with rapid retrieval, of up to thousands of pages of information simultaneously. However, many factors prevent the theoretical storage limit from being reached, including dynamic range problems and imperfections in recording materials. This research explores new ways of moving closer to practical holographic information storage and retrieval by altering the recording materials, in this case, photorefractive crystals, and by increasing the current storage capacity while improving the information retrieved. As an experimental example of the techniques developed, the information retrieved is the correlation peak from an optical recognition architecture, but the materials and methods developed are applicable to many other holographic information storage systems. Optical correlators can potentially solve any signal or image recognition problem. Military surveillance, fingerprint identification for law enforcement or employee identification, and video games are but a few examples of applications. A major obstacle keeping optical correlators from being universally accepted is the lack of a high quality, thick (high capacity) holographic recording material that operates with red or infrared wavelengths which are available from inexpensive diode lasers. This research addresses the problems from two positions: find a better material for use with diode lasers, and reduce the requirements placed on the material while maintaining an efficient and effective system. This research found that the solutions are new dopants introduced into photorefractive lithium niobate to improve wavelength sensitivities and the use of a novel inexpensive diffuser that reduces the dynamic range and optical element quality requirements (which reduces the cost) while improving performance. A uniquely doped set of 12 lithium niobate crystals was specified and

  14. Metallic phase change material thermal storage for Dish Stirling

    SciTech Connect

    Andraka, C. E.; Kruizenga, A. M.; Hernandez-Sanchez, B. A.; Coker, E. N.

    2015-06-05

    Dish-Stirling systems provide high-efficiency solar-only electrical generation and currently hold the world record at 31.25%. This high efficiency results in a system with a high possibility of meeting the DOE SunShot goal of $0.06/kWh. However, current dish-Stirling systems do not incorporate thermal storage. For the next generation of non-intermittent and cost-competitive solar power plants, we propose adding a thermal energy storage system that combines latent (phase-change) energy transport and latent energy storage in order to match the isothermal input requirements of Stirling engines while also maximizing the exergetic efficiency of the entire system. This paper reports current findings in the area of selection, synthesis and evaluation of a suitable high performance metallic phase change material (PCM) as well as potential interactions with containment alloy materials. The metallic PCM's, while more expensive than salts, have been identified as having substantial performance advantages primarily due to high thermal conductivity, leading to high exergetic efficiency. Systems modeling has indicated, based on high dish Stirling system performance, an allowable cost of the PCM storage system that is substantially higher than SunShot goals for storage cost on tower systems. Several PCM's are identified with suitable melting temperature, cost, and performance.

  15. Metallic phase change material thermal storage for Dish Stirling

    DOE PAGES

    Andraka, C. E.; Kruizenga, A. M.; Hernandez-Sanchez, B. A.; Coker, E. N.

    2015-06-05

    Dish-Stirling systems provide high-efficiency solar-only electrical generation and currently hold the world record at 31.25%. This high efficiency results in a system with a high possibility of meeting the DOE SunShot goal of $0.06/kWh. However, current dish-Stirling systems do not incorporate thermal storage. For the next generation of non-intermittent and cost-competitive solar power plants, we propose adding a thermal energy storage system that combines latent (phase-change) energy transport and latent energy storage in order to match the isothermal input requirements of Stirling engines while also maximizing the exergetic efficiency of the entire system. This paper reports current findings in themore » area of selection, synthesis and evaluation of a suitable high performance metallic phase change material (PCM) as well as potential interactions with containment alloy materials. The metallic PCM's, while more expensive than salts, have been identified as having substantial performance advantages primarily due to high thermal conductivity, leading to high exergetic efficiency. Systems modeling has indicated, based on high dish Stirling system performance, an allowable cost of the PCM storage system that is substantially higher than SunShot goals for storage cost on tower systems. Several PCM's are identified with suitable melting temperature, cost, and performance.« less

  16. Synthesis and Thermodynamic Studies of Physisorptive Energy Storage Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadie, Nicholas

    Physical adsorption of hydrogen or other chemical fuels on the surface of carbonaceous materials offers a promising avenue for energy storage applications. The addition of a well-chosen sorbent material to a compressed gas tank increases the volumetric energy density of the system while still permitting fast refueling, simplicity of design, complete reversibility, high cyclability, and low overall cost of materials. While physical adsorption is most effective at temperatures below ambient, effective storage technologies are possible at room temperature and modestly high pressure. A volumetric Sieverts apparatus was designed, constructed, and commissioned to accurately measure adsorption uptake at high pressures and an appropriate thermodynamic treatment of the experimental data is presented. In Chapter 1, the problem of energy storage is introduced in the context of hydrogen as an ideal alternative fuel for future mobile vehicle applications, and with methane in mind as a near-term solution. The theory of physical adsorption that is relevant to this work is covered in Chapter 2. In-depth studies of two classes of materials are presented in the final chapters. Chapter 3 presents a study of the dissociative "hydrogen spillover" effect in the context of its viability as a practical hydrogen storage solution at room temperature. Chapters 4-5 deal with zeolite-templated carbon, an extremely high surface-area material which shows promise for hydrogen and methane storage applications. Studies of hydrogen adsorption at high pressure (Chapter 4) and anomalous thermodynamic properties of methane adsorption (Chapter 5) on ZTCs are presented. The concluding chapter discusses the impact of and possible future directions for this work.

  17. Leaching of Silver from Silver-Impregnated Food Storage Containers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauri, James F.; Niece, Brian K.

    2011-01-01

    The use of silver in commercial products has proliferated in recent years owing to its antibacterial properties. Food containers impregnated with micro-sized silver promise long food life, but there is some concern because silver can leach out of the plastic and into the stored food. This laboratory experiment gives students the opportunity to…

  18. Effect of storage on tensile material properties of bovine liver.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuan-Chiao; Kemper, Andrew R; Untaroiu, Costin D

    2014-01-01

    Cadaveric tissue models play an important role in the assessment and optimization of novel restraint systems for reducing abdominal injuries. However, the effect of tissue preservation by means of freezing on the material properties of abdominal tissues remains unknown. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of frozen storage time on the material responses of the liver parenchyma in tensile loading. Specimens from ten bovine livers were equally divided into three groups: fresh, 30-day frozen storage, and 60-day frozen storage. All preserved specimens were stored at -12°C. Dog-bone specimens from each preservation group were randomly assigned to one of three strain rates (0.01s(-1), 0.1s(-1), and 1.0s(-1)) and tested to failure in tensile loading. The local material response recorded at the tear location and the global material response of the whole specimen of the liver parenchyma specimens were investigated based on the experimental data and optimized analytical material models. The local and global failure strains decreased significantly between fresh specimens and specimens preserved for 30 days (p<0.05), and between fresh specimens and specimens preserved for 60 days (p<0.05) for all three loading rates. Changes on the material model parameters were also observed between fresh and preserved specimens. Preservation by means of frozen storage was found to affect both the material and failure response of bovine liver parenchyma in tensile loading. The stiffness of the tissue increased with increased preservation time and increased strain rate. In summary, significant changes (p<0.05) between the failure strain of previously frozen liver parenchyma samples and fresh samples were demonstrated at both global and local levels in this study. In addition, nonlinear and viscoelastic characteristics of the liver parenchyma were observed in tension for both fresh and preserved samples.

  19. Applications of thermal energy storage to waste heat recovery in the food processing industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojnar, F.; Lunberg, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    A study to assess the potential for waste heat recovery in the food industry and to evaluate prospective waste heat recovery system concepts employing thermal energy storage was conducted. The study found that the recovery of waste heat in canning facilities can be performed in significant quantities using systems involving thermal energy storage that are both practical and economical. A demonstration project is proposed to determine actual waste heat recovery costs and benefits and to encourage system implementation by the food industry.

  20. Nanostructured Mo-based electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xianluo; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Mei, Yueni; Huang, Yunhui

    2015-04-21

    The development of advanced energy storage devices is at the forefront of research geared towards a sustainable future. Nanostructured materials are advantageous in offering huge surface to volume ratios, favorable transport features, and attractive physicochemical properties. They have been extensively explored in various fields of energy storage and conversion. This review is focused largely on the recent progress in nanostructured Mo-based electrode materials including molybdenum oxides (MoO(x), 2 ≤ x ≤ 3), dichalconides (MoX2, X = S, Se), and oxysalts for rechargeable lithium/sodium-ion batteries, Mg batteries, and supercapacitors. Mo-based compounds including MoO2, MoO3, MoO(3-y) (0 < y < 1), MMo(x)O(y) (M = Fe, Co, Ni, Ca, Mn, Zn, Mg, or Cd; x = 1, y = 4; x = 3, y = 8), MoS2, MoSe2, (MoO2)2P2O7, LiMoO2, Li2MoO3, etc. possess multiple valence states and exhibit rich chemistry. They are very attractive candidates for efficient electrochemical energy storage systems because of their unique physicochemical properties, such as conductivity, mechanical and thermal stability, and cyclability. In this review, we aim to provide a systematic summary of the synthesis, modification, and electrochemical performance of nanostructured Mo-based compounds, as well as their energy storage applications in lithium/sodium-ion batteries, Mg batteries, and pseudocapacitors. The relationship between nanoarchitectures and electrochemical performances as well as the related charge-storage mechanism is discussed. Moreover, remarks on the challenges and perspectives of Mo-containing compounds for further development in electrochemical energy storage applications are proposed. This review sheds light on the sustainable development of advanced rechargeable batteries and supercapacitors with nanostructured Mo-based electrode materials.

  1. 40 CFR 411.30 - Applicability; description of the materials storage piles runoff subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... runoff of rainfall which derives from the storage of materials including raw materials, intermediate... materials storage piles runoff subcategory. 411.30 Section 411.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Materials Storage Piles Runoff Subcategory § 411.30 Applicability; description of the materials...

  2. Cobalt phosphide as a new anode material for sodium storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei-Jie; Yang, Qiu-Ran; Chou, Shu-Lei; Wang, Jia-Zhao; Liu, Hua-Kun

    2015-10-01

    A novel anode material for sodium ion batteries - nanosized CoP particles - was synthesized by a facile and productive ball-milling method. The CoP was tested as an anode candidate for sodium ion batteries. It delivered a high initial specific capacity of 770 mAh g-1, and excellent rate capability, demonstrating that CoP is a promising anode candidate for sodium ion storage. Ex-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy were carried out to investigate the sodium storage mechanism of CoP.

  3. Flexible nanodielectric materials with high permittivity for power energy storage.

    PubMed

    Dang, Zhi-Min; Yuan, Jin-Kai; Yao, Sheng-Hong; Liao, Rui-Jin

    2013-11-26

    Study of flexible nanodielectric materials (FNDMs) with high permittivity is one of the most active academic research areas in advanced functional materials. FNDMs with excellent dielectric properties are demonstrated to show great promise as energy-storage dielectric layers in high-performance capacitors. These materials, in common, consist of nanoscale particles dispersed into a flexible polymer matrix so that both the physical/chemical characteristics of the nanoparticles and the interaction between the nanoparticles and the polymers have crucial effects on the microstructures and final properties. This review first outlines the crucial issues in the nanodielectric field and then focuses on recent remarkable research developments in the fabrication of FNDMs with special constitutents, molecular structures, and microstructures. Possible reasons for several persistent issues are analyzed and the general strategies to realize FNDMs with excellent integral properties are summarized. The review further highlights some exciting examples of these FNDMs for power-energy-storage applications.

  4. Evaluation of thermal energy storage materials for advanced compressed air energy storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zaloudek, F.R.; Wheeler, K.R.; Marksberry, L.

    1983-03-01

    Advanced Compressed-Air Energy Storage (ACAS) plants have the near-term potential to reduce the fuel consumption of compressed-air plants from 33 to 100%, depending upon their design. Fuel is saved by storing some or all of the heat of compression as sensible heat which is subsequently used to reheat the compressed air prior to expansion in the turbine generator. The thermal storage media required for this application must be low cost and durable. The objective of this project was to screen thermal store materials based on their thermal cycle durability, particulate formation and corrosion resistant characteristics. The materials investigated were iron oxide pellets, Denstone pebbles, cast-iron balls, and Dresser basalt rock. The study specifically addressed the problems of particle formation and thermal ratcheting of the materials during thermal cycling and the chemical attack on the materials by the high temperature and moist environment in an ACAS heat storage bed. The results indicate that from the durability standpoint Denstone, cast iron containing 27% or more chromium, and crushed Dresser basalt would possibly stand up to ACAS conditions. If costs are considered in addition to durability and performance, the crushed Dresser basalt would probably be the most desirable heat storage material for adiabatic and hybrid ACAS plants, and more in-depth longer term thermal cycling and materials testing of Dresser basalt is recommended. Also recommended is the redesign and costing analysis of both the hybrid and adiabatic ACAS facilities based upon the use of Dresser basalt as the thermal store material.

  5. Rapid Charging of Thermal Energy Storage Materials through Plasmonic Heating

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhongyong; Tao, Peng; Liu, Yang; Xu, Hao; Ye, Qinxian; Hu, Hang; Song, Chengyi; Chen, Zhaoping; Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Direct collection, conversion and storage of solar radiation as thermal energy are crucial to the efficient utilization of renewable solar energy and the reduction of global carbon footprint. This work reports a facile approach for rapid and efficient charging of thermal energy storage materials by the instant and intense photothermal effect of uniformly distributed plasmonic nanoparticles. Upon illumination with both green laser light and sunlight, the prepared plasmonic nanocomposites with volumetric ppm level of filler concentration demonstrated a faster heating rate, a higher heating temperature and a larger heating area than the conventional thermal diffusion based approach. With controlled dispersion, we further demonstrated that the light-to-heat conversion and thermal storage properties of the plasmonic nanocomposites can be fine-tuned by engineering the composition of the nanocomposites. PMID:25175717

  6. Materials Science and Materials Chemistry for Large Scale Electrochemical Energy Storage: From Transportation to Electrical Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang; Yang, Zhenguo; Lemmon, John P.; Imhoff, Carl H.; Graff, Gordon L.; Li, Liyu; Hu, Jian Z.; Wang, Chong M.; Xiao, Jie; Xia, Guanguang; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Baskaran, Suresh; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Li, Xiaolin; Shao, Yuyan; Schwenzer, Birgit

    2013-02-15

    Large-scale electrical energy storage has become more important than ever for reducing fossil energy consumption in transportation and for the widespread deployment of intermittent renewable energy in electric grid. However, significant challenges exist for its applications. Here, the status and challenges are reviewed from the perspective of materials science and materials chemistry in electrochemical energy storage technologies, such as Li-ion batteries, sodium (sulfur and metal halide) batteries, Pb-acid battery, redox flow batteries, and supercapacitors. Perspectives and approaches are introduced for emerging battery designs and new chemistry combinations to reduce the cost of energy storage devices.

  7. High capacity hydrogen storage materials: attributes for automotive applications and techniques for materials discovery.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Sudik, Andrea; Wolverton, Christopher; Siegel, Donald J

    2010-02-01

    Widespread adoption of hydrogen as a vehicular fuel depends critically upon the ability to store hydrogen on-board at high volumetric and gravimetric densities, as well as on the ability to extract/insert it at sufficiently rapid rates. As current storage methods based on physical means--high-pressure gas or (cryogenic) liquefaction--are unlikely to satisfy targets for performance and cost, a global research effort focusing on the development of chemical means for storing hydrogen in condensed phases has recently emerged. At present, no known material exhibits a combination of properties that would enable high-volume automotive applications. Thus new materials with improved performance, or new approaches to the synthesis and/or processing of existing materials, are highly desirable. In this critical review we provide a practical introduction to the field of hydrogen storage materials research, with an emphasis on (i) the properties necessary for a viable storage material, (ii) the computational and experimental techniques commonly employed in determining these attributes, and (iii) the classes of materials being pursued as candidate storage compounds. Starting from the general requirements of a fuel cell vehicle, we summarize how these requirements translate into desired characteristics for the hydrogen storage material. Key amongst these are: (a) high gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen density, (b) thermodynamics that allow for reversible hydrogen uptake/release under near-ambient conditions, and (c) fast reaction kinetics. To further illustrate these attributes, the four major classes of candidate storage materials--conventional metal hydrides, chemical hydrides, complex hydrides, and sorbent systems--are introduced and their respective performance and prospects for improvement in each of these areas is discussed. Finally, we review the most valuable experimental and computational techniques for determining these attributes, highlighting how an approach that

  8. Down Select Report of Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials, Catalysts, and Spent Fuel Regeneration Processes - May 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Kevin C.; Linehan, Sue; Lipiecki, Frank; Christopher, Aardahl L.

    2008-05-12

    Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center of Excellence FY2008 Second Quarter Milestone Report: Technical report describing assessment of hydrogen storage materials and progress towards meeting DOE’s hydrogen storage targets.

  9. Flexible composite material with phase change thermal storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, Theresa M. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A highly flexible composite material having a flexible matrix containing a phase change thermal storage material. The composite material can be made to heat or cool the body or to act as a thermal buffer to protect the wearer from changing environmental conditions. The composite may also include an external thermal insulation layer and/or an internal thermal control layer to regulate the rate of heat exchange between the composite and the skin of the wearer. Other embodiments of the PCM composite also provide 1) a path for evaporation or direct absorption of perspiration from the skin of the wearer for improved comfort and thermal control, 2) heat conductive pathways within the material for thermal equalization, 3) surface treatments for improved absorption or rejection of heat by the material, and 4) means for quickly regenerating the thermal storage capacity for reuse of the material. Applications of the composite materials are also described which take advantage of the composite's thermal characteristics. The examples described include a diver's wet suit, ski boot liners, thermal socks, ,gloves and a face mask for cold weather activities, and a metabolic heating or cooling blanket useful for treating hypothermia or fever patients in a medical setting and therapeutic heating or cooling orthopedic joint supports.

  10. Flexible composite material with phase change thermal storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, Theresa M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A highly flexible composite material having a flexible matrix containing a phase change thermal storage material. The composite material can be made to heat or cool the body or to act as a thermal buffer to protect the wearer from changing environmental conditions. The composite may also include an external thermal insulation layer and/or an internal thermal control layer to regulate the rate of heat exchange between the composite and the skin of the wearer. Other embodiments of the PCM composite also provide 1) a path for evaporation or direct absorption of perspiration from the skin of the wearer for improved comfort and thermal control, 2) heat conductive pathways within the material for thermal equalization, 3) surface treatments for improved absorption or rejection of heat by the material, and 4) means for quickly regenerating the thermal storage capacity for reuse of the material. Applications of the composite materials are also described which take advantage of the composite's thermal characteristics. The examples described include a diver's wet suit, ski boot liners, thermal socks, gloves and a face mask for cold weather activities, and a metabolic heating or cooling blanket useful for treating hypothermia or fever patients in a medical setting and therapeutic heating or cooling orthopedic joint supports.

  11. Distribution, abundance, and seasonal patterns of stored product beetles in a commercial food storage facility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A three-year monitoring study was performed using pitfall traps baited with pheromone lures and food oil to assess seasonal prevalence of stored product beetles inside a large community food storage warehouse located in the Midwestern US. The four primary species captured were Tribolium castaneum (H...

  12. Thermodynamically Tuned Nanophase Materials for reversible Hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect

    Ping Liu; John J. Vajo

    2010-02-28

    This program was devoted to significantly extending the limits of hydrogen storage technology for practical transportation applications. To meet the hydrogen capacity goals set forth by the DOE, solid-state materials consisting of light elements were developed. Many light element compounds are known that have high capacities. However, most of these materials are thermodynamically too stable, and they release and store hydrogen much too slowly for practical use. In this project we developed new light element chemical systems that have high hydrogen capacities while also having suitable thermodynamic properties. In addition, we developed methods for increasing the rates of hydrogen exchange in these new materials. The program has significantly advanced (1) the application of combined hydride systems for tuning thermodynamic properties and (2) the use of nanoengineering for improving hydrogen exchange. For example, we found that our strategy for thermodynamic tuning allows both entropy and enthalpy to be favorably adjusted. In addition, we demonstrated that using porous supports as scaffolds to confine hydride materials to nanoscale dimensions could improve rates of hydrogen exchange by > 50x. Although a hydrogen storage material meeting the requirements for commercial development was not achieved, this program has provided foundation and direction for future efforts. More broadly, nanoconfinment using scaffolds has application in other energy storage technologies including batteries and supercapacitors. The overall goal of this program was to develop a safe and cost-effective nanostructured light-element hydride material that overcomes the thermodynamic and kinetic barriers to hydrogen reaction and diffusion in current materials and thereby achieve > 6 weight percent hydrogen capacity at temperatures and equilibrium pressures consistent with DOE target values.

  13. Lignin Based Carbon Materials for Energy Storage Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori; Rios, Orlando; Johs, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of Li-ion battery technology into electric and hybrid electric vehicles and portable electronic devices such as smart phones, laptops and tablets, creates a demand for efficient, economic and sustainable materials for energy storage. However, the high cost and long processing time associated with manufacturing battery-grade anode and cathode materials are two big constraints for lowering the total cost of batteries and environmentally friendly electric vehicles. Lignin, a byproduct of the pulp and paper industry and biorefinery, is one of the most abundant and inexpensive natural biopolymers. It can be efficiently converted to low cost carbon fibers with optimal properties for use as anode materials. Recent developments in the preparation of lignin precursors and conversion to carbon fiber-based anode materials have created a new class of anode materials with excellent electrochemical characteristics suitable for immediate use in existing Li- or Na-ion battery technologies.

  14. Heat storage system utilizing phase change materials government rights

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O.

    2000-09-12

    A thermal energy transport and storage system is provided which includes an evaporator containing a mixture of a first phase change material and a silica powder, and a condenser containing a second phase change material. The silica powder/PCM mixture absorbs heat energy from a source such as a solar collector such that the phase change material forms a vapor which is transported from the evaporator to the condenser, where the second phase change material melts and stores the heat energy, then releases the energy to an environmental space via a heat exchanger. The vapor is condensed to a liquid which is transported back to the evaporator. The system allows the repeated transfer of thermal energy using the heat of vaporization and condensation of the phase change material.

  15. Importance of storage time in mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste.

    PubMed

    Lü, Fan; Xu, Xian; Shao, Liming; He, Pinjing

    2016-07-01

    Storage was used as a pretreatment to enhance the methanization performance of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste. Food wastes were separately stored for 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 12days, and then fed into a methanogenic reactor for a biochemical methane potential (BMP) test lasting up to 60days. Relative to the methane production of food waste stored for 0-1day (285-308mL/g-added volatile solids (VSadded)), that after 2-4days and after 5-12days of storage increased to 418-530 and 618-696mL/g-VSadded, respectively. The efficiency of hydrolysis and acidification of pre-stored food waste in the methanization reactors increased with storage time. The characteristics of stored waste suggest that methane production was not correlated with the total hydrolysis efficiency of organics in pre-stored food waste but was positively correlated with the storage time and acidification level of the waste. From the results, we recommend 5-7days of storage of food waste in anaerobic digestion treatment plants.

  16. Importance of storage time in mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste.

    PubMed

    Lü, Fan; Xu, Xian; Shao, Liming; He, Pinjing

    2016-07-01

    Storage was used as a pretreatment to enhance the methanization performance of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste. Food wastes were separately stored for 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 12days, and then fed into a methanogenic reactor for a biochemical methane potential (BMP) test lasting up to 60days. Relative to the methane production of food waste stored for 0-1day (285-308mL/g-added volatile solids (VSadded)), that after 2-4days and after 5-12days of storage increased to 418-530 and 618-696mL/g-VSadded, respectively. The efficiency of hydrolysis and acidification of pre-stored food waste in the methanization reactors increased with storage time. The characteristics of stored waste suggest that methane production was not correlated with the total hydrolysis efficiency of organics in pre-stored food waste but was positively correlated with the storage time and acidification level of the waste. From the results, we recommend 5-7days of storage of food waste in anaerobic digestion treatment plants. PMID:27372120

  17. Positive Active Material For Alkaline Electrolyte Storage Battert Nickel Electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Bernard, Patrick; Baudry, Michelle

    2000-12-05

    A method of manufacturing a positive active material for nickel electrodes of alkaline storage batteries which consists of particles of hydroxide containing mainly nickel and covered with a layer of a hydroxide phase based on nickel and yttrium is disclosed. The proportion of the hydroxide phase is in the range 0.15% to 3% by weight of yttrium expressed as yttrium hydroxide relative to the total weight of particles.

  18. Environmental Projects. Volume 9: Construction of hazardous materials storage facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Activities at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC) are carried out in support of seven parabolic dish antennas. These activities may give rise to environmental hazards. This report is one in a series of reports describing environmental projects at GDSCC. The construction of two hazardous materials and wastes storage facilities and an acid-wash facility is described. An overview of the Goldstone complex is also presented along with a description of the environmental aspects of the GDSCC site.

  19. Clay-supported graphene materials: application to hydrogen storage.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-García, Cristina; Pérez-Carvajal, Javier; Berenguer-Murcia, Angel; Darder, Margarita; Aranda, Pilar; Cazorla-Amorós, Diego; Ruiz-Hitzky, Eduardo

    2013-11-14

    The present work refers to clay-graphene nanomaterials prepared by a green way using caramel from sucrose and two types of natural clays (montmorillonite and sepiolite) as precursors, with the aim of evaluating their potential use in hydrogen storage. The impregnation of the clay substrates by caramel in aqueous media, followed by a thermal treatment in the absence of oxygen of these clay-caramel intermediates gives rise to graphene-like materials, which remain strongly bound to the silicate support. The nature of the resulting materials was characterized by different techniques such as XRD, Raman spectroscopy and TEM, as well as by adsorption isotherms of N2, CO2 and H2O. These carbon-clay nanocomposites can act as adsorbents for hydrogen storage, achieving, at 298 K and 20 MPa, over 0.1 wt% of hydrogen adsorption excess related to the total mass of the system, and a maximum value close to 0.4 wt% of hydrogen specifically related to the carbon mass. The very high isosteric heat for hydrogen sorption determined from adsorption isotherms at different temperatures (14.5 kJ mol(-1)) fits well with the theoretical values available for hydrogen storage on materials that show a strong stabilization of the H2 molecule upon adsorption.

  20. Factors Influencing the Dielectric Properties of Agricultural and Food Materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dielectric properties of materials are defined, and the major factors that influence these properties of agricultural and food materials, namely, frequency of the applied radio-frequency or microwave electric fields, and water content, temperature, and density of the materials, are discussed on the ...

  1. Storage Stability and Improvement of Intermediate Moisture Foods, Phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labuza, T. P.

    1975-01-01

    Methods were determined for the improvement of shelf-life stability of intermediate moisture foods (IMF). Microbial challenge studies showed that protection against molds and Staphylococcus aureus could be achieved by a combination of antimicrobial agents, humectants and food acids. Potassium sorbate and propylene glycol gave the best results. It was also confirmed that the maximum in heat resistance shown by vegetative pathogens at intermediate water activities also occurred in a solid food. Glycols and sorbitol both achieve browning inhibition because of their action as a medium for reaction and effect on viscosity of the adsorbed phase. Chemical availability results showed rapid lysine loss before visual discoloration occurred. This is being confirmed with a biological test using Tetrahymena pyriformis W. Accelerated temperature tests show that effectiveness of food antioxidants against rancidity development can be predicted; however, the protection factor changes with temperature. BHA was found to be the best antioxidant for iron catalyzed oxidation.

  2. Cultural repertoires and food-related household technology within colonia households under conditions of material hardship

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Mexican-origin women in the U.S. living in colonias (new-destination Mexican-immigrant communities) along the Texas-Mexico border suffer from a high incidence of food insecurity and diet-related chronic disease. Understanding environmental factors that influence food-related behaviors among this population will be important to improving the well-being of colonia households. This article focuses on cultural repertoires that enable food choice and the everyday uses of technology in food-related practice by Mexican-immigrant women in colonia households under conditions of material hardship. Findings are presented within a conceptual framework informed by concepts drawn from sociological accounts of technology, food choice, culture, and material hardship. Methods Field notes were provided by teams of promotora-researchers (indigenous community health workers) and public-health professionals trained as participant observers. They conducted observations on three separate occasions (two half-days during the week and one weekend day) within eight family residences located in colonias near the towns of Alton and San Carlos, Texas. English observations were coded inductively and early observations stressed the importance of technology and material hardship in food-related behavior. These observations were further explored and coded using the qualitative data package Atlas.ti. Results Technology included kitchen implements used in standard and adapted configurations and household infrastructure. Residents employed tools across a range of food-related activities identified as forms of food acquisition, storage, preparation, serving, feeding and eating, cleaning, and waste processing. Material hardships included the quality, quantity, acceptability, and uncertainty dimensions of food insecurity, and insufficient consumption of housing, clothing and medical care. Cultural repertoires for coping with material hardship included reliance on inexpensive staple foods and

  3. Food Preparation Principles for Home and Community Services. Student Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpton, James L.

    These student learning materials deal with food preparation. The following topics are covered in the individual units: types of food service jobs and their educational requirements; safety and fire prevention; sanitation; use and care of hand tools and utensils; care and use of equipment; counter service; cashiering; fry stations; dining room…

  4. Overview of light interaction with food and biological materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter presents the basic phenomena occurring during the interaction of light with biological and food materials, which form the foundation for different light scattering techniques that have been developed for property, quality and safety assessment of food and agricultural products. We first...

  5. Fuels from Biomass: Integration with Food and Materials Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipinsky, E. S.

    1978-01-01

    The development of fuels from biomass can lead naturally to dispersed facilities that incorporate food or materials production (or both) with fuel production. The author analyzes possible systems based on sugarcane, corn, and guayule. (Author/MA)

  6. Food packaging materials and radiation processing of food: A brief review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuaqui-Offermanns, N.

    Food is usually packaged to prevent microbial contamination and spoilage. Ionizing radiation can be applied to food-packaging materials in two ways: (i) sterilization of packaging materials for aseptic packaging, and (ii) radiation processing of prepackaged food. In aseptic packaging, a sterile package is filled with a sterile product in a microbiologically controlled environment. In irradiation of prepackaged food, the food and the packaging material are irradiated simultaneously. For both applications, the radiation stability of the packaging material is a key consideration if the technology is to be used successfully. To demonstrate the radiation stability of the packaging material, it must be shown that irradiation does not significantly alter the physical and chemical properties of the material. The irradiated material must protect the food from environmental contamination while maintaining its organoleptic and toxicological properties. Single-layer plastics cannot meet the requirements of either application. Multilayered structures produced by coextrusion would likely satisfy the demands of radiation processing prepackaged food. In aseptic packaging, the package is irradiated prior to filling, making demands on toxicological safety less stringent. Therefore, multilayered structures produced by coextrusion, lamination or co-injection moulding could satisfy the requirements.

  7. THE USE OF RAW FOODS AS SKIN TESTING MATERIAL IN ALLERGIC DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Ancona, Giacomo R.; Schumacher, Irwin C.

    1950-01-01

    Frozen foods for skin testing were prepared, stored and used by a simple, practicable, and inexpensive method. The capacity of raw foods to produce immunologically positive skin reactions by the scratch test method was reaffirmed. Storage in the frozen state for several months and thawing immediately before using for one series of tests did not affect the allergenic properties of the material. Raw foods were found to be innocuous to the skin and non-urticariogenic in allergic as well as in non-allergic persons. Raw foods, by the scratch test method, induced true positive reactions of a larger size and in greater numbers than the corresponding commercial extracts in the same series of subjects tested. PMID:14792335

  8. Material handling for the Los Alamos National Laboratory Nuclear Material Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Pittman, P.; Roybal, J.; Durrer, R.; Gordon, D.

    1999-04-01

    This paper will present the design and application of material handling and automation systems currently being developed for the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Nuclear Material Storage Facility (NMSF) renovation project. The NMSF is a long-term storage facility for nuclear material in various forms. The material is stored within tubes in a rack called a basket. The material handling equipment range from simple lift assist devices to more sophisticated fully automated robots, and are split into three basic systems: a Vault Automation System, an NDA automation System, and a Drum handling System. The Vault Automation system provides a mechanism to handle a basket of material cans and to load/unload storage tubes within the material vault. In addition, another robot is provided to load/unload material cans within the baskets. The NDA Automation System provides a mechanism to move material within the small canister NDA laboratory and to load/unload the NDA instruments. The Drum Handling System consists of a series of off the shelf components used to assist in lifting heavy objects such as pallets of material or drums and barrels.

  9. Improved thermal storage material for portable life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellner, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    The availability of thermal storage materials that have heat absorption capabilities substantially greater than water-ice in the same temperature range would permit significant improvements in performance of projected portable thermal storage cooling systems. A method for providing increased heat absorption by the combined use of the heat of solution of certain salts and the heat of fusion of water-ice was investigated. This work has indicated that a 30 percent solution of potassium bifluoride (KHF2) in water can absorb approximately 52 percent more heat than an equal weight of water-ice, and approximately 79 percent more heat than an equal volume of water-ice. The thermal storage material can be regenerated easily by freezing, however, a lower temperature must be used, 261 K as compared to 273 K for water-ice. This work was conducted by the United Aircraft Research Laboratories as part of a program at Hamilton Standard Division of United Aircraft Corporation under contract to NASA Ames Research Center.

  10. Engineered Materials for Cesium and Strontium Storage Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sean M. McDeavitt

    2010-04-14

    Closing the nuclear fuel cycle requires reprocessing spent fuel to recover the long-lived components that still have useful energy content while immobilizing the remnant waste fission products in stable forms. At the genesis of this project, next generation spent fuel reprocessing methods were being developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative. One of these processes was focused on solvent extraction schemes to isolate cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from spent nuclear fuel. Isolating these isotopes for short-term decay storage eases the design requirements for long-term repository disposal; a significant amount of the radiation and decay heat in fission product waste comes from Cs-137 and Sr-90. For the purposes of this project, the Fission Product Extraction (FPEX) process is being considered to be the baseline extraction method. The objective of this project was to evaluate the nature and behavior of candidate materials for cesium and strontium immobilization; this will include assessments with minor additions of yttrium, barium, and rubidium in these materials. More specifically, the proposed research achieved the following objectives (as stated in the original proposal): (1) Synthesize simulated storage ceramics for Cs and Sr using an existing labscale steam reformer at Purdue University. The simulated storage materials will include aluminosilicates, zirconates and other stable ceramics with the potential for high Cs and Sr loading. (2) Characterize the immobilization performance, phase structure, thermal properties and stability of the simulated storage ceramics. The ceramic products will be stable oxide powders and will be characterized to quantify their leach resistance, phase structure, and thermophysical properties. The research progressed in two stages. First, a steam reforming process was used to generate candidate Cs/Sr storage materials for characterization. This portion of the research was carried out at Purdue

  11. Sol-gel Technology and Advanced Electrochemical Energy Storage Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Chung-tse; Zheng, Haixing

    1996-01-01

    Advanced materials play an important role in the development of electrochemical energy devices such as batteries, fuel cells, and electrochemical capacitors. The sol-gel process is a versatile solution for use in the fabrication of ceramic materials with tailored stoichiometry, microstructure, and properties. This processing technique is particularly useful in producing porous materials with high surface area and low density, two of the most desirable characteristics for electrode materials. In addition,the porous surface of gels can be modified chemically to create tailored surface properties, and inorganic/organic micro-composites can be prepared for improved material performance device fabrication. Applications of several sol-gel derived electrode materials in different energy storage devices are illustrated in this paper. V2O5 gels are shown to be a promising cathode material for solid state lithium batteries. Carbon aerogels, amorphous RuO2 gels and sol-gel derived hafnium compounds have been studied as electrode materials for high energy density and high power density electrochemical capacitors.

  12. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food. 570.14 Section 570.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD...

  13. Material synthesis and hydrogen storage of palladium-rhodium alloy.

    SciTech Connect

    Lavernia, Enrique J.; Yang, Nancy Y. C.; Ong, Markus D.

    2011-08-01

    Pd and Pd alloys are candidate material systems for Tr or H storage. We have actively engaged in material synthesis and studied the material science of hydrogen storage for Pd-Rh alloys. In collaboration with UC Davis, we successfully developed/optimized a supersonic gas atomization system, including its processing parameters, for Pd-Rh-based alloy powders. This optimized system and processing enable us to produce {le} 50-{mu}m powders with suitable metallurgical properties for H-storage R&D. In addition, we studied hydrogen absorption-desorption pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) behavior using these gas-atomized Pd-Rh alloy powders. The study shows that the pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) behavior of Pd-Rh alloys is strongly influenced by its metallurgy. The plateau pressure, slope, and H/metal capacity are highly dependent on alloy composition and its chemical distribution. For the gas-atomized Pd-10 wt% Rh, the absorption plateau pressure is relatively high and consistent. However, the absorption-desorption PCT exhibits a significant hysteresis loop that is not seen from the 30-nm nanopowders produced by chemical precipitation. In addition, we observed that the presence of hydrogen introduces strong lattice strain, plastic deformation, and dislocation networking that lead to material hardening, lattice distortions, and volume expansion. The above observations suggest that the H-induced dislocation networking is responsible for the hysteresis loop seen in the current atomized Pd-10 wt% Rh powders. This conclusion is consistent with the hypothesis suggested by Flanagan and others (Ref 1) that plastic deformation or dislocations control the hysteresis loop.

  14. 10 CFR 20.1802 - Control of material not in storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Control of material not in storage. 20.1802 Section 20.1802 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Storage and Control of Licensed Material § 20.1802 Control of material not in storage. The licensee shall control...

  15. 10 CFR 20.1802 - Control of material not in storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control of material not in storage. 20.1802 Section 20.1802 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Storage and Control of Licensed Material § 20.1802 Control of material not in storage. The licensee shall control...

  16. 10 CFR 20.1802 - Control of material not in storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control of material not in storage. 20.1802 Section 20.1802 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Storage and Control of Licensed Material § 20.1802 Control of material not in storage. The licensee shall control...

  17. 10 CFR 20.1802 - Control of material not in storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Control of material not in storage. 20.1802 Section 20.1802 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Storage and Control of Licensed Material § 20.1802 Control of material not in storage. The licensee shall control...

  18. 10 CFR 20.1802 - Control of material not in storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control of material not in storage. 20.1802 Section 20.1802 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Storage and Control of Licensed Material § 20.1802 Control of material not in storage. The licensee shall control...

  19. Enhancing pseudocapacitive charge storage in polymer templated mesoporous materials.

    PubMed

    Rauda, Iris E; Augustyn, Veronica; Dunn, Bruce; Tolbert, Sarah H

    2013-05-21

    Growing global energy demands coupled with environmental concerns have increased the need for renewable energy sources. For intermittent renewable sources like solar and wind to become available on demand will require the use of energy storage devices. Batteries and supercapacitors, also known as electrochemical capacitors (ECs), represent the most widely used energy storage devices. Supercapacitors are frequently overlooked as an energy storage technology, however, despite the fact that these devices provide greater power, much faster response times, and longer cycle life than batteries. Their limitation is that the energy density of ECs is significantly lower than that of batteries, and this has limited their potential applications. This Account reviews our recent work on improving pseudocapacitive energy storage performance by tailoring the electrode architecture. We report our studies of mesoporous transition metal oxide architectures that store charge through surface or near-surface redox reactions, a phenomenon termed pseudocapacitance. The faradaic nature of pseudocapacitance leads to significant increases in energy density and thus represents an exciting future direction for ECs. We show that both the choice of material and electrode architecture is important for producing the ideal pseudocapacitor device. Here we first briefly review the current state of electrode architectures for pseudocapacitors, from slurry electrodes to carbon/metal oxide composites. We then describe the synthesis of mesoporous films made with amphiphilic diblock copolymer templating agents, specifically those optimized for pseudocapacitive charge storage. These include films synthesized from nanoparticle building blocks and films made from traditional battery materials. In the case of more traditional battery materials, we focus on using flexible architectures to minimize the strain associated with lithium intercalation, that is, the accumulation of lithium ions or atoms between the

  20. Food ellagitannins-occurrence, effects of processing and storage.

    PubMed

    Bakkalbaşi, Emre; Menteş, Ozay; Artik, Nevzat

    2009-03-01

    Interest in ellagitannins and ellagic acid has increased over the past few years due to its properties as a micronutrient. Ellagitannins are complex plant polyphenols composed of hexahydroxydiphenoyl moieties esterified to a sugar. Fruits (especially berries and nuts) are rich sources of ellagitannins and ellagic acid, a hydrolytic product of ellagitannins. These secondary metabolites give the characteristic taste to the fruits and their products, and also play an important role in food processing. This paper reviews research about occurrence in foods, change during process, and antioxidant activity of ellagitannins and ellagic acid. PMID:19093271

  1. Food material properties and early hominin processing techniques.

    PubMed

    Zink, Katherine D; Lieberman, Daniel E; Lucas, Peter W

    2014-12-01

    Although early Homo is hypothesized to have used tools more than australopiths to process foods prior to consumption, it is unknown how much the food processing techniques they used altered the material properties of foods, and therefore the masticatory forces they generated, and how well they were able to comminute foods. This study presents experimental data on changes to food material properties caused by mechanical tenderization (pounding with a stone tool) and cooking (dry roasting) of two foods likely to have been important components of the hominin diet: meat and tubers. Mechanical tenderization significantly decreased tuber toughness by 42%, but had no effect on meat toughness. Roasting significantly decreased several material properties of tubers correlated with masticatory effort including toughness (49%), fracture stress (28%) and elastic modulus (45%), but increased the toughness (77%), fracture stress (50%-222%), and elastic modulus of muscle fibers in meat (308%). Despite increasing many material properties of meat associated with higher masticatory forces, roasting also decreased measured energy loss by 28%, which likely makes it easier to chew. These results suggest that the use of food processing techniques by early Homo probably differed for meat and tubers, but together would have reduced masticatory effort, helping to relax selection to maintain large, robust faces and large, thickly enameled teeth.

  2. Development of thermal energy storage materials for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Shukla, A; Sharma, Atul; Shukla, Manjari; Chen, C R

    2015-01-01

    The phase change materials (PCMs) have been utilized widely for solar thermal energy storage (TES) devices. The quality of these materials to remain at a particular temperature during solid-liquid, liquid-solid phase transition can also be utilized for many biomedical applications as well and has been explored in recent past already. This study reports some novel PCMs developed by them, along with some existing PCMs, to be used for such biomedical applications. Interestingly, it was observed that the heating/cooling properties of these PCMs enhance the quality of a variety of biomedical applications with many advantages (non-electric, no risk of electric shock, easy to handle, easy to recharge thermally, long life, cheap and easily available, reusable) over existing applications. Results of the present study are quite interesting and exciting, opening a plethora of opportunities for more work on the subject, which require overlapping expertise of material scientists, biochemists and medical experts for broader social benefits. PMID:26103988

  3. Soft electron processor for surface sterilization of food material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Takashi; Kaneko, Hiromi; Taniguchi, Shuichi

    2004-09-01

    As frozen or chilled foods have become popular nowadays, it has become very important to provide raw materials with lower level microbial contamination to food processing companies. Consequently, the sterilization of food material is one of the major topics for food processing. Dried materials like grains, beans and spices, etc., are not typically deeply contaminated by microorganisms, which reside on the surfaces of materials, so it is very useful to take low energetic, lower than 300 keV, electrons with small penetration power (Soft-Electrons), as a sterilization method for such materials. Soft-Electrons is researched and named by Dr. Hayashi et al. This is a non-thermal method, so one can keep foods hygienic without serious deterioration. It is also a physical method, so is free from residues of chemicals in foods. Recently, Nissin-High Voltage Co., Ltd. have developed and manufactured equipment for commercial use of Soft-Electrons (Soft Electron Processor), which can process 500 kg/h of grains. This report introduces the Soft Electron Processor and shows the results of sterilization of wheat and brown rice by the equipment.

  4. Coupling of exothermic and endothermic hydrogen storage materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Bowden, Mark E.; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Houghton, Adrian Y.; Autrey, S. Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Chemical hydrogen storage (CHS) materials are a high-storage-density alternative to the gaseous compressed hydrogen currently used to provide hydrogen for fuel cell vehicles. One of the challenges of CHS materials is addressing the energy barriers required to break the chemical bonds and release the hydrogen. Coupling CHS reactions that are endothermic and exothermic during dehydrogenation can improve onboard energy efficiency and thermal control for the system, making such materials viable. Acceptable coupling between reactions requires both thermodynamic and kinetic considerations. In this work, models were developed to predict the reaction enthalpy and rate required to achieve high conversions for both reactions based on experimental measurements. Modeling results show that the coupling efficiency of exothermic and endothermic reactions is more sensitive to the ratio of the exothermic and endothermic enthalpies than to the ratio of the rates of the two steps. Modeling results also show that a slower endothermic step rate is desirable to permit sufficient heating of the reactor by the exothermic step. We look at two examples of a sequential and parallel reaction scheme and provide some of the first published insight into the required temperature range to maximize the hydrogen release from 1,2-BN cyclohexane and indoline.

  5. Charge induced enhancement of adsorption for hydrogen storage materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiang

    2009-12-01

    The rising concerns about environmental pollution and global warming have facilitated research interest in hydrogen energy as an alternative energy source. To apply hydrogen for transportations, several issues have to be solved, within which hydrogen storage is the most critical problem. Lots of materials and devices have been developed; however, none is able to meet the DOE storage target. The primary issue for hydrogen physisorption is a weak interaction between hydrogen and the surface of solid materials, resulting negligible adsorption at room temperature. To solve this issue, there is a need to increase the interaction between the hydrogen molecules and adsorbent surface. In this study, intrinsic electric dipole is investigated to enhance the adsorption energy. The results from the computer simulation of single ionic compounds with hydrogen molecules to form hydrogen clusters showed that electrical charge of substances plays an important role in generation of attractive interaction with hydrogen molecules. In order to further examine the effects of static interaction on hydrogen adsorption, activated carbon with a large surface area was impregnated with various ionic salts including LiCl, NaCl, KCl, KBr, and NiCl2 and their performance for hydrogen storage was evaluated by using a volumetric method. Corresponding computer simulations have been carried out by using DFT (Density Functional Theory) method combined with point charge arrays. Both experimental and computational results prove that the adsorption capacity of hydrogen and its interaction with the solid materials increased with electrical dipole moment. Besides the intrinsic dipole, an externally applied electric field could be another means to enhance hydrogen adsorption. Hydrogen adsorption under an applied electric field was examined by using porous nickel foil as electrodes. Electrical signals showed that adsorption capacity increased with the increasing of gas pressure and external electric voltage

  6. Storage life of parachutes -- long time material degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Ericksen, R.H.; Whinery, L.D.

    1995-04-01

    This study considers the long-time storage of single-use nylon and Kevlar{reg_sign} parachutes. The authors present data from a 29-year-old nylon parachute, and nylon and Kevlar{reg_sign} test samples stored 14 years under ambient conditions in the absence of sunlight. They compare the results with existing predictions of parachute material degradation and other aging data. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses were preformed on Nylon and Kevlar{reg_sign} fabrics that were degraded by elevated temperature aging. The results suggest that this technique should be further examined as a {open_quotes}non-destructive{close_quotes} method of detecting degradation.

  7. Nanoporous and Nanostructured Materials for Energy Storage and Sensor Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Anh D.

    The major objective of this work is to design nanostructured and nanoporous materials targeting the special needs of the energy storage and sensing fields. Nanostructured and nanoporous materials are increasingly finding applications in many fields, including electrical energy storage and explosive sensing. The advancement of energy storage devices is important to the development of three fields that have strong effects on human society: renewable energy, transportation, and portable devices. More sensitive explosive sensors will help to prevent terrorism activities and boost national security. Hierarchically porous LiFePO4 (LFP)/C composites were prepared using a surfactant and colloidal crystals as dual templates. The surfactant serves as the template for mesopores and polymeric colloidal spheres serve as the template for macropores. The confinement of the surfactant-LFP-carbon precursor in the colloidal templates is crucial to suppress the fast crystallization of LFP and helps to maintain the ordered structure. The obtained composites with high surface areas and ordered porous structure showed excellent rate performance when used as cathode materials for LIBs, which will allow them to be used as a power source for EVs and HEVs. The synthesis of LiFePO 4 in three dimensionally confined spaces within the colloidal template resulted in the formation of spherical particles. Densely packed LiFePO 4 spheres in a carbon matrix were obtained by spin-casting the LFP-carbon precursor on a quartz substrate and then pyrolyzing it. The product showed high capacity and could be charged /discharged with very little capacity fading over many cycles. Three-dimensionally ordered mesoporous carbons were prepared from nano-sized silica sphere colloidal crystal templates. These materials with very high surface areas and ordered porous structure showed high capacitance and excellent rate capability when used as electrodes for supercapacitors. Mesoporous silica thin films of different

  8. High performance construction materials for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, C.L.

    1996-12-31

    Mixed hazardous/radioactive waste treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities are often required to either withstand harsh service environments or in the case of disposal facilities exhibit an extremely long service life. The default construction material, Portland cement based concrete (PCC) does not always meet the challenge. For example, many radioactive waste processing facilities are constructed with PCC and then lined with stainless steel. The stainless steel liner is added to provide a surface which can be decontaminated. Installation of the stainless steel liner is both expensive and labor intensive. Similarly, hazardous waste facilities generally require concrete surfaces to be lined with a material that reduces the permeability of the concrete and provides resistance to the harsh chemical environment prevalent in such facilities. This paper is a highly condensed report of the results of a research effort designed to expand the engineering knowledge on two alternate materials which exhibit properties that would allow them to replace the stainless steel lined concrete combination. The two materials are: (1) ICOM, a composite concrete made from a proprietary blend of resins, corrosion-resistant fillers and fine aggregates, and (2) sulfur concrete (SC) made from sulfur polymer cement (SPC). Both materials meet or exceed the mechanical and structural properties of PCC, with the added characteristic of impermeability. The experimental results which are briefly summarized below indicate that these materials are good candidates for applications where a PCC structure has traditionally required supplemental liners due to the poor performance of the PCC alone.

  9. Index of Free and Inexpensive Food and Nutrition Information Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Kathleen, Comp.; And Others

    This annotated index contains approximately 2,000 free or inexpensive pamphlets or brochures about food and nutrition. The prime criterion for inclusion of materials was that they be easily available and inexpensive; the cut-off cost was set at $3.00. The majority of materials listed were produced in either Canada or the United States. These…

  10. Development of ice slurry for cold storage of foods in wide temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Koji; Kaneko, Atsushi; Teraoka, Yoshikazu; Igarashi, Yoshito

    In order to popularize use of ice slurry, authors have been proposed application of ice slurry to cold storage of foods in place of an air conditioning. For use of the ice slurry in the wide temperature range a new harmless ice slurry to human being was developed by cooling a W/O emulsion made from tap water-edible oil mixture with small amounts of edible emulsifier and food additive. The edible emulsifier is essential to form W/O emulsion, and the food additive is used to dissolve in tap water. In this paper the optimal concentrations of emulsifiers were determined, and the fundamental characteristics such as viscosity, effective latent heat of fusion and usable temperature of ice slurry were clarified. Finally, it was concluded that new ice slurry could be fully applied to cold storage of foods in the wide temperature range because its lower limit usable temperature was about -18°C.

  11. Storage Stability and Improvement of Intermediate Moisture Foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labuza, T. P.

    1976-01-01

    Shelf life tests are used to estimate the rate of nonenzymatic browning; however, controlling the reducing sugar levels below 23:1 molar ratio to amines, slows the rate. In addition, liquid glycols surpress browning. The protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis W can be used to estimate nutrition losses during browning. At high temperatures (80 to 120 C) used in processing intermediate moisture foods (IMF), vitamin C destruction shifts to a zero order mechanism. BHA and BHT are the most effective antioxidants against rancidity. In shelf life testing however, 45 C should be the maximum temperature used. Water binding agents are studied. The five isotherms of thirteen humectants were determined. The results show that neither the method of addition nor sequence of addition affects the a sub u lowering ability of these humectants. Results were used to formulate shelf stable IMF processed cheese foods with at least four months shelf life.

  12. Storage stability and improvement of intermediate moisture foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labuza, T. P.

    1973-01-01

    The rates of chemical reactions which deteriorate foods prepared to an intermediate moisture content and water activity (A sub w 0.6 to 0.9) were studied. The phenomenon of sorption hysteresis was used to prepare model systems and foods to similar A sub w's but different moisture levels so that the separate effects of water binding and water content could be elucidated. It was found that water content is the controlling factor for lipid oxidation in model systems comprised of a solid support and an oxidizable liquid. It was proposed that metal chelating agents like EDTA should give good protection to oxidation. EDTA exhibited the highest efficacy, about 10-15 times better than BHA which is a radical scavenger when studied in the model systems.

  13. ALUMINUM HYDRIDE: A REVERSIBLE MATERIAL FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Fewox, C; Ragaiy Zidan, R; Brenda Garcia-Diaz, B

    2008-12-31

    Hydrogen storage is one of the greatest challenges for implementing the ever sought hydrogen economy. Here we report a novel cycle to reversibly form high density hydrogen storage materials such as aluminium hydride. Aluminium hydride (AlH{sub 3}, alane) has a hydrogen storage capacity of 10.1 wt% H{sub 2}, 149 kg H{sub 2}/m{sup 3} volumetric density and can be discharged at low temperatures (< 100 C). However, alane has been precluded from use in hydrogen storage systems because of the lack of practical regeneration methods; the direct hydrogenation of aluminium to form AlH{sub 3} requires over 10{sup 5} bars of hydrogen pressure at room temperature and there are no cost effective synthetic means. Here we show an unprecedented reversible cycle to form alane electrochemically, using alkali alanates (e.g. NaAlH{sub 4}, LiAlH{sub 4}) in aprotic solvents. To complete the cycle, the starting alanates can be regenerated by direct hydrogenation of the dehydrided alane and the alkali hydride being the other compound formed in the electrochemical cell. The process of forming NaAlH{sub 4} from NaH and Al is well established in both solid state and solution reactions. The use of adducting Lewis bases is an essential part of this cycle, in the isolation of alane from the mixtures of the electrochemical cell. Alane is isolated as the triethylamine (TEA) adduct and converted to pure, unsolvated alane by heating under vacuum.

  14. ALUMINUM HYDRIDE: A REVERSIBLE MATERIAL FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Zidan, R; Christopher Fewox, C; Brenda Garcia-Diaz, B; Joshua Gray, J

    2009-01-09

    Hydrogen storage is one of the challenges to be overcome for implementing the ever sought hydrogen economy. Here we report a novel cycle to reversibly form high density hydrogen storage materials such as aluminium hydride. Aluminium hydride (AlH{sub 3}, alane) has a hydrogen storage capacity of 10.1 wt% H{sub 2}, 149 kg H{sub 2}/m{sup 3} volumetric density and can be discharged at low temperatures (< 100 C). However, alane has been precluded from use in hydrogen storage systems because of the lack of practical regeneration methods. The direct hydrogenation of aluminium to form AlH{sub 3} requires over 10{sup 5} bars of hydrogen pressure at room temperature and there are no cost effective synthetic means. Here we show an unprecedented reversible cycle to form alane electrochemically, using alkali metal alanates (e.g. NaAlH{sub 4}, LiAlH{sub 4}) in aprotic solvents. To complete the cycle, the starting alanates can be regenerated by direct hydrogenation of the dehydrided alane and the alkali hydride being the other compound formed in the electrochemical cell. The process of forming NaAlH{sub 4} from NaH and Al is well established in both solid state and solution reactions. The use of adducting Lewis bases is an essential part of this cycle, in the isolation of alane from the mixtures of the electrochemical cell. Alane is isolated as the triethylamine (TEA) adduct and converted to pure, unsolvated alane by heating under vacuum.

  15. Industrial waste materials and by-products as thermal energy storage (TES) materials: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, Andrea; Miró, Laia; Gil, Antoni; Rodríguez-Aseguinolaza, Javier; Barreneche, Camila; Calvet, Nicolas; Py, Xavier; Fernández, A. Inés; Grágeda, Mario; Ushak, Svetlana; Cabeza, Luisa F.

    2016-05-01

    A wide variety of potential materials for thermal energy storage (TES) have been identify depending on the implemented TES method, Sensible, latent or thermochemical. In order to improve the efficiency of TES systems more alternatives are continuously being sought. In this regard, this paper presents the review of low cost heat storage materials focused mainly in two objectives: on the one hand, the implementation of improved heat storage devices based on new appropriate materials and, on the other hand, the valorisation of waste industrial materials will have strong environmental, economic and societal benefits such as reducing the landfilled waste amounts, reducing the greenhouse emissions and others. Different industrial and municipal waste materials and by products have been considered as potential TES materials and have been characterized as such. Asbestos containing wastes, fly ashes, by-products from the salt industry and from the metal industry, wastes from recycling steel process and from copper refining process and dross from the aluminium industry, and municipal wastes (glass and nylon) have been considered. This work shows a great revalorization of wastes and by-product opportunity as TES materials, although more studies are needed to achieve industrial deployment of the idea.

  16. Advanced materials and concepts for energy storage devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Shiang Jen

    Over the last decade, technological progress and advances in the miniaturization of electronic devices have increased demands for light-weight, high-efficiency, and carbon-free energy storage devices. These energy storage devices are expected to play important roles in automobiles, the military, power plants, and consumer electronics. Two main types of electrical energy storage systems studied in this research are Li ion batteries and supercapacitors. Several promising solid state electrolytes and supercapacitor electrode materials are investigated in this research. The first section of this dissertation is focused on the novel results on pulsed laser annealing of Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO). LLZO powders with a tetragonal structure were prepared by a sol-gel technique, then a pulsed laser annealing process was employed to convert the tetragonal powders to cubic LLZO without any loss of lithium. The second section of the dissertation reports on how Li5La 3Nb2O12 (LLNO) was successfully synthesized via a novel molten salt synthesis (MSS) method at the relatively low temperature of 900°C. The low sintering temperature prevented the loss of lithium that commonly occurs during synthesis using conventional solid state or wet chemical reactions. The second type of energy storage device studied is supercapacitors. Currently, research on supercapacitors is focused on increasing their energy densities and lowering their overall production costs by finding suitable electrode materials. The third section of this dissertation details how carbonized woods electrodes were used as supercapacitor electrode materials. A high energy density of 45.6 Wh/kg and a high power density of 2000 W/kg were obtained from the supercapacitor made from carbonized wood electrodes. The high performance of the supercapacitor was discovered to originate from the hierarchical porous structures of the carbonized wood. Finally, the fourth section of this dissertation is on the electrochemical effects of

  17. System level permeability modeling of porous hydrogen storage materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Kanouff, Michael P.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Voskuilen, Tyler

    2010-01-01

    A permeability model for hydrogen transport in a porous material is successfully applied to both laboratory-scale and vehicle-scale sodium alanate hydrogen storage systems. The use of a Knudsen number dependent relationship for permeability of the material in conjunction with a constant area fraction channeling model is shown to accurately predict hydrogen flow through the reactors. Generally applicable model parameters were obtained by numerically fitting experimental measurements from reactors of different sizes and aspect ratios. The degree of channeling was experimentally determined from the measurements and found to be 2.08% of total cross-sectional area. Use of this constant area channeling model and the Knudsen dependent Young & Todd permeability model allows for accurate prediction of the hydrogen uptake performance of full-scale sodium alanate and similar metal hydride systems.

  18. Synthesis and Engineering Materials Properties of Fluid Phase Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials for Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Young Joon; Westman, Matthew P.; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Chun, Jaehun; Ronnebro, Ewa

    2015-09-01

    Among candidates for chemical hydrogen storage in PEM fuel cell automotive applications, ammonia borane (AB, NH3BH3) is considered to be one of the most promising materials due to its high practical hydrogen content of 14-16 wt%. This material is selected as a surrogate chemical for a hydrogen storage system. For easier transition to the existing infrastructure, a fluid phase hydrogen storage material is very attractive and thus, we investigated the engineering materials properties of AB in liquid carriers for a chemical hydrogen storage slurry system. Slurries composed of AB and high temperature liquids were prepared by mechanical milling and sonication in order to obtain stable and fluidic properties. Volumetric gas burette system was adopted to observe the kinetics of the H2 release reactions of the AB slurry and neat AB. Viscometry and microscopy were employed to further characterize slurries engineering properties. Using a tip-sonication method we have produced AB/silicone fluid slurries at solid loadings up to 40wt% (6.5wt% H2) with viscosities less than 500cP at 25°C.

  19. Thermal energy storage in phase change materials for heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jotshi, C.K.; Goswami, D.Y.; Huddle, R.B.; Srinivasan, N.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the results of an investigation of thermal energy storage in phase change materials (PCMs) for water heating and space heating applications. Several PCMs were selected from the literature that have transition temperatures in the range of 60 to 100 C. These PCMs included salt hydrates, organic materials, and eutectics. Based on the information on energy density, toxicity and cost, the list of PCMs was narrowed down to three for experimental investigation. These PCMs were trisodium phosphate dodecahydrate, ammonium alum, and eutectic of ammonium alum and ammonium nitrate. Supercooling of PCMs was prevented by using nucleating agents and phase segregation was prevented by using extra water and thickening agents. Enthalpy was measured in a drop calorimeter over a large number of heating and cooling cycles. Encapsulation of PCMs in laminated aluminum foil pouches and in hollow high density polyethylene (HDPE) balls was investigated. Different types of laminated aluminum foils were tested, with varying degree of success. A scale model of storage unit was tested for space heating using eutectic of ammonium alum and ammonium nitrate encapsulated in hollow HDPE balls.

  20. Reversible Hydrogen Storage Materials – Structure, Chemistry, and Electronic Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Ian M.; Johnson, Duane D.

    2014-06-21

    To understand the processes involved in the uptake and release of hydrogen from candidate light-weight metal hydride storage systems, a combination of materials characterization techniques and first principle calculation methods have been employed. In addition to conventional microstructural characterization in the transmission electron microscope, which provides projected information about the through thickness microstructure, electron tomography methods were employed to determine the three-dimensional spatial distribution of catalyst species for select systems both before and after dehydrogenation. Catalyst species identification as well as compositional analysis of the storage material before and after hydrogen charging and discharging was performed using a combination of energy dispersive spectroscopy, EDS, and electron energy loss spectroscopy, EELS. The characterization effort was coupled with first-principles, electronic-structure and thermodynamic techniques to predict and assess meta-stable and stable phases, reaction pathways, and thermodynamic and kinetic barriers. Systems studied included:NaAlH4, CaH2/CaB6 and Ca(BH4)2, MgH2/MgB2, Ni-Catalyzed Magnesium Hydride, TiH2-Catalyzed Magnesium Hydride, LiBH4, Aluminum-based systems and Aluminum

  1. Food Materials - a natural playground for soft matter physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbidge, Adam

    2011-03-01

    Traditional food science has its origins in chemistry, and has therefore tended to focus on trying to link molecular formulation and functional performance. Nevertheless, foods are almost always complex hierarchically structured materials of biological origin, far from thermodynamic equilibrium. These kinds of systems provide a challenge of relating structure to function, which is a natural playground for many ideas and concepts of soft matter physics. In this talk I will briefly outline the incredibly rich structural complexity of food products and highlight some areas which are appear to be amenable to physically based reasoning. Despite some notable contributions, food materials physics is a field very much in it's infancy, and I will highlight some outstanding (in both senses of the word) problems!

  2. Early Childhood Safety Checklist #3: Kitchen and Food Preparation and Storage Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Susan S.

    1994-01-01

    This checklist of 24 specific health and safety concerns dealing with kitchen and food preparation storage areas can be used by day-care staff to identify and correct hazardous conditions. Areas of concern include hand washing, refrigeration, cooking, trash disposal, cleanliness, fire safety, burn hazards, and adult supervision. (MDM)

  3. Absorption of omega-3 fats from carbohydrate and proteinaceous food matrices before and after storage

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Tracey J; Barrett, Ann; Anderson, Danielle; Wilson, Marques A; Young, Andrew J; Montain, Scott J

    2015-01-01

    Development of n-3 fortified, shelf-stable foods is facilitated by encapsulated docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), since natural n-3 food sources cannot withstand high temperature and prolonged shelf life. Organoleptic stability of n-3 fortified, shelf-stable foods has been demonstrated, but chemical changes in the food matrix throughout storage could conceivably impact digestibility of the protein-based encapsulant thereby compromising n-3 bioavailability. We assessed the effect of prolonged high-temperature storage and variations in food matrix (proteinaceous or carbohydrate) on the time course and magnitude of blood fatty acids changes associated with ingestion of n-3 fortified foods. Low-protein (i.e., cake) and high-protein (i.e., meat sticks) items were supplemented with 600 mg encapsulated DHA+EPA, and frozen either immediately after production (FRESH) or after 6 months storage at 100°F (STORED). Fourteen volunteers consumed one item per week (randomized) for 4 weeks. Blood samples obtained at baseline, 2, 4, and 6 h post-consumption were analyzed for circulating long-chain omega 3 fatty acids (LCn3). There was no difference in LCn3 area under the curve between items. LCn3 in response to cakes peaked at 2-h (FRESH: 54.0 ± 16.8 μg/mL, +18%; STORED: 53.0 ± 13.2 μg/mL, +20%), while meats peaked at 4-h (FRESH: 51.9 ± 12.5 μg/mL, +22%; STORED: 53.2 ± 16.9 μg/mL, +18%). There were no appreciable differences in time course or magnitude of n-3 appearance in response to storage conditions for either food types. Thus, bioavailability of encapsulated DHA/EPA, within low- and high-protein food items, was not affected by high-temperature shelf-storage. A shelf-stable, low- or high-protein food item with encapsulated DHA/EPA is suitable for use in shelf-stable foods. PMID:25987994

  4. Absorption of omega-3 fats from carbohydrate and proteinaceous food matrices before and after storage.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tracey J; Barrett, Ann; Anderson, Danielle; Wilson, Marques A; Young, Andrew J; Montain, Scott J

    2015-05-01

    Development of n-3 fortified, shelf-stable foods is facilitated by encapsulated docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), since natural n-3 food sources cannot withstand high temperature and prolonged shelf life. Organoleptic stability of n-3 fortified, shelf-stable foods has been demonstrated, but chemical changes in the food matrix throughout storage could conceivably impact digestibility of the protein-based encapsulant thereby compromising n-3 bioavailability. We assessed the effect of prolonged high-temperature storage and variations in food matrix (proteinaceous or carbohydrate) on the time course and magnitude of blood fatty acids changes associated with ingestion of n-3 fortified foods. Low-protein (i.e., cake) and high-protein (i.e., meat sticks) items were supplemented with 600 mg encapsulated DHA+EPA, and frozen either immediately after production (FRESH) or after 6 months storage at 100°F (STORED). Fourteen volunteers consumed one item per week (randomized) for 4 weeks. Blood samples obtained at baseline, 2, 4, and 6 h post-consumption were analyzed for circulating long-chain omega 3 fatty acids (LCn3). There was no difference in LCn3 area under the curve between items. LCn3 in response to cakes peaked at 2-h (FRESH: 54.0 ± 16.8 μg/mL, +18%; STORED: 53.0 ± 13.2 μg/mL, +20%), while meats peaked at 4-h (FRESH: 51.9 ± 12.5 μg/mL, +22%; STORED: 53.2 ± 16.9 μg/mL, +18%). There were no appreciable differences in time course or magnitude of n-3 appearance in response to storage conditions for either food types. Thus, bioavailability of encapsulated DHA/EPA, within low- and high-protein food items, was not affected by high-temperature shelf-storage. A shelf-stable, low- or high-protein food item with encapsulated DHA/EPA is suitable for use in shelf-stable foods.

  5. High and rapid alkali cation storage in ultramicroporous carbonaceous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Young Soo; Lee, Seulbee; Kim, Na Rae; Kang, Minjee; Leal, Cecilia; Park, Kyu-Young; Kang, Kisuk; Jin, Hyoung-Joon

    2016-05-01

    To achieve better supercapacitor performance, efforts have focused on increasing the specific surface area of electrode materials to obtain higher energy and power density. The control of pores in these materials is one of the most effective ways to increase the surface area. However, when the size of pores decreases to a sub-nanometer regime, it becomes difficult to apply the conventional parallel-plate capacitor model because the charge separation distance (d-value) of the electrical double layer has a similar length scale. In this study, ultramicroporous carbonaceous materials (UCMs) containing sub-nanometer-scale pores are fabricated using a simple in situ carbonization/activation of cellulose-based compounds containing potassium. The results show that alkali cations act as charge carriers in the ultramicropores (<0.7 nm), and these materials can deliver high capacitances of ∼300 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1 and 130 F g-1, even at a high current rate of 65 A g-1 in an aqueous medium. In addition, the UCM-based symmetric supercapacitors are stable over 10,000 cycles and have a high energy and power densities of 8.4 Wh kg-1 and 15,000 W kg-1, respectively. This study provides a better understanding of the effects of ultramicropores in alkali cation storage.

  6. Storage stability and improvement of intermediate moisture foods, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labuza, T. P.

    1975-01-01

    Methods for improvement of shelf-life stability of intermediate moisture foods are considered. It was found that vitamin C is the most limiting vitamin from a nutritional standpoint with its rate of destruction increasing with a sub w. Techniques for microbial challenge studies were developed. It was shown that organisms have a higher growth a sub w limit if the IMF is prepared by the adsorption process and long times are needed for challenge studies. Several alternative antimycotic systems were found. It was also found that the vegetative cells of pathogens have a maximum heat resistance in the IMF a sub w range. If glycols are in the formula, the IMF should have as high an a sub w as possible. The reverse is true if lipid oxidation occurs. In addition, to prevent rancidity, antioxidants and a low O2 atmosphere are necessary. The package also must be a good moisture barrier.

  7. Short communication: Effect of active food packaging materials on fluid milk quality and shelf life.

    PubMed

    Wong, Dana E; Goddard, Julie M

    2014-01-01

    Active packaging, in which active agents are embedded into or on the surface of food packaging materials, can enhance the nutritive value, economics, and stability of food, as well as enable in-package processing. In one embodiment of active food packaging, lactase was covalently immobilized onto packaging films for in-package lactose hydrolysis. In prior work, lactase was covalently bound to low-density polyethylene using polyethyleneimine and glutaraldehyde cross-linkers to form the packaging film. Because of the potential contaminants of proteases, lipases, and spoilage organisms in typical enzyme preparations, the goal of the current work was to determine the effect of immobilized-lactase active packaging technology on unanticipated side effects, such as shortened shelf-life and reduced product quality. Results suggested no evidence of lipase or protease activity on the active packaging films, indicating that such active packaging films could enable in-package lactose hydrolysis without adversely affecting product quality in terms of dairy protein or lipid stability. Storage stability studies indicated that lactase did not migrate from the film over a 49-d period, and that dry storage resulted in 13.41% retained activity, whereas wet storage conditions enabled retention of 62.52% activity. Results of a standard plate count indicated that the film modification reagents introduced minor microbial contamination; however, the microbial population remained under the 20,000 cfu/mL limit through the manufacturer's suggested 14-d storage period for all film samples. This suggests that commercially produced immobilized lactase active packaging should use purified cross-linkers and enzymes. Characterization of unanticipated effects of active packaging on food quality reported here is important in demonstrating the commercial potential of such technologies. PMID:24239074

  8. Short communication: Effect of active food packaging materials on fluid milk quality and shelf life.

    PubMed

    Wong, Dana E; Goddard, Julie M

    2014-01-01

    Active packaging, in which active agents are embedded into or on the surface of food packaging materials, can enhance the nutritive value, economics, and stability of food, as well as enable in-package processing. In one embodiment of active food packaging, lactase was covalently immobilized onto packaging films for in-package lactose hydrolysis. In prior work, lactase was covalently bound to low-density polyethylene using polyethyleneimine and glutaraldehyde cross-linkers to form the packaging film. Because of the potential contaminants of proteases, lipases, and spoilage organisms in typical enzyme preparations, the goal of the current work was to determine the effect of immobilized-lactase active packaging technology on unanticipated side effects, such as shortened shelf-life and reduced product quality. Results suggested no evidence of lipase or protease activity on the active packaging films, indicating that such active packaging films could enable in-package lactose hydrolysis without adversely affecting product quality in terms of dairy protein or lipid stability. Storage stability studies indicated that lactase did not migrate from the film over a 49-d period, and that dry storage resulted in 13.41% retained activity, whereas wet storage conditions enabled retention of 62.52% activity. Results of a standard plate count indicated that the film modification reagents introduced minor microbial contamination; however, the microbial population remained under the 20,000 cfu/mL limit through the manufacturer's suggested 14-d storage period for all film samples. This suggests that commercially produced immobilized lactase active packaging should use purified cross-linkers and enzymes. Characterization of unanticipated effects of active packaging on food quality reported here is important in demonstrating the commercial potential of such technologies.

  9. Design and preparation of materials for advanced electrochemical storage.

    PubMed

    Melot, Brent C; Tarascon, J-M

    2013-05-21

    To meet the growing global demand for energy while preserving the environment, it is necessary to drastically reduce the world's dependence on non-renewable energy sources. At the core of this effort will be the ability to efficiently convert, store, transport and access energy in a variety of ways. Batteries for use in small consumer devices have saturated society; however, if they are ever to be useful in large-scale applications such as automotive transportation or grid-storage, they will require new materials with dramatically improved performance. Efforts must also focus on using Earth-abundant and nontoxic compounds so that whatever developments are made will not create new environmental problems. In this Account, we describe a general strategy for the design and development of new insertion electrode materials for Li(Na)-ion batteries that meet these requirements. We begin by reviewing the current state of the art of insertion electrodes and highlighting the intrinsic material properties of electrodes that must be re-engineered for extension to larger-scale applications. We then present a detailed discussion of the relevant criteria for the conceptual design and appropriate selection of new electrode chemical compositions. We describe how the open-circuit voltage of Li-ion batteries can be manipulated and optimized through structural and compositional tuning by exploiting differences in the electronegativity among possible electrode materials. We then discuss which modern synthetic techniques are most sustainable, allowing the creation of new materials via environmentally responsible reactions that minimize the use of energy and toxic solvents. Finally, we present a case study showing how we successfully employed these approaches to develop a large number of new, useful electrode materials within the recently discovered family of transition metal fluorosulfates. This family has attracted interest as a possible source of improved Li-ion batteries in larger

  10. Modelling challenges for battery materials and electrical energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Richard P.; Schultz, Peter A.

    2013-10-01

    Many vital requirements in world-wide energy production, from the electrification of transportation to better utilization of renewable energy production, depend on developing economical, reliable batteries with improved performance characteristics. Batteries reduce the need for gasoline and liquid hydrocarbons in an electrified transportation fleet, but need to be lighter, longer-lived and have higher energy densities, without sacrificing safety. Lighter and higher-capacity batteries make portable electronics more convenient. Less expensive electrical storage accelerates the introduction of renewable energy to electrical grids by buffering intermittent generation from solar or wind. Meeting these needs will probably require dramatic changes in the materials and chemistry used by batteries for electrical energy storage. New simulation capabilities, in both methods and computational resources, promise to fundamentally accelerate and advance the development of improved materials for electric energy storage. To fulfil this promise significant challenges remain, both in accurate simulations at various relevant length scales and in the integration of relevant information across multiple length scales. This focus section of Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering surveys the challenges of modelling for energy storage, describes recent successes, identifies remaining challenges, considers various approaches to surmount these challenges and discusses the potential of these methods for future battery development. Zhang et al begin with atoms and electrons, with a review of first-principles studies of the lithiation of silicon electrodes, and then Fan et al examine the development and use of interatomic potentials to the study the mechanical properties of lithiated silicon in larger atomistic simulations. Marrocchelli et al study ionic conduction, an important aspect of lithium-ion battery performance, simulated by molecular dynamics. Emerging high

  11. Quantification of Nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum Spore Loads in Food Materials

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Gary C.; Malakar, Pradeep K.; Plowman, June

    2016-01-01

    We have produced data and developed analysis to build representations for the concentration of spores of nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum in materials that are used during the manufacture of minimally processed chilled foods in the United Kingdom. Food materials are categorized into homogenous groups which include meat, fish, shellfish, cereals, fresh plant material, dairy liquid, dairy nonliquid, mushroom and fungi, and dried herbs and spices. Models are constructed in a Bayesian framework and represent a combination of information from a literature survey of spore loads from positive-control experiments that establish a detection limit and from dedicated microbiological tests for real food materials. The detection of nonproteolytic C. botulinum employed an optimized protocol that combines selective enrichment culture with multiplex PCR, and the majority of tests on food materials were negative. Posterior beliefs about spore loads center on a concentration range of 1 to 10 spores kg−1. Posterior beliefs for larger spore loads were most significant for dried herbs and spices and were most sensitive to the detailed results from control experiments. Probability distributions for spore loads are represented in a convenient form that can be used for numerical analysis and risk assessments. PMID:26729721

  12. Container and closure means for storage of radioactive material

    SciTech Connect

    Bienek, H.; Finkbeiner, R.; Wick, W.

    1984-03-20

    In the final storage of radioactive substances in containers, these containers must be sealed so as to be gas-tight by means of a cover, before they are taken to the final storage place. In order to avoid thermal stress, which has up till now been customary, of the radioactive substances on the one hand and of the container and cover on the other hand, it is proposed that the container and the sealing cover should be suitably ground on their seating areas which cooperate with each other, and when the container is closed the cover is held by prestressing on the seating area of the container. In a preferred method, after grinding, a thin equalizing layer of a highly corrosion-resistant, deformable material is applied to at least one of the seating surfaces of the container and cover, in order to achieve a compensation for any roughness which may be present, which will improve the sealing, depending on the technically and/or economically possible extent of the grinding. It is also possible, however, to form the prestressing by means of a lapped contact.

  13. Materiality matters: Blurred boundaries and the domestication of functional foods

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Kate; Will, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Previous scholarship on novel foods, including functional foods, has suggested that they are difficult to categorise for both regulators and users. It is argued that they blur the boundary between ‘food' and ‘drug' and that uncertainties about the products create ‘experimental' or ‘restless' approaches to consumption. We investigate these uncertainties drawing on data about the use of functional foods containing phytosterols, which are licensed for sale in the EU for people wishing to reduce their cholesterol. We start from an interest in the products as material objects and their incorporation into everyday practices. We consider the scripts encoded in the physical form of the products through their regulation, production and packaging and find that these scripts shape but do not determine their use. The domestication of phytosterols involves bundling the products together with other objects (pills, supplements, foodstuffs). Considering their incorporation into different systems of objects offers new understandings of the products as foods or drugs. In their accounts of their practices, consumers appear to be relatively untroubled by uncertainties about the character of the products. We conclude that attending to materials and practices offers a productive way to open up and interrogate the idea of categorical uncertainties surrounding new food products. PMID:26157471

  14. Advanced nanostructured materials for energy storage and conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchings, Gregory S.

    Due to a global effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to utilize renewable sources of energy, much effort has been directed towards creating new alternatives to fossil fuels. Identifying novel materials for energy storage and conversion can enable radical changes to the current fuel production infrastructure and energy utilization. The use of engineered nanostructured materials in these systems unlocks unique catalytic activity in practical configurations. In this work, research efforts have been focused on the development of nanostructured materials to address the need for both better energy conversion and storage, with applications toward Li-O2 battery electrocatalysts, electrocatalytic generation of H2, conversion of furfural to useful chemicals and fuels, and Li battery anode materials. Highly-active alpha-MnO2 materials were synthesized for use as bifunctional oxygen reduction (ORR) and evolution (OER) catalysts in Li-O2 batteries, and were evaluated under operating conditions with a novel in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy configuration. Through detailed analysis of local coordination and oxidation states of Mn atoms at key points in the electrochemical cycle, a self-switching behavior affecting the bifunctional activity was identified and found to be critical. In an additional study of materials for lithium batteries, nanostructured TiO2 anode materials doped with first-row transition metals were synthesized and evaluated for improving battery discharge capacity and rate performance, with Ni and Co doping at low levels found to cause the greatest enhancement. In addition to battery technology research, I have also sought to find inexpensive and earth-abundant electrocatalysts to replace state-of-the-art Pt/C in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), a systematic computational study of Cu-based bimetallic electrocatalysts was performed. During the screening of dilute surface alloys of Cu mixed with other first-row transition metals, materials with

  15. Hybrid supercapacitor-battery materials for fast electrochemical charge storage.

    PubMed

    Vlad, A; Singh, N; Rolland, J; Melinte, S; Ajayan, P M; Gohy, J-F

    2014-01-01

    High energy and high power electrochemical energy storage devices rely on different fundamental working principles--bulk vs. surface ion diffusion and electron conduction. Meeting both characteristics within a single or a pair of materials has been under intense investigations yet, severely hindered by intrinsic materials limitations. Here, we provide a solution to this issue and present an approach to design high energy and high power battery electrodes by hybridizing a nitroxide-polymer redox supercapacitor (PTMA) with a Li-ion battery material (LiFePO4). The PTMA constituent dominates the hybrid battery charge process and postpones the LiFePO4 voltage rise by virtue of its ultra-fast electrochemical response and higher working potential. We detail on a unique sequential charging mechanism in the hybrid electrode: PTMA undergoes oxidation to form high-potential redox species, which subsequently relax and charge the LiFePO4 by an internal charge transfer process. A rate capability equivalent to full battery recharge in less than 5 minutes is demonstrated. As a result of hybrid's components synergy, enhanced power and energy density as well as superior cycling stability are obtained, otherwise difficult to achieve from separate constituents.

  16. Hybrid supercapacitor-battery materials for fast electrochemical charge storage

    PubMed Central

    Vlad, A.; Singh, N.; Rolland, J.; Melinte, S.; Ajayan, P. M.; Gohy, J.-F.

    2014-01-01

    High energy and high power electrochemical energy storage devices rely on different fundamental working principles - bulk vs. surface ion diffusion and electron conduction. Meeting both characteristics within a single or a pair of materials has been under intense investigations yet, severely hindered by intrinsic materials limitations. Here, we provide a solution to this issue and present an approach to design high energy and high power battery electrodes by hybridizing a nitroxide-polymer redox supercapacitor (PTMA) with a Li-ion battery material (LiFePO4). The PTMA constituent dominates the hybrid battery charge process and postpones the LiFePO4 voltage rise by virtue of its ultra-fast electrochemical response and higher working potential. We detail on a unique sequential charging mechanism in the hybrid electrode: PTMA undergoes oxidation to form high-potential redox species, which subsequently relax and charge the LiFePO4 by an internal charge transfer process. A rate capability equivalent to full battery recharge in less than 5 minutes is demonstrated. As a result of hybrid's components synergy, enhanced power and energy density as well as superior cycling stability are obtained, otherwise difficult to achieve from separate constituents. PMID:24603843

  17. The material histories of food quality and composition.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Peter J

    2011-06-01

    This article argues for material histories of food. In recent decades food historians have tended to emphasize the cultural factors in consumption, in addition to the already well-established social, political and economic perspectives, but what is still missing is the stuff in foodstuffs. With reference in particular to milk and wine, the suggestion here is that physical and chemical composition is a major influence in what we might call the biographies of particular items of food and drink. Product characteristics are rarely static for long and today's mass-produced bread is different from that of the past, but then so are the flour, the yeast, and the even the butter that is spread on it. Adulteration was a particularly interesting aspect of composition in the nineteenth century and was the key to the emergence of two different traditions of understanding and valuing food quality.

  18. Low-Cost Precursors to Novel Hydrogen Storage Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Suzanne W. Linehan; Arthur A. Chin; Nathan T. Allen; Robert Butterick; Nathan T. Kendall; I. Leo Klawiter; Francis J. Lipiecki; Dean M. Millar; David C. Molzahn; Samuel J. November; Puja Jain; Sara Nadeau; Scott Mancroni

    2010-12-31

    From 2005 to 2010, The Dow Chemical Company (formerly Rohm and Haas Company) was a member of the Department of Energy Center of Excellence on Chemical Hydrogen Storage, which conducted research to identify and develop chemical hydrogen storage materials having the potential to achieve DOE performance targets established for on-board vehicular application. In collaboration with Center co-leads Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and other Center partners, Dow's efforts were directed towards defining and evaluating novel chemistries for producing chemical hydrides and processes for spent fuel regeneration. In Phase 1 of this project, emphasis was placed on sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}), long considered a strong candidate for hydrogen storage because of its high hydrogen storage capacity, well characterized hydrogen release chemistry, safety, and functionality. Various chemical pathways for regenerating NaBH{sub 4} from spent sodium borate solution were investigated, with the objective of meeting the 2010/2015 DOE targets of $2-3/gal gasoline equivalent at the pump ($2-3/kg H{sub 2}) for on-board hydrogen storage systems and an overall 60% energy efficiency. With the September 2007 No-Go decision for NaBH{sub 4} as an on-board hydrogen storage medium, focus was shifted to ammonia borane (AB) for on-board hydrogen storage and delivery. However, NaBH{sub 4} is a key building block to most boron-based fuels, and the ability to produce NaBH{sub 4} in an energy-efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally sound manner is critical to the viability of AB, as well as many leading materials under consideration by the Metal Hydride Center of Excellence. Therefore, in Phase 2, research continued towards identifying and developing a single low-cost NaBH4 synthetic route for cost-efficient AB first fill, and conducting baseline cost estimates for first fill and regenerated AB using a variety of synthetic routes. This project

  19. Evaluation of food, nutrition and functional substances, in the selected food materials for space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Kimura, Yasuko; Yamashita, Masamichi; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    We have been studying the evaluation of food, nutrition and functional substances, in the selected organic materials for useful life-support systems in closed bio-ecosystems for space agriculture on Mars in the future. We have already proposed several species as food materials; cyanobacterium, Nostoc sp. HK-01 and the Japanese cherry tree. Nostoc sp. HK-01 is a terrestrial cyanobacterium which has high tolerances to several space environments. In addition to its high tolerances to serious environments, HK-01 has a high protein content. Total protein per 100 g of the dried colony of Nostoc sp. HK-01 was approximately 50 g. Woody plant materials also have several properties which can be utilized in our habitation environment and as food. We have already found abilities to produce important functional substances for humans in the selected trees. Here, we show the extended results of our experiments.

  20. Applications of common beans in food and biobased materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extrusion method has been used to cook different food materials by employing the combination of high temperature, pressure and shearing stresses. Effects of extrusion cooking on functional, physicochemical and nutritional properties of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) have been reported for years...

  1. Development of food-related materials from cotton byproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of food-related projects are ongoing at the Commodities Utilization Research Unit at the USDA ARS Southern Regional Research Center (SRRC). Two research projects that utilize raw materials from the cotton plant are reviewed in this work. The first project entails the conversion of cotton ...

  2. Theory of light transfer in food and biological materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this chapter, we first define the basic radiometric quantities that are needed for describing light propagation in food and biological materials. Radiative transfer theory is then derived, according to the principle of the conservation of energy. Because the radiative transfer theory equation is ...

  3. Design Guidelines for Digital Learning Material for Food Chemistry Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diederen, Julia; Gruppen, Harry; Voragen, Alphons G. J.; Hartog, Rob; Mulder, Martin; Biemans, Harm

    This paper describes the first stage of a 4-year research project on the design, development and use of Web-based digital learning material for food chemistry education. The paper discusses design guidelines, based on principles that were selected from theories on learning and instruction, and illustrates in detail how these guidelines were used…

  4. Los Alamos National Laboratory new generation standard nuclear material storage container - the SAVY4000 design

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Timothy Amos

    2010-01-01

    Incidents involving release of nuclear materials stored in containers of convenience such as food pack cans, slip lid taped cans, paint cans, etc. has resulted in defense board concerns over the lack of prescriptive performance requirements for interim storage of nuclear materials. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has shared in these incidents and in response proactively moved into developing a performance based standard involving storage of nuclear material (RD003). This RD003 requirements document has sense been updated to reflect requirements as identified with recently issued DOE M 441.1-1 'Nuclear Material Packaging Manual'. The new packaging manual was issued at the encouragement of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board with a clear directive for protecting the worker from exposure due to loss of containment of stored materials. The Manual specifies a detailed and all inclusive approach to achieve a high level of protection; from package design & performance requirements, design life determinations of limited life components, authorized contents evaluations, and surveillance/maintenance to ensure in use package integrity over time. Materials in scope involve those stored outside an approved engineered-contamination barrier that would result in a worker exposure of in excess of 5 rem Committed Effective Does Equivalent (CEDE). Key aspects of meeting the challenge as developed around the SAVY-3000 vented storage container design will be discussed. Design performance and acceptance criteria against the manual, bounding conditions as established that the user must ensure are met to authorize contents in the package (based upon the activity of heat-source plutonium (90% Pu-238) oxide, which bounds the requirements for weapons-grade plutonium oxide), interface as a safety class system within the facility under the LANL plutonium facility DSA, design life determinations for limited life components, and a sense of design specific surveillance program

  5. Home storage temperatures and consumer handling of refrigerated foods in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Marklinder, I M; Lindblad, M; Eriksson, L M; Finnson, A M; Lindqvist, R

    2004-11-01

    The lack of data on consumer refrigeration temperatures and storage times limits our ability to assess and manage risks associated with microbial hazards. This study addressed these limitations by collecting data on temperatures and storage handling practices of chilled foods. Consumers from 102 households in Uppsala, Sweden, were instructed to purchase seven food items (minced meat, fresh herring fillets, soft cheese, milk, sliced cooked ham, vacuum-packed smoked salmon, and ready-to-eat salad) and to store them using their normal practices. They were interviewed the next day, and food temperatures were measured. In general, there were no significant relations between temperature and characteristics of the respondents (e.g., sex, age, education, age of the refrigerator). Mean storage temperatures ranged from 6.2 degrees C for minced meat to 7.4 degrees C for ready-to-eat salad. Maximum temperatures ranged from 11.3 to 18.2 degrees C. Data were not significantly different from a normal distribution, except for ready-to-eat salad, although distributions other than the normal fitted data better in most cases. Five percent to 20% of the food items were stored at temperatures above 10 degrees C. Most respondents knew the recommended maximum temperature, but less than one fourth claimed to know the temperature in their own refrigerator. Practical considerations usually determined where food was stored. For products with a long shelf life, stated storage times were different for opened and unopened packages. The current situation might be improved if consumers could be persuaded to use a thermometer to keep track of refrigerator temperature.

  6. Davisson-Germer Prize Talk: Hydrogen storage in nanoporous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabal, Yves

    2009-03-01

    To develop a hydrogen-based energy technology, several classes of materials are being considered to achieve the DOE targets for gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen densities for hydrogen storage, including liquids (e.g. ammonium borohydrides), clathrate structures, complex metal hydrides, nanostructured (e.g. carbon) an nanoporous materials. Fundamental studies are necessary to determine the ultimate hydrogen capacity of each system. Nanoporous Metal-organic Framework (MOF) materials are promising candidates for hydrogen storage because the chemical nature and size of their unit cell can be tailored to weakly attract and incorporate H2 molecules, with good volumetric and mass density. In this talk, we consider the structure M2(BDC)2(TED), where M is a metal atom (Zn, Ni, Cu), BDC is benzenedicarboxylate and TED triethylenediamine, to determine the location and interaction of H2 molecules within the MOF. These compounds are isostructural and crystallize in the tetragonal phase (space group P4/ncc), they construct 3D porous structures with relatively large pore size (˜7-8 A ), pore volume (˜0.63-0.84 cc/g) and BET surface area (˜1500-1900 m^2/g). At high pressures (300-800 psi), the perturbation of the H-H stretching mode can be measured with IR absorption spectroscopy, showing a 35 cm-1 redshift from the unperturbed ortho (4155 cm-1 ) and para (4161 cm-1 ) frequencies. Using a newly developed non empirical van der Waals DFT method vdW-DFT),ootnotetextJ.Y. Lee, D.H. Olson, L. Pan, T.J. Emge, J. Li, Adv. Func. Mater. 17, 1255 (2007) it can be shown that the locus of the deepest H2 binding positions lies within to types of narrow channels. The energies of the most stable binding sites, as well as the number of such binding sites, are consistent with the values obtained from experimental adsorption isotherms, and heat of adsorption) data.ootnotetextM. Dion, H. Ryberg, E. Schroder, D. C. Langreth, B.I. Lundqvist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 246401 (2004). Importantly, the

  7. Aluminium content of some processed foods, raw materials and food additives in China by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Deng, Gui-Fang; Li, Ke; Ma, Jing; Liu, Fen; Dai, Jing-Jing; Li, Hua-Bin

    2011-01-01

    The level of aluminium in 178 processed food samples from Shenzhen city in China was evaluated using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Some processed foods contained a concentration of up to 1226 mg/kg, which is about 12 times the Chinese food standard. To establish the main source in these foods, Al levels in the raw materials were determined. However, aluminium concentrations in raw materials were low (0.10-451.5 mg/kg). Therefore, aluminium levels in food additives used in these foods was determined and it was found that some food additives contained a high concentration of aluminium (0.005-57.4 g/kg). The results suggested that, in the interest of public health, food additives containing high concentrations of aluminium should be replaced by those containing less. This study has provided new information on aluminium levels in Chinese processed foods, raw materials and a selection of food additives.

  8. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  9. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  10. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  11. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  12. Mechanisms of food processing and storage-related stress tolerance in Clostridium botulinum.

    PubMed

    Dahlsten, Elias; Lindström, Miia; Korkeala, Hannu

    2015-05-01

    Vegetative cultures of Clostridium botulinum produce the extremely potent botulinum neurotoxin, and may jeopardize the safety of foods unless sufficient measures to prevent growth are applied. Minimal food processing relies on combinations of mild treatments, primarily to avoid deterioration of the sensory qualities of the food. Tolerance of C. botulinum to minimal food processing is well characterized. However, data on effects of successive treatments on robustness towards further processing is lacking. Developments in genetic manipulation tools and the availability of annotated genomes have allowed identification of genetic mechanisms involved in stress tolerance of C. botulinum. Most studies focused on low temperature, and the importance of various regulatory mechanisms in cold tolerance of C. botulinum has been demonstrated. Furthermore, novel roles in cold tolerance were shown for metabolic pathways under the control of these regulators. A role for secondary oxidative stress in tolerance to extreme temperatures has been proposed. Additionally, genetic mechanisms related to tolerance to heat, low pH, and high salinity have been characterized. Data on genetic stress-related mechanisms of psychrotrophic Group II C. botulinum strains are scarce; these mechanisms are of interest for food safety research and should thus be investigated. This minireview encompasses the importance of C. botulinum as a food safety hazard and its central physiological characteristics related to food-processing and storage-related stress. Special attention is given to recent findings considering genetic mechanisms C. botulinum utilizes in detecting and countering these adverse conditions.

  13. Quantifying and Addressing the DOE Material Reactivity Requirements with Analysis and Testing of Hydrogen Storage Materials & Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, Y. F.

    2012-04-30

    The objective of this project is to examine safety aspects of candidate hydrogen storage materials and systems being developed in the DOE Hydrogen Program. As a result of this effort, the general DOE safety target will be given useful meaning by establishing a link between the characteristics of new storage materials and the satisfaction of safety criteria. This will be accomplished through the development and application of formal risk analysis methods, standardized materials testing, chemical reactivity characterization, novel risk mitigation approaches and subscale system demonstration. The project also will collaborate with other DOE and international activities in materials based hydrogen storage safety to provide a larger, highly coordinated effort.

  14. Molecular design of seed storage proteins for enhanced food physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Tandang-Silvas, Mary Rose G; Tecson-Mendoza, Evelyn Mae; Mikami, Bunzo; Utsumi, Shigeru; Maruyama, Nobuyuki

    2011-01-01

    Seed storage proteins such as soybean globulins have been nutritionally and functionally valuable in the food industry. Protein structure-function studies are valuable in modifying proteins for enhanced functionality. Recombinant technology and protein engineering are two of the tools in biotechnology that have been used in producing soybean proteins with better gelling property, solubility, and emulsifying ability. This article reviews the molecular basis for the logical and precise protein designs that are important in obtaining the desired improved physicochemical properties.

  15. Food as a limiting factor for Aedes aegypti in water-storage containers.

    PubMed

    Arrivillaga, Jazzmin; Barrera, Roberto

    2004-06-01

    An understanding of the ecological factors that regulate natural populations of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes can improve control and reduce the incidence of dengue (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in tropical areas. We investigated whether immature Ae. aegypti in water-storage containers from an urban area were under food limitation. We used starvation resistance (number of days alive without food) as an indicator of the feeding history in third-instar Ae. aegypti larvae. Resistance to starvation and other measures of immature success, such as development time, survival, and adult mass, were investigated across a wide range of feeding conditions in the laboratory. Resistance to starvation of third-instar larvae and body mass of adults emerging from pupae collected in water-storage containers in an urban area were compared with the laboratory results. If resistance to starvation and adult mass of field-collected Ae. aegypti corresponded with the lower levels of feeding in the laboratory, then food limitation could be inferred in field-collected larvae. Results showed that resistance to starvation was well correlated with previous feeding levels and with the other measures of immature success. Both resistance to starvation and adult body mass of field-collected specimens corresponded with the lower levels of feeding in the laboratory. Therefore, it was concluded that food limitation or competition is likely to be a regulatory factor in water-storage containers in the urban area. It is recommended that any control measure applied to immature Ae. aegypti in water-storage containers should eliminate all or most of the individuals, otherwise unintended, undesirable results might occur, such as the production of more and larger adults.

  16. Simulation of a high temperature thermal energy storage system employing several families of phase-change storage material

    SciTech Connect

    Adebiyi, G.A.

    1989-03-01

    Previous work by the author entailed modeling of the Packed Bed Thermal Energy Storage System, utilizing Phase-Change Materials, and a performance evaluation of the system based on the Second Law of thermodynamics. A principal conclusion reached is that the use of a single family of phase-change storage material may not in fact produce a thermodynamically superior system relative to one utilizing sensible heat storage material. This prompted us to modify our model so that we could investigate whether or not a significantly improved performance may be achieved via the use of multiple families of phase-change materials instead. Other factors investigated in the present work include the effect on system performance due to the thermal mass of the containment vessel wall, varying temperature and mass flow rate of the flue gas entering the packed bed during the storage process, and thermal radiation which could be a significant factor at high temperature levels. The resulting model is intended to serve as an integral part of a real-time simulation of the application of a high temperature regenerator in a periodic brick plant. This paper describes the more comprehensive model of the high temperature thermal energy storage system and presents results indicating that improved system performance could be achieved via a judicious choice of multiple families of phase-change materials.

  17. Wollastonite hybridizing stearic acid as thermal energy storage material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dawei; Yang, Huaming

    2014-11-01

    This paper reported on the preparation of a novel stearic acid (SA)/wollastonite (W) composite as a form-stable phase change material (PCM) for thermal energy-storage (TES) by vacuum impregnation, and especially investigated the effect of the size grade of W on the thermal properties of the SA/W composite. Samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser particle-size analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Natural W (Wr) was classified into four size grades by wet screening. The results indicate that no chemical reaction took place between SA and W, and the SA load in the SA/W composite increased with an increase in the length/diameter (L/D) ratio of the W. The SA/W composite with a W L/D ratio of 22.5 exhibited latent heats of melting and freezing of 58.64 J/g and 56.95 J/g, respectively, which was higher than those of the composite incorporating natural W. We believe that the as-prepared form-stable PCM composite could provide a potential means of TES for the concentrated solar power.

  18. Multidimensional materials and device architectures for future hybrid energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukatskaya, Maria R.; Dunn, Bruce; Gogotsi, Yury

    2016-09-01

    Electrical energy storage plays a vital role in daily life due to our dependence on numerous portable electronic devices. Moreover, with the continued miniaturization of electronics, integration of wireless devices into our homes and clothes and the widely anticipated `Internet of Things', there are intensive efforts to develop miniature yet powerful electrical energy storage devices. This review addresses the cutting edge of electrical energy storage technology, outlining approaches to overcome current limitations and providing future research directions towards the next generation of electrical energy storage devices whose characteristics represent a true hybridization of batteries and electrochemical capacitors.

  19. Multidimensional materials and device architectures for future hybrid energy storage

    DOE PAGES

    Lukatskaya, Maria R.; Dunn, Bruce; Gogotsi, Yury

    2016-09-07

    Electrical energy storage plays a vital role in daily life due to our dependence on numerous portable electronic devices. Moreover, with the continued miniaturization of electronics, integration of wireless devices into our homes and clothes and the widely anticipated ‘Internet of Things’, there are intensive efforts to develop miniature yet powerful electrical energy storage devices. Here, this review addresses the cutting edge of electrical energy storage technology, outlining approaches to overcome current limitations and providing future research directions towards the next generation of electrical energy storage devices whose characteristics represent a true hybridization of batteries and electrochemical capacitors.

  20. Decrease of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation by food waste materials.

    PubMed

    Maderova, Zdenka; Horska, Katerina; Kim, Sang-Ryoung; Lee, Chung-Hak; Pospiskova, Kristyna; Safarikova, Mirka; Safarik, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    The formation of bacterial biofilm on various surfaces has significant negative economic effects. The aim of this study was to find a simple procedure to decrease the Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation in a water environment by using different food waste biological materials as signal molecule adsorbents. The selected biomaterials did not reduce the cell growth but affected biofilm formation. Promising biomaterials were magnetically modified in order to simplify manipulation and facilitate their magnetic separation. The best biocomposite, magnetically modified spent grain, exhibited substantial adsorption of signal molecules and decreased the biofilm formation. These results suggest that selected food waste materials and their magnetically responsive derivatives could be applied to solve biofilm problems in water environment. PMID:27148715

  1. Decrease of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation by food waste materials.

    PubMed

    Maderova, Zdenka; Horska, Katerina; Kim, Sang-Ryoung; Lee, Chung-Hak; Pospiskova, Kristyna; Safarikova, Mirka; Safarik, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    The formation of bacterial biofilm on various surfaces has significant negative economic effects. The aim of this study was to find a simple procedure to decrease the Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation in a water environment by using different food waste biological materials as signal molecule adsorbents. The selected biomaterials did not reduce the cell growth but affected biofilm formation. Promising biomaterials were magnetically modified in order to simplify manipulation and facilitate their magnetic separation. The best biocomposite, magnetically modified spent grain, exhibited substantial adsorption of signal molecules and decreased the biofilm formation. These results suggest that selected food waste materials and their magnetically responsive derivatives could be applied to solve biofilm problems in water environment.

  2. Down Select Report of Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials, Catalysts, and Spent Fuel Regeneration Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Kevin; Linehan, Sue; Lipiecki, Frank; Aardahl, Christopher L.

    2008-08-24

    The DOE Hydrogen Storage Program is focused on identifying and developing viable hydrogen storage systems for onboard vehicular applications. The program funds exploratory research directed at identifying new materials and concepts for storage of hydrogen having high gravimetric and volumetric capacities that have the potential to meet long term technical targets for onboard storage. Approaches currently being examined are reversible metal hydride storage materials, reversible hydrogen sorption systems, and chemical hydrogen storage systems. The latter approach concerns materials that release hydrogen in endothermic or exothermic chemical bond-breaking processes. To regenerate the spent fuels arising from hydrogen release from such materials, chemical processes must be employed. These chemical regeneration processes are envisioned to occur offboard the vehicle.

  3. High temperature metal hydrides as heat storage materials for solar and related applications.

    PubMed

    Felderhoff, Michael; Bogdanović, Borislav

    2009-01-01

    For the continuous production of electricity with solar heat power plants the storage of heat at a temperature level around 400 degrees C is essential. High temperature metal hydrides offer high heat storage capacities around this temperature. Based on Mg-compounds, these hydrides are in principle low-cost materials with excellent cycling stability. Relevant properties of these hydrides and their possible applications as heat storage materials are described.

  4. High Temperature Metal Hydrides as Heat Storage Materials for Solar and Related Applications

    PubMed Central

    Felderhoff, Michael; Bogdanović, Borislav

    2009-01-01

    For the continuous production of electricity with solar heat power plants the storage of heat at a temperature level around 400 °C is essential. High temperature metal hydrides offer high heat storage capacities around this temperature. Based on Mg-compounds, these hydrides are in principle low-cost materials with excellent cycling stability. Relevant properties of these hydrides and their possible applications as heat storage materials are described. PMID:19333448

  5. Storage, Handling and Preservation of Audiovisual Materials. AV in Action 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Anthony Hugh

    Designed to provide the librarian with suggestions and guidelines for storing and preserving audiovisual materials, this pamphlet is divided into four major chapters: (1) Normal Use Storage Conditions; (2) Natural Lifetime, Working Lifetime and Long-Term Storage; (3) Handling; and (4) Shelving of Normal Use Materials. Topics addressed include:…

  6. 49 CFR 192.735 - Compressor stations: Storage of combustible materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compressor stations: Storage of combustible materials. 192.735 Section 192.735 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... § 192.735 Compressor stations: Storage of combustible materials. (a) Flammable or combustible...

  7. 49 CFR 192.735 - Compressor stations: Storage of combustible materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressor stations: Storage of combustible materials. 192.735 Section 192.735 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... § 192.735 Compressor stations: Storage of combustible materials. (a) Flammable or combustible...

  8. Underground and earth sheltered food storage: historical, geographic, and economic considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Dunkel, F.V.

    1985-01-01

    Storage structures now used for bulk grain and beans have been derived from a combination of scientific experiments and tradition. Recent generations of US farmers have grown up with the understanding that grain is best stored in round metal bins or wooden cribs aboveground. It is generally thought that natural wind movements in the crib structures and forced air flow from aeration fans in metal bins will keep grain and beans safe, i.e., free of moisture accumulation and the resulting insect and fungal growth, and protected from germination, all of which deteriorate the commodity. North American farmers further believe that the low temperature of northern winters combined with careful use of aerating fans will keep the grain dry or beans safe (less than 14% moisture content) for years of storage. Traditional forms of grain and bean storage in other parts of the world have evolved differently. With the exception of North America, the people of every continent in the world have developed underground structures for long-term storage of food. A review of the varieties of underground structures that have evolved throughout the world, and research related to underground storage of grain and beans is presented.

  9. Green energy storage materials: advanced nanostructured materials for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Alok Mani; Chandrasekar, M. S.; Mitra, Sagar

    2011-06-01

    The projected doubling of world energy consumption in the next fifty years requires certain measures to meet this demand. The ideal energy provider is reliable, efficient, with low emissions source - wind, solar, etc. The low carbon footprint of renewables is an added benefit, which makes them especially attractive during this era of environmental consciousness. Unfortunately, the intermittent nature of energy from these renewables is not suitable for the commercial and residential grid application, unless the power delivery is 24/7, with minimum fluctuation. This requires intervention of efficient electrical energy storage technology to make power generation from renewable practical. The progress to higher energy and power density especially for battery technology will push material to the edge of stability and yet these materials must be rendered safe, stable and with reliable operation throughout their long life. A major challenge for chemical energy storage is developing the ability to store more energy while maintaining stable electrode-electrolyte interface. A structural transformation occurs during charge-discharge cycle, accompanied by a volume change, degrading the microstructure over-time. The need to mitigate this volume and structural change accompanying charge-discharge cycle necessitates going to nanostructured and multifunctional materials that have the potential of dramatically enhancing the energy density and power density.

  10. Food Prices and Climate Extremes: A Model of Global Grain Price Variability with Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, C.; Schewe, J.; Frieler, K.

    2015-12-01

    Extreme climate events such as droughts, floods, or heat waves affect agricultural production in major cropping regions and therefore impact the world market prices of staple crops. In the last decade, crop prices exhibited two very prominent price peaks in 2007-2008 and 2010-2011, threatening food security especially for poorer countries that are net importers of grain. There is evidence that these spikes in grain prices were at least partly triggered by actual supply shortages and the expectation of bad harvests. However, the response of the market to supply shocks is nonlinear and depends on complex and interlinked processes such as warehousing, speculation, and trade policies. Quantifying the contributions of such different factors to short-term price variability remains difficult, not least because many existing models ignore the role of storage which becomes important on short timescales. This in turn impedes the assessment of future climate change impacts on food prices. Here, we present a simple model of annual world grain prices that integrates grain stocks into the supply and demand functions. This firstly allows us to model explicitly the effect of storage strategies on world market price, and thus, for the first time, to quantify the potential contribution of trade policies to price variability in a simple global framework. Driven only by reported production and by long--term demand trends of the past ca. 40 years, the model reproduces observed variations in both the global storage volume and price of wheat. We demonstrate how recent price peaks can be reproduced by accounting for documented changes in storage strategies and trade policies, contrasting and complementing previous explanations based on different mechanisms such as speculation. Secondly, we show how the integration of storage allows long-term projections of grain price variability under climate change, based on existing crop yield scenarios.

  11. Evaluation of bionanocomposites as packaging material on properties of soft white cheese during storage period.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Ahmed M; El-Sayed, Samah M; Salama, Heba H; El-Sayed, Hoda S; Dufresne, A

    2015-11-01

    Novel bionanocomposites based on chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol)/titanium nanoparticles (CS/PVA/TiO2 nanocomposite) were prepared and used as packaging materials for soft white cheese. The prepared bionanocomposites were characterized using XRD, SEM, TEM and FT-IR. The CS/PVA/TiO2 bionanocomposites exhibited good mechanical properties. Furthermore, the obtained bionanocomposites exhibited superior antibacterial activity against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus), gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli) bacteria and fungi (Candidia albicans). The soft white cheese was manufactured and packaged within the CS/PVA/TiO2 nanocomposite films and stored at 7 °C for 30 days. The color, rheological and chemical properties of cheese were evaluated, also the influence of CS/PVA/TiO2 bionanocomposites on microbiological analysis of soft white cheese was assessed, the results indicated that the total bacterial counts, mold & yeast and coliform decreased with the increasing storage period and disappeared at the end of storage period compared with control. Consequently, CS/PVA/TiO2 bionanocomposite can be used in food packaging applications.

  12. Evaluation of bionanocomposites as packaging material on properties of soft white cheese during storage period.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Ahmed M; El-Sayed, Samah M; Salama, Heba H; El-Sayed, Hoda S; Dufresne, A

    2015-11-01

    Novel bionanocomposites based on chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol)/titanium nanoparticles (CS/PVA/TiO2 nanocomposite) were prepared and used as packaging materials for soft white cheese. The prepared bionanocomposites were characterized using XRD, SEM, TEM and FT-IR. The CS/PVA/TiO2 bionanocomposites exhibited good mechanical properties. Furthermore, the obtained bionanocomposites exhibited superior antibacterial activity against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus), gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli) bacteria and fungi (Candidia albicans). The soft white cheese was manufactured and packaged within the CS/PVA/TiO2 nanocomposite films and stored at 7 °C for 30 days. The color, rheological and chemical properties of cheese were evaluated, also the influence of CS/PVA/TiO2 bionanocomposites on microbiological analysis of soft white cheese was assessed, the results indicated that the total bacterial counts, mold & yeast and coliform decreased with the increasing storage period and disappeared at the end of storage period compared with control. Consequently, CS/PVA/TiO2 bionanocomposite can be used in food packaging applications. PMID:26256350

  13. Marijuana: effects on storage and retrieval of prose material.

    PubMed

    Miller, L L; Cornett, T L; Brightwell, D R; McFarland, D J; Drew, W G; Wikler, A

    1977-03-16

    In a two phase design, an attempt was made to differentiate the effect of marijuana on the storage and retrieval of prose material. In the first phase, 40 male subjects were administered a single 500 mg marijuana cigarette containing 2.1%delta9-THC or a placebo cigarette. Fifteen minutes after smoking, they listened to and at the same time read a narrative passage of approximately 200 words in length. Subsequently, an immediate free recall test was given in which subjects were required to write down as much of the story as they could remember. The second phase was conducted 24h later. Marijuana and placebo subjects were randomly subdivided into four groups with half of the subjects participating in the same drug condition as occurred on day one while the others switched drug state. Fifteen minutes after smoking, all subjects recalled the passage presented on day one and then were given 24 questions concerning facts and events in the story which could be answered in a few words. These questions served as retrieval cues. Following this, a new passage was presented in the same manner as occurred on day one. After an immediate free recall test, another cued recall test was administered. Results indicated that marijuana reduced immediate recall under both cued and uncued conditions incomparison to placebo. No relative cued recall advantage was found in the marijuana groups for the old or new story and marijuana produced only a moderate decrement in recall of the old story on day two. However, marijuana given in the second phase significantly reduced memory for items recalled in the initial phase irrespective of drug or cueing condition in phase one, suggesting that retrieval was also affected. Some decrement in recall of the new story did occur as a function of drug state change in group M-P. This effect was related to the serial position of input items. Serial position did not interact with drug state under any other recall condition.

  14. 21 CFR 181.22 - Certain substances employed in the manufacture of food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of food-packaging materials. Prior to the enactment of the food additives amendment to the Federal... materials. So used, these substances are not considered “food additives” within the meaning of section 201(s... intended to accomplish any physical or technical effect in the food itself, shall be reduced to the...

  15. 21 CFR 181.22 - Certain substances employed in the manufacture of food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... INGREDIENTS Specific Prior-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.22 Certain substances employed in the manufacture... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certain substances employed in the manufacture of food-packaging materials. 181.22 Section 181.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION,...

  16. 21 CFR 181.22 - Certain substances employed in the manufacture of food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... INGREDIENTS Specific Prior-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.22 Certain substances employed in the manufacture... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certain substances employed in the manufacture of food-packaging materials. 181.22 Section 181.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION,...

  17. 21 CFR 181.22 - Certain substances employed in the manufacture of food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... INGREDIENTS Specific Prior-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.22 Certain substances employed in the manufacture... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certain substances employed in the manufacture of food-packaging materials. 181.22 Section 181.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION,...

  18. Production and applications of biobased packaging materials for the food industry.

    PubMed

    Weber, C J; Haugaard, V; Festersen, R; Bertelsen, G

    2002-01-01

    Materials based on renewable resources are being developed at an increasing rate. Today, the only biobased food-packaging materials used commercially on a major scale are based on cellulose. However, materials based on proteins, starch, polylactate and other renewable resources may be the food-packaging materials of tomorrow. The paper presents some of the different biobased materials and their potential as food-packaging materials. PMID:11962705

  19. Mesoporous silica as carrier of antioxidant for food packaging materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonocore, Giovanna Giuliana; Gargiulo, Nicola; Verdolotti, Letizia; Liguori, Barbara; Lavorgna, Marino; Caputo, Domenico

    2014-05-01

    Mesoporous silicas have been long recognized as very promising materials for the preparation of drug delivery systems. In this work SBA-15 mesoporous silica has been functionalized with amino-silane to be used as carrier of antioxidant compound in the preparation of active food packaging materials exhibiting tailored release properties. Active films have been prepared by loading the antioxidant tocopherol, the purely siliceous SBA-15 and the aminofunctionalized SBA-15 loaded with tocopherol into LDPE matrix trough a two-step process (mixing+extrusion). The aim of the present work is the study of the effect of the pore size and of the chemical functionality of the internal walls of the mesophase on the migration of tocopherol from active LDPE polymer films. Moreover, it has been proved that the addition of the active compound do not worsen the properties of the film such as optical characteristic and water vapor permeability, thus leading to the development of a material which could be favorably used mainly, but not exclusively, in the sector of food packaging.

  20. Inorganic compounds for passive solar energy storage: Solid-state dehydration materials and high specific heat materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struble, L. J.; Brown, P. W.

    1986-04-01

    Two classes of hydrated inorganic salts have been studied to assess their potential as materials for passive solar energy storage. The materials are part of the quaternary system CaO-Al2O3-SO3-H2O and related chemical systems, and the two classes are typified by ettringite, a trisubstituted salt, and Friedel's salt, a monosubstituted salt. The trisubstituted salts were studied for their possible application in latent heat storage, utilizing a low-temperature dehydration reaction, and both classes were studies for their application in sensible heat storage. In order to assess their potential for energy storage, the salts have been synthesized, characterized by several analytical techniques, and thermal properties measured. The dehydration data of that the trisubstituted salts vary somewhat with chemical composition, with the temperature of the onset of dehydration ranging from 6(0)C to 33(0)C, and enthalpy changes on dehydration ranging from 60 to 200 cal/g. Heat capacity is less variable with composition; values for the trisubstituted phases are 30 cal/g/(0)C and for the monosubstituted phases between 0.23 and 0.28 cal/g/(0)C. Preliminary experiments indicate that the dehydration is reversible, and suggest that the materials might have additional potential as solar desiccant materials. These thermal data demonstrate the trisubstituted salts have potential as latent heat storage materials, and that both classes of salts have potential as sensible heat storage materials.

  1. Arsenic contamination in food-chain: transfer of arsenic into food materials through groundwater irrigation.

    PubMed

    Huq, S M Imamul; Joardar, J C; Parvin, S; Correll, Ray; Naidu, Ravi

    2006-09-01

    Arsenic contamination in groundwater in Bangladesh has become an additional concern vis-à-vis its use for irrigation purposes. Even if arsenic-safe drinking-water is assured, the question of irrigating soils with arsenic-laden groundwater will continue for years to come. Immediate attention should be given to assess the possibility of accumulating arsenic in soils through irrigation-water and its subsequent entry into the food-chain through various food crops and fodders. With this possibility in mind, arsenic content of 2,500 water, soil and vegetable samples from arsenic-affected and arsenic-unaffected areas were analyzed during 1999-2004. Other sources of foods and fodders were also analyzed. Irrigating a rice field with groundwater containing 0.55 mg/L of arsenic with a water requirement of 1,000 mm results in an estimated addition of 5.5 kg of arsenic per ha per annum. Concentration of arsenic as high as 80 mg per kg of soil was found in an area receiving arsenic-contaminated irrigation. A comparison of results from affected and unaffected areas revealed that some commonly-grown vegetables, which would usually be suitable as good sources of nourishment, accumulate substantially-elevated amounts of arsenic. For example, more than 150 mg/kg of arsenic has been found to be accumulated in arum (kochu) vegetable. Implications of arsenic ingested in vegetables and other food materials are discussed in the paper. PMID:17366772

  2. Arsenic Contamination in Food-chain: Transfer of Arsenic into Food Materials through Groundwater Irrigation

    PubMed Central

    Joardar, J.C.; Parvin, S.; Correll, Ray; Naidu, Ravi

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic contamination in groundwater in Bangladesh has become an additional concern vis-à-vis its use for irrigation purposes. Even if arsenic-safe drinking-water is assured, the question of irrigating soils with arsenic-laden groundwater will continue for years to come. Immediate attention should be given to assess the possibility of accumulating arsenic in soils through irrigation-water and its subsequent entry into the food-chain through various food crops and fodders. With this possibility in mind, arsenic content of 2,500 water, soil and vegetable samples from arsenic-affected and arsenic-unaffected areas were analyzed during 1999–2004. Other sources of foods and fodders were also analyzed. Irrigating a rice field with groundwater containing 0.55 mg/L of arsenic with a water requirement of 1,000 mm results in an estimated addition of 5.5 kg of arsenic per ha per annum. Concentration of arsenic as high as 80 mg per kg of soil was found in an area receiving arsenic-contaminated irrigation. A comparison of results from affected and unaffected areas revealed that some commonly-grown vegetables, which would usually be suitable as good sources of nourishment, accumulate substantially-elevated amounts of arsenic. For example, more than 150 mg/kg of arsenic has been found to be accumulated in arum (kochu) vegetable. Implications of arsenic ingested in vegetables and other food materials are discussed in the paper. PMID:17366772

  3. Arsenic contamination in food-chain: transfer of arsenic into food materials through groundwater irrigation.

    PubMed

    Huq, S M Imamul; Joardar, J C; Parvin, S; Correll, Ray; Naidu, Ravi

    2006-09-01

    Arsenic contamination in groundwater in Bangladesh has become an additional concern vis-à-vis its use for irrigation purposes. Even if arsenic-safe drinking-water is assured, the question of irrigating soils with arsenic-laden groundwater will continue for years to come. Immediate attention should be given to assess the possibility of accumulating arsenic in soils through irrigation-water and its subsequent entry into the food-chain through various food crops and fodders. With this possibility in mind, arsenic content of 2,500 water, soil and vegetable samples from arsenic-affected and arsenic-unaffected areas were analyzed during 1999-2004. Other sources of foods and fodders were also analyzed. Irrigating a rice field with groundwater containing 0.55 mg/L of arsenic with a water requirement of 1,000 mm results in an estimated addition of 5.5 kg of arsenic per ha per annum. Concentration of arsenic as high as 80 mg per kg of soil was found in an area receiving arsenic-contaminated irrigation. A comparison of results from affected and unaffected areas revealed that some commonly-grown vegetables, which would usually be suitable as good sources of nourishment, accumulate substantially-elevated amounts of arsenic. For example, more than 150 mg/kg of arsenic has been found to be accumulated in arum (kochu) vegetable. Implications of arsenic ingested in vegetables and other food materials are discussed in the paper.

  4. Moisture storage parameters of porous building materials as time-dependent properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Záleská, Martina; Pavlíková, Milena; Pavlík, Zbyšek

    2016-06-01

    Three different types of bricks and two different types of sandstones are studied in terms of measurement moisture storage parameters for over-hygroscopic moisture area using pressure plate device. For researched materials, basic physical properties as bulk density, matrix density and total open porosity are determined. From the obtained data of moisture storage measurement, the water retention curves and curves of degree of saturation in dependence on suction pressure are constructed. Water retention curve (also called suction curve, capillary potential curve, capillary-pressure function and capillary-moisture relationship) is the basic material property used in models for simulation of moisture storage in porous building materials.

  5. 30 CFR 57.6101 - Areas around explosive material storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage-Surface and Underground § 57.6101 Areas around explosive material storage..., dry grass, and trees for 25 feet in all directions, except that live trees 10 feet or taller need...

  6. 30 CFR 57.6101 - Areas around explosive material storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage-Surface and Underground § 57.6101 Areas around explosive material storage..., dry grass, and trees for 25 feet in all directions, except that live trees 10 feet or taller need...

  7. 30 CFR 57.6101 - Areas around explosive material storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage-Surface and Underground § 57.6101 Areas around explosive material storage..., dry grass, and trees for 25 feet in all directions, except that live trees 10 feet or taller need...

  8. 30 CFR 57.6101 - Areas around explosive material storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage-Surface and Underground § 57.6101 Areas around explosive material storage..., dry grass, and trees for 25 feet in all directions, except that live trees 10 feet or taller need...

  9. 30 CFR 56.6131 - Location of explosive material storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Location of explosive material storage facilities. 56.6131 Section 56.6131 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage § 56.6131 Location...

  10. 30 CFR 57.6131 - Location of explosive material storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Location of explosive material storage facilities. 57.6131 Section 57.6131 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage-Surface Only...

  11. 33 CFR 127.1313 - Storage of hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Operations § 127.1313 Storage of... the marine transfer area for LHG: (1) The LHG being transferred. (2) Fuel required by the vessel,...

  12. 33 CFR 127.1313 - Storage of hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Operations § 127.1313 Storage of... the marine transfer area for LHG: (1) The LHG being transferred. (2) Fuel required by the vessel,...

  13. 33 CFR 127.1313 - Storage of hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Operations § 127.1313 Storage of... the marine transfer area for LHG: (1) The LHG being transferred. (2) Fuel required by the vessel,...

  14. 33 CFR 127.1313 - Storage of hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Operations § 127.1313 Storage of... the marine transfer area for LHG: (1) The LHG being transferred. (2) Fuel required by the vessel,...

  15. 33 CFR 127.1313 - Storage of hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Operations § 127.1313 Storage of... the marine transfer area for LHG: (1) The LHG being transferred. (2) Fuel required by the vessel,...

  16. Sodium Chloride Diffusion in Low-Acid Foods during Thermal Processing and Storage.

    PubMed

    Bornhorst, Ellen R; Tang, Juming; Sablani, Shyam S

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed at modeling sodium chloride (NaCl) diffusion in foods during thermal processing using analytical and numerical solutions and at investigating the changes in NaCl concentrations during storage after processing. Potato, radish, and salmon samples in 1% or 3% NaCl solutions were heated at 90, 105, or 121 °C for 5 to 240 min to simulate pasteurization and sterilization. Selected samples were stored at 4 or 22 °C for up to 28 d. Radish had the largest equilibrium NaCl concentrations and equilibrium distribution coefficients, but smallest effective diffusion coefficients, indicating that a greater amount of NaCl diffused into the radish at a slower rate. Effective diffusion coefficients determined using the analytical solution ranged from 0.2 × 10(-8) to 2.6 × 10(-8) m²/s. Numerical and analytical solutions showed good agreement with experimental data, with average coefficients of determination for samples in 1% NaCl at 121 °C of 0.98 and 0.95, respectively. During storage, food samples equilibrated to a similar NaCl concentration regardless of the thermal processing severity. The results suggest that sensory evaluation of multiphase (solid and liquid) products should occur at least 14 d after processing to allow enough time for the salt to equilibrate within the product. PMID:27060992

  17. Practical issues in adopting a traveling wave thermoacoustic cooler for use in a food storage refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spoor, Philip S.

    2005-09-01

    CFIC/QDrive has developed a food storage refrigerator for the Army based on thermoacoustic technology. This ``Phase II'' SBIR project is a continuation of a ``Phase I'' effort that explored using a standing-wave thermoacoustic cooler for the refrigerator. The standing-wave cooler was found to be too inefficient with too low a power density to be practical, so it was switched to an acoustic Stirling, or traveling-wave thermoacoustic (regenerator based) cooler for Phase II. The major challenges of this project were adapting the Stirling-style cooler to a food storage application, and not the fundamentals of the cooler itself (the one exception being the issue of acoustic streaming). The challenges include: Running at 60 Hz (without frequency-shifting electronics), heat exchange without circulating fluids, dynamic balance, guarantee of long life, efficiency, and compactness (power density). How these challenges were met and how they drove the design, in most cases away from what would be ideal for the cycle itself, will be discussed. Time permitting, how the additional pressure of low unit cost would affect this type of product development will also be discussed. [Research supported by the U. S. Army through a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant.

  18. Sodium Chloride Diffusion in Low-Acid Foods during Thermal Processing and Storage.

    PubMed

    Bornhorst, Ellen R; Tang, Juming; Sablani, Shyam S

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed at modeling sodium chloride (NaCl) diffusion in foods during thermal processing using analytical and numerical solutions and at investigating the changes in NaCl concentrations during storage after processing. Potato, radish, and salmon samples in 1% or 3% NaCl solutions were heated at 90, 105, or 121 °C for 5 to 240 min to simulate pasteurization and sterilization. Selected samples were stored at 4 or 22 °C for up to 28 d. Radish had the largest equilibrium NaCl concentrations and equilibrium distribution coefficients, but smallest effective diffusion coefficients, indicating that a greater amount of NaCl diffused into the radish at a slower rate. Effective diffusion coefficients determined using the analytical solution ranged from 0.2 × 10(-8) to 2.6 × 10(-8) m²/s. Numerical and analytical solutions showed good agreement with experimental data, with average coefficients of determination for samples in 1% NaCl at 121 °C of 0.98 and 0.95, respectively. During storage, food samples equilibrated to a similar NaCl concentration regardless of the thermal processing severity. The results suggest that sensory evaluation of multiphase (solid and liquid) products should occur at least 14 d after processing to allow enough time for the salt to equilibrate within the product.

  19. Heat transfer characteristics of a high temperature sensible heat storage water heater using cast iron as a storage material

    SciTech Connect

    Jotshi, C.K.; Goswami, D.Y.; Klausner, J.F.; Hsieh, C.K.; Leung, M.; Li, H.; Malakar, S.; Colacino, F.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the heat transfer characteristics of high temperature sensible heat storage in cast iron for water heating applications. An experimental setup consisting of a cast iron cylinder and a tube running through its center was fabricated and tested. The experimental data were compared with the theoretical model. It was observed that the contact resistance between the cast iron and the tube plays a dominant role in extracting the heat. An approximate contact resistance prediction was obtained by assuming the resistance due to the air gap modulated by a correction factor, which accounts for the contacting surface area. Based on the results from the experimental setup and theoretical modeling a prototype storage water heater using cast iron blocks as the storage material was designed, fabricated and tested.

  20. Heat storage material comprising calcium chloride-hexahydrate and a nucleating agent

    SciTech Connect

    Gawron, K.; Schroder, J.

    1980-02-19

    The utility of calcium chloride-hexahydrate as a heat storage material is improved when barium carbonate, strontium carbonate, barium fluoride, barium fluoride-hydrofluoride and/or strontium fluoride is used as a nucleating agent to prevent supercooling.

  1. 30 CFR 56.6101 - Areas around explosive material storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surrounding storage facilities for explosive material shall be clear of rubbish, brush, dry grass, and trees for 25 feet in all directions, except that live trees 10 feet or taller need not be removed. (b)...

  2. 30 CFR 56.6101 - Areas around explosive material storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... surrounding storage facilities for explosive material shall be clear of rubbish, brush, dry grass, and trees for 25 feet in all directions, except that live trees 10 feet or taller need not be removed. (b)...

  3. 15. BUILDING 227B. RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL STORAGE. ARCHITECTURAL LAYOUT. November 20, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. BUILDING 227B. RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL STORAGE. ARCHITECTURAL LAYOUT. November 20, 1970 - Frankford Arsenal, Building No. 227, South side of Hagner Road between Ripley & Mellon Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. 30 CFR 77.1915 - Storage and handling of combustible materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1915 Storage and handling of combustible materials. (a... of any slope or shaft opening. (b) Other combustible material and supplies shall not be stored within 25 feet of any slope or shaft opening. (c) Pyritic slates, bony coal, culm or other material...

  5. 30 CFR 77.1915 - Storage and handling of combustible materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1915 Storage and handling of combustible materials. (a... of any slope or shaft opening. (b) Other combustible material and supplies shall not be stored within 25 feet of any slope or shaft opening. (c) Pyritic slates, bony coal, culm or other material...

  6. 48 CFR 252.223-7006 - Prohibition on storage and disposal of toxic and hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... disposal of toxic and hazardous materials. 252.223-7006 Section 252.223-7006 Federal Acquisition... and disposal of toxic and hazardous materials. As prescribed in 223.7103(a), use the following clause: Prohibition on Storage and Disposal of Toxic and Hazardous Materials (APR 1993) (a) Definitions. As used...

  7. 48 CFR 252.223-7006 - Prohibition on storage and disposal of toxic and hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... disposal of toxic and hazardous materials. 252.223-7006 Section 252.223-7006 Federal Acquisition... and disposal of toxic and hazardous materials. As prescribed in 223.7103(a), use the following clause: Prohibition on Storage and Disposal of Toxic and Hazardous Materials (APR 2012) (a) Definitions. As used...

  8. A Materials Index--Its Storage, Retrieval, and Display

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Carol Z.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental procedure for indexing physical materials based on simple syntactical rules was tested by encoding the materials in the journal, Applied Physics Letters,'' to produce a materials index. The syntax and numerous examples together with an indication of the method by which retrieval can be effected are presented. (5 references)…

  9. Synthesis of Two-Dimensional Materials for Capacitive Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Sánchez, Beatriz; Gogotsi, Yury

    2016-08-01

    The unique properties and great variety of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials make them highly attractive for energy storage applications. Here, an insight into the progress made towards the application of 2D nanomaterials for capacitive energy storage is provided. Synthesis methods, and electrochemical performance of various classes of 2D nanomaterials, particularly based on graphene, transition metal oxides, dichalcogenides, and carbides, are presented. The factors that directly influence capacitive performance are discussed throughout the text and include nanosheet composition, morphology and texture, electrode architecture, and device configuration. Recent progress in the fabrication of 2D-nanomaterials-based microsupercapacitors and flexible and free-standing supercapacitors is presented. The main electrode manufacturing techniques with emphasis on scalability and cost-effectiveness are discussed, and include laser scribing, printing, and roll-to-roll manufacture. Various issues that prevent the use of the full energy-storage potential of 2D nanomaterials and how they have been tackled are discussed, and include nanosheet aggregation and the low electrical conductivity of some 2D nanomaterials. Particularly, the design of hybrid and hierarchical 2D and 3D structures based on 2D nanomaterials is presented. Other challenges and opportunities are discussed and include: control of nanosheets size and thickness, chemical and electrochemical instability, and scale-up of electrode films. PMID:27254831

  10. Synthesis of Two-Dimensional Materials for Capacitive Energy Storage

    DOE PAGES

    Mendoza-Sánchez, Beatriz; Gogotsi, Yury

    2016-06-02

    The unique properties and great variety of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials make them highly attractive for energy storage applications. Here, an insight into the progress made towards the application of 2D nanomaterials for capacitive energy storage is provided. Moreover, synthesis methods, and electrochemical performance of various classes of 2D nanomaterials, particularly based on graphene, transition metal oxides, dichalcogenides, and carbides, are presented. Some factors that directly influence capacitive performance are discussed throughout the text and include nanosheet composition, morphology and texture, electrode architecture, and device configuration. Recent progress in the fabrication of 2D-nanomaterials-based microsupercapacitors and flexible and free-standing supercapacitors is presented.more » The main electrode manufacturing techniques with emphasis on scalability and cost-effectiveness are discussed, and include laser scribing, printing, and roll-to-roll manufacture. Some various issues that prevent the use of the full energy-storage potential of 2D nanomaterials and how they have been tackled are discussed, and include nanosheet aggregation and the low electrical conductivity of some 2D nanomaterials. In particular, the design of hybrid and hierarchical 2D and 3D structures based on 2D nanomaterials is presented. Other challenges and opportunities are discussed and include: control of nanosheets size and thickness, chemical and electrochemical instability, and scale-up of electrode films.« less

  11. 21 CFR 181.22 - Certain substances employed in the manufacture of food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PRIOR-SANCTIONED FOOD INGREDIENTS Specific Prior-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.22 Certain substances employed in the manufacture of food-packaging materials... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certain substances employed in the manufacture...

  12. Polymer/Graphene Hybrids for Advanced Energy-Conversion and -Storage Materials.

    PubMed

    Cui, Linfan; Gao, Jian; Xu, Tong; Zhao, Yang; Qu, Liangti

    2016-04-20

    Polymer/graphene-based materials with interesting physical and chemical properties have been attracting considerable attention and have been shown to have great potential as active materials in the field of energy conversion and storage. In this review, we focus on recent significant advances in the fabrication and application of polymer/graphene hybrids as electrocatalysts and electrode materials. Synthetic strategies and application of these materials in energy conversion and storage are presented, particularly in devices such as fuel cells, actuators, and supercapacitors, accompanied with a discussion of the challenges and research directions necessary for the future development of polymer/graphene hybrids.

  13. Description of a Multipurpose Processing and Storage Complex for the Hanford Site`s radioactive material

    SciTech Connect

    Nyman, D.H.; Wolfe, B.A.; Hoertkorn, T.R.

    1993-05-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site has changed from defense nuclear materials production to that of waste management/disposal and environmental restoration. ne Multipurpose Processing and Storage Complex (MPSC) is being designed to process discarded waste tank internal hardware contaminated with mixed wastes, failed melters from the vitrification plant, and other Hanford Site high-level solid waste. The MPSC also will provide interim storage of other radioactive materials (irradiated fuel, canisters of vitrified high-level waste [HLW], special nuclear material [SNM], and other designated radioactive materials).

  14. Polymers and paper as packaging materials of irradiated food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pentimalli, M.; Ragni, P.; Righini, G.; Capitani, D.

    2000-03-01

    Effects of γ-irradiation on synthetic polymers and paper used as packaging materials for irradiated food have been studied by NMR. Polystyrene, polybutadiene and some copolymers were studied before and after the γ-irradiation treatment and in the presence or absence of antioxidants and stabilisers. In the absence of additives, the effect of γ-irradiation on polystyrene is negligible even irradiating at high doses. In turn, the role of antioxidants and stabilisers is crucial in polybutadiene and butadiene-containing copolymers. Wood pulp paper was also studied by NMR. Preliminary measurements on γ-irradiated wood pulp sheets show a shortening in the T2 relaxation time component due to the bound water, i.e. some of the bound water is lost.

  15. LANL Virtual Center for Chemical Hydrogen Storage: Chemical Hydrogen Storage Using Ultra-high Surface Area Main Group Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Kauzlarich; Phillip P. Power; Doinita Neiner; Alex Pickering; Eric Rivard; Bobby Ellis, T. M.; Atkins, A. Merrill; R. Wolf; Julia Wang

    2010-09-05

    The focus of the project was to design and synthesize light element compounds and nanomaterials that will reversibly store molecular hydrogen for hydrogen storage materials. The primary targets investigated during the last year were amine and hydrogen terminated silicon (Si) nanoparticles, Si alloyed with lighter elements (carbon (C) and boron (B)) and boron nanoparticles. The large surface area of nanoparticles should facilitate a favorable weight to volume ratio, while the low molecular weight elements such as B, nitrogen (N), and Si exist in a variety of inexpensive and readily available precursors. Furthermore, small NPs of Si are nontoxic and non-corrosive. Insights gained from these studies will be applied toward the design and synthesis of hydrogen storage materials that meet the DOE 2010 hydrogen storage targets: cost, hydrogen capacity and reversibility. Two primary routes were explored for the production of nanoparticles smaller than 10 nm in diameter. The first was the reduction of the elemental halides to achieve nanomaterials with chloride surface termination that could subsequently be replaced with amine or hydrogen. The second was the reaction of alkali metal Si or Si alloys with ammonium halides to produce hydrogen capped nanomaterials. These materials were characterized via X-ray powder diffraction, TEM, FTIR, TG/DSC, and NMR spectroscopy.

  16. Food-processes wastewaters treatment using food solid-waste materials as adsorbents or absorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapti, Ilaira; Georgopoulos, Stavros; Antonopoulou, Maria; Konstantinou, Ioannis; Papadaki, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The wastewaters generated by olive-mills during the production of olive oil, wastewaters from a dairy and a cow-farm unit and wastewaters from a small food factory have been treated by means of selected materials, either by-products of the same units, or other solid waste, as absorbents or adsorbents in order to identify the capacity of those materials to remove organic load and toxicity from the aforementioned wastewaters. The potential of both the materials used as absorbents as well as the treated wastewaters to be further used either as fertilizers or for agricultural irrigation purposes are examined. Dry olive leaves, sheep wool, rice husks, etc. were used either in a fixed-bed or in a stirred batch arrangemen,t employing different initial concentrations of the aforementioned wastewaters. The efficiency of removal was assessed using scpectrophotometric methods and allium test phytotoxicity measurements. In this presentation the response of each material employed is shown as a function of absorbent/adsorbent quantity and kind, treatment time and wastewater kind and initial organic load. Preliminary results on the potential uses of the adsorbents/absorbents and the treated wastewaters are also shown. Keywords: Olive-mill wastewaters, dairy farm wastewaters, olive leaves, zeolite, sheep wool

  17. Transport and storage of radioactive materials 1995. PVP-Volume 307

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.W.; Hafner, R.S.; Lake, W.H.

    1995-11-01

    The design of packaging for the transport of radioactive materials is a constantly evolving activity due primarily to new materials, new design approaches, and a better understanding of the regulations. As a consequence, the Operations, Applications and Components Committee organizes several sessions at the annual ASME PVP Division Conference to provide a forum for the discussion of the most recent trends in the transport and storage of radioactive materials. This publication is composed of technical papers that have been prepared for presentation at the 1995 Joint ASME/JSME Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference (July 23--27, Honolulu, Hawaii) during the sessions addressing the transport and storage of radioactive materials. The papers included were prepared to address engineering or regulatory issues associated with the transport or storage of radioactive materials. However, the subject matter can also have applications to solutions for problems in other areas. Individual paper have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  18. Experimental study of compatibility of reduced metal oxides with thermal energy storage lining materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Leathy, Abdelrahman; Danish, Syed Noman; Al-Ansary, Hany; Jeter, Sheldon; Al-Suhaibani, Zeyad

    2016-05-01

    Solid particles have been shown to be able to operate at temperatures higher than 1000 °C in concentrated solar power (CSP) systems with thermal energy storage (TES). Thermochemical energy storage (TCES) using metal oxides have also found to be advantageous over sensible and latent heat storage concepts. This paper investigates the compatibility of the inner lining material of a TES tank with the reduced metal oxide. Two candidate metal oxides are investigated against six candidate lining materials. XRD results for both the materials are investigated and compared before and after the reduction of metal oxide at 1000°C in the presence of lining material. It is found that the lining material rich in zirconia is suitable for such application. Silicon Carbide is also found non-reacting with one of the metal oxides so it needs to be further investigated with other candidate metal oxides.

  19. Diurnal-nocturnal changes in food intake, gut storage of ingesta, food transit time and metabolism in growing broiler chickens: a model for temporal control of energy balance.

    PubMed

    Buyse, J; Adelsohn, D S; Decuypere, E; Scanes, C G

    1993-09-01

    1. Diurnal-nocturnal changes in food intake, gut storage of ingesta, food transit time and heat production were studied in male broiler chickens reared under a 14L:10D lighting schedule (lights on from 06.00 to 20.00 h). 2. Food consumption during the scotophase was negligible. Peak food consumption during the photoperiod occurred at the beginning of the photoperiod and in the late afternoon. 3. During the photoperiod, the crop and proventriculus/gizzard contained only small quantities of ingesta. However, at the beginning of the scotoperiod, dried ingesta content of crop and proventriculus/gizzard increased by 10.5- and 2.76-fold respectively. This increase was followed by a gradual decrease towards the end of the scotoperiod. 4. Food transit time during the scotoperiod was significantly longer than that during the photoperiod. 5. The daily pattern of heat production closely followed the 14L:10D lighting schedule. Total heat production during darkness averaged 53% of total heat production during the photoperiod. 6. It was estimated that the storage of energy (as ingesta) in the crop and proventriculus/gizzard, followed by its gradual release and the increased food transit time during the night, contributed 75.5% of nocturnal energy needs. It must be recognised that these mechanisms play a major role in the energy balance of the growing chicken during periods without food intake.

  20. Quality assessment of baby food made of different pre-processed organic raw materials under industrial processing conditions.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Kathrin; Kahl, Johannes; Paoletti, Flavio; Birlouez, Ines; Busscher, Nicolaas; Kretzschmar, Ursula; Särkkä-Tirkkonen, Marjo; Seljåsen, Randi; Sinesio, Fiorella; Torp, Torfinn; Baiamonte, Irene

    2015-02-01

    The market for processed food is rapidly growing. The industry needs methods for "processing with care" leading to high quality products in order to meet consumers' expectations. Processing influences the quality of the finished product through various factors. In carrot baby food, these are the raw material, the pre-processing and storage treatments as well as the processing conditions. In this study, a quality assessment was performed on baby food made from different pre-processed raw materials. The experiments were carried out under industrial conditions using fresh, frozen and stored organic carrots as raw material. Statistically significant differences were found for sensory attributes among the three autoclaved puree samples (e.g. overall odour F = 90.72, p < 0.001). Samples processed from frozen carrots show increased moisture content and decrease of several chemical constituents. Biocrystallization identified changes between replications of the cooking. Pre-treatment of raw material has a significant influence on the final quality of the baby food.

  1. Correlation of foodstuffs with ethanol-water mixtures with regard to the solubility of migrants from food contact materials.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Annika; Bach, Aurélie; Driffield, Malcolm; Paseiro Losada, Perfecto; Mercea, Peter; Tosa, Valer; Franz, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Today most foods are available in a packed form. During storage, the migration of chemical substances from food packaging materials into food may occur and may therefore be a potential source of consumer exposure. To protect the consumer, standard migration tests are laid down in Regulation (EU) No. 10/2011. When using those migration tests and applying additional conservative conventions, estimated exposure is linked with large uncertainties including a certain margin of safety. Thus the research project FACET was initiated within the 7th Framework Programme of the European Commission with the aim of developing a probabilistic migration modelling framework which allows one (1) to calculate migration into foods under real conditions of use; and (2) to deliver realistic concentration estimates for consumer exposure modelling for complex packaging materials (including multi-material multilayer structures). The aim was to carry out within the framework of the FACET project a comprehensive systematic study on the solubility behaviour of foodstuffs for potentially migrating organic chemicals. Therefore a rapid and convenient method was established to obtain partition coefficients between polymer and food, KP/F. With this method approximately 700 time-dependent kinetic experiments from spiked polyethylene films were performed using model migrants, foods and ethanol-water mixtures. The partition coefficients of migrants between polymer and food (KP/F) were compared with those obtained using ethanol-water mixtures (KP/F's) to investigate whether an allocation of food groups with common migration behaviour to certain ethanol-water mixtures could be made. These studies have confirmed that the solubility of a migrant is mainly dependent on the fat content in the food and on the ethanol concentration of ethanol-water mixtures. Therefore dissolution properties of generic food groups for migrants can be assigned to those of ethanol-water mixtures. All foodstuffs (including dry

  2. Reference Materials for Determination of the Nutrient Composition of Foods: Results from USDA's National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) play a critical role in validating the accuracy of nutrient data for food samples. A number of available food CRMs of differing matrix composition have assigned concentrations for various nutrients, along with associated uncertainty intervals (UIs) for those valu...

  3. Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 6, Alternatives study

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-14

    The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL`s weapons research, development, and testing (WRD&T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL`s inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for material and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. This report is organized according to the sections and subsections outlined by Attachment 111-2 of DOE Document AL 4700.1, Project Management System. It is organized into seven parts. This document, Part VI - Alternatives Study, presents a study of the different storage/containment options considered for NMSF.

  4. SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES OF MATERIALS FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL ENERGY STORAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, Steven G.

    2014-03-01

    Several battery materials research projects were undertaken, suing NMR spectroscopy as a primary analytical tool. These include transport proerties of liquid and solid electrolytes and structural studies of Li ion electrodes.

  5. Hydrogen Storage in Novel Carbon-Based Nanostructured Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, E. S.; Curtis, C. J.; Engtrakul, C.; Davis, M. F.; Su, T.; Parilla, P. A.; Simpson, L. J.; Blackburn, J. L.; Zhao, Y.; Kim, Y.-H.; Zhang, S. B.; Heben, M. J.; Dillon, A. C.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental wet chemical approaches to complex an iron atom with two C60 fullerenes, representing a new molecule, dubbed a 'bucky dumbbell', have been demonstrated. The structure of this molecule has been determined by 13C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Furthermore, this structure has been shown to have unique binding sites for dihydrogen molecules with the technique of temperature programmed desorption (TPD). The new adsorption sites have binding energies that are stronger than that observed for hydrogen physisorbed on planar graphite, but significantly weaker than a chemical C-H bond. Further development of these molecules could make them ideal candidates for onboard vehicular hydrogen storage.

  6. Uranium for hydrogen storage applications : a materials science perspective.

    SciTech Connect

    Shugard, Andrew D.; Tewell, Craig R.; Cowgill, Donald F.; Kolasinski, Robert D.

    2010-08-01

    Under appropriate conditions, uranium will form a hydride phase when exposed to molecular hydrogen. This makes it quite valuable for a variety of applications within the nuclear industry, particularly as a storage medium for tritium. However, some aspects of the U+H system have been characterized much less extensively than other common metal hydrides (particularly Pd+H), likely due to radiological concerns associated with handling. To assess the present understanding, we review the existing literature database for the uranium hydride system in this report and identify gaps in the existing knowledge. Four major areas are emphasized: {sup 3}He release from uranium tritides, the effects of surface contamination on H uptake, the kinetics of the hydride phase formation, and the thermal desorption properties. Our review of these areas is then used to outline potential avenues of future research.

  7. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging...

  8. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging...

  9. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging...

  10. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging...

  11. 40 CFR 411.30 - Applicability; description of the materials storage piles runoff subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... products, finished products and waste materials which are used in or derived from the manufacture of cement... materials storage piles runoff subcategory. 411.30 Section 411.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE...

  12. Methane storage in nanoporous material at supercritical temperature over a wide range of pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Keliu; Chen, Zhangxin; Li, Xiangfang; Dong, Xiaohu

    2016-09-01

    The methane storage behavior in nanoporous material is significantly different from that of a bulk phase, and has a fundamental role in methane extraction from shale and its storage for vehicular applications. Here we show that the behavior and mechanisms of the methane storage are mainly dominated by the ratio of the interaction between methane molecules and nanopores walls to the methane intermolecular interaction, and a geometric constraint. By linking the macroscopic properties of the methane storage to the microscopic properties of a system of methane molecules-nanopores walls, we develop an equation of state for methane at supercritical temperature over a wide range of pressures. Molecular dynamic simulation data demonstrates that this equation is able to relate very well the methane storage behavior with each of the key physical parameters, including a pore size and shape and wall chemistry and roughness. Moreover, this equation only requires one fitted parameter, and is simple, reliable and powerful in application.

  13. New Ti-decorated B40 fullerene as a promising hydrogen storage material.

    PubMed

    Dong, Huilong; Hou, Tingjun; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Li, Youyong

    2015-05-06

    The newly found B40 is the first experimentally observed all-boron fullerene and has potential applications in hydrogen storage. Here we investigate the binding ability and hydrogen storage capacity of Ti-decorated B40 fullerene based on DFT calculations. Our results indicate that Ti shows excellent binding capability to B40 compared with other transition metals. The B40 fullerene coated by 6 Ti atoms (Ti6B40) can store up to 34 H2 molecules, corresponding to a maximum gravimetric density of 8.7 wt%. It takes 0.2-0.4 eV/H2 to add one H2 molecule, which assures reversible storage of H2 molecules under ambient conditions. The evaluated reversible storage capacity is 6.1 wt%. Our results demonstrate that the new Ti-decorated B40 fullerene is a promising hydrogen storage material with high capacity.

  14. Methane storage in nanoporous material at supercritical temperature over a wide range of pressures.

    PubMed

    Wu, Keliu; Chen, Zhangxin; Li, Xiangfang; Dong, Xiaohu

    2016-01-01

    The methane storage behavior in nanoporous material is significantly different from that of a bulk phase, and has a fundamental role in methane extraction from shale and its storage for vehicular applications. Here we show that the behavior and mechanisms of the methane storage are mainly dominated by the ratio of the interaction between methane molecules and nanopores walls to the methane intermolecular interaction, and a geometric constraint. By linking the macroscopic properties of the methane storage to the microscopic properties of a system of methane molecules-nanopores walls, we develop an equation of state for methane at supercritical temperature over a wide range of pressures. Molecular dynamic simulation data demonstrates that this equation is able to relate very well the methane storage behavior with each of the key physical parameters, including a pore size and shape and wall chemistry and roughness. Moreover, this equation only requires one fitted parameter, and is simple, reliable and powerful in application. PMID:27628747

  15. Methane storage in nanoporous material at supercritical temperature over a wide range of pressures

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Keliu; Chen, Zhangxin; Li, Xiangfang; Dong, Xiaohu

    2016-01-01

    The methane storage behavior in nanoporous material is significantly different from that of a bulk phase, and has a fundamental role in methane extraction from shale and its storage for vehicular applications. Here we show that the behavior and mechanisms of the methane storage are mainly dominated by the ratio of the interaction between methane molecules and nanopores walls to the methane intermolecular interaction, and a geometric constraint. By linking the macroscopic properties of the methane storage to the microscopic properties of a system of methane molecules-nanopores walls, we develop an equation of state for methane at supercritical temperature over a wide range of pressures. Molecular dynamic simulation data demonstrates that this equation is able to relate very well the methane storage behavior with each of the key physical parameters, including a pore size and shape and wall chemistry and roughness. Moreover, this equation only requires one fitted parameter, and is simple, reliable and powerful in application. PMID:27628747

  16. DSC study of technical grade phase change heat storage materials for solar heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, B.M.; Hasnain, S.M.

    1995-11-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate the behavior of storage materials that undergo solid-liquid phase transitions. Heating scans were used to measure the enthalpy that can be stored and cooling scans were used to estimate the magnitude of the enthalpy that may be recovered from the storage material. The automatic and rapid thermal cycling features of the DSC system were used to study thermal decomposition that may arise from the daily duty cycle of the storage medium. In this study, DSC methods were applied to technical grade paraffin wax, calcium chloride hexahydrate and disodium hydrogen phosphate dodecahydrate. In the case of inorganic salt hydrates, DSC measurements showed a decrease in heat of fusion; thermal cycling and thermograms revealed considerable super cooling. This would lead to a reduction in storage capacity. On the other hand paraffin wax did not supercool nor were there any indications that thermal cycling or contact with metal could degrade its thermal performance.

  17. THERMAL EVALUATION OF DRUM TYPE RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING ARRAYS IN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N

    2009-04-27

    Drum type packages are routinely used to transport radioactive material (RAM) in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. These packages are designed to meet the federal regulations described in 10 CFR 71.[1] In recent years, there has been a greater need to use these packagings to store the excess fissile material, especially plutonium for long term storage. While the design requirements for safe transportation of these packagings are well defined, the requirements for safe long term storage are not well established. Since the RAM contents in the packagings produce decay heat, it is important that they are stored carefully to prevent overheating of the containment vessel (CV) seals to prevent any leakage and the impact limiter to maintain the package structural integrity. This paper analyzes different storage arrays for a typical 9977 packaging for thermal considerations and makes recommendations for their safe storage under normal operating conditions.

  18. Complex metal borohydrides: multifunctional materials for energy storage and conversion.

    PubMed

    Mohtadi, Rana; Remhof, Arndt; Jena, Puru

    2016-09-01

    With the limited supply of fossil fuels and their adverse effect on the climate and the environment, it has become a global priority to seek alternate sources of energy that are clean, abundant, and sustainable. While sources such as solar, wind, and hydrogen can meet the world's energy demand, considerable challenges remain to find materials that can store and/or convert energy efficiently. This topical review focuses on one such class of materials, namely, multi-functional complex metal borohydrides that not only have the ability to store sufficient amount of hydrogen to meet the needs of the transportation industry, but also can be used for a new generation of metal ion batteries and solar cells. We discuss the material challenges in all these areas and review the progress that has been made to address them, the issues that still need to be resolved and the outlook for the future. PMID:27384871

  19. The usable capacity of porous materials for hydrogen storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichtenmayer, Maurice; Hirscher, Michael

    2016-04-01

    A large number of different porous materials has been investigated for their hydrogen uptake over a wide pressure range and at different temperature. From the absolute adsorption isotherms, the enthalpy of adsorption is evaluated for a wide range of surface coverage. The usable capacity, defined as the amount of hydrogen released between a maximum tank pressure and a minimum back pressure for a fuel cell, is analyzed for isothermal operation. The usable capacity as a function of temperature shows a maximum which defines the optimum operating temperature. This optimum operating temperature is higher for materials possessing a higher enthalpy of adsorption. However, the fraction of the hydrogen stored overall that can be released at the optimum operating temperature is higher for materials with a lower enthalpy of adsorption than for the ones with higher enthalpy.

  20. Complex metal borohydrides: multifunctional materials for energy storage and conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohtadi, Rana; Remhof, Arndt; Jena, Puru

    2016-09-01

    With the limited supply of fossil fuels and their adverse effect on the climate and the environment, it has become a global priority to seek alternate sources of energy that are clean, abundant, and sustainable. While sources such as solar, wind, and hydrogen can meet the world’s energy demand, considerable challenges remain to find materials that can store and/or convert energy efficiently. This topical review focuses on one such class of materials, namely, multi-functional complex metal borohydrides that not only have the ability to store sufficient amount of hydrogen to meet the needs of the transportation industry, but also can be used for a new generation of metal ion batteries and solar cells. We discuss the material challenges in all these areas and review the progress that has been made to address them, the issues that still need to be resolved and the outlook for the future.

  1. Complex metal borohydrides: multifunctional materials for energy storage and conversion.

    PubMed

    Mohtadi, Rana; Remhof, Arndt; Jena, Puru

    2016-09-01

    With the limited supply of fossil fuels and their adverse effect on the climate and the environment, it has become a global priority to seek alternate sources of energy that are clean, abundant, and sustainable. While sources such as solar, wind, and hydrogen can meet the world's energy demand, considerable challenges remain to find materials that can store and/or convert energy efficiently. This topical review focuses on one such class of materials, namely, multi-functional complex metal borohydrides that not only have the ability to store sufficient amount of hydrogen to meet the needs of the transportation industry, but also can be used for a new generation of metal ion batteries and solar cells. We discuss the material challenges in all these areas and review the progress that has been made to address them, the issues that still need to be resolved and the outlook for the future.

  2. Plant stanol content remains stable during storage of cholesterol-lowering functional foods.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, V; Laakso, P; Kuusisto, P; Niemelä, J; Laitinen, K

    2016-04-01

    Plant stanols reduce the absorption of both dietary and biliary cholesterol. The aim of this study was to examine the stability of plant stanols in the form of plant stanol esters in spreads and biscuits stored under typical storage conditions. The plant stanol content of two commercial margarine-type spreads, containing 35% and 60% absorbable fat, was 6.5 and 6.4 g/100 g after production and remained unaltered when stored at 6 °C for a shelf life of 18 and 22 weeks, respectively. Comparable results were obtained for plant stanol ester ingredient stored under the same conditions and for plant stanol ester-containing biscuits stored at room temperature for up to 74 weeks. Furthermore, the peroxide value and free fatty acids showed that the quality of the food products remained good. The present study demonstrated that plant stanol esters as an ingredient and when added in food products, are stable whilst stored under the appropriate conditions.

  3. Heat recovery/thermal energy storage for energy conservation in food processing

    SciTech Connect

    Combes, R.S.; Boykin, W.B.

    1981-01-01

    Based on energy consumption data compiled for 1974, 59% of the total energy consumed in the US food processing industry was thermal energy. The energy-consuming processes which utilize this thermal energy reject significant quantities of waste heat, usually to the atmosphere or to the wastewater discharged from the plant. Design considerations for waste heat recovery systems in the food processing industry are discussed. A systematic analysis of the waste heat source, in terms of quantity and quality is explored. Other aspects of the waste heat source, such as contamination, are addressed as potential impediments to practical heat recovery. The characteristics of the recipient process which will utilize the recovered waste heat are discussed. Thermal energy storage, which can be used as a means of allowing the waste eat recovery process to operate independent of the subsequent utilization of the recovered energy, is discussed. The project included the design, installation and monitoring of two heat recovery systems in a Gold Kist broiler processing plant. These systems recover waste heat from a poultry scalder overflow (heated wastewater) and from a refrigeration condenser utilizing ammonia as the refrigerant. The performance and economic viability of the heat recovery systems are presented.

  4. Nanotechnology for Material Development on Future Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanamura, Kiyoshi; Munakata, Hirokazu; Dokko, Kaoru

    Various kinds of energy devices have been developed as power sources for portable electronic devices and electric vehicles. Fuel cell, rechargeable lithium ion battery, and super capacitor are the most interesting devices, and they have been extensively studied to improve their electrochemical performance around the world [1, 2]. In these electrochemical devices, chemical energy is directly converted to electric energy through charge transfer process occurring at an interface between electrode and electrolyte. The electrochemical reactions take place at the interface and their reaction rates strongly depend on the nature of interface consisting of electrode and electrolyte materials. In some case, the electrode reaction is so slow that the electrode reaction kinetics should be carefully investigated in order to improve charge transfer reaction rate. On the other hand, the slow electrode reaction can be technically overcome by a large interface area for the electrode reaction, leading to an improvement of apparent reaction rate. For example, the true surface area of the porous electrode used in practical battery and fuel cell is much larger than that of flat electrode. When the surface area is 100 times larger than that of flat electrode, the apparent electrode reaction rate is also 100 times. However, this is too simple to estimate the advantage of the porous electrode. The porous electrode has so many problems that the reaction rate may not become 100 times [3]. Figure 4.1 shows the electrode reaction occurring on flat electrode and porous electrode. In the case of the flat electrode, the electrode reaction takes place uniformly on an entire electrode surface. On the other hand, the electrode reaction taking place on the porous electrode surface has a distribution of electrode reaction rate depending on its porous nature and a kind of electrode material. For example, both electronic and ionic conductivities of porous electrode are very important properties to

  5. Mathematical modeling and experimental studies on solar energy storage in a phase change material

    SciTech Connect

    Das, S.; Dutta, T.K. )

    1993-11-01

    Solar energy storage in phase change material (PCM) is an effective method. A comprehensive study on a PCM storage system and development of a mathematical model have been attempted in this work in order to describe the melting characteristics of paraffin wax encapsulated in the annulus of two concentric cylinders. The movement of the separation boundary between the solid and molten wax was experimentally determined and compared with theoretical solution.

  6. A method for managing the storage of fissile materials using criticality indices

    SciTech Connect

    Philbin, J.S.; Harms, G.A.

    1995-07-01

    This paper describes a method for criticality control at fissile material storage facilities. The method involves the use criticiality indices for storage canisters. The logic, methodology, and results for selected canisters are presented. A concept for an interactive computer program using the method is also introduced. The computer program can be used in real time (using precalulated data) to select a Criticality Index (CI) for a container when it is delivered to or packaged at a site. Criticality safety is assured by controlling the sum of the CIs at each storage location below a defined Emit value when containers are moved.

  7. [Historical materials of Chinese food hygiene (1927-1949)].

    PubMed

    Li, X; Wang, X

    1997-01-01

    The author discusses the situation on the work of food hygiene from 1928 to 1949 in China. During this period, the Health and Epidemic Prevention Bureau under the Ministry of Health were all in charge of food hygiene work. They formulated a series of standards, laws and rules on food hygiene which were carried out by hygienic policemen of the Bureau of Public Security. There were two ways for the education of food hygiene: Short-term course teaching class for food hygiene in medical college. The inspection and research work of food hygiene were performed by the Central Testing House of Hygiene, The Central Experimental Office of Hygienic Facilities and the Central Office of Epidemic Prevention and Nutritional Institute of the Health Office. After anti-Japanese war was broken out in 1937, food hygiene work were carried out mainly in the service in the war.

  8. New materials for thermal energy storage in concentrated solar power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerreiro, Luis; Collares-Pereira, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    Solar Thermal Electricity (STE) is an important alternative to PV electricity production, not only because it is getting more cost competitive with the continuous growth in installed capacity, engineering and associated innovations, but also, because of its unique dispatch ability advantage as a result of the already well established 2-tank energy storage using molten salts (MS). In recent years, research has been performed, on direct MS systems, to which features like modularity and combinations with other (solid) thermal storage materials are considered with the goal of achieving lower investment cost. Several alternative materials and systems have been studied. In this research, storage materials were identified with thermo-physical data being presented for different rocks (e.g. quartzite), super concrete, and other appropriate solid materials. Among the new materials being proposed like rocks from old quarries, an interesting option is the incorporation of solid waste material from old mines belonging to the Iberian Pyritic Belt. These are currently handled as byproducts of past mine activity, and can potentially constitute an environmental hazard due to their chemical (metal) content. This paper presents these materials, as part of a broad study to improve the current concept of solar energy storage for STE plants, and additionally presents a potentially valuable solution for environmental protection related to re-use of mining waste.

  9. Studies on a Heat Storage Container with Phase Change Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoda, Naoki; Watanabe, Koji; Watanabe, Mituo; Yanadori, Michio

    This paper deals with the heat transfer characteristics when a phase change medium discharges the storing energy to a finned tube in a heat storage container. In this experiments, the phase change medium is Calcium Chloride Hexahydrate (CaCl26H2O)with fusion temperature 28°C. The following results are obtained. 1. In solidification process of the medium, the heat discharge quantity to a finned tube is greater than that to a single tube, However, the heat dischage quantity of the finned tube does not increase inproportion to the surface area of the fin. 2. The fin effect of the finned tube decreases as the increase of the accumulative heat discharge quantity rate. 3. This reason lies in the fact that the thermal resistance of the finned tube is greater than that of the single tube. Especially, in the range of the large values of the accumulative heat discharge quantity rate, it is consiberable that the themal resistanse increases so that the ratio of the dead space of the heat transfer area increases at the contact parts of the fins and the tube.

  10. 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE PERFORMANCE OF ALTERNATE MATERIALS FOR LONG-TERM STORAGE APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Skidmore, E.; Hoffman, E.; Daugherty, W.

    2010-02-24

    The Model 9975 shipping package specifies the materials of construction for its various components. With the loss of availability of material for two components (cane fiberboard overpack and Viton{reg_sign} GLT O-rings), alternate materials of construction were identified and approved for use for transport (softwood fiberboard and Viton{reg_sign} GLT-S O-rings). As these shipping packages are part of a long-term storage configuration at the Savannah River Site, additional testing is in progress to verify satisfactory long-term performance of the alternate materials under storage conditions. The test results to date can be compared to comparable results on the original materials of construction to draw preliminary conclusions on the performance of the replacement materials.

  11. Life and stability testing of packaged low-cost energy storage materials

    SciTech Connect

    Frysinger, G.R.

    1980-07-01

    A low-cost laminated plastic film which is used to contain a Glauber's salt-based phase change thermal energy storage material in sausage-like containers called Chubs is discussed. The results of tests performed on the Chub packages themselves and on the thermal energy storage capacity of the packaged phase change material are described. From the test results, a set of specifications have been drawn up for a film material which will satisfactorily contain the phase change material under anticipated operating conditions. Calorimetric testing of the phase change material with thermal cycling indicates that a design capacity of 45 to 50 Btu/lb for a ..delta..T of 30/sup 0/F can be used for the packaged material.

  12. Fires at storage sites of organic materials, waste fuels and recyclables.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Muhammad Asim; Alriksson, Stina; Kaczala, Fabio; Hogland, William

    2013-09-01

    During the last decade, the European Union has enforced the diversion of organic wastes and recyclables to waste management companies operating incineration plants, composting plants and recycling units instead of landfills. The temporary storage sites have been established as a buffer against fluctuations in energy demand throughout the year. Materials also need to be stored at temporary storage sites before recovery and recycling. However, regulations governing waste fuel storage and handling have not yet been developed, and, as a result, companies have engaged in risky practices that have resulted in a high number of fire incidents. In this study, a questionnaire survey was distributed to 249 of the 400 members of Avfall Sverige (Swedish Waste Management Association), which represents the waste management of 95% of the Swedish population. Information regarding 122 storage facilities owned by 69 companies was obtained; these facilities were responsible for the storage of 47% of the total treated waste (incineration + digestion + composting) in 2010 in Sweden. To identify factors related to fire frequency, the questionnaire covered the amounts of material handled and burnt per year, financial losses due to fires, storage duration, storage method and types of waste. The results show that 217 fire incidents corresponded to 170 kilotonnes of material burnt and cumulative losses of 49 million SEK (€4.3 million). Fire frequency and amount of material burnt per fire was found to be dependent upon type of management group (waste operator). Moreover, a correlation was found between fire frequency and material recycled during past years. Further investigations of financial aspects and externalities of fire incidents are recommended.

  13. Transport and storage of radioactive materials -- 1996. PVP-Volume 334

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.W.; Hafner, R.S.; Lake, W.H.

    1996-12-01

    The design of packagings for the transport of radioactive materials is a constantly evolving activity due primarily to new materials, new design approaches, and a better understanding of the regulations. The papers included here were prepared to address engineering or regulatory issues associated with the transport or storage of radioactive materials. However, the subject matter can also have applications to solutions for problems in other areas. Separate abstracts were prepared 6 papers.

  14. Novel Materials with Effective Super Dielectric Constants for Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortes, Francisco Javier Quintero; Phillips, Jonathan

    2015-05-01

    To test a theory of the recently discovered phenomenon of super dielectric behavior at very low frequency, the dielectric constants of several `pastes', composed of porous alumina powders filled to the point of incipient wetness with water containing dissolved sodium chloride, were measured. The effective dielectric low frequency constants of some of the pastes were greater than 1010, dramatically higher than that of any material ever reported. Moreover, the total energy density reported for one capacitor generated with NaCl-based super dielectric material is marginally higher than found in any prior report. These results are consistent with this recently postulated model of low frequency super dielectric behavior in porous, non-conductive materials saturated with ion-containing liquids: upon the application of an electric field, ions dissolved in the saturating liquid contained in the pores will travel to the ends of pore-filling liquid droplets creating giant dipoles. The fields of these giant dipoles oppose the applied field, reducing the net field created per unit of charge on the capacitor plates, effectively increasing charge/voltage ratio, hence capacitance. This is simply a version of the theory of `polarizable media' found in most classic texts on electromagnetism. Other observations reported here include (1) the impact of ion concentration on dielectric values, (2) a maximum voltage similar to that associated with the electrical breakdown of water, (3) the loss of capacitance upon drying, (4) the recovery of capacitance upon the addition of water to a dry super dielectric material, and (5) the linear relationship between capacitance and inverse thickness. All observations are consistent with the earlier proposed model of the super dielectric phenomenon. An extrapolation of results suggests this technology can lead to energy density greater than the best lithium-ion battery.

  15. Sorbent Material Property Requirements for On-Board Hydrogen Storage for Automotive Fuel Cell Systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, R. K.; Peng, J-K; Hua, T. Q.

    2015-05-25

    Material properties required for on-board hydrogen storage in cryogenic sorbents for use with automotive polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems are discussed. Models are formulated for physical, thermodynamic and transport properties, and for the dynamics of H-2 refueling and discharge from a sorbent bed. A conceptual storage configuration with in-bed heat exchanger tubes, a Type-3 containment vessel, vacuum insulation and requisite balance-of-plant components is developed to determine the peak excess sorption capacity and differential enthalpy of adsorption for 5.5 wt% system gravimetric capacity and 55% well-to-tank (WTT) efficiency. The analysis also determines the bulk density to which the material must be compacted for the storage system to reach 40 g.L-1 volumetric capacity. Thermal transport properties and heat transfer enhancement methods are analyzed to estimate the material thermal conductivity needed to achieve 1.5 kg.min(-1) H-2 refueling rate. Operating temperatures and pressures are determined for 55% WTT efficiency and 95% usable H-2. Needs for further improvements in material properties are analyzed that would allow reduction of storage pressure to 50 bar from 100 bar, elevation of storage temperature to 175-200 K from 150 K, and increase of WTT efficiency to 57.5% or higher.

  16. A Preliminary Evaluation of Using Fill Materials to Stabilize Used Nuclear Fuel During Storage and Transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph; Ross, Steven B.; Lahti, Erik A.; Richmond, David J.

    2012-08-01

    This report contains a preliminary evaluation of potential fill materials that could be used to fill void spaces in and around used nuclear fuel contained in dry storage canisters in order to stabilize the geometry and mechanical structure of the used nuclear fuel during extended storage and transportation after extended storage. Previous work is summarized, conceptual descriptions of how canisters might be filled were developed, and requirements for potential fill materials were developed. Elements of the requirements included criticality avoidance, heat transfer or thermodynamic properties, homogeneity and rheological properties, retrievability, material availability and cost, weight and radiation shielding, and operational considerations. Potential fill materials were grouped into 5 categories and their properties, advantages, disadvantages, and requirements for future testing were discussed. The categories were molten materials, which included molten metals and paraffin; particulates and beads; resins; foams; and grout. Based on this analysis, further development of fill materials to stabilize used nuclear fuel during storage and transportation is not recommended unless options such as showing that the fuel remains intact or canning of used nuclear fuel do not prove to be feasible.

  17. Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 7, Estimate data

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-14

    The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL`s weapons research, development, and testing (WRD&T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL`s inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for mate rial and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. This report is organized according to the sections and subsections outlined by Attachment III-2 of DOE Document AL 4700.1, Project Management System. It is organized into seven parts. This document, Part VII - Estimate Data, contains the project cost estimate information.

  18. Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 1, Design concept. Part 2, Project management

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-14

    The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL`s weapons research, development, and testing (WRD&T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL`s inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for mate rial and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. This document provides Part I - Design Concept which describes the selected solution, and Part II - Project Management which describes the management system organization, the elements that make up the system, and the control and reporting system.

  19. Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 3, Supplemental information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-14

    The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL`s weapons research, development, and testing (WRD&T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL`s inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for mate rial and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. It is organized into seven parts. Part I - Design Concept describes the selected solution. Part III - Supplemental Information contains calculations for the various disciplines as well as other supporting information and analyses.

  20. Nanostructure multilayer materials for capacitor energy storage for EH vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, C.W.

    1995-02-01

    Acceleration and regenerative breaking for electric and hybrid vehicles require high power capacitors to complement energy sources. Large, flat nanostructure multilayer capacitors (NMCS) can provide load balancing capacitance in EHVs of the future. Additional uses include snubber capacitors for power electronics such as motor drives, energy discharge capacitors for lasers, and numerous industrial and military electronics applications [1]. In the present work, we demonstrate the effectiveness of LLNL`s multilayer materials technology by fabricating NMC test films with high energy and power density.

  1. Porous graphene materials for advanced electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices.

    PubMed

    Han, Sheng; Wu, Dongqing; Li, Shuang; Zhang, Fan; Feng, Xinliang

    2014-02-12

    Combining the advantages from both porous materials and graphene, porous graphene materials have attracted vast interests due to their large surface areas, unique porous structures, diversified compositions and excellent electronic conductivity. These unordinary features enable porous graphene materials to serve as key components in high-performance electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices such as lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, and fuel cells. This progress report summarizes the typical fabrication methods for porous graphene materials with micro-, meso-, and macro-porous structures. The structure-property relationships of these materials and their application in advanced electrochemical devices are also discussed.

  2. Foam/aerogel composite materials for thermal and acoustic insulation and cryogen storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K. (Inventor); Smith, Trent M. (Inventor); Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); Sass, Jared P. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The invention involves composite materials containing a polymer foam and an aerogel. The composite materials have improved thermal insulation ability, good acoustic insulation, and excellent physical mechanical properties. The composite materials can be used, for instance, for heat and acoustic insulation on aircraft, spacecraft, and maritime ships in place of currently used foam panels and other foam products. The materials of the invention can also be used in building construction with their combination of light weight, strength, elasticity, ability to be formed into desired shapes, and superior thermal and acoustic insulation power. The materials have also been found to have utility for storage of cryogens. A cryogenic liquid or gas, such as N.sub.2 or H.sub.2, adsorbs to the surfaces in aerogel particles. Thus, another embodiment of the invention provides a storage vessel for a cryogen.

  3. Foam/Aerogel Composite Materials for Thermal and Acoustic Insulation and Cryogen Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K. (Inventor); Smith, Trent M. (Inventor); Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); Sass, Jared P. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The invention involves composite materials containing a polymer foam and an aerogel. The composite materials have improved thermal insulation ability, good acoustic insulation, and excellent physical mechanical properties. The composite materials can be used, for instance, for heat and acoustic insulation on aircraft, spacecraft, and maritime ships in place of currently used foam panels and other foam products. The materials of the invention can also be used in building construction with their combination of light weight, strength, elasticity, ability to be formed into desired shapes, and superior thermal and acoustic insulation power. The materials have also been found to have utility for storage of cryogens. A cryogenic liquid or gas, such as N.sub.2 or H.sub.2, adsorbs to the surfaces in aerogel particles. Thus, another embodiment of the invention provides a storage vessel for a cryogen.

  4. Hydrogen storage materials discovery via high throughput ball milling and gas sorption.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Kaye, Steven S; Riley, Conor; Greenberg, Doron; Galang, Daniel; Bailey, Mark S

    2012-06-11

    The lack of a high capacity hydrogen storage material is a major barrier to the implementation of the hydrogen economy. To accelerate discovery of such materials, we have developed a high-throughput workflow for screening of hydrogen storage materials in which candidate materials are synthesized and characterized via highly parallel ball mills and volumetric gas sorption instruments, respectively. The workflow was used to identify mixed imides with significantly enhanced absorption rates relative to Li2Mg(NH)2. The most promising material, 2LiNH2:MgH2 + 5 atom % LiBH4 + 0.5 atom % La, exhibits the best balance of absorption rate, capacity, and cycle-life, absorbing >4 wt % H2 in 1 h at 120 °C after 11 absorption-desorption cycles.

  5. 21 CFR 178.3130 - Antistatic and/or anti-fogging agents in food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Antistatic and/or anti-fogging agents in food-packaging materials. 178.3130 Section 178.3130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF.../or anti-fogging agents in food-packaging materials. The substances listed in paragraph (b) of...

  6. 21 CFR 178.3130 - Antistatic and/or anti-fogging agents in food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Antistatic and/or anti-fogging agents in food-packaging materials. 178.3130 Section 178.3130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF.../or anti-fogging agents in food-packaging materials. The substances listed in paragraph (b) of...

  7. 21 CFR 178.3130 - Antistatic and/or anti-fogging agents in food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Antistatic and/or anti-fogging agents in food-packaging materials. 178.3130 Section 178.3130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF.../or anti-fogging agents in food-packaging materials. The substances listed in paragraph (b) of...

  8. 21 CFR 178.3130 - Antistatic and/or anti-fogging agents in food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Antistatic and/or anti-fogging agents in food-packaging materials. 178.3130 Section 178.3130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF.../or anti-fogging agents in food-packaging materials. The substances listed in paragraph (b) of...

  9. Thermodynamic and thermoeconomic analysis of combined geothermal space heating and thermal storage using phase change materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, V.; Ragnarsson, Á.

    2015-12-01

    The present work discusses the utilization of phase change materials for energy storage in geothermal space heating systems. Thermodynamics and thermoeconomics of the combined heating and thermal storing system were studied to show the scope of energy storage and cost savings. A computational model of the combined space heating and thermal storage system was developed and used to perform thermodynamic studies of the heat storage process and heating system efficiency at different times and ambient temperatures. The basis for these studies is daily variations in heating demand that is higher during the night than during the day. The results show the scope of the utilization of phase change material for low ambient temperature conditions. Under proper conditions a sufficient amount of exergy is stored during the charging period at a low ambient temperature to fulfill the daytime heat load requirement. Under these conditions the cost flow rate of exergy storage is found to be lower than the radiator heating cost flow rate. Thus, the use of exergy storage at low ambient temperatures for heating at higher ambient temperatures makes a significant contribution to cost savings.

  10. 9 CFR 355.15 - Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly-breeding material; nuisances. 355.15 Section...-breeding material; nuisances. All operating and storage rooms and departments of inspected plants used for... any material in which flies may breed, or the maintenance of any nuisance on the premises shall not...

  11. 9 CFR 355.15 - Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly-breeding material; nuisances. 355.15 Section...-breeding material; nuisances. All operating and storage rooms and departments of inspected plants used for... any material in which flies may breed, or the maintenance of any nuisance on the premises shall not...

  12. 9 CFR 355.15 - Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly-breeding material; nuisances. 355.15 Section...-breeding material; nuisances. All operating and storage rooms and departments of inspected plants used for... any material in which flies may breed, or the maintenance of any nuisance on the premises shall not...

  13. 9 CFR 355.15 - Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly-breeding material; nuisances. 355.15 Section...-breeding material; nuisances. All operating and storage rooms and departments of inspected plants used for... any material in which flies may breed, or the maintenance of any nuisance on the premises shall not...

  14. 9 CFR 355.15 - Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly-breeding material; nuisances. 355.15 Section...-breeding material; nuisances. All operating and storage rooms and departments of inspected plants used for... any material in which flies may breed, or the maintenance of any nuisance on the premises shall not...

  15. Nanostructured material for advanced energy storage : magnesium battery cathode development.

    SciTech Connect

    Sigmund, Wolfgang M.; Woan, Karran V.; Bell, Nelson Simmons

    2010-11-01

    Magnesium batteries are alternatives to the use of lithium ion and nickel metal hydride secondary batteries due to magnesium's abundance, safety of operation, and lower toxicity of disposal. The divalency of the magnesium ion and its chemistry poses some difficulties for its general and industrial use. This work developed a continuous and fibrous nanoscale network of the cathode material through the use of electrospinning with the goal of enhancing performance and reactivity of the battery. The system was characterized and preliminary tests were performed on the constructed battery cells. We were successful in building and testing a series of electrochemical systems that demonstrated good cyclability maintaining 60-70% of discharge capacity after more than 50 charge-discharge cycles.

  16. Incorporation of phase-change materials into a ground thermal energy storage system: Theoretical study

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, Y.; Korin, E.

    1996-09-01

    An investigation of a ground thermal energy storage system, which includes storage units containing phase-change materials (PCM), is presented. This study is related to a large-diameter helical heat exchanger, which is placed vertically in the ground. The PCM storage units under consideration have a cylindrical shell shape and are located inside and/or outside the helix. A modified numerical scheme for the solution of heat transfer in the ground, in the PCM units, and within the heat exchanger pipe, is presented. The theoretical results show that the thermal diffusivity of the PCM dominates the thermal performance of the system. Incorporation of PCM storage units containing paraffin wax results in a reduction of the thermal efficiency in comparison with a system not containing these units. However, incorporation of PCM having the same thermal diffusivity as of the soil results in a significant improvement of the thermal performance.

  17. Hydrogen Storage Materials for Mobile and Stationary Applications: Current State of the Art.

    PubMed

    Lai, Qiwen; Paskevicius, Mark; Sheppard, Drew A; Buckley, Craig E; Thornton, Aaron W; Hill, Matthew R; Gu, Qinfen; Mao, Jianfeng; Huang, Zhenguo; Liu, Hua Kun; Guo, Zaiping; Banerjee, Amitava; Chakraborty, Sudip; Ahuja, Rajeev; Aguey-Zinsou, Kondo-Francois

    2015-09-01

    One of the limitations to the widespread use of hydrogen as an energy carrier is its storage in a safe and compact form. Herein, recent developments in effective high-capacity hydrogen storage materials are reviewed, with a special emphasis on light compounds, including those based on organic porous structures, boron, nitrogen, and aluminum. These elements and their related compounds hold the promise of high, reversible, and practical hydrogen storage capacity for mobile applications, including vehicles and portable power equipment, but also for the large scale and distributed storage of energy for stationary applications. Current understanding of the fundamental principles that govern the interaction of hydrogen with these light compounds is summarized, as well as basic strategies to meet practical targets of hydrogen uptake and release. The limitation of these strategies and current understanding is also discussed and new directions proposed.

  18. A numerical model for thermal energy storage systems utilising encapsulated phase change materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Rhys; Saman, Wasim; Bruno, Frank

    2016-05-01

    In an effort to reduce the cost of thermal energy storage for concentrated solar power plants, a thermocline storage concept was investigated. Two systems were investigated being a sensible-only and an encapsulated phase change system. Both systems have the potential to reduce the storage tank volume and/or reduce the cost of the filler material, thereby reducing the cost of the system when compared to current two-tank molten salt systems. The objective of the current paper is to create a numerical model capable of designing and simulating the aforementioned thermocline storage concepts in the open source programming language known as Python. The results of the current study are compared to previous numerical results and are found to be in good agreement.

  19. A study on cooling characteristics of clathrate compound as low temperature latent heat storage material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang Oh; Kim, Jin Heung; Chung, Nak Kyu

    2007-07-01

    Materials that can store low temperature latent heat are organic/inorganic chemicals, eutectic salt system and clathrate compound. Clathrate compound is the material that host compound in hydrogen bond forms cage and guest compound is included into it and combined. Crystallization of hydrate is generated at higher temperature than that of ice from pure water. And physical properties according to temperature are stable and congruent melting phenomenon is occurred without phase separation and it has relatively high latent heat. But clathrate compound still has supercooling problem occurred in the course of phase change and supercooling should be minimized because it affects efficiency of equipment very much. Therefore, various studies on additives to restrain this or heat storage methods are needed. Supercooling is the phenomenon that low temperature thermal storage material is not crystallized and existed as liquid for some time under phase change temperature. Because phase change into solid is delayed and it is existed as liquid due to this, heat transfer from low temperature thermal storage material is lowered. Therefore it is not crystallized at original phase change temperature and crystallized after cooled as much as supercooling degree and operation time of refrigerator is increased. In this study was investigated the cooling characteristics of the clathrate compound as a low temperature latent heat storage material. And additive was added to clathrate compound and its supercooling restrain effect was studied experimentally.

  20. Development of bioactive food packaging materials using immobilised bacteriocins lacticin 3147 and nisaplin.

    PubMed

    Scannell, A G; Hill, C; Ross, R P; Marx, S; Hartmeier, W; Elke; Arendt, K

    2000-09-25

    Immobilisation of the bacteriocins nisin and lacticin 3147 to packaging materials was investigated. Stability of both cellulose-based bioactive inserts and anti-microbial polyethylene/polyamide pouches was examined over time. Anti-microbial activity against the indicator strain Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis HP, in addition to Listeria innocua DPC 1770 and Staphylococcus aureus MMPR3 was observed for all bacteriocin-adsorbed materials. Activity retention of the inserts showed an initial decrease in the first week of storage but remained stable for the remaining 3 months of the trial. However, adsorption of lacticin 3147 to plastic film was unsuccessful, nisin bound well and the resulting film maintained its activity for 3-month period, both at room temperature and under refrigeration. When applied to food systems, the anti-microbial packaging reduced the population of lactic acid bacteria in sliced cheese and ham stored in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) at refrigeration temperatures, thus extending the shelf life. Nisin-adsorbed bioactive inserts reduced levels of Listeria innocua by > or = 2 log units in both products, and Staphylococcus aureus by approximately 1.5 log units in cheese, and approximately 2.8 log units in ham. Similar reductions were observed in cheese vacuum-packaged in nisin-adsorbed pouches.

  1. A multidisciplinary combinatorial approach for tuning promising hydrogen storage materials towards automotive applications.

    PubMed

    Amieiro-Fonseca, A; Ellis, S R; Nuttall, C J; Hayden, B E; Guerin, S; Purdy, G; Soulié, J P; Callear, S K; Culligan, S D; David, W I F; Edwards, P P; Jones, M O; Johnson, S R; Pohl, A H

    2011-01-01

    HyStorM is a multidisciplinary hydrogen-storage project aiming to synthesise and tune materials hydrogen storage properties for automotive applications. Firstly, unique high-throughput combinatorial thin-film technologies are used to screen materials' hydrogen storage properties. Then promising thin-film candidate compositions are synthesised and examined in the bulk. In this paper, we report on our results within the ternary compositions Mg-Ti-B and Ca-Ti-B. Primary screening of the Mg-Ti-B ternary identified a high capacity hotspot corresponding to Mg0.36Ti0.06B0.58, with 10.6 wt% H2 capacity. Partial reversibility has been observed for this material in the thin-film. Bulk Ti-doped Mg(BH4)2 composites show rehydrogenation to MgH2 under the conditions used. The synthesised thin-film Ca-Ti-B ternary showed only low hydrogen storage capacities. In the bulk, Ti-doping experiments on Ca(BH4)2 demonstrated reversible storage capacities up to 5.9 wt% H2. Further characterisation experiments are required to decipher the role of the Ti-dopant in these systems in both films and in the bulk.

  2. Electronic environments and electrochemical properties in lithium storage materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graetz, Jason Allan

    One of the large controversies regarding lithium cathodes concerns the arrangement of the local electronic environments in the host material and how these environments are affected by lithium intercalation. Electron energy-loss spectrometry was used to study charge compensation in lithiated transition-metal oxides (e.g., LiCoO2 and LiNi0.8Co0.2O 2) during electrochemical cycling. The oxygen K-edge and transition metal L2,3 white lines were used to probe the oxygen 2p and transition metal 3d states, respectively. These results show a large increase in state occupancy of the oxygen 2p band during lithiation, suggesting that much of the lithium 2s electron is accommodated by the anion. Ab initio calculations of the oxygen 2p partial density of states curves confirm the increase in unoccupied states that accompany lithium extraction. In contrast with the large changes observed in the oxygen K-edge, much smaller changes were observed in the transition metal L2,3 white lines. Surprisingly, for layered LiCoO 2 and Li(Ni, Co)O2, the transition metal valence changes little during the charge compensation accompanying lithiation. Recent demand for alternatives to graphitic carbon for lithium anodes motivated an investigation into novel binary lithium alloys. The large volume expansions associated with lithium insertion is known to generate tremendous microstructural damage, making most alloys unsuitable for rechargeable lithium batteries. Electrodes of nanostructured lithium alloys were prepared in an attempt to mitigate the particle decrepitation that occurs during cycling and to shorten diffusion times for lithium. Anodes of silicon and germanium were prepared in thin film form as nanocrystalline particles (10 nm mean diameter) and as continuous amorphous thin films (60--250 nm thick). These nanostructured materials exhibited stable capacities up to six times larger than what is found in graphitic carbons, which are currently the industry standard. In addition, these

  3. Composition of key offensive odorants released from fresh food materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Yong-Hyun

    2014-06-01

    A refrigerator loaded with a variety of foods without sealed packaging can create quite an olfactory nuisance, and it may come as a surprise that fresh foods emit unpleasant odorants just as those that are decaying. To learn more about nuisance sources in our daily lives, we measured a list of 22 compounds designated as the key offensive odorants (e.g., reduced sulfur, nitrogenous, volatile fatty acid (VFA), and carbonyls) from nine types of common food items consumed in S. Korea: raw beef, raw fish, spam, yolks and albumin of boiled eggs (analyzed separately), milk, cheese, onions, and strawberries. The odor intensity (OI) of each food item was computed initially with the aid of previously used empirical equations. This indicates that the malodor properties of target foods tend to be governed by a few key odorants such as VFA, S, and N compounds. The extent of odorant mixing of a given food was then evaluated by exploring the correlation between the human olfaction (e.g., dilution-to-threshold (D/T) ratio) and the odor potential determined indirectly (instrumentally) such as odor activity value (OAV) or sum of odor intensity (SOI). The overall results of our study confirm the existence of malodorant compounds released from common food items and their contribution to their odor characteristics to a certain degree.

  4. Experimental investigation of solid by-product as sensible heat storage material: Characterization and corrosion study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega-Fernández, Iñigo; Faik, Abdessamad; Mani, Karthik; Rodriguez-Aseguinolaza, Javier; D'Aguanno, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    The experimental investigation of water cooled electrical arc furnace (EAF) slag used as filler material in the storage tank for sensible heat storage application was demonstrated in this study. The physicochemical and thermal properties of the tested slags were characterized by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microcopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and laser flash analysis, respectively. In addition, the chemical compatibility between slags and molten nitrate salt (60 wt. % NaNO3 and 40 wt. % KNO3) was investigated at 565 °C for 500 hrs. The obtained results were clearly demonstrated that the slags showed a good corrosion resistance in direct contact with molten salt at elevated temperature. The present study was clearly indicated that a low-cost filler material used in the storage tank can significantly reduce the overall required quantities of the relatively higher cost molten salt and consequently reduce the overall cost of the electricity production.

  5. High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage Applications: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, J.; Glatzmaier, G. C.; Starace, A.; Turchi, C.; Ortega, J.

    2011-08-01

    To store thermal energy, sensible and latent heat storage materials are widely used. Latent heat thermal energy storage (TES) systems using phase change materials (PCM) are useful because of their ability to charge and discharge a large amount of heat from a small mass at constant temperature during a phase transformation. Molten salt PCM candidates for cascaded PCMs were evaluated for the temperatures near 320 degrees C, 350 degrees C, and 380 degrees C. These temperatures were selected to fill the 300 degrees C to 400 degrees C operating range typical for parabolic trough systems, that is, as one might employ in three-PCM cascaded thermal storage. Based on the results, the best candidate for temperatures near 320 degrees C was the molten salt KNO3-4.5wt%KCl. For the 350 degrees C and 380 degrees C temperatures, the evaluated molten salts are not good candidates because of the corrosiveness and the high vapor pressure of the chlorides.

  6. [Antibacterial effect of food additives and detergents against histamine-producing bacteria on food contact material surfaces].

    PubMed

    Kamii, Eri; Terada, Gaku; Akiyama, Junki; Isshiki, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the antibacterial activity of food additives and detergents against histamine-producing bacteria on food contact material surfaces. Based on minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing with Morganella morganii NBRC3848, Raoultella planticola NBRC3317 and Enterobacter aerogenes NCTC10006, we screened nine food additives and four detergents with relatively high inhibitory potency. We prepared food contact material surfaces contaminated with histamine-producing bacteria, and dipped them into fourteen agents (100 µg/mL). Sodium hypochlorite, benzalkonium chloride, benzethonium chloride, n-hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride and 1-n-hexadecylpyridinium chloride showed antibacterial activity against histamine-producing bacteria. We prepared low concentrations of the five agents (10 and 50 µg/mL) and tested them in the same way. Sodium hypochlorite showed high antibacterial activity at 10 µg/mL, and the other four showed activity at 50 µg/mL. So, washing the material surface with these reagents might be effective to prevent histamine food poisoning owing to bacterial contamination of food contact surfaces.

  7. Metallic contamination of food during preparation and storage: development of methods and some preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Samsahl, K; Wester, P O

    1977-09-01

    A chemical procedure for studying trace metals leached from metallic cooking utensils and preserving cans used in the preparation and storage of food has been developed. The method consists in the destruction of the major part of organic matter with HNO3-vapour followed by a complete mineralization of residues with small amounts of HNO3 in Teflon bombs at 150-160 degrees C under a pressure of 3-12 kg/cm2, depending on the amount and composition of the samples. Subsequently, an ion-exchange step removes major components and concentrates the trace elements in a dilute HNO3-solution, suitable for analysis. The ion-exchange separation, which is performed with an automatic ion-exchange separator, is practically free from blank level problems, e.g., typically a mean of less than 2 per cent of the sample levels of the elements being determined. Preliminary results show that large amounts of aluminium are released from vessels to the water during boiling at the same pH-range which exist for most drinking water in Sweden. PMID:20661

  8. Metallic contamination of food during preparation and storage: development of methods and some preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Samsahl, K; Wester, P O

    1977-09-01

    A chemical procedure for studying trace metals leached from metallic cooking utensils and preserving cans used in the preparation and storage of food has been developed. The method consists in the destruction of the major part of organic matter with HNO3-vapour followed by a complete mineralization of residues with small amounts of HNO3 in Teflon bombs at 150-160 degrees C under a pressure of 3-12 kg/cm2, depending on the amount and composition of the samples. Subsequently, an ion-exchange step removes major components and concentrates the trace elements in a dilute HNO3-solution, suitable for analysis. The ion-exchange separation, which is performed with an automatic ion-exchange separator, is practically free from blank level problems, e.g., typically a mean of less than 2 per cent of the sample levels of the elements being determined. Preliminary results show that large amounts of aluminium are released from vessels to the water during boiling at the same pH-range which exist for most drinking water in Sweden.

  9. Do encapsulated heat storage materials really retain their original thermal properties?

    PubMed

    Chaiyasat, Preeyaporn; Noppalit, Sayrung; Okubo, Masayoshi; Chaiyasat, Amorn

    2015-01-14

    The encapsulation of Rubitherm®27 (RT27), which is one of the most common commercially supplied heat storage materials, by polystyrene (PS), polydivinyl benzene (PDVB) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was carried out using conventional radical microsuspension polymerization. The products were purified to remove free RT27 and free polymer particles without RT27. In the cases of PS and PDVB microcapsules, the latent heats of melting and crystallization for RT27 ( and , J/g-RT27) were clearly decreased by the encapsulation. On the other hand, those of the PMMA microcapsules were the same as pure RT27. A supercooling phenomenon was observed not only for PS and PDVB but also for the PMMA microcapsules. These results indicate that the thermal properties of the heat storage materials encapsulated depend on the type of polymer shells, i.e., encapsulation by polymer shell changes the thermal properties of RT27. This is quite different from the idea of other groups in the world, in which they discussed the thermal properties based on the ΔHm and ΔHc values expressed in J/g-capsule, assuming that the thermal properties of the heat storage materials are not changed by the encapsulation. Hereafter, this report should raise an alarm concerning the "wrong" common knowledge behind developing the encapsulation technology of heat storage materials.

  10. NREL Develops Accelerated Sample Activation Process for Hydrogen Storage Materials (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-12-01

    This fact sheet describes NREL's accomplishments in developing a new sample activation process that reduces the time to prepare samples for measurement of hydrogen storage from several days to five minutes and provides more uniform samples. Work was performed by NREL's Chemical and Materials Science Center.

  11. Evaluation of alternative phase change materials for energy storage in solar dynamic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, R. A.; Dustin, M. O.

    1988-01-01

    The performance of fluoride salt and metallic thermal energy storage materials are compared in terms of basic performance as applied to solar dynamic power generation. Specific performance considerations include uniformity of cycle inlet temperature, peak cavity temperature, TES utilization, and system weights. Also investigated were means of enhancing the thermal conductivity of the salts and its effect on the system performance.

  12. 30 CFR 56.6101 - Areas around explosive material storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Areas around explosive material storage facilities. 56.6101 Section 56.6101 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND...

  13. 30 CFR 56.6101 - Areas around explosive material storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Areas around explosive material storage facilities. 56.6101 Section 56.6101 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND...

  14. Hydrogen storage material and process using graphite additive with metal-doped complex hydrides

    DOEpatents

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Ritter, James A.; Ebner, Armin D.; Wang, Jun; Holland, Charles E.

    2008-06-10

    A hydrogen storage material having improved hydrogen absorbtion and desorption kinetics is provided by adding graphite to a complex hydride such as a metal-doped alanate, i.e., NaAlH.sub.4. The incorporation of graphite into the complex hydride significantly enhances the rate of hydrogen absorbtion and desorption and lowers the desorption temperature needed to release stored hydrogen.

  15. Electrochemically fabricated polypyrrole-cobalt-oxygen coordination complex as high-performance lithium-storage materials.

    PubMed

    Guo, Bingkun; Kong, Qingyu; Zhu, Ying; Mao, Ya; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Wan, Meixiang; Chen, Liquan

    2011-12-23

    Current lithium-ion battery (LIB) technologies are all based on inorganic electrode materials, though organic materials have been used as electrodes for years. Disadvantages such as limited thermal stability and low specific capacity hinder their applications. On the other hand, the transition metal oxides that provide high lithium-storage capacity by way of electrochemical conversion reaction suffer from poor cycling stability. Here we report a novel high-performance, organic, lithium-storage material, a polypyrrole-cobalt-oxygen (PPy-Co-O) coordination complex, with high lithium-storage capacity and excellent cycling stability. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure and Raman spectroscopy and other physical and electrochemical characterizations demonstrate that this coordination complex can be electrochemically fabricated by cycling PPy-coated Co(3)O(4) between 0.0 V and 3.0 V versus Li(+)/Li. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that each cobalt atom coordinates with two nitrogen atoms within the PPy-Co coordination layer and the layers are connected with oxygen atoms between them. Coordination weakens the C-H bonds on PPy and makes the complex a novel lithium-storage material with high capacity and high cycling stability.

  16. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 210: Storage Areas and Contaminated Material, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2004-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit 210, Storage Areas and Contaminated Material, is identified in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order. This Corrective Action Unit consists of four Corrective Action Sites located in Areas 10, 12, and 15 of the Nevada Test Site. This report documents that the closure activities conducted meet the approved closure standards.

  17. Ethical issues in the collection, storage, and research use of human biological materials.

    PubMed

    Meslin, Eric M; Quaid, Kimberly A

    2004-11-01

    Human biological materials (HBMs) are samples of blood, DNA, organs and tissues commonly obtained during routine surgical procedures or through direct donation by an individual. This article reviews four of the most pressing issues arising from the collection, storage, and use of HBMs in research: current regulations governing research with human subjects, misuse of genetic information, economic factors, and public knowledge.

  18. A highly resilient mesoporous SiOx lithium storage material engineered by oil-water templating.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunjun; Park, Min-Sik; Lee, Jaewoo; Kim, Ki Jae; Jeong, Goojin; Kim, Jung Ho; Kim, Young-Jun; Kim, Hansu

    2015-02-01

    Mesoporous silicon-based materials gained considerable attention as high-capacity lithium-storage materials. However, the practical use is still limited by the complexity and limited number of available synthetic routes. Here, we report carbon-coated porous SiOx as high capacity lithium storage material prepared by using a sol-gel reaction of hydrogen silsesquioxane and oil-water templating. A hydrophobic oil is employed as a pore former inside the SiOx matrix and a precursor for carbon coating on the SiOx . The anode exhibits a high capacity of 730 mAh g(-1) and outstanding cycling performance over 100 cycles without significant dimensional changes. Carbon-coated porous SiOx also showed highly stable thermal reliability comparable to that of graphite. These promising properties come from the mesopores in the SiOx matrix, which ensures reliable operation of lithium storage in SiOx . The scalable sol-gel process presented here can open up a new avenue for the versatile preparation of porous SiOx lithium storage materials.

  19. Air-coupled ultrasonic evaluation of food materials.

    PubMed

    Pallav, P; Hutchins, D A; Gan, T H

    2009-02-01

    This research was performed with the aim of detecting foreign bodies and additives within food products, and to measure selected acoustic properties, without contact to the sample. This would allow use in manufacturing plants on production lines, where contacting the product for ultrasonic inspection would not be feasible. Images of internal structure are reported. The air-coupled system uses capacitive devices which are able to provide sufficient bandwidth for many measurements, including the detection of foreign bodies in cheese, the detection of deliberate additives to chocolate, the detection of fill level and content of metallic food cans, and measurements of frozen dough products. The approach demonstrates that ultrasound has the potential for application to many industrial food packaging environments where non-metallic objects within food need to be detected. PMID:18973911

  20. Development of prototypes of bioactive packaging materials based on immobilized bacteriophages for control of growth of bacterial pathogens in foods.

    PubMed

    Lone, Ayesha; Anany, Hany; Hakeem, Mohammed; Aguis, Louise; Avdjian, Anne-Claire; Bouget, Marina; Atashi, Arash; Brovko, Luba; Rochefort, Dominic; Griffiths, Mansel W

    2016-01-18

    Due to lack of adequate control methods to prevent contamination in fresh produce and growing consumer demand for natural products, the use of bacteriophages has emerged as a promising approach to enhance safety of these foods. This study sought to control Listeria monocytogenes in cantaloupes and RTE meat and Escherichia coli O104:H4 in alfalfa seeds and sprouts under different storage conditions by using specific lytic bacteriophage cocktails applied either free or immobilized. Bacteriophage cocktails were introduced into prototypes of packaging materials using different techniques: i) immobilizing on positively charged modified cellulose membranes, ii) impregnating paper with bacteriophage suspension, and iii) encapsulating in alginate beads followed by application of beads onto the paper. Phage-treated and non-treated samples were stored for various times and at temperatures of 4°C, 12°C or 25°C. In cantaloupe, when free phage cocktail was added, L. monocytogenes counts dropped below the detection limit of the plating technique (<1 log CFU/g) after 5 days of storage at both 4°C and 12°C. However, at 25°C, counts below the detection limit were observed after 3 and 6h and a 2-log CFU/g reduction in cell numbers was seen after 24h. For the immobilized Listeria phage cocktail, around 1-log CFU/g reduction in the Listeria count was observed by the end of the storage period for all tested storage temperatures. For the alfalfa seeds and sprouts, regardless of the type of phage application technique (spraying of free phage suspension, bringing in contact with bacteriophage-based materials (paper coated with encapsulated bacteriophage or impregnated with bacteriophage suspension)), the count of E. coli O104:H4 was below the detection limit (<1 log CFU/g) after 1h in seeds and about a 1-log cycle reduction in E. coli count was observed on the germinated sprouts by day 5. In ready-to-eat (RTE) meat, LISTEX™ P100, a commercial phage product, was able to

  1. Reactive ballistic deposition of nanostructured model materials for electrochemical energy conversion and storage.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, David W; Hahn, Nathan T; May, R Alan; Berglund, Sean P; Lin, Yong-Mao; Stevenson, Keith J; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Kay, Bruce D; Mullins, C Buddie

    2012-03-20

    Porous, high surface area materials have critical roles in applications including catalysis, photochemistry, and energy storage. In these fields, researchers have demonstrated that the nanometer-scale structure modifies mechanical, optical, and electrical properties of the material, greatly influencing its behavior and performance. Such complex chemical systems can involve several distinct processes occurring in series or parallel. Understanding the influence of size and structure on the properties of these materials requires techniques for producing clean, simple model systems. In the fields of photoelectrochemistry and lithium storage, for example, researchers need to evaluate the effects of changing the electrode structure of a single material or producing electrodes of many different candidate materials while maintaining a distinctly favorable morphology. In this Account, we introduce our studies of the formation and characterization of high surface area, porous thin films synthesized by a process called reactive ballistic deposition (RBD). RBD is a simple method that provides control of the morphology, porosity, and surface area of thin films by manipulating the angle at which a metal-vapor flux impinges on the substrate during deposition. This approach is largely independent of the identity of the deposited material and relies upon limited surface diffusion during synthesis, which enables the formation of kinetically trapped structures. Here, we review our results for the deposition of films from a number of semiconductive materials that are important for applications such as photoelectrochemical water oxidation and lithium ion storage. The use of RBD has enabled us to systematically control individual aspects of both the structure and composition of thin film electrodes in order to probe the effects of each on the performance of the material. We have evaluated the performance of several materials for potential use in these applications and have identified

  2. Reactive ballistic deposition of nanostructured model materials for electrochemical energy conversion and storage.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, David W; Hahn, Nathan T; May, R Alan; Berglund, Sean P; Lin, Yong-Mao; Stevenson, Keith J; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Kay, Bruce D; Mullins, C Buddie

    2012-03-20

    Porous, high surface area materials have critical roles in applications including catalysis, photochemistry, and energy storage. In these fields, researchers have demonstrated that the nanometer-scale structure modifies mechanical, optical, and electrical properties of the material, greatly influencing its behavior and performance. Such complex chemical systems can involve several distinct processes occurring in series or parallel. Understanding the influence of size and structure on the properties of these materials requires techniques for producing clean, simple model systems. In the fields of photoelectrochemistry and lithium storage, for example, researchers need to evaluate the effects of changing the electrode structure of a single material or producing electrodes of many different candidate materials while maintaining a distinctly favorable morphology. In this Account, we introduce our studies of the formation and characterization of high surface area, porous thin films synthesized by a process called reactive ballistic deposition (RBD). RBD is a simple method that provides control of the morphology, porosity, and surface area of thin films by manipulating the angle at which a metal-vapor flux impinges on the substrate during deposition. This approach is largely independent of the identity of the deposited material and relies upon limited surface diffusion during synthesis, which enables the formation of kinetically trapped structures. Here, we review our results for the deposition of films from a number of semiconductive materials that are important for applications such as photoelectrochemical water oxidation and lithium ion storage. The use of RBD has enabled us to systematically control individual aspects of both the structure and composition of thin film electrodes in order to probe the effects of each on the performance of the material. We have evaluated the performance of several materials for potential use in these applications and have identified

  3. Studies of Phase Change Materials and a Latent Heat Storage Unit Used for a Natural Circulation Cooling/Latent Heat Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakitani, Katsumi; Honda, Hiroshi

    Experiments were performed to investigate feasibility of using organic materials as a PCM for a latent heat storage unit of a natural circulation cooling/latent heat storage system. This system was designed to cool a shelter accommodating telecommunication equipment located in subtropical deserts or similar regions without using a power source. Taking into account practical considerations and the results of various experiments regarding the thermodynamic properties, thermal degradation, and corrosiveness to metals, lauric acid and iron was selected for the PCM and the latent heat storage unit material, respectively. Cyclic heating and cooling of the latent heat storage unit undergoing solid-liquid phase change was repeated for more than 430 days. The results showed that the heating-cooling curve was almost unchanged between the early stage and the 1,870th cycle. It was concluded that the latent heat storage unit could be used safely for more than ten years as a component of the cooling system.

  4. Advancement of Systems Designs and Key Engineering Technologies for Materials Based Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect

    van Hassel, Bart A.

    2015-09-18

    UTRC lead the development of the Simulink Framework model that enables a comparison of different hydrogen storage systems on a common basis. The Simulink Framework model was disseminated on the www.HSECoE.org website that is hosted by NREL. UTRC contributed to a better understanding of the safety aspects of the proposed hydrogen storage systems. UTRC also participated in the Failure Mode and Effect Analysis of both the chemical- and the adsorbent-based hydrogen storage system during Phase 2 of the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence. UTRC designed a hydrogen storage system with a reversible metal hydride material in a compacted form for light-duty vehicles with a 5.6 kg H2 storage capacity, giving it a 300 miles range. It contains a heat exchanger that enables efficient cooling of the metal hydride material during hydrogen absorption in order to meet the 3.3 minute refueling time target. It has been shown through computation that the kinetics of hydrogen absorption of Ti-catalyzed NaAlH4 was ultimately limiting the rate of hydrogen absorption to 85% of the material capacity in 3.3 minutes. An inverse analysis was performed in order to determine the material property requirements in order for a metal hydride based hydrogen storage system to meet the DOE targets. Work on metal hydride storage systems was halted after the Phase 1 to Phase 2 review due to the lack of metal hydride materials with the required material properties. UTRC contributed to the design of a chemical hydrogen storage system by developing an adsorbent for removing the impurity ammonia from the hydrogen gas, by developing a system to meter the transport of Ammonia Borane (AB) powder to a thermolysis reactor, and by developing a gas-liquid-separator (GLS) for the separation of hydrogen gas from AB slurry in silicone oil. Stripping impurities from hydrogen gas is essential for a long life of the fuel cell system on board of a vehicle. Work on solid transport of AB was halted after the

  5. Formic acid as a hydrogen storage material - development of homogeneous catalysts for selective hydrogen release.

    PubMed

    Mellmann, Dörthe; Sponholz, Peter; Junge, Henrik; Beller, Matthias

    2016-07-11

    Formic acid (FA, HCO2H) receives considerable attention as a hydrogen storage material. In this respect, hydrogenation of CO2 to FA and dehydrogenation of FA are crucial reaction steps. In the past decade, for both reactions, several molecularly defined and nanostructured catalysts have been developed and intensively studied. From 2010 onwards, this review covers recent advancements in this area using homogeneous catalysts. In addition to the development of catalysts for H2 generation, reversible H2 storage including continuous H2 production from formic acid is highlighted. Special focus is put on recent progress in non-noble metal catalysts.

  6. Effect of Structure on the Storage Characteristics of ManganeseOxide Electrode Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Yong Joon; Doeff, Marca M.

    2006-01-31

    Eleven types of manganese-containing electrode materialswere subjected to long-term storage at 55oC in 1M LiPF6 ethylenecarbonate/dimethyl carbonate (EC/DMC) solutions. The amount of manganesedissolution observed depended upon the sample surface area, the averageMn oxidation state, the structure, and substitution levels of themanganese oxide. In some cases, structural changes such as solvateformation were exacerbated by the high temperature storage, andcontributed to capacity fading upon cycling even in the absence ofsignificant Mn dissolution. The most stable materials appear to beTi-substituted tunnel structures and mixed metal layered oxides with Mnin the +4 oxidation state.

  7. Superior pseudocapacitive behavior of confined lignin nanocrystals for renewable energy-storage materials.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Kon; Kim, Yun Ki; Lee, Hyunjoo; Lee, Sang Bok; Park, Ho Seok

    2014-04-01

    Strong demand for high-performance energy-storage devices has currently motivated the development of emerging capacitive materials that can resolve their critical challenge (i.e., low energy density) and that are renewable and inexpensive energy-storage materials from both environmental and economic viewpoints. Herein, the pseudocapacitive behavior of lignin nanocrystals confined on reduced graphene oxides (RGOs) used for renewable energy-storage materials is demonstrated. The excellent capacitive characteristics of the renewable hybrid electrodes were achieved by synergizing the fast and reversible redox charge transfer of surface-confined quinone and the interplay with electron-conducting RGOs. Accordingly, pseudocapacitors with remarkable rate and cyclic performances (~96 % retention after 3000 cycles) showed a maximum capacitance of 432 F g(-1), which was close to the theoretical capacitance of 482 F g(-1) and sixfold higher than that of RGO (93 F g(-1)). The chemical strategy delineated herein paves the way to develop advanced renewable electrodes for energy-storage applications and understand the redox chemistry of electroactive biomaterials.

  8. Recommended volumetric capacity definitions and protocols for accurate, standardized and unambiguous metrics for hydrogen storage materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parilla, Philip A.; Gross, Karl; Hurst, Katherine; Gennett, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    The ultimate goal of the hydrogen economy is the development of hydrogen storage systems that meet or exceed the US DOE's goals for onboard storage in hydrogen-powered vehicles. In order to develop new materials to meet these goals, it is extremely critical to accurately, uniformly and precisely measure materials' properties relevant to the specific goals. Without this assurance, such measurements are not reliable and, therefore, do not provide a benefit toward the work at hand. In particular, capacity measurements for hydrogen storage materials must be based on valid and accurate results to ensure proper identification of promising materials for further development. Volumetric capacity determinations are becoming increasingly important for identifying promising materials, yet there exists controversy on how such determinations are made and whether such determinations are valid due to differing methodologies to count the hydrogen content. These issues are discussed herein, and we show mathematically that capacity determinations can be made rigorously and unambiguously if the constituent volumes are well defined and measurable in practice. It is widely accepted that this occurs for excess capacity determinations and we show here that this can happen for the total capacity determination. Because the adsorption volume is undefined, the absolute capacity determination remains imprecise. Furthermore, we show that there is a direct relationship between determining the respective capacities and the calibration constants used for the manometric and gravimetric techniques. Several suggested volumetric capacity figure-of-merits are defined, discussed and reporting requirements recommended. Finally, an example is provided to illustrate these protocols and concepts.

  9. Phase, microstructure and hydrogen storage properties of Mg-Ni materials synthesized from metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Huaiyu; Chen, Chunguang; Liu, Tong; Li, Xingguo

    2014-04-01

    After Mg and Ni nanoparticles were fabricated by hydrogen plasma metal reaction, Mg-rich MgxNi100-x(75 < x < 90) materials were synthesized from these metal nanoparticles to study the synergistic effects for hydrogen storage in these samples to show both good kinetics and high capacity. These MgxNi100-x materials may absorb hydrogen with a capacity of around 3.3-5.1 wt% in 1 min at 573 K. The Mg90Ni10 sample shows a hydrogen capacity of 6.1 wt%. The significant kinetic enhancement is thought to be due to the unique nanostructure from the special synthesis route, the catalytic effect of the Mg2Ni nano phase, and the synergistic effects between the Mg2Ni and Mg phases in the materials. An interesting phenomenon which has never been reported before was observed during pressure composition isotherm (PCT) measurements. One steep step in the absorption process and two obviously separated steps in the desorption process during PCT measurements of Mg80Ni20 and Mg90Ni10 samples were observed and a possible reason from the kinetic performance of the Mg2Ni and Mg phases in absorption and desorption processes was explained. These MgxNi100-x materials synthesized from Mg and Ni nanoparticles show high capacity and good kinetics, which makes these materials very promising candidates for thermal storage or energy storage and utilization for renewable power.

  10. In silico design of porous polymer networks: high-throughput screening for methane storage materials.

    PubMed

    Martin, Richard L; Simon, Cory M; Smit, Berend; Haranczyk, Maciej

    2014-04-01

    Porous polymer networks (PPNs) are a class of advanced porous materials that combine the advantages of cheap and stable polymers with the high surface areas and tunable chemistry of metal-organic frameworks. They are of particular interest for gas separation or storage applications, for instance, as methane adsorbents for a vehicular natural gas tank or other portable applications. PPNs are self-assembled from distinct building units; here, we utilize commercially available chemical fragments and two experimentally known synthetic routes to design in silico a large database of synthetically realistic PPN materials. All structures from our database of 18,000 materials have been relaxed with semiempirical electronic structure methods and characterized with Grand-canonical Monte Carlo simulations for methane uptake and deliverable (working) capacity. A number of novel structure-property relationships that govern methane storage performance were identified. The relationships are translated into experimental guidelines to realize the ideal PPN structure. We found that cooperative methane-methane attractions were present in all of the best-performing materials, highlighting the importance of guest interaction in the design of optimal materials for methane storage.

  11. Phase, microstructure and hydrogen storage properties of Mg-Ni materials synthesized from metal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shao, Huaiyu; Chen, Chunguang; Liu, Tong; Li, Xingguo

    2014-04-01

    After Mg and Ni nanoparticles were fabricated by hydrogen plasma metal reaction, Mg-rich MgxNi₁₀₀₋x(75 < x < 90) materials were synthesized from these metal nanoparticles to study the synergistic effects for hydrogen storage in these samples to show both good kinetics and high capacity. These MgxNi₁₀₀₋x materials may absorb hydrogen with a capacity of around 3.3-5.1 wt% in 1 min at 573 K. The Mg₉₀Ni₁₀ sample shows a hydrogen capacity of 6.1 wt%. The significant kinetic enhancement is thought to be due to the unique nanostructure from the special synthesis route, the catalytic effect of the Mg₂Ni nano phase, and the synergistic effects between the Mg₂Ni and Mg phases in the materials. An interesting phenomenon which has never been reported before was observed during pressure composition isotherm (PCT) measurements. One steep step in the absorption process and two obviously separated steps in the desorption process during PCT measurements of Mg₈₀Ni₂₀ and Mg₉₀Ni₁₀ samples were observed and a possible reason from the kinetic performance of the Mg₂Ni and Mg phases in absorption and desorption processes was explained. These MgxNi₁₀₀₋x materials synthesized from Mg and Ni nanoparticles show high capacity and good kinetics, which makes these materials very promising candidates for thermal storage or energy storage and utilization for renewable power.

  12. Investigation of potential waste material insulating properties at different temperature for thermal storage application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, T. Z. S.; Rosli, A. B.; Gan, L. M.; Billy, A. S.; Farid, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Thermal energy storage system (TES) is developed to extend the operation of power generation. TES system is a key component in a solar energy power generation plant, but the main issue in designing the TES system is its thermal capacity of storage materials, e.g. insulator. This study is focusing on the potential waste material acts as an insulator for thermal energy storage applications. As the insulator is used to absorb heat, it is needed to find suitable material for energy conversion and at the same time reduce the waste generation. Thus, a small-scale experimental testing of natural cooling process of an insulated tank within a confined room is conducted. The experiment is repeated by changing the insulator from the potential waste material and also by changing the heat transfer fluid (HTF). The analysis presented the relationship between heat loss and the reserved period by the insulator. The results show the percentage of period of the insulated tank withstands compared to tank insulated by foam, e.g. newspaper reserved the period of 84.6% as much as foam insulated tank to withstand the heat transfer of cooking oil to the surrounding. The paper finally justifies the most potential waste material as an insulator for different temperature range of heat transfer fluid.

  13. Risk ranking of LANL nuclear material storage containers for repackaging prioritization.

    PubMed

    Smith, Paul H; Jordan, Hans; Hoffman, Jenifer A; Eller, P Gary; Balkey, Simon

    2007-05-01

    Safe handling and storage of nuclear material at U.S. Department of Energy facilities relies on the use of robust containers to prevent container breaches and subsequent worker contamination and uptake. The U.S. Department of Energy has no uniform requirements for packaging and storage of nuclear materials other than those declared excess and packaged to DOE-STD-3013-2000. This report describes a methodology for prioritizing a large inventory of nuclear material containers so that the highest risk containers are repackaged first. The methodology utilizes expert judgment to assign respirable fractions and reactivity factors to accountable levels of nuclear material at Los Alamos National Laboratory. A relative risk factor is assigned to each nuclear material container based on a calculated dose to a worker due to a failed container barrier and a calculated probability of container failure based on material reactivity and container age. This risk-based methodology is being applied at LANL to repackage the highest risk materials first and, thus, accelerate the reduction of risk to nuclear material handlers. PMID:17440328

  14. Strongly coupled inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials for energy storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hailiang; Dai, Hongjie

    2013-04-01

    The global shift of energy production from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources requires more efficient and reliable electrochemical energy storage devices. In particular, the development of electric or hydrogen powered vehicles calls for much-higher-performance batteries, supercapacitors and fuel cells than are currently available. In this review, we present an approach to synthesize electrochemical energy storage materials to form strongly coupled hybrids (SC-hybrids) of inorganic nanomaterials and novel graphitic nano-carbon materials such as carbon nanotubes and graphene, through nucleation and growth of nanoparticles at the functional groups of oxidized graphitic nano-carbon. We show that the inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials represent a new approach to synthesize electrode materials with higher electrochemical performance than traditional counterparts made by simple physical mixtures of electrochemically active inorganic particles and conducting carbon materials. The inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials are novel due to possible chemical bonding between inorganic nanoparticles and oxidized carbon, affording enhanced charge transport and increased rate capability of electrochemical materials without sacrificing specific capacity. Nano-carbon with various degrees of oxidation provides a novel substrate for nanoparticle nucleation and growth. The interactions between inorganic precursors and oxidized-carbon substrates provide a degree of control over the morphology, size and structure of the resulting inorganic nanoparticles. This paper reviews the recent development of inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials for electrochemical energy storage and conversion, including the preparation and functionalization of graphene sheets and carbon nanotubes to impart oxygen containing groups and defects, and methods of synthesis of nanoparticles of various morphologies on oxidized graphene and carbon nanotubes. We then review the applications of the SC

  15. 10 CFR 40.26 - General license for possession and storage of byproduct material as defined in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General license for possession and storage of byproduct material as defined in this part. 40.26 Section 40.26 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SOURCE MATERIAL General Licenses § 40.26 General license for possession and storage...

  16. 10 CFR 40.26 - General license for possession and storage of byproduct material as defined in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General license for possession and storage of byproduct material as defined in this part. 40.26 Section 40.26 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SOURCE MATERIAL General Licenses § 40.26 General license for possession and storage...

  17. Local electrochemical functionality in energy storage materials and devices by scanning probe microscopies: status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kalinin, Sergei V; Balke, Nina

    2010-09-15

    Energy storage and conversion systems are an integral component of emerging green technologies, including mobile electronic devices, automotive, and storage components of solar and wind energy economics. Despite the rapidly expanding manufacturing capabilities and wealth of phenomenological information on the macroscopic device behaviors, the microscopic mechanisms underpinning battery and fuel cell operations in the nanometer-micrometer range are virtually unknown. This lack of information is due to the dearth of experimental techniques capable of addressing elementary mechanisms involved in battery operation, including electronic and ion transport, vacancy injection, and interfacial reactions, on the nanometer scale. In this article, a brief overview of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) methods addressing nanoscale electrochemical functionalities is provided and compared with macroscopic electrochemical methods. Future applications of emergent SPM methods, including near field optical, electromechanical, microwave, and thermal probes and combined SPM-(S)TEM (scanning transmission electron microscopy) methods in energy storage and conversion materials are discussed.

  18. BC(3) sheet functionalized with lithium-rich species emerging as a reversible hydrogen storage material.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Tanveer; Chakraborty, Sudip; Kang, T W; Johansson, Börje; Ahuja, Rajeev

    2015-02-23

    The decoration of a BC3 monolayer with the polylithiated molecules CLi4 and OLi2 has been extensively investigated to study the hydrogen-storage efficiency of the materials by first principles electronic structure calculations. The binding energies of both lithiated species with the BC3 substrate are much higher than their respective cohesive energies, which confirms the stability of the doped systems. A significant positive charge on the Li atom in each of the dopants facilitates the adsorption of multiple H2 molecules under the influence of electrostatic and van der Waals interactions. We observe a high H2 -storage capacity of 11.88 and 8.70 wt % for the BC3 -CLi4 and BC3 -OLi2 systems, respectively, making them promising candidates as efficient energy-storage systems.

  19. Local electrochemical functionality in energy storage materials and devices by scanning probe microscopies: Status and perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinin, S. V.; Balke, N.

    2010-01-01

    Energy storage and conversion systems are an integral component of emerging green technologies, including mobile electronic devices, automotive, and storage components of solar and wind energy economics. Despite the rapidly expanding manufacturing capabilities and wealth of phenomenological information on the macroscopic device behaviors, the microscopic mechanisms underpinning battery and fuel cell operations in the nanometer–micrometer range are virtually unknown. This lack of information is due to the dearth of experimental techniques capable of addressing elementary mechanisms involved in battery operation, including electronic and ion transport, vacancy injection, and interfacial reactions, on the nanometer scale. In this article, a brief overview of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) methods addressing nanoscale electrochemical functionalities is provided and compared with macroscopic electrochemical methods. Future applications of emergent SPM methods, including near field optical, electromechanical, microwave, and thermal probes and combined SPM-(S)TEM (scanning transmission electron microscopy) methods in energy storage and conversion materials are discussed.

  20. Local electrochemical functionality in energy storage materials and devices by scanning probe microscopies: status and perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinin, Sergei V; Balke, Nina

    2010-01-01

    Energy storage and conversion systems are an integral component of emerging green technologies, including mobile electronic devices, automotive, and storage components of solar and wind energy economics. Despite the rapidly expanding manufacturing capabilities and wealth of phenomenological information on the macroscopic device behaviors, the microscopic mechanisms underpinning battery and fuel cell operations in the nanometer-micrometer range are virtually unknown. This lack of information is due to the dearth of experimental techniques capable of addressing elementary mechanisms involved in battery operation, including electronic and ion transport, vacancy injection, and interfacial reactions, on the nanometer scale. In this article, a brief overview of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) methods addressing nanoscale electrochemical functionalities is provided and compared with macroscopic electrochemical methods. Future applications of emergent SPM methods, including near field optical, electromechanical, microwave, and thermal probes and combined SPM-(S)TEM (scanning transmission electron microscopy) methods in energy storage and conversion materials are discussed.

  1. Development of expert system for biobased polymer material selection: food packaging application.

    PubMed

    Sanyang, M L; Sapuan, S M

    2015-10-01

    Biobased food packaging materials are gaining more attention owing to their intrinsic biodegradable nature and renewability. Selection of suitable biobased polymers for food packaging applications could be a tedious task with potential mistakes in choosing the best materials. In this paper, an expert system was developed using Exsys Corvid software to select suitable biobased polymer materials for packaging fruits, dry food and dairy products. If - Then rule based system was utilized to accomplish the material selection process whereas a score system was formulated to facilitate the ranking of selected materials. The expert system selected materials that satisfied all constraints and selection results were presented in suitability sequence depending on their scores. The expert system selected polylactic acid (PLA) as the most suitable material.

  2. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED...

  3. 21 CFR 509.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 509.15 Section 509.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  4. 21 CFR 109.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 109.15 Section 109.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  5. 21 CFR 109.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 109.15 Section 109.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  6. 21 CFR 109.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 109.15 Section 109.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  7. 21 CFR 509.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 509.15 Section 509.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  8. 21 CFR 109.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 109.15 Section 109.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  9. 21 CFR 109.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 109.15 Section 109.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  10. 21 CFR 509.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 509.15 Section 509.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  11. 21 CFR 509.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 509.15 Section 509.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  12. 21 CFR 509.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 509.15 Section 509.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  13. Strategies for Hydrogen Storage in Nanoporous Metal-Organic Framework Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snurr, Randall

    2011-03-01

    Storing hydrogen by physisorption in porous materials is a challenging problem of great interest for future vehicle technology. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a new class of nanoporous materials that have demonstrated exciting potential for solving this problem. MOFs are synthesized by the self-assembly of metal nodes and connecting organic linker molecules to create stable, porous frameworks. The synthetic chemistry opens the possibility to create an almost unlimited number of MOFs and to tailor them for particular applications, such as hydrogen storage. The diversity of MOFs also creates an opportunity to learn more about the fundamentals of hydrogen adsorption in porous materials. We have used a combination of classical Monte Carlo simulations and quantum mechanical approaches to investigate fundamental questions about hydrogen storage in MOFs and to design new materials with improved storage capabilities. Relationships have been elucidated between hydrogen uptake and properties such as the MOF surface area, void volume, degree of catenation, enthalpy of adsorption, and cation content. Introduction of cations is a promising strategy to improve hydrogen uptake at room temperature, and different metal cations and different strategies for introducing them into MOFs have been screened computationally.

  14. Ion implantation effects in insulators and the long-term stability of radioactive waste storage materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dran, J. C.; Langevin, Y.; Maurette, M.; Petit, J. C.; Vassent, B.

    1981-05-01

    Most insulator materials so far proposed for storing high-level radioactive wastes, such as glass and and the constituent minerals of ceramics are nuclear track detectors. Lead ion implantation experiments show that such materials should be transformed into "giant" nuclear tracks, when the internal fluence of heavy recoils emitted during the α-decay of actinide elements stored in them exceeds a critical value, which corresponds to an equivalent storage period of a few thousand years for the wastes expected from a pressurized water reactor. In contrast, actinide bearing minerals are much more stable against α-recoil damage. As nuclear tracks are extremely chemical reactive, α-recoil damage is expected to shorten the lifetime of storage materials such as glass and ceramics against dissolution in ground waters. Fortunately new nuclear track concepts are already yielding guidelines for predicting and improving the long-term stability of storage materials. The results of the present studies also bear on the physics of ion implantation phenomena an insulator targets exposed to high fluences of low energy ions.

  15. Factors Influencing the Dielectric Properties of Agricultural Products and Food Materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dielectric properties of materials are defined, and the major factors that influence these properties of agricultural and food materials, namely, frequency of the applied radio-frequency and microwave electric fields, water content, temperature, and density of the materials are discussed on the bas...

  16. High-temperature thermal storage systems for advanced solar receivers materials selections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, D. F.; Devan, J. H.; Howell, M.

    1990-01-01

    Advanced space power systems that use solar energy and Brayton or Stirling heat engines require thermal energy storage (TES) systems to operate continuously through periods of shade. The receiver storage units, key elements in both Brayton and Stirling systems, are designed to use the latent heat of fusion of phase-change materials (PCMs). The power systems under current consideration for near-future National Aeronautics and Space Administration space missions require working fluid temperatures in the 1100 to 1400 K range. The PCMs under current investigation that gave liquid temperatures within this range are the fluoride family of salts. However, these salts have low thermal conductivity, which causes large temperature gradients in the storage systems. Improvements can be obtained, however, with the use of thermal conductivity enhancements or metallic PCMs. In fact, if suitable containment materials can be found, the use of metallic PCMs would virtually eliminate the orbit associated temperature variations in TES systems. The high thermal conductivity and generally low volume change on melting of germanium and alloys based on silicon make them attractive for storage of thermal energy in space power systems. An approach to solving the containment problem, involving both chemical and physical compatibility, preparation of NiSi/NiSi2, and initial results for containment of germanium and NiSi/NiSi2, are presented.

  17. USDA Consumer Education Materials for Wise Food Shopping and Nutritious Meal Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, New York, NY. Consumer and Marketing Service.

    The educational materials and services listed in this bibliography include "something for everybody"--from pre-schoolers to the elderly--for those in school, in adult training programs, and in the home, and for those who instruct them. Included are lists of publications covering such topics as: donated foods, food stamps, child nutrition, and food…

  18. Synthesis and characterization of inorganic nanostructured materials for advanced energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jin

    The performance of advanced energy storage devices is intimately connected to the designs of electrodes. To enable significant developments in this research field, we need detailed information and knowledge about how the functions and performances of the electrodes depend on their chemical compositions, dimensions, morphologies, and surface properties. This thesis presents my successes in synthesizing and characterizing electrode materials for advanced electrochemical energy storage devices, with much attention given to understanding the operation and fading mechanism of battery electrodes, as well as methods to improve their performances and stabilities. This dissertation is presented within the framework of two energy storage technologies: lithium ion batteries and lithium oxygen batteries. The energy density of lithium ion batteries is determined by the density of electrode materials and their lithium storage capabilities. To improve the overall energy densities of lithium ion batteries, silicon has been proposed to replace lithium intercalation compounds in the battery anodes. However, with a ~400% volume expansion upon fully lithiation, silicon-based anodes face serious capacity degradation in battery operation. To overcome this challenge, heteronanostructure-based Si/TiSi2 were designed and synthesized as anode materials for lithium ion batteries with long cycling life. The performance and morphology relationship was also carefully studied through comparing one-dimensional and two-dimensional heteronanostructure-based silicon anodes. Lithium oxygen batteries, on the other hand, are devices based on lithium conversion chemistries and they offer higher energy densities compared to lithium ion batteries. However, existing carbon based electrodes in lithium oxygen batteries only allow for battery operation with limited capacity, poor stability and low round-trip efficiency. The degradation of electrolytes and carbon electrodes have been found to both contribute

  19. Retention property of deuterium for fuel recovery in divertor by using hydrogen storage material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mera, Saori; Tonegawa, Akira; Matsumura, Yoshihito; Sato, Kohnosuke; Kawamura, Kazutaka

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic confinement fusion reactor by using Deuterium and Tritium of hydrogen isotope as fuels is suggested as one of the future energy source. Most fuels don't react and are exhausted out of fusion reactor. Especially, Tritium is radioisotope and rarely exists in nature, so fuels recovery is necessary. This poster presentation will explain about research new fuel recovery method by using hydrogen storage materials in divertor simulator TPD-Sheet IV. Samples are tungsten coated with titanium; tungsten of various thickness, and titanium films deposited by ion plating on tungsten substrates. The sample surface temperature is measured by radiation thermometer. Retention property of deuterium after deuterium plasma irradiation was examined with thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). As a result, the TDS measurement shows that deuterium is retained in titanium. Therefore, Titanium as a hydrogen storage material expects to be possible to use separating and recovering fuel particles in divertor.

  20. [Ca(BH4)2] n clusters as hydrogen storage material: A DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Cuiling; Dong, Yanyun; Wang, Bingqiang; Zhang, Caiyun

    2016-10-01

    Calcium borohydride is widely studied as a hydrogen storage material. However, investigations on calcium borohydride from a cluster perspective are seldom found. The geometric structures and binding energies of [Ca(BH4)2] n ( n = 1-4) clusters are determined using density function theory (DFT). For the most stable structures, vibration frequency, natural bond orbital (NBO) are calculated and discussed. The charge transfer from (BH4) to Ca was observed. Meanwhile, we also study the LUMO-HOMO gap ( E g) and the B-H bond dissociation energies (BDEs). [Ca(BH4)2]3 owns higher E g, revealing that trimer is more stable than the other forms. Structures don't change during optimization after hydrogen radical removal, showing that calcium borohydride could possibly be used as a reversible hydrogen storage material. [Ca(BH4)2]4 has the smallest dissociation energy suggesting it releases hydrogen more easily than others.

  1. Performance improvement studies in a solar greenhouse drier using sensible heat storage materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayyappan, S.; Mayilsamy, K.; Sreenarayanan, V. V.

    2016-03-01

    Experiments were conducted in a natural convection solar greenhouse dryer using different sensible heat storage materials (concrete, sand and rock-bed) in order to study their thermal performance. For both sand and rock-bed, 4″ thickness was found to be optimum as it provides better drying environment both during day and night. The dryer reduced the moisture content of coconuts from 52 (w.b.) to 7 % (w.b.) using concrete as heat storage material in 78 h saving 55 % of drying time compared to open sun drying which takes 174 h for reducing the moisture content to the same level. The sand took 66 h saving 62 % of drying time whereas rock-bed took only 53 h thereby saving 69 % of drying time compared to open sun drying. The efficiency of the dryer was found to be 9.5, 11 and 11.65 % using concrete, sand and rock-bed respectively.

  2. Electrodes and electrochemical storage cells utilizing tin-modified active materials

    DOEpatents

    Anani, Anaba; Johnson, John; Lim, Hong S.; Reilly, James; Schwarz, Ricardo; Srinivasan, Supramaniam

    1995-01-01

    An electrode has a substrate and a finely divided active material on the substrate. The active material is ANi.sub.x-y-z Co.sub.y Sn.sub.z, wherein A is a mischmetal or La.sub.1-w M.sub.w, M is Ce, Nd, or Zr, w is from about 0.05 to about 1.0, x is from about 4.5 to about 5.5, y is from 0 to about 3.0, and z is from about 0.05 to about 0.5. An electrochemical storage cell utilizes such an electrode as the anode. The storage cell further has a cathode, a separator between the cathode and the anode, and an electrolyte.

  3. Nano selenium as antioxidant agent in a multilayer food packaging material.

    PubMed

    Vera, Paula; Echegoyen, Yolanda; Canellas, Elena; Nerín, Cristina; Palomo, María; Madrid, Yolanda; Cámara, Carmen

    2016-09-01

    Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) were incorporated in a flexible multilayer plastic material using a water-base adhesive as vehicle for SeNPs. The antioxidant performance of the original solutions containing spherical SeNPs of 50-60 nm diameter, the adhesive containing these SeNPs, and the final multilayer plastic material to be used as food packaging were quantitatively measured. The radical scavenging capacity due to SeNPs was quantified by a free radical assay developed in the laboratory and by the diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. DPPH was not efficient to measure the scavenging capacity in the multilayer when the free radical scavenger is not in the surface in contact with it. Several multilayer laminated structures composed by [PET (20 m)-adhesive-LDPE (with variable thickness from 35 to 90 μm)] were prepared and measured, demonstrating for the first time that free radicals derived from oxygen (OH·, O2·, and O2H) cross the PE layer and arrive at the adhesive. SeNPs remain as such after manufacture and the final laminate is stable after 3 months of storage. The antioxidant multilayer is a non-migrating efficient free radical scavenger, able to protect the packaged product versus oxidation and extending the shelf life without being in direct contact with the product. Migration tests of both Se and SeNPs to simulants and hazelnuts demonstrated the non-migrating performance of this new active packaging. Graphical abstract ᅟ. PMID:27497969

  4. Nano selenium as antioxidant agent in a multilayer food packaging material.

    PubMed

    Vera, Paula; Echegoyen, Yolanda; Canellas, Elena; Nerín, Cristina; Palomo, María; Madrid, Yolanda; Cámara, Carmen

    2016-09-01

    Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) were incorporated in a flexible multilayer plastic material using a water-base adhesive as vehicle for SeNPs. The antioxidant performance of the original solutions containing spherical SeNPs of 50-60 nm diameter, the adhesive containing these SeNPs, and the final multilayer plastic material to be used as food packaging were quantitatively measured. The radical scavenging capacity due to SeNPs was quantified by a free radical assay developed in the laboratory and by the diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. DPPH was not efficient to measure the scavenging capacity in the multilayer when the free radical scavenger is not in the surface in contact with it. Several multilayer laminated structures composed by [PET (20 m)-adhesive-LDPE (with variable thickness from 35 to 90 μm)] were prepared and measured, demonstrating for the first time that free radicals derived from oxygen (OH·, O2·, and O2H) cross the PE layer and arrive at the adhesive. SeNPs remain as such after manufacture and the final laminate is stable after 3 months of storage. The antioxidant multilayer is a non-migrating efficient free radical scavenger, able to protect the packaged product versus oxidation and extending the shelf life without being in direct contact with the product. Migration tests of both Se and SeNPs to simulants and hazelnuts demonstrated the non-migrating performance of this new active packaging. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  5. Hydrogen storage materials. (Latest citations from the US Patent Bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning the manufacture of hydrogen storage materials for use in batteries and elecrochemical cells. Citations present the design and production of high capacity, rechargeable metal hydride batteries and cells. Hydrogen-storing characteristics, charging and discharging performance, cost reduction, and battery life are discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  6. Hydridable material for the negative electrode in a nickel-metal hydride storage battery

    DOEpatents

    Knosp, Bernard; Bouet, Jacques; Jordy, Christian; Mimoun, Michel; Gicquel, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    A monophase hydridable material for the negative electrode of a nickel-metal hydride storage battery with a "Lave's phase" structure of hexagonal C14 type (MgZn.sub.2) has the general formula: Zr.sub.1-x Ti.sub.x Ni.sub.a Mn.sub.b Al.sub.c Co.sub.d V.sub.e where ##EQU1##

  7. Role of point defects and additives in kinetics of hydrogen storage materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Walle, Chris

    2010-03-01

    First-principles computational studies of hydrogen interactions with storage materials can provide direct insight into the processes of H uptake and release, and may help in developing guidelines for designing storage media with improved storage capacity and kinetics. One important conclusion is that the defects involved in kinetics of semiconducting or insulating H-storage materials are charged, and hence their formation energy is Fermi-level dependent and can be affected by the presence of impurities that change the Fermi level [1,2]. This provides an explanation for the role played by transition-metal impurities in the kinetics of NaAlH4 and related materials. Desorption of H and decomposition of NaAlH4 requires not only mass transport of H but also of Al and/or Na. This process is mediated by native defects. We have investigated the structure, stability, and migration enthalpy of native defects based on density functional theory. The results allow us to estimate diffusion activation energies for the defects that may be involved in mass transport. Most of the relevant defects exist in charge states other than neutral, and consideration of these charge states is essential for a proper description of kinetics. We propose specific new mechanisms to explain the observed activation energies and their dependence on the presence of impurities. We have also expanded our studies to materials other than NaAlH4. In the case of LiBH4 and Li4BN3H10 we have found that the calculations have predictive power in terms of identifying which impurities will actually enhance kinetics. Other complex hydrides that we are currently investigating include Li2NH and LiNH2. [4pt] [1] A. Peles and C. G. Van de Walle, Phys. Rev. B 76, 214101 (2007). [0pt] [2] C. G. Van de Walle, A. Peles, A. Janotti, and G. B. Wilson-Short, Physica B 404, 793 (2009).

  8. Life and stability testing of packaged low-cost energy storage materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frysinger, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    Thermal cycling and performance tests, performed to verify the package integrity, life, and stability of the chub packaged materials system for storage coolness with application to residential air conditioning, are described. The moisture vapor retention characteristics of the laminate film for long term chub performance was determined. The stability, mechanical integrity, and thermal performance of chubs following mechanical shock, vibration, and temperature extremes is reported.

  9. Food contamination by hydrocarbons from packaging materials determined by coupled LC-GC.

    PubMed

    Grob, K; Biedermann, M; Artho, A; Egli, J

    1991-09-01

    Paraffins from raw extracts of foods and packing materials were isolated by LC and directly transferred to GC, applying concurrent eluent evaporation and a loop-type interface. Paraffins from various packing materials have been characterized: sisal bags, cardboard boxes, plastic films, wax-coated paper and cardboard as well as paraffin coatings. Important food contamination was found for sisal bags, cardboard boxes, and wax-coated paper/cardboard. Contamination by paraffin coatings on cheese was surprisingly small.

  10. Progress on first-principles-based materials design for hydrogen storage

    PubMed Central

    Park, Noejung; Choi, Keunsu; Hwang, Jeongwoon; Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Dong Ok; Ihm, Jisoon

    2012-01-01

    This article briefly summarizes the research activities in the field of hydrogen storage in sorbent materials and reports our recent works and future directions for the design of such materials. Distinct features of sorption-based hydrogen storage methods are described compared with metal hydrides and complex chemical hydrides. We classify the studies of hydrogen sorbent materials in terms of two key technical issues: (i) constructing stable framework structures with high porosity, and (ii) increasing the binding affinity of hydrogen molecules to surfaces beyond the usual van der Waals interaction. The recent development of reticular chemistry is summarized as a means for addressing the first issue. Theoretical studies focus mainly on the second issue and can be grouped into three classes according to the underlying interaction mechanism: electrostatic interactions based on alkaline cations, Kubas interactions with open transition metals, and orbital interactions involving Ca and other nontransitional metals. Hierarchical computational methods to enable the theoretical predictions are explained, from ab initio studies to molecular dynamics simulations using force field parameters. We also discuss the actual delivery amount of stored hydrogen, which depends on the charging and discharging conditions. The usefulness and practical significance of the hydrogen spillover mechanism in increasing the storage capacity are presented as well. PMID:23161910

  11. Progress on first-principles-based materials design for hydrogen storage.

    PubMed

    Park, Noejung; Choi, Keunsu; Hwang, Jeongwoon; Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Dong Ok; Ihm, Jisoon

    2012-12-01

    This article briefly summarizes the research activities in the field of hydrogen storage in sorbent materials and reports our recent works and future directions for the design of such materials. Distinct features of sorption-based hydrogen storage methods are described compared with metal hydrides and complex chemical hydrides. We classify the studies of hydrogen sorbent materials in terms of two key technical issues: (i) constructing stable framework structures with high porosity, and (ii) increasing the binding affinity of hydrogen molecules to surfaces beyond the usual van der Waals interaction. The recent development of reticular chemistry is summarized as a means for addressing the first issue. Theoretical studies focus mainly on the second issue and can be grouped into three classes according to the underlying interaction mechanism: electrostatic interactions based on alkaline cations, Kubas interactions with open transition metals, and orbital interactions involving Ca and other nontransitional metals. Hierarchical computational methods to enable the theoretical predictions are explained, from ab initio studies to molecular dynamics simulations using force field parameters. We also discuss the actual delivery amount of stored hydrogen, which depends on the charging and discharging conditions. The usefulness and practical significance of the hydrogen spillover mechanism in increasing the storage capacity are presented as well.

  12. High-Temperature Phase Change Materials (PCM) Candidates for Thermal Energy Storage (TES) Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, J. C.

    2011-09-01

    It is clearly understood that lower overall costs are a key factor to make renewable energy technologies competitive with traditional energy sources. Energy storage technology is one path to increase the value and reduce the cost of all renewable energy supplies. Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies have the ability to dispatch electrical output to match peak demand periods by employing thermal energy storage (TES). Energy storage technologies require efficient materials with high energy density. Latent heat TES systems using phase change material (PCM) are useful because of their ability to charge and discharge a large amount of heat from a small mass at constant temperature during a phase transformation like melting-solidification. PCM technology relies on the energy absorption/liberation of the latent heat during a physical transformation. The main objective of this report is to provide an assessment of molten salts and metallic alloys proposed as candidate PCMs for TES applications, particularly in solar parabolic trough electrical power plants at a temperature range from 300..deg..C to 500..deg.. C. The physical properties most relevant for PCMs service were reviewed from the candidate selection list. Some of the PCM candidates were characterized for: chemical stability with some container materials; phase change transformation temperatures; and latent heats.

  13. Mobile Pit verification system design based on passive special nuclear material verification in weapons storage facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, J. N.; Chin, M. R.; Sjoden, G. E.

    2013-07-01

    A mobile 'drive by' passive radiation detection system to be applied in special nuclear materials (SNM) storage facilities for validation and compliance purposes has been designed through the use of computational modeling and new radiation detection methods. This project was the result of work over a 1 year period to create optimal design specifications to include creation of 3D models using both Monte Carlo and deterministic codes to characterize the gamma and neutron leakage out each surface of SNM-bearing canisters. Results were compared and agreement was demonstrated between both models. Container leakages were then used to determine the expected reaction rates using transport theory in the detectors when placed at varying distances from the can. A 'typical' background signature was incorporated to determine the minimum signatures versus the probability of detection to evaluate moving source protocols with collimation. This established the criteria for verification of source presence and time gating at a given vehicle speed. New methods for the passive detection of SNM were employed and shown to give reliable identification of age and material for highly enriched uranium (HEU) and weapons grade plutonium (WGPu). The finalized 'Mobile Pit Verification System' (MPVS) design demonstrated that a 'drive-by' detection system, collimated and operating at nominally 2 mph, is capable of rapidly verifying each and every weapon pit stored in regularly spaced, shelved storage containers, using completely passive gamma and neutron signatures for HEU and WGPu. This system is ready for real evaluation to demonstrate passive total material accountability in storage facilities. (authors)

  14. Preparation and characterization of phase change material for thermal energy storage in buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Tommy Y.

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents the developing of novel form-stable composite phase change material (PCM) by incorporation of paraffin into lightweight aggregate through vacuum impregnation. The macro-encapsulated Paraffin-lightweight aggregate is a chemical compatible, thermal stable and thermal reliable PCM material for thermal energy storage applications in buildings. The 28 days compressive strength of NWAC using PCM-LWA is 33 - 53 MPa, which has an opportunity for structural purpose. Scanning electronic microscopic images indicated the paraffin can be held inside the porous structure of the aggregate. Thermal performance test showed that the cement paste panel with composite PCM can reduce the indoor temperature.

  15. Nanoscale Engineering of Heterostructured Anode Materials for Boosting Lithium-Ion Storage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gen; Yan, Litao; Luo, Hongmei; Guo, Shaojun

    2016-09-01

    Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), as one of the most important electrochemical energy-storage devices, currently provide the dominant power source for a range of devices, including portable electronic devices and electric vehicles, due to their high energy and power densities. The interest in exploring new electrode materials for LIBs has been drastically increasing due to the surging demands for clean energy. However, the challenging issues essential to the development of electrode materials are their low lithium capacity, poor rate ability, and low cycling stability, which strongly limit their practical applications. Recent remarkable advances in material science and nanotechnology enable rational design of heterostructured nanomaterials with optimized composition and fine nanostructure, providing new opportunities for enhancing electrochemical performance. Here, the progress as to how to design new types of heterostructured anode materials for enhancing LIBs is reviewed, in the terms of capacity, rate ability, and cycling stability: i) carbon-nanomaterials-supported heterostructured anode materials; ii) conducting-polymer-coated electrode materials; iii) inorganic transition-metal compounds with core@shell structures; and iv) combined strategies to novel heterostructures. By applying different strategies, nanoscale heterostructured anode materials with reduced size, large surfaces area, enhanced electronic conductivity, structural stability, and fast electron and ion transport, are explored for boosting LIBs in terms of high capacity, long cycling lifespan, and high rate durability. Finally, the challenges and perspectives of future materials design for high-performance LIB anodes are considered. The strategies discussed here not only provide promising electrode materials for energy storage, but also offer opportunities in being extended for making a variety of novel heterostructured nanomaterials for practical renewable energy applications.

  16. Nisin as a Food Preservative: Part 2: Antimicrobial Polymer Materials Containing Nisin.

    PubMed

    Gharsallaoui, Adem; Joly, Catherine; Oulahal, Nadia; Degraeve, Pascal

    2016-06-10

    Nisin is the only bacteriocin approved as a food preservative because of its antibacterial effectiveness and its negligible toxicity for humans. Typical problems encountered when nisin is directly added to foods are mainly fat adsorption leading to activity loss, heterogeneous distribution in the food matrix, inactivation by proteolytic enzymes, and emergence of resistance in normally sensitive bacteria strains. To overcome these problems, nisin can be immobilized in solid matrices that must act as diffusional barriers and allow controlling its release rate. This strategy allows maintaining a just sufficient nisin concentration at the food surface. The design of such antimicrobial materials must consider both bacterial growth kinetics but also nisin release kinetics. In this review, nisin incorporation in polymer-based materials will be discussed and special emphasis will be on the applications and properties of antimicrobial food packaging containing this bacteriocin.

  17. Nisin as a Food Preservative: Part 2: Antimicrobial Polymer Materials Containing Nisin.

    PubMed

    Gharsallaoui, Adem; Joly, Catherine; Oulahal, Nadia; Degraeve, Pascal

    2016-06-10

    Nisin is the only bacteriocin approved as a food preservative because of its antibacterial effectiveness and its negligible toxicity for humans. Typical problems encountered when nisin is directly added to foods are mainly fat adsorption leading to activity loss, heterogeneous distribution in the food matrix, inactivation by proteolytic enzymes, and emergence of resistance in normally sensitive bacteria strains. To overcome these problems, nisin can be immobilized in solid matrices that must act as diffusional barriers and allow controlling its release rate. This strategy allows maintaining a just sufficient nisin concentration at the food surface. The design of such antimicrobial materials must consider both bacterial growth kinetics but also nisin release kinetics. In this review, nisin incorporation in polymer-based materials will be discussed and special emphasis will be on the applications and properties of antimicrobial food packaging containing this bacteriocin. PMID:25674671

  18. Exploring the Limits of Methane Storage and Delivery in Nanoporous Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Gualdron, DA; Wilmer, CE; Farha, OK; Hupp, JT; Snurr, RQ

    2014-04-03

    The physical limits for methane storage and delivery in nanoporous materials were investigated, with a focus on whether it is possible to reach a methane deliverable capacity of 315 cm(3)(STP)/cm(3) in line with the adsorption target established by the ARPA-E agency. Our efforts focused on how both geometric and chemical properties, such as void fraction (V-f), volumetric surface area (S-v), and heat of adsorption (Q(st)), impact methane deliverable capacity, i.e., the amount of methane adsorbed at some storage pressure minus the amount adsorbed at the delivery pressure. With the aid of grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations, we studied methane adsorption and delivery properties in a population of 122 835 hypothetical pcu metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and 39 idealized carbon-based porous materials. From the simulation results, we developed an analytical equation that helped us delimit the necessary material properties to reach specific methane deliverable capacity targets. The maximum deliverable capacity between 65 and 5.8 bar among the hypothetical MOFs was 206 cm(3)(STP)/cm(3) at 298 K. We found that artificially increasing the methane MOF interaction strength by increasing the Lennard-Jones e parameters of the MOF atoms by 2- and 4-fold only improved the maximum deliverable capacity up to 223 and 228 cm(3)(STP)/cm(3), respectively. However, the effect on the amount stored at 65 bar was more significant, which suggested another strategy; raising the temperature of the system by 100 K can recover 70% of the methane stranded at the delivery pressure. By increasing the delivery temperature to 398 K, the ARPA-E target was reached by a few hypothetical MOFs with quadrupled e values. This work shows the difficulty in reaching the ARPA-E target but also suggests that a strategy that combines a material with a large volumetric density of sites that interact strongly with methane and raising the delivery temperature can greatly improve the performance of

  19. Characteristics of phase-change materials containing oxide nano-additives for thermal storage

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors report the production of nanocomposite-enhanced phase-change materials (NEPCMs) using the direct-synthesis method by mixing paraffin with alumina (Al2O3), titania (TiO2), silica (SiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO) as the experimental samples. Al2O3, TiO2, SiO2, and ZnO were dispersed into three concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 wt.%. Through heat conduction and differential scanning calorimeter experiments to evaluate the effects of varying concentrations of the nano-additives on the heat conduction performance and thermal storage characteristics of NEPCMs, their feasibility for use in thermal storage was determined. The experimental results demonstrate that TiO2 is more effective than the other additives in enhancing both the heat conduction and thermal storage performance of paraffin for most of the experimental parameters. Furthermore, TiO2 reduces the melting onset temperature and increases the solidification onset temperature of paraffin. This allows the phase-change heat to be applicable to a wider temperature range, and the highest decreased ratio of phase-change heat is only 0.46%, compared to that of paraffin. Therefore, this study demonstrates that TiO2, added to paraffin to form NEPCMs, has significant potential for enhancing the thermal storage characteristics of paraffin. PMID:23127224

  20. Metalized T graphene: A reversible hydrogen storage material at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Xiao-Juan; Zhong, Wei E-mail: wzhong@nju.edu.cn; Du, You-Wei; Liu, Chun-Sheng E-mail: wzhong@nju.edu.cn; Zeng, Zhi

    2014-09-21

    Lithium (Li)-decorated graphene is a promising hydrogen storage medium due to its high capacity. However, homogeneous mono-layer coating graphene with lithium atoms is metastable and the lithium atoms would cluster on the surface, resulting in the poor reversibility. Using van der Waals-corrected density functional theory, we demonstrated that lithium atoms can be homogeneously dispersed on T graphene due to a nonuniform charge distribution in T graphene and strong hybridizations between the C-2p and Li-2p orbitals. Thus, Li atoms are not likely to form clusters, indicating a good reversible hydrogen storage. Both the polarization mechanism and the orbital hybridizations contribute to the adsorption of hydrogen molecules (storage capacity of 7.7 wt. %) with an optimal adsorption energy of 0.19 eV/H₂. The adsorption/desorption of H₂ at ambient temperature and pressure is also discussed. Our results can serve as a guide in the design of new hydrogen storage materials based on non-hexagonal graphenes.