Science.gov

Sample records for food storage material

  1. Enhancement of efficiency of storage and processing of food raw materials using radiation technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gracheva, A. Yu.; Zav'yalov, M. A.; Ilyukhina, N. V.; Kukhto, V. A.; Tarasyuk, V. T.; Filippovich, V. P.; Egorkin, A. V.; Chasovskikh, A. V.; Pavlov, Yu. S.; Prokopenko, A. V.; Strokova, N. E.; Artem'ev, S. A.; Polyakova, S. P.

    2016-12-01

    The work is dedicated to improvement of efficiency of storage and processing of food raw materials using radiation technologies. International practice of radiation processing of food raw materials is presented and an increase in the consumption of irradiated food products is shown. The prospects of using radiation technologies for the processing of food products in Russia are discussed. The results of studies of radiation effects on various food products and packaging film by γ radiation and accelerated electrons are presented.

  2. Enhancement of efficiency of storage and processing of food raw materials using radiation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Gracheva, A. Yu.; Zav’yalov, M. A.; Ilyukhina, N. V.; Kukhto, V. A.; Tarasyuk, V. T.; Filippovich, V. P.; Egorkin, A. V.; Chasovskikh, A. V.; Pavlov, Yu. S.; Prokopenko, A. V.; Strokova, N. E.; Artem’ev, S. A.; Polyakova, S. P.

    2016-12-15

    The work is dedicated to improvement of efficiency of storage and processing of food raw materials using radiation technologies. International practice of radiation processing of food raw materials is presented and an increase in the consumption of irradiated food products is shown. The prospects of using radiation technologies for the processing of food products in Russia are discussed. The results of studies of radiation effects on various food products and packaging film by γ radiation and accelerated electrons are presented.

  3. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOEpatents

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  4. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOEpatents

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2014-11-25

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material, such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  5. Chilled storage of foods - principles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chilled storage is the most common method for preserving perishable foods. The consumers’ increasing demand for convenient, minimally processed foods has caused food manufacturers to increase production of refrigerated foods worldwide. This book chapter reviews the development of using low tempera...

  6. Microwavable thermal energy storage material

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, I.O.

    1998-09-08

    A microwavable thermal energy storage material is provided which includes a mixture of a phase change material and silica, and a carbon black additive in the form of a conformable dry powder of phase change material/silica/carbon black, or solid pellets, films, fibers, moldings or strands of phase change material/high density polyethylene/ethylene vinyl acetate/silica/carbon black which allows the phase change material to be rapidly heated in a microwave oven. The carbon black additive, which is preferably an electrically conductive carbon black, may be added in low concentrations of from 0.5 to 15% by weight, and may be used to tailor the heating times of the phase change material as desired. The microwavable thermal energy storage material can be used in food serving applications such as tableware items or pizza warmers, and in medical wraps and garments. 3 figs.

  7. Microwavable thermal energy storage material

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1998-09-08

    A microwavable thermal energy storage material is provided which includes a mixture of a phase change material and silica, and a carbon black additive in the form of a conformable dry powder of phase change material/silica/carbon black, or solid pellets, films, fibers, moldings or strands of phase change material/high density polyethylene/ethylene-vinyl acetate/silica/carbon black which allows the phase change material to be rapidly heated in a microwave oven. The carbon black additive, which is preferably an electrically conductive carbon black, may be added in low concentrations of from 0.5 to 15% by weight, and may be used to tailor the heating times of the phase change material as desired. The microwavable thermal energy storage material can be used in food serving applications such as tableware items or pizza warmers, and in medical wraps and garments.

  8. Food Storage Guide for Schools and Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC. Div. of Child Nutrition.

    This booklet has been prepared as a guide to show good methods of handling and storing USDA-donated and locally purchased foods. The information was drawn from many resources and includes latest research data available on types of storage facilities and equipment needed for handling and storing foods. The material is organized in five parts: (1)…

  9. Thermal energy storage material

    DOEpatents

    Leifer, Leslie

    1976-01-01

    A thermal energy storage material which is stable at atmospheric temperature and pressure and has a melting point higher than 32.degree.F. is prepared by dissolving a specific class of clathrate forming compounds, such as tetra n-propyl or tetra n-butyl ammonium fluoride, in water to form a substantially solid clathrate. The resultant thermal energy storage material is capable of absorbing heat from or releasing heat to a given region as it transforms between solid and liquid states in response to temperature changes in the region above and below its melting point.

  10. Reversible hydrogen storage materials

    DOEpatents

    Ritter, James A [Lexington, SC; Wang, Tao [Columbia, SC; Ebner, Armin D [Lexington, SC; Holland, Charles E [Cayce, SC

    2012-04-10

    In accordance with the present disclosure, a process for synthesis of a complex hydride material for hydrogen storage is provided. The process includes mixing a borohydride with at least one additive agent and at least one catalyst and heating the mixture at a temperature of less than about 600.degree. C. and a pressure of H.sub.2 gas to form a complex hydride material. The complex hydride material comprises MAl.sub.xB.sub.yH.sub.z, wherein M is an alkali metal or group IIA metal, Al is the element aluminum, x is any number from 0 to 1, B is the element boron, y is a number from 0 to 13, and z is a number from 4 to 57 with the additive agent and catalyst still being present. The complex hydride material is capable of cyclic dehydrogenation and rehydrogenation and has a hydrogen capacity of at least about 4 weight percent.

  11. Thermal energy storage material

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, P.J.; Page, J.K.

    1980-06-24

    A thermal energy storage material is disclosed that is comprised of at least one hydrated inorganic salt having a transition temperature to the anhydrous or a less hydrated form in the range 10/sup 0/ to 100/sup 0/ C (for example, sodium sulphate decahydrate), the salt being dispersed and suspended in a water-insoluble hydrogel formed from a water-soluble synthetic polymer having pendant carboxylic or sulphonic acid groups cross-linked with cations of a polyvalent metal (For example, aluminium or magnesium).

  12. Tritium Storage Material

    SciTech Connect

    Cowgill, Donald F.; Luo, Weifang; Smugeresky, John E.; Robinson, David B.; Fares, Stephen James; Ong, Markus D.; Arslan, Ilke; Tran, Kim L.; McCarty, Kevin F.; Sartor, George B.; Clift, W. Miles

    2008-09-01

    Nano-structured palladium is examined as a tritium storage material with the potential to release beta-decay-generated helium at the generation rate, thereby mitigating the aging effects produced by enlarging He bubbles. Helium retention in proposed structures is modeled by adapting the Sandia Bubble Evolution model to nano-dimensional material. The model shows that even with ligament dimensions of 6-12 nm, elevated temperatures will be required for low He retention. Two nanomaterial synthesis pathways were explored: de-alloying and surfactant templating. For de-alloying, PdAg alloys with piranha etchants appeared likely to generate the desired morphology with some additional development effort. Nano-structured 50 nm Pd particles with 2-3 nm pores were successfully produced by surfactant templating using PdCl salts and an oligo(ethylene oxide) hexadecyl ether surfactant. Tests were performed on this material to investigate processes for removing residual pore fluids and to examine the thermal stability of pores. A tritium manifold was fabricated to measure the early He release behavior of this and Pd black material and is installed in the Tritium Science Station glove box at LLNL. Pressure-composition isotherms and particle sizes of a commercial Pd black were measured.

  13. Materialism and food security.

    PubMed

    Allen, M W; Wilson, M

    2005-12-01

    The present studies examined if materialists have an elevated concern about food availability, presumably stemming from a general survival security motivation. Study 1 found that materialists set a greater life goal of food security, and reported more food insecurity during their childhood. Materialists reported less present-day food insecurity. Study 2 revealed that materialists stored/hoarded more food at home, and that obese persons endorsed materialism more than low/normal weight persons. Study 3 found that experimentally decreasing participants' feelings of survival security (via a mortality salience manipulation) led to greater endorsement of materialism, food security as goal, and using food for emotional comfort. The results imply that materialists overcame the food insecurity of their childhood by making food security a top life goal, but that materialists' current concerns about food security may not wholly stem from genuine threats to their food supply.

  14. Lightweight hydride storage materials

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, G.J.; Guthrie, S.E.; Bauer, W.

    1995-09-01

    The need for lightweight hydrides in vehicular applications has prompted considerable research into the use of magnesium and its alloys. Although this earlier work has provided some improved performance in operating temperature and pressure, substantial improvements are needed before these materials will significantly enhance the performance of an engineered system on a vehicle. We are extending the work of previous investigators on Mg alloys to reduce the operating temperature and hydride heat of formation in light weight materials. Two important results will be discussed in this paper: (1) a promising new alloy hydride was found which has better pressure-temperature characteristics than any previous Mg alloy and, (2) a new fabrication process for existing Mg alloys was developed and demonstrated. The new alloy hydride is composed of magnesium, aluminum and nickel. It has an equilibrium hydrogen overpressure of 1.3 atm. at 200{degrees}C and a storage capacity between 3 and 4 wt.% hydrogen. A hydrogen release rate of approximately 5 x 10{sup -4} moles-H{sub 2}/gm-min was measured at 200{degrees}C. The hydride heat of formation was found to be 13.5 - 14 kcal/mole-H{sub 2}, somewhat lower than Mg{sub 2}Ni. The new fabrication method takes advantage of the high vapor transport of magnesium. It was found that Mg{sub 2}Ni produced by our low temperature process was better than conventional materials because it was single phase (no Mg phase) and could be fabricated with very small particle sizes. Hydride measurements on this material showed faster kinetic response than conventional material. The technique could potentially be applied to in-situ hydride bed fabrication with improved packing density, release kinetics, thermal properties and mechanical stability.

  15. Nanostructured materials for hydrogen storage

    DOEpatents

    Williamson, Andrew J.; Reboredo, Fernando A.

    2007-12-04

    A system for hydrogen storage comprising a porous nano-structured material with hydrogen absorbed on the surfaces of the porous nano-structured material. The system of hydrogen storage comprises absorbing hydrogen on the surfaces of a porous nano-structured semiconductor material.

  16. Chemical Effects during Storage of Frozen Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powrie, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses (1) characteristics, interrelationships, and distribution of food constituents (including water) in unfrozen food systems; (2) the freezing process; and (3) chemical changes in food during frozen storage. Protein alterations and lipid oxidation are emphasized. (JN)

  17. Chemical Effects during Storage of Frozen Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powrie, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses (1) characteristics, interrelationships, and distribution of food constituents (including water) in unfrozen food systems; (2) the freezing process; and (3) chemical changes in food during frozen storage. Protein alterations and lipid oxidation are emphasized. (JN)

  18. Advanced materials for energy storage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Li, Feng; Ma, Lai-Peng; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2010-02-23

    Popularization of portable electronics and electric vehicles worldwide stimulates the development of energy storage devices, such as batteries and supercapacitors, toward higher power density and energy density, which significantly depends upon the advancement of new materials used in these devices. Moreover, energy storage materials play a key role in efficient, clean, and versatile use of energy, and are crucial for the exploitation of renewable energy. Therefore, energy storage materials cover a wide range of materials and have been receiving intensive attention from research and development to industrialization. In this Review, firstly a general introduction is given to several typical energy storage systems, including thermal, mechanical, electromagnetic, hydrogen, and electrochemical energy storage. Then the current status of high-performance hydrogen storage materials for on-board applications and electrochemical energy storage materials for lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors is introduced in detail. The strategies for developing these advanced energy storage materials, including nanostructuring, nano-/microcombination, hybridization, pore-structure control, configuration design, surface modification, and composition optimization, are discussed. Finally, the future trends and prospects in the development of advanced energy storage materials are highlighted.

  19. Storage and Materials Handling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    commodities ----------------------------------------------------------------- 5-121 7. Packaged petroleum products ...5-143 8. Metal products ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 5-148 9. Cable storage...Advanced decay-The stage of decay in which the Attainable cubic feet-The product of net storage disintegration is readily recognized because the Ataie

  20. Food Products Procurement, Receiving and Storage Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas Association of School Business Officials, Haysville.

    This guide is intended as a resource document for the beginner in food services and food purchasing. The publication is divided topically by (1) purchasing procedures, (2) specifications and evaluation, (3) sources for purchasing food products, (4) storage of food products and inventory procedures, (5) type of food service management, and (6)…

  1. 12 Secrets of Smart Food Buying. Keep Foods Safe. Guide to Refrigerator Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Univ., Logan. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This package consists of various bilingual instructional materials for use in helping Indochinese refugees learn basic food purchasing and food storage skills. Included in the package are a Vietnamese/English bilingual booklet explaining 12 secrets of wise food buying and translations of guidelines for keeping foods safe (English, Vietnamese, Lao)…

  2. 12 Secrets of Smart Food Buying. Keep Foods Safe. Guide to Refrigerator Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Univ., Logan. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This package consists of various bilingual instructional materials for use in helping Indochinese refugees learn basic food purchasing and food storage skills. Included in the package are a Vietnamese/English bilingual booklet explaining 12 secrets of wise food buying and translations of guidelines for keeping foods safe (English, Vietnamese, Lao)…

  3. 36 CFR 13.1322 - Food storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Kenai Fjords National Park Exit Glacier Developed Area (egda) § 13.1322 Food storage. Cooking, consuming, storing or preparing food in the Exit...

  4. 36 CFR 13.1322 - Food storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Kenai Fjords National Park Exit Glacier Developed Area (egda) § 13.1322 Food storage. Cooking, consuming, storing or preparing food in the Exit...

  5. 36 CFR 13.1322 - Food storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Kenai Fjords National Park Exit Glacier Developed Area (egda) § 13.1322 Food storage. Cooking, consuming, storing or preparing food in the Exit...

  6. 36 CFR 13.1322 - Food storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Kenai Fjords National Park Exit Glacier Developed Area (egda) § 13.1322 Food storage. Cooking, consuming, storing or preparing food in the Exit...

  7. 36 CFR 13.1322 - Food storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Kenai Fjords National Park Exit Glacier Developed Area (egda) § 13.1322 Food storage. Cooking, consuming, storing or preparing food in the Exit...

  8. Carbon material for hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect

    Bourlinos, Athanasios; Steriotis, Theodore; Stubos, Athanasios; Miller, Michael A

    2016-09-13

    The present invention relates to carbon based materials that are employed for hydrogen storage applications. The material may be described as the pyrolysis product of a molecular precursor such as a cyclic quinone compound. The pyrolysis product may then be combined with selected transition metal atoms which may be in nanoparticulate form, where the metals may be dispersed on the material surface. Such product may then provide for the reversible storage of hydrogen. The metallic nanoparticles may also be combined with a second metal as an alloy to further improve hydrogen storage performance.

  9. 36 CFR 13.1228 - Food storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Food storage. 13.1228 Section 13.1228 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Developed Area § 13.1228 Food storage. In the BCDA, all fish must be stored in designated facilities and in...

  10. 36 CFR 13.1228 - Food storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Food storage. 13.1228 Section 13.1228 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Developed Area § 13.1228 Food storage. In the BCDA, all fish must be stored in designated facilities and in...

  11. 36 CFR 13.1228 - Food storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Food storage. 13.1228 Section 13.1228 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Developed Area § 13.1228 Food storage. In the BCDA, all fish must be stored in designated facilities and...

  12. 36 CFR 13.1228 - Food storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Food storage. 13.1228 Section 13.1228 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Developed Area § 13.1228 Food storage. In the BCDA, all fish must be stored in designated facilities and...

  13. 36 CFR 13.1228 - Food storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Food storage. 13.1228 Section 13.1228 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Developed Area § 13.1228 Food storage. In the BCDA, all fish must be stored in designated facilities and...

  14. Storage containers for radioactive material

    DOEpatents

    Groh, E.F.; Cassidy, D.A.; Dates, L.R.

    1980-07-31

    A radioactive material storage system is claimed for use in the laboratory having a flat base plate with a groove in one surface thereof and a hollow pedestal extending perpendicularly away from the other surface thereof, a sealing gasket in the groove, a cover having a filter therein and an outwardly extending flange which fits over the plate, the groove and the gasket, and a clamp for maintaining the cover and the plate sealed together. The plate and the cover and the clamp cooperate to provide a storage area for radioactive material readily accessible for use or inventory. Wall mounts are provided to prevent accidental formation of critical masses during storage.

  15. Storage containers for radioactive material

    DOEpatents

    Groh, Edward F.; Cassidy, Dale A.; Dates, Leon R.

    1981-01-01

    A radioactive material storage system for use in the laboratory having a flat base plate with a groove in one surface thereof and a hollow pedestal extending perpendicularly away from the other surface thereof, a sealing gasket in the groove, a cover having a filter therein and an outwardly extending flange which fits over the plate, the groove and the gasket, and a clamp for maintaining the cover and the plate sealed together, whereby the plate and the cover and the clamp cooperate to provide a storage area for radioactive material readily accessible for use or

  16. Materials for Electrochemical Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannes, Michelle

    2013-03-01

    Electrochemical energy storage is a primary concern of both the consumer and public energy sectors. Energy, once generated, must be stored, transported and retrieved efficiently. This is commonly done through the use of various kinds of batteries and recently through the use of capacitors. Optimal energy storage involves the complete electrochemical system, but many of the performance properties can be understood in terms of the constituent materials that make up the anode, cathode and electrolyte. In this talk will give a brief overview of electrochemical energy storage systems and the role of materials in improving them. Using computational methods as a framework, I will discuss how discuss how macroscopic properties, such as capacity, conductivity, voltage, and stability are determined by fundamental materials properties at the quantum mechanical level. Using the knowledge gained from understanding the underlying processes, I will discuss some common battery materials, such as LiFePO4, layered transition metal oxides, and oxide electrolyte materials. I will show how predictions for better materials can be made using computational tools to save time and money by circumventing expensive screening in the laboratory. I will also discuss how tailoring the morphology of materials, for example by synthesizing at the nanoscale, can have extreme benefits for battery materials performance.

  17. Food Packaging Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The photos show a few of the food products packaged in Alure, a metallized plastic material developed and manufactured by St. Regis Paper Company's Flexible Packaging Division, Dallas, Texas. The material incorporates a metallized film originally developed for space applications. Among the suppliers of the film to St. Regis is King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Ma'ssachusetts. Initially used by NASA as a signal-bouncing reflective coating for the Echo 1 communications satellite, the film was developed by a company later absorbed by King-Seeley. The metallized film was also used as insulating material for components of a number of other spacecraft. St. Regis developed Alure to meet a multiple packaging material need: good eye appeal, product protection for long periods and the ability to be used successfully on a wide variety of food packaging equipment. When the cost of aluminum foil skyrocketed, packagers sought substitute metallized materials but experiments with a number of them uncovered problems; some were too expensive, some did not adequately protect the product, some were difficult for the machinery to handle. Alure offers a solution. St. Regis created Alure by sandwiching the metallized film between layers of plastics. The resulting laminated metallized material has the superior eye appeal of foil but is less expensive and more easily machined. Alure effectively blocks out light, moisture and oxygen and therefore gives the packaged food long shelf life. A major packaging firm conducted its own tests of the material and confirmed the advantages of machinability and shelf life, adding that it runs faster on machines than materials used in the past and it decreases product waste; the net effect is increased productivity.

  18. Storage Methods for Food Commodities. Food Commodities Lesson Plan No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Anita

    Designed as part of a 15-hour community college course in food commodities, this lesson plan was developed to teach students about the proper storage of food. The lesson plan begins with information about the course for which the lesson plan was designed; equipment and audiovisual aids needed; requirements for student materials; course objectives;…

  19. Storage depot for radioactive material

    DOEpatents

    Szulinski, Milton J.

    1983-01-01

    Vertical drilling of cylindrical holes in the soil, and the lining of such holes, provides storage vaults called caissons. A guarded depot is provided with a plurality of such caissons covered by shielded closures preventing radiation from penetrating through any linear gap to the atmosphere. The heat generated by the radioactive material is dissipated through the vertical liner of the well into the adjacent soil and thus to the ground surface so that most of the heat from the radioactive material is dissipated into the atmosphere in a manner involving no significant amount of biologically harmful radiation. The passive cooling of the radioactive material without reliance upon pumps, personnel, or other factor which might fail, constitutes one of the most advantageous features of this system. Moreover this system is resistant to damage from tornadoes or earthquakes. Hermetically sealed containers of radioactive material may be positioned in the caissons. Loading vehicles can travel throughout the depot to permit great flexibility of loading and unloading radioactive materials. Radioactive material can be shifted to a more closely spaced caisson after ageing sufficiently to generate much less heat. The quantity of material stored in a caisson is restricted by the average capacity for heat dissipation of the soil adjacent such caisson.

  20. Improved Food Drying and Storage Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zweig, Peter R.; And Others

    This manual is intended to serve as a guide for those who are helping future Peace Corps volunteers to acquire basic food drying and storage skills. Included in the guide are lesson outlines and handouts for use in each of the 30 sessions of the course. Representative topics discussed in the individual sessions are scheduling, solar dryers,…

  1. Nanotechnology and Food Contact Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaspyrides, Constantine (Costas) D.

    2010-06-01

    The use of nanotechnology in food contact materials is highlighted in relation to novel applications and potential implications for consumer safety and regulatory controls. Nanotechnology applications are expected to bring a range of benefits to the food sector, including improved packaging, antimicrobial properties, traceability and security of food products. The toxicological nature of hazard, likelihood of exposure and risk to consumers from nanotechnology-derived food/food packaging are largely unknown and this work highlights the benefits of nanotechnology in food contact materials but also the gaps in knowledge regarding consumers safety that require further research.

  2. Phase change material storage heater

    DOEpatents

    Goswami, D. Yogi; Hsieh, Chung K.; Jotshi, Chand K.; Klausner, James F.

    1997-01-01

    A storage heater for storing heat and for heating a fluid, such as water, has an enclosure defining a chamber therein. The chamber has a lower portion and an upper portion with a heating element being disposed within the enclosure. A tube through which the fluid flows has an inlet and an outlet, both being disposed outside of the enclosure, and has a portion interconnecting the inlet and the outlet that passes through the enclosure. A densely packed bed of phase change material pellets is disposed within the enclosure and is surrounded by a viscous liquid, such as propylene glycol. The viscous liquid is in thermal communication with the heating element, the phase change material pellets, and the tube and transfers heat from the heating element to the pellets and from the pellets to the tube. The viscous fluid has a viscosity so that the frictional pressure drop of the fluid in contact with the phase change material pellets substantially reduces vertical thermal convection in the fluid. As the fluid flows through the tube heat is transferred from the viscous liquid to the fluid flowing through the tube, thereby heating the fluid.

  3. 36 CFR 1002.10 - Camping and food storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Camping and food storage... USE AND RECREATION § 1002.10 Camping and food storage. (a) The Board may require permits, designate... result in the suspension or revocation of the permit. (d) Food storage. The Board may designate all or a...

  4. 36 CFR 1002.10 - Camping and food storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Camping and food storage... USE AND RECREATION § 1002.10 Camping and food storage. (a) The Board may require permits, designate... result in the suspension or revocation of the permit. (d) Food storage. The Board may designate all or a...

  5. 36 CFR 2.10 - Camping and food storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Camping and food storage. 2... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.10 Camping and food storage. (a) The superintendent may... revocation of the permit. (d) Food storage. The superintendent may designate all or a portion of a park area...

  6. 36 CFR 2.10 - Camping and food storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Camping and food storage. 2... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.10 Camping and food storage. (a) The superintendent may... revocation of the permit. (d) Food storage. The superintendent may designate all or a portion of a park area...

  7. 36 CFR 2.10 - Camping and food storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Camping and food storage. 2... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.10 Camping and food storage. (a) The superintendent may... revocation of the permit. (d) Food storage. The superintendent may designate all or a portion of a park...

  8. 36 CFR 1002.10 - Camping and food storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Camping and food storage... USE AND RECREATION § 1002.10 Camping and food storage. (a) The Board may require permits, designate... result in the suspension or revocation of the permit. (d) Food storage. The Board may designate all or...

  9. 36 CFR 1002.10 - Camping and food storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Camping and food storage. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.10 Camping and food storage. (a) The Board may require permits, designate sites... result in the suspension or revocation of the permit. (d) Food storage. The Board may designate all or...

  10. 36 CFR 2.10 - Camping and food storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Camping and food storage. 2... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.10 Camping and food storage. (a) The superintendent may... revocation of the permit. (d) Food storage. The superintendent may designate all or a portion of a park...

  11. 36 CFR 1002.10 - Camping and food storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Camping and food storage... USE AND RECREATION § 1002.10 Camping and food storage. (a) The Board may require permits, designate... result in the suspension or revocation of the permit. (d) Food storage. The Board may designate all or...

  12. 36 CFR 2.10 - Camping and food storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Camping and food storage. 2... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.10 Camping and food storage. (a) The superintendent may... revocation of the permit. (d) Food storage. The superintendent may designate all or a portion of a park...

  13. Study on Hydrogen Storage Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Complex hydrides have been heavily investigated as a hydrogen storage material, particularly for future vehicular applications. The present major problem of such complex hydrides is their relatively high hydrogen desorption temperature (Td). In order to find a predominant parameter for determining Td, we have investigated internal nuclear magnetic fields in several complex hydrides, such as, lithium and sodium alanates, borohydrides, and magnesium hydrides, with a muon spin rotation and relaxation (μ+SR) technique. At low temperatures, the μ+SR spectrum obtained in a zero external field (ZF) exhibits a clear oscillation due to the formation of a three spin 1/2 system, HμH, besides Mg(BH4)2 and Sc(BH4)2. Such oscillatory signal becomes weaker and weaker with increasing temperature, and finally disappears above around room temperature. However, the volume fraction of the HμH signal to the whole asymmetry at 5 K is found to be a good indicator for Td in borohydrides. At high temperatures, on the contrary, the ZF-spectrum for MgH2 shows a Kubo-Toyabe like relaxation due to a random nuclear magnetic field of 1H. Such nuclear magnetic field becomes dynamic well below Td in the milled MgH2, indicating a significant role on H-diffusion in solids for determining Td.

  14. High capacity hydrogen storage nanocomposite materials

    DOEpatents

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Wellons, Matthew S

    2015-02-03

    A novel hydrogen absorption material is provided comprising a mixture of a lithium hydride with a fullerene. The subsequent reaction product provides for a hydrogen storage material which reversibly stores and releases hydrogen at temperatures of about 270.degree. C.

  15. Methane storage in advanced porous materials.

    PubMed

    Makal, Trevor A; Li, Jian-Rong; Lu, Weigang; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2012-12-07

    The need for alternative fuels is greater now than ever before. With considerable sources available and low pollution factor, methane is a natural choice as petroleum replacement in cars and other mobile applications. However, efficient storage methods are still lacking to implement the application of methane in the automotive industry. Advanced porous materials, metal-organic frameworks and porous organic polymers, have received considerable attention in sorptive storage applications owing to their exceptionally high surface areas and chemically-tunable structures. In this critical review we provide an overview of the current status of the application of these two types of advanced porous materials in the storage of methane. Examples of materials exhibiting high methane storage capacities are analyzed and methods for increasing the applicability of these advanced porous materials in methane storage technologies described.

  16. Smart storage technologies applied to fresh foods: A review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyu; Zhang, Min; Gao, Zhongxue; Adhikari, Benu

    2017-06-30

    Fresh foods are perishable, seasonal and regional in nature and their storage, transportation, and preservation of freshness are quite challenging. Smart storage technologies can online detection and monitor the changes of quality parameters and storage environment of fresh foods during storage, so that operators can make timely adjustments to reduce the loss. This article reviews the smart storage technologies from two aspects: online detection technologies and smartly monitoring technologies for fresh foods. Online detection technologies include electronic nose, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), hyperspectral imaging and computer vision. Smartly monitoring technologies mainly include some intelligent indicators for monitoring the change of storage environment. Smart storage technologies applied to fresh foods need to be highly efficient and nondestructive and need to be competitively priced. In this work, we have critically reviewed the principles, applications, and development trends of smart storage technologies.

  17. Influence of oxygen and long term storage on the profile of volatile compounds released from polymeric multilayer food contact materials sterilized by gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Salafranca, Jesús; Clemente, Isabel; Isella, Francesca; Nerín, Cristina; Bosetti, Osvaldo

    2015-06-09

    The profile of volatile compounds released from 13 different multilayer polymeric materials for food use, before and after their exposure to gamma radiation, has been assessed by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Thermosealed bags of different materials were filled with either air or nitrogen to evaluate the oxygen influence. One-third of the samples were analyzed without irradiation, whereas the rest were irradiated at 15 and 25 kGy. Half of the samples were processed just after preparation and the other half was stored for 8 months at room temperature prior to analysis. Very significant differences between unirradiated and irradiated bags were found. About 60-80 compounds were released and identified per sample. A huge peak of 1,3-ditertbutylbenzene was present in most of the irradiated samples. An outstanding reproducibility in all the variables evaluated (chromatograms, oxygen percentage, volume of bags) was noticed. Independently of filling gas, the results of unirradiated materials were almost identical. In contrast, the chromatographic profile and the odor of irradiated bags filled with nitrogen were completely different to those filled with air. Principal component analysis was performed and 86.9% of the accumulated variance was explained with the first two components. The migration of compounds from irradiated materials to the vapor phase was much lower than the limits established in the Commission Regulation (EU) No 10/2011.

  18. Evaluation of storage mite contamination of commercial dry dog food.

    PubMed

    Brazis, Pilar; Serra, Montserrat; Sellés, Alex; Dethioux, Fabienne; Biourge, Vincent; Puigdemont, Anna

    2008-08-01

    Storage mites may be considered important allergens in dogs with atopic dermatitis. High sensitization rates to Tyrophagus, Acarus, and Lepidoglyphus species have been reported in atopic dogs, and dry pet food has been suggested as a potential source of storage mite exposure. The aim of the present study was to evaluate commercial dry dog food for contamination with storage mites, and how storage time and conditions could influence the risk of contamination. Ten different premium commercial dry dog foods formulated for skin disorders were selected. Food bags were opened and stored for 6 weeks under two different environmental conditions. At different time points, samples from each bag were collected and analysed by microscopy, guanine test, storage mite-specific traps, and a modified flotation technique. On opening, two storage mites identified as Acarus siro were isolated from one of the 10 bags by flotation technique, indicating that storage mites can be present in packaged dry dog food bags. After 5 weeks of storage under environmental conditions optimal for mite growth (23.2 +/- 2.1 degrees C and 71 +/- 5.6% of relative humidity), mites were detected by microscopic observation in nine of the 10 diets. When mites were identified by the flotation technique, Tyrophagus spp. were found to be the most common contaminating species. These results show that dry dog food can be a suitable substrate for storage mite reproduction, and that environmental and storage conditions may influence food contamination and mite development.

  19. Food Service Refrigerators and Food Service Storage Freezers. Standard No. 7, Revised April 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI.

    This standard covers the sanitation and performance requirements for new food service refrigerators and food service storage freezers of the type generally used in the food service industry. It covers cabinets operating in the freezers, above or below freezing temperature, designed for the storage or display of varieties of food products. Topics…

  20. ALUMINUM HYDRIDE: A REVERSIBLE STORAGE MATERIAL FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Zidan, R; Christopher Fewox, C; Brenda Garcia-Diaz, B; Joshua Gray, J

    2009-01-09

    One of the challenges of implementing the hydrogen economy is finding a suitable solid H{sub 2} storage material. Aluminium (alane, AlH{sub 3}) hydride has been examined as a potential hydrogen storage material because of its high weight capacity, low discharge temperature, and volumetric density. Recycling the dehydride material has however precluded AlH{sub 3} from being implemented due to the large pressures required (>10{sup 5} bar H{sub 2} at 25 C) and the thermodynamic expense of chemical synthesis. A reversible cycle to form alane electrochemically using NaAlH{sub 4} in THF been successfully demonstrated. Alane is isolated as the triethylamine (TEA) adduct and converted to unsolvated alane by heating under vacuum. To complete the cycle, the starting alanate can be regenerated by direct hydrogenation of the dehydrided alane and the alkali hydride (NaH) This novel reversible cycle opens the door for alane to fuel the hydrogen economy.

  1. Porous polymeric materials for hydrogen storage

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Luping; Liu, Di-Jia; Yuan, Shengwen; Yang, Junbing

    2013-04-02

    A porous polymer, poly-9,9'-spirobifluorene and its derivatives for storage of H.sub.2 are prepared through a chemical synthesis method. The porous polymers have high specific surface area and narrow pore size distribution. Hydrogen uptake measurements conducted for these polymers determined a higher hydrogen storage capacity at the ambient temperature over that of the benchmark materials. The method of preparing such polymers, includes oxidatively activating solids by CO.sub.2/steam oxidation and supercritical water treatment.

  2. NREL Advances Spillover Materials for Hydrogen Storage (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-12-01

    This fact sheet describes NREL's accomplishments in advancing spillover materials for hydrogen storage and improving the reproducible synthesis, long-term durability, and material costs of hydrogen storage materials. Work was performed by NREL's Chemical and Materials Science Center.

  3. Economic performance of water storage capacity expansion for food security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohar, Abdelaziz A.; Ward, Frank A.; Amer, Saud A.

    2013-03-01

    SummaryContinued climate variability, population growth, and rising food prices present ongoing challenges for achieving food and water security in poor countries that lack adequate water infrastructure. Undeveloped storage infrastructure presents a special challenge in northern Afghanistan, where food security is undermined by highly variable water supplies, inefficient water allocation rules, and a damaged irrigation system due three decades of war and conflict. Little peer-reviewed research to date has analyzed the economic benefits of water storage capacity expansions as a mechanism to sustain food security over long periods of variable climate and growing food demands needed to feed growing populations. This paper develops and applies an integrated water resources management framework that analyzes impacts of storage capacity expansions for sustaining farm income and food security in the face of highly fluctuating water supplies. Findings illustrate that in Afghanistan's Balkh Basin, total farm income and food security from crop irrigation increase, but at a declining rate as water storage capacity increases from zero to an amount equal to six times the basin's long term water supply. Total farm income increases by 21%, 41%, and 42% for small, medium, and large reservoir capacity, respectively, compared to the existing irrigation system unassisted by reservoir storage capacity. Results provide a framework to target water infrastructure investments that improve food security for river basins in the world's dry regions with low existing storage capacity that face ongoing climate variability and increased demands for food security for growing populations.

  4. LIGHT-WEIGHT NANOCRYSTALLINE HYDROGEN STORAGE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    S. G. Sankar; B. Zande; R.T. Obermyer; S. Simizu

    2005-11-21

    During Phase I of this SBIR Program, Advanced Materials Corporation has addressed two key issues concerning hydrogen storage: 1. We have conducted preliminary studies on the effect of certain catalysts in modifying the hydrogen absorption characteristics of nanocrystalline magnesium. 2. We have also conducted proof-of-concept design and construction of a prototype instrument that would rapidly screen materials for hydrogen storage employing chemical combinatorial technique in combination with a Pressure-Composition Isotherm Measurement (PCI) instrument. 3. Preliminary results obtained in this study approach are described in this report.

  5. Energy storage materials synthesized from ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Gebresilassie Eshetu, Gebrekidan; Armand, Michel; Scrosati, Bruno; Passerini, Stefano

    2014-12-01

    The advent of ionic liquids (ILs) as eco-friendly and promising reaction media has opened new frontiers in the field of electrochemical energy storage. Beyond their use as electrolyte components in batteries and supercapacitors, ILs have unique properties that make them suitable as functional advanced materials, media for materials production, and components for preparing highly engineered functional products. Aiming at offering an in-depth review on the newly emerging IL-based green synthesis processes of energy storage materials, this Review provides an overview of the role of ILs in the synthesis of materials for batteries, supercapacitors, and green electrode processing. It is expected that this Review will assess the status quo of the research field and thereby stimulate new thoughts and ideas on the emerging challenges and opportunities of IL-based syntheses of energy materials.

  6. Microwave impregnation of porous materials with thermal energy storage materials

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Burrows, Richard W.

    1993-01-01

    A method for impregnating a porous, non-metallic construction material with a solid phase-change material is described. The phase-change material in finely divided form is spread onto the surface of the porous material, after which the porous material is exposed to microwave energy for a time sufficient to melt the phase-change material. The melted material is spontaneously absorbed into the pores of the porous material. A sealing chemical may also be included with the phase-change material (or applied subsequent to the phase-change material) to seal the surface of the porous material. Fire retardant chemicals may also be included with the phase-change materials. The treated construction materials are better able to absorb thermal energy and exhibit increased heat storage capacity.

  7. Microwave impregnation of porous materials with thermal energy storage materials

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Burrows, R.W.

    1993-04-13

    A method for impregnating a porous, non-metallic construction material with a solid phase-change material is described. The phase-change material in finely divided form is spread onto the surface of the porous material, after which the porous material is exposed to microwave energy for a time sufficient to melt the phase-change material. The melted material is spontaneously absorbed into the pores of the porous material. A sealing chemical may also be included with the phase-change material (or applied subsequent to the phase-change material) to seal the surface of the porous material. Fire retardant chemicals may also be included with the phase-change materials. The treated construction materials are better able to absorb thermal energy and exhibit increased heat storage capacity.

  8. Microwave impregnation of porous materials with thermal energy storage materials

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, D.K.; Burrows, R.W.

    1992-12-31

    A method for impregnating a porous, non-metallic construction material with a solid phase-change material is described. The phase-change material in finely divided form is spread onto the surface of the porous material, after which the porous material is exposed to microwave energy for a time sufficient to melt the phase-change material. The melted material is spontaneously absorbed into the pores of the porous material. A sealing chemical may also be included with the phase-change material (or applied subsequent to the phase-change material) to seal the surface of the porous material. Fire retardant chemicals may also be included with the phase-change materials. The treated construction materials are better able to absorb thermal energy and exhibit increased heat storage capacity.

  9. Microwave impregnation of porous materials with thermal energy storage materials

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, D.K.; Burrows, R.W.

    1991-03-13

    A method for impregnating a porous, non-metallic construction material with a solid phase-change material is described. The phase-change material in finely divided form is spread onto the surface of the porous material, after which the porous material is exposed to microwave energy for a time sufficient to melt the phase-change material. The melted material is spontaneously absorbed into the pores of the porous material. A sealing chemical may also be included with the phase-change material (or applied subsequent tc the phase-change material) to seal the surface of the porous material. Fire retardant chemicals may also be included with the phase-change materials. The treated construction materials are better able to absorb thermal energy and exhibit increased heat storage capacity.

  10. Solar heat storage in phase change material

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, H.J.

    1984-02-28

    The objective of this project was to develop a chemical heat storage system that had a phase change with release of latent heat at about 105/sup 0/F. The primary reason this kind on system was sought was that heat storage capacity of commonly used storage systems do not match the heat collection capacity of open air collectors. In addition to the phase change three other factors were considered: the cost of the material, the amount of heat the system would hold per unit volume, and the rate at which the system released sensible and latent heat. One hundred nineteen tests were made on 32 systems. Only data on six of the more promising are presented. In the six systems, borax was used as the major component with other materials used as nucleating agents toraise the temperature of phase change.

  11. Carbon nanotube materials from hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, A.C.; Bekkedahl, T.A.; Cahill, A.F.

    1995-09-01

    The lack of convenient and cost-effective hydrogen storage is a major impediment to wide scale use of hydrogen in the United States energy economy. Improvements in the energy densities of hydrogen storage systems, reductions in cost, and increased compatibility with available and forecasted systems are required before viable hydrogen energy use pathways can be established. Carbon-based hydrogen adsorption materials hold particular promise for meeting and exceeding the U.S. Department of Energy hydrogen storage energy density targets for transportation if concurrent increases in hydrogen storage capacity and carbon density can be achieved. These two goals are normally in conflict for conventional porous materials, but may be reconciled by the design and synthesis of new adsorbent materials with tailored pore size distributions and minimal macroporosity. Carbon nanotubes offer the possibility to explore new designs for adsorbents because they can be fabricated with small size distributions, and naturally tend to self-assemble by van der Waals forces. This year we report heats of adsorption for hydrogen on nanotube materials that are 2 and 3 times greater than for hydrogen on activated carbon. The hydrogen which is most strongly bound to these materials remains on the carbon surface to temperatures greater than 285 K. These results suggest that nanocapillary forces are active in stabilizing hydrogen on the surfaces of carbon nanotubes, and that optimization of the adsorbent will lead to effective storage at higher temperatures. In this paper we will also report on our activities which are targeted at understanding and optimizing the nucleation and growth of single wall nanotubes. These experiments were made possible by the development of a unique feedback control circuit which stabilized the plasma-arc during a synthesis run.

  12. NASICON-Structured Materials for Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Jian, Zelang; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Ji, Xiulei; Chen, Wen

    2017-02-21

    The demand for electrical energy storage (EES) is ever increasing, which calls for better batteries. NASICON-structured materials represent a family of important electrodes due to its superior ionic conductivity and stable structures. A wide range of materials have been considered, where both vanadium-based and titanium-based materials are recommended as being of great interest. NASICON-structured materials are suitable for both the cathode and the anode, where the operation potential can be easily tuned by the choice of transition metal and/or polyanion group in the structure. NASICON-structured materials also represent a class of solid electrolytes, which are widely employed in all-solid-state ion batteries, all-solid-state air batteries, and hybrid batteries. NASICON-structured materials are reviewed with a focus on both electrode materials and solid-state electrolytes.

  13. Porous polymeric materials for hydrogen storage

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Luping [Hoffman Estates, IL; Liu, Di-Jia [Naperville, IL; Yuan, Shengwen [Chicago, IL; Yang, Junbing [Westmont, IL

    2011-12-13

    Porous polymers, tribenzohexazatriphenylene, poly-9,9'-spirobifluorene, poly-tetraphenyl methane and their derivatives for storage of H.sub.2 prepared through a chemical synthesis method. The porous polymers have high specific surface area and narrow pore size distribution. Hydrogen uptake measurements conducted for these polymers determined a higher hydrogen storage capacity at the ambient temperature over that of the benchmark materials. The method of preparing such polymers, includes oxidatively activating solids by CO.sub.2/steam oxidation and supercritical water treatment.

  14. 13. Interior view of food storage area looking towards hallway; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Interior view of food storage area looking towards hallway; southeast corner of building on lower floor; view to north. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Mess & Administration Building, 1561 Ellsworth Street, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

  15. Impact of food processing and storage conditions on nitrate content in canned vegetable-based infant foods.

    PubMed

    Tamme, T; Reinik, M; Roasto, M; Meremäe, K; Kiis, A

    2009-08-01

    The nitrate and nitrite contents were determined in canned vegetable-based infant foods of five varieties. Furthermore, changes in nitrate content during industrial processing were studied. Samples were taken from raw materials, homogenized mixtures, and final products after sterilization, and then analyzed for nitrate and nitrite content by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Processing steps preceding heat treatment, such as vegetable peeling and washing, decreased the nitrate concentrations in the range of 17 to 52%. During processing, the nitrate content in canned infant foods decreased 39 to 50%, compared with nitrate concentration in the raw-vegetable mixture. The final nitrate concentration in infant foods depends mainly on the initial nitrate content of the raw-vegetable mixture. The effect of storage time (24 and 48 h) and temperature (4 to 6 degrees C and 20 to 22 degrees C) on nitrate and nitrite content in opened canned infant-food samples was studied. After 24 h of storage at refrigerated and room temperatures, the mean nitrate content increased on average by 7 and 13%, and after 48 h of storage by 15 and 29%, respectively. The nitrite content in all analyzed samples was below the quantification limit. Storage requirements of industrial manufacturers must be followed strictly. Opened can foods, stored under refrigerated conditions, have to be consumed within 2 days, as recommended by manufacturers. The infant-food producers must pay more attention to the quality of raw materials. Nitrate content analyses should be added as compulsory tests to the quality assurance programs.

  16. 8. Interior view of former food service and storage area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Interior view of former food service and storage area looking towards hall way; showing closed and open doorways to walk-in storage; near southwest corner of building on main floor; view to southwest. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Mess & Administration Building, 1561 Ellsworth Street, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

  17. Energy storage improvement through material science approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Brandon Joseph

    A need for improved energy storage is apparent for the improvement of our society. Lithium ion batteries are one of the leading energy storage technologies being researched today. These batteries typically utilize coupled reduction/oxidation reactions with intercalation reactions in crystalline metal oxides with lithium ions as charge carriers to produce efficient and high power energy storage options. The cathode material (positive electrode) has been an emphasis in the recent research as it is currently the weakest link of the battery. Several systems of cathode materials have been studied with different structures and chemical makeup, all having advantages and disadvantages. One focus of the research presented below was creating a low cost and high performance cathode material by creating a composite of the low cost spinel structured LiMn2O4 and the higher capacity layered structure materials. Two compositional diagrams were used to map out the composition space between end members which include two dimensional layer structured LiCoO 2, LiNiO2, LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 and three dimensional spinel structured LiMn2O4. Several compositions in each composition map were electrochemically tested and structurally characterized in an attempt to discover a high performance cathode material with a lower cost precursor. The best performing composition in each system shows the desired mixed phase of the layered and spinel crystal structures, yielding improved performance versus the individual end member components. The surrounding compositions were then tested in order to find the optimum composition and performance. The best performing composition was 0.2LiCoO 2•0.7LiNi0.8Co0.2O2•0.1LiMn 2O4 and yielded a specific capacity of 182mAh/g. Another promising area of chemical energy storage is in the storage of hydrogen gas in chemical hydrides. Hydrogen gas can be used as a fuel in a variety of applications as a viable method for storing and transporting energy. Currently, the

  18. 7 CFR 250.59 - Storage and inventory management of donated foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Storage and inventory management of donated foods. 250... school food authorities must meet the requirements for storage and inventory of donated foods in § 250.14... foods in this part. (c) Storage by school food authorities. The school food authority may store and...

  19. 7 CFR 250.59 - Storage and inventory management of donated foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Storage and inventory management of donated foods. 250... school food authorities must meet the requirements for storage and inventory of donated foods in § 250.14... foods in this part. (c) Storage by school food authorities. The school food authority may store and...

  20. 7 CFR 250.59 - Storage and inventory management of donated foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Storage and inventory management of donated foods. 250... school food authorities must meet the requirements for storage and inventory of donated foods in § 250.14... foods in this part. (c) Storage by school food authorities. The school food authority may store and...

  1. 7 CFR 250.59 - Storage and inventory management of donated foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Storage and inventory management of donated foods. 250... school food authorities must meet the requirements for storage and inventory of donated foods in § 250.14... foods in this part. (c) Storage by school food authorities. The school food authority may store and...

  2. Composite materials for thermal energy storage

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Burrows, Richard W.; Shinton, Yvonne D.

    1986-01-01

    The present invention discloses composite material for thermal energy storage based upon polyhydric alcohols, such as pentaerythritol, trimethylol ethane (also known as pentaglycerine), neopentyl glycol and related compounds including trimethylol propane, monoaminopentaerythritol, diamino-pentaerythritol and tris(hydroxymethyl)acetic acid, separately or in combinations, which provide reversible heat storage through crystalline phase transformations. These phase change materials do not become liquid during use and are in contact with at least one material selected from the group consisting of metals, carbon siliceous, plastic, cellulosic, natural fiber, artificial fiber, concrete, gypsum, porous rock, and mixtures thereof. Particulate additions, such as aluminum or graphite powders, as well as metal and carbon fibers can also be incorporated therein. Particulate and/or fibrous additions can be introduced into molten phase change materials which can then be cast into various shapes. After the phase change materials have solidified, the additions will remain dispersed throughout the matrix of the cast solid. The polyol is in contact with at least one material selected from the group consisting of metals, carbon siliceous, plastic, cellulosic, natural fiber, artificial fiber, concrete, gypsum, and mixtures thereof.

  3. Storage Stability of Food Protein Hydrolysates-A Review.

    PubMed

    Rao, Qinchun; Klaassen Kamdar, Andre; Labuza, Theodore P

    2016-05-18

    In recent years, mainly due to the specific health benefits associated with (1) the discovery of bioactive peptides in protein hydrolysates, (2) the reduction of protein allergenicity by protein hydrolysis, and (3) the improved protein digestibility and absorption of protein hydrolysates, the utilization of protein hydrolysates in functional foods and beverages has significantly increased. Although the specific health benefits from different hydrolysates are somewhat proven, the delivery and/or stability of these benefits is debatable during distribution, storage, and consumption. In this review, we discuss (1) the quality changes in different food protein hydrolysates during storage; (2) the resulting changes in the structure and texture of three food matrices, i.e., low moisture foods (LMF, aw < 0.6), intermediate moisture foods (IMF, 0.6 ≤ aw < 0.85), and high moisture foods (HMF, aw ≥ 0.85); and (3) the potential solutions to improve storage stability of food protein hydrolysates. In addition, we note there is a great need for evaluation of biofunction availability of bioactive peptides in food protein hydrolysates during storage.

  4. Materials compatibility of hydride storage materials with austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.A.

    1992-09-21

    This task evaluated the materials compatibility of LaNi[sub 5-x]Al[sub x] (x= 0.3, 0.75) hydrides and palladium coated kieselguhr with austenitic stainless steel in hydrogen and tritium process environments. Based on observations of retired prototype hydride storage beds and materials exposure testing samples designed for this study, no materials compatibility problem was indicated. Scanning electron microscopy observations of features on stainless steel surfaces after exposure to hydrides are also commonly found on as-received materials before hydriding. These features are caused by either normal heat treating and acid cleaning of stainless steel or reflect the final machining operation.

  5. Materials compatibility of hydride storage materials with austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.A.

    1992-09-21

    This task evaluated the materials compatibility of LaNi{sub 5-x}Al{sub x} (x= 0.3, 0.75) hydrides and palladium coated kieselguhr with austenitic stainless steel in hydrogen and tritium process environments. Based on observations of retired prototype hydride storage beds and materials exposure testing samples designed for this study, no materials compatibility problem was indicated. Scanning electron microscopy observations of features on stainless steel surfaces after exposure to hydrides are also commonly found on as-received materials before hydriding. These features are caused by either normal heat treating and acid cleaning of stainless steel or reflect the final machining operation.

  6. Corrosion resistant storage container for radioactive material

    DOEpatents

    Schweitzer, Donald G.; Davis, Mary S.

    1990-01-01

    A corrosion resistant long-term storage container for isolating radioactive waste material in a repository. The container is formed of a plurality of sealed corrosion resistant canisters of different relative sizes, with the smaller canisters housed within the larger canisters, and with spacer means disposed between judxtaposed pairs of canisters to maintain a predetermined spacing between each of the canisters. The combination of the plural surfaces of the canisters and the associated spacer means is effective to make the container capable of resisting corrosion, and thereby of preventing waste material from leaking from the innermost canister into the ambient atmosphere.

  7. Corrosion resistant storage container for radioactive material

    DOEpatents

    Schweitzer, D.G.; Davis, M.S.

    1984-08-30

    A corrosion resistant long-term storage container for isolating high-level radioactive waste material in a repository is claimed. The container is formed of a plurality of sealed corrosion resistant canisters of different relative sizes, with the smaller canisters housed within the larger canisters, and with spacer means disposed between juxtaposed pairs of canisters to maintain a predetermined spacing between each of the canisters. The combination of the plural surfaces of the canisters and the associated spacer means is effective to make the container capable of resisting corrosion, and thereby of preventing waste material from leaking from the innermost canister into the ambient atmosphere.

  8. Composite materials for thermal energy storage

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Burrows, R.W.; Shinton, Y.D.

    1985-01-04

    A composite material for thermal energy storage based upon polyhydric alcohols, such as pentaerythritol, trimethylol ethane (also known as pentaglycerine), neopentyl glycol and related compounds including trimethylol propane, monoaminopentaerythritol, diamino-pentaerythritol and tris(hydroxymethyl)acetic acid, separately or in combinations, which provide reversible heat storage through crystalline phase transformations. These PCM's do not become liquid during use and are in contact with at least one material selected from the group consisting of metals, carbon, siliceous, plastic, cellulosic, natural fiber, artificial fiber, concrete, gypsum, porous rock, and mixtures thereof. Particulate additions such as aluminum or graphite powders, as well as metal and carbon fibers can also be incorporated therein. Particulate and/or fibrous additions can be introduced into molten phase change materials which can then be cast into various shapes. After the phase change materials have solidified, the additions will remain dispersed throughout the matrix of the cast solid. The polyol is in contact with at least one material selected from the group consisting of metals, carbon, siliceous, plastic, cellulosic, natural fiber, artificial fiber, concrete, gypsum, and mixtures thereof.

  9. Optimizing nanoporous materials for gas storage.

    PubMed

    Simon, Cory M; Kim, Jihan; Lin, Li-Chiang; Martin, Richard L; Haranczyk, Maciej; Smit, Berend

    2014-03-28

    In this work, we address the question of which thermodynamic factors determine the deliverable capacity of methane in nanoporous materials. The deliverable capacity is one of the key factors that determines the performance of a material for methane storage in automotive fuel tanks. To obtain insights into how the molecular characteristics of a material are related to the deliverable capacity, we developed several statistical thermodynamic models. The predictions of these models are compared with the classical thermodynamics approach of Bhatia and Myers [Bhatia and Myers, Langmuir, 2005, 22, 1688] and with the results of molecular simulations in which we screen the International Zeolite Association (IZA) structure database and a hypothetical zeolite database of over 100,000 structures. Both the simulations and our models do not support the rule of thumb that, for methane storage, one should aim for an optimal heat of adsorption of 18.8 kJ mol(-1). Instead, our models show that one can identify an optimal heat of adsorption, but that this optimal heat of adsorption depends on the structure of the material and can range from 8 to 23 kJ mol(-1). The different models we have developed are aimed to determine how this optimal heat of adsorption is related to the molecular structure of the material.

  10. 7 CFR 250.52 - Storage and inventory management of donated foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Storage and inventory management of donated foods. 250... Donated Foods in Contracts With Food Service Management Companies § 250.52 Storage and inventory... general requirements in § 250.14(b) for the storage and inventory management of donated foods. (b) Storage...

  11. 7 CFR 250.52 - Storage and inventory management of donated foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Storage and inventory management of donated foods. 250... Donated Foods in Contracts With Food Service Management Companies § 250.52 Storage and inventory... general requirements in § 250.14(b) for the storage and inventory management of donated foods. (b) Storage...

  12. 7 CFR 250.52 - Storage and inventory management of donated foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Storage and inventory management of donated foods. 250... Donated Foods in Contracts With Food Service Management Companies § 250.52 Storage and inventory... general requirements in § 250.14(b) for the storage and inventory management of donated foods. (b) Storage...

  13. 7 CFR 250.52 - Storage and inventory management of donated foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Storage and inventory management of donated foods. 250... Donated Foods in Contracts With Food Service Management Companies § 250.52 Storage and inventory... general requirements in § 250.14(b) for the storage and inventory management of donated foods. (b) Storage...

  14. Carbon nanotube materials for hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, A.C.; Jones, K.M.; Heben, M.J.

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen burns pollution-free and may be produced from renewable energy resources. It is therefore an ideal candidate to replace fossil fuels as an energy carrier. However, the lack of a convenient and cost-effective hydrogen storage system greatly impedes the wide-scale use of hydrogen in both domestic and international markets. Although several hydrogen storage options exist, no approach satisfies all of the efficiency, size, weight, cost and safety requirements for transportation or utility use. A material consisting exclusively of micropores with molecular dimensions could simultaneously meet all of the requirements for transportation use if the interaction energy for hydrogen was sufficiently strong to cause hydrogen adsorption at ambient temperatures. Small diameter ({approx}1 mm) carbon single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) are elongated micropores of molecular dimensions, and materials composed predominantly of SWNTs may prove to be the ideal adsorbent for ambient temperature storage of hydrogen. Last year the authors reported that hydrogen could be adsorbed on arc-generated soots containing 12{Angstrom} diameter nanotubes at temperatures in excess of 285K. In this past year they have learned that such adsorption does not occur on activated carbon materials, and that the cobalt nanoparticles present in their arc-generated soots are not responsible for the hydrogen which is stable at 285 K. These results indicate that enhanced adsorption forces within the internal cavities of the SWNTs are active in stabilizing hydrogen at elevated temperatures. This enhanced stability could lead to effective hydrogen storage under ambient temperature conditions. In the past year the authors have also demonstrated that single-wall carbon nanotubes in arc-generated soots may be selectively opened by oxidation in H{sub 2}O resulting in improved hydrogen adsorption, and they have estimated experimentally that the amount of hydrogen stored is {approximately}10% of the nanotube weight.

  15. Hydrogen-storage materials for mobile applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlapbach, Louis; Züttel, Andreas

    2001-11-01

    Mobility - the transport of people and goods - is a socioeconomic reality that will surely increase in the coming years. It should be safe, economic and reasonably clean. Little energy needs to be expended to overcome potential energy changes, but a great deal is lost through friction (for cars about 10 kWh per 100 km) and low-efficiency energy conversion. Vehicles can be run either by connecting them to a continuous supply of energy or by storing energy on board. Hydrogen would be ideal as a synthetic fuel because it is lightweight, highly abundant and its oxidation product (water) is environmentally benign, but storage remains a problem. Here we present recent developments in the search for innovative materials with high hydrogen-storage capacity.

  16. Hydrogen-storage materials for mobile applications.

    PubMed

    Schlapbach, L; Züttel, A

    2001-11-15

    Mobility--the transport of people and goods - is a socioeconomic reality that will surely increase in the coming years. It should be safe, economic and reasonably clean. Little energy needs to be expended to overcome potential energy changes, but a great deal is lost through friction (for cars about 10 kWh per 100 km) and low-efficiency energy conversion. Vehicles can be run either by connecting them to a continuous supply of energy or by storing energy on board. Hydrogen would be ideal as a synthetic fuel because it is lightweight, highly abundant and its oxidation product (water) is environmentally benign, but storage remains a problem. Here we present recent developments in the search for innovative materials with high hydrogen-storage capacity.

  17. 30 CFR 56.6102 - Explosive material storage practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosive material storage practices. 56.6102... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage § 56.6102 Explosive material storage practices. (a) Explosive material shall be— (1) Stored in...

  18. 30 CFR 56.6102 - Explosive material storage practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosive material storage practices. 56.6102... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage § 56.6102 Explosive material storage practices. (a) Explosive material shall be— (1) Stored in...

  19. 30 CFR 56.6102 - Explosive material storage practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosive material storage practices. 56.6102... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage § 56.6102 Explosive material storage practices. (a) Explosive material shall be— (1) Stored in...

  20. 30 CFR 56.6102 - Explosive material storage practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosive material storage practices. 56.6102... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage § 56.6102 Explosive material storage practices. (a) Explosive material shall be— (1) Stored in...

  1. 30 CFR 56.6102 - Explosive material storage practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosive material storage practices. 56.6102... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage § 56.6102 Explosive material storage practices. (a) Explosive material shall be— (1) Stored in...

  2. Phase change material for temperature control and material storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessling, Jr., Francis C. (Inventor); Blackwood, James M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A phase change material comprising a mixture of water and deuterium oxide is described, wherein the mole fraction of deuterium oxide is selected so that the mixture has a selected phase change temperature within a range between 0.degree. C. and 4.degree. C. The mixture is placed in a container and used for passive storage and transport of biomaterials and other temperature sensitive materials. Gels, nucleating agents, freezing point depression materials and colorants may be added to enhance the characteristics of the mixture.

  3. Carbon-based Materials for Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Lynn Margaret

    Fossil fuels can be burned to provide on-demand energy at any time, but cleaner renewable energy sources such as the sun and wind are intermittent. Energy storage systems, then, that are efficient and also economical and environmentally benign are key to a future fueled by renewable energy. Carbon-based materials are prototypical systems in all these aspects. Herein, three promising, novel carbon-based materials are presented. These include microporous carbon for supercapacitors produced by the condensation and carbonization of siloxane elastomers, porous graphitic carbon for supercapacitors produced by an aerosol route, and interpenetrating, binder-free carbon nanotube/vanadium nanowire composites for lithium ion battery electrodes produced by chemical crosslinking and aerogel fabrication. These materials syntheses are facile and can be easily scaled up, and their electrochemical performance, especially their energy densities and cycleability, are notable.

  4. Carbon nanotube materials for hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, A.C.; Parilla, P.A.; Jones, K.M.; Riker, G.; Heben, M.J.

    1998-08-01

    Carbon single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) are essentially elongated pores of molecular dimensions and are capable of adsorbing hydrogen at relatively high temperatures and low pressures. This behavior is unique to these materials and indicates that SWNTs are the ideal building block for constructing safe, efficient, and high energy density adsorbents for hydrogen storage applications. In past work the authors developed methods for preparing and opening SWNTs, discovered the unique adsorption properties of these new materials, confirmed that hydrogen is stabilized by physical rather than chemical interactions, measured the strength of interaction to be {approximately} 5 times higher than for adsorption on planar graphite, and performed infrared absorption spectroscopy to determine the chemical nature of the surface terminations before, during, and after oxidation. This year the authors have made significant advances in synthesis and characterization of SWNT materials so that they can now prepare gram quantities of high-purity SWNT samples and measure and control the diameter distribution of the tubes by varying key parameters during synthesis. They have also developed methods which purify nanotubes and cut nanotubes into shorter segments. These capabilities provide a means for opening the tubes which were unreactive to the oxidation methods that successfully opened tubes, and offer a path towards organizing nanotube segments to enable high volumetric hydrogen storage densities. They also performed temperature programmed desorption spectroscopy on high purity carbon nanotube material obtained from collaborator Prof. Patrick Bernier and finished construction of a high precision Seivert`s apparatus which will allow the hydrogen pressure-temperature-composition phase diagrams to be evaluated for SWNT materials.

  5. Nanostructured materials in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Augustin, Mary Ann; Sanguansri, Peerasak

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology involves the application, production, and processing of materials at the nanometer scale. Biological- and physical-inspired approaches, using both conventional and innovative food processing technologies to manipulate matter at this scale, provide the food industry with materials with new functionalities. Understanding the assembly behavior of native and modified food components is essential in developing nanostructured materials. Functionalized nanostructured materials are finding applications in many sectors of the food industry, including novel nanosensors, new packaging materials with improved mechanical and barrier properties, and efficient and targeted nutrient delivery systems. An improved understanding of the benefits and the risks of the technology based on sound scientific data will help gain the acceptance of nanotechnology by the food industry. New horizons for nanotechnology in food science may be achieved by further research on nanoscale structures and methods to control interactions between single molecules.

  6. Polarization holographic data storage using azobenzene polyster as storage material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loerincz, Emoeke; Szarvas, Gabor; Koppa, Pal; Ujhelyi, Ferenc; Erdei, Gabor; Sueto, Attila; Varhegyi, Peter; Sajti, Sz.; Kerekes, A.; Ujvari, T.; Ramanujam, P. S.

    2003-07-01

    Polarization holographic read/write and read only demonstrator systems have been developed using ~2 ´m thick azobenzene polyester on a card form media. The thin-film holographic system has practical advantages, e.g. high diffraction efficiency, no cross talk between the holograms, reading in reflection mode, no hardware servo, different wavelengths for writing and reading (non-volatile storage), data encryption possibility, no problem with material shrinkage, etc. The candidate azobenzene polyester has good thermal, room temperature and ambient light stability and good optical properties for the purpose of thin film application. Using thin-film holography the possibilities of multiplexing are limited, however, raw data density as high as 2.77 bit/´m2 has been achieved in an optimized Fourier holographic system using high numerical aperture (NAþ 0.74) objective in a 8f arrangement with sparse code modulation and Fourier-filtering at 532 nm. High density polarization holographic demonstrator systems have been developed using ~2μm thick azobenzene polyesters on reflective card form media. FFT computer simulation of the system including saturation model of the material allows optimization of system components including data density and capacity. A raw density as high as 2.77 bit/μm2 has been achieved without multiplexing in a compact, portable read/write sytem at 532 nm allowing more than 1000 readout without data loss. A separate read only system working at 635 nm realizes non-volatile readout and allows card exchange at a data density of 1.3 bit/μm2. Security level of the presents holographic optical card systems can be further increased by using phase encoded reference beam. Advantageous applications of the proposed encrypted holographic card system are also outlined.

  7. 30 CFR 57.6102 - Explosive material storage practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosive material storage practices. 57.6102... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage-Surface and Underground § 57.6102 Explosive material storage practices. (a) Explosive...

  8. 30 CFR 57.6130 - Explosive material storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosive material storage facilities. 57.6130... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage-Surface Only § 57.6130 Explosive material storage facilities. (a) Detonators and explosives...

  9. 30 CFR 57.6102 - Explosive material storage practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosive material storage practices. 57.6102... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage-Surface and Underground § 57.6102 Explosive material storage practices. (a) Explosive...

  10. 30 CFR 57.6102 - Explosive material storage practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosive material storage practices. 57.6102... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage-Surface and Underground § 57.6102 Explosive material storage practices. (a) Explosive...

  11. 30 CFR 57.6102 - Explosive material storage practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosive material storage practices. 57.6102... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage-Surface and Underground § 57.6102 Explosive material storage practices. (a) Explosive...

  12. 30 CFR 57.6102 - Explosive material storage practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosive material storage practices. 57.6102... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage-Surface and Underground § 57.6102 Explosive material storage practices. (a) Explosive...

  13. 30 CFR 56.6130 - Explosive material storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosive material storage facilities. 56.6130... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage § 56.6130 Explosive material storage facilities. (a) Detonators and explosives shall be stored...

  14. Mechanical degradation temperature of waste storage materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, M.C.; Meyer, M.L.

    1993-05-13

    Heat loading analysis of the Solid Waste Disposal Facility (SWDF) waste storage configurations show the containers may exceed 90{degrees}C without any radioactive decay heat contribution. Contamination containment is primarily controlled in TRU waste packaging by using multiple bag layers of polyvinyl chloride and polyethylene. Since literature values indicate that these thermoplastic materials can begin mechanical degradation at 66{degrees}C, there was concern that the containment layers could be breached by heating. To better define the mechanical degradation temperature limits for the materials, a series of heating tests were conducted over a fifteen and thirty minute time interval. Samples of a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) bag, a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) high efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA) container, PVC bag and sealing tape were heated in a convection oven to temperatures ranging from 90 to 185{degrees}C. The following temperature limits are recommended for each of the tested materials: (1) low-density polyethylene -- 110{degrees}C; (2) polyvinyl chloride -- 130{degrees}C; (3) high-density polyethylene -- 140{degrees}C; (4) sealing tape -- 140{degrees}C. Testing with LDPE and PVC at temperatures ranging from 110 to 130{degrees}C for 60 and 120 minutes also showed no observable differences between the samples exposed at 15 and 30 minute intervals. Although these observed temperature limits differ from the literature values, the trend of HDPE having a higher temperature than LDPE is consistent with the reference literature. Experimental observations indicate that the HDPE softens at elevated temperatures, but will retain its shape upon cooling. In SWDF storage practices, this might indicate some distortion of the waste container, but catastrophic failure of the liner due to elevated temperatures (<185{degrees}C) is not anticipated.

  15. Stability of lycopene during food processing and storage.

    PubMed

    Xianquan, S; Shi, J; Kakuda, Y; Yueming, J

    2005-01-01

    With an increasing understanding of the health benefit of lycopene, how to preserve lycopene during food processing and storage has caused much attention. Lycopene belongs to the carotenoid family and mostly exists in nature as the all-trans form. Heat, light, oxygen, and different food matrices are factors that have an effect on lycopene isomerization and autooxidation. Lycopene may isomerize to mono- or poly-cis forms with the presence of heat or oil or during dehydration. Reisomerization takes place during storage. After oxidation, the lycopene molecule split, which causes loss of color and off-flavor. The effects of heat, oxygen, light, and the presence of oil on the stability of lycopene are uniform in much of the literature; however, controversy still exists on some details, such as the conditions causing the occurrence of isomerization, the optimal moisture, and temperature for storage.

  16. Safety flywheel. [using flexible materials energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, R. T. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    An inertial energy storage device is disclosed which uses flywheel made of flexible material such as a twisted rope ring. A small number of the strands of the rope ring have a tensile strength that is lower than that of most of the other strands so that should any of these strands fail, they will begin to whiplash allowing such a failure to be detected and braked before a castastrophic failure occurs. This accomplished by the inclusion of glass tubes located around the periphery of the flywheel. The tubes are in communication with a braking fluid reservoir. The flywheel and glass tubes are enclosed within a vacuum-tight housing. The whiplashing of a broken strand breaks one or more glass tubes. This causes the housing to be flooded with the braking fluid thereby braking the rotation of the flywheel.

  17. Hydrogen storage materials and method of making by dry homogenation

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, Craig M.; Zidan, Ragaiy A.

    2002-01-01

    Dry homogenized metal hydrides, in particular aluminum hydride compounds, as a material for reversible hydrogen storage is provided. The reversible hydrogen storage material comprises a dry homogenized material having transition metal catalytic sites on a metal aluminum hydride compound, or mixtures of metal aluminum hydride compounds. A method of making such reversible hydrogen storage materials by dry doping is also provided and comprises the steps of dry homogenizing metal hydrides by mechanical mixing, such as be crushing or ball milling a powder, of a metal aluminum hydride with a transition metal catalyst. In another aspect of the invention, a method of powering a vehicle apparatus with the reversible hydrogen storage material is provided.

  18. Understanding foods as soft materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezzenga, Raffaele; Schurtenberger, Peter; Burbidge, Adam; Michel, Martin

    2005-10-01

    Foods make up some of the most complex examples of soft condensed matter (SCM) with which we interact daily. Their complexity arises from several factors: the intricacy of components, the different aggregation states in which foods are encountered, and the multitude of relevant characteristic time and length scales. Because foodstuffs are governed by the rules of SCM physics but with all the complications related to real systems, the experimental and theoretical approaches of SCM physics have deepened our comprehension of their nature and behaviour, but many questions remain. In this review we discuss the current understanding of food science, by considering established SCM methods as well as emerging techniques and theoretical approaches. With their complexity, heterogeneity and multitude of states, foods provide SCM physics with a challenge of remarkable importance.

  19. Functional Carbon Materials for Electrochemical Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Huihui

    The ability to harvest and convert solar energy has been associated with the evolution of human civilization. The increasing consumption of fossil fuels since the industrial revolution, however, has brought to concerns in ecological deterioration and depletion of the fossil fuels. Facing these challenges, humankind is forced to seek for clean, sustainable and renewable energy resources, such as biofuels, hydraulic power, wind power, geothermal energy and other kinds of alternative energies. However, most alternative energy sources, generally in the form of electrical energy, could not be made available on a continuous basis. It is, therefore, essential to store such energy into chemical energy, which are portable and various applications. In this context, electrochemical energy-storage devices hold great promises towards this goal. The most common electrochemical energy-storage devices are electrochemical capacitors (ECs, also called supercapacitors) and batteries. In comparison to batteries, ECs posses high power density, high efficiency, long cycling life and low cost. ECs commonly utilize carbon as both (symmetric) or one of the electrodes (asymmetric), of which their performance is generally limited by the capacitance of the carbon electrodes. Therefore, developing better carbon materials with high energy density has been emerging as one the most essential challenges in the field. The primary objective of this dissertation is to design and synthesize functional carbon materials with high energy density at both aqueous and organic electrolyte systems. The energy density (E) of ECs are governed by E = CV 2/2, where C is the total capacitance and V is the voltage of the devices. Carbon electrodes with high capacitance and high working voltage should lead to high energy density. In the first part of this thesis, a new class of nanoporous carbons were synthesized for symmetric supercapacitors using aqueous Li2SO4 as the electrolyte. A unique precursor was adopted to

  20. 41 CFR 50-204.28 - Storage of radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Storage of radioactive materials. 50-204.28 Section 50-204.28 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.28 Storage of radioactive materials. Radioactive materials stored in...

  1. 41 CFR 50-204.28 - Storage of radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Storage of radioactive materials. 50-204.28 Section 50-204.28 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.28 Storage of radioactive materials. Radioactive materials stored in...

  2. 41 CFR 50-204.28 - Storage of radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Storage of radioactive materials. 50-204.28 Section 50-204.28 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.28 Storage of radioactive materials. Radioactive materials stored...

  3. 41 CFR 50-204.28 - Storage of radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Storage of radioactive materials. 50-204.28 Section 50-204.28 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.28 Storage of radioactive materials. Radioactive materials stored...

  4. 41 CFR 50-204.28 - Storage of radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Storage of radioactive materials. 50-204.28 Section 50-204.28 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.28 Storage of radioactive materials. Radioactive materials stored...

  5. Microporous Metal Organic Materials for Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect

    S. G. Sankar; Jing Li; Karl Johnson

    2008-11-30

    We have examined a number of Metal Organic Framework Materials for their potential in hydrogen storage applications. Results obtained in this study may, in general, be summarized as follows: (1) We have identified a new family of porous metal organic framework materials with the compositions M (bdc) (ted){sub 0.5}, {l_brace}M = Zn or Co, bdc = biphenyl dicarboxylate and ted = triethylene diamine{r_brace} that adsorb large quantities of hydrogen ({approx}4.6 wt%) at 77 K and a hydrogen pressure of 50 atm. The modeling performed on these materials agree reasonably well with the experimental results. (2) In some instances, such as in Y{sub 2}(sdba){sub 3}, even though the modeling predicted the possibility of hydrogen adsorption (although only small quantities, {approx}1.2 wt%, 77 K, 50 atm. hydrogen), our experiments indicate that the sample does not adsorb any hydrogen. This may be related to the fact that the pores are extremely small or may be attributed to the lack of proper activation process. (3) Some samples such as Zn (tbip) (tbip = 5-tert butyl isophthalate) exhibit hysteresis characteristics in hydrogen sorption between adsorption and desorption runs. Modeling studies on this sample show good agreement with the desorption behavior. It is necessary to conduct additional studies to fully understand this behavior. (4) Molecular simulations have demonstrated the need to enhance the solid-fluid potential of interaction in order to achieve much higher adsorption amounts at room temperature. We speculate that this may be accomplished through incorporation of light transition metals, such as titanium and scandium, into the metal organic framework materials.

  6. 7 CFR 250.14 - Warehousing, distribution and storage of donated foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION DONATION OF... against theft, spoilage and other loss; (3) Maintain foods at proper storage temperatures; (4)...

  7. Design of new materials for methane storage.

    PubMed

    Düren, Tina; Sarkisov, Lev; Yaghi, Omar M; Snurr, Randall Q

    2004-03-30

    One of the strategic goals of the modern automobile manufacturing industry is to replace gasoline and diesel with alternative fuels such as natural gas. In this report, we elucidate the desired characteristics of an optimal adsorbent for gas storage. The U.S. Department of Energy has outlined several requirements that adsorbents must fulfill for natural gas to become economically viable, with a key criterion being the amount adsorbed at 35 bar. We explore the adsorption characteristics of novel metal-organic materials (IRMOFs and molecular squares) and contrast them with the characteristics of two zeolites, MCM-41, and different carbon nanotubes. Using molecular simulations, we uncover the complex interplay of the factors influencing methane adsorption, especially the surface area, the capacity or free volume, the strength of the energetic interaction, and the pore size distribution. We also explain the extraordinary adsorption properties of IRMOF materials and propose new, not yet synthesized IRMOF structures with adsorption characteristics that are predicted to exceed the best experimental results to date by up to 36%.

  8. Studies on the stability of acrylamide in food during storage.

    PubMed

    Hoenicke, Katrin; Gatermann, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Acrylamide levels in a variety of food samples were analyzed before and after 3 months of storage at 10 degrees-12 degrees C. The analysis was performed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) using deuterium-labeled acrylamide as internal standard. Acrylamide was stable in most matrixes (cookies, cornflakes, crispbread, raw sugar, potato crisps, peanuts) over time. However, slight decreases were determined for dietary biscuits (83-89%) and for licorice confection (82%). For coffee and cacao powder, a significant decrease occurred during storage for 3 or 6 months, respectively. Acrylamide concentrations dropped from 305 to 210 microg/kg in coffee and from 265 to 180 microg/kg in cacao powder. On the contrary, acrylamide remained stable in soluble coffee as well as in coffee substitutes. Reactions of acrylamide with SH group-containing substances were assumed as the cause for acrylamide degradation in coffee and cacao. Spiking experiments with acrylamide revealed that acrylamide concentrations remained stable in baby food, cola, and beer; however, recovery levels dropped in milk powder (71%), sulfurized apricot (53%), and cacao powder (17%). These observations suggest that variations in the acrylamide content of food, especially in coffee and cacao, can vary depending on the storage time because special food constituents and/or reaction products can affect the levels.

  9. Glass ceramic approaches for energy storage materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Calvin Goodwin, III

    Glass ceramics are an advanced material class that exhibit excellent potential for energy storage applications. Unique properties can be obtained through the controlled crystallization that is used to form these glassy and crystalline composite materials from an amorphous bulk. By exploiting this synthesis route, materials can be optimized to offer the best balance between the crystalline ceramic phase, and the amorphous glass phase. The topic of this dissertation focuses on the structure-property relationships for glass ceramic systems for energy storage applications. Specifically, a lithium aluminum titanium phosphate system, and a barium sodium niobate system were explored for battery and capacitor applications, respectively. Li1+xAlxTi2-x(PO4)3 (LATP) is a lithium ion conductor which has shown potential for use in current and future battery technology. In its glass ceramic form the material has a conductivity of approximately 10-4 S/cm, which makes it an excellent conductor compared to other solid state lithium ion conductors. This conductivity is still lower than ionic liquids and polymers with currently used as electrolytes with conductivity higher than 10-3 S/cm. In exploring synthesis routes, it was found that microwave hybrid heating offered improve conductivity, as opposed to conventional crystallization methods. The role of microstructure and the crystallization kinetics on the overall have been investigated. It was shown that commonly used Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation could not accurately describe the kinetics of LATP's nucleation and growth. An empirical Sestak-Berggren model was used in combination with differential scanning calorimetry data to model the kinetics of LATP. Glass ceramic systems based on a NaBa2Nb5O 15 (BNN) crystalline have shown potential as dielectrics in high energy density capacitors. Here microwave hybrid heating and conventional heating were used to crystallize BNN glass ceramics in the range of 750°C - 1000°C, and the results

  10. 7 CFR 250.14 - Warehousing, distribution and storage of donated foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Warehousing, distribution and storage of donated foods... General Operating Provisions § 250.14 Warehousing, distribution and storage of donated foods. (a... school year. These costs include transportation, storage and handling of donated foods (if the current...

  11. Outlook and Challenges for Hydrogen Storage in Nanoporous Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Broom, D. P.; Webb, C. J.; Hurst, Katherine E.; Parilla, Philip A.; Gennett, Thomas; Brown, C. M.; Zacharia, R.; Tylianakis, E.; Klontzas, E.; Froudakis, G. E.; Steriotis, T. A.; Trikalitis, P. N.; Anton, D. L.; Hardy, B.; Tamburello, D.; Corgnale, C.; van Hassel, B. A.; Cossement, D.; Chahine, R.; Hirscher, M.

    2016-02-16

    Considerable progress has been made recently in the use of nanoporous materials for hydrogen storage. In our article, the current status of the field and future challenges are discussed, ranging from important open fundamental questions, such as the density and volume of the adsorbed phase and its relationship to overall storage capacity, to the development of new functional materials and complete storage system design. With regard to fundamentals, the use of neutron scattering to study adsorbed H2, suitable adsorption isotherm equations, and the accurate computational modelling and simulation of H2 adsorption are discussed. We cover new materials and they include flexible metal–organic frameworks, core–shell materials, and porous organic cage compounds. The article concludes with a discussion of the experimental investigation of real adsorptive hydrogen storage tanks, the improvement in the thermal conductivity of storage beds, and new storage system concepts and designs.

  12. Outlook and Challenges for Hydrogen Storage in Nanoporous Materials

    DOE PAGES

    Broom, D. P.; Webb, C. J.; Hurst, Katherine E.; ...

    2016-02-16

    Considerable progress has been made recently in the use of nanoporous materials for hydrogen storage. In our article, the current status of the field and future challenges are discussed, ranging from important open fundamental questions, such as the density and volume of the adsorbed phase and its relationship to overall storage capacity, to the development of new functional materials and complete storage system design. With regard to fundamentals, the use of neutron scattering to study adsorbed H2, suitable adsorption isotherm equations, and the accurate computational modelling and simulation of H2 adsorption are discussed. We cover new materials and they includemore » flexible metal–organic frameworks, core–shell materials, and porous organic cage compounds. The article concludes with a discussion of the experimental investigation of real adsorptive hydrogen storage tanks, the improvement in the thermal conductivity of storage beds, and new storage system concepts and designs.« less

  13. The Arrhenius Law and Storage of Food in a Freezer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leenson, I. A.

    1999-04-01

    This article contains a brief review of some "unconventional" applications of the Arrhenius law. One such example is proposed as a problem concerning the shelf-life of frozen food (Italian pizza) at temperatures ranging from 0 to -18 °C. The effective activation energy (180 kJ/mole) calculated from the information presented by the manufacturer implies that the most probable mechanism of pizza deterioration on storage is enzyme and microbial destruction.

  14. Efficient Heat Storage Materials: Metallic Composites Phase-Change Materials for High-Temperature Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    2011-11-21

    HEATS Project: MIT is developing efficient heat storage materials for use in solar and nuclear power plants. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun’s not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. MIT is designing nanostructured heat storage materials that can store a large amount of heat per unit mass and volume. To do this, MIT is using phase change materials, which absorb a large amount of latent heat to melt from solid to liquid. MIT’s heat storage materials are designed to melt at high temperatures and conduct heat well—this makes them efficient at storing and releasing heat and enhances the overall efficiency of the thermal storage and energy-generation process. MIT’s low-cost heat storage materials also have a long life cycle, which further enhances their efficiency.

  15. Changes in carotenoids during processing and storage of foods.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Amaya, D B

    1999-09-01

    Being highly unsaturated, carotenoids are susceptible to isomerization and oxidation during processing and storage of foods. Isomerization of trans-carotenoids to cis-carotenoids, promoted by contact with acids, heat treatment and exposure to light, diminishes the color and the vitamin A activity of carotenoids. The major cause of carotenoid loss, however, is enzymatic and non-enzymatic oxidation, which depends on the availability of oxygen and the carotenoid structure. It is stimulated by light, heat, some metals, enzymes and peroxides and is inhibited by antioxidants. Data on percentage losses of carotenoids during food processing and storage are somewhat conflicting, but carotenoid degradation is known to increase with the destruction of the food cellular structure, increase of surface area or porosity, length and severity of the processing conditions, storage time and temperature, transmission of light and permeability to O2 of the packaging. Contrary to lipid oxidation, for which the mechanism is well established, the oxidation of carotenoids is not well understood. It involves initially epoxidation, formation of apocarotenoids and hydroxylation. Subsequent fragmentations presumably result in a series of compounds of low molecular masses. Completely losing its color and biological activities, the carotenoids give rise to volatile compounds which contribute to the aroma/flavor, desirable in tea and wine and undesirable in dehydrated carrot. Processing can also influence the bioavailability of carotenoids, a topic that is currently of great interest.

  16. Research on medium and high temperature solar heat storage materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heine, D.; Jucker, J.; Koch, D.; Krahling, H.; Supper, W.

    1979-01-01

    Characteristics of solar heat storage materials, preliminary tests in which melting and solidification characteristics are tested, and service life and cycling tests are reported. Various aspects of corrosion are discussed as well as decision about ultimate selection of materials. A program for storage and evaluation of data is included.

  17. The study of importance of the storage method of the space foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Providing foods to space crew is the important requirements to support long term manned space exploration. Foods fill not only physiological requirements to sustain life, but psychological needs for refreshment and joy during the long and hard mission to extraterrestrial planets. In the space stay of the long term, the storage technology of the food is important. Surplus food and the establishment of a safe save method of the food are essential. However, in Moon and Mars base or spaceship, there are limited spaces. We need to think about how to use the storage food when we have the time of emergency. The fundamental composition of our recipe is unpolished rice, barley, soybean, sweat potato and green-yellow vegetables. Supplement food materials to fulfill the nutritional requirements we chose are loach, silkworm pupa, termite, snail, mud snail, bee, cassava and quinoa. The pupa of the silkworm becomes the important nourishment source as protein and lipid. The silk thread uses it as clothing and cosmetics and medical supplies. However, we can use the silk thread as food as protein. The silk thread is mad of sericin and fibroin. The sericin is used for cosmetics mainly, but can make sheet food by mixing it with rice flour. We can make Japanese rolled sushi with this product. In addition, we can make spring roll and gyoza and shao-mai. As for the fibroin which is the subject of the silk thread, is to extract it high pressure heat; of the protein can powder it, and can use it as food. Even if there is the silk thread in this way after having made it clothes once, we can do it to food again. We can reuse the cotton thread as carbohydrates equally, too. We can use the wood as carbohydrates, also. Based upon the foregoing, we use the pupa of the silkworm as protein and lipid, and the silk thread as protein, and the cotton thread and wood as carbohydrates. It is recommended as healthy meal balance; Protein: Lipid: Carbohydrate ratio equal 15We succeeded to develop joyful

  18. Chemical hydrogen storage material property guidelines for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semelsberger, Troy A.; Brooks, Kriston P.

    2015-04-01

    Chemical hydrogen storage is the sought after hydrogen storage media for automotive applications because of the expected low pressure operation (<20 atm), moderate temperature operation (<200 °C), system gravimetric capacities (>0.05 kg H2/kgsystem), and system volumetric capacities (>0.05 kg H2/Lsystem). Currently, the primary shortcomings of chemical hydrogen storage are regeneration efficiency, fuel cost and fuel phase (i.e., solid or slurry phase). Understanding the required material properties to meet the DOE Technical Targets for Onboard Hydrogen Storage Systems is a critical knowledge gap in the hydrogen storage research community. This study presents a set of fluid-phase chemical hydrogen storage material property guidelines for automotive applications meeting the 2017 DOE technical targets. Viable material properties were determined using a boiler-plate automotive system design. The fluid-phase chemical hydrogen storage media considered in this study were neat liquids, solutions, and non-settling homogeneous slurries. Material properties examined include kinetics, heats of reaction, fuel-cell impurities, gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen storage capacities, and regeneration efficiency. The material properties, although not exhaustive, are an essential first step in identifying viable chemical hydrogen storage material properties-and most important, their implications on system mass, system volume and system performance.

  19. Chemical hydrogen storage material property guidelines for automotive applications

    SciTech Connect

    Semelsberger, Troy; Brooks, Kriston P.

    2015-04-01

    Chemical hydrogen storage is the sought after hydrogen storage media for automotive applications because of the expected low pressure operation (<20 atm), moderate temperature operation (<200 C), system gravimetric capacities (>0.05 kg H2/kg system), and system volumetric capacities (>0.05 kg H2/L system). Currently, the primary shortcomings of chemical hydrogen storage are regeneration efficiency, fuel cost and fuel phase (i.e., solid or slurry phase). Understanding the required material properties to meet the DOE Technical Targets for Onboard Hydrogen Storage Systems is a critical knowledge gap in the hydrogen storage research community. This study presents a set of fluid-phase chemical hydrogen storage material property guidelines for automotive applications meeting the 2017 DOE technical targets. Viable material properties were determined using a boiler-plate automotive system design. The fluid phase chemical hydrogen storage media considered in this study were neat liquids, solutions, and non-settling homogeneous slurries. Material properties examined include kinetics, heats of reaction, fuel-cell impurities, gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen storage capacities, and regeneration efficiency. The material properties, although not exhaustive, are an essential first step in identifying viable chemical hydrogen storage material propertiesdand most important, their implications on system mass, system volume and system performance.

  20. Thermal Energy Storage in Phase Change Material.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    Graphs of the exnerimental results follow: tney are groupea in the tree categories: tube cross flow, ricked bed, and tube parallel flow. A. Tube Cross... Riordan , Michael, "Thermal Storage: A Rtsic Guile to the Ptate of the Art", Solar Age, Aril, 1978, P. 10. 5. Telkes, Maria, "Thermal Lner y Storage in

  1. Recommended Best Practices for the Characterization of Storage Properties of Hydrogen Storage Materials

    SciTech Connect

    2010-03-01

    This is a reference guide to common methodologies and protocols for measuring critical performance properties of advanced hydrogen storage materials. It helps users to communicate clearly the relevant performance properties of new materials as they are discovered and tested.

  2. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Phase Transformations in Hydrogen Storage Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ceder, Gerbrand; Marzari, Nicola

    2011-08-31

    The aim of this project is to develop and apply computational materials science tools to determine and predict critical properties of hydrogen storage materials. By better understanding the absorption/desorption mechanisms and characterizing their physical properties it is possible to explore and evaluate new directions for hydrogen storage materials. Particular emphasis is on the determination of the structure and thermodynamics of hydrogen storage materials, the investigation of microscopic mechanisms of hydrogen uptake and release in various materials and the role of catalysts in this process. As a team we have decided to focus on a single material, NaAlH{sub 4}, in order to fully be able to study the many aspects of hydrogen storage. We have focused on phase stability, mass transport and size-dependent reaction mechanisms in this material.

  3. DFT investigations of hydrogen storage materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gang

    Hydrogen serves as a promising new energy source having no pollution and abundant on earth. However the most difficult problem of applying hydrogen is to store it effectively and safely, which is smartly resolved by attempting to keep hydrogen in some metal hydrides to reach a high hydrogen density in a safe way. There are several promising metal hydrides, the thermodynamic and chemical properties of which are to be investigated in this dissertation. Sodium alanate (NaAlH4) is one of the promising metal hydrides with high hydrogen storage capacity around 7.4 wt. % and relatively low decomposition temperature of around 100 °C with proper catalyst. Sodium hydride is a product of the decomposition of NaAlH4 that may affect the dynamics of NaAlH4. The two materials with oxygen contamination such as OH- may influence the kinetics of the dehydriding/rehydriding processes. Thus the solid solubility of OH - groups (NaOH) in NaAlH4 and NaH is studied theoretically by DFT calculations. Magnesium boride [Mg(BH4)2] is has higher hydrogen capacity about 14.9 wt. % and the decomposition temparture of around 250 °C. However one flaw restraining its application is that some polyboron compounds like MgB12H12 preventing from further release of hydrogen. Adding some transition metals that form magnesium transition metal ternary borohydride [MgaTMb(BH4)c] may simply the decomposition process to release hydrogen with ternary borides (MgaTMbBc). The search for the probable ternary borides and the corresponding pseudo phase diagrams as well as the decomposition thermodynamics are performed using DFT calculations and GCLP method to present some possible candidates.

  4. Scientific Challenges in the Risk Assessment of Food Contact Materials.

    PubMed

    Muncke, Jane; Backhaus, Thomas; Geueke, Birgit; Maffini, Maricel V; Martin, Olwenn Viviane; Myers, John Peterson; Soto, Ana M; Trasande, Leonardo; Trier, Xenia; Scheringer, Martin

    2017-09-11

    Food contact articles (FCAs) are manufactured from food contact materials (FCMs) that include plastics, paper, metal, glass, and printing inks. Chemicals can migrate from FCAs into food during storage, processing, and transportation. Food contact materials' safety is evaluated using chemical risk assessment (RA). Several challenges to the RA of FCAs exist. We review regulatory requirements for RA of FCMs in the United States and Europe, identify gaps in RA, and highlight opportunities for improving the protection of public health. We intend to initiate a discussion in the wider scientific community to enhance the safety of food contact articles. Based on our evaluation of the evidence, we conclude that current regulations are insufficient for addressing chemical exposures from FCAs. RA currently focuses on monomers and additives used in the manufacture of products, but it does not cover all substances formed in the production processes. Several factors hamper effective RA for many FCMs, including a lack of information on chemical identity, inadequate assessment of hazardous properties, and missing exposure data. Companies make decisions about the safety of some food contact chemicals (FCCs) without review by public authorities. Some chemical migration limits cannot be enforced because analytical standards are unavailable. We think that exposures to hazardous substances migrating from FCAs require more attention. We recommend a) limiting the number and types of chemicals authorized for manufacture and b) developing novel approaches for assessing the safety of chemicals in FCAs, including unidentified chemicals that form during or after production. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP644.

  5. Experimental study of optical storage characteristics of photochromic material: pyrrylfulgide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Ming; Yao, Baoli; Chen, Yi; Han, Yong; Wang, Congmin; Wang, Yingli; Menke, Neimule; Chen, Guofu; Fan, Meigong

    2003-04-01

    Optical data storage is a frontier in the information science. Currently, there are mainly two kinds of storage materials, i.e., thermal-optic and photonic materials. The storage methods are divided into serial and parallel modes. In the market, the mature technique is CD-RW, which uses the thermal-optic material and serial method. The storage density of the CD-RW is restricted by the size of material particles, the conduction of heat, etc. Besides, the recording speed is seriously limited by the process of heating. Photonic materials and parallel method will be the trend in the optical data storage. Because it is based on the photon reaction on the molecule scale, the storage density and speed will be greatly increased. In this paper, a new kind of organic photochromic material -- pyrrylfulgide was studied. A parallel optical data storage system was established. Using the pyrrylfulgide/PMMA film as a recording medium, micro-images and binary digital information could be recorded, readout and erased in this parallel system. The recorded information on the film can be kept for at least 8 months in dark at room temperature. So far, the storage density is 3 x 107 bit/cm2.

  6. Effectiveness of antimicrobial food packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Cooksey, K

    2005-10-01

    Antimicrobial additives have been used successfully for many years as direct food additives. The literature provides evidence that some of these additives may be effective as indirect food additives incorporated into food packaging materials. Antimicrobial food packaging is directed toward the reduction of surface contamination of processed, prepared foods such as sliced meats and Frankfurter sausages (hot dogs). The use of such packaging materials is not meant to be a substitute for good sanitation practices, but it should enhance the safety of food as an additional hurdle for the growth of pathogenic and/or spoilage microorganisms. Studies have focused on establishing methods for coating low-density polyethylene film or barrier films with methyl cellulose as a carrier for nisin. These films have significantly reduced the presence of Listeria monocytogenes in solutions and in vacuum packaged hot dogs. Other research has focused on the use of chitosan to inhibit L. monocytogenes and chlorine dioxide sachets for the reduction of Salmonella on modified atmosphere-packaged fresh chicken breasts. Overall, antimicrobial packaging shows promise as an effective method for the inhibition of certain bacteria in foods, but barriers to their commercial implementation continue to exist.

  7. Hydrogen-rich boron-containing materials for hydrogen storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Kang, Xiang-Dong

    2008-10-28

    Hydrogen-rich boron-containing compounds have received extensive attention as potential hydrogen storage media for vehicular applications. The past years have seen significant progresses in material discovery, material composition/structure tailoring, catalyst identification and regeneration chemistry, which give rise to state-of-the-art hydrogen storage materials/technologies. Lithium tetrahydroborate-related materials exhibit the hitherto highest reversible hydrogen capacity via solid-gas reactions. Catalytic hydrolysis of sodium tetrahydroborate offers an on-demand hydrogen generation system for vehicular applications. Ammonia borane-related materials exhibit a satisfactory combination of material properties that are suited for on-board hydrogen sources, coupled with significant advances in spent fuels regeneration. This Perspective discusses the current progresses of these representative reversible or irreversible material systems, aiming at providing an outline of the forefront of hydrogen storage materials/technologies for transportation applications.

  8. Graphene and graphene-based materials for energy storage applications.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jixin; Yang, Dan; Yin, Zongyou; Yan, Qingyu; Zhang, Hua

    2014-09-10

    With the increased demand in energy resources, great efforts have been devoted to developing advanced energy storage and conversion systems. Graphene and graphene-based materials have attracted great attention owing to their unique properties of high mechanical flexibility, large surface area, chemical stability, superior electric and thermal conductivities that render them great choices as alternative electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage systems. This Review summarizes the recent progress in graphene and graphene-based materials for four energy storage systems, i.e., lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors, lithium-sulfur batteries and lithium-air batteries.

  9. Multi-component hydrogen storage material

    DOEpatents

    Faheem, Syed A.; Lewis, Gregory J.; Sachtler, J.W. Adriaan; Low, John J.; Lesch, David A.; Dosek, Paul M.; Wolverton, Christopher M.; Siegel, Donald J.; Sudik, Andrea C.; Yang, Jun

    2010-09-07

    A reversible hydrogen storage composition having an empirical formula of: Li.sub.(x+z)N.sub.xMg.sub.yB.sub.zH.sub.w where 0.4.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.8; 0.2.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.0.6; 0storage compared to binary systems such as MgH.sub.2--LiNH.sub.2.

  10. Fermentation of cellulosic materials to mycoprotein foods.

    PubMed

    Moo-Young, M; Chisti, Y; Vlach, D

    1993-01-01

    A new bioprocess is described in which a cellulolytic, food-grade fungus Neurospora sitophila converts cellulosic materials to protein-rich products for food and fodder. The optimal conditions for the conversion are identified: 35-37 degrees C temperature, pH 5.5, 2.35 ms(-1) agitator tip speed. Scale-up of the production process to 1,300 L is reported. The mycoprotein production data on several types of cellulosic materials (sugarcane bagasse, corn stover, wood cellulose) are presented. The performance of N. sitophila is found to compare favourably with that of Chaetomium cellulolyticum, another cellulolytic organism previously reported on by us.

  11. NORTH ELEVATION. HAZARDOUS MATERIAL STORAGE SHED IS VISIBLE AT THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH ELEVATION. HAZARDOUS MATERIAL STORAGE SHED IS VISIBLE AT THE FAR RIGHT. DOCKSIDE STORAGE SHED IS VISIBLE IN THE DISTANCE. LAKE WORTH INLET AND THE TOWN OF PALM BEACH ARE IN THE BACKGROUND. - U.S. Coast Guard Lake Worth Inlet Station, Boathouse, Peanut Island, Riviera Beach, Palm Beach County, FL

  12. Open Government, Closed Stacks: Onsite Storage of Depository Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Aimee C.; Haslam, Michaelyn

    1998-01-01

    Examines the use of automated storage and retrieval systems in industry and in libraries. Highlights include intellectual content; and a system being built for the University of Nevada Las Vegas that takes into account selection criteria, limited stack space, and storage of federal depository materials. (LRW)

  13. Materials for hydrogen storage: current research trends and perspectives.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Annemieke W C; Areán, Carlos Otero

    2008-02-14

    Storage and transport of hydrogen constitutes a key enabling technology for the advent of a hydrogen-based energy transition. Main research trends on hydrogen storage materials, including metal hydrides, porous adsorbents and hydrogen clathrates, are reviewed with a focus on recent developments and an appraisal of the challenges ahead. .

  14. Bases for extrapolating materials durability in fuel storage pools

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1994-12-01

    A major body of evidence indicates that zirconium alloys have the most consistent and reliable durability in wet storage, justifying projections of safe wet storage greater than 50 y. Aluminum alloys have the widest range of durabilities in wet storage; systematic control and monitoring of water chemistry have resulted in low corrosion rates for more than two decades on some fuels and components. However, cladding failures have occurred in a few months when important parameters were not controlled. Stainless steel is extremely durable when stress, metallurgical and water chemistry factors are controlled. LWR SS cladding has survived for 25 y in wet storage. However, sensitized, stressed SS fuels and components have seriously degraded in fuel storage pools (FSPs) at {approximately} 30 C. Satisfactory durability of fuel assembly and FSP component materials in extended wet storage requires investments in water quality management and surveillance, including chemical and biological factors. The key aspect of the study is to provide storage facility operators and other decision makers a basis to judge the durability of a given fuel type in wet storage as a prelude to basing other fuel management plans (e.g. dry storage) if wet storage will not be satisfactory through the expected period of interim storage.

  15. Optical Storage and Retrieval of Library Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folen, Doris R.; Stackpole, Laurie E.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the newly installed optical disk storage system at the Naval Research Laboratory's Research Library and Technical Information Center. Planning and design of the system, the conversion of 140,000 reports to optical disk, the information retrieval process, and future plans are covered. (Contains nine references.) (KRN)

  16. Wettability of denture relining materials under water storage over time

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Na-Young; Lee, Ho-Rim; Lee, Heesu

    2009-01-01

    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM Poor wettability of denture relining materials may lead to retention problems and patient discomfort. PURPOSE Purpose of this study is to compare and evaluate wettability of nine denture relining materials using contact angle measurements under air and water storage over time. MATERIAL AND METHODS Nine denture relining materials were investigated in this study. Two heat-curing polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) denture base materials: Vertex RS, Lang, one self-curing polyethyl-methacrylate (PEMA) chairside reline resin: Rebase II, six silicone relining materials: Mucopren soft, Mucosoft, Mollosil® plus, Sofreliner Touch, GC Reline™ Ultrasoft, Silagum automix comfort were used in this experiment. Contact angles were measured using high-resolution drop shape analysis system (DSA 10-MK2, KRUESS, Germany) under three conditions (in air after setting, 1 hour water storage, and 24 hours water storage). Nine materials were classified into three groups according to material composition (Group 1: PMMA, Group 2: PEMA, Group 3: Silicone). Mean values of contact angles were compared using independent samples t-test and one-way ANOVA, followed by a Scheffe's post hoc analysis (α= 0.01). RESULTS Contact angles of materials tested after air and water storage increased in the following order: Group 1 (PMMA), Group 2 (PEMA), Group 3 (Silicone). Heat-cured acrylic denture base resins had more wettability than silicone relining materials. Lang had the highest wettability after 24 hours of water storage. Silicone relining materials had lower wettability due to their hydrophobicity. Wettability of all denture relining materials, except Rebase II and Mollosil® plus, increased after 24 hours of water storage. CONCLUSIONS Conventional heat-cured resin showed the highest wettability, therefore, it can be suggested that heat-cured acrylic resin is material of choice for denture relining materials. PMID:21165247

  17. New perspectives on potential hydrogen storage materials using high pressure.

    PubMed

    Song, Yang

    2013-09-21

    In addressing the global demand for clean and renewable energy, hydrogen stands out as the most suitable candidate for many fuel applications that require practical and efficient storage of hydrogen. Supplementary to the traditional hydrogen storage methods and materials, the high-pressure technique has emerged as a novel and unique approach to developing new potential hydrogen storage materials. Static compression of materials may result in significant changes in the structures, properties and performance that are important for hydrogen storage applications, and often lead to the formation of unprecedented phases or complexes that have profound implications for hydrogen storage. In this perspective article, 22 types of representative potential hydrogen storage materials that belong to four major classes--simple hydride, complex hydride, chemical hydride and hydrogen containing materials--were reviewed. In particular, their structures, stabilities, and pressure-induced transformations, which were reported in recent experimental works together with supporting theoretical studies, were provided. The important contextual aspects pertinent to hydrogen storage associated with novel structures and transitions were discussed. Finally, the summary of the recent advances reviewed and the insight into the future research in this direction were given.

  18. SOUTH ELEVATION. THE DWELLING, FLAG TOWER, AND HAZARDOUS MATERIAL STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH ELEVATION. THE DWELLING, FLAG TOWER, AND HAZARDOUS MATERIAL STORAGE SHED ARE VISIBLE IN THE BACKGROUND. - U.S. Coast Guard Lake Worth Inlet Station, Boathouse, Peanut Island, Riviera Beach, Palm Beach County, FL

  19. East yard, looking east at material storage rack (right), and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East yard, looking east at material storage rack (right), and east yard office at left background. - Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, Thurmond Yards, East side New River, mouths of Arbuckle & Dunlop Circles, Thurmond, Fayette County, WV

  20. Military Standard: Sanitation Standards for Food Storage Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-31

    act or process of exposing the product to an adulterant or unwholesome material, live or dead insects, rodent feces, or rodent hairs . 3.5 Critical...3 3. DEFINITIONS------------------------------------- 4 3.1 Adequate-------------------------------... 4 3.2 Adulterated ... Adulterated . Adulterated shall mean the condition of a food (a) if it bears or contains any poisonous or deleterious substance in a quantity which may

  1. 108. View showing storage yard where material is received and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    108. View showing storage yard where material is received and sorted: also shows derrick framed to raise material from tracks and land on deck of approach. Material is then moved by narrow gage locomotive out to erection traveler. - Carquinez Bridge, Spanning Carquinez Strait at Interstate 80, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  2. Food Processing Curriculum Material and Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge.

    Intended for secondary vocational agriculture teachers, this curriculum guide contains a course outline and a resource manual for a seven-unit food processing course on meats. Within the course outline, units are divided into separate lessons. Materials provided for each lesson include preparation for instruction (student objectives, review of…

  3. 7 CFR 250.52 - Storage and inventory management of donated foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION DONATION OF... Donated Foods in Contracts With Food Service Management Companies § 250.52 Storage and inventory management of donated foods. (a) General requirements. The food service management company must meet...

  4. Polyaniline as a material for hydrogen storage applications.

    PubMed

    Attia, Nour F; Geckeler, Kurt E

    2013-07-12

    The main challenge of commercialization of the hydrogen economy is the lack of convenient and safe hydrogen storage materials, which can adsorb and release a significant amount of hydrogen at ambient conditions. Finding and designing suitable cost-effective materials are vital requirements to overcome the drawbacks of investigated materials. Because of its outstanding electronic, thermal, and chemical properties, the electrically conducting polyaniline (PANI) has a high potential in hydrogen storage applications. In this review, the progress in the use of different structures of conducting PANI, its nanocomposites as well as activated porous materials based on PANI as hydrogen storage materials is presented and discussed. The effect of the unique electronic properties based on the π-electron system in the backbone of these materials in view of the hydrogen uptake and the relevant mechanisms are highlighted. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Electron Charged Graphite-based Hydrogen Storage Material

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Chinbay Q. Fan R&D Manager Office of Technology and Innovations Phone: 847 768 0812

    2012-03-14

    The electron-charge effects have been demonstrated to enhance hydrogen storage capacity using materials which have inherent hydrogen storage capacities. A charge control agent (CCA) or a charge transfer agent (CTA) was applied to the hydrogen storage material to reduce internal discharge between particles in a Sievert volumetric test device. GTI has tested the device under (1) electrostatic charge mode; (2) ultra-capacitor mode; and (3) metal-hydride mode. GTI has also analyzed the charge distribution on storage materials. The charge control agent and charge transfer agent are needed to prevent internal charge leaks so that the hydrogen atoms can stay on the storage material. GTI has analyzed the hydrogen fueling tank structure, which contains an air or liquid heat exchange framework. The cooling structure is needed for hydrogen fueling/releasing. We found that the cooling structure could be used as electron-charged electrodes, which will exhibit a very uniform charge distribution (because the cooling system needs to remove heat uniformly). Therefore, the electron-charge concept does not have any burden of cost and weight for the hydrogen storage tank system. The energy consumption for the electron-charge enhancement method is quite low or omitted for electrostatic mode and ultra-capacitor mode in comparison of other hydrogen storage methods; however, it could be high for the battery mode.

  6. Assessment of antimicrobial effects of food contact materials containing silver on growth of Salmonella Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Williams, Katherine; Valencia, Luis; Gokulan, Kuppan; Trbojevich, Raul; Khare, Sangeeta

    2017-02-01

    Food contact materials containing antibacterial properties are progressively appearing in the market. Items intended to provide antimicrobial effects such as increased shelf life and food safety are incorporating silver materials during the manufacture of such products. This study examined the total silver content, release capacity, and antibacterial activity of three different silver-containing food contact materials: plastic food storage containers, a plastic cutting board, and food wrapping paper. Silver content and release were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, and the results showed that, although the amount of silver in each product was similar, migration varied considerably with kind of material and simulant choice. Antimicrobial effect was tested by measuring the growth of Salmonella Typhimurium during or after exposure to the different food contact materials. The results showed that the food storage containers and wrapping paper delayed the growth of S. Typhimurium under certain conditions, but that these effects were short-lived. The strain of S. Typhimurium used in this study was found to be negative for the presence of tested silver resistance genes. The results of this study suggest that a thorough investigation should be required to show/claim the efficacy of silver-containing food contact materials for food safety purposes.

  7. Phase Change Material Systems for High Temperature Heat Storage.

    PubMed

    Perraudin, David Y S; Binder, Selmar R; Rezaei, Ehsan; Ortonaa, Alberto; Haussener, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Efficient, cost effective, and stable high-temperature heat storage material systems are important in applications such as high-temperature industrial processes (metal processing, cement and glass manufacturing, etc.), or electricity storage using advanced adiabatic compressed air energy storage. Incorporating phase change media into heat storage systems provides an advantage of storing and releasing heat at nearly constant temperature, allowing steady and optimized operation of the downstream processes. The choice of, and compatibility of materials and encapsulation for the phase change section is crucial, as these must guarantee good and stable performance and long lifetime at low cost. Detailed knowledge of the material properties and stability, and the coupled heat transfer, phase change, and fluid flow are required to allow for performance and lifetime predictions. We present coupled experimental-numerical techniques allowing prediction of the long-term performance of a phase change material-based high-temperature heat storage system. The experimental investigations focus on determination of material properties (melting temperature, heat of fusion, etc.) and phase change material and encapsulation interaction (stability, interface reactions, etc.). The computational investigations focus on an understanding of the multi-mode heat transfer, fluid flow, and phase change processes in order to design the material system for enhanced performance. The importance of both the experimental and numerical approaches is highlighted and we give an example of how both approaches can be complementarily used for the investigation of long-term performance.

  8. Food safety concerns deriving from the use of silver based food packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Pezzuto, Alessandra; Losasso, Carmen; Mancin, Marzia; Gallocchio, Federica; Piovesana, Alessia; Binato, Giovanni; Gallina, Albino; Marangon, Alberto; Mioni, Renzo; Favretti, Michela; Ricci, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    The formulation of innovative packaging solutions, exerting a functional antimicrobial role in slowing down food spoilage, is expected to have a significant impact on the food industry, allowing both the maintenance of food safety criteria for longer periods and the reduction of food waste. Different materials are considered able to exert the required antimicrobial activity, among which are materials containing silver. However, challenges exist in the application of silver to food contact materials due to knowledge gaps in the production of ingredients, stability of delivery systems in food matrices and health risks caused by the same properties which also offer the benefits. Aims of the present study were to test the effectiveness and suitability of two packaging systems, one of which contained silver, for packaging and storing Stracchino cheese, a typical Italian fresh cheese, and to investigate if there was any potential for consumers to be exposed to silver, via migration from the packaging to the cheese. Results did not show any significant difference in the effectiveness of the packaging systems on packaged Stracchino cheese, excluding that the active packaging systems exerted an inhibitory effect on the growth of spoilage microorganisms. Moreover, silver migrated into the cheese matrix throughout the storage time (24 days). Silver levels in cheese finally exceeded the maximum established level for the migration of a non-authorised substance through a functional barrier (Commission of the European Communities, 2009). This result poses safety concerns and strongly suggests the need for more research aimed at better characterizing the new packaging materials in terms of their potential impacts on human health and the environment.

  9. Food safety concerns deriving from the use of silver based food packaging materials

    PubMed Central

    Pezzuto, Alessandra; Losasso, Carmen; Mancin, Marzia; Gallocchio, Federica; Piovesana, Alessia; Binato, Giovanni; Gallina, Albino; Marangon, Alberto; Mioni, Renzo; Favretti, Michela; Ricci, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    The formulation of innovative packaging solutions, exerting a functional antimicrobial role in slowing down food spoilage, is expected to have a significant impact on the food industry, allowing both the maintenance of food safety criteria for longer periods and the reduction of food waste. Different materials are considered able to exert the required antimicrobial activity, among which are materials containing silver. However, challenges exist in the application of silver to food contact materials due to knowledge gaps in the production of ingredients, stability of delivery systems in food matrices and health risks caused by the same properties which also offer the benefits. Aims of the present study were to test the effectiveness and suitability of two packaging systems, one of which contained silver, for packaging and storing Stracchino cheese, a typical Italian fresh cheese, and to investigate if there was any potential for consumers to be exposed to silver, via migration from the packaging to the cheese. Results did not show any significant difference in the effectiveness of the packaging systems on packaged Stracchino cheese, excluding that the active packaging systems exerted an inhibitory effect on the growth of spoilage microorganisms. Moreover, silver migrated into the cheese matrix throughout the storage time (24 days). Silver levels in cheese finally exceeded the maximum established level for the migration of a non-authorised substance through a functional barrier (Commission of the European Communities, 2009). This result poses safety concerns and strongly suggests the need for more research aimed at better characterizing the new packaging materials in terms of their potential impacts on human health and the environment. PMID:26500642

  10. 2S Albumin Storage Proteins: What Makes them Food Allergens?

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, F. Javier; Clemente, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    2S albumin storage proteins are becoming of increasing interest in nutritional and clinical studies as they have been reported as major food allergens in seeds of many mono- and di-cotyledonous plants. This review describes the main biochemical, structural and functional properties of these proteins thought to play a role in determining their potential allergenicity. 2S albumins are considered to sensitize directly via the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The high stability of their intrinsic protein structure, dominated by a well-conserved skeleton of cysteine residues, to the harsh conditions present in the GIT suggests that these proteins are able to cross the gut mucosal barrier to sensitize the mucosal immune system and/or elicit an allergic response. The flexible and solvent-exposed hypervariable region of these proteins is immunodominant and has the ability to bind IgE from allergic patients´ sera. Several linear IgE-binding epitopes of 2S albumins spanning this region have been described to play a major role in allergenicity; the role of conformational epitopes of these proteins in food allergy is far from being understood and need to be investigated. Finally, the interaction of these proteins with other components of the food matrix might influence the absorption rates of immunologically reactive 2S albumins but also in their immune response. PMID:18949071

  11. DOE nuclear material packaging manual: storage container requirements for plutonium oxide materials

    SciTech Connect

    Veirs, D Kirk

    2009-01-01

    Loss of containment of nuclear material stored in containers such as food-pack cans, paint cans, or taped slip lid cans has generated concern about packaging requirements for interim storage of nuclear materials in working facilities such as the plutonium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In response, DOE has recently issued DOE M 441.1 'Nuclear Material Packaging Manual' with encouragement from the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. A unique feature compared to transportation containers is the allowance of filters to vent flammable gases during storage. Defining commonly used concepts such as maximum allowable working pressure and He leak rate criteria become problematic when considering vented containers. Los Alamos has developed a set of container requirements that are in compliance with 441.1 based upon the activity of heat-source plutonium (90% Pu-238) oxide, which bounds the requirements for weapons-grade plutonium oxide. The pre and post drop-test He leak rates depend upon container size as well as the material contents. For containers that are routinely handled, ease of handling and weight are a major consideration. Relatively thin-walled containers with flat bottoms are desired yet they cannot be He leak tested at a differential pressure of one atmosphere due to the potential for plastic deformation of the flat bottom during testing. The He leak rates and He leak testing configuration for containers designed for plutonium bearing materials will be presented. The approach to meeting the other manual requirements such as corrosion and thermal degradation resistance will be addressed. The information presented can be used by other sites to evaluate if their conditions are bounded by LANL requirements when considering procurement of 441.1 compliant containers.

  12. SRS K-AREA MATERIAL STORAGE - EXPANDING CAPABILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, R.

    2013-07-02

    In support of the Department of Energy’s continued plans to de-inventory and reduce the footprint of Cold War era weapons’ material production sites, the K-Area Material Storage (KAMS) facility, located in the K-Area Complex (KAC) at the Savannah River Site reservation, has expanded since its startup authorization in 2000 to accommodate DOE’s material consolidation mission. During the facility’s growth and expansion, KAMS will have expanded its authorization capability of material types and storage containers to allow up to 8200 total shipping containers once the current expansion effort completes in 2014. Recognizing the need to safely and cost effectively manage other surplus material across the DOE Complex, KAC is constantly evaluating the storage of different material types within K area. When modifying storage areas in KAC, the Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) must undergo extensive calculations and reviews; however, without an extensive and proven security posture the possibility for expansion would not be possible. The KAC maintains the strictest adherence to safety and security requirements for all the SNM it handles. Disciplined Conduct of Operations and Conduct of Projects are demonstrated throughout this historical overview highlighting various improvements in capability, capacity, demonstrated cost effectiveness and utilization of the KAC as the DOE Center of Excellence for safe and secure storage of surplus SNM.

  13. PFP Commercial Grade Food Pack Cans for Plutonium Handling and Storage Critical Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    BONADIE, E.P.

    2000-08-22

    This screening addresses the critical characteristics for food industry type cans and containers used for handling and storage of special nuclear materials at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). HNF-5460, Revision 0 specified a minimum tin plate of 0.50 Ib./base box. Since the food pack cans currently used and that have been tested have a listed tin plate of 0.20 lbs. per base box, Revision 1 reduced the tin plate to {ge} 0.20 Ib./base box (i.e., No. 20 tinned commercial steel or heavier). This revision lists Critical Characteristics for two (2) large filtered containers, and associated shielding over-packs. These new containers are called ''Nuclear Material Containers'' (NMCs). They are supplied in various sizes, which can be nested, one inside another. The PFP will use NMCs with volumes up to 8-quarts as needed to over-pack largely bulged containers.

  14. Biomimetic materials for protein storage and transport

    DOEpatents

    Firestone, Millicent A [Elmhurst, IL; Laible, Philip D [Villa Park, IL

    2012-05-01

    The invention provides a method for the insertion of protein in storage vehicles and the recovery of the proteins from the vehicles, the method comprising supplying isolated protein; mixing the isolated protein with a fluid so as to form a mixture, the fluid comprising saturated phospholipids, lipopolymers, and a surfactant; cycling the mixture between a first temperature and a second temperature; maintaining the mixture as a solid for an indefinite period of time; diluting the mixture in detergent buffer so as to disrupt the composition of the mixture, and diluting to disrupt the fluid in its low viscosity state for removal of the guest molecules by, for example, dialysis, filtering or chromatography dialyzing/filtering the emulsified solid.

  15. A single-component liquid-phase hydrogen storage material.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wei; Campbell, Patrick G; Zakharov, Lev N; Liu, Shih-Yuan

    2011-12-07

    The current state-of-the-art for hydrogen storage is compressed H(2) at 700 bar. The development of a liquid-phase hydrogen storage material has the potential to take advantage of the existing liquid-based distribution infrastructure. We describe a liquid-phase hydrogen storage material that is a liquid under ambient conditions (i.e., at 20 °C and 1 atm pressure), air- and moisture-stable, and recyclable; releases H(2) controllably and cleanly at temperatures below or at the proton exchange membrane fuel cell waste-heat temperature of 80 °C; utilizes catalysts that are cheap and abundant for H(2) desorption; features reasonable gravimetric and volumetric storage capacity; and does not undergo a phase change upon H(2) desorption. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  16. PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS IN FLOOR TILES FOR THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas C. Hittle

    2002-10-01

    Passive solar systems integrated into residential structures significantly reduce heating energy consumption. Taking advantage of latent heat storage has further increased energy savings. This is accomplished by the incorporation of phase change materials into building materials used in passive applications. Trombe walls, ceilings and floors can all be enhanced with phase change materials. Increasing the thermal storage of floor tile by the addition of encapsulated paraffin wax is the proposed topic of research. Latent heat storage of a phase change material (PCM) is obtained during a change in phase. Typical materials use the latent heat released when the material changes from a liquid to a solid. Paraffin wax and salt hydrates are examples of such materials. Other PCMs that have been recently investigated undergo a phase transition from one solid form to another. During this process they will release heat. These are known as solid-state phase change materials. All have large latent heats, which makes them ideal for passive solar applications. Easy incorporation into various building materials is must for these materials. This proposal will address the advantages and disadvantages of using these materials in floor tile. Prototype tile will be made from a mixture of quartz, binder and phase change material. The thermal and structural properties of the prototype tiles will be tested fully. It is expected that with the addition of the phase change material the structural properties will be compromised to some extent. The ratio of phase change material in the tile will have to be varied to determine the best mixture to provide significant thermal storage, while maintaining structural properties that meet the industry standards for floor tile.

  17. Method of encapsulating solid radioactive waste material for storage

    DOEpatents

    Bunnell, Lee Roy; Bates, J. Lambert

    1976-01-01

    High-level radioactive wastes are encapsulated in vitreous carbon for long-term storage by mixing the wastes as finely divided solids with a suitable resin, formed into an appropriate shape and cured. The cured resin is carbonized by heating under a vacuum to form vitreous carbon. The vitreous carbon shapes may be further protected for storage by encasement in a canister containing a low melting temperature matrix material such as aluminum to increase impact resistance and improve heat dissipation.

  18. Nanostructured polymeric materials for hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Di-Jia

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a new class of hydrogen storage adsorbent, nanostructured porous organic polymers (POPs), through collaboration between Argonne National Laboratory and The University of Chicago. POPs have excellent thermal stability and tolerance to gas contaminants such as moisture. They also have low skeleton density and high intrinsic porosity via covalent bonds, capable of maintaining specific surface area (SSA) during high pressure pelletizing for better volumetric density. Furthermore, they can be produced at a commercial scale with the existing industrial infrastructure. The team’s approach focused on improving hydrogen uptake capacity and the heat of adsorption by enhancing SSA, porosity control, and framework-adsorbate interactions through rational design and synthesis at the molecular level. The design principles aim at improving the following attributes of the polymers: (a) high SSA to provide sufficient interface with H2; (b) narrow pore diameter to enhance van der Waals interactions in the confined space; and (c) “metallic” features, either through π- conjugation or metal doping, to promote electronic orbital interactions with hydrogen.

  19. Carbon Materials for Chemical Capacitive Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai, Yunpu; Dou, Yuqian; Zhao, Dongyuan; Fulvio, Pasquale F.; Mayes, Richard T.; Dai, Sheng

    2011-09-26

    Carbon materials have attracted intense interests as electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors, because of their high surface area, electrical conductivity, chemical stability and low cost. Activated carbons produced by different activation processes from various precursors are the most widely used electrodes. Recently, with the rapid growth of nanotechnology, nanostructured electrode materials, such as carbon nanotubes and template-synthesized porous carbons have been developed. Their unique electrical properties and well controlled pore sizes and structures facilitate fast ion and electron transportation. In order to further improve the power and energy densities of the capacitors, carbon-based composites combining electrical double layer capacitors (EDLC)-capacitance and pseudo-capacitance have been explored. They show not only enhanced capacitance, but as well good cyclability. In this review, recent progresses on carbon-based electrode materials are summarized, including activated carbons, carbon nanotubes, and template-synthesized porous carbons, in particular mesoporous carbons. Their advantages and disadvantages as electrochemical capacitors are discussed. At the end of this review, the future trends of electrochemical capacitors with high energy and power are proposed.

  20. Carbon materials for chemical capacitive energy storage.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yunpu; Dou, Yuqian; Zhao, Dongyuan; Fulvio, Pasquale F; Mayes, Richard T; Dai, Sheng

    2011-11-09

    Carbon materials have attracted intense interests as electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors, because of their high surface area, electrical conductivity, chemical stability and low cost. Activated carbons produced by different activation processes from various precursors are the most widely used electrodes. Recently, with the rapid growth of nanotechnology, nanostructured electrode materials, such as carbon nanotubes and template-synthesized porous carbons have been developed. Their unique electrical properties and well controlled pore sizes and structures facilitate fast ion and electron transportation. In order to further improve the power and energy densities of the capacitors, carbon-based composites combining electrical double layer capacitors (EDLC)-capacitance and pseudo-capacitance have been explored. They show not only enhanced capacitance, but as well good cyclability. In this review, recent progresses on carbon-based electrode materials are summarized, including activated carbons, carbon nanotubes, and template-synthesized porous carbons, in particular mesoporous carbons. Their advantages and disadvantages as electrochemical capacitors are discussed. At the end of this review, the future trends of electrochemical capacitors with high energy and power are proposed. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Predicting New Materials for Hydrogen Storage Application

    PubMed Central

    Vajeeston, Ponniah; Ravindran, Ponniah; Fjellvåg, Helmer

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge about the ground-state crystal structure is a prerequisite for the rational understanding of solid-state properties of new materials. To act as an efficient energy carrier, hydrogen should be absorbed and desorbed in materials easily and in high quantities. Owing to the complexity in structural arrangements and difficulties involved in establishing hydrogen positions by x-ray diffraction methods, the structural information of hydrides are very limited compared to other classes of materials (like oxides, intermetallics, etc.). This can be overcome by conducting computational simulations combined with selected experimental study which can save environment, money, and man power. The predicting capability of first-principles density functional theory (DFT) is already well recognized and in many cases structural and thermodynamic properties of single/multi component system are predicted. This review will focus on possible new classes of materials those have high hydrogen content, demonstrate the ability of DFT to predict crystal structure, and search for potential meta-stable phases. Stabilization of such meta-stable phases is also discussed.

  2. Magnetic Resonance Studies of Energy Storage Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez Reina, Rafael

    In today's society there is high demand to have access to energy for portable devices in different forms. Capacitors with high performance in small package to achieve high charge/discharge rates, and batteries with their ability to store electricity and make energy mobile are part of this demand. The types of internal dielectric material strongly affect the characteristics of a capacitor, and its applications. In a battery, the choice of the electrolyte plays an important role in the Solid Electrolyte Interphase (SEI) formation, and the cathode material for high output voltage. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy are research techniques that exploit the magnetic properties of the electron and certain atomic nuclei to determine physical and chemical properties of the atoms or molecules in which they are contained. Both EPR and NMR spectroscopy technique can yield meaningful structural and dynamic information. Three different projects are discussed in this dissertation. First, High energy density capacitors where EPR measurements described herein provide an insight into structural and chemical differences in the dielectric material of a capacitor. Next, as the second project, Electrolyte solutions where an oxygen-17 NMR study has been employed to assess the degree of preferential solvation of Li+ ions in binary mixtures of EC (ethylene carbonate) and DMC (dimethyl carbonate) containing LiPF6 (lithium hexafluo-rophosphate) which may be ultimately related to the SEI formation mechanism. The third project was to study Bismuth fluoride as cathode material for rechargeable batteries. The objective was to study 19F and 7Li MAS NMR of some nanocomposite cathode materials as a conversion reaction occurring during lithiation and delithation of the BiF3/C nanocomposite.

  3. Hydrogen storage in nanoporous carbon materials: myth and facts.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Piotr; Hołyst, Robert; Terrones, Mauricio; Terrones, Humberto

    2007-04-21

    We used Grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation to model the hydrogen storage in the primitive, gyroid, diamond, and quasi-periodic icosahedral nanoporous carbon materials and in carbon nanotubes. We found that none of the investigated nanoporous carbon materials satisfy the US Department of Energy goal of volumetric density and mass storage for automotive application (6 wt% and 45 kg H(2) m(-3)) at considered storage condition. Our calculations indicate that quasi-periodic icosahedral nanoporous carbon material can reach the 6 wt% at 3.8 MPa and 77 K, but the volumetric density does not exceed 24 kg H(2) m(-3). The bundle of single-walled carbon nanotubes can store only up to 4.5 wt%, but with high volumetric density of 42 kg H(2) m(-3). All investigated nanoporous carbon materials are not effective against compression above 20 MPa at 77 K because the adsorbed density approaches the density of the bulk fluid. It follows from this work that geometry of carbon surfaces can enhance the storage capacity only to a limited extent. Only a combination of the most effective structure with appropriate additives (metals) can provide an efficient storage medium for hydrogen in the quest for a source of "clean" energy.

  4. The rise of organic electrode materials for energy storage.

    PubMed

    Schon, Tyler B; McAllister, Bryony T; Li, Peng-Fei; Seferos, Dwight S

    2016-11-07

    Organic electrode materials are very attractive for electrochemical energy storage devices because they can be flexible, lightweight, low cost, benign to the environment, and used in a variety of device architectures. They are not mere alternatives to more traditional energy storage materials, rather, they have the potential to lead to disruptive technologies. Although organic electrode materials for energy storage have progressed in recent years, there are still significant challenges to overcome before reaching large-scale commercialization. This review provides an overview of energy storage systems as a whole, the metrics that are used to quantify the performance of electrodes, recent strategies that have been investigated to overcome the challenges associated with organic electrode materials, and the use of computational chemistry to design and study new materials and their properties. Design strategies are examined to overcome issues with capacity/capacitance, device voltage, rate capability, and cycling stability in order to guide future work in the area. The use of low cost materials is highlighted as a direction towards commercial realization.

  5. Automation in a material processing/storage facility

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, K.; Gordon, J.

    1997-05-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently developing a new facility, the Actinide Packaging and Storage Facility (APSF), to process and store legacy materials from the United States nuclear stockpile. A variety of materials, with a variety of properties, packaging and handling/storage requirements, will be processed and stored at the facility. Since these materials are hazardous and radioactive, automation will be used to minimize worker exposure. Other benefits derived from automation of the facility include increased throughput capacity and enhanced security. The diversity of materials and packaging geometries to be handled poses challenges to the automation of facility processes. In addition, the nature of the materials to be processed underscores the need for safety, reliability and serviceability. The application of automation in this facility must, therefore, be accomplished in a rational and disciplined manner to satisfy the strict operational requirements of the facility. Among the functions to be automated are the transport of containers between process and storage areas via an Automatic Guided Vehicle (AGV), and various processes in the Shipping Package Unpackaging (SPU) area, the Accountability Measurements (AM) area, the Special Isotope Storage (SIS) vault and the Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) vault. Other areas of the facility are also being automated, but are outside the scope of this paper.

  6. Nanoporous Materials for the Onboard Storage of Natural Gas.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K Vasanth; Preuss, Kathrin; Titirici, Maria-Magdalena; Rodríguez-Reinoso, Francisco

    2017-02-08

    Climate change, global warming, urban air pollution, energy supply uncertainty and depletion, and rising costs of conventional energy sources are, among others, potential socioeconomic threats that our community faces today. Transportation is one of the primary sectors contributing to oil consumption and global warming, and natural gas (NG) is considered to be a relatively clean transportation fuel that can significantly improve local air quality, reduce greenhouse-gas emissions, and decrease the energy dependency on oil sources. Internal combustion engines (ignited or compression) require only slight modifications for use with natural gas; rather, the main problem is the relatively short driving distance of natural-gas-powered vehicles due to the lack of an appropriate storage method for the gas, which has a low energy density. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has set some targets for NG storage capacity to obtain a reasonable driving range in automotive applications, ruling out the option of storing methane at cryogenic temperatures. In recent years, both academia and industry have foreseen the storage of natural gas by adsorption (ANG) in porous materials, at relatively low pressures and ambient temperatures, as a solution to this difficult problem. This review presents recent developments in the search for novel porous materials with high methane storage capacities. Within this scenario, both carbon-based materials and metal-organic frameworks are considered to be the most promising materials for natural gas storage, as they exhibit properties such as large surface areas and micropore volumes, that favor a high adsorption capacity for natural gas. Recent advancements, technological issues, advantages, and drawbacks involved in natural gas storage in these two classes of materials are also summarized. Further, an overview of the recent developments and technical challenges in storing natural gas as hydrates in wetted porous carbon materials is also included

  7. 7 CFR 250.59 - Storage and inventory management of donated foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Storage and inventory management of donated foods. 250... National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and Other Child Nutrition Programs § 250.59 Storage and inventory management of donated foods. (a) General requirements. Distributing agencies, subdistributing agencies,...

  8. Satellite thermal storage systems using metallic phase-change materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.; Hamby, C.

    1989-01-01

    Solar (thermal) dynamic power systems for satellites require a heat storage system capable of operating the engine during eclipse. This paper describes a system in which the phase-change material (PCM) is a metal rather than the more conventional fluoride salts. Thermal storage modules consisting of germanium contained in graphite have good thermal conductivity, low parasitic mass, and are physically and chemically stable. We describe the result of thermal cycle testing of graphite capsules containing germanium and several germanium- and silicon-based alloys, as well as some initial tests of the compatibility of graphite with Nb-1%Zr structural materials. 7 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Density functional theory for hydrogen storage materials: successes and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hector, L. G., Jr.; Herbst, J. F.

    2008-02-01

    Solid state systems for hydrogen storage continue to be the focus of considerable international research, driven to a large extent by technological demands, especially for mobile applications. Density functional theory (DFT) has become a valuable tool in this effort. It has greatly expanded our understanding of the properties of known hydrides, including electronic structure, hydrogen bonding character, enthalpy of formation, elastic behavior, and vibrational energetics. Moreover, DFT holds substantial promise for guiding the discovery of new materials. In this paper we discuss, within the context of results from our own work, some successes and a few shortcomings of state-of-the-art DFT as applied to hydrogen storage materials.

  10. Mesoporous materials for energy conversion and storage devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Liu, Jun; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2016-06-01

    To meet the growing energy demands in a low-carbon economy, the development of new materials that improve the efficiency of energy conversion and storage systems is essential. Mesoporous materials offer opportunities in energy conversion and storage applications owing to their extraordinarily high surface areas and large pore volumes. These properties may improve the performance of materials in terms of energy and power density, lifetime and stability. In this Review, we summarize the primary methods for preparing mesoporous materials and discuss their applications as electrodes and/or catalysts in solar cells, solar fuel production, rechargeable batteries, supercapacitors and fuel cells. Finally, we outline the research and development challenges of mesoporous materials that need to be overcome to increase their contribution in renewable energy applications.

  11. Combustion Synthesis of Energy Storage Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eagle, W. Ethan; Wooldridge, Margaret

    2012-10-01

    Advancement in the understanding of state of charge and efficiency requires better coupling of battery level properties with the micro-structure of the constituents. The composition of the target synthesis material, lithium manganese oxide (Li Mn2O4, or LMO for short) is known to impact lithium ion battery properties. Following this motivation, our aim is to demonstrate control over the microstructure and compositional properties of LMO using parameters of the combustion synthesis environment. In this experiment, one or both solid phase precursors, lithium acetate-hydrate and manganse acetate-hydrate, were aerosolized and delivered to a hydrogen-oxygen Henken burner at atmospheric pressure. The characteristic time scales for reaction and flow control the synthesis process. Controlling reactant concentrations targets changes in nanoparticle composition and flow rate controls residence times and synthesis temperatures. To explore the effects of composition, first lithium oxide (Li2O) and manganese oxide (Mn2O2) powders are generated independently from the corresponding acetate precursors. Following that, several mixtures of lithium and manganese acetate precursor trials were conducted and the resulting material properties were investigated using TEM and XRD.

  12. Computational Discovery of Novel Hydrogen Storage Materials and Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolverton, Christopher

    2009-03-01

    Practical hydrogen storage for mobile applications requires materials that exhibit high hydrogen densities, low decomposition temperatures, and fast kinetics for absorption and desorption. Unfortunately, no reversible materials are currently known that possess all of these attributes. Here we present an overview of our recent efforts aimed at developing a first-principles computational approach to the discovery of novel hydrogen storage materials. We have developed computational tools which enable accurate prediction of decomposition thermodynamics, crystal structures for unknown hydrides, and thermodynamically preferred decomposition pathways. We present examples that illustrate each of these three capabilities. Specifically, we focus on recent work on crystal structure and dehydriding reactions of borohydride materials, such as Mg(BH4)2, MgB12H12, and mixtures of complex hydrides such as the ternary LiBH4/LiNH2/MgH2 system.References:[0pt] (1) V. Ozolins, E. H. Majzoub, and C. Wolverton, ``First-Principles Prediction of a Ground State Crystal Structure of Magnesium Borohydride'', Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 135501 (2008).(2) C. Wolverton, D. J. Siegel, A. R. Akbarzadeh, and V. Ozolins, ``Discovery of Novel Hydrogen Storage Materials: An Atomic Scale Computational Approach'', J. Phys. Condens. Matt. 20, 064228 (2008).(3) J. Yang, et al., ``A Self-Catalyzing Hydrogen Storage Material'' Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 47, 882 (2008).(4) A. R. Akbarzadeh, V. Ozolins, and C. Wolverton, ``First-Principles Determination of Multicomponent Hydride Phase Diagrams: Application to the Li-Mg-N-H System'', Advanced Materials 19, 3233 (2007).(5) D. J. Siegel, C. Wolverton, and V. Ozolins, ``Thermodynamic Guidelines for the Prediction of Hydrogen Storage Reactions and their Application to Destabilized Hydride Mixtures'', Phys. Rev. B 76, 134102 (2007).

  13. PNNL Development and Analysis of Material-Based Hydrogen Storage Systems for the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Pires, Richard P.; Ronnebro, Ewa; Simmons, Kevin L.; Weimar, Mark R.; Westman, Matthew P.

    2016-02-29

    The Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence is a team of universities, industrial corporations, and federal laboratories with the mandate to develop lower-pressure, materials-based, hydrogen storage systems for hydrogen fuel cell light-duty vehicles. Although not engaged in the development of new hydrogen storage materials themselves, it is an engineering center that addresses engineering challenges associated with the currently available hydrogen storage materials. Three material-based approaches to hydrogen storage are being researched: 1) chemical hydrogen storage materials 2) cryo-adsorbents, and 3) metal hydrides. As a member of this Center, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been involved in the design and evaluation of systems developed with each of these three hydrogen storage materials. This report is a compilation of the work performed by PNNL for this Center.

  14. Composite materials for thermal energy storage: enhancing performance through microstructures.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zhiwei; Ye, Feng; Ding, Yulong

    2014-05-01

    Chemical incompatibility and low thermal conductivity issues of molten-salt-based thermal energy storage materials can be addressed by using microstructured composites. Using a eutectic mixture of lithium and sodium carbonates as molten salt, magnesium oxide as supporting material, and graphite as thermal conductivity enhancer, the microstructural development, chemical compatibility, thermal stability, thermal conductivity, and thermal energy storage performance of composite materials are investigated. The ceramic supporting material is essential for preventing salt leakage and hence provides a solution to the chemical incompatibility issue. The use of graphite gives a significant enhancement on the thermal conductivity of the composite. Analyses suggest that the experimentally observed microstructural development of the composite is associated with the wettability of the salt on the ceramic substrate and that on the thermal conduction enhancer.

  15. Composite Materials for Thermal Energy Storage: Enhancing Performance through Microstructures

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Zhiwei; Ye, Feng; Ding, Yulong

    2014-01-01

    Chemical incompatibility and low thermal conductivity issues of molten-salt-based thermal energy storage materials can be addressed by using microstructured composites. Using a eutectic mixture of lithium and sodium carbonates as molten salt, magnesium oxide as supporting material, and graphite as thermal conductivity enhancer, the microstructural development, chemical compatibility, thermal stability, thermal conductivity, and thermal energy storage performance of composite materials are investigated. The ceramic supporting material is essential for preventing salt leakage and hence provides a solution to the chemical incompatibility issue. The use of graphite gives a significant enhancement on the thermal conductivity of the composite. Analyses suggest that the experimentally observed microstructural development of the composite is associated with the wettability of the salt on the ceramic substrate and that on the thermal conduction enhancer. PMID:24591286

  16. Storage of nuclear materials by encapsulation in fullerenes

    DOEpatents

    Coppa, Nicholas V.

    1994-01-01

    A method of encapsulating radioactive materials inside fullerenes for stable long-term storage. Fullerenes provide a safe and efficient means of disposing of nuclear waste which is extremely stable with respect to the environment. After encapsulation, a radioactive ion is essentially chemically isolated from its external environment.

  17. Edible Electrochemistry: Food Materials Based Electrochemical Sensors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jayoung; Jeerapan, Itthipon; Ciui, Bianca; Hartel, Martin C; Martin, Aida; Wang, Joseph

    2017-08-07

    This study demonstrates the first example of completely food-based edible electrochemical sensors. The new edible composite electrodes consist of food materials and supplements serving as the edible conductor, corn, and olive oils as edible binders, vegetables as biocatalysts, and food-based packing sleeves. These edible composite electrodes are systematically characterized for their attractive electrochemical properties, such as potential window, capacitance, redox activity using various electrochemical techniques. The sensing performance of the edible carbon composite electrodes compares favorably with that of "traditional" carbon paste electrodes. Well defined voltammetric detection of catechol, uric acid, ascorbic acid, dopamine, and acetaminophen is demonstrated, including sensitive measurements in simulated saliva, gastric fluid, and intestinal fluid. Furthermore, successful biosensing applications are realized by incorporating a mushroom and horseradish vegetable tissues with edible carbon pastes for imparting biocatalytic activity toward the biosensing of phenolic and peroxide compounds. The attractive sensing performance of the new edible sensors indicates considerable promise for physiological monitoring applications and for developing edible and ingestible devices for diverse biomedical applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Materials for energy, drug, and information storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Peifu

    It is generally recognized that H2O adsorption on a porous material would inhibit H2 adsorption. However, Chapter 3 reports that stable H2O-functionalized ZIF-8(a representative MOF), which was obtained by the simple water treatment of ZIF-8 at ambient temperature, can increase its H2 adsorption heat from 5.2 to 10.1 kJ/mol. As a result, the reversible H2 capacity at ambient temperature increased by 77%. A suitable isotherm equation for C2H2 adsorption on various MOFs has not been found. Chapter 4 demonstrates that Dubinin-Astakhov equation can be exploited as a general isotherm model to depict C2H 2 adsorption on MOF-5, ZIF-8, HKUST-1, and MIL-53. Furthermore, it was found that the adsorption of C2H2 on the defected MIL-53 is stronger than that on MIL-53 without defection, reflected by adsorption-heat increase from 19.3 to 25.1 kJ/mol. Chapter 5 finds that the adsorption of CO2 on the defected ZIF-8 is stronger than that on ZIF-8 without defection, reflected by initial adsorption-heat increase from 16.0 to 22.8 kJ/mol. As a result, the specific reversible CO2 capacity per surface area increased with increasing defects. A novel strategy was developed to enhance the hydrophilicity on the external surface of ZIF-8 without reducing or blocking the internal pores in Chapter 6. A simple ball-milling approach combined with water treatment results in a significantly higher cell viability without compromising its hydroxyurea loading and release capacity. It's a challenge to build a memristor with odd-symmetric I--V features. In Chapter 7, a novel strategy, in which two same asymmetric switch components can be combined as a symmetric device, is reported to create an odd-symmetric memristor. Furthermore, with this strategy, the surface-sulphurization was performed on both sides of a Ag foil, leading to a Ag2S/Ag/Ag2S odd-symmetric memristor consisting of two asymmetric Ag2S/Ag memristive switches. Chapter 8 demonstrate that 2H phase of bulk MoS2 possessed an ohmic feature

  19. Diffused holographic information storage and retrieval using photorefractive optical materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillen, Deanna Kay

    Holography offers a tremendous opportunity for dense information storage, theoretically one bit per cubic wavelength of material volume, with rapid retrieval, of up to thousands of pages of information simultaneously. However, many factors prevent the theoretical storage limit from being reached, including dynamic range problems and imperfections in recording materials. This research explores new ways of moving closer to practical holographic information storage and retrieval by altering the recording materials, in this case, photorefractive crystals, and by increasing the current storage capacity while improving the information retrieved. As an experimental example of the techniques developed, the information retrieved is the correlation peak from an optical recognition architecture, but the materials and methods developed are applicable to many other holographic information storage systems. Optical correlators can potentially solve any signal or image recognition problem. Military surveillance, fingerprint identification for law enforcement or employee identification, and video games are but a few examples of applications. A major obstacle keeping optical correlators from being universally accepted is the lack of a high quality, thick (high capacity) holographic recording material that operates with red or infrared wavelengths which are available from inexpensive diode lasers. This research addresses the problems from two positions: find a better material for use with diode lasers, and reduce the requirements placed on the material while maintaining an efficient and effective system. This research found that the solutions are new dopants introduced into photorefractive lithium niobate to improve wavelength sensitivities and the use of a novel inexpensive diffuser that reduces the dynamic range and optical element quality requirements (which reduces the cost) while improving performance. A uniquely doped set of 12 lithium niobate crystals was specified and

  20. Metallic phase change material thermal storage for Dish Stirling

    DOE PAGES

    Andraka, C. E.; Kruizenga, A. M.; Hernandez-Sanchez, B. A.; ...

    2015-06-05

    Dish-Stirling systems provide high-efficiency solar-only electrical generation and currently hold the world record at 31.25%. This high efficiency results in a system with a high possibility of meeting the DOE SunShot goal of $0.06/kWh. However, current dish-Stirling systems do not incorporate thermal storage. For the next generation of non-intermittent and cost-competitive solar power plants, we propose adding a thermal energy storage system that combines latent (phase-change) energy transport and latent energy storage in order to match the isothermal input requirements of Stirling engines while also maximizing the exergetic efficiency of the entire system. This paper reports current findings in themore » area of selection, synthesis and evaluation of a suitable high performance metallic phase change material (PCM) as well as potential interactions with containment alloy materials. The metallic PCM's, while more expensive than salts, have been identified as having substantial performance advantages primarily due to high thermal conductivity, leading to high exergetic efficiency. Systems modeling has indicated, based on high dish Stirling system performance, an allowable cost of the PCM storage system that is substantially higher than SunShot goals for storage cost on tower systems. Several PCM's are identified with suitable melting temperature, cost, and performance.« less

  1. Metallic phase change material thermal storage for Dish Stirling

    SciTech Connect

    Andraka, C. E.; Kruizenga, A. M.; Hernandez-Sanchez, B. A.; Coker, E. N.

    2015-06-05

    Dish-Stirling systems provide high-efficiency solar-only electrical generation and currently hold the world record at 31.25%. This high efficiency results in a system with a high possibility of meeting the DOE SunShot goal of $0.06/kWh. However, current dish-Stirling systems do not incorporate thermal storage. For the next generation of non-intermittent and cost-competitive solar power plants, we propose adding a thermal energy storage system that combines latent (phase-change) energy transport and latent energy storage in order to match the isothermal input requirements of Stirling engines while also maximizing the exergetic efficiency of the entire system. This paper reports current findings in the area of selection, synthesis and evaluation of a suitable high performance metallic phase change material (PCM) as well as potential interactions with containment alloy materials. The metallic PCM's, while more expensive than salts, have been identified as having substantial performance advantages primarily due to high thermal conductivity, leading to high exergetic efficiency. Systems modeling has indicated, based on high dish Stirling system performance, an allowable cost of the PCM storage system that is substantially higher than SunShot goals for storage cost on tower systems. Several PCM's are identified with suitable melting temperature, cost, and performance.

  2. Study on storage efficiency of the fresh food e-commerce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Sun, Jie; Li, Huihui

    2017-06-01

    As the last cake in the area of e-commerce industry, the temperature of fresh food e-commerce is always rising starting from about 2014. This paper is based on the imperfection that the existing study about fresh food e-commerce is lack of studies on storage efficiency. And we took some variables in this paper such as consumers’ satisfaction and length for preservation and storage time. On this basis we built the model of storage efficiency of fresh food e-commerce. We find that as the development of fresh food e-commerce, the fresh food e-commerce enterprise will pay more attention to the consumers’ satisfaction. They can take some effective ways like reducing the wastage of fresh food and lengthening the refreshing time of fresh food and so on.

  3. Effect of storage on tensile material properties of bovine liver.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuan-Chiao; Kemper, Andrew R; Untaroiu, Costin D

    2014-01-01

    Cadaveric tissue models play an important role in the assessment and optimization of novel restraint systems for reducing abdominal injuries. However, the effect of tissue preservation by means of freezing on the material properties of abdominal tissues remains unknown. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of frozen storage time on the material responses of the liver parenchyma in tensile loading. Specimens from ten bovine livers were equally divided into three groups: fresh, 30-day frozen storage, and 60-day frozen storage. All preserved specimens were stored at -12°C. Dog-bone specimens from each preservation group were randomly assigned to one of three strain rates (0.01s(-1), 0.1s(-1), and 1.0s(-1)) and tested to failure in tensile loading. The local material response recorded at the tear location and the global material response of the whole specimen of the liver parenchyma specimens were investigated based on the experimental data and optimized analytical material models. The local and global failure strains decreased significantly between fresh specimens and specimens preserved for 30 days (p<0.05), and between fresh specimens and specimens preserved for 60 days (p<0.05) for all three loading rates. Changes on the material model parameters were also observed between fresh and preserved specimens. Preservation by means of frozen storage was found to affect both the material and failure response of bovine liver parenchyma in tensile loading. The stiffness of the tissue increased with increased preservation time and increased strain rate. In summary, significant changes (p<0.05) between the failure strain of previously frozen liver parenchyma samples and fresh samples were demonstrated at both global and local levels in this study. In addition, nonlinear and viscoelastic characteristics of the liver parenchyma were observed in tension for both fresh and preserved samples.

  4. Nanostructured Mo-based electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xianluo; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Mei, Yueni; Huang, Yunhui

    2015-04-21

    The development of advanced energy storage devices is at the forefront of research geared towards a sustainable future. Nanostructured materials are advantageous in offering huge surface to volume ratios, favorable transport features, and attractive physicochemical properties. They have been extensively explored in various fields of energy storage and conversion. This review is focused largely on the recent progress in nanostructured Mo-based electrode materials including molybdenum oxides (MoO(x), 2 ≤ x ≤ 3), dichalconides (MoX2, X = S, Se), and oxysalts for rechargeable lithium/sodium-ion batteries, Mg batteries, and supercapacitors. Mo-based compounds including MoO2, MoO3, MoO(3-y) (0 < y < 1), MMo(x)O(y) (M = Fe, Co, Ni, Ca, Mn, Zn, Mg, or Cd; x = 1, y = 4; x = 3, y = 8), MoS2, MoSe2, (MoO2)2P2O7, LiMoO2, Li2MoO3, etc. possess multiple valence states and exhibit rich chemistry. They are very attractive candidates for efficient electrochemical energy storage systems because of their unique physicochemical properties, such as conductivity, mechanical and thermal stability, and cyclability. In this review, we aim to provide a systematic summary of the synthesis, modification, and electrochemical performance of nanostructured Mo-based compounds, as well as their energy storage applications in lithium/sodium-ion batteries, Mg batteries, and pseudocapacitors. The relationship between nanoarchitectures and electrochemical performances as well as the related charge-storage mechanism is discussed. Moreover, remarks on the challenges and perspectives of Mo-containing compounds for further development in electrochemical energy storage applications are proposed. This review sheds light on the sustainable development of advanced rechargeable batteries and supercapacitors with nanostructured Mo-based electrode materials.

  5. Effect of different new packaging materials on biscuit quality during accelerated storage.

    PubMed

    Romani, Santina; Tappi, Silvia; Balestra, Federica; Rodriguez Estrada, Maria Teresa; Siracusa, Valentina; Rocculi, Pietro; Dalla Rosa, Marco

    2015-06-01

    The effect of innovative multilayer packaging materials versus a standard one on biscuit quality was studied during accelerated storage at 25, 35, 45 °C and 50% relative humidity for 92 days. Three different packaging materials were used: metalized orientated polypropylene (OPP)/paper (control); metalized poly-lactic acid (PLA)/paper; metalized OPP with ethylene vinyl acetate pro-oxidant additive (EVA-POA)/paper. EVA-POA additive is used to make the plastic layer biodegradable. Various quality sample parameters (moisture, water activity (aw ), texture, peroxide value (PV), hexanal) were analysed during storage. Rate constants (k) and activation energies (Ea ) of hydration reactions and hexanal formation were calculated. No remarkable differences in the evolution of primary and secondary lipid oxidation were observed among differently packed biscuits during storage. All samples maintained PV levels between 4 and 14 meq O2 kg(-1) oil. The product in flexible packaging with PLA reached the highest moisture and aw levels, but they did not significantly and adversely affect the other quality characteristics. The obtained results demonstrate that the new tested packaging materials were suitable for commercial biscuit storage, having similar performance and preservation effects on the overall product quality to those of the standard one. Furthermore, these results could make a contribution to the food industry, encouraging the use of packaging materials with a negligible environmental impact as an alternative to petroleum-based ones. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Evaluation of thermal energy storage materials for advanced compressed air energy storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zaloudek, F.R.; Wheeler, K.R.; Marksberry, L.

    1983-03-01

    Advanced Compressed-Air Energy Storage (ACAS) plants have the near-term potential to reduce the fuel consumption of compressed-air plants from 33 to 100%, depending upon their design. Fuel is saved by storing some or all of the heat of compression as sensible heat which is subsequently used to reheat the compressed air prior to expansion in the turbine generator. The thermal storage media required for this application must be low cost and durable. The objective of this project was to screen thermal store materials based on their thermal cycle durability, particulate formation and corrosion resistant characteristics. The materials investigated were iron oxide pellets, Denstone pebbles, cast-iron balls, and Dresser basalt rock. The study specifically addressed the problems of particle formation and thermal ratcheting of the materials during thermal cycling and the chemical attack on the materials by the high temperature and moist environment in an ACAS heat storage bed. The results indicate that from the durability standpoint Denstone, cast iron containing 27% or more chromium, and crushed Dresser basalt would possibly stand up to ACAS conditions. If costs are considered in addition to durability and performance, the crushed Dresser basalt would probably be the most desirable heat storage material for adiabatic and hybrid ACAS plants, and more in-depth longer term thermal cycling and materials testing of Dresser basalt is recommended. Also recommended is the redesign and costing analysis of both the hybrid and adiabatic ACAS facilities based upon the use of Dresser basalt as the thermal store material.

  7. Food Acquisition: Food Ingredients, Raw Materials and Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheat, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    The kind of food supply system that will serve the space station in coming years is considered. The direction and rate of evolution of space food service systems is also considered and what is needed to supply appropriate food to space station crews. Innovations in food sourcing, recipe development, pre-preparation, packaging, preservation, presentation, consumption and waste disposal are discussed. The development and validation of preparation systems and ingredients which minimize demands on crew time and provide maximum eating enjoyment is outlined.

  8. Food Acquisition: Food Ingredients, Raw Materials and Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheat, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    The kind of food supply system that will serve the space station in coming years is considered. The direction and rate of evolution of space food service systems is also considered and what is needed to supply appropriate food to space station crews. Innovations in food sourcing, recipe development, pre-preparation, packaging, preservation, presentation, consumption and waste disposal are discussed. The development and validation of preparation systems and ingredients which minimize demands on crew time and provide maximum eating enjoyment is outlined.

  9. Hydrogen Storage in Mesoporous Materials under High Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberger, Michelle; Somayazulu, Maddury; Hemley, Russell

    2008-03-01

    To date, the materials considered best candidates for hydrogen storage fuel cells include activated carbon and metal organic frameworks. Both very high surface area activated carbon and MOF-5 have been shown to adsorb around 4.5 wt % of hydrogen gas at 78 K. We have investigated the fundamental structural response of these materials to high pressure, as well as their behavior at high pressure when packed with dense hydrogen. Further investigation of these materials at low temperatures while still at elevated pressures may in fact provide a route for recovery of these hydrogen-packed materials to near ambient conditions. Covalent organic frameworks offer the potential for even better hydrogen storage capacity. These materials have significantly lower densities than the MOF materials and offer a significantly larger number of adsorption sites. Diamond anvil cells are uniquely suited for the study of these materials, allowing in situ measurements at high pressure as well as at low temperatures. Using X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy and Infrared Spectroscopy we probe the behavior of the hydrogen confined in these porous materials at high pressure by tracking changes in the in situ high pressure x-ray diffraction patterns and shifts in the hydrogen vibron peaks.

  10. Phase change material in floor tiles for thermal energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Amy Sarah

    Traditional passive solar systems have relied on sensible heat storage for energy savings. Recent research has investigated taking advantage of latent heat storage for additional energy savings. This is accomplished by the incorporation of phase change material into building materials used in traditional passive applications. Trombe walls, ceilings and floors can all be enhanced with phase change materials. This research introduces a new flooring material that incorporates a phase change material ready for commercial manufacture. An agglomerate floor tile containing 20% by mass of encapsulated octadecane has been manufactured. Flexural and compressive strength of 7.4 MPa and 24.5 MPa respectively, were measured for the tile. Peak melting transition temperature was determined to be 27.2°C with a latent heat of 33.9 J/g of tile. Structural and thermal performance of the tile surpassed that of a typical ceramic tile. Each tile was composed of quartz, resin and phase change material. Statistical modeling was performed to analyze the response of flexural and compressive strength on varying amounts of quartz, resin and phase change material. Resulting polynomials described the effect of adding phase change material into the tile. With as little as 10% by mass of phase change material, the strength was reduced to less than 50% of tile without phase change material. It was determined that the maximum phase change material content to attain structural integrity greater than ceramic tile was 20% by mass. The statistical analysis used for this research was based on mixture experiments. A procedure was developed to simplify the selection of data points used in the fit of the polynomials to describe the response of flexural and compressive strengths. Analysis of energy savings using this floor tile containing 20% by mass of phase change material was performed as an addendum to this research. A known static simulation method, SLR (solar load ratio), was adapted to include

  11. Optical response of photopolymer materials for holographic data storage applications.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, J T; Gleeson, M R; Close, C E; Kelly, J V

    2007-01-01

    We briefly review the application of photopolymer recording materials in the area of holographic data storage. In particular we discuss the recent development of the Non-local Polymerisation Driven Diffusion model. Applying this model we develop simple first-order analytic expressions describing the spatial frequency response of photopolymer materials. The assumptions made in the derivation of these formulae are described and their ranges of validity are examined. The effects of particular physical parameters of a photopolymer on the material response are discussed.

  12. Rapid charging of thermal energy storage materials through plasmonic heating.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongyong; Tao, Peng; Liu, Yang; Xu, Hao; Ye, Qinxian; Hu, Hang; Song, Chengyi; Chen, Zhaoping; Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

    2014-09-01

    Direct collection, conversion and storage of solar radiation as thermal energy are crucial to the efficient utilization of renewable solar energy and the reduction of global carbon footprint. This work reports a facile approach for rapid and efficient charging of thermal energy storage materials by the instant and intense photothermal effect of uniformly distributed plasmonic nanoparticles. Upon illumination with both green laser light and sunlight, the prepared plasmonic nanocomposites with volumetric ppm level of filler concentration demonstrated a faster heating rate, a higher heating temperature and a larger heating area than the conventional thermal diffusion based approach. With controlled dispersion, we further demonstrated that the light-to-heat conversion and thermal storage properties of the plasmonic nanocomposites can be fine-tuned by engineering the composition of the nanocomposites.

  13. SiC nanotubes: A novel material for hydrogen storage.

    PubMed

    Mpourmpakis, Giannis; Froudakis, George E; Lithoxoos, George P; Samios, Jannis

    2006-08-01

    A multiscale theoretical approach is used for the investigation of hydrogen storage in silicon-carbon nanotubes (SiCNTs). First, ab initio calculations at the density functional level of theory (DFT) showed an increase of 20% in the binding energy of H2 in SiCNTs compared with pure carbon nanotubes (CNTs). This is explained by the alternative charges that exist in the SiCNT walls. Second, classical Monte Carlo simulation of nanotube bundles showed an even larger increase of the storage capacity in SiCNTs, especially in low temperature and high-pressure conditions. Our results verify in both theoretical levels that SiCNTs seem to be more suitable materials for hydrogen storage than pure CNTs.

  14. Rapid Charging of Thermal Energy Storage Materials through Plasmonic Heating

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhongyong; Tao, Peng; Liu, Yang; Xu, Hao; Ye, Qinxian; Hu, Hang; Song, Chengyi; Chen, Zhaoping; Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Direct collection, conversion and storage of solar radiation as thermal energy are crucial to the efficient utilization of renewable solar energy and the reduction of global carbon footprint. This work reports a facile approach for rapid and efficient charging of thermal energy storage materials by the instant and intense photothermal effect of uniformly distributed plasmonic nanoparticles. Upon illumination with both green laser light and sunlight, the prepared plasmonic nanocomposites with volumetric ppm level of filler concentration demonstrated a faster heating rate, a higher heating temperature and a larger heating area than the conventional thermal diffusion based approach. With controlled dispersion, we further demonstrated that the light-to-heat conversion and thermal storage properties of the plasmonic nanocomposites can be fine-tuned by engineering the composition of the nanocomposites. PMID:25175717

  15. Carbon nanoscrolls: a promising material for hydrogen storage.

    PubMed

    Mpourmpakis, Giannis; Tylianakis, Emmanuel; Froudakis, George E

    2007-07-01

    A multiscale theoretical approach was used for the investigation of hydrogen storage in the recently synthesized carbon nanoscrolls. First, ab initio calculations at the density functional level of theory (DFT) were performed in order to (a) calculate the binding energy of H2 molecules at the walls of nanoscrolls and (b) fit the parameters of the interatomic potential used in Monte Carlo simulations. Second, classical Monte Carlo simulations were performed for estimating the H2 storage capacity of "experimental size" nanoscrolls containing thousands of atoms. Our results show that pure carbon nanoscrolls cannot accumulate hydrogen because the interlayer distance is too small. However, an opening of the spiral structure to approximately 7 A followed by alkali doping can make them very promising materials for hydrogen storage application, reaching 3 wt % at ambient temperature and pressure.

  16. Characterization of new materials for Ultracold Neutron transport and storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, Edgard; Christopher, Nicholas; Kawasaki, Shinsuke; Mammei, Russell; Marcellin, James; Matsumiya, Ryohei; Picker, Ruediger

    2016-09-01

    At TRIUMF, we are currently developing a super-thermal UltraCold Neutron (UCN) source using phonon exchange in super-fluid helium. To take full advantage of the high density of UCN from the TRIUMF source we are developing high UCN transmission guides and long storage time volumes for polarized UCN. These guides and storage volumes are important for experiments requiring a high density of polarized UCN, such as the neutron Electric Dipole Moment (EDM) measurement. The transportation efficiency depends on the capacity of the guide's walls to contain the UCN. The mean potential experienced by a UCN on wall collisions is called the Fermi potential and depends on the material. We have determined a set of potential candidates for our next generation UCN guides and EDM storage chamber. Their Fermi potential was measured using the SOFIA apparatus at MLF, J-PARC, Japan. Results of this measurement are presented in this talk.

  17. Down Select Report of Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials, Catalysts, and Spent Fuel Regeneration Processes - May 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Kevin C.; Linehan, Sue; Lipiecki, Frank; Christopher, Aardahl L.

    2008-05-12

    Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center of Excellence FY2008 Second Quarter Milestone Report: Technical report describing assessment of hydrogen storage materials and progress towards meeting DOE’s hydrogen storage targets.

  18. Sustainable Materials for Sustainable Energy Storage: Organic Na Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Oltean, Viorica-Alina; Renault, Stéven; Valvo, Mario; Brandell, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we summarize research efforts to realize Na-based organic materials for novel battery chemistries. Na is a more abundant element than Li, thereby contributing to less costly materials with limited to no geopolitical constraints while organic electrode materials harvested from biomass resources provide the possibility of achieving renewable battery components with low environmental impact during processing and recycling. Together, this can form the basis for truly sustainable electrochemical energy storage. We explore the efforts made on electrode materials of organic salts, primarily carbonyl compounds but also Schiff bases, unsaturated compounds, nitroxides and polymers. Moreover, sodiated carbonaceous materials derived from biomasses and waste products are surveyed. As a conclusion to the review, some shortcomings of the currently investigated materials are highlighted together with the major limitations for future development in this field. Finally, routes to move forward in this direction are suggested. PMID:28773272

  19. Sustainable Materials for Sustainable Energy Storage: Organic Na Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Oltean, Viorica-Alina; Renault, Stéven; Valvo, Mario; Brandell, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    In this review, we summarize research efforts to realize Na-based organic materials for novel battery chemistries. Na is a more abundant element than Li, thereby contributing to less costly materials with limited to no geopolitical constraints while organic electrode materials harvested from biomass resources provide the possibility of achieving renewable battery components with low environmental impact during processing and recycling. Together, this can form the basis for truly sustainable electrochemical energy storage. We explore the efforts made on electrode materials of organic salts, primarily carbonyl compounds but also Schiff bases, unsaturated compounds, nitroxides and polymers. Moreover, sodiated carbonaceous materials derived from biomasses and waste products are surveyed. As a conclusion to the review, some shortcomings of the currently investigated materials are highlighted together with the major limitations for future development in this field. Finally, routes to move forward in this direction are suggested.

  20. Materials Science and Materials Chemistry for Large Scale Electrochemical Energy Storage: From Transportation to Electrical Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang; Yang, Zhenguo; Lemmon, John P.; Imhoff, Carl H.; Graff, Gordon L.; Li, Liyu; Hu, Jian Z.; Wang, Chong M.; Xiao, Jie; Xia, Guanguang; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Baskaran, Suresh; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Li, Xiaolin; Shao, Yuyan; Schwenzer, Birgit

    2013-02-15

    Large-scale electrical energy storage has become more important than ever for reducing fossil energy consumption in transportation and for the widespread deployment of intermittent renewable energy in electric grid. However, significant challenges exist for its applications. Here, the status and challenges are reviewed from the perspective of materials science and materials chemistry in electrochemical energy storage technologies, such as Li-ion batteries, sodium (sulfur and metal halide) batteries, Pb-acid battery, redox flow batteries, and supercapacitors. Perspectives and approaches are introduced for emerging battery designs and new chemistry combinations to reduce the cost of energy storage devices.

  1. Flexible composite material with phase change thermal storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, Theresa M. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A highly flexible composite material having a flexible matrix containing a phase change thermal storage material. The composite material can be made to heat or cool the body or to act as a thermal buffer to protect the wearer from changing environmental conditions. The composite may also include an external thermal insulation layer and/or an internal thermal control layer to regulate the rate of heat exchange between the composite and the skin of the wearer. Other embodiments of the PCM composite also provide 1) a path for evaporation or direct absorption of perspiration from the skin of the wearer for improved comfort and thermal control, 2) heat conductive pathways within the material for thermal equalization, 3) surface treatments for improved absorption or rejection of heat by the material, and 4) means for quickly regenerating the thermal storage capacity for reuse of the material. Applications of the composite materials are also described which take advantage of the composite's thermal characteristics. The examples described include a diver's wet suit, ski boot liners, thermal socks, ,gloves and a face mask for cold weather activities, and a metabolic heating or cooling blanket useful for treating hypothermia or fever patients in a medical setting and therapeutic heating or cooling orthopedic joint supports.

  2. Flexible composite material with phase change thermal storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, Theresa M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A highly flexible composite material having a flexible matrix containing a phase change thermal storage material. The composite material can be made to heat or cool the body or to act as a thermal buffer to protect the wearer from changing environmental conditions. The composite may also include an external thermal insulation layer and/or an internal thermal control layer to regulate the rate of heat exchange between the composite and the skin of the wearer. Other embodiments of the PCM composite also provide 1) a path for evaporation or direct absorption of perspiration from the skin of the wearer for improved comfort and thermal control, 2) heat conductive pathways within the material for thermal equalization, 3) surface treatments for improved absorption or rejection of heat by the material, and 4) means for quickly regenerating the thermal storage capacity for reuse of the material. Applications of the composite materials are also described which take advantage of the composite's thermal characteristics. The examples described include a diver's wet suit, ski boot liners, thermal socks, gloves and a face mask for cold weather activities, and a metabolic heating or cooling blanket useful for treating hypothermia or fever patients in a medical setting and therapeutic heating or cooling orthopedic joint supports.

  3. High capacity hydrogen storage materials: attributes for automotive applications and techniques for materials discovery.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Sudik, Andrea; Wolverton, Christopher; Siegel, Donald J

    2010-02-01

    Widespread adoption of hydrogen as a vehicular fuel depends critically upon the ability to store hydrogen on-board at high volumetric and gravimetric densities, as well as on the ability to extract/insert it at sufficiently rapid rates. As current storage methods based on physical means--high-pressure gas or (cryogenic) liquefaction--are unlikely to satisfy targets for performance and cost, a global research effort focusing on the development of chemical means for storing hydrogen in condensed phases has recently emerged. At present, no known material exhibits a combination of properties that would enable high-volume automotive applications. Thus new materials with improved performance, or new approaches to the synthesis and/or processing of existing materials, are highly desirable. In this critical review we provide a practical introduction to the field of hydrogen storage materials research, with an emphasis on (i) the properties necessary for a viable storage material, (ii) the computational and experimental techniques commonly employed in determining these attributes, and (iii) the classes of materials being pursued as candidate storage compounds. Starting from the general requirements of a fuel cell vehicle, we summarize how these requirements translate into desired characteristics for the hydrogen storage material. Key amongst these are: (a) high gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen density, (b) thermodynamics that allow for reversible hydrogen uptake/release under near-ambient conditions, and (c) fast reaction kinetics. To further illustrate these attributes, the four major classes of candidate storage materials--conventional metal hydrides, chemical hydrides, complex hydrides, and sorbent systems--are introduced and their respective performance and prospects for improvement in each of these areas is discussed. Finally, we review the most valuable experimental and computational techniques for determining these attributes, highlighting how an approach that

  4. Food Service Course. Bilingual Vocational Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Cox, Guadalupe

    This course in food services, one of a series of bilingual English-Spanish vocational education courses, is designed to familiarize the student with the food service operation of a restaurant, cafeteria, fast-food operation, hospital, nursing home, industrial or educational facility, food caterer, or bakery. The student should become versatile in…

  5. Food Service Course. Bilingual Vocational Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Cox, Guadalupe

    This course in food services, one of a series of bilingual English-Spanish vocational education courses, is designed to familiarize the student with the food service operation of a restaurant, cafeteria, fast-food operation, hospital, nursing home, industrial or educational facility, food caterer, or bakery. The student should become versatile in…

  6. Energy storage crystalline gel materials for 3D printing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Yuchen; Miyazaki, Takuya; Gong, Jin; Zhu, Meifang

    2017-04-01

    Phase change materials (PCMs) are considered one of the most reliable latent heat storage and thermoregulation materials. In this paper, a vinyl monomer is used to provide energy storage capacity and synthesize gel with phase change property. The side chain of copolymer form crystal microcell to storage/release energy through phase change. The crosslinking structure of the copolymer can protect the crystalline micro-area maintaining the phase change stable in service and improving the mechanical strength. By selecting different monomers and adjusting their ratios, we design the chemical structure and the crystallinity of gels, which in further affect their properties, such as strength, flexibility, thermal absorb/release transition temperature, transparency and the water content. Using the light-induced polymerization 3D printing techniques, we synthesize the energy storage gel and shape it on a 3D printer at the same time. By optimizing the 3D printing conditions, including layer thickness, curing time and light source, etc., the 3D printing objects are obtained.

  7. Thermodynamically Tuned Nanophase Materials for reversible Hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect

    Ping Liu; John J. Vajo

    2010-02-28

    This program was devoted to significantly extending the limits of hydrogen storage technology for practical transportation applications. To meet the hydrogen capacity goals set forth by the DOE, solid-state materials consisting of light elements were developed. Many light element compounds are known that have high capacities. However, most of these materials are thermodynamically too stable, and they release and store hydrogen much too slowly for practical use. In this project we developed new light element chemical systems that have high hydrogen capacities while also having suitable thermodynamic properties. In addition, we developed methods for increasing the rates of hydrogen exchange in these new materials. The program has significantly advanced (1) the application of combined hydride systems for tuning thermodynamic properties and (2) the use of nanoengineering for improving hydrogen exchange. For example, we found that our strategy for thermodynamic tuning allows both entropy and enthalpy to be favorably adjusted. In addition, we demonstrated that using porous supports as scaffolds to confine hydride materials to nanoscale dimensions could improve rates of hydrogen exchange by > 50x. Although a hydrogen storage material meeting the requirements for commercial development was not achieved, this program has provided foundation and direction for future efforts. More broadly, nanoconfinment using scaffolds has application in other energy storage technologies including batteries and supercapacitors. The overall goal of this program was to develop a safe and cost-effective nanostructured light-element hydride material that overcomes the thermodynamic and kinetic barriers to hydrogen reaction and diffusion in current materials and thereby achieve > 6 weight percent hydrogen capacity at temperatures and equilibrium pressures consistent with DOE target values.

  8. The Study of Importance of the Balance Space Food -Storage Method -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Providing foods to space crew is the important requirements to support long term manned space exploration. Foods fill not only physiological requirements to sustain life, but psychological needs for refreshment and joy during the long and hard mission to extraterrestrial planets. We designed joyful and healthy recipe with materials, which can be produced by the bio-regenerative agricultural system operated at limited resources available in Mars base, Moon base and spaceship. We need to think about how to use the storage food when we have the time of emergency. The pupa of the silkworm becomes the important nourishment source as protein and lipid. The silk thread uses it as clothing and cosmetics and medical supplies. However, we can use the silk thread as food as protein. The silk thread is mad of sericin and fibroin. The sericin is used for cosmetics mainly, but can make sheet food by mixing it with rice flour. We can make Japanese rolled sushi with this product. In addition, we can make spring roll and gyoza and shao-mai. As for the fibroin which is the subject of the silk thread, is to extract it high pressure heat; of the protein can powder it, and can use it as food. Even if there is the silk thread in this way after having made it clothes once, we can do it to food again. We can reuse the cotton thread as carbohydrates equally, too. We can use the wood as carbohydrates, also. Based upon the foregoing, we use the pupa of the silkworm as protein and lipid, and the silk thread as protein, and the cotton thread and wood as carbohydrates. It is recommended as healthy meal balance; Protein: Lipid: Carbohydrate ratio equal 15-20We succeeded to develop joyful and nutritious space recipe at the end. Since energy consumption for physical exercise activities under micro-or sub-gravity is less than the terrestrial case, choice of our space foods is essencial to suppress blood sugar level, and prevent the metabolic syndrome. Because of less need of agricultural resources

  9. Heat storage system utilizing phase change materials government rights

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O.

    2000-09-12

    A thermal energy transport and storage system is provided which includes an evaporator containing a mixture of a first phase change material and a silica powder, and a condenser containing a second phase change material. The silica powder/PCM mixture absorbs heat energy from a source such as a solar collector such that the phase change material forms a vapor which is transported from the evaporator to the condenser, where the second phase change material melts and stores the heat energy, then releases the energy to an environmental space via a heat exchanger. The vapor is condensed to a liquid which is transported back to the evaporator. The system allows the repeated transfer of thermal energy using the heat of vaporization and condensation of the phase change material.

  10. Lignin Based Carbon Materials for Energy Storage Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori; Rios, Orlando; Johs, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of Li-ion battery technology into electric and hybrid electric vehicles and portable electronic devices such as smart phones, laptops and tablets, creates a demand for efficient, economic and sustainable materials for energy storage. However, the high cost and long processing time associated with manufacturing battery-grade anode and cathode materials are two big constraints for lowering the total cost of batteries and environmentally friendly electric vehicles. Lignin, a byproduct of the pulp and paper industry and biorefinery, is one of the most abundant and inexpensive natural biopolymers. It can be efficiently converted to low cost carbon fibers with optimal properties for use as anode materials. Recent developments in the preparation of lignin precursors and conversion to carbon fiber-based anode materials have created a new class of anode materials with excellent electrochemical characteristics suitable for immediate use in existing Li- or Na-ion battery technologies.

  11. Materials for Hydrogen Storage: From Complex Hydrides to Functionalized Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, G. P.

    2011-07-01

    The world wide effort for a transition to renewable and clean (i.e. carbon-free) form of energy has resulted in an upsurge of interest in harnessing and utilizing Hydrogen. Apart from being the most abundant element in the universe, hydrogen offers many advantages over other fuels: it is non-toxic, clean to use, and packs more energy per mass than any other fuel. Hydrogen energy production, storage and distribution constitute a multi-disciplinary area of research. Coming to the material issues for solid state storage of hydrogen, the most desirable criteria are high storage capacity, satisfactory kinetics, and optimal thermodynamics. Complex hydrides involving light metals, such as Alanates, Imides, Borates, Amidoboranes etc. show impressive gravimetric efficiencies, although the hydrogen desorption temperatures turn out to be rather high. Apart from complex hydrides, there are other kinds of novel materials that have been investigated, e.g. carbon based materials activated with nano-catalysts, clathrate hydrates, metal-organic complexes, and more recently nanostructured cages viz. fullerenes and nanotubes decorated with simple or transition metals that serve to attract hydrogen in molecular form. In this talk, after giving a broad overview on hydrogen economy, I shall focus on first-principles design of materials for hydrogen storage, from complex hydrides to various kinds of functinalized nanostructures, and discuss the recent results obtained in our laboratory [1-6]. Some outstanding issues and challenges, like how to circumvent the problem of metal clustering on surface, or how to bring down the hydrogen desorption temperature etc. will be discussed.

  12. Positive Active Material For Alkaline Electrolyte Storage Battert Nickel Electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Bernard, Patrick; Baudry, Michelle

    2000-12-05

    A method of manufacturing a positive active material for nickel electrodes of alkaline storage batteries which consists of particles of hydroxide containing mainly nickel and covered with a layer of a hydroxide phase based on nickel and yttrium is disclosed. The proportion of the hydroxide phase is in the range 0.15% to 3% by weight of yttrium expressed as yttrium hydroxide relative to the total weight of particles.

  13. Environmental Projects. Volume 9: Construction of hazardous materials storage facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Activities at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC) are carried out in support of seven parabolic dish antennas. These activities may give rise to environmental hazards. This report is one in a series of reports describing environmental projects at GDSCC. The construction of two hazardous materials and wastes storage facilities and an acid-wash facility is described. An overview of the Goldstone complex is also presented along with a description of the environmental aspects of the GDSCC site.

  14. Microencapsulated Phase-Change Materials For Storage Of Heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colvin, David P.

    1989-01-01

    Report describes research on engineering issues related to storage and transport of heat in slurries containing phase-change materials in microscopic capsules. Specific goal of project to develop lightweight, compact, heat-management systems used safely in inhabited areas of spacecraft. Further development of obvious potential of technology expected to lead to commercialization and use in aircraft, electronic equipment, machinery, industrial processes, and other sytems in which requirements for management of heat compete with severe restrictions on weight or volume.

  15. Microencapsulated Phase-Change Materials For Storage Of Heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colvin, David P.

    1989-01-01

    Report describes research on engineering issues related to storage and transport of heat in slurries containing phase-change materials in microscopic capsules. Specific goal of project to develop lightweight, compact, heat-management systems used safely in inhabited areas of spacecraft. Further development of obvious potential of technology expected to lead to commercialization and use in aircraft, electronic equipment, machinery, industrial processes, and other sytems in which requirements for management of heat compete with severe restrictions on weight or volume.

  16. 30 CFR 56.6131 - Location of explosive material storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MINES Explosives Storage § 56.6131 Location of explosive material storage facilities. (a) Storage... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Location of explosive material storage facilities. 56.6131 Section 56.6131 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  17. Assessing materials handling and storage capacities in port terminals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinu, O.; Roşca, E.; Popa, M.; Roşca, M. A.; Rusca, A.

    2017-08-01

    Terminals constitute the factual interface between different modes and, as a result, buffer stocks are unavoidable whenever transport flows with different discontinuities meet. This is the reason why assessing materials handling and storage capacities is an important issue in the course of attempting to increase operative planning of logistic processes in terminals. Proposed paper starts with a brief review of the compatibilities between different sorts of materials and corresponding transport modes and after, a literature overview of the studies related to ports terminals and their specialization is made. As a methodology, discrete event simulation stands as a feasible technique for assessing handling and storage capacities at the terminal, taking into consideration the multi-flows interaction and the non-uniform arrivals of vessels and inland vehicles. In this context, a simulation model, that integrates the activities of an inland water terminal and describes the essential interactions between the subsystems which influence the terminal capacity, is developed. Different scenarios are simulated for diverse sorts of materials, leading to bottlenecks identification, performance indicators such as average storage occupancy rate, average dwell or transit times estimations, and their evolution is analysed in order to improve the transfer operations in the logistic process

  18. Emergency food storage for organisations and citizens in New Zealand: results of optimisation modelling.

    PubMed

    Nghiem, Nhung; Carter, Mary-Ann; Wilson, Nick

    2012-12-14

    New Zealand (NZ), is a country subject to a wide range of natural disasters, some of which (e.g., floods and storms) may increase in frequency and severity with the effects of climate change. To improve disaster preparations, we aimed to use scenario development and linear programming to identify the lowest-cost foods for emergency storage. We used NZ food price data (e.g., from the Food Price Index) and nutritional data from a NZ food composition database. Different scenarios were modelled in Excel and R along with uncertainty analysis. A collection of low-cost emergency storage foods that meet daily energy requirements for men were identified e.g., at a median purchase cost of NZ$2.21 per day (equivalent to US$1.45) (95% simulation interval = NZ$2.04 to 2.38). In comparison, the cost of such a collection of foods which did not require cooking, was NZ$3.67 per day. While meeting all nutritional recommendations (and not just energy) is far from essential in a disaster setting, if such nutritionally optimised foods are purchased for storage, then the cost would be higher (NZ$7.10 per day). Where a zero level of food spoilage was assumed (e.g., storage by a government agency), the cost of purchasing food for storage was as low as NZ$1.93 per day. It appears to cost very little to purchase basic emergency foods for storage in the current New Zealand setting. The lists of the foods identified could be considered by organisations who participate in disaster relief (civil defence) but also by citizens.

  19. Hunger: The World Food Crisis. An NSTA Environmental Materials Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Kathryn Mervine

    This document provides a materials guide containing annotated bibliographies of literature for teachers and students, a film guide, and a curriculum materials guide for educational sources relating to hunger, food, and the world food crisis. Materials span the range from pre-school to grade 12. (SL)

  20. Types, production and assessment of biobased food packaging materials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Food packaging performs an essential function, but packaging materials can have a negative impact on the environment. This book describes the latest advances in bio-based food packaging materials. Book provides a comprehensive review on bio-based, biodegradable and recycled materials and discusses t...

  1. Applications of thermal energy storage to waste heat recovery in the food processing industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojnar, F.; Lunberg, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    A study to assess the potential for waste heat recovery in the food industry and to evaluate prospective waste heat recovery system concepts employing thermal energy storage was conducted. The study found that the recovery of waste heat in canning facilities can be performed in significant quantities using systems involving thermal energy storage that are both practical and economical. A demonstration project is proposed to determine actual waste heat recovery costs and benefits and to encourage system implementation by the food industry.

  2. Applications of thermal energy storage to waste heat recovery in the food processing industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojnar, F.; Lunberg, W. L.

    1980-03-01

    A study to assess the potential for waste heat recovery in the food industry and to evaluate prospective waste heat recovery system concepts employing thermal energy storage was conducted. The study found that the recovery of waste heat in canning facilities can be performed in significant quantities using systems involving thermal energy storage that are both practical and economical. A demonstration project is proposed to determine actual waste heat recovery costs and benefits and to encourage system implementation by the food industry.

  3. Leaching of Silver from Silver-Impregnated Food Storage Containers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauri, James F.; Niece, Brian K.

    2011-01-01

    The use of silver in commercial products has proliferated in recent years owing to its antibacterial properties. Food containers impregnated with micro-sized silver promise long food life, but there is some concern because silver can leach out of the plastic and into the stored food. This laboratory experiment gives students the opportunity to…

  4. Leaching of Silver from Silver-Impregnated Food Storage Containers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauri, James F.; Niece, Brian K.

    2011-01-01

    The use of silver in commercial products has proliferated in recent years owing to its antibacterial properties. Food containers impregnated with micro-sized silver promise long food life, but there is some concern because silver can leach out of the plastic and into the stored food. This laboratory experiment gives students the opportunity to…

  5. Computational methods to determine the structure of hydrogen storage materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Tim

    2009-03-01

    To understand the mechanisms and thermodynamics of material-based hydrogen storage, it is important to know the structure of the material and the positions of the hydrogen atoms within the material. Because hydrogen can be difficult to resolve experimentally computational research has proven to be a valuable tool to address these problems. We discuss different computational methods for identifying the structure of hydrogen materials and the positions of hydrogen atoms, and we illustrate the methods with specific examples. Through the use of ab-initio molecular dynamics, we identify molecular hydrogen binding sites in the metal-organic framework commonly known as MOF-5 [1]. We present a method to identify the positions of atomic hydrogen in imide structures using a novel type of effective Hamiltonian. We apply this new method to lithium imide (Li2NH), a potentially important hydrogen storage material, and demonstrate that it predicts a new ground state structure [2]. We also present the results of a recent computational study of the room-temperature structure of lithium imide in which we suggest a new structure that reconciles the differences between previous experimental and theoretical studies. [4pt] [1] T. Mueller and G. Ceder, Journal of Physical Chemistry B 109, 17974 (2005). [0pt] [2] T. Mueller and G. Ceder, Physical Review B 74 (2006).

  6. What do we really know about food storage, surplus, and feasting in preagricultural communities?

    PubMed

    Kuijt, Ian

    2009-10-01

    In studying the origins of agriculture it is critical that we envision food production as a long-term human process that centers on the control and management of cycles of plant reproduction, including the harvesting, storage, and planting of seed stock. Drawing upon a growing body of literature illustrating multiple trajectories and pathways to agriculture, I see domestication as developing through coevolution between human beings and the resources they exploited. A more detailed understanding of the process and pathways of the origins of agriculture requires us to disentangle a complex knot of different yet interrelated factors, including food storage, food surplus, and feasting. I argue that archaeologists have yet to develop a detailed understanding of the scale and economic contributions of food storage in preagriculturalist communities. Evidence from the Near East indicates that use of storage practices increased dramatically after domestication. Analysis indicates that while there was a level of food storage in predomesticate and agricultural context, it was small scale. Finally, I argue that in some cases, discussions of food storage and feasting been reduced to claims of universal importance rather than a contextualized and detailed exploration within a specific cultural, temporal, and geographical case study.

  7. Hydrogen Storage in Novel Molecular Materials, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Viktor V. Struzhkin; Wendy L. Mao; Ho-Kwang Mao; Burkhard Militzer; Russell Hemley

    2006-05-31

    This project is conducting fundamental studies of inorganic H2 clathrates (H2O- and CH4- based). Insights gained from these studies could be applied toward the design and synthesis of hydrogen storage materials that meet the DOE 2010 hydrogen storage targets, especially cost, specific energy, energy density, environmental cleanliness, and safety of hydrogen storage. We have synthesized clathrates with very high H2 contents in diamond anvil cells at high pressure and low temperature; clathrate formation and hydrogen release are spontaneous. The hydrogen clathrate structures have been synthesized at 300 MPa and 250 K with hydrogen weight content about 5%. This clathrate structure (sII) is stable at ambient pressure up to 80 K. The major technical issue is to extend the P-T stability field to near ambient P and T. Our approach is to explore H2-CH4-X and H2-H2O-X systems experimentally and theoretically to find additional components X (promoters ) that will stabilize existing large-cage clathrate structures, and to look for new clathrate structures with even larger hydrogen storage capacity. Most of the experimental studies performed by our group and other researchers have been concentrated on X=THF (tetrahydrofurane molecule).

  8. Materials and structures for stretchable energy storage and conversion devices.

    PubMed

    Xie, Keyu; Wei, Bingqing

    2014-06-11

    Stretchable energy storage and conversion devices (ESCDs) are attracting intensive attention due to their promising and potential applications in realistic consumer products, ranging from portable electronics, bio-integrated devices, space satellites, and electric vehicles to buildings with arbitrarily shaped surfaces. Material synthesis and structural design are core in the development of highly stretchable supercapacitors, batteries, and solar cells for practical applications. This review provides a brief summary of research development on the stretchable ESCDs in the past decade, from structural design strategies to novel materials synthesis. The focuses are on the fundamental insights of mechanical characteristics of materials and structures on the performance of the stretchable ESCDs, as well as challenges for their practical applications. Finally, some of the important directions in the areas of material synthesis and structural design facing the stretchable ESCDs are discussed.

  9. Advances in nonfouling materials: perspectives for the food industry.

    PubMed

    Mérian, Tiphaine; Goddard, Julie M

    2012-03-28

    Fouling of complex food components onto food-processing materials affects food quality, food safety, and operating efficiency. Developments in nonfouling and fouling-release materials for biomedical and marine applications enable the potential for adaptation to food applications; however, challenges remain. The purpose of this review is to present different strategies to prevent fouling and/or facilitate foulant removal with a critical point of view for an application of such materials on food-processing surfaces. Nonfouling, self-cleaning, and amphiphilic materials are reviewed, including an explanation of the mechanism of action, as well as inherent limitations of each technology. Perspectives on future research directions for the design of food processing surfaces with antifouling and/or fouling release properties are provided.

  10. Improved thermal storage material for portable life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellner, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    The availability of thermal storage materials that have heat absorption capabilities substantially greater than water-ice in the same temperature range would permit significant improvements in performance of projected portable thermal storage cooling systems. A method for providing increased heat absorption by the combined use of the heat of solution of certain salts and the heat of fusion of water-ice was investigated. This work has indicated that a 30 percent solution of potassium bifluoride (KHF2) in water can absorb approximately 52 percent more heat than an equal weight of water-ice, and approximately 79 percent more heat than an equal volume of water-ice. The thermal storage material can be regenerated easily by freezing, however, a lower temperature must be used, 261 K as compared to 273 K for water-ice. This work was conducted by the United Aircraft Research Laboratories as part of a program at Hamilton Standard Division of United Aircraft Corporation under contract to NASA Ames Research Center.

  11. Engineered Materials for Cesium and Strontium Storage Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sean M. McDeavitt

    2010-04-14

    Closing the nuclear fuel cycle requires reprocessing spent fuel to recover the long-lived components that still have useful energy content while immobilizing the remnant waste fission products in stable forms. At the genesis of this project, next generation spent fuel reprocessing methods were being developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative. One of these processes was focused on solvent extraction schemes to isolate cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from spent nuclear fuel. Isolating these isotopes for short-term decay storage eases the design requirements for long-term repository disposal; a significant amount of the radiation and decay heat in fission product waste comes from Cs-137 and Sr-90. For the purposes of this project, the Fission Product Extraction (FPEX) process is being considered to be the baseline extraction method. The objective of this project was to evaluate the nature and behavior of candidate materials for cesium and strontium immobilization; this will include assessments with minor additions of yttrium, barium, and rubidium in these materials. More specifically, the proposed research achieved the following objectives (as stated in the original proposal): (1) Synthesize simulated storage ceramics for Cs and Sr using an existing labscale steam reformer at Purdue University. The simulated storage materials will include aluminosilicates, zirconates and other stable ceramics with the potential for high Cs and Sr loading. (2) Characterize the immobilization performance, phase structure, thermal properties and stability of the simulated storage ceramics. The ceramic products will be stable oxide powders and will be characterized to quantify their leach resistance, phase structure, and thermophysical properties. The research progressed in two stages. First, a steam reforming process was used to generate candidate Cs/Sr storage materials for characterization. This portion of the research was carried out at Purdue

  12. Food contamination with styrene dibromide via packaging migration of leachate from polystyrene cold-storage insulation.

    PubMed

    Bendall, Justin G

    2007-04-01

    During distribution through an offshore transportation and cold-storage network, a multitonne consignment of cheese became contaminated, as apparent by a surface taint on some of the cheese blocks. Analysis of the volatile aroma compounds revealed that the taint was caused by styrene dibromide, estimated to be present in the tainted cheese at less than nanogram per gram concentrations. Condensed water, which had accumulated within the polystyrene insulation over a period of years, had been released by physical damage to the walls of an old cold store, and organic contaminants from the leached water had migrated through the packaging material of the cheese bags. Because styrene dibromide is toxic and mutagenic, its presence was intolerable in food intended for human consumption, and the consignment of cheese was ordered to be destroyed.

  13. Sol-gel Technology and Advanced Electrochemical Energy Storage Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Chung-tse; Zheng, Haixing

    1996-01-01

    Advanced materials play an important role in the development of electrochemical energy devices such as batteries, fuel cells, and electrochemical capacitors. The sol-gel process is a versatile solution for use in the fabrication of ceramic materials with tailored stoichiometry, microstructure, and properties. This processing technique is particularly useful in producing porous materials with high surface area and low density, two of the most desirable characteristics for electrode materials. In addition,the porous surface of gels can be modified chemically to create tailored surface properties, and inorganic/organic micro-composites can be prepared for improved material performance device fabrication. Applications of several sol-gel derived electrode materials in different energy storage devices are illustrated in this paper. V2O5 gels are shown to be a promising cathode material for solid state lithium batteries. Carbon aerogels, amorphous RuO2 gels and sol-gel derived hafnium compounds have been studied as electrode materials for high energy density and high power density electrochemical capacitors.

  14. Sol-gel Technology and Advanced Electrochemical Energy Storage Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Chung-tse; Zheng, Haixing

    1996-01-01

    Advanced materials play an important role in the development of electrochemical energy devices such as batteries, fuel cells, and electrochemical capacitors. The sol-gel process is a versatile solution for use in the fabrication of ceramic materials with tailored stoichiometry, microstructure, and properties. This processing technique is particularly useful in producing porous materials with high surface area and low density, two of the most desirable characteristics for electrode materials. In addition,the porous surface of gels can be modified chemically to create tailored surface properties, and inorganic/organic micro-composites can be prepared for improved material performance device fabrication. Applications of several sol-gel derived electrode materials in different energy storage devices are illustrated in this paper. V2O5 gels are shown to be a promising cathode material for solid state lithium batteries. Carbon aerogels, amorphous RuO2 gels and sol-gel derived hafnium compounds have been studied as electrode materials for high energy density and high power density electrochemical capacitors.

  15. Material handling for the Los Alamos National Laboratory Nuclear Material Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Pittman, P.; Roybal, J.; Durrer, R.; Gordon, D.

    1999-04-01

    This paper will present the design and application of material handling and automation systems currently being developed for the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Nuclear Material Storage Facility (NMSF) renovation project. The NMSF is a long-term storage facility for nuclear material in various forms. The material is stored within tubes in a rack called a basket. The material handling equipment range from simple lift assist devices to more sophisticated fully automated robots, and are split into three basic systems: a Vault Automation System, an NDA automation System, and a Drum handling System. The Vault Automation system provides a mechanism to handle a basket of material cans and to load/unload storage tubes within the material vault. In addition, another robot is provided to load/unload material cans within the baskets. The NDA Automation System provides a mechanism to move material within the small canister NDA laboratory and to load/unload the NDA instruments. The Drum Handling System consists of a series of off the shelf components used to assist in lifting heavy objects such as pallets of material or drums and barrels.

  16. Graphene oxide as an optimal candidate material for methane storage.

    PubMed

    Chouhan, Rajiv K; Ulman, Kanchan; Narasimhan, Shobhana

    2015-07-28

    Methane, the primary constituent of natural gas, binds too weakly to nanostructured carbons to meet the targets set for on-board vehicular storage to be viable. We show, using density functional theory calculations, that replacing graphene by graphene oxide increases the adsorption energy of methane by 50%. This enhancement is sufficient to achieve the optimal binding strength. In order to gain insight into the sources of this increased binding, that could also be used to formulate design principles for novel storage materials, we consider a sequence of model systems that progressively take us from graphene to graphene oxide. A careful analysis of the various contributions to the weak binding between the methane molecule and the graphene oxide shows that the enhancement has important contributions from London dispersion interactions as well as electrostatic interactions such as Debye interactions, aided by geometric curvature induced primarily by the presence of epoxy groups.

  17. Graphene oxide as an optimal candidate material for methane storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouhan, Rajiv K.; Ulman, Kanchan; Narasimhan, Shobhana

    2015-07-01

    Methane, the primary constituent of natural gas, binds too weakly to nanostructured carbons to meet the targets set for on-board vehicular storage to be viable. We show, using density functional theory calculations, that replacing graphene by graphene oxide increases the adsorption energy of methane by 50%. This enhancement is sufficient to achieve the optimal binding strength. In order to gain insight into the sources of this increased binding, that could also be used to formulate design principles for novel storage materials, we consider a sequence of model systems that progressively take us from graphene to graphene oxide. A careful analysis of the various contributions to the weak binding between the methane molecule and the graphene oxide shows that the enhancement has important contributions from London dispersion interactions as well as electrostatic interactions such as Debye interactions, aided by geometric curvature induced primarily by the presence of epoxy groups.

  18. 10 CFR 20.1802 - Control of material not in storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control of material not in storage. 20.1802 Section 20.1802 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Storage and Control of Licensed Material § 20.1802 Control of material not in storage. The licensee shall control...

  19. 10 CFR 20.1802 - Control of material not in storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control of material not in storage. 20.1802 Section 20.1802 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Storage and Control of Licensed Material § 20.1802 Control of material not in storage. The licensee shall control...

  20. 10 CFR 20.1802 - Control of material not in storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Control of material not in storage. 20.1802 Section 20.1802 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Storage and Control of Licensed Material § 20.1802 Control of material not in storage. The licensee shall control and...

  1. 10 CFR 20.1802 - Control of material not in storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Control of material not in storage. 20.1802 Section 20.1802 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Storage and Control of Licensed Material § 20.1802 Control of material not in storage. The licensee shall control and...

  2. 10 CFR 20.1802 - Control of material not in storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control of material not in storage. 20.1802 Section 20.1802 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Storage and Control of Licensed Material § 20.1802 Control of material not in storage. The licensee shall control and...

  3. Material synthesis and hydrogen storage of palladium-rhodium alloy.

    SciTech Connect

    Lavernia, Enrique J.; Yang, Nancy Y. C.; Ong, Markus D.

    2011-08-01

    Pd and Pd alloys are candidate material systems for Tr or H storage. We have actively engaged in material synthesis and studied the material science of hydrogen storage for Pd-Rh alloys. In collaboration with UC Davis, we successfully developed/optimized a supersonic gas atomization system, including its processing parameters, for Pd-Rh-based alloy powders. This optimized system and processing enable us to produce {le} 50-{mu}m powders with suitable metallurgical properties for H-storage R&D. In addition, we studied hydrogen absorption-desorption pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) behavior using these gas-atomized Pd-Rh alloy powders. The study shows that the pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) behavior of Pd-Rh alloys is strongly influenced by its metallurgy. The plateau pressure, slope, and H/metal capacity are highly dependent on alloy composition and its chemical distribution. For the gas-atomized Pd-10 wt% Rh, the absorption plateau pressure is relatively high and consistent. However, the absorption-desorption PCT exhibits a significant hysteresis loop that is not seen from the 30-nm nanopowders produced by chemical precipitation. In addition, we observed that the presence of hydrogen introduces strong lattice strain, plastic deformation, and dislocation networking that lead to material hardening, lattice distortions, and volume expansion. The above observations suggest that the H-induced dislocation networking is responsible for the hysteresis loop seen in the current atomized Pd-10 wt% Rh powders. This conclusion is consistent with the hypothesis suggested by Flanagan and others (Ref 1) that plastic deformation or dislocations control the hysteresis loop.

  4. 7 CFR 250.14 - Warehousing, distribution and storage of donated foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... recipient agencies to pick up commodities at a warehouse and to deliver the food to a centralized storage... system for recipient agencies to order specific amounts of food from available inventory; and (ii) An... noncompliance on the part of the warehouse management; (6) A provision allowing for termination of the...

  5. Distribution, abundance, and seasonal patterns of stored product beetles in a commercial food storage facility

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A three-year monitoring study was performed using pitfall traps baited with pheromone lures and food oil to assess seasonal prevalence of stored product beetles inside a large community food storage warehouse located in the Midwestern US. The four primary species captured were Tribolium castaneum (H...

  6. The development of metal hydrides using as concentrating solar thermal storage materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Xuanhui; Li, Yang; Li, Ping; Wan, Qi; Zhai, Fuqiang

    2015-12-01

    Metal hydrides high temperature thermal heat storage technique has great promising future prospects in solar power generation, industrial waste heat utilization and peak load regulating of power system. This article introduces basic principle of metal hydrides for thermal storage, and summarizes developments in advanced metal hydrides high-temperature thermal storage materials, numerical simulation and thermodynamic calculation in thermal storage systems, and metal hydrides thermal storage prototypes. Finally, the future metal hydrides high temperature thermal heat storage technique is been looked ahead.

  7. Enhancing pseudocapacitive charge storage in polymer templated mesoporous materials.

    PubMed

    Rauda, Iris E; Augustyn, Veronica; Dunn, Bruce; Tolbert, Sarah H

    2013-05-21

    Growing global energy demands coupled with environmental concerns have increased the need for renewable energy sources. For intermittent renewable sources like solar and wind to become available on demand will require the use of energy storage devices. Batteries and supercapacitors, also known as electrochemical capacitors (ECs), represent the most widely used energy storage devices. Supercapacitors are frequently overlooked as an energy storage technology, however, despite the fact that these devices provide greater power, much faster response times, and longer cycle life than batteries. Their limitation is that the energy density of ECs is significantly lower than that of batteries, and this has limited their potential applications. This Account reviews our recent work on improving pseudocapacitive energy storage performance by tailoring the electrode architecture. We report our studies of mesoporous transition metal oxide architectures that store charge through surface or near-surface redox reactions, a phenomenon termed pseudocapacitance. The faradaic nature of pseudocapacitance leads to significant increases in energy density and thus represents an exciting future direction for ECs. We show that both the choice of material and electrode architecture is important for producing the ideal pseudocapacitor device. Here we first briefly review the current state of electrode architectures for pseudocapacitors, from slurry electrodes to carbon/metal oxide composites. We then describe the synthesis of mesoporous films made with amphiphilic diblock copolymer templating agents, specifically those optimized for pseudocapacitive charge storage. These include films synthesized from nanoparticle building blocks and films made from traditional battery materials. In the case of more traditional battery materials, we focus on using flexible architectures to minimize the strain associated with lithium intercalation, that is, the accumulation of lithium ions or atoms between the

  8. Development of thermal energy storage materials for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Shukla, A; Sharma, Atul; Shukla, Manjari; Chen, C R

    2015-01-01

    The phase change materials (PCMs) have been utilized widely for solar thermal energy storage (TES) devices. The quality of these materials to remain at a particular temperature during solid-liquid, liquid-solid phase transition can also be utilized for many biomedical applications as well and has been explored in recent past already. This study reports some novel PCMs developed by them, along with some existing PCMs, to be used for such biomedical applications. Interestingly, it was observed that the heating/cooling properties of these PCMs enhance the quality of a variety of biomedical applications with many advantages (non-electric, no risk of electric shock, easy to handle, easy to recharge thermally, long life, cheap and easily available, reusable) over existing applications. Results of the present study are quite interesting and exciting, opening a plethora of opportunities for more work on the subject, which require overlapping expertise of material scientists, biochemists and medical experts for broader social benefits.

  9. Importance of storage time in mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste.

    PubMed

    Lü, Fan; Xu, Xian; Shao, Liming; He, Pinjing

    2016-07-01

    Storage was used as a pretreatment to enhance the methanization performance of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste. Food wastes were separately stored for 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 12days, and then fed into a methanogenic reactor for a biochemical methane potential (BMP) test lasting up to 60days. Relative to the methane production of food waste stored for 0-1day (285-308mL/g-added volatile solids (VSadded)), that after 2-4days and after 5-12days of storage increased to 418-530 and 618-696mL/g-VSadded, respectively. The efficiency of hydrolysis and acidification of pre-stored food waste in the methanization reactors increased with storage time. The characteristics of stored waste suggest that methane production was not correlated with the total hydrolysis efficiency of organics in pre-stored food waste but was positively correlated with the storage time and acidification level of the waste. From the results, we recommend 5-7days of storage of food waste in anaerobic digestion treatment plants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Nanostructured Materials for Advanced Electrochemical Energy Storage Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Benjamin E.

    This dissertation discusses work aimed at developing and improving nanostructured materials for electrochemical energy storage, specifically electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) and lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). This was achieved through a combination of templating, precursor selection, and heteroatom doping to control the morphology and composition of the materials for improved performance in both types of energy storage. The first part of the thesis discusses EDLCs. First, a new method to produce soft-templated carbon materials is described. This process allows for improved production of mesoporous carbon made through soft templating. The work continues with using ionic liquids to dope nitrogen into hard templated mesoporous carbon. This led to a 40% improvement in specific capacitance due to improved conductivity. The section concludes with an investigation of physical and electrochemical properties of twelve ionic liquid electrolytes to determine which parameters are most important to achieve a high energy density. The second part discusses my work on LIBs, starting with a design of a low-cost electrochemical cell for in-situ X-ray diffraction monitoring during galvanostatic cycling. It continues with the development of a novel cathode material, Li8ZrO6, with a high lithium content. In this material, the redox activity is localized on oxygen atoms. Li8ZrO6 displays initial capacities higher than those of commercial materials but has large polarization. The capacity is further improved with transition metal doping, leading to a final specific capacity of over 175 mAh/g after 140 cycles at a rate of C/5.

  11. Coupling of exothermic and endothermic hydrogen storage materials

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Bowden, Mark E.; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Houghton, Adrian Y.; Autrey, S. Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Chemical hydrogen storage (CHS) materials are a high-storage-density alternative to the gaseous compressed hydrogen currently used to provide hydrogen for fuel cell vehicles. One of the challenges of CHS materials is addressing the thermodynamic and kinetic barriers required to break the chemical bonds and release the hydrogen. Coupling CHS reactions that are endothermic and exothermic during the dehydrogenation can improve the system on-board energy efficiency and thermal control, making such materials viable. Acceptable coupling between reactions requires both thermodynamic and kinetics considerations. Models were developed to predict the reaction enthalpy and rate required to achieve high conversions for both reactions based on experimental measurements. These modeling results show that the efficiency of coupling of an exothermic and endothermic reaction is more sensitive the magnitude of the ratio of the exothermic and endothermic enthalpies than the ratio of the rates of the two steps. The modeling shows further that a slower rate of the endothermic step is desirable to permit sufficient heating of the reactor by the exothermic step. We look at two examples of a sequential and parallel reaction scheme and provide some of the first insight into the required temperature range to maximize the H2 release from 1,2-BN cyclohexane and indoline.

  12. Coupling of exothermic and endothermic hydrogen storage materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Bowden, Mark E.; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Houghton, Adrian Y.; Autrey, S. Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Chemical hydrogen storage (CHS) materials are a high-storage-density alternative to the gaseous compressed hydrogen currently used to provide hydrogen for fuel cell vehicles. One of the challenges of CHS materials is addressing the energy barriers required to break the chemical bonds and release the hydrogen. Coupling CHS reactions that are endothermic and exothermic during dehydrogenation can improve onboard energy efficiency and thermal control for the system, making such materials viable. Acceptable coupling between reactions requires both thermodynamic and kinetic considerations. In this work, models were developed to predict the reaction enthalpy and rate required to achieve high conversions for both reactions based on experimental measurements. Modeling results show that the coupling efficiency of exothermic and endothermic reactions is more sensitive to the ratio of the exothermic and endothermic enthalpies than to the ratio of the rates of the two steps. Modeling results also show that a slower endothermic step rate is desirable to permit sufficient heating of the reactor by the exothermic step. We look at two examples of a sequential and parallel reaction scheme and provide some of the first published insight into the required temperature range to maximize the hydrogen release from 1,2-BN cyclohexane and indoline.

  13. Nanoporous and Nanostructured Materials for Energy Storage and Sensor Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Anh D.

    The major objective of this work is to design nanostructured and nanoporous materials targeting the special needs of the energy storage and sensing fields. Nanostructured and nanoporous materials are increasingly finding applications in many fields, including electrical energy storage and explosive sensing. The advancement of energy storage devices is important to the development of three fields that have strong effects on human society: renewable energy, transportation, and portable devices. More sensitive explosive sensors will help to prevent terrorism activities and boost national security. Hierarchically porous LiFePO4 (LFP)/C composites were prepared using a surfactant and colloidal crystals as dual templates. The surfactant serves as the template for mesopores and polymeric colloidal spheres serve as the template for macropores. The confinement of the surfactant-LFP-carbon precursor in the colloidal templates is crucial to suppress the fast crystallization of LFP and helps to maintain the ordered structure. The obtained composites with high surface areas and ordered porous structure showed excellent rate performance when used as cathode materials for LIBs, which will allow them to be used as a power source for EVs and HEVs. The synthesis of LiFePO 4 in three dimensionally confined spaces within the colloidal template resulted in the formation of spherical particles. Densely packed LiFePO 4 spheres in a carbon matrix were obtained by spin-casting the LFP-carbon precursor on a quartz substrate and then pyrolyzing it. The product showed high capacity and could be charged /discharged with very little capacity fading over many cycles. Three-dimensionally ordered mesoporous carbons were prepared from nano-sized silica sphere colloidal crystal templates. These materials with very high surface areas and ordered porous structure showed high capacitance and excellent rate capability when used as electrodes for supercapacitors. Mesoporous silica thin films of different

  14. Storage life of parachutes -- long time material degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Ericksen, R.H.; Whinery, L.D.

    1995-04-01

    This study considers the long-time storage of single-use nylon and Kevlar{reg_sign} parachutes. The authors present data from a 29-year-old nylon parachute, and nylon and Kevlar{reg_sign} test samples stored 14 years under ambient conditions in the absence of sunlight. They compare the results with existing predictions of parachute material degradation and other aging data. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses were preformed on Nylon and Kevlar{reg_sign} fabrics that were degraded by elevated temperature aging. The results suggest that this technique should be further examined as a {open_quotes}non-destructive{close_quotes} method of detecting degradation.

  15. Charge induced enhancement of adsorption for hydrogen storage materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiang

    2009-12-01

    The rising concerns about environmental pollution and global warming have facilitated research interest in hydrogen energy as an alternative energy source. To apply hydrogen for transportations, several issues have to be solved, within which hydrogen storage is the most critical problem. Lots of materials and devices have been developed; however, none is able to meet the DOE storage target. The primary issue for hydrogen physisorption is a weak interaction between hydrogen and the surface of solid materials, resulting negligible adsorption at room temperature. To solve this issue, there is a need to increase the interaction between the hydrogen molecules and adsorbent surface. In this study, intrinsic electric dipole is investigated to enhance the adsorption energy. The results from the computer simulation of single ionic compounds with hydrogen molecules to form hydrogen clusters showed that electrical charge of substances plays an important role in generation of attractive interaction with hydrogen molecules. In order to further examine the effects of static interaction on hydrogen adsorption, activated carbon with a large surface area was impregnated with various ionic salts including LiCl, NaCl, KCl, KBr, and NiCl2 and their performance for hydrogen storage was evaluated by using a volumetric method. Corresponding computer simulations have been carried out by using DFT (Density Functional Theory) method combined with point charge arrays. Both experimental and computational results prove that the adsorption capacity of hydrogen and its interaction with the solid materials increased with electrical dipole moment. Besides the intrinsic dipole, an externally applied electric field could be another means to enhance hydrogen adsorption. Hydrogen adsorption under an applied electric field was examined by using porous nickel foil as electrodes. Electrical signals showed that adsorption capacity increased with the increasing of gas pressure and external electric voltage

  16. Sc-phthalocyanine sheet: Promising material for hydrogen storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Kun; Zhou, Jian; Zhou, Le; Wang, Qian; Sun, Qiang; Jena, Puru

    2011-10-01

    It has been a long-standing dream to have high surface area materials with isolated and exposed transition-metal ions for hydrogen storage. The flexible synthesis procedure proposed recently by M. Abel, et al. [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 1203 (2011)] and A. Sperl et al. [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 11007 (2011)] provides a different pathway to achieve this goal. Using first-principles theory and grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation, we carry out a systematic study of 3d transition metals (Sc to Zn)-phthalocyanine porous sheets and find that Sc-phthalocyanine can store 4.6 wt. % hydrogen at 298 K and 100 bar.

  17. Computational Insights into Materials and Interfaces for Capacitive Energy Storage

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Cheng; Lian, Cheng; Zhang, Yu; Thompson, Matthew W.; Xie, Yu; Wu, Jianzhong; Kent, Paul R. C.; Cummings, Peter T.; Wesolowski, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Supercapacitors such as electric double‐layer capacitors (EDLCs) and pseudocapacitors are becoming increasingly important in the field of electrical energy storage. Theoretical study of energy storage in EDLCs focuses on solving for the electric double‐layer structure in different electrode geometries and electrolyte components, which can be achieved by molecular simulations such as classical molecular dynamics (MD), classical density functional theory (classical DFT), and Monte‐Carlo (MC) methods. In recent years, combining first‐principles and classical simulations to investigate the carbon‐based EDLCs has shed light on the importance of quantum capacitance in graphene‐like 2D systems. More recently, the development of joint density functional theory (JDFT) enables self‐consistent electronic‐structure calculation for an electrode being solvated by an electrolyte. In contrast with the large amount of theoretical and computational effort on EDLCs, theoretical understanding of pseudocapacitance is very limited. In this review, we first introduce popular modeling methods and then focus on several important aspects of EDLCs including nanoconfinement, quantum capacitance, dielectric screening, and novel 2D electrode design; we also briefly touch upon pseudocapactive mechanism in RuO2. We summarize and conclude with an outlook for the future of materials simulation and design for capacitive energy storage. PMID:28725531

  18. Controlling Nanostructure for Catalytic and Electrochemical Energy Storage Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushove, Tapiwa

    Materials with precisely controlled nanostructures are needed to significantly enhance the efficiencies of next-generation chemical conversion and energy storage systems. This dissertation employs light and electrochemical techniques to control nanostructure of catalytic and electrochemical energy storage materials. We also define nanostructure-function relationships for three material systems. This information could help the design and synthesis of materials with superior performance. Single layer (SL), multilayer (ML), and wave-like (WL) hematite nanotube arrays (NA) were fabricated via the electrochemical anodization of iron foils. The films' current responses during fabrication were tracked, allowing for the characterization of NA growth. Four distinct stages were identified: an ohmic response stage, an oxide film formation stage, a chemical dissolution stage, and a steady-state growth stage. Morphological and photoelectrochemical properties of the hematite electrodes were characterized and correlated with their photocatalytic performances. The IPCE of the WLNA at 350 nm was ~3 times that of the SLNA, and ~12 times that of the MLNA. Charge carrier transport and the active electrochemical surface area of the different morphologies were significant determinants of photocatalytic performance. Niobium pentoxide (Nb2O5) NA and planar electrodes were fabricated via a similar anodization technique. The Li+ intercalation behavior of the electrodes was characterized. NA electrodes exhibited a four-fold improvement in charge storage capacity and higher rate capabilities relative to planar electrodes due to larger surface areas and shorter ion diffusion lengths in the NA. Light of different wavelengths was used to control the photodeposition of noble metals on semiconducting tungsten trioxide. The metal nanoparticle sizes and weight loadings were functions of the illumination time, while geometries were controlled by the wavelength. Intrinsic variations in the plasmonic

  19. Corrosion Behavior of Nuclear Waste Storage Canister Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, John

    The nature of interaction of mild steel nuclear waste storage containers with technetium ions is not fully known. Technetium is formed during nuclear processing and some of this technetium has leaked at the Hanford nuclear waste storage site in Washington State. It is often found as highly oxidized pertechnetate (TeO4-) anions at these storage sites which also happen to be highly alkaline and contain a significant amount of nitrate. Theoretically, pertechnetate anions can act as electron acceptors and interact with the mild steel containers and accelerate the oxidation (corrosion) of steel. It is of interest to identify if pertechnetate anions pose a corrosion hazard to the mild steel nuclear waste storage tanks, under the conditions of the storage sites, as that can accelerate the degradation of the tanks and lead to further contamination. In this thesis, the interaction of two relevant container materials, namely, steel alloys A285 and A537 with a technetium surrogate, rhenium was studied. Perrhenate was used as an analog for pertechnetate. As all isotopes of technetium are radioactive, rhenium was chosen as the experimental surrogate due to its chemical similarity to technetium. Electrochemical behavior was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization tests, and the surface morphology was studied using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Potentiodynamic polarization tests were conducted in 1.0M NaNO3 + 0.1M NaOH and 1.0M NaNO3 + 0.1M NaOH + 0.02M NaReO4. Tests were performed at three different temperatures, namely, (i) room temperature, (ii) 50°C and (iii) 80°C to study the effect of higher temperatures found in the storage sites. Corrosion current, corrosion potential, anodic and cathodic Tafel slopes, polarization resistance and corrosion rates were obtained from electrochemical testing and evaluated. Increasing temperatures was found to lead to increasing corrosion rates for all samples. The data also revealed increased corrosion from

  20. ALUMINUM HYDRIDE: A REVERSIBLE MATERIAL FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Zidan, R; Christopher Fewox, C; Brenda Garcia-Diaz, B; Joshua Gray, J

    2009-01-09

    Hydrogen storage is one of the challenges to be overcome for implementing the ever sought hydrogen economy. Here we report a novel cycle to reversibly form high density hydrogen storage materials such as aluminium hydride. Aluminium hydride (AlH{sub 3}, alane) has a hydrogen storage capacity of 10.1 wt% H{sub 2}, 149 kg H{sub 2}/m{sup 3} volumetric density and can be discharged at low temperatures (< 100 C). However, alane has been precluded from use in hydrogen storage systems because of the lack of practical regeneration methods. The direct hydrogenation of aluminium to form AlH{sub 3} requires over 10{sup 5} bars of hydrogen pressure at room temperature and there are no cost effective synthetic means. Here we show an unprecedented reversible cycle to form alane electrochemically, using alkali metal alanates (e.g. NaAlH{sub 4}, LiAlH{sub 4}) in aprotic solvents. To complete the cycle, the starting alanates can be regenerated by direct hydrogenation of the dehydrided alane and the alkali hydride being the other compound formed in the electrochemical cell. The process of forming NaAlH{sub 4} from NaH and Al is well established in both solid state and solution reactions. The use of adducting Lewis bases is an essential part of this cycle, in the isolation of alane from the mixtures of the electrochemical cell. Alane is isolated as the triethylamine (TEA) adduct and converted to pure, unsolvated alane by heating under vacuum.

  1. ALUMINUM HYDRIDE: A REVERSIBLE MATERIAL FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Fewox, C; Ragaiy Zidan, R; Brenda Garcia-Diaz, B

    2008-12-31

    Hydrogen storage is one of the greatest challenges for implementing the ever sought hydrogen economy. Here we report a novel cycle to reversibly form high density hydrogen storage materials such as aluminium hydride. Aluminium hydride (AlH{sub 3}, alane) has a hydrogen storage capacity of 10.1 wt% H{sub 2}, 149 kg H{sub 2}/m{sup 3} volumetric density and can be discharged at low temperatures (< 100 C). However, alane has been precluded from use in hydrogen storage systems because of the lack of practical regeneration methods; the direct hydrogenation of aluminium to form AlH{sub 3} requires over 10{sup 5} bars of hydrogen pressure at room temperature and there are no cost effective synthetic means. Here we show an unprecedented reversible cycle to form alane electrochemically, using alkali alanates (e.g. NaAlH{sub 4}, LiAlH{sub 4}) in aprotic solvents. To complete the cycle, the starting alanates can be regenerated by direct hydrogenation of the dehydrided alane and the alkali hydride being the other compound formed in the electrochemical cell. The process of forming NaAlH{sub 4} from NaH and Al is well established in both solid state and solution reactions. The use of adducting Lewis bases is an essential part of this cycle, in the isolation of alane from the mixtures of the electrochemical cell. Alane is isolated as the triethylamine (TEA) adduct and converted to pure, unsolvated alane by heating under vacuum.

  2. Characterization of storage material in cultured fibroblasts by specific lectin binding in lysosomal storage diseases.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, I; Ekblom, P; Laurila, P; Nordling, S; Raivio, K O; Aula, P

    1980-11-01

    The lysosomal storage material in cultured fibroblasts from patients with various lysosomal storage diseases was characterized by fluorescence microscopy using lectins specific for different saccharide moieties. In normal fibroblasts and cultured amniotic fluid cells lectins specific for mannosyl and glucosyl moieties, Con A and LcA gave a bright perinuclear cytoplasmic staining corresponding to the localization of endoplasmic reticulum in the cells. All other lectins stained the Golgi apparatus as a juxtanuclear reticular structure. In fucosidosis fibroblasts, only lectins specific for fucosyl groups LTA and UEA, distinctly stained the lysosomal inclusions. The lysosomes in mannosidosis fibroblasts did not react with Con A and LcA, both specific for mannosyl moieties of glycoconjugates, but were brightly labeled with WGA, a lectin specific for N-acetyl glucosaminyl moieties. In I-cell fibroblasts, the numerous perinuclear phase-dense granules, representing abnormal lysosomes, were labeled with every lectin used. In fibroblasts from patients with Salla disease, a newly discovered lysosomal storage disorder, the lysosomes were brightly stained only with LPA, indicating the presence of increased amounts of sialic acid residues in the lysosomal inclusions.

  3. Advanced materials and concepts for energy storage devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Shiang Jen

    Over the last decade, technological progress and advances in the miniaturization of electronic devices have increased demands for light-weight, high-efficiency, and carbon-free energy storage devices. These energy storage devices are expected to play important roles in automobiles, the military, power plants, and consumer electronics. Two main types of electrical energy storage systems studied in this research are Li ion batteries and supercapacitors. Several promising solid state electrolytes and supercapacitor electrode materials are investigated in this research. The first section of this dissertation is focused on the novel results on pulsed laser annealing of Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO). LLZO powders with a tetragonal structure were prepared by a sol-gel technique, then a pulsed laser annealing process was employed to convert the tetragonal powders to cubic LLZO without any loss of lithium. The second section of the dissertation reports on how Li5La 3Nb2O12 (LLNO) was successfully synthesized via a novel molten salt synthesis (MSS) method at the relatively low temperature of 900°C. The low sintering temperature prevented the loss of lithium that commonly occurs during synthesis using conventional solid state or wet chemical reactions. The second type of energy storage device studied is supercapacitors. Currently, research on supercapacitors is focused on increasing their energy densities and lowering their overall production costs by finding suitable electrode materials. The third section of this dissertation details how carbonized woods electrodes were used as supercapacitor electrode materials. A high energy density of 45.6 Wh/kg and a high power density of 2000 W/kg were obtained from the supercapacitor made from carbonized wood electrodes. The high performance of the supercapacitor was discovered to originate from the hierarchical porous structures of the carbonized wood. Finally, the fourth section of this dissertation is on the electrochemical effects of

  4. Industrial waste materials and by-products as thermal energy storage (TES) materials: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, Andrea; Miró, Laia; Gil, Antoni; Rodríguez-Aseguinolaza, Javier; Barreneche, Camila; Calvet, Nicolas; Py, Xavier; Fernández, A. Inés; Grágeda, Mario; Ushak, Svetlana; Cabeza, Luisa F.

    2016-05-01

    A wide variety of potential materials for thermal energy storage (TES) have been identify depending on the implemented TES method, Sensible, latent or thermochemical. In order to improve the efficiency of TES systems more alternatives are continuously being sought. In this regard, this paper presents the review of low cost heat storage materials focused mainly in two objectives: on the one hand, the implementation of improved heat storage devices based on new appropriate materials and, on the other hand, the valorisation of waste industrial materials will have strong environmental, economic and societal benefits such as reducing the landfilled waste amounts, reducing the greenhouse emissions and others. Different industrial and municipal waste materials and by products have been considered as potential TES materials and have been characterized as such. Asbestos containing wastes, fly ashes, by-products from the salt industry and from the metal industry, wastes from recycling steel process and from copper refining process and dross from the aluminium industry, and municipal wastes (glass and nylon) have been considered. This work shows a great revalorization of wastes and by-product opportunity as TES materials, although more studies are needed to achieve industrial deployment of the idea.

  5. Storage Stability and Improvement of Intermediate Moisture Foods, Phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labuza, T. P.

    1975-01-01

    Methods were determined for the improvement of shelf-life stability of intermediate moisture foods (IMF). Microbial challenge studies showed that protection against molds and Staphylococcus aureus could be achieved by a combination of antimicrobial agents, humectants and food acids. Potassium sorbate and propylene glycol gave the best results. It was also confirmed that the maximum in heat resistance shown by vegetative pathogens at intermediate water activities also occurred in a solid food. Glycols and sorbitol both achieve browning inhibition because of their action as a medium for reaction and effect on viscosity of the adsorbed phase. Chemical availability results showed rapid lysine loss before visual discoloration occurred. This is being confirmed with a biological test using Tetrahymena pyriformis W. Accelerated temperature tests show that effectiveness of food antioxidants against rancidity development can be predicted; however, the protection factor changes with temperature. BHA was found to be the best antioxidant for iron catalyzed oxidation.

  6. Electric field enhanced hydrogen storage on polarizable materials substrates.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J; Wang, Q; Sun, Q; Jena, P; Chen, X S

    2010-02-16

    Using density functional theory, we show that an applied electric field can substantially improve the hydrogen storage properties of polarizable substrates. This new concept is demonstrated by adsorbing a layer of hydrogen molecules on a number of nanomaterials. When one layer of H(2) molecules is adsorbed on a BN sheet, the binding energy per H(2) molecule increases from 0.03 eV/H(2) in the field-free case to 0.14 eV/H(2) in the presence of an electric field of 0.045 a.u. The corresponding gravimetric density of 7.5 wt% is consistent with the 6 wt% system target set by Department of Energy for 2010. The strength of the electric field can be reduced if the substrate is more polarizable. For example, a hydrogen adsorption energy of 0.14 eV/H(2) can be achieved by applying an electric field of 0.03 a.u. on an AlN substrate, 0.006 a.u. on a silsesquioxane molecule, and 0.007 a.u. on a silsesquioxane sheet. Thus, application of an electric field to a polarizable substrate provides a novel way to store hydrogen; once the applied electric field is removed, the stored H(2) molecules can be easily released, thus making storage reversible with fast kinetics. In addition, we show that materials with rich low-coordinated nonmetal anions are highly polarizable and can serve as a guide in the design of new hydrogen storage materials.

  7. Electric field enhanced hydrogen storage on polarizable materials substrates

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, J.; Wang, Q.; Sun, Q.; Jena, P.; Chen, X. S.

    2010-01-01

    Using density functional theory, we show that an applied electric field can substantially improve the hydrogen storage properties of polarizable substrates. This new concept is demonstrated by adsorbing a layer of hydrogen molecules on a number of nanomaterials. When one layer of H2 molecules is adsorbed on a BN sheet, the binding energy per H2 molecule increases from 0.03 eV/H2 in the field-free case to 0.14 eV/H2 in the presence of an electric field of 0.045 a.u. The corresponding gravimetric density of 7.5 wt% is consistent with the 6 wt% system target set by Department of Energy for 2010. The strength of the electric field can be reduced if the substrate is more polarizable. For example, a hydrogen adsorption energy of 0.14 eV/H2 can be achieved by applying an electric field of 0.03 a.u. on an AlN substrate, 0.006 a.u. on a silsesquioxane molecule, and 0.007 a.u. on a silsesquioxane sheet. Thus, application of an electric field to a polarizable substrate provides a novel way to store hydrogen; once the applied electric field is removed, the stored H2 molecules can be easily released, thus making storage reversible with fast kinetics. In addition, we show that materials with rich low-coordinated nonmetal anions are highly polarizable and can serve as a guide in the design of new hydrogen storage materials. PMID:20133647

  8. System level permeability modeling of porous hydrogen storage materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Kanouff, Michael P.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Voskuilen, Tyler

    2010-01-01

    A permeability model for hydrogen transport in a porous material is successfully applied to both laboratory-scale and vehicle-scale sodium alanate hydrogen storage systems. The use of a Knudsen number dependent relationship for permeability of the material in conjunction with a constant area fraction channeling model is shown to accurately predict hydrogen flow through the reactors. Generally applicable model parameters were obtained by numerically fitting experimental measurements from reactors of different sizes and aspect ratios. The degree of channeling was experimentally determined from the measurements and found to be 2.08% of total cross-sectional area. Use of this constant area channeling model and the Knudsen dependent Young & Todd permeability model allows for accurate prediction of the hydrogen uptake performance of full-scale sodium alanate and similar metal hydride systems.

  9. Reversible Hydrogen Storage Materials – Structure, Chemistry, and Electronic Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Ian M.; Johnson, Duane D.

    2014-06-21

    To understand the processes involved in the uptake and release of hydrogen from candidate light-weight metal hydride storage systems, a combination of materials characterization techniques and first principle calculation methods have been employed. In addition to conventional microstructural characterization in the transmission electron microscope, which provides projected information about the through thickness microstructure, electron tomography methods were employed to determine the three-dimensional spatial distribution of catalyst species for select systems both before and after dehydrogenation. Catalyst species identification as well as compositional analysis of the storage material before and after hydrogen charging and discharging was performed using a combination of energy dispersive spectroscopy, EDS, and electron energy loss spectroscopy, EELS. The characterization effort was coupled with first-principles, electronic-structure and thermodynamic techniques to predict and assess meta-stable and stable phases, reaction pathways, and thermodynamic and kinetic barriers. Systems studied included:NaAlH4, CaH2/CaB6 and Ca(BH4)2, MgH2/MgB2, Ni-Catalyzed Magnesium Hydride, TiH2-Catalyzed Magnesium Hydride, LiBH4, Aluminum-based systems and Aluminum

  10. Effect of Non-Dairy Food Matrices on the Survival of Probiotic Bacteria during Storage

    PubMed Central

    Min, Min; Bunt, Craig R.; Mason, Susan L.; Bennett, Grant N.

    2017-01-01

    The viability of probiotics in non-dairy food products during storage is required to meet content criteria for probiotic products. This study investigated whether non-dairy foods could be matrices for probiotics. Selected probiotic bacteria were coated on non-dairy foods under two storage conditions, and viabilities were assessed. The non-dairy foods were coated with 5–7 log cfu g−1 of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC4356T, Lactobacillus plantarum RC30, and Bifidobacterium longum ATCC15707T. The coated non-dairy foods were stored at 20 °C and 20% relative humidity (RH) or 30 °C and 50% RH. Viability of probiotic bacteria was determined after 0, 2, and 4 weeks of storage. B. longum showed the highest survival at week 4 of 6.5–6.7 log cfu g−1 on wheat bran and oat, compared with 3.7–3.9 log cfu g−1 of L. acidophilus and 4.2–4.8 log cfu g−1 of L. plantarum at 20 °C 20% RH. Under the storage conditions of 30 °C 50% RH, survival of 4.5 log cfu g−1 of B. longum was also found on oat and peanut. This was two and four times higher than the population of L. acidophilus and L. plantarum, respectively. The results suggest that probiotics can survive on non-dairy foods under ambient storage conditions. However, the storage conditions, food matrices, and probiotic strains should be carefully chosen to maximize probiotic bacteria survival. PMID:28763015

  11. Effect of Non-Dairy Food Matrices on the Survival of Probiotic Bacteria during Storage.

    PubMed

    Min, Min; Bunt, Craig R; Mason, Susan L; Bennett, Grant N; Hussain, Malik A

    2017-08-01

    The viability of probiotics in non-dairy food products during storage is required to meet content criteria for probiotic products. This study investigated whether non-dairy foods could be matrices for probiotics. Selected probiotic bacteria were coated on non-dairy foods under two storage conditions, and viabilities were assessed. The non-dairy foods were coated with 5-7 log cfu g(-1) of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC4356(T), Lactobacillus plantarum RC30, and Bifidobacterium longum ATCC15707(T). The coated non-dairy foods were stored at 20 °C and 20% relative humidity (RH) or 30 °C and 50% RH. Viability of probiotic bacteria was determined after 0, 2, and 4 weeks of storage. B. longum showed the highest survival at week 4 of 6.5-6.7 log cfu g(-1) on wheat bran and oat, compared with 3.7-3.9 log cfu g(-1) of L. acidophilus and 4.2-4.8 log cfu g(-1) of L. plantarum at 20 °C 20% RH. Under the storage conditions of 30 °C 50% RH, survival of 4.5 log cfu g(-1) of B. longum was also found on oat and peanut. This was two and four times higher than the population of L. acidophilus and L. plantarum, respectively. The results suggest that probiotics can survive on non-dairy foods under ambient storage conditions. However, the storage conditions, food matrices, and probiotic strains should be carefully chosen to maximize probiotic bacteria survival.

  12. Synthesis and Engineering Materials Properties of Fluid Phase Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials for Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Young Joon; Westman, Matthew P.; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Chun, Jaehun; Ronnebro, Ewa

    2015-09-01

    Among candidates for chemical hydrogen storage in PEM fuel cell automotive applications, ammonia borane (AB, NH3BH3) is considered to be one of the most promising materials due to its high practical hydrogen content of 14-16 wt%. This material is selected as a surrogate chemical for a hydrogen storage system. For easier transition to the existing infrastructure, a fluid phase hydrogen storage material is very attractive and thus, we investigated the engineering materials properties of AB in liquid carriers for a chemical hydrogen storage slurry system. Slurries composed of AB and high temperature liquids were prepared by mechanical milling and sonication in order to obtain stable and fluidic properties. Volumetric gas burette system was adopted to observe the kinetics of the H2 release reactions of the AB slurry and neat AB. Viscometry and microscopy were employed to further characterize slurries engineering properties. Using a tip-sonication method we have produced AB/silicone fluid slurries at solid loadings up to 40wt% (6.5wt% H2) with viscosities less than 500cP at 25°C.

  13. 30 CFR 57.6131 - Location of explosive material storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage-Surface Only § 57.6131 Location of explosive material storage facilities... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Location of explosive material storage facilities. 57.6131 Section 57.6131 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  14. Least Cost Decision Rules for the Selection of Library Materials for Compact Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lister, Winston C.

    Two aspects to be considered in designing a storage system for library materials are: the fraction of the collection which is to be stored; and the criteria to be used for selecting materials for storage. This study demonstrates that for a given selection criterion least-cost storage quantities can be assessed by balancing the large circulation…

  15. Progress in improving thermodynamics and kinetics of new hydrogen storage materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Li-fang; Jiang, Chun-hong; Liu, Shu-sheng; Jiao, Cheng-li; Si, Xiao-liang; Wang, Shuang; Li, Fen; Zhang, Jian; Sun, Li-xian; Xu, Fen; Huang, Feng-lei

    2011-06-01

    Hydrogen storage material has been much developed recently because of its potential for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell applications. A successful solid-state reversible storage material should meet the requirements of high storage capacity, suitable thermodynamic properties, and fast adsorption and desorption kinetics. Complex hydrides, including boron hydride and alanate, ammonia borane, metal organic frameworks (MOFs), covalent organic frameworks (COFs) and zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs), are remarkable hydrogen storage materials because of their advantages of high energy density and safety. This feature article focuses mainly on the thermodynamics and kinetics of these hydrogen storage materials in the past few years.

  16. High Capacity Cathode Materials for Next Generation Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papandrea, Benjamin John

    Energy storage devices are of increasing importance for applications in mobile electronics, hybrid electric vehicles, and can also play a critical role in renewable energy harvesting, conversion and storage. Since its commercial inception in the 1990's, the lithium-ion battery represents the dominant energy storage technology for mobile power supply today. However, the total capacity of lithium-ion batteries is largely limited by the theoretical capacities of the cathode materials such as LiCoO2 (272 mAh g-1), and LiFePO4 (170 mAh g-1), and cannot satisfy the increasing consumer demand, thus new cathode materials with higher capacities must be explored. Two of the most promising cathode materials with significantly larger theoretical capacities are sulfur (1675 mAh g-1) and air, specifically the oxygen (3840 mAh g-1). However, the usage of either of these cathodic materials is plagued with numerous issues that must be overcome before their commercialization. In the first part of my dissertation, we investigated the usage of a three-dimensional graphene membrane for a high energy density lithium-air (Li-Air) battery in ambient condition. One of the issues with Li-Air batteries is the many side reaction that can occur during discharge in ambient condition, especially with water vapor. Using a hydrophobic tortuous three-dimensional graphene membrane we are able to inhibit the diffusion of water vapor and create a lithium-air battery that cycles over 2000 times with a capacity limited at 140 mAh g-1, over 100 cycles with a capacity limited at 1425 mAh g-1, and over 20 cycles at the high capacity of 5700 mAh g-1. In the second part of my dissertation, we investigate the usage of a three-dimensional graphene aerogel to maximize the loading of sulfur to create a freestanding electrode with high capacity for a lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery. We demonstrated that our three-dimensional graphene aerogel could sustain a loading of 95% by weight, and we achieved a capacity of

  17. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) Food Recovery Challenge (FRC) Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As part of EPA's Food Recovery Challenge (FRC), organizations pledge to improve their sustainable food management practices and report their results. The FRC is part of EPA's Sustainable Materials Management Program (SMM). SMM seeks to reduce the environmental impact of materials through their entire life cycle. This includes how they are extracted, manufactured, distributed, used, reused, recycled, and disposed. Organizations are encouraged to follow the Food Recovery Hierarchy (https://www.epa.gov/sustainable-management-food/food-recovery-hierarchy) to prioritize their actions to prevent and divert wasted food. Each tier of the Food Recovery Hierarchy focuses on different management strategies for your wasted food. The program started in 2011 and the first data were made available in 2012. The FRC is part of EPA's larger SMM program (https://www.epa.gov/smm). Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) is a systemic approach to using and reusing materials more productively over their entire lifecycles. It represents a change in how our society thinks about the use of natural resources and environmental protection. By looking at a product's entire lifecycle we can find new opportunities to reduce environmental impacts, conserve resources, and reduce costs. There are multiple challenge programs available as part of the SMM program, including the Food Recovery Challenge, the Electronics Challenge, the Federal Green Challenge, and the WasteWise program.

  18. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) Food Recovery Challenge (FRC) Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As part of EPA's Food Recovery Challenge (FRC), organizations pledge to improve their sustainable food management practices and report their results. The FRC is part of EPA's Sustainable Materials Management Program (SMM). SMM seeks to reduce the environmental impact of materials through their entire life cycle. This includes how they are extracted, manufactured, distributed, used, reused, recycled, and disposed. Organizations are encouraged to follow the Food Recovery Hierarchy (https://www.epa.gov/sustainable-management-food/food-recovery-hierarchy) to prioritize their actions to prevent and divert wasted food. Each tier of the Food Recovery Hierarchy focuses on different management strategies for your wasted food. The program started in 2011 and the first data were made available in 2012. The FRC is part of EPA's larger SMM program (https://www.epa.gov/smm). Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) is a systemic approach to using and reusing materials more productively over their entire lifecycles. It represents a change in how our society thinks about the use of natural resources and environmental protection. By looking at a product's entire lifecycle we can find new opportunities to reduce environmental impacts, conserve resources, and reduce costs. There are multiple challenge programs available as part of the SMM program, including the Food Recovery Challenge, the Electronics Challenge, the Federal Green Challenge, and the WasteWise program.

  19. Heat storage material comprising lithium chlorate-trihydrate and a nucleating agent

    SciTech Connect

    Gawron, K.; Schroder, J.

    1980-02-19

    A heat storage material comprising lithium chlorate-trihydrate as the heat storage medium and potassium perchlorate and/or sodium, potassium or barium hexafluorosilicate as the nucleating agent to reduce supercooling.

  20. Detection of airborne psychrotrophic bacteria and fungi in food storage refrigerators

    PubMed Central

    Altunatmaz, Sema Sandikci; Issa, Ghassan; Aydin, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the microbiological air quality (psychrotrophic bacteria and airborne fungi) and distribution of fungi in different types of ready-to-eat (RTE) food-storage refrigerators (n=48) at selected retail stores in the city of Edirne, Turkey. Refrigerators were categorized according to the type of RTE food-storage: meat products, vegetables, desserts, or a mix of food types. Microbiological quality of air samples was evaluated by using a Mas-100 Eco Air Sampler. Four refrigerators (all containing meat products, 8.3%) produced air samples with undetectable microorganisms. The highest detected mean value of airborne psychrotrophic bacteria and fungi was 82.3 CFU/m3 and 54.6 CFU/m3, respectively and were found in mixed-food refrigerators. The dominant airborne fungal genera found were Penicillium (29.0%), Aspergillus (12.0%), Mucor (9%), Cladosporium (8%), Botyrtis (7%), and Acremonium (6%). By definition, RTE food does not undergo a final treatment to ensure its safety prior to consumption. Therefore, ensuring a clean storage environment for these foods is important to prevent food-borne disease and other health risks. PMID:24031974

  1. Detection of airborne psychrotrophic bacteria and fungi in food storage refrigerators.

    PubMed

    Altunatmaz, Sema Sandikci; Issa, Ghassan; Aydin, Ali

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the microbiological air quality (psychrotrophic bacteria and airborne fungi) and distribution of fungi in different types of ready-to-eat (RTE) food-storage refrigerators (n=48) at selected retail stores in the city of Edirne, Turkey. Refrigerators were categorized according to the type of RTE food-storage: meat products, vegetables, desserts, or a mix of food types. Microbiological quality of air samples was evaluated by using a Mas-100 Eco Air Sampler. Four refrigerators (all containing meat products, 8.3%) produced air samples with undetectable microorganisms. The highest detected mean value of airborne psychrotrophic bacteria and fungi was 82.3 CFU/m(3) and 54.6 CFU/m(3), respectively and were found in mixed-food refrigerators. The dominant airborne fungal genera found were Penicillium (29.0%), Aspergillus (12.0%), Mucor (9%), Cladosporium (8%), Botyrtis (7%), and Acremonium (6%). By definition, RTE food does not undergo a final treatment to ensure its safety prior to consumption. Therefore, ensuring a clean storage environment for these foods is important to prevent food-borne disease and other health risks.

  2. Modelling challenges for battery materials and electrical energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Richard P.; Schultz, Peter A.

    2013-10-01

    Many vital requirements in world-wide energy production, from the electrification of transportation to better utilization of renewable energy production, depend on developing economical, reliable batteries with improved performance characteristics. Batteries reduce the need for gasoline and liquid hydrocarbons in an electrified transportation fleet, but need to be lighter, longer-lived and have higher energy densities, without sacrificing safety. Lighter and higher-capacity batteries make portable electronics more convenient. Less expensive electrical storage accelerates the introduction of renewable energy to electrical grids by buffering intermittent generation from solar or wind. Meeting these needs will probably require dramatic changes in the materials and chemistry used by batteries for electrical energy storage. New simulation capabilities, in both methods and computational resources, promise to fundamentally accelerate and advance the development of improved materials for electric energy storage. To fulfil this promise significant challenges remain, both in accurate simulations at various relevant length scales and in the integration of relevant information across multiple length scales. This focus section of Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering surveys the challenges of modelling for energy storage, describes recent successes, identifies remaining challenges, considers various approaches to surmount these challenges and discusses the potential of these methods for future battery development. Zhang et al begin with atoms and electrons, with a review of first-principles studies of the lithiation of silicon electrodes, and then Fan et al examine the development and use of interatomic potentials to the study the mechanical properties of lithiated silicon in larger atomistic simulations. Marrocchelli et al study ionic conduction, an important aspect of lithium-ion battery performance, simulated by molecular dynamics. Emerging high

  3. Design and preparation of materials for advanced electrochemical storage.

    PubMed

    Melot, Brent C; Tarascon, J-M

    2013-05-21

    To meet the growing global demand for energy while preserving the environment, it is necessary to drastically reduce the world's dependence on non-renewable energy sources. At the core of this effort will be the ability to efficiently convert, store, transport and access energy in a variety of ways. Batteries for use in small consumer devices have saturated society; however, if they are ever to be useful in large-scale applications such as automotive transportation or grid-storage, they will require new materials with dramatically improved performance. Efforts must also focus on using Earth-abundant and nontoxic compounds so that whatever developments are made will not create new environmental problems. In this Account, we describe a general strategy for the design and development of new insertion electrode materials for Li(Na)-ion batteries that meet these requirements. We begin by reviewing the current state of the art of insertion electrodes and highlighting the intrinsic material properties of electrodes that must be re-engineered for extension to larger-scale applications. We then present a detailed discussion of the relevant criteria for the conceptual design and appropriate selection of new electrode chemical compositions. We describe how the open-circuit voltage of Li-ion batteries can be manipulated and optimized through structural and compositional tuning by exploiting differences in the electronegativity among possible electrode materials. We then discuss which modern synthetic techniques are most sustainable, allowing the creation of new materials via environmentally responsible reactions that minimize the use of energy and toxic solvents. Finally, we present a case study showing how we successfully employed these approaches to develop a large number of new, useful electrode materials within the recently discovered family of transition metal fluorosulfates. This family has attracted interest as a possible source of improved Li-ion batteries in larger

  4. Accelerating the Understanding and Development of Hydrogen Storage Materials: A Review of the Five-Year Efforts of the Three DOE Hydrogen Storage Materials Centers of Excellence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Ott, Kevin C.; Simpson, Lin J.; O'Malley, Kathleen; Stetson, Ned T.

    2014-06-01

    A technical review of the progress achieved in hydrogen storage materials development through the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office and the three Hydrogen Storage Materials Centers of Excellence (CoEs), which ran from 2005 to 2010 is presented. The three CoEs were created to develop reversible metal hydrides, chemical hydrogen storage materials, and high-specific-surface-area (SSA) hydrogen sorbents. For each CoE, the approach taken is specified, key outcomes and accomplishments identified, and recommendations for future work are suggested. The Metal Hydride Center of Excellence addresses work on destabilized hydrides, including the LiBH/Mg2NiH4 system, borohydrides, amides, and alanes; and compares the best materials to DOE targets. The Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center of Excellence discusses the classes of materials studied for chemical hydrogen storage, focusing on ammonia borane and examines the progress in developing efficient regeneration schemes. The Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence describes the progress in developing high-SSA sorbents and pathways for developing improved materials capable of achieving DOE targets. The phenomenon of spillover is also observed and its importance to ensuring improved measurements is discussed. Through the five-year effort of the Hydrogen Storage Materials Centers of Excellence, significant progress was achieved in developing and understanding hydrogen storage materials.

  5. Cultural repertoires and food-related household technology within colonia households under conditions of material hardship

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Mexican-origin women in the U.S. living in colonias (new-destination Mexican-immigrant communities) along the Texas-Mexico border suffer from a high incidence of food insecurity and diet-related chronic disease. Understanding environmental factors that influence food-related behaviors among this population will be important to improving the well-being of colonia households. This article focuses on cultural repertoires that enable food choice and the everyday uses of technology in food-related practice by Mexican-immigrant women in colonia households under conditions of material hardship. Findings are presented within a conceptual framework informed by concepts drawn from sociological accounts of technology, food choice, culture, and material hardship. Methods Field notes were provided by teams of promotora-researchers (indigenous community health workers) and public-health professionals trained as participant observers. They conducted observations on three separate occasions (two half-days during the week and one weekend day) within eight family residences located in colonias near the towns of Alton and San Carlos, Texas. English observations were coded inductively and early observations stressed the importance of technology and material hardship in food-related behavior. These observations were further explored and coded using the qualitative data package Atlas.ti. Results Technology included kitchen implements used in standard and adapted configurations and household infrastructure. Residents employed tools across a range of food-related activities identified as forms of food acquisition, storage, preparation, serving, feeding and eating, cleaning, and waste processing. Material hardships included the quality, quantity, acceptability, and uncertainty dimensions of food insecurity, and insufficient consumption of housing, clothing and medical care. Cultural repertoires for coping with material hardship included reliance on inexpensive staple foods and

  6. Cultural repertoires and food-related household technology within colonia households under conditions of material hardship.

    PubMed

    Dean, Wesley R; Sharkey, Joseph R; Johnson, Cassandra M; St John, Julie

    2012-05-15

    BSTRACT: Mexican-origin women in the U.S. living in colonias (new-destination Mexican-immigrant communities) along the Texas-Mexico border suffer from a high incidence of food insecurity and diet-related chronic disease. Understanding environmental factors that influence food-related behaviors among this population will be important to improving the well-being of colonia households. This article focuses on cultural repertoires that enable food choice and the everyday uses of technology in food-related practice by Mexican-immigrant women in colonia households under conditions of material hardship. Findings are presented within a conceptual framework informed by concepts drawn from sociological accounts of technology, food choice, culture, and material hardship. Field notes were provided by teams of promotora-researchers (indigenous community health workers) and public-health professionals trained as participant observers. They conducted observations on three separate occasions (two half-days during the week and one weekend day) within eight family residences located in colonias near the towns of Alton and San Carlos, Texas. English observations were coded inductively and early observations stressed the importance of technology and material hardship in food-related behavior. These observations were further explored and coded using the qualitative data package Atlas.ti. Technology included kitchen implements used in standard and adapted configurations and household infrastructure. Residents employed tools across a range of food-related activities identified as forms of food acquisition, storage, preparation, serving, feeding and eating, cleaning, and waste processing. Material hardships included the quality, quantity, acceptability, and uncertainty dimensions of food insecurity, and insufficient consumption of housing, clothing and medical care. Cultural repertoires for coping with material hardship included reliance on inexpensive staple foods and dishes, and

  7. Sodium hydrazinidoborane: a chemical hydrogen-storage material.

    PubMed

    Moury, Romain; Demirci, Umit B; Ichikawa, Takayuki; Filinchuk, Yaroslav; Chiriac, Rodica; van der Lee, Arie; Miele, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Herein, we present the successful synthesis and full characterization (by (11) B magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction) of sodium hydrazinidoborane (NaN2 H3 BH3 , with a hydrogen content of 8.85 wt %), a new material for chemical hydrogen storage. Using lab-prepared pure hydrazine borane (N2 H4 BH3 ) and commercial sodium hydride as precursors, sodium hydrazinidoborane was synthesized by ball-milling at low temperature (-30 °C) under an argon atmosphere. Its thermal stability was assessed by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. It was found that under heating sodium hydrazinidoborane starts to liberate hydrogen below 60 °C. Within the range of 60-150 °C, the overall mass loss is as high as 7.6 wt %. Relative to the parent N2 H4 BH3 , sodium hydrazinidoborane shows improved dehydrogenation properties, further confirmed by dehydrogenation experiments under prolonged heating at constant temperatures of 80, 90, 95, 100, and 110 °C. Hence, sodium hydrazinidoborane appears to be more suitable for chemical hydrogen storage than N2 H4 BH3 . Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Development of ice slurry for cold storage of foods in wide temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Koji; Kaneko, Atsushi; Teraoka, Yoshikazu; Igarashi, Yoshito

    In order to popularize use of ice slurry, authors have been proposed application of ice slurry to cold storage of foods in place of an air conditioning. For use of the ice slurry in the wide temperature range a new harmless ice slurry to human being was developed by cooling a W/O emulsion made from tap water-edible oil mixture with small amounts of edible emulsifier and food additive. The edible emulsifier is essential to form W/O emulsion, and the food additive is used to dissolve in tap water. In this paper the optimal concentrations of emulsifiers were determined, and the fundamental characteristics such as viscosity, effective latent heat of fusion and usable temperature of ice slurry were clarified. Finally, it was concluded that new ice slurry could be fully applied to cold storage of foods in the wide temperature range because its lower limit usable temperature was about -18°C.

  9. Advanced nanostructured materials for energy storage and conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchings, Gregory S.

    Due to a global effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to utilize renewable sources of energy, much effort has been directed towards creating new alternatives to fossil fuels. Identifying novel materials for energy storage and conversion can enable radical changes to the current fuel production infrastructure and energy utilization. The use of engineered nanostructured materials in these systems unlocks unique catalytic activity in practical configurations. In this work, research efforts have been focused on the development of nanostructured materials to address the need for both better energy conversion and storage, with applications toward Li-O2 battery electrocatalysts, electrocatalytic generation of H2, conversion of furfural to useful chemicals and fuels, and Li battery anode materials. Highly-active alpha-MnO2 materials were synthesized for use as bifunctional oxygen reduction (ORR) and evolution (OER) catalysts in Li-O2 batteries, and were evaluated under operating conditions with a novel in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy configuration. Through detailed analysis of local coordination and oxidation states of Mn atoms at key points in the electrochemical cycle, a self-switching behavior affecting the bifunctional activity was identified and found to be critical. In an additional study of materials for lithium batteries, nanostructured TiO2 anode materials doped with first-row transition metals were synthesized and evaluated for improving battery discharge capacity and rate performance, with Ni and Co doping at low levels found to cause the greatest enhancement. In addition to battery technology research, I have also sought to find inexpensive and earth-abundant electrocatalysts to replace state-of-the-art Pt/C in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), a systematic computational study of Cu-based bimetallic electrocatalysts was performed. During the screening of dilute surface alloys of Cu mixed with other first-row transition metals, materials with

  10. Straight-Line: A nuclear material storage information management system

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, C.; Mangan, D.

    1995-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is developing Straight-Line -- a pilot system to demonstrate comprehensive monitoring of nuclear material in storage. Straight-Line is an integrated system of sensors providing information that will enhance the safety, security, and international accountability of stored nuclear material. The goals of this effort are to: (1) Provide the right sensor information to the right user immediately. (2) Reduce the expenses, risks, and frequency of human inspection of the material. (3) Provide trustworthy data to international inspectors to minimize their need to make on site inspections. In pursuit of these goals, Straight-Line unites technology from Sandia`s Authenticated Item Monitoring System (AIMS) and other programs to communicate the authenticated status of the monitored item back to central magazine receivers. Straight-Line, however, incorporates several important features not found in previous systems: (1) Information Security -- the ability to collect and safely disseminate both classified and unclassified sensor data to users on a need-to-know basis. (2) Integrate into a single system the monitoring needs of safety, security, and international accountability. (3) Incorporate the use of sensors providing analog or digital output. This paper will present the overall architecture and status of the Straight-Line project.

  11. Straight-Line -- A nuclear material storage information management system

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, C.; Mangan, D.

    1995-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories is developing Straight-Line -- a pilot system to demonstrate comprehensive monitoring of nuclear material in storage. Straight-Line is an integrated system of sensors providing information that will enhance the safety, security, and international accountability of stored nuclear material. The goals of this effort are to (1) Provide the right sensor information to the right user in a timely manner. (2) Reduce the expenses, risks, and frequency of human inspection of the material. (3) Provide trustworthy data to international inspectors to minimize their need to make on site inspections. In pursuit of these goals, Straight-Line unites technology from Sandia`s Authenticated Item Monitoring System (AIMS) and other programs to communicate the authenticated status of the monitored item back to central magazine receivers. Straight-Line, however, incorporates several important features not found in previous systems: (1) Information Security -- the ability to collect and safely disseminate both classified and unclassified sensor data to users on a need-to-know basis. (2) Integrate into a single system the monitoring needs of safety, security, and international accountability. (3) Incorporate the use of sensors providing analog or digital output. This paper will present the overall architecture and status of the Straight-Line project.

  12. Hybrid supercapacitor-battery materials for fast electrochemical charge storage.

    PubMed

    Vlad, A; Singh, N; Rolland, J; Melinte, S; Ajayan, P M; Gohy, J-F

    2014-03-07

    High energy and high power electrochemical energy storage devices rely on different fundamental working principles--bulk vs. surface ion diffusion and electron conduction. Meeting both characteristics within a single or a pair of materials has been under intense investigations yet, severely hindered by intrinsic materials limitations. Here, we provide a solution to this issue and present an approach to design high energy and high power battery electrodes by hybridizing a nitroxide-polymer redox supercapacitor (PTMA) with a Li-ion battery material (LiFePO4). The PTMA constituent dominates the hybrid battery charge process and postpones the LiFePO4 voltage rise by virtue of its ultra-fast electrochemical response and higher working potential. We detail on a unique sequential charging mechanism in the hybrid electrode: PTMA undergoes oxidation to form high-potential redox species, which subsequently relax and charge the LiFePO4 by an internal charge transfer process. A rate capability equivalent to full battery recharge in less than 5 minutes is demonstrated. As a result of hybrid's components synergy, enhanced power and energy density as well as superior cycling stability are obtained, otherwise difficult to achieve from separate constituents.

  13. Hybrid supercapacitor-battery materials for fast electrochemical charge storage

    PubMed Central

    Vlad, A.; Singh, N.; Rolland, J.; Melinte, S.; Ajayan, P. M.; Gohy, J.-F.

    2014-01-01

    High energy and high power electrochemical energy storage devices rely on different fundamental working principles - bulk vs. surface ion diffusion and electron conduction. Meeting both characteristics within a single or a pair of materials has been under intense investigations yet, severely hindered by intrinsic materials limitations. Here, we provide a solution to this issue and present an approach to design high energy and high power battery electrodes by hybridizing a nitroxide-polymer redox supercapacitor (PTMA) with a Li-ion battery material (LiFePO4). The PTMA constituent dominates the hybrid battery charge process and postpones the LiFePO4 voltage rise by virtue of its ultra-fast electrochemical response and higher working potential. We detail on a unique sequential charging mechanism in the hybrid electrode: PTMA undergoes oxidation to form high-potential redox species, which subsequently relax and charge the LiFePO4 by an internal charge transfer process. A rate capability equivalent to full battery recharge in less than 5 minutes is demonstrated. As a result of hybrid's components synergy, enhanced power and energy density as well as superior cycling stability are obtained, otherwise difficult to achieve from separate constituents. PMID:24603843

  14. 76 FR 32867 - Hazardous Materials: Requirements for Storage of Explosives During Transportation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... Materials: Requirements for Storage of Explosives During Transportation AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous...-8553, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, 1200... Requirements Applicable to Explosives Stored During Transportation A. Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMR; 49...

  15. Functions of Nano-Materials in Food Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yap, Ray Chin Chong; Kwablah, Amegadze Paul Seyram; He, Jiating; Li, Xu

    Food packaging has been changing from bulky and rigid form in the past to different variation of lights and plastic packagings. Regardless of the changes, the packaging must be able to uphold its original function which is to serve as food containment as well as to protect the food from the external environment. Coupled with the increasing consumer’s awareness on food waste, higher standard of living, technological developments are underway to enhance the shelf-life of packed food as well as methods to provide indications of food packaging environment. There are many different indicators for food spoilage, but two commonly found gases in food packaging are oxygen and carbon dioxide. Oxygen is the main mechanism for food spoilage, while carbon dioxide is often used in modified-atmosphere-packaging. There are also different methods of gas scavenging and/or sensing techniques based on different concepts in the literature. In this review, the focus will be on nano-materials, namely titanium dioxide, silica, zeolites and metal organic frameworks. This review is structured in a manner to highlight how each material can be used in both gas scavenging and/or indicators applications. The last part of the review focuses on the approach and some key considerations when integrating nano-materials into the plastic film.

  16. A New Look at Kinetics in Relation to Food Storage.

    PubMed

    Peleg, Micha; Normand, Mark D; Corradini, Maria G

    2017-02-28

    Modern mathematical software and user-friendly interactive programs can simplify and speed up kinetics calculations. They also open the way for new approaches to storage data gathering and analysis. This is demonstrated with a recently introduced simple exponential model that is interchangeable with the Arrhenius equation and endpoints and successive points methods and that estimates chemical degradation kinetics parameters from a small number of isothermal or nonisothermal experimental data. Also presented are a method to determine shelf life using two chemical markers and a global phenomenological model for peaked reactions, such as those encountered in lipid oxidation. Also recently introduced are freely downloadable Wolfram Demonstrations and other interactive software to generate, visualize, examine, and/or compare actual or hypothetical storage scenarios in minutes. They include programs that solve pairs of simultaneous nonlinear algebraic or differential rate equations by passing two reconstructed degradation curves, or a single nonisothermal curve, through two entered experimental points by moving the degradation parameters' sliders on the screen.

  17. Storage stability and improvement of intermediate moisture foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labuza, T. P.

    1973-01-01

    The rates of chemical reactions which deteriorate foods prepared to an intermediate moisture content and water activity (A sub w 0.6 to 0.9) were studied. The phenomenon of sorption hysteresis was used to prepare model systems and foods to similar A sub w's but different moisture levels so that the separate effects of water binding and water content could be elucidated. It was found that water content is the controlling factor for lipid oxidation in model systems comprised of a solid support and an oxidizable liquid. It was proposed that metal chelating agents like EDTA should give good protection to oxidation. EDTA exhibited the highest efficacy, about 10-15 times better than BHA which is a radical scavenger when studied in the model systems.

  18. Storage Stability and Improvement of Intermediate Moisture Foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labuza, T. P.

    1976-01-01

    Shelf life tests are used to estimate the rate of nonenzymatic browning; however, controlling the reducing sugar levels below 23:1 molar ratio to amines, slows the rate. In addition, liquid glycols surpress browning. The protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis W can be used to estimate nutrition losses during browning. At high temperatures (80 to 120 C) used in processing intermediate moisture foods (IMF), vitamin C destruction shifts to a zero order mechanism. BHA and BHT are the most effective antioxidants against rancidity. In shelf life testing however, 45 C should be the maximum temperature used. Water binding agents are studied. The five isotherms of thirteen humectants were determined. The results show that neither the method of addition nor sequence of addition affects the a sub u lowering ability of these humectants. Results were used to formulate shelf stable IMF processed cheese foods with at least four months shelf life.

  19. Overview of light interaction with food and biological materials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This chapter presents the basic phenomena occurring during the interaction of light with biological and food materials, which form the foundation for different light scattering techniques that have been developed for property, quality and safety assessment of food and agricultural products. We first...

  20. Food Preparation Principles for Home and Community Services. Student Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpton, James L.

    These student learning materials deal with food preparation. The following topics are covered in the individual units: types of food service jobs and their educational requirements; safety and fire prevention; sanitation; use and care of hand tools and utensils; care and use of equipment; counter service; cashiering; fry stations; dining room…

  1. Food Preparation Principles for Home and Community Services. Student Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpton, James L.

    These student learning materials deal with food preparation. The following topics are covered in the individual units: types of food service jobs and their educational requirements; safety and fire prevention; sanitation; use and care of hand tools and utensils; care and use of equipment; counter service; cashiering; fry stations; dining room…

  2. Low-Cost Precursors to Novel Hydrogen Storage Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Suzanne W. Linehan; Arthur A. Chin; Nathan T. Allen; Robert Butterick; Nathan T. Kendall; I. Leo Klawiter; Francis J. Lipiecki; Dean M. Millar; David C. Molzahn; Samuel J. November; Puja Jain; Sara Nadeau; Scott Mancroni

    2010-12-31

    From 2005 to 2010, The Dow Chemical Company (formerly Rohm and Haas Company) was a member of the Department of Energy Center of Excellence on Chemical Hydrogen Storage, which conducted research to identify and develop chemical hydrogen storage materials having the potential to achieve DOE performance targets established for on-board vehicular application. In collaboration with Center co-leads Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and other Center partners, Dow's efforts were directed towards defining and evaluating novel chemistries for producing chemical hydrides and processes for spent fuel regeneration. In Phase 1 of this project, emphasis was placed on sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}), long considered a strong candidate for hydrogen storage because of its high hydrogen storage capacity, well characterized hydrogen release chemistry, safety, and functionality. Various chemical pathways for regenerating NaBH{sub 4} from spent sodium borate solution were investigated, with the objective of meeting the 2010/2015 DOE targets of $2-3/gal gasoline equivalent at the pump ($2-3/kg H{sub 2}) for on-board hydrogen storage systems and an overall 60% energy efficiency. With the September 2007 No-Go decision for NaBH{sub 4} as an on-board hydrogen storage medium, focus was shifted to ammonia borane (AB) for on-board hydrogen storage and delivery. However, NaBH{sub 4} is a key building block to most boron-based fuels, and the ability to produce NaBH{sub 4} in an energy-efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally sound manner is critical to the viability of AB, as well as many leading materials under consideration by the Metal Hydride Center of Excellence. Therefore, in Phase 2, research continued towards identifying and developing a single low-cost NaBH4 synthetic route for cost-efficient AB first fill, and conducting baseline cost estimates for first fill and regenerated AB using a variety of synthetic routes. This project

  3. Fuels from Biomass: Integration with Food and Materials Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipinsky, E. S.

    1978-01-01

    The development of fuels from biomass can lead naturally to dispersed facilities that incorporate food or materials production (or both) with fuel production. The author analyzes possible systems based on sugarcane, corn, and guayule. (Author/MA)

  4. Fuels from Biomass: Integration with Food and Materials Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipinsky, E. S.

    1978-01-01

    The development of fuels from biomass can lead naturally to dispersed facilities that incorporate food or materials production (or both) with fuel production. The author analyzes possible systems based on sugarcane, corn, and guayule. (Author/MA)

  5. Storage mite contamination of commercial dry dog food in south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Hibberson, C E; Vogelnest, L J

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate contamination of unopened and opened stored sources of commercial dry dog food by viable storage mites. Prospective laboratory and field study. Samples were collected from nine brands of previously unopened bags (new bags) of dry food and 20 field sources of stored dry food in homes in Sydney and Canberra, Australia. All samples were initially examined for the presence of mites using a stereo-binocular microscope and then placed in separate filter-paper-sealed containers. Field samples were incubated at an average temperature of 29°C and 78% relative humidity (RH) for 5 weeks and then at average 26°C/83% RH for 8 weeks. Paired new-bag samples were stored under room conditions (average 23°C/47% RH) and controlled incubator conditions (average 26°C/80% RH) for 6 weeks. All samples were thoroughly examined for mites, mite eggs and visible mould once weekly using a stereo-binocular microscope. Storage mites were not visualised in any of the field samples or in new-bag samples stored at room temperature. Storage mites, identified as Tyrophagus putrescentiae, were visualised in increasing numbers in seven of nine new-bag samples after incubation, with first mites and then eggs evident after 3 weeks of incubation. We confirmed the presence of viable storage mites in a range of previously unopened commercial dry dog foods in Australia and confirmed the possibility of heavy storage mite contamination for dry food stored under conditions of moderate temperature and high humidity. These findings have relevance to storage mite and/or dust mite sensitivity in canine atopic dermatitis. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  6. Food packaging materials and radiation processing of food: A brief review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuaqui-Offermanns, N.

    Food is usually packaged to prevent microbial contamination and spoilage. Ionizing radiation can be applied to food-packaging materials in two ways: (i) sterilization of packaging materials for aseptic packaging, and (ii) radiation processing of prepackaged food. In aseptic packaging, a sterile package is filled with a sterile product in a microbiologically controlled environment. In irradiation of prepackaged food, the food and the packaging material are irradiated simultaneously. For both applications, the radiation stability of the packaging material is a key consideration if the technology is to be used successfully. To demonstrate the radiation stability of the packaging material, it must be shown that irradiation does not significantly alter the physical and chemical properties of the material. The irradiated material must protect the food from environmental contamination while maintaining its organoleptic and toxicological properties. Single-layer plastics cannot meet the requirements of either application. Multilayered structures produced by coextrusion would likely satisfy the demands of radiation processing prepackaged food. In aseptic packaging, the package is irradiated prior to filling, making demands on toxicological safety less stringent. Therefore, multilayered structures produced by coextrusion, lamination or co-injection moulding could satisfy the requirements.

  7. Applications of nanotechnology in food packaging and food safety: barrier materials, antimicrobials and sensors.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Timothy V

    2011-11-01

    In this article, several applications of nanomaterials in food packaging and food safety are reviewed, including: polymer/clay nanocomposites as high barrier packaging materials, silver nanoparticles as potent antimicrobial agents, and nanosensors and nanomaterial-based assays for the detection of food-relevant analytes (gasses, small organic molecules and food-borne pathogens). In addition to covering the technical aspects of these topics, the current commercial status and understanding of health implications of these technologies are also discussed. These applications were chosen because they do not involve direct addition of nanoparticles to consumed foods, and thus are more likely to be marketed to the public in the short term.

  8. Los Alamos National Laboratory new generation standard nuclear material storage container - the SAVY4000 design

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Timothy Amos

    2010-01-01

    Incidents involving release of nuclear materials stored in containers of convenience such as food pack cans, slip lid taped cans, paint cans, etc. has resulted in defense board concerns over the lack of prescriptive performance requirements for interim storage of nuclear materials. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has shared in these incidents and in response proactively moved into developing a performance based standard involving storage of nuclear material (RD003). This RD003 requirements document has sense been updated to reflect requirements as identified with recently issued DOE M 441.1-1 'Nuclear Material Packaging Manual'. The new packaging manual was issued at the encouragement of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board with a clear directive for protecting the worker from exposure due to loss of containment of stored materials. The Manual specifies a detailed and all inclusive approach to achieve a high level of protection; from package design & performance requirements, design life determinations of limited life components, authorized contents evaluations, and surveillance/maintenance to ensure in use package integrity over time. Materials in scope involve those stored outside an approved engineered-contamination barrier that would result in a worker exposure of in excess of 5 rem Committed Effective Does Equivalent (CEDE). Key aspects of meeting the challenge as developed around the SAVY-3000 vented storage container design will be discussed. Design performance and acceptance criteria against the manual, bounding conditions as established that the user must ensure are met to authorize contents in the package (based upon the activity of heat-source plutonium (90% Pu-238) oxide, which bounds the requirements for weapons-grade plutonium oxide), interface as a safety class system within the facility under the LANL plutonium facility DSA, design life determinations for limited life components, and a sense of design specific surveillance program

  9. Early Childhood Safety Checklist #3: Kitchen and Food Preparation and Storage Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Susan S.

    1994-01-01

    This checklist of 24 specific health and safety concerns dealing with kitchen and food preparation storage areas can be used by day-care staff to identify and correct hazardous conditions. Areas of concern include hand washing, refrigeration, cooking, trash disposal, cleanliness, fire safety, burn hazards, and adult supervision. (MDM)

  10. Reducing Postharvest Losses during Storage of Grain Crops to Strengthen Food Security in Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deepak; Kalita, Prasanta

    2017-01-15

    While fulfilling the food demand of an increasing population remains a major global concern, more than one-third of food is lost or wasted in postharvest operations. Reducing the postharvest losses, especially in developing countries, could be a sustainable solution to increase food availability, reduce pressure on natural resources, eliminate hunger and improve farmers' livelihoods. Cereal grains are the basis of staple food in most of the developing nations, and account for the maximum postharvest losses on a calorific basis among all agricultural commodities. As much as 50%-60% cereal grains can be lost during the storage stage due only to the lack of technical inefficiency. Use of scientific storage methods can reduce these losses to as low as 1%-2%. This paper provides a comprehensive literature review of the grain postharvest losses in developing countries, the status and causes of storage losses and discusses the technological interventions to reduce these losses. The basics of hermetic storage, various technology options, and their effectiveness on several crops in different localities are discussed in detail.

  11. Reducing Postharvest Losses during Storage of Grain Crops to Strengthen Food Security in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deepak; Kalita, Prasanta

    2017-01-01

    While fulfilling the food demand of an increasing population remains a major global concern, more than one-third of food is lost or wasted in postharvest operations. Reducing the postharvest losses, especially in developing countries, could be a sustainable solution to increase food availability, reduce pressure on natural resources, eliminate hunger and improve farmers’ livelihoods. Cereal grains are the basis of staple food in most of the developing nations, and account for the maximum postharvest losses on a calorific basis among all agricultural commodities. As much as 50%–60% cereal grains can be lost during the storage stage due only to the lack of technical inefficiency. Use of scientific storage methods can reduce these losses to as low as 1%–2%. This paper provides a comprehensive literature review of the grain postharvest losses in developing countries, the status and causes of storage losses and discusses the technological interventions to reduce these losses. The basics of hermetic storage, various technology options, and their effectiveness on several crops in different localities are discussed in detail. PMID:28231087

  12. Early Childhood Safety Checklist #3: Kitchen and Food Preparation and Storage Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Susan S.

    1994-01-01

    This checklist of 24 specific health and safety concerns dealing with kitchen and food preparation storage areas can be used by day-care staff to identify and correct hazardous conditions. Areas of concern include hand washing, refrigeration, cooking, trash disposal, cleanliness, fire safety, burn hazards, and adult supervision. (MDM)

  13. Davisson-Germer Prize Talk: Hydrogen storage in nanoporous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabal, Yves

    2009-03-01

    To develop a hydrogen-based energy technology, several classes of materials are being considered to achieve the DOE targets for gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen densities for hydrogen storage, including liquids (e.g. ammonium borohydrides), clathrate structures, complex metal hydrides, nanostructured (e.g. carbon) an nanoporous materials. Fundamental studies are necessary to determine the ultimate hydrogen capacity of each system. Nanoporous Metal-organic Framework (MOF) materials are promising candidates for hydrogen storage because the chemical nature and size of their unit cell can be tailored to weakly attract and incorporate H2 molecules, with good volumetric and mass density. In this talk, we consider the structure M2(BDC)2(TED), where M is a metal atom (Zn, Ni, Cu), BDC is benzenedicarboxylate and TED triethylenediamine, to determine the location and interaction of H2 molecules within the MOF. These compounds are isostructural and crystallize in the tetragonal phase (space group P4/ncc), they construct 3D porous structures with relatively large pore size (˜7-8 A ), pore volume (˜0.63-0.84 cc/g) and BET surface area (˜1500-1900 m^2/g). At high pressures (300-800 psi), the perturbation of the H-H stretching mode can be measured with IR absorption spectroscopy, showing a 35 cm-1 redshift from the unperturbed ortho (4155 cm-1 ) and para (4161 cm-1 ) frequencies. Using a newly developed non empirical van der Waals DFT method vdW-DFT),ootnotetextJ.Y. Lee, D.H. Olson, L. Pan, T.J. Emge, J. Li, Adv. Func. Mater. 17, 1255 (2007) it can be shown that the locus of the deepest H2 binding positions lies within to types of narrow channels. The energies of the most stable binding sites, as well as the number of such binding sites, are consistent with the values obtained from experimental adsorption isotherms, and heat of adsorption) data.ootnotetextM. Dion, H. Ryberg, E. Schroder, D. C. Langreth, B.I. Lundqvist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 246401 (2004). Importantly, the

  14. Food material properties and early hominin processing techniques.

    PubMed

    Zink, Katherine D; Lieberman, Daniel E; Lucas, Peter W

    2014-12-01

    Although early Homo is hypothesized to have used tools more than australopiths to process foods prior to consumption, it is unknown how much the food processing techniques they used altered the material properties of foods, and therefore the masticatory forces they generated, and how well they were able to comminute foods. This study presents experimental data on changes to food material properties caused by mechanical tenderization (pounding with a stone tool) and cooking (dry roasting) of two foods likely to have been important components of the hominin diet: meat and tubers. Mechanical tenderization significantly decreased tuber toughness by 42%, but had no effect on meat toughness. Roasting significantly decreased several material properties of tubers correlated with masticatory effort including toughness (49%), fracture stress (28%) and elastic modulus (45%), but increased the toughness (77%), fracture stress (50%-222%), and elastic modulus of muscle fibers in meat (308%). Despite increasing many material properties of meat associated with higher masticatory forces, roasting also decreased measured energy loss by 28%, which likely makes it easier to chew. These results suggest that the use of food processing techniques by early Homo probably differed for meat and tubers, but together would have reduced masticatory effort, helping to relax selection to maintain large, robust faces and large, thickly enameled teeth.

  15. Absorption of omega-3 fats from carbohydrate and proteinaceous food matrices before and after storage.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tracey J; Barrett, Ann; Anderson, Danielle; Wilson, Marques A; Young, Andrew J; Montain, Scott J

    2015-05-01

    Development of n-3 fortified, shelf-stable foods is facilitated by encapsulated docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), since natural n-3 food sources cannot withstand high temperature and prolonged shelf life. Organoleptic stability of n-3 fortified, shelf-stable foods has been demonstrated, but chemical changes in the food matrix throughout storage could conceivably impact digestibility of the protein-based encapsulant thereby compromising n-3 bioavailability. We assessed the effect of prolonged high-temperature storage and variations in food matrix (proteinaceous or carbohydrate) on the time course and magnitude of blood fatty acids changes associated with ingestion of n-3 fortified foods. Low-protein (i.e., cake) and high-protein (i.e., meat sticks) items were supplemented with 600 mg encapsulated DHA+EPA, and frozen either immediately after production (FRESH) or after 6 months storage at 100°F (STORED). Fourteen volunteers consumed one item per week (randomized) for 4 weeks. Blood samples obtained at baseline, 2, 4, and 6 h post-consumption were analyzed for circulating long-chain omega 3 fatty acids (LCn3). There was no difference in LCn3 area under the curve between items. LCn3 in response to cakes peaked at 2-h (FRESH: 54.0 ± 16.8 μg/mL, +18%; STORED: 53.0 ± 13.2 μg/mL, +20%), while meats peaked at 4-h (FRESH: 51.9 ± 12.5 μg/mL, +22%; STORED: 53.2 ± 16.9 μg/mL, +18%). There were no appreciable differences in time course or magnitude of n-3 appearance in response to storage conditions for either food types. Thus, bioavailability of encapsulated DHA/EPA, within low- and high-protein food items, was not affected by high-temperature shelf-storage. A shelf-stable, low- or high-protein food item with encapsulated DHA/EPA is suitable for use in shelf-stable foods.

  16. Coding Techniques to Reduce Material Saturation in Holographic Data Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Seth William

    Holographic data storage (HDS) is an emerging data storage technology that has received attention due to a high theoretical data capacity, fast readout times, and a potentially long lifetime of the recording materials. The work presented in this thesis was undertaken to solve one of the technical impediments preventing the widespread use of HDS, the occurrence of large concentrations of power in recorded holograms. Such peak values of optical power cause the medium to saturate during the recording process. As a result, the most significant portions of the hologram are not recorded accurately, and on readout, saturated recordings are not reconstructed correctly. In the implementation of HDS considered in this thesis, data is organized into an array of pixels using hybrid ternary modulation that contains an OFF-pixel and two different ON-pixels that are differentiated by their phase terms. The Fourier transform of this data array is created optically and the image of the Fourier transform is recorded holographically. This thesis presents a two-step coding technique that decreases the likelihood and severity of peaks in encoded holograms. In the first step, sparsity, the proportion of OFF-pixels in the array, is increased, which decreases the total power in the encoded array. In the second step, phase masks are used to alter the phase of ON-pixels to decrease periodic content in the data array. This reduces the likelihood of an encoded array containing large peak values at any point in the Fourier domain. Analysis is presented for the sparsity encoding which demonstrates the worst-case sparsity for certain system parameters. The performance of both the sparsity encoding and phase masking procedure are tested with numerical simulations. The results of these simulations indicate that these encoding techniques effectively inhibit the occurrence of large intensity peaks the holograms of encoded arrays.

  17. Storage stability and improvement of intermediate moisture foods, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labuza, T. P.

    1975-01-01

    Methods for improvement of shelf-life stability of intermediate moisture foods are considered. It was found that vitamin C is the most limiting vitamin from a nutritional standpoint with its rate of destruction increasing with a sub w. Techniques for microbial challenge studies were developed. It was shown that organisms have a higher growth a sub w limit if the IMF is prepared by the adsorption process and long times are needed for challenge studies. Several alternative antimycotic systems were found. It was also found that the vegetative cells of pathogens have a maximum heat resistance in the IMF a sub w range. If glycols are in the formula, the IMF should have as high an a sub w as possible. The reverse is true if lipid oxidation occurs. In addition, to prevent rancidity, antioxidants and a low O2 atmosphere are necessary. The package also must be a good moisture barrier.

  18. Preparation, storage stability and palatability of spent hen meal based pet food.

    PubMed

    Karthik, P; Kulkarni, V V; Sivakumar, K

    2010-06-01

    Extruded pet foods were prepared by extrusion process incorporating dry rendered spent hen meal (SHM) at 10 and 20% levels, and packed in LDPE bags before storage at room temperature (35 ± 2°C) up to 45 days. The colour of the pet foods was uniformly brown with pleasant meaty odour. The thiobarbituric acid, tyrosine values, free fatty acid content and acid value and total bacterial counts increased gradually during storage but E.coli, Salmonella spp, Clostridium spp, Staphylococci spp and fungi were not detected during storage. The pet owners rated the pet foods as good. The body weight of the adult pet dogs did not decrease during the feeding trial of one month and the health condition of pets was good. The cost of production per kg of pet food containing 10 and 20% SHM was Rs 18.00 and Rs 22.75, respectively. It was concluded that a pet food (whole meal) with good nutritive quality and palatability to dogs can be prepared by incorporating 10-20% of spent hen meal which can be safely stored up to 45 days at room temperature.

  19. Solid State NMR Studies of Energy Conversion and Storage Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankuru Hennadige, Sohan Roshel De Silva

    NMR (Nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy is utilized to study energy conversion and storage materials. Different types of NMR techniques including Magic Angle Spinning, Cross-polarization and relaxation measurement experiments were employed. Four different projects are discussed in this dissertation. First, three types of CFx battery materials were investigated. Electrochemical studies have demonstrated different electrochemical performances by one type, delivering superior performance over the other two. 13C and 19F MAS NMR techniques are employed to identify the atomic/molecular structural factors that might account for differences in electrochemical performance among different types. Next as the second project, layered polymer dielectrics were investigated by NMR. Previous studies have shown that thin film capacitors are improved by using alternate layers of two polymers with complementary properties: one with a high breakdown strength and one with high dielectric constant as opposed to monolithic layers. 13C to 1H cross-polarization techniques were used to investigate any inter-layer properties that may cause the increase in the dielectric strength. The third project was to study two types of thermoelectric materials. These samples were made of heavily doped phosphorous and boron in silicon by two different methods: ball-milled and annealed. These samples were investigated by NMR to determine the degree of disorder and obtain insight into the doping efficiency. The last ongoing project is on a lithium-ion battery system. The nature of passivating layers or the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formed on the electrodes surface is important because of the direct correlation between the SEI and the battery life time/durability. Multinuclear (7Li, 19F, 31P) techniques are employed to identify the composition of the SEI formation of both positive and negative electrodes.

  20. Index of Free and Inexpensive Food and Nutrition Information Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Kathleen, Comp.; And Others

    This annotated index contains approximately 2,000 free or inexpensive pamphlets or brochures about food and nutrition. The prime criterion for inclusion of materials was that they be easily available and inexpensive; the cut-off cost was set at $3.00. The majority of materials listed were produced in either Canada or the United States. These…

  1. Index of Free and Inexpensive Food and Nutrition Information Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Kathleen, Comp.; And Others

    This annotated index contains approximately 2,000 free or inexpensive pamphlets or brochures about food and nutrition. The prime criterion for inclusion of materials was that they be easily available and inexpensive; the cut-off cost was set at $3.00. The majority of materials listed were produced in either Canada or the United States. These…

  2. Quantifying and Addressing the DOE Material Reactivity Requirements with Analysis and Testing of Hydrogen Storage Materials & Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, Y. F.

    2012-04-30

    The objective of this project is to examine safety aspects of candidate hydrogen storage materials and systems being developed in the DOE Hydrogen Program. As a result of this effort, the general DOE safety target will be given useful meaning by establishing a link between the characteristics of new storage materials and the satisfaction of safety criteria. This will be accomplished through the development and application of formal risk analysis methods, standardized materials testing, chemical reactivity characterization, novel risk mitigation approaches and subscale system demonstration. The project also will collaborate with other DOE and international activities in materials based hydrogen storage safety to provide a larger, highly coordinated effort.

  3. Simulation of a high temperature thermal energy storage system employing several families of phase-change storage material

    SciTech Connect

    Adebiyi, G.A.

    1989-03-01

    Previous work by the author entailed modeling of the Packed Bed Thermal Energy Storage System, utilizing Phase-Change Materials, and a performance evaluation of the system based on the Second Law of thermodynamics. A principal conclusion reached is that the use of a single family of phase-change storage material may not in fact produce a thermodynamically superior system relative to one utilizing sensible heat storage material. This prompted us to modify our model so that we could investigate whether or not a significantly improved performance may be achieved via the use of multiple families of phase-change materials instead. Other factors investigated in the present work include the effect on system performance due to the thermal mass of the containment vessel wall, varying temperature and mass flow rate of the flue gas entering the packed bed during the storage process, and thermal radiation which could be a significant factor at high temperature levels. The resulting model is intended to serve as an integral part of a real-time simulation of the application of a high temperature regenerator in a periodic brick plant. This paper describes the more comprehensive model of the high temperature thermal energy storage system and presents results indicating that improved system performance could be achieved via a judicious choice of multiple families of phase-change materials.

  4. Down Select Report of Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials, Catalysts, and Spent Fuel Regeneration Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Kevin; Linehan, Sue; Lipiecki, Frank; Aardahl, Christopher L.

    2008-08-24

    The DOE Hydrogen Storage Program is focused on identifying and developing viable hydrogen storage systems for onboard vehicular applications. The program funds exploratory research directed at identifying new materials and concepts for storage of hydrogen having high gravimetric and volumetric capacities that have the potential to meet long term technical targets for onboard storage. Approaches currently being examined are reversible metal hydride storage materials, reversible hydrogen sorption systems, and chemical hydrogen storage systems. The latter approach concerns materials that release hydrogen in endothermic or exothermic chemical bond-breaking processes. To regenerate the spent fuels arising from hydrogen release from such materials, chemical processes must be employed. These chemical regeneration processes are envisioned to occur offboard the vehicle.

  5. Multidimensional materials and device architectures for future hybrid energy storage

    DOE PAGES

    Lukatskaya, Maria R.; Dunn, Bruce; Gogotsi, Yury

    2016-09-07

    Electrical energy storage plays a vital role in daily life due to our dependence on numerous portable electronic devices. Moreover, with the continued miniaturization of electronics, integration of wireless devices into our homes and clothes and the widely anticipated ‘Internet of Things’, there are intensive efforts to develop miniature yet powerful electrical energy storage devices. Here, this review addresses the cutting edge of electrical energy storage technology, outlining approaches to overcome current limitations and providing future research directions towards the next generation of electrical energy storage devices whose characteristics represent a true hybridization of batteries and electrochemical capacitors.

  6. Multidimensional materials and device architectures for future hybrid energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukatskaya, Maria R.; Dunn, Bruce; Gogotsi, Yury

    2016-09-01

    Electrical energy storage plays a vital role in daily life due to our dependence on numerous portable electronic devices. Moreover, with the continued miniaturization of electronics, integration of wireless devices into our homes and clothes and the widely anticipated `Internet of Things', there are intensive efforts to develop miniature yet powerful electrical energy storage devices. This review addresses the cutting edge of electrical energy storage technology, outlining approaches to overcome current limitations and providing future research directions towards the next generation of electrical energy storage devices whose characteristics represent a true hybridization of batteries and electrochemical capacitors.

  7. NMR characterization of the hydrogen storage properties of microporous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Robert James

    Nuclear magnetic resonance techniques were employed to study properties and characteristics related to hydrogen storage within a variety of carbon nanomaterials. NMR methods were established for studying adsorption at temperatures of 100 and 290 K, and hydrogen pressures up to 10 MPa. A standard interpretation of the NMR spectra of molecular hydrogen in microporous materials was developed. The characterization of three samples are included here: boron-doped graphite, activated PEEK (a polymer), and zeolite-templated carbon. In all of the studies discussed here, each sample necessitated a custom approach to interpreting the data. The chemical shift, a relaxation filter, and low temperature dynamics were needed to uncover a significantly enhanced binding energy in the boron-doped graphite. The key result of the activated PEEK work was that at 100 K, the pressure-dependent behavior of the chemical shift of the micropore spectral component could be directly linked to the dimensions of the pore. The zeolite-templated carbon displayed local paramagnetic behavior within its pores but was diamagnetic in the bulk form. Pressure-dependent chemical shift analysis revealed that the paramagnetic behavior could be related to the numerous edge sites present.

  8. Wollastonite hybridizing stearic acid as thermal energy storage material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dawei; Yang, Huaming

    2014-11-01

    This paper reported on the preparation of a novel stearic acid (SA)/wollastonite (W) composite as a form-stable phase change material (PCM) for thermal energy-storage (TES) by vacuum impregnation, and especially investigated the effect of the size grade of W on the thermal properties of the SA/W composite. Samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser particle-size analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Natural W (Wr) was classified into four size grades by wet screening. The results indicate that no chemical reaction took place between SA and W, and the SA load in the SA/W composite increased with an increase in the length/diameter (L/D) ratio of the W. The SA/W composite with a W L/D ratio of 22.5 exhibited latent heats of melting and freezing of 58.64 J/g and 56.95 J/g, respectively, which was higher than those of the composite incorporating natural W. We believe that the as-prepared form-stable PCM composite could provide a potential means of TES for the concentrated solar power.

  9. Lightweight Intermetallics with Laves Structures as Potential Hydrogen Storage Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billet, Beau Austin

    Hydrogen storage was identified by the US Department of Energy as a "grand challenge" for the implementation of hydrogen-powered fuel cell vehicles for reduced CO2 emissions from transportation vehicles. None of the hydrogen storage options currently developed can satisfy the high gravimetric, volumetric and system design requirements. Intermetallic compounds with Laves structures in the formula of AB2 have long been known to store hydrogen in their interstitial sites to serve as reversible hydrogen storage materials (A and B are metallic elements). They have the potential to be hydrided to a maximum of ~ AB2H6 due to the impeding H-H interactions at neighboring interstitial sites. To achieve the highest weight percent of hydrogen storage in AB2H6, the lowest combined atomic weight of AB2 is required. The CaLi2 compound is the lightest known Laves phase, but it could not maintain its Laves structure when it was hydrided. Existing work of Akiba's group showed that a ternary Laves phase CaLi1.8Mg0.2 could be hydrided to form a hydrogenated Laves phase, but the absorbed hydrogen could not be released for reversible storage. Substitutions (Ca,X)Li1.8Mg0.2 are explored in the present study to see whether heavier elements [X = Sr, Ba and Ce] in small quantities can make the lightweight Laves compounds reversibly store hydrogen. Induction melting was successful in obtaining the desired Laves phases. The base system, CaLi1.8Mg0.2, formed a single phase, consistent with the literature result. Both Ca0.9Ba0.1Li 1.8Mg0.2 and Ca0.9Ce0.1Li1.8Mg 0.2 also formed a single-phase C14 Laves, whereas both Ca0.9Sr 0.1Li1.8Mg0.2 and Ca0.8Sr0.2Li 1.8Mg0.2 formed two seperature Laves phases with the same crystal structure, indicating a phase separation. The Ca0.8Ba 0.2Li1.8Mg0.2 composition completely lost the Laves-phase structure, forming CaLi2, CaMg2, BaLi 4 and Ca. All compounds tested at temperatures from 25 °C to 150 °C show the characteristic "plateau" behavior in the pressure

  10. High temperature metal hydrides as heat storage materials for solar and related applications.

    PubMed

    Felderhoff, Michael; Bogdanović, Borislav

    2009-01-01

    For the continuous production of electricity with solar heat power plants the storage of heat at a temperature level around 400 degrees C is essential. High temperature metal hydrides offer high heat storage capacities around this temperature. Based on Mg-compounds, these hydrides are in principle low-cost materials with excellent cycling stability. Relevant properties of these hydrides and their possible applications as heat storage materials are described.

  11. High Temperature Metal Hydrides as Heat Storage Materials for Solar and Related Applications

    PubMed Central

    Felderhoff, Michael; Bogdanović, Borislav

    2009-01-01

    For the continuous production of electricity with solar heat power plants the storage of heat at a temperature level around 400 °C is essential. High temperature metal hydrides offer high heat storage capacities around this temperature. Based on Mg-compounds, these hydrides are in principle low-cost materials with excellent cycling stability. Relevant properties of these hydrides and their possible applications as heat storage materials are described. PMID:19333448

  12. The Application of Magnesium(I) Compounds to Energy Storage Materials - Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-24

    1 Final Report The Application of Magnesium (I) Compounds to Energy Storage Materials - Phase 2 Principal Investigator: Professor Cameron...TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 01-10-2011 to 31-05-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Application of Magnesium (I) Compounds to Energy Storage Materials...unique properties of these systems in an exploration of their applicability to synthesis, small molecule activation, catalysis, hydrogen storage and

  13. 2D materials for renewable energy storage devices: Outlook and challenges.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Ramkrishna; Pal, Anjali; Pal, Tarasankar

    2016-11-15

    Scientists are looking for cost-effective, clean and durable alternative energy devices. Superior charge storage devices can easily meet the demands of our daily needs. In this respect, a material with suitable dimensions for charge storage devices has been considered to be very important. Improved performance of charge storage devices has been derived from whole-body participation and the best are from 2D materials, which provide a viable and acceptable solution.

  14. Short communication: Effect of active food packaging materials on fluid milk quality and shelf life.

    PubMed

    Wong, Dana E; Goddard, Julie M

    2014-01-01

    Active packaging, in which active agents are embedded into or on the surface of food packaging materials, can enhance the nutritive value, economics, and stability of food, as well as enable in-package processing. In one embodiment of active food packaging, lactase was covalently immobilized onto packaging films for in-package lactose hydrolysis. In prior work, lactase was covalently bound to low-density polyethylene using polyethyleneimine and glutaraldehyde cross-linkers to form the packaging film. Because of the potential contaminants of proteases, lipases, and spoilage organisms in typical enzyme preparations, the goal of the current work was to determine the effect of immobilized-lactase active packaging technology on unanticipated side effects, such as shortened shelf-life and reduced product quality. Results suggested no evidence of lipase or protease activity on the active packaging films, indicating that such active packaging films could enable in-package lactose hydrolysis without adversely affecting product quality in terms of dairy protein or lipid stability. Storage stability studies indicated that lactase did not migrate from the film over a 49-d period, and that dry storage resulted in 13.41% retained activity, whereas wet storage conditions enabled retention of 62.52% activity. Results of a standard plate count indicated that the film modification reagents introduced minor microbial contamination; however, the microbial population remained under the 20,000 cfu/mL limit through the manufacturer's suggested 14-d storage period for all film samples. This suggests that commercially produced immobilized lactase active packaging should use purified cross-linkers and enzymes. Characterization of unanticipated effects of active packaging on food quality reported here is important in demonstrating the commercial potential of such technologies.

  15. 49 CFR 192.735 - Compressor stations: Storage of combustible materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.735 Compressor stations: Storage of combustible materials. (a) Flammable or combustible materials... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compressor stations: Storage of...

  16. 49 CFR 192.735 - Compressor stations: Storage of combustible materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.735 Compressor stations: Storage of combustible materials. (a) Flammable or combustible materials... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressor stations: Storage of...

  17. 49 CFR 192.735 - Compressor stations: Storage of combustible materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.735 Compressor stations: Storage of combustible materials. (a) Flammable or combustible materials... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compressor stations: Storage of...

  18. Storage, Handling and Preservation of Audiovisual Materials. AV in Action 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Anthony Hugh

    Designed to provide the librarian with suggestions and guidelines for storing and preserving audiovisual materials, this pamphlet is divided into four major chapters: (1) Normal Use Storage Conditions; (2) Natural Lifetime, Working Lifetime and Long-Term Storage; (3) Handling; and (4) Shelving of Normal Use Materials. Topics addressed include:…

  19. Storage, Handling and Preservation of Audiovisual Materials. AV in Action 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Anthony Hugh

    Designed to provide the librarian with suggestions and guidelines for storing and preserving audiovisual materials, this pamphlet is divided into four major chapters: (1) Normal Use Storage Conditions; (2) Natural Lifetime, Working Lifetime and Long-Term Storage; (3) Handling; and (4) Shelving of Normal Use Materials. Topics addressed include:…

  20. Computer simulation of a high-temperature thermal energy storage system employing multiple families of phase-change storage materials

    SciTech Connect

    Adebiyi, G.A.; Hodge, B.K.; Steele, W.G.; Jalalzadeh-Aza, A.; Nsofor, E.C.

    1996-06-01

    Previous work by one of the authors entailed modeling of a packed bed thermal energy storage system utilizing phase-change materials (PCM). A principal conclusion reached is that the use of a single family of phase-change storage material may not in fact produce a thermodynamically superior system relative to one utilizing sensible heat storage material. This paper describes the model constructed for the high-temperature thermal energy storage system utilizing multiple families of phase-change materials and presents results obtained in the exercise of the model. Other factors investigated include the effect on system performance due to the thermal mass of the containment vessel wall and variable temperature of the flue gas entering the packed bed during the storage process. The results obtained indicate efficiencies for the system utilizing the five PCM families exceeding those for the single PCM family by as much as 13 to 26 percent. It was also found that the heat transfer to the containment vessel wall could have a significant detrimental effect on system performance.

  1. 33 CFR 127.1313 - Storage of hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Operations § 127.1313 Storage of... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Storage of hazardous...

  2. 33 CFR 127.1313 - Storage of hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Operations § 127.1313 Storage of... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Storage of hazardous...

  3. 33 CFR 127.1313 - Storage of hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Operations § 127.1313 Storage of... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Storage of hazardous...

  4. Beyond the Blueprints: Enhancing Access to Materials in Remote Storage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, Betsy

    2003-01-01

    For most research libraries, remote storage of significant portions of their print collections has become an economic necessity. Historically, user objections to remote storage have focused on access-related issues: i.e., lack of browsability, cumbersome requesting procedures, lengthy retrieval times, and lack of content information about…

  5. Green energy storage materials: advanced nanostructured materials for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Alok Mani; Chandrasekar, M. S.; Mitra, Sagar

    2011-06-01

    The projected doubling of world energy consumption in the next fifty years requires certain measures to meet this demand. The ideal energy provider is reliable, efficient, with low emissions source - wind, solar, etc. The low carbon footprint of renewables is an added benefit, which makes them especially attractive during this era of environmental consciousness. Unfortunately, the intermittent nature of energy from these renewables is not suitable for the commercial and residential grid application, unless the power delivery is 24/7, with minimum fluctuation. This requires intervention of efficient electrical energy storage technology to make power generation from renewable practical. The progress to higher energy and power density especially for battery technology will push material to the edge of stability and yet these materials must be rendered safe, stable and with reliable operation throughout their long life. A major challenge for chemical energy storage is developing the ability to store more energy while maintaining stable electrode-electrolyte interface. A structural transformation occurs during charge-discharge cycle, accompanied by a volume change, degrading the microstructure over-time. The need to mitigate this volume and structural change accompanying charge-discharge cycle necessitates going to nanostructured and multifunctional materials that have the potential of dramatically enhancing the energy density and power density.

  6. Physiological responses and lipid storage of the coral Lophelia pertusa at varying food density.

    PubMed

    Baussant, Thierry; Nilsen, Marianne; Ravagnan, Elisa; Westerlund, Stig; Ramanand, Sreerekha

    2017-01-01

    Despite the importance of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa to deep-sea reef ecosystem functioning, current knowledge of key physiological responses to available food resources is scarce. Scenarios with varying food density may help to understand how corals deal with seasonal variations in the dark ocean and might be used to study consequences of anthropogenic activities potentially affecting food availability. Thus, the physiological responses of L. pertusa to varying food (Artemia salina nauplii) concentration, ranging from 20% to 300% of carbon equivalent turned over by basal coral respiration, were investigated. A starvation group was also included. Measurements of respiration, growth, mucus production, and energy reserves (storage fatty acids) were performed at several time intervals over 26 weeks. In general, data showed a stronger effect of experimental time on measured responses, but no significant influence of food density treatment. In starved corals, respiration rate declined to 52% of initial respiration, while skeleton growth rate was maintained at the same rate as Artemia-fed corals throughout the investigation. Mucus production measured as the sum of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) was also similar across food treatments, but POC production exceeded that of DOC at the highest food density. No marked effect was observed on storage fatty acids. These results confirm that L. pertusa is highly resilient to environmental conditions with suboptimal food densities over a time scale of months. Regulation of several physiological processes, including respiration and mucus production, possibly in combination with an opportunistic feeding strategy, contributed to this tolerance to maintain viable corals. Thus, it appears that L. pertusa is well adapted to life in the deep sea.

  7. FAAH deficiency promotes energy storage and enhances the motivation for food.

    PubMed

    Touriño, C; Oveisi, F; Lockney, J; Piomelli, D; Maldonado, R

    2010-03-01

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is the main degrading enzyme of the fatty acid ethanolamides anandamide (AEA) and oleoylethanolamide (OEA), which have opposite effects on food intake and energy balance. AEA, an endogenous ligand of CB(1) cannabinoid receptors, enhances food intake and energy storage, whereas OEA binds to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-alpha to reduce food intake and promoting lipolysis. To elucidate the role of FAAH in food intake and energy balance, we have evaluated different metabolic and behavioral responses related to feeding in FAAH-deficient (FAAH(-/-)) mice and their wild-type littermates. Total daily food intake was similar in both genotypes, but high-fat food consumption was enhanced during the dark hours and decreased during the light hours in FAAH(-/-) mice. The reinforcing and motivational effects of food were also enhanced in FAAH(-/-) mice as revealed by operant behavioral paradigms. These behavioral responses were reversed by the administration of the selective CB(1) cannabinoid antagonist rimonabant. Furthermore, body weight, total amount of adipose tissue, plasma-free fatty acids and triglyceride content in plasma, liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, were increased in FAAH(-/-) mice. Accordingly, leptin levels were increased and adiponectin levels decreased in these mutants, FAAH(-/-) mice also showed enhanced plasma insulin and blood glucose levels revealing an insulin resistance. As expected, both AEA and OEA levels were increased in hypothalamus, small intestine and liver of FAAH(-/-) mice. These results indicate that the lack of FAAH predominantly promotes energy storage by food intake-independent mechanisms, through the enhancement of AEA levels rather than promoting the anorexic effects of OEA.

  8. Quantification of Nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum Spore Loads in Food Materials.

    PubMed

    Barker, Gary C; Malakar, Pradeep K; Plowman, June; Peck, Michael W

    2016-01-04

    We have produced data and developed analysis to build representations for the concentration of spores of nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum in materials that are used during the manufacture of minimally processed chilled foods in the United Kingdom. Food materials are categorized into homogenous groups which include meat, fish, shellfish, cereals, fresh plant material, dairy liquid, dairy nonliquid, mushroom and fungi, and dried herbs and spices. Models are constructed in a Bayesian framework and represent a combination of information from a literature survey of spore loads from positive-control experiments that establish a detection limit and from dedicated microbiological tests for real food materials. The detection of nonproteolytic C. botulinum employed an optimized protocol that combines selective enrichment culture with multiplex PCR, and the majority of tests on food materials were negative. Posterior beliefs about spore loads center on a concentration range of 1 to 10 spores kg(-1). Posterior beliefs for larger spore loads were most significant for dried herbs and spices and were most sensitive to the detailed results from control experiments. Probability distributions for spore loads are represented in a convenient form that can be used for numerical analysis and risk assessments.

  9. Quantification of Nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum Spore Loads in Food Materials

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Gary C.; Malakar, Pradeep K.; Plowman, June

    2016-01-01

    We have produced data and developed analysis to build representations for the concentration of spores of nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum in materials that are used during the manufacture of minimally processed chilled foods in the United Kingdom. Food materials are categorized into homogenous groups which include meat, fish, shellfish, cereals, fresh plant material, dairy liquid, dairy nonliquid, mushroom and fungi, and dried herbs and spices. Models are constructed in a Bayesian framework and represent a combination of information from a literature survey of spore loads from positive-control experiments that establish a detection limit and from dedicated microbiological tests for real food materials. The detection of nonproteolytic C. botulinum employed an optimized protocol that combines selective enrichment culture with multiplex PCR, and the majority of tests on food materials were negative. Posterior beliefs about spore loads center on a concentration range of 1 to 10 spores kg−1. Posterior beliefs for larger spore loads were most significant for dried herbs and spices and were most sensitive to the detailed results from control experiments. Probability distributions for spore loads are represented in a convenient form that can be used for numerical analysis and risk assessments. PMID:26729721

  10. Evaluation of bionanocomposites as packaging material on properties of soft white cheese during storage period.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Ahmed M; El-Sayed, Samah M; Salama, Heba H; El-Sayed, Hoda S; Dufresne, A

    2015-11-05

    Novel bionanocomposites based on chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol)/titanium nanoparticles (CS/PVA/TiO2 nanocomposite) were prepared and used as packaging materials for soft white cheese. The prepared bionanocomposites were characterized using XRD, SEM, TEM and FT-IR. The CS/PVA/TiO2 bionanocomposites exhibited good mechanical properties. Furthermore, the obtained bionanocomposites exhibited superior antibacterial activity against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus), gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli) bacteria and fungi (Candidia albicans). The soft white cheese was manufactured and packaged within the CS/PVA/TiO2 nanocomposite films and stored at 7 °C for 30 days. The color, rheological and chemical properties of cheese were evaluated, also the influence of CS/PVA/TiO2 bionanocomposites on microbiological analysis of soft white cheese was assessed, the results indicated that the total bacterial counts, mold & yeast and coliform decreased with the increasing storage period and disappeared at the end of storage period compared with control. Consequently, CS/PVA/TiO2 bionanocomposite can be used in food packaging applications.

  11. Molecular design of seed storage proteins for enhanced food physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Tandang-Silvas, Mary Rose G; Tecson-Mendoza, Evelyn Mae; Mikami, Bunzo; Utsumi, Shigeru; Maruyama, Nobuyuki

    2011-01-01

    Seed storage proteins such as soybean globulins have been nutritionally and functionally valuable in the food industry. Protein structure-function studies are valuable in modifying proteins for enhanced functionality. Recombinant technology and protein engineering are two of the tools in biotechnology that have been used in producing soybean proteins with better gelling property, solubility, and emulsifying ability. This article reviews the molecular basis for the logical and precise protein designs that are important in obtaining the desired improved physicochemical properties.

  12. Food as a limiting factor for Aedes aegypti in water-storage containers.

    PubMed

    Arrivillaga, Jazzmin; Barrera, Roberto

    2004-06-01

    An understanding of the ecological factors that regulate natural populations of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes can improve control and reduce the incidence of dengue (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in tropical areas. We investigated whether immature Ae. aegypti in water-storage containers from an urban area were under food limitation. We used starvation resistance (number of days alive without food) as an indicator of the feeding history in third-instar Ae. aegypti larvae. Resistance to starvation and other measures of immature success, such as development time, survival, and adult mass, were investigated across a wide range of feeding conditions in the laboratory. Resistance to starvation of third-instar larvae and body mass of adults emerging from pupae collected in water-storage containers in an urban area were compared with the laboratory results. If resistance to starvation and adult mass of field-collected Ae. aegypti corresponded with the lower levels of feeding in the laboratory, then food limitation could be inferred in field-collected larvae. Results showed that resistance to starvation was well correlated with previous feeding levels and with the other measures of immature success. Both resistance to starvation and adult body mass of field-collected specimens corresponded with the lower levels of feeding in the laboratory. Therefore, it was concluded that food limitation or competition is likely to be a regulatory factor in water-storage containers in the urban area. It is recommended that any control measure applied to immature Ae. aegypti in water-storage containers should eliminate all or most of the individuals, otherwise unintended, undesirable results might occur, such as the production of more and larger adults.

  13. Materiality matters: Blurred boundaries and the domestication of functional foods

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Kate; Will, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Previous scholarship on novel foods, including functional foods, has suggested that they are difficult to categorise for both regulators and users. It is argued that they blur the boundary between ‘food' and ‘drug' and that uncertainties about the products create ‘experimental' or ‘restless' approaches to consumption. We investigate these uncertainties drawing on data about the use of functional foods containing phytosterols, which are licensed for sale in the EU for people wishing to reduce their cholesterol. We start from an interest in the products as material objects and their incorporation into everyday practices. We consider the scripts encoded in the physical form of the products through their regulation, production and packaging and find that these scripts shape but do not determine their use. The domestication of phytosterols involves bundling the products together with other objects (pills, supplements, foodstuffs). Considering their incorporation into different systems of objects offers new understandings of the products as foods or drugs. In their accounts of their practices, consumers appear to be relatively untroubled by uncertainties about the character of the products. We conclude that attending to materials and practices offers a productive way to open up and interrogate the idea of categorical uncertainties surrounding new food products. PMID:26157471

  14. Recent developments in food-matrix Reference Materials at NIST.

    PubMed

    Sharpless, K E; Colbert, J C; Greenberg, R R; Schantz, M M; Welch, M J

    2001-06-01

    Since 1996, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has developed several food-matrix Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) characterized for nutrient concentrations. These include SRM 1544 Fatty Acids and Cholesterol in a Frozen Diet Composite, SRM 1546 Meat Homogenate, SRM 1548a Typical Diet, SRM 1566b Oyster Tissue, SRM 1846 Infant Formula, and SRM 2383 Baby Food Composite. Three additional materials--SRM 1946 Lake Superior Fish Tissue, SRM 2384 Baking Chocolate, and SRM 2385 Spinach--are in preparation. NIST also recently assigned values for proximate (fat, protein, etc.), individual fatty acid, and total dietary fiber concentrations in a number of existing SRMs and reference materials (RMs) that previously had values assigned for their elemental composition. NIST has used several modes for assignment of analyte concentrations in the food-matrix RMs, including the use of data provided by collaborating laboratories, alone and in combination with NIST data. The use of data provided by collaborating food industry and contract laboratories for the analysis of food-matrix RMs has enabled NIST to provide assigned values for many analytes that NIST does not have the resources or analytical expertise to measure.

  15. The material histories of food quality and composition.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Peter J

    2011-06-01

    This article argues for material histories of food. In recent decades food historians have tended to emphasize the cultural factors in consumption, in addition to the already well-established social, political and economic perspectives, but what is still missing is the stuff in foodstuffs. With reference in particular to milk and wine, the suggestion here is that physical and chemical composition is a major influence in what we might call the biographies of particular items of food and drink. Product characteristics are rarely static for long and today's mass-produced bread is different from that of the past, but then so are the flour, the yeast, and the even the butter that is spread on it. Adulteration was a particularly interesting aspect of composition in the nineteenth century and was the key to the emergence of two different traditions of understanding and valuing food quality.

  16. Determination of vitamins in food-matrix Standard Reference Materials.

    PubMed

    Sharpless, K E; Margolis, S; Thomas, J B

    2000-06-09

    In recent years, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has developed several food-matrix Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) characterized for vitamins and other organic nutrients. NIST uses several "modes" for assignment of analyte concentrations in SRMs, one of which includes the use of data provided by collaborating laboratories. Certification modes and liquid chromatographic methods that were used by NIST for value assignment of vitamin concentrations in recently introduced food-matrix SRMs are described in this paper. These materials and methods include vitamins D and E in coconut oil (SRM 1563) by gravimetry and multi-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC); vitamins A, E, and several B vitamins by reversed-phase LC and vitamin C by ion-exchange chromatography in infant formula (SRM 1846); and carotenoids and vitamins A and E by reversed-phase liquid chromatography in a baby food composite (SRM 2383).

  17. Design Guidelines for Digital Learning Material for Food Chemistry Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diederen, Julia; Gruppen, Harry; Voragen, Alphons G. J.; Hartog, Rob; Mulder, Martin; Biemans, Harm

    This paper describes the first stage of a 4-year research project on the design, development and use of Web-based digital learning material for food chemistry education. The paper discusses design guidelines, based on principles that were selected from theories on learning and instruction, and illustrates in detail how these guidelines were used…

  18. Development of food-related materials from cotton byproducts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A number of food-related projects are ongoing at the Commodities Utilization Research Unit at the USDA ARS Southern Regional Research Center (SRRC). Two research projects that utilize raw materials from the cotton plant are reviewed in this work. The first project entails the conversion of cotton ...

  19. Theory of light transfer in food and biological materials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this chapter, we first define the basic radiometric quantities that are needed for describing light propagation in food and biological materials. Radiative transfer theory is then derived, according to the principle of the conservation of energy. Because the radiative transfer theory equation is ...

  20. Instructional Materials for Occupational Home Economics; Food Service Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Public Instruction, Indianapolis. Div. of Vocational Education.

    Materials were developed by subject matter specialists at an Indiana State University workshop for teacher use when planning a cooperative occupational training program for supervised food service workers. Content areas, each printed on a different color paper, include: (1) Grooming and Public Relations, (2) Counter and Cafeteria Service, (3)…

  1. Applications of common beans in food and biobased materials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Extrusion method has been used to cook different food materials by employing the combination of high temperature, pressure and shearing stresses. Effects of extrusion cooking on functional, physicochemical and nutritional properties of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) have been reported for years...

  2. Catalog. Food and Nutrition Information and Educational Materials Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Agricultural Library (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This catalog contains 2,366 annotated citations that include books, pamphlets, journal articles, and audiovisual aids of interest to the school food service and nutrition education community. These materials were required by the Center from 1971 through 1973 and are available on loan to persons working in these fields, with journal articles to be…

  3. Evaluation of food, nutrition and functional substances, in the selected food materials for space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Kimura, Yasuko; Yamashita, Masamichi; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    We have been studying the evaluation of food, nutrition and functional substances, in the selected organic materials for useful life-support systems in closed bio-ecosystems for space agriculture on Mars in the future. We have already proposed several species as food materials; cyanobacterium, Nostoc sp. HK-01 and the Japanese cherry tree. Nostoc sp. HK-01 is a terrestrial cyanobacterium which has high tolerances to several space environments. In addition to its high tolerances to serious environments, HK-01 has a high protein content. Total protein per 100 g of the dried colony of Nostoc sp. HK-01 was approximately 50 g. Woody plant materials also have several properties which can be utilized in our habitation environment and as food. We have already found abilities to produce important functional substances for humans in the selected trees. Here, we show the extended results of our experiments.

  4. Underground and earth sheltered food storage: historical, geographic, and economic considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Dunkel, F.V.

    1985-01-01

    Storage structures now used for bulk grain and beans have been derived from a combination of scientific experiments and tradition. Recent generations of US farmers have grown up with the understanding that grain is best stored in round metal bins or wooden cribs aboveground. It is generally thought that natural wind movements in the crib structures and forced air flow from aeration fans in metal bins will keep grain and beans safe, i.e., free of moisture accumulation and the resulting insect and fungal growth, and protected from germination, all of which deteriorate the commodity. North American farmers further believe that the low temperature of northern winters combined with careful use of aerating fans will keep the grain dry or beans safe (less than 14% moisture content) for years of storage. Traditional forms of grain and bean storage in other parts of the world have evolved differently. With the exception of North America, the people of every continent in the world have developed underground structures for long-term storage of food. A review of the varieties of underground structures that have evolved throughout the world, and research related to underground storage of grain and beans is presented.

  5. Charging and Discharging Processes of Thermal Energy Storage System Using Phase change materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanimozhi, B., Dr.; Harish, Kasilanka; Sai Tarun, Bellamkonda; Saty Sainath Reddy, Pogaku; Sai Sujeeth, Padakandla

    2017-05-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the thermal characteristics of charging and discharge processes of fabricated thermal energy storage system using Phase change materials. Experiments were performed with phase change materials in which a storage tank have designed and developed to enhance the heat transfer rate from the solar tank to the PCM storage tank. The enhancement of heat transfer can be done by using a number of copper tubes in the fabricated storage tank. This storage tank can hold or conserve heat energy for a much longer time than the conventional water storage system. Performance evaluations of experimental results during charging and discharging processes of paraffin wax have discussed. In which heat absorption and heat rejection have been calculated with various flow rate.

  6. Inorganic compounds for passive solar energy storage: Solid-state dehydration materials and high specific heat materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struble, L. J.; Brown, P. W.

    1986-04-01

    Two classes of hydrated inorganic salts have been studied to assess their potential as materials for passive solar energy storage. The materials are part of the quaternary system CaO-Al2O3-SO3-H2O and related chemical systems, and the two classes are typified by ettringite, a trisubstituted salt, and Friedel's salt, a monosubstituted salt. The trisubstituted salts were studied for their possible application in latent heat storage, utilizing a low-temperature dehydration reaction, and both classes were studies for their application in sensible heat storage. In order to assess their potential for energy storage, the salts have been synthesized, characterized by several analytical techniques, and thermal properties measured. The dehydration data of that the trisubstituted salts vary somewhat with chemical composition, with the temperature of the onset of dehydration ranging from 6(0)C to 33(0)C, and enthalpy changes on dehydration ranging from 60 to 200 cal/g. Heat capacity is less variable with composition; values for the trisubstituted phases are 30 cal/g/(0)C and for the monosubstituted phases between 0.23 and 0.28 cal/g/(0)C. Preliminary experiments indicate that the dehydration is reversible, and suggest that the materials might have additional potential as solar desiccant materials. These thermal data demonstrate the trisubstituted salts have potential as latent heat storage materials, and that both classes of salts have potential as sensible heat storage materials.

  7. Moisture storage parameters of porous building materials as time-dependent properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Záleská, Martina; Pavlíková, Milena; Pavlík, Zbyšek

    2016-06-01

    Three different types of bricks and two different types of sandstones are studied in terms of measurement moisture storage parameters for over-hygroscopic moisture area using pressure plate device. For researched materials, basic physical properties as bulk density, matrix density and total open porosity are determined. From the obtained data of moisture storage measurement, the water retention curves and curves of degree of saturation in dependence on suction pressure are constructed. Water retention curve (also called suction curve, capillary potential curve, capillary-pressure function and capillary-moisture relationship) is the basic material property used in models for simulation of moisture storage in porous building materials.

  8. Material handling robot system for flow-through storage applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dill, James F.; Candiloro, Brian; Downer, James; Wiesman, Richard; Fallin, Larry; Smith, Ron

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the design, development and planned implementation of a system of mobile robots for use in flow through storage applications. The robots are being designed with on-board embedded controls so that they can perform their tasks as semi-autonomous workers distributed within a centrally controlled network. On the storage input side, boxes will be identified by bar-codes and placed into preassigned flow through bins. On the shipping side, orders will be forwarded to the robots from a central order processing station and boxes will be picked from designated storage bins following proper sequencing to permit direct loading into trucks for shipping. Because of the need to maintain high system availability, a distributed control strategy has been selected. When completed, the system will permit robots to be dynamically reassigned responsibilities if an individual unit fails. On-board health diagnostics and condition monitoring will be used to maintain high reliability of the units.

  9. Antioxidant agents in raw materials and processed foods.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, C E; Na, A

    1995-01-01

    Many food raw materials contain natural antioxidants which exert control of oxidative processes in the living cells. Among antioxidative agents are found enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glucose oxidase-catalase. Among naturally occurring non-enzymic antioxidants are carotenoids, especially astaxanthin (e.g. in fish), tocopherols in oils and other phenolic compounds in plant material. Enzymic antioxidants are mostly inactivated in food processing but the non-enzymic ones can be active also in heat-treated food and might also be active after consumption of the food, as is claimed with beta-carotene, and vitamins A and E. Vitamin C is a generally reducing substance which acts synergistically with other antioxidants. Processing of food can result in the formation of antioxidative compounds, e.g. by protein hydrolysis, Maillard reaction and fermentation by lactic acid bacteria. Curing of meat yields nitrosylhaem pigments which can act as radical scavengers and protect both the meat pigment and the lipids from oxidation. Two or more antioxidants together can act synergistically, i.e. affect lipid oxidation to a higher extent than the sum of the contributions from each single antioxidant.

  10. Food Prices and Climate Extremes: A Model of Global Grain Price Variability with Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, C.; Schewe, J.; Frieler, K.

    2015-12-01

    Extreme climate events such as droughts, floods, or heat waves affect agricultural production in major cropping regions and therefore impact the world market prices of staple crops. In the last decade, crop prices exhibited two very prominent price peaks in 2007-2008 and 2010-2011, threatening food security especially for poorer countries that are net importers of grain. There is evidence that these spikes in grain prices were at least partly triggered by actual supply shortages and the expectation of bad harvests. However, the response of the market to supply shocks is nonlinear and depends on complex and interlinked processes such as warehousing, speculation, and trade policies. Quantifying the contributions of such different factors to short-term price variability remains difficult, not least because many existing models ignore the role of storage which becomes important on short timescales. This in turn impedes the assessment of future climate change impacts on food prices. Here, we present a simple model of annual world grain prices that integrates grain stocks into the supply and demand functions. This firstly allows us to model explicitly the effect of storage strategies on world market price, and thus, for the first time, to quantify the potential contribution of trade policies to price variability in a simple global framework. Driven only by reported production and by long--term demand trends of the past ca. 40 years, the model reproduces observed variations in both the global storage volume and price of wheat. We demonstrate how recent price peaks can be reproduced by accounting for documented changes in storage strategies and trade policies, contrasting and complementing previous explanations based on different mechanisms such as speculation. Secondly, we show how the integration of storage allows long-term projections of grain price variability under climate change, based on existing crop yield scenarios.

  11. Aluminium content of some processed foods, raw materials and food additives in China by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Deng, Gui-Fang; Li, Ke; Ma, Jing; Liu, Fen; Dai, Jing-Jing; Li, Hua-Bin

    2011-01-01

    The level of aluminium in 178 processed food samples from Shenzhen city in China was evaluated using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Some processed foods contained a concentration of up to 1226 mg/kg, which is about 12 times the Chinese food standard. To establish the main source in these foods, Al levels in the raw materials were determined. However, aluminium concentrations in raw materials were low (0.10-451.5 mg/kg). Therefore, aluminium levels in food additives used in these foods was determined and it was found that some food additives contained a high concentration of aluminium (0.005-57.4 g/kg). The results suggested that, in the interest of public health, food additives containing high concentrations of aluminium should be replaced by those containing less. This study has provided new information on aluminium levels in Chinese processed foods, raw materials and a selection of food additives.

  12. 27 CFR 555.218 - Table of distances for storage of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Table of distances for... Storage § 555.218 Table of distances for storage of explosive materials. Quantity of explosives Pounds over Pounds not over Distances in feet Inhabited buildings Barricaded Unbarricaded Public highways with...

  13. Characterisation and potential migration of silver nanoparticles from commercially available polymeric food contact materials.

    PubMed

    Addo Ntim, Susana; Thomas, Treye A; Begley, Timothy H; Noonan, Gregory O

    2015-01-01

    The potential for consumer exposure to nano-components in food contact materials (FCMs) is dependent on the migration of nanomaterials into food. Therefore, characterising the physico-chemical properties and potential for migration of constituents is an important step in assessing the safety of FCMs. A number of commercially available food storage products, purchased domestically within the United States and internationally, that claim to contain nanosilver were evaluated. The products were made of polyethylene, polypropylene and polyphenylene ether sulfone and all contained silver (0.001-36 mg kg(-1) of polymer). Silver migration was measured under various conditions, including using 3% acetic acid and water as food simulants. Low concentrations (sub-ppb levels) of silver were detected in the migration studies generally following a trend characterised by a surface desorption phenomenon, where the majority of the silver migration occurred in the first of three consecutive exposures. Silver nanoparticles were not detected in food simulants, suggesting that the silver migration may be due solely to ionic silver released into solution from oxidation of the silver nanoparticle surface. The absence of detectable silver nanoparticles was consistent with expectations from a physico-chemical view point. For the products tested, current USFDA guidance for evaluating migration from FCMs was applicable.

  14. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and...

  15. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and...

  16. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and...

  17. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and...

  18. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and...

  19. Survey of residue levels of organic solvents in "existing food additives" and health food materials by head-space GC.

    PubMed

    Uematsu, Yoko; Ogimoto, Mami; Suzuki, Kumi; Kabashima, Junichirou; Ito, Koichi; Nakazato, Mitsuo

    2008-01-01

    Organic solvent residue levels in "Existing Food Additives" (n=145), health food materials (n=23), and commercial health food products (n=19) were surveyed. Ethanol was the dominant solvent found in the samples, suggesting its use in the manufacturing process. Methanol, acetone, 2-propanol and ethyl acetate was also found. No residual solvent exceeded the limits set by the Food Sanitation Law.

  20. Current research on food contact materials undertaken by the UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, J; Castle, L; Jickells, S M; Sharman, M

    1994-01-01

    Recent research funded by the UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) in the area of migration from food contact materials is reviewed and set within a framework of surveillance; evaluation of new technology; support of current regulations; and anticipation of future controls. Recent surveillance projects monitoring foods for migration of monomeric plasticizers (in particular di-(2-ethylhexyl)adipate), polymeric additives and mineral hydrocarbons are highlighted. Development of high temperature testing conditions for food contact materials has been carried out in support of regulations and proposals are made for the control of susceptors by analysis of release of volatiles. Migration of benzophenone from the printing ink of a paper board sleeve during microwave heating of a pre-cooked meal is described as a recent example of a migration situation that would not easily have been anticipated. Finally, the approach being adopted for investigating paper and board food contact materials for inorganic constituents, for volatile organic and for solvent-extractable organic components is outlined as an example of work being carried out in anticipation of future regulatory controls.

  1. Fate of starch in food processing: from raw materials to final food products.

    PubMed

    Delcour, Jan A; Bruneel, Charlotte; Derde, Liesbeth J; Gomand, Sara V; Pareyt, Bram; Putseys, Joke A; Wilderjans, Edith; Lamberts, Lieve

    2010-01-01

    Starch, an essential component of an equilibrated diet, is present in cereals such as common and durum wheat, maize, rice, and rye, in roots and tubers such as potato and cassava, and in legumes such as peas. During food processing, starch mainly undergoes nonchemical transformations. Here, we focus on the occurrence of starch in food raw materials, its composition and properties, and its transformations from raw material to final products. We therefore describe a number of predominant food processes and identify research needs. Nonchemical transformations that are dealt with include physical damage to starch, gelatinization, amylose-lipid complex formation, amylose crystallization, and amylopectin retrogradation. A main focus is on wheat-based processes. (Bio)chemical modifications of starch by amylolytic enzymes are dealt with only in the context of understanding the starch component in bread making.

  2. 30 CFR 56.6101 - Areas around explosive material storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... surrounding storage facilities for explosive material shall be clear of rubbish, brush, dry grass, and trees for 25 feet in all directions, except that live trees 10 feet or taller need not be removed. (b)...

  3. 15. BUILDING 227B. RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL STORAGE. ARCHITECTURAL LAYOUT. November 20, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. BUILDING 227B. RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL STORAGE. ARCHITECTURAL LAYOUT. November 20, 1970 - Frankford Arsenal, Building No. 227, South side of Hagner Road between Ripley & Mellon Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. 30 CFR 56.6101 - Areas around explosive material storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surrounding storage facilities for explosive material shall be clear of rubbish, brush, dry grass, and trees for 25 feet in all directions, except that live trees 10 feet or taller need not be removed. (b) Other...

  5. 75 FR 43906 - Hazardous Materials: Requirements for the Storage of Explosives During Transportation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... Materials: Requirements for the Storage of Explosives During Transportation AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous... Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE... Explosives Stored During Transportation A. Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMR), 49 CFR Parts 171-180...

  6. 48 CFR 252.223-7006 - Prohibition on storage and disposal of toxic and hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... disposal of toxic and hazardous materials. 252.223-7006 Section 252.223-7006 Federal Acquisition... and disposal of toxic and hazardous materials. As prescribed in 223.7103(a), use the following clause: Prohibition on Storage and Disposal of Toxic and Hazardous Materials (APR 1993) (a) Definitions. As used...

  7. 48 CFR 252.223-7006 - Prohibition on storage and disposal of toxic and hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... disposal of toxic and hazardous materials. 252.223-7006 Section 252.223-7006 Federal Acquisition... and disposal of toxic and hazardous materials. As prescribed in 223.7103(a), use the following clause: Prohibition on Storage and Disposal of Toxic and Hazardous Materials (APR 2012) (a) Definitions. As used...

  8. Physical-mechanical modifications of eggs for food-processing during storage.

    PubMed

    Berardinelli, A; Ragni, L; Giunchi, A; Gradari, P; Guarnieri, A

    2008-10-01

    Physical-mechanical properties of egg constituents and their modifications during storage and poststorage greatly influence the efficiency of food processing, such as the separation of white and yolk by mechanical shelling. Thick albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk index and vitelline membrane-yolk system strength of eggs from Hy-Line White and Lohmann Brown hens were analyzed during 7 mo of storage at 0 degrees C performing 3 poststorage treatments: i) immediately after refrigeration, T1; ii) after a further 6 h at 18 degrees C after refrigeration, T2; and iii) after a week at 18 degrees C after refrigeration, T3. For all qualitative parameters considered, this last poststorage treatment appeared to be the factor that produced the highest decrements; with respect to the first poststorage treatment, a further week at 18 degrees C after refrigeration can involve mean decreases of about 19, 14, 14, and 16% in thick albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk index, and vitelline membrane-yolk system strength (in terms of maximum force), respectively. During about 7 mo of storage at 0 degrees C, the latter parameter decreases, on average, by 10%. Increasing the storage time, physical-mechanical behavior was sometimes divergent from the observed trends.

  9. Sodium Chloride Diffusion in Low-Acid Foods during Thermal Processing and Storage.

    PubMed

    Bornhorst, Ellen R; Tang, Juming; Sablani, Shyam S

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed at modeling sodium chloride (NaCl) diffusion in foods during thermal processing using analytical and numerical solutions and at investigating the changes in NaCl concentrations during storage after processing. Potato, radish, and salmon samples in 1% or 3% NaCl solutions were heated at 90, 105, or 121 °C for 5 to 240 min to simulate pasteurization and sterilization. Selected samples were stored at 4 or 22 °C for up to 28 d. Radish had the largest equilibrium NaCl concentrations and equilibrium distribution coefficients, but smallest effective diffusion coefficients, indicating that a greater amount of NaCl diffused into the radish at a slower rate. Effective diffusion coefficients determined using the analytical solution ranged from 0.2 × 10(-8) to 2.6 × 10(-8) m²/s. Numerical and analytical solutions showed good agreement with experimental data, with average coefficients of determination for samples in 1% NaCl at 121 °C of 0.98 and 0.95, respectively. During storage, food samples equilibrated to a similar NaCl concentration regardless of the thermal processing severity. The results suggest that sensory evaluation of multiphase (solid and liquid) products should occur at least 14 d after processing to allow enough time for the salt to equilibrate within the product. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. The Application of Magnesium(I) Compounds to Energy Storage Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-18

    Analysis of Group 14 Element(I) Dimers: A Case Study of Magnesium(I) Compounds as Reducing Agents in Inorganic Synthesis, C. Jones, S.J. Bonyhady...Final Report The Application of Magnesium(I) Compounds to Energy Storage Materials Principal Investigator: Professor Cameron Jones School... Compounds to Energy Storage Materials 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Cameron Jones 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  11. Decrease of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation by food waste materials.

    PubMed

    Maderova, Zdenka; Horska, Katerina; Kim, Sang-Ryoung; Lee, Chung-Hak; Pospiskova, Kristyna; Safarikova, Mirka; Safarik, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    The formation of bacterial biofilm on various surfaces has significant negative economic effects. The aim of this study was to find a simple procedure to decrease the Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation in a water environment by using different food waste biological materials as signal molecule adsorbents. The selected biomaterials did not reduce the cell growth but affected biofilm formation. Promising biomaterials were magnetically modified in order to simplify manipulation and facilitate their magnetic separation. The best biocomposite, magnetically modified spent grain, exhibited substantial adsorption of signal molecules and decreased the biofilm formation. These results suggest that selected food waste materials and their magnetically responsive derivatives could be applied to solve biofilm problems in water environment.

  12. Synthesis of Two-Dimensional Materials for Capacitive Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza-Sánchez, Beatriz; Gogotsi, Yury

    2016-06-02

    The unique properties and great variety of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials make them highly attractive for energy storage applications. Here, an insight into the progress made towards the application of 2D nanomaterials for capacitive energy storage is provided. Moreover, synthesis methods, and electrochemical performance of various classes of 2D nanomaterials, particularly based on graphene, transition metal oxides, dichalcogenides, and carbides, are presented. Some factors that directly influence capacitive performance are discussed throughout the text and include nanosheet composition, morphology and texture, electrode architecture, and device configuration. Recent progress in the fabrication of 2D-nanomaterials-based microsupercapacitors and flexible and free-standing supercapacitors is presented. The main electrode manufacturing techniques with emphasis on scalability and cost-effectiveness are discussed, and include laser scribing, printing, and roll-to-roll manufacture. Some various issues that prevent the use of the full energy-storage potential of 2D nanomaterials and how they have been tackled are discussed, and include nanosheet aggregation and the low electrical conductivity of some 2D nanomaterials. In particular, the design of hybrid and hierarchical 2D and 3D structures based on 2D nanomaterials is presented. Other challenges and opportunities are discussed and include: control of nanosheets size and thickness, chemical and electrochemical instability, and scale-up of electrode films.

  13. Synthesis of Two-Dimensional Materials for Capacitive Energy Storage

    DOE PAGES

    Mendoza-Sánchez, Beatriz; Gogotsi, Yury

    2016-06-02

    The unique properties and great variety of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials make them highly attractive for energy storage applications. Here, an insight into the progress made towards the application of 2D nanomaterials for capacitive energy storage is provided. Moreover, synthesis methods, and electrochemical performance of various classes of 2D nanomaterials, particularly based on graphene, transition metal oxides, dichalcogenides, and carbides, are presented. Some factors that directly influence capacitive performance are discussed throughout the text and include nanosheet composition, morphology and texture, electrode architecture, and device configuration. Recent progress in the fabrication of 2D-nanomaterials-based microsupercapacitors and flexible and free-standing supercapacitors is presented.more » The main electrode manufacturing techniques with emphasis on scalability and cost-effectiveness are discussed, and include laser scribing, printing, and roll-to-roll manufacture. Some various issues that prevent the use of the full energy-storage potential of 2D nanomaterials and how they have been tackled are discussed, and include nanosheet aggregation and the low electrical conductivity of some 2D nanomaterials. In particular, the design of hybrid and hierarchical 2D and 3D structures based on 2D nanomaterials is presented. Other challenges and opportunities are discussed and include: control of nanosheets size and thickness, chemical and electrochemical instability, and scale-up of electrode films.« less

  14. Synthesis of Two-Dimensional Materials for Capacitive Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza-Sánchez, Beatriz; Gogotsi, Yury

    2016-06-02

    The unique properties and great variety of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials make them highly attractive for energy storage applications. Here, an insight into the progress made towards the application of 2D nanomaterials for capacitive energy storage is provided. Moreover, synthesis methods, and electrochemical performance of various classes of 2D nanomaterials, particularly based on graphene, transition metal oxides, dichalcogenides, and carbides, are presented. Some factors that directly influence capacitive performance are discussed throughout the text and include nanosheet composition, morphology and texture, electrode architecture, and device configuration. Recent progress in the fabrication of 2D-nanomaterials-based microsupercapacitors and flexible and free-standing supercapacitors is presented. The main electrode manufacturing techniques with emphasis on scalability and cost-effectiveness are discussed, and include laser scribing, printing, and roll-to-roll manufacture. Some various issues that prevent the use of the full energy-storage potential of 2D nanomaterials and how they have been tackled are discussed, and include nanosheet aggregation and the low electrical conductivity of some 2D nanomaterials. In particular, the design of hybrid and hierarchical 2D and 3D structures based on 2D nanomaterials is presented. Other challenges and opportunities are discussed and include: control of nanosheets size and thickness, chemical and electrochemical instability, and scale-up of electrode films.

  15. Glial fibrillary acidic protein is elevated in the lysosomal storage disease classical late-infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, but is not a component of the storage material.

    PubMed

    Xu, Su; Sleat, David E; Jadot, Michel; Lobel, Peter

    2010-05-27

    Classical late-infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (LINCL) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease of children caused by mutations in TPP1, the gene encoding the lysosomal protease tripeptidyl peptidase 1. LINCL is characterized by lysosomal accumulation of storage material of which only a single protein component, subunit c of mitochondrial ATP synthase, has been well established to date. Identification of other protein constituents of the storage material could provide useful insights into the pathophysiology of disease and the natural substrates for TPP1. We have therefore initiated a proteomic analysis of storage material in brain from a LINCL mouse model. One protein, GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein), was found to be elevated in the LINCL mice compared with normal controls in both isolated storage bodies and a lysosome-enriched subcellular fraction that contains storage material. To determine whether GFAP accumulates within the lysosome in LINCL, we examined its intracellular distribution using subcellular fractionation and morphological methods. These experiments demonstrate that GFAP is not a component of the storage material in LINCL, suggesting that reports of GFAP storage in other NCLs may need to be re-examined. A number of other proteins were elevated in the storage material and/or lysosome-enriched fraction from the LINCL mice, but it remains unclear whether these proteins are true constituents of the storage material or, like GFAP, whether they associate with this material upon purification.

  16. Glial fibrillary acidic protein is elevated in the lysosomal storage disease classical late-infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis but is not a component of the storage material

    PubMed Central

    XU, Su; SLEAT, David E.; JADOT, Michel; LOBEL, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Classical late neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (LINCL) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease of children caused by mutations in TPP1, the gene encoding the lysosomal protease tripeptidyl peptidase 1. LINCL is characterized by lysosomal accumulation of storage material of which only a single protein component, subunit c of mitochondrial ATP synthase, has been well established to date. Identification of other protein constituents of the storage material could provide useful insights into the pathophysiology of disease and the natural substrates for TPP1. We have therefore initiated a proteomic analysis of storage material in brain from a LINCL mouse model. One protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), was found to be elevated in the LINCL mice compared to normal controls in both isolated storage bodies and a lysosome-enriched subcellular fraction that contains storage material. To determine whether GFAP accumulates within the lysosome in LINCL, we examined its intracellular distribution using subcellular fractionation and morphological methods. These experiments demonstrate that GFAP is not a component of the storage material in LINCL, suggesting that reports of GFAP storage in other NCLs may need to be reexamined. A number of other proteins were elevated in the storage material and/or lysosome-enriched fraction from the LINCL mice but it remains unclear whether these proteins are true constituents of the storage material or, like GFAP, if they associate with this material upon purification. PMID:20370715

  17. A Materials Index--Its Storage, Retrieval, and Display

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Carol Z.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental procedure for indexing physical materials based on simple syntactical rules was tested by encoding the materials in the journal, Applied Physics Letters,'' to produce a materials index. The syntax and numerous examples together with an indication of the method by which retrieval can be effected are presented. (5 references)…

  18. Mechanisms of food processing and storage-related stress tolerance in Clostridium botulinum.

    PubMed

    Dahlsten, Elias; Lindström, Miia; Korkeala, Hannu

    2015-05-01

    Vegetative cultures of Clostridium botulinum produce the extremely potent botulinum neurotoxin, and may jeopardize the safety of foods unless sufficient measures to prevent growth are applied. Minimal food processing relies on combinations of mild treatments, primarily to avoid deterioration of the sensory qualities of the food. Tolerance of C. botulinum to minimal food processing is well characterized. However, data on effects of successive treatments on robustness towards further processing is lacking. Developments in genetic manipulation tools and the availability of annotated genomes have allowed identification of genetic mechanisms involved in stress tolerance of C. botulinum. Most studies focused on low temperature, and the importance of various regulatory mechanisms in cold tolerance of C. botulinum has been demonstrated. Furthermore, novel roles in cold tolerance were shown for metabolic pathways under the control of these regulators. A role for secondary oxidative stress in tolerance to extreme temperatures has been proposed. Additionally, genetic mechanisms related to tolerance to heat, low pH, and high salinity have been characterized. Data on genetic stress-related mechanisms of psychrotrophic Group II C. botulinum strains are scarce; these mechanisms are of interest for food safety research and should thus be investigated. This minireview encompasses the importance of C. botulinum as a food safety hazard and its central physiological characteristics related to food-processing and storage-related stress. Special attention is given to recent findings considering genetic mechanisms C. botulinum utilizes in detecting and countering these adverse conditions. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Nutrient enrichment reduces constraints on material flows in a detritus-based food web.

    PubMed

    Cross, Wyatt F; Wallace, J Bruce; Rosemond, Amy D

    2007-10-01

    Most aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are experiencing increased nutrient availability, which is affecting their structure and function. By altering community composition and productivity of consumers, enrichment can indirectly cause changes in the pathways and magnitude of material flows in food webs. These changes, in turn, have major consequences for material storage and cycling in the ecosystem. Understanding mechanisms and predicting consequences of nutrient-induced changes in material flows requires a quantitative food web approach that combines information on consumer energetics and consumer-resource stoichiometry. We examined effects of a whole-system experimental nutrient enrichment on the trophic basis of production and the magnitude and pathways of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) flows in a detritus-based stream food web. We compared the response of the treated stream to an adjacent reference stream throughout the study. Dietary composition and elemental flows varied considerably among invertebrate functional feeding groups. During nutrient enrichment, increased flows of leaf litter and amorphous detritus to shredders and gatherers accounted for most of the altered flows of C from basal resources to consumers. Nutrient enrichment had little effect on patterns of material flows but had large positive effects on the magnitude of C, N, and P flows to consumers (mean increase of 97% for all elements). Nutrient-specific food webs revealed similar flows of N and P to multiple functional groups despite an order of magnitude difference among groups in consumption of C. Secondary production was more strongly related to consumption of nutrients than C, and increased material flows were positively related to the degree of consumer-resource C:P and C:N imbalances. Nutrient enrichment resulted in an increased proportion of detrital C inputs consumed by primary consumers (from -15% to 35%) and a decreased proportion of invertebrate prey consumed by

  20. Effect of food models and low-temperature storage on the adhesion of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG to Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Deepika, G; Rastall, R A; Charalampopoulos, D

    2011-08-24

    This study evaluated the effects of fat and sugar levels on the surface properties of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG during storage in food model systems, simulating yogurt and ice cream, and related them with the ability of the bacterial cells to adhere to Caco-2 cells. Freeze-dried L. rhamnosus GG cells were added to the model food systems and stored for 7 days. The bacterial cells were analyzed for cell viability, hydrophobicity, ζ potential, and their ability to adhere to Caco-2 cells. The results indicated that the food type and its composition affected the surface and adhesion properties of the bacterial cells during storage, with yogurt being a better delivery vehicle than ice cream in terms of bacterial adhesion to Caco-2 cells. The most important factor influencing bacterial adhesion was the storage time rather than the levels of fats and sugars, indicating that conformational changes were taking place on the surface of the bacterial cells during storage.

  1. LANL Virtual Center for Chemical Hydrogen Storage: Chemical Hydrogen Storage Using Ultra-high Surface Area Main Group Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Kauzlarich; Phillip P. Power; Doinita Neiner; Alex Pickering; Eric Rivard; Bobby Ellis, T. M.; Atkins, A. Merrill; R. Wolf; Julia Wang

    2010-09-05

    The focus of the project was to design and synthesize light element compounds and nanomaterials that will reversibly store molecular hydrogen for hydrogen storage materials. The primary targets investigated during the last year were amine and hydrogen terminated silicon (Si) nanoparticles, Si alloyed with lighter elements (carbon (C) and boron (B)) and boron nanoparticles. The large surface area of nanoparticles should facilitate a favorable weight to volume ratio, while the low molecular weight elements such as B, nitrogen (N), and Si exist in a variety of inexpensive and readily available precursors. Furthermore, small NPs of Si are nontoxic and non-corrosive. Insights gained from these studies will be applied toward the design and synthesis of hydrogen storage materials that meet the DOE 2010 hydrogen storage targets: cost, hydrogen capacity and reversibility. Two primary routes were explored for the production of nanoparticles smaller than 10 nm in diameter. The first was the reduction of the elemental halides to achieve nanomaterials with chloride surface termination that could subsequently be replaced with amine or hydrogen. The second was the reaction of alkali metal Si or Si alloys with ammonium halides to produce hydrogen capped nanomaterials. These materials were characterized via X-ray powder diffraction, TEM, FTIR, TG/DSC, and NMR spectroscopy.

  2. Recycled paper-paperboard for food contact materials: contaminants suspected and migration into foods and food simulant.

    PubMed

    Suciu, Nicoleta A; Tiberto, Francesca; Vasileiadis, Sotirios; Lamastra, Lucrezia; Trevisan, Marco

    2013-12-15

    Contaminant residues in food packaging is a new challenge of our time, as it may pose a threat for consumers. Higher levels of contaminants were observed in food packaging made by recycled materials, even if little information is available for some groups of contaminants. The present study proposes a procedure for analyzing three different groups of organic contaminants in recycled paper and paperboard. Seventeen commercial samples were analyzed for the presence of bisphenol A (BPA), bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NMP) and nonylphenol di-ethoxilate (NDP). Not all the samples contained all the contaminants; BPA was the only substance present in all the samples. The concentrations detected were quite high and, in most of the cases, in agreement with results reported in previous studies. Substance migration tests from spiked/non-spiked samples for two dry foods and Tenax® food simulant were undertaken. BPA migration quotients were always lower than 1%, whereas the migration quotients of DEHP were higher than 2.0%. The highest nonylphenols migration quotients were 6.5% for NMP and 8.2% for NDP. Tenax® simulates well the contaminants migration from paperboard to dry food, in some cases being even more severe than the food.

  3. Mutation in the seed storage protein kafirin creates a high-value food trait in sorghum.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yongrui; Yuan, Lingling; Guo, Xiaomei; Holding, David R; Messing, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable food production for the earth's fast-growing population is a major challenge for breeding new high-yielding crops, but enhancing the nutritional quality of staple crops can potentially offset limitations associated with yield increases. Sorghum has immense value as a staple food item for humans in Africa, but it is poorly digested. Although a mutant exhibiting high-protein digestibility and lysine content has market potential, the molecular nature of the mutation is previously unknown. Here, building on knowledge from maize mutants, we take a direct approach and find that the high-digestible sorghum phenotype is tightly linked to a single-point mutation, rendering the signal peptide of a seed storage protein kafirin resistant to processing, indirectly reducing lysine-poor kafirins and thereby increasing lysine-rich proteins in the seeds. These findings indicate that a molecular marker can be used to accelerate introduction of this high nutrition and digestibility trait into different sorghum varieties.

  4. Experimental study of compatibility of reduced metal oxides with thermal energy storage lining materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Leathy, Abdelrahman; Danish, Syed Noman; Al-Ansary, Hany; Jeter, Sheldon; Al-Suhaibani, Zeyad

    2016-05-01

    Solid particles have been shown to be able to operate at temperatures higher than 1000 °C in concentrated solar power (CSP) systems with thermal energy storage (TES). Thermochemical energy storage (TCES) using metal oxides have also found to be advantageous over sensible and latent heat storage concepts. This paper investigates the compatibility of the inner lining material of a TES tank with the reduced metal oxide. Two candidate metal oxides are investigated against six candidate lining materials. XRD results for both the materials are investigated and compared before and after the reduction of metal oxide at 1000°C in the presence of lining material. It is found that the lining material rich in zirconia is suitable for such application. Silicon Carbide is also found non-reacting with one of the metal oxides so it needs to be further investigated with other candidate metal oxides.

  5. Symposium Z: Materials Challenges for Energy Storage Across Multiple Scales

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-02

    phases also used in the model: active material , nanoporous carbon/binder domains, and macroscopic pores. The 3D segmented structures (model and...with a nanoporous morphology and as nanocopmposites with metal-oxides have emerged the materials system of great potential for high energy density...together to discuss the latest advancements and excitement of their research work. The theme was centered on challenges at material level for rechargeable

  6. FUNDAMENTAL SAFETY TESTING AND ANALYSIS OF HYDROGEN STORAGE MATERIALS AND SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Anton, D

    2007-05-01

    Hydrogen is seen as the future automobile energy storage media due to its inherent cleanliness upon oxidation and its ready utilization in fuel cell applications. Its physical storage in light weight, low volume systems is a key technical requirement. In searching for ever higher gravimetric and volumetric density hydrogen storage materials and systems, it is inevitable that higher energy density materials will be studied and used. To make safe and commercially acceptable systems, it is important to understand quantitatively, the risks involved in using and handling these materials and to develop appropriate risk mitigation strategies to handle unforeseen accidental events. To evaluate these materials and systems, an IPHE sanctioned program was initiated in 2006 partnering laboratories from Europe, North America and Japan. The objective of this international program is to understanding the physical risks involved in synthesis, handling and utilization of solid state hydrogen storage materials and to develop methods to mitigate these risks. This understanding will support ultimate acceptance of commercially high density hydrogen storage system designs. An overview of the approaches to be taken to achieve this objective will be given. Initial experimental results will be presented on environmental exposure of NaAlH{sub 4}, a candidate high density hydrogen storage compound. The tests to be shown are based on United Nations recommendations for the transport of hazardous materials and include air and water exposure of the hydride at three hydrogen charge levels in various physical configurations. Additional tests developed by the American Society for Testing and Materials were used to quantify the dust cloud ignition characteristics of this material which may result from accidental high energy impacts and system breach. Results of these tests are shown along with necessary risk mitigation techniques used in the synthesis and fabrication of a prototype hydrogen storage

  7. Phase change thermal storage materials with crust forming stabilizers

    SciTech Connect

    Telkes, M.

    1980-02-05

    A body for the storage of heat or for the storage of coolness is, in its solid phase, a conglomerate of a mass of crystalline particles of a salt-hydrate, and a rigid cellular support structure in the form of a crust formed by a chemical reaction with the surfaces of the crystalline particles. By way of example , strontium nitrate is reacted with uniformly sized crystalline particles of sodium sulfate decahydrate to form an integral support crust structure of the compound strontium sulfate, which compound is insoluble in water. When the crystalline particles are transformed to the liquid phase, the liquid is confined within the cells of the support structure. The body is enclosed in a moisture impermeable skin to prevent evaporation of the water of crystallization in the liquid phase. Several methods of fabricating such a body are disclosed, including the mixing of the crystalline particles with a solution of soluble strontium nitrate in sufficient quantity to provide the desired supporting crust structure, pouring that mixture into a suitable mold, and providing the desired moisture impervious skin for the cast.

  8. Food microbe tracker: a web-based tool for storage and comparison of food-associated microbes.

    PubMed

    Vangay, Pajau; Fugett, Eric B; Sun, Qi; Wiedmann, Martin

    2013-02-01

    Large amounts of molecular subtyping information are generated by the private sector, academia, and government agencies. However, use of subtype data is limited by a lack of effective data storage and sharing mechanisms that allow comparison of subtype data from multiple sources. Currently available subtype databases are generally limited in scope to a few data types (e.g., MLST. net) or are not publicly available (e.g., PulseNet). We describe the development and initial implementation of Food Microbe Tracker, a public Web-based database that allows archiving and exchange of a variety of molecular subtype data that can be cross-referenced with isolate source data, genetic data, and phenotypic characteristics. Data can be queried with a variety of search criteria, including DNA sequences and banding pattern data (e.g., ribotype or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis type). Food Microbe Tracker allows the deposition of data on any bacterial genus and species, bacteriophages, and other viruses. The bacterial genera and species that currently have the most entries in this database are Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Streptococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus spp., and Paenibacillus spp., with over 40,000 isolates. The combination of pathogen and spoilage microorganism data in the database will facilitate source tracking and outbreak detection, improve discovery of emerging subtypes, and increase our understanding of transmission and ecology of these microbes. Continued addition of subtyping, genetic or phenotypic data for a variety of microbial species will broaden the database and facilitate large-scale studies on the diversity of food-associated microbes.

  9. Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 6, Alternatives study

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-14

    The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL`s weapons research, development, and testing (WRD&T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL`s inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for material and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. This report is organized according to the sections and subsections outlined by Attachment 111-2 of DOE Document AL 4700.1, Project Management System. It is organized into seven parts. This document, Part VI - Alternatives Study, presents a study of the different storage/containment options considered for NMSF.

  10. Practical issues in adopting a traveling wave thermoacoustic cooler for use in a food storage refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spoor, Philip S.

    2005-09-01

    CFIC/QDrive has developed a food storage refrigerator for the Army based on thermoacoustic technology. This ``Phase II'' SBIR project is a continuation of a ``Phase I'' effort that explored using a standing-wave thermoacoustic cooler for the refrigerator. The standing-wave cooler was found to be too inefficient with too low a power density to be practical, so it was switched to an acoustic Stirling, or traveling-wave thermoacoustic (regenerator based) cooler for Phase II. The major challenges of this project were adapting the Stirling-style cooler to a food storage application, and not the fundamentals of the cooler itself (the one exception being the issue of acoustic streaming). The challenges include: Running at 60 Hz (without frequency-shifting electronics), heat exchange without circulating fluids, dynamic balance, guarantee of long life, efficiency, and compactness (power density). How these challenges were met and how they drove the design, in most cases away from what would be ideal for the cycle itself, will be discussed. Time permitting, how the additional pressure of low unit cost would affect this type of product development will also be discussed. [Research supported by the U. S. Army through a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant.

  11. Density functional calculations in the automotive industry: Catalyst supports and hydrogen storage materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolverton, Christopher

    2006-03-01

    In my talk, I will describe some uses of density functional theory (DFT) calculations in the research laboratory at Ford, and particularly highlight work that was inspired by, or performed in collaboration with Ken Hass. I begin with a discussion of past work on γ-Al2O3 catalyst support materials, but also discuss the current main focus of our group's activities: hydrogen storage materials. Catalyst Supports: In current three-way automotive catalysts, precious metals are often supported by the phase of aluminum oxide known as γ-Al2O3. Despite the ubiquitous nature of this oxide in current automobile catalysts, and a considerable amount of effort expended to understand this material, many questions about the phase stability and even crystal structure of γ-Al2O3 remain. DFT calculations have made significant progress in unraveling these unanswered questions, allowing one to construct realistic models of the supported catalysts materials. Hydrogen Storage Materials: One of the major bottlenecks to the widespread use of hydrogen-fueled vehicles is the ability to store sufficient energy on-board to enable vehicle attributes acceptable to customers. I will give a general introduction to the topic of hydrogen storage, and a broad survey of the various classes of hydrogen storage technologies, and point out some pros and cons associated with each class. Currently known technologies have insufficient usable energy densities, and I will describe how DFT calculations are aiding the search for improved high density storage materials.

  12. Estimating parametric distributions of storage time and temperature of ready-to-eat foods for U.S. households.

    PubMed

    Pouillot, Régis; Lubran, Meryl B; Cates, Sheryl C; Dennis, Sherri

    2010-02-01

    Home refrigeration temperatures and product storage times are important factors for controlling the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in refrigerated ready-to-eat foods. In 2005, RTI International, in collaboration with Tennessee State University and Kansas State University, conducted a national survey of U.S. adults to characterize consumers' home storage and refrigeration practices for 10 different categories of refrigerated ready-to-eat foods. No distributions of storage time or refrigeration temperature were presented in any of the resulting publications. This study used classical parametric survival modeling to derive parametric distributions from the RTI International storage practices data set. Depending on the food category, variability in product storage times was best modeled using either exponential or Weibull distributions. The shape and scale of the distributions varied greatly depending on the food category. Moreover, the results indicated that consumers tend to keep a product that is packaged by a manufacturer for a longer period of time than a product that is packaged at retail. Refrigeration temperatures were comparable to those previously reported, with the variability in temperatures best fit using a Laplace distribution, as an alternative to the empirical distribution. In contrast to previous research, limited support was found for a correlation between storage time and temperature. The distributions provided in this study can be used to better model consumer behavior in future risk assessments.

  13. Heat storage materials suitable in particular for indoor air cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Schaper, P.; Laing, O.

    1983-08-23

    The use of Na/sub 2/CrO/sub 4/.10 H/sub 2/O as a heat storage medium is disclosed. Various amounts of Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/.10 H/sub 2/O may be included to provide a melting temperature between 19/sup 0/ C. and 31.9/sup 0/ C. A lower melting temperature can be obtained by adding CO(NH/sub 2/)/sub 2/. Paper sludge or waste products from the processing of sugar cane or peat can be added to increase viscosity. Auxiliary liquids such as trichlorethylene and tetrachlorethylene or silicone oils can be added to maintain pumpability of the compositions.

  14. Uranium for hydrogen storage applications : a materials science perspective.

    SciTech Connect

    Shugard, Andrew D.; Tewell, Craig R.; Cowgill, Donald F.; Kolasinski, Robert D.

    2010-08-01

    Under appropriate conditions, uranium will form a hydride phase when exposed to molecular hydrogen. This makes it quite valuable for a variety of applications within the nuclear industry, particularly as a storage medium for tritium. However, some aspects of the U+H system have been characterized much less extensively than other common metal hydrides (particularly Pd+H), likely due to radiological concerns associated with handling. To assess the present understanding, we review the existing literature database for the uranium hydride system in this report and identify gaps in the existing knowledge. Four major areas are emphasized: {sup 3}He release from uranium tritides, the effects of surface contamination on H uptake, the kinetics of the hydride phase formation, and the thermal desorption properties. Our review of these areas is then used to outline potential avenues of future research.

  15. Natural diatomite modified as novel hydrogen storage material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jiao; Zheng, Chenghui; Yang, Huaming

    2014-03-01

    Natural diatomite, subjected to different modifications, is investigated for hydrogen adsorption capacities at room temperature. An effective metal-modified strategy is developed to disperse platinum (Pt) and palladium (Pd) nanoparticles on the surface of diatomite. Hydrogen adsorption capacity of pristine diatomite (diatomite) is 0.463 wt.% at 2.63 MPa and 298 K, among the highest of the known sorbents, while that of acid-thermally activated diatomite (A-diatomite) could reach up to 0.833 wt.% due to the appropriate pore properties by activation. By incorporation with a small amount of Pt and Pd ( 0.5 wt.%), hydrogen adsorption capacities are enhanced to 0.696 wt.% and 0.980 wt.%, respectively, indicating that activated diatomite shows interesting application in the field of hydrogen storage at room temperature.

  16. SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES OF MATERIALS FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL ENERGY STORAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, Steven G.

    2014-03-01

    Several battery materials research projects were undertaken, suing NMR spectroscopy as a primary analytical tool. These include transport proerties of liquid and solid electrolytes and structural studies of Li ion electrodes.

  17. 33 CFR 127.1313 - Storage of hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the marine transfer area for LHG: (1) The LHG being transferred. (2) Fuel required by the vessel, or..., paints and similar materials in the amount required for one day's operations and maintenance. (b) The...

  18. 33 CFR 127.1313 - Storage of hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the marine transfer area for LHG: (1) The LHG being transferred. (2) Fuel required by the vessel, or..., paints and similar materials in the amount required for one day's operations and maintenance. (b) The...

  19. Carbon storage reservoirs in watersheds support stream food webs via periphyton production.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Naoto F; Uchida, Masao; Shibata, Yasuyuki

    2014-05-01

    We measured the natural abundances of radiocarbon (delta14C) in macroinvertebrates, fishes, and their potential food sources, collected from the upper and lower reaches of six temperate streams in Lake Biwa basin (central Japan), three of which flow on limestone bedrock. Several carbon storage reservoirs in the watersheds show distinctive delta14C signatures (e.g., ancient carbonate rocks, -1000 per thousand; modern atmospheric CO2, +50 per thousand). Our analyses showed that the delta14C values for periphytic algae range from -361 per thousand to +21 per thousand, reflecting 14C-depleted signals from watershed storage reservoirs (carbonate rocks and/or soils). In contrast, the delta14C values for coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM) range from -6 per thousand to +62 per thousand, reflecting 14C-enriched signals from modern atmospheric CO2. The periphyton from streams on limestone bedrock was more 14C-depleted than that from streams in non-limestone areas, although the delta14C values for periphyton from the latter were less than modern atmospheric 14CO2 concentration. The delta14C values for most of the consumers were between those for periphyton and CPOM. Based on a delta14C two-source mixing models, the results suggested that the grazers rely on periphyton, while the carbon source for collectors and predators shifts from CPOM in the upper reaches of streams to periphyton in the lower reaches. The delta14C signature can trace carbon from watershed storage reservoirs to benthic production, which suggests that stream food webs are composed of mixtures of carbon originating from various sources of different ages.

  20. New Ti-decorated B40 fullerene as a promising hydrogen storage material

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Huilong; Hou, Tingjun; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Li, Youyong

    2015-01-01

    The newly found B40 is the first experimentally observed all-boron fullerene and has potential applications in hydrogen storage. Here we investigate the binding ability and hydrogen storage capacity of Ti-decorated B40 fullerene based on DFT calculations. Our results indicate that Ti shows excellent binding capability to B40 compared with other transition metals. The B40 fullerene coated by 6 Ti atoms (Ti6B40) can store up to 34 H2 molecules, corresponding to a maximum gravimetric density of 8.7 wt%. It takes 0.2-0.4 eV/H2 to add one H2 molecule, which assures reversible storage of H2 molecules under ambient conditions. The evaluated reversible storage capacity is 6.1 wt%. Our results demonstrate that the new Ti-decorated B40 fullerene is a promising hydrogen storage material with high capacity. PMID:25943256

  1. Methane storage in nanoporous material at supercritical temperature over a wide range of pressures

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Keliu; Chen, Zhangxin; Li, Xiangfang; Dong, Xiaohu

    2016-01-01

    The methane storage behavior in nanoporous material is significantly different from that of a bulk phase, and has a fundamental role in methane extraction from shale and its storage for vehicular applications. Here we show that the behavior and mechanisms of the methane storage are mainly dominated by the ratio of the interaction between methane molecules and nanopores walls to the methane intermolecular interaction, and a geometric constraint. By linking the macroscopic properties of the methane storage to the microscopic properties of a system of methane molecules-nanopores walls, we develop an equation of state for methane at supercritical temperature over a wide range of pressures. Molecular dynamic simulation data demonstrates that this equation is able to relate very well the methane storage behavior with each of the key physical parameters, including a pore size and shape and wall chemistry and roughness. Moreover, this equation only requires one fitted parameter, and is simple, reliable and powerful in application. PMID:27628747

  2. New Ti-decorated B40 fullerene as a promising hydrogen storage material.

    PubMed

    Dong, Huilong; Hou, Tingjun; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Li, Youyong

    2015-05-06

    The newly found B40 is the first experimentally observed all-boron fullerene and has potential applications in hydrogen storage. Here we investigate the binding ability and hydrogen storage capacity of Ti-decorated B40 fullerene based on DFT calculations. Our results indicate that Ti shows excellent binding capability to B40 compared with other transition metals. The B40 fullerene coated by 6 Ti atoms (Ti6B40) can store up to 34 H2 molecules, corresponding to a maximum gravimetric density of 8.7 wt%. It takes 0.2-0.4 eV/H2 to add one H2 molecule, which assures reversible storage of H2 molecules under ambient conditions. The evaluated reversible storage capacity is 6.1 wt%. Our results demonstrate that the new Ti-decorated B40 fullerene is a promising hydrogen storage material with high capacity.

  3. Methane storage in nanoporous material at supercritical temperature over a wide range of pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Keliu; Chen, Zhangxin; Li, Xiangfang; Dong, Xiaohu

    2016-09-01

    The methane storage behavior in nanoporous material is significantly different from that of a bulk phase, and has a fundamental role in methane extraction from shale and its storage for vehicular applications. Here we show that the behavior and mechanisms of the methane storage are mainly dominated by the ratio of the interaction between methane molecules and nanopores walls to the methane intermolecular interaction, and a geometric constraint. By linking the macroscopic properties of the methane storage to the microscopic properties of a system of methane molecules-nanopores walls, we develop an equation of state for methane at supercritical temperature over a wide range of pressures. Molecular dynamic simulation data demonstrates that this equation is able to relate very well the methane storage behavior with each of the key physical parameters, including a pore size and shape and wall chemistry and roughness. Moreover, this equation only requires one fitted parameter, and is simple, reliable and powerful in application.

  4. Updated evaluation of the migration of styrene monomer and oligomers from polystyrene food contact materials to foods and food simulants.

    PubMed

    Genualdi, Susan; Nyman, Patricia; Begley, Timothy

    2014-04-01

    Due to the 2011 labelling of styrene monomer as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen" by the National Institutes of Health's National Toxicology Program (NTP) and the controversy over whether styrene oligomers mimic the physiological effects of estrogen, an updated review of styrene monomer and oligomers in food and food contact materials (FCMs) was performed. The concentrations of styrene monomer and oligomers were determined in 24 polystyrene (PS) products and ranged from 9.3 to 3100 mg kg(-1) for the styrene monomer, 130-2900 mg kg(-1) for the sum of three styrene dimers, and 220-16,000 mg kg(-1) for the sum of six styrene trimers. Foods in contact with PS packaging had styrene monomer concentrations ranging from 2.6 to 163 ng g(-1); dimer concentrations from the limit of quantitation (LOQ) to 4.8 ng g(-1) and trimer concentrations were all below the LOQ (2 ng g(-1)). Diffusion coefficients (Dp) and partition coefficients (K) were also calculated for styrene dimers and trimers. The results presented here indicate that styrene monomer concentrations in foods have not significantly changed since the 1980s and monomer concentrations in food packaging quantified in this study were all below USFDA limits. Although styrene dimers and trimers are present in higher concentrations in PS FCMs than the monomer, their migration to food is limited because of their high K values (4 × 10(2) to 2 × 10(6)) and their low diffusion coefficients in PS products. Additionally, diffusion coefficients calculated using USFDA-recommended food simulants and Arrhenius plots describing the temperature dependence of styrene dimers and trimers can be used in future calculations of dietary intake of the styrene oligomers.

  5. Characterization and Selection of Polymer Materials for Binary Munitions Storage.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    variety of side groups, including methyl , ethyl, and n- propyl . Samples would have to be annealed to eliminate residual stress effects, but, in principle...The methyl band at 1378 cm - 1 , which appears in the Crist report 7 and in the material specification MIL-P-51431(EA), is not observed. This band...Cobb Drive, Marietta, GA 30063 I ATTN: Materials and Processes Engineering Dept. 71-11, Zone 54 General Dynamics, Convair Aerospace Division, P.O. Box

  6. Initial assessment of the nutritional quality of the space food system over three years of ambient storage.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Maya; Perchonok, Michele; Douglas, Grace L

    2017-01-01

    Processed and prepackaged space food is the main source of nutrition for crew aboard the International Space Station, and likely will continue to be the main source of nutrition for future exploration missions. However, very little information is available on the nutritional stability of space foods. To better understand their nutritional stability, 24 micronutrients were measured in 109 space foods stored over 3 years at room temperature. Our analysis indicated that potassium, calcium, vitamin D, and vitamin K concentrations in the food may not be adequate to meet the recommended daily intake requirements even before storage. Decreases in vitamins A, C, B1, and B6 were observed during storage. Notably, vitamins B1 and C may degrade to inadequate levels after 1 year and 3 years, respectively. This assessment suggests that different technological approaches will be required to stabilize processed foods to enable spaceflight missions over 1 year.

  7. Mesoporous silica as carrier of antioxidant for food packaging materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonocore, Giovanna Giuliana; Gargiulo, Nicola; Verdolotti, Letizia; Liguori, Barbara; Lavorgna, Marino; Caputo, Domenico

    2014-05-01

    Mesoporous silicas have been long recognized as very promising materials for the preparation of drug delivery systems. In this work SBA-15 mesoporous silica has been functionalized with amino-silane to be used as carrier of antioxidant compound in the preparation of active food packaging materials exhibiting tailored release properties. Active films have been prepared by loading the antioxidant tocopherol, the purely siliceous SBA-15 and the aminofunctionalized SBA-15 loaded with tocopherol into LDPE matrix trough a two-step process (mixing+extrusion). The aim of the present work is the study of the effect of the pore size and of the chemical functionality of the internal walls of the mesophase on the migration of tocopherol from active LDPE polymer films. Moreover, it has been proved that the addition of the active compound do not worsen the properties of the film such as optical characteristic and water vapor permeability, thus leading to the development of a material which could be favorably used mainly, but not exclusively, in the sector of food packaging.

  8. DSC study of technical grade phase change heat storage materials for solar heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, B.M.; Hasnain, S.M.

    1995-11-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate the behavior of storage materials that undergo solid-liquid phase transitions. Heating scans were used to measure the enthalpy that can be stored and cooling scans were used to estimate the magnitude of the enthalpy that may be recovered from the storage material. The automatic and rapid thermal cycling features of the DSC system were used to study thermal decomposition that may arise from the daily duty cycle of the storage medium. In this study, DSC methods were applied to technical grade paraffin wax, calcium chloride hexahydrate and disodium hydrogen phosphate dodecahydrate. In the case of inorganic salt hydrates, DSC measurements showed a decrease in heat of fusion; thermal cycling and thermograms revealed considerable super cooling. This would lead to a reduction in storage capacity. On the other hand paraffin wax did not supercool nor were there any indications that thermal cycling or contact with metal could degrade its thermal performance.

  9. THERMAL EVALUATION OF DRUM TYPE RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING ARRAYS IN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N

    2009-04-27

    Drum type packages are routinely used to transport radioactive material (RAM) in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. These packages are designed to meet the federal regulations described in 10 CFR 71.[1] In recent years, there has been a greater need to use these packagings to store the excess fissile material, especially plutonium for long term storage. While the design requirements for safe transportation of these packagings are well defined, the requirements for safe long term storage are not well established. Since the RAM contents in the packagings produce decay heat, it is important that they are stored carefully to prevent overheating of the containment vessel (CV) seals to prevent any leakage and the impact limiter to maintain the package structural integrity. This paper analyzes different storage arrays for a typical 9977 packaging for thermal considerations and makes recommendations for their safe storage under normal operating conditions.

  10. Layer Structured Materials for Advanced Energy Storage and Conversion.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanpeng; Wei, Yaqing; Li, Huiqiao; Zhai, Tianyou

    2017-09-13

    Owing to the strong in-plane chemical bonds and weak van der Waals force between adjacent layers, investigations of layer structured materials have long been the hotspots in energy-related fields. The intrinsic large interlayer space endows them capabilities of guest ion intercalation, fast ion diffusion, and swift charge transfer along the channels. Meanwhile, the well-maintained in-plane integrity contributes to exceptional mechanical properties. This anisotropic structural feature is also conducive to effective chemical combination, exfoliation, or self-assembly into various nanoarchitectures, accompanied by the introduction of defects, lattice strains, and phase transformation. This review starts with a brief introduction of typical layered materials and their crystal structures, then the structural characteristics and structure oriented unique applications in batteries, capacitors, catalysis, flexible devices, etc., are highlighted. It is surprising to observe that layered materials possess: (1) high reactivity, high reversibility, and enhanced performance via forming additional chemical bonds in alkali-metal ion batteries; (2) facile phase modulation, great feasibility for in-plane/sandwich device design, and cation intercalation enabled high capacitance in supercapacitors; (3) promoted structural diversity, effective strain engineering, and capabilities to function as ideal supporting materials/templates in electrocatalysis field. Finally, the future prospects and challenges faced by layered materials are also outlined. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Stability of flavoured phytosterol-enriched drinking yogurts during storage as affected by different packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Semeniuc, Cristina Anamaria; Cardenia, Vladimiro; Mandrioli, Mara; Muste, Sevastiţa; Borsari, Andrea; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different packaging materials on storage stability of flavoured phytosterol-enriched drinking yogurts. White vanilla (WV) and blood orange (BO) phytosterol-enriched drinking yogurts conditioned in mono-layer and triple-layer co-extruded plastic bottles were stored at +6 ± 1 °C for 35 days (under alternating 12 h light and 12 h darkness) to simulate shelf-life conditions. Samples were collected at three different storage times and subjected to determination of total sterol content (TSC), peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs). TSC was not significantly affected by packaging material or storage time and met the quantity declared on the label. PV was significantly influenced by yogurt type × packaging material × storage time interaction and TBARs by packaging material × storage time interaction. Between the two packaging materials, the triple-layer plastic mini bottle with black coloured and completely opaque intermediate layer offered the best protection against lipid oxidation. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Functionalized carbon nanotubes and graphene-based materials for energy storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Hu, Chuangang; Dai, Liming

    2016-12-13

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) or graphene-based nanomaterials functionalized by different strategies have attracted great attention for energy storage due to their large specific surface area, high conductivity, and good mechanical properties. This feature article presents an overview of the recent progress in the functionalization of CNTs and graphene-based materials for energy storage applications in supercapacitors and batteries, along with challenges and perspectives in this exciting field.

  13. Mathematical modeling and experimental studies on solar energy storage in a phase change material

    SciTech Connect

    Das, S.; Dutta, T.K. )

    1993-11-01

    Solar energy storage in phase change material (PCM) is an effective method. A comprehensive study on a PCM storage system and development of a mathematical model have been attempted in this work in order to describe the melting characteristics of paraffin wax encapsulated in the annulus of two concentric cylinders. The movement of the separation boundary between the solid and molten wax was experimentally determined and compared with theoretical solution.

  14. Electrochemical and mechanical processes at surfaces and interfaces of advanced materials for energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Feifei

    Energy storage is a rapidly emerging field. In almost all energy storage applications, surfaces and interfaces are playing dominant roles. Examples are fuel cell electrodes, where electro-catalytic reactions occur, Li-ion battery (LIB) electrodes, where electrolyte decomposition and passivation commence simultaneously, and failure (fracture) of battery electrodes, where surface crack initiation greatly affects battery endurance. The most fundamental chemical, electrochemical, and mechanical problems in energy storage applications originate from surfaces and interfaces. This thesis investigates the electrochemical and mechanical processes at surfaces and interfaces of advanced materials for energy applications. The thesis includes the following five main research topics. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  15. A method for managing the storage of fissile materials using criticality indices

    SciTech Connect

    Philbin, J.S.; Harms, G.A.

    1995-07-01

    This paper describes a method for criticality control at fissile material storage facilities. The method involves the use criticiality indices for storage canisters. The logic, methodology, and results for selected canisters are presented. A concept for an interactive computer program using the method is also introduced. The computer program can be used in real time (using precalulated data) to select a Criticality Index (CI) for a container when it is delivered to or packaged at a site. Criticality safety is assured by controlling the sum of the CIs at each storage location below a defined Emit value when containers are moved.

  16. Complex metal borohydrides: multifunctional materials for energy storage and conversion.

    PubMed

    Mohtadi, Rana; Remhof, Arndt; Jena, Puru

    2016-09-07

    With the limited supply of fossil fuels and their adverse effect on the climate and the environment, it has become a global priority to seek alternate sources of energy that are clean, abundant, and sustainable. While sources such as solar, wind, and hydrogen can meet the world's energy demand, considerable challenges remain to find materials that can store and/or convert energy efficiently. This topical review focuses on one such class of materials, namely, multi-functional complex metal borohydrides that not only have the ability to store sufficient amount of hydrogen to meet the needs of the transportation industry, but also can be used for a new generation of metal ion batteries and solar cells. We discuss the material challenges in all these areas and review the progress that has been made to address them, the issues that still need to be resolved and the outlook for the future.

  17. Thermal energy storage using a phase change material

    SciTech Connect

    Hamdan, M.A.; Elwerr, F.A.

    1996-12-31

    A two-dimensional melting process of a solid phase change material investigated theoretically. The material contained in a rectangular enclosure heated from one side, while all the other sides are assumed to be adiabatic ones. In this study convection mode was considered to be the dominant mode of heat transfer within the melted region, except within the region very close to the solid surface at the bottom where conduction mode was only taken into considerations. It was found that the obtained results are in good agreement with previous ones. Finally the present analysis was used to predict the melted fraction of the phase change material and hence the amount of stored energy. 8 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Complex metal borohydrides: multifunctional materials for energy storage and conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohtadi, Rana; Remhof, Arndt; Jena, Puru

    2016-09-01

    With the limited supply of fossil fuels and their adverse effect on the climate and the environment, it has become a global priority to seek alternate sources of energy that are clean, abundant, and sustainable. While sources such as solar, wind, and hydrogen can meet the world’s energy demand, considerable challenges remain to find materials that can store and/or convert energy efficiently. This topical review focuses on one such class of materials, namely, multi-functional complex metal borohydrides that not only have the ability to store sufficient amount of hydrogen to meet the needs of the transportation industry, but also can be used for a new generation of metal ion batteries and solar cells. We discuss the material challenges in all these areas and review the progress that has been made to address them, the issues that still need to be resolved and the outlook for the future.

  19. The usable capacity of porous materials for hydrogen storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichtenmayer, Maurice; Hirscher, Michael

    2016-04-01

    A large number of different porous materials has been investigated for their hydrogen uptake over a wide pressure range and at different temperature. From the absolute adsorption isotherms, the enthalpy of adsorption is evaluated for a wide range of surface coverage. The usable capacity, defined as the amount of hydrogen released between a maximum tank pressure and a minimum back pressure for a fuel cell, is analyzed for isothermal operation. The usable capacity as a function of temperature shows a maximum which defines the optimum operating temperature. This optimum operating temperature is higher for materials possessing a higher enthalpy of adsorption. However, the fraction of the hydrogen stored overall that can be released at the optimum operating temperature is higher for materials with a lower enthalpy of adsorption than for the ones with higher enthalpy.

  20. New materials for thermal energy storage in concentrated solar power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerreiro, Luis; Collares-Pereira, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    Solar Thermal Electricity (STE) is an important alternative to PV electricity production, not only because it is getting more cost competitive with the continuous growth in installed capacity, engineering and associated innovations, but also, because of its unique dispatch ability advantage as a result of the already well established 2-tank energy storage using molten salts (MS). In recent years, research has been performed, on direct MS systems, to which features like modularity and combinations with other (solid) thermal storage materials are considered with the goal of achieving lower investment cost. Several alternative materials and systems have been studied. In this research, storage materials were identified with thermo-physical data being presented for different rocks (e.g. quartzite), super concrete, and other appropriate solid materials. Among the new materials being proposed like rocks from old quarries, an interesting option is the incorporation of solid waste material from old mines belonging to the Iberian Pyritic Belt. These are currently handled as byproducts of past mine activity, and can potentially constitute an environmental hazard due to their chemical (metal) content. This paper presents these materials, as part of a broad study to improve the current concept of solar energy storage for STE plants, and additionally presents a potentially valuable solution for environmental protection related to re-use of mining waste.

  1. Use of filler materials to aid spent nuclear fuel dry storage

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, K.J.

    1981-09-01

    The use of filler materials (also known as stabilizer or encapsulating materials) was investigated in conjunction with the dry storage of irradiated light water reactor (LWR) fuel. The results of this investigation appear to be equally valid for the wet storage of fuel. The need for encapsulation and suitable techniques for closing was also investigated. Various materials were reviewed (including solids, liquids, and gases) which were assumed to fill the void areas within a storage can containing either intact or disassembled spent fuel. Materials were reviewed and compared on the basis of cost, thermal characteristics, and overall suitability in the proposed environment. A thermal analysis was conducted to yield maximum centerline and surface temperatures of a design basis fuel encapsulated within various filler materials. In general, air was found to be the most likely choice as a filler material for the dry storage of spent fuel. The choice of any other filler material would probably be based on a desire, or need, to maximize specific selection criteria, such as surface temperatures, criticality safety, or confinement.

  2. Controllable antioxidative xylan-chitosan Maillard reaction products used for lipid food storage.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoxia; Shi, Xiaowen; Jin, Yong; Ding, Fuyuan; Du, Yumin

    2013-01-02

    Controllable antioxidative xylan-chitosan Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were prepared by co-heating xylan and chitosan at different time periods and used for lipid food storage in lecithin model system and refrigerated pork meat. The results of antioxidant protective effect on lecithin liposome peroxidation induced by 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride revealed that the MRPs heated for 120 min and 180 min showed much higher inhibitory activity than chitosan or MRP heated for 60 min. In the experiment of fresh pork protection, the MRPs heated for 60 and 120 min retarded the growth of spoilage organisms more effectively. Lipid oxidation potential of the meat, determined by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, also showed that the samples treated by the MRPs heated for 60 and 120 min had higher acceptance than others. These results demonstrate that the MRPs of xylan and chitosan are promising controllable antioxidative preservatives for lipid food formulations, and the antioxidant behavior depends not only on the antioxidant substances, but also on the interaction of the food systems. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Carbon-Based Functional Materials Derived from Waste for Water Remediation and Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qinglang; Yu, Yifu; Sindoro, Melinda; Fane, Anthony G; Wang, Rong; Zhang, Hua

    2017-04-01

    Carbon-based functional materials hold the key for solving global challenges in the areas of water scarcity and the energy crisis. Although carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene have shown promising results in various fields of application, their high preparation cost and low production yield still dramatically hinder their wide practical applications. Therefore, there is an urgent call for preparing carbon-based functional materials from low-cost, abundant, and sustainable sources. Recent innovative strategies have been developed to convert various waste materials into valuable carbon-based functional materials. These waste-derived carbon-based functional materials have shown great potential in many applications, especially as sorbents for water remediation and electrodes for energy storage. Here, the research progress in the preparation of waste-derived carbon-based functional materials is summarized, along with their applications in water remediation and energy storage; challenges and future research directions in this emerging research field are also discussed.

  4. Life and stability testing of packaged low-cost energy storage materials

    SciTech Connect

    Frysinger, G.R.

    1980-07-01

    A low-cost laminated plastic film which is used to contain a Glauber's salt-based phase change thermal energy storage material in sausage-like containers called Chubs is discussed. The results of tests performed on the Chub packages themselves and on the thermal energy storage capacity of the packaged phase change material are described. From the test results, a set of specifications have been drawn up for a film material which will satisfactorily contain the phase change material under anticipated operating conditions. Calorimetric testing of the phase change material with thermal cycling indicates that a design capacity of 45 to 50 Btu/lb for a ..delta..T of 30/sup 0/F can be used for the packaged material.

  5. 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE PERFORMANCE OF ALTERNATE MATERIALS FOR LONG-TERM STORAGE APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Skidmore, E.; Hoffman, E.; Daugherty, W.

    2010-02-24

    The Model 9975 shipping package specifies the materials of construction for its various components. With the loss of availability of material for two components (cane fiberboard overpack and Viton{reg_sign} GLT O-rings), alternate materials of construction were identified and approved for use for transport (softwood fiberboard and Viton{reg_sign} GLT-S O-rings). As these shipping packages are part of a long-term storage configuration at the Savannah River Site, additional testing is in progress to verify satisfactory long-term performance of the alternate materials under storage conditions. The test results to date can be compared to comparable results on the original materials of construction to draw preliminary conclusions on the performance of the replacement materials.

  6. Fires at storage sites of organic materials, waste fuels and recyclables.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Muhammad Asim; Alriksson, Stina; Kaczala, Fabio; Hogland, William

    2013-09-01

    During the last decade, the European Union has enforced the diversion of organic wastes and recyclables to waste management companies operating incineration plants, composting plants and recycling units instead of landfills. The temporary storage sites have been established as a buffer against fluctuations in energy demand throughout the year. Materials also need to be stored at temporary storage sites before recovery and recycling. However, regulations governing waste fuel storage and handling have not yet been developed, and, as a result, companies have engaged in risky practices that have resulted in a high number of fire incidents. In this study, a questionnaire survey was distributed to 249 of the 400 members of Avfall Sverige (Swedish Waste Management Association), which represents the waste management of 95% of the Swedish population. Information regarding 122 storage facilities owned by 69 companies was obtained; these facilities were responsible for the storage of 47% of the total treated waste (incineration + digestion + composting) in 2010 in Sweden. To identify factors related to fire frequency, the questionnaire covered the amounts of material handled and burnt per year, financial losses due to fires, storage duration, storage method and types of waste. The results show that 217 fire incidents corresponded to 170 kilotonnes of material burnt and cumulative losses of 49 million SEK (€4.3 million). Fire frequency and amount of material burnt per fire was found to be dependent upon type of management group (waste operator). Moreover, a correlation was found between fire frequency and material recycled during past years. Further investigations of financial aspects and externalities of fire incidents are recommended.

  7. Microwave-Convective Drying of Food Materials: A Critical Review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, C; Karim, M A

    2017-09-05

    Microwave convective drying (MCD) is gaining increasing interest due to its unique volumetric heating capability and ability to significantly reduce drying time and improve food quality. The main objective of this paper is to discuss, critically analyze and evaluate the recent advances in MCD and suggest the future directions in this field. The main focus of this paper is the mathematical modeling and experimental investigations in microwave convective drying of food materials. Recent developments in mathematical modeling of MCD is discussed and existing experimental setup and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed and analysed. Long drying time is a concern in food industries. Reductions in drying time by applying MCD compared to convection drying are calculated and discussed. It was apparent that the proper integration of mathematical modeling and experimental technique is the best way to maximize the advantages of this drying method. Although a plethora of research is being carried out on this topic, there is still need for research to develop fundamental modeling to optimize the process parameters and scale up this technology for the industrial application. Overall, the review provides an in-depth insight into the latest development of MCD and its mathematical modeling approaches and will hopefully serve to inspire future work in the field.

  8. Materials compatibility issues related to thermal energy storage for a space solar dynamic power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faget, N. M.

    Attention is given to results obtained to date in developmental investigations of a thermal energy storage (TES) system for the projected NASA Space Station's solar dynamic power system; these tests have concentrated on issues related to materials compatibility for phase change materials (PCMs) and their containment vessels' materials. The five PCMs tested have melting temperatures that correspond to the operating temperatures of either the Brayton or Rankine heat engines, which were independently chosen for their high energy densities.

  9. Materials compatibility issues related to thermal energy storage for a space solar dynamic power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faget, N. M.

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to results obtained to date in developmental investigations of a thermal energy storage (TES) system for the projected NASA Space Station's solar dynamic power system; these tests have concentrated on issues related to materials compatibility for phase change materials (PCMs) and their containment vessels' materials. The five PCMs tested have melting temperatures that correspond to the operating temperatures of either the Brayton or Rankine heat engines, which were independently chosen for their high energy densities.

  10. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials...

  11. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials...

  12. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials...

  13. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials...

  14. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials...

  15. Arsenic contamination in food-chain: transfer of arsenic into food materials through groundwater irrigation.

    PubMed

    Huq, S M Imamul; Joardar, J C; Parvin, S; Correll, Ray; Naidu, Ravi

    2006-09-01

    Arsenic contamination in groundwater in Bangladesh has become an additional concern vis-à-vis its use for irrigation purposes. Even if arsenic-safe drinking-water is assured, the question of irrigating soils with arsenic-laden groundwater will continue for years to come. Immediate attention should be given to assess the possibility of accumulating arsenic in soils through irrigation-water and its subsequent entry into the food-chain through various food crops and fodders. With this possibility in mind, arsenic content of 2,500 water, soil and vegetable samples from arsenic-affected and arsenic-unaffected areas were analyzed during 1999-2004. Other sources of foods and fodders were also analyzed. Irrigating a rice field with groundwater containing 0.55 mg/L of arsenic with a water requirement of 1,000 mm results in an estimated addition of 5.5 kg of arsenic per ha per annum. Concentration of arsenic as high as 80 mg per kg of soil was found in an area receiving arsenic-contaminated irrigation. A comparison of results from affected and unaffected areas revealed that some commonly-grown vegetables, which would usually be suitable as good sources of nourishment, accumulate substantially-elevated amounts of arsenic. For example, more than 150 mg/kg of arsenic has been found to be accumulated in arum (kochu) vegetable. Implications of arsenic ingested in vegetables and other food materials are discussed in the paper.

  16. Arsenic Contamination in Food-chain: Transfer of Arsenic into Food Materials through Groundwater Irrigation

    PubMed Central

    Joardar, J.C.; Parvin, S.; Correll, Ray; Naidu, Ravi

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic contamination in groundwater in Bangladesh has become an additional concern vis-à-vis its use for irrigation purposes. Even if arsenic-safe drinking-water is assured, the question of irrigating soils with arsenic-laden groundwater will continue for years to come. Immediate attention should be given to assess the possibility of accumulating arsenic in soils through irrigation-water and its subsequent entry into the food-chain through various food crops and fodders. With this possibility in mind, arsenic content of 2,500 water, soil and vegetable samples from arsenic-affected and arsenic-unaffected areas were analyzed during 1999–2004. Other sources of foods and fodders were also analyzed. Irrigating a rice field with groundwater containing 0.55 mg/L of arsenic with a water requirement of 1,000 mm results in an estimated addition of 5.5 kg of arsenic per ha per annum. Concentration of arsenic as high as 80 mg per kg of soil was found in an area receiving arsenic-contaminated irrigation. A comparison of results from affected and unaffected areas revealed that some commonly-grown vegetables, which would usually be suitable as good sources of nourishment, accumulate substantially-elevated amounts of arsenic. For example, more than 150 mg/kg of arsenic has been found to be accumulated in arum (kochu) vegetable. Implications of arsenic ingested in vegetables and other food materials are discussed in the paper. PMID:17366772

  17. Printed paper and board food contact materials as a potential source of food contamination.

    PubMed

    Van Bossuyt, Melissa; Van Hoeck, Els; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera; Mertens, Birgit

    2016-11-01

    Food contact materials (FCM) are estimated to be the largest source of food contamination. Apart from plastics, the most commonly used FCM are made of printed paper and board. Unlike their plastic counterparts, these are not covered by a specific European regulation. Several contamination issues have raised concerns towards potential adverse health effects caused by exposure to substances migrating from printed paper and board FCM. In the current study, an inventory combining the substances which may be used in printed paper and board FCM, was created. More than 6000 unique compounds were identified, the majority (77%) considered non-evaluated in terms of potential toxicity. Based on a preliminary study of their physicochemical properties, it is estimated that most of the non-evaluated single substances have the potential to migrate into the food and become bioavailable after oral intake. Almost all are included in the FACET tool, indicating that their use in primary food packaging has been confirmed by industry. Importantly, 19 substances are also present in one of the lists with substances of concern compiled by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). To ensure consumer safety, the actual use of these substances in printed paper and board FCM should be investigated urgently.

  18. Synthesis of carbon nanotube-TiO(2) nanotubular material for reversible hydrogen storage.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Amrita; Banerjee, Subarna; Mohapatra, Susanta K; Graeve, Olivia A; Misra, Mano

    2008-11-05

    A material consisting of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and larger titania (TiO(2)) nanotube arrays has been produced and found to be efficient for reversible hydrogen (H(2)) storage. The TiO(2) nanotube arrays (diameter ∼60 nm and length ∼2-3 µm) are grown on a Ti substrate, and MWCNTs a few µm in length and ∼30-60 nm in diameter are grown inside these TiO(2) nanotubes using chemical vapor deposition with cobalt as a catalyst. The resulting material has been used in H(2) storage experiments based on a volumetric method using the pressure, composition, and temperature relationship of the storage media. This material can store up to 2.5 wt% of H(2) at 77 K under 25 bar with more than 90% reversibility.

  19. Novel Materials with Effective Super Dielectric Constants for Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortes, Francisco Javier Quintero; Phillips, Jonathan

    2015-05-01

    To test a theory of the recently discovered phenomenon of super dielectric behavior at very low frequency, the dielectric constants of several `pastes', composed of porous alumina powders filled to the point of incipient wetness with water containing dissolved sodium chloride, were measured. The effective dielectric low frequency constants of some of the pastes were greater than 1010, dramatically higher than that of any material ever reported. Moreover, the total energy density reported for one capacitor generated with NaCl-based super dielectric material is marginally higher than found in any prior report. These results are consistent with this recently postulated model of low frequency super dielectric behavior in porous, non-conductive materials saturated with ion-containing liquids: upon the application of an electric field, ions dissolved in the saturating liquid contained in the pores will travel to the ends of pore-filling liquid droplets creating giant dipoles. The fields of these giant dipoles oppose the applied field, reducing the net field created per unit of charge on the capacitor plates, effectively increasing charge/voltage ratio, hence capacitance. This is simply a version of the theory of `polarizable media' found in most classic texts on electromagnetism. Other observations reported here include (1) the impact of ion concentration on dielectric values, (2) a maximum voltage similar to that associated with the electrical breakdown of water, (3) the loss of capacitance upon drying, (4) the recovery of capacitance upon the addition of water to a dry super dielectric material, and (5) the linear relationship between capacitance and inverse thickness. All observations are consistent with the earlier proposed model of the super dielectric phenomenon. An extrapolation of results suggests this technology can lead to energy density greater than the best lithium-ion battery.

  20. Sorbent Material Property Requirements for On-Board Hydrogen Storage for Automotive Fuel Cell Systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, R. K.; Peng, J-K; Hua, T. Q.

    2015-05-25

    Material properties required for on-board hydrogen storage in cryogenic sorbents for use with automotive polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems are discussed. Models are formulated for physical, thermodynamic and transport properties, and for the dynamics of H-2 refueling and discharge from a sorbent bed. A conceptual storage configuration with in-bed heat exchanger tubes, a Type-3 containment vessel, vacuum insulation and requisite balance-of-plant components is developed to determine the peak excess sorption capacity and differential enthalpy of adsorption for 5.5 wt% system gravimetric capacity and 55% well-to-tank (WTT) efficiency. The analysis also determines the bulk density to which the material must be compacted for the storage system to reach 40 g.L-1 volumetric capacity. Thermal transport properties and heat transfer enhancement methods are analyzed to estimate the material thermal conductivity needed to achieve 1.5 kg.min(-1) H-2 refueling rate. Operating temperatures and pressures are determined for 55% WTT efficiency and 95% usable H-2. Needs for further improvements in material properties are analyzed that would allow reduction of storage pressure to 50 bar from 100 bar, elevation of storage temperature to 175-200 K from 150 K, and increase of WTT efficiency to 57.5% or higher.

  1. Influence of Water Storage and Bonding Material on Bond Strength of Metallic Brackets to Ceramic.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ana Rosa; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Consani, Simonides; Giorgi, Maria Cecília Caldas; Vedovello, Silvia Amélia; Vedovello Filho, Mário; Santos, Eduardo Cesar Almada; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the influence of water storage (24 h and 6 months), and Transbond XT and Fuji Ortho LC bonding materials on the bond strength of metallic brackets bonded to feldspathic ceramic. Four cylinders of feldspathic ceramic were etched with 10% hydrofluoric acid for 60 s. Each cylinder received two layers of silane. Metallic brackets were bonded to the cylinders using Transbond XT or Fuji Ortho LC. Light-activation was carried out with 40 s total exposure time using Bluephase G2. Half the specimens for each bonding materials (n=20) were stored in distilled water at 37 °C for 24 h and the other half for 6 months. Shear bond strength testing was performed after storage times at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The adhesive remnant index (ARI) was used to evaluate the amount of adhesive remaining on the ceramic surface at ×8 magnification. Data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05). Transbond XT showed significantly higher bond strength (p<0.05) than Fuji Ortho LC. Significant differences in bond strength (p<0.05) were found when 24 h and 6 months storage times were compared between materials. ARI showed a predominance of score 0 for all groups, and higher scores at 1, 2 and 3 for 24 h storage time. In conclusion, storage time and bonding materials showed significant influence on the bond strength of brackets to ceramic.

  2. A Preliminary Evaluation of Using Fill Materials to Stabilize Used Nuclear Fuel During Storage and Transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph; Ross, Steven B.; Lahti, Erik A.; Richmond, David J.

    2012-08-01

    This report contains a preliminary evaluation of potential fill materials that could be used to fill void spaces in and around used nuclear fuel contained in dry storage canisters in order to stabilize the geometry and mechanical structure of the used nuclear fuel during extended storage and transportation after extended storage. Previous work is summarized, conceptual descriptions of how canisters might be filled were developed, and requirements for potential fill materials were developed. Elements of the requirements included criticality avoidance, heat transfer or thermodynamic properties, homogeneity and rheological properties, retrievability, material availability and cost, weight and radiation shielding, and operational considerations. Potential fill materials were grouped into 5 categories and their properties, advantages, disadvantages, and requirements for future testing were discussed. The categories were molten materials, which included molten metals and paraffin; particulates and beads; resins; foams; and grout. Based on this analysis, further development of fill materials to stabilize used nuclear fuel during storage and transportation is not recommended unless options such as showing that the fuel remains intact or canning of used nuclear fuel do not prove to be feasible.

  3. Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 7, Estimate data

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-14

    The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL`s weapons research, development, and testing (WRD&T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL`s inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for mate rial and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. This report is organized according to the sections and subsections outlined by Attachment III-2 of DOE Document AL 4700.1, Project Management System. It is organized into seven parts. This document, Part VII - Estimate Data, contains the project cost estimate information.

  4. Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 1, Design concept. Part 2, Project management

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-14

    The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL`s weapons research, development, and testing (WRD&T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL`s inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for mate rial and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. This document provides Part I - Design Concept which describes the selected solution, and Part II - Project Management which describes the management system organization, the elements that make up the system, and the control and reporting system.

  5. Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 3, Supplemental information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-14

    The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL`s weapons research, development, and testing (WRD&T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL`s inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for mate rial and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. It is organized into seven parts. Part I - Design Concept describes the selected solution. Part III - Supplemental Information contains calculations for the various disciplines as well as other supporting information and analyses.

  6. [Plant the raw material--source of the high-quality food fibers].

    PubMed

    Bezhanidze, I Z; Alasaniia, N Sh; Kharazi, N A; Kontselidze, L A; Bezhanidze, N V

    2009-06-01

    A technology has been developed for obtaining food pectin from the waste products (citrus fruits and apples) remaining after juice extraction by the ecologically clean and reagent-free method - electrodialysis. Reagent-free, eco-pure electrodialysis method made it possible to solve two key problems: ecological - withdrawal problems and economic - without the consumption of reagents high-quality pectin from the worthless raw material is obtained. It's 30% cheaper than imported. Studies suggest that to achieve detoxification of the body, it is necessary to consume soluble fiber (soluble pectin), ie take lemons and/or oranges, as well as all studied apple varieties in the state of technical maturity and storage for 6 months. It is advised for the normal functioning of the gastrointestinal tract to consume fruits at the state of their technical maturity. Moreover, it should be noted that the positive effect in this case will be achieved through consumption of raw fruits.

  7. Nanostructure multilayer materials for capacitor energy storage for EH vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, C.W.

    1995-02-01

    Acceleration and regenerative breaking for electric and hybrid vehicles require high power capacitors to complement energy sources. Large, flat nanostructure multilayer capacitors (NMCS) can provide load balancing capacitance in EHVs of the future. Additional uses include snubber capacitors for power electronics such as motor drives, energy discharge capacitors for lasers, and numerous industrial and military electronics applications [1]. In the present work, we demonstrate the effectiveness of LLNL`s multilayer materials technology by fabricating NMC test films with high energy and power density.

  8. Effect of storage solution on surface roughness of provisional crown and fixed partial denture materials.

    PubMed

    Haselton, Debra R; Diaz-Arnold, Ana M; Dawson, Deborah V

    2004-12-01

    This study evaluated the surface roughness of polished provisional materials at baseline and after storage in artificial saliva and artificial saliva-coffee solutions. Ten specimens (25 mm x 25 mm x 2 mm) of 12 commercially available provisional crown materials (5 methacrylate and 7 bis-acryl resins) were fabricated and polished. Baseline surface roughness measurements (Ra) were made using a surface roughness tester. Specimens were divided into 2 groups and stored in artificial saliva or artificial saliva-coffee solution at 37 degrees C for 2 weeks. Baseline surface roughness data were analyzed using the analysis of variance; multiple comparisons adjustment was made using the Tukey method. Multiple linear regression methods were used to analyze change in roughness relative to baseline and to assess the impact of storage medium, material, and baseline roughness on this change, including potential interactions among these 3 factors; descriptors of poststorage surface roughness were obtained. Alike demonstrated the greatest surface roughness, both at baseline and after storage (p <0.05 after adjustment for all Pairwise comparison by Tukey method). Temphase, Temporary Bridge Resin, Instatemp, Unifast, Jet, and Zeta had the lowest baseline surface roughness measurements. The lowest poststorage roughness scores were associated with Protemp Garant, Jet, and Integrity. Five materials (Protemp Garant, Instatemp, Unifast, Jet, and Zeta), formed the group having the lowest rough poststorage outcomes. The data provided strong evidence of a material effect (p <0.0001) at baseline. Evaluation of change in Ra following storage indicated that surface roughness increased for the majority of materials after storage in a moist environment, and that provisional crown materials that exhibit less initial surface roughness tend to undergo greater surface roughness change in a moist environment. Strong indications were found that the effect of the type of storage solution used differed

  9. Applications of thermal energy storage to waste heat recovery in the food processing industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trebilcox, G. J.; Lundberg, W. L.

    1981-03-01

    The canning segment of the food processing industry is a major energy user within that industry. Most of its energy demand is met by hot water and steam and those fluids, in addition to product cooling water, eventually flow from the processes as warm waste water. To minimize the possibility of product contamination, a large percentage of that waste water is sent directly to factory drains and sewer systems without being recycled and in many cases the thermal energy contained by the waste streams also goes unreclaimed and is lost from further use. Waste heat recovery in canning facilities can be performed economically using systems that employ thermal energy storage (TES). A project was proposed in which a demonstration waste heat recovery system, including a TES feature, would be designed, installed and operated.

  10. Foam/aerogel composite materials for thermal and acoustic insulation and cryogen storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K. (Inventor); Smith, Trent M. (Inventor); Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); Sass, Jared P. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The invention involves composite materials containing a polymer foam and an aerogel. The composite materials have improved thermal insulation ability, good acoustic insulation, and excellent physical mechanical properties. The composite materials can be used, for instance, for heat and acoustic insulation on aircraft, spacecraft, and maritime ships in place of currently used foam panels and other foam products. The materials of the invention can also be used in building construction with their combination of light weight, strength, elasticity, ability to be formed into desired shapes, and superior thermal and acoustic insulation power. The materials have also been found to have utility for storage of cryogens. A cryogenic liquid or gas, such as N.sub.2 or H.sub.2, adsorbs to the surfaces in aerogel particles. Thus, another embodiment of the invention provides a storage vessel for a cryogen.

  11. Foam/Aerogel Composite Materials for Thermal and Acoustic Insulation and Cryogen Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K. (Inventor); Smith, Trent M. (Inventor); Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); Sass, Jared P. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The invention involves composite materials containing a polymer foam and an aerogel. The composite materials have improved thermal insulation ability, good acoustic insulation, and excellent physical mechanical properties. The composite materials can be used, for instance, for heat and acoustic insulation on aircraft, spacecraft, and maritime ships in place of currently used foam panels and other foam products. The materials of the invention can also be used in building construction with their combination of light weight, strength, elasticity, ability to be formed into desired shapes, and superior thermal and acoustic insulation power. The materials have also been found to have utility for storage of cryogens. A cryogenic liquid or gas, such as N.sub.2 or H.sub.2, adsorbs to the surfaces in aerogel particles. Thus, another embodiment of the invention provides a storage vessel for a cryogen.

  12. Hydrogen storage materials discovery via high throughput ball milling and gas sorption.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Kaye, Steven S; Riley, Conor; Greenberg, Doron; Galang, Daniel; Bailey, Mark S

    2012-06-11

    The lack of a high capacity hydrogen storage material is a major barrier to the implementation of the hydrogen economy. To accelerate discovery of such materials, we have developed a high-throughput workflow for screening of hydrogen storage materials in which candidate materials are synthesized and characterized via highly parallel ball mills and volumetric gas sorption instruments, respectively. The workflow was used to identify mixed imides with significantly enhanced absorption rates relative to Li2Mg(NH)2. The most promising material, 2LiNH2:MgH2 + 5 atom % LiBH4 + 0.5 atom % La, exhibits the best balance of absorption rate, capacity, and cycle-life, absorbing >4 wt % H2 in 1 h at 120 °C after 11 absorption-desorption cycles.

  13. Effect of cold storage and packaging material on the major aroma components of sweet cream butter.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Patricio R; Miracle, Evan R; Krause, Andrea J; Drake, Maryanne; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2007-09-19

    The major aroma compounds of commercial sweet cream AA butter quarters were analyzed by GC-olfactometry and GC-MS combined with dynamic headspace analysis (DHA) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE). In addition, the effect of long-term storage (0, 6, and 12 months) and type of wrapping material (wax parchment paper vs foil) on the aroma components and sensory properties of these butters kept under refrigerated (4 degrees C) and frozen (-20 degrees C) storage was evaluated. The most intense compounds in the aroma of pasteurized AA butter were butanoic acid, delta-octalactone, delta-decalactone, 1-octen-3-one, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, dimethyl trisulfide, and diacetyl. The intensities of lipid oxidation volatiles and methyl ketones increased as a function of storage time. Refrigerated storage caused greater flavor deterioration compared with frozen storage. The intensity and relative abundance of styrene increased as a function of time of storage at refrigeration temperature. Butter kept frozen for 12 months exhibited lower styrene levels and a flavor profile more similar to that of fresh butter compared to butter refrigerated for 12 months. Foil wrapping material performed better than wax parchment paper in preventing styrene migration into butter and in minimizing the formation of lipid oxidation and hydroxyl acid products that contribute to the loss of fresh butter flavor.

  14. 9 CFR 355.15 - Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly-breeding material; nuisances. 355.15 Section...-breeding material; nuisances. All operating and storage rooms and departments of inspected plants used for... any material in which flies may breed, or the maintenance of any nuisance on the premises shall not...

  15. 9 CFR 355.15 - Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly-breeding material; nuisances. 355.15 Section...-breeding material; nuisances. All operating and storage rooms and departments of inspected plants used for... any material in which flies may breed, or the maintenance of any nuisance on the premises shall not...

  16. 9 CFR 355.15 - Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly-breeding material; nuisances. 355.15 Section...-breeding material; nuisances. All operating and storage rooms and departments of inspected plants used for... any material in which flies may breed, or the maintenance of any nuisance on the premises shall not...

  17. A numerical model for thermal energy storage systems utilising encapsulated phase change materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Rhys; Saman, Wasim; Bruno, Frank

    2016-05-01

    In an effort to reduce the cost of thermal energy storage for concentrated solar power plants, a thermocline storage concept was investigated. Two systems were investigated being a sensible-only and an encapsulated phase change system. Both systems have the potential to reduce the storage tank volume and/or reduce the cost of the filler material, thereby reducing the cost of the system when compared to current two-tank molten salt systems. The objective of the current paper is to create a numerical model capable of designing and simulating the aforementioned thermocline storage concepts in the open source programming language known as Python. The results of the current study are compared to previous numerical results and are found to be in good agreement.

  18. Hydrogen Storage Materials for Mobile and Stationary Applications: Current State of the Art.

    PubMed

    Lai, Qiwen; Paskevicius, Mark; Sheppard, Drew A; Buckley, Craig E; Thornton, Aaron W; Hill, Matthew R; Gu, Qinfen; Mao, Jianfeng; Huang, Zhenguo; Liu, Hua Kun; Guo, Zaiping; Banerjee, Amitava; Chakraborty, Sudip; Ahuja, Rajeev; Aguey-Zinsou, Kondo-Francois

    2015-09-07

    One of the limitations to the widespread use of hydrogen as an energy carrier is its storage in a safe and compact form. Herein, recent developments in effective high-capacity hydrogen storage materials are reviewed, with a special emphasis on light compounds, including those based on organic porous structures, boron, nitrogen, and aluminum. These elements and their related compounds hold the promise of high, reversible, and practical hydrogen storage capacity for mobile applications, including vehicles and portable power equipment, but also for the large scale and distributed storage of energy for stationary applications. Current understanding of the fundamental principles that govern the interaction of hydrogen with these light compounds is summarized, as well as basic strategies to meet practical targets of hydrogen uptake and release. The limitation of these strategies and current understanding is also discussed and new directions proposed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Incorporation of phase-change materials into a ground thermal energy storage system: Theoretical study

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, Y.; Korin, E.

    1996-09-01

    An investigation of a ground thermal energy storage system, which includes storage units containing phase-change materials (PCM), is presented. This study is related to a large-diameter helical heat exchanger, which is placed vertically in the ground. The PCM storage units under consideration have a cylindrical shell shape and are located inside and/or outside the helix. A modified numerical scheme for the solution of heat transfer in the ground, in the PCM units, and within the heat exchanger pipe, is presented. The theoretical results show that the thermal diffusivity of the PCM dominates the thermal performance of the system. Incorporation of PCM storage units containing paraffin wax results in a reduction of the thermal efficiency in comparison with a system not containing these units. However, incorporation of PCM having the same thermal diffusivity as of the soil results in a significant improvement of the thermal performance.

  20. in-situ chemistry mapping of hydrogen storage materials by neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Payzant, E Andrew; Bowman Jr, Robert C; Johnson, Terry A; Jorgensen, Scott W

    2013-01-01

    Neutron diffraction was used to nondestructively study the microstructures for two hydrogen storage media systems. In the first case, sodium alanate based hydrogen storage is a vehicle-scale candidate system developed by Sandia/GM. Neutron scattering was used to determine the distribution of phases in the storage media at different hydrogen loading levels, to help understand the absorption/desorption of hydrogen in large-scale systems. This study also included a 3D neutron tomographic study of the microstructure. In the second case, tin-doped lanthanum nickel alloys have been studied at JPL for space-based applications, for which the gradual degradation of the material due to segregation and disproportionation of phases is a known problem. A regenerative process developed to restore the storage properties of these alloys was studied, using in-situ neutron diffraction to relate the microstructure to the thermodynamic simulations.