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Sample records for foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance

  1. Predicting body composition using foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis in healthy Asian individuals.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chun-Shien; Chen, Yu-Yawn; Chuang, Chih-Lin; Chiang, Li-Ming; Dwyer, Gregory B; Hsu, Ying-Lin; Huang, Ai-Chun; Lai, Chung-Liang; Hsieh, Kuen-Chang

    2015-05-19

    The objectives of this study were to develop a regression model for predicting fat-free mass (FFM) in a population of healthy Taiwanese individuals using standing foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and to test the model's performance in predicting FFM with different body fat percentages (BF%). We used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to measure the FFM of 554 healthy Asian subjects (age, 16-75 y; body mass index, 15.8-43.1 kg/m(2)). We also evaluated the validity of the developed multivariate model using a double cross-validation technique and assessed the accuracy of the model in an all-subjects sample and subgroup samples with different body fat levels. Predictors in the all-subjects multivariate model included height(2)/impedance, weight, year, and sex (FFM = 13.055 + 0.204 weight + 0.394 height(2)/Impedance - 0.136 age + 8.125 sex (sex: Female = 0, Male = 1), r(2) = 0.92, standard error of the estimate = 3.17 kg). The correlation coefficients between predictive FFM by BIA (FFMBIA) and DXA-measured FFM (FFMDXA) in female subjects with a total-subjects BF%DXA of <20 %, 20 %-30 %, 30 %-40 % and >40 % were r = 0.87, 0.90, 0.91, 0.89, and 0.94, respectively, with bias ± 2SD of 0.0 ± 3.0 kg, -2.6 ± 1.7 kg, -1.5 ± 2.8 kg, 0.5 ± 2.7 kg, and 2.0 ± 2.9 kg, respectively. The correlation coefficients between FFMBIA and FFMDXA in male subjects with a total-subjects BF%DXA of <10 %, 10 %-20 %, 20 %-30 %, and >30 % were r = 0.89, 0.89, 0.90, 0.93, and 0.91, respectively, with bias ± 2SD of 0.0 ± 3.2 kg, -2.3 ± 2.5 kg, -0.5 ± 3.2 kg, 0.4 ± 3.1 kg, and 2.1 ± 3.2 kg, respectively. The standing foot-to-foot BIA method developed in this study can accurately predict FFM in healthy Asian individuals with different levels of body fat.

  2. Foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance accurately tracks direction of adiposity change in overweight and obese 7- to 13-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Kasvis, Popi; Cohen, Tamara R; Loiselle, Sarah-Ève; Kim, Nicolas; Hazell, Tom J; Vanstone, Catherine A; Rodd, Celia; Plourde, Hugues; Weiler, Hope A

    2015-03-01

    Body composition measurements are valuable when evaluating pediatric obesity interventions. We hypothesized that foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) will accurately track the direction of adiposity change, but not magnitude, in part due to differences in fat patterning. The purposes of this study were to examine the accuracy of body composition measurements of overweight and obese children over time using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and BIA and to determine if BIA accuracy was affected by fat patterning. Eighty-nine overweight or obese children (48 girls, 41 boys, age 7-13 years) participating in a randomized controlled trial providing a family-centered, lifestyle intervention, underwent DXA and BIA measurements every 3 months. Bland-Altman plots showed a poor level of agreement between devices for baseline percent body fat (%BF; mean, 0.398%; +2SD, 8.685%; -2SD, -7.889%). There was overall agreement between DXA and BIA in the direction of change over time for %BF (difference between visits 3 and 1: DXA -0.8 ± 0.5%, BIA -0.7 ± 0.5%; P = 1.000) and fat mass (FM; difference between visits 3 and 1: DXA 0.7 ± 0.5 kg, BIA 0.6 ± 0.5 kg; P = 1.000). Bioelectrical impedance analysis measurements of %BF and FM at baseline were significantly different in those with android and gynoid fat (%BF: 35.9% ± 1.4%, 32.2% ± 1.4%, P < .003; FM: 20.1 ± 0.8 kg, 18.4 ± 0.8, P < .013). Bioelectrical impedance analysis accurately reports the direction of change in FM and FFM in overweight and obese children; inaccuracy in the magnitude of BIA measurements may be a result of fat patterning differences.

  3. Feasibility of Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy Measurement before and after Thoracentesis

    PubMed Central

    Weyer, Sören; Pauly, Karolin; Napp, Andreas; Dreher, Michael; Leonhardt, Steffen; Marx, Nikolaus; Schauerte, Patrick; Mischke, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Background. Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy is applied to measure changes in tissue composition. The aim of this study was to evaluate its feasibility in measuring the fluid shift after thoracentesis in patients with pleural effusion. Methods. 45 participants (21 with pleural effusion and 24 healthy subjects) were included. Bioelectrical impedance was analyzed for “Transthoracic,” “Foot to Foot,” “Foot to Hand,” and “Hand to Hand” vectors in low and high frequency domain before and after thoracentesis. Healthy subjects were measured at a single time point. Results. The mean volume of removed pleural effusion was 1169 ± 513 mL. The “Foot to Foot,” “Hand to Hand,” and “Foot to Hand” vector indicated a trend for increased bioelectrical impedance after thoracentesis. Values for the low frequency domain in the “Transthoracic” vector increased significantly (P < 0.001). A moderate correlation was observed between the amount of removed fluid and impedance change in the low frequency domain using the “Foot to Hand” vector (r = −0.7). Conclusion. Bioelectrical impedance changes in correlation with the thoracic fluid level. It was feasible to monitor significant fluid shifts and loss after thoracentesis in the “Transthoracic” vector by means of bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy. The trial is registered with Registration Numbers IRB EK206/11 and NCT01778270. PMID:25861647

  4. Bioelectrical Impedance and Body Composition Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Mike

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses field tests that can be used in physical education programs. The most common field tests are anthropometric measurements, which include body mass index (BMI), girth measurements, and skinfold testing. Another field test that is gaining popularity is bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Each method has particular strengths…

  5. Bioelectrical Impedance and Body Composition Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Mike

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses field tests that can be used in physical education programs. The most common field tests are anthropometric measurements, which include body mass index (BMI), girth measurements, and skinfold testing. Another field test that is gaining popularity is bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Each method has particular strengths…

  6. Impact of eating and drinking on body composition measurements by bioelectrical impedance.

    PubMed

    Androutsos, O; Gerasimidis, K; Karanikolou, A; Reilly, J J; Edwards, C A

    2015-04-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis would be a more practical tool to measure body composition in clinical settings, dietetic practice and epidemiological studies if patients/subjects did not have to fast before measurements. The present study assessed whether the ingestion of food or drink had any biologically significant effect on bioimpedance measurements and body composition by the foot-to-foot method. Fifty-five healthy adults [30 males and 25 females; mean (SD) age 27.7 (7.1) years; mean (SD)body mass index 24 (3.8) kg m(-2)] were randomly assigned to a 2-day food trial (high-fat meal or high-carbohydrate meal) or a 2-day drink trial (water or high electrolyte drink). Body composition measurements were carried out in the fasting state, immediately after meal consumption and every 30 min for 2 h by the foot-to-foot single frequency bioimpedance technique. Bioimpedance increased significantly after the ingestion of food and fluid, although the changes were small. The electrolyte drink, high-fat and high-carbohydrate meals significantly increased the percentage body fat and fat mass. In all cases, the median percentage changes from baseline were approximately 1% in body fat percentage units. Although there were statistically significant changes in body composition estimates after food or drink consumption, these were small and within the imprecision of the impedance technique, and so are unlikely to be of clinical significance. The present study suggests that impedance measures of body fatness in clinical settings do not require strict adherence to fasting, and this should increase the opportunities for clinical application. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  7. Bioelectrical impedance analysis. What does it measure?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeller, D. A.

    2000-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) has been proposed for measuring fat-free mass, total body water, percent fat, body cell mass, intracellular water, and extracellular water: a veritable laboratory in a box. Although it is unlikely that BIA is quite this versatile, correlations have been demonstrated between BIA and all of these body compartments. At the same time, it is known that all of the compartments are correlated among themselves. Because of this, it is difficult to determine whether BIA is specific for any or all of these compartments. To investigate this question, we induced acute changes in total body water and its compartments over a 3-h period. Using this approach, we demonstrated that multifrequency BIA, using the Cole-Cole model to calculate the zero frequency and infinite frequency resistance, measures extracellular and intracellular water.

  8. Bioelectric impedance measurement for fluid status assessment.

    PubMed

    Piccoli, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Adequacy of body fluid volume improves short- and long-term outcomes inpatients with heart and kidney disorders. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) has the potential to be used as a routine method at the bedside for assessment and management of body fluids. Impedance (Z vector) is a combination of resistance, R (function of intra- and extracellular fluid volume) and reactance, Xc (function of the dielectric material of tissue cells), with the best signal to noise ratio at 50 kHz. BIVA allows a direct assessment of body fluid volume through patterns of vector distribution on the R-Xc plane without the knowledge of the body weight. Reference tolerance ellipses (50, 75 and 95%) for the individual vector were previously calculated in the healthy population. We determined the optimal vector distribution in patients undergoing hemodialysis without hypotension or intradialytic symptoms. Most vectors lay within the reference 75% tolerance ellipse of the healthy population indicating full electrical restoration of tissues. We also determined the optimal vector distribution of patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis without edema and with a residual urine output. The vector distribution was close to the distribution of both healthy subjects and pre-session distribution of hemodialysis patients. We established the relationship between central venous pressure and BIVA in critically ill patients. Shorter vectors (overhydration) were associated with increasing venous pressure, whereas longer vectors were associated with decreasing venous pressure. The association between BIVA and NT-proBNP has been evaluated in patients with acute cardiac-related dyspnea. In the 'gray zone' of NT-proBNP values between 'ruling out' and 'ruling in' acute heart failure, BIVA detected latent peripheral congestion. Simple patterns of BIVA allow detection, monitoring, and control of hydration status using vector displacement for the feedback on treatment. Copyright (c

  9. Percentiles of body fat measured by bioelectrical impedance in children and adolescents from Bogotá (Colombia): the FUPRECOL study.

    PubMed

    Escobar-Cardozo, Germán D; Correa-Bautista, Jorge E; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2016-04-01

    The analysis of body composition is a fundamental part of nutritional status assessment. The objective of this study was to establish body fat percentiles by bioelectrical impedance in children and adolescents from Bogotá (Colombia) who were part of the FUPRECOL study (Asociación de la Fuerza Prensil con Manifestaciones Tempranas de Riesgo Cardiovascular en Niños y Adolescentes Colombianos - Association between prehensile force and early signs of cardiovascular risk in Colombian children and adolescents). This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 5850 students aged 9-17.9 years old from Bogotá (Colombia). Body fat percentage was measured using foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance (Tanita®, BF-689), by age and gender. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured, and sexual maturity was self-staged. Percentiles (P3, P10, P25, P50, P75, P90 and P97) and centile curves were estimated using the LMS method (L [BoxCox curve], M [median curve] and S [variation coefficient curve]), by age and gender. Subjects included were 2526 children and 3324 adolescents. Body fat percentages and centile curves by age and gender were established. For most age groups, values resulted higher among girls than boys. Participants with values above P90 were considered to have a high cardiovascular risk due to excess fat (boys > 23.428.3, girls > 31.0-34.1). Body fat percentage percentiles measured using bioelectrical impedance by age and gender are presented here and may be used as reference to assess nutritional status and to predict cardiovascular risk due to excess fat at an early age. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  10. Anisotropic bioelectrical impedance determination of subcutaneous fat thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Becerra, P. A. I.; Delgadillo-Holtfort, I.; Balleza-Ordaz, M.; Huerta-Franco, M. R.; Vargas-Luna, M.

    2014-11-01

    Preliminary results have shown that bioelectrical impedance measurements performed on different parts of the human body strongly depend upon the subcutaneous fat of the considered region. In this work, a method for the determination of subcutaneous fat thickness is explored. Within this method the measurement of the bioelectrical impedance response of the fat-muscle system, both along the direction defined by the muscle fibers and along the corresponding perpendicular direction, are performed. Measurements have been carried out on human female and male subjects of ages around 25 years old at the region of the biceps. Correlation has been performed with skinfold caliper measurements.

  11. Bioelectrical impedance in the Air Force Weight Management Program.

    PubMed

    Breitenbach, R A

    1990-10-01

    Thousands of active-duty soldiers undergo weight evaluations each year and are subjected to disciplinary action if they fail to comply with established weight standards. This regulation consumes scarce available resources by requiring medical appointments. This study focuses on the use of bioelectrical impedance to determine body fat. It compared the physician's assistants with technicians for correlation of body fat percentage determinations. The correlation was r = .939 (p less than .0151) between the two groups. The use of technicians to determine body fat percentages using bioelectrical impedance appears to be a reasonable way to recover thousands of lost medical appointment slots.

  12. Bioelectrical Impedance Methods for Noninvasive Health Monitoring: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Bera, Tushar Kanti

    2014-01-01

    Under the alternating electrical excitation, biological tissues produce a complex electrical impedance which depends on tissue composition, structures, health status, and applied signal frequency, and hence the bioelectrical impedance methods can be utilized for noninvasive tissue characterization. As the impedance responses of these tissue parameters vary with frequencies of the applied signal, the impedance analysis conducted over a wide frequency band provides more information about the tissue interiors which help us to better understand the biological tissues anatomy, physiology, and pathology. Over past few decades, a number of impedance based noninvasive tissue characterization techniques such as bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), electrical impedance plethysmography (IPG), impedance cardiography (ICG), and electrical impedance tomography (EIT) have been proposed and a lot of research works have been conducted on these methods for noninvasive tissue characterization and disease diagnosis. In this paper BIA, EIS, IPG, ICG, and EIT techniques and their applications in different fields have been reviewed and technical perspective of these impedance methods has been presented. The working principles, applications, merits, and demerits of these methods has been discussed in detail along with their other technical issues followed by present status and future trends. PMID:27006932

  13. BIOELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE VECTOR ANALYSIS IDENTIFIES SARCOPENIA IN NURSING HOME RESIDENTS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Loss of muscle mass and water shifts between body compartments are contributing factors to frailty in the elderly. The body composition changes are especially pronounced in institutionalized elderly. We investigated the ability of single-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to identify b...

  14. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veiga, E. A.; Bertemes-Filho, P.

    2012-12-01

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20°C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  15. Bioelectrical impedance analysis for bovine milk: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertemes-Filho, P.; Valicheski, R.; Pereira, R. M.; Paterno, A. S.

    2010-04-01

    This work reports the investigation and analysis of bovine milk quality by using biological impedance measurements using electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The samples were distinguished by a first chemical analysis using Fourier transform midinfrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and flow citometry. A set of milk samples (100ml each) obtained from 17 different cows in lactation with and without mastitis were analyzed with the proposed technique using EIS. The samples were adulterated by adding distilled water and hydrogen peroxide in a controlled manner. FTIR spectroscopy and flow cytometry were performed, and impedance measurements were made in a frequency range from 500Hz up to 1MHz with an implemented EIS system. The system's phase shift was compensated by measuring saline solutions. It was possible to show that the results obtained with the Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) technique may detect changes in the milk caused by mastitis and the presence of water and hydrogen peroxide in the bovine milk.

  16. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis to evaluate relative hydration status.

    PubMed

    Bozzetto, Sara; Piccoli, Antonio; Montini, Giovanni

    2010-02-01

    The objective was to present our clinical experience with bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA). Forty-six patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) without oedema, 21 oedematous nephrotic children and 15 in remission from nephrotic syndrome were studied. The age range was 2-14 years. Data were obtained with the vector bioelectric impedance analysis method (Piccoli's RXc graph with 95% confidence ellipses) and compared with normal paediatric values. The mean vector position differs significantly among the groups of evaluated patients (Hotelling T(2) test, p < 0.05). Mean vector position along the 45 degrees direction (major axis of ellipses) indicates a progressive increase in body fluid volume from patients with CKD stage IV to stages II-III to patients in remission from nephrotic syndrome to oedematous subjects. We observed a progressive vector lengthening in children with severe renal disease (separate 95% confidence ellipse). This pattern indicates relative dehydration. BIVA represents a useful clinical tool that is able to detect changes in hydration.

  17. Comparison of body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in Hispanic diabetics

    PubMed Central

    Beeson, W.L.; Batech, M.; Schultz, E.; Salto, L.; Firek, A.; DeLeon, M.; Balcazar, H.; Cordero-MacIntyre, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to compare Tanita tetrapolar foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis (Model TBF-310, Tanita Corporation of America, Inc, Arlington Heights, IL; Tanita-BIA) and fan beam dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic Discovery A v12.6, Waltham, MA; DXA) in diabetic patients. Methods Seventy Hispanic diabetic participants (23 male, 47 female; mean age: 53.03 ± 10.32 yrs; mean weight: 81.45 ± 17.65 kg; and mean body mass index: 31.40 ± 6.80 kg/m2) were selected from the Loma Linda University En Balance culturally-sensitive Spanish diabetes education program using the baseline data. Results DXA vs Tanita-BIA fat mass (FM), percent fat mass (%FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) were compared using Pearson’s (FM: 0.96, %FM: 0.91, and FFM: 0.95), and Spearman’s rank (FM: 0.94, %FM: 0.91, and FFM: 0.93) correlation coefficients. Bland-Altman analyses were also used to compare the difference (DXA – BIA) vs average of DXA and BIA results and showed general agreement between the two methods. When Tanita-BIA was regressed onto DXA, the adjusted R2 was: FM=0.91; %FM=0.83; FFM=0.90. Gender combined concordance correlations with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using a bootstrap re-sampling of the data and found high associations [FM: 0.93 (95% CI: 0.89, 0.96)], [%FM: 0.86 (95% CI: 0.79, 0.90)], and [FFM: 0.93 (95% CI: 0.89, 0.96)]. Conclusion Tanita-BIA may provide valid measures of fat, percent body fat and fat-free mass in Hispanic diabetics, and could be a convenient and practical approach for assessment in community-based research. PMID:21318088

  18. Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Analysis and Muscular Fitness in Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Fernando; Cristi-Montero, Carlos; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2016-01-01

    Muscle strength can define the general muscular fitness (MF) measurable through hand-grip strength (HG), which is a factor that relates to the health of people of different ages. In this study we evaluated the muscle strength together with a bioimpedance electric analysis in 223 healthy Colombian adult subjects. The bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) was conducted to determine the resistance (R), reactance (Xc) and phase angle (PhA). We classified the subjects into three groups (for tertiles), obtaining lower values of R and Xc in subjects with lower HG, plus a high correlation between PhA and HG. An increase in the level of PhA is associated with a high level of MF in a sample of healthy Latin American adult men. The BIVA’s parameters and PhA are a potentially effective preventive measure to be integrated into routine screening in the clinical setting. PMID:27384579

  19. Muscle development in healthy children evaluated by bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Tomoka; Nakayama, Takahiro; Kuru, Satoshi

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to use bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to generate a new muscle density index (MDI), the MDI_BIA, to evaluate muscle development, and to demonstrate the changes that occur in the BIA-based muscle cross-sectional area index (MCAI_BIA) that accompany growth. We also sought to determine the traceability of chronological changes in the MDI_BIA and MCAI_BIA. Healthy children (n=112) aged 8.68±3.16years (0.33-14.00years) underwent bioelectrical impedance (BI) measurements of their upper arms, thighs, and lower legs. The MDI_BIA and MCAI_BIA were calculated, and cross-sectional investigations were conducted into the changes in these indices that accompanied growth. Data collected after 1.10±0.08years from 45 participants determined the traceability of the chronological changes in the MDI_BIA and MCAI_BIA. The MDI_BIA and MCAI_BIA were significantly positively correlated with age and height at all locations (P<0.01). The relationships between the locations and the MDI_BIA and MCAI_BIA differed, indicating that these indices evaluated the muscles from different perspectives. Except for the upper arm MDI_BIA, both indices at all locations regardless of age, showed significant chronological increases after an average period of 1.10years. The MDI_BIA and MCAI_BIA were significantly correlated with age and height in healthy children, and they showed significant chronological increases. Hence, these indices could be used to represent muscle development and muscle mass increases. BIA is non-invasive, convenient, and economical and it may be useful in evaluating muscle development and muscle cross-sectional areas in children. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Influence of Segmental Impedance Analysis in Predicting Validity of Consumer Grade Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Andy; Heath, Jennifer; Peterson, Janet

    2008-05-01

    Consumer grade bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) instruments measure the body's impedance at 50 kHz, and yield a quick estimate of percent body fat. The frequency dependence of the impedance gives more information about the current pathway and the response of different tissues. This study explores the impedance response of human tissue at a range of frequencies from 0.2 - 102 kHz using a four probe method and probe locations standard for segmental BIA research of the arm. The data at 50 kHz, for a 21 year old healthy Caucasian male (resistance of 180φ±10 and reactance of 33φ±2) is in agreement with previously reported values [1]. The frequency dependence is not consistent with simple circuit models commonly used in evaluating BIA data, and repeatability of measurements is problematic. This research will contribute to a better understanding of the inherent difficulties in estimating body fat using consumer grade BIA devices. [1] Chumlea, William C., Richard N. Baumgartner, and Alex F. Roche. ``Specific resistivity used to estimate fat-free mass from segmental body measures of bioelectrical impedance.'' Am J Clin Nutr 48 (1998): 7-15.

  1. Bioelectrical impedance analysis in the clinical management of a pregnant woman undergoing dialysis.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, K; Murata, K; Funaki, K; Fujita, I; Hayakawa, Y; Morita, H

    2000-01-01

    We report a case of successful pregnancy in a woman who was initially diagnosed with renal failure in mid-pregnancy. She was started on hemodialysis, and her fluid balance was serially monitored with bioelectrical impedance analysis. Her body weight decreased and bioelectrical impedance values increased, along with resolution of pulmonary edema in the process of the removal of excessive fluid retention with hemodialysis. The bioelectrical impedance values decreased immediately after the usual dose of oral ritodrine was administered, partly because producing sodium and water retention by ritodrine were enhanced in the setting of fluid imbalances. This decrease preceded the onset of pulmonary edema, while no changes were noted in maternal body weight before hemodialysis. These results suggest that the serial measurement of bioelectrical impedance values enables more reliable and earlier detection of abnormal water retention in pregnant women undergoing dialysis than the effect of body weight changes.

  2. Bioelectrical impedance analysis: A new tool for assessing fish condition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, Kyle J.; Margraf, F. Joseph; Hafs, Andrew W.; Cox, M. Keith

    2015-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is commonly used in human health and nutrition fields but has only recently been considered as a potential tool for assessing fish condition. Once BIA is calibrated, it estimates fat/moisture levels and energy content without the need to kill fish. Despite the promise held by BIA, published studies have been divided on whether BIA can provide accurate estimates of body composition in fish. In cases where BIA was not successful, the models lacked the range of fat levels or sample sizes we determined were needed for model success (range of dry fat levels of 29%, n = 60, yielding an R2 of 0.8). Reduced range of fat levels requires an increased sample size to achieve that benchmark; therefore, standardization of methods is needed. Here we discuss standardized methods based on a decade of research, identify sources of error, discuss where BIA is headed, and suggest areas for future research.

  3. Hydration in older adults: the contribution of bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Lynette R; Heiss, Cynthia J; Parsons, Susan D; Foley, Amanda S; Mefferd, Antje S; Hollinger, Deborah; Parham, Douglas F; Patterson, Jeremy

    2014-06-01

    The sensory and gastrointestinal changes that occur with ageing affect older adults' food and liquid intake. Any decreased liquid intake increases the risk for dehydration. This increased dehydration risk is compounded in older adults with dysphagia. The availability of a non-invasive and easily administered way to document hydration levels in older adults is critical, particularly for adults in residential care. This pilot study investigated the contribution of bioelectrical impedance analysis to measure hydration in 19 older women in residential care: 13 who viewed themselves as healthy and six with dysphagia. Mann-Whitney U analyses documented no significant between-group differences for Total Body Water (TBW), Fat Free Mass (FFM), Fat Mass (FM), and percentage Body Fat (%BF). However, when compared to previously published data for age-matched women, the TBW and FFM values of the two participant groups were notably less, and FM and %BF values were notably greater than expected. If results are confirmed through continued investigation, such findings may suggest that long-term care facilities are unique environments in which all older residents can be considered at-risk for dehydration and support the use of BIA as a non-invasive tool to assess and monitor their hydration status.

  4. Bioelectrical phase angle and impedance vector analysis--clinical relevance and applicability of impedance parameters.

    PubMed

    Norman, Kristina; Stobäus, Nicole; Pirlich, Matthias; Bosy-Westphal, Anja

    2012-12-01

    The use of phase angle (PhA) and raw parameters of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) has gained attention as alternative to conventional error-prone calculation of body composition in disease. This review investigates the clinical relevance and applicability of PhA and Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Analysis (BIVA) which uses the plot of resistance and reactance normalized per height. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using Medline identifying studies relevant to this review until March 2011. We included studies on the use of PhA or BIVA derived from tetrapolar BIA in out- and in-patient settings or institutionalized elderly. Numerous studies have proven the prognostic impact of PhA regarding mortality or postoperative complications in different clinical settings. BIVA has been shown to provide information about hydration and body cell mass and therefore allows assessment of patients in whom calculation of body composition fails due to altered hydration. Reference values exist for PhA and BIVA facilitating interpretation of data. PhA, a superior prognostic marker, should be considered as a screening tool for the identification of risk patients with impaired nutritional and functional status, BIVA is recommended for further nutritional assessment and monitoring, in particular when calculation of body composition is not feasible. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  5. Bioelectric Impedance Analysis in the Diagnosis of Vesicoureteral Reflux

    PubMed Central

    Bayram, Meral Torun; Alaygut, Demet; Turkmen, Mehmet; Soylu, Alper; Kavukcu, Salih

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a common abnormality of the urinary tract in childhood. Objectives: As urine enters the ureters and renal pelvis during voiding in vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), we hypothesized that change in body water composition before and after voiding may be less different in children with VUR. Patients and Methods: Patients were grouped as those with VUR (Group 1) and without VUR (Group 2). Bioelectric impedance analysis was performed before and after voiding, and third space fluid (TSF) (L), percent of total body fluid (TBF%), extracellular fluid (ECF%), and intracellular fluid (ICF%) were recorded. After change of TSF, TBF, ECF, ICF (ΔTSF, ΔTBF%, ΔECF%, ΔICF%), urine volume (mL), and urine volume/body weight (mL/kg) were calculated. Groups 1 and 2 were compared for these parameters. In addition, pre- and post-voiding body fluid values were compared in each group. Results: TBF%, ECF%, ICF%, and TSF in both pre- and post-voiding states and ΔTBF%, ΔECF%, ΔICF%, and ΔTSF after voiding were not different between groups. However, while post-voiding TBF%, ECF% was significantly decreased in Group 1 (64.5 ± 8.1 vs 63.7 ± 7.2, P = 0.013 for TBF%), there was not post-voiding change in TSF in the same group. On the other hand, there was also a significant TSF decrease in Group 2. Conclusions: Bladder and ureter can be considered as the third space. Thus, we think that BIA has been useful in discriminating children with VUR as there was no decreased in patients with VUR, although there was decreased TSF in patients without VUR. However, further studies are needed to increase the accuracy of this hypothesis. PMID:26396698

  6. A bioelectrical impedance phase angle measuring system for assessment of nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guanghao; Huo, Xiaolin; Wu, Changzhe; Zhang, Cheng; Duan, Zhongping

    2014-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance phase angle has been recommended as a tool to assess nutrition state, but there are no measuring devices have been specially designed for hospital residents. In this study, a system was established for the measurement of bioelectrical impedance phase angle. The electrical composition, calculation method and measuring method of this system are presented in this paper. Experiments showed excellent performance of this system in measuring impedance made of resistors and capacitors. The designed system was also used to measure the bioelectrical impedance phase angle of both healthy subjects and patients with malnutrition, and the results demonstrated that the phase angle of patients with malnutrition is lower than that of healthy subjects (P < 0.01 for male and P < 0.05 for female). These results suggest that phase angle has the potential to be a useful tool for the quantitative assessment of nutritional status.

  7. Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy as a fluid management system in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Weyer, Sören; Zink, Matthias Daniel; Wartzek, Tobias; Leicht, Lennart; Mischke, Karl; Vollmer, Thomas; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2014-06-01

    Episodes of hospitalization for heart failure patients are frequent and are often accompanied by fluid accumulations. The change of the body impedance, measured by bioimpendace spectroscopy, is an indicator of the water content. The hypothesis was that it is possible to detect edema from the impedance data. First, a finite integration technique was applied to test the feasibility and allowed a theoretical analysis of current flows through the body. Based on the results of the simulations, a clinical study was designed and conducted. The segmental impedances of 25 patients suffering from heart failure were monitored over their recompensation process. The mean age of the patients was 73.8 and their mean body mass index was 28.6. From these raw data the model parameters from the Cole model were deduced by an automatic fitting algorithm. These model data were used to classify the edema status of the patient. The baseline values of the regression lines of the extra- and intracellular resistance from the transthoracic measurement and the baseline value of the regression line of the extracellular resistance from the foot-to-foot measurement were identified as important parameters for the detection of peripheral edema. The rate of change of the imaginary impedance at the characteristic frequency and the mean intracellular resistance from the foot-to-foot measurement were identified as important parameters for the detection of pulmonary edema. To classify the data, two decision trees were considered: One should detect pulmonary edema (n(pulmonary) = 13, n(none) = 12) and the other peripheral edema (n(peripheral) = 12, n(none) = 13). Peripheral edema could be detected with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 90%. The detection of pulmonary edema showed a sensitivity of 92.31% and a specificity of 100%. The leave-one-out cross-validation-error for the peripheral edema detection was 12% and 8% for the detection of pulmonary edema. This enables the application of BIS as

  8. Effectiveness of thigh-to-thigh current path for the measurement of abdominal fat in bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ki Hwan; Lim, Yong Gyu; Park, Kwang Suk

    2009-12-01

    We present a new method measuring body impedance using a thigh-to-thigh current path, which can reflect the abdominal fat portion more sensitively and can be conveniently applied during the daily use on a toilet seat. Two pairs of electrodes were installed on a toilet seat to provide current and to permit voltage measurement through a thigh-to-thigh current path. The effectiveness of the method was compared with conventional foot-to-foot and hand-to-foot current paths by simulation and by experiments referenced to computed tomography (CT) image analysis. Body impedance using three different current paths was measured, and abdominal CT images were acquired for eight subjects. Measured body impedances were compared with the visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio (VF/SF) calculated from the CT-determined abdominal fat volume. The thigh-to-thigh current path was about 75% more sensitive in abdominal fat measurement than the conventional current paths in simulation experiments and displayed a higher VF/SF correlation (r = 0.768) than the foot-to-foot (r = 0.425) and hand-to-foot (r = 0.497) current paths.

  9. Active core rewarming avoids bioelectrical impedance changes in postanesthetic patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Postoperative hypothermia is a common cause of complications in patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Hypothermia is known to elicit electrophysiological, biochemical, and cellular alterations thus leading to changes in the active and passive membrane properties. These changes might influence the bioelectrical impedance (BI). Our aim was to determine whether the BI depends on the core temperature. Methods We studied 60 patients (52 female and 8 male) age 40 to 80 years with an ASA I-II classification that had undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy under balanced inhalation anesthesia. The experimental group (n = 30) received active core rewarming during the transanesthetic and postanesthesic periods. The control group (n = 30) received passive external rewarming. The BI was recorded by using a 4-contact electrode system to collect dual sets of measurements in the deltoid muscle. The body temperature, hemodynamic variables, respiratory rate, blood-gas levels, biochemical parameters, and shivering were also measured. The Mann-Whitney unpaired t-test was used to determine the differences in shivering between each group at each measurement period. Measurements of body temperature, hemodynamics variables, respiratory rate, and BI were analyzed using the two-way repeated-measures ANOVA. Results The gradual decrease in the body temperature was followed by the BI increase over time. The highest BI values (95 ± 11 Ω) appeared when the lowest values of the temperature (35.5 ± 0.5°C) were reached. The active core rewarming kept the body temperature within the physiological range (over 36.5°C). This effect was accompanied by low stable values (68 ± 3 Ω) of BI. A significant decrease over time in the hemodynamic values, respiratory rate, and shivering was seen in the active core-rewarming group when compared with the controls. The temporal course of shivering was different from those of body temperatue and BI. The control patients showed a

  10. Development of high time resolution measurement system of frequency characteristics in bioelectrical impedance for biodynamic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Takao; Kusuhara, Toshimasa; Yamamoto, Yoshitake

    2006-11-01

    We have proposed biodynamic analysis using bioelectrical impedance at 50 kHz, which is measured with synchronous rectification method. In order to analyze impedance parameters in biodynamics, the measurement of frequency characteristics in bioelectrical impedance with a high time resolution are required. Therefore we have developed a high time resolution measurement system for bioelectrical impedance with 10 frequency points and time resolution of 1 ms. A voltage E A, which consisted of fundamental wave and 9 kinds of harmonic wave from 1 kHz to 1MHz, were converted to current. The current flowed through human body and a potential voltage, EV was detected in the measured part. After A/D conversion of EV and E A in the sampling frequency 2 MHz, data number 2048 points, the impedance were calculated using Fast Fourier Transform. The measured time 1.024 ms was the period of the fundamental wave and time resolution of this system. The specification is enough accuracy for measurement of bioelectrical impedance for biodynamic analysis.

  11. Smart Multi-Frequency Bioelectrical Impedance Spectrometer for BIA and BIVA Applications.

    PubMed

    Harder, Rene; Diedrich, Andre; Whitfield, Jonathan S; Buchowski, Macie S; Pietsch, John B; Baudenbacher, Franz J

    2016-08-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a noninvasive and commonly used method for the assessment of body composition including body water. We designed a small, portable and wireless multi-frequency impedance spectrometer based on the 12 bit impedance network analyzer AD5933 and a precision wide-band constant current source for tetrapolar whole body impedance measurements. The impedance spectrometer communicates via Bluetooth with mobile devices (smart phone or tablet computer) that provide user interface for patient management and data visualization. The export of patient measurement results into a clinical research database facilitates the aggregation of bioelectrical impedance analysis and biolectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) data across multiple subjects and/or studies. The performance of the spectrometer was evaluated using a passive tissue equivalent circuit model as well as a comparison of body composition changes assessed with bioelectrical impedance and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in healthy volunteers. Our results show an absolute error of 1% for resistance and 5% for reactance measurements in the frequency range of 3 kHz to 150 kHz. A linear regression of BIA and DXA fat mass estimations showed a strong correlation (r(2)=0.985) between measures with a maximum absolute error of 6.5%. The simplicity of BIA measurements, a cost effective design and the simple visual representation of impedance data enables patients to compare and determine body composition during the time course of a specific treatment plan in a clinical or home environment.

  12. Smart Multi-frequency Bioelectrical Impedance Spectrometer for BIA and BIVA Applications

    PubMed Central

    Harder, Rene; Diedrich, André; Whitfield, Jonathan; Buchowski, Maciej S.; Pietsch, John B.; Baudenbacher, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a noninvasive and commonly used method for the assessment of body composition including body water. We designed a small, portable and wireless multi-frequency impedance spectrometer based on the 12 bit impedance network analyzer AD5933 and a precision wide-band constant current source for tetrapolar whole body impedance measurements. The impedance spectrometer communicates via Bluetooth with mobile devices (smart phone or tablet computer) that provide user interface for patient management and data visualization. The export of patient measurement results into a clinical research database facilitates the aggregation of bioelectrical impedance analysis and biolectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) data across multiple subjects and/or studies. The performance of the spectrometer was evaluated using a passive tissue equivalent circuit model as well as a comparison of body composition changes assessed with bioelectrical impedance and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in healthy volunteers. Our results show an absolute error of 1% for resistance and 5% for reactance measurements in the frequency range of 3kHz to 150kHz. A linear regression of BIA and DXA fat mass estimations showed a strong correlation (r2=0.985) between measures with a maximum absolute error of 6.5%. The simplicity of BIA measurements, a cost effective design and the simple visual representation of impedance data enables patients to compare and determine body composition during the time course of a specific treatment plan in a clinical or home environment. PMID:26863670

  13. Assessment of nutritional status in free-living elderly individuals by bioelectrical impedance vector analysis.

    PubMed

    Buffa, Roberto; Floris, Giovanni; Marini, Elisabetta

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to examine bioelectrical vector changes in relation to nutritional status in a sample of healthy free-living elderly people. The study group consisted of 170 men and women 70 to 99 y of age. Anthropometric and bioelectrical (resistance and reactance, 50 kHz, 800 muA) measurements were taken. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis was applied. Nutritional status was determined by the Mini-Nutritional Assessment. Bioelectrical characteristics of normal and undernourished individuals were compared statistically with Hotelling's T(2) test and graphically with 95% probability confidence ellipses. The impedance and multidimensional approaches showed a clear association. Undernourished subjects had a smaller phase angle (men 5.2 +/- 1.3 versus 5.7 +/- 1.0 degrees, P = 0.027; women 5.0 +/- 1.0 versus 5.4 +/- 0.9 degrees, P = 0.065) than normally nourished subjects. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis represents a promising indicator of nutritional status, suitable in screening programs and clinical practice.

  14. Comparison of two bioelectrical impedance analysis devices with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging in the estimation of body composition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji-Guang; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Han-E; Li, Yan; Cheng, Xiao-Guang; Xu, Li; Guo, Zhe; Zhao, Xing-Shan; Sato, Tetsuya; Cao, Qi-Yun; Chen, Ke-Min; Li, Biao

    2013-01-01

    We compared a 4-limb bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) system, HBF 359 (Omron), and a 2-limb foot-to-foot device, BC 532 (Tanita), with the standard dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods for the measurement of body fat percentage (BF), skeletal muscle mass percentage (SMM, or fat-free mass [FFM] for BC 532), and visceral fat level (VF). Body composition was measured in 200 healthy volunteers (100 men and 100 women, mean age 48 years) by HBF 359 and BC 532 and by DXA and MRI. The agreement was assessed by correlation analysis and paired t-test. The correlation coefficients between BIA and DXA or MRI ranged from 0.71 to 0.89 for BF, SMM, and VF by HBF 359 and from 0.77 to 0.90 for BF, FFM, and VF by BC 532 in all subjects and in men and women separately (p < 0.001 for all). Compared with DXA, HBF 359 significantly (p < 0.001) underestimated BF by -5.8% in men and -9.6% in women. Compared with MRI, the corresponding underestimatons (negative) or overestimations (positive) by HBF 359 in men and women were, respectively, +1.9% (p = 0.02) and +1.7% (p = 0.10) for SMM, and +13.3% (p < 0.001) and -8.5% (p = 0.006), for VF. The corresponding values by BC 532 in men and women were -10.7 and -6.2% for BF, -1.4 and -2.5% for FFM, and +20.4 and -18.0% for VF. The BIA devices are accurate in the estimation of body composition, especially skeletal muscle mass or FFM.

  15. Estimating body fat by using bioelectrical-impedance measurements: a preliminary assessment.

    Treesearch

    M.G. Raphael; H.J. Harlow; S.W. Buskirk

    1991-01-01

    We evaluated a technique for measuring body fat content of marten (Martes americana) by using a noninvasive bioelectrical-impedance device with four electrodes to introduce a current into the body. Instantaneous readings of resistance were significantly correlated with fat-free mass (determined from solvent extraction) of carcasses of 17 skinned (r...

  16. Bioelectrical impedance analysis as a laboratory activity: At the interface of physics and the body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mylott, Elliot; Kutschera, Ellynne; Widenhorn, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    We present a novel laboratory activity on RC circuits aimed at introductory physics students in life-science majors. The activity teaches principles of RC circuits by connecting ac-circuit concepts to bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) using a custom-designed educational BIA device. The activity shows how a BIA device works and how current, voltage, and impedance measurements relate to bioelectrical characteristics of the human body. From this, useful observations can be made including body water, fat-free mass, and body fat percentage. The laboratory is engaging to pre-health and life-science students, as well as engineering students who are given the opportunity to observe electrical components and construction of a commonly used biomedical device. Electrical concepts investigated include alternating current, electrical potential, resistance, capacitance, impedance, frequency, phase shift, device design, and the use of such topics in biomedical analysis.

  17. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) for measuring the hydration status in young elite synchronized swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco-Marginet, Marta; Castizo-Olier, Jorge; Rodríguez-Zamora, Lara; Iglesias, Xavier; Rodríguez, Ferran A.; Chaverri, Diego; Brotons, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The assessment of body hydration is a complex process, and no measurement is valid for all situations. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) has emerged as a relatively novel technique for assessing hydration status in sports. We applied BIVA a) to determine hydration changes evoked by an intense synchronized swimming (SS) training session; b) to characterize the sample of young elite swimmers in relation with a nonathletic reference population; and c) to generate its 50%, 75% and 95% percentiles of the bioelectrical variables. Methods Forty-nine elite SS female swimmers of two age categories, comen (Co: 13.9 ± 0.9 years, n = 34) and junior (Jr: 16.3 ± 0.6 years, n = 15), performed a long, high intensity training session. Body mass (BM) and bioelectrical variables (R, resistance; Xc, reactance; PA, phase angle; and Z, impedance module) were assessed pre- and post-training. BIVA was used to characterize 1) the distribution pattern of the bioelectrical vector (BIA vector) for both age groups, and 2) pre- to post-training BIA vector migration. Bioelectrical variables were also correlated with BM change values. Results Most swimmers were mostly located outside the 75% and some beyond the 95% percentile of the bioelectrical tolerance ellipses of the general population. The BIA vector showed statistically significant differences in both Co (T2 = 134.7, p = 0.0001) and Jr (T2 = 126.2, p < 0.001). Both groups were also bioelectrically different (T2 = 17.6, p < 0.001). After the training session, a decrease in BM (p = 0.0001) and an increase in BIA variables (p = 0.01) was observed. BIVA also showed a significant pre-post vector migration both in Co (T2 = 82.1; p < 0.001) and Jr (T2 = 41.8; p < 0.001). No correlations were observed between BM changes and bioelectrical variables. Conclusions BIVA showed specific bioelectrical characteristics in young elite SS athletes. Considering the decrease in BM and the migration of the BIA vector, we conclude that the

  18. Measurement of hand volume by bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ward, L C; Dylke, E S; Kilbreath, S L

    2012-06-01

    Assessment of lymphedema is frequently based upon measuring the increase in volume of the affected region compared to that of a comparable unaffected region. This requires methods that can measure the volume of body regions that are not only accurate and sensitive but also suitable for use in clinical practice. To date, bioimpedance spectroscopy has been used to measure volume increase due to lymphedema in whole arms but excluding the hand. We report here an impedance-based method for the measurement of hand volume. Impedance measurement electrodes were located on the dorsum of the hand, with the sense electrodes at the level of ulnar styloid and metacarpal-phalangeal joint of the third finger and current drive electrodes on the forearm and at the nail bed of the third finger. The impedances of the hands of 50 participants were measured and hand volumes computed. These were compared with the hand volumes measured by perometry. The region of the hand defined by the impedance measurements was determined, both in vivo and using a hand phantom. The region of the hand measured by the impedance technique was limited to the palmar volume (i.e., excluding the thumb). Palmar volumes computed from impedance measurements were significantly correlated (r=0.88) with those measured by perometry but were, on average, 8% larger. The impedance technique was sufficiently sensitive to detect the change in hand volume elicited by decrease in vascular volume due to blood draining from the hand on elevation. An impedance technique was developed that has the potential to measure the change in hand volume when affected by lymphedema. Bioimpedance spectroscopy has the advantage over currently used perometric or water displacement techniques in that it can measure specifically the change in extracellular fluid, including lymph, rather than simply total hand volume.

  19. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis in the critically ill: cool tool or just another 'toy'?

    PubMed

    Forni, Lui G; Hasslacher, Julia; Joannidis, Michael

    2015-11-11

    Assessment of volume and hydration status is far from easy and therefore technology such as bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) may complement our examination techniques. This study highlights the fact that clinical assessment of volume balance and BIVA may correlate, but whether the routine use of BIVA will avoid significant volume overload in the critically ill remains unknown. Further studies are needed but at the moment appear a little way off.

  20. EFFECTS OF FOOD AND DRINK INGESTION ON BODY COMPOSITION VARIABLES OF ABDOMINAL BIOELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE.

    PubMed

    Fernández Vázquez, Rosalía; Martínez Blanco, Javier; García Vega, María del Mar; Barbancho, Miguel Ángel; Alvero-Cruz, José Ramón

    2015-11-01

    to know the changes in trunk fat and visceral fat level determined by abdominal bioelectrical impedance (BIA) as well as other anthropometric measures related to the central or abdominal fat after the ingestion of a lunch. the experimental study was conducted to assess a longitudinal intervention descriptive study. 21 subjects (10 male and 11 female), volunteers who have access to a medical assessment, with an age of 74 ± 13.43 years. Maximal waist circumference in standing position, waist circumference at navel level in supine position and sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD). In the same position trunk fat and visceral fat level by abdominal bioelectrical impedance analysis with Tanita AB-140 (ViScan) were obtained before and after meal. anthropometric measures as waist circumference in supine position and SAD did not show significant differences (P > 0.05), after food ingestion, except for a significant increase of the maximal waist circumference in standing position (P < 0.05). In addition trunk fat and visceral fat ratio did not change (P > 0.05). The percentage changes of the measures were less than 2% for waist circumference in standing position, waist circumference by Viscan, sagittal abdominal diameter and trunk fat and 5.9% for visceral fat ratio. the effects on trunk fat and visceral fat ratio by abdominal bioelectrical impedance are minimal after the ingestion of a portion of food and drink, although it is always recommended to do it in fasting conditions. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  1. Factors influencing accuracy and reproducibility of body resistance measurements by foot-to-foot impedancemeters.

    PubMed

    Bousbiat, Sana; Jaffrin, Michel; Assadi, Imen

    2015-01-01

    The electronics of a BodySignal V2 (Tefal, France) foot-to-foot impedancemeter (FFI) was modified to display the foot-to-foot resistance instead of body fat. This device was connected to electrodes of different sizes mounted on a podoscope permitting photographs of subjects feet soles and electrodes in order to calculate the contact area between feet and electrodes. The foot-to-foot resistance was found to decrease when the contact area of feet with current and voltage electrodes increased. It was also sensitive to feet displacement and a backward move of 5 cm increased the mean resistance by 37 Ω. The resistance reproducibility was tested by asking the subject to repeat measurements 10-times by stepping up and down from the podoscope. The mean SD of these tests was 0.88% of mean resistance, but it fell to 0.47% when feet position was guided and to 0.29% with transverse voltage electrodes. For good reproducibility, it is important that voltage electrodes be small and that the scale design facilitates a correct position of heels on these electrodes.

  2. Body fat measurement by bioelectrical impedance and air displacement plethysmography: a cross-validation study to design bioelectrical impedance equations in Mexican adults.

    PubMed

    Macias, Nayeli; Alemán-Mateo, Heliodoro; Esparza-Romero, Julián; Valencia, Mauro E

    2007-08-15

    The study of body composition in specific populations by techniques such as bio-impedance analysis (BIA) requires validation based on standard reference methods. The aim of this study was to develop and cross-validate a predictive equation for bioelectrical impedance using air displacement plethysmography (ADP) as standard method to measure body composition in Mexican adult men and women. This study included 155 male and female subjects from northern Mexico, 20-50 years of age, from low, middle, and upper income levels. Body composition was measured by ADP. Body weight (BW, kg) and height (Ht, cm) were obtained by standard anthropometric techniques. Resistance, R (ohms) and reactance, Xc (ohms) were also measured. A random-split method was used to obtain two samples: one was used to derive the equation by the "all possible regressions" procedure and was cross-validated in the other sample to test predicted versus measured values of fat-free mass (FFM). The final model was: FFM (kg) = 0.7374 * (Ht2 /R) + 0.1763 * (BW) - 0.1773 * (Age) + 0.1198 * (Xc) - 2.4658. R2 was 0.97; the square root of the mean square error (SRMSE) was 1.99 kg, and the pure error (PE) was 2.96. There was no difference between FFM predicted by the new equation (48.57 +/- 10.9 kg) and that measured by ADP (48.43 +/- 11.3 kg). The new equation did not differ from the line of identity, had a high R2 and a low SRMSE, and showed no significant bias (0.87 +/- 2.84 kg). The new bioelectrical impedance equation based on the two-compartment model (2C) was accurate, precise, and free of bias. This equation can be used to assess body composition and nutritional status in populations similar in anthropometric and physical characteristics to this sample.

  3. Body fat measurement by bioelectrical impedance and air displacement plethysmography: a cross-validation study to design bioelectrical impedance equations in Mexican adults

    PubMed Central

    Macias, Nayeli; Alemán-Mateo, Heliodoro; Esparza-Romero, Julián; Valencia, Mauro E

    2007-01-01

    Background The study of body composition in specific populations by techniques such as bio-impedance analysis (BIA) requires validation based on standard reference methods. The aim of this study was to develop and cross-validate a predictive equation for bioelectrical impedance using air displacement plethysmography (ADP) as standard method to measure body composition in Mexican adult men and women. Methods This study included 155 male and female subjects from northern Mexico, 20–50 years of age, from low, middle, and upper income levels. Body composition was measured by ADP. Body weight (BW, kg) and height (Ht, cm) were obtained by standard anthropometric techniques. Resistance, R (ohms) and reactance, Xc (ohms) were also measured. A random-split method was used to obtain two samples: one was used to derive the equation by the "all possible regressions" procedure and was cross-validated in the other sample to test predicted versus measured values of fat-free mass (FFM). Results and Discussion The final model was: FFM (kg) = 0.7374 * (Ht2 /R) + 0.1763 * (BW) - 0.1773 * (Age) + 0.1198 * (Xc) - 2.4658. R2 was 0.97; the square root of the mean square error (SRMSE) was 1.99 kg, and the pure error (PE) was 2.96. There was no difference between FFM predicted by the new equation (48.57 ± 10.9 kg) and that measured by ADP (48.43 ± 11.3 kg). The new equation did not differ from the line of identity, had a high R2 and a low SRMSE, and showed no significant bias (0.87 ± 2.84 kg). Conclusion The new bioelectrical impedance equation based on the two-compartment model (2C) was accurate, precise, and free of bias. This equation can be used to assess body composition and nutritional status in populations similar in anthropometric and physical characteristics to this sample. PMID:17697388

  4. Bioelectrical impedance validation studies: alternative approaches to their interpretation.

    PubMed

    Ward, L C

    2013-01-01

    Cross-validation of methods of body composition assessment necessitates statistical evaluation of the degree to which the two methods are in agreement. Typically, impedance-based methods for predicting body composition are assessed against other methods using limits of agreement and correlation analysis. Alternative approaches are presented with reference to example body composition data obtained using bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A randomly selected data set, drawn from a body composition database, was analysed by limits of agreement analysis and error grid analysis. The precision of BIS-derived predictions of percentage body fat relative to that of DXA can be determined from limits of agreement analysis. The importance of knowing the precision of the reference method in such analyses was highlighted. Error grid analysis has the potential to aid interpretation of method comparison data in an intuitively understandable way. Alternative ways of comparing analytical methods that are in use in other branches of biomedical research may prove useful when evaluating the utility of impedance-based methods and other methods for the assessment of body composition in cross-validation studies.

  5. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) for the assessment of two-compartment body composition.

    PubMed

    Buffa, R; Mereu, E; Comandini, O; Ibanez, M E; Marini, E

    2014-11-01

    This review is directed to define the efficacy of bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) for assessing two-compartment body composition. A systematic literature review using MEDLINE database up to 12 February 2014 was performed. The list of papers citing the first description of BIVA, obtained from SCOPUS, and the reference lists of included studies were also searched. Selection criteria included studies comparing the results of BIVA with those of other techniques, and studies analyzing bioelectrical vectors of obese, athletic, cachectic and lean individuals. Thirty articles met the inclusion criteria. The ability of classic BIVA for assessing two-compartment body composition has been mainly evaluated by means of indirect techniques, such as anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Classic BIVA showed a high agreement with body mass index, that can be interpreted in relation to the greater body mass of obese and athletic individuals, whereas the comparison with BIA showed less consistent results, especially in diseased individuals. When a reference method was used, classic BIVA failed to accurately recognize FM% variations, whereas specific BIVA furnished good results. Specific BIVA is a promising alternative to classic BIVA for assessing two-compartment body composition, with potential application in nutritional, sport and geriatric medicine.

  6. Assessment of adult body composition using bioelectrical impedance: comparison of researcher calculated to machine outputted values

    PubMed Central

    Franco-Villoria, Maria; Wright, Charlotte M; McColl, John H; Sherriff, Andrea; Pearce, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore the usefulness of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) for general use by identifying best-evidenced formulae to calculate lean and fat mass, comparing these to historical gold standard data and comparing these results with machine-generated output. In addition, we explored how to best to adjust lean and fat estimates for height and how these overlapped with body mass index (BMI). Design Cross-sectional observational study within population representative cohort study. Setting Urban community, North East England Participants Sample of 506 mothers of children aged 7–8 years, mean age 36.3 years. Methods Participants were measured at a home visit using a portable height measure and leg-to-leg BIA machine (Tanita TBF-300MA). Measures Height, weight, bioelectrical impedance (BIA). Outcome measures Lean and fat mass calculated using best-evidenced published formulae as well as machine-calculated lean and fat mass data. Results Estimates of lean mass were similar to historical results using gold standard methods. When compared with the machine-generated values, there were wide limits of agreement for fat mass and a large relative bias for lean that varied with size. Lean and fat residuals adjusted for height differed little from indices of lean (or fat)/height2. Of 112 women with BMI >30 kg/m2, 100 (91%) also had high fat, but of the 16 with low BMI (<19 kg/m2) only 5 (31%) also had low fat. Conclusions Lean and fat mass calculated from BIA using published formulae produces plausible values and demonstrate good concordance between high BMI and high fat, but these differ substantially from the machine-generated values. Bioelectrical impedance can supply a robust and useful field measure of body composition, so long as the machine-generated output is not used. PMID:26743700

  7. NOTE: Spatial dependence of the phase in localized bioelectrical impedance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiffman, C. A.; Aaron, R.; Altman, A.

    2001-04-01

    The variety of phase functions, θ(z) = arctan X(z)/R(z), observed earlier on the thighs of healthy and seriously ill subjects via localized bioelectrical impedance analysis, can be represented by a model which combines realistic thigh shapes with homogeneous, axially symmetric conductivity tensors. While quantitative results depend sensitively on the way current is injected, it appears to be generally true that dθ/dz < 0 whenever φr > φz (and vice versa), where φr and φz are the phases of the radial and longitudinal conductivity components.

  8. Hydration assessment among marathoners using urine specific gravity and bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    PubMed

    Cutrufello, Paul T; Dixon, Curt B; Zavorsky, Gerald S

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between urine specific gravity (Usg), body mass (BM) and bioelectrical impedance determined variables [total body water (TBW), per cent TBW and impedance values] before and after a marathon (n = 25 men; 10 women). A significant reduction in BM (pre: 71.2 ± 12.4 kg; post: 69.6 ± 12.0 kg; p < 0.001) and an increase in Usg (pre: 1.009 ± 0.007; post: 1.018 ± 0.009; p < 0.001) was observed post-race. TBW was not significantly decreased (pre: 42.7 ± 8.0 kg; post: 42.4 ± 7.7 kg) while per cent TBW significantly increased post-race (pre: 60.0 ± 3.9%; post: 60.8 ± 3.8%; p < 0.001). Impedance values were significantly greater post-race (pre: 3288 ± 482; post: 3416 ± 492 Ω; p < 0.001). There was no correlation between the change in Usg and the change in BM or any of the bioelectrical impedance determined variables. On average, BM, Usg and impedance values appear to express changes in hydration; however, the observed changes among these variables for a given individual appear to be inconsistent with one another.

  9. A practical guide to bioelectrical impedance analysis using the example of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Walter-Kroker, Anja; Kroker, Axel; Mattiucci-Guehlke, Muriel; Glaab, Thomas

    2011-04-21

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a simple, inexpensive, quick and non-invasive technique for measuring body composition. The clinical benefit of BIA can be further enhanced by combining it with bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA). However, there is a substantial lack of information on the practical aspects of BIA/BIVA for those primarily interested in learning how to use and interpret this method in practice. The purpose of this article is to provide some guidance on the use of BIA/BIVA with special attention to practical considerations.This report reflects the authors' practical experience with the use of single-frequency BIA in combination with BIVA, particularly in COPD patients. First, the method and principles of BIA/BIVA are briefly described. Then, a practice-oriented approach to the interpretation and analysis of characteristic examples of altered nutritional and fluid status as seen with BIA/BIVA in COPD patients (e.g. malnutrition in obese and underweight patients with COPD, water retention) is presented.As our examples show BIA/BIVA is an attractive and easy-to-learn tool for quick nutritional assessment and is therefore of great clinical benefit in daily practice.

  10. Measurement of lean body mass using bioelectrical impedance analysis: a consideration of the pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Sergi, Giuseppe; De Rui, Marina; Stubbs, Brendon; Veronese, Nicola; Manzato, Enzo

    2016-08-27

    The assessment of body composition has important applications in the evaluation of nutritional status and estimating potential health risks. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a valid method for the assessment of body composition. BIA is an alternative to more invasive and expensive methods like dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computerized tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Bioelectrical impedance analysis is an easy-to-use and low-cost method for the estimation of fat-free mass (FFM) in physiological and pathological conditions. The reliability of BIA measurements is influenced by various factors related to the instrument itself, including electrodes, operator, subject, and environment. BIA assumptions beyond its use for body composition are the human body is empirically composed of cylinders, FFM contains virtually all the water and conducting electrolytes in the body, and its hydration is constant. FFM can be predicted by BIA through equations developed using reference methods. Several BIA prediction equations exist for the estimation of FFM, skeletal muscle mass (SMM), or appendicular SMM. The BIA prediction models differ according to the characteristics of the sample in which they have been derived and validated in addition to the parameters included in the multiple regression analysis. In choosing BIA equations, it is important to consider the characteristics of the sample in which it has been developed and validated, since, for example, age- and ethnicity-related differences could sensitively affect BIA estimates.

  11. The effect of ambient air temperature on whole-body bioelectrical impedance.

    PubMed

    Buono, Michael J; Burke, Sean; Endemann, Sarah; Graham, Heidi; Gressard, Christel; Griswold, Lisa; Michalewicz, Betty

    2004-02-01

    It has previously been shown that extreme changes in ambient air temperature can affect whole-body bioelectrical impedance. The purpose of this study was to determine if more moderate changes in ambient air temperature, such as those experienced in most laboratory settings, would also affect bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA). In addition, to elucidate the mechanism responsible for changes in BIA with ambient air temperature, both skin blood flow (SBF) and the electrode-skin interface temperature were independently manipulated to determine their effect on BIA. During the first part of the study, nine healthy volunteers had their BIA measured in five different ambient air temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 degrees C). Mean BIA was 513 ohms under the 15 degrees C condition and decreased significantly (p < 0.05) to 486 ohms in the 35 degrees C trial. However, no significant change was found in mean BIA between the 20 and 25 degrees C trials, which is the temperature range seen in most laboratories. Thus, moderate changes in ambient air temperature have only minor effects on BIA. In the second and third parts of the study, the electrode-skin interface temperature and SBF were independently manipulated using ice packs and electric heating pads placed over the four BIA electrodes. The results showed that BIA was inversely related to SBF (r = -0.95), and strongly suggest that changes in SBF, not electrode-skin interface temperature, are responsible for the changes seen in BIA.

  12. Prediction of body water compartments in preterm infants by bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Collins, C T; Reid, J; Makrides, M; Lingwood, B E; McPhee, A J; Morris, S A; Gibson, R A; Ward, L C

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate nutritional interventions in preterm infants, a simple, accurate assessment of the type of growth, that is, change in body composition through the relative contributions of lean body tissue and fat mass to weight gain, is needed. Bioelectrical impedance may provide such a method. The aim of this study was to develop resistivity coefficients appropriate for use in bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) analysis of body water volumes in preterm infants. A total of 99 preterm infants were enrolled (mean gestational age 32 completed weeks). Total body water (TBW) and extracellular water (ECW) were determined using the reference methods of deuterium and bromide dilution. BIS measurements taken at the same time allowed calculation of resistivity coefficients. Predictions of TBW and ECW obtained using these coefficients were then validated against volumes determined using the reference methods in a separate cohort of infants. Data were available for 91 preterm infants. BIS-predicted TBW and ECW correlated well with the measured volumes (Pearson's r(p)=0.825 and 0.75, respectively). There was a small bias (TBW 10 ml and ECW 40 ml) but large limits of agreement (TBW ± 650 ml and ECW ± 360 ml). BIS appears to have limited clinical utility; however, the relatively small bias means that it may be useful for measurements within a population or for comparisons between groups in which population means rather than individual values are compared.

  13. Tissue electrical properties measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis among healthy and sportsmen population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapica, Dominik; Warchulińska, Joanna; Jakubiak, Monika; Teter, Mariusz; Mlak, Radosław; Hałabiś, Magdalena; Wójcik, Waldemar; Małecka-Massalska, Teresa

    2015-09-01

    Introduction: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a useful tool to asses human body composition and nutrition status; multi-frequency BIA has a higher accuracy than single-frequency BIA. In our study a difference of impedance values (Z) at 5, 100 and 200 kHz and Z200/Z5 index between professional athletes and control group were determined. Methods: In this research 105 people were tested, divided into control group (72 people: 35 males and 37 females) and professional athletes (33 people: 16 males and 17 females). Impedance was measured at three frequency values - 5, 100 and 200 kHz; with received values the Z200/Z5 index was calculated. Results: In most compared subgroups impedance values showed significantly lower values in athletes than in control group (5 kHz - males: p=0.136, females: p=0.001, 100 kHz - males: p=0.039, females: p<0.0001, 200 kHz - males: p=0.047, females: p<0.0001) Z200/Z5 index also showed lower value in athletes than in control group (p=0.016 for males, p<0.0001 for females). Conclusion: Lower values of impedance and Z200/Z5 index indicates a better nutrition status and general health condition of athletes than in control group.

  14. Effects of resistance training on classic and specific bioelectrical impedance vector analysis in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, David H; Stout, Jeffrey R; Moon, Jordan R; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Kendall, Kristina L; Hoffman, Jay R

    2016-02-01

    Raw bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) data [resistance (R); reactance (Xc)] through bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) and phase angle (PhA) have been used to evaluate cellular function and hydration status. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of resistance training (RT) on classic and specific BIVA in elderly women. Twenty women (mean ± SD; age: 71.9 ± 6.9 years; BMI: 24.5 ± 3.0 kg m(-2)) completed a 6-month RT program. Whole-body, single-frequency BIA, body geometry, and leg strength (5RM) measures were completed at baseline (t0), 3 months (t3), and 6 months (t6). The mean impedance vector displacements were compared using Hotelling's T(2) test to evaluate changes in R and Xc relative to height (R/ht; Xc/ht) or body volume (Rsp; Xcsp) estimated from the arms, legs, and trunk. 5RM, PhA, and BIVA variables were compared using ANOVA. PhA improved at t6 (p < 0.01), while 5RM improved at t3 and t6 (p < 0.01). Using classic BIVA, 6 months (T(2) = 31.6; p < 0.01), but not 3 months of RT (T(2) = 4.5; p = 0.20), resulted in significant vector migration. Using specific BIVA, 6 months (T(2) = 24.4; p < 0.01), but not 3 months of RT (T(2) = 5.5; p = 0.10), also resulted in significant vector migration. 5RM was correlated to both PhA (r = 0.48-56) and Xcsp (r = 0.45-53) at all time points. Vector displacements were likely the result of improved cellular integrity (Xcsp) and cellular health (PhA).

  15. Phase angle and bioelectrical impedance vectors in adolescent and adult male athletes.

    PubMed

    Koury, Josely C; Trugo N, M F; Torres, Alexandre G

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess phase angle (PA) and bioelectrical impedance vectors (BIVA) in adolescent (n = 105, 12-19 y) and adult (n = 90, 20-50 y) male athletes practicing varied sports modalities. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was performed with a single-frequency tetrapolar impedance analyzer after the athletes had fasted overnight for 8 h. PA and BIVA were determined from BIA data. PA presented correlations (P < .01) with body-mass index (r = .58) in all athletes and also with age in adolescent (r = .63) and adult (r = -.27) athletes. Compared with adults, adolescent athletes presented lower PA and higher frequency of PA below the 5th percentile of a reference population (P < .001). The adolescents with low PA were mostly football and basketball players. The BIVA confidence ellipses of adult and adolescent athletes were different (P < .001) between them and from their respective reference populations and were closer than those of adult and adolescent nonathletes. About 80% of the athletes were in the 95th percentile of BIVA tolerance ellipses and in quadrants consistent with adequate body cell mass and total body water. The adolescent athletes outside the 95th percentile ellipse were all football and basketball players who showed indications of decreased water retention and body cell mass and of increased water retention, respectively. PA and BIVA ellipses showed that the intense training routine of the athletes changed functional and hydration parameters and that the magnitude of these changes in adolescents may depend on the sport modality practiced.

  16. Smartphone-Based Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Devices for Daily Obesity Management.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ahyoung; Kim, Justin Younghyun; Jo, Seongwook; Jee, Jae Hwan; Heymsfield, Steven B; Bhagat, Yusuf A; Kim, Insoo; Cho, Jaegeol

    2015-09-02

    Current bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) systems are often large, cumbersome devices which require strict electrode placement on the user, thus inhibiting mobile capabilities. In this work, we developed a handheld BIA device that measures impedance from multiple frequencies (5 kHz~200 kHz) with four contact electrodes and evaluated the BIA device against standard body composition analysis systems: a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) system (GE Lunar Prodigy, GE Healthcare, Buckinghamshire, UK) and a whole-body BIA system (InBody S10, InBody, Co. Ltd, Seoul, Korea). In the study, 568 healthy participants, varying widely in body mass index, age, and gender, were recruited at two research centers: the Samsung Medical Center (SMC) in South Korea and the Pennington Biomedical Research Center (PBRC) in the United States. From the measured impedance data, we analyzed individual body fat and skeletal muscle mass by applying linear regression analysis against target reference data. Results indicated strong correlations of impedance measurements between the prototype pathways and corresponding InBody S10 electrical pathways (R = 0.93, p < 0.0001). Additionally, body fat estimates from DXA did not yield significant differences (p > 0.728 (paired t-test), DXA mean body fat 29.45 ± 10.77 kg, estimated body fat 29.52 ± 12.53 kg). Thus, this portable BIA system shows a promising ability to estimate an individual's body composition that is comparable to large stationary BIA systems.

  17. Development of an equation for estimating appendicular skeletal muscle mass in Japanese older adults using bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Daisuke; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Park, Hyuntae; Anan, Yuya; Ito, Tadashi; Harada, Atsushi; Suzuki, Takao

    2014-10-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis has been reported to have high reliability and accuracy in assessing body composition. However, equations for estimating appendicular skeletal muscle mass are population-specific, and few have been developed for older Japanese adults. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to develop and validate an estimate equation for appendicular skeletal muscle mass using bioelectrical impedance analysis. A total of 250 older adults aged 65 years and older participated in this study. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and bioelectrical resistance was measured using a multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analyzer. Multiple regression analysis was applied to derive sex-specific estimation formulae using bioelectrical impedance analysis, and a Bland-Altman analysis was used to test agreement. The cross-validation results showed that the slopes and intercepts of the regression lines were approximately one and zero, respectively, and the coefficients of determination and standard errors of the estimate of the newly developed equations were similar between the two groups. Thus, the single sex-specific equations were developed using all participants as follows. Men: appendicular skeletal muscle mass=0.197 × (impedance index) +0.179 × (weight) -0.019 (R(2)  =0.87, standard error of the estimate=0.98 kg). Women: appendicular skeletal muscle mass=0.221 × (impedance index) +0.117 × (weight) +0.881 (R(2)  =0.89, standard error of the estimate=0.81 kg). These new equations offer a valid option for assessing appendicular skeletal muscle mass in older Japanese adults. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  18. Reliability of bioelectrical impedance methods in detecting body fluids in elderly patients with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Sergi, G; Lupoli, L; Enzi, G; Volpato, S; Perissinotto, E; Bertani, R; Inelmen, E M; Bonometto, P; Busetto, L; Berton, A; Coin, A

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the reliability of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) in estimating total body water (TBW) and extracellular water (ECW) in elderly patients suffering from congestive heart failure (CHF). In 72 elderly subjects, 34 with CHF (aged 83.9+/-6.9 years) and 38 healthy controls (78.7+/-7.5 years), TBW and ECW values were assessed using dilution methods, and bioelectrical variables were measured using single frequency BIA (SF-BIA) at 1 and 50 kHz, and bioelectrical spectroscopy (BIS). In CHF patients, Ht(2)/R(1) correlated weakly with TBW (r = 0.56) and ECW (0.47). In both healthy controls and CHF patients, TBW correlated strongly with Ht(2)/R(50), Ht(2)/R(0), Ht(2)/R(8) and Ht(2)/Zc. Using multiple regression analysis and the Bland-Altmann approach, SF-BIA at 50 kHz and BIS proved similar in predicting TBW for both the explained variance (R(2)~0.89) and the limits of agreement. In all subjects, ECW was estimated best by including height, weight and Ht(2)/R(0 )(R(2) 0.75) or Ht(2)/Zc (R(2) 0.77) in multivariate models, while SF-BIA at 50 kHz did not explain more than 71 % of ECW variability. The SEE % was nonetheless about twice the SEE % for estimating TBW. SF-BIA at 1 kHz is unreliable in predicting body fluids in elderly people with CHF. SF-BIA at 50 kHz and BIS are useful for estimating TBW in healthy elderly people and in cases of water imbalance, but both methods are less reliable in estimating ECW, particularly in conditions of fluid overload.

  19. Specific bioelectrical impedance vector reference values for assessing body composition in the Italian elderly.

    PubMed

    Saragat, Bruno; Buffa, Roberto; Mereu, Elena; De Rui, Marina; Coin, Alessandra; Sergi, Giuseppe; Marini, Elisabetta

    2014-02-01

    To obtain specific bioelectrical impedance vector reference values for the healthy elderly Italian population, and to study age- and sex-related differences in body composition. The study group consisted of 560 healthy individuals (265 men and 295 women) aged 65 to 100 y, whose anthropometric (height, weight, and calf, arm and waist circumferences) and bioelectrical measurements (resistance [R] and reactance [Xc], at 50 kHz and 800 μA) were recorded. R (Ω) and Xc (Ω) values were standardized for stature (H, m) to obtain the classic bioelectrical values. Specific values (resistivity [Rsp] and reactivity [Xcsp], Ω·cm) were obtained by multiplying R and Xc by a correction factor (A/L) that includes an estimate of the cross-sectional area of the body (A=0.45 arm area+0.10 waist area+0.45 calf area), where L=1.1H. Descriptive statistics were: Rsp (391.8±57.9), Xcsp (42.6±9.9), Zsp (394.2±58.2), phase angle (6.2°±1.2) in men; Rsp (462.0±80.1), Xcsp (47.9±11.2), Zsp (464.6±80.5), phase angle (5.9°±1.0) in women. The Xcsp and phase angle values showed a significant age-related decrease in both sexes, but especially in men, possibly relating to a gradual loss of muscle mass. Women's Rsp and Zsp values tended to drop, attributable to their declining proportion of fat mass. A declining sexual dimorphism was also apparent. Specific tolerance ellipses can be used for reference purposes for the Italian population when assessing body composition in gerontological practice and for epidemiological purposes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis detects low body cell mass and dehydration in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Buffa, R; Mereu, R M; Putzu, P F; Floris, G; Marini, E

    2010-12-01

    This paper evaluates the nutritional status in patients with mild-moderate and severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) by bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA). Cross-sectional study. Alzheimer Center, SS. Trinita Hospital, Cagliari, and "Monsignor Angioni" Nursing Home, Quartu Sant'Elena (Cagliari, Italy). 83 free-living patients with mild-moderate Alzheimer's disease (29 men, 54 women), 9 institutionalized women in the severe stage; 468 age-matched controls (202 men, 266 women). Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), anthropometric (height, weight, BMI), bioelectrical (R, Xc) and biochemical variables (serum albumin) were assessed. Bioelectrical characteristics were significantly different in the patients with mild-moderate AD with respect to controls, indicating low body cell mass (men, T2= 12.8; women, T2=34.9; p < 0.01). Women with severe AD showed low body cell mass and dehydration with respect to patients with mild-moderate AD (T2=17.1; p < 0.01). The phase angle, R/H and Z/H were significantly correlated (p < 0.05) with MNA (phase: r = 0.31; R/H: r =-0.37; Z/H: r =-0.37) and albumin (phase: r=0.47; R/H: r=-0.36; Z/H: r=-0.36). Alzheimer's disease is characterized by a tendency to malnutrition, present even in the mild-moderate stages, and a tendency to dehydration that appears in the severe stage. The BIVA technique is a promising tool for the screening and monitoring of nutrition and hydration status in Alzheimer's disease.

  1. Risk of malnutrition in a sample of nonagenarians: Specific versus classic bioelectrical impedance vector analysis.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorsi, Guglielmo; Santomauro, Francesca; Lorini, Chiara; Indiani, Laura; Pellegrino, Elettra; Pasquini, Guido; Molino-Lova, Raffaele; Epifani, Francesco; Macchi, Claudio

    2016-03-01

    The aims were to describe the body composition and the risk of malnutrition in a sample of nonagenarians and to identify what bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) approach (classic or specific) is more correlated with either the risk of malnutrition or various anthropometric parameters. In the Mugello area (Italy), a representative sample of nonagenarians was enrolled in a survey aimed at investigating various health issues, including those related to nutritional status. The nutritional status was investigated using body mass index (BMI), mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), calf circumference (CC), Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), and BIVA. Two different approaches were used for the BIVA data analysis: the classic method and the specific method. All measurements were obtained from 321 nonagenarians (65.7% of the enrolled sample; 92 men and 229 women); 74.8% of the subjects were at low risk of malnutrition according to MUST, 62.5% exhibited CC values higher than 31 cm, and 86.8% exhibited MUAC values higher than 22 cm. The bioelectrical parameters varied with nutritional status, independent of the nutritional indicator used; the parameters also varied based on sex and BIVA approach. The bioelectrical parameters obtained by the specific BIVA approach were more strongly correlated with MUST score, MUAC, and CC values compared with the parameters calculated using the classic approach. Our study produced findings relevant to particular aspects of population aging. Above all, the specific BIVA was more effective at assessing nutritional status based on both anthropometric parameters and the risk of malnutrition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Body Composition Comparison: Bioelectric Impedance Analysis with Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry in Adult Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Company, Joe; Ball, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of the DF50 (ImpediMed Ltd, Eight Mile Plains, Queensland, Australia) bioelectrical impedance analysis device using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry as the criterion in two groups: endurance athletes and power athletes. The secondary purpose was to develop accurate body fat…

  3. Comparison of Bioelectrical Impedance and Skinfolds with Hydrodensitometry in the Assessment of Body Composition in Healthy Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, W. J.; Diemer, Gary A.; Scott, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a widely used method for estimating body composition, yet issues concerning its validity persist in the literature. The purpose of this study was to validate percentage of body fat (BF) values estimated from BIA and skinfold (SF) with those obtained from hydrodensitometry (HD). Percent BF values measured…

  4. Body Composition Comparison: Bioelectric Impedance Analysis with Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry in Adult Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Company, Joe; Ball, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of the DF50 (ImpediMed Ltd, Eight Mile Plains, Queensland, Australia) bioelectrical impedance analysis device using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry as the criterion in two groups: endurance athletes and power athletes. The secondary purpose was to develop accurate body fat…

  5. Bioelectrical impedance with different equations versus deuterium oxide dilution method for the inference of body composition in healthy older persons.

    PubMed

    Pfrimer, K; Moriguti, J C; Lima, N K C; Marchini, J S; Ferriolli, E

    2012-02-01

    There is no consensus regarding the accuracy of bioimpedance for the determination of body composition in older persons. This study aimed to compare the assessment of lean body mass of healthy older volunteers obtained by the deuterium dilution method (reference) with those obtained by two frequently used bioelectrical impedance formulas and one formula specifically developed for a Latin-American population. A cross-sectional study. Twenty one volunteers were studied, 12 women, with mean age 72±6.7 years. Urban community, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. Fat free mass was determined, simultaneously, by the deuterium dilution method and bioelectrical impedance; results were compared. In bioelectrical impedance, body composition was calculated by the formulas of Deuremberg, Lukaski and Bolonchuck and Valencia et al. Lean body mass of the studied volunteers, as determined by bioelectrical impedance was 37.8±9.2 kg by the application of the Lukaski e Bolonchuk formula, 37.4±9.3 kg (Deuremberg) and 43.2±8.9 kg (Valencia et. al.). The results were significantly correlated to those obtained by the deuterium dilution method (41.6±9.3 Kg), with r=0.963, 0.932 and 0.971, respectively. Lean body mass obtained by the Valencia formula was the most accurate. In this study, lean body mass of older persons obtained by the bioelectrical impedance method showed good correlation with the values obtained by the deuterium dilution method. The formula of Valencia et al., developed for a Latin-American population, showed the best accuracy.

  6. Validation of bioelectrical-impedance analysis as a measurement of change in body composition in obesity

    SciTech Connect

    Kushner, R.F.; Kunigk, A.; Alspaugh, M.; Andronis, P.T.; Leitch, C.A.; Schoeller, D.A. )

    1990-08-01

    The bioelectrical-impedance-analysis (BIA) method accurately measures body composition in weight-stable subjects. This study validates the use of BIA to measure change in body composition. Twelve obese females underwent weight loss at a mean rate of 1.16 kg/wk. Body composition was measured by deuterium oxide dilution (D2O), BIA, and skinfold anthropometry (SFA) at baseline and at 5% decrements in weight. Highly significant correlations were obtained between D2O and BIA (r = 0.971) and between D2O and SFA (r = 0.932). Overall, BIA predicted change in fat-free mass with greater accuracy (to 0.4 kg) and precision (+/- 1.28 kg) than did anthropometry (to 0.8 kg and +/- 2.58 kg, respectively). We conclude that BIA is a useful clinical method for measuring change in body composition.

  7. [Validity of 5 bioelectric impedance equations for the estimation of lean body mass in women].

    PubMed

    Coltorti, A; Scalfi, L; Borrelli, R; Contaldo, F; Diaz, E

    1991-01-01

    Fat free mass (FFM) predicted by five bioelectrical impedance (BIA) available formulae (Segal et al., Lukaski et al., Kushner et al., Deurenberg et al., manufacturer's predictive equation) was compared with densitometrically-determined FFM (as a reference method) in two groups of young women with different anthropometric characteristics. In the farmers (very short and light individuals), none of the studied formulae was able to accurately predict FFM: this latter was overestimated in subjects with low and underestimated in those with high FFM. In the other group (INCAP employees), only values predicted by Lukaski formula were in perfect agreement with FFM, showing no bias depending on FFM changes. In conclusion, the available BIA formulae seem to be specific for population from which they were derived and could not be used on samples from other populations if not cross-validated.

  8. Lipid and moisture content modeling of amphidromous Dolly Varden using bioelectrical impedance analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stolarski, J.T.; Margraf, F.J.; Carlson, J.G.; Sutton, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    The physiological well-being or condition of fish is most commonly estimated from aspects of individual morphology. However, these metrics may be only weakly correlated with nutritional reserves stored as lipid, the primary form of accumulated energy in fish. We constructed and evaluated bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) models as an alternative method of assessing condition in amphidromous Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma collected from nearshore estuarine and lotic habitats of the Alaskan Arctic. Data on electrical resistance and reactance were collected from the lateral and ventral surfaces of 192 fish, and whole-body percent lipid and moisture content were determined using standard laboratory methods. Significant inverse relationships between temperature and resistance and reactance prompted the standardization of these data to a constant temperature using corrective equations developed herein. No significant differences in resistance or reactance were detected among spawning and nonspawning females after accounting for covariates, suggesting that electrical pathways do not intersect the gonads. Best-fit BIA models incorporating electrical variables calculated from the lateral and ventral surfaces produced the strongest associations between observed and model-predicted estimates of proximate content. These models explained between 6% and 20% more of the variability in laboratory-derived estimates of proximate content than models developed from single-surface BIA data and 32% more than models containing only length and weight data. While additional research is required to address the potential effects of methodological variation, bioelectrical impedance analysis shows promise as a way to provide high-quality, minimally invasive estimates of Dolly Varden lipid or moisture content in the field with only small increases in handling time.

  9. Bioelectrical impedance phase angle as a prognostic indicator in advanced pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Digant; Lis, Christopher G; Dahlk, Sadie L; Vashi, Pankaj G; Grutsch, James F; Lammersfeld, Carolyn A

    2004-12-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is an easy-to-use, non-invasive and reproducible technique to evaluate changes in body composition and nutritional status. Phase angle, determined by BIA, has been found to be a prognostic indicator in several chronic conditions, such as HIV, liver cirrhosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer, and in patients undergoing dialysis. The present study investigated the prognostic role of phase angle in advanced pancreatic cancer. We evaluated a case series of fifty-eight stage IV pancreatic cancer patients treated at Cancer Treatment Centers of America at Midwestern Regional Medical Center (Zion, IL, USA) between January 2000 and July 2003. BIA was conducted on all patients using a bioelectrical impedance analyser that operated at 50 kHz. The phase angle was calculated as capacitance (Xc)/resistance (R) and expressed in degrees. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate survival. Cox proportional hazard models were constructed to evaluate the prognostic effect of phase angle independent of other clinical and nutritional variables. The correlations between phase angle and traditional nutritional measures were evaluated using Pearson and Spearman coefficients. Patients with phase angle <5.0 degrees had a median survival time of 6.3 (95% CI 3.5, 9.2) months (n 29), while those with phase angle >5.0 degrees had a median survival time of 10.2 (95% CI 9.6, 10.8) months (n 29); this difference was statistically significant (P=0.02). The present study demonstrates that phase angle is a strong prognostic indicator in advanced pancreatic cancer. Similar studies in other cancer settings with larger sample sizes are needed to further validate the prognostic significance of the phase angle.

  10. Does bioelectrical impedance analysis accurately estimate the condition of threatened and endangered desert fish species?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dibble, Kimberly L.; Yard, Micheal D.; Ward, David L.; Yackulic, Charles B.

    2017-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a nonlethal tool with which to estimate the physiological condition of animals that has potential value in research on endangered species. However, the effectiveness of BIA varies by species, the methodology continues to be refined, and incidental mortality rates are unknown. Under laboratory conditions we tested the value of using BIA in addition to morphological measurements such as total length and wet mass to estimate proximate composition (lipid, protein, ash, water, dry mass, energy density) in the endangered Humpback Chub Gila cypha and Bonytail G. elegans and the species of concern Roundtail Chub G. robusta and conducted separate trials to estimate the mortality rates of these sensitive species. Although Humpback and Roundtail Chub exhibited no or low mortality in response to taking BIA measurements versus handling for length and wet-mass measurements, Bonytails exhibited 14% and 47% mortality in the BIA and handling experiments, respectively, indicating that survival following stress is species specific. Derived BIA measurements were included in the best models for most proximate components; however, the added value of BIA as a predictor was marginal except in the absence of accurate wet-mass data. Bioelectrical impedance analysis improved the R2 of the best percentage-based models by no more than 4% relative to models based on morphology. Simulated field conditions indicated that BIA models became increasingly better than morphometric models at estimating proximate composition as the observation error around wet-mass measurements increased. However, since the overall proportion of variance explained by percentage-based models was low and BIA was mostly a redundant predictor, we caution against the use of BIA in field applications for these sensitive fish species.

  11. The relationship between nocturnal polyuria and the distribution of body fluid: assessment by bioelectric impedance analysis.

    PubMed

    Torimoto, Kazumasa; Hirayama, Akihide; Samma, Shoji; Yoshida, Katsunori; Fujimoto, Kiyohide; Hirao, Yoshihiko

    2009-01-01

    Increased nocturnal urinary volume is closely associated with nocturia. We investigated the relationship between nocturnal polyuria and the variation of body fluid distribution during the daytime using bioelectric impedance analysis. A total of 34 men older than 60 years were enrolled in this study. A frequency volume chart was recorded. Nocturnal polyuria was defined as a nocturnal urine volume per 24-hour production of greater than 0.35 (the nocturnal polyuria index). Bioelectric impedance analysis was performed 4 times daily at 8 and 11 a.m., and 5 and 9 p.m. using an InBody S20 body composition analyzer (BioSpace, Seoul, Korea). A significant difference was found in mean +/- SEM 24-hour urine production per fat-free mass between the groups with and without nocturnal polyuria (17.8 +/- 1.4 vs 7.7 +/- 0.9 ml/kg). The increase in fluid in the legs compared with the volume at 8 a.m. was significantly larger at 5 p.m., while there was no difference in the arms or trunk. Nocturnal urine volume significantly correlated with the difference in fluid volume in the legs (r = 0.527, p = 0.0019) and extracellular fluid volume (r = 0.3844, p = 0.0248) between the volumes at 8 a.m. and 9 p.m. Overproduction of urine per fat-free mass leads to nocturnal polyuria. Extracellular fluid accumulates as edema in the legs during the day in patients with nocturnal polyuria. The volume of accumulated extracellular fluid correlates with nocturnal urine volume. We suggest that leg edema is the source of nocturnal urine volume and decreasing edema may cure nocturnal polyuria.

  12. Dynamic changes in bioelectrical impedance vector analysis and phase angle in acute decompensated heart failure.

    PubMed

    Alves, Fernanda Donner; Souza, Gabriela Corrêa; Aliti, Graziella Badin; Rabelo-Silva, Eneida Rejane; Clausell, Nadine; Biolo, Andréia

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate whether changes in hydration status (reflecting fluid retention) would be detected by bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) and phase angle during hospitalization for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) and after clinical stabilization. Patients admitted to ADHF were evaluated at admission, discharge and after clinical stabilization (3 mo after discharge) for dyspnea, weight, brain natriuretic peptide, bioelectrical impedance resistance, reactance, and phase angle. Generalized estimating equations and chi-square detected variations among the three time points of evaluation. Were included 57 patients: Mean age was 61 ± 13 y, 65% were male, LVEF was 25 ± 8%. During hospitalization there were improvements in clinical parameters and increase in resistance/height (from 250 ± 72 to 302 ± 59 Ohms/m, P < 0.001), reactance/height (from 24 ± 10 to 31 ± 9 Ohms/m, P < 0.001), and phase angle (from 5.3 ± 1.6 to 6 ± 1.6°, P = 0.007). From discharge to chronic stability, both clinical and BIVA parameters remained stable. At admission, 61% of patients had significant congestion by BIVA, and they lost more weight and had higher improvement in dyspnea during hospitalization (P < 0.05). At discharge, more patients were in the upper half of the graph (characterizing some degree of dehydration) while at chronic stability normal hydration status was more prevalent (P < 0.001). BIVA and phase angle were able to detect significant changes in hydration status during ADHF, which paralleled the clinical course of recompensation, both acutely and chronically. The classification of congestion by BIVA at admission identified patients with more pronounced changes in weight and dyspnea during compensation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Drug and bioactive molecule screening based on a bioelectrical impedance cell culture platform

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Sakthivel; Bennet, Devasier; Kim, Sanghyo

    2014-01-01

    This review will present a brief discussion on the recent advancements of bioelectrical impedance cell-based biosensors, especially the electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) system for screening of various bioactive molecules. The different technical integrations of various chip types, working principles, measurement systems, and applications for drug targeting of molecules in cells are highlighted in this paper. Screening of bioactive molecules based on electric cell-substrate impedance sensing is a trial-and-error process toward the development of therapeutically active agents for drug discovery and therapeutics. In general, bioactive molecule screening can be used to identify active molecular targets for various diseases and toxicity at the cellular level with nanoscale resolution. In the innovation and screening of new drugs or bioactive molecules, the activeness, the efficacy of the compound, and safety in biological systems are the main concerns on which determination of drug candidates is based. Further, drug discovery and screening of compounds are often performed in cell-based test systems in order to reduce costs and save time. Moreover, this system can provide more relevant results in in vivo studies, as well as high-throughput drug screening for various diseases during the early stages of drug discovery. Recently, MEMS technologies and integration with image detection techniques have been employed successfully. These new technologies and their possible ongoing transformations are addressed. Select reports are outlined, and not all the work that has been performed in the field of drug screening and development is covered. PMID:25525360

  14. Drug and bioactive molecule screening based on a bioelectrical impedance cell culture platform.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Sakthivel; Bennet, Devasier; Kim, Sanghyo

    2014-01-01

    This review will present a brief discussion on the recent advancements of bioelectrical impedance cell-based biosensors, especially the electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) system for screening of various bioactive molecules. The different technical integrations of various chip types, working principles, measurement systems, and applications for drug targeting of molecules in cells are highlighted in this paper. Screening of bioactive molecules based on electric cell-substrate impedance sensing is a trial-and-error process toward the development of therapeutically active agents for drug discovery and therapeutics. In general, bioactive molecule screening can be used to identify active molecular targets for various diseases and toxicity at the cellular level with nanoscale resolution. In the innovation and screening of new drugs or bioactive molecules, the activeness, the efficacy of the compound, and safety in biological systems are the main concerns on which determination of drug candidates is based. Further, drug discovery and screening of compounds are often performed in cell-based test systems in order to reduce costs and save time. Moreover, this system can provide more relevant results in in vivo studies, as well as high-throughput drug screening for various diseases during the early stages of drug discovery. Recently, MEMS technologies and integration with image detection techniques have been employed successfully. These new technologies and their possible ongoing transformations are addressed. Select reports are outlined, and not all the work that has been performed in the field of drug screening and development is covered.

  15. Bioelectrical impedance techniques in medicine. Part III: Impedance imaging. First section: general concepts and hardware.

    PubMed

    Rigaud, B; Morucci, J P

    1996-01-01

    Measurement accuracy is a key point in impedance imaging and is mainly limited by factors that take place in the acquisition system. This part is a review of hardware solutions developed in acquisition systems for electrical impedance tomography (EIT). The general principles of EIT along with the changes that have taken place in the last decade, in terms of measurement strategy, and a certain number of definitions are introduced. The major hardware error sources that occur in the front end of EIT systems are presented. A review of the various alternatives published in the literature that are used to drive current, including current and voltage approaches, and the main solutions recommended in the literature to overcome the key point drawbacks of voltage measurement systems, including voltage buffers, instrumentation amplifiers, and demodulators, are provided. Some calibration procedures and approaches for the evaluation of the performance of EIT systems are also presented.

  16. Evaluation of body composition in COPD patients using multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    PubMed

    de Blasio, Francesca; de Blasio, Francesco; Miracco Berlingieri, Giulia; Bianco, Andrea; La Greca, Marta; Franssen, Frits M E; Scalfi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) is a technique that measures body impedance (Z) at different frequencies (5, 10, 50, 100, and 250 kHz). Body composition may be estimated using empirical equations, which include BIA variables or, alternatively, raw BIA data may provide direct information on water distribution and muscle quality. To compare raw MF-BIA data between COPD patients and controls and to study their relationship with respiratory and functional parameters in COPD patients. MF-BIA was performed (Human Im-Touch analyzer) in 212 COPD patients and 115 age- and BMI-matched controls. Fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass were estimated from BIA data, and low- to high-frequency (5 kHz/250 kHz) impedance ratio was calculated. Physical fitness, lung function and respiratory muscle strength were also assessed in COPD patients. After adjusting for age, weight, and body mass index, FFM and the 5/250 impedance ratio were lower in COPD patients (P<0.001) and were negatively affected by disease severity. In both male and female patients, the 5/250 impedance ratio was significantly correlated mainly with age (r=-0.316 and r=-0.346, respectively). Patients with a 5/250 impedance ratio below median value had lower handgrip strength (P<0.001), 6-minute walk distance (P<0.005), respiratory muscle strength (P<0.005), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (P<0.05) and vital capacity (P<0.005). Finally, the 5/250 impedance ratio was reduced (P<0.05) in patients with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) III and IV (compared to those with GOLD I and II) or a BODE index between 6 and 10 points (compared to those with BODE index between 1 and 5 points). MF-BIA may be a useful tool for assessing body composition and nutritional status in COPD patients. In particular, the impedance ratio could give valuable information on cellular integrity and muscle quality.

  17. Evaluation of body composition in COPD patients using multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis

    PubMed Central

    de Blasio, Francesca; de Blasio, Francesco; Miracco Berlingieri, Giulia; Bianco, Andrea; La Greca, Marta; Franssen, Frits M E; Scalfi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Background Multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) is a technique that measures body impedance (Z) at different frequencies (5, 10, 50, 100, and 250 kHz). Body composition may be estimated using empirical equations, which include BIA variables or, alternatively, raw BIA data may provide direct information on water distribution and muscle quality. Objectives To compare raw MF-BIA data between COPD patients and controls and to study their relationship with respiratory and functional parameters in COPD patients. Methods MF-BIA was performed (Human Im-Touch analyzer) in 212 COPD patients and 115 age- and BMI-matched controls. Fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass were estimated from BIA data, and low- to high-frequency (5 kHz/250 kHz) impedance ratio was calculated. Physical fitness, lung function and respiratory muscle strength were also assessed in COPD patients. Results After adjusting for age, weight, and body mass index, FFM and the 5/250 impedance ratio were lower in COPD patients (P<0.001) and were negatively affected by disease severity. In both male and female patients, the 5/250 impedance ratio was significantly correlated mainly with age (r=−0.316 and r=−0.346, respectively). Patients with a 5/250 impedance ratio below median value had lower handgrip strength (P<0.001), 6-minute walk distance (P<0.005), respiratory muscle strength (P<0.005), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (P<0.05) and vital capacity (P<0.005). Finally, the 5/250 impedance ratio was reduced (P<0.05) in patients with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) III and IV (compared to those with GOLD I and II) or a BODE index between 6 and 10 points (compared to those with BODE index between 1 and 5 points). Conclusion MF-BIA may be a useful tool for assessing body composition and nutritional status in COPD patients. In particular, the impedance ratio could give valuable information on cellular integrity and muscle quality. PMID:27757027

  18. Smartphone-Based Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Devices for Daily Obesity Management

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ahyoung; Kim, Justin Younghyun; Jo, Seongwook; Jee, Jae Hwan; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Bhagat, Yusuf A.; Kim, Insoo; Cho, Jaegeol

    2015-01-01

    Current bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) systems are often large, cumbersome devices which require strict electrode placement on the user, thus inhibiting mobile capabilities. In this work, we developed a handheld BIA device that measures impedance from multiple frequencies (5 kHz~200 kHz) with four contact electrodes and evaluated the BIA device against standard body composition analysis systems: a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) system (GE Lunar Prodigy, GE Healthcare, Buckinghamshire, UK) and a whole-body BIA system (InBody S10, InBody, Co. Ltd, Seoul, Korea). In the study, 568 healthy participants, varying widely in body mass index, age, and gender, were recruited at two research centers: the Samsung Medical Center (SMC) in South Korea and the Pennington Biomedical Research Center (PBRC) in the United States. From the measured impedance data, we analyzed individual body fat and skeletal muscle mass by applying linear regression analysis against target reference data. Results indicated strong correlations of impedance measurements between the prototype pathways and corresponding InBody S10 electrical pathways (R = 0.93, p < 0.0001). Additionally, body fat estimates from DXA did not yield significant differences (p > 0.728 (paired t-test), DXA mean body fat 29.45 ± 10.77 kg, estimated body fat 29.52 ± 12.53 kg). Thus, this portable BIA system shows a promising ability to estimate an individual’s body composition that is comparable to large stationary BIA systems. PMID:26364636

  19. Evaluation of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis for Identifying Overweight Individuals at Increased Cardiometabolic Risk: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, Maxine J. E.; Byrne, Christopher D.; Wilson, James F.; Wild, Sarah H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether bioelectrical impedance analysis could be used to identify overweight individuals at increased cardiometabolic risk, defined as the presence of metabolic syndrome and/or diabetes. Design and Methods Cross-sectional study of a Scottish population including 1210 women and 788 men. The diagnostic performance of thresholds of percentage body fat measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis to identify people at increased cardiometabolic risk was assessed using receiver-operating characteristic curves. Odds ratios for increased cardiometabolic risk in body mass index categories associated with values above compared to below sex-specific percentage body fat thresholds with optimal diagnostic performance were calculated using multivariable logistic regression analyses. The validity of bioelectrical impedance analysis to measure percentage body fat in this population was tested by examining agreement between bioelectrical impedance analysis and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in a subgroup of individuals. Results Participants were aged 16-91 years and the optimal bioelectrical impedance analysis cut-points for percentage body fat for identifying people at increased cardiometabolic risk were 25.9% for men and 37.1% for women. Stratifying by these percentage body fat cut-points, the prevalence of increased cardiometabolic risk was 48% and 38% above the threshold and 24% and 19% below these thresholds for men and women, respectively. By comparison, stratifying by percentage body fat category had little impact on identifying increased cardiometabolic risk in normal weight and obese individuals. Fully adjusted odds ratios of being at increased cardiometabolic risk among overweight people with percentage body fat ≥25.9/37.1% compared with percentage body fat <25.9/37.1% as a reference were 1.93 (95% confidence interval: 1.20–3.10) for men and 1.79 (1.10–2.92) for women. Conclusion Percentage body fat measured using bioelectrical impedance

  20. Visceral fat estimation method by bioelectrical impedance analysis and causal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Hiroshi; Tasaki, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Naoki; Hamaguchi, Takehiro; Shiga, Toshikazu

    2011-06-01

    It has been clarified that abdominal visceral fat accumulation is closely associated to the lifestyle disease and metabolic syndrome. The gold standard in medical fields is visceral fat area measured by an X-ray computer tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging. However, their measurements are high invasive and high cost; especially a CT scan causes X-ray exposure. They are the reasons why medical fields need an instrument for viscera fat measurement with low invasive, ease of use, and low cost. The article proposes a simple and practical method of visceral fat estimation by employing bioelectrical impedance analysis and causal analysis. In the method, abdominal shape and dual impedances of abdominal surface and body total are measured to estimate a visceral fat area based on the cause-effect structure. The structure is designed according to the nature of abdominal body composition to be fine-tuned by statistical analysis. The experiments were conducted to investigate the proposed model. 180 subjects were hired to be measured by both a CT scan and the proposed method. The acquired model explained the measurement principle well and the correlation coefficient is 0.88 with the CT scan measurements.

  1. Assessment of adult malnutrition and prognosis with bioelectrical impedance analysis: phase angle and impedance ratio.

    PubMed

    Lukaski, Henry C; Kyle, Ursula G; Kondrup, Jens

    2017-09-01

    Malnutrition affects prognosis in many groups of patients. Although screening tools are available to identify adults at risk for poor nutritional status, a need exists to improve the assessment of malnutrition by identifying the loss of functional tissues that can lead to frailty, compromised physical function, and increased risk of morbidity and mortality, particularly among hospitalized and ill patients and older adults. Bioimpedance analysis (BIA) offers a practical approach to identify malnutrition and prognosis by assessing whole-body cell membrane quality and depicting fluid distribution for an individual. Two novel applications of BIA afford opportunities to safely, rapidly, and noninvasively assess nutritional status and prognosis. One method utilizes single-frequency phase-sensitive measurements to determine phase angle, evaluate nutritional status, and relate it to prognosis, mortality, and functional outcomes. Another approach uses the ratio of multifrequency impedance values to indicate altered fluid distribution and predict prognosis. Use of basic BIA measurements, independent of use of regression prediction models and assumptions of constant chemical composition of the fat-free body, enables new options for practical assessment and clinical evaluation of impaired nutritional status and prognosis among hospitalized patients and elders that potentially can contribute to improved patient care and clinical outcomes. However, these novel applications have some technical and physiological limitations that should be considered.

  2. Bioelectrical impedance phase angle as a prognostic indicator in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Digant; Lammersfeld, Carolyn A; Vashi, Pankaj G; King, Jessica; Dahlk, Sadie L; Grutsch, James F; Lis, Christopher G

    2008-08-27

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is an easy-to-use, non-invasive, and reproducible technique to evaluate changes in body composition and nutritional status. Phase angle, determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), detects changes in tissue electrical properties and has been hypothesized to be a marker of malnutrition. Since malnutrition can be found in patients with breast cancer, we investigated the prognostic role of phase angle in breast cancer. We evaluated a case series of 259 histologically confirmed breast cancer patients treated at Cancer Treatment Centers of America. Kaplan Meier method was used to calculate survival. Cox proportional hazard models were constructed to evaluate the prognostic effect of phase angle independent of stage at diagnosis and prior treatment history. Survival was calculated as the time interval between the date of first patient visit to the hospital and the date of death from any cause or date of last contact/last known to be alive. Of 259 patients, 81 were newly diagnosed at our hospital while 178 had received prior treatment elsewhere. 56 had stage I disease at diagnosis, 110 had stage II, 46 had stage III and 34 had stage IV. The median age at diagnosis was 49 years (range 25-74 years). The median phase angle score was 5.6 (range = 1.5-8.9). Patients with phase angle < or = 5.6 had a median survival of 23.1 months (95% CI: 14.2 to 31.9; n = 129), while those > 5.6 had 49.9 months (95% CI: 35.6 to 77.8; n = 130); the difference being statistically significant (p = 0.031). Multivariate Cox modeling, after adjusting for stage at diagnosis and prior treatment history found that every one unit increase in phase angle score was associated with a relative risk of 0.82 (95% CI: 0.68 to 0.99, P = 0.041). Stage at diagnosis (p = 0.006) and prior treatment history (p = 0.001) were also predictive of survival independent of each other and phase angle. This study demonstrates that BIA-derived phase angle is an independent

  3. Assessing appendicular skeletal muscle mass with bioelectrical impedance analysis in free-living Caucasian older adults.

    PubMed

    Sergi, Giuseppe; De Rui, Marina; Veronese, Nicola; Bolzetta, Francesco; Berton, Linda; Carraro, Sara; Bano, Giulia; Coin, Alessandra; Manzato, Enzo; Perissinotto, Egle

    2015-08-01

    Aging is characterized by a loss of appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASMM) leading to physical disability and death. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is reliable in estimating ASMM but no prediction equations are available for elderly Caucasian subjects. The aim of the study was to develop and validate an equation derived from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to predict appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASMM) in healthy Caucasian elderly subjects, taking dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the reference method, and comparing the reliability of the new equation with another BIA-based model developed by Kyle et al. (Kyle UG, Genton L, Hans D, Pichard C, 2003). With a cross-sectional design, 296 free-living, healthy Caucasian subjects (117 men, 179 women) over 60 years of age were enrolled. Lean mass of limbs was measured with DXA to ascertain ASMM (ASMMDxA). Whole-body tetrapolar BIA was performed to measure resistance (Rz), resistance normalized for stature (RI), and reactance (Xc). The BIA multiple regression equation for predicting ASMM was developed using a double cross-validation technique. The predicted ASMM values were compared with ASMMKyle, i.e. ASMM estimates derived from the model developed by Kyle et al. (Kyle et al., 2003). Cross-validation resulted in a unique equation using the whole sample: ASMM (kg) = -3.964 + (0.227*RI) + (0.095*weight) + (1.384*sex) + (0.064*Xc) [R(2) = 0.92 and SEE = 1.14 kg]. In our sample, ASMMKyle differed significantly from the ASMMDxA (p < 0.0001), with a mean error of -0.97 ± 1.34 kg (5.1 ± 6.9%). Unlike the present BIA prediction equation, the Kyle et al. model showed a correlation between the bias and the mean of ASMMDxA and ASMMKyle (r = -0.406, p < 0.001). The new BIA equation provides a valid estimate of ASMM in older Caucasian adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  4. Volaemic assessment of the elderly hyponatraemic patient: reliability of clinical assessment and validation of bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    PubMed

    Hoyle, G E; Chua, M; Soiza, R L

    2011-01-01

    Hyponatraemia is the commonest electrolyte disturbance of hospital inpatients. Assessment of volaemic status is an important part of diagnosis and management. To determine reliability of clinical assessment of volaemic state by assessing inter-observer variability of clinical measures of volaemic state. To assess validity of bioelectrical impedance analysis as a tool to measure total body water in elderly hyponatraemic patients. Observational study conducted in a Department of Medicine for the Elderly. Hospital inpatients >65 years old (n=22) with serum sodium concentration <130 mmol/l were included. Two assessors determined volaemic state on two occasions 72 h apart. Level of agreement between observers was determined on each occasion. Total body water estimation was undertaken with bioelectrical impedance analysis and measurement of dilution of deuterium oxide. Correlation between these two measures was then analysed. Cohen's κ for agreement between two observers for overall assessment of volaemic state was 0.59 (P<0.01). Values for agreement between individual clinical markers of volaemic state ranged between 0.16 and 0.45. Pearson correlation coefficient (r) for correlation between estimation of total body water undertaken by bioelectrical impedance analysis and by measurement of dilution of deuterium oxide was 0.69 (P<0.001). There was moderate inter-observer agreement of overall clinical volaemic assessment of elderly hyponatraemic patients. Total body water estimation by bioelectrical impedance analysis correlates well with estimation by measurement of dilution of deuterium oxide, providing a potentially useful tool to improve the management of the elderly hyponatraemic patient.

  5. Body composition in a population of school adolescents: a comparison of simple anthropometric methods and bioelectrical impedance.

    PubMed

    Tovar-Galvez, María I; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Martí-García, Celia; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline

    2017-10-01

    To report the anthropometric characteristics and body composition and to analyze the potential sex-based differences in Spanish schoolchildren and adolescents living in Granada and Ceuta. To estimate body fat percentage using regression equations and bioelectrical impedance to check for sex differences. An additional objective was to see whether the body fat percentages obtained by these two methods were similar. A cross-sectional study including 1,518 children and adolescents (aged 9-16) from 12 primary and secondary schools in Ceuta and Granada. The nutritional status of the subjects was assessed and their body fat percentage was calculated. There was a strong sexual dimorphism, with higher prevalence rates of overweight in boys and obesity in girls. Girls had higher mean body fat levels regardless of the measuring method used (p<.001). Correlation between bioelectrical impedance analysis and regression equations was high (r=0.830), as was the internal correlation coefficient (ICC>0.75). A Bland-Altman comparison showed a high agreement between bioelectrical impedance and Behnke and Lohman equations. Specific equations considering subject sex and age should be used to estimate body density. Regardless of the method used, girls had higher body fat percentages. The Behnke and Lohman equations, combined with BIA, were found to be the most accurate methods for measuring body density in the study population. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. The potential of classic and specific bioelectrical impedance vector analysis for the assessment of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity

    PubMed Central

    Marini, Elisabetta; Buffa, Roberto; Saragat, Bruno; Coin, Alessandra; Toffanello, Elena Debora; Berton, Linda; Manzato, Enzo; Sergi, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this paper is to investigate whether bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) can be a suitable technique for the assessment of sarcopenia. We also investigate the potential use of specific BIVA as an indicator of sarcopenic obesity. Subjects and methods The sample comprised 207 free-living elderly individuals of both sexes, aged 65 to 93 years. Anthropometric and bioelectrical measurements were taken according to standard criteria. The “classic” and “specific” BIVA procedures, which respectively correct bioelectrical values for body height and body geometry, were used. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used as the reference method for identifying sarcopenic and obese sarcopenic individuals. Bioelectrical and DXA values were compared using Student’s t-test and Hotelling’s T2 test, as well as Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results According to classic BIVA, sarcopenic individuals of both sexes showed higher values of resistance/height (R/H; p < 0.01) and impedance/height (Z/H; p < 0.01), and a lower phase angle (p < 0.01). Similarly, specific BIVA showed significant differences between sarcopenic and nonsarcopenic individuals (men: T2 = 15.7, p < 0.01; women: T2 = 10.7, p < 0.01), with the sarcopenic groups showing a lower specific reactance and phase angle. Phase angle was positively correlated with the skeletal muscle mass index (men: r = 0.52, p < 0.01; women: r = 0.31, p < 0.01). Specific BIVA also recognized bioelectrical differences between sarcopenic and sarcopenic obese men (T2 = 13.4, p < 0.01), mainly due to the higher values of specific R in sarcopenic obese individuals. Conclusion BIVA detected muscle-mass variations in sarcopenic individuals, and specific BIVA was able to discriminate sarcopenic individuals from sarcopenic obese individuals. These procedures are promising tools for screening for presarcopenia, sarcopenia, and sarcopenic obesity in routine practice. PMID:23269864

  7. Validity of Four Commercial Bioelectrical Impedance Scales in Measuring Body Fat among Chinese Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Hui, Stanley Sai-Chuen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine the validity in predicting body fat percentage (%BF) of different bioelectrical impedance (BIA) devices among Chinese children and adolescents. A total of 255 Chinese children and adolescents aged 9-19 years old participated in the study. %BF was assessed by BIA scales, namely, Biodynamics-310 (Model A), Tanita TBF-543 (Model B), Tanita BC-545 (Model C), and InBody 520 (Model D). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used as the criterion measurement. Lin's concordance correlation coefficients of estimated %BF between Model A, Model B, Model C, and DXA showed poor agreements for both genders. Moderate agreements for %BF were found between DXA and Model D measurements. In boys, differences in %BF were found between DXA and Model B and Model C. No significant %BF differences were found between Model A, Model D, and DXA. However, the two BIA analyzers showed a significant positive correlation between the bias and average %BF between BIA and DXA. In girls, differences in %BF were observed between Model B, Model C, Model D, and DXA. Model A and DXA showed no significant differences of %BF; however, the bias and the average %BF between the BIA and DXA had a significant positive correlation. Using embedded equations in BIA devices should be validated in assessing the %BF of Chinese children and adolescents.

  8. Diagnostic value of bioelectrical impedance analysis versus body mass index for detection of obesity among students.

    PubMed

    Heydari, Seyed-Taghi; Ayatollahi, Seyed-Mohammad-Taghi; Zare, Najaf

    2011-06-01

    Obesity is a common nutritional problem in both developed and developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweightness and obesity using both bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and body mass index (BMI). In this cross-sectional study, 288 healthy college students were selected. Socio-economic status questionnaires were completed and subjects' anthropometric features were measured by a trained nurse. BMI was calculated and body fat mass (BFM) and body fat percent (BF%) were obtained using BIA method by hand-to-hand Omron BF-500 set. Mean age of the subjects was 21.1±1.7 years. Based on BMI, 2.6% of males and 2.2% of females were obese while 15.7% and 9.6% were diagnosed to be overweight respectively. The correlation between BMI values and BFM were 0.883 and 0.908 in males and females respectively (P<0.001). Furthermore, BF% had a significant correlation with BMI in both males and females (P<0.001). Our survey demonstrated a lower prevalence of obesity and overweightness in college students compared with Iranian general population, especially in females. Additionally, BIA method was shown to be closely correlated with and as much valuable as BMI in regard to detection of obesity.

  9. Quantitative Assessment of Fluid Accumulation Using Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Patients With Acute Decompensated Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Taiki; Yasumura, Kaori; Nishida, Hiroki; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Furukawa, Tetsuo; Shinouchi, Kazuya; Miura, Hiroyuki; Miyazaki, Koichi; Hamano, Gou; Koide, Masao; Abe, Haruhiko; Date, Motoo; Hirooka, Keiji; Koretsune, Yukihiro; Kusuoka, Hideo; Yasumura, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) is generally considered to be a problem of fluid volume overload, therefore accurately quantifying the degree of fluid accumulation is of critical importance in assessing whether adequate decongestion has been achieved. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a method to quantify the degree of fluid accumulation in patients with ADHF. Using multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), we measured extracellular water (ECW) volume in 130 ADHF patients on admission and at discharge. We also predicted optimal ECW volume using original equations based on data from 60 control subjects without the signs of HF. Measured/predicted (M/P) ratio of ECW in ADHF patients was observed to decrease from 1.26±0.25 to 1.04±0.17 during hospitalization (P<0.001). The amount of ECW volume reduction was significantly correlated with reduction in body weight (r=0.766, P<0.001). On multivariate analysis, higher M/P ratio of ECW at discharge was associated with increased risk of ADHF readmission or cardiac death within 6 months after discharge. Multi-frequency BIA-measured ECW was found to offer valuable information for analyzing the pathophysiology of ADHF, and may be a useful guide in the management of this disease.

  10. Body composition analysis in older adults with dementia. Anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Camina Martín, M A; de Mateo Silleras, B; Redondo del Río, M P

    2014-11-01

    In clinical practice, geriatric nutritional assessment usually includes nutritional screening, a simple anthropometric assessment, measurement of various biochemical parameters, such as serum albumin, and sometimes (not always) body composition analysis (BCA). However, there is a high prevalence of undiagnosed malnutrition in patients with dementia. Several factors contribute to this situation; probably, the most notable is the methodology used to assess body composition (BC). In this regard, for BCA, techniques are needed that are noninvasive, affordable, safe, simple and that require the minimum possible collaboration by the elderly patient. Consequently, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are widely used as indicators of overall and central adiposity, respectively; however, there is no consensus on the cutoffs for the elderly, and changes in BC (especially muscle-mass depletion) are masked by normal values of BMI and WC. Bioimpedance analysis is a simple, cost-effective and precise method for BCA, provided that cross-validated equations are used. Its main disadvantage is that it is highly sensitive to changes in body water (overhydration or dehydration), leading to substantial errors in BC estimates. However, using Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Analysis errors are minimized, as there is no need for the subject to be normally hydrated and it does not require the use of predictive models.

  11. Comparison of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis and Air Displacement Plethysmography in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Smale, K Brent; McIntosh, Emily I; Vallis, Lori Ann

    2016-05-01

    Clinicians and researchers use body composition measurements to identify individuals who may be at risk of adverse health complications. This study compared two commonly used two-compartmental anthropometric models (bioelectrical impedance analysis [BIA] and air displacement plethysmography [ADP]) to determine whether these two cost-effective methods would provide similar fat free mass index (FFMI) values in a mixed and sex-separated sample population of healthy older adults. Community-dwelling older adults (N= 37, 18 men) aged 74.5 ± 5.2 years participated. FFMIBIAwas correlated with FFMIADP(r= .916); however, these correlations were markedly reduced when the population was split by sex (r< .60). The level of agreement between the difference values (FFMIBIA- FFMIADP) fluctuated ± 2.1 kg/m(2)(illustrated via Bland-Altman plots), but these differences were not statistically different from 0. Findings from the current work suggest that clinicians must be cautious when using portable devices such as BIA to assess FFMI in an older adult population. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. [Values of the phase angle by bioelectrical impedance; nutritional status and prognostic value].

    PubMed

    Llames, L; Baldomero, V; Iglesias, M L; Rodota, L P

    2013-01-01

    Phase angle (PA) is the most established parameter from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) for diagnosis of malnutrition and clinical prognosis, both associated with changes on cellular membrane integrity and alterations on fluids balance. PA expresses changes in quantity and quality of soft tissue mass (ie, cell membrane permeability and soft tissue hydration). A large body of clinical trials propose PA as a useful prognostic marker in clinical conditions like liver cirrhosis and breast, colon, pancreatic and lung cancer; positive association between PA and survival was also observed in surgical and HIV infected patients. Several authors suggest that PA can be an important tool in the evaluation of the clinical result or of the progression of the disease, and it can even be superior to other nutritional, biochemical or anthropometric indicators. Lack of reference values has limited its use in clinical and epidemiological situations. The purpose of this review is to describe PA reference values according to different clinical conditions as proposed in published scientific works.

  13. Bioelectrical impedance analysis: population reference values for phase angle by age and sex.

    PubMed

    Barbosa-Silva, Maria Cristina G; Barros, Aluísio J D; Wang, Jack; Heymsfield, Steven B; Pierson, Richard N

    2005-07-01

    Phase angle is an indicator based on reactance and resistance obtained from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Although its biological meaning is still not clear, phase angle appears to have an important prognostic role. The aim of this study was to estimate population averages and SDs of phase angle that can be used as reference values. BIA and other methods used to evaluate body composition, including hydrodensitometry and total body water, were completed in 1967 healthy adults aged 18-94 y. Phase angle was calculated directly from body resistance and reactance, and fat mass (FM) was estimated from the combination of weight, hydrodensitometry, and total body water by using the 3-compartment Siri equation. Phase angle values were compared across categories of sex, age, body mass index (BMI), and percentage FM. Phase angle was significantly (P < 0.001) smaller in women than in men and was lower with greater age (P < 0.001). Phase angle increased with an increase in BMI and was significantly inversely associated with percentage fat in men. Phase angle was significantly predicted from sex, age, BMI, and percentage FM in multiple regression models. Phase angle differs across categories of sex, age, BMI, and percentage fat. These reference values can serve as a basis for phase angle evaluations in the clinical setting.

  14. Validity of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis to Estimation Fat-Free Mass in the Army Cadets

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Raquel D.; Borges, Juliano H.; Pascoa, Mauro A.; Cirolini, Vagner X.; Guerra-Júnior, Gil; Gonçalves, Ezequiel M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) is a fast, practical, non-invasive, and frequently used method for fat-free mass (FFM) estimation. The aims of this study were to validate predictive equations of BIA to FFM estimation in Army cadets and to develop and validate a specific BIA equation for this population. Methods: A total of 396 males, Brazilian Army cadets, aged 17–24 years were included. The study used eight published predictive BIA equations, a specific equation in FFM estimation, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as a reference method. Student’s t-test (for paired sample), linear regression analysis, and Bland–Altman method were used to test the validity of the BIA equations. Results: Predictive BIA equations showed significant differences in FFM compared to DXA (p < 0.05) and large limits of agreement by Bland–Altman. Predictive BIA equations explained 68% to 88% of FFM variance. Specific BIA equations showed no significant differences in FFM, compared to DXA values. Conclusion: Published BIA predictive equations showed poor accuracy in this sample. The specific BIA equations, developed in this study, demonstrated validity for this sample, although should be used with caution in samples with a large range of FFM. PMID:26978397

  15. Measurement of nutritional status in simulated microgravity by bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartok, Cynthia; Atkinson, Richard L.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2003-01-01

    The potential of bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) for assessing nutritional status in spaceflight was tested in two head-down-tilt bed-rest studies. BIS-predicted extracellular water (ECW), intracellular water (ICW), and total body water (TBW) measured using knee-elbow electrode placement were compared with deuterium and bromide dilution (DIL) volumes in healthy, 19- to 45-yr-old subjects. BIS was accurate during 44 h of head-down tilt with mean differences (BIS - DIL) of 0-0.1 kg for ECW, 0.3-0.5 for ICW, and 0.4-0.6 kg for TBW (n = 28). At 44 h, BIS followed the within-individual change in body water compartments with a relative prediction error (standard error of the estimate/baseline volume) of 2.0-3.6% of water space. In the second study, BIS did not detect an acute decrease (-1.41 +/- 0.91 kg) in ICW secondary to 48 h of a protein-free, 800 kcal/day diet (n = 18). BIS's insensitivity to ICW losses may be because they were predominantly (65%) localized to the trunk and/or because there was a general failure of BIS to measure ICW independently of ECW and TBW. BIS may have potential for measuring nutritional status during spaceflight, but its limitations in precision and insensitivity to acute ICW changes warrant further validation studies.

  16. Alterations in body fluid content can be detected by bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    PubMed

    Scheltinga, M R; Jacobs, D O; Kimbrough, T D; Wilmore, D W

    1991-05-01

    The electrical resistance across the whole body and its segments to the conduction of a weak alternating current was determined in human subjects under three different conditions: (1) during bed rest, (2) during infusion of 1 liter of saline, and (3) during donation of 1 unit of blood. During bed rest, extracellular and total body water were measured by dilution of bromide and heavy water, respectively. Electrical resistance obtained from electrodes placed on proximal portions of extremities ("proximal resistance") accounted for less than 50% of that determined by electrodes positioned on routinely used portions of a hand and foot ("whole body resistance"). Following saline infusion, resistance determined from the whole body and all its segments fell (P less than 0.001); the magnitude of the drop in both proximal and whole body resistance was inversely related to the volume of total body water (TBW) (r = -0.82, P less than 0.002, and r = -0.73, P less than 0.01, respectively). In contrast, blood donation was associated with significantly increased resistance at both measurement sites. TBW predicted from anthropometrics was inversely related to both proximal (r = -0.90, P less than 0.001) and whole body resistance (r = -0.75, P less than 0.001). Bioelectrical impedance analysis is a simple technique which may be useful in monitoring minimal alterations in TBW. Furthermore, altered fluid status may be predicted more accurately by changes in proximal resistance compared to changes in traditionally used whole body resistance.

  17. Estimating body composition from skinfold thicknesses and bioelectrical impedance analysis in cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Alicandro, Gianfranco; Battezzati, Alberto; Bianchi, Maria Luisa; Loi, Silvana; Speziali, Chiara; Bisogno, Arianna; Colombo, Carla

    2015-11-01

    The accuracy of body composition estimates based on skinfold thickness measurements and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is not yet adequately explored in cystic fibrosis (CF). Using DXA as reference method we verified the accuracy of these techniques and identified predictors of body composition specific for CF. One hundred forty-two CF patients (age range: 8-31 years) underwent a DXA scan. Body fat percentage (BF%) was estimated from skinfolds, while fat free mass (FFM) from single-frequency 50 kHz BIA. Bland-Altman analysis showed poor intra-individual agreement between body composition data provided by DXA and BF% estimated from skinfolds or FFM estimated from BIA. The skinfolds of the upper arm were better predictors of BF% than BMI, while compared to other BIA measurements the best predictor of FFM was the R-index (Height(2)/Resistance). Due to poor accuracy at individual level, the estimates of body composition obtained from these techniques cannot be part of the standard nutritional assessment of CF patients until reliable CF-specific equations will become available. BMI has limited value in predicting body fatness in CF patients and should be used in combination with other predictors. Skinfolds of the upper arm and R-index are strongly related to BF% and FFM and should be tested in a large CF population to develop specific predictive equations. Copyright © 2015 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Measurement of nutritional status in simulated microgravity by bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartok, Cynthia; Atkinson, Richard L.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2003-01-01

    The potential of bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) for assessing nutritional status in spaceflight was tested in two head-down-tilt bed-rest studies. BIS-predicted extracellular water (ECW), intracellular water (ICW), and total body water (TBW) measured using knee-elbow electrode placement were compared with deuterium and bromide dilution (DIL) volumes in healthy, 19- to 45-yr-old subjects. BIS was accurate during 44 h of head-down tilt with mean differences (BIS - DIL) of 0-0.1 kg for ECW, 0.3-0.5 for ICW, and 0.4-0.6 kg for TBW (n = 28). At 44 h, BIS followed the within-individual change in body water compartments with a relative prediction error (standard error of the estimate/baseline volume) of 2.0-3.6% of water space. In the second study, BIS did not detect an acute decrease (-1.41 +/- 0.91 kg) in ICW secondary to 48 h of a protein-free, 800 kcal/day diet (n = 18). BIS's insensitivity to ICW losses may be because they were predominantly (65%) localized to the trunk and/or because there was a general failure of BIS to measure ICW independently of ECW and TBW. BIS may have potential for measuring nutritional status during spaceflight, but its limitations in precision and insensitivity to acute ICW changes warrant further validation studies.

  19. Bioelectrical impedance analysis for diagnosing sarcopenia and cachexia: what are we really estimating?

    PubMed Central

    Heymsfield, Steven B.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract As reference methods are not available for identifying low skeletal muscle mass in clinical practice, the European Group on Sarcopenia in Older People the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia and the International Consensus for Cancer Cachexia guidelines accept bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) as an option for sarcopenia and cachexia assessment. Using different BIA equations, several components that represent ‘muscularity’ can be assessed. Total skeletal muscle mass or appendicular skeletal muscle mass normalized in relation to height (skeletal muscle mass index or appendicular skeletal muscle index, respectively) is the most common term used in the consensus. These terms are similar, but they should not be used as synonymous. Both terms can be used to define sarcopenia, but adequate equations and cut‐off values should be used according to the studied population. However, there is a disagreement between the sarcopenia definition assessed by using BIA from the European Group on Sarcopenia in Older People and Cachexia Consensus, and this can lead to an overestimation of sarcopenia and, consequently, cachexia. An effort should be made to standardize the terminology employed by the Societies to define low muscularity and sarcopenia by using BIA. Future validation studies may show the need for specific cut‐off values for each population using this method. PMID:28145079

  20. Assessment of fluid and nutritional status using multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Seung-Hyea; Choi, Ji-Young; Cho, Jang-Hee; Park, Sun-Hee; Kim, Chan-Duck; Kim, Yong-Lim

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness and relevance of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) for assessing the fluid and nutritional status in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Statistical analyses between various measures of fluid and nutritional status were performed in 106 cases of 64 patients. Extracellular fluid/total body water (ECF/TBW) was correlated with systolic blood pressure, extremity edema, and antihypertensive medications (p = 0.042, p < 0.001, and p = 0.029, respectively). Body cell mass (BCM)/height(2) was correlated with SGA rating and PCR (p < 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). ECF/TBW and BCM/height(2) significantly predicted extremity edema (p < 0.001) and SGA rating (p = 0.001), respectively. ROC analysis yielded an ECF/TBW cut-off of 0.36 and a BCM/height(2) cut-off of 11.23. When the BCM/height(2) cut-off of 11.23 was applied to subclinical patients (SGA score ≥6), a significant difference in SGA rating was detected in subgroups (p = 0.010). BIA yields useful and relevant information about hydration and nutritional status in PD patients.

  1. The influence of stratum corneum hydration on body fat determination by bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    PubMed

    Clarys, Peter; Deriemaeker, P; Clijsen, R; Taeymans, J; Aerenhouts, D; Barel, A O

    2012-02-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is used for the estimation of the amount of body fat. We evaluated the influence of the stratum corneum hydration at the contact areas used for BIA on the body fat estimation. Stratum corneum hydration was measured at the sole of the right foot and the palm of the right hand before and after contact with the Tanita Body Composition Analyzer TBF 410(®) and the Omron Body Fat Analyzer(®) , (n=128 females and 126 males), respectively. Changes in stratum corneum hydration during the contact time were calculated (ΔHYD). As a gold standard for body fat estimation, the underwater weighing method (UWW) was used and the deviation of this standard was calculated for the Tanita (DT) and the Omron (DO) measurement. During contact with the Tanita, stratum corneum hydration increased significantly at the foot. Neither stratum corneum hydration measured at the respective contact sites before BIA nor ΔHYD at the respective skin sites was related to DT or with DO. The BIA measuring procedure using the Tanita instrument leads to an occlusive effect at the contact site. BIA for the determination of body composition is not influenced by stratum corneum hydration. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Bioelectrical impedance phase angle as a prognostic indicator of survival in head-and-neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Władysiuk, M.S.; Mlak, R.; Morshed, K.; Surtel, W.; Brzozowska, A.; Małecka-Massalska, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Phase angle could be an alternative to subjective global assessment for the assessment of nutrition status in patients with head-and-neck cancer. Methods We prospectively evaluated a cohort of 75 stage iiib and iv head-and-neck patients treated at the Otolaryngology Department, Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of Lublin, Poland. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was performed in all patients using an analyzer that operated at 50 kHz. The phase angle was calculated as reactance divided by resistance (Xc/R) and expressed in degrees. The Kaplan–Meier method was used to calculate survival. Results Median overall survival in the cohort was 32.0 months. At the time of analysis, 47 deaths had been recorded in the cohort (62.7%). The risk of shortened overall survival was significantly higher in patients whose phase angle was less than 4.733 degrees than in the remaining patients (19.6 months vs. 45 months, p = 0.0489; chi-square: 3.88; hazard ratio: 1.8856; 95% confidence interval: 1.0031 to 3.5446). Conclusions Phase angle might be prognostic of survival in patients with advanced head-and-neck cancer. Further investigation in a larger population is required to confirm our results. PMID:27803609

  3. Is bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy accurate in estimating total body water and its compartments in elite athletes?

    PubMed

    Matias, Catarina N; Santos, Diana A; Gonçalves, Ezequiel M; Fields, David A; Sardinha, Luís B; Silva, Analiza M

    2013-03-01

    Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) provides an affordable assessment of the body's various water compartments: total body water (TBW), extracellular water (ECW) and intracellular water (ICW). However, little is known of its validity in athletes. To validate TBW, ECW and ICW by BIS in elite male and female Portuguese athletes using dilution techniques (i.e. deuterium and bromide dilution) as criterion methods. Sixty-two athletes (18.5 ± 4.1 years) had TBW, ECW and ICW assessed by BIS during their respective pre-season. BIS significantly under-estimated TBW by 1.0 ± 1.7 kg and ICW by 0.9 ± 1.9 kg in relation to the criterion methods, with no differences observed for ECW. The values for the concordance correlation coefficient were 0.98 for TBW and ECW and 0.95 for ICW. Bland-Altman analyses revealed no bias for the various water compartments, with the 95% confidence intervals ranging from - 4.8 to 2.6 kg for TBW, - 1.5 to 1.6 kg for ECW and - 4.5 to 2.7 kg for ICW. Overall, these findings demonstrate the validity of BIS as a valid tool in the assessment of TBW and its compartments in both male and female athletes.

  4. Estimation of fat-free mass in Asian neonates using bioelectrical impedance analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tint, Mya-Thway; Ward, Leigh C; Soh, Shu E; Aris, Izzuddin M; Chinnadurai, Amutha; Saw, Seang Mei; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kramer, Michael S; Yap, Fabian; Lingwood, Barbara; Lee, Yung Seng

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop and validate a prediction equation of fat-free mass (FFM) based on bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and anthropometry using air displacement plethysmography (ADP) as a reference in Asian neonates and to test the applicability of the prediction equations in independent Western cohort. A total of 173 neonates at birth and 140 at week-2 of age were included. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to develop the prediction equations in a two-third randomly selected subset and validated on the remaining one-third subset at each time point and in an independent Queensland cohort. FFM measured by ADP was the dependent variable and anthropometric measures, sex and impedance quotient (L2/R50) were independent variables in the model. Accuracy of prediction equations were assessed using intra-class correlation and Bland-Altman analyses. L2/R50 was the significant predictor of FFM at week-2 but not at birth. Compared to the model using weight, sex and length, including L2/R50 slightly improved the prediction with a bias of 0.01kg with 2SD limits of agreement (LOA) (0.18, −0.20). Prediction explained 88.9% of variation but not beyond that of anthropometry. Applying these equations to Queensland cohort provided similar performance at the appropriate age. However, when the Queensland equations were applied to our cohort, the bias increased slightly but with similar LOA. BIA appears to have limited use in predicting FFM in the first few weeks of life compared to simple anthropometry in Asian populations. There is a need for population and age appropriate FFM prediction equations. PMID:26856420

  5. Validity of Bioelectrical Impedance Measurement in Predicting Fat-Free Mass of Chinese Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Hui, Stanley Sai-chuen; Wong, Stephen Heung-sang

    2014-01-01

    Background The current study aimed to examine the validity of various published bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) equations in estimating FFM among Chinese children and adolescents and to develop BIA equations for the estimation of fat-free mass (FFM) appropriate for Chinese children and adolescents. Material/Methods A total of 255 healthy Chinese children and adolescents aged 9 to 19 years old (127 males and 128 females) from Tianjin, China, participated in the BIA measurement at 50 kHz between the hand and the foot. The criterion measure of FFM was also employed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). FFM estimated from 24 published BIA equations was cross-validated against the criterion measure from DEXA. Multiple linear regression was conducted to examine alternative BIA equation for the studied population. Results FFM estimated from the 24 published BIA equations yielded high correlations with the directly measured FFM from DEXA. However, none of the 24 equations was statistically equivalent with the DEXA-measured FFM. Using multiple linear regression and cross-validation against DEXA measurement, an alternative prediction equation was determined as follows: FFM (kg)=1.613+0.742×height (cm)2/impedance (Ω)+0.151×body weight (kg); R2=0.95; SEE=2.45kg; CV=6.5, 93.7% of the residuals of all the participants fell within the 95% limits of agreement. Conclusions BIA was highly correlated with FFM in Chinese children and adolescents. When the new developed BIA equations are applied, BIA can provide a practical and valid measurement of body composition in Chinese children and adolescents. PMID:25398209

  6. The diagnostic accuracy of multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis in diagnosing dehydration after stroke.

    PubMed

    Kafri, Mohannad W; Myint, Phyo Kway; Doherty, Danielle; Wilson, Alexander Hugh; Potter, John F; Hooper, Lee

    2013-07-10

    Non-invasive methods for detecting water-loss dehydration following acute stroke would be clinically useful. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) against reference standards serum osmolality and osmolarity. Patients admitted to an acute stroke unit were recruited. Blood samples for electrolytes and osmolality were taken within 20 minutes of MF-BIA. Total body water (TBW%), intracellular (ICW%) and extracellular water (ECW%), as percentages of total body weight, were calculated by MF-BIA equipment and from impedance measures using published equations for older people. These were compared to hydration status (based on serum osmolality and calculated osmolarity). The most promising Receiver Operating Characteristics curves were plotted. 27 stroke patients were recruited (mean age 71.3, SD10.7). Only a TBW% cut-off at 46% was consistent with current dehydration (serum osmolality >300 mOsm/kg) and TBW% at 47% impending dehydration (calculated osmolarity ≥295-300 mOsm/L) with sensitivity and specificity both >60%. Even here diagnostic accuracy of MF-BIA was poor, a third of those with dehydration were wrongly classified as hydrated and a third classified as dehydrated were well hydrated. Secondary analyses assessing diagnostic accuracy of TBW% for men and women separately, and using TBW as a percentage of lean body mass showed some promise, but did not provide diagnostically accurate measures across the population. MF-BIA appears ineffective at diagnosing water-loss dehydration after stroke and cannot be recommended as a test for dehydration, but separating assessment by sex, and using TBW as a percentage of lean body weight may warrant further investigation.

  7. Prevalence of child malnutrition at a university hospital using the World Health Organization criteria and bioelectrical impedance data

    PubMed Central

    Pileggi, V.N.; Monteiro, J.P.; Margutti, A.V.B.; Camelo, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition constitutes a major public health concern worldwide and serves as an indicator of hospitalized patients’ prognosis. Although various methods with which to conduct nutritional assessments exist, large hospitals seldom employ them to diagnose malnutrition. The aim of this study was to understand the prevalence of child malnutrition at the University Hospital of the Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São, Brazil. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted to compare the nutritional status of 292 hospitalized children with that of a healthy control group (n=234). Information regarding patients’ weight, height, and bioelectrical impedance (i.e., bioelectrical impedance vector analysis) was obtained, and the phase angle was calculated. Using the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, 35.27% of the patients presented with malnutrition; specifically, 16.10% had undernutrition and 19.17% were overweight. Classification according to the bioelectrical impedance results of nutritional status was more sensitive than the WHO criteria: of the 55.45% of patients with malnutrition, 51.25% exhibited undernutrition and 4.20% were overweight. After applying the WHO criteria in the unpaired control group (n=234), we observed that 100.00% of the subjects were eutrophic; however, 23.34% of the controls were malnourished according to impedance analysis. The phase angle was significantly lower in the hospitalized group than in the control group (P<0.05). Therefore, this study suggests that a protocol to obtain patients’ weight and height must be followed, and bioimpedance data must be examined upon hospital admission of all children. PMID:26840712

  8. Comparison of two bioelectrical impedance analysis instruments for determining body composition in adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, J.; Going, S.; Loftin, M.; Stewart, D.; Nowicki, E.; Pickrel, J.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare fat-free mass (FFM) and percent body fat determined by two bio-electrical impedance analysis (BIA) instruments against criterion estimates determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a multi-racial/ethnic sample of adolescent girls. BIA was assessed in 151 girls (n=51 African-American; n=45 Hispanic; n=55 Caucasian; age 12.2 ± 1.2 yr) using the RJL Quantum II and the American Weights and Measures Body-Comp Scale (BCS). Percent body fat determined by BIA was significantly related to that determined by DXA (R2=0.87, SEE=2.8% for RJL vs DXA, P<0.0001; R2=0.71, SEE=4.4% for BCS vs DXA, P<0.0001). The agreement between DXA and BIA for FFM was also significant (R2=0.91, SEE=0.03 kg for RJL, P <0.0001; R2=0.79, SEE=0.04 kg for BCS, P <0.0001). The BCS overestimated FFM by 2.7 kg (P<0.0001) and underestimated percent body fat by over 4% (P<0.001). There were no differences in percent body fat between DXA and the RJL, and although the RJL significantly overestimated FFM, the absolute difference was <1 kg. Within each ethnic group, the RJL instrument more closely estimated FFM and percent body fat than did the BCS. Although both BIA instruments compared favorably with DXA, the RJL had better stability and accuracy than the BCS, for both the total sample and for the three ethnic groups. Considering its relatively low cost and minimal time required for technical training, BIA is a useful and appropriate technique for assessing body composition in adolescent girls. PMID:17607326

  9. Use of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis for the Assessment of Nutritional Status in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoojin; Kwon, Oran; Shin, Cheung Soo

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is common in the critically ill patients and known to cause a variety of negative clinical outcomes. However, various conventional methods for nutrition assessment have several limitations. We hypothesized that body composition data, as measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), may have a significant role in evaluating nutritional status and predicting clinical outcomes in critically ill patients. We gathered clinical, biochemical, and BIA data from 66 critically ill patients admitted to an intensive care unit. Patients were divided into three nutritional status groups according to their serum albumin level and total lymphocyte counts. The BIA results, conventional indicators of nutrition status, and clinical outcomes were compared and analyzed retrospectively. Results showed that the BIA indices including phase angle (PhA), extracellular water (ECW), and ECW/total body water (TBW) were significantly associated with the severity of nutritional status. Particularly, PhA, an indicator of the health of the cell membrane, was higher in the well-nourished patient group, whereas the edema index (ECW/TBW) was higher in the severely malnourished patient group. PhA was positively associated with albumin and ECW/TBW was negatively associated with serum albumin, hemoglobin, and duration of mechanical ventilation. In non-survivors, PhA was significantly lower and both ECW/TBW and %TBW/fat free mass were higher than in survivors. In conclusion, several BIA indexes including PhA and ECW/TBW may be useful for nutritional assessment and represent significant prognostic factors in the care of critically ill patients. PMID:25713790

  10. A Useful Tool As a Medical Checkup in a General Population—Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Enomoto, Mika; Adachi, Hisashi; Fukami, Ako; Kumagai, Eita; Nakamura, Sachiko; Nohara, Yume; Kono, Shoko; Nakao, Erika; Morikawa, Nagisa; Tsuru, Tomoko; Sakaue, Akiko; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation of visceral fat leads to metabolic syndrome and increases risks of cerebro-cardiovascular diseases, which should be recognized and improved at the early stage in general population. Accurate measurement of visceral fat area (VFA) is commonly performed by the abdominal cross-sectional image measured by computed tomography scan, which is, however, limited due to the radiation exposure. The bioelectrical impedance analysis (OMRON, HDS-2000 DUALSCANR) has been recently developed to measure VFA, which is more easily accessible modality. In the present study, we investigated the clinical usefulness of DUALSCANR in 226 subjects who received health examination, including blood chemistries, electrocardiography, cardio, and carotid ultrasonography. VFA was measured within only just 5 min. Average of VFA was 83.5 ± 36.3 cm2 in men, and 64.8 ± 28.0 cm2 in women, which was correlated to weight (r = 0.7404, p < 0.0001), body mass index (BMI) (r = 0.7320, p < 0.0001), and waist circumstance (r = 0.7393, p < 0.0001). In multivariate analyses, VFA was significantly associated with weight (p < 0.0001), BMI (p < 0.0001), and waist circumstance (p < 0.0001). Compared to the group of smaller waist and normal BMI, VFA was significantly increased (p < 0.0001) in the group of larger waist and obese subjects. In conclusion, these results indicated that DUALSCANR is useful to measure VFA easily in general population, even in a large number of subjects. PMID:28210619

  11. Bioelectrical impedance phase angle in septic patients admitted to intensive care units

    PubMed Central

    Berbigier, Marina Carvalho; Pasinato, Valeska Fernandes; Rubin, Bibiana de Almeida; Moraes, Rafael Barberena; Perry, Ingrid Dalira Schweigert

    2013-01-01

    Objective To calculate the values of the phase angle of septic patients using bioelectrical impedance analysis, correlate the values with clinical and biochemical variables, and compare them to reference values. Methods Cohort study conducted with 50 septic patients aged ≥18 years old, admitted to intensive care units, and assessed according to prognostic indexes (APACHE II and SOFA), clinical progression (mortality, severity of sepsis, length of stay in intensive care unit), biochemical parameters (albumin and C-reactive protein), and the phase angle. Results The average age of the sample was 65.6±16.5 years. Most patients were male (58%) and suffering from septic shock (60%). The average APACHE II and SOFA scores were 22.98±7.1 and 7.5±3.4, respectively. The patients who survived stayed nine days on average (five to 13) in the intensive care unit, and the mortality rate was 30%. The average value of the phase angle was 5.4±2.6º in the total sample and was smaller among the females compared with the males (p=0.01). The phase angle measures did not exhibit an association with the severity of the sepsis, mortality, gender, and age or correlate with the length of hospitalization or the biochemical parameters. The participants' phase angle values adjusted per gender and age were 1.1 to 1.9 times lower compared with the values for a normal population. Conclusion The average value of the phase angle of septic patients was lower compared with the reference values for a healthy population. The phase angle measures did not exhibit association with the clinical and biochemical variables, which might be explained by the sample homogeneity. PMID:23887756

  12. Total body fat and the risk of Barrett's oesophagus - a bioelectrical impedance study.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Bradley J; Macdonald, Graeme A; Prins, Johannes B; O'Brien, Suzanne; Whiteman, David C

    2014-06-01

    Body mass index is associated with the risk of Barrett's oesophagus (BO). It is uncertain whether this is related to total body fat or other factors that correlate with body mass index. We aimed to quantify the association between total body fat (measured by bioelectrical impedance) and risk of BO and examine if this association was modified by gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) and abdominal obesity. In 2007-2009, we surveyed 235 cases (69% Males, Mean age 62.1 years) and 244 age and sex matched population controls from a population based case-control study of BO. We conducted structured interviews, standard anthropometry and bioimpedance analysis of total body fat. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression analysis. There was a significantly increased risk of BO among those in the highest tertile of total body fat weight (OR 2.01; 95%CI 1.26-3.21) and total body fat percentage (OR 1.86; 95%CI 1.10-3.15). These risks were largely attenuated after adjustment for GOR and waist circumference. There was a significantly increased risk of BO among those in the highest tertile of waist circumference (OR 2.21; 95%CI 1.39-3.51) and this was minimally attenuated after adjustment for total body fat and moderately attenuated after adjustment for GOR. Total body fat is associated with an increased risk of BO but this appears to be mediated via both abdominal obesity and GOR. These findings provide evidence that abdominal obesity is more important than total body fat in the development of BO. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bioelectrical impedance analysis and skinfold thickness sum in assessing body fat mass of renal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Natália Cristina Lima; Sala, Priscila Campos; Horie, Lilian Mika; Dias, Maria Carolina Gonçalves; Torrinhas, Raquel Susana Matos de Miranda; Romão, João Egídio; Cecconello, Ivan; Waitzberg, Dan Linetzky

    2012-07-01

    In chronic renal failure patients under hemodialysis (HD) treatment, the availability of simple, safe, and effective tools to assess body composition enables evaluation of body composition accurately, in spite of changes in body fluids that occur in dialysis therapy, thus contributing to planning and monitoring of nutritional treatment. We evaluated the performance of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and the skinfold thickness sum (SKF) to assess fat mass (FM) in chronic renal failure patients before (BHD) and after (AHD) HD, using air displacement plethysmography (ADP) as the standard method. This single-center cross-sectional trial involved comparing the FM of 60 HD patients estimated BHD and AHD by BIA (multifrequential; 29 women, 31 men) and by SKF with those estimated by the reference method, ADP. Body fat-free mass (FFM) was also obtained by subtracting the total body fat from the individual total weight. Mean estimated FM (kg [%]) observed by ADP BHD was 17.95 ± 0.99 kg (30.11% ± 1.30%), with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 16.00 to 19.90 (27.56 to 32.66); mean estimated FM observed AHD was 17.92 ± 1.11 kg (30.04% ± 1.40%), with a 95% CI of 15.74 to 20.10 (27.28 to 32.79). Neither study period showed a difference in FM and FFM (for both kg and %) estimates by the SKF method when compared with ADP; however, the BIA underestimated the FM and overestimated the FFM (for both kg and %) when compared with ADP. The SKF, but not the BIA, method showed results similar to ADP and can be considered adequate for FM evaluation in HD patients. Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Changes in muscle and fat mass with haemodialysis detected by multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    PubMed

    Panorchan, K; Nongnuch, A; El-Kateb, S; Goodlad, C; Davenport, A

    2015-10-01

    Multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MFBIA) is becoming more widely used to assess hydration status and body composition in haemodialysis patients. Most centres only measure MFBIA pre dialysis when patients are overhydrated. We wished to determine whether body composition assessments change post dialysis following fluid removal. Lean body and fat mass were measured by MFBIA pre and post haemodialysis in 676 stable outpatients. Weight fell post dialysis from 72.9 ± 17.8 to 70.9 ± 19.9 kg, P<0.001, soft lean mass from 48.2 ± 12.1 to 45.4 ± 11.0 kg and fat-free mass from 51.8 ± 19.2 to 48.1 ± 11.8 kg, P<0.001, whereas percentage body fat (PBF) increased from 28.8 ± 11.9 to 30.8 ± 12.1% post dialysis, P<0.001, with a mean increase post dialysis of 2.0% (95% confidence limits 1.55 to 2.45). There were correlations between the fall in total body water and extracellular water and skeletal muscle mass (r=0.826, P<0.001 and r=0.711, P<0.001, respectively), and negative correlation between the fall in total body water and ICW and the increase in PBF (r=-0.72, P<0.001, and -0.72, P<0.001, respectively). The relative changes were greater for the arms compared with the legs. Although more convenient for both patients and staff to undertake bioimpedance measurements pre dialysis, overhydration over estimates muscle mass and under estimates fat. For more reliable and reproducible assessments of nutritional status, we suggest that bioimpedance measurements of body composition should be made when patients are closer to their target weight than when overhydrated.

  15. Comparing single-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis against deuterium dilution to assess total body water.

    PubMed

    Haas, V; Schütz, T; Engeli, S; Schröder, C; Westerterp, K; Boschmann, M

    2012-09-01

    In this study, we aimed to validate the accuracy of single-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (SF-BIA) at 50 kHz to assess total body water (TBW) against the reference technique deuterium dilution (D(2)O) and to explore if the simple clinical parameters extracellular fluid (ECF) composition and body shape explain individual differences between D(2)O and SF-BIA (Diff(BIA-D(2)O)). We assessed TBW with D(2)O and SF-BIA in 26 women and 26 men without known disease or anomalous body shapes. In addition, we measured body shape with anthropometry and ECF composition (osmolality, albumin, glucose, urea, creatinine, sodium and potassium). On group average, SF-BIA to predict TBW agreed well with D(2)O (SF-BIA, 39.8 ± 10.1 l; D(2)O, 40.4 ± 10.2 l; and Diff(BIA-D(2)O) -0.7 l). In four individuals ('outliers'; 15% of the study population), Diff(BIA-D(2)O) was high (-6.8 to +3.8 l). Diff(BIA-D(2)O) was associated with individual variations in body shape rather than ECF composition. Using gender-specific analysis, we found that individual variability of waist circumference in men and arm length in women significantly contributed to Diff(BIA-D(2)O). When removing the four 'outliers', these associations were lost. In the majority of our sample, BIA agreed well with D(2)O. Adjusting for individual variability in body shape by anthropometrical assessment could possibly improve the accuracy of SF-BIA for individuals who deviate from mean values with respect to body shape. However, further studies with higher subject numbers are needed to confirm our findings.

  16. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): a proposal for standardization of the classical method in adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Correa, C. H.; Caicedo-Eraso, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    The accuracy of BIA measurements is limited by different sources of error such as physical model, cross sectional area, ethnicity, body hydration, age and level of body fat among other variables. Equation for each population is required as they can produce overestimation when manufacturer's equations are used. The classical measurements hand to foot has shown better correlation against hydrodensitometry than foot to foot or hand to hand. However there is a lack for an accepted standard of BIA procedures. This is compounded when there is not a good report of the BIA study's methodology; hence the comparability between the results is poor and reduces the reliability of the method. Perhaps, standardization of methods would be the first step for BIA studies to move forward and subsequently improve its accuracy. Standardized procedures could also minimize the impact of these variables on studies results. The aim of this study was to propose a protocol as a checklist to standardize BIA procedures and produce comparable results from future studies performed with the classic hand-foot configuration in adults.

  17. Feasibility of bioelectrical impedance analysis in persons with severe intellectual and visual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Havinga-Top, A M; Waninge, A; van der Schans, C P; Jager-Wittenaar, H

    2015-12-01

    Body composition measurements provide important information about physical fitness and nutritional status. People with severe intellectual and visual disabilities (SIVD) have an increased risk for altered body composition. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) has been evidenced as a reliable and non-invasive method to asses body composition in healthy persons and various patient populations; however, currently, there is no feasible method available to determine body composition in people with SIVD. In this study, therefore, we aimed to assess the feasibility of BIA measurements in persons with SIVD. In 33 participants with SIVD and Gross Motor Functioning Classification System (GMFCS) Scale I, II, III, or IV, two BIA measurements were sequentially performed employing Resistance and Reactance in Ohm and fat-free mass (FFM) in kg as outcome variables, utilizing the Bodystat(®) QuadScan 4000. Feasibility was considered sufficient if ≥ 80% of the first measurement was performed successfully. Agreement between two repeated measurements was determined by using the paired t-test and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC; two way random, absolute agreement). Bland-Altman analyses were utilized to determine limits of agreement (LOAs) and systematic error. Agreement was considered acceptable if LOAs were <10% of the mean of the first measurement. The first BIA measurements were completed successfully in 88% of the participants. The paired t-test demonstrated no significant differences in Resistance, Reactance, and FFM between BIA Measurements 1 and 2 (P=0.140, 0.091, and 0.866). ICC was 0.965 (95% CI: 0.922-0.984) for Resistance; 0.858 (95% CI: 0.705-0.934) for Reactance; and 0.992 (95% CI: 0.982-0.996) for FFM. LOAs expressed as a percentage of the mean of Measurement 1 were 6.1% for Resistance, 17.6% for Reactance, and 3.8% for FFM. The results of this study suggest that BIA measurements seem to be feasible in persons with SIVD. Although these results require

  18. Hypoalbuminemia is also a marker of fluid excess determined by bioelectrical impedance parameters in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Cigarran, Secundino; Barril, Guillermina; Cirugeda, Antonio; Bernis, Carmen; Aguilera, Abelardo; Sanz, Paloma; Herraez, Isabel; Alegre, Laura; Selgas, Rafael

    2007-04-01

    Hypoalbuminemia may be secondary to volume expansion conditions and an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is an accurate, non-invasive method to measure body composition, especially the water compartments in humans. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to evaluate the relationship between serum albumin concentration (SA) and hydration state measured by whole BIA. The study investigated 108 non-selected patients (73 on hemodialysis, 35 on peritoneal dialysis) with a mean age of 61.4 +/- 15.6 years, 42.7% of whom were female. The patients were allotted to groups according to their SA: Group 1, < or = 3.5 g/dL; Group 2, 3.6-4.0 g/dL; and Group 3, >4.0 g/dL. The BIA parameters used included: total body water, intracellular water (ICW), extracellular water (ECW), phase angle (PA), body cell mass (BCM), ICW/ECW ratio and ICW/ECW ratio patients/controls (fluid index). Seventy-five healthy volunteers formed the control group. A strong positive correlation was found between the PA and fluid index (r (2) = 0.993, P < 0.001), as well as between the PA and SA (r = 0.386, P < 0.001), and the ICW/ECW ratio and SA (r = 0.227, P < 0.001). The ECW was negatively correlated with SA (r = -0.330, P < 0.001). Every 0.1 g/dL decrease in SA was associated with a 0.33 L increase in ECW. Group 1 patients had lower reactance (P = 0.006), PA (P < 0.001), BCM (P = 0.012), fluid index (P < 0.001) and ICW/ECW ratio (P = 0.015), and an increased ECW (NS) than groups 2 and 3. We conclude that hypoalbuminemia is also a marker of fluid excess. The SA is associated to the fluid index and the PA allows assessment of the dry weight and its variations in an individualized manner in dialysis patients.

  19. Phase angle obtained by bioelectrical impedance analysis independently predicts mortality in patients with cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Belarmino, Giliane; Gonzalez, Maria Cristina; Torrinhas, Raquel S; Sala, Priscila; Andraus, Wellington; D’Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto Carneiro; Pereira, Rosa Maria R; Caparbo, Valéria F; Ravacci, Graziela R; Damiani, Lucas; Heymsfield, Steven B; Waitzberg, Dan L

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the prognostic value of the phase angle (PA) obtained from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) for mortality prediction in patients with cirrhosis. METHODS In total, 134 male cirrhotic patients prospectively completed clinical evaluations and nutritional assessment by BIA to obtain PAs during a 36-mo follow-up period. Mortality risk was analyzed by applying the PA cutoff point recently proposed as a malnutrition marker (PA ≤ 4.9°) in Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariate Cox regression models. RESULTS The patients were divided into two groups according to the PA cutoff value (PA > 4.9°, n = 73; PA ≤ 4.9°, n = 61). Weight, height, and body mass index were similar in both groups, but patients with PAs > 4.9° were younger and had higher mid-arm muscle circumference, albumin, and handgrip-strength values and lower severe ascites and encephalopathy incidences, interleukin (IL)-6/IL-10 ratios and C-reactive protein levels than did patients with PAs ≤ 4.9° (P ≤ 0.05). Forty-eight (35.80%) patients died due to cirrhosis, with a median of 18 mo (interquartile range, 3.3-25.6 mo) follow-up until death. Thirty-one (64.60%) of these patients were from the PA ≤ 4.9° group. PA ≤ 4.9° significantly and independently affected the mortality model adjusted for Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score and age (hazard ratio = 2.05, 95%CI: 1.11-3.77, P = 0.021). In addition, Kaplan-Meier curves showed that patients with PAs ≤ 4.9° were significantly more likely to die. CONCLUSION In male patients with cirrhosis, the PA ≤ 4.9° cutoff was associated independently with mortality and identified patients with worse metabolic, nutritional, and disease progression profiles. The PA may be a useful and reliable bedside tool to evaluate prognosis in cirrhosis. PMID:28321276

  20. Body fluid volume and nutritional status in hemodialysis: vector bioelectric impedance analysis.

    PubMed

    Espinosa Cuevas, M A; Navarrete Rodriguez, G; Villeda Martinez, M E; Atilano Carsi, X; Miranda Alatriste, P; Tostado Gutiérrez, T; Correa-Rotter, R

    2010-04-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition and hypervolemia are major causes of morbidity and mortality in patients on chronic hemodialysis (CHD). The methods used to evaluate nutritional status and volume status remain controversial. Vector bioelectric impedance analysis (vector- BIA) has recently been developed to assess both nutritional status and tissue hydration. The purpose of the study was to assess the nutritional status and volume status of patients on CHD with conventional nutritional assessment methods and with vector-BIA and then to compare the resulting findings. 76 Mexican patients on CHD were studied. Nutritional status and body composition were assessed with anthropometry, biochemical variables, and the modified Bilbrey nutritional index (mBNI), the results were compared with both conventional BIA and vector-BIA. The BNI was used to determine the number of patients with normal nutritional status (n = 27, 35.5%), and mild (n = 31, 40.8%), moderate (n = 10, 13.2%) and severe malnutrition (n = 8, 10.5%). Patients displayed shorter vectors with smaller phase angles or with an overhydration vectorial pattern before the initiation of their hemodialysis session. There was general improvement to normal hydration status post-dialysis (p < 0.05); however, 28% remained overhydrated as assessed by vector-BIA. The vector-BIA results showed that worse malnutrition status was associated with greater volume overload (p < 0.05). Diabetes mellitus (DM) was associated with shorter vectors with smaller phase angles (a vectorial pattern of overhydration and cachexia) (p < 0.05). Patients with lower serum creatinine presented with shorter vectors and smaller phase angles (vectorial patterns of malnutrition and/or overhydration) (p < 0.05). In women, lower serum albumin (< 3.4 g/dl) correlated with greater overhydration and malnutrition (p < 0.05). In this population, the vector-BIA showed that 28% of the population remained overhydrated after their hemodialysis session. Diabetics and

  1. Comparison of bioelectrical impedance and DXA for measuring body composition among adults with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Esco, Michael R; Nickerson, Brett S; Russell, Angela R

    2017-03-22

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have been shown to display high levels of adiposity and a unique body shape. Laboratory methods used to evaluate body composition might be too cumbersome for this special population. Therefore, field methods are desired due to their non-invasive nature. to determine the agreement between dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) for measuring body fat percentage BF% and fat-free mass (FFM) among adults with DS. Twenty-one adults (male: n = 10; female: n = 11) with DS participated in this study. BF% and FFM were determined by DXA and BIA. There was a significant mean difference between DXA and BIA for BF% (41.33 ± 8.98% and 34.23 ± 9.22%, respectively) and FFM (41.80 ± 8.74 kg and 46.95 ± 9.92 kg, respectively). The correlation between the two devices for BF% and FFM were significant (r = 0.89 and r = 0.94, respectively, p < 0.001 for both). The standard error of estimate and total error values were 4.38% and 8.27%, respectively, for BF% and 3.04 kg and 6.13 kg, respectively, for FFM. The 95% limits of agreement ranged from -15.64% below to 1.46% above the constant error (CE) of -7.09% for BF% and from -1.52 kg below to 11.83 kg above the CE of 5.15 kg for FFM. The significant mean differences and large amount of individual error suggest that BIA may not be an appropriate surrogate body composition measure compared to DXA in adults with DS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis in critically ill patients: a prospective, clinician-blinded investigation.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sarah L; Tanaka, Aiko; Eastwood, Glenn M; Young, Helen; Peck, Leah; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Mårtensson, Johan

    2015-08-12

    Assessment of fluid status in critically ill patients is challenging. We aimed to assess the feasibility and validity of bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) as a measure of hydration in critically ill patients. We performed twice-daily BIVA measurements and fluid balance calculations and recorded physiological variables in mechanically ventilated patients within 24 h of intensive care unit (ICU) admission for up to 5 days. Treating clinicians were blinded to BIVA results. We performed 344 BIVA measurements in 61 patients. According to BIVA, 14 patients (23%) were dehydrated, 22 (36%) were normally hydrated and 25 (41%) were overhydrated upon ICU admission. Patients with normal BIVA hydration were less sick, had fewer comorbidities and had less deranged physiology than patients found to be dehydrated or overhydrated with BIVA. Cumulative fluid balance increased in patients found to be dehydrated with BIVA by a mean of 3.4±2.2 L, whereas in patients found to be overhydrated with BIVA, it decreased by a mean of 4.5±6.9 L. In patients found to be normally hydrated with BIVA, fluid balance remained unchanged. BIVA-defined hydration increased with 1 L (median change 1.5%, P =0.09) or 2 L (median change 0.7%, P =0.09) of calculated fluid gains. BIVA-defined hydration decreased (median change -0.8%, P =0.02) with a negative cumulative fluid balance of >2 L. BIVA-defined hydration between first and last measurement correlated with the corresponding change in fluid balance (ρ =0.25, P =0.05). BIVA is feasible in critically ill patients. Its validity is supported by the observed characteristics of patients with different degrees of BIVA hydration upon admission and by different fluid management of such patients by blinded clinicians. The sensitivity of repeated BIVA hydration measurements to detect fluid accumulation or fluid balance changes <2 L was low, however. These contradictory findings provide the rational basis for studies of BIVA-assisted fluid

  3. Effects of hydration and dehydration on body composition analysis: a comparative study of bioelectric impedance analysis and hydrodensitometry.

    PubMed

    Thompson, D L; Thompson, W R; Prestridge, T J; Bailey, J G; Bean, M H; Brown, S P; McDaniel, J B

    1991-12-01

    Since 1983, bioelectric impedance has been researched with respect to its validity and reliability in the determination of body composition. It continues to be compared to hydrostatic weighing, the anthropometric "gold standard". This study was designed to investigate the relationship between bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) and hydrodensitometry (HW) under three conditions: control, hydration and dehydration. Caucasian males (aged 18-44 years) served as subjects (n = 10). Body composition was determined by BIA and HW before intervention, 30 minutes post-hydration, and following a combination of exercise and sitting in a steam room to decrease body weight by two to four percent (mean = 2.81%). Statistical treatment by two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures revealed that although there were no significant differences between the two techniques of body composition determination under any of the three conditions, there was a statistically significant decrease in percent body fat determined in the dehydrated state as compared to the control and hydrated conditions. Recommendations include the determination of hydration state prior to engaging in body composition analysis by either method.

  4. Validity and reliability of bioelectrical impedance analysis and skinfold thickness in predicting body fat in military personnel.

    PubMed

    Aandstad, Anders; Holtberget, Kristian; Hageberg, Rune; Holme, Ingar; Anderssen, Sigmund A

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies show that body composition is related to injury risk and physical performance in soldiers. Thus, valid methods for measuring body composition in military personnel are needed. The frequently used body mass index method is not a valid measure of body composition in soldiers, but reliability and validity of alternative field methods are less investigated in military personnel. Thus, we carried out test and retest of skinfold (SKF), single frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (SF-BIA), and multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis measurements in 65 male and female soldiers. Several validated equations were used to predict percent body fat from these methods. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was also measured, and acted as the criterion method. Results showed that SF-BIA was the most reliable method in both genders. In women, SF-BIA was also the most valid method, whereas SKF or a combination of SKF and SF-BIA produced the highest validity in men. Reliability and validity varied substantially among the equations examined. The best methods and equations produced test-retest 95% limits of agreement below ±1% points, whereas the corresponding validity figures were ±3.5% points. Each investigator and practitioner must consider whether such measurement errors are acceptable for its specific use. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  5. Assessment of body composition with bioelectrical impedance analysis in pregnant women with hyperemesis gravidarum before and after treatment.

    PubMed

    Tazegül Pekin, A; Yılmaz, S A; Kerimoğlu, Ö Seçilmiş; Çelik, G; Doğan, N U; Beyhekim, H; Çelik, Ç

    2015-01-01

    More than half of pregnant women suffer from nausea and vomiting, in 0.5-1% of the pregnant women, if nausea and vomiting are severe and persistent, condition can progress to hyperemesis. We evaluated the fluid volume parameters in pregnant women with hyperemesis gravidarum, before and after treatment using the bioelectrical impedance vectors. A total of 70 pregnant women who had weight loss exceeding 5% of pre-pregnancy body weight were recruited for the study in the first trimester. The measurement of multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis parameters was performed on the day of hospitalisation before any treatment and after treatment at 24 h and 72 h with the same procedure. Total body water, extracellular water, intracellular water, and fat-free mass index increased after treatment at 24 h (P < 0.01). Also, the mean pregnancy-unique quantification of emesis and nausea score was significantly lower after treatment (11.3 ± 2.1 at enrolment, 5.1 ± 1.4 at 24 h and 4.3 ± 1.1 at 72 h) (P < 0.01), which correlated with the patients' clinical improvement and changes in hydration. In pregnant women with moderate-to-severe hyperemesis gravidarum, significant body composition changes occur and fluid replacement therapy performed during a short period of time, such as 24 h, provides improvement in body composition.

  6. Determination of body water compartments in neonatal foals by use of indicator dilution techniques and multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    PubMed

    Fielding, C Langdon; Magdesian, K Gary; Edman, Judy E

    2011-10-01

    To determine values for total body water (TBW), extracellular fluid volume (ECFV), intracellular fluid volume (ICFV), and plasma volume (PV) in healthy neonatal (< 24 hours old) foals and to create a multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) model for use in neonatal foals. 7 healthy neonatal foals. Deuterium oxide (0.4 g/kg, IV), sodium bromide (30 mg/kg, IV), and Evans blue dye (1 mg/kg, IV) were administered to each foal. Plasma samples were obtained following an equilibration period, and the TBW, ECFV, ICFV, and PV were calculated for each foal. An MF-BIA model was created by use of morphometric measurements from each foal. Mean ± SD values were obtained for TBW (0.744 ± 0.024 L/kg), ICFV (0.381 ± 0.018 L/kg), ECFV (0.363 ± 0.014 L/kg), and PV (0.096 ± 0.015 L/kg). The 95% limits of agreement between the MF-BIA and indicator dilution techniques were within ± 2 L for TBW and ECFV. Fluid volumes in neonatal foals were found to be substantially larger than fluid volumes in adult horses. Multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis may be a useful technique for predicting TBW, ICFV, and ECFV in neonatal foals.

  7. Validity of segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis for estimating fat-free mass in children including overweight individuals.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Megumi; Midorikawa, Taishi; Hikihara, Yuki; Masuo, Yoshihisa; Sakamoto, Shizuo; Torii, Suguru; Kawakami, Yasuo; Fukunaga, Tetsuo; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the validity of segmental bioelectrical impedance (BI) analysis for predicting the fat-free masses (FFMs) of whole-body and body segments in children including overweight individuals. The FFM and impedance (Z) values of arms, trunk, legs, and whole body were determined using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and segmental BI analyses, respectively, in 149 boys and girls aged 6 to 12 years, who were divided into model-development (n = 74), cross-validation (n = 35), and overweight (n = 40) groups. Simple regression analysis was applied to (length)(2)/Z (BI index) for each of the whole-body and 3 segments to develop the prediction equations of the measured FFM of the related body part. In the model-development group, the BI index of each of the 3 segments and whole body was significantly correlated to the measured FFM (R(2) = 0.867-0.932, standard error of estimation = 0.18-1.44 kg (5.9%-8.7%)). There was no significant difference between the measured and predicted FFM values without systematic error. The application of each equation derived in the model-development group to the cross-validation and overweight groups did not produce significant differences between the measured and predicted FFM values and systematic errors, with an exception that the arm FFM in the overweight group was overestimated. Segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis is useful for predicting the FFM of each of whole-body and body segments in children including overweight individuals, although the application for estimating arm FFM in overweight individuals requires a certain modification.

  8. Effect of Exercise Intensity on Percent Body Fat Determined by Leg-to-Leg and Segmental Bioelectrical Impedance Analyses in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreacci, Joseph L.; Nagle, Trisha; Fitzgerald, Elise; Rawson, Eric S.; Dixon, Curt B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We examined the impact that cycle ergometry exercise had on percent body fat (%BF) estimates when assessed using either leg-to-leg or segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (LBIA; SBIA) and whether the intensity of the exercise bout impacts the %BF magnitude of change. Method: Seventy-four college-aged adults participated in this…

  9. The Effect of an Acute After-School Exercise Bout on Percentage of Body Fat Using Leg-to-Leg Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreacci, Joseph L.; Dixon, Curt B.; Rompolski, Krista; VanGorden, Kelly M.

    2008-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a fast, easy to administer, and relatively inexpensive method of evaluating body composition. Due to the ease of operation, interest in using BIA to estimate percentage of body fat (%BF) has grown, especially in settings where body composition assessments are often performed without the benefit of…

  10. Validity of segmental multiple-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis to estimate body composition of adults across a range of body mass indexes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: Compare estimates of body composition using segmental, multiple frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) with dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in healthy adults across a range of body mass index (BMI). Methods: Percent body fat (%BF), fat-mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) asses...

  11. Effect of Exercise Intensity on Percent Body Fat Determined by Leg-to-Leg and Segmental Bioelectrical Impedance Analyses in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreacci, Joseph L.; Nagle, Trisha; Fitzgerald, Elise; Rawson, Eric S.; Dixon, Curt B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We examined the impact that cycle ergometry exercise had on percent body fat (%BF) estimates when assessed using either leg-to-leg or segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (LBIA; SBIA) and whether the intensity of the exercise bout impacts the %BF magnitude of change. Method: Seventy-four college-aged adults participated in this…

  12. The Effect of an Acute After-School Exercise Bout on Percentage of Body Fat Using Leg-to-Leg Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreacci, Joseph L.; Dixon, Curt B.; Rompolski, Krista; VanGorden, Kelly M.

    2008-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a fast, easy to administer, and relatively inexpensive method of evaluating body composition. Due to the ease of operation, interest in using BIA to estimate percentage of body fat (%BF) has grown, especially in settings where body composition assessments are often performed without the benefit of…

  13. Evaluation of total body water in canine breeds by single-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis method: specific equations are needed for accuracy.

    PubMed

    Yaguiyan-Colliard, Laurence; Daumas, Caroline; Nguyen, Patrick; Grandjean, Dominique; Cardot, Philippe; Priymenko, Nathalie; Roux, Françoise

    2015-08-06

    Equations based on single-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis at 50 kHz for determination of total body water content (TBW) have been previously validated in healthy non-sedated beagle dogs. We investigated whether these equations are predictive of TBW in various canine breeds by comparing the results of these equations with TBW values evaluated directly by deuterium oxide (D2O) dilution. Total body water content of 13 healthy adult pet dogs of various breeds was determined directly using D2O dilution and indirectly using previous equations based on values obtained with a portable bioelectric impedance device. Paired Student's t-tests were used to compare TBW obtained by single-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis and D2O dilution. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant for all analyses. Significant differences were observed between TBW determined by the reference method and the values obtained with both predictive equations. The proposed equations including single-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis parameters validated at 50 kHz in healthy adult beagles need to be modified including morphological parameters such as body size and shape in a first approach. As in humans, morphological-specific equations have to be developed and validated.

  14. Bioelectrical impedance phase angle and subjective global assessment in detecting malnutrition among newly diagnosed head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Małecka-Massalska, Teresa; Mlak, Radoslaw; Smolen, Agata; Morshed, Kamal

    2016-05-01

    Malnutrition, which can be determined by subjective and objective methods, has a high prevalence in head and neck cancer patients. Subjective Global Assessment is a subjective method of nutritional status evaluation. Phase angle, determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis, is proposed as an objective nutritional marker in various disease conditions. The study was conducted to investigate the association between phase angle and Subjective Global Assessment to validate the determination of the nutrition status in adult patients with head and neck cancer. In a prospective cohort study, patients were classified as either well-nourished or malnourished using the Subjective Global Assessment. Phase angle measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis was planned in 75 naive patients with histologically confirmed head and neck cancer. Receiver operating characteristic curves were estimated using the non-parametric method to determine the optimal cut-off level of phase angle. The study was conducted on a cohort population of 75 patients. Well-nourished patients (n = 45) had a statistically significantly higher (p = 0.005) median phase angle score (5.25º) as compared to those who were malnourished (4.73º) (n = 30). A phase angle cut-off of 4.73 was 80 % sensitive and 56.7 % specific in detecting malnutrition diagnosed by SGA in these populations. Phase angle is considered to be a nutritional indicator in patients with head and neck cancer in detecting malnutrition. Further observations are needed to calculate survival, and validate the prognostic significance of phase angle. For future studies, it is important to indicate the specificity of the PA in comparison to SGA measurement.

  15. Measuring body composition in dogs using multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Rae, L S; Vankan, D M; Rand, J S; Flickinger, E A; Ward, L C

    2016-06-01

    Thirty-five healthy, neutered, mixed breed dogs were used to determine the ability of multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MFBIA) to predict accurately fat-free mass (FFM) in dogs using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-measured FFM as reference. A second aim was to compare MFBIA predictions with morphometric predictions. MFBIA-based predictors provided an accurate measure of FFM, within 1.5% when compared to DXA-derived FFM, in normal weight dogs. FFM estimates were most highly correlated with DXA-measured FFM when the prediction equation included resistance quotient, bodyweight, and body condition score. At the population level, the inclusion of impedance as a predictor variable did not add substantially to the predictive power achieved with morphometric variables alone; in individual dogs, impedance predictors were more valuable than morphometric predictors. These results indicate that, following further validation, MFBIA could provide a useful tool in clinical practice to objectively measure FFM in canine patients and help improve compliance with prevention and treatment programs for obesity in dogs.

  16. Segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (SBIA) and blood rheology: Reducing the gap between in vivo and in vitro?

    PubMed

    Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Joré, Céline; Brun, Jean-Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedancemetry (BIA) has been used to evaluate hematocrit and red cell aggregability in vitro but whole body impedance measurements are also correlated to some hemorheologic factors, suggesting a relationship between viscosity factors and electric properties of blood. We repeatedly reported correlations with whole body BIA and hematocrit, whole blood viscosity and plasma viscosity, red cell rigidity and RBC aggregation. The SBIA Inbody 770 modelizes body as 5 cylinders and measures impedance at 1, 5, 50, 250, 500, and 1000 kHz. With the SBIA we found that hematocrit is best correlated to leg reactance at 50 kHz but also to leg impedance at 1 and 5 kHz and trunk reactance. RBC aggregation "M" is best correlated to arm reactance at 5 kHz but also to most measurements of segmental impedance (28 correlations found). RBC aggregation "M1" is best correlated to arm reactance at 5 kHz and to 19 other impedance measurements. A predictive equation for "M" from the mean between the two arm reactances at 5 kHz (maXc5) is found: M = 2.1845maXc5-23.958 (r = 0.665, p < 0.001) that provides a satisfactory Bland-Altman plot (mean difference: 0.000524 range [-1.6;+1.6]. This study suggests that previously reported correlations between BIA and viscosity factors were not spurious, and that in a narrow cylinder such as the arm the structure of circulating blood (hematocrit, red cell aggregation) may influence the passage of an electric current by increasing reactance.

  17. Analysis of affected and non-affected sides of stroke hemiparalysis patients and correlations between rehabilitation therapy assessments using the bioelectrical impedance analysis method

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, ChanUk; Suh, SeongKyo; Kim, YoungGyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the use of bioelectrical impedance analysis as an appropriate rehabilitation therapy evaluation tool for stroke hemiplegic patients. [Subjects and Methods] A group of 20 stroke patients diagnosed with stroke hemiplegia who underwent stroke rehabilitation from October to November 2015 participated in this study. Using bioelectrical impedance analysis, stroke hemiparalysis patients were examined, and the affected and non-affected sides were compared. This correlation between impedance measurement values and rehabilitation therapy as an assessment tool was determined. [Results] According to the whole-body bioimpedance measurements, prediction markers, reactances, and phase angles, there were significant differences between the non-affected and affected sides, and bioimpedance had a positive correlation with hand grip power, manual dexterity of hand function, and ability to perform activities of daily living. [Conclusion] There were significant differences between the impedance values of the affected and non-affected sides of hemiplegic stroke patients. These results suggest that bioelectrical impedance analysis can be used as an assessment during the rehabilitation of stroke patients. PMID:28174440

  18. Analysis of affected and non-affected sides of stroke hemiparalysis patients and correlations between rehabilitation therapy assessments using the bioelectrical impedance analysis method.

    PubMed

    Yoo, ChanUk; Suh, SeongKyo; Kim, YoungGyu

    2016-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the use of bioelectrical impedance analysis as an appropriate rehabilitation therapy evaluation tool for stroke hemiplegic patients. [Subjects and Methods] A group of 20 stroke patients diagnosed with stroke hemiplegia who underwent stroke rehabilitation from October to November 2015 participated in this study. Using bioelectrical impedance analysis, stroke hemiparalysis patients were examined, and the affected and non-affected sides were compared. This correlation between impedance measurement values and rehabilitation therapy as an assessment tool was determined. [Results] According to the whole-body bioimpedance measurements, prediction markers, reactances, and phase angles, there were significant differences between the non-affected and affected sides, and bioimpedance had a positive correlation with hand grip power, manual dexterity of hand function, and ability to perform activities of daily living. [Conclusion] There were significant differences between the impedance values of the affected and non-affected sides of hemiplegic stroke patients. These results suggest that bioelectrical impedance analysis can be used as an assessment during the rehabilitation of stroke patients.

  19. The effect of acute fluid consumption on measures of impedance and percent body fat using leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    PubMed

    Dixon, C B; LoVallo, S J; Andreacci, J L; Goss, F L

    2006-01-01

    To examine the effect of acute fluid consumption on measures of impedance and percent body fat (%BF) using a common leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analyzer system. Cross-sectional design with treatment order determined using a counterbalanced assignment. University laboratory. In total, 21 recreationally active men (mean age 19.7 +/- 1.0 years; body mass index 24.2 +/- 2.3 kg/m2) volunteered to participate in this study. Subjects had their body composition assessed on three separate occasions. After an initial baseline body composition measurement, subjects consumed 591 ml of water (H2O), a carbohydrate/electrolyte drink (CHOE), or received nothing, used as the control (CON). Subjects were reassessed 20, 40, and 60 min after baseline (POST). Urine specific gravity (USG) was recorded at baseline and 60 min POST to assess hydration state. There were no significant changes in impedance or total body water (TBW) for any of the measurement time periods after drinking H2O or a CHOE beverage. Body weight (BW) (P < 0.0001) and %BF (P < 0.02) increased significantly 20 min POST and remained elevated at the 40 and 60 min POST time periods. After drinking, USG significantly decreased (P<0.0001) 60 min POST from baseline. For the CON trial, there were no significant changes in BW, %BF, TBW, or USG over time. Fluid consumption had no effect on lower-body impedance despite causing significant changes in hydration state. A slight overestimation in %BF (approximately 0.5%) was observed due to increased BW in the H20 and CHOE trials. This finding may have little practical significance when assessing body composition by LBIA.

  20. Single-cell bioelectrical impedance platform for monitoring cellular response to drug treatment

    PubMed Central

    Asphahani, Fareid; Wang, Kui; Thein, Myo; Veiseh, Omid; Yung, Sandy; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Miqin

    2011-01-01

    The response of cells to a chemical or biological agent in terms of their impedance changes in real-time is a useful mechanism that can be utilized for a wide variety of biomedical and environmental applications. The use of a single-cell based analytical platform could be an effective approach to acquiring more sensitive cell impedance measurements, particularly in applications where only diminutive changes in impedance are expected. Here, we report the development of an on-chip cell impedance biosensor with two types of electrodes that hosts individual cells and cell populations, respectively, to study its efficacy in detecting cellular response. Human glioblastoma (U87MG) cells were patterned on single- and multi-cell electrodes through ligand-mediated natural cell adhesion. We comparatively investigated how these cancer cells on both types of electrodes respond to an ion channel inhibitor, chlorotoxin (CTX), in terms of their shape alternations and impedance changes to exploit the fine detectability of the single-cell based system. The detecting electrodes hosting single cells exhibited a significant reduction in the real impedance signal, while electrodes hosting confluent monolayer of cells showed little to no impedance change. When single-cell electrodes were treated with CTX of different doses, a dose-dependent impedance change was observed. This enables us to identify the effective dose needed for this particular treatment. Our study demonstrated that this single-cell impedance system may potentially serve as a useful analytical tool for biomedical applications such as environmental toxin detection and drug evaluation. PMID:21301069

  1. On Chip Bioelectric Impedance Spectroscopy Reveals the Effect of P-Glycoprotein Efflux Pumps on the Paracellular Impedance of Tight Junctions at the Blood-Brain Barrier.

    PubMed

    Kraya, Ramsey; Komin, Alexander; Searson, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Bioelectric impedance spectroscopy was used to elucidate the influence of P-gp efflux pumps on the kinetics of tight junction down-regulation in confluent monolayers of Madine Darby Canine Kidney Epithelial Cells (MDCK) following administration of phenylarsine oxide (PAO), a molecule that inhibits protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTP) and induces matrix metalloproteinase activity. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and phosphatase inhibitors induce modification of occludin tight junction proteins critical for the proper function of the blood-brain barrier. The addition of PAO to MDCKII cell lines resulted in a dramatic decrease in monolayer resistance. In contrast, MDCKII-MDR1 cells transfected with the MDR1 gene treated with PAO showed an initial decrease in monolayer resistance followed by a partial recovery and subsequent decrease. This resistance decay reversal was suppressed with the addition of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) pump inhibitor elacridar, and is attributed to PAO efflux. These results illustrate impedance spectroscopy can be used to characterize the competing kinetics of efflux and down-regulation of tight junctions. In addition, the resistance decay reversal effect can be used to evaluate P-gp pump inhibitor efficacy.

  2. On Chip Bioelectric Impedance Spectroscopy Reveals the Effect of P-glycoprotein Efflux Pumps on the Paracellular Impedance of Tight Junctions at the Blood Brain Barrier.

    PubMed

    Kraya, Ramsey; Komin, Alexander; Searson, Peter

    2016-08-30

    Bioelectric impedance spectroscopy was used to elucidate the influence of P-gp efflux pumps on the kinetics of tight junction down-regulation in confluent monolayers of Madine Darby Canine Kidney Epithelial Cells (MDCK) following administration of phenylarsine oxide (PAO), a molecule that inhibits protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTP) and induces matrix metalloproteinase activity. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and phosphatase inhibitors induce modification of occludin tight junction proteins critical for the proper function of the blood-brain barrier. The addition of PAO to MDCKII cell lines resulted in a dramatic decrease in monolayer resistance. In contrast, MDCKII-MDR1 cells transfected with the MDR1 gene treated with PAO showed an initial decrease in monolayer resistance followed by a partial recovery and subsequent decrease. This resistance decay reversal was suppressed with the addition of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) pump inhibitor elacridar, and is attributed to PAO efflux. These results illustrate impedance spectroscopy can be used to characterize the competing kinetics of efflux and down-regulation of tight junctions. In addition, the resistance decay reversal effect can be used to evaluate P-gp pump inhibitor efficacy.

  3. Tracking of anthropometric parameters and bioelectrical impedance in pubertal boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Leppik, Aire; Jürimäe, Toivo; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anthropometric parameters and body impedance once per year during four years of the pubertal period in Estonian children. In total, 81 boys and 86 girls aged 10-11 years at the beginning of the study were investigated. Pubertal status was self-assessed by sexual maturation stages according to Tanner and physical activity index (PAI) according to Telama et al.. Body height and weight were measured and body mass index (BMI) calculated. In total, 9 skinfolds, 13 girths, 8 lengths and 8 breadths/lengths were measured according to the protocol of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry. Somatotype components were estimated according to the method of Carter and Heath. Body impedance was measured using Multiscan 5000 (Bodystat, UK) and the impedance index (height/impedance) was calculated. The tracking of body height, weight, BMI, skinfolds, girths, lengths, breadth/lengths and body impedance was high (as a rule r> or =0.9). By increasing the time period, the correlation slightly decreased. In contrast, tracking correlations for PAI and Tanner stages were significant but quite low. Increase in mean body height was highest between 12-13 years of age (6.9 cm per year) in boys and in girls between 11-12 years of age (6.3 cm per year). In boys and girls, the peak increase in body weight was between 11 and 12 years of age, 5.7 kg and 5.2 kg, respectively. With the increasing age, body impedance decreased and impedance index increased. In conclusion, our results indicate that during puberty the detailed anthropometric parameters and body impedance tracked highly. However, the tracking of PAI and Tanner stages was significant but relatively low.

  4. The novel application of artificial neural network on bioelectrical impedance analysis to assess the body composition in elderly

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aims to improve accuracy of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) prediction equations for estimating fat free mass (FFM) of the elderly by using non-linear Back Propagation Artificial Neural Network (BP-ANN) model and to compare the predictive accuracy with the linear regression model by using energy dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference method. Methods A total of 88 Taiwanese elderly adults were recruited in this study as subjects. Linear regression equations and BP-ANN prediction equation were developed using impedances and other anthropometrics for predicting the reference FFM measured by DXA (FFMDXA) in 36 male and 26 female Taiwanese elderly adults. The FFM estimated by BIA prediction equations using traditional linear regression model (FFMLR) and BP-ANN model (FFMANN) were compared to the FFMDXA. The measuring results of an additional 26 elderly adults were used to validate than accuracy of the predictive models. Results The results showed the significant predictors were impedance, gender, age, height and weight in developed FFMLR linear model (LR) for predicting FFM (coefficient of determination, r2 = 0.940; standard error of estimate (SEE) = 2.729 kg; root mean square error (RMSE) = 2.571kg, P < 0.001). The above predictors were set as the variables of the input layer by using five neurons in the BP-ANN model (r2 = 0.987 with a SD = 1.192 kg and relatively lower RMSE = 1.183 kg), which had greater (improved) accuracy for estimating FFM when compared with linear model. The results showed a better agreement existed between FFMANN and FFMDXA than that between FFMLR and FFMDXA. Conclusion When compared the performance of developed prediction equations for estimating reference FFMDXA, the linear model has lower r2 with a larger SD in predictive results than that of BP-ANN model, which indicated ANN model is more suitable for estimating FFM. PMID:23388042

  5. Body composition in patients with an ileostomy and inflammatory bowel disease: validation of bio-electric impedance spectroscopy (BIS).

    PubMed

    Carlsson, E; Bosaeus, I; Nordgren, S

    2002-07-01

    To validate bio-electric impedance spectroscopy (BIS) by comparison with other methods for determination of body water compartments in stable subjects with an ileostomy and no or minor small bowel resection for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Twenty-one subjects were included, age range 36-65 y (female/male=12/9), Crohn's disease (CD), n=14, ulcerative colitis (UC), n=6 and indeterminate colitis (IDC), n=1. Fluid compartments were assessed by the use of three independent methods: BIS, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and dilution techniques (DIL); tritiated water (total body water, TBW); and bromide (extracellular water, ECW), respectively. Intra-cellular water (ICW) was calculated as TBW-ECW. For comparison TBW was also predicted according to an empirical formula. Differences were analysed using Bland-Altman plots. The mean TBW values obtained from the impedance measurement differed in the order of -2.21 (DIL) to 1.41 (DXA) in women and -2.01 (DIL) to 2.61 (DXA) in men, from the measured and derived values of total body water. Prediction of TBW gave values that were close to BIS, with a mean difference of -0.31 in male subjects and +0.51 in female subjects. Assessment of ECW revealed that the mean difference between dilution and impedance was less in women than in men (P<0.01). The differences between all methods to assess fluid compartments are pronounced. To further investigate the use of the method in clinical practice for dynamic monitoring of rehydration in ileostomates with acute diarrhoea, repeated measurements together with comparison with weight fluid-balance charts are suggested. The study was supported by grants from the Swedish Medical Research Council (17X-03117), Göteborgs Läkarsällskap and IB and A Lundbergs forskningsstiftelse.

  6. Bioelectrical impedance analysis for assessment of fluid status and body composition in neonates--the good, the bad and the unknown.

    PubMed

    Lingwood, B E

    2013-01-01

    There is a critical need for improved technologies to monitor fluid balance and body composition in neonates, particularly those receiving intensive care. Bioelectrical impedance analysis meets many of the criteria required in this environment and appears to be effective for monitoring physiological trends. The literature regarding the use of bioelectrical impedance in neonates was reviewed. It was found that prediction equations for total body water, extracellular water and fat-free mass have been developed, but many require further testing and validation in larger cohorts. Alternative approaches based on Hanai mixture theory or vector analysis are in the early stages of investigation in neonates. Further research is required into electrode positioning, bioimpedance spectroscopy and Cole analysis in order to realise the full potential of this technology.

  7. An evaluation of a bioelectrical impedance analyser for the estimation of body fat content.

    PubMed Central

    Maughan, R J

    1993-01-01

    Measurement of body composition is an important part of any assessment of health or fitness. Hydrostatic weighing is generally accepted as the most reliable method for the measurement of body fat content, but is inconvenient. Electrical impedance analysers have recently been proposed as an alternative to the measurement of skinfold thickness. Both these latter methods are convenient, but give values based on estimates obtained from population studies. This study compared values of body fat content obtained by hydrostatic weighing, skinfold thickness measurement and electrical impedance on 50 (28 women, 22 men) healthy volunteers. Mean(s.e.m.) values obtained by the three methods were: hydrostatic weighing, 20.5(1.2)%; skinfold thickness, 21.8(1.0)%; impedance, 20.8(0.9)%. The results indicate that the correlation between the skinfold method and hydrostatic weighing (0.931) is somewhat higher than that between the impedance method and hydrostatic weighing (0.830). This is, perhaps, not surprising given the fact that the impedance method is based on an estimate of total body water which is then used to calculate body fat content. The skinfold method gives an estimate of body density, and the assumptions involved in the conversion from body density to body fat content are the same for both methods. PMID:8457817

  8. Validity of bioelectrical impedance analysis to estimate body composition changes after bariatric surgery in premenopausal morbidly women.

    PubMed

    Savastano, Silvia; Belfiore, Annamaria; Di Somma, Carolina; Mauriello, Concetta; Rossi, Annalisa; Pizza, Genoveffa; De Rosa, Annalba; Prestieri, Giovanni; Angrisani, Luigi; Colao, Annamaria

    2010-03-01

    In obese patients, subtle variations of the hydration of soft tissues can propagate errors in bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) measures of body composition. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) is a useful method to evaluate tissue hydration. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) is a purely restrictive bariatric surgical procedure resulting in lower fat-free mass (FFM) loss than other malabsorptive or mixed intervention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 6- and 12-month changes in body composition in a homogeneous group of premenopausal morbidly obese women treated by LAGB by comparing the results of conventional BIA and BIVA with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method. Forty-five consecutive morbidly obese patients (mean age, 35.3 +/- 9.1 years; body mass index, 34.5-48.7 kg/m(2)) were prospectively evaluated at the Endocrinology Unit of the Department of Molecular and Clinical Endocrinology and Oncology. The LAGB device (Lap-Band System; Inamed Health, Santa Barbara, CA, USA) was inserted laparoscopically. Soft tissue hydration was evaluated by BIVA; fat mass (FM) and FFM were evaluated by BIA (BIA 101 RJL, Akern Bioresearch, Firenze, Italy) and by DXA (Hologic QDR 4500A S/N 45622; Hologic Inc., Bedford, MA, USA). Pre- and postoperative BIVA vectors indicated a normal hydration in all patients. Postoperatively, the excess of body weight loss was mainly due to a decrease in FM. The regression analysis of BIA and DXA methods at baseline and at the 6- and 12-month follow-up for FM r (2) values were 0.98, 0.94, and 0.99, respectively (p < 0.001); FM% r (2) values were 0.91, 0.89, and 0.98, respectively (p < 0.001); and FFM r (2) values were 0.87, 0.82, 0.99, respectively (p < 0.001). BIA and DXA measurements of body composition exhibit a high relative agreement in the study group of normo-hydrated obese subjects. BIA tends to overestimate FFM, but this effect is reduced along with the weight loss during the follow-up. Under

  9. Assessment of the Body Composition and the Loss of Fat-Free Mass through Bioelectric Impedance Analysis in Patients Who Underwent Open Gastric Bypass

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas Junior, Wilson Rodrigues; Ilias, Elias Jirjoss; Kassab, Paulo; Cordts, Roberto; Porto, Paulo Gustavo; Martins Rodrigues, Francisco Cesar; Ali Taha, Mohamed Ibrahim; Carrara, Paulo; de Carvalho Aguiar, Isabella; de Oliveira, Luis Vicente Franco; Malheiros, Carlos Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Background. Bariatric surgery is considered an effective option for the management of morbid obesity. The incidence of obesity has been gradually increasing all over the world reaching epidemic proportions in some regions of the world. Obesity can cause a reduction of up to 22% in the life expectancy of morbidly obese patients. Objective. The objective of this paper is to assess the weight loss associated with the first 6 months after bariatric surgery using bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) for the evaluation of fat mass and fat-free mass. Method. A total of 36 morbidly obese patients were subjected to open gastric bypass surgery. The patients weight was monitored before and after the procedure using the bioelectric impedance analysis. Results. Bariatric surgery resulted in an average percentage of weight loss of 28.6% (40 kg) as determined 6 months after the procedure was performed. Analysis of the different components of body weight indicated an undesirable loss of fat-free mass along with the reduction of total body weight. Conclusion. Open gastric bypass induced a significant loss of total weight and loss of fat-free mass in patients six months after the surgery. The use of bioelectric impedance analysis resulted in an appropriate estimation of the total weight components in individuals subjected to bariatric surgery allowing a more real analysis of the variation of weight after the surgery. PMID:24523649

  10. Assessment of gender differences in body composition and physical fitness scoring in Saudi adults by bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    PubMed

    Al Dokhi, Laila; Habib, Syed Shahid

    2013-06-01

    Obesity is a global problem that is reaching epidemic proportions. Body composition is an important parameter for humans because previous studies indicate high values of body fat as a predictor of mortality. The aim of the study was to assess gender differences in body composition and physical fitness in Saudi adult population. This epidemiological cross-sectional study included 411 healthy adult Saudi subjects aged 18-72 years (mean +/- SD, 36.91 +/- 15.22). All participants underwent body composition analysis. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis, with a commercially available body analyzer (InBody 3.0, Biospace, Seoul, Korea). Measurements included body weight, body mass index (BMI), percent body fat, target weight, fat control, muscle control and fitness scoring based on target values. The mean BMI of the whole study population was 27.22 +/- 5.65 (median = 26.80, range = 15.6-55.4). The mean fitness score was 69.3 +/- 8.48 (median = 71.0, range = 29-99). Significant gender differences were observed in BMI, fitness score, percent body fat, and other parameters of body composition. In conclusion, the prevalence of obesity, percent body fat (%BF) and poor fitness is high in Saudi population with significant gender differences. In this regard, public awareness programs including exercise and diet teaching are required at large scale to cope up with the growing burden of obesity.

  11. Bioelectric impedance analysis of body composition of children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia in Enugu, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Eke, Christopher Bismarck; Chukwu, Bartholomew Friday; Ikefuna, Anthony Nnaemeka; Ezenwosu, Osita Uchenna; Emodi, Ifeoma Josephine

    2015-05-01

    Body composition indices are widely used to evaluate growth and nutrition in children, particularly those with sickle cell anemia (SCA), who are known to have impaired growth, impaired skeletal maturation, and delayed puberty. The current study is aimed at determining the body composition of children with SCA. Consecutive selection of SCA children aged 6 to 18 years, who served as subjects and their age and gender matched children with HbAA (controls), selected using multi-stage systematic sampling. It was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted at the pediatric hematology and oncology clinic. Bioelectric impedance analysis was used to determine the body composition parameters, including weight, body fat percentage (BFP), visceral fat percentage, body mass index (BMI), skeletal muscle percentage, and resting metabolic rate. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 at P < 0.05. One hundred and thirty-two subjects and controls respectively were studied. Subjects had lower body composition parameters compared with controls, with the older male subjects aged 10 to 18 years, having lower body composition indices (weight, height, BMI, and BFP) compared with controls. Visceral fat percentage was low in both subjects and controls. Children with SCA, particularly the older males, have impaired body composition indices. There is a need to conduct further studies to determine the longitudinal aspects of growth as well as quantitative and qualitative assessment of nutritional intake in children with SCA, which will inform higher alimentation requirements for HbSS children as compared with HbAA individuals.

  12. Prevalence of sarcopenia estimated using a bioelectrical impedance analysis prediction equation in community-dwelling elderly people in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chien, Meng-Yueh; Huang, Ta-Yi; Wu, Ying-Tai

    2008-09-01

    To compare a bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) prediction equation for estimating skeletal muscle mass (SM) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-measured SM and to investigate the prevalence of sarcopenia in community-dwelling elderly people in Taiwan. Cross-sectional survey. Communities in the district of Zhongzheng, Taipei. Forty-one volunteers (aged 22-90) for BIA equation validation; 302 individuals aged 65 and older and 200 adults aged 18 to 40 for the investigation of the prevalence of sarcopenia. Skeletal muscle mass was estimated using a BIA prediction equation and measured using MRI. No statistical difference between MRI-measured and BIA-derived SM was observed (difference of -0.44 +/- 1.55 kg, P=.08). The prevalence of sarcopenia in was 18.6% in elderly women and 23.6% in elderly men. Estimation of SM using a BIA equation was validated in Taiwanese volunteers. It was confirmed that sarcopenia is an emerging health problem in the aging population in Taiwan.

  13. Role of bioelectrical impedance analysis in follow-up of hospitalized elderly patients with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Sergi, Giuseppe; Veronese, Nicola; Bolzetta, Francesco; De Rui, Marina; Toffanello, Elena Debora; Berton, Linda; Carraro, Sara; Cardin, Fabrizio; Manzato, Enzo; Coin, Alessandra

    2012-06-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is characterized by high levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), expanded total body water (TBW) and extracellular water (ECW). Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) has demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy in CHF but no information is available for older patients. We hypothesized that, in the follow-up of patients with CHF, body fluid changes estimated by BIA are related to BNP variations rather than with body weight. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between variations in body fluid compartments, body weight and BNP in hospitalized elderly patients with decompensated CHF. 49 elderly patients admitted to the Geriatric Department for decompensated CHF were included in the study. On admission and at discharge, all patients underwent clinical and functional assessment and BNP dosage. TBW and ECW were also determined by the BIA method. At discharge, all patients showed reductions in TBW (ΔTBW -2.9 ± 3.0 liters), ECW (ΔECW 1.9 ± 2.1 liters) and BNP levels (ΔBNP -219.6 ± 458.1 pg/mL). Variations in TBW and ECW were correlated with BNP changes (r=0.65 and 0.62, respectively) rather than with body weight variations and BNP changes (r=0.51). The stronger relationship between fluid variations determined by BIA and BNP changes may make BIA a useful method in the follow-up of decompensated CHF elderly patients.

  14. Prediction of fat-free body mass from bioelectrical impedance and anthropometry among 3-year-old children using DXA.

    PubMed

    Ejlerskov, Katrine T; Jensen, Signe M; Christensen, Line B; Ritz, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F; Mølgaard, Christian

    2014-01-27

    For 3-year-old children suitable methods to estimate body composition are sparse. We aimed to develop predictive equations for estimating fat-free mass (FFM) from bioelectrical impedance (BIA) and anthropometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference method using data from 99 healthy 3-year-old Danish children. Predictive equations were derived from two multiple linear regression models, a comprehensive model (height(2)/resistance (RI), six anthropometric measurements) and a simple model (RI, height, weight). Their uncertainty was quantified by means of 10-fold cross-validation approach. Prediction error of FFM was 3.0% for both equations (root mean square error: 360 and 356 g, respectively). The derived equations produced BIA-based prediction of FFM and FM near DXA scan results. We suggest that the predictive equations can be applied in similar population samples aged 2-4 years. The derived equations may prove useful for studies linking body composition to early risk factors and early onset of obesity.

  15. Discrepancies between leg-to-leg bioelectrical Impedance analysis and computerized tomography in abdominal visceral fat measurement.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hsueh-Kuan; Chen, Yu-Yawn; Yeh, Chinagwen; Chuang, Chih-Lin; Chiang, Li-Ming; Lai, Chung-Liang; Casebolt, Kevin M; Huang, Ai-Chun; Lin, Wen-Long; Hsieh, Kuen-Chang

    2017-08-22

    The aim of this study was to evaluate leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analysis (LBIA) using a four-contact electrode system for measuring abdominal visceral fat area (VFA). The present study recruited 381 (240 male and 141 female) Chinese participants to compare VFA measurements estimated by a standing LBIA system (VFALBIA) with computerized tomography (CT) scanned at the L4-L5 vertebrae (VFACT). The total mean body mass index (BMI) was 24.7 ± 4.2 kg/m(2). Correlation analysis, regression analysis, Bland-Altman plot, and paired sample t-tests were used to analyze the accuracy of the VFALBIA. For the total subjects, the regression line was VFALBIA = 0.698 VFACT + 29.521, (correlation coefficient (r) = 0.789, standard estimate of error (SEE) = 24.470 cm(2), p < 0.001), Lin's correlation coefficient (CCC) was 0.785; and the limit of agreement (LOA; mean difference ±2 standard deviation) ranged from -43.950 to 67.951 cm(2), LOA% (given as a percentage of mean value measured by the CT) was 48.2%. VFALBIA and VFACT showed significant difference (p < 0.001). Collectively, the current study indicates that LBIA has limited potential to accurately estimate visceral fat in a clinical setting.

  16. Estimation of prevalence of sarcopenia by using a new bioelectrical impedance analysis in Chinese community-dwelling elderly people.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Hai, Shan; Cao, Li; Zhou, Jianghua; Liu, Ping; Dong, Bi-Rong

    2016-12-28

    The aim of the present study was to validate the usefulness of the new octapolar multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) for assessment of appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) by comparing it with that of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and to investigate the prevalence of sarcopenia in Chinese community-dwelling elderly according to Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) definition. A cross-sectional study was conducted in communities of Chengdu, China. A total of 944 community-dwelling elderly adults aged ≥60 years were included. ASM was measured by using DXA as a criterion method to validate a standing eight-electrode multifrequency BIA (InBody 720), followed by a further estimation of the prevalence of sarcopenia according the AWGS definition. In the Bland-Altman analysis, no significant difference was found between DXA and BIA based on the ASM measurements. The prevalence of AWGS-defined sarcopenia was 12.5% in the elderly women and 8.2% in the elderly men. BIA is suitable for body composition monitoring (ASM) in elderly Chinese as a fast, noninvasive, and convenient method; therefore, it may be a better choice in large epidemiological studies in the Chinese population. The prevalence of AWGS-defined sarcopenia was approximately 10.4% and increased with age in the Chinese community-dwelling elderly in this study.

  17. The accuracy of hand-to-hand bioelectrical impedance analysis in predicting body composition in college-age female athletes.

    PubMed

    Esco, Michael R; Olson, Michele S; Williford, Henry N; Lizana, Suheil N; Russell, Angela R

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the accuracy of hand-to-hand bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) for estimating body composition in college-age female athletes using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) as the criterion measure. Forty National Association for Intercollegiate Athletics college female athletes volunteered to participate in this study. For each participant, total body fat percentage (BF%) and fat-free mass (FFM) were obtained via BIA and DEXA. The mean BF% and FFM values obtained by BIA were compared with the criterion DEXA measure. The DEXA strongly correlated to the BIA for BF% (r = 0.74, R2 = 0.55, SEE = 3.60, and p < 0.01) and FFM (r = 0.84, R2 = 0.71, SEE = 2.45, p < 0.01). However, when compared with the DEXA, the mean values for BIA were significantly lower for BF% (DEXA = 27.6 ± 5.3%, BIA = 22.5 ± 3.5%, p < 0.01) and higher for FFM (DEXA = 47.2 ± 4.5 kg, BIA = 50.6 ± 4.6 kg, p < 0.01). The results of this investigation indicate that hand-to-hand BIA significantly underestimates BF% and overestimated FFM in college-age female athletes when compared with the criterion DEXA. Practitioners should use caution when analyzing body composition with hand-held BIA in a population of athletic women.

  18. Phase Angle of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis as Prognostic Factor in Palliative Care Patients at the National Cancer Institute in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pérez Camargo, Dana A; Allende Pérez, Silvia R; Rivera Franco, Mónica M; Álvarez Licona, Nelson E; Urbalejo Ceniceros, Víctor I; Figueroa Baldenegro, Lilian E

    2017-01-01

    Patients with advanced cancer often experience symptoms of disease and treatment that contribute to distress such as weight loss, which is present in up to 85% of cancer patients. Palliative care in these patients focuses on care aimed at improving quality of life. Phase angle (PA) is obtained by bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) and is associated with cellular function. It is considered a reliable marker of malnutrition. A low PA may suggest deterioration of the cell membrane, which in palliative patients may result in a short-term survival. The aim of this study was to associate PA and survival in palliative patients of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico. We included 452 patients (women, 56.4%); the average PA was 4.0°. The most frequent disease was gastric cancer (39.2%). Mean body mass index (BMI) was 22.84. The average survival of patients with PA ≤ 4° was 86 days, while in the group with PA > 4°, it was 163 days (P > 0.0001). PA showed significant positive correlation with survival time and BMI. Our results corroborate the reliability of PA in Mexican population, as an indicator of survival in palliative care patients compared to the reported literature in other countries.

  19. The performance of integrated transconductance amplifiers as variable current sources for bio-electric impedance measurements.

    PubMed

    Smith, D N

    1992-01-01

    Multiple applied current impedance measurement systems require numbers of current sources which operate simultaneously at the same frequency and within the same phase but at variable amplitudes. Investigations into the performance of some integrated operational transconductance amplifiers as variable current sources are described. Measurements of breakthrough, non-linearity and common-mode output levels for LM13600, NE5517 and CA3280 were carried out. The effects of such errors on the overall performance and stability of multiple current systems when driving floating loads are considered.

  20. A database of virtual healthy subjects to assess the accuracy of foot-to-foot pulse wave velocities for estimation of aortic stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Chowienczyk, Phil; Alastruey, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    While central (carotid-femoral) foot-to-foot pulse wave velocity (PWV) is considered to be the gold standard for the estimation of aortic arterial stiffness, peripheral foot-to-foot PWV (brachial-ankle, femoral-ankle, and carotid-radial) are being studied as substitutes of this central measurement. We present a novel methodology to assess theoretically these computed indexes and the hemodynamics mechanisms relating them. We created a database of 3,325 virtual healthy adult subjects using a validated one-dimensional model of the arterial hemodynamics, with cardiac and arterial parameters varied within physiological healthy ranges. For each virtual subject, foot-to-foot PWV was computed from numerical pressure waveforms at the same locations where clinical measurements are commonly taken. Our numerical results confirm clinical observations: 1) carotid-femoral PWV is a good indicator of aortic stiffness and correlates well with aortic PWV; 2) brachial-ankle PWV overestimates aortic PWV and is related to the stiffness and geometry of both elastic and muscular arteries; and 3) muscular PWV (carotid-radial, femoral-ankle) does not capture the stiffening of the aorta and should therefore not be used as a surrogate for aortic stiffness. In addition, our analysis highlights that the foot-to-foot PWV algorithm is sensitive to the presence of reflected waves in late diastole, which introduce errors in the PWV estimates. In this study, we have created a database of virtual healthy subjects, which can be used to assess theoretically the efficiency of physiological indexes based on pulse wave analysis. PMID:26055792

  1. The Association between Phase Angle of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis and Survival Time in Advanced Cancer Patients: Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, So Yeon; Lee, Yong Joo; Yang, Jung-Hwa; Kim, Chul-Min; Choi, Whan-Seok

    2014-09-01

    A frequent manifestation of advanced cancer patients is malnutrition, which is correlated with poor prognosis and high mortality. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is an easy-to-use and non-invasive technique to evaluate changes in body composition and nutritional status. We investigated BIA-derived phase angle as a prognostic indicator for survival in advanced cancer patients. Twenty-eight patients treated at the hospice center of Seoul St. Mary's Hospital underwent BIA measurements from January, 2013 to May, 2013. We also evaluated palliative prognostic index (PPI) and palliative performance scale to compare with the prognostic value of phase angle. Cox's proportional hazard models were constructed to evaluate the prognostic effect of phase angle. The Kaplan Meier method was used to calculate survival. Using univariate Cox analysis, phase angle (hazard ratio [HR], 0.61/per degree increase; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42 to 0.89; P = 0.010), PPI (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.47; P = 0.048) were found to be significantly associated with survival. Adjusting age, PPI, body mass index, phase angle significantly showed association with survival in multivariate analysis (HR, 0.64/per degree increase; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.95; P = 0.028). Survival time of patients with phase angle ≥ 4.4° was longer than patients with phase angle < 4.4° (log rank, 6.208; P-value = 0.013). Our data suggest BIA-derived phase angle may serve as an independent prognostic indicator in advanced cancer patients.

  2. Comparison of body composition with bioelectric impedance (BIA) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) among Singapore Chinese.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nidhi; Balasekaran, Govindasamy; Victor Govindaswamy, Visvasuresh; Hwa, Chia Yong; Shun, Lim Meng

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the agreement of bioelectric impedance (BIA) with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) among Singapore Chinese adults. Hundred subjects [63 healthy males (age: 25.2±0.5 yrs; weight: 69.7±1.9 kg; BMI: 22.8±0.4 kg m⁻²) and 37 females (age: 22.9±0.3 yrs; weight: 51.8±0.8 kg; BMI: 20.2±0.4 kg m⁻²)] were selected and body fat percentage (%BF) was measured by DEXA and BIA. Paired t test and coefficient of correlation statistics were utilized to compare the relationship between %BF(BIA) and %BF(DEXA). Bland and Altman plot was employed to investigate the agreement of %BF(BIA) with %BF(DEXA). The limits of agreement between different methods were defined as mean (M; bias)±1.96SD of the difference between the methods (95% confidence interval; CI). %BF(BIA), when compared to %BF(DEXA), revealed non-significant underestimation of %BF in females (24.1%<24.4%, p>0.05) and significant overestimation in males (15.5%<17.7%, p<0.01). There was good absolute agreement between %BF(BIA) and %BF(DEXA) among the whole cohort (1.3±6.9%) as well as among both genders (male: 2.2±6.7%, female: -0.3±6.1%) due to small mean differences between both methods. However, wider limits of agreement were revealed for %BF(BIA) among whole cohort and as well as on gender basis. The results indicate a good agreement between BIA and DEXA in measuring %BF among Singapore Chinese adults, but may not be a suitable method of measuring %BF for clinical purposes among this population due to wider limits of agreement.

  3. The investigation of the some body parameters of obese and (obese+diabetes) patients with using bioelectrical impedance analysis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yerlikaya, Emrah; Karageçili, Hasan; Aydin, Ruken Zeynep

    2016-04-01

    Obesity is a key risk for the development of hyperglycemia, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance and is totally referred to as the metabolic disorders. Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder, is related with hyperglycemia, altered metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins. The minimum defining characteristic feature to identify diabetes mellitus is chronic and substantiated elevation of circulating glucose concentration. In this study, it is aimed to determine the body composition analyze of obese and (obese+diabetes) patients.We studied the datas taken from three independent groups with the body composition analyzer instrument. The body composition analyzer calculates body parameters, such as body fat ratio, body fat mass, fat free mass, estimated muscle mass, and base metabolic rate on the basis of data obtained by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry using Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis. All patients and healthy subjects applied to Siirt University Medico and their datas were taken. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 21 was used for descriptive data analysis. When we compared and analyzed three groups datas, we found statistically significant difference between obese, (obese+diabetes) and control groups values. Anova test and tukey test are used to analyze the difference between groups and to do multiple comparisons. T test is also used to analyze the difference between genders. We observed the statistically significant difference in age and mineral amount p<0.00 between (diabetes+obese) and obese groups. Besides, when these patient groups and control group were analyzed, there were significant difference between most parameters. In terms of education level among the illiterate and university graduates; fat mass kg, fat percentage, internal lubrication, body mass index, water percentage, protein mass percentage, mineral percentage p<0.05, significant statistically difference were observed. This difference especially may result

  4. Estimation of thigh muscle cross-sectional area by single- and multifrequency segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yosuke; Ikenaga, Masahiro; Takeda, Noriko; Morimura, Kazuhiro; Miyoshi, Nobuyuki; Kiyonaga, Akira; Kimura, Misaka; Higaki, Yasuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2014-01-15

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) has been used to estimate skeletal muscle mass, but its application in the elderly is not optimal. The accuracy of BIA may be influenced by the expansion of extracellular water (ECW) relative to muscle mass with aging. Multifrequency BIA (MFBIA) can evaluate the distribution between ECW and intracellular water (ICW), and thus may be superior to single-frequency BIA (SFBIA) to estimate muscle mass in the elderly. A total of 58 elderly participants aged 65-85 years were recruited. Muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) was obtained from computed tomography scans at the mid-thigh. Segmental SFBIA and MFBIA were measured for the upper legs. An index of the ratio of ECW and ICW was calculated using MFBIA. The correlation between muscle CSA and SFBIA was moderate (r = 0.68), but strong between muscle CSA and MFBIA (r = 0.85). ECW/ICW index was significantly and positively correlated with age (P < 0.001). SFBIA tends to significantly overestimate muscle CSA in subjects who had relative expansion of ECW in the thigh segment (P < 0.001). This trend was not observed for MFBIA (P = 0.42). Relative expansion of ECW was observed in older participants. The relative expansion of ECW affects the validity of traditional SFBIA, which is lowered when estimating muscle CSA in the elderly. By contrast, MFBIA was not affected by water distribution in thigh segments, thus rendering the validity of MFBIA for estimating thigh muscle CSA higher than SFBIA in the elderly.

  5. A comparison of the malnutrition screening tools, MUST, MNA and bioelectrical impedance assessment in frail older hospital patients.

    PubMed

    Slee, Adrian; Birch, Deborah; Stokoe, David

    2015-04-01

    This cohort study aimed to investigate and compare the ability to predict malnutrition in a group of frail older hospital patients in the United Kingdom using the nutritional risk screening tools, MUST (malnutrition universal screening tool), MNA-SF(®) (mini nutritional assessment-short form) and bioelectrical impedance assessment (BIA) of body composition. MUST and MNA-SF was performed on 78 patients (49 males and 29 females, age: 82 y ± 7.9, body mass index (BMI): 25.5 kg/m(2) ± 5.4), categorised by nutritional risk, and statistical comparison and test reliability performed. BIA was performed in 66 patients and fat free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM) and body cell mass (BCM) and index values (kg/m(2)) calculated and compared against reference values. MUST scored 77% patients 'low risk', 9% 'medium risk' and 14% 'high risk', compared to MNA-SF categorisation: 9%, 46% and 45%, respectively (P < 0.000001). Reliability assessment found poor reliability between the screening tools (coefficient, r = 0.4). Significant positive correlations were found between most variables (P < 0.05-<0.001); although females exhibited greater variation. FFM index analysis found 40% of males low/depleted, 21% borderline/at risk with 96% categorised by MNA-SF as either malnourished or at risk (MUST-35%). 29% males had low FM index and all appropriately classified by MNA-SF. 30% females had low FFM index or borderline, MNA-SF screening appropriately categorised 86% (compared to MUST-29%). This preliminary data may have significant clinical implications and highlights the potential ability of the MNA-SF and BIA to accurately assess malnutrition risk over MUST in frail older hospital patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  6. Perioperative monitoring of total body water by bio-electrical impedance in children undergoing open heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Maehara, T; Novak, I; Wyse, R K; Elliot, M J

    1991-01-01

    Knowledge of the changes in total body water (TBW) following cardiac surgery (OHS) in children would be of value in fluid therapy and in researching the causes and management of capillary leak. We have validated a bioelectrical impedance technique (BEI) for non-invasive estimation of TBW in children after OHS. We report the use of this method in a longitudinal study. Twenty patients (mean age 4.7 years +/- 3.5 (SD), mean weight (WT) 16.2 kg +/- 1 kg) undergoing a variety of complex OHS procedures were studied from 1 day preoperatively to 4 days postoperatively. Anaesthetic and basic bypass (CPB) techniques were uniform. Six patients underwent CPB at less than 20 degrees C, 10 at 20 degrees - 25 degrees C and 4 at 26 degrees - 33 degrees C. TBW (BEI), core (ctemp) and peripheral (ptemp) temperatures and fluid balance (TFB) were recorded at frequent intervals. TBW (by BEI) rose (P less than 0.001) following CPB in all patients from 62% +/- 9% (SD) body weight preoperatively to 73% +/- 13% in the ICU (an increase of 11% +/- 5%). TBW remained significantly elevated until the 3rd postoperative day. Multivariate analysis (MVA) confirmed that TBW was significantly related to TFB, but not to ctemp or ptemp. MVA also revealed smaller patient size (height and weight), younger age and longer CPB time as incremental risk factors for the rise in TBW. (1) BEI permits the non-invasive study of TBW in children after OHS, when TBW variation may be considerable. (2) The smaller the child and the longer the CPB, the greater the rise in TBW. (3) The technique should be a valuable tool in researching the major water fluxes associated with CPB in children.

  7. Evaluation of Hand-to-Hand Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis for Estimating Percent Body Fat in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Aaron M; Hill, Ashley C; Andreacci, Joseph L; Dixon, Curt B

    Purposes were to (a) to examine the validity and precision of a hand-to-hand bioelectrical impedance analyzer (HBIA) and (b) to determine the effect of an acute sub-maximal aerobic exercise bout on HBIA percent body fat (%BF) measures. Forty-one young adults (21 women; 20 men) visited the laboratory for body composition assessment on two separate occasions. During the control session, %BF was assessed by HBIA twice, before and immediately after 30 min of rest, and once by air-displacement plethysmography (ADP), using the BOD POD, which was considered the criterion method for comparison. During the exercise session, HBIA %BF measurements were determined prior-to and immediately after 30 minutes of moderate-intensity treadmill exercise. HBIA significantly underestimated %BF in the total sample (mean difference (MD) = 1.4 ± 4.3%) and, when examined by gender, in the women (MD = 2.4 ± 4.1%). The standard errors of estimate (range 4.1-4.3%) also exceeded the recommended range for accuracy (<3.5%). Following exercise, there was minimal, but statistically significant reduction in HBIA-measured %BF pre- to post-exercise for the total sample (19.6 ± 6.0 vs. 19.3 ± 6.0%; p = 0.011). HBIA underestimated %BF when compared to ADP and the individual prediction error exceeded current recommendations when assessing young adults. In addition, performing sub-maximal aerobic exercise prior to the assessment decreased the %BF estimate. When one factors the exercise-induced alterations with the currently observed tendency for HBIA to underestimate %BF, it is apparent that exercise may further reduce the accuracy of this method.

  8. External cross-validation of bioelectrical impedance analysis for the assessment of body composition in Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeoijin; Kim, Chul-Hyun; Kim, Dong-Won; Park, Mira; Park, Hye Soon; Min, Sun-Seek; Han, Seung-Ho; Yee, Jae-Yong; Chung, Sochung

    2011-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) models must be validated against a reference method in a representative population sample before they can be accepted as accurate and applicable. The purpose of this study was to compare the eight-electrode BIA method with DEXA as a reference method in the assessment of body composition in Korean adults and to investigate the predictive accuracy and applicability of the eight-electrode BIA model. A total of 174 apparently healthy adults participated. The study was designed as a cross-sectional study. FM, %fat, and FFM were estimated by an eight-electrode BIA model and were measured by DEXA. Correlations between BIA_%fat and DEXA_%fat were 0.956 for men and 0.960 for women with a total error of 2.1%fat in men and 2.3%fat in women. The mean difference between BIA_%fat and DEXA_%fat was small but significant (P < 0.05), which resulted in an overestimation of 1.2 ± 2.2%fat (95% CI: -3.2-6.2%fat) in men and an underestimation of -2.0 ± 2.4%fat (95% CI: -2.3-7.1%fat) in women. In the Bland-Altman analysis, the %fat of 86.3% of men was accurately estimated and the %fat of 66.0% of women was accurately estimated to within 3.5%fat. The BIA had good agreement for prediction of %fat in Korean adults. However, the eight-electrode BIA had small, but systemic, errors of %fat in the predictive accuracy for individual estimation. The total errors led to an overestimation of %fat in lean men and an underestimation of %fat in obese women. PMID:21779529

  9. Bias and limits of agreement between hydrodensitometry, bioelectrical impedance and skinfold calipers measures of percentage body fat.

    PubMed

    Williams, C A; Bale, P

    1998-02-01

    Previous research has often used correlations as a statistical method to show agreement; however, this is not a valid use of the statistic. The purpose of this study was to investigate the bias and limits of agreement for three methods of estimating percentage body fat for 117 male and 114 female university athletes: hydrodensitometry (HYD), bioelectrical impedance (BIA) and skinfold calipers (SKF). The mean (SD) percentage body fat for males as assessed by HYD, BIA and SKF methods, respectively, were 13.2 (3.3)%, 14.1, (3.3)% and 13.0 (3.2)%. Female body fat measurements were 22.5 (3.9)%, 23.7 (4.3)% and 23.8 (4.2)%, respectively. Pearson product moment correlations for male and female body fat percentages between the three methods were high, ranging from 0.81 to 0.86 (P < 0.05). However, compared to the criterion measure of body fat percentage (HYD), the magnitude of agreement BIA and SKF revealed a different pattern. The mean absolute difference between HYD and BIA measurements of body fat for males was -0.8 (2.0)% fat, and between HYD and SKF was it was 0.2 (1.7)% fat. The mean absolute difference for females between HYD and BIA was -1.2 (2.5)%; for HYD and SKF it was -1.4 (2.2)%. Compared to the HYD measures for males and females, the BIA and SKF measures were as much as a 3.8% underestimation and a 6.2% overestimation of body fat. This study provides evidence that the strength of a correlation does not indicate agreement between two methods. In future, reliability and validity studies should examine the absolute differences between two variables and calculate limits of agreement around which a practitioner can appreciate the precision of the methodologies.

  10. Comparison of Standing Posture Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis with DXA for Body Composition in a Large, Healthy Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kuen-Tsann; Chen, Yu-Yawn; Wang, Chia-Wei; Chuang, Chih-Lin; Chiang, Li-Ming; Lai, Chung-Liang; Lu, Hsueh-Kuan; Dwyer, Gregory B.; Chao, Shu-Ping; Shih, Ming-Kuei; Hsieh, Kuen-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a common method for assessing body composition in research and clinical trials. BIA is convenient but when compared with other reference methods, the results have been inconclusive. The level of obesity degree in subjects is considered to be an important factor affecting the accuracy of the measurements. A total of 711 participants were recruited in Taiwan and were sub-grouped by gender and levels of adiposity. Regression analysis and Bland-Altman analysis were used to evaluate the agreement of the measured body fat percentage (BF%) between BIA and DXA. The BF% measured by the DXA and BIA methods (Tanita BC-418) were expressed as BF%DXA and BF%BIA8, respectively. A one-way ANOVA was used to test the differences in BF% measurements by gender and levels of adiposity. The estimated BF%BIA8 and BF%DXA in the all subjects, male and female groups were all highly correlated (r = 0.934, 0.901, 0.916, all P< 0.001). The average estimated BF%BIA8 (22.54 ± 9.48%) was significantly lower than the average BF%DXA (26.26 ± 11.18%). The BF%BIA8 was overestimated in the male subgroup (BF%DXA< 15%), compared to BF%DXA by 0.45%, respectively. In the other subgroups, the BF%BIA8 values were all underestimated. Standing BIA estimating body fat percentage in Chinese participants have a high correlation, but underestimated on normal and high obesity degree in both male and female subjects. PMID:27467065

  11. The Association between Muscle Mass Deficits Estimated from Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis and Lumbar Spine Bone Mineral Density in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hye-Yeon; Lee, Kye-Bong; Cho, Sul-Bit; Im, In Jae; Kim, Hee Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background Bone mineral density (BMD) is influenced by many factors. Despite the reported association between body components and BMD, most of these studies investigated the relationship between absolute muscle mass or fat mass and BMD in postmenopausal women or elderly subjects. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between muscle mass deficits (MMD) estimated from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and lumbar spinal BMD in Korean adults 20 to 49 years of age. Methods This cross-sectional study included 1,765 men and women who visited a health promotion center for a routine checkup. The lumbar spinal BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Body composition analysis was performed using BIA. Results The mean age of the subjects was 40.2±6.3 years. Ten thousand subjects (56.7%) were males and 126 subjects (7.1%) belonged to the low BMD (Z-score ≤-2.0). MMD had the strongest influence on BMD after adjusting for all covariates. The adjusted odds ratio of Group 3 (MDD >2.6 kg) for low BMD was 2.74 (95% CI, 1.46-5.15) after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, height, and smoking. Conclusions MMD estimated by BIA showed a significant association with BMD and could be regarded as an independent risk factor for low BMD in adults 20 to 49 years of age. These findings support that interventions such as physical activity or lifestyle changes may simultaneously modify both muscle and bone health in this age group. PMID:27294081

  12. Body composition in heavy smokers: comparison of segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Rom, O; Reznick, A Z; Keidar, Z; Karkabi, K; Aizenbud, D

    2015-01-01

    Smokers tend to have lower body mass index, on one hand, and increased abdominal obesity, on the other hand. Also, low levels of lean mass (LM) and bone mineral content (BMC) were found among older smokers compared with non-smokers. This altered body composition and its consequences raise the need for simple and reliable methods for assessment of body composition in smokers. This study aimed to compare body composition assessment by segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (sBIA) with the reference method, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Body composition was measured by sBIA (Tanita BC-545) and DEXA (Hologic) in 49 heavy smokers (>15 cigarettes/day, mean age 43.8±12.0). The comparison included correlations and differences between measurements obtained using the two methods as well as the Blande-Altman analysis. Whole-body fat mass (FM) and LM measured by the two methods were found to be highly correlated (r>0.9, p<0.001). Compared with DEXA, sBIA significantly overestimated whole-body LM and BMC (1,126 g and 382 g, respectively, p<0.01). The Bland-Altman analysis revealed a good agreement for whole-body FM and LM, but a poor agreement for BMC. The segmental FM percentage and LM were also highly correlated (r>0.9, p<0.001). However, sBIA significantly overestimated LM of the trunk and legs and underestimated the appendicular FM percentage. Verified by DEXA, sBIA provides reliable measures of whole-body LM, FM, and trunk FM in heavy smokers. A lesser degree of agreement was found for BMC, appendicular LM, and FM.

  13. Accuracy of skinfold and bioelectrical impedance assessments of body fat percentage in ambulatory individuals with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Oeffinger, Donna J; Gurka, Matthew J; Kuperminc, Michelle; Hassani, Sahar; Buhr, Neeley; Tylkowski, Chester

    2014-05-01

    This study assessed the accuracy of measurements of body fat percentage in ambulatory individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and skinfold equations. One hundred and twenty-eight individuals (65 males, 63 females; mean age 12y, SD 3, range 6-18y) with CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] levels I (n=6), II (n=46), and III (n=19) participated. Body fat percentage was estimated from (1) BIA using standing height and estimated heights (knee height and tibial length) and (2) triceps and subscapular skinfolds using standard and CP-specific equations. All estimates of body fat percentage were compared with body fat percentage from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. Differences between DXA, BIA, and skinfold body fat percentage were analyzed by comparing mean differences. Agreement was assessed by Bland-Altman plots and concordance correlation coefficients (CCC). BMI was moderately correlated with DXA (Pearson's r=0.53). BIA body fat percentage was significantly different from DXA when using estimated heights (95% confidence intervals [CIs] do not contain 0) but not standing height (95% CI -1.9 to 0.4). CCCs for all BIA comparisons indicated good to excellent agreement (0.75-0.82) with DXA. Body fat percentage from skinfold measurements and CP-specific equations was not significantly different from DXA (mean 0.8%; SD 5.3%; 95% CI -0.2 to 1.7) and demonstrated strong agreement with DXA (CCC 0.86). Accurate measures of body fat percentage can be obtained using BIA and two skinfold measurements (CP-specific equations) in ambulatory individuals with CP. These findings should encourage assessments of body fat in clinical and research practices. © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  14. Comparison of Standing Posture Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis with DXA for Body Composition in a Large, Healthy Chinese Population.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuen-Tsann; Chen, Yu-Yawn; Wang, Chia-Wei; Chuang, Chih-Lin; Chiang, Li-Ming; Lai, Chung-Liang; Lu, Hsueh-Kuan; Dwyer, Gregory B; Chao, Shu-Ping; Shih, Ming-Kuei; Hsieh, Kuen-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a common method for assessing body composition in research and clinical trials. BIA is convenient but when compared with other reference methods, the results have been inconclusive. The level of obesity degree in subjects is considered to be an important factor affecting the accuracy of the measurements. A total of 711 participants were recruited in Taiwan and were sub-grouped by gender and levels of adiposity. Regression analysis and Bland-Altman analysis were used to evaluate the agreement of the measured body fat percentage (BF%) between BIA and DXA. The BF% measured by the DXA and BIA methods (Tanita BC-418) were expressed as BF%DXA and BF%BIA8, respectively. A one-way ANOVA was used to test the differences in BF% measurements by gender and levels of adiposity. The estimated BF%BIA8 and BF%DXA in the all subjects, male and female groups were all highly correlated (r = 0.934, 0.901, 0.916, all P< 0.001). The average estimated BF%BIA8 (22.54 ± 9.48%) was significantly lower than the average BF%DXA (26.26 ± 11.18%). The BF%BIA8 was overestimated in the male subgroup (BF%DXA< 15%), compared to BF%DXA by 0.45%, respectively. In the other subgroups, the BF%BIA8 values were all underestimated. Standing BIA estimating body fat percentage in Chinese participants have a high correlation, but underestimated on normal and high obesity degree in both male and female subjects.

  15. Validity of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis for Measuring Changes in Body Water and Percent Fat After Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Widen, Elizabeth M.; Strain, Gladys; King, Wendy C.; Yu, Wenwen; Lin, Susan; Goodpaster, Bret; Thornton, John; Courcoulas, Anita; Pomp, Alfons

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have validated bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) following bariatric surgery. Methods We examined agreement of BIA (Tanita 310) measures of total body water (TBW) and percent body fat (%fat) before (T0) and 12 months (T12) after bariatric surgery, and change between T0 and T12 with reference measures: deuterium oxide dilution for TBW and three-compartment model (3C) for %fat in a subset of participants (n=50) of the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2. Results T0 to T12 median (IQR) change in deuterium TBW and 3C %fat was −6.4 L (6.4 L) and −14.8 % (13.4 %), respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between deuterium and BIA determined TBW [median (IQR) difference: T0 −0.1 L (7.1 L), p=0.75; T12 0.2 L (5.7 L), p=0.35; Δ 0.35 L(6.3 L), p=1.0]. Compared with 3C, BIA underestimated %fat at T0 and T12 [T0 −3.3 (5.6), p<0.001; T12 −1.7 (5.2), p=0.04] but not change [0.7 (8.2), p=0.38]. Except for %fat change, Bland-Altman plots indicated no proportional bias. However, 95 % limits of agreement were wide (TBW 15–22 L, %fat 19–20 %). Conclusions BIA may be appropriate for evaluating group level response among severely obese adults. However, clinically meaningful differences in the accuracy of BIA between individuals exist. PMID:24464517

  16. Influence of acupuncture on bioelectrical impedance measures in patients with gastrointestinal cancer: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Grundmann, Oliver; Yoon, Saunjoo L; Williams, Joseph J

    2015-02-01

    Patients with gastrointestinal cancers often suffer from malnutrition and cachexia caused by inflammatory processes due to malignancy and therapeutic intervention. Evaluation of nutritional status and well-being of patients is essential to prevent or slow down the progression of cachexia. In addition, acupuncture as a complementary intervention may help reduce cachexia and unintentional weight loss. Seven patients with cancers of the gastrointestinal tract enrolled in this pilot study were provided with eight acupuncture sessions in addition to their regular treatment schedule. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) measurements were taken at every other acupuncture session to evaluate the body composition of patients. BIA is a fast, inexpensive and non-invasive method for evaluating fluid, fat and muscle mass distribution which correlates with nutritional status. All patients enrolled in the pilot study completed the acupuncture intervention and BIA measurements. The average weight loss and reduction in body weight was 1.3%, which is less than the average weight loss of 5% reported in the literature. Both phase angle and fat-free mass decreased in patients, indicating a worsening of the condition. However, a shift from intracellular to extracellular fluid was not observed, which is usually associated with a loss of cell integrity. This pilot study indicates that patients tolerate acupuncture treatments well. The BIA results should be interpreted with caution due to the small sample size. A larger randomised placebo-controlled study is currently being conducted to further investigate the influence of acupuncture and to provide insights into BIA as a reliable tool for evaluating body composition in patients with gastrointestinal cancers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Association of body composition assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis with metabolic risk factor clustering among middle-aged Chinese.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linfeng; Wang, Zengwu; Chen, Zuo; Wang, Xin; Zhu, Manlu

    2017-06-01

    Body composition monitor (BCM) based on the bioelectric impedance analysis is very convenient to use. However, whether percentage body fat (PBF) and visceral fat index (VFI) that acquired by BCM are superior to anthropometric measures is unknown. The study explored whether PBF and VFI are better than anthropometric indexes [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist circumference to height ratio(WHtR)] in predicating metabolic risk factor clustering in a representive sample across China which included 9574 Chinese men and women that were investigated in 2009-2010. PBF and VFI were compared with the BMI, WC, and WHtR through the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and logistic regression. The results showed that the AUC for VFI was higher than BMI and PBF but lower than WHtR and WC in both men and Women. The AUC for WHtR, WC, VFI, BMI and PBF was 0.710, 0.706, 0.700, 0.693, 0.656 in men and 0.705, 0.699, 0.698, 0.675, 0.657 in women, respectively. After adjusting for the potential confounding factors, the odds ratios (ORs) tended to increase with all the indexes. The curve of ORs for WHtR was steepest and the curve for PBF was flattest in both men and women; the curve for VFI was similar to WC in women, but flatter than WC in men. From the data we concluded that VFI seems better than BMI and PBF, but not superior to WC and WHtR in predicating metabolic risk factor clustering in the middle-aged Chinese.

  18. Prevalence of malnutrition and validation of bioelectrical impedance analysis for the assessment of body composition in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Spanjer, Moon J; Bultink, Irene E M; de van der Schueren, Marian A E; Voskuyl, Alexandre E

    2017-06-01

    The aims were to assess the prevalence of malnutrition and to validate bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) against whole-body DXA for the assessment of body composition in patients with SSc. Malnutrition was defined as BMI <18.5 kg/m 2 or unintentional weight loss >10% in combination with a fat-free mass index (FFMI) <15 kg/m 2 for women or <17 kg/m 2 for men or BMI <20.0 kg/m 2 (age <70 years) or <22 kg/m 2 (age >70 years). Body composition was assessed in 72 patients with whole-body DXA (Hologic, Discovery A) and BIA (Bodystat Quadscan 400). The manufacturer's equation and the Geneva equation were used to estimate FFM and fat mass. The agreement between BIA and whole-body DXA was assessed with Bland-Altman analysis and intraclass correlation coefficient. Malnutrition was found in 8.3% (n = 6) and low FFMI in 20.8% (n = 15) of patients. The mean difference in FFM between BIA and DXA applying the Geneva equation was 0.02 ( s . d . 2.4) kg, intraclass correlation coefficient 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95, 0.98). Limits of agreement were ±4.6 kg. The manufacturer's equation was less adequate to predict FFM. This study shows a relatively low prevalence of malnutrition in comparison with other studies, but a high prevalence of low FFMI, underlining the necessity of measuring body composition in SSc patients with a standardized and validated method. A good validity of BIA in determining FFM was found at a group level, while at an individual level the FFM may vary by 4.6 kg.

  19. Phase angle assessment by bioelectrical impedance analysis and its predictive value for malnutrition risk in hospitalized geriatric patients.

    PubMed

    Varan, Hacer Dogan; Bolayir, Basak; Kara, Ozgur; Arik, Gunes; Kizilarslanoglu, Muhammet Cemal; Kilic, Mustafa Kemal; Sumer, Fatih; Kuyumcu, Mehmet Emin; Yesil, Yusuf; Yavuz, Burcu Balam; Halil, Meltem; Cankurtaran, Mustafa

    2016-12-01

    Phase angle (PhA) value determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is an indicator of cell membrane damage and body cell mass. Recent studies have shown that low PhA value is associated with increased nutritional risk in various group of patients. However, there have been only a few studies performed globally assessing the relationship between nutritional risk and PhA in hospitalized geriatric patients. The aim of the study is to evaluate the predictive value of the PhA for malnutrition risk in hospitalized geriatric patients. One hundred and twenty-two hospitalized geriatric patients were included in this cross-sectional study. Comprehensive geriatric assessment tests and BIA measurements were performed within the first 48 h after admission. Nutritional risk state of the patients was determined with NRS-2002. Phase angle values of the patients with malnutrition risk were compared with the patients that did not have the same risk. The independent variables for predicting malnutrition risk were determined. SPSS version 15 was utilized for the statistical analyzes. The patients with malnutrition risk had significantly lower phase angle values than the patients without malnutrition risk (p = 0.003). ROC curve analysis suggested that the optimum PhA cut-off point for malnutrition risk was 4.7° with 79.6 % sensitivity, 64.6 % specificity, 73.9 % positive predictive value, and 73.9 % negative predictive value. BMI, prealbumin, PhA, and Mini Mental State Examination Test scores were the independent variables for predicting malnutrition risk. PhA can be a useful, independent indicator for predicting malnutrition risk in hospitalized geriatric patients.

  20. Association of plasma adiponectin levels with cellular hydration state measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis in patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Takahiro; Kanazawa, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    It is widely recognized that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) includes a variety of extra pulmonary complications and comorbidities. Recently, adiponectin was shown to regulate cellular metabolism in humans. Cellular hydration state is affected by a variety of hormonal factors and regulates cellular metabolic state. Therefore, this study was designed to determine whether adiponectin is a possible factor involved in cellular hydration state in COPD. Thirty patients with COPD and 41 age-matched controls participated in the study. Plasma levels of total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin were measured and anthropometry and pulmonary function tests were conducted. Intracellular water (ICW), extracellular water (ECW), and ECW/ICW ratio, which are parameters of cellular hydration state, were measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Higher levels of total and HMW adiponectin in plasma were found in patients with COPD compared with levels in controls. A significant inverse correlation was observed between body mass index and plasma levels of total and HMW adiponectin in the control group. However, this significant correlation was not observed in patients with COPD. The plasma levels of total and HMW adiponectin were also not significantly correlated with any pulmonary function parameters in patients with COPD. Regarding the state of cellular hydration, the plasma levels of total adiponectin were inversely correlated with the ECW/ICW ratio and positively with ICW values in patients with COPD. Moreover, closer correlations were found between these parameters and plasma HMW adiponectin levels. The results of the present study suggest a novel association of the plasma adiponectin with cellular hydration state in patients with COPD. Accordingly, lower adiponectin levels may result in cellular shrinkage, leading to metabolic malfunction at a cellular level. Thus, our findings provide new insights regarding the preventive roles of adiponectin in the

  1. Preliminary bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) equation for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caicedo-Eraso, J. C.; González-Correa, C. H.; González-Correa, C. A.

    2013-04-01

    A previous study showed that reported BIA equations for body composition are not suitable for Colombian population. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a preliminary BIA equation for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia, using hydrodensitometry as reference method. A sample of 30 young females was evaluated. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined to minimize the variability of BIA. Height, weight, BIA, residual lung volume (RV) and underwater weight (UWW) were measured. A preliminary BIA equation was developed (r2 = 0.72, SEE = 2.48 kg) by stepwise multiple regression with fat-free mass (FFM) as dependent variable and weight, height and impedance measurements as independent variables. The quality of regression was evaluated and a cross-validation against 50% of sample confirmed that results obtained with the preliminary BIA equation is interchangeable with results obtained with hydrodensitometry (r2 = 0.84, SEE = 2.62 kg). The preliminary BIA equation can be used for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia until a definitive equation is developed. The next step will be increasing the sample, including a second reference method, as deuterium oxide dilution (D2O), and using multi-frequency BIA (MF-BIA). It would also be desirable to develop equations for males and other ethnic groups in Colombia.

  2. Comparison of body fat in Brazilian adult females by bioelectrical impedance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altamir, Vaz; Frère, Slaets Annie France; Ramírez Leonardo, López

    2012-12-01

    Body-fat is essential for human body, provided that its amount is at healthy levels. If in-excess body-fat is deleterious, its lack is otherwise also harmful. Estimated percent body-fat performed with commercially available devices measuring bioimpedance have many advantages, such as easy measurement and low cost. However, these measurements are based on standard models and equations that are not disclosed by manufacturers, and this leads to questioning the validity of these estimates for Brazilian females. The aim of this study was to compare electrical tetrapolar and octapolar impedance results obtained with commercially available equipment: Maltron BF-906 and OMRON 510-W. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics. Devices used in this study to estimate body fat quantity have not shown any significant differences in results; this is a major issue when selecting equipment based on three factors: study focus, available financial resources, and target population. Results obtained from the two devices have not shown any significant differences, which lead to the conclusion that either device may be reliably used.

  3. Comparison of body composition measurement with whole body multifrequency bioelectrical impedance and air displacement plethysmography in healthy middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Benton, Melissa J; Swan, Pamela D; Schlairet, Maura C; Sanderson, Sonya

    2011-12-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate accuracy of multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MFBIA) using air displacement plethysmography (ADP) as the criterion measure. Body composition of 27 women was assessed by ADP followed immediately by MFBIA. There was a strong relationship (p = .01) between ADP and MFBIA in absolute lean mass (r = 0.80), absolute fat mass (r = 0.99), percent lean mass (r = 0.91), and percent fat mass (r = 0.91). Although MFBIA consistently overestimated lean mass and underestimated fat mass compared with ADP, agreement between measurements was within 2%-3% body fat. An accurate assessment tool, MFBIA can be useful in clinical settings.

  4. Performance of Two Bioelectrical Impedance Analyses in the Diagnosis of Overweight and Obesity in Children and Adolescents: The FUPRECOL Study

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Martínez-Torres, Javier; González-Ruíz, Katherine; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline; Garcia-Hermoso, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine thresholds for percentage of body fat (BF%) corresponding to the cut-off values for overweight/obesity as recommended by the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF), using two bioelectrical impedance analyzers (BIA), and described the likelihood of increased cardiometabolic risk in our cohort defined by the IOTF and BF% status. Participants included 1165 children and adolescents (54.9% girls) from Bogotá (Colombia). Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from height and weight. BF% of each youth was assessed first using the Tanita BC-418® followed by a Tanita BF-689®. The sensitivity and specificity of both devices and their ability to correctly classify children as overweight/obesity (≥2 standard deviation), as defined by IOTF, was investigated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) by sex and age groups (9–11, 12–14, and 13–17 years old); Area under curve (AUC) values were also reported. For girls, the optimal BF% threshold for classifying into overweight/obesity was found to be between 25.2 and 28.5 (AUC = 0.91–0.97) and 23.9 to 26.6 (AUC = 0.90–0.99) for Tanita BC-418® and Tanita BF-689®, respectively. For boys, the optimal threshold was between 16.5 and 21.1 (AUC = 0.93–0.96) and 15.8 to 20.6 (AUC = 0.92–0.94) by Tanita BC-418® and Tanita BF-689®, respectively. All AUC values for ROC curves were statistically significant and there were no differences between AUC values measured by both BIA devices. The BF% values associated with the IOTF-recommended BMI cut-off for overweight/obesity may require age- and sex-specific threshold values in Colombian children and adolescents aged 9–17 years and could be used as a surrogate method to identify individuals at risk of excess adiposity. PMID:27782039

  5. Performance of Two Bioelectrical Impedance Analyses in the Diagnosis of Overweight and Obesity in Children and Adolescents: The FUPRECOL Study.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Martínez-Torres, Javier; González-Ruíz, Katherine; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline; Garcia-Hermoso, Antonio

    2016-10-04

    This study aimed to determine thresholds for percentage of body fat (BF%) corresponding to the cut-off values for overweight/obesity as recommended by the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF), using two bioelectrical impedance analyzers (BIA), and described the likelihood of increased cardiometabolic risk in our cohort defined by the IOTF and BF% status. Participants included 1165 children and adolescents (54.9% girls) from Bogotá (Colombia). Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from height and weight. BF% of each youth was assessed first using the Tanita BC-418® followed by a Tanita BF-689®. The sensitivity and specificity of both devices and their ability to correctly classify children as overweight/obesity (≥2 standard deviation), as defined by IOTF, was investigated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) by sex and age groups (9-11, 12-14, and 13-17 years old); Area under curve (AUC) values were also reported. For girls, the optimal BF% threshold for classifying into overweight/obesity was found to be between 25.2 and 28.5 (AUC = 0.91-0.97) and 23.9 to 26.6 (AUC = 0.90-0.99) for Tanita BC-418® and Tanita BF-689®, respectively. For boys, the optimal threshold was between 16.5 and 21.1 (AUC = 0.93-0.96) and 15.8 to 20.6 (AUC = 0.92-0.94) by Tanita BC-418® and Tanita BF-689®, respectively. All AUC values for ROC curves were statistically significant and there were no differences between AUC values measured by both BIA devices. The BF% values associated with the IOTF-recommended BMI cut-off for overweight/obesity may require age- and sex-specific threshold values in Colombian children and adolescents aged 9-17 years and could be used as a surrogate method to identify individuals at risk of excess adiposity.

  6. Hand-to-Hand Model for Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis to Estimate Fat Free Mass in a Healthy Population.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hsueh-Kuan; Chiang, Li-Ming; Chen, Yu-Yawn; Chuang, Chih-Lin; Chen, Kuen-Tsann; Dwyer, Gregory B; Hsu, Ying-Lin; Chen, Chun-Hao; Hsieh, Kuen-Chang

    2016-10-21

    This study aimed to establish a hand-to-hand (HH) model for bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) fat free mass (FFM) estimation by comparing with a standing position hand-to-foot (HF) BIA model and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); we also verified the reliability of the newly developed model. A total of 704 healthy Chinese individuals (403 men and 301 women) participated. FFM (FFMDXA) reference variables were measured using DXA and segmental BIA. Further, regression analysis, Bland-Altman plots, and cross-validation (2/3 participants as the modeling group, 1/3 as the validation group; three turns were repeated for validation grouping) were conducted to compare tests of agreement with FFMDXA reference variables. In male participants, the hand-to-hand BIA model estimation equation was calculated as follows: FFM(m)HH = 0.537 h²/ZHH - 0.126 year + 0.217 weight + 18.235 (r² = 0.919, standard estimate of error (SEE) = 2.164 kg, n = 269). The mean validated correlation coefficients and limits of agreement (LOAs) of the Bland-Altman analysis of the calculated values for FFM(m)HH and FFMDXA were 0.958 and -4.369-4.343 kg, respectively, for hand-to-foot BIA model measurements for men; the FFM (FFM(m)HF) and FFMDXA were 0.958 and -4.356-4.375 kg, respectively. The hand-to-hand BIA model estimating equation for female participants was FFM(F)HH = 0.615 h²/ZHH - 0.144 year + 0.132 weight + 16.507 (r² = 0.870, SEE = 1.884 kg, n = 201); the three mean validated correlation coefficient and LOA for the hand-to-foot BIA model measurements for female participants (FFM(F)HH and FFMDXA) were 0.929 and -3.880-3.886 kg, respectively. The FFMHF and FFMDXA were 0.942 and -3.511-3.489 kg, respectively. The results of both hand-to-hand and hand-to-foot BIA models demonstrated similar reliability, and the hand-to-hand BIA models are practical for assessing FFM.

  7. Hand-to-Hand Model for Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis to Estimate Fat Free Mass in a Healthy Population

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hsueh-Kuan; Chiang, Li-Ming; Chen, Yu-Yawn; Chuang, Chih-Lin; Chen, Kuen-Tsann; Dwyer, Gregory B.; Hsu, Ying-Lin; Chen, Chun-Hao; Hsieh, Kuen-Chang

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to establish a hand-to-hand (HH) model for bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) fat free mass (FFM) estimation by comparing with a standing position hand-to-foot (HF) BIA model and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); we also verified the reliability of the newly developed model. A total of 704 healthy Chinese individuals (403 men and 301 women) participated. FFM (FFMDXA) reference variables were measured using DXA and segmental BIA. Further, regression analysis, Bland–Altman plots, and cross-validation (2/3 participants as the modeling group, 1/3 as the validation group; three turns were repeated for validation grouping) were conducted to compare tests of agreement with FFMDXA reference variables. In male participants, the hand-to-hand BIA model estimation equation was calculated as follows: FFMmHH = 0.537 h2/ZHH − 0.126 year + 0.217 weight + 18.235 (r2 = 0.919, standard estimate of error (SEE) = 2.164 kg, n = 269). The mean validated correlation coefficients and limits of agreement (LOAs) of the Bland–Altman analysis of the calculated values for FFMmHH and FFMDXA were 0.958 and −4.369–4.343 kg, respectively, for hand-to-foot BIA model measurements for men; the FFM (FFMmHF) and FFMDXA were 0.958 and −4.356–4.375 kg, respectively. The hand-to-hand BIA model estimating equation for female participants was FFMFHH = 0.615 h2/ZHH − 0.144 year + 0.132 weight + 16.507 (r2 = 0.870, SEE = 1.884 kg, n = 201); the three mean validated correlation coefficient and LOA for the hand-to-foot BIA model measurements for female participants (FFMFHH and FFMDXA) were 0.929 and −3.880–3.886 kg, respectively. The FFMHF and FFMDXA were 0.942 and −3.511–3.489 kg, respectively. The results of both hand-to-hand and hand-to-foot BIA models demonstrated similar reliability, and the hand-to-hand BIA models are practical for assessing FFM. PMID:27775642

  8. Validation of two portable bioelectrical impedance analyses for the assessment of body composition in school age children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Li-Wen; Liao, Yu-San; Lu, Hsueh-Kuan; Hsiao, Pei-Lin; Chen, Yu-Yawn

    2017-01-01

    Background Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a convenient and child-friendly method for longitudinal analysis of changes in body composition. However, most validation studies of BIA have been performed on adult Caucasians. The present cross-sectional study investigated the validity of two portable BIA devices, the Inbody 230 (BIA8MF) and the Tanita BC-418 (BIA8SF), in healthy Taiwanese children. Methods Children aged 7–12 years (72 boys and 78 girls) were recruited. Body composition was measured by the BIA8SF and the BIA8MF. Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used as the reference method. Results There were strong linear correlations in body composition measurements between the BIA8SF and DXA and between the BIA8MF and DXA. Both BIAs underestimated fat mass (FM) and percentage body fat (%BF) relative to DXA in both genders The degree of agreement in lean body mass (LBM), FM, and %BF estimates was higher between BIA8MF and DXA than between BIA8SF and DXA. The Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient (ρc) for LBM8MF met the criteria of substantial to perfect agreement whereas the ρc for FM8MF met the criteria of fair to substantial agreement. Bland-Altman analysis showed a clinically acceptable agreement between LBM measures by BIA8MF and DXA. The limit of agreement in %BF estimation by BIA and DXA were wide and the errors were clinically important. For the estimation of ALM, BIA8SF and BIA8MF both provided poor accuracy. Conclusions For all children, LBM measures were precise and accurate using the BIA8MF whereas clinically significant errors occurred in FM and %BF estimates. Both BIAs underestimated FM and %BF in children. Thus, the body composition results obtained using the inbuilt equations of the BIA8SF and BIA8MF should be interpreted with caution, and high quality validation studies for specific subgroups of children are required prior to field research. PMID:28158304

  9. [Variability in bioelectrical impedance assessment of body composition depending on measurement conditions: influence of fast and rest].

    PubMed

    Cáceres, Diana Isabel; Sartor-Messagi, Monique; Rodríguez, Diego Agustín; Escalada, Ferran; Gea, Joaquim; Orozco-Levi, Mauricio; Marco, Ester

    2014-12-01

    Bioelectrical Impedance Assessment (BIA) is one of the main tools to measure body composition. BIA is recommended in fasting and after 60 minutes of rest; however, this cannot always be guaranteed in healthcare practice. To establish the reliability of the body composition parameters assessed with BIA under different physiological conditions: fast + rest, fast + no-rest and no-fast + no-rest in healthy volunteers. Transversal study including 25 healthy volunteers aged 18-34 (12 men, 13 women). A BIA was performed under three different conditions: 1) fast + 60 minute rest in cubito supino (gold standard), 2) fast + no rest and 3) no fast + no rest. The collected parameters were: lean mass and fat mass (Kg) and body water (in liters and as body weight percentage). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was applied for the assessment of concordance within the different measurements. Compared to the gold standard, the difference in lean mass means in the condition of fast + no-rest, was -0.15 (DE 1.44) in men and 0.98 (DE 1.36) in women; fat mass decreased in 0.06 (DE 1.55) in men and 0.82 (DE 1.5) in women; ICC ranged between 0.826-0.995 in all comparisons. In the condition of no-fast + no rest, lean mass decreased an average of 0.05 (DE 0.33) in men and it increased 0.62 (DE 0.46) in women; fat mass decreased 0.57 (DE 0.82) in men and 0.46 (DE 0.60) in women; ad ICC ranged between 0.942 and 0.999, except in body water in men, where it was 0.340. Although relevant, the differences observed in parameters from BIA when comparing the gold standard condition (fast + rest) with the other conditions (fast + no-rest and no-fast + no-rest) are of little magnitude. In clinical practice, the assessment of body composition allows to take decisions when planning treatment for patients with a poor physical condition. The reliability of the parameters acquired via BIA within different physiological conditions of fast and rest is excellent (CCI >0.75) in healthy adults aged 19

  10. Nutritional status and body composition by bioelectrical impedance vector analysis: A cross sectional study in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Cova, Ilaria; Pomati, Simone; Maggiore, Laura; Forcella, Marica; Cucumo, Valentina; Ghiretti, Roberta; Grande, Giulia; Muzio, Fulvio; Mariani, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of nutritional status and body composition in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). A cross-sectional study was performed in a University-Hospital setting, recruiting 59 patients with AD, 34 subjects with MCI and 58 elderly healthy controls (HC). Nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric parameters (body mass index; calf, upper arm and waist circumferences), Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and body composition by bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA). Variables were analyzed by analysis of variance and subjects were grouped by cognitive status and gender. Sociodemographic variables did not differ among the three groups (AD, MCI and HC), except for females' age, which was therefore used as covariate in a general linear multivariate model. MNA score was significantly lower in AD patients than in HC; MCI subjects achieved intermediate scores. AD patients (both sexes) had significantly (p<0.05) higher height-normalized impedance values and lower phase angles (body cell mass) compared with HC; a higher ratio of impedance to height was found in men with MCI with respect to HC. With BIVA method, MCI subjects showed a significant displacement on the RXc graph on the right side indicating lower soft tissues (Hotelling's T2 test: men = 10.6; women = 7.9;p < 0,05) just like AD patients (Hotelling's T2 test: men = 18.2; women = 16.9; p<0,001). Bioelectrical parameters significantly differ from MCI and AD to HC; MCI showed an intermediate pattern between AD and HC. Longitudinal studies are required to investigate if BIVA could reflect early AD-changes in body composition in subjects with MCI.

  11. Nutritional status and body composition by bioelectrical impedance vector analysis: A cross sectional study in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Pomati, Simone; Maggiore, Laura; Forcella, Marica; Cucumo, Valentina; Ghiretti, Roberta; Grande, Giulia; Muzio, Fulvio; Mariani, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Aims Analysis of nutritional status and body composition in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in a University-Hospital setting, recruiting 59 patients with AD, 34 subjects with MCI and 58 elderly healthy controls (HC). Nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric parameters (body mass index; calf, upper arm and waist circumferences), Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and body composition by bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA). Variables were analyzed by analysis of variance and subjects were grouped by cognitive status and gender. Results Sociodemographic variables did not differ among the three groups (AD, MCI and HC), except for females’ age, which was therefore used as covariate in a general linear multivariate model. MNA score was significantly lower in AD patients than in HC; MCI subjects achieved intermediate scores. AD patients (both sexes) had significantly (p<0.05) higher height-normalized impedance values and lower phase angles (body cell mass) compared with HC; a higher ratio of impedance to height was found in men with MCI with respect to HC. With BIVA method, MCI subjects showed a significant displacement on the RXc graph on the right side indicating lower soft tissues (Hotelling’s T2 test: men = 10.6; women = 7.9;p < 0,05) just like AD patients (Hotelling’s T2 test: men = 18.2; women = 16.9; p<0,001). Conclusion Bioelectrical parameters significantly differ from MCI and AD to HC; MCI showed an intermediate pattern between AD and HC. Longitudinal studies are required to investigate if BIVA could reflect early AD-changes in body composition in subjects with MCI. PMID:28187148

  12. Ethnic Variability in Body Size, Proportions and Composition in Children Aged 5 to 11 Years: Is Ethnic-Specific Calibration of Bioelectrical Impedance Required?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Simon; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Lum, Sooky; Stocks, Janet; Bonner, Rachel; Naik, Mitesh; Fothergill, Helen; Wells, Jonathan C. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) has the potential to be used widely as a method of assessing body fatness and composition, both in clinical and community settings. BIA provides bioelectrical properties, such as whole-body impedance which ideally needs to be calibrated against a gold-standard method in order to provide accurate estimates of fat-free mass. UK studies in older children and adolescents have shown that, when used in multi-ethnic populations, calibration equations need to include ethnic-specific terms, but whether this holds true for younger children remains to be elucidated. The aims of this study were to examine ethnic differences in body size, proportions and composition in children aged 5 to 11 years, and to establish the extent to which such differences could influence BIA calibration. Methods In a multi-ethnic population of 2171 London primary school-children (47% boys; 34% White, 29% Black African/Caribbean, 25% South Asian, 12% Other) detailed anthropometric measurements were performed and ethnic differences in body size and proportion were assessed. Ethnic differences in fat-free mass, derived by deuterium dilution, were further evaluated in a subsample of the population (n = 698). Multiple linear regression models were used to calibrate BIA against deuterium dilution. Results In children <11 years of age, Black African/Caribbean children were significantly taller, heavier and had larger body size than children of other ethnicities. They also had larger waist and limb girths and relatively longer legs. Despite these differences, ethnic-specific terms did not contribute significantly to the BIA calibration equation (Fat-free mass = 1.12+0.71*(height2/impedance)+0.18*weight). Conclusion Although clear ethnic differences in body size, proportions and composition were evident in this population of young children aged 5 to 11 years, an ethnic-specific BIA calibration equation was not required. PMID:25478928

  13. Agreement of bioelectric impedance analysis and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for body composition evaluation in adults with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Ziai, S; Coriati, A; Chabot, K; Mailhot, M; Richter, M V; Rabasa-Lhoret, R

    2014-09-01

    Malnutrition in cystic fibrosis (CF) is associated with increased mortality and can lead to fat-free (FFM) and fat mass (FM) loss. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is used and validated to measure FFM and FM. DXA's high cost has led to the utilization of less costly techniques such as bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). The aim of this study was to determine the agreement of FFM, FM and %FM measurements taken with DXA and BIA in adults with CF. We measured FFM, FM and %FM in 34 adults with CF with a leg-to-leg BIA and an iDXA and determined agreement using Bland-Altman analysis. While DXA and BIA measurements were well correlated (r > 0.8), mean biases between both methods were between 8 and 11%. BIA underestimated FM and %FM and overestimated FFM. In a clinical research setting where these measurements are used to phenotype patients, BIA cannot replace DXA.

  14. A comparison of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis to measure total and segmental body composition in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Leahy, Siobhan; O'Neill, Cian; Sohun, Rhoda; Jakeman, Philip

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of BIA in the measurement of total body composition and regional fat and the fat free mass in the healthy young adults. Four hundred and three healthy young adults (167 women and 236 men) aged 18-29 years were recruited from the Mid-West region of Ireland. Multi frequency, eight-polar bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were used to measure the total body and segmental (arm, leg and trunk) fat mass and the fat free mass. BIA was found to underestimate the percentage total body fat in men and women (p < 0.001). This underestimate increased in men with >24.6% body fat and women with >32% body fat (p < 0.001). Fat tissue mass in the trunk segment was overestimated by 2.1 kg (p < 0.001) in men and underestimated by 0.4 kg (p < 0.001) in women. BIA was also found to underestimate the fat free mass in the appendages by 1.0 kg (p < 0.001) in men and 0.9 kg (p < 0.001) in women. Compared to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, bioelectrical impedance analysis underestimates the total body fat mass and overestimates fat free mass in healthy young adults. BIA should, therefore, be used with caution in the measurement of total body composition in women and men with >25% total body fat. Though statistically significant, the small difference (~ 4%) between the methods indicates that the BIA may be used interchangeably with DXA in the measurement of appendicular fat free mass in healthy young adults.

  15. Identification of operational clues to dry weight prescription in hemodialysis using bioimpedance vector analysis. The Italian Hemodialysis-Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (HD-BIA) Study Group.

    PubMed

    Piccoli, A

    1998-04-01

    In patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) cyclic body fluid changes are estimated by body weight variations, which may be misleading. Conventional bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) produces biased estimates of fluids in HD due to the assumption of constant tissue hydration. We used an assumption-free assessment of hydration based on direct measurements of the impedance vector. The impedance vector (standard BIA at 50 kHz frequency) was measured in 1367 HD patients, ages 16 to 89 years with BMI 17 to 31 kg/m2, 1116 asymptomatic (680 M and 436 F), and 251 with recurrent HD hypotension (118 M and 133 F) before and after two HD sessions (thrice weekly bicarbonate dialysis, 210 to 240 min) removing 2.7 kg fluid. The vector distribution of HD patients was compared to 726 healthy subjects with the same age and BMI range. Individual vector measurements (resistance and reactance components) were plotted on the gender specific 50th, 75th and 95th percentiles of the vector distribution in the healthy population (reference tolerance ellipses) as a resistance-reactance graph (RXc graph). The wet-dry weight cycling of HD patients was represented on the resistance-reactance plane with a definite, cyclical, backward-forward displacement of the impedance vector. The vectors of patients with HD hypotension were less steep and more often shifted to the right, out of the reference 75% tolerance ellipse, than asymptomatic patients. A wet-dry weight prescription, based on BIA indications, would bring the vectors of patients back into the 75% reference ellipse, where tissue electrical conductivity is restored. Whether HD patients with vector cycling within the normal third quartile ellipse have better outcome awaits confirmation by longitudinal evaluation.

  16. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis, phase-angle assessment and relationship with malnutrition risk in a cohort of frail older hospital patients in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Slee, Adrian; Birc, Deborah; Stokoe, David

    2015-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) and phase angle (PA) have been shown previously to indicate relative nutritional status in patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the application of BIVA and PA assessments in a cohort of frail older hospital patients and compare these assessments with malnutrition risk screening by MUST (Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool), and the MNA-SF(®) (Mini-Nutritional Assessment-Short Form). Sixty-nine patients (n = 44 men; n = 25 women; age 82.1 ± 7.6 y [range 62-96 y]; body mass index 25.8 ± 5.4 kg/m(2) [range 16.6-45.1 kg/m(2)]) were recruited from hospital wards specializing in the care of frail older individuals from the United Kingdom. Bioelectrical impedance assessment was performed at 50 khz frequency, BIVA was performed using raw impedance data, PA was calculated, and data were compared against reference population groups. Patients were categorized by malnutrition risk by MUST and MNA-SF. BIVA indicated that the men and women in the study were significantly different from reference population groups (P < 0.0001), with a noticeable reduced capacitive reactance (xC) component. The group mean PA was 4.6° ± 1.1° (2.4°-9.2°). The mean PA for men was 4.7° ± 1.3° (2.4°-9.2°), and for women it was 4.5° ± 0.7° (2.8-6.0°). Group PA correlated with MNA-SF score (P = 0.05). MUST categorized patients predominantly at low risk for malnutrition (80%); whereas MNA-SF was at risk (46%) and malnourished (45%). The significant reduction in xC component and PA is consistent with other studies and is indicative of a reduced body cell mass and nutritional status with aging and illness. The general trend in MNA-SF scoring was more consistent with these patterns as a group; but requires clarification in larger cohorts. Future studies are necessary with an aim to improve and optimize care of frail older people. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Wearable Multi-Frequency and Multi-Segment Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy for Unobtrusively Tracking Body Fluid Shifts during Physical Activity in Real-Field Applications: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Federica; Magnani, Alessandro; Maggioni, Martina A.; Stahn, Alexander; Rampichini, Susanna; Merati, Giampiero; Castiglioni, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy (BIS) allows assessing the composition of body districts noninvasively and quickly, potentially providing important physiological/clinical information. However, neither portable commercial instruments nor more advanced wearable prototypes simultaneously satisfy the demanding needs of unobtrusively tracking body fluid shifts in different segments simultaneously, over a broad frequency range, for long periods and with high measurements rate. These needs are often required to evaluate exercise tests in sports or rehabilitation medicine, or to assess gravitational stresses in aerospace medicine. Therefore, the aim of this work is to present a new wearable prototype for monitoring multi-segment and multi-frequency BIS unobtrusively over long periods. Our prototype guarantees low weight, small size and low power consumption. An analog board with current-injecting and voltage-sensing electrodes across three body segments interfaces a digital board that generates square-wave current stimuli and computes impedance at 10 frequencies from 1 to 796 kHz. To evaluate the information derivable from our device, we monitored the BIS of three body segments in a volunteer before, during and after physical exercise and postural shift. We show that it can describe the dynamics of exercise-induced changes and the effect of a sit-to-stand maneuver in active and inactive muscular districts separately and simultaneously. PMID:27187389

  18. Specific bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) is more accurate than classic BIVA to detect changes in body composition and in nutritional status in institutionalised elderly with dementia.

    PubMed

    Camina Martín, M Alicia; de Mateo Silleras, Beatriz; Barrera Ortega, Sara; Domínguez Rodríguez, Luis; Redondo del Río, M Paz

    2014-09-01

    A new analytical variation of bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA), called specific BIVA, has shown to be more accurate in detecting changes in fat mass than classic BIVA. To compare classic and specific BIVA in order to identify which is more strongly associated with psycho-functional and nutritional indicators in a group of institutionalised elderly patients with dementia. Cross-sectional study. Fifty-four patients (34 women, 20 men) with dementia in moderately severe to very severe stages and aged 60-95years underwent geriatric nutritional assessment, including body mass index calculations, the Mini Nutritional Assessment, the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index, and whole body composition analysis. With specific BIVA (unlike with classic BIVA), significant differences were found between women with moderately severe and very severe dementia. In the BIVA conducted for body mass index, the confidence ellipses produced with the classic BIVA approach were highly overlapping; but with specific BIVA, significant differences were observed between the women in different nutritional categories (malnutrition, risk of malnutrition, normal weight and obesity). On the other hand, both approaches distinguished malnourished women from those who were at risk of malnutrition, according to the Mini Nutritional Assessment; and men with a moderate-high risk of malnutrition from men with no risk, on the basis of the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index. Overall, the findings of the present study suggest that specific BIVA is more effective than classic BIVA in identifying bioelectrical changes associated with psycho-functional and nutritional indicators in institutionalised elderly with dementia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage, estimated by bioelectrical impedance, in a group of Sri Lankan adults: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, Chathuranga; Gamage, Prasanna; Katulanda, Prasad; Andraweera, Nalinda; Thilakarathne, Sithira; Tharanga, Praveen

    2013-09-03

    Body Mass Index (BMI) is used as a useful population-level measure of overweight and obesity. It is used as the same for both sexes and for all ages of adults. The relationship between BMI and body fat percentage (BF %) has been studied in various ethnic groups to estimate the capacity of BMI to predict adiposity. We aimed to study the BMI-BF% relationship, in a group of South Asian adults who have a different body composition compared to presently studied ethnic groups. We examined the influence of age, gender in this relationship and assessed its' linearity or curvilinearity. A cross sectional study was conducted, where adults of 18-83 years were grouped into young (18-39 years) middle aged (40-59 years) and elderly (>60 years). BF% was estimated from bioelectrical impedance analysis. Pearsons' correlation coefficient(r) was calculated to see the relationship between BMI-BF% in the different age groups. Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the effect of age and gender in the relationship and polynomial regression was carried out to see its' linearity. The relationships between age-BMI, age-BF % were separately assessed. Out of 1114 participants, 49.1% were males. The study sample represented a wide range of BMI values (14.8-41.1 kg/m2,Mean 23.8 ± 4.2 kg/m2). A significant positive correlation was observed between BMI-BF%, in males (r =0.75, p < 0.01; SEE = 4.17) and in females (r = 0.82, p < 0.01; SEE = 3.54) of all ages. Effect of age and gender in the BMI-BF% relationship was significant (p < 0.001); with more effect from gender. Regression line found to be curvilinear in nature at higher BMI values where females (p < 0.000) having a better fit of the curve compared to males (p < 0.05). In both genders, with increase of age, BMI seemed to increase in curvilinear fashion, whereas BF% increased in a linear fashion. BMI strongly correlate with BF % estimated by bioelectrical impedance, in this sub

  20. Utility of multifrequency bioelectrical impedance compared with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry for assessment of total and regional body composition varies between men and women.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Lindsey J; Erceg, David N; Schroeder, E Todd

    2012-07-01

    Multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis of body composition may be an appropriate alternative to dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. We hypothesized that there would be no significant differences between dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and either the Biospace (Los Angeles, CA, USA) InBody 520 or 720 multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis devices for total lean body mass (LBM), appendicular lean mass (ALM), trunk lean mass (TM), and total fat mass (FM) in 25 men and 25 women (including lean, healthy, and obese individuals according to body mass index), age 18 to 49 years, weight of 73.6 ± 15.4 kg. Both devices overestimated LBM in women (~2.5 kg, P < .001) and underestimated ALM in men (~3.0 kg, P < .05) and women (~1.0 kg, P < .05). The 720 overestimated FM in men (1.6 kg, P < .05) and underestimated TM in women (0.6 kg, P ≤ .05). Regression analyses in men revealed R² (0.87-0.91), standard error of the estimate (SEE; 2.3-2.8 kg), and limits of agreement (LOAs; 4.5-5.7 kg) for LBM; R(2) (0.62-0.87), SEE (1.5-2.6 kg), and LOA (3.2-6.0 kg) for ALM; R² (0.52-0.71), SEE (2.4-3.0 kg), and LOA (4.6-6.1 kg) for TM; and R(2) (0.87-0.93), SEE (1.9-2.6 kg), and LOA (5.9-6.2 kg) for FM. Regression analyses in women revealed R² (0.87-0.88), SEE (1.8-1.9 kg), and LOA (4.1-4.2 kg) for LBM; R² (0.78-0.79), SEE (1.4-1.5 kg), and LOA (2.7-2.9 kg) for ALM; R² (0.76-0.77), SEE (1.0 kg), and LOA (2.2-2.3 kg) for TM; and R² (0.95), SEE (2.2 kg), and LOA (4.3-4.4 kg) for FM. The InBody 520 and 720 are valid estimators of LBM and FM in men and of LBM, ALM, and FM in women; the 720 and 520 are valid estimators of TM in men and women, respectively.

  1. The value of bioelectrical impedance analysis and phase angle in the evaluation of malnutrition and quality of life in cancer patients--a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Grundmann, O; Yoon, S L; Williams, J J

    2015-12-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and especially its derived parameter phase angle have been widely used in different populations. The variability of BIA measures has often been cited as a major limitation for its clinical use in evaluating nutritional status and overall health of patients. Cancer patients often present with malnourishment and cachexia, which complicate the course of treatment and affect outcomes. PubMed, CINAHL, EBSCO and Cochrane Library have been searched for relevant publications in English for BIA in cancer patients. Out of 197 total results, 27 original research articles related to BIA measures in cancer patients were included in this review. Studies indicate that the use of BIA and phase angle measures can benefit in the clinical management of cancer patients in multiple ways: in the prevention; diagnosis; prognosis; and outcomes related to treatments that affect nutritional and overall health status. Phase angle and fat-free mass measures were most commonly evaluated and correlated with nutritional status and survival rate. One limitation of BIA measures is the high interpatient variability which requires careful interpretation of results in the context of the individual patient rather than comparison with population data. The BIA and phase angle provide practitioners for the evaluation of nutritional and overall health status in cancer patients with a convenient and non-invasive technique and should be encouraged.

  2. Body composition by bioelectrical-impedance analysis compared with deuterium dilution and skinfold anthropometry in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    SciTech Connect

    Schols, A.M.; Wouters, E.F.; Soeters, P.B.; Westerterp, K.R. )

    1991-02-01

    Body composition is an important measure of nutritional status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We generated a regression model for bioelectrical impedance (BI) by using deuterium dilution (2H2O) as a reference method in 32 COPD patients, aged 63 +/- 9 y (mean +/- SD), in stable pulmonary and cardiac condition. Height squared divided by resistance (Ht2/Res) correlated well with total body water (TBW) as measured by 2H2O (r = 0.93, P less than 0.001, SEE = 1.9 L). The best-fitting regression equation to predict TBW comprised Ht2/Res and body weight (r2 = 0.89, SEE = 1.8 L, P less than 0.001). BI-predicted TBW was used to estimate BI-fat-free mass (FFM) that was compared with skinfold-thickness-based FFM predictions (Anthr-FFM). Relative to BI-FFM a significant overestimation of 4.4 +/- 0.8 kg was found by Anthr-FFM. Our results suggest that BI is a useful measure of body composition in patients with severe COPD.

  3. Determination of body composition using air displacement plethysmography, anthropometry and bio-electrical impedance in rural elderly Mexican men and women.

    PubMed

    Aleman-Mateo, H; Esparza Romero, J; Macias Morales, N; Salazar, G; Wyatt, J; Valencia, M E

    2004-01-01

    Air displacement plethysmography with the BOD-POD is a new densitometry technique, and has been found to be an accurate method to measure body composition. The aim of this study was to assess body composition in a group of free living healthy subjects 60 years of age or older from a rural area of Northwest Mexico, and to evaluate body composition by anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance (BIA) using equations reported for other elderly populations. Body composition was evaluated in 21 women and 26 men with the BOD-POD, by anthropometry, and BIA and compared to different equations using the Bland- Altman procedure. Body fat in elderly women and men was 42.7 and 30.2 % respectively. In women, Segal's equation using BIA 1, based on standing height, showed no significant differences with the BOD-POD. There was satisfactory agreement between Segal's equation and BOD-POD. In men similar results was found with Deurenberg's equation using B1A 2 based on recumbent length. Segal's and Deurenberg's equations were accurate and precise for the estimation of body fat in the elderly of this study. The use of these equations could improve the estimation of body composition for similar elderly subjects. Further studies are recommended with a larger size samples to include elderly subjects from other Latin American countries.

  4. Comparison of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, air displacement plethysmography and bioelectrical impedance analysis for the assessment of body composition in morbidly obese women.

    PubMed

    Bedogni, G; Agosti, F; De Col, A; Marazzi, N; Tagliaferri, A; Sartorio, A

    2013-11-01

    We evaluated the agreement of air displacement plethysmography (ADP) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for the assessment of percent fat mass (%FM) in morbidly obese women. Fifty-seven women aged 19-55 years and with a body mass index (BMI) ranging from 37.3 to 55.2 kg/m(2) were studied. Values of %FM were obtained directly from ADP and DXA, whereas for BIA we estimated fat-free mass (FFM) from an equation for morbidly obese subjects and calculated %FM as (weight-FFM)/weight. The mean (s.d.) difference between ADP and DXA for the assessment of %FM was -2.4% (3.3%) with limits of agreement (LOA) from -8.8% to 4.1%. The mean (s.d.) difference between BIA and DXA for the assessment of %FM was 1.7% (3.3%) with LOA from -4.9% to 8.2%. ADP-DXA and BIA-DXA are not interchangeable methods for the assessment of body composition in morbidly obese women.

  5. Validity of bioelectrical impedance analysis to assess fat-free mass in patients with head and neck cancer: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Jager-Wittenaar, Harriët; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Earthman, Carrie P; Krijnen, Wim P; Langendijk, Johannes A; van der Laan, Bernard F A M; Pruim, Jan; Roodenburg, Jan L N

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) using the Geneva equation for fat-free mass (FFM) in patients with head and neck cancer. In 24 patients with head and neck cancer, agreement between BIA (FFMBIA ) and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (FFMDXA ) 1 week before (T0 ), 1 month (T1 ), and 4 months (T2 ) after cancer treatment was analyzed. FFMBIA did not differ from FFMDXA (mean difference 0.71 ± 1.9, 0.30 ± 1.9, and 0.02 ± 2.1 kg) at any time point. Only at T0 , mean FFM correlated to the difference between FFMDXA and FFMBIA (r = 0.48; p = .017). Limits of agreement were 3.8, 3.7, and 4.1 kg, respectively. Concordance Correlation Coefficients were 0.98 at all time points. BIA may be used to assess FFM with reasonable validity based on mean-level comparisons, but differences between BIA and DXA may vary by about 4 kg in an individual patient. These results require confirmation in a larger sample of patients with head and neck cancer. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Bioelectrical impedance and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry assessments of changes in body composition following exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Miyatani, Masae; Yang, Pearl; Thomas, Scott; Craven, B Catharine; Oh, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to compare the level of agreement between leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analysis (LBIA) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for assessing changes in body composition following exercise intervention among individuals with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Forty-four adults with T2DM, age 53.2 ± 9.1 years; BMI 30.8 ± 5.9 kg/m(2) participated in a 6-month exercise program with pre and post intervention assessments of body composition. Fat free mass (FFM), % body fat (%FM) and fat mass (FM) were measured by LBIA (TBF-300A) and DXA. LBIA assessments of changes in %FM and FM post intervention showed good relative agreements with DXA variables (P < 0.001). However, Bland-Altman plot(s) indicated that there were systematic errors in the assessment of the changes in body composition using LBIA compared to DXA such that, the greater the changes in participant body composition, the greater the disparity in body composition data obtained via LBIA versus DXA data (FFM, P = 0.013; %FM, P < 0.001; FM, P < 0.001). In conclusion, assessment of pre and post intervention body composition implies that LBIA is a good tool for assessment qualitative change in body composition (gain or loss) among people with T2DM but is not sufficiently sensitive to track quantitative changes in an individual's body composition.

  7. Body fat measurements in elite adolescent volleyball players: correlation between skinfold thickness, bioelectrical impedance analysis, air-displacement plethysmography, and body mass index percentiles.

    PubMed

    Portal, Shawn; Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Adler-Portal, Dana; Burstein, Ruty Pilz; Lahav, Yair; Meckel, Yoav; Nemet, Dan; Eliakim, Alon

    2010-04-01

    Determination of body composition is an essential parameter in training athletes because low fat-muscle ratio might improve physical performance in many types of sports. Since training is often conducted in the field, it is important to determine whether simple field measurements of body composition assessment correlate with laboratory measurements. Examine the correlation of body fat content as measured using skinfold thicknesses (SF), air-displacement plethysmography (BOD POD), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and body mass index (BMI) age and gender adjusted percentiles. Body mass as measured by SF, BOD POD, BIA, and BMI percentiles were examined in 29 elite, national team level, male and female volleyball players (age range 13 to 18) at the beginning of the training season. Body fat percent measured by SF, BIA and BOD POD were highly positively correlated (r > 0.83). Measurements of body fat by SF, BIA and BOD POD were weakly correlated with BMI percentiles (r < 0.45). Results suggest that BMI percentile is not a good measure for body fat in adolescent elite male and female volleyball players. SF and measurements of body composition by BIA and BOD POD are essentially interchangeable.

  8. Body composition of adult cystic fibrosis patients and control subjects as determined by densitometry, bioelectrical impedance, total-body electrical conductivity, skinfold measurements, and deuterium oxide dilution

    SciTech Connect

    Newby, M.J.; Keim, N.L.; Brown, D.L. )

    1990-08-01

    This study contrasts body compositions (by six methods) of eight cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects with those of eight control subjects matched for age, height, and sex. CF subjects weighed 84% as much as control subjects. Densitometry and two bioelectrical impedance-analysis methods suggested that reduced CF weights were due to less lean tissue (10.7, 9.5, and 10.4 kg). Total-body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) and skinfold-thickness measurements indicated that CF subjects were leaner than control subjects and had less fat (5.4 and 3.6 kg) and less lean (5.2 and 7 kg) tissue. D2O dilution showed a pattern similar to TOBEC (8.3 kg less lean, 2.7 kg less fat tissue). Densitometry estimates of fat (mass and percent) were not correlated (r less than 0.74, p greater than 0.05) with any other method for CF subjects but were correlated with all other methods for control subjects. CF subjects contained less fat and lean tissue than did control subjects. Densitometry by underwater weighing is unsuitable for assessing body composition of CF patients.

  9. Prediction of fat-free mass and percentage of body fat in neonates using bioelectrical impedance analysis and anthropometric measures: validation against the PEA POD.

    PubMed

    Lingwood, Barbara E; Storm van Leeuwen, Anne-Martine; Carberry, Angela E; Fitzgerald, Erin C; Callaway, Leonie K; Colditz, Paul B; Ward, Leigh C

    2012-05-01

    Accurate assessment of neonatal body composition is essential to studies investigating neonatal nutrition or developmental origins of obesity. Bioelectrical impedance analysis or bioimpedance analysis is inexpensive, non-invasive and portable, and is widely used in adults for the assessment of body composition. There are currently no prediction algorithms using bioimpedance analysis in neonates that have been directly validated against measurements of fat-free mass (FFM). The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of bioimpedance analysis for the estimation of FFM and percentage of body fat over the first 4 months of life in healthy infants born at term, and to compare these with estimations based on anthropometric measurements (weight and length) and with skinfolds. The present study was an observational study in seventy-seven infants. Body fat content of infants was assessed at birth, 6 weeks, 3 and 4·5 months of age by air displacement plethysmography, using the PEA POD body composition system. Bioimpedance analysis was performed at the same time and the data were used to develop and test prediction equations for FFM. The combination of weight+sex+length predicted FFM, with a bias of < 100 g and limits of agreement of 6-13 %. Before 3 months of age, bioimpedance analysis did not improve the prediction of FFM or body fat. At 3 and 4·5 months, the inclusion of impedance in prediction algorithms resulted in small improvements in prediction of FFM, reducing the bias to < 50 g and limits of agreement to < 9 %. Skinfold measurements performed poorly at all ages.

  10. Developing and Validating an Age-Independent Equation Using Multi-Frequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis for Estimation of Appendicular Skeletal Muscle Mass and Establishing a Cutoff for Sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yosuke; Nishizawa, Miyuki; Uchiyama, Tomoka; Kasahara, Yasuhiro; Shindo, Mikio; Miyachi, Motohiko; Tanaka, Shigeho

    2017-07-19

    Background: Appendicular skeletal muscle (or lean) mass (ALM) estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is considered to be a preferred method for sarcopenia studies. However, DXA is expensive, has limited portability, and requires radiation exposure. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is inexpensive, easy to use, and portable; thus BIA might be useful in sarcopenia investigations. However, a large variety of models have been commercially supplied by different companies, and for most consumer products, the equations estimating ALM are not disclosed. It is therefore difficult to use these equations for research purposes. In particular, the BIA equation is often age-dependent, which leads to fundamental difficulty in examining age-related ALM loss. The aims of the current study were as follows: (1) to develop and validate an equation to estimate ALM using multi-frequency BIA (MF-BIA) based on theoretical models, and (2) to establish sarcopenia cutoff values using the equation for the Japanese population. Methods: We measured height (Ht), weight, and ALM obtained using DXA and a standing-posture 8-electrode MF-BIA (5, 50, 250 kHz) in 756 Japanese individuals aged 18 to 86-years-old (222 men and 301 women as developing equation group and 97 men and 136 women as a cross validation group). The traditional impedance index (Ht²/Z50) and impedance ratio of high and low frequency (Z250/Z₅) of hand to foot values were calculated. Multiple regression analyses were conducted with ALM as dependent variable in men and women separately. Results: We created the following equations: ALM = (0.6947 × (Ht²/Z50)) + (-55.24 × (Z250/Z₅)) + (-10,940 × (1/Z50)) + 51.33 for men, and ALM = (0.6144 × (Ht²/Z50)) + (-36.61 × (Z250/Z₅)) + (-9332 × (1/Z50)) + 37.91 for women. Additionally, we conducted measurements in 1624 men and 1368 women aged 18 to 40 years to establish sarcopenia cutoff values in the Japanese population. The mean values minus 2 standard

  11. Body protein index based on bioelectrical impedance analysis is a useful new marker assessing nutritional status: applications to patients with chronic renal failure on maintenance dialysis.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Toshiyuki; Kanazawa, Yoshie; Nagaoka, Yume; Iwasawa, Hideaki; Uchinaga, Asako; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Okada, Tomonari; Yoshino, Maki

    2007-01-01

    Evaluation and monitoring of nutritional status is a fundamental concept in providing nutritional care to patients with end-stage renal failure. There have been, however, few practically available indices assessing whole body protein stores of patients. We enrolled 448 end-stage renal disease patients, 394 on maintenance hemodialysis (HD) and 54 on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (PD) in this study. 83 Age- and sex-matched subjects (controls) whose creatinine clearance was more than 70 ml/min and urinary protein excretion was less than 1.0 g/day were also recruited for comparison. To assess whole body somatic protein stores, we devised the body protein index (BPI). The volume of body protein mass was measured by multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis and then BPI was calculated as body protein mass (kg) divided by height in meters (m2). Based on BPI, we defined the nutritional status of the patients as normal if the value was within -10% of the mean value of control subjects, -10 to -14% as mild malnutrition, -15 to -19% as moderate malnutrition, and <-20% as severe malnutrition. The required time for measurement was 5.2 +/- 1.3 min and coefficient of variation of measurements was 0.8 +/- 0.2%. Among men the mean BPI in both HD and PD patients was significantly lower than those of control subjects (4.25 +/- 0.37, 4.38 +/- 0.34 vs. 4.72 +/- 0.37 kg/m2, p < 0.001). In women, BPI was significantly lower in HD patients than in control subjects (3.65 +/- 0.34 vs. 4.00 +/- 0.34 kg/m2, p < 0.033), whereas only a nonsignificant lower tendency was found in PD patients (3.83 +/- 0.39 kg/m2, p = 0.067). There were no significant differences in BPI values between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects, both in men (4.26 +/- 0.41 vs. 4.25 +/- 0.36 kg/m2) and women (3.69 +/- 0.36 vs. 3.65 +/- 0.34 kg/m2). Based on BPI nutritional categories, 113 (28.7%) of all HD patients were classified as having mild malnutrition, 57 (14.5%) as having moderate malnutrition, 40

  12. Bioelectrical impedance phase angle in clinical practice: implications for prognosis in stage IIIB and IV non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Digant; Lammersfeld, Carolyn A; Vashi, Pankaj G; King, Jessica; Dahlk, Sadie L; Grutsch, James F; Lis, Christopher G

    2009-01-28

    A frequent manifestation of advanced lung cancer is malnutrition, timely identification and treatment of which can lead to improved patient outcomes. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is an easy-to-use and non-invasive technique to evaluate changes in body composition and nutritional status. We investigated the prognostic role of BIA-derived phase angle in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A case series of 165 stages IIIB and IV NSCLC patients treated at our center. The Kaplan Meier method was used to calculate survival. Cox proportional hazard models were constructed to evaluate the prognostic effect of phase angle, independent of stage at diagnosis and prior treatment history. 93 were males and 72 females. 61 had stage IIIB disease at diagnosis while 104 had stage IV. The median phase angle was 5.3 degrees (range = 2.9 - 8). Patients with phase angle 5.3 had 12.4 months (95% CI: 10.5 to 18.7; n = 84); (p = 0.02). After adjusting for age, stage at diagnosis and prior treatment history we found that every one degree increase in phase angle was associated with a relative risk of 0.79 (95% CI: 0.64 to 0.97, P = 0.02). We found BIA-derived phase angle to be an independent prognostic indicator in patients with stage IIIB and IV NSCLC. Nutritional interventions targeted at improving phase angle could potentially lead to an improved survival in patients with advanced NSCLC.

  13. Assessment of nutritional status in children with cystic fibrosis: conventional anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis. A cross-sectional study in Dutch patients.

    PubMed

    Groeneweg, Michael; Tan, Suzan; Boot, Annemieke M; de Jongste, Johan C; Bouquet, Jan; Sinaasappel, Maarten

    2002-12-01

    Assessment of nutritional status in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) is clinically relevant. Methods to measure nutritional status should be reliable and non-invasive, and reference values should be available. To compare weight and height measurements and measurements of specific body compartments in children with CF. In a cross-sectional survey of 58 children with CF (28 females), we compared height and weight (expressed as: weight-for-height, body mass index (BMI), height-for-age and weight-for-age) with fat mass (skinfold sum (SFS)), muscle mass (upper arm circumference (UAC)) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Results were expressed as Z-scores, using Dutch reference values. BMI and weight-for-height were within the normal range (mean Z-score (range): -0.13 (-1.5, 2.7) and -0.02 (-1.7, 2.8)). Weight and height corrected for age were below normal (mean Z-score (range): -0.79 (-2.4, -0.05) and -1.2 (-2.8, 1.4) (P<0.01)). Lean body mass by skinfold sum (LBM(sfs)), UAC and BIA were also significantly below reference values (mean Z-score (range): -0.9 (-2.2, 1.8), -0.95 (-2.4, 1.8) and -1.1 (-3.6, 1.0) (P<0.01)). Lean body mass (LBM) by BIA correlated with LBM(sfs). BIA systematically underestimated LBM in both CF patients and in control subjects. Nutritional status of children with CF must be evaluated, using age-corrected weight and height expressed in Z-score. LBM estimated by SFS, UAC and by BIA appear to be useful, although longitudinal studies in CF children should be performed to evaluate their clinical significance in detecting changes in nutritional status.

  14. Measuring body composition using the bioelectrical impedance method can predict the outcomes of gemcitabine-based chemotherapy in patients with pancreatobiliary tract cancer

    PubMed Central

    MURAMATSU, MAMI; TSUCHIYA, AYA; OHTA, SEIKO; IIJIMA, YUKIE; MARUYAMA, MIYUKI; ONODERA, YOSHIKO; HAGIHARA, MEGUMI; NAKAYA, NAOKI; SATO, ITARU; OMURA, KENJI; UENO, SOICHIRO; NAKAJIMA, HIDEO

    2015-01-01

    In order to examine the effect on body composition of anticancer drug treatments, the body composition rate in patients being treated with gemcitabine (GEM)-based chemotherapy was measured over time on an outpatient basis with a simple body composition monitor using the bioelectrical impedance (BI) method. The results revealed a significant reduction in the body fat rate (P=0.01) over the course of treatment in patients with pancreatobiliary tract cancer who became unable to continue GEM-based chemotherapy due to progressive disease or a decreased performance status. Meanwhile, no changes were observed in the body composition of control patients with urothelial carcinoma receiving GEM-based chemotherapy. In association with the adverse reactions to GEM and the hematotoxicity profile, a decreased white blood cell count was more likely to occur in body fat-dominant patients (mean fat rate, 25.8%; mean muscle rate, 26.2%), whereas a decreased blood platelet count was more likely to occur in skeletal muscle-dominant patients (mean fat rate, 23.3%; mean muscle rates, 28.7%). The correlation between body composition parameters and the relative dose intensity (RDI) associated with GEM administration was also analyzed. The results revealed a positive correlation between the RDI and basal metabolism amount (P=0.03); however, the RDI did not correlate with the body fat rate, skeletal muscle rate or body mass index (P=0.61, P=0.14 and P=0.20, respectively). In conclusion, the body composition rate measurement using the BI method over time may be useful for predicting the outcome of GEM-based chemotherapy and adverse events in patients with pancreatobiliary tract cancer. In particular, the present findings indicate that the changes in body fat rate may be helpful as an adjunct index for assessing potential continuation of chemotherapy and changes in physical conditions. PMID:26788165

  15. Reliability and accuracy of segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis for assessing muscle and fat mass in older Europeans: a comparison with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Mally, Katharina; Trentmann, Jens; Heller, Martin; Dittmar, Manuela

    2011-08-01

    Segmental determination of muscle and fat mass (MM, FM) attains growing importance for judging effects of training and malnutrition in older people. This study evaluated the reliability and accuracy of segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (sBIA) for use in older people. In 72 (40 men, 32 women) healthy elderly (mean age 69.0 ± 4.8 years), the MM and FM of right and left arm (RA, LA), right and left leg (RL, LL), and trunk were determined by sBIA (BC-418-MA, Tanita) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as a reference method. The sBIA provided in both sexes reliable values for limb and truncal MM and FM, except for MM of RL in women. The accuracy of sBIA displayed sex-specific bias. For MM, accurate values were noted for men's trunk and women's limbs (except LA). By contrast, MM was significantly underestimated in men's limbs by 6-18% and overestimated in women's LA (13%) and trunk (14%). Estimates of FM were accurate for men's arms as well as women's legs and trunk. However, FM was significantly overestimated in men's legs (34-37%) and trunk (60%), but underestimated in women's arms (27-35%). The proportional deviations of sBIA estimates from DXA values for limbs and trunk were significantly related to the respective MM or FM. The sBIA tends to underestimate MM in men and to overestimate in women. The reverse occurs for FM. The actual equations of the Tanita device may not completely represent the European older population and should be partly revised.

  16. Leg to leg bioelectrical impedance analysis of percentage fat mass in obese patients-Can it tell us more than we already know?

    PubMed

    Dixon, John B; Bhasker, Aparna G; Lambert, Gavin W; Lakdawala, Muffazal

    2016-08-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is well tolerated, inexpensive, and readily available, but can it be used to detect with clinical precision aberrant changes in the proportion of fat mass to fat-free mass during weight loss? To assess the variance in percentage body fat mass explained by the readily available inputs and assess residual variance provided by leg-to-leg BIA scales. Using cross-sectional data from a cohort of 665 patients of Indian ethnicity presenting for bariatric surgery, we examine the determinants of percentage body fat as provided by leg-to-leg output from Tanita SC-330 BIA scales. Four input factors-sex, weight, height, and age-contributed to provide 92% and 95% explanation in output variance for percentage fat mass (%FM) and actual fat mass, respectively, in 665 patients. Body mass index alone explained 89% and 81% of variance in %FM output for women and men, respectively. Neither weight distribution, as indicated by waist and hip circumference or waist to hip ratio, nor plasma lipids or markers of glucose metabolism contributed additional variance in %FM when controlled for the 4 key inputs. Simple, known input variables dominate the leg-to-leg BIA output of %FM, and this may compromise the detection of aberrant changes in %FM and fat-free mass with substantial weight loss. For clinical research, validated methods not largely dependent on known inputs should be used for evaluating changes in body composition after substantial weight loss. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of the BOD POD and leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analysis for estimating percent body fat in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III collegiate wrestlers.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Curt B; Deitrick, Ronald W; Pierce, Joseph R; Cutrufello, Paul T; Drapeau, Linda L

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare percent body fat (%BF) estimated by air displacement plethysmography (ADP) and leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analysis (LBIA) with hydrostatic weighing (HW) in a group (n = 25) of NCAA Division III collegiate wrestlers. Body composition was assessed during the preseason wrestling weight certification program (WCP) using the NCAA approved methods (HW, 3-site skinfold [SF], and ADP) and LBIA, which is currently an unaccepted method of assessment. A urine specific gravity less than 1.020, measured by refractometry, was required before all testing. Each subject had all of the assessments performed on the same day. LBIA measurements (Athletic mode) were determined using a Tanita body fat analyzer (model TBF-300A). Hydrostatic weighing, corrected for residual lung volume, was used as the criterion measurement. The %BF data (mean +/- SD) were LBIA (12.3 +/- 4.6), ADP (13.8 +/- 6.3), SF (14.2 +/- 5.3), and HW (14.5 +/- 6.0). %BF estimated by LBIA was significantly (p < 0.01) smaller than HW and SF. There were no significant differences in body density or %BF estimated by ADP, SF, and HW. All methods showed significant correlations (r = 0.80-0.96; p < 0.01) with HW. The standard errors of estimate (SEE) for %BF were 1.68, 1.87, and 3.60%; pure errors (PE) were 1.88, 1.94, and 4.16% (ADP, SF, and LBIA, respectively). Bland-Atman plots for %BF demonstrated no systematic bias for ADP, SF, and LBIA when compared with HW. These preliminary findings support the use of ADP and SF for estimating %BF during the NCAA WCP in Division III wrestlers. LBIA, which consistently underestimated %BF, is not supported by these data as a valid assessment method for this athletic group.

  18. Validation of ultrasound techniques applied to body fat measurement. A comparison between ultrasound techniques, air displacement plethysmography and bioelectrical impedance vs. dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Pineau, Jean-Claude; Guihard-Costa, Anne-Marie; Bocquet, Michel

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of body fat percentage (BF%) estimates from a portable, non-traumatizing ultrasound device with high accuracy and reliability compared to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), the reference technique. Cross-validation between ultrasound technique (UT), DEXA, air displacement plethysmography (ADP) and bioelectrical impedance (BIA) was developed in the study. A total of 89 healthy subjects (41 women, 48 men), aged 48.4 +/- 17.7 (mean +/- SD), with Body mass index (28.5 +/- 7.7 kg/m(2)) and body fat DEXA (29.6 +/- 10.8 kg) participated. BF% was measured using an UT associated with anthropometric parameters and simultaneously, with the DEXA reference technique, BIA and ADP. UT estimates of BF% were better correlated with those of DEXA in both males and females (r = 0.98, SEE = 2.0) than with ADP (r = 0.94, SEE = 3.7) or BIA (r = 0.92, SEE = 4.4). The UT in both genders was better (TE = 1.0) than BIA (TE = 2.6) and ADP (TE = 3.0). The 95% limits of agreement were also better for the UT (-2%; 2%) than with BIA (-5.1%; 4.9%) and ADP (-6.3%; 5.3%). The limits of agreement with BIA and ADP are unacceptably high compared to a DEXA measure criterion. The use of a new portable device based on a UT produced a very accurate BF% estimate in relation to the DEXA reference technique. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Serial measurements of body composition in obese subjects during a very-low-energy diet (VLED) comparing bioelectrical impedance with hydrodensitometry.

    PubMed

    Carella, M J; Rodgers, C D; Anderson, D; Gossain, V V

    1997-05-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a convenient, inexpensive, and noninvasive technique for measuring body composition. BIA has been strongly correlated with total body water (TBW) and also has been validated against hydrodensitometry (HD). The accuracy and clinical utility of BIA and HD during periods of substantial weight loss remain controversial. We measured body composition in moderately and severely obese patients serially using both methods during a very-low-energy diet (VLED). Mean initial weight in these patients was 116 (+/-30) kg (range, 74-196 kg). Mean weight loss was 24 (+/-13) kg with a decrease in fat mass (FM) by HD of kg (p < 0.001) and a decrease in fat-free mass (FFM) of 3.6 kg (p < 0.05). Loss of FFM is best predicted by the rate (kg/wk) of weight loss (r2 = 0.86, p < 0.0001). FFM, as predicted from BIA equations, was highly correlated with FFM as estimated by HD during all testing sessions (r = 0.92-0.98). Although highly correlated, BIA overestimated FFM relative to HD and this difference appeared to be more pronounced for taller patients with greater truncal obesity. Although the discrepancy was no greater during weight-loss treatment, the level of disagreement was considerable. Therefore, the two methods cannot be used interchangeably to monitor relative changes in body composition in patients with obesity during treatment with VLED. The discrepancy between BIA and HD may be caused by body mass distribution considerations and by perturbations in TBW which affect the hydration quotient for FFM (BIA) and/or which affect the density constants for FFM and FM (HD).

  20. Bioelectrical impedance analysis is more accurate than clinical examination in determining the volaemic status of elderly patients with fragility fracture and hyponatraemia.

    PubMed

    Cumming, K; Hoyle, G E; Hutchison, J D; Soiza, R L

    2014-01-01

    Management of hyponatraemia depends crucially on accurate determination of volaemic (hydration) status but this is notoriously challenging to measure in older people. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) provides a validated means of determining total body water (TBW), but its clinical utility in determining volaemic status in hyponatraemia has never been tested. This study assessed the utility of BIA in the clinical management of hyponatraemia in elderly patients with fragility fractures (EPFF), a group at high risk of hyponatraemia. Prospective observational study of consenting patients ≥65 years with fragility fractures (N=127). University teaching hospital in Scotland. Patients ≥665 years with fragility fractures with capacity to consent to participation. BIA and standard clinical examination procedures (jugular venous distension, skin turgor, mouth and axillary moistness, peripheral oedema, capillary refill time, overall impression) were performed daily throughout each participant's hospital stay. Volaemic status of hyponatraemia was determined by an expert panel using clinical data (history, examination, nursing observations and laboratory tests) blinded to TBW readings. Cohen's kappa was calculated to assess the level of agreement between the expert panel and both BIA and standard clinical examination measures in determining the volaemic state of hyponatraemia. 26/33 (79%) cases of hyponatraemia had sufficient clinical information to allow determination of volaemic status by BIA. There was moderate level of agreement between BIA and the expert panel, kappa 0.52 (p<.001). All kappa values for standard clinical assessments of volaemic status neared zero, indicating nil to slight agreement. BIA outperformed all aspects of the standard clinical examination in determining the volaemic status of hyponatraemic EPFF, suggesting it may be useful in clinical practice.

  1. [Body composition analysis in patients with cystic fibrosis. Comparison of 3 methods: dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, bioelectrical impedance analysis, and skinfold measurements].

    PubMed

    Beaumesnil, M; Chaillou, E; Wagner, A-C; Rouquette, A; Audran, M; Giniès, J-L

    2011-04-01

    Nutritional status must be closely monitored in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. This study compared three methods of measuring body composition in CF patients and then examined the relationships between two simple anthropometric markers of nutritional status - tricipital skinfold thickness (TSK) and arm muscular circumference (AMC) - and the results given by each method. Fifty-five patients with CF, 27 females and 28 males, participated in this study. The mean age at the time of the study was 14 ± 5 years, ranging from 4 to 29 years. The four skinfolds (SK) and arm circumference were measured in all patients and fat mass (FM) and AMC were calculated. Fifty patients underwent dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and 38 underwent bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). The values for FM as calculated by the three methods were highly correlated, as were the values for lean body mass (LM) (p<0.001). The LM assessed by anthropometry was overestimated by 8 ± 4% compared with DEXA and by 6 ± 7% compared with BIA. BIA overestimated LM by 4 ± 6% compared with DEXA (p<0.001). The LM values measured by SK, DEXA, and BIA were highly correlated with AMC (p<0.001) and FM calculated using these three techniques were highly correlated with TSK (p<0.001). The measurement of TSK and AMC are simple and rapid ways to evaluate body composition. The excellent correlation between the three methods used to measure body composition suggests that they are valid for use in patients with CF, but the results were not identical. The measurement from each technique must be interpreted according to its own norms and comparisons can only be made if the same technique is used in the same patient.

  2. Comparison of two bioelectrical impedance devices and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to evaluate body composition in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Alves, F D; Souza, G C; Biolo, A; Clausell, N

    2014-12-01

    The utilisation of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) in heart failure can be affected by many factors and its applicability remains controversial. The present study aimed to verify the adequacy of single-frequency BIA (SF-BIA) and multifrequency BIA (MF-BIA) compared to dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) for evaluating body composition in outpatients with heart failure. In this cross-sectional study, 55 patients with stable heart failure and left ventricle ejection fraction ≤45% were evaluated for fat mass percentage, fat mass and fat-free mass by DEXA and compared with the results obtained by SF-BIA (single frequency of 50 kHz) and MF-BIA (frequencies of 20 and 100 kHz). MF-BIA and DEXA gave similar mean values for fat mass percentage, fat mass and fat-free mass, whereas values from SF-BIA were significantly different from DEXA. Both SF-BIA and MF-BIA measures of body composition correlated strongly with DEXA (r > 0.8; P < 0.001), except for fat mass assessed by SF-BIA, which showed a moderate correlation (r = 0.760; P < 0.001). MF-BIA also showed a better agreement with DEXA by Bland-Altman analysis in all measurements. However, both types of equipment showed wide limits of agreement and a significant relationship between variance and bias (Pitmans's test P > 0.05), except MF-BIA for fat-free mass. Compared with DEXA, MF-BIA showed better accuracy than SF-BIA, although both types of equipment showed wide limits of agreement. The BIA technique should be used with caution, and regression equations might be useful for correcting the observed variations, mainly in extreme values of body composition. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  3. Comparison of bioelectrical impedance with skinfold thickness and X-ray absorptiometry to measure body composition in HIV-infected with lipodistrophy.

    PubMed

    Siqueira Vassimon, H; Siqueira Vasimon, H; Jordao, A A; Albuquerque de Paula, F J; Artioli Machado, A; Pontes Monteiro, J

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency vírus (HIV)-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (LS) includes body composition and metabolic alterations. Lack of validated criteria and tools make difficult to evaluate body composition in this group. The aim of the study was to compare different methods to evaluate body composition between Brazilians HIV subjects with (HIV+LIPO+) or without LS (HIV+LIPO-) and healthy subjects (Control). in a cross-sectional analyses, body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), skinfold thickness (SF) and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 10 subjects from HIV+LIPO+ group; 22 subjects from HIV+LIPO- group and 12 from Control group. There were no differences in age and body mass index (BMI) between groups. The fat mass (FM) (%) estimated by SF did not correlate with DXA in HIV+LIPO+ group (r = 0,46/ p > 0,05) and had fair agreement in both HIV groups (HIV+LIPO+ =0,35/ HIV+ LIPO- = 0,40). BIA had significant correlation in all groups (p < 0,05) and strong agreement, meanly in HIV groups, for FM (HIV+LIPO+ = 0,79/ HIV+LIPO- = 0,85 / Control = 0,60) and for fat free mass (FFM) (HIV+LIPO+ = 0,93 / HIV+LIPO- = 0,92 / Control = 0,73). Total fat mass can be measured by BIA with good precision, but not by SF in HIV-infected patients with LS. Segmental BIA, triciptal SF, circumferences of arms, waist and legs maybe alternatives that need more studies.

  4. Determining the precision of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and bioelectric impedance spectroscopy in the assessment of breast cancer-related lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Newman, Anne L; Rosenthall, Leonard; Towers, Anna; Hodgson, Pamela; Shay, Carol A; Tidhar, Dorit; Vigano, Antonio; Kilgour, Robert D

    2013-06-01

    The composition of breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) has been shown to evolve from the initial accumulation of fluid to the development of fibrotic lesions and abnormal fat deposition. Therefore, precise and reliable assessments of BCRL are required to develop accurate staging and management. Although dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and bioelectric impedance spectroscopy (BIS) have been used to assess BCRL, no study has evaluated the precision of these two modalities in the same cohort. We determined the precision of DXA and BIS in lymphedematous (LE) and nonaffected (NA) arms of 24 women with Stage II unilateral BCRL. Precision was calculated from the results of paired bilateral arm measurements obtained from DXA scans measuring fat, lean, and bone mineral masses, BIS measuring extracellular fluid (ECF) and total fluid volume, and circumferential tape measurements (CM) of the arms to calculate the anatomic volume. Precision error was expressed as the root mean square (RMS) of the coefficients of variation (%CV) and standard deviations (SD). The precisions of DXA and BIS varied from 1.16% (DXA measurements of LE arm total volume) to 1.86% (BIS LE arm total fluid volume) and from 0.95% (DXA lean mass of NA arm) to 1.72% (DXA BMC of NA arm). Precision of CM measures of arm volume were 1.71% CV for LE arm and 2.51% CV for NA arm. The fat and lean masses of the LE arm exceeded the NA arm by about 15% (p<0.0001). ECF and total fluid volume of LE arm was 22.6% and 19% greater than the NA arm (p<0.0001), respectively. For BCRL, these findings suggest that DXA and BIS are two measurement instruments that provide acceptable levels of precision for the measurement of arm lean mass, fat mass and ECF volume, respectively.

  5. Measurement of body composition changes during weight loss in obese men using multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis and multi-compartment models.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Alexandra M; Faber, Peter; Gibney, Eileen R; Lobley, Gerald E; Stubbs, R James; Siervo, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The accurate measurement of changes in body composition is important to assess the contribution of fat and fat free mass to total body mass change as a measure of the effectiveness of weight loss programmes. Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) is a rapid and non-invasive technique which could be applied to assess body composition changes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of the BIS for the measurement of fat mass (FM), total body water (TBW) and extracellular water (ECW) changes induced by different degrees of caloric deficit in obese men. Three groups of six, obese men participated in either (i) a total fast (for 6 days); (ii) a VLCD (2.5 MJ/day for 3 weeks); or (iii) LCD (5.2 MJ/day for 6 weeks). FM was measured using a 4-compartment (4-C) model. TBW and ECW were determined by dilution methods, respectively. TBW, ECW and FM were also assessed with BIS. Body weight loss in the fasting group was 6.0 ± 1.3 kg over 6 days; the VLCD group lost 9.2 ± 1.2 kg over 21 days and the LCD group lost 12.6 ± 2.4 kg over 42 days. BIS underestimated FM changes (bias = -3.3 ± 3.8 kg) and overestimated changes in TBW and ECW by +1.8 ± 4.8 kg and +2.3 ± 6.4 kg, respectively. The measurement error was consistently larger in the fasting group and the magnitude of the bias interacted significantly with the rate of weight loss. Rapid weight loss affects the accuracy of the BIS in detecting changes in body composition. A careful interpretation of the results is needed when sizable changes in body water compartments occurs. © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Performance of Five Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Prediction Equations against Dual X-ray Absorptiometry in Estimating Appendicular Skeletal Muscle Mass in an Adult Australian Population

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Solomon C. Y.; Powell, Alice; Khow, Kareeann S. F.; Visvanathan, Renuka

    2016-01-01

    Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) is a diagnostic criterion for sarcopenia. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) offers a bedside approach to measure ASM but the performance of BIA prediction equations (PE) varies with ethnicities and body composition. We aim to validate the performance of five PEs in estimating ASM against estimation by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We recruited 195 healthy adult Australians and ASM was measured using single-frequency BIA. Bland-Altman analysis was used to assess the predictive accuracy of ASM as determined by BIA against DXA. Precision (root mean square error (RMSE)) and bias (mean error (ME)) were calculated according to the method of Sheiner and Beal. Four PEs (except that by Kim) showed ASM values that correlated strongly with ASMDXA (r ranging from 0.96 to 0.97, p < 0.001). The Sergi equation performed the best with the lowest ME of −1.09 kg (CI: −0.84–−1.34, p < 0.001) and the RMSE was 2.09 kg (CI: 1.72–2.47). In men, the Kyle equation performed better with the lowest ME (−0.32 kg (CI: −0.66–0.02) and RMSE (1.54 kg (CI: 1.14–1.93)). The Sergi equation is applicable in adult Australians (Caucasian) whereas the Kyle equation can be considered in males. The need remains to validate PEs in other ethnicities and to develop equations suitable for multi-frequency BIA. PMID:27043617

  7. Agreement between bioelectrical impedance and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in assessing fat, lean and bone mass changes in adults after a lifestyle intervention.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, Duncan J; Chan, Natalie T-Y; Tse, Michael A; Joe, Glen M

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess the agreement of a commercially available bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) device in measuring changes in fat, lean and bone mass over a 10-week lifestyle intervention, with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference. A sample of 136 volunteers (18-66 years) underwent a physical activity intervention to enhance lean mass and reduce fat mass. BIA (Tanita BC545) and DXA (Hologic Explorer) measures of whole-body composition were taken at baseline and at the end of the intervention. After an average of 74 ± 18 days intervention, DXA showed significant changes in 2 of 3 outcome variables: reduced fat mass of 0.802 ± 1.092 kg (P < 0.001), increased lean mass of 0.477 ± 0.966 kg (P < 0.001); minor non-significant increase of 0.007 ± 0.041 kg of bone mass (P = 0.052). The respective changes in BIA measures were a significant reduction of 0.486 ± 1.539 kg fat (P < 0.001), but non-significant increases of 0.084 ± 1.201 kg lean mass (P = 0.425), and 0.014 ± 0.091 kg bone (P = 0.074). Significant, but moderately weak, correlations were seen in absolute mass changes between DXA and BIA: 0.511 (fat), 0.362 (lean) and 0.172 (bone). Compared to DXA, BIA demonstrated mediocre agreement to changes in fat mass, but poor agreement to lean mass changes. BIA significantly underestimated the magnitude of changes in fat and lean mass compared to DXA.

  8. [Comparison BMC assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance in Chinese overweight and obesity adults].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenghe; Fu, Lianguo; Yang, Yide; Wang, Shuo; Ma, Jun

    2016-05-01

    To compare consistency of Body Mineral Content (BMC, kg) assessed by Multi-frequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis ( MF-BIA) and Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) measurement, providing evidence for MF-BIA accurate application in Chinese overweight/obese adults. A total of 1323 overweight/obesity adults aged 22-55 years were recruited voluntarily. All the subjects received the measurement of BMC both using MF-BIA and DXA. To evaluate the agreement of BMC measured by MF-BIA and DXA using interclass correlation coefficients (ICC), then establish correction prediction models. The mean difference of BMC between two methods was significant different with 0, overweight male subgroup was 0.28 kg, and 0.38 kg for obesity male, 0.24 kg for overweight female and 0.36 kg for obesity female, respectively (P < 0.05). The ICC of BMC between MF-BIA and DXA measurement were statistically significant in all subgroups (P < 0.01). The ICC for overweight male subgroup was 0.787, 0.796 for obesity male, 0.741 for overweight female and 0.788 for obesity female, respectively. Correction prediction model: overweight male population: BMC (DXA method) = -0.297 + 1.005 x BMC (MF-BIA method). Obese male population: BMC (DXA method) =0.302 + 0.799 x BMC (MF-BIA method). Overweight female groups: BMC (DXA method) = 0.780 + 0.598 x BMC (MF-BIA method). Obese female group: BMC (DXA method) = 0.755 + 0.597 x BMC (MF-BIA method). Upon examination, correction prediction models were better. Co The correlation and agreement of BMC measured by BIA and DXA are weak in Chinese overweight/obese adults. Therefore, consideration should be given to BMC measured by BIA method in Chinese overweight/obese adults. It should be corrected or adjusted to reduce errors compared with DXA method.

  9. Correlation of bioelectrical impedance analysis phase angle with changes in oxidative stress on end-stage renal disease patients, before, during, and after dialysis.

    PubMed

    Zouridakis, Andreas; Simos, Yannis V; Verginadis, Ioannis I; Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos; Ragos, Vasilios; Dounousi, Evangelia; Boudouris, Georgios; Karkabounas, Spyridon; Evangelou, Angelos; Peschos, Dimitrios

    2016-06-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a condition that promotes oxidative stress. There are conflicting evidence about the role of hemodialysis on oxidative stress, that are mostly related with the various types of membrane materials used, the quality and type of dialysate, the method used, etc. The phase angle (PhA), which is determined with bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), measures the functionality of cell membranes. In this study, the correlation of the PhA with parameters of oxidative stress is attempted for the first time. We evaluated parameters of oxidative status as total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in erythrocytes (RBCs) and plasma of patients with ESRD undergoing hemodialysis with low flux synthetic polysulfone membranes. Measurements were recorded from 30 patients (16 men and 14 women) aged 64 ± 14 years before, during, and after dialysis, and in 15 healthy volunteers aged 56 ± 12 years The PhA was obtained by BIA. The plasma TAC increased significantly (41%, p < 0.05). Intracellular TAC noted a non-significant increase. Total antioxidant capacity of the patients before and after hemodialysis was significantly lower from the healthy volunteers (p < 0.05) showing that ESRD patients are at the state of increased oxidative stress. The PhA increased in significantly positive correlation with plasma TAC at the end of hemodialysis. The process of hemodialysis with biocompatible synthetic membranes and bicarbonate dialysate improved plasma TAC. The positive correlation of PhA with extracellular TAC could evolve to a method of oxidative stress estimation by BIA but further research is needed.

  10. The Impact of Feet Callosities, Arm Posture, and Usage of Electrolyte Wipes on Body Composition by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Morbidly Obese Adults.

    PubMed

    Roekenes, Jessica; Strømmen, Magnus; Kulseng, Bård; Martins, Catia

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of feet callosities, arm posture, and use of electrolyte wipes on body composition measurements by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) in morbidly obese adults. 36 morbidly obese patients (13 males, aged 28-70 years, BMI 41.6 ± 4.3 kg/m2) with moderate/severe feet callosities participated in this study. Body composition (percent body fat (%BF)) was measured while fasting using multi-frequency BIA (InBody 720®), before and after removal of callosities, with and without InBody® electrolyte wipes and custom-built auxiliary pads (to assess arm posture impact). Results from BIA were compared to air displacement plethysmography (ADP, BodPod®). Median %BF was significantly higher with auxiliary pads than without (50.1 (interquartile range 8.2) vs. 49.3 (interquartile range 9.1); p < 0.001), while no differences were found with callosity removal (49.3 (interquartile range 9.1) vs. 50.0 (interquartile range 7.9); NS) or use of wipes (49.6 (interquartile range 8.5) vs. 49.3 (interquartile range 9.1); NS). No differences in %BF were found between BIA and ADP (49.1 (IQR: 8.9) vs. 49.3 (IQR: 9.1); NS). Arm posture has a significant impact on %BF assessed by BIA, contrary to the presence of feet callosities and use of electrolyte wipes. Arm posture standardization during BIA for body composition assessment is, therefore, recommended. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  11. Assessment of body composition using dry mass index and ratio of total body water to estimated volume based on bioelectrical impedance analysis in chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Yasushi; Otani, Takatoshi; Tai, Reibin; Tanaka, Yoshihide; Sakai, Ken; Aikawa, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is commonly used for assessment of nutritional status. However, changes in BMI in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are affected not only by muscle and fat but also by fluid volume. The ratio of extracellular water (ECW(BIA)) to total body water (TBW(BIA)) in multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis is commonly used for assessing abnormal fluid status. This study reexamines ECW(BIA)/TBW(BIA) and evaluates the reliability of TBW(BIA)/TBW(watson) and dry mass index (DMI) in the assessment of fluid and nutritional status. TBW(BIA), intracellular water (ICW(BIA)), and ECW(BIA) were measured in 45 randomly selected CKD patients. Participants were surveyed for age, gender, BMI, blood pressure, serum albumin, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and proteinuria. DMI was calculated by the formula ([weight--TBW(BIA)]/height(2)) and TBW(BIA)/TBW(watson) using an anthropometric formula (Watson). Fluid and nutritional status were assessed using ECW(BIA)/TBW(BIA), TBW(BIA)/TBW(watson), and DMI. TBW(BIA)/TBW(watson) positively correlated with weight, BMI, and diastolic blood pressure and negatively correlated with age and serum albumin level. In contrast, ECW(BIA)/TBW(BIA) correlated with ICW deficit, aging, and body weight loss. On the basis of DMI and TBW(BIA)/TBW(watson), participants were categorized as follows: 1 obese patient with hypovolemia and 2 with euvolemia; 17 overweight patients with hypovolemia (n = 6), euvolemia (n = 8), or hypervolemia (n = 3); 24 patients of optimal weight with hypovolemia (n = 10), euvolemia (n = 9), or hypervolemia (n = 5); and 1 underweight patient with euvolemia. A combination of DMI, BMI, and TBW(BIA)/TBW(watson) makes it possible to include assessment of fluid volume to the physique index. In addition, ECW(BIA)/TBW(BIA) is not a reliable marker of edematous state in CKD patients. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to measure condition and energy allocated to reproduction in marine fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzhugh, G. R.; Wuenschel, M. J.; McBride, R. S.

    2010-04-01

    Reliable estimates of fish energy density at specific times prior to spawning may provide suitable proxies for egg production, and thereby help to explain some of the observed annual variation in recruits per spawner. Our goal is to develop and test modifications of BIA technology to measure energy allocation to reproduction for a variety of marine fishes. To date, a newly developed measuring board and probe system stabilized readings, which was demonstrated by a significant reduction in the coefficients of variation for impedance measures. Total body water, wet and dry weights could be predicted with very good precision (r2 = 0.92-0.99) using BIA measures of reactance or resistance for a number of finfish species. While constituent relationships (e.g. body water- body mass functions) did not differ seasonally, we did find that BIA measures are sensitive to body composition changes related to the seasonal spawning cycle. In an examination of monthly samples of tilefish, phase angle decreased below 15° in post-spawning (regressed) females. Such a monthly trend, which suggests available energy had decreased following the spawning season, was not evident from other, more traditional measures of condition including body-muscle water content, Fulton's K or ordinal measures of fat deposition (such as mesenteric fat). These preliminary results show that BIA technology is a promising application for tracking and efficiently predicting energetic condition of marine fishes.

  13. Cross-mode bioelectrical impedance analysis in a standing position for estimating fat-free mass validated against dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ai-Chun; Chen, Yu-Yawn; Chuang, Chih-Lin; Chiang, Li-Ming; Lu, Hsueh-Kuan; Lin, Hung-Chi; Chen, Kuen-Tsann; Hsiao, An-Chi; Hsieh, Kuen-Chang

    2015-11-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is commonly used to assess body composition. Cross-mode (left hand to right foot, Z(CR)) BIA presumably uses the longest current path in the human body, which may generate better results when estimating fat-free mass (FFM). We compared the cross-mode with the hand-to-foot mode (right hand to right foot, Z(HF)) using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the reference. We hypothesized that when comparing anthropometric parameters using stepwise regression analysis, the impedance value from the cross-mode analysis would have better prediction accuracy than that from the hand-to-foot mode analysis. We studied 264 men and 232 women (mean ages, 32.19 ± 14.95 and 34.51 ± 14.96 years, respectively; mean body mass indexes, 24.54 ± 3.74 and 23.44 ± 4.61 kg/m2, respectively). The DXA-measured FFMs in men and women were 58.85 ± 8.15 and 40.48 ± 5.64 kg, respectively. Multiple stepwise linear regression analyses were performed to construct sex-specific FFM equations. The correlations of FFM measured by DXA vs. FFM from hand-to-foot mode and estimated FFM by cross-mode were 0.85 and 0.86 in women, with standard errors of estimate of 2.96 and 2.92 kg, respectively. In men, they were 0.91 and 0.91, with standard errors of the estimates of 3.34 and 3.48 kg, respectively. Bland-Altman plots showed limits of agreement of -6.78 to 6.78 kg for FFM from hand-to-foot mode and -7.06 to 7.06 kg for estimated FFM by cross-mode for men, and -5.91 to 5.91 and -5.84 to 5.84 kg, respectively, for women. Paired t tests showed no significant differences between the 2 modes (P > .05). Hence, cross-mode BIA appears to represent a reasonable and practical application for assessing FFM in Chinese populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of volume overload by bioelectrical impedance analysis, NT-proBNP and inferior vena cava diameter in patients with stage 3&4 and 5 chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Zülfükar; Yildirim, Yaşar; Oto, Ferhat; Aydin, Fatma Yilmaz; Aydin, Emre; Kadiroglu, Ali Kemal; Yilmaz, Mehmet Emin

    2014-05-01

    Determination of fluid overload is important in chronic kidney disease. Early diagnosis and treatment of volume overload may decrease morbidity and mortality. We aimed to determine body composition by using bioelectrical impedance analysis, and studying other clinical characteristics, inferior vena cava diameter, and N-terminal pro-B natriuretic peptide associated with hydration status in chronic kidney disease Stages 3&4 and 5 in patients not undergoing dialysis. We examined 62 patients with Stages 3&4 and 68 patients with Stage 5 chronic kidney disease. Plasma NT-proBNP was measured and analyzed after log transformation. Inferior vena cave diameter was measured with echocardiography and indexed for body surface area. Hydration status was assessed using multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. Overhydration was defined as overhydration/extracellular water >0.15. Overhydration was more frequent in Stage 5 than in Stages 3&4 patients. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, inferior vena cava index, and log NT-proBNP were higher in overhydrated compared to non-overhydrated patients. A significant positive correlation existed between overhydration/extracellular water and log NT-proBNP, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and inferior vena cava index. In multiple linear regression analysis, the variables associated with hydration status were male sex, extracellular water/total body water, and extracellular water/intracellular water (greater overhydration), while serum albumin levels had a negative association with overhydration. Overhydration is more prevalent in Stage 5 chronic kidney disease patients than in Stages 3&4 patients. Bioelectrical impedance analysis, inferior vena cava diameter, and NT-proBNP analysis in chronic kidney disease are useful methods to determine the volume overload.

  15. Comparison of segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for the assessment of body composition in a community-dwelling older population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Miji; Shinkai, Shoji; Murayama, Hiroshi; Mori, Seijiro

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the agreement of segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (SMF-BIA) for the assessment of whole-body and appendicular fat mass (FM) and lean soft tissue mass (LSTM) compared with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a community-dwelling Japanese older population. The study population included 551 community-dwelling Japanese older adults (241 men and 310 women) aged between 65 and 87 years. Agreement between SMF-BIA and DXA for whole-body and appendicular body composition was assessed using simple linear regression and Bland-Altman analysis. High coefficients of determination (R(2)) were observed for whole-body FM (R(2) = 0.91, standard error of estimate [SEE] = 1.4 kg in men and R(2) = 0.94, SEE = 1.2 kg in women) between SMF-BIA and DXA. The R(2) coefficient for whole-body LSTM was higher in men (R(2) = 0.88, SEE = 1.9 kg) than in women (R(2) = 0.83, SEE = 1.5 kg). There was systematic bias with overestimation of whole-body FM and underestimation of whole-body LSTM by SMF-BIA. Proportional bias was noted for measurement of whole-body FM and LSTM in both men and women, but there was no proportional bias between the two methods for measurement of appendicular LSTM (r = 0.05, P = 0.428 and r = -0.10, P = 0.070 for men and women, respectively). SMF-BIA is a good alternative for estimating the whole-body and appendicular FM and LSTM in a community-dwelling Japanese older population, although it overestimated FM and underestimated LSTM when validated against DXA. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  16. Effect of Intermittent Sub-Maximal Exercise on Percent Body Fat Using Leg-To-Leg Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Children

    PubMed Central

    L. Andreacci, Joseph; B. Dixon, Curt; Ledezma, Christina; L. Goss, Fredric

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of intermittent sub-maximal exercise on percent body fat (%BF) estimated by leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analysis (LBIA) in children. Fifty-nine children (29 girls; 30 boys) mean age 9.0 ± 1.3 years participated in this study. LBIA measured %BF values were obtained immediately before and within five minutes after completing an intermittent exercise protocol consisting of three 8-minute sub-maximal exercise bouts (2.74 km·hr-1, 0% grade; 4.03 km·hr-1, 0% grade; and 5.47 km·hr-1, 0% grade) each separated by a 5-min seated rest period. The three exercise bouts corresponded to 56%, 61% and 71% of maximal heart rate. Significant differences (p < 0.001) were observed for fat mass, fat free mass, total body water, and body weight, post-exercise in both groups. Significant reductions (p < 0.001) in %BF were observed post-exercise in the female (23.1 ± 9.9 vs. 21.8 ± 9. 9 %) and male (23.3 ± 10.5 vs. 21.8 ± 10.2 %) children when compared to pre-exercise values. However, for the majority of the subjects (females = 86%; males = 73%) the decrease in %BF post- exercise was less than 2.0 %BF. These data indicate that sub-maximal intermittent exercise, that may be representative of daily free-form activities in children, will most likely have a limited impact on %BF estimates when the assessment is performed immediately post-exercise. Key Points LBIA measures of body weight, percent body fat, fat mass, fat free mass and total body water were significantly lower after the intermittent sub-maximal exercise. The reductions in percent body fat for girls (1.4%) and boys (1.5%) compare favorably to previous investigations. Intermittent exercise, that may be representative of daily free-form activities in children, will most likely have a limited impact on LBIA percent body fat estimates PMID:24353460

  17. Effect of intermittent sub-maximal exercise on percent body fat using leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analysis in children.

    PubMed

    L Andreacci, Joseph; B Dixon, Curt; Ledezma, Christina; L Goss, Fredric

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of intermittent sub-maximal exercise on percent body fat (%BF) estimated by leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analysis (LBIA) in children. Fifty-nine children (29 girls; 30 boys) mean age 9.0 ± 1.3 years participated in this study. LBIA measured %BF values were obtained immediately before and within five minutes after completing an intermittent exercise protocol consisting of three 8-minute sub-maximal exercise bouts (2.74 km·hr(-1), 0% grade; 4.03 km·hr(-1), 0% grade; and 5.47 km·hr(-1), 0% grade) each separated by a 5-min seated rest period. The three exercise bouts corresponded to 56%, 61% and 71% of maximal heart rate. Significant differences (p < 0.001) were observed for fat mass, fat free mass, total body water, and body weight, post-exercise in both groups. Significant reductions (p < 0.001) in %BF were observed post-exercise in the female (23.1 ± 9.9 vs. 21.8 ± 9. 9 %) and male (23.3 ± 10.5 vs. 21.8 ± 10.2 %) children when compared to pre-exercise values. However, for the majority of the subjects (females = 86%; males = 73%) the decrease in %BF post- exercise was less than 2.0 %BF. These data indicate that sub-maximal intermittent exercise, that may be representative of daily free-form activities in children, will most likely have a limited impact on %BF estimates when the assessment is performed immediately post-exercise. Key PointsLBIA measures of body weight, percent body fat, fat mass, fat free mass and total body water were significantly lower after the intermittent sub-maximal exercise.The reductions in percent body fat for girls (1.4%) and boys (1.5%) compare favorably to previous investigations.Intermittent exercise, that may be representative of daily free-form activities in children, will most likely have a limited impact on LBIA percent body fat estimates.

  18. Bioelectrical impedance vs air displacement plethysmography and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to determine body composition in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Flakoll, Paul J; Kent, Pamela; Neyra, Roxanna; Levenhagen, Deanna; Chen, Kong Y; Ikizler, T Alp

    2004-01-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have significant shifts in fluid homeostasis that may impair measurements of body composition using methods based upon determinations of body water. Estimates of body water are fundamental for bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), which measures electrical resistance to estimate total body water and body composition. BIA was compared with 2 other techniques: (1) air displacement plethysmography (ADP), which relies on measurements of body density to estimate body fat and fat-free masses; and (2) dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), which depends on the relative attenuation of an x-ray beam to produce images of body fat and bone mineral. In study 1, BIA and ADP were performed on 38 ESRD patients (21 men and 17 women; age 51.3 +/- 2.2 years; weight 79.8 +/- 2.9 kg; body mass index [BMI] 27.4 +/- 0.9 kg/m2). In study 2, BIA and DXA were performed on 47 patients (22 men and 25 women; age 52.7 +/- 2.3 years; weight 73.6 +/- 2.9 kg; BMI 25.9 +/- 1.0 kg/m2). The ranges of percent body fat using BIA in studies 1 and 2 were from 7% to 57% and from 6% to 52%, respectively. Percent body fat measurements were significantly (p < .0001) correlated for BIA vs ADP (r = .74) and for BIA vs DXA (r = .84). Mean body fat as determined by BIA and ADP in study 1 was 31.8 +/- 2.0% and 36.3 +/- 1.8%* and by BIA and DXA in study 2 was 29.6 +/- 1.5% and 31.8 +/- 1.8%*, respectively (*p < .05 vs BIA). All 3 methods had similar variability associated with their measurements (coefficients of variation approximately 5%). The average body fat measured by BIA was less than ADP or DXA, regardless of gender or race. Furthermore, the variation was not greater at lower or higher body fat values. Body fat measurements using ADP and DXA were correlated with those using BIA across a relatively wide range of body fat levels in adults with ESRD. However, BIA appeared to underestimate body fat and overestimate fat-free mass, possibly because of increased

  19. Validation of multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis versus dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure body fat percentage in overweight/obeses Colombian adults.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Tordecilla-Sanders, Alejandra; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Ruíz, Katherine; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Triana-Reina, Hector Reynaldo; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline

    2017-10-07

    To verify the validity of multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (mBCA) for predicting body fat percentage (BF%) in overweight/obese adults using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the reference method. Forty-eight adults participated (54% women, mean age = 41.0 ± 7.3 years old). The Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the correlation between BIA and BF% assessed by DXA. The concordance between BF% measured by both methods was obtained with Lin's concordance correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman difference plots. Measures of BF% were estimated as 39.0 (SD = 6.1) and 38.3 (SD = 6.5) using DXA and mBCA, respectively. The Pearson's correlation coefficient reflected a strong correlation (r =.921, P = .001). The paired t-test showed a significant mean difference between these methods for obese men BF% of -0.6 [(SD 1.95; 95% CI = -4.0 to 3.0), P =.037]. Overall, the bias of the mBCA was -0.6 [(SD 2.2; 95% CI = -5.0 to 3.7), P =.041], which indicated that the mBCA method significantly underestimated BF% in comparison to the reference method. Finally, in both genders, Lin's concordance correlation coefficient showed a strong agreement. More specifically the DXA value was ρc = 0.943 (95% CI = 0.775 to 0.950) and the mBCA value was ρc = 0.948 (95% CI = 0.778 to 0.978). Our analysis showed a strong agreement between the two methods as reflected in the range of BF%. These results show that mBCA and DXA are comparable methods for measuring body composition with higher body fat percentages. However, due to broad limits of agreement, we can only recommend mBCA for groups of populations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The use of bio-electrical impedance analysis (BIA) to guide fluid management, resuscitation and deresuscitation in critically ill patients: a bench-to-bedside review.

    PubMed

    Malbrain, Manu L N G; Huygh, Johan; Dabrowski, Wojciech; De Waele, Jan J; Staelens, Anneleen; Wauters, Joost

    2014-01-01

    The impact of a positive fluid balance on morbidity and mortality has been well established. However, little is known about how to monitor fluid status and fluid overload. This narrative review summarises the recent literature and discusses the different parameters related to bio-electrical impedance analysis (BIA) and how they might be used to guide fluid management in critically ill patients. Definitions are listed for the different parameters that can be obtained with BIA; these include among others total body water (TBW), intracellular water (ICW), extracellular water (ECW), ECW/ICW ratio and volume excess (VE). BIA allows calculation of body composition and volumes by means of a current going through the body considered as a cylinder. Reproducible measurements can be obtained with tetrapolar electrodes with two current and two detection electrodes placed on hands and feet. Modern devices also apply multiple frequencies, further improving the accuracy and reproducibility of the results. Some pitfalls and conditions are discussed that need to be taken into account for correct BIA interpretation. Although BIA is a simple, noninvasive, rapid, portable, reproducible, and convenient method of measuring body composition and fluid distribution with fewer physical demands than other techniques, it is still unclear whether it is sufficiently accurate for clinical use in critically ill patients. However, the potential clinical applications are numerous. An overview regarding the use of BIA parameters in critically ill patients is given, based on the available literature. BIA seems a promising tool if performed correctly. It is non-invasive and relatively inexpensive and can be performed at bedside, and it does not expose to ionising radiation. Modern devices have very limited between-observer variations, but BIA parameters are population-specific and one must be aware of clinical situations that may interfere with the measurement such as visible oedema, nutritional

  1. Development of bioelectrical impedance-derived indices of fat and fat-free mass for assessment of nutritional status in childhood.

    PubMed

    Wright, C M; Sherriff, A; Ward, S C G; McColl, J H; Reilly, J J; Ness, A R

    2008-02-01

    (1) To develop a method of manipulating bioelectrical impedance (BIA) that gives indices of lean and fat adjusted for body size, using a large normative cohort of children. (2) To assess the discriminant validity of the method in a group of children likely to have abnormal body composition. Two prospective cohort studies. Normative data: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), population based cohort; proof of concept study: tertiary feeding clinic and special needs schools. Normative data: 7576 children measured aged between 7.25 and 8.25 (mean 7.5) (s.d.=0.2) years; proof of concept study: 29 children with either major neurodisability or receiving artificial feeding, or both, mean age 7.6 (s.d.=2) years. Leg-to-leg (Z (T)) and arm-to-leg (Z (B)) BIA, weight and height. Total body water (TBW) was estimated from the resistance index (RI=height(2)/Z), and fat-free mass was linearly related to TBW. Fat mass was obtained by subtracting fat-free mass from total weight. Fat-free mass was log-transformed and the reciprocal transform was taken for fat mass to satisfy parametric model assumptions. Lean and fat mass were then adjusted for height and age using multiple linear regression models. The resulting standardized residuals gave the lean index and fat index, respectively. In the normative cohort, the lean index was higher and fat index lower in boys. The lean index rose steeply to the middle of the normal range of body mass index (BMI) and then slowly for higher BMI values, whereas the fat index rose linearly through and above the normal range. In the proof of concept study, the children as a group had low lean indices (mean (s.d.) -1.5 (1.7)) with average fat indices (+0.21 (2.0)) despite relatively low BMI standard deviation scores (-0.60 (2.3)), but for any given BMI, individual children had extremely wide ranges of fat indices. The lean index proved more stable and repeatable than BMI. This clinical method of handling BIA reveals important

  2. Reliability of bioelectrical impedance analysis in the evaluation of the nutritional status of hemodialysis patients - a comparison with Mini Nutritional Assessment.

    PubMed

    Erdoğan, E; Tutal, E; Uyar, M E; Bal, Z; Demirci, B G; Sayın, B; Sezer, S

    2013-01-01

    Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is a strong predictive factor for morbidity and mortality in patients who have end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) is an important and confirmed tool to evaluate PEW that has been recommended by many guidelines. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a noninvasive technique for assessing body composition. The aim of the present study was to analyze the reliability of BIA in malnutrition diagnosis by comparing it with standard MNA in a group of 100 ESRD patients. One hundred ESRD patients who were medically stable and under dialysis treatment for at least 6 months were enrolled to the study. Monthly assessed serum creatinine, albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and lipid profiles from the last 6 months prior to the study were retrospectively collected. A standard Full-MNA and body composition analyses were applied to all patients. Body compositions were analyzed with the BIA technique using the Body Composition Analyzer (Tanita BC-420 MA; Tanita, Tokyo, Japan). Patients were classified into three groups according to MNA scores as PEW (n = 15, score <17), moderate PEW or risk group (n = 49, score 17-23.5), and well-nourished (n = 36, score ≥ 24) patients. Mean duration of maintenance hemodialysis treatment was significantly shorter in the PEW group compared to both of the other groups described (P = .015). Well-nourished and risk groups had lower CRP and higher albumin levels compared to PEW patients; however, these values were statistically similar in these two groups (P = .018, .01, respectively). According to BIA findings, well-nourished patients had the highest fat ratio, fat mass, muscle mass, visceral fat mass, and fat-free mass compared to both moderate the PEW/risk and the PEW groups (P < .05). Risk group patients also had higher muscle mass, visceral fat mass, and fat-free mass values compared to the PEW group (P < .05). A correlation analysis revealed that MNA scores were positively correlated

  3. Assessment of body composition in ballett dancers: correlation among anthropometric measurements, bio-electrical impedance analysis, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Eliakim, A; Ish-Shalom, S; Giladi, A; Falk, B; Constantini, N

    2000-11-01

    Ballet dancers tend to restrict caloric intake and/or to use inappropriate compensatory behavior (e.g. self-induced vomiting, use of laxatives) in order to maintain a low body weight. Therefore careful assessment of body composition and determination of minimal body weight for maintenance of a desirable percent fat may reduce unnecessary weight loss and decrease the use of a potentially dangerous weight-control behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine body fat in a homogenous group of 59 adolescent, female ballet dancers (age range 14-17 y). Body composition was assessed using three different techniques: skinfold thickness measurements, bio-electrical impedance analysis (BIA), and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Percent body fat and the sum of skinfold thickness were calculated from measurements of four sites (i.e. triceps, biceps, subscapular, and suprailiac). All eumenorrheic dancers were examined in the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle whereas amenorrheic dancers (or pre-menarcheal) at random. Significant positive correlations were found between skinfold measurements and assessments of body fat by BIA (r=0.48, p<0.001); and between skinfold measurements and assessments of body fat by DXA (r=0.80, p<0.00001). Assessment of body fat by BIA was significantly correlated with assessment of body fat by DXA (r=0.63, p<0.001). The correlation coefficient of percent body fat by skinfolds with DXA (r=0.8, p<0.00001) was significantly higher than the correlation coefficient of body fat by BIA with body fat DXA (p<0.01). In addition the agreement between measurements of body fat by DXA and skinfolds was higher than measurements of body fat by DXA and BIA. This study demonstrates that a simple, inexpensive, field-based method such as skinfold measurements can be successfully used to determine body fat in a homogeneous group of female ballet dancers. This may help to determine a minimal body weight of female dancers based on their percent body

  4. Fluid management in the intensive care unit: bioelectrical impedance vector analysis as a tool to assess hydration status and optimal fluid balance in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Basso, Flavio; Berdin, Giovanna; Virzì, Grazia Maria; Mason, Giacomo; Piccinni, Pasquale; Day, Sonya; Cruz, Dinna N; Wjewodzka, Marzena; Giuliani, Anna; Brendolan, Alessandra; Ronco, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Fluid balance disorders are a relevant risk factor for morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Volume assessment in the intensive care unit (ICU) is thus of great importance, but there are currently few methods to obtain an accurate and timely assessment of hydration status. Our aim was to evaluate the hydration status of ICU patients via bioelectric impedance vector analysis (BIVA) and to investigate the relationship between hydration and mortality. We evaluated 280 BIVA measurements of 64 patients performed daily in the 5 days following their ICU admission. The observation period ranged from a minimum of 72 h up to a maximum of 120 h. We observed the evolution of the hydration status during the ICU stay in this population, and analyzed the relationship between mean and maximum hydration reached and mortality--both in the ICU and at 60 days--using logistic regression. A state of overhydration was observed in the majority of patients (70%) on admission, which persisted during the ICU stay. Patients who required continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) were more likely to be overhydrated starting from the 2nd day of observation. Logistic regression showed a strong and significant correlation between mean/maximum hydration reached and mortality, both independently and correcting for severity of prognosis. Fluid overload measured by BIVA is a frequent condition in critically ill patients--whether or not they undergo CRRT--and a significant predictor of mortality. Hence, hydration status should be considered as an additional prognosticator in the clinical management of the critically ill patient. (i) On the day of ICU admittance, patients showed a marked tendency to overhydration (>70% of total). This tendency was more pronounced in patients on CRRT. (ii) Hyperhydration persisted during the ICU stay. Patients who underwent CRRT showed significantly higher hyperhydration from the 2nd day of hospitalization. (iii) Nonsurvivors showed worse hyperhydration

  5. Impact of hyperhydration on the mortality risk in critically ill patients admitted in intensive care units: comparison between bioelectrical impedance vector analysis and cumulative fluid balance recording.

    PubMed

    Samoni, Sara; Vigo, Valentina; Reséndiz, Luis Ignacio Bonilla; Villa, Gianluca; De Rosa, Silvia; Nalesso, Federico; Ferrari, Fiorenza; Meola, Mario; Brendolan, Alessandra; Malacarne, Paolo; Forfori, Francesco; Bonato, Raffaele; Donadio, Carlo; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-04-08

    Studies have demonstrated a positive correlation between fluid overload (FO) and adverse outcomes in critically ill patients. The present study aims at defining the impact of hyperhydration on the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) mortality risk, comparing Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Analysis (BIVA) assessment with cumulative fluid balance (CFB) recording. We performed a prospective, dual-centre, clinician-blinded, observational study of consecutive patients admitted to ICU with an expected length of ICU stay of at least 72 hours. During observational period (72-120 hours), CFB was recorded and cumulative FO was calculated. At the admission and daily during the observational period, BIVA was performed. We considered FO between 5% and 9.99% as moderate and a FO ≥ 10% as severe. According to BIVA hydration scale of lean body mass, patients were classified as normohydrated (>72.7%-74.3%), mild (>71%-72.7%), moderate (>69%-71%) and severe (≤ 69%) dehydrated and mild (>74.3%-81%), moderate (>81%-87%) and severe (>87%) hyperhydrated. Two multivariate logistic regression models were performed: the ICU mortality was the response variable, while the predictor variables were hyperhydration, measured by BIVA (BIVA model), and FO (FO model). A p-value <0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. One hundred and twenty-five patients were enrolled (mean age 64.8 ± 16.0 years, 65.6% male). Five hundred and fifteen BIVA measurements were performed. The mean CFB recorded at the end of the observational period was 2.7 ± 4.1 L, while the maximum hydration of lean body mass estimated by BIVA was 83.67 ± 6.39%. Severe hyperhydration measured by BIVA was the only variable found to be significantly associated with ICU mortality (OR 22.91; 95% CI 2.38-220.07; p < 0.01). The hydration status measured by BIVA seems to predict mortality risk in ICU patients better than the conventional method of fluid balance recording. Moreover, it appears to be safe, easy to use and

  6. Does the presence of an arteriovenous fistula alter changes in body water following hemodialysis as determined by multifrequency bioelectrical impedance assessment?

    PubMed

    Panorchan, Kwanpeemai; Nongnuch, Arkom; El-Kateb, Sally; Goodlad, Cate; Davenport, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    Multifrequency bioelectrical impedance assessments (MFBIAs) aid clinical assessment of hydration status for hemodialysis (HD) patients. Many MFBIA devices are restricted to whole body measurements and as many patients dialyze using arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs), we wished to determine whether AVFs affected body water measurements. We reviewed pre- and post-HD segmental MFBIA measurements in 229 patients attending for midweek HD sessions. Up to 144 were dialyzed with a left arm AVF (L-AVF), 42 with a right arm AVF (R-AVF), and 43 by central venous access catheter (CVC). Water content and lean tissue were greater in the left compared to right arm in those patients with L-AVFs both pre and post dialysis (pre 2.1 ± 0.7 vs. 2.0 ± 0.7 L, and post 1.9 ± 0.6 vs. 1.8 ± 0.6 L and pre 2.65 ± 0.9 vs. 2.56 ± 0.8 kg, and post 2.34 ± 0.8 vs. 2.48 ± 0.8 vs. 2.34 ± 0.8 kg, respectively) and were also greater in the right compared to left arm for those patients dialyzing with R-AVFs (pre-HD 1.92 ± 0.5 vs. 1.86 ± 0.6 L and post-HD 1.79 ± 0.5 vs. 1.7 ± 0.5 L, and pre-HD 2.47 ± 0.6 vs. 2.38 ± 0.7 kg and post-HD 2.3 ± 0.74 vs. 1.28 ± 0.7 kg, respectively), all Ps < 0.05. There were no significant differences in arm volumes or composition pre or post dialysis in those dialyzing with CVCs. Segmental MFBIA detects differences in arm water and lean mass in patients with AVFs. The presence on an AVF increases the water content in the ipsilateral arm both pre and post HD. This increased water content of the fistula arm will not be detected by whole body bioimpedance devices. © 2015 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  7. Comparisons of a Multi-Frequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis to the Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Scan in Healthy Young Adults Depending on their Physical Activity Level.

    PubMed

    Verney, Julien; Schwartz, Chloé; Amiche, Saliha; Pereira, Bruno; Thivel, David

    2015-09-29

    This study aimed at comparing BIA and DXA results in assessing body composition in young adults depending on their physical activity level. Eighty healthy 19-30 years old subjects were enrolled and their body composition (Fat Mass and Fat-Free Mass) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and by a newly developed Bioelectrical Impedance Analyzer (BIA - Tanita MC780). A seven-day physical activity level was assessed using a 3-axial accelerometer. DXA-FM% and BIA-FM% were correlated (p<0.001; r= 0.852; ICC [IC95%]: 0.84 [0.75 - 0.90]; concordance coefficient: 0.844). DXA-FFM and BIA FFM were correlated (p<0.001; r=0.976; ICC [IC95%]: 0.95 [0.93 - 0.97], concordance coefficient: 0.955). DXA and BIA measurements of FM% and FFM were highly correlated in both boys and girls regardless of the physical activity level. Compared with DXA scans, newly developed bioelectrical impedance analyzers provide satisfactory fat mass and lean mass measures in healthy young women and men, despite their physical activity level.

  8. A 4-compartment model based validation of air displacement plethysmography, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, skinfold technique & bio-electrical impedance for measuring body fat in Indian adults

    PubMed Central

    Kuriyan, Rebecca; Thomas, Tinku; Ashok, Sangeetha; J, Jayakumar; Kurpad, Anura V.

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Many methods are available for measuring body fat of an individual, each having its own advantages and limitations. The primary objective of the present study was to validate body fat estimates from individual methods using the 4-compartment (4C) model as reference. The second objective was to obtain estimates of hydration of fat free mass (FFM) using the 4C model. Methods: The body fat of 39 adults (19 men and 20 women) aged 20-40 yr was estimated using air displacement plethysmography (ADP), dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), 4-skinfold technique and bio-electrical impedance (BIA). Total body water was estimated using isotope dilution method. Results: All the methods underestimated body fat when compared to 4C model, except for DEXA and the mean difference from the reference was lowest for DEXA and ADP. The precision of the fat mass estimated from 4C model using the propagation of error was 0.25 kg, while the mean hydration factor obtained by the 4C model was found to be 0.74 ± 0.02 in the whole group of men and women. Interpretations & conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that DEXA and ADP methods can provide reasonably accurate estimates of body fat, while skinfold and bio-electrical impedance methods require the use of population specific equations. PMID:25027079

  9. A 4-compartment model based validation of air displacement plethysmography, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, skinfold technique & bio-electrical impedance for measuring body fat in Indian adults.

    PubMed

    Kuriyan, Rebecca; Thomas, Tinku; Ashok, Sangeetha; Jayakumar, J; Kurpad, Anura V

    2014-05-01

    Many methods are available for measuring body fat of an individual, each having its own advantages and limitations. The primary objective of the present study was to validate body fat estimates from individual methods using the 4-compartment (4C) model as reference. The second objective was to obtain estimates of hydration of fat free mass (FFM) using the 4C model. The body fat of 39 adults (19 men and 20 women) aged 20-40 yr was estimated using air displacement plethysmography (ADP), dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), 4-skinfold technique and bio-electrical impedance (BIA). Total body water was estimated using isotope dilution method. All the methods underestimated body fat when compared to 4C model, except for DEXA and the mean difference from the reference was lowest for DEXA and ADP. The precision of the fat mass estimated from 4C model using the propagation of error was 0.25 kg, while the mean hydration factor obtained by the 4C model was found to be 0.74 ± 0.02 in the whole group of men and women. The results of the present study suggest that DEXA and ADP methods can provide reasonably accurate estimates of body fat, while skinfold and bio-electrical impedance methods require the use of population specific equations.

  10. Comparisons of a Multi-Frequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis to the Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Scan in Healthy Young Adults Depending on their Physical Activity Level

    PubMed Central

    Verney, Julien; Schwartz, Chloé; Amiche, Saliha; Pereira, Bruno; Thivel, David

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at comparing BIA and DXA results in assessing body composition in young adults depending on their physical activity level. Eighty healthy 19–30 years old subjects were enrolled and their body composition (Fat Mass and Fat-Free Mass) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and by a newly developed Bioelectrical Impedance Analyzer (BIA - Tanita MC780). A seven-day physical activity level was assessed using a 3-axial accelerometer. DXA-FM% and BIA-FM% were correlated (p<0.001; r= 0.852; ICC [IC95%]: 0.84 [0.75 – 0.90]; concordance coefficient: 0.844). DXA-FFM and BIA FFM were correlated (p<0.001; r=0.976; ICC [IC95%]: 0.95 [0.93 – 0.97], concordance coefficient: 0.955). DXA and BIA measurements of FM% and FFM were highly correlated in both boys and girls regardless of the physical activity level. Compared with DXA scans, newly developed bioelectrical impedance analyzers provide satisfactory fat mass and lean mass measures in healthy young women and men, despite their physical activity level. PMID:26557191

  11. Body composition by hydrometry (deuterium oxide dilution) and bioelectrical impedance in subjects aged >60 y from rural regions of Cuba, Chile and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Valencia, M E; Alemán-Mateo, H; Salazar, G; Hernández Triana, M

    2003-07-01

    In Latin American and Caribbean countries such as Chile, Mexico and Cuba, the population over 60 y has increased steadily. In this age group, there is scarce information about body composition, particularly for those living in rural areas. The purpose of this study was to determine body composition in free-living and healthy elderly subjects >60 y from rural areas of Chile, Cuba and Mexico using deuterium oxide dilution and bioelectrical impedance (BIA) and to develop and cross-validate a predictive equation for this group of subjects by BIA for future use as a field technique. The study included 133 healthy subjects (73 males and 60 females) >60 y from rural regions of Cuba, Chile and Mexico. Total body water, body weight, height and other anthropometric and BIA variables (resistance and reactance) were measured. Total body water was determined by deuterium oxide dilution, and fat-free mass (FFM)/fat mass were derived from this measurement. The total sample was used in a split-sample internal cross-validation. BIA and other anthropometric variables were integrated to multiple regression model to design the best predictive equation, which was validated in the other sample. ANOVA, multiple regression and Bland and Altman's procedure were used to analyze the data. Body weight, percentage of fat and fat-free mass were lower in the Cuban men and women compared with Chilean and Mexican men and women. The best predictive equation of the FFM was: FFM kg=(-7.71+(H(2)/R x 0.49)+(country or ethnicity x 1.12)+(body weight x 0.27)+(sex x 3.49)+(Xc x 0.13)), where H(2) is height(2) (cm); R is resistance (Omega); country: Chile=1, Mexico=2 and Cuba=3; sex: women=0 and men=1; body weight (kg) and Xc is reactance (Omega). R(2) was 0.944 and the root mean square error (RMSE) was 2.08 kg. The mean+/-s.d. of FFM prediction was 44.2+/-9.2 vs 44.6+/-10.1. The results of cross-validation showed no significant difference with the line of identity, showing that the predicted equation was

  12. [Saarland Growth Study: analyses of body composition of children, aged 3 to 11 years. Measurement of height, weight, girth (abdomen, upper arm, calf) and skinfolds (triceps, biceps, subscapular,suprailiacal, abdominal) and bioelectric impedance (BIA)].

    PubMed

    Weinand, C; Müller, S; Zabransky, S; Danker-Hopfe, H

    2000-01-01

    This study aimed to set up current reference charts of anthropometric data in the Saarland. Only national and international data were available to be compared but no former Saarland charts could be found. In the period between 1994 and 1995 we investigated children of 3 to 11 years in a cross-sectional study. Therefore we measured body height, weight, circumferences, skinfolds and bioelectrical impedance (BIA). No significant gender differences were found for body height and weight. Boys of all groups of age showed bigger abdominal circumferences than girls of the same age. On the other hand upper-arm and calf-girth of younger girls were larger than that from boys. In higher age groups circumferences become rather equal. The skinfolds of Saarland girls are thicker than those of boys. The urban rural comparison indicated no significant differences. Nor was any social divergence found among the aforementioned parameters. Regarding height Saarland children are seen to be similar or somewhat shorter than those examined in national or international studies. By the way, in higher percentiles the children in our study were heavier. Thus high BMI values of our study are bigger compared with former studies. According to the definition of obesity by the ECOG almost 20 to 30% of our children are obese. The older children become the higher is the percentage of obesity. Comparing girls and boys, bioelectrical impedance shows higher values for girls. In higher age classes resistance levels gets smaller, in boys more so than in girls. Body fat estimated by a formula based on BIA test parameters yielded negative values. So we propose the use of sex- and age-specific raw charts of BIA test parameters.

  13. Comparison of Wired and Wireless Bio-Electrical Impedance Fluid Status Monitoring Devices and Validation to Body Mass and Urine Specific Gravity Changes Following Mild Dehydration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-18

    status assessment method, ZOE2, is FDA approved for fluid status monitoring. The ZOE2 measures thoracic bio -electrical impedance. A new wireless version...impedance as a valid measure of hydration status in clinical or controlled settings. However, there is speculation as to the utility of bio -electrical...no significant differences were detected between pre- to post-practice for the ZOE2 or ZOEW device. Bio -electrical impedance, as measured by the ZOEW

  14. Fat mass by air-displacement plethysmography and impedance in obese/non-obese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Azcona, Cristina; Köek, Nadia; Frühbeck, Gema

    2006-01-01

    To determine the level of agreement between measurements of body composition by air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) in obese/non-obese children and adolescents. Fat mass (FM) and fat free mass (FFM) were measured by ADP using the BOD-POD system and foot-to-foot BIA in 187 children and adolescents (75 males and 112 females, aged 5 to 22 years). Obesity was defined as a percentage FM (determined by BOD-POD), as a percentage (%) higher than 25%-35%. Sixty-four subjects were obese and 123 non-obese. Lin's Concordance Coefficient (Rc) between estimates of FM (%) and FFM (kg) was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.73; 0.83) by BIA and 0.96 (95% CI: 0.95; 0.97) by ADP. For the group of patients as a whole, the mean difference (p < 0.001) between methods (the BIA measurement minus the ADP measurement) was -3.39 (95% CI: -4.13; -2.65) for FM (%) and 1.54 (95% CI: 1.10; 1.98) for FFM (kg) (p < 0.001). The limits of agreement were -13.70; 6.90 for FM (%) and 1.40; 7.60 for FFM (kg). In the obese group, the mean difference between methods was -5.01 (95% CI: -6.21; -3.81) for FM (%) and 2.58 (95% CI: 3.45; 1.71) for FFM (kg) (p < 0.001). In the non-obese group, these mean differences were 2.49 (95% CI: -3.41; -1.57) and 0.96 (95% CI: 1.43; 0.50), respectively (p < 0.001). Compared with ADP, foot-to-foot BIA overestimates FFM and underestimates FM in obese and non-obese children of either sex. ADP and BIA estimates of FFM and FM are highly correlated for both obese/non-obese children. However, the large limits of agreement suggest that these methods should not be used interchangeably.

  15. Evaluation of air-displacement plethysmography and bioelectrical impedance analysis vs dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for the assessment of fat-free mass in elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Bertoli, S; Battezzati, A; Testolin, G; Bedogni, G

    2008-11-01

    To evaluate air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) vs dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for the assessment of fat-free mass (FFM) in healthy elderly subjects. Forty-two women and twenty-six men aged 60-84 years. FFM was measured by DXA and ADP. Body impedance (Z) was measured by four-polar BIA and the impedance index (ZI) was calculated as stature(2)/Z. Selection of predictors (gender, age, weight and ZI at 5, 50 and 100 kHz) for BIA algorithms was carried out using bootstrapped stepwise linear regression on 1000 samples of 68 subjects. Limits of agreement were used as measures of interchangeability of ADP and BIA with DXA. The limits of agreement of ADP vs DXA were -11.0 to 2.4 kg in males and -4.8 to 2.2 kg in females. Gender, weight and ZI(100) were selected as predictors of FFM by bootstrapped stepwise linear regression. In males, ZI(100) (-12.2 to 12.2 kg) was much less accurate than weight (-6.0 to 6.0 kg) at predicting FFM and their combination did not improve the estimate (-6.0 to 6.0 kg). In females, ZI(100) (-6.8 to 6.8 kg) was less accurate than weight (-5.6 to 5.6 kg) at predicting FFM and their combination improved the estimate only slightly (-5.0 to 5.0 kg). In healthy elderly subjects, (1) ADP and DXA are not interchangeable for the assessment of FFM, especially in males; and (2) ZI(100) is not superior to weight for the prediction of FFM and their combination is of little advantage and only in females.

  16. The influence of transient change of total body water on relative body fats based on three bioelectrical impedance analyses methods. Comparison between before and after exercise with sweat loss, and after drinking.

    PubMed

    Demura, S; Yamaji, S; Goshi, F; Nagasawa, Y

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of change of total body water caused by exercise and drinking, on relative body fat (%BF) based on three bioelectrical impedance analyses (BIA) methods, between hand and foot (H-F), between hand and hand (H-H), and between foot and foot (F-F). The subjects were 30 Japanese healthy young adults aged 18 to 23 years (15 males, 15 females). Measurements were made three times for each BIA method; before and after exercise with sweat, and after drinking, and also twice according to the under water weighing (UW) method, before exercise and after drinking. A pedaling exercise, with a bicycle ergometer, was used for 60 minutes as the exercise. The relationship of %BF between the UW method and each BIA method was mid-range or more (r=0.765-0.839). However, %BF based on the H-F and F-F BIA methods were higher than that based on the UW method. After drinking, %BF of all the BIA methods were higher than the UW method. %BF of the BIA methods after exercise indicated values lower than those before exercise. %BF of the H-F and H-H BIA methods after drinking were a little higher than those before exercise, indicating that those measurements reflect a slight change of body water. It was demonstrated that %BF of any BIA method reflect the change of body water caused by exercise, sweating, and drinking.

  17. Assessing Body Fat of Children by Skinfold Thickness, Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis, and Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry: A Validation Study Among Malay Children Aged 7 to 11 Years.

    PubMed

    Noradilah, Mohd Jonit; Ang, Yeow Nyin; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi; Deurenberg, Paul; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to validate skinfold (SKF) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) against dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in determining body fat percentage (BF%) of Malay children aged 7 to 11 years. A total of 160 children had their BF% assessed using SKF and BIA, with DXA as the criterion method. Four SKF equations (SKFBray, SKFJohnston, SKFSlaughter, and SKFGoran) and 4 BIA equations (BIAManufacturer, BIAHoutkooper, BIARush, and BIAKushner) were used to estimate BF%. Mean age, weight, and height were 9.4 ± 1.1years, 30.5 ± 9.9 kg, and 131.3 ± 8.4 cm. All equations significantly underestimated BF% (P < .05). BIA equations had reasonable agreement with DXA and were independent of BF% with BIAManufacturer being the best equation. Although BIA underestimates BF% as compared with DXA, BIA was more suitable to measure BF% in a population that is similar to this study sample than SKF, suggesting a need to develop new SKF equations that are population specific. © 2016 APJPH.

  18. Comparison of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, air displacement plethysmography and bioelectrical impedance analysis for the assessment of body composition in severely obese Caucasian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lazzer, Stefano; Bedogni, Giorgio; Agosti, Fiorenza; De Col, Alessandra; Mornati, Daniela; Sartorio, Alessandro

    2008-10-01

    The objectives of the present study were to compare body composition assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), air displacement plethysmography (ADP) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) in severely obese Caucasian children and adolescents and to develop and validate new equations for predicting body composition from BIA using DXA as the reference method. Body composition was assessed in fifty-eight obese children and adolescents (BMI 34.4 (SD 4.9) kg/m(2)) aged 10-17 years by DXA, ADP and BIA. ADP body fat content was estimated from body density using equations devised by Siri (ADP(Siri)) and Lohman (ADP(Lohman)). In the whole sample, the Bland-Altman test showed that ADP(Siri) and ADP(Lohman) underestimated percentage fat mass (%FM) by 2.1 (SD 3.4) and by 3.8 (SD 3.3) percent units (P<0.001), respectively, compared to DXA. In addition, compared to DXA, BIA underestimated %FM by 5.8 (SD 4.6) percent units in the whole group (P<0.001). A new prediction equation (FFM (kg) = 0.87 x (stature(2)/body impedance) + 3.1) was developed on the pooled sample and cross-validated on an external group of sixty-one obese children and adolescents. The difference between predicted and measured FFM in the external group was -1.6 (SD 2.9) kg (P<0.001) and FFM was predicted accurately (error < 5%) in 75% of subjects. In conclusion, DXA, ADP and the BIA are not interchangeable for the assessment of %FM in severely obese children and adolescents. The new prediction equation offers an alternative approach to DXA for the estimation of body composition in severely obese children and adolescents.

  19. The Association of Hydration Status with Physical Signs, Symptoms and Survival in Advanced Cancer—The Use of Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Analysis (BIVA) Technology to Evaluate Fluid Volume in Palliative Care: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Mayland, Catriona R.; Mason, Stephen; Cox, Trevor F.; Varro, Andrea; Ellershaw, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Hydration in advanced cancer is a controversial area; however, current hydration assessments methods are poorly developed. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) is an accurate hydration tool; however its application in advanced cancer has not been explored. This study used BIVA to evaluate hydration status in advanced cancer to examine the association of fluid status with symptoms, physical signs, renal biochemical measures and survival. Materials and methods An observational study of 90 adults with advanced cancer receiving care in a UK specialist palliative care inpatient unit was conducted. Hydration status was assessed using BIVA in addition to assessments of symptoms, physical signs, performance status, renal biochemical measures, oral fluid intake and medications. The association of clinical variables with hydration was evaluated using regression analysis. A survival analysis was conducted to examine the influence of hydration status and renal failure. Results The hydration status of participants was normal in 43 (47.8%), 'more hydrated' in 37 (41.1%) and 'less hydrated' in 10 (11.1%). Lower hydration was associated with increased symptom intensity (Beta = -0.29, p = 0.04) and higher scores for physical signs associated with dehydration (Beta = 10.94, p = 0.02). Higher hydration was associated with oedema (Beta = 2.55, p<0.001). Median survival was statistically significantly shorter in 'less hydrated' patients (44 vs. 68 days; p = 0.049) and in pre-renal failure (44 vs. 100 days; p = 0.003). Conclusions In advanced cancer, hydration status was associated with clinical signs and symptoms. Hydration status and pre-renal failure were independent predictors of survival. Further studies can establish the utility of BIVA as a standardised hydration assessment tool and explore its potential research application, in order to inform the clinical management of fluid balance in patients with advanced cancer. PMID:27673684

  20. Are Ethnic and Gender Specific Equations Needed to Derive Fat Free Mass from Bioelectrical Impedance in Children of South Asian, Black African-Caribbean and White European Origin? Results of the Assessment of Body Composition in Children Study

    PubMed Central

    Nightingale, Claire M.; Rudnicka, Alicja R.; Owen, Christopher G.; Donin, Angela S.; Newton, Sian L.; Furness, Cheryl A.; Howard, Emma L.; Gillings, Rachel D.; Wells, Jonathan C. K.; Cook, Derek G.; Whincup, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a potentially valuable method for assessing lean mass and body fat levels in children from different ethnic groups. We examined the need for ethnic- and gender-specific equations for estimating fat free mass (FFM) from BIA in children from different ethnic groups and examined their effects on the assessment of ethnic differences in body fat. Methods Cross-sectional study of children aged 8–10 years in London Primary schools including 325 South Asians, 250 black African-Caribbeans and 289 white Europeans with measurements of height, weight and arm-leg impedance (Z; Bodystat 1500). Total body water was estimated from deuterium dilution and converted to FFM. Multilevel models were used to derive three types of equation {A: FFM = linear combination(height+weight+Z); B: FFM = linear combination(height2/Z); C: FFM = linear combination(height2/Z+weight)}. Results Ethnicity and gender were important predictors of FFM and improved model fit in all equations. The models of best fit were ethnicity and gender specific versions of equation A, followed by equation C; these provided accurate assessments of ethnic differences in FFM and FM. In contrast, the use of generic equations led to underestimation of both the negative South Asian-white European FFM difference and the positive black African-Caribbean-white European FFM difference (by 0.53 kg and by 0.73 kg respectively for equation A). The use of generic equations underestimated the positive South Asian-white European difference in fat mass (FM) and overestimated the positive black African-Caribbean-white European difference in FM (by 4.7% and 10.1% respectively for equation A). Consistent results were observed when the equations were applied to a large external data set. Conclusions Ethnic- and gender-specific equations for predicting FFM from BIA provide better estimates of ethnic differences in FFM and FM in children, while generic equations can

  1. Bioelectricity and epimorphic regeneration.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Scott; Rojas-Muñoz, Agustin; Izpisúa Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2007-11-01

    All cells have electric potentials across their membranes, but is there really compelling evidence to think that such potentials are used as instructional cues in developmental biology? Numerous reports indicate that, in fact, steady, weak bioelectric fields are observed throughout biology and function during diverse biological processes, including development. Bioelectric fields, generated upon amputation, are also likely to play a key role during vertebrate regeneration by providing the instructive cues needed to direct migrating cells to form a wound epithelium, a structure unique to regenerating animals. However, mechanistic insight is still sorely lacking in the field. What are the genes required for bioelectric-dependent cell migration during regeneration? The power of genetics combined with the use of zebrafish offers the best opportunity for unbiased identification of the molecular players in bioelectricity.

  2. Association of nutrition parameters including bioelectrical impedance and systemic inflammatory response with quality of life and prognosis in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Lara, Karla; Turcott, Jenny G; Juárez, Eva; Guevara, Patricia; Núñez-Valencia, Carolina; Oñate-Ocaña, Luis F; Flores, Diana; Arrieta, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    Early identification and treatment of nutritional deficiencies can lead to improved outcomes in the quality of life (QoL) and survival of patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Noninvasive techniques are needed to evaluate changes in body composition as part of determining nutritional status. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association of nutritional parameters in health-related quality of life (HRQL) and survival in patients with advanced NSCLC. Chemotherapy-naïve patients with advanced NSCLC with good performance status Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) 0-2 were included prospectively in the study. We evaluated inflammatory parameters such as C-reactive protein, platelet/lymphocyte index, neutrophil/lymphocyte index, serum interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α, and nutritional variables such as body mass index (BMI) and serum albumin levels. Bioelectrical impedance analysis including phase angle was obtained before cisplatin-based chemotherapy was started. HRQL was assessed by application of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ)-C30 and QLQ-LC13 instruments at baseline. Overall survival (OS) was calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method and analyzed with log-rank and Cox proportional hazard models. One hundred nineteen patients were included. Mean BMI was 24.8 ± 4.5 kg/m(2), average weight loss of patients was 8.4%, and median phase angle was 5.8°. Malnutrition measured by subjective global assessment (SGA), weight loss >10%, BMI >20 was associated with lower HRQL scales. Patients with ECOG 2, high content serum IL-6, lower phase angle, and malnutrition parameters showed lower OS; however, after multivariate analysis, only ECOG 2 [Hazard ratio (HR), 2.7; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.5-4.7; P = 0.001], phase angle ≤5.8° (HR = 3.02; 95% CI: 1.2-7.11; P = 0.011), and SGA (HR = 2.7; 95% CI, 1.31-5.5; P = 0.005) were associated with poor survival. Patients

  3. Accuracy of segmental multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis for assessing whole-body and appendicular fat mass and lean soft tissue mass in frail women aged 75 years and older.

    PubMed

    Kim, M; Kim, H

    2013-04-01

    We aimed to examine the accuracy of segmental multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (SMF-BIA) for the assessment of whole-body and appendicular fat mass (FM) and lean soft tissue mass (LM) in frail older women, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as a reference method. All 129 community-dwelling Japanese frail older women with a mean age of 80.9 years (range, 75-89 years) from the Frailty Intervention Trial were recruited. The agreements between SMF-BIA and DXA for whole-body and appendicular body composition were assessed using simple linear regression and Bland-Altman analysis. High coefficients of determination (R(2)) for whole-body FM (R(2)=0.94, s.e. of estimate (SEE)=1.2 kg), whole-body LM (R(2)=0.85, SEE=1.4 kg), and appendicular FM (R(2)=0.82, SEE=1.1 kg) were observed between SMF-BIA and DXA. The R(2) coefficient for appendicular LM was moderate (R(2)=0.76, SEE=0.8 kg). Bland-Altman plots demonstrated that there was systematic (constant) bias (that is, DXA minus SMF-BIA) with overestimation of whole-body FM (bias=-1.2 kg, 95% confidence interval (CI)=-1.5 to -0.1) and underestimation of whole-body LM (bias=2.1 kg, 95% CI=1.8-2.3) by SMF-BIA. Similar, the appendicular measurements also demonstrated systematic bias with overestimation of appendicular FM (bias=-0.3 kg, 95% CI=-0.5 to -0.1) and underestimation of whole-body LM (bias=1.5 kg, 95% CI=1.4-1.7) by SMF-BIA. In addition, the individual level accuracy demonstrated a non-proportional bias for whole-body LM (r=0.08, P=0.338) and appendicular FM (r=0.07, P=0.413). SMF-BIA had acceptable accuracy for the estimation of whole-body and appendicular FM and LM in frail older women, although SMF-BIA underestimated LM and overestimated FM relative to DXA.

  4. Usefulness of combining admission brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) plus hospital discharge bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) in predicting 90 days cardiovascular mortality in patients with acute heart failure.

    PubMed

    Santarelli, Simona; Russo, Veronica; Lalle, Irene; De Berardinis, Benedetta; Navarin, Silvia; Magrini, Laura; Piccoli, Antonio; Codognotto, Marta; Castello, Luigi Maria; Avanzi, Gian Carlo; Villacorta, Humberto; Precht, Bernardo Luiz Campanário; de Araújo Porto, Pilar Barreto; Villacorta, Aline Sterque; Di Somma, Salvatore

    2016-12-16

    Heart failure is a disease characterized by high prevalence and mortality, and frequent rehospitalizations. The aim of this study is to investigate the prognostic power of combining brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and congestion status detected by bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) in acute heart failure patients. This is an observational, prospective, and a multicentre study. BNP assessment was measured upon hospital arrival, while BIVA analysis was obtained at the time of discharge. Cardiovascular deaths were evaluated at 90 days by a follow up phone call. 292 patients were enrolled. Compared to survivors, BNP was higher in the non-survivors group (mean value 838 vs 515 pg/ml, p < 0.001). At discharge, BIVA shows a statistically significant difference in hydration status between survivors and non-survivors [respectively, hydration index (HI) 85 vs 74, p < 0.001; reactance (Xc) 26.7 vs 37, p < 0.001; resistance (R) 445 vs 503, p < 0.01)]. Discharge BIVA shows a prognostic value in predicting cardiovascular death [HI: area under the curve (AUC) 0.715, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.65-0.76; p < 0.004; Xc: AUC 0.712, 95% CI 0.655-0.76, p < 0.007; R: AUC 0.65, 95% CI 0.29-0.706, p < 0.0247]. The combination of BIVA with BNP gives a greater prognostic power for cardiovascular mortality [combined receiving operating characteristic (ROC): AUC 0.74; 95% CI 0.68-0.79; p < 0.001]. In acute heart failure patients, higher BNP levels upon hospital admission, and congestion detected by BIVA at discharge have a significant predictive value for 90 days cardiovascular mortality. The combined use of admission BNP and BIVA discharge seems to be a useful tool for increasing prognostic power in these patients.

  5. Testing the bioelectric shield.

    PubMed

    Blackmore, Susan J; Rose, Nicholas

    2002-01-01

    A pendant was claimed to provide numerous health benefits, including reduced stress, increased strength, and protection from electromagnetic radiation from computers and mobile phones. Three experiments tested the effectiveness of this pendant's effect as a bioelectric shield. In the first experiment, 12 subjects who work with computers wore shields (6 real, 6 sham) for several weeks and were regularly tested for hand strength and mood changes. Both types of shield increased calmness, but the real shields did not have any greater effect. In 2 further studies (in each N=40) hand strength was measured at baseline, with mobile phone, and with mobile phone and bioelectric or sham shield. The shields did not differ in their effects. Both studies showed a significant correlation between the change in strength with and without the shield and subjects'scores on a questionnaire concerning their belief in and use of alternative therapies. The shields appear to produce a measurable placebo effect but are otherwise ineffective.

  6. Cracking the bioelectric code

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, AiSun; Levin, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Patterns of resting potential in non-excitable cells of living tissue are now known to be instructive signals for pattern formation during embryogenesis, regeneration and cancer suppression. The development of molecular-level techniques for tracking ion flows and functionally manipulating the activity of ion channels and pumps has begun to reveal the mechanisms by which voltage gradients regulate cell behaviors and the assembly of complex large-scale structures. A recent paper demonstrated that a specific voltage range is necessary for demarcation of eye fields in the frog embryo. Remarkably, artificially setting other somatic cells to the eye-specific voltage range resulted in formation of eyes in aberrant locations, including tissues that are not in the normal anterior ectoderm lineage: eyes could be formed in the gut, on the tail, or in the lateral plate mesoderm. These data challenge the existing models of eye fate restriction and tissue competence maps, and suggest the presence of a bioelectric code—a mapping of physiological properties to anatomical outcomes. This Addendum summarizes the current state of knowledge in developmental bioelectricity, proposes three possible interpretations of the bioelectric code that functionally maps physiological states to anatomical outcomes, and highlights the biggest open questions in this field. We also suggest a speculative hypothesis at the intersection of cognitive science and developmental biology: that bioelectrical signaling among non-excitable cells coupled by gap junctions simulates neural network-like dynamics, and underlies the information processing functions required by complex pattern formation in vivo. Understanding and learning to control the information stored in physiological networks will have transformative implications for developmental biology, regenerative medicine and synthetic bioengineering. PMID:23802040

  7. Characterization of bioelectric potentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Charles C. (Inventor); Wheeler, Kevin R. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Method and system for recognizing and characterizing bioelectric potential or electromyographic (EMG) signals associated with at least one of a coarse gesture and a fine gesture that is performed by a person, and use of the bioelectric potentials to enter data and/or commands into an electrical and/or mechanical instrument. As a gesture is performed, bioelectric signals that accompany the gesture are subjected to statistical averaging, within selected time intervals. Hidden Markov model analysis is applied to identify hidden, gesture-related states that are present. A metric is used to compare signals produced by a volitional gesture (not yet identified) with corresponding signals associated with each of a set of reference gestures, and the reference gesture that is closest to the volitional gesture is identified. Signals representing the volitional gesture are analyzed and compared with a database of reference gestures to determine if the volitional gesture is likely to be one of the reference gestures. Electronic and/or mechanical commands needed to carry out the gesture may be implemented at an interface to control an instrument. Applications include control of an aircraft, entry of data from a keyboard or other data entry device, and entry of data and commands in extreme environments that interfere with accurate entry.

  8. Bioelectrical Perchlorate Remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thrash, C.; Achenbach, L. A.; Coates, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    Several bioreactor designs are currently available for the ex-situ biological attenuation of perchlorate- contaminated waters and recently, some of these reactor designs were conditionally approved by the California Department of Health Services for application in the treatment of perchlorate contaminated drinking water. However, all of these systems are dependent on the continual addition of a chemical electron donor to sustain microbial activity and are always subject to biofouling and downstream water quality issues. In addition, residual labile electron donor in the reactor effluent can stimulate microbial growth in water distribution systems and contribute to the formation of potentially toxic trihalomethanes during disinfection by chlorination. As part of our ongoing studies into microbial perchlorate reduction we investigated the ability of dissimilatory perchlorate reducing bacteria (DPRB) to metabolize perchlorate using a negatively charged electrode (cathode) in the working chamber of a bioelectrical reactor (BER) as the primary electron donor. In this instance the DPRB use the electrons on the electrode surface either directly or indirectly in the form of electrolytically produced H2 as a source of reducing equivalents for nitrate and perchlorate reduction. As part of this investigation our fed-batch studies showed that DPRB could use electrons from a graphite cathode poised at -500mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) for the reduction of perchlorate and nitrate. We isolated a novel organism, Dechlorospirillum strain VDY, from the cathode surface after 70 days operation which readily reduced 100 mg.L-1 perchlorate in a mediatorless batch bioelectrical reactor (BER) in 6 days. Continuous up-flow BERs (UFBERs) seeded with active cultures of strain VDY continuously treated waters containing 100 mg.L-1 perchlorate with almost 100% efficiency throughout their operation achieving a non-optimized volumetric loading of 60 mg.L-1 reactor volume.day-1. The same UFBERs also treated

  9. Use of electrocardiogram (ECG) electrodes for Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caicedo-Eraso, J. C.; González-Correa, C. H.; González-Correa, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    BIA is a safe, noninvasive, portable and relatively inexpensive method of estimating body composition that is practical and suitable for individual use and large-scale studies. However, the cost of the electrodes recommended by some BIA manufacturers is too high for developing countries; where very often the long and complicated process of importation reduces the time they can be used. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of two types of ECG electrodes (2290 and 2228 by 3M®) in BIA measurements to decrease the costs of the test. The results showed that the 2228 ECG electrodes can be used in BIA measurements for adult's body composition assessment. These electrodes are available in the domestic market and their costs are 92% lower than the electrodes recommended by manufacturer. The results show a new cost-benefit relation for BIA method and make this a more accessible tool for individual tests, large-scale researches and studies in the community.

  10. Bioelectric modulation of macrophage polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunmei; Levin, Michael; Kaplan, David L.

    2016-02-01

    Macrophages play a critical role in regulating wound healing and tissue regeneration by changing their polarization state in response to local microenvironmental stimuli. The native roles of polarized macrophages encompass biomaterials and tissue remodeling needs, yet harnessing or directing the polarization response has been largely absent as a potential strategy to exploit in regenerative medicine to date. Recent data have revealed that specific alteration of cells’ resting potential (Vmem) is a powerful tool to direct proliferation and differentiation in a number of complex tissues, such as limb regeneration, craniofacial patterning and tumorigenesis. In this study, we explored the bioelectric modulation of macrophage polarization by targeting ATP sensitive potassium channels (KATP). Glibenclamide (KATP blocker) and pinacidil (KATP opener) treatment not only affect macrophage polarization, but also influence the phenotype of prepolarized macrophages. Furthermore, modulation of cell membrane electrical properties can fine-tune macrophage plasticity. Glibenclamide decreased the secretion and gene expression of selected M1 markers, while pinacidil augmented M1 markers. More interestingly, glibencalmide promoted macrophage alternative activation by enhancing certain M2 markers during M2 polarization. These findings suggest that control of bioelectric properties of macrophages could offer a promising approach to regulate macrophage phenotype as a useful tool in regenerative medicine.

  11. Bioelectric modulation of macrophage polarization.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunmei; Levin, Michael; Kaplan, David L

    2016-02-12

    Macrophages play a critical role in regulating wound healing and tissue regeneration by changing their polarization state in response to local microenvironmental stimuli. The native roles of polarized macrophages encompass biomaterials and tissue remodeling needs, yet harnessing or directing the polarization response has been largely absent as a potential strategy to exploit in regenerative medicine to date. Recent data have revealed that specific alteration of cells' resting potential (Vmem) is a powerful tool to direct proliferation and differentiation in a number of complex tissues, such as limb regeneration, craniofacial patterning and tumorigenesis. In this study, we explored the bioelectric modulation of macrophage polarization by targeting ATP sensitive potassium channels (KATP). Glibenclamide (KATP blocker) and pinacidil (KATP opener) treatment not only affect macrophage polarization, but also influence the phenotype of prepolarized macrophages. Furthermore, modulation of cell membrane electrical properties can fine-tune macrophage plasticity. Glibenclamide decreased the secretion and gene expression of selected M1 markers, while pinacidil augmented M1 markers. More interestingly, glibencalmide promoted macrophage alternative activation by enhancing certain M2 markers during M2 polarization. These findings suggest that control of bioelectric properties of macrophages could offer a promising approach to regulate macrophage phenotype as a useful tool in regenerative medicine.

  12. Electron Impedances

    SciTech Connect

    P Cameron

    2011-12-31

    It is only recently, and particularly with the quantum Hall effect and the development of nanoelectronics, that impedances on the scale of molecules, atoms and single electrons have gained attention. In what follows the possibility that characteristic impedances might be defined for the photon and the single free electron is explored is some detail, the premise being that the concepts of electrical and mechanical impedances are relevant to the elementary particle. The scale invariant quantum Hall impedance is pivotal in this exploration, as is the two body problem and Mach's principle.

  13. Bioelectric Applications for Treatment of Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, Stephen J.; Schoenbach, Karl H.; Heller, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Two new cancer therapies apply bioelectric principles. These methods target tumor structures locally and function by applying millisecond electric fields to deliver plasmid DNA encoding cytokines using electrogene transfer (EGT) or by applying rapid rise-time nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs). EGT has been used to locally deliver cytokines such as IL-12 to activate an immune response, resulting in bystander effects. NsPEFs locally induce apoptosis-like effects and affect vascular networks, both promoting tumor demise and restoration of normal vascular homeostasis. EGT with IL-12 is in melanoma clinical trials and nsPEFs are used in models with B16F10 melanoma in vitro and in mice. Applications of bioelectrics, using conventional electroporation and extensions of it, provide effective alternative therapies for melanoma. PMID:24281185

  14. Nonrandom bioelectrical signals in plant tissue.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, L

    1972-06-01

    The results of investigations on nonevoked bioelectrical activity in the India-rubber tree (Ficus elastica) are presented. Metal electrodes inserted into the plant issue were used as the ionic-to-electronic conduction converting elements. Nonevoked pulse bursts were observed with amplitudes in the 10 to 200 microvolts range. An upper limit value of the cell refractory period has been estimated from the maximum pulse frequency observed.

  15. In Vitro and In Vivo Studies for a Bio-Impedance Vital-Sign Monitor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    Patterson R: Bioelectric impedance measurement. In: Bronzino JD. The biomedical engineering handbook. Boca Raton, CRC Press, 1995. pp 1223-1230. 35 11...28. Cohen A: Biomedical signals: Origin and dynamic characteristics; frequency domain analysis. In: Bronzino JD. The biomedical engineering handbook

  16. [Use of propanidid in bioelectrical brain activation].

    PubMed

    Korwin-Protrowska, T

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the study was evaluation of propanidid as an agent activating the bioelectric activity of the brain. Examinations were carried out in 200 patients. In patients with generalized epileptic seizures a positive result of activation trial was obtained in 92,8% of the cases. In cases of focal epilepsy, temporal or not temporal, administration of propanidid revealed or increased pathological focal activity all. Activation permitted also brain tumours to be localized more precisely. In patients with cerebraal circulatory disturbances the activating effect of propanidid was observed in 82,8% of the cases. The drug is suitable for outpatient practice and for follow-up examinations.

  17. Bioelectric gene and reaction networks: computational modelling of genetic, biochemical and bioelectrical dynamics in pattern regulation.

    PubMed

    Pietak, Alexis; Levin, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) describe interactions between gene products and transcription factors that control gene expression. In combination with reaction-diffusion models, GRNs have enhanced comprehension of biological pattern formation. However, although it is well known that biological systems exploit an interplay of genetic and physical mechanisms, instructive factors such as transmembrane potential (Vmem) have not been integrated into full GRN models. Here we extend regulatory networks to include bioelectric signalling, developing a novel synthesis: the bioelectricity-integrated gene and reaction (BIGR) network. Using in silico simulations, we highlight the capacity for Vmem to alter steady-state concentrations of key signalling molecules inside and out of cells. We characterize fundamental feedbacks where Vmem both controls, and is in turn regulated by, biochemical signals and thereby demonstrate Vmem homeostatic control, Vmem memory and Vmem controlled state switching. BIGR networks demonstrating hysteresis are identified as a mechanisms through which more complex patterns of stable Vmem spots and stripes, along with correlated concentration patterns, can spontaneously emerge. As further proof of principle, we present and analyse a BIGR network model that mechanistically explains key aspects of the remarkable regenerative powers of creatures such as planarian flatworms. The functional properties of BIGR networks generate the first testable, quantitative hypotheses for biophysical mechanisms underlying the stability and adaptive regulation of anatomical bioelectric pattern. © 2017 The Author(s).

  18. Compressed sensing for bioelectric signals: a review.

    PubMed

    Craven, Darren; McGinley, Brian; Kilmartin, Liam; Glavin, Martin; Jones, Edward

    2015-03-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive review of compressed sensing or compressive sampling (CS) in bioelectric signal compression applications. The aim is to provide a detailed analysis of the current trends in CS, focusing on the advantages and disadvantages in compressing different biosignals and its suitability for deployment in embedded hardware. Performance metrics such as percent root-mean-squared difference (PRD), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and power consumption are used to objectively quantify the capabilities of CS. Furthermore, CS is compared to state-of-the-art compression algorithms in compressing electrocardiogram (ECG) and electroencephalography (EEG) as examples of typical biosignals. The main technical challenges associated with CS are discussed along with the predicted future trends.

  19. Phase angle as bioelectrical marker to identify elderly patients at risk of sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Basile, Claudia; Della-Morte, David; Cacciatore, Francesco; Gargiulo, Gaetano; Galizia, Gianluigi; Roselli, Mario; Curcio, Francesco; Bonaduce, Domenico; Abete, Pasquale

    2014-10-01

    Several markers have been associated with sarcopenia in the elderly, including bioelectrical indices. Phase angle (PhA) is an impedance parameter and it has been suggested as an indicator of cellular death. Thus, the relationship between PhA and muscle mass and strength was investigated in 207 consecutively elderly participants (mean age 76.2±6.7years) admitted for multidimensional geriatric evaluation. Muscle strength by grip strength using a hand-held dynamometer and muscle mass was measured by bioimpedentiometer. PhA was calculated directly with its arctangent (resistance/reactance×180°/π). Linear relationship among muscular mass and strength and with clinical and biochemical parameters, including PhA at uni- and multivariate analysis were performed. Linear regression analysis demonstrated that lower level of PhA is associated with reduction in grip strength (y=3.16+0.08x; r=0.49; p<0.001), and even more, with muscle mass (y=3.04+0.25x; r=0.60; p<0001). Multivariate analysis confirms these relationships (grip strength β=0.245, p=0.031; muscular mass β=0.623, p<0.01). Thus, PhA is inversely related to muscle mass and strength in elderly subjects and it may be considered a good bioelectrical marker to identify elderly patients at risk of sarcopenia.

  20. Earthing the human organism influences bioelectrical processes.

    PubMed

    Sokal, Karol; Sokal, Pawel

    2012-03-01

    This article describes interaction of the Earth's mass-electrolytic conductor on the electrical environment of human organism-aqueous environment and skeleton. In this environment, bioelectrical and bioenergetical processes take place. Measurements of electric potential on tongue, teeth, nails, and in venous blood in subjects earthed and unearthed were conducted in Faraday's cage with the use of an electrometer placed outside the cage. Measurements were performed in subjects in lying position and in movements of standing up and lying down. In the unearthed human organism in the lying position, electric potential measured in examined points is around 0  mV. Contact of the Earth by a copper conductor with a moistened surface of the human body evokes a rapid decrease of electrostatic potential on the body and in venous blood to the value of approximately -200  mV. This effect is immediate and general. Interruption of contact with the Earth causes a rapid return of the potential to its initial values in examined points. Changes in electric potential measured in venous blood and on mucosal membrane of the tongue reflect alterations in electric potential of the aqueous, electrical environment. Up-and-down movement of the insulated human organism causes transient changes in potential in the human electrical environment. During the same movement, values of potential in the electrical environment of an earthed human body remain constant. These results indicate that up-and-down movement and the elimination of potentials in the electrical environment of the human organism by the Earth's mass may play a fundamental role in regulation of bioelectrical and bioenergetical processes. The Earth's electromagnetohydrodynamic potential is responsible for this phenomenon.

  1. [Study of bioelectrical properties of acupuncture areas].

    PubMed

    Filimon, D V; Zaharia, D; Ciochină, A D; Stratulat, S; Stratone, Ana

    2010-01-01

    The research has as a goal the investigation of the bioelectrical behaviour of the acupunctural areas in order to obtain a scientific substantiation of the correspondence between the extreme--eastern medical tradition and the academical medicine. It is obvious that the Chinese traditional medicine knows a certain mechanism of ensurance of homeostasis of the organisms, a mechanism represented, according to the Chinese medical tradition, by the net of acupuncture points and meridians. The experimental data presented in this paper lead to the discovery of the fact that this net works as the fourth system of integration, the electrical--regulator one. The maintenance of the internal homeostasis of the superior organisms and their adaptation to the environment is ensured by the neuro-endocrine and circulatory systems through a mechanism described by Selye under the name of the Uncertain General Syndrome of Adaptation represented by the hypothalamo-hypophyso-corticoadrenal axis. The evolution of these systems and of their mechanisms can be supervised on the basis of the cortisole concentration. The research emphasized the direct proportionality between the cortisone levels and the variation of the electrical values of the acupuncture points, a fact that demonstrates the involvement of the net of acupuncture points and meridians in the maintenance processes of the homeostasis, control, adjustment and adaptation of the living organisms. Additionally, the analysis of the bioelectrical behavior of the acupuncture areas led to the conclusion that the morpho-functional substrate of this net is the conjunctive tissue. The physical-chemical properties of the interstitial connective tissue assures its working as an electro-regulator system on one side and as a harmonization agent of the neuro-endocrine and circulatory systems on the other side, this aspect being to be developed in a future paper.

  2. [Bioelectric activity of paravertebral muscles in experimental scoliosis].

    PubMed

    Gaĭvoronskiĭ, G I; Popov, S V

    1976-12-01

    The paper is concerned with a study of the bioelectrical activity of the paravertebral muscles in 2 groups of rabbits with differently expressed degrees of experimental scoliosis and in a control group of intact animals. The results demonstrated an asymmetry in the tonic bioelectric activity in the paravertebral muscles in scoliosis, unlike the reactions of the control group of animals. The character of asymmetry depends upon the degree of deformation: in cases of moderately expressed scoliosis there is a prevalence of the tonic bioelectric activity on the level of the basic arc of distortion on the side of the concavity; in severely expressed scoliosis the tonic bioelectrical activity of the paravertebral muscles on the concave side appears to be less than on the convex side. An asymmetry of the tonic activity takes place on the level of compensatory arcs as well. The authors come to the conclusion on the pathogenetical role of the muscular dysbalance in the genesis of scoliotic deformation.

  3. Synthetic electrophysiology: optically controlled oscillators in an engineered bioelectric tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Harold; Zhang, Hongkang; Werley, Christopher; Cohen, Adam

    Multicellular electrical dynamics underlie crucial physiological functions, but the complexity of natural bioelectricity can obscure the relation of individual components (proteins, cells) to emergent system-level dynamics. Here we introduce optopatch-spiking HEK(OS-HEK) tissue, a minimal synthetic bioelectric tissue with 4 transgenic components that supports optical initiation of propagating electrical waves as well direct optical voltage readout. In conjunction with a home-built inverted microscope capable of patterned illumination, we use this tissue to probe the biophysical attributes of this excitable bioelectric medium, including dispersion relations, curvature-dependent wavefront propagation, electrotonic coupling, and effects of boundaries. We then used chemical patterning to define cellular circuits that support controllable oscillations and which retain memory for more than 2 hours (corresponding to 104 oscillations), constituting a substrate for binary bioelectric data storage. Finally, we use optical patterning of boundary conditions in a physically homogeneous tissue to design dynamically reconfigurable oscillators.

  4. Deciphering simultaneous bioelectricity generation and dye decolorization using Proteus hauseri.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bor-Yann; Wang, Yu-Min; Ng, I-Son; Liu, Shi-Qi; Hung, Jhao-Yin

    2012-04-01

    This first-attempt study disclosed how and why electron-shuttling mediators were capable to stimulate bioelectricity-generating capabilities of dye-bearing microbial fuel cells (MFCs) using Proteus hauseri. Due to significant biotoxicity of 4-aminophenol (4AP) and the absence of electron-mediating potential of 3AP, only 2AP among all isomers could work as an exogenous mediator to stimulate bioelectricity generation of P. hauseri. Dye toxicity to cells on anodic biofilm in MFCs apparently affected the performance of simultaneous bioelectricity production and color removal (SBP&CR) in MFCs. Plus, dose-response analysis upon toxicity potency of reactive blue 160 revealed that cells on anodic biofilm in MFCs had a higher tolerance to reactive blue 160 than suspended cells. Apparently, augmentation of electron mediator(s) with low toxicity was a feasible means to facilitate bioelectricity-generating capability of SBP&CR.

  5. Electrical impedance spectroscopy and diagnosis of tendinitis.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Kisung; Lee, Kyeong Woo; Kim, Sang Beom; Han, Tai Ryoon; Jung, Dong Keun; Roh, Mee Sook; Lee, Jong Hwa

    2010-02-01

    There have been a number of studies that investigate the usefulness of bioelectric signals in diagnoses and treatment in the medical field. Tendinitis is a musculoskeletal disorder with a very high rate of occurrence. This study attempts to examine whether electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) can detect pathological changes in a tendon and find the exact location of the lesion. Experimental tendinitis was induced by injecting collagenase into one side of the patellar tendons in rabbits, while the other side was used as the control. After measuring the impedance in the tendinitis and intact tendon tissue, the dissipation factor was computed. The real component of impedance and the dissipation factor turned out to be lower in tendinitis than in intact tissues. Moreover, the tendinitis dissipation factor spectrum showed a clear difference from that of the intact tendon, indicating its usefulness as a tool for detecting the location of the lesion. Pathologic findings from the tissues that were obtained after measuring the impedance confirmed the presence of characteristics of tendinitis. In conclusion, EIS is a useful method for diagnosing tendinitis and detecting the lesion location in invasive treatment.

  6. Assessing Body Composition of Children and Adolescents Using Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry, Skinfolds, and Electrical Impedance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Angela; Kelsey, Laurel; Fellingham, Gilbert W.; George, James D.; Hager, Ron L.; Myrer, J. William; Vehrs, Pat R.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the validity and reliability of percent body fat estimates in 177 boys and 154 girls between 12-17 years of age, percent body fat was assessed once using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and twice using the sum of two skinfolds and three bioelectrical impedance analysis devices. The assessments were repeated on 79 participants on a…

  7. Assessing Body Composition of Children and Adolescents Using Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry, Skinfolds, and Electrical Impedance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Angela; Kelsey, Laurel; Fellingham, Gilbert W.; George, James D.; Hager, Ron L.; Myrer, J. William; Vehrs, Pat R.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the validity and reliability of percent body fat estimates in 177 boys and 154 girls between 12-17 years of age, percent body fat was assessed once using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and twice using the sum of two skinfolds and three bioelectrical impedance analysis devices. The assessments were repeated on 79 participants on a…

  8. Exploring Instructive Physiological Signaling with the Bioelectric Tissue Simulation Engine

    PubMed Central

    Pietak, Alexis; Levin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectric cell properties have been revealed as powerful targets for modulating stem cell function, regenerative response, developmental patterning, and tumor reprograming. Spatio-temporal distributions of endogenous resting potential, ion flows, and electric fields are influenced not only by the genome and external signals but also by their own intrinsic dynamics. Ion channels and electrical synapses (gap junctions) both determine, and are themselves gated by, cellular resting potential. Thus, the origin and progression of bioelectric patterns in multicellular tissues is complex, which hampers the rational control of voltage distributions for biomedical interventions. To improve understanding of these dynamics and facilitate the development of bioelectric pattern control strategies, we developed the BioElectric Tissue Simulation Engine (BETSE), a finite volume method multiphysics simulator, which predicts bioelectric patterns and their spatio-temporal dynamics by modeling ion channel and gap junction activity and tracking changes to the fundamental property of ion concentration. We validate performance of the simulator by matching experimentally obtained data on membrane permeability, ion concentration and resting potential to simulated values, and by demonstrating the expected outcomes for a range of well-known cases, such as predicting the correct transmembrane voltage changes for perturbation of single cell membrane states and environmental ion concentrations, in addition to the development of realistic transepithelial potentials and bioelectric wounding signals. In silico experiments reveal factors influencing transmembrane potential are significantly different in gap junction-networked cell clusters with tight junctions, and identify non-linear feedback mechanisms capable of generating strong, emergent, cluster-wide resting potential gradients. The BETSE platform will enable a deep understanding of local and long-range bioelectrical dynamics in tissues, and

  9. Exploring Instructive Physiological Signaling with the Bioelectric Tissue Simulation Engine.

    PubMed

    Pietak, Alexis; Levin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectric cell properties have been revealed as powerful targets for modulating stem cell function, regenerative response, developmental patterning, and tumor reprograming. Spatio-temporal distributions of endogenous resting potential, ion flows, and electric fields are influenced not only by the genome and external signals but also by their own intrinsic dynamics. Ion channels and electrical synapses (gap junctions) both determine, and are themselves gated by, cellular resting potential. Thus, the origin and progression of bioelectric patterns in multicellular tissues is complex, which hampers the rational control of voltage distributions for biomedical interventions. To improve understanding of these dynamics and facilitate the development of bioelectric pattern control strategies, we developed the BioElectric Tissue Simulation Engine (BETSE), a finite volume method multiphysics simulator, which predicts bioelectric patterns and their spatio-temporal dynamics by modeling ion channel and gap junction activity and tracking changes to the fundamental property of ion concentration. We validate performance of the simulator by matching experimentally obtained data on membrane permeability, ion concentration and resting potential to simulated values, and by demonstrating the expected outcomes for a range of well-known cases, such as predicting the correct transmembrane voltage changes for perturbation of single cell membrane states and environmental ion concentrations, in addition to the development of realistic transepithelial potentials and bioelectric wounding signals. In silico experiments reveal factors influencing transmembrane potential are significantly different in gap junction-networked cell clusters with tight junctions, and identify non-linear feedback mechanisms capable of generating strong, emergent, cluster-wide resting potential gradients. The BETSE platform will enable a deep understanding of local and long-range bioelectrical dynamics in tissues, and

  10. The impact of sphingosine kinase inhibitor-loaded nanoparticles on bioelectrical and biomechanical properties of cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Babahosseini, Hesam; Srinivasaraghavan, Vaishnavi; Zhao, Zongmin; Gillam, Frank; Childress, Elizabeth; Strobl, Jeannine S.; Santos, Webster L.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer progression and physiological changes within the cells are accompanied by alterations in the biophysical properties. Therefore, the cell biophysical properties can serve as promising markers for cancer detection and physiological activities. To aid in the investigation of the biophysical markers of cells, a microfluidic chip has been developed which consists of a constriction channel and embedded microelectrodes. Single-cell impedance magnitudes at four frequencies and entry and travel times are measured simultaneously during their transit through the constriction channel. This microchip provides a high-throughput, label-free, automated assay to identify biophysical signatures of malignant cells and monitor the therapeutic efficacy of drugs. Here, we monitored the dynamic cellular biophysical properties in response to sphingosine kinase inhibitors (SphKIs), and compared the effectiveness of drug delivery using poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with SphKIs versus conventional delivery. Cells treated with SphKIs showed significantly higher impedance magnitudes at all four frequencies. The bioelectrical parameters extracted using a model also revealed that the highly aggressive breast cells treated with SphKIs shifted electrically towards that of a less malignant phenotype; SphKI-treated cells exhibited an increase in cell-channel interface resistance and a significant decrease in specific membrane capacitance. Furthermore, SphKI-treated cells became slightly more deformable as measured by a decrease in their channel entry and travel times. We observed no significant difference in the bioelectrical changes produced by SphKI delivered conventionally or with NPs. However, NPs-packaged delivery of SphKI decreased the cell deformability. In summary, this study showed that while the bioelectrical properties of the cells were dominantly affected by SphKIs, the biomechanical properties were mainly changed by the NPs. PMID:26607223

  11. Some features of the bioelectric activity of the muscles with prolonged hypokinesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belaya, N. A.; Amirov, R. Z.; Shaposhnikov, Y. A.; Lebedeva, I. P.; Sologub, B. S.

    1978-01-01

    The effects of prolonged hypokinesia, brought on by confinement to bed and the attendant lack of motor activity, on the bioelectric activity of muscles are studied. Electromyographic measurements of amplitude and frequency indicators of muscular bioelectric activity were analyzed.

  12. Fossilized bioelectric wire - the trace fossil Trichichnus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kędzierski, M.; Uchman, A.; Sawlowicz, Z.; Briguglio, A.

    2014-12-01

    The trace fossil Trichichnus is proposed as an indicator of fossil bioelectric bacterial activity at the interface oxic - anoxic zone of marine sediments. This fulfils the idea that such processes, commonly found in the modern realm, should be also present in the geological past. Trichichnus is an exceptional trace fossil due to its very thin diameter (mostly less than 1 mm) and common pyritic filling. It is ubiquitous in some fine-grained sediments, where it has been interpreted as a burrow formed deeper than any other trace fossils, below the redox boundary. Trichichnus formerly referred to as deeply burrowed invertebrates, has been found as remnant of a fossilized intrasediment bacterial mat that is pyritized. As visualized in 3-D by means of X-ray computed microtomography scanner, Trichichnus forms dense filamentous fabric, which reflects that produced by modern large, mat-forming, sulphide-oxidizing bacteria, belonging mostly to Trichichnus-related taxa, which are able to house a complex bacterial consortium. Several stages of Trichichnus formation, including filamentous, bacterial mat and its pyritization, are proposed to explain an electron exchange between oxic and suboxic/anoxic layers in the sediment. Therefore, Trichichnus can be considered a fossilized "electric wire".

  13. Fossilized bioelectric wire - the trace fossil Trichichnus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kędzierski, M.; Uchman, A.; Sawlowicz, Z.; Briguglio, A.

    2015-04-01

    The trace fossil Trichichnus is proposed as an indicator of fossil bioelectric bacterial activity at the oxic-anoxic interface zone of marine sediments. This fulfils the idea that such processes, commonly found in the modern realm, should be also present in the geological past. Trichichnus is an exceptional trace fossil due to its very thin diameter (mostly less than 1 mm) and common pyritic filling. It is ubiquitous in some fine-grained sediments, where it has been interpreted as a burrow formed deeper than any other trace fossils, below the redox boundary. Trichichnus, formerly referred to as deeply burrowed invertebrates, has been found as remnant of a fossilized intrasediment bacterial mat that is pyritized. As visualized in 3-D by means of X-ray computed microtomography scanner, Trichichnus forms dense filamentous fabric, which reflects that it is produced by modern large, mat-forming, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria, belonging mostly to Thioploca-related taxa, which are able to house a complex bacterial consortium. Several stages of Trichichnus formation, including filamentous, bacterial mat and its pyritization, are proposed to explain an electron exchange between oxic and suboxic/anoxic layers in the sediment. Therefore, Trichichnus can be considered a fossilized "electric wire".

  14. Enhanced Shewanella biofilm promotes bioelectricity generation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting; Yu, Yang-Yang; Deng, Xiao-Peng; Ng, Chun Kiat; Cao, Bin; Wang, Jing-Yuan; Rice, Scott A; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Song, Hao

    2015-10-01

    Electroactive biofilms play essential roles in determining the power output of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). To engineer the electroactive biofilm formation of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a model exoelectrogen, we herein heterologously overexpressed a c-di-GMP biosynthesis gene ydeH in S. oneidensis MR-1, constructing a mutant strain in which the expression of ydeH is under the control of IPTG-inducible promoter, and a strain in which ydeH is under the control of a constitutive promoter. Such engineered Shewanella strains had significantly enhanced biofilm formation and bioelectricity generation. The MFCs inoculated with these engineered strains accomplished a maximum power density of 167.6 ± 3.6 mW/m(2) , which was ∼ 2.8 times of that achieved by the wild-type MR-1 (61.0 ± 1.9 mW/m(2) ). In addition, the engineered strains in the bioelectrochemical system at poised potential of 0.2 V vs. saturated calomel electrode (SCE) generated a stable current density of 1100 mA/m(2) , ∼ 3.4 times of that by wild-type MR-1 (320 mA/m(2) ).

  15. Fossilized bioelectric wire - the trace fossil Trichichnus.

    PubMed

    Kędzierski, M; Uchman, A; Sawlowicz, Z; Briguglio, A

    2015-04-16

    The trace fossil Trichichnus is proposed as an indicator of fossil bioelectric bacterial activity at the oxic-anoxic interface zone of marine sediments. This fulfils the idea that such processes, commonly found in the modern realm, should be also present in the geological past. Trichichnus is an exceptional trace fossil due to its very thin diameter (mostly less than 1 mm) and common pyritic filling. It is ubiquitous in some fine-grained sediments, where it has been interpreted as a burrow formed deeper than any other trace fossils, below the redox boundary. Trichichnus, formerly referred to as deeply burrowed invertebrates, has been found as remnant of a fossilized intrasediment bacterial mat that is pyritized. As visualized in 3-D by means of X-ray computed microtomography scanner, Trichichnus forms dense filamentous fabric, which reflects that it is produced by modern large, mat-forming, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria, belonging mostly to Thioploca-related taxa, which are able to house a complex bacterial consortium. Several stages of Trichichnus formation, including filamentous, bacterial mat and its pyritization, are proposed to explain an electron exchange between oxic and suboxic/anoxic layers in the sediment. Therefore, Trichichnus can be considered a fossilized "electric wire".

  16. [Impedance testing of compact bone tissue in hypokinetic rats].

    PubMed

    Berezovs'kyĭ, V Ia; Levashov, O M; Safonov, S L; Levashov, M I; Litovka, I H

    2005-01-01

    The bioelectrical impedance method was used for determination of compact bone status in white rats after 28th days of strong hypokinesia. It was shown that the lowering of mechanical loading leads to disturbances in dielectric properties and changes in electrical impedance parameters. These disturbances had different direction and manifestation. It was distinguished the two typical variants of bone dielectric properties changes. The first variant was more characteristic for early stages of hypokinetic osteodestruction, the second variant was more characteristic for the fully development hypokinetic disturbances. It was determine a correlation between the changes in electrical impedance parameters and mane components of bone matrix. The results of this study show that hyperhydratation of bone tissue play important role in hypokinetic changes of bone dielectric properties. Electroimpedance method may be used for early diagnostic of bone state in clinic and experiments.

  17. Bioelectric mechanisms in regeneration: unique aspects and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Regenerative biology has focused largely on chemical factors and transcriptional networks. However, endogenous ion flows serve as key epigenetic regulators of cell behavior. Bioelectric signaling involves feedback loops, long-range communication, polarity, and information transfer over multiple size scales. Understanding the roles of endogenous voltage gradients, ion flows, and electric fields will contribute to the basic understanding of numerous morphogenetic processes and the means by which they can robustly restore pattern after perturbation. By learning to modulate the bioelectrical signals that control cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation, we gain a powerful set of new techniques with which to manipulate growth and patterning in biomedical contexts. This chapter reviews the unique properties of bioelectric signaling, surveys molecular strategies and reagents for its investigation, and discusses the opportunities made available for regenerative medicine. PMID:19406249

  18. Study of Plant Bioelectric Potential Response due to Photosynthesis Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Ki; Hasegawa, Yuki; Yaji, Tamaki; Uchida, Hidekazu

    Bioelectric potential is generated by ions in a plant cell and the potential changes with physiological activities of the plant. Therefore, measurement of the potential is a promising method for evaluation of the plant activities. In this study, we investigated mechanism of the potential response generation due to photosynthesis reaction of plant. For this purpose, we measured bioelectric potential with replacing air by N2 gas in order to suppress carbon-fixation reaction. In the result, the potential response was different from ambient gas, and we clarified that several behaviors of the potential response strongly related to activities of photochemical reaction and carbon-fixation reaction. Next, we measured the potential when illuminating condition was changed for accelerating or decelerating photosynthesis. At that time, shape of the potential response correlated with increase or decrease of photosynthetic rate. We considered that the measurement of the bioelectric potential can be applied to evaluation of photosynthetic activity and it can support for effective cultivation.

  19. Calcium uptake and bioelectrical activity of denervated and myotonic muscle

    PubMed Central

    Radu, H.; Gödri, I.; Albu, E.; Radu, A.; Robu, R.

    1970-01-01

    Calcium uptake on muscle microsomal fraction has been investigated in connection with bioelectrical activity in some muscle diseases. The findings showed a significant increase of calcium uptake in denervated muscle, which exhibited spontaneous bioelectrical activity (fibrillations). In myotonias, a low calcium uptake was peculiar to Steinert's disease but not to myotonia congenita. In other muscle diseases, such as progressive muscular dystrophy (Duchenne's type) or Charcot-Marie-Tooth's disease, the ability of muscle microsomal fraction to bind calcium was not changed. Starting with the key role of calcium in excitation-contraction coupling, the implications of calcium uptake disturbances in muscle electrogenesis are discussed. Images PMID:5431720

  20. ADVANCES IN IMPEDANCE THEORY

    SciTech Connect

    Stupakov, G.; /SLAC

    2009-06-05

    We review recent progress in the following areas of the impedance theory: calculation of impedance of tapers and small angle collimators; optical approximation and parabolic equation for the high-frequency impedance; impedance due to resistive inserts in a perfectly conducting pipe.

  1. Carbon fiber enhanced bioelectricity generation in soil microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojing; Wang, Xin; Zhao, Qian; Wan, Lili; Li, Yongtao; Zhou, Qixing

    2016-11-15

    The soil microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a promising biotechnology for the bioelectricity recovery as well as the remediation of organics contaminated soil. However, the electricity production and the remediation efficiency of soil MFC are seriously limited by the tremendous internal resistance of soil. Conductive carbon fiber was mixed with petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil and significantly enhanced the performance of soil MFC. The maximum current density, the maximum power density and the accumulated charge output of MFC mixed carbon fiber (MC) were 10, 22 and 16 times as high as those of closed circuit control due to the carbon fiber productively assisted the anode to collect the electron. The internal resistance of MC reduced by 58%, 83% of which owed to the charge transfer resistance, resulting in a high efficiency of electron transfer from soil to anode. The degradation rates of total petroleum hydrocarbons enhanced by 100% and 329% compared to closed and opened circuit controls without the carbon fiber respectively. The effective range of remediation and the bioelectricity recovery was extended from 6 to 20cm with the same area of air-cathode. The mixed carbon fiber apparently enhanced the bioelectricity generation and the remediation efficiency of soil MFC by means of promoting the electron transfer rate from soil to anode. The use of conductively functional materials (e.g. carbon fiber) is very meaningful for the remediation and bioelectricity recovery in the bioelectrochemical remediation.

  2. Bioelectric Control of a 757 Class High Fidelity Aircraft Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Charles; Wheeler, Kevin; Stepniewski, Slawomir; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents results of a recent experiment in fine grain Electromyographic (EMG) signal recognition, We demonstrate bioelectric flight control of 757 class simulation aircraft landing at San Francisco International Airport. The physical instrumentality of a pilot control stick is not used. A pilot closes a fist in empty air and performs control movements which are captured by a dry electrode array on the arm, analyzed and routed through a flight director permitting full pilot outer loop control of the simulation. A Vision Dome immersive display is used to create a VR world for the aircraft body mechanics and flight changes to pilot movements. Inner loop surfaces and differential aircraft thrust is controlled using a hybrid neural network architecture that combines a damage adaptive controller (Jorgensen 1998, Totah 1998) with a propulsion only based control system (Bull & Kaneshige 1997). Thus the 757 aircraft is not only being flown bioelectrically at the pilot level but also demonstrates damage adaptive neural network control permitting adaptation to severe changes in the physical flight characteristics of the aircraft at the inner loop level. To compensate for accident scenarios, the aircraft uses remaining control surface authority and differential thrust from the engines. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time real time bioelectric fine-grained control, differential thrust based control, and neural network damage adaptive control have been integrated into a single flight demonstration. The paper describes the EMG pattern recognition system and the bioelectric pattern recognition methodology.

  3. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) equations validation against hydrodensitometry in a Colombian population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caicedo-Eraso, J. C.; Gonzalez-Correa, C. A.; Gonzalez-Correa, C. H.

    2013-04-01

    Several studies have shown that the accuracy of BIA results depends of ethnicity, age, gender, hormonal and genetic variations and, so far, there are not specific equations for Colombian population. The purpose was to evaluate reported BIA equations to determine their usefulness in body composition assessment in young females from Colombia using hydrodensitometry as the reference method. A sample of 30 young females was evaluated. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined to minimize the variability of BIA. Height, weight, multi-frequency BIA, residual lung volume (RV) and underwater weight (UWW) were measured. Five BIA equations met the inclusion criteria of this study. Three equations overestimated and two equations underestimated body fat (BF). Paired Student t-test and Bland and Altman analysis (p<0.05) showed significant differences in four BIA equations. However, all standard error of estimate (SEE) to BF was greater than 2.7 kg. This study showed that the five selected BIA equations are not valid for estimation of body composition in young females from Colombia. It is recommended to develop BIA equations to improve BF fat assessment in our population.

  4. Association of older women's limb circumferences and muscle mass as estimated with bioelectrical impedance.

    PubMed

    Bohannon, Richard W; Chu, Johnson; Steffl, Michal

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between three practical measures used to characterize muscle mass: mid-arm circumference, maximum calf circumference, and muscle mass index determined using bioimpedance analysis. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-eight ambulatory women residing in a senior center (mean age, 83 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. Their mid-arm circumference and maximum calf circumference were measured bilaterally and they all underwent bioimpedance analysis. Relationships were examined by using Pearson (r) correlations, Cronbach's alpha, and factor analysis. [Results] Circumferential measures correlated significantly with one another (r = 0.745-0.968) and with the muscle mass index determined with bioimpedance analysis (r = 0.480-0.628). The Cronbach's alpha for the measures was 0.905. Factor analysis confirmed that all of the measures were reflective of a common construct. [Conclusion] On the basis of their correlations with one another and the muscle mass index determined with bioimpedance analysis, circumferential measures of the mid-arm or calf may be considered crude indicators of reduced muscle mass.

  5. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) for sarcopenic obesity (SO) diagnosis in young female subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Correa, C. H.; Caicedo-Eraso, J. C.; S, Villada-Gomez J.

    2013-04-01

    Sarcopenia is defined as a loss of muscle mass depending of ageing and affecting physical function (definition A). A new definition considers excluding mass reduction criterion (definition B). Obesity is pandemic and occurs at all ages. Sarcopenic obesity (SO) implies both processes. The purpose of this study was to compare the results obtained after applying these 2 definitions in 66 aged 22 ± 2.8 years overweight or obese young college women. Percentage body fat (%BF) and skeletal mass index (SMI) were estimated by BIA, muscle function by handgrip strength test (HGS) and physical performance by Harvard step test (HST). There were 9.1% and 90.9% overweight or obese subjects. Twenty nine subjects (43.9%) had decreased HGS and 22 (33.3%) had impaired physical performance. One obese subject (1.5%) met the criteria for sarcopenic obesity by definition A and 9 (13.6%) by definition B. Although a linear regression (α <0.05) showed a very weak association between these variables (r2 = 0.094, 0.037 and 0.275 respectively) it was observed a tendency for HGS, HST and SMI deterioration when %BF increases. However, other confounding factors must be investigated. Probably as the population gets more obese, the problematic of SO will be found earlier in life.

  6. Prospective nutritional surveillance using bioelectrical impedance in chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Dumler, Francis; Kilates, Cristina

    2005-01-01

    Malnutrition is a well-known risk factor influencing survival in chronic maintenance dialysis patients. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are also predisposed to malnutrition because of dietary restrictions and the catabolic effects of uremia. Therefore, a significant degree of malnutrition may be present before the initiation of renal replacement therapy. We consequently initiated a prospective evaluation of subjects attending the CKD clinic, where all patients are seen by a renal dietitian and nutritional, biochemical, and bioimpedance parameters are measured every 3 months. A total of 40 patients have completed 9 months of follow-up and are the subject of this report. Their mean age is 65 +/- 12 years, 48% female, 68% black, and 58% diabetic patients. The glomerular filtration rate did not change during follow-up (36 +/- 12 versus 34 +/- 14 mL/min/1.72 m 2 , at baseline and 9 months, respectively). Similarly, no differences between baseline and 9 months were noted in weight (88.0 +/- 20.3 versus 86.8 +/- 18.7 kg, respectively) or body mass index (30.6 +/- 5.8 versus 30.2 +/- 5.4 kg/m 2 , respectively). In addition, no differences between baseline and 9 months were noted in total body water (44.4 +/- 11.4 versus 44.6 +/- 10.8 L, respectively), body cell mass (25.3 +/- 7.4 versus 25.2 +/- 7.0 kg, respectively), and fat-free mass (59.2 +/- 16.6 versus 59.4 +/- 15.7 kg, respectively). The bioimpedance vector decreased with time in 25 subjects (62%), indicating a state of overhydration. Subjects were further analyzed by vector category. Body cell mass did not change in either group. As expected, total body water increased in the group with a decreasing bioimpedance vector. Because body cell mass did not increase, the greater total body water reflected an increase in extracellular volume (edema). In the group with stable vectors, no changes were noted with time in weight or total body water. These results indicate that CKD patients with stable renal function following a judicious dietary protein intake (0.6 to 0.8 g/kg normalized body weight/day) have no loss of body cell mass or fat-free mass over a 9-month period. Of note, a high proportion of patients (62%) developed clinically unrecognized fluid retention, which is promptly identified by a decreasing bioimpedance vector.

  7. Sensitivity field distributions for segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis based on real human anatomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilov, A. A.; Kramarenko, V. K.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Rudnev, S. G.; Salamatova, V. Yu; Smirnov, A. V.; Vassilevski, Yu V.

    2013-04-01

    In this work, an adaptive unstructured tetrahedral mesh generation technology is applied for simulation of segmental bioimpedance measurements using high-resolution whole-body model of the Visible Human Project man. Sensitivity field distributions for a conventional tetrapolar, as well as eight- and ten-electrode measurement configurations are obtained. Based on the ten-electrode configuration, we suggest an algorithm for monitoring changes in the upper lung area.

  8. Bioelectrical impedance vectorial analysis and nutritional status of older women according to body mass index

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Longitudinal studies, both epidemiological and clinical, have shown that elderly with high body mass index (BMI) are able to better face stressing factors, and have better survival rate as consequence. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if higher BMI values were associated with improved nu...

  9. Bioelectrical Impedance Measurement for Predicting Treatment Outcome in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-08-14

    Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Mast Cell Leukemia; Myeloid/NK-cell Acute Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  10. [ABDOMINAL BIOELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE ANALYSIS AND ANTHROPOMETRY FOR PREDICTING METABOLIC SYNDROME IN MIDDLE AGED MEN].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Vázquez, Rosalía; Millán Romero, Ángel; Barbancho, Miguel Ángel; Alvero-Cruz, José Ramón

    2015-09-01

    Objetivo: la obesidad central tiene una gran relación con el síndrome metabólico. Estudiar la relación de la grasa del tronco, el índice de grasa visceral y las medidas antropométricas con el síndrome metabólico. Métodos: diseño: transversal descriptivo y correlacional. Participaron 75 varones, voluntarios, de distintas profesiones, que accedieron a un reconocimiento médico- laboral, con un rango de edad de 21 a 59 años. Mediciones de peso, talla, índice de masa corporal, perímetro abdominal, perímetro glúteo, índice cintura-cadera y grasa de tronco y nivel de grasa visceral mediante bioimpedanciometría (Tanita AB-140-ViScan) y parámetros bioquímicos: glucosa, colesterol total y triglicéridos. Así mismo, se midió la presión arterial sistólica y diastólica. Se comparan los estados de síndrome metabólico, sobrepeso y obesidad. Resultados: existen correlaciones de las medidas antropométricas con la de grasa de tronco y el nivel de grasa visceral, así como con los parámetros bioquímicos (p < 0,001). Un análisis de curvas ROC muestra que los puntos de corte a partir de los cuales se puede presentar el síndrome metabólico son de 32,7% de grasa de tronco y de 13 para el nivel de grasa visceral, con una alta sensibilidad y especificidad. Se obtienen los mismos puntos de corte para el estado de obesidad y síndrome metabólico. Conclusiones: la grasa de tronco y los niveles de grasa visceral son muy sensibles y específicos para la detección del síndrome metabólico y la obesidad, aunque no superan a las variables e índices antropométricos. En la condición de sobrepeso, la grasa de tronco y visceral son medidas algo más predictivas que las variables antropométricas.

  11. Treating a pressure ulcer with bio-electric stimulation therapy.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Sylvie; Collins, Fiona

    Mr Jones lived independently until he developed necrotic pressure ulcers over his heels and could no longer mobilize to care for himself. He was transferred to a nursing home where he lived for 18 months and where the nurses could care for his wounds. The wound had been on his right heel without changing over the 18 months and, although attempts to hydrate the eschar had been somewhat successful, the necrotic tissue proved stubborn creating large quantity of fibrous slough. Mr Jones was initially assessed by the tissue viability consultant on 14 March 2005 and agreed to the application of bio-electric stimulation therapy (POSiFEC). The wound change was immediate and was fully healed by 16 June 2005, 12 weeks after his initial assessment. This article outlines his care and the background to bio-electrical stimulation in wounds.

  12. Heterogeneous silicon mesostructures for lipid-supported bioelectric interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuanwen; Carvalho-de-Souza, João L.; Wong, Raymond C. S.; Luo, Zhiqiang; Isheim, Dieter; Zuo, Xiaobing; Nicholls, Alan W.; Jung, Il Woong; Yue, Jiping; Liu, Di-Jia; Wang, Yucai; De Andrade, Vincent; Xiao, Xianghui; Navrazhnykh, Luizetta; Weiss, Dara E.; Wu, Xiaoyang; Seidman, David N.; Bezanilla, Francisco; Tian, Bozhi

    2017-01-01

    Silicon-based materials have widespread application as biophysical tools and biomedical devices. Here we introduce a biocompatible and degradable mesostructured form of silicon with multiscale structural and chemical heterogeneities. The material was synthesized using mesoporous silica as a template through a chemical-vapor-deposition process. It has an amorphous atomic structure, an ordered nanowire-based framework, and random submicrometre voids, and shows an average Young’s modulus that is 2–3 orders of magnitude smaller than that of single crystalline silicon. In addition, we used the heterogeneous silicon mesostructures to design a lipid-bilayer-supported bioelectric interface that is remotely controlled and temporally transient, and that permits non-genetic and subcellular optical modulation of the electrophysiology dynamics in single dorsal root ganglia neurons. Our findings suggest that the biomimetic expansion of silicon into heterogeneous and deformable forms can open up opportunities in extracellular biomaterial or bioelectric systems. PMID:27348576

  13. Bioelectric signaling regulates head and organ size during planarian regeneration.

    PubMed

    Beane, Wendy Scott; Morokuma, Junji; Lemire, Joan M; Levin, Michael

    2013-01-15

    A main goal of regenerative medicine is to replace lost or damaged tissues and organs with functional parts of the correct size and shape. But the proliferation of new cells is not sufficient; we will also need to understand how the scale and ultimate form of newly produced tissues are determined. Using the planarian model system, we report that membrane voltage-dependent bioelectric signaling determines both head size and organ scaling during regeneration. RNA interference of the H(+),K(+)-ATPase ion pump results in membrane hyperpolarization, which has no effect on the amount of new tissue (blastema) that is regenerated yet produces regenerates with tiny 'shrunken' heads and proportionally oversized pharynges. Our data show that this disproportionality results from a lack of the apoptosis required to adjust head and organ size and placement, highlighting apoptotic remodeling as the link between bioelectric signaling and the establishment of organ size during regeneration.

  14. Heterogeneous silicon mesostructures for lipid-supported bioelectric interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yuanwen; Carvalho-de-Souza, João L.; Wong, Raymond C. S.; Luo, Zhiqiang; Isheim, Dieter; Zuo, Xiaobing; Nicholls, Alan W.; Jung, Il Woong; Yue, Jiping; Liu, Di-Jia; Wang, Yucai; de Andrade, Vincent; Xiao, Xianghui; Navrazhnykh, Luizetta; Weiss, Dara E.; Wu, Xiaoyang; Seidman, David N.; Bezanilla, Francisco; Tian, Bozhi

    2016-09-01

    Silicon-based materials have widespread application as biophysical tools and biomedical devices. Here we introduce a biocompatible and degradable mesostructured form of silicon with multi-scale structural and chemical heterogeneities. The material was synthesized using mesoporous silica as a template through a chemical vapour deposition process. It has an amorphous atomic structure, an ordered nanowire-based framework and random submicrometre voids, and shows an average Young's modulus that is 2-3 orders of magnitude smaller than that of single-crystalline silicon. In addition, we used the heterogeneous silicon mesostructures to design a lipid-bilayer-supported bioelectric interface that is remotely controlled and temporally transient, and that permits non-genetic and subcellular optical modulation of the electrophysiology dynamics in single dorsal root ganglia neurons. Our findings suggest that the biomimetic expansion of silicon into heterogeneous and deformable forms can open up opportunities in extracellular biomaterial or bioelectric systems.

  15. Greater transportation energy and GHG offsets from bioelectricity than ethanol.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J E; Lobell, D B; Field, C B

    2009-05-22

    The quantity of land available to grow biofuel crops without affecting food prices or greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from land conversion is limited. Therefore, bioenergy should maximize land-use efficiency when addressing transportation and climate change goals. Biomass could power either internal combustion or electric vehicles, but the relative land-use efficiency of these two energy pathways is not well quantified. Here, we show that bioelectricity outperforms ethanol across a range of feedstocks, conversion technologies, and vehicle classes. Bioelectricity produces an average of 81% more transportation kilometers and 108% more emissions offsets per unit area of cropland than does cellulosic ethanol. These results suggest that alternative bioenergy pathways have large differences in how efficiently they use the available land to achieve transportation and climate goals.

  16. Bioelectric signaling regulates head and organ size during planarian regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Beane, Wendy Scott; Morokuma, Junji; Lemire, Joan M.; Levin, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A main goal of regenerative medicine is to replace lost or damaged tissues and organs with functional parts of the correct size and shape. But the proliferation of new cells is not sufficient; we will also need to understand how the scale and ultimate form of newly produced tissues are determined. Using the planarian model system, we report that membrane voltage-dependent bioelectric signaling determines both head size and organ scaling during regeneration. RNA interference of the H+,K+-ATPase ion pump results in membrane hyperpolarization, which has no effect on the amount of new tissue (blastema) that is regenerated yet produces regenerates with tiny ‘shrunken’ heads and proportionally oversized pharynges. Our data show that this disproportionality results from a lack of the apoptosis required to adjust head and organ size and placement, highlighting apoptotic remodeling as the link between bioelectric signaling and the establishment of organ size during regeneration. PMID:23250205

  17. Conversion of Wastes to Bioelectricity, Bioethanol, and Fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul Majeed; Hussain, Muhammad Shoukat

    2017-08-01

      This research article presents production of bioelectricity, bioethanol, and fertilizer from different industrial wastewaters supplemented with waste fruit and vegetables. Bioelectricity was generated from wastewater through the development of different microbial fuel cells (MFCs). It was observed that the voltage was increased in series combination, whereas current was increased in parallel combinations. The series combination of four units of single-chamber and eight units of double-chamber MFCs produced the power output of 5.43 mW and 4.08 mW, respectively, which is sufficient to light up the light emitting diode (LED). Power output was increased by the addition of waste fruit and vegetables. The leftover filtrates of MFCs were used for the production of bioethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, while residues were used as fertilizer to check the growth of okra plant. The result showed that minor amount of bioethanol is produced from different samples, which was confirmed by the preparation of ethylbenzoate derivative.

  18. Heterogeneous silicon mesostructures for lipid-supported bioelectric interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Yuanwen; Carvalho-de-Souza, João L.; Wong, Raymond C. S.; Luo, Zhiqiang; Isheim, Dieter; Zuo, Xiaobing; Nicholls, Alan W.; Jung, Il Woong; Yue, Jiping; Liu, Di-Jia; Wang, Yucai; De Andrade, Vincent; Xiao, Xianghui; Navrazhnykh, Luizetta; Weiss, Dara E.; Wu, Xiaoyang; Seidman, David N.; Bezanilla, Francisco; Tian, Bozhi

    2016-06-27

    Silicon-based materials have widespread application as biophysical tools and biomedical devices. Here we introduce a biocompatible and degradable mesostructured form of silicon with multi-scale structural and chemical heterogeneities. The material was synthesized using mesoporous silica as a template through a chemical vapour deposition process. It has an amorphous atomic structure, an ordered nanowire-based framework and random submicrometre voids, and shows an average Young’s modulus that is 2–3 orders of magnitude smaller than that of single-crystalline silicon. In addition, we used the heterogeneous silicon mesostructures to design a lipid-bilayer-supported bioelectric interface that is remotely controlled and temporally transient, and that permits non-genetic and subcellular optical modulation of the electrophysiology dynamics in single dorsal root ganglia neurons. Our findings suggest that the biomimetic expansion of silicon into heterogeneous and deformable forms can open up opportunities in extracellular biomaterial or bioelectric systems.

  19. [Endocrine obesity: bioelectric profiles (biotypes) detected in the body composition].

    PubMed

    Miggiano, G A D; Petitti, T

    2004-09-01

    136 patients were selected (16 men and 120 women with non-specific menstrual disturbances) with a BMI (Body Mass Index) between 25 and 45 kg/m2, which were diagnosed with "disendocrinia" (GH deficit, hyperadrenocorticism, hypothyroidsm, hyperandrogenism, menstrual cycle disorders). The proposed approach, based on the visualization of the value distribution of the electric measures in different graphics, is able to immediately explain the bioelectric state of the individual's lean-mass. Subjects with hypothyroidism present, along with their overweight, less bio-conducting mass, with an altered fluid intra/extra-cellular distribution. Patients with hyperadrenocorticism show instead an hyperhydratation of the body mass, especially in the extracellular level. Patients with menstrual disorders (amenorrea, polycystic ovary syndrome, anovulatory cycle etc...) present a lean mass reduction (elevated Rs) and an increase of the intra-cellular compartment (elevated-Xc). Patients with hyper-androgenism (and hirsutism) show a characteristic bioelectric "pattern", with low Rs levels and high Xc levels. Subjects with GH deficit (men and women), has a trend of documenting bioelectric measures with lower lean mass and higher fat-mass. Different electric biotypes seem to characterize the body composition in the several endocrine disorders.

  20. A Bioassay System Using Bioelectric Signals from Small Fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terawaki, Mitsuru; Soh, Zu; Hirano, Akira; Tsuji, Toshio

    Although the quality of tap water is generally examined using chemical assay, this method cannot be used for examination in real time. Against such a background, the technique of fish bioassay has attracted attention as an approach that enables constant monitoring of aquatic contamination. The respiratory rhythms of fish are considered an efficient indicator for the ongoing assessment of water quality, since they are sensitive to chemicals and can be indirectly measured from bioelectric signals generated by breathing. In order to judge aquatic contamination accurately, it is necessary to measure bioelectric signals from fish swimming freely as well as to stably discriminate measured signals, which vary between individuals. However, no bioassay system meeting the above requirements has yet been established. This paper proposes a bioassay system using bioelectric signals generated from small fish in free-swimming conditions. The system records signals using multiple electrodes to cover the extensive measurement range required in a free-swimming environment, and automatically discriminates changes in water quality from signal frequency components. This discrimination is achieved through an ensemble classification method using probability neural networks to solve the problem of differences between individual fish. The paper also reports on the results of related validation experiments, which showed that the proposed system was able to stably discriminate between water conditions before and after bleach exposure.

  1. Anisotropic Artificial Impedance Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quarfoth, Ryan Gordon

    Anisotropic artificial impedance surfaces are a group of planar materials that can be modeled by the tensor impedance boundary condition. This boundary condition relates the electric and magnetic field components on a surface using a 2x2 tensor. The advantage of using the tensor impedance boundary condition, and by extension anisotropic artificial impedance surfaces, is that the method allows large and complex structures to be modeled quickly and accurately using a planar boundary condition. This thesis presents the theory of anisotropic impedance surfaces and multiple applications. Anisotropic impedance surfaces are a generalization of scalar impedance surfaces. Unlike the scalar version, anisotropic impedance surfaces have material properties that are dependent on the polarization and wave vector of electromagnetic radiation that interacts with the surface. This allows anisotropic impedance surfaces to be used for applications that scalar surfaces cannot achieve. Three of these applications are presented in this thesis. The first is an anisotropic surface wave waveguide which allows propagation in one direction, but passes radiation in the orthogonal direction without reflection. The second application is a surface wave beam shifter which splits a surface wave beam in two directions and reduces the scattering from an object placed on the surface. The third application is a patterned surface which can alter the scattered radiation pattern of a rectangular shape. For each application, anisotropic impedance surfaces are constructed using periodic unit cells. These unit cells are designed to give the desired surface impedance characteristics by modifying a patterned metallic patch on a grounded dielectric substrate. Multiple unit cell geometries are analyzed in order to find the setup with the best performance in terms of impedance characteristics and frequency bandwidth.

  2. Bioelectrical signal processing in cardiac and neurological applications and electromyography: physiology, engineering, and noninvasive applications

    PubMed Central

    Valentinuzzi, Max E

    2007-01-01

    The present article reviews two recent books dealing with rather closely related subjects; in fact, they tend to complement and supplement reciprocally. Obviously, the electromyogram is a bioelectrical signal that often is mathematically manipulated in different ways to better extract its information. Moreover, its correlation with other bioelectric variables may become necessary.

  3. Robust impedance shaping telemanipulation

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, J.E.

    1993-08-01

    When a human operator performs a task via a bilateral manipulator, the feel of the task is embodied in the mechanical impedance of the manipulator. Traditionally, a bilateral manipulator is designed for transparency; i.e., so that the impedance reflected through the manipulator closely approximates that of the task. Impedance shaping bilateral control, introduced here, differs in that it treats the bilateral manipulator as a means of constructively altering the impedance of a task. This concept is particularly valuable if the characteristic dimensions (e.g., force, length, time) of the task impedance are very different from those of the human limb. It is shown that a general form of impedance shaping control consists of a conventional power-scaling bilateral controller augmented with a real-time interactive task simulation (i.e., a virtual environment). An approach to impedance shaping based on kinematic similarity between tasks of different scale is introduced and illustrated with an example. It is shown that an important consideration in impedance shaping controller design is robustness; i.e., guaranteeing the stability of the operator/manipulator/task system. A general condition for the robustness of a bilateral manipulator is derived. This condition is based on the structured singular value ({mu}). An example of robust impedance shaping bilateral control is presented and discussed.

  4. Bioelectric impact of pathological angiogenesis on vascular function

    PubMed Central

    Puro, Donald G.; Kohmoto, Ryohsuke; Fujita, Yasushi; Gardner, Thomas W.; Padovani-Claudio, Dolly A.

    2016-01-01

    Pathological angiogenesis, as seen in many inflammatory, immune, malignant, and ischemic disorders, remains an immense health burden despite new molecular therapies. It is likely that further therapeutic progress requires a better understanding of neovascular pathophysiology. Surprisingly, even though transmembrane voltage is well known to regulate vascular function, no previous bioelectric analysis of pathological angiogenesis has been reported. Using the perforated-patch technique to measure vascular voltages in human retinal neovascular specimens and rodent models of retinal neovascularization, we discovered that pathological neovessels generate extraordinarily high voltage. Electrophysiological experiments demonstrated that voltage from aberrantly located preretinal neovascular complexes is transmitted into the intraretinal vascular network. With extensive neovascularization, this voltage input is substantial and boosts the membrane potential of intraretinal blood vessels to a suprahyperpolarized level. Coincident with this suprahyperpolarization, the vasomotor response to hypoxia is fundamentally altered. Instead of the compensatory dilation observed in the normal retina, arterioles constrict in response to an oxygen deficiency. This anomalous vasoconstriction, which would potentiate hypoxia, raises the possibility that the bioelectric impact of neovascularization on vascular function is a previously unappreciated pathophysiological mechanism to sustain hypoxia-driven angiogenesis. PMID:27551068

  5. Compost in plant microbial fuel cell for bioelectricity generation.

    PubMed

    Moqsud, M A; Yoshitake, J; Bushra, Q S; Hyodo, M; Omine, K; Strik, David

    2015-02-01

    Recycling of organic waste is an important topic in developing countries as well as developed countries. Compost from organic waste has been used for soil conditioner. In this study, an experiment has been carried out to produce green energy (bioelectricity) by using paddy plant microbial fuel cells (PMFCs) in soil mixed with compost. A total of six buckets filled with the same soil were used with carbon fiber as the electrodes for the test. Rice plants were planted in five of the buckets, with the sixth bucket containing only soil and an external resistance of 100 ohm was used for all cases. It was observed that the cells with rice plants and compost showed higher values of voltage and power density with time. The highest value of voltage showed around 700 mV when a rice plant with 1% compost mixed soil was used, however it was more than 95% less in the case of no rice plant and without compost. Comparing cases with and without compost but with the same number of rice plants, cases with compost depicted higher voltage to as much as 2 times. The power density was also 3 times higher when the compost was used in the paddy PMFCs which indicated the influence of compost on bio-electricity generation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bioelectrical Regulation of Cell Cycle and the Planarian Model System

    PubMed Central

    Barghouth, Paul G.; Thiruvalluvan, Manish; Oviedo, Néstor J.

    2015-01-01

    Cell cycle regulation through the manipulation of endogenous membrane potentials offers tremendous opportunities to control cellular processes during tissue repair and cancer formation. However, the molecular mechanisms by which biophysical signals modulate the cell cycle remain underappreciated and poorly understood. Cells in complex organisms generate and maintain a constant voltage gradient across the plasma membrane known as the transmembrane potential. This potential, generated through the combined efforts of various ion transporters, pumps and channels, is known to drive a wide range of cellular processes such as cellular proliferation, migration and tissue regeneration while its deregulation can lead to tumorigenesis. These cellular regulatory events, coordinated by ionic flow, correspond to a new and exciting field termed molecular bioelectricity. We aim to present a brief discussion on the biophysical machinery involving membrane potential and the mechanisms mediating cell cycle progression and cancer transformation. Furthermore, we present the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea as a tractable model system for understanding principles behind molecular bioelectricity at both the cellular and organismal level. PMID:25749155

  7. Optically Controlled Oscillators in an Engineered Bioelectric Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Harold M.; Zhang, Hongkang; Werley, Christopher A.; Cohen, Adam E.

    2016-07-01

    Complex electrical dynamics in excitable tissues occur throughout biology, but the roles of individual ion channels can be difficult to determine due to the complex nonlinear interactions in native tissue. Here, we ask whether we can engineer a tissue capable of basic information storage and processing, where all functional components are known and well understood. We develop a cell line with four transgenic components: two to enable collective propagation of electrical waves and two to enable optical perturbation and optical readout of membrane potential. We pattern the cell growth to define simple cellular ring oscillators that run stably for >2 h (˜104 cycles ) and that can store data encoded in the direction of electrical circulation. Using patterned optogenetic stimulation, we probe the biophysical attributes of this synthetic excitable tissue in detail, including dispersion relations, curvature-dependent wave front propagation, electrotonic coupling, and boundary effects. We then apply the biophysical characterization to develop an optically reconfigurable bioelectric oscillator. These results demonstrate the feasibility of engineering bioelectric tissues capable of complex information processing with optical input and output.

  8. Bioelectrical regulation of cell cycle and the planarian model system.

    PubMed

    Barghouth, Paul G; Thiruvalluvan, Manish; Oviedo, Néstor J

    2015-10-01

    Cell cycle regulation through the manipulation of endogenous membrane potentials offers tremendous opportunities to control cellular processes during tissue repair and cancer formation. However, the molecular mechanisms by which biophysical signals modulate the cell cycle remain underappreciated and poorly understood. Cells in complex organisms generate and maintain a constant voltage gradient across the plasma membrane known as the transmembrane potential. This potential, generated through the combined efforts of various ion transporters, pumps and channels, is known to drive a wide range of cellular processes such as cellular proliferation, migration and tissue regeneration while its deregulation can lead to tumorigenesis. These cellular regulatory events, coordinated by ionic flow, correspond to a new and exciting field termed molecular bioelectricity. We aim to present a brief discussion on the biophysical machinery involving membrane potential and the mechanisms mediating cell cycle progression and cancer transformation. Furthermore, we present the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea as a tractable model system for understanding principles behind molecular bioelectricity at both the cellular and organismal level. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Overview Of Impedance Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abele, John E.

    1989-08-01

    Electrical impedance has been one of the many "tools of great promise" that physicians have employed in their quest to measure and/or monitor body function or physiologic events. So far, the expectations for its success have always exceeded its performance. In simplistic terms, physiologic impedance is a measure of the resistance in the volume between electrodes which changes as a function of changes in that volume, the relative impedance of that volume, or a combination of these two. The history and principles of electrical impedance are very nicely reviewed by Geddes and Baker in their textbook "Principles of Applied Biomedical Instrumentation". It is humbling, however, to note that Cremer recorded variations in electrical impedance in frog hearts as early as 1907. The list of potential applications includes the measurement of thyroid function, estrogen activity, galvanic skin reflex, respiration, blood flow by conductivity dilution, nervous activity and eye movement. Commercial devices employing impedance have been and are being used to measure respiration (pneumographs and apneamonitors), pulse volume (impedance phlebographs) and even noninvasive cardiac output.

  10. Microfabricated AC impedance sensor

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, Peter; Ackler, Harold D.; Becker, Frederick; Boser, Bernhard E.; Eldredge, Adam B.; Fuller, Christopher K.; Gascoyne, Peter R. C.; Hamilton, Julie K.; Swierkowski, Stefan P.; Wang, Xiao-Bo

    2002-01-01

    A microfabricated instrument for detecting and identifying cells and other particles based on alternating current (AC) impedance measurements. The microfabricated AC impedance sensor includes two critical elements: 1) a microfluidic chip, preferably of glass substrates, having at least one microchannel therein and with electrodes patterned on both substrates, and 2) electrical circuits that connect to the electrodes on the microfluidic chip and detect signals associated with particles traveling down the microchannels. These circuits enable multiple AC impedance measurements of individual particles at high throughput rates with sufficient resolution to identify different particle and cell types as appropriate for environmental detection and clinical diagnostic applications.

  11. Lactate threshold by muscle electrical impedance in professional rowers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jotta, B.; Coutinho, A. B. B.; Pino, A. V.; Souza, M. N.

    2017-04-01

    Lactate threshold (LT) is one of the physiological parameters usually used in rowing sport training prescription because it indicates the transitions from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism. Assessment of LT is classically based on a series of values of blood lactate concentrations obtained during progressive exercise tests and thus has an invasive aspect. The feasibility of noninvasive LT estimative through bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) data collected in thigh muscles during rowing ergometer exercise tests was investigated. Nineteen professional rowers, age 19 (mean) ± 4.8 (standard deviation) yr, height 187.3 ± 6.6 cm, body mass 83 ± 7.7 kg, and training experience of 7 ± 4 yr, were evaluated in a rowing ergometer progressive test with paired measures of blood lactate concentration and BIS in thigh muscles. Bioelectrical impedance data were obtained by using a bipolar method of spectroscopy based on the current response to a voltage step. An electrical model was used to interpret BIS data and to derive parameters that were investigated to estimate LT noninvasively. From the serial blood lactate measurements, LT was also determined through Dmax method (LTDmax). The zero crossing of the second derivative of kinetic of the capacitance electrode (Ce), one of the BIS parameters, was used to estimate LT. The agreement between the LT estimates through BIS (LTBIS) and through Dmax method (LTDmax) was evaluated using Bland-Altman plots, leading to a mean difference between the estimates of just 0.07 W and a Pearson correlation coefficient r = 0.85. This result supports the utilization of the proposed method based on BIS parameters for estimating noninvasively the lactate threshold in rowing.

  12. Calculating impedance vibrator antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eminov, S. I.

    2017-07-01

    The technique of analytical reversal of a hypersingular equation is used to solve the equation of an impedance vibrator antenna. A numerical method for solving the equation is developed, and its efficiency is demonstrated.

  13. Surface Roughness Impedance

    SciTech Connect

    Stupakov, Gennady

    2000-12-21

    The next generation of linac-based free electron lasers will use very short bunches with a large peak current. For such beams, the impedance caused by submicron imperfections in the vacuum beam tube may generate an additional energy spread within the bunch. A review of two mechanisms of the roughness impedance is given with the emphasis on the importance of the high-aspect ratio property of the real surface roughness.

  14. Design of experimentation with a platinum-magnesium bioelectric battery.

    PubMed

    Fontenier, G; Freschard, R; Mourot, M

    1975-01-01

    The utilization of metal electrodes in the fabrication of a bioelectric battery has been the subject of intensive study for several years. Up to this date, subcutaneous cathodes of black platinum or of silver-silver chloride have been used in conjunction with anodes of aluminum or zinc. The subcutaneous black platinum is not reliable as a function of time due to the growth of overlying heterogeneous tissues. The utilization of a smooth platinum cathode in the right endoauricular position allows good reliability with time, but does not allow using a large surface area. Furthermore we have a reduction of the H-+ ions and not of the oxygen. A pure Domal magnesium anode was utilized with this cathode, which seemed to be a good compromise between to battery's voltage, its lifetime, and its lack of toxicity to body tissues.

  15. Microbial fuel cell (MFC) for bioelectricity generation from organic wastes.

    PubMed

    Moqsud, M Azizul; Omine, Kiyoshi; Yasufuku, Noriyuki; Hyodo, Masayuki; Nakata, Yukio

    2013-11-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have gained a lot of attention recently as a mode of converting organic matter into electricity. In this study, a compost-based microbial fuel cell that generates bioelectricity by biodegradation of organic matter is developed. Grass cuttings, along with leaf mold, rice bran, oil cake (from mustard plants) and chicken droppings (waste from chickens) were used as organic waste. The electric properties of the MFC under anaerobic fermentation condition were investigated along with the influence of different types of membranes, the mixing of fly ash, and different types of electrode materials. It is observed that the maximum voltage was increased by mixing fly ash. Cellophane showed the highest value of voltage (around 350mV). Bamboo charcoal is good for anode material; however carbon fiber is better for the cathode material in terms of optimization of power generated. This developed MFC is a simple cell to generate electricity from organic waste.

  16. Bioelectric perturbations of bone. Research directions and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Norton, L A; Hanley, K J; Turkewicz, J

    1984-01-01

    Bioelectric perturbation of living hard tissue produces clinically useful effects. It is being used effectively in the treatment of intractable orthopedic problems such as nonunion and avascular necrosis. Dental applications of this phenomenon are still in the early stages of research and development. Barring untoward circumstances, this form of local growth control may be used as an adjunct to localized bone induction therapy such as in the treatment of periodontal diseases, bone grafting or implantation of biocompatible products. It also appears to show promise in enhancing the rate of tooth movement or the stability of anchor teeth. The mechanism for these perturbation-induced changes in cells has not been explained. This is an active area of research with many implications for helping the clinician understand the molecular biology of hard-tissue cell proliferation, migration and differentiation.

  17. Bioelectric characterization of epithelia from neonatal CFTR knockout ferrets.

    PubMed

    Fisher, John T; Tyler, Scott R; Zhang, Yulong; Lee, Ben J; Liu, Xiaoming; Sun, Xingshen; Sui, Hongshu; Liang, Bo; Luo, Meihui; Xie, Weiliang; Yi, Yaling; Zhou, Weihong; Song, Yi; Keiser, Nicholas; Wang, Kai; de Jonge, Hugo R; Engelhardt, John F

    2013-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening, recessive, multiorgan genetic disorder caused by the loss of CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel function found in many types of epithelia. Animal models that recapitulate the human disease phenotype are critical to understanding pathophysiology in CF and developing therapies. CFTR knockout ferrets manifest many of the phenotypes observed in the human disease, including lung infections, pancreatic disease and diabetes, liver disease, malnutrition, and meconium ileus. In the present study, we have characterized abnormalities in the bioelectric properties of the trachea, stomach, intestine, and gallbladder of newborn CF ferrets. Short-circuit current (ISC) analysis of CF and wild-type (WT) tracheas revealed the following similarities and differences: (1) amiloride-sensitive sodium currents were similar between genotypes; (2) responses to 4,4'-diisothiocyano-2,2'-stilbene disulphonic acid were 3.3-fold greater in CF animals, suggesting elevated baseline chloride transport through non-CFTR channels in a subset of CF animals; and (3) a lack of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX)/forskolin-stimulated and N-(2-Naphthalenyl)-((3,5-dibromo-2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)methylene)glycine hydrazide (GlyH-101)-inhibited currents in CF animals due to the lack of CFTR. CFTR mRNA was present throughout all levels of the WT ferret and IBMX/forskolin-inducible ISC was only observed in WT animals. However, despite the lack of CFTR function in the knockout ferret, the luminal pH of the CF ferret gallbladder, stomach, and intestines was not significantly changed relative to WT. The WT stomach and gallbladder exhibited significantly enhanced IBMX/forskolin ISC responses and inhibition by GlyH-101 relative to CF samples. These findings demonstrate that multiple organs affected by disease in the CF ferret have bioelectric abnormalities consistent with the lack of cAMP-mediated chloride transport.

  18. Bioelectricity-AQA, one of the first MOOC courses in engineering.

    PubMed

    Barr, Roger C

    2014-01-01

    Bioelectricity-AQA was one of the first massively open online courses in engineering, having been given the first time via Coursera starting in September, 2012. This report provides some detail on its background, presentation, enrollment, and lessons learned.

  19. Impeded Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kopp, Joachim; Liu, Jia; Slatyer, Tracy; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Xue, Wei

    2016-12-12

    Here, we consider dark matter models in which the mass splitting between the dark matter particles and their annihilation products is tiny. Compared to the previously proposed Forbidden Dark Matter scenario, the mass splittings we consider are much smaller, and are allowed to be either positive or negative. To emphasize this modification, we dub our scenario \\Impeded Dark Matter". We also demonstrate that Impeded Dark Matter can be easily realized without requiring tuning of model parameters. For negative mass splitting, we demonstrate that the annihilation cross-section for Impeded Dark Matter depends linearly on the dark matter velocity or may even be kinematically forbidden, making this scenario almost insensitive to constraints from the cosmic microwave background and from observations of dwarf galaxies. Accordingly, it may be possible for Impeded Dark Matter to yield observable signals in clusters or the Galactic center, with no corresponding signal in dwarfs. Furthermore, for positive mass splitting, we show that the annihilation cross-section is suppressed by the small mass splitting, which helps light dark matter to survive increasingly stringent constraints from indirect searches. As specific realizations for Impeded Dark Matter, we introduce a model of vector dark matter from a hidden SU(2) sector, and a composite dark matter scenario based on a QCD-like dark sector.

  20. Impeded Dark Matter

    DOE PAGES

    Kopp, Joachim; Liu, Jia; Slatyer, Tracy; ...

    2016-12-12

    Here, we consider dark matter models in which the mass splitting between the dark matter particles and their annihilation products is tiny. Compared to the previously proposed Forbidden Dark Matter scenario, the mass splittings we consider are much smaller, and are allowed to be either positive or negative. To emphasize this modification, we dub our scenario \\Impeded Dark Matter". We also demonstrate that Impeded Dark Matter can be easily realized without requiring tuning of model parameters. For negative mass splitting, we demonstrate that the annihilation cross-section for Impeded Dark Matter depends linearly on the dark matter velocity or may evenmore » be kinematically forbidden, making this scenario almost insensitive to constraints from the cosmic microwave background and from observations of dwarf galaxies. Accordingly, it may be possible for Impeded Dark Matter to yield observable signals in clusters or the Galactic center, with no corresponding signal in dwarfs. Furthermore, for positive mass splitting, we show that the annihilation cross-section is suppressed by the small mass splitting, which helps light dark matter to survive increasingly stringent constraints from indirect searches. As specific realizations for Impeded Dark Matter, we introduce a model of vector dark matter from a hidden SU(2) sector, and a composite dark matter scenario based on a QCD-like dark sector.« less

  1. Impeded Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Joachim; Liu, Jia; Slatyer, Tracy R.; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Xue, Wei

    2016-12-01

    We consider dark matter models in which the mass splitting between the dark matter particles and their annihilation products is tiny. Compared to the previously proposed Forbidden Dark Matter scenario, the mass splittings we consider are much smaller, and are allowed to be either positive or negative. To emphasize this modification, we dub our scenario "Impeded Dark Matter". We demonstrate that Impeded Dark Matter can be easily realized without requiring tuning of model parameters. For negative mass splitting, we demonstrate that the annihilation cross-section for Impeded Dark Matter depends linearly on the dark matter velocity or may even be kinematically forbidden, making this scenario almost insensitive to constraints from the cosmic microwave background and from observations of dwarf galaxies. Accordingly, it may be possible for Impeded Dark Matter to yield observable signals in clusters or the Galactic center, with no corresponding signal in dwarfs. For positive mass splitting, we show that the annihilation cross-section is suppressed by the small mass splitting, which helps light dark matter to survive increasingly stringent constraints from indirect searches. As specific realizations for Impeded Dark Matter, we introduce a model of vector dark matter from a hidden SU(2) sector, and a composite dark matter scenario based on a QCD-like dark sector.

  2. Ethanol or bioelectricity? Life cycle assessment of lignocellulosic bioenergy use in light-duty vehicles.

    PubMed

    Luk, Jason M; Pourbafrani, Mohammad; Saville, Bradley A; MacLean, Heather L

    2013-09-17

    Our study evaluates life cycle energy use and GHG emissions of lignocellulosic ethanol and bioelectricity use in U.S. light-duty vehicles. The well-to-pump, pump-to-wheel, and vehicle cycle stages are modeled. All ethanol (E85) and bioelectricity pathways have similar life cycle fossil energy use (~ 100 MJ/100 vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT)) and net GHG emissions (~5 kg CO2eq./100 VKT), considerably lower (65-85%) than those of reference gasoline and U.S. grid-electricity pathways. E85 use in a hybrid vehicle and bioelectricity use in a fully electric vehicle also have similar life cycle biomass and total energy use (~ 350 and ~450 MJ/100 VKT, respectively); differences in well-to-pump and pump-to-wheel efficiencies can largely offset each other. Our energy use and net GHG emissions results contrast with findings in literature, which report better performance on these metrics for bioelectricity compared to ethanol. The primary source of differences in the studies is related to our development of pathways with comparable vehicle characteristics. Ethanol or vehicle electrification can reduce petroleum use, while bioelectricity may displace nonpetroleum energy sources. Regional characteristics may create conditions under which either ethanol or bioelectricity may be the superior option; however, neither has a clear advantage in terms of GHG emissions or energy use.

  3. Response Characteristics of Plant Bioelectric Potential to Light Intensity Indoor and Outdoor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimbo, Tatsuya; Fujii, Masaki; Sawada, Ayako; Oyabu, Takashi; Kimura, Haruhiko

    Plant is affected by environmental factors. For example, these are temperature, humidity and light intensity. The light intensity affected strongly to the plant. The plant produces glucose and oxygen with photosynthesis. Moreover, light intensity is important to purify the contaminants in the atmosphere. In this study, it was examined whether the plant is affected by temperature, wind grade and soil moisture using bioelectric potential characteristics of the plant. Especially plant bioelectric potential to light intensity change was measured. The measurement was carried out in indoor and outdoor. As for the result, the differences of plant bioelectric potential characteristics in the indoor and outdoor were recognized. At that analysis, the integrated value of plant bioelectric potential for 1 minute (vm1) was adopted. Moreover, a high correlation was indicated between the vm1 and light intensity. The correlation coefficient was R2=0.94. It becomes obvious that the plant is affected strongly by light intensity and the plant can understand the environmental factors like light intensity. The characteristics are found by measuring bioelectric potential of the plant. The environmental sensing can be possible by the use of the plant bioelectric potential.

  4. Superconducting active impedance converter

    DOEpatents

    Ginley, D.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Martens, J.S.

    1993-11-16

    A transimpedance amplifier for use with high temperature superconducting, other superconducting, and conventional semiconductors allows for appropriate signal amplification and impedance matching to processing electronics. The amplifier incorporates the superconducting flux flow transistor into a differential amplifier configuration which allows for operation over a wide temperature range, and is characterized by high gain, relatively low noise, and response times less than 200 picoseconds over at least a 10-80 K. temperature range. The invention is particularly useful when a signal derived from either far-IR focal plane detectors or from Josephson junctions is to be processed by higher signal/higher impedance electronics, such as conventional semiconductor technology. 12 figures.

  5. Superconducting active impedance converter

    DOEpatents

    Ginley, David S.; Hietala, Vincent M.; Martens, Jon S.

    1993-01-01

    A transimpedance amplifier for use with high temperature superconducting, other superconducting, and conventional semiconductor allows for appropriate signal amplification and impedance matching to processing electronics. The amplifier incorporates the superconducting flux flow transistor into a differential amplifier configuration which allows for operation over a wide temperature range, and is characterized by high gain, relatively low noise, and response times less than 200 picoseconds over at least a 10-80 K. temperature range. The invention is particularly useful when a signal derived from either far-IR focal plane detectors or from Josephson junctions is to be processed by higher signal/higher impedance electronics, such as conventional semiconductor technology.

  6. Longitudinal impedance of RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J. M.; Mernick, K.

    2015-05-03

    The longitudinal impedance of the two RHIC rings has been measured using the effect of potential well distortion on longitudinal Schottky measurements. For the blue RHIC ring Im(Z/n) = 1.5±0.2Ω. For the yellow ring Im(Z/n) = 5.4±1Ω.

  7. Impedances of Tevatron separators

    SciTech Connect

    K. Y. Ng

    2003-05-28

    The impedances of the Tevatron separators are revisited and are found to be negligibly small in the few hundred MHz region, except for resonances at 22.5 MHz. The later are contributions from the power cables which may drive head-tail instabilities if the bunch is long enough.

  8. Implantable Impedance Plethysmography

    PubMed Central

    Theodor, Michael; Ruh, Dominic; Ocker, Martin; Spether, Dominik; Förster, Katharina; Heilmann, Claudia; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Manoli, Yiannos; Zappe, Hans; Seifert, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate by theory, as well as by ex vivo and in vivo measurements that impedance plethysmography, applied extravascularly directly on large arteries, is a viable method for monitoring various cardiovascular parameters, such as blood pressure, with high accuracy. The sensor is designed as an implant to monitor cardiac events and arteriosclerotic progression over the long term. PMID:25123467

  9. Use of low-frequency electrical impedance measurements to determine phospholipid content in amniotic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLuca, F.; Cametti, C.; Zimatore, G.; Maraviglia, B.; Pachi', A.

    1996-09-01

    In this report we propose a new method for an in vitro test of the foetal lung maturity based on the measurement of the electrical conductivity of the overall amniotic fluid obtained from transabdominal amniocentesis, since this quantity can be linked to a first approximation in a very simple way to the phospholipid content. We have carried out measurements of 85 different samples of amniotic fluid as a function of gestation weeks and we have observed a pronounced change of the electrical conductivity that reflects the increase in the phospholipid concentration occurring at the end of normal pregnancies. The method could be further developed to obtain similar information on in vivo experiments by means of bioelectric impedance tomography, taking advantage of the frequency dependence of the tissue electrical impedance.

  10. Recycler short kicker beam impedance

    SciTech Connect

    Crisp, Jim; Fellenz, Brian; /Fermilab

    2009-07-01

    Measured longitudinal and calculated transverse beam impedance is presented for the short kicker magnets being installed in the Fermilab Recycler. Fermi drawing number ME-457159. The longitudinal impedance was measured with a stretched wire and the Panofsky equation was used to estimate the transverse impedance. The impedance of 3319 meters (the Recycler circumference) of stainless vacuum pipe is provided for comparison. Although measurements where done to 3GHz, impedance was negligible above 30MHz. The beam power lost to the kicker impedance is shown for a range of bunch lengths. The measurements are for one kicker assuming a rotation frequency of 90KHz. Seven of these kickers are being installed.

  11. Fossilized bioelectric wire – the trace fossil Trichichnus

    PubMed Central

    Kędzierski, M.; Uchman, A.; Sawlowicz, Z.; Briguglio, A.

    2015-01-01

    The trace fossil Trichichnus is proposed as an indicator of fossil bioelectric bacterial activity at the oxic–anoxic interface zone of marine sediments. This fulfils the idea that such processes, commonly found in the modern realm, should be also present in the geological past. Trichichnus is an exceptional trace fossil due to its very thin diameter (mostly less than 1 mm) and common pyritic filling. It is ubiquitous in some fine-grained sediments, where it has been interpreted as a burrow formed deeper than any other trace fossils, below the redox boundary. Trichichnus, formerly referred to as deeply burrowed invertebrates, has been found as remnant of a fossilized intrasediment bacterial mat that is pyritized. As visualized in 3-D by means of X-ray computed microtomography scanner, Trichichnus forms dense filamentous fabric, which reflects that it is produced by modern large, mat-forming, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria, belonging mostly to Thioploca-related taxa, which are able to house a complex bacterial consortium. Several stages of Trichichnus formation, including filamentous, bacterial mat and its pyritization, are proposed to explain an electron exchange between oxic and suboxic/anoxic layers in the sediment. Therefore, Trichichnus can be considered a fossilized “electric wire”. PMID:26290671

  12. Determining blood and plasma volumes using bioelectrical response spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siconolfi, S. F.; Nusynowitz, M. L.; Suire, S. S.; Moore, A. D. Jr; Leig, J.

    1996-01-01

    We hypothesized that an electric field (inductance) produced by charged blood components passing through the many branches of arteries and veins could assess total blood volume (TBV) or plasma volume (PV). Individual (N = 29) electrical circuits (inductors, two resistors, and a capacitor) were determined from bioelectrical response spectroscopy (BERS) using a Hewlett Packard 4284A Precision LCR Meter. Inductance, capacitance, and resistance from the circuits of 19 subjects modeled TBV (sum of PV and computed red cell volume) and PV (based on 125I-albumin). Each model (N = 10, cross validation group) had good validity based on 1) mean differences (-2.3 to 1.5%) between the methods that were not significant and less than the propagated errors (+/- 5.2% for TBV and PV), 2) high correlations (r > 0.92) with low SEE (< 7.7%) between dilution and BERS assessments, and 3) Bland-Altman pairwise comparisons that indicated "clinical equivalency" between the methods. Given the limitation of this study (10 validity subjects), we concluded that BERS models accurately assessed TBV and PV. Further evaluations of the models' validities are needed before they are used in clinical or research settings.

  13. Determining blood and plasma volumes using bioelectrical response spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siconolfi, S. F.; Nusynowitz, M. L.; Suire, S. S.; Moore, A. D. Jr; Leig, J.

    1996-01-01

    We hypothesized that an electric field (inductance) produced by charged blood components passing through the many branches of arteries and veins could assess total blood volume (TBV) or plasma volume (PV). Individual (N = 29) electrical circuits (inductors, two resistors, and a capacitor) were determined from bioelectrical response spectroscopy (BERS) using a Hewlett Packard 4284A Precision LCR Meter. Inductance, capacitance, and resistance from the circuits of 19 subjects modeled TBV (sum of PV and computed red cell volume) and PV (based on 125I-albumin). Each model (N = 10, cross validation group) had good validity based on 1) mean differences (-2.3 to 1.5%) between the methods that were not significant and less than the propagated errors (+/- 5.2% for TBV and PV), 2) high correlations (r > 0.92) with low SEE (< 7.7%) between dilution and BERS assessments, and 3) Bland-Altman pairwise comparisons that indicated "clinical equivalency" between the methods. Given the limitation of this study (10 validity subjects), we concluded that BERS models accurately assessed TBV and PV. Further evaluations of the models' validities are needed before they are used in clinical or research settings.

  14. Bioelectricity production from soil using microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Wolińska, Agnieszka; Stępniewska, Zofia; Bielecka, Arletta; Ciepielski, Jakub

    2014-08-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are a device using microorganisms as biocatalysts for transforming chemical energy into bioelectricity. As soil is an environment with the highest number of microorganisms and diversity, we hypothesized that it should have the potential for energy generation. The soil used for the study was Mollic Gleysol collected from the surface layer (0-20 cm). Four combinations of soil MFC differing from each other in humidity (full water holding capacity [WHC] and flooding) and the carbon source (glucose and straw) were constructed. Voltage (mV) and current intensity (μA) produced by the MFCs were recorded every day or at 2-day intervals. The fastest and the most effective MFCs in voltage generation (372.2 ± 5 mV) were those constructed on the basis of glucose (MFC-G). The efficiency of straw MFCs (MFC-S) was noticeable after 2 weeks (319.3 ± 4 mV). Maximal power density (P max = 32 mW m(-2)) was achieved by the MFC-G at current density (CD) of 100 mA m(-2). Much lower values of P max (10.6-10.8 mW m(-2)) were noted in the MFC-S at CD of ca. 60-80 mA m(-2). Consequently, soil has potential for production of renewable energy.

  15. Impedance calculation for ferrite inserts

    SciTech Connect

    Breitzmann, S.C.; Lee, S.Y.; Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    Passive ferrite inserts were used to compensate the space charge impedance in high intensity space charge dominated accelerators. They study the narrowband longitudinal impedance of these ferrite inserts. they find that the shunt impedance and the quality factor for ferrite inserts are inversely proportional to the imaginary part of the permeability of ferrite materials. They also provide a recipe for attaining a truly passive space charge impedance compensation and avoiding narrowband microwave instabilities.

  16. Impedance Measurement Box

    ScienceCinema

    Christophersen, Jon

    2016-07-12

    Energy storage devices, primarily batteries, are now more important to consumers, industries and the military. With increasing technical complexity and higher user expectations, there is also a demand for highly accurate state-of-health battery assessment techniques. IMB incorporates patented, proprietary, and tested capabilities using control software and hardware that can be part of an embedded monitoring system. IMB directly measures the wideband impedance spectrum in seconds during battery operation with no significant impact on service life. It also can be applied to batteries prior to installation, confirming health before entering active service, as well as during regular maintenance. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/impedance-measurement-box/

  17. Impedance Measurement Box

    SciTech Connect

    Christophersen, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Energy storage devices, primarily batteries, are now more important to consumers, industries and the military. With increasing technical complexity and higher user expectations, there is also a demand for highly accurate state-of-health battery assessment techniques. IMB incorporates patented, proprietary, and tested capabilities using control software and hardware that can be part of an embedded monitoring system. IMB directly measures the wideband impedance spectrum in seconds during battery operation with no significant impact on service life. It also can be applied to batteries prior to installation, confirming health before entering active service, as well as during regular maintenance. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/impedance-measurement-box/

  18. Comparison of total body water estimates from O-18 and bioelectrical response prediction equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrows, Linda H.; Inners, L. Daniel; Stricklin, Marcella D.; Klein, Peter D.; Wong, William W.; Siconolfi, Steven F.

    1993-01-01

    Identification of an indirect, rapid means to measure total body water (TBW) during space flight may aid in quantifying hydration status and assist in countermeasure development. Bioelectrical response testing and hydrostatic weighing were performed on 27 subjects who ingested O-18, a naturally occurring isotope of oxygen, to measure true TBW. TBW estimates from three bioelectrical response prediction equations and fat-free mass (FFM) were compared to TBW measured from O-18. A repeated measures MANOVA with post-hoc Dunnett's Test indicated a significant (p less than 0.05) difference between TBW estimates from two of the three bioelectrical response prediction equations and O-18. TBW estimates from FFM and the Kushner & Schoeller (1986) equation yielded results that were similar to those given by O-18. Strong correlations existed between each prediction method and O-18; however, standard errors, identified through regression analyses, were higher for the bioelectrical response prediction equations compared to those derived from FFM. These findings suggest (1) the Kushner & Schoeller (1986) equation may provide a valid measure of TBW, (2) other TBW prediction equations need to be identified that have variability similar to that of FFM, and (3) bioelectrical estimates of TBW may prove valuable in quantifying hydration status during space flight.

  19. Molecular bioelectricity: how endogenous voltage potentials control cell behavior and instruct pattern regulation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In addition to biochemical gradients and transcriptional networks, cell behavior is regulated by endogenous bioelectrical cues originating in the activity of ion channels and pumps, operating in a wide variety of cell types. Instructive signals mediated by changes in resting potential control proliferation, differentiation, cell shape, and apoptosis of stem, progenitor, and somatic cells. Of importance, however, cells are regulated not only by their own Vmem but also by the Vmem of their neighbors, forming networks via electrical synapses known as gap junctions. Spatiotemporal changes in Vmem distribution among nonneural somatic tissues regulate pattern formation and serve as signals that trigger limb regeneration, induce eye formation, set polarity of whole-body anatomical axes, and orchestrate craniofacial patterning. New tools for tracking and functionally altering Vmem gradients in vivo have identified novel roles for bioelectrical signaling and revealed the molecular pathways by which Vmem changes are transduced into cascades of downstream gene expression. Because channels and gap junctions are gated posttranslationally, bioelectrical networks have their own characteristic dynamics that do not reduce to molecular profiling of channel expression (although they couple functionally to transcriptional networks). The recent data provide an exciting opportunity to crack the bioelectric code, and learn to program cellular activity at the level of organs, not only cell types. The understanding of how patterning information is encoded in bioelectrical networks, which may require concepts from computational neuroscience, will have transformative implications for embryogenesis, regeneration, cancer, and synthetic bioengineering. PMID:25425556

  20. Impedance Measurement Box

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, William

    2014-11-20

    The IMB 50V software provides functionality for design of impedance measurement tests or sequences of tests, execution of these tests or sequences, processing measured responses and displaying and saving of the results. The software consists of a Graphical User Interface that allows configuration of measurement parameters and test sequencing, a core engine that controls test sequencing, execution of measurements, processing and storage of results and a hardware/software data acquisition interface with the IMB hardware system.

  1. Acoustic ground impedance meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.

    1981-12-01

    A compact, portable instrument was developed to measure the acoustic impedance of the ground, or other surfaces, by direct pressure-volume velocity measurement. A Helmholz resonator, constructed of heavy-walled stainless steel but open at the bottom, is positioned over the surface having the unknown impedance. The sound source, a cam-driven piston of known stroke and thus known volume velocity, is located in the neck of the resonator. The cam speed is a variable up to a maximum 3600 rpm. The sound pressure at the test surface is measured by means of a microphone flush-mounted in the wall of the chamber. An optical monitor of the piston displacement permits measurement of the phase angle between the volume velocity and the sound pressure, from which the real and imaginary parts of the impedance can be evaluated. Measurements using a 5-lobed cam can be made up to 300 Hz. Detailed design criteria and results on a soil sample are presented.

  2. Acoustic ground impedance meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    A compact, portable instrument was developed to measure the acoustic impedance of the ground, or other surfaces, by direct pressure-volume velocity measurement. A Helmholtz resonator, constructed of heavy-walled stainless steel but open at the bottom, is positioned over the surface having the unknown impedance. The sound source, a cam-driven piston of known stroke and thus known volume velocity, is located in the neck of the resonator. The cam speed is a variable up to a maximum 3600 rpm. The sound pressure at the test surface is measured by means of a microphone flush-mounted in the wall of the chamber. An optical monitor of the piston displacement permits measurement of the phase angle between the volume velocity and the sound pressure, from which the real and imaginary parts of the impedance can be evaluated. Measurements using a 5-lobed cam can be made up to 300 Hz. Detailed design criteria and results on a soil sample are presented. Previously announced in STAR as N82-17476

  3. High input impedance amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, Leonard L.

    1995-01-01

    High input impedance amplifiers are provided which reduce the input impedance solely to a capacitive reactance, or, in a somewhat more complex design, provide an extremely high essentially infinite, capacitive reactance. In one embodiment, where the input impedance is reduced in essence, to solely a capacitive reactance, an operational amplifier in a follower configuration is driven at its non-inverting input and a resistor with a predetermined magnitude is connected between the inverting and non-inverting inputs. A second embodiment eliminates the capacitance from the input by adding a second stage to the first embodiment. The second stage is a second operational amplifier in a non-inverting gain-stage configuration where the output of the first follower stage drives the non-inverting input of the second stage and the output of the second stage is fed back to the non-inverting input of the first stage through a capacitor of a predetermined magnitude. These amplifiers, while generally useful, are very useful as sensor buffer amplifiers that may eliminate significant sources of error.

  4. Acoustic ground impedance meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    A compact, portable instrument was developed to measure the acoustic impedance of the ground, or other surfaces, by direct pressure-volume velocity measurement. A Helmholz resonator, constructed of heavy-walled stainless steel but open at the bottom, is positioned over the surface having the unknown impedance. The sound source, a cam-driven piston of known stroke and thus known volume velocity, is located in the neck of the resonator. The cam speed is a variable up to a maximum 3600 rpm. The sound pressure at the test surface is measured by means of a microphone flush-mounted in the wall of the chamber. An optical monitor of the piston displacement permits measurement of the phase angle between the volume velocity and the sound pressure, from which the real and imaginary parts of the impedance can be evaluated. Measurements using a 5-lobed cam can be made up to 300 Hz. Detailed design criteria and results on a soil sample are presented.

  5. Gynecologic electrical impedance tomograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korjenevsky, A.; Cherepenin, V.; Trokhanova, O.; Tuykin, T.

    2010-04-01

    Electrical impedance tomography extends to the new and new areas of the medical diagnostics: lungs, breast, prostate, etc. The feedback from the doctors who use our breast EIT diagnostic system has induced us to develop the 3D electrical impedance imaging device for diagnostics of the cervix of the uterus - gynecologic impedance tomograph (GIT). The device uses the same measuring approach as the breast imaging system: 2D flat array of the electrodes arranged on the probe with handle is placed against the body. Each of the 32 electrodes of the array is connected in turn to the current source while the rest electrodes acquire the potentials on the surface. The current flows through the electrode of the array and returns through the remote electrode placed on the patient's limb. The voltages are measured relative to another remote electrode. The 3D backprojection along equipotential surfaces is used to reconstruct conductivity distribution up to approximately 1 cm in depth. Small number of electrodes enables us to implement real time imaging with a few frames per sec. rate. The device is under initial testing and evaluation of the imaging capabilities and suitability of usage.

  6. DXA, bioelectrical impedance, ultrasonography and biometry for the estimation of fat and lean mass in cats during weight loss

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Few equations have been developed in veterinary medicine compared to human medicine to predict body composition. The present study was done to evaluate the influence of weight loss on biometry (BIO), bioimpedance analysis (BIA) and ultrasonography (US) in cats, proposing equations to estimate fat (FM) and lean (LM) body mass, as compared to dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the referenced method. For this were used 16 gonadectomized obese cats (8 males and 8 females) in a weight loss program. DXA, BIO, BIA and US were performed in the obese state (T0; obese animals), after 10% of weight loss (T1) and after 20% of weight loss (T2). Stepwise regression was used to analyze the relationship between the dependent variables (FM, LM) determined by DXA and the independent variables obtained by BIO, BIA and US. The better models chosen were evaluated by a simple regression analysis and means predicted vs. determined by DXA were compared to verify the accuracy of the equations. Results The independent variables determined by BIO, BIA and US that best correlated (p < 0.005) with the dependent variables (FM and LM) were BW (body weight), TC (thoracic circumference), PC (pelvic circumference), R (resistance) and SFLT (subcutaneous fat layer thickness). Using Mallows’Cp statistics, p value and r2, 19 equations were selected (12 for FM, 7 for LM); however, only 7 equations accurately predicted FM and one LM of cats. Conclusions The equations with two variables are better to use because they are effective and will be an alternative method to estimate body composition in the clinical routine. For estimated lean mass the equations using body weight associated with biometrics measures can be proposed. For estimated fat mass the equations using body weight associated with bioimpedance analysis can be proposed. PMID:22781317

  7. Interference of heart and transcutaneous oxygen monitoring in the measurement of bioelectrical impedance analysis in preterm newborns.

    PubMed

    Comym, Viviane C; Macedu, Yuri S; Neves, Eduardo K P B; Bueno, Arnaldo C; Fernandez, Herminia C; Moreira, Maria E L; Vieira, Alan A

    2016-01-01

    To verify if the connection of electrodes for heart and transcutaneous oxygen monitoring interfere with the measurement of electrical bioimpedance in preterm newborns. This was a prospective, blinded, controlled, cross-sectional, crossover study that assessed and compared paired measures of resistance (R) and reactance (Xc) by BIA, obtained with and without monitoring wires attached to the preterm newborn. The measurements were performed in immediate sequence, after randomization to the presence or absence of electrodes. The sample size calculated was 114 measurements or tests with monitoring wires and 114 without monitoring wires, considering for a difference between the averages of 0.1 ohms, with an alpha error of 10% and beta error of 20%, with significance <0.05. No differences were observed between the R (677.37±196.07 vs. 677.46±194.86) and Xc (31.15±9.36 vs. 31.01±9.56) values obtained with and without monitoring wires, respectively, with good correlation between them (R: 0.997 and Xc: 0.968). The presence of heart and/or transcutaneous oxygen monitoring wires connected to the preterm newborn did not affect the values of R or Xc measured by BIA, allowing them to be carried out in this population without risks. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  8. [Effect of refeeding on the body composition of females with restrictive anorexia nervosa; anthropometry versus bioelectrical impedance].

    PubMed

    de Mateo Silleras, Beatriz; Redondo del Río, Paz; Camina Martín, Alicia; Soto Célix, María; Alonso Torre, Sara R; Miján de la Torre, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar la composición corporal en un grupo de pacientes desnutridas con anorexia nerviosa, respecto de controles sanas, antes y después del soporte nutricional, mediante antropometría y bioimpedancia. Métodos: Estudio observacional prospectivo. Se realizó una antropometría completa y un análisis de bioimpedancia a 12 mujeres con anorexia nerviosa restrictiva (24,5 años) al ingreso hospitalario y semanalmente durante la realimentación. El grupo control estuvo formado por 24 mujeres sanas (21 años). Se aplicaron los test t-Student, U-Mann-Whitney, t-Student para medidas repetidas o Wilcoxon. La concordancia entre antropometría y BIA se analizó mediante el coeficiente de correlación intraclase y Bland-Altman. Resultados: Las pacientes mejoraron significativamente todos los índices de composición corporal a lo largo de la estancia hospitalaria, aunque sus valores al alta siguieron siendo menores que los de las controles. La media de peso ganado fue 5,22 kg (DE: 1,42), de los que el 51,4% fueron masa grasa, con distribución central preferentemente. En las controles la ecuación de BIA que mejor concuerda con antropometría es la de Sun (CCI = 0,896); en las pacientes la concordancia fue más débil, al ingreso y al alta. Conclusiones: La realimentación produce una ganancia ponderal, fundamentalmente a expensas de masa grasa, con distribución central; no se consigue restablecer el estado nutricional. La concordancia entre antropometría y bioimpedancia para el estudio de la composición corporal es aceptable, especialmente en sujetos sanos. Se recomienda emplear antropometría, si no se dispone de BIA vectorial o algún método gold estandard para el análisis de la composición corporal, en casos de alteraciones importantes en la composición corporal y/o el balance hídrico.

  9. Agreement between Omron 306 and Biospace InBody 720 Bioelectrical Impedance Analyzers (BIA) in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Kevin J.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Karsai, István; Ihász, Ferenc; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the convergent validity of Omron 306 using Biospace InBody 720. Method: A total of 267 participants (145 boys; aged 10.4-17.9 years) completed testing during a single session. Each measure provided percent body fat (%BF), while the InBody 720 included fat-free mass (FFM). The validity was examined…

  10. Agreement between Omron 306 and Biospace InBody 720 Bioelectrical Impedance Analyzers (BIA) in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Kevin J.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Karsai, István; Ihász, Ferenc; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the convergent validity of Omron 306 using Biospace InBody 720. Method: A total of 267 participants (145 boys; aged 10.4-17.9 years) completed testing during a single session. Each measure provided percent body fat (%BF), while the InBody 720 included fat-free mass (FFM). The validity was examined…

  11. Short-term intervention reduces bioelectrical impedance analysis-measured visceral fat in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ryo, Miwa; Kishida, Ken; Nakamura, Tadashi; Funahashi, Tohru; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2014-03-01

    In 25 patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus, the short-term in-hospital calorie restriction combined with moderate exercise reduced visceral fat. The reduction of visceral fat can improve metabolic cardiovascular risk factors, while the reductions in body weight and waist circumference were small and reduction in subcutaneous fat was not significant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationship between water compartments, body composition assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis and blood pressure in school children.

    PubMed

    Łątka, Monika; Wójtowicz, Kinga; Drożdż, Tomasz; Dąbrowska, Ewelina; Kwinta, Przemko; Pietrzyk, Jacek Antoni; Drożdż, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Electrical bioimpedance analysis (BIA) is becoming more widely used in clinical practice as a method of body composition analysis. In healthy children blood pressure (BP) changes with age, body mass and height. Until now the relation between water compartments and BP in healthy children has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between body composition as well as water compartments (measured by electrical bioimpedance) and BP. The study was performed in 72 children (32 girls and 40 boys) aged: 6-7 and 12-13 years. BIA measurements were taken using Nutriguard Data Input device with Bianostic electrodes and following parameters were calculated: total body water (TBW), lean body mass (LBM), fat mass (FM), intra- and extracellular water (ICW, ECW) and phase angle alpha. BP was measured twice using the oscillometric method. Elevated BP > 95th percentile for gender, age and height were observed in 9 children. A significant correlation between systolic (S)BP and TBW (R = 0.4023, p < 0.001), LBM (R = 0.3600, p = 0.002), FM (R = 0.4725, p < 0.001), ECW (R = 0.4598, p < 0.001) and body mass index (BMI) (R = 0.4089, p < 0.001) was found. Furthermore, diastolic (D)BP significantly correlated with TBW (R = 0.3056, p = 0.011), LBM (R = 0.2783, p = 0.021), FM (R = 0.3956, p < 0.001), ECW (R = 0.3869, p = 0.001) and BMI (R = 0.3550, p = 0.002). In the studied group malnutrition (weight < 3rd percentile) was found in 8 children and 2 had obesity (BMI > 95th percentile). Growth disorders were found in 6 children (5 of them being undernourished). In the studied children SBP and DBP correlated with water compartments, lean body and fat masses derived from BIA. The problem of unrecognized hypertension and malnutrition in children and adolescents is still underestimated in the Polish population.

  13. Flexible implementation of front-end bioelectric signal amplifier using FPAA for telemedicine system.

    PubMed

    Chan, U Fai; Chan, Wai Wong; Pun, Sio Hang; Vai, Mang I; Mak, Peng Un

    2007-01-01

    Traditional/Current electronic circuits for Telemedicine have significant performance on certain bioelectric signal detection. However, it is rarely seen that can handle multiple signals without changing of hardware. This paper introduces a general front-end amplifier for various bioelectric signals based on Field Programmable Analogy Array (FPAA) Technology. Employing FPAA technology, the implemented amplifier can be adapted for various bioelectric signals without alternating the circuitry while its compact size (core parts < 2 cm2) provides an alternative solution for miniaturized Telemedicine system and Wearable Devices. The proposed design implementation has demonstrated, through successfully ECG and EMG signal extractions, a quick way to miniaturize analog biomedical circuit in a convenient and cost effective way.

  14. Bioelectric activity of skeletal muscle under conditions of alternating action of g-Forces and weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuganov, Y. M.; Kasyan, I. I.; Asyamolov, B. F.

    1975-01-01

    The bioelectric activity of the musculature of animals and man was studied during alternating g-forces and weightlessness. The appropriate conditions were reproduced in flight along a parabolic curve; in this case, weightlessness lasting 25-30 sec alternated with g-forces of about 2 g magnitude. Quite regular changes in the bioelectric activity of various groups of muscles were disclosed under g-forces and in weightlessness. Thus, muscle biopotential amplitudes of 130-180 microvolt in horizontal flight, increased to 190-330 microvolt under g-forces. In the subsequent weightlessness, an abrupt reduction in oscillation voltage was observed and, in a number of cases, phenomena, similar to the picture of bioelectric silence were noted.

  15. Bioelectric activity of skeletal muscle under conditions of alternating action of g-Forces and weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuganov, Y. M.; Kasyan, I. I.; Asyamolov, B. F.

    1975-01-01

    The bioelectric activity of the musculature of animals and man was studied during alternating g-forces and weightlessness. The appropriate conditions were reproduced in flight along a parabolic curve; in this case, weightlessness lasting 25-30 sec alternated with g-forces of about 2 g magnitude. Quite regular changes in the bioelectric activity of various groups of muscles were disclosed under g-forces and in weightlessness. Thus, muscle biopotential amplitudes of 130-180 microvolt in horizontal flight, increased to 190-330 microvolt under g-forces. In the subsequent weightlessness, an abrupt reduction in oscillation voltage was observed and, in a number of cases, phenomena, similar to the picture of bioelectric silence were noted.

  16. Bio-electricity Generation using Jatropha Oil Seed Cake.

    PubMed

    Raheman, Hifjur; Padhee, Debasish

    2016-01-01

    The review of patents reveals that Handling of Jatropha seed cake after extraction of oil is essential as it contains toxic materials which create environmental pollution. The goal of this work is complete utilisation of Jatropha seeds. For this purpose, Jatropha oil was used for producing biodiesel and the byproduct Jatropha seed cake was gasified to obtain producer gas. Both biodiesel and producer gas were used to generate electricity. To achieve this, a system comprising gasifier, briquetting machine, diesel engine and generator was developed. Biodiesel was produced successfully using the method patented for biodiesel production and briquettes of Jatropha seed cake were made using a vertical extruding machine. Producer gas was obtained by gasifying these briquettes in a downdraft gasifier. A diesel engine was then run in dual fuel mode with biodiesel and producer gas instead of only diesel. Electricity was generated by coupling it to a generator. The cost of producing kilowatthour of electricity with biodiesel and diesel in dual fuel mode with producer gas was found to be 0.84 $ and 0.75 $, respectively as compared to 0.69 $ and 0.5 $ for the same fuels in single fuel mode resulting in up to 48 % saving of pilot fuel. Compared to singlefuel mode, there was 25-32 % reduction in system and brake thermal efficiency along with significantly lower NOx, higher CO and CO2 emissions when the bio-electricity generating system was operated in dual fuel mode. Overall, the developed system could produce electricity successfully by completely uti- lising Jatropha seeds without leaving any seed cake to cause environmental pollution.

  17. Modified Blumlein pulse-forming networks for bioelectrical applications.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Stefania; Sarti, Maurizio; Scarfì, Maria Rosaria; Zeni, Luigi

    2010-07-01

    Intense nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) have been shown to induce, on intracellular structures, interesting effects dependent on electrical exposure conditions (pulse length and amplitude, repetition frequency and number of pulses), which are known in the literature as "bioelectrical effects" (Schoenbach et al., IEEE Trans Plasma Sci 30:293-300, 2002). In particular, pulses with a shorter width than the plasma membrane charging time constant (about 100 ns for mammalian cells) can penetrate the cell and trigger effects such as permeabilization of intracellular membranes, release of Ca(2+) and apoptosis induction. Moreover, the observed effects have led to exploration of medical applications, like the treatment of melanoma tumors (Nuccitelli et al., Biochem Biophys Res Commun 343:351-360, 2006). Pulsed electric fields allowing such effects usually range from several tens to a few hundred nanoseconds in duration and from a few to several tens of megavolts per meter in amplitude (Schoenbach et al., IEEE Trans Diel Elec Insul 14:1088-1109, 2007); however, the biological effects of subnanosecond pulses have been also investigated (Schoenbach et al., IEEE Trans Plasma Sci 36:414-422, 2008). The use of such a large variety of pulse parameters suggests that highly flexible pulse-generating systems, able to deliver wide ranges of pulse durations and amplitudes, are strongly required in order to explore effects and applications related to different exposure conditions. The Blumlein pulse-forming network is an often-employed circuit topology for the generation of high-voltage electric pulses with fixed pulse duration. An innovative modification to the Blumlein circuit has been recently devised which allows generation of pulses with variable amplitude, duration and polarity. Two different modified Blumlein pulse-generating systems are presented in this article, the first based on a coaxial cable configuration, matching microscopic slides as a pulse-delivery system

  18. RF impedance measurement calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, P.J.; Song, J.J.

    1993-02-12

    The intent of this note is not to explain all of the available calibration methods in detail. Instead, we will focus on the calibration methods of interest for RF impedance coupling measurements and attempt to explain: (1). The standards and measurements necessary for the various calibration techniques. (2). The advantages and disadvantages of each technique. (3). The mathematical manipulations that need to be applied to the measured standards and devices. (4). An outline of the steps needed for writing a calibration routine that operated from a remote computer. For further details of the various techniques presented in this note, the reader should consult the references.

  19. Introduction to Electrochemical Impedance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-24

    in polar coordinates and Z’ and Z" in Cartesian coordinates. Algebra has a special way of expressing "two-component numbers" as complex numbers. This...test is a small batch file that invokes a BASICA program and loads P STAT.BAS program in it. By replacing test with atwill, the program at-will will be...SYSTEM. This will end the BASICA program, return the computer to DOS and consequently, return to Z-PLOT. Petr Vantsek Introduction to impedance 55 23

  20. Outdoor ground impedance models.

    PubMed

    Attenborough, Keith; Bashir, Imran; Taherzadeh, Shahram

    2011-05-01

    Many models for the acoustical properties of rigid-porous media require knowledge of parameter values that are not available for outdoor ground surfaces. The relationship used between tortuosity and porosity for stacked spheres results in five characteristic impedance models that require not more than two adjustable parameters. These models and hard-backed-layer versions are considered further through numerical fitting of 42 short range level difference spectra measured over various ground surfaces. For all but eight sites, slit-pore, phenomenological and variable porosity models yield lower fitting errors than those given by the widely used one-parameter semi-empirical model. Data for 12 of 26 grassland sites and for three beech wood sites are fitted better by hard-backed-layer models. Parameter values obtained by fitting slit-pore and phenomenological models to data for relatively low flow resistivity grounds, such as forest floors, porous asphalt, and gravel, are consistent with values that have been obtained non-acoustically. Three impedance models yield reasonable fits to a narrow band excess attenuation spectrum measured at short range over railway ballast but, if extended reaction is taken into account, the hard-backed-layer version of the slit-pore model gives the most reasonable parameter values.

  1. Impedance Study for BEPC Separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Feng; Tang, Chuanxiang

    1997-05-01

    This paper focuses on the impedance studies for the separator. The impedance measurement results show that the shunt impedances of trapped modes in the separator are very small, and find that the load connected to the plates can damp some modes. The field distributions of these modes are also presented. Its wake is also calculated by using 3-D MAFIA. The relations between its wake with separator length, separator width, and etc are studied in detail.

  2. Ionospheric effects to antenna impedance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bethke, K. H.

    1986-01-01

    The reciprocity between high power satellite antennas and the surrounding plasma are examined. The relevant plasma states for antenna impedance calculations are presented and plasma models, and hydrodynamic and kinetic theory, are discussed. A theory from which a variation in antenna impedance with regard to the radiated power can be calculated for a frequency range well above the plasma resonance frequency is give. The theory can include photo and secondary emission effects in antenna impedance calculations.

  3. Optically stimulated differential impedance spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Maxey, Lonnie C; Parks, II, James E; Lewis, Sr., Samuel A; Partridge, Jr., William P

    2014-02-18

    Methods and apparatuses for evaluating a material are described. Embodiments typically involve use of an impedance measurement sensor to measure the impedance of a sample of the material under at least two different states of illumination. The states of illumination may include (a) substantially no optical stimulation, (b) substantial optical stimulation, (c) optical stimulation at a first wavelength of light, (d) optical stimulation at a second wavelength of light, (e) a first level of light intensity, and (f) a second level of light intensity. Typically a difference in impedance between the impedance of the sample at the two states of illumination is measured to determine a characteristic of the material.

  4. Biliary obstruction dissipates bioelectric sinusoidal-canalicular barrier without altering taurocholate uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Cotting, J.; Zysset, T.; Reichen, J.

    1989-02-01

    To study immediate events during extrahepatic cholestasis, we investigated the effect of short-term biliary obstruction on the bioelectrical sinusoidal-canalicular barrier in the rat using molecular weight-matched uncharged and negatively charged inert solute pairs. The bioelectrical barrier averaged -22 +/- 5 and -18 +/- 4 mV (NS) using the pair carboxy-/methoxyinulin and ferrocyanide/sucrose, respectively. After a 20-min biliary obstruction both decreased by 61 and 11%, respectively, but only the large molecular weight pair (the inulins) returned to base line after release of the obstruction. Inert solute clearances were increased after short biliary obstruction depending on molecular size and negative charge (ferrocyanide greater than sucrose greater than carboxyinulin greater than inulin), suggesting that both permeability and bioelectrical barriers were affected by obstruction. The hepatic extraction in vivo of a passively transported drug not excreted into bile (D-propranolol) was not affected by obstruction, whereas that of an actively transported drug (glycocholate) decreased from 66 +/- 8 to 41 +/- 20% during biliary obstruction (P less than 0.01). Unidirectional transfer of glycocholate was not affected by short-term biliary obstruction in the situ perfused rat liver; however, 2 min after (14C)glycocholate administration, increased return was observed in hepatic venous effluent in obstructed animals. Our findings demonstrate a loss of the bioelectrical barrier immediately after short-term biliary obstruction. Decreased hepatic extraction in the view of unaltered sinusoidal uptake demonstrates regurgitation of bile into blood during short-term biliary obstruction.

  5. Bioelectricity-AQA, one of the first MOOC courses in Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Roger C.

    2014-01-01

    Bioelectricity-AQA was one of the first massively open online courses in engineering, having been given the first time via Coursera starting in September, 2012. This report provides some detail on its background, presentation, enrollment, and lessons learned. PMID:25570327

  6. Regulation of cell behavior and tissue patterning by bioelectrical signals: challenges and opportunities for biomedical engineering.

    PubMed

    Levin, Michael; Stevenson, Claire G

    2012-01-01

    Achieving control over cell behavior and pattern formation requires molecular-level understanding of regulatory mechanisms. Alongside transcriptional networks and biochemical gradients, there functions an important system of cellular communication and control: transmembrane voltage gradients (V(mem)). Bioelectrical signals encoded in spatiotemporal changes of V(mem) control cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Moreover, endogenous bioelectrical gradients serve as instructive cues mediating anatomical polarity and other organ-level aspects of morphogenesis. In the past decade, significant advances in molecular physiology have enabled the development of new genetic and biophysical tools for the investigation and functional manipulation of bioelectric cues. Recent data implicate V(mem) as a crucial epigenetic regulator of patterning events in embryogenesis, regeneration, and cancer. We review new conceptual and methodological developments in this fascinating field. Bioelectricity offers a novel way of quantitatively understanding regulation of growth and form in vivo, and it reveals tractable, powerful control points that will enable truly transformative applications in bioengineering, regenerative medicine, and synthetic biology.

  7. Biliary obstruction dissipates bioelectric sinusoidal-canalicular barrier without altering taurocholate uptake.

    PubMed

    Cotting, J; Zysset, T; Reichen, J

    1989-02-01

    To study immediate events during extrahepatic cholestasis, we investigated the effect of short-term biliary obstruction on the bioelectrical sinusoidal-canalicular barrier in the rat using molecular weight-matched uncharged and negatively charged inert solute pairs. The bioelectrical barrier averaged -22 +/- 5 and -18 +/- 4 mV (NS) using the pair carboxy-/methoxyinulin and ferrocyanide/sucrose, respectively. After a 20-min biliary obstruction both decreased by 61 and 11%, respectively, but only the large molecular weight pair (the inulins) returned to base line after release of the obstruction. Inert solute clearances were increased after short biliary obstruction depending on molecular size and negative charge (ferrocyanide greater than sucrose greater than carboxyinulin greater than inulin), suggesting that both permeability and bioelectrical barriers were affected by obstruction. The hepatic extraction in vivo of a passively transported drug not excreted into bile (D-propranolol) was not affected by obstruction, whereas that of an actively transported drug (glycocholate) decreased from 66 +/- 8 to 41 +/- 20% during biliary obstruction (P less than 0.01). Unidirectional transfer of glycocholate was not affected by short-term biliary obstruction in the situ perfused rat liver; however, 2 min after [14C]glycocholate administration, increased return was observed in hepatic venous effluent in obstructed animals. Our findings demonstrate a loss of the bioelectrical barrier immediately after short-term biliary obstruction. Decreased hepatic extraction in the view of unaltered sinusoidal uptake demonstrates regurgitation of bile into blood during short-term biliary obstruction.

  8. Bioelectricity from kitchen and bamboo waste in a microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Moqsud, M Azizul; Omine, Kiyoshi; Yasufuku, Noriyuki; Bushra, Quazi S; Hyodo, Masayuki; Nakata, Yukio

    2014-02-01

    This study evaluated bioelectricity generation by using kitchen garbage (KG) and bamboo waste (BW) as a solid waste management option by a microbial fuel cell (MFC) method. The nutrient content [nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK)] of the by-products of bioelectricity were also analyzed and assessed for their potential use as a soil amendment. A one-chamber MFC was used for bioelectricity generation in laboratory experiments using both KG and BW. A data-logger recorded voltage every 20 mins at a constant room temperature of 25°C over 45 days. The trend of voltage generation was different for the two organic wastes. In the case of KG, the voltage at the initial stage (0-5 days) increased rapidly and then gradually to a peak of 620 mV. In contrast, the voltage increased gradually to a peak of 540 mV in the case of BW. The by-products of bioelectricity can be used as soil conditioner as its NPK content was in the range of soil conditioner mentioned in other literature. Thus, the MFC has emerged as an efficient and eco-friendly solution for organic waste management, especially in developing and technologically less sophisticated countries, and can provide green and safe electricity from organic waste.

  9. Stress detection in bivalve mollusk using non-invasive bioelectric monitoring of myoneural behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, E.L.; Hardison, B.S.; Dawson, V.K.; Waller, D.; Waller, W.T.; Dickson, K.L.; Allen, H.J.

    1995-12-31

    Few studies have demonstrated cause-and-effect linkages between extrinsic environmental factors and intrinsic bioelectric action potentials of bivalve mollusk using non-invasive, non-destructive approaches. A non-invasive, external probe configuration and detection system, similar to one used previously with native unionids, was developed for continuously monitoring bioelectric activities of clams and mussels. Using remote probes and differential amplifiers, bioelectric activities were recorded for cardiac, adductor, siphon and foot responses using a computer equipped with integrating software. To test if remote, non-invasive probes would detect similar information to that recorded by invasive needle electrodes, two individuals of zebra mussel (Dreissenia polymorpha), and Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) were each configured with two sets of probes. One set was inserted between the valves and along the inside surface of the shelf; the other set was positioned remotely about the outside margins of the valves. Signal validation was made by simultaneously recording bioelectric responses for the same animal from both sets of probes. In preliminary stress tests monitored bivalves were subjected to changes in temperatures over 2 to 3 hr intervals from ambient to potentially lethal levels (20 to 30 C for zebra, 25 C to 40 C for corbicula). Dramatic increases resulted in both number and amplitude of cardiac events as temperature increased. Planned studies will use this approach to evaluate bivalve myoneural behavior patterns in response to chemical and non-chemical stimuli.

  10. The bioelectric code: An ancient computational medium for dynamic control of growth and form.

    PubMed

    Levin, Michael; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2017-09-02

    What determines large-scale anatomy? DNA does not directly specify geometrical arrangements of tissues and organs, and a process of encoding and decoding for morphogenesis is required. Moreover, many species can regenerate and remodel their structure despite drastic injury. The ability to obtain the correct target morphology from a diversity of initial conditions reveals that the morphogenetic code implements a rich system of pattern-homeostatic processes. Here, we describe an important mechanism by which cellular networks implement pattern regulation and plasticity: bioelectricity. All cells, not only nerves and muscles, produce and sense electrical signals; in vivo, these processes form bioelectric circuits that harness individual cell behaviors toward specific anatomical endpoints. We review emerging progress in reading and re-writing anatomical information encoded in bioelectrical states, and discuss the approaches to this problem from the perspectives of information theory, dynamical systems, and computational neuroscience. Cracking the bioelectric code will enable much-improved control over biological patterning, advancing basic evolutionary developmental biology as well as enabling numerous applications in regenerative medicine and synthetic bioengineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Principles of design of neural-network analog-to-digital converters of bioelectric signals].

    PubMed

    Loktiukhin, V N; Chelebaev, S V

    2007-01-01

    A design principle and a procedure for synthesis of neural-network analog-to-digital converters of bioelectric signals are suggested. An example of implementation of an FPGA-based neural-network converter for classification of bioparameters is presented.

  12. Monolithically compatible impedance measurement

    DOEpatents

    Ericson, Milton Nance; Holcomb, David Eugene

    2002-01-01

    A monolithic sensor includes a reference channel and at least one sensing channel. Each sensing channel has an oscillator and a counter driven by the oscillator. The reference channel and the at least one sensing channel being formed integrally with a substrate and intimately nested with one another on the substrate. Thus, the oscillator and the counter have matched component values and temperature coefficients. A frequency determining component of the sensing oscillator is formed integrally with the substrate and has an impedance parameter which varies with an environmental parameter to be measured by the sensor. A gating control is responsive to an output signal generated by the reference channel, for terminating counting in the at least one sensing channel at an output count, whereby the output count is indicative of the environmental parameter, and successive ones of the output counts are indicative of changes in the environmental parameter.

  13. Body fluid volumes measurements by impedance: A review of bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) and bioimpedance analysis (BIA) methods.

    PubMed

    Jaffrin, Michel Y; Morel, Hélène

    2008-12-01

    This paper reviews various bioimpedance methods permitting to measure non-invasively, extracellular, intracellular and total body water (TBW) and compares BIA methods based on empirical equations of the wrist-ankle resistance or impedance at 50 kHz, height and weight with BIS methods which rely on an electrical model of tissues and resistances measured at zero and infinite frequencies. In order to compare these methods, impedance measurements were made with a multifrequency Xitron 4200 impedance meter on 57 healthy subjects which had undergone simultaneously a Dual X-ray absorptiometry examination (DXA), in order to estimate their TBW from their fat-free-mass. Extracellular (ECW) and TBW volumes were calculated for these subjects using the original BIS method and modifications of Matthie[Matthie JR. Second generation mixture theory equation for estimating intracellular water using bioimpedance spectroscopy. J Appl Physiol 2005;99:780-1], Jaffrin et al. [Jaffrin MY, Fenech M, Moreno MV, Kieffer R. Total body water measurement by a modification of the bioimpédance spectroscopy method. Med Bio Eng Comput 2006;44:873-82], Moissl et al. [Moissl UM, Wabel P, Chamney PW, Bosaeus I, Levin NW, et al. Body fluid volume determination via body composition spectroscopy in health and disease. Physiol Meas 2006;27:921-33] and their TBW resistivities were compared and discussed. ECW volumes were calculated by BIA methods of Sergi et al. [Sergi G, Bussolotto M, Perini P, Calliari I, et al. Accuracy of bioelectrical bioimpedance analysis for the assessment of extracellular space in healthy subjects and in fluid retention states. Ann Nutr Metab 1994;38(3):158-65] and Hannan et al. [Hannan WJ, Cowen SJ, Fearon KC, Plester CE, Falconer JS, Richardson RA. Evaluation of multi-frequency bio-impedance analysis for the assessment of extracellular and total body water in surgical patients. Clin Sci 1994;86:479-85] and TBW volumes by BIA methods of Kushner and Schoeller [Kushner RF

  14. Behaviour of the electrical impedance myography in isometric contraction of biceps brachii at different elbow joint angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutinho, A. B. B.; Jotta, B.; Pino, A. V.; Souza, M. N.

    2012-12-01

    Electrical impedance myography (EIM) can be understood as an experimental technique applied to evaluate bioelectrical impedance associated to the muscular activity. With the development of technique, some studies are trying to associate the EIM parameters with the morphological and physiological changes that occur in the muscle during contraction. In this context this work sought to associate EIM parameters observed during isometric contractions of the biceps brachii muscle at different elbow joint angles with the correspondent muscular force. Differently from previous works that did not observe significant correlation between those data, our findings point to high correlations between the some EIM resistive parameters and the muscle force. Despite the need of further investigation, our results indicated that EIM technique can be used to estimate muscle force in a noninvasive way.

  15. Ultra-wideband impedance sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1999-03-16

    The ultra-wideband impedance sensor (UWBZ sensor, or Z-sensor) is implemented in differential and single-ended configurations. The differential UWBZ sensor employs a sub-nanosecond impulse to determine the balance of an impedance bridge. The bridge is configured as a differential sample-and-hold circuit that has a reference impedance side and an unknown impedance side. The unknown impedance side includes a short transmission line whose impedance is a function of the near proximity of objects. The single-ended UWBZ sensor eliminates the reference side of the bridge and is formed of a sample and hold circuit having a transmission line whose impedance is a function of the near proximity of objects. The sensing range of the transmission line is bounded by the two-way travel time of the impulse, thereby eliminating spurious Doppler modes from large distant objects that would occur in a microwave CW impedance bridge. Thus, the UWBZ sensor is a range-gated proximity sensor. The Z-sensor senses the near proximity of various materials such as metal, plastic, wood, petroleum products, and living tissue. It is much like a capacitance sensor, yet it is impervious to moisture. One broad application area is the general replacement of magnetic sensors, particularly where nonferrous materials need to be sensed. Another broad application area is sensing full/empty levels in tanks, vats and silos, e.g., a full/empty switch in water or petroleum tanks. 2 figs.

  16. Ultra-wideband impedance sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1999-01-01

    The ultra-wideband impedance sensor (UWBZ sensor, or Z-sensor) is implemented in differential and single-ended configurations. The differential UWBZ sensor employs a sub-nanosecond impulse to determine the balance of an impedance bridge. The bridge is configured as a differential sample-and-hold circuit that has a reference impedance side and an unknown impedance side. The unknown impedance side includes a short transmission line whose impedance is a function of the near proximity of objects. The single-ended UWBZ sensor eliminates the reference side of the bridge and is formed of a sample and hold circuit having a transmission line whose impedance is a function of the near proximity of objects. The sensing range of the transmission line is bounded by the two-way travel time of the impulse, thereby eliminating spurious Doppler modes from large distant objects that would occur in a microwave CW impedance bridge. Thus, the UWBZ sensor is a range-gated proximity sensor. The Z-sensor senses the near proximity of various materials such as metal, plastic, wood, petroleum products, and living tissue. It is much like a capacitance sensor, yet it is impervious to moisture. One broad application area is the general replacement of magnetic sensors, particularly where nonferrous materials need to be sensed. Another broad application area is sensing full/empty levels in tanks, vats and silos, e.g., a full/empty switch in water or petroleum tanks.

  17. Impedance in School Screening Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robarts, John T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the controversy over use of impedance screening in public schools to identify students with hearing problems, including otitis media, a common ear condition in infants and young children. It cites research that questions the value of pure tone screening as a single test and raises critics' objections to the use of impedance,…

  18. Impedance in School Screening Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robarts, John T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the controversy over use of impedance screening in public schools to identify students with hearing problems, including otitis media, a common ear condition in infants and young children. It cites research that questions the value of pure tone screening as a single test and raises critics' objections to the use of impedance,…

  19. Electromagnetic scattering by impedance structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Griesser, Timothy

    1987-01-01

    The scattering of electromagnetic waves from impedance structures is investigated, and current work on antenna pattern calculation is presented. A general algorithm for determining radiation patterns from antennas mounted near or on polygonal plates is presented. These plates are assumed to be of a material which satisfies the Leontovich (or surface impedance) boundary condition. Calculated patterns including reflection and diffraction terms are presented for numerious geometries, and refinements are included for antennas mounted directly on impedance surfaces. For the case of a monopole mounted on a surface impedance ground plane, computed patterns are compared with experimental measurements. This work in antenna pattern prediction forms the basis of understanding of the complex scattering mechanisms from impedance surfaces. It provides the foundation for the analysis of backscattering patterns which, in general, are more problematic than calculation of antenna patterns. Further proposed study of related topics, including surface waves, corner diffractions, and multiple diffractions, is outlined.

  20. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retter, Utz; Lohse, Heinz

    Non-steady-state measuring techniques are known to be extremely suitable for the investigation of the electrode kinetics of more complex electrochemical systems. Perturbation of the electrochemical system leads to a shift of the steady state. The rate at which it proceeds to a new steady state depends on characteristic parameters (reaction rate constants, diffusion coefficients, charge transfer resistance, double-layer capacity). Due to non-linearities caused by the electron transfer, low-amplitude perturbation signals are necessary. The small perturbation of the electrode state has the advantage that the solutions of relevant mathematical equations used are transformed in limiting forms that are normally linear. Impedance spectroscopy represents a powerful method for investigation of electrical properties of materials and interfaces of conducting electrodes. Relevant fields of application are the kinetics of charges in bulk or interfacial regions, the charge transfer of ionic or mixed ionic-ionic conductors, semiconducting electrodes, the corrosion inhibition of electrode processes, investigation of coatings on metals, characterisation of materials and solid electrolyte as well as solid-state devices.

  1. Body composition measurement: a review of hydrodensitometry, anthropometry, and impedance methods.

    PubMed

    Brodie, D; Moscrip, V; Hutcheon, R

    1998-03-01

    Human body composition is an expression of genetic and nutritional factors. It can change as a consequence of exogenous influences such as training, disease, or diet and is therefore of particular interest to nutrition professionals. Two of the main methods of estimating body composition in this review (hydrodensitometry and anthropometry) have been in use for decades, but the third method (bioelectrical impedance) is more recent. The procedure, theoretical basis, assumptions, standard error of estimates, and comparisons with other techniques are presented for each of the three methods. References to general and specific populations are presented that illustrate regression equations for different ages, ethnic groups, and gender. The advantages and disadvantages of the three methods are reviewed with reference made to the alternative compartment models. Other methods (DEXA, infrared interactance) are briefly reviewed.

  2. Impedance-estimation methods, modeling methods, articles of manufacture, impedance-modeling devices, and estimated-impedance monitoring systems

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, John G

    2009-11-17

    An impedance estimation method includes measuring three or more impedances of an object having a periphery using three or more probes coupled to the periphery. The three or more impedance measurements are made at a first frequency. Three or more additional impedance measurements of the object are made using the three or more probes. The three or more additional impedance measurements are made at a second frequency different from the first frequency. An impedance of the object at a point within the periphery is estimated based on the impedance measurements and the additional impedance measurements.

  3. I/O impedance controller

    DOEpatents

    Ruesch, Rodney; Jenkins, Philip N.; Ma, Nan

    2004-03-09

    There is disclosed apparatus and apparatus for impedance control to provide for controlling the impedance of a communication circuit using an all-digital impedance control circuit wherein one or more control bits are used to tune the output impedance. In one example embodiment, the impedance control circuit is fabricated using circuit components found in a standard macro library of a computer aided design system. According to another example embodiment, there is provided a control for an output driver on an integrated circuit ("IC") device to provide for forming a resistor divider network with the output driver and a resistor off the IC device so that the divider network produces an output voltage, comparing the output voltage of the divider network with a reference voltage, and adjusting the output impedance of the output driver to attempt to match the output voltage of the divider network and the reference voltage. Also disclosed is over-sampling the divider network voltage, storing the results of the over sampling, repeating the over-sampling and storing, averaging the results of multiple over sampling operations, controlling the impedance with a plurality of bits forming a word, and updating the value of the word by only one least significant bit at a time.

  4. Scattering patterns of dihedral corner reflectors with impedance surface impedances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Griesser, Timothy; Liu, Kefeng

    The radar cross section patterns of lossy dihedral corner reflectors are calculated using a uniform geometrical theory of diffraction for impedance surfaces. All terms of up to third order reflections are considered for patterns in the principal plane. The surface waves are included whenever they exist for reactive surface impedances. The dihedral corner reflectors examined have right, obtuse, and acute interior angles, and patterns over the entire 360 deg azimuthal plane are calculated. The surface impedances can be different on the four faces of the dihedral corner reflector; however, the surface impedance must be uniform over each face. Computed cross sections are compared with a moment method technique for a dielectric/ferrite absorber coating on a metallic corner reflector. The analysis of the dihedral corner reflector is important because it demonstrates many of the important scattering contributors of complex targets including both interior and exterior wedge diffraction, half-plane diffraction, and dominant multiple reflections and diffractions.

  5. Scattering patterns of dihedral corner reflectors with impedance surface impedances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Griesser, Timothy; Liu, Kefeng

    1988-01-01

    The radar cross section patterns of lossy dihedral corner reflectors are calculated using a uniform geometrical theory of diffraction for impedance surfaces. All terms of up to third order reflections are considered for patterns in the principal plane. The surface waves are included whenever they exist for reactive surface impedances. The dihedral corner reflectors examined have right, obtuse, and acute interior angles, and patterns over the entire 360 deg azimuthal plane are calculated. The surface impedances can be different on the four faces of the dihedral corner reflector; however, the surface impedance must be uniform over each face. Computed cross sections are compared with a moment method technique for a dielectric/ferrite absorber coating on a metallic corner reflector. The analysis of the dihedral corner reflector is important because it demonstrates many of the important scattering contributors of complex targets including both interior and exterior wedge diffraction, half-plane diffraction, and dominant multiple reflections and diffractions.

  6. Reactanceless synthesized impedance bandpass amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, L. L. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An active R bandpass filter network is formed by four operational amplifier stages interconnected by discrete resistances. One pair of stages synthesize an equivalent input impedance of an inductance (L sub eq) in parallel with a discrete resistance (R sub o) while the second pair of stages synthesizes an equivalent input impedance of a capacitance (C sub eq) serially coupled to another discrete resistance (R sub i) coupled in parallel with the first two stages. The equivalent input impedances aggregately define a tuned resonant bandpass filter in the roll-off regions of the operational amplifiers.

  7. Endogenous voltage gradients as mediators of cell-cell communication: strategies for investigating bioelectrical signals during pattern formation

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Dany S.; Levin, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Alongside the well-known chemical modes of cell-cell communication, we find an important and powerful system of bioelectrical signaling: changes in the resting voltage potential (Vmem) of the plasma membrane driven by ion channels, pumps and gap junctions. Slow Vmem changes in all cells serve as a highly conserved, information-bearing pathway that regulates cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. In embryonic and regenerative pattern formation and in the disorganization of neoplasia, bioelectrical cues serve as mediators of large-scale anatomical polarity, organ identity and positional information. Recent developments have resulted in tools that enable a high-resolution analysis of these biophysical signals and their linkage with upstream and downstream canonical genetic pathways. Here, we provide an overview for the study of bioelectric signaling, focusing on state-of-the-art approaches that use molecular physiology and developmental genetics to probe the roles of bioelectric events functionally. We highlight the logic, strategies and well-developed technologies that any group of researchers can employ to identify and dissect ionic signaling components in their own work and thus to help crack the bioelectric code. The dissection of bioelectric events as instructive signals enabling the orchestration of cell behaviors into large-scale coherent patterning programs will enrich on-going work in diverse areas of biology, as biophysical factors become incorporated into our systems-level understanding of cell interactions. PMID:22350846

  8. Highly Sensitive Measurement of Bio-Electric Potentials by Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) Electrodes for Plant Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Tsuyoshi; Tago, Shoko; Hayashi, Mio; Fujishima, Akira

    2015-10-23

    We describe a sensitive plant monitoring system by the detection of the bioelectric potentials in plants with boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. For sensor electrodes, we used commercially available BDD, Ag, and Pt plate electrodes. We tested this approach on a hybrid species in the genus Opuntia (potted) and three different trees (ground-planted) at different places in Japan. For the Opuntia, we artificially induced bioelectric potential changes by the surface potential using the fingers. We detected substantial changes in bioelectric potentials through all electrodes during finger touches on the surface of potted Opuntia hybrid plants, although the BDD electrodes were several times more sensitive to bioelectric potential change compared to the other electrodes. Similarly for ground-planted trees, we found that both BDD and Pt electrodes detected bioelectric potential change induced by changing environmental factors (temperature and humidity) for months without replacing/removing/changing electrodes, BDD electrodes were 5-10 times more sensitive in this detection than Pt electrodes. Given these results, we conclude that BDD electrodes on live plant tissue were able to consistently detect bioelectrical potential changes in plants.

  9. Highly Sensitive Measurement of Bio-Electric Potentials by Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) Electrodes for Plant Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Ochiai, Tsuyoshi; Tago, Shoko; Hayashi, Mio; Fujishima, Akira

    2015-01-01

    We describe a sensitive plant monitoring system by the detection of the bioelectric potentials in plants with boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. For sensor electrodes, we used commercially available BDD, Ag, and Pt plate electrodes. We tested this approach on a hybrid species in the genus Opuntia (potted) and three different trees (ground-planted) at different places in Japan. For the Opuntia, we artificially induced bioelectric potential changes by the surface potential using the fingers. We detected substantial changes in bioelectric potentials through all electrodes during finger touches on the surface of potted Opuntia hybrid plants, although the BDD electrodes were several times more sensitive to bioelectric potential change compared to the other electrodes. Similarly for ground-planted trees, we found that both BDD and Pt electrodes detected bioelectric potential change induced by changing environmental factors (temperature and humidity) for months without replacing/removing/changing electrodes, BDD electrodes were 5–10 times more sensitive in this detection than Pt electrodes. Given these results, we conclude that BDD electrodes on live plant tissue were able to consistently detect bioelectrical potential changes in plants. PMID:26512663

  10. Low-noise two-wired buffer electrodes for bioelectric amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Degen, Thomas; Torrent, Simon; Jäckel, Heinz

    2007-07-01

    Active buffer electrodes are known to improve the immunity of bioelectric recordings against power line interferences. A survey of published work reveals that buffer electrodes are almost exclusively designed using operational amplifiers (opamps). In this paper, we discuss the advantage of utilizing a single transistor instead. This allows for a simple electrode, which is small and requires only two wires. In addition, a single transistor adds considerably less noise when compared to an opamp with the same power consumption. We then discuss output resistance and gain as well as their respective effect on the common mode rejection ratio (CMRR). Finally, we demonstrate the use of two-wired buffer electrodes for a bioelectric amplifier.

  11. Freezing behaviour facilitates bioelectric crypsis in cuttlefish faced with predation risk.

    PubMed

    Bedore, Christine N; Kajiura, Stephen M; Johnsen, Sönke

    2015-12-07

    Cephalopods, and in particular the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, are common models for studies of camouflage and predator avoidance behaviour. Preventing detection by predators is especially important to this group of animals, most of which are soft-bodied, lack physical defences, and are subject to both visually and non-visually mediated detection. Here, we report a novel cryptic mechanism in S. officinalis in which bioelectric cues are reduced via a behavioural freeze response to a predator stimulus. The reduction of bioelectric fields created by the freeze-simulating stimulus resulted in a possible decrease in shark predation risk by reducing detectability. The freeze response may also facilitate other non-visual cryptic mechanisms to lower predation risk from a wide range of predator types. © 2015 The Author(s).

  12. Noninvasive estimation of fluid shifts between body compartments by measurement of bioelectric characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Phillip A.

    1989-01-01

    Previous research has established that bioelectrical characteristics of the human body reflect fluid status to some extent. It has been previously assumed that changes in electrical resistance (R) and reactance (X) are associated with changes in total body water (TBW). The purpose of the present pilot investigation was to assess the correspondence between body R and X and changes in estimated TBW and plasma volume during a period of bedrest (simulated weightlessness). R and X were measured pre-, during, and post- a 13 day bedrest status. Although a clear relationship was not elucidated, evidence was found suggesting that R and X reflect plasma volume rather than TBW. Indirect evidence provided by previous studies which investigated other aspects of the electrical/fluid relationship, also suggests the independence of TBW and electrical properties. With further research, a bioelectrical technique for noninvasively tracking fluid changes consequent to space flight may be developed.

  13. Enhanced vanadium (V) reduction and bioelectricity generation in microbial fuel cells with biocathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Rui; Zhang, Baogang; Li, Jiaxin; Lv, Qing; Wang, Song; Gu, Qian

    2017-08-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) represent a promising approach for remediation of toxic vanadium (V) contaminated environment. Herein, enhanced V(V) reduction and bioelectricity generation are realized in MFCs with biocathode. Synergistically electrochemical and microbial reductions result in the nearly complete removals of V(V) within 7 d operation with initial concentration of 200 mg L-1. Maximum power density of 529 ± 12 mW m-2 is obtained. Electrochemical tests reveal that biocathode promotes electron transfers and reduces charge transfer resistance. XPS analysis confirms that V(IV) is the main reduction product, which precipitates naturally under neutral conditions. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis indicates that the newly appeared Dysgonomonas is responsible for V(V) reduction and Klebsiella contributes mainly to bioelectricity generation in MFCs with biocathode. This study further improves the performance of remediating V(V) contaminated environment based on MFC technology.

  14. Bone bioelectricity: what have we learned in the past 160 years?

    PubMed

    Isaacson, Brad M; Bloebaum, Roy D

    2010-12-15

    The direct relationship between bone strain and electric fields has spurred continual interest in the field of bioelectricity over the past 160 years. It has been reported that stress-generated potentials alter cell proliferation and extracellular matrix secretion. The observation that endogenous electrical signals facilitate osteoinduction has lead to high production of electrical stimulation devices to fix bone defects. Despite the reported 100,000 nonunions healed as of 1990 with electrical stimulation, skepticism due to lack of homogeneity with trial design and dosage still exists within the scientific community. It is the purpose of this review to assess the bioelectric phenomenon of bone as it applies to piezoelectricity, fracture healing, and overall changes in bone metabolism which occur with controlled electrical stimulation. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Freezing behaviour facilitates bioelectric crypsis in cuttlefish faced with predation risk

    PubMed Central

    Bedore, Christine N.; Kajiura, Stephen M.; Johnsen, Sönke

    2015-01-01

    Cephalopods, and in particular the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, are common models for studies of camouflage and predator avoidance behaviour. Preventing detection by predators is especially important to this group of animals, most of which are soft-bodied, lack physical defences, and are subject to both visually and non-visually mediated detection. Here, we report a novel cryptic mechanism in S. officinalis in which bioelectric cues are reduced via a behavioural freeze response to a predator stimulus. The reduction of bioelectric fields created by the freeze-simulating stimulus resulted in a possible decrease in shark predation risk by reducing detectability. The freeze response may also facilitate other non-visual cryptic mechanisms to lower predation risk from a wide range of predator types. PMID:26631562

  16. Bioinspired Nanosucker Array for Enhancing Bioelectricity Generation in Microbial Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; You, Shijie; Gong, Xiaobo; Qi, Dianpeng; Chandran, Bevita K; Bi, Lanpo; Cui, Fuyi; Chen, Xiaodong

    2016-01-13

    A bioinspired active anode with a suction effect is demonstrated for microbial fuel cells by constructing polypyrrole (PPy) nanotubular arrays on carbon textiles. The oxygen in the inner space of the nanosucker can be depleted by micro-organisms with the capability of facul-tative respiration, forming a vacuum, which then activates the electrode to draw the microorganism by suction and thus improve the bioelectricity generation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Bioelectrical activity of limb muscles during cold shivering of stimulation of the vestibular apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuzmina, G. I.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of caloric and electric stimulation of the vestibular receptors on the EMG activity of limb muslces in anesthetized cats during cold induced shivering involved flexor muscles alone. Both types of stimulation suppressed bioelectrical activity more effectively in the ipsilateral muscles. The suppression of shivering activity seems to be due to the increased inhibitory effect of descending labyrinth pathways on the function of flexor motoneurons.

  18. [Essence of meridians and collaterals: circulatory conduction system of bio-electricity of human].

    PubMed

    Shang, Zhen-De

    2011-03-01

    The running courses of twelve meridians are explained through the electrical properties of cell membrane, and the phenomenon related with meridians such as mechanism of acupuncture analgesia and acupuncture anesthesia, pause of the propagated sensation along channels, nature of propagated sensation and width of propagated sensation is expounded in this article. As a result, it is held that the meridian system, a circulatory conduction system of bio-electricity of human, is an independent system from the known nine large systems.

  19. ELF-magnetic field induced effects on the bioelectric activity of single neurone cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azanza, Maria J.; del Moral, A.

    1998-01-01

    The membrane bioelectric activity recorded from single neurones is dramatically modified under applied extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) of 50 Hz and 1-15 mT peak intensity. In ≌27% of the neurones studied a firing rhythm is generated for ≌7 mT, which resembles synchronous oscillations activity. The possibility that ELF-MF could generate neuronal networks synchrony firing does exist as an explanatory physical model shows.

  20. [Specifics of perception of acoustic image of intrinsic bioelectric brain activity].

    PubMed

    Konstantinov, K V; Leonova, M K; Miroshnikov, D B; Klimenko, V M

    2014-06-01

    We studied the particularities of perception of the acoustic image of intrinsic EEG. We found that the assessment of perception of sounds, the presentation of which was synchronized and was agreed with current bioelectric brain activity, is higher that assessment of perception of acoustic EEG image presented in recorded form. Presentation of recorded acoustic image of EEG is accompanied by increased activity of beta-band in the frontal areas, while real-time presentation of acoustic EEG image is accompanied by the increase of slow wave activity: theta- and delta-bands of occipital areas of the brain. Increase activity in theta- and delta-bands of occipital areas in sessions of hearing the acoustic image of EEG in real time depend on the baseline frequency structure of EEG and correlates with expression of alpha-, beta- and theta-bands of bioelectric brain activity in both frontal and occipital areas. We suppose that presentation of sounds synchronized and agreed with the current bioelectric activity, activated the regulatory brain structures.

  1. Representation of bioelectric current sources using Whitney elements in the finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguz Tanzer, I.; Järvenpää, Seppo; Nenonen, Jukka; Somersalo, Erkki

    2005-07-01

    Bioelectric current sources of magneto- and electroencephalograms (MEG, EEG) are usually modelled with discrete delta-function type current dipoles, despite the fact that the currents in the brain are naturally continuous throughout the neuronal tissue. In this study, we represent bioelectric current sources in terms of Whitney-type elements in the finite element method (FEM) using a tetrahedral mesh. The aim is to study how well the Whitney elements can reproduce the potential and magnetic field patterns generated by a point current dipole in a homogeneous conducting sphere. The electric potential is solved for a unit sphere model with isotropic conductivity and magnetic fields are calculated for points located on a cap outside the sphere. The computed potential and magnetic field are compared with analytical solutions for a current dipole. Relative difference measures between the FEM and analytical solutions are less than 1%, suggesting that Whitney elements as bioelectric current sources are able to produce the same potential and magnetic field patterns as the point dipole sources.

  2. Enhanced microbial reduction of vanadium (V) in groundwater with bioelectricity from microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Liting; Zhang, Baogang; Tian, Caixing; Liu, Ye; Shi, Chunhong; Cheng, Ming; Feng, Chuanping

    2015-08-01

    Bioelectricity generated from the microbial fuel cell (MFC) is applied to the bioelectrical reactor (BER) directly to enhance microbial reduction of vanadium (V) (V(V)) in groundwater. With the maximum power density of 543.4 mW m-2 from the MFC, V(V) removal is accelerated with efficiency of 93.6% during 12 h operation. Higher applied voltage can facilitate this process. V(V) removals decrease with the increase of initial V(V) concentration, while extra addition of chemical oxygen demand (COD) has little effect on performance improvement. Microbial V(V) reduction is enhanced and then suppressed with the increase of conductivity. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing analysis implies the accumulated Enterobacter and Lactococcus reduce V(V) with products from fermentative microorganisms such as Macellibacteroides. The presentation of electrochemically active bacteria as Enterobacter promotes electron transfers. This study indicates that application of bioelectricity from MFCs is a promising strategy to improve the efficiency of in-situ bioremediation of V(V) polluted groundwater.

  3. Representation of bioelectric current sources using Whitney elements in the finite element method.

    PubMed

    Tanzer, I Oğuz; Järvenpää, Seppo; Nenonen, Jukka; Somersalo, Erkki

    2005-07-07

    Bioelectric current sources of magneto- and electroencephalograms (MEG, EEG) are usually modelled with discrete delta-function type current dipoles, despite the fact that the currents in the brain are naturally continuous throughout the neuronal tissue. In this study, we represent bioelectric current sources in terms of Whitney-type elements in the finite element method (FEM) using a tetrahedral mesh. The aim is to study how well the Whitney elements can reproduce the potential and magnetic field patterns generated by a point current dipole in a homogeneous conducting sphere. The electric potential is solved for a unit sphere model with isotropic conductivity and magnetic fields are calculated for points located on a cap outside the sphere. The computed potential and magnetic field are compared with analytical solutions for a current dipole. Relative difference measures between the FEM and analytical solutions are less than 1%, suggesting that Whitney elements as bioelectric current sources are able to produce the same potential and magnetic field patterns as the point dipole sources.

  4. Accelerated Wound Healing on Skin by Electrical Stimulation with a Bioelectric Plaster.

    PubMed

    Kai, Hiroyuki; Yamauchi, Takeshi; Ogawa, Yudai; Tsubota, Ayaka; Magome, Takahiro; Miyake, Takeo; Yamasaki, Kenshi; Nishizawa, Matsuhiko

    2017-09-20

    Wound healing on skin involves cell migration and proliferation in response to endogenous electric current. External electrical stimulation by electrical equipment is used to promote these biological processes for the treatment of chronic wounds and ulcers. Miniaturization of the electrical stimulation device for wound healing on skin will make this technology more widely available. Using flexible enzymatic electrodes and stretchable hydrogel, a stretchable bioelectric plaster is fabricated with a built-in enzymatic biofuel cell (EBFC) that fits to skin and generates ionic current along the surface of the skin by enzymatic electrochemical reactions for more than 12 h. To investigate the efficacy of the fabricated bioelectric plaster, an artificial wound is made on the back skin of a live mouse and the wound healing is observed for 7 d in the presence and absence of the ionic current of the bioelectric plaster. The time course of the wound size as well as the hematoxylin and eosin staining of the skin section reveals that the ionic current of the plaster leads to faster and smoother wound healing. The present work demonstrates a proof of concept for the electrical manipulation of biological functions by EBFCs. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. An equivalent body surface charge model representing three-dimensional bioelectrical activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, B.; Chernyak, Y. B.; Cohen, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    A new surface-source model has been developed to account for the bioelectrical potential on the body surface. A single-layer surface-charge model on the body surface has been developed to equivalently represent bioelectrical sources inside the body. The boundary conditions on the body surface are discussed in relation to the surface-charge in a half-space conductive medium. The equivalent body surface-charge is shown to be proportional to the normal component of the electric field on the body surface just outside the body. The spatial resolution of the equivalent surface-charge distribution appears intermediate between those of the body surface potential distribution and the body surface Laplacian distribution. An analytic relationship between the equivalent surface-charge and the surface Laplacian of the potential was found for a half-space conductive medium. The effects of finite spatial sampling and noise on the reconstruction of the equivalent surface-charge were evaluated by computer simulations. It was found through computer simulations that the reconstruction of the equivalent body surface-charge from the body surface Laplacian distribution is very stable against noise and finite spatial sampling. The present results suggest that the equivalent body surface-charge model may provide an additional insight to our understanding of bioelectric phenomena.

  6. Male and female differences in variability with estimating body fat composition using skinfold calipers

    PubMed Central

    McRae, Marc P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Obesity is a major health problem in the United States. Skinfold measurements are routinely used in assessing outcomes in the management of obesity. The purpose of this study was to determine if sex differences in skinfold measurements would be apparent in intraobserver and interobserver reliability as well as validity when compared with bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) measurements. Methods To determine intraobserver and interobserver variability, 71 male and 45 female subjects (chiropractic students) were assessed by 4 separate observers who each took 4 separate skinfold measurements. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was later conducted using a foot-to-foot technique. The average sums of the skinfold measurement and their standard deviations were calculated, and correlation coefficients between skinfold measurements and BIA techniques for male and female subjects were plotted separately to assess validity. Results Men tended to have greater amounts of intraobserver and interobserver variability when compared with women, but these differences were not significant. In regard to validity, there was no significant difference between skinfold measurements and BIA when estimating percentage body fat for men; but the difference was significant for women, where BIA underestimated by 3.4%. Conclusions The differences observed in variability could be explained by the fact that there is a difference in skinfold compressibility between men and women. Physicians who are using skinfold calipers for body composition assessment should take into account these small potential differences when evaluating total body fatness. PMID:22027106

  7. Accelerating bioelectric functional development of neural stem cells by graphene coupling: Implications for neural interfacing with conductive materials.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rongrong; Zhang, Shasha; Xiao, Miao; Qian, Fuping; He, Zuhong; Li, Dan; Zhang, Xiaoli; Li, Huawei; Yang, Xiaowei; Wang, Ming; Chai, Renjie; Tang, Mingliang

    2016-11-01

    In order to govern cell-specific behaviors in tissue engineering for neural repair and regeneration, a better understanding of material-cell interactions, especially the bioelectric functions, is extremely important. Graphene has been reported to be a potential candidate for use as a scaffold and neural interfacing material. However, the bioelectric evolvement of cell membranes on these conductive graphene substrates remains largely uninvestigated. In this study, we used a neural stem cell (NSC) model to explore the possible changes in membrane bioelectric properties - including resting membrane potentials and action potentials - and cell behaviors on graphene films under both proliferation and differentiation conditions. We used a combination of single-cell electrophysiological recordings and traditional cell biology techniques. Graphene did not affect the basic membrane electrical parameters (capacitance and input resistance), but resting membrane potentials of cells on graphene substrates were more strongly negative under both proliferation and differentiation conditions. Also, NSCs and their progeny on graphene substrates exhibited increased firing of action potentials during development compared to controls. However, graphene only slightly affected the electric characterizations of mature NSC progeny. The modulation of passive and active bioelectric properties on the graphene substrate was accompanied by enhanced NSC differentiation. Furthermore, spine density, synapse proteins expressions and synaptic activity were all increased in graphene group. Modeling of the electric field on conductive graphene substrates suggests that the electric field produced by the electronegative cell membrane is much higher on graphene substrates than that on control, and this might explain the observed changes of bioelectric development by graphene coupling. Our results indicate that graphene is able to accelerate NSC maturation during development, especially with regard to

  8. Impedance studies - Part 4: The APS impedance budget

    SciTech Connect

    1988-07-01

    This note will wrap up the numerical results that were obtained in our calculations of the wake potentials, the loss factors, and the impedances for a variety of structures in the APS storage ring. It consists of five sections and one appendix. Section 1 is an introduction. Section 2 summarizes the hand calculations. The computer calculations are the subject 1 of Section 3. Section 4 discusses several tests in our numerical methods. Section 5 presents the APS impedance budget, along with some discussion. The appendix contains the figures of the structures, the longitudinal/transverse wake potentials and the real/imaginary part of the impedances of various sorts of geometries that have been included in the budget.

  9. [Monitoring cervical dilatation by impedance].

    PubMed

    Salvat, J; Lassen, M; Sauze, C; Baud, S; Salvat, F

    1992-01-01

    Several different physics procedures have been tried to mechanize the recording of partograms. Can a measure of impedance of tissue Z using potential difference V, according to Ohm's law V = Z1, and 1 is a constant, be correlated with a measure of cervical dilatation using vaginal examination? This was our hypothesis. The tissue impedance meter was made to our design and applied according to a bipolar procedure. Our work was carried out on 28 patients. 10 patients were registered before labour started in order to test the apparatus and to record the impedance variations without labour taking place, and 18 patients were registered in labour to see whether there was any correlation. The level of impedance in the cervix without labour was 302.7 Ohms with a deviation of 8.2. Using student's t tests it was found that there was a significant correlation (p less than 0.001) in four measurements between the impedance measure and measures obtained by extrapolating the degrees of dilatation calculated from vaginal examination. This is a preliminary study in which we have defined the conditions that are necessary to confirm these first results and to further develop the method.

  10. Uncertainties in Transfer Impedance Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schippers, H.; Verpoorte, J.

    2016-05-01

    The shielding effectiveness of metal braids of cables is governed by the geometry and the materials of the braid. The shielding effectiveness can be characterised by the transfer impedance of the metal braid. Analytical models for the transfer impedance contain in general two components, one representing diffusion of electromagnetic energy through the metal braid, and a second part representing leakage of magnetic fields through the braid. Possible sources of uncertainties in the modelling are inaccurate input data (for instance, the exact size of the braid diameter or wire diameter are not known) and imperfections in the computational model. The aim of the present paper is to estimate effects of variations of input data on the calculated transfer impedance.

  11. Bioelectric modulation of wound healing in a 3D in vitro model of tissue-engineered bone

    PubMed Central

    Sundelacruz, Sarah; Li, Chunmei; Choi, Young Jun; Levin, Michael; Kaplan, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Long-standing interest in bioelectric regulation of bone fracture healing has primarily focused on exogenous stimulation of bone using applied electromagnetic fields. Endogenous electric signals, such as spatial gradients of resting potential among non-excitable cells in vivo, have also been shown to be important in cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and tissue regeneration, and may therefore have as-yet unexplored therapeutic potential for regulating wound healing in bone tissue. To study this form of bioelectric regulation, there is a need for three-dimensional (3D) in vitro wound tissue models that can overcome limitations of current in vivo models. We present a 3D wound healing model in engineered bone tissue that serves as a pre-clinical experimental platform for studying electrophysiological regulation of wound healing. Using this system, we identified two electrophysiology-modulating compounds, glibenclamide and monensin, that augmented osteoblast mineralization. Of particular interest, these compounds displayed differential effects in the wound area compared to the surrounding tissue. Several hypotheses are proposed to account for these observations, including the existence of heterogeneous subpopulations of osteoblasts that respond differently to bioelectric signals, or the capacity of the wound-specific biochemical and biomechanical environment to alter cell responses to electrophysiological treatments. These data indicate that a comprehensive characterization of the cellular, biochemical, biomechanical, and bioelectrical components of in vitro wound models is needed to develop bioelectric strategies to control cell functions for improved bone regeneration. PMID:23764116

  12. Bioelectric modulation of wound healing in a 3D in vitro model of tissue-engineered bone.

    PubMed

    Sundelacruz, Sarah; Li, Chunmei; Choi, Young Jun; Levin, Michael; Kaplan, David L

    2013-09-01

    Long-standing interest in bioelectric regulation of bone fracture healing has primarily focused on exogenous stimulation of bone using applied electromagnetic fields. Endogenous electric signals, such as spatial gradients of resting potential among non-excitable cells in vivo, have also been shown to be important in cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and tissue regeneration, and may therefore have as-yet unexplored therapeutic potential for regulating wound healing in bone tissue. To study this form of bioelectric regulation, there is a need for three-dimensional (3D) in vitro wound tissue models that can overcome limitations of current in vivo models. We present a 3D wound healing model in engineered bone tissue that serves as a pre-clinical experimental platform for studying electrophysiological regulation of wound healing. Using this system, we identified two electrophysiology-modulating compounds, glibenclamide and monensin, that augmented osteoblast mineralization. Of particular interest, these compounds displayed differential effects in the wound area compared to the surrounding tissue. Several hypotheses are proposed to account for these observations, including the existence of heterogeneous subpopulations of osteoblasts that respond differently to bioelectric signals, or the capacity of the wound-specific biochemical and biomechanical environment to alter cell responses to electrophysiological treatments. These data indicate that a comprehensive characterization of the cellular, biochemical, biomechanical, and bioelectrical components of in vitro wound models is needed to develop bioelectric strategies to control cell functions for improved bone regeneration.

  13. Microfabricated thin film impedance sensor & AC impedance measurements.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jinsong; Liu, Chung-Chiun

    2010-01-01

    Thin film microfabrication technique was employed to fabricate a platinum based parallel-electrode structured impedance sensor. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and equivalent circuit analysis of the small amplitude (±5 mV) AC impedance measurements (frequency range: 1 MHz to 0.1 Hz) at ambient temperature were carried out. Testing media include 0.001 M, 0.01 M, 0.1 M NaCl and KCl solutions, and alumina (∼3 μm) and sand (∼300 μm) particulate layers saturated with NaCl solutions with the thicknesses ranging from 0.6 mm to 8 mm in a testing cell, and the results were used to assess the effect of the thickness of the particulate layer on the conductivity of the testing solution. The calculated resistances were approximately around 20 MΩ, 4 MΩ, and 0.5 MΩ for 0.001 M, 0.01 M, and 0.1 M NaCl solutions, respectively. The presence of the sand particulates increased the impedance dramatically (6 times and 3 times for 0.001 M and 0.1 M NaCl solutions, respectively). A cell constant methodology was also developed to assess the measurement of the bulk conductivity of the electrolyte solution. The cell constant ranged from 1.2 to 0.8 and it decreased with the increase of the solution thickness.

  14. Microfabricated Thin Film Impedance Sensor & AC Impedance Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jinsong; Liu, Chung-Chiun

    2010-01-01

    Thin film microfabrication technique was employed to fabricate a platinum based parallel-electrode structured impedance sensor. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and equivalent circuit analysis of the small amplitude (±5 mV) AC impedance measurements (frequency range: 1 MHz to 0.1 Hz) at ambient temperature were carried out. Testing media include 0.001 M, 0.01 M, 0.1 M NaCl and KCl solutions, and alumina (∼3 μm) and sand (∼300 μm) particulate layers saturated with NaCl solutions with the thicknesses ranging from 0.6 mm to 8 mm in a testing cell, and the results were used to assess the effect of the thickness of the particulate layer on the conductivity of the testing solution. The calculated resistances were approximately around 20 MΩ, 4 MΩ, and 0.5 MΩ for 0.001 M, 0.01 M, and 0.1 M NaCl solutions, respectively. The presence of the sand particulates increased the impedance dramatically (6 times and 3 times for 0.001 M and 0.1 M NaCl solutions, respectively). A cell constant methodology was also developed to assess the measurement of the bulk conductivity of the electrolyte solution. The cell constant ranged from 1.2 to 0.8 and it decreased with the increase of the solution thickness. PMID:22219690

  15. Measurement of microelectric potentials in a bioelectrically-active wound care device in the presence of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Park, S S; Kim, H; Makin, I R S; Skiba, J B; Izadjoo, M J

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing is enhanced in the presence of an external electrical field. The purpose of this study was first to investigate whether microelectric potentials (EPs) can be generated when the innovative design of a silver (Ag)- and zinc (Zn)-printed wound care device was exposed to saline solution which is commonly used to clean wound sites; and second to measure the generated EPs while the device was exposed to bacterial culture suspensions to mimic infection. An Ag/Zn-printed test specimen as a wound care device was designed to accommodate Ag and Zn half-cell potentials by alternatively printing them on a woven polyester material in a well-characterised dot matrix pattern. A well-calibrated high impedance EPs measuring system was used to measure any EPs generated. Ultrasensitive inductively coupled plasma analysis was performed to determine whether the device induced any increase in trace metals in rabbit blood following implantation for 2-4 weeks. EPs were consistently generated under various conductive solutions at the levels of 120.4±26.3mV (average±standard deviation) on Ag dots and -506.5±76.3mV over Zn dots to form microcircuits with EPs of 626.7±86.3mV between the Ag and Zn metallic elements of the dressing. Interestingly, the patterns of EPs generated with stable polarities were consistent when the device was exposed to bacterial suspensions for mimicking wound infection. Implantation of the device did not cause any increase in Ag or Zn in rabbit blood. The Ag/Zn-printed wound device generated sustained EPs successfully in the presence of various conductive fluids without changing EPs including polarities. Consistently generated EPs at each battery couple with Ag/Zn-based wound device would restore disrupted physiologic bioelectric signals on wound sites, which could lead to improved wound healing. The opinions or assertions contained herein are the private views of the authors and are not to be construed as official or as reflecting the views of the

  16. Acoustic Ground-Impedance Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Helmoltz resonator used in compact, portable meter measures acoustic impedance of ground or other surfaces. Earth's surface is subject of increasing acoustical investigations because of its importance in aircraft noise prediction and measurment. Meter offers several advantages. Is compact and portable and set up at any test site, irrespective of landscape features, weather or other environmental condition.

  17. The Aberdeen Impedance Imaging System.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, V; Hutchison, J M; Mallard, J R

    1989-01-01

    The Aberdeen Impedance Imaging System is designed to reconstruct 2 dimensional images of the average distribution of the amplitude and phase of the complex impedance within a 3 dimensional region. The system uses the four electrode technique in a 16 electrode split-array. The system hardware consists of task-orientated electronic modules for: driving a constant current, multiplexing the current drive, demultiplexing peripheral voltages, differential amplification, phase sensitive detection and low-pass filtration, digitisation with a 14 bit analog to digital converter (ADC), and -control logic for the ADC and multiplexors. A BBC microprocessor (Master series), initiates a controlled sequence for the collection of a number of data sets which are averaged and stored on disk. Image reconstruction is by a process of convolution-backprojection similar to the fan-beam reconstruction of computerised tomography and is also known as Equipotential Backprojection. In imaging impedance changes associated with fracture healing the changes may be large enough to allow retrieval of both the amplitude and phase of the complex impedance. Sequential imaging of these changes would necessitate monitoring electronic and electrode drift by imaging an equivalent region of the contralateral limb. Differential images could be retrieved when the image of the normal limb is the image template. Better characterisation of tissues would necessitate a cleaner retrieval of the quadrature signal.

  18. Characteristic impedance of microstrip lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, M. C.; Deshpande, M. D.

    1989-01-01

    The dyadic Green's function for a current embedded in a grounded dielectric slab is used to analyze microstrip lines at millimeter wave frequencies. The dyadic Green's function accounts accurately for fringing fields and dielectric cover over the microstrip line. Using Rumsey's reaction concept, an expression for the characteristic impedance is obtained. The numerical results are compared with other reported results.

  19. Calibration of electrical impedance tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Daily, W; Ramirez, A

    2000-05-01

    Over the past 10 years we have developed methods for imaging the electrical resistivity of soil and rock formations. These technologies have been called electrical resistance tomography of ERT (e.g. Daily and Owen, 1991). Recently we have been striving to extend this capability to include images of electric impedance--with a new nomenclature of electrical impedance tomography or EIT (Ramirez et al., 1999). Electrical impedance is simply a generalization of resistance. Whereas resistance is the zero frequency ratio of voltage and current, impedance includes both the magnitude and phase relationship between voltage and current at frequency. This phase and its frequency behavior is closely related to what in geophysics is called induced polarization or (Sumner, 1976). Why is this phase or IP important? IP is known to be related to many physical phenomena of importance so that image of IP will be maps of such things as mineralization and cation exchange IP (Marshall and Madden, 1959). Also, it is likely that IP, used in conjunction with resistivity, will yield information about the subsurface that can not be obtained by either piece of information separately. In order to define the accuracy of our technologies to image impedance we have constructed a physical model of known impedance that can be used as a calibration standard. It consists of 616 resistors, along with some capacitors to provide the reactive response, arranged in a three dimensional structure as in figure 1. Figure 2 shows the construction of the network and defines the coordinate system used to describe it. This network of components is a bounded and discrete version of the unbounded and continuous medium with which we normally work (the subsurface). The network has several desirable qualities: (1) The impedance values are known (to the accuracy of the component values). (2) The component values and their 3D distribution is easily controlled. (3) Error associated with electrode noise is eliminated. (4

  20. Biohydrogen, biomethane and bioelectricity as crucial components of biorefinery of organic wastes: a review.

    PubMed

    Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M; Munoz-Paez, Karla M; Escamilla-Alvarado, Carlos; Robledo-Narváez, Paula N; Ponce-Noyola, M Teresa; Calva-Calva, Graciano; Ríos-Leal, Elvira; Galíndez-Mayer, Juvencio; Estrada-Vázquez, Carlos; Ortega-Clemente, Alfredo; Rinderknecht-Seijas, Noemí F

    2014-05-01

    Biohydrogen is a sustainable form of energy as it can be produced from organic waste through fermentation processes involving dark fermentation and photofermentation. Very often biohydrogen is included as a part of biorefinery approaches, which reclaim organic wastes that are abundant sources of renewable and low cost substrate that can be efficiently fermented by microorganisms. The aim of this work was to critically assess selected bioenergy alternatives from organic solid waste, such as biohydrogen and bioelectricity, to evaluate their relative advantages and disadvantages in the context of biorefineries, and finally to indicate the trends for future research and development. Biorefining is the sustainable processing of biomass into a spectrum of marketable products, which means: energy, materials, chemicals, food and feed. Dark fermentation of organic wastes could be the beach-head of complete biorefineries that generate biohydrogen as a first step and could significantly influence the future of solid waste management. Series systems show a better efficiency than one-stage process regarding substrate conversion to hydrogen and bioenergy. The dark fermentation also produces fermented by-products (fatty acids and solvents), so there is an opportunity for further combining with other processes that yield more bioenergy. Photoheterotrophic fermentation is one of them: photosynthetic heterotrophs, such as non-sulfur purple bacteria, can thrive on the simple organic substances produced in dark fermentation and light, to give more H2. Effluents from photoheterotrophic fermentation and digestates can be processed in microbial fuel cells for bioelectricity production and methanogenic digestion for methane generation, thus integrating a diverse block of bioenergies. Several digestates from bioenergies could be used for bioproducts generation, such as cellulolytic enzymes and saccharification processes, leading to ethanol fermentation (another bioenergy), thus completing

  1. Effect of Kinesio Taping on bioelectrical activity of vastus medialis muscle. Preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Słupik, Anna; Dwornik, Michał; Białoszewski, Dariusz; Zych, Emilia

    2007-01-01

    Kinesio Taping is currently regarded by physiotherapists as a method supporting rehabilitation and modulating some physiological processes. It is employed e.g. in orthopaedics and sport medicine. This sensory method supports joint function by exerting an effect on muscle function, enhancing activity of the lymphatic system and endogenous analgesic mechanisms as well as improving microcirculation. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of Kinesio Taping on changes in the tone of the vastus medialis muscle during isometric contractions. The study group included 27 healthy persons. A Kinesio Tape was placed to support the function of the medial head of the quadriceps muscle of thigh. Transdermal EMG was used to assess bioelectrical activity of the muscle. A standardised protocol was employed for measurement of muscle tone, recorded as the peak torque of the muscle. An examination performed 24 hours after the placement of the Kinesio Tape revealed significantly increased recruitment of the muscle's motor units, as expressed by peak torque. An examination performed after 72 hours of kinesio taping showed a statistically significant increase in bioelectrical activity of the muscle. However, this was lower than the effect at 24 hours. In the group where the tapes were removed after 24 hours, high torque was still maintained. 1. Clinically significant effects of Kinesio Taping in this study included an increase in the bioelectrical activity of the muscle after 24 hours of kinesio taping and the maintenance of this effect for another 48 hours following removal of the tape. 2. The decrease in muscle tone to the baseline value, which was observed during the fourth day of Kinesio Taping use, may have resulted from the time of effective use of the KT tape being shorter than previously believed and may restrict Kinesio Taping use. 3. Kinesio Taping used shortly before the motor activity it is supposed to support may fail to fulfil its function.

  2. A role for bioelectric effects in the induction of bystander signals by ionizing radiation?

    PubMed

    Mothersill, C; Moran, G; McNeill, F; Gow, M D; Denbeigh, J; Prestwich, W; Seymour, C B

    2007-04-03

    The induction of "bystander effects" i.e. effects in cells which have not received an ionizing radiation track, is now accepted but the mechanisms are not completely clear. Bystander effects following high and low LET radiation exposure are accepted but mechanisms are still not understood. There is some evidence for a physical component to the signal. This paper tests the hypothesis that bioelectric or biomagnetic phenomena are involved. Human immortalized skin keratinocytes and primary explants of mouse bladder and fish skin, were exposed directly to ionizing radiation or treated in a variety of bystander protocols. Exposure of cells was conducted by shielding one group of flasks using lead, to reduce the dose below the threshold of 2mGy (60)Cobalt gamma rays established for the bystander effect. The endpoint for the bystander effect in the reporter system used was reduction in cloning efficiency (RCE). The magnitude of the RCE was similar in shielded and unshielded flasks. When cells were placed in a Faraday cage the magnitude of the RCE was less but not eliminated. The results suggest that liquid media or cell-cell contact transmission of bystander factors may be only part of the bystander mechanism. Bioelectric or bio magnetic fields may have a role to play. To test this further, cells were placed in a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) machine for 10 min using a typical head scan protocol. This treatment also induced a bystander response. Apart from the obvious clinical relevance, the MRI results further suggest that bystander effects may be produced by non-ionizing exposures. It is concluded that bioelectric or magnetic effects may be involved in producing bystander signaling cascades commonly seen following ionizing radiation exposure.

  3. Electrical Stimulation: A Panacea for Disease?: DARPA Investigates New Bioelectrical Interfaces for a Range of Disorders.

    PubMed

    Grifantini, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    It seems simple: send a small electrical current to a major nerve in the body and stimulate hormones and organs to react in the way you want. New efforts by research teams are doing just that, zapping peripheral nerves attached to major organs in the hopes of addressing problems as diverse as inflammatory bowel disease, chronic pain, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Thanks to the continued advance of smaller and more efficient electronics, researchers are finding new ways to develop implantable bioelectrical devices to treat a wide range of ailments.

  4. Viability of a Bioelectrical Signal Acquisition System Energized by Cellphone with NFC.

    PubMed

    Kay, Marcel Seiji; Iaione, Fábio

    2015-01-01

    Currently, smartphones are used in various systems in the medical field due to the presence of various features, notably Near Field Communication (NFC). NFC utilizes communication technology and an energy supply based on electromagnetic induction. One of the most common medical tests is the electrocardiogram (ECG), through which various heart diseases can be diagnosed. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of providing power to a bioelectrical signal acquisition module using a mobile phone with NFC. After testing it was indicated that it is possible to construct a passive module to acquire ECG signals using NFC mobile phone.

  5. Initiatives (Part 1): Keystone; Cycle Time Puzzle, A Full-Scale Challenge; Foot to Foot, Face to Face; Change Management; Multi-Element Team Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoel, Jim; Butler, Steve; Murray, Mark; Gass, Mike; Carrick, Moe

    2001-01-01

    Presents five group problem-solving initiatives for use in adventure and experiential settings, focusing on conflict resolution, corporate workplace issues, or adjustment to change. Includes target group, group size, time and space needs, activity level, overview, goals, props, instructions, and suggestions for framing and debriefing the…

  6. Tapping mode microwave impedance microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, K.

    2010-02-24

    We report tapping mode microwave impedance imaging based on atomic force microscope platforms. The shielded cantilever probe is critical to localize the tip-sample interaction near the tip apex. The modulated tip-sample impedance can be accurately simulated by the finite-element analysis and the result agrees quantitatively to the experimental data on a series of thin-film dielectric samples. The tapping mode microwave imaging is also superior to the contact mode in that the thermal drift in a long time scale is totally eliminated and an absolute measurement on the dielectric properties is possible. We demonstrated tapping images on working nanodevices, and the data are consistent with the transport results.

  7. Impedance analysis of acupuncture points and pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teplan, Michal; Kukučka, Marek; Ondrejkovičová, Alena

    2011-12-01

    Investigation of impedance characteristics of acupuncture points from acoustic to radio frequency range is addressed. Discernment and localization of acupuncture points in initial single subject study was unsuccessfully attempted by impedance map technique. Vector impedance analyses determined possible resonant zones in MHz region.

  8. 21 CFR 870.2770 - Impedance plethysmograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Impedance plethysmograph. 870.2770 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2770 Impedance plethysmograph. (a) Identification. An impedance plethysmograph is a device used to estimate peripheral blood...

  9. 21 CFR 870.2770 - Impedance plethysmograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Impedance plethysmograph. 870.2770 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2770 Impedance plethysmograph. (a) Identification. An impedance plethysmograph is a device used to estimate peripheral blood...

  10. 21 CFR 870.2750 - Impedance phlebograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Impedance phlebograph. 870.2750 Section 870.2750...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2750 Impedance phlebograph. (a) Identification. An impedance phlebograph is a device used to provide a visual display of the...

  11. 21 CFR 870.2770 - Impedance plethysmograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Impedance plethysmograph. 870.2770 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2770 Impedance plethysmograph. (a) Identification. An impedance plethysmograph is a device used to estimate peripheral blood...

  12. 21 CFR 870.2770 - Impedance plethysmograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Impedance plethysmograph. 870.2770 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2770 Impedance plethysmograph. (a) Identification. An impedance plethysmograph is a device used to estimate peripheral blood...

  13. 21 CFR 870.2770 - Impedance plethysmograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Impedance plethysmograph. 870.2770 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2770 Impedance plethysmograph. (a) Identification. An impedance plethysmograph is a device used to estimate peripheral blood...

  14. 21 CFR 870.2750 - Impedance phlebograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Impedance phlebograph. 870.2750 Section 870.2750...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2750 Impedance phlebograph. (a) Identification. An impedance phlebograph is a device used to provide a visual display of the...

  15. 21 CFR 870.2750 - Impedance phlebograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Impedance phlebograph. 870.2750 Section 870.2750...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2750 Impedance phlebograph. (a) Identification. An impedance phlebograph is a device used to provide a visual display of the...

  16. 21 CFR 870.2750 - Impedance phlebograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Impedance phlebograph. 870.2750 Section 870.2750...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2750 Impedance phlebograph. (a) Identification. An impedance phlebograph is a device used to provide a visual display of the...

  17. 21 CFR 870.2750 - Impedance phlebograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Impedance phlebograph. 870.2750 Section 870.2750...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2750 Impedance phlebograph. (a) Identification. An impedance phlebograph is a device used to provide a visual display of the...

  18. Impedance-matched Marx generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stygar, W. A.; LeChien, K. R.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Savage, M. E.; Stoltzfus, B. S.; Austin, K. N.; Breden, E. W.; Cuneo, M. E.; Hutsel, B. T.; Lewis, S. A.; McKee, G. R.; Moore, J. K.; Mulville, T. D.; Muron, D. J.; Reisman, D. B.; Sceiford, M. E.; Wisher, M. L.

    2017-04-01

    We have conceived a new class of prime-power sources for pulsed-power accelerators: impedance-matched Marx generators (IMGs). The fundamental building block of an IMG is a brick, which consists of two capacitors connected electrically in series with a single switch. An IMG comprises a single stage or several stages distributed axially and connected in series. Each stage is powered by a single brick or several bricks distributed azimuthally within the stage and connected in parallel. The stages of a multistage IMG drive an impedance-matched coaxial transmission line with a conical center conductor. When the stages are triggered sequentially to launch a coherent traveling wave along the coaxial line, the IMG achieves electromagnetic-power amplification by triggered emission of radiation. Hence a multistage IMG is a pulsed-power analogue of a laser. To illustrate the IMG approach to prime power, we have developed conceptual designs of two ten-stage IMGs with L C time constants on the order of 100 ns. One design includes 20 bricks per stage, and delivers a peak electrical power of 1.05 TW to a matched-impedance 1.22 -Ω load. The design generates 113 kV per stage and has a maximum energy efficiency of 89%. The other design includes a single brick per stage, delivers 68 GW to a matched-impedance 19 -Ω load, generates 113 kV per stage, and has a maximum energy efficiency of 90%. For a given electrical-power-output time history, an IMG is less expensive and slightly more efficient than a linear transformer driver, since an IMG does not use ferromagnetic cores.

  19. Plant Bioelectric Potential of Hard-leaf Cabbage to Irradiation-light Frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokuda, Masaki; Shao, Lixin; Oyabu, Takashi; Nanto, Hidehito

    Bioelectric potential was investigated to examine the availability of vegetable growth control. The potential is a kind of information transmitted by the vegetable and it varies markedly with one’s physiological phenomenon, light, air contaminant and insect which are external factors. Highly-efficient growth control can be made possible due to clarifying the relationship between the external factors and the potential. Vegetable can be used as a sensor in addition. A hard-leaf cabbage (Ancient specie) was adopted as a subjective plant in this study and the bioelectric potential was measured. The analysis was carried out using the summation of the potential (vm1) for one minute. The data was input every 0.1 seconds through a difference amplifier. The potential characteristic was investigated as a function of light frequency emitting from a LED panel. In addition, the potential was studied when ethyl alcohol existed and not existed as an air contaminant. As a result, it becomes obvious that the vm1 is raised when blue and red lights are irradiated. The lights mainly contribute to photosynthesis. The potential increases in the presence of ethyl alcohol which was adopted as a kind of nutrient.

  20. Environmental impacts of algae-derived biodiesel and bioelectricity for transportation.

    PubMed

    Clarens, Andres F; Nassau, Hagai; Resurreccion, Eleazer P; White, Mark A; Colosi, Lisa M

    2011-09-01

    Algae are a widely touted source of bioenergy with high yields, appreciable lipid contents, and an ability to be cultivated on marginal land without directly competing with food crops. Nevertheless, recent work has suggested that large-scale deployment of algae bioenergy systems could have unexpectedly high environmental burdens. In this study, a "well-to-wheel" life cycle assessment was undertaken to evaluate algae's potential use as a transportation energy source for passenger vehicles. Four algae conversion pathways resulting in combinations of bioelectricity and biodiesel were assessed for several relevant nutrient procurement scenarios. Results suggest that algae-to-energy systems can be either net energy positive or negative depending on the specific combination of cultivation and conversion processes used. Conversion pathways involving direct combustion for bioelectricity production generally outperformed systems involving anaerobic digestion and biodiesel production, and they were found to generate four and fifteen times as many vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT) per hectare as switchgrass or canola, respectively. Despite this, algae systems exhibited mixed performance for environmental impacts (energy use, water use, and greenhouse gas emissions) on a "per km" basis relative to the benchmark crops. This suggests that both cultivation and conversion processes must be carefully considered to ensure the environmental viability of algae-to-energy processes.

  1. In vitro effects of hydrochloric and lactic acids on bioelectric properties of equine gastric squamous mucosa.

    PubMed

    Andrews, F M; Buchanan, B R; Elliott, S B; Al Jassim, R A M; McGowan, C M; Saxton, A M

    2008-06-01

    Volatile fatty acids, byproducts of carbohydrate fermentation by resident bacteria, have been implicated in causing nonglandular (NG) gastric ulcers. Lactic acid (LA), also produced by stomach bacteria, may cause gastric ulcers when exposed to the equine NG mucosa. To investigate the in vitro effects of LA on equine NG mucosa bioelectric properties, sodium transport and tissue resistance. Gastric tissues obtained from 13 mature horses were studied in Ussing chambers. Short-circuit current (Isc) and potential difference (PD) were measured, and electrical resistance (R) and conductance (G) calculated for tissues after addition of HCl and LA (5, 10, 20 and 40 mmol/l) in normal Ringer's solution (NRS). Mucosa exposed to HCl or LA (5, 10 and 20 mmol/l) in NRS (pH 1.5 and to a lesser extent pH 4.0) had a significant decrease in Isc and PD. Mucosa exposed to a high concentration of LA (40 mmol/l) in NRS (LRS) at pH 1.5 showed an increased G, but this increase was not significant. Values returned to baseline after solutions were returned to pH 7.0. Histological changes were consistent with HCl-induced (pH <4.0) acid damage. HCl induced alteration in bioelectric properties of equine NG mucosa whereas addition of LRS did not, other than those changes seen with HCl alone.

  2. Bioelectrical Signals and Ion Channels in the Modeling of Multicellular Patterns and Cancer Biophysics.

    PubMed

    Cervera, Javier; Alcaraz, Antonio; Mafe, Salvador

    2016-02-04

    Bioelectrical signals and ion channels are central to spatial patterns in cell ensembles, a problem of fundamental interest in positional information and cancer processes. We propose a model for electrically connected cells based on simple biological concepts: i) the membrane potential of a single cell characterizes its electrical state; ii) the long-range electrical coupling of the multicellular ensemble is realized by a network of gap junction channels between neighboring cells; and iii) the spatial distribution of an external biochemical agent can modify the conductances of the ion channels in a cell membrane and the multicellular electrical state. We focus on electrical effects in small multicellular ensembles, ignoring slow diffusional processes. The spatio-temporal patterns obtained for the local map of cell electric potentials illustrate the normalization of regions with abnormal cell electrical states. The effects of intercellular coupling and blocking of specific channels on the electrical patterns are described. These patterns can regulate the electrically-induced redistribution of charged nanoparticles over small regions of a model tissue. The inclusion of bioelectrical signals provides new insights for the modeling of cancer biophysics because collective multicellular states show electrical coupling mechanisms that are not readily deduced from biochemical descriptions at the individual cell level.

  3. Bioelectrical Signals and Ion Channels in the Modeling of Multicellular Patterns and Cancer Biophysics

    PubMed Central

    Cervera, Javier; Alcaraz, Antonio; Mafe, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectrical signals and ion channels are central to spatial patterns in cell ensembles, a problem of fundamental interest in positional information and cancer processes. We propose a model for electrically connected cells based on simple biological concepts: i) the membrane potential of a single cell characterizes its electrical state; ii) the long-range electrical coupling of the multicellular ensemble is realized by a network of gap junction channels between neighboring cells; and iii) the spatial distribution of an external biochemical agent can modify the conductances of the ion channels in a cell membrane and the multicellular electrical state. We focus on electrical effects in small multicellular ensembles, ignoring slow diffusional processes. The spatio-temporal patterns obtained for the local map of cell electric potentials illustrate the normalization of regions with abnormal cell electrical states. The effects of intercellular coupling and blocking of specific channels on the electrical patterns are described. These patterns can regulate the electrically-induced redistribution of charged nanoparticles over small regions of a model tissue. The inclusion of bioelectrical signals provides new insights for the modeling of cancer biophysics because collective multicellular states show electrical coupling mechanisms that are not readily deduced from biochemical descriptions at the individual cell level. PMID:26841954

  4. A model explaining synchronization of neuron bioelectric frequency under weak alternating low frequency magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Moral, A.; Azanza, María J.

    2015-03-01

    A biomagnetic-electrical model is presented that explains rather well the experimentally observed synchronization of the bioelectric potential firing rate ("frequency"), f, of single unit neurons of Helix aspersa mollusc under the application of extremely low frequency (ELF) weak alternating (AC) magnetic fields (MF). The proposed model incorporates to our widely experimentally tested model of superdiamagnetism (SD) and Ca2+ Coulomb explosion (CE) from lipid (LP) bilayer membrane (SD-CE model), the electrical quadrupolar long range interaction between the bilayer LP membranes of synchronized neuron pairs, not considered before. The quadrupolar interaction is capable of explaining well the observed synchronization. Actual extension of our SD-CE-model shows that the neuron firing frequency field, B, dependence becomes not modified, but the bioelectric frequency is decreased and its spontaneous temperature, T, dependence is modified. A comparison of the model with synchronization experimental results of pair of neurons under weak (B0 ≅0.2-15 mT) AC-MF of frequency fM=50 Hz is reported. From the deduced size of synchronized LP clusters under B, is suggested the formation of small neuron networks via the membrane lipid correlation.

  5. History of Bioelectrical Study and the Electrophysiology of the Primo Vascular System

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Hyun; Kim, Eung Hwi; Chang, Ho Jong; Yoon, Seung Zhoo; Yoon, Ji Woong; Cho, Seong-Jin; Ryu, Yeon-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Background. Primo vascular system is a new anatomical structure whose research results have reported the possibility of a new circulatory system similar to the blood vascular system and cells. Electrophysiology, which measures and analyzes bioelectrical signals tissues and cells, is an important research area for investigating the function of tissues and cells. The bioelectrical study of the primo vascular system has been reported by using modern techniques since the early 1960s by Bonghan Kim. This paper reviews the research result of the electrophysiological study of the primo vascular system for the discussion of the circulatory function. We hope it would help to study the electrophysiology of the primo vascular system for researchers. This paper will use the following exchangeable expressions: Kyungrak system = Bonghan system = Bonghan circulatory system = primo vascular system = primo system; Bonghan corpuscle = primo node; Bonghan duct = primo vessel. We think that objective descriptions of reviewed papers are more important than unified expressions when citing the papers. That said, this paper will unify the expressions of the primo vascular system. PMID:23935666

  6. History of bioelectrical study and the electrophysiology of the primo vascular system.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Hyun; Kim, Eung Hwi; Chang, Ho Jong; Yoon, Seung Zhoo; Yoon, Ji Woong; Cho, Seong-Jin; Ryu, Yeon-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Background. Primo vascular system is a new anatomical structure whose research results have reported the possibility of a new circulatory system similar to the blood vascular system and cells. Electrophysiology, which measures and analyzes bioelectrical signals tissues and cells, is an important research area for investigating the function of tissues and cells. The bioelectrical study of the primo vascular system has been reported by using modern techniques since the early 1960s by Bonghan Kim. This paper reviews the research result of the electrophysiological study of the primo vascular system for the discussion of the circulatory function. We hope it would help to study the electrophysiology of the primo vascular system for researchers. This paper will use the following exchangeable expressions: Kyungrak system = Bonghan system = Bonghan circulatory system = primo vascular system = primo system; Bonghan corpuscle = primo node; Bonghan duct = primo vessel. We think that objective descriptions of reviewed papers are more important than unified expressions when citing the papers. That said, this paper will unify the expressions of the primo vascular system.

  7. [Effect of dosed diet restriction on physiological remodeling and bioelectric properties of bone].

    PubMed

    Levashov, M I; Ianko, R V; Chaka, E G; Safonov, S L

    2014-07-01

    The effect of dosed diet restriction on the physiological remodeling and bioelectric properties of bone tissue was studied in 48 male Wistar rats 3- and 18-months of age. The rate of bone tissue apposition was studied by the dynamic histomorphometry method (intravital tetracycline labeling). Electric potentials on the periosteal surface of the freshly isolated femurs were recorded. The magnitude of dielectric loss factor was determined to assess the quality of bone tissue. The control rats received a standard diet. The experimental rats received a limited diet (60 % of the standard mass) for 28 days. The magnitude and rate of the bone tissue apposition on the endosteal and periosteal surface of the tibia were less by 38.4% and 122.7% respectively in experimental rats after dosed diet restriction. Electric potential in the metaphyseal-epiphyseal growth zones of the femur was 29.7% lower, and the dielectric loss factor increased by 15.8%. The bone tissue apposition rate and the electric potential magnitude were increased 10 days after completion of the dosed diet restriction. The magnitude of the dielectric loss factor decreased after returning to the standard diet. Key words: dosed diet restriction, bone, remodelling, bioelectric properties.

  8. Microbial metabolism induced chain shortening of polyacrylamide with assistance of bioelectricity generation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Min; Tong, Zhong-Hua; Cui, Yu-Zhi; Wang, Jun

    2016-06-01

    The water-soluble polyacrylamide (PAM) can accumulate in ecosystems and cause serious environmental pollution. Biological approach achieves poor PAM degradation efficiency, due to the extreme resistance of PAM to the microbial metabolism. In the present work, the potential of bioelectrochemical system (BES) as an effective tool to degrade the PAM is adequately evaluated. The closed-circuit operation of BES obtains COD removal efficiencies of 29.2 and 33.6 % for the PAM and polyacrylic acid (PAA), respectively. In comparison, 4.3 and 2.7 % of COD are removed after the PAM and PAA are treated in the open-circuit BES, and 7.3 and 6.6 % are removed in the aerobic BES. These results suggest the bioelectricity generation is crucial to trigger the activity of bioanode for the effective degradation of PAM. Bioelectricity generation not only favors the decomposition of carbon backbone but also facilitates the hydrolysis of amide group in the side-chain of PAM. Microbial attack on the carbon backbone of PAM is proposed to initiate at the head-to-head linkage, resulting in the formation of ether bond within the shortened carbon chain. The Ignavibacterium sp. and phenotypically uncharacterized bacteria are classified as the dominant species on the anode of PAM-fed BES.

  9. In vitro metabolic engineering of bioelectricity generation by the complete oxidation of glucose.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhiguang; Zhang, Y-H Percival

    2017-01-01

    The direct generation of electricity from the most abundant renewable sugar, glucose, is an appealing alternative to the production of liquid biofuels and biohydrogen. However, enzyme-catalyzed bioelectricity generation from glucose suffers from low yields due to the incomplete oxidation of the six-carbon compound glucose via one or few enzymes. Here, we demonstrate a synthetic ATP- and CoA-free 12-enzyme pathway to implement the complete oxidation of glucose in vitro. This pathway is comprised of glucose phosphorylation via polyphosphate glucokinase, NADH generation catalyzed by glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH), electron transfer from NADH to the anode, and glucose 6-phosphate regeneration via the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway and gluconeogenesis. The faraday efficiency from glucose to electrons via this pathway was as high as 98.8%, suggesting the generation of nearly 24 electrons per molecule of glucose. The generated current density was greatly increased from 2.8 to 6.9mAcm(-2) by replacing a low-activity G6PDH with a high-activity G6PDH and introducing a new enzyme, 6-phosphogluconolactonase, between G6PDH and 6PGDH. These results suggest the great potential of high-yield bioelectricity generation through in vitro metabolic engineering.

  10. Bioelectrical Signals and Ion Channels in the Modeling of Multicellular Patterns and Cancer Biophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervera, Javier; Alcaraz, Antonio; Mafe, Salvador

    2016-02-01

    Bioelectrical signals and ion channels are central to spatial patterns in cell ensembles, a problem of fundamental interest in positional information and cancer processes. We propose a model for electrically connected cells based on simple biological concepts: i) the membrane potential of a single cell characterizes its electrical state; ii) the long-range electrical coupling of the multicellular ensemble is realized by a network of gap junction channels between neighboring cells; and iii) the spatial distribution of an external biochemical agent can modify the conductances of the ion channels in a cell membrane and the multicellular electrical state. We focus on electrical effects in small multicellular ensembles, ignoring slow diffusional processes. The spatio-temporal patterns obtained for the local map of cell electric potentials illustrate the normalization of regions with abnormal cell electrical states. The effects of intercellular coupling and blocking of specific channels on the electrical patterns are described. These patterns can regulate the electrically-induced redistribution of charged nanoparticles over small regions of a model tissue. The inclusion of bioelectrical signals provides new insights for the modeling of cancer biophysics because collective multicellular states show electrical coupling mechanisms that are not readily deduced from biochemical descriptions at the individual cell level.

  11. Constant current loop impedance measuring system that is immune to the effects of parasitic impedances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Karl F. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A constant current loop measuring system is provided for measuring a characteristic of an environment. The system comprises a first impedance positionable in the environment, a second impedance coupled in series with said first impedance and a parasitic impedance electrically coupled to the first and second impedances. A current generating device, electrically coupled in series with the first and second impedances, provides a constant current through the first and second impedances to produce first and second voltages across the first and second impedances, respectively, and a parasitic voltage across the parasitic impedance. A high impedance voltage measuring device measures a voltage difference between the first and second voltages independent of the parasitic voltage to produce a characteristic voltage representative of the characteristic of the environment.

  12. Paradoxical Air Microembolism Induces Cerebral Bioelectrical Abnormalities and Occasionally Headache in Patent Foramen Ovale Patients With Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Sevgi, Eser Başak; Erdener, Sefik Evren; Demirci, Mehmet; Topcuoglu, Mehmet Akif; Dalkara, Turgay

    2012-01-01

    Background Although controversial, paradoxical embolism via patent foramen ovale (PFO) may account for some of the migraine attacks in a subset of migraine with aura (MA) patients. Induction of MA attacks with air bubble injection during transcranial Doppler ultrasound in MA patients with PFO supports this view. It is likely that cerebral embolism in patients with right-to-left shunt induces bioelectrical abnormalities to initiate MA under some conditions. Methods and Results We investigated changes in cerebral bioelectrical activity after intravenous microbubble injection in 10 MA patients with large PFO and right-to-left cardiac shunt. Eight PFO patients without migraine but with large right-to-left shunt and 12 MA patients without PFO served as controls. Four MA patients with PFO were reexamined with sham injections of saline without microbubbles. Bioelectrical activity was evaluated using spectral electroencephalography and, passage of microbubbles through cerebral arteries was monitored with transcranial Doppler ultrasound. Microbubble embolism caused significant electroencephalographic power increase in MA+PFO patients but not in control groups including the sham-injected MA+PFO patients. Headache developed in 2 MA with PFO patients after microbubble injection. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that air microembolism through large PFOs may cause cerebral bioelectrical disturbances and, occasionally, headache in MA patients, which may reflect an increased reactivity of their brain to transient subclinical hypoxia–ischemia, and suggest that paradoxical embolism is not a common cause of migraine but may induce headache in the presence of a large PFO and facilitating conditions. PMID:23316313

  13. 50 Hz-Sinusoidal magnetic field induced effects on the bioelectric activity of single unit neurone cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azanza, María. J.; Calvo, Ana C.; del Moral, A.

    2001-05-01

    Neurones recruiting and synchronized bioelectric activity recorded from Helix aspersa brain ganglia, under exposure to 50 Hz sinusoidal magnetic fields of 1-15 mT intensity, is reported. We show recruiting responses from single neurones and the synchronization of pairs of neurones activity. Experimental evidence and model theoretical explanation for the spreading of synchronization are presented.

  14. DIFFERENTIAL SOIL IMPEDANCE OBSTACLE DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Maximillian J. Kieba

    2004-02-01

    This project develops a new and unique obstacle detection sensor for horizontal directional drilling (HDD) equipment. The development of this new technology will greatly improve the reliability and safety of natural gas HDD construction practices. This sensor utilizes a differential soil impedance measurement technique that will be sensitive to the presence of plastic and ceramic, as well as metallic obstacles. The use of HDD equipment has risen significantly in the gas industry because HDD provides a much more cost-effective and less disruptive method for gas pipe installation than older, trenching methods. However, there have been isolated strikes of underground utilities by HDD equipment, which may have been avoided if methods were available to detect other underground obstacles when using HDD systems. GTI advisors from the gas industry have ranked the value of solving the obstacle detection problem as the most important research and development project for GTI to pursue using Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) funds available through its industry partner, GRI. GTI proposes to develop a prototype down-hole sensor system that is simple and compact. The sensor utilizes an impedance measurement technique that is sensitive to the presence of metallic or nonmetallic objects in the proximity of the HDD head. The system will use a simple sensor incorporated into the drill head. The impedance of the soil will be measured with a low frequency signal injected through the drill head itself. A pair of bridge type impedance sensors, mounted orthogonal to one another, is coupled to the soil. Inclusions in the soil will cause changes to the sensor balance distinguishable from homogeneous soil. The sensor will provide range and direction data for obstacles near the HDD head. The goal is to provide a simple, robust system that provides the information required to avoid obstacles. This must be done within the size and ruggedness constraints of the HDD equipment. Imaging

  15. DIFFERENTIAL SOIL IMPEDANCE OBSTACLE DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Maximillian J. Kieba; Christopher J. Ziolkowski

    2004-06-30

    This project develops a new and unique obstacle detection sensor for horizontal directional drilling (HDD) equipment. The development of this new technology will greatly improve the reliability and safety of natural gas HDD construction practices. This sensor utilizes a differential soil impedance measurement technique that will be sensitive to the presence of plastic and ceramic, as well as metallic obstacles. The use of HDD equipment has risen significantly in the gas industry because HDD provides a much more cost-effective and less disruptive method for gas pipe installation than older, trenching methods. However, there have been isolated strikes of underground utilities by HDD equipment, which may have been avoided if methods were available to detect other underground obstacles when using HDD systems. GTI advisors from the gas industry have ranked the value of solving the obstacle detection problem as the most important research and development project for GTI to pursue using Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) funds available through its industry partner, GRI. GTI proposes to develop a prototype down-hole sensor system that is simple and compact. The sensor utilizes an impedance measurement technique that is sensitive to the presence of metallic or nonmetallic objects in the proximity of the HDD head. The system will use a simple sensor incorporated into the drill head. The impedance of the soil will be measured with a low frequency signal injected through the drill head itself. A pair of bridge type impedance sensors, mounted orthogonal to one another, is coupled to the soil. Inclusions in the soil will cause changes to the sensor balance distinguishable from homogeneous soil. The sensor will provide range and direction data for obstacles near the HDD head. The goal is to provide a simple, robust system that provides the information required to avoid obstacles. This must be done within the size and ruggedness constraints of the HDD equipment. Imaging

  16. DIFFERENTIAL SOIL IMPEDANCE OBSTACLE DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Maximillian J. Kieba; Christopher J. Ziolkowski

    2005-01-17

    This project aimed at developing a new and unique obstacle detection sensor for horizontal directional drilling (HDD) equipment. The development of this new technology will greatly improve the reliability and safety of natural gas HDD construction practices. This sensor utilizes a differential soil impedance measurement technique that will be sensitive to the presence of plastic and ceramic, as well as metallic obstacles. The use of HDD equipment has risen significantly in the gas industry because HDD provides a much more cost-effective and less disruptive method for gas pipe installation than older, trenching methods. However, there have been isolated strikes of underground utilities by HDD equipment, which may have been avoided if methods were available to detect other underground obstacles when using HDD systems. GTI advisors from the gas industry ranked the value of solving the obstacle detection problem as the most important research and development project for GTI to pursue using Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) funds available through its industry partner, GTI. GTI proposed to develop a prototype down-hole sensor system that is simple and compact. The sensor utilizes an impedance measurement technique that is sensitive to the presence of metallic or non-metallic objects in the proximity of the HDD head. The system will use a simple sensor incorporated into the drill head. The impedance of the soil will be measured with a low frequency signal injected through the drill head itself. A pair of bridge type impedance sensors, mounted orthogonal to one another, is coupled to the soil. Inclusions in the soil will cause changes to the sensor balance distinguishable from homogeneous soil. The sensor will provide range and direction data for obstacles near the HDD head. The goal is to provide a simple, robust system that provides the information required to avoid obstacles. This must be done within the size and ruggedness constraints of the HDD equipment

  17. DIFFERENTIAL SOIL IMPEDANCE OBSTACLE DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Maximillian J. Kieba

    2002-08-30

    This project develops a new and unique obstacle detection sensor for horizontal directional drilling (HDD) equipment. The development of this new technology will greatly improve the reliability and safety of natural gas HDD construction practices. This sensor utilizes a differential soil impedance measurement technique that will be sensitive to the presence of plastic and ceramic, as well as metallic obstacles. The use of HDD equipment has risen significantly in the gas industry because HDD provides a much more cost-effective and less disruptive method for gas pipe installation than older, trenching methods. However, there have been isolated strikes of underground utilities by HDD equipment, which may have been avoided if methods were available to detect other underground obstacles when using HDD systems. GTI advisors from the gas industry have ranked the value of solving the obstacle detection problem as the most important research and development project for GTI to pursue using Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) funds available through its industry partner, GRI. GTI proposes to develop a prototype down-hole sensor system that is simple and compact. The sensor utilizes an impedance measurement technique that is sensitive to the presence of metallic or nonmetallic objects in the proximity of the HDD head. The system will use a thin film sensor conformal with the drill head. The impedance of the soil will be measured with a low frequency signal injected through the drill head itself. A pair of bridge type impedance sensors, mounted orthogonal to one another, is capacitively coupled to the soil. Inclusions in the soil will cause changes to the sensor balance distinguishable from homogeneous soil. The sensor will provide range and direction data for obstacles near the HDD head. The goal is to provide a simple, robust system that provides the information required to avoid obstacles. This must be done within the size and ruggedness constraints of the HDD

  18. DIFFERENTIAL SOIL IMPEDANCE OBSTACLE DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Maximillian J. Kieba

    2003-10-01

    This project develops a new and unique obstacle detection sensor for horizontal directional drilling (HDD) equipment. The development of this new technology will greatly improve the reliability and safety of natural gas HDD construction practices. This sensor utilizes a differential soil impedance measurement technique that will be sensitive to the presence of plastic and ceramic, as well as metallic obstacles. The use of HDD equipment has risen significantly in the gas industry because HDD provides a much more cost-effective and less disruptive method for gas pipe installation than older, trenching methods. However, there have been isolated strikes of underground utilities by HDD equipment, which may have been avoided if methods were available to detect other underground obstacles when using HDD systems. GTI advisors from the gas industry have ranked the value of solving the obstacle detection problem as the most important research and development project for GTI to pursue using Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) funds available through its industry partner, GRI. GTI proposes to develop a prototype down-hole sensor system that is simple and compact. The sensor utilizes an impedance measurement technique that is sensitive to the presence of metallic or nonmetallic objects in the proximity of the HDD head. The system will use a simple sensor incorporated into the drill head. The impedance of the soil will be measured with a low frequency signal injected through the drill head itself. A pair of bridge type impedance sensors, mounted orthogonal to one another, is coupled to the soil. Inclusions in the soil will cause changes to the sensor balance distinguishable from homogeneous soil. The sensor will provide range and direction data for obstacles near the HDD head. The goal is to provide a simple, robust system that provides the information required to avoid obstacles. This must be done within the size and ruggedness constraints of the HDD equipment. Imaging

  19. Bilateral Impedance Control For Telemanipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    <