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Sample records for football training decreases

  1. High-intensity training in football.

    PubMed

    Iaia, F Marcello; Rampinini, Ermanno; Bangsbo, Jens

    2009-09-01

    This article reviews the major physiological and performance effects of aerobic high-intensity and speed-endurance training in football, and provides insight on implementation of individual game-related physical training. Analysis and physiological measurements have revealed that modern football is highly energetically demanding, and the ability to perform repeated high-intensity work is of importance for the players. Furthermore, the most successful teams perform more high-intensity activities during a game when in possession of the ball. Hence, footballers need a high fitness level to cope with the physical demands of the game. Studies on football players have shown that 8 to 12 wk of aerobic high-intensity running training (> 85% HR(max)) leads to VO2(max) enhancement (5% to 11%), increased running economy (3% to 7%), and lower blood lactate accumulation during submaximal exercise, as well as improvements in the yo-yo intermittent recovery (YYIR) test performance (13%). Similar adaptations are observed when performing aerobic high-intensity training with small-sided games. Speed-endurance training has a positive effect on football-specific endurance, as shown by the marked improvements in the YYIR test (22% to 28%) and the ability to perform repeated sprints (approximately 2%). In conclusion, both aerobic and speed-endurance training can be used during the season to improve high-intensity intermittent exercise performance. The type and amount of training should be game related and specific to the technical, tactical, and physical demands imposed on each player.

  2. Sprint vs. interval training in football.

    PubMed

    Ferrari Bravo, D; Impellizzeri, F M; Rampinini, E; Castagna, C; Bishop, D; Wisloff, U

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high-intensity aerobic interval and repeated-sprint ability (RSA) training on aerobic and anaerobic physiological variables in male football players. Forty-two participants were randomly assigned to either the interval training group (ITG, 4 x 4 min running at 90 - 95 % of HRmax; n = 21) or repeated-sprint training group (RSG, 3 x 6 maximal shuttle sprints of 40 m; n = 21). The following outcomes were measured at baseline and after 7 weeks of training: maximum oxygen uptake, respiratory compensation point, football-specific endurance (Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test, YYIRT), 10-m sprint time, jump height and power, and RSA. Significant group x time interaction was found for YYIRT (p = 0.003) with RSG showing greater improvement (from 1917 +/- 439 to 2455 +/- 488 m) than ITG (from 1846 +/- 329 to 2077 +/- 300 m). Similarly, a significant interaction was found in RSA mean time (p = 0.006) with only the RSG group showing an improvement after training (from 7.53 +/- 0.21 to 7.37 +/- 0.17 s). No other group x time interactions were found. Significant pre-post changes were found for absolute and relative maximum oxygen uptake and respiratory compensation point (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that the RSA training protocol used in this study can be an effective training strategy for inducing aerobic and football-specific training adaptations.

  3. Early Results of a Helmetless-Tackling Intervention to Decrease Head Impacts in Football Players.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Erik E; Broglio, Steven P; Cook, Summer B; Cantu, Robert C; Ferrara, Michael S; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Myers, Jay L

    2015-12-01

    To test a helmetless-tackling behavioral intervention for reducing head impacts in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football players. Randomized controlled clinical trial. Football field. Fifty collegiate football players (intervention = 25, control = 25). The intervention group participated in a 5-minute tackling drill without their helmets and shoulder pads twice per week in the preseason and once per week through the season. During this time, the control group performed noncontact football skills. Frequency of head impacts was recorded by an impact sensor for each athlete-exposure (AE). Data were tested with a 2 × 3 (group and time) repeated-measures analysis of variance. Significant interactions and main effects (P < .05) were followed with t tests. Head impacts/AE decreased for the intervention group compared with the control group by the end of the season (9.99 ± 6.10 versus 13.84 ± 7.27, respectively). The intervention group had 30% fewer impacts/AE than the control group by season's end (9.99 ± 6.10 versus 14.32 ± 8.45, respectively). A helmetless-tackling training intervention reduced head impacts in collegiate football players within 1 season.

  4. Early Results of a Helmetless-Tackling Intervention to Decrease Head Impacts in Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Erik E.; Broglio, Steven P.; Cook, Summer B.; Cantu, Robert C.; Ferrara, Michael S.; Guskiewicz, Kevin M.; Myers, Jay L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test a helmetless-tackling behavioral intervention for reducing head impacts in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football players. Design Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting Football field. Patients or Other Participants Fifty collegiate football players (intervention = 25, control = 25). Intervention(s) The intervention group participated in a 5-minute tackling drill without their helmets and shoulder pads twice per week in the preseason and once per week through the season. During this time, the control group performed noncontact football skills. Main Outcome Measure(s) Frequency of head impacts was recorded by an impact sensor for each athlete-exposure (AE). Data were tested with a 2 × 3 (group and time) repeated-measures analysis of variance. Significant interactions and main effects (P < .05) were followed with t tests. Results Head impacts/AE decreased for the intervention group compared with the control group by the end of the season (9.99 ± 6.10 versus 13.84 ± 7.27, respectively). The intervention group had 30% fewer impacts/AE than the control group by season's end (9.99 ± 6.10 versus 14.32 ± 8.45, respectively). Conclusion A helmetless-tackling training intervention reduced head impacts in collegiate football players within 1 season. PMID:26651278

  5. Musculoskeletal health profile for elite female footballers versus untrained young women before and after 16 weeks of football training.

    PubMed

    Jackman, Sarah R; Scott, Suzanne; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Orntoft, Christina; Blackwell, Jamie; Zar, Abdossaleh; Helge, Eva Wulff; Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the musculoskeletal health profile of elite female football players (ET) in comparison to untrained (UT) young women subjected to 16 weeks of football training (2 × 1 h per week). DXA scans, blood sampling, sprint testing and Flamingo postural balance testing were carried out for 27 Danish national team players and 28 untrained women, with eight women being tested after training. At baseline total BMD and BMC were 13% (1.305 ± 0.050 versus 1.159 ± 0.056 g · cm(-2)) and 23% (3047 ± 235 versus 2477 ± 526 g) higher (P <0.001) and leg BMD and BMC were 24 and 28% higher (P <0.01) in ET than in UT. Resting plasma osteocalcin was 45% higher in ET than in UT (28.8 ± 10.9 versus 19.9 ± 9.9 µg · L(-1), P <0.05). Total lean body mass was 14% higher (50.4 ± 3.3 versus 44.3 ± 4.0 kg) in ET compared with UT, with no difference in total body mass. The number of Flamingo test falls was 56-63% less (P <0.01) and 30 m sprinting speed was 31% faster (P <0.001) in ET than UT. After 16 weeks of football training for UT, lean body mass increased by 1.4 ± 0.5 kg and the number of left leg falls decreased by 29% (P <0.05). No significant changes occurred in BMD or BMC, but plasma osteocalcin increased (P <0.05) by 37%. In summary, elite women footballers have an impressive musculoskeletal health profile compared with untrained controls, but short-term football training seems to reduce the risk of falls and increase bone formation.

  6. Evaluating behavioral skills training to teach safe tackling skills to youth football players.

    PubMed

    Tai, Sharayah S M; Miltenberger, Raymond G

    2017-09-20

    With concussion rates on the rise for football players, there is a need for further research to increase skills and decrease injuries. Behavioral skills training is effective in teaching a wide variety of skills but has yet to be studied in the sports setting. We evaluated behavioral skills training to teach safer tackling techniques to six participants from a Pop Warner football team. Safer tackling techniques increased during practice and generalized to games for the two participants who had opportunities to tackle in games. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  7. Acute neuromuscular and performance responses to Nordic hamstring exercises completed before or after football training.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Ric; Siegler, Jason C; Knox, Michael; Brennan, Scott; Marshall, Paul W M

    2016-12-01

    The optimal scheduling of Nordic Hamstring exercises (NHEs) relative to football training sessions is unknown. We examined the acute neuromuscular and performance responses to NHE undertaken either before (BT) or after (AT) simulated football training. Twelve amateur players performed six sets of five repetitions of the NHE either before or after 60 min of standardised football-specific exercise (SAFT(60)). Surface electromyography signals (EMG) of the hamstring muscles were recorded during both the NHE, and maximum eccentric actions of the knee flexors (0.52 rad · s(-1)) performed before and after the NHE programme, and at 15 min intervals during SAFT(60). Ten-metre sprint times were recorded on three occasions during each 15 min SAFT(60) segment. Greater eccentric hamstring fatigue following the NHE programme was observed in BT versus AT (19.8 %; very likely small effect), which was particularly apparent in the latter range of knee flexion (0-15°; 39.6%; likely moderate effect), and synonymous with hamstring EMG declines (likely small-likely moderate effects). Performing NHE BT attenuated sprint performance declines (2.0-3.2%; likely small effects), but decreased eccentric hamstring peak torque (-14.1 to -18.9%; likely small effects) during football-specific exercise. Performing NHE prior to football training reduces eccentric hamstring strength and may exacerbate hamstring injury risk.

  8. Motor and cognitive growth following a Football Training Program.

    PubMed

    Alesi, Marianna; Bianco, Antonino; Padulo, Johnny; Luppina, Giorgio; Petrucci, Marco; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Motor and cognitive growth in children may be influenced by football practice. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess whether a Football Training Program taken over 6 months would improve motor and cognitive performances in children. Motor skills concerned coordinative skills, running, and explosive legs strength. Cognitive abilities involved visual discrimination times and visual selective attention times. Forty-six children with chronological age of ∼9.10 years, were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 24) attended a Football Exercise Program and Group 2 (n = 22) was composed of sedentary children. Their abilities were measured by a battery of tests including motor and cognitive tasks. Football Exercise Program resulted in improved running, coordination, and explosive leg strength performances as well as shorter visual discrimination times in children regularly attending football courses compared with their sedentary peers. On the whole these results support the thesis that the improvement of motor and cognitive abilities is related not only to general physical activity but also to specific ability related to the ball. Football Exercise Programs is assumed to be a "natural and enjoyable tool" to enhance cognitive resources as well as promoting and encouraging the participation in sport activities from early development.

  9. Motor and cognitive growth following a Football Training Program

    PubMed Central

    Alesi, Marianna; Bianco, Antonino; Padulo, Johnny; Luppina, Giorgio; Petrucci, Marco; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Motor and cognitive growth in children may be influenced by football practice. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess whether a Football Training Program taken over 6 months would improve motor and cognitive performances in children. Motor skills concerned coordinative skills, running, and explosive legs strength. Cognitive abilities involved visual discrimination times and visual selective attention times. Forty-six children with chronological age of ∼9.10 years, were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 24) attended a Football Exercise Program and Group 2 (n = 22) was composed of sedentary children. Their abilities were measured by a battery of tests including motor and cognitive tasks. Football Exercise Program resulted in improved running, coordination, and explosive leg strength performances as well as shorter visual discrimination times in children regularly attending football courses compared with their sedentary peers. On the whole these results support the thesis that the improvement of motor and cognitive abilities is related not only to general physical activity but also to specific ability related to the ball. Football Exercise Programs is assumed to be a “natural and enjoyable tool” to enhance cognitive resources as well as promoting and encouraging the participation in sport activities from early development. PMID:26579014

  10. Cardiovascular health profile of elite female football players compared to untrained controls before and after short-term football training.

    PubMed

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Lars Juel; Orntoft, Christina; Bendiksen, Mads; Johansen, Lars; Horton, Joshua; Hansen, Peter Riis; Krustrup, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the intermittent exercise performance and cardiovascular health profile in elite female football players in comparison to untrained young women, as well as a subgroup subjected to football training 2x1 h · week(-1) for 16 weeks. Twenty-seven Danish national team players (elite trained, ET) and 28 untrained women (UT) underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-scanning (DXA), comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography, treadmill and Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 2 (IE2) testing. Eight women in UT were also tested after the football training period. Maximal oxygen uptake rate (VO2max), peak ventilation and peak lactate were 40, 18 and 51% higher (P< 0.01) in ET than UT, respectively. Cardiac dimensions and function were greater in ET than UT, with left ventricular diastolic diameter, right ventricular diastolic diameter, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and peak transmitral flow in early diastole divided by peak transmitral flow velocity in late diastole during atrial contraction (E/A-ratio) being 13, 19, 27 and 41%, respectively, greater in ET than UT (P< 0.001 to< 0.05). Yo-Yo IE2 performance was 7-fold higher in ET than UT (1772 ± 508 vs. 234 ± 66 m, P< 0.001), fat mass was 51% lower (P< 0.001) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels were 20% higher (P< 0.01). Sixteen weeks of football elevated VO2max and Yo-Yo IE2 performance by 16 and 40%, respectively, and lowered fat mass by 6%. Cardiac function was markedly improved by 16 weeks of football training with 26 and 46% increases in TAPSE and E/A ratio, respectively, reaching levels comparable to ET. In summary, elite female football players have a superior cardiovascular health profile and intermittent exercise performance compared to untrained controls, but short-term football training can markedly improve the cardiovascular health status.

  11. Game and Training Load Differences in Elite Junior Australian Football

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Brendan; Cook, Jill; Kidgell, Dawson J.; Gastin, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    Game demands and training practices within team sports such as Australian football (AF) have changed considerably over recent decades, including the requirement of coaching staff to effectively control, manipulate and monitor training and competition loads. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the differences in external and internal physical load measures between game and training in elite junior AF. Twenty five male, adolescent players (mean ±SD: age 17.6 ± 0.5 y) recruited from three elite under 18 AF clubs participated. Global positioning system (GPS), heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) data were obtained from 32 game files during four games, and 84 training files during 19 training sessions. Matched-pairs statistics along with Cohen’s d effect size and percent difference were used to compare game and training events. Players were exposed to a higher physical load in the game environment, for both external (GPS) and internal (HR, Session-RPE) load parameters, compared to in-season training. Session time (d = 1.23; percent difference = 31.4% (95% confidence intervals = 17.4 – 45.4)), total distance (3.5; 63.5% (17.4 – 45.4)), distance per minute (1.93; 33.0% (25.8 – 40.1)), high speed distance (2.24; 77.3% (60.3 – 94.2)), number of sprints (0.94; 43.6% (18.9 – 68.6)), mean HR (1.83; 14.3% (10.5 – 18.1)), minutes spent above 80% of predicted HRmax (2.65; 103.7% (89.9 – 117.6)) and Session-RPE (1.22; 48.1% (22.1 – 74.1)) were all higher in competition compared to training. While training should not be expected to fully replicate competition, the observed differences suggest that monitoring of physical load in both environments is warranted to allow comparisons and evaluate whether training objectives are being met. Key points Physical loads, including intensity, are typically lower in training compared to competition in junior elite Australian football. Monitoring of player loads in team sports should include both

  12. Game and Training Load Differences in Elite Junior Australian Football.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Brendan; Cook, Jill; Kidgell, Dawson J; Gastin, Paul B

    2015-09-01

    Game demands and training practices within team sports such as Australian football (AF) have changed considerably over recent decades, including the requirement of coaching staff to effectively control, manipulate and monitor training and competition loads. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the differences in external and internal physical load measures between game and training in elite junior AF. Twenty five male, adolescent players (mean ±SD: age 17.6 ± 0.5 y) recruited from three elite under 18 AF clubs participated. Global positioning system (GPS), heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) data were obtained from 32 game files during four games, and 84 training files during 19 training sessions. Matched-pairs statistics along with Cohen's d effect size and percent difference were used to compare game and training events. Players were exposed to a higher physical load in the game environment, for both external (GPS) and internal (HR, Session-RPE) load parameters, compared to in-season training. Session time (d = 1.23; percent difference = 31.4% (95% confidence intervals = 17.4 - 45.4)), total distance (3.5; 63.5% (17.4 - 45.4)), distance per minute (1.93; 33.0% (25.8 - 40.1)), high speed distance (2.24; 77.3% (60.3 - 94.2)), number of sprints (0.94; 43.6% (18.9 - 68.6)), mean HR (1.83; 14.3% (10.5 - 18.1)), minutes spent above 80% of predicted HRmax (2.65; 103.7% (89.9 - 117.6)) and Session-RPE (1.22; 48.1% (22.1 - 74.1)) were all higher in competition compared to training. While training should not be expected to fully replicate competition, the observed differences suggest that monitoring of physical load in both environments is warranted to allow comparisons and evaluate whether training objectives are being met. Key pointsPhysical loads, including intensity, are typically lower in training compared to competition in junior elite Australian football.Monitoring of player loads in team sports should include both internal and

  13. Nonfunctional overreaching during off-season training for skill position players in collegiate American football.

    PubMed

    Moore, Christopher A; Fry, Andrew C

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the performance and hormonal responses to a 15-week off-season training program for American football. Nine skill position players from a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I-A football team participated as subjects in this study. Following 4 weeks of weight training (phase I), subjects performed weight training concurrently with high-volume conditioning drills (phase II). Phase III consisted of 15 spring football practice sessions executed over a 30-day period. Performance and hormonal changes were assessed prior to phase I, and following phases I, II, and III. Maximal strength was significantly increased (p < 0.05) for all strength tests during phase I. Squat and power clean values decreased following phase II (p < 0.05), with all values returning to baseline upon completion of phase III. Sprinting speed significantly worsened during phase I (p < 0.05), but then returned to baseline during phase III. Vertical jump and agility improved during phase I (p < 0.05), with vertical jump remaining unchanged for the duration of the study and agility returning to baseline following phase II. Testosterone levels decreased during phase II (p < 0.05) prior to returning to baseline levels during phase III. Cortisol and the testosterone/cortisol ratio remained unchanged during the course of the investigation. Even though overtraining did not occur in the current investigation, a significant maladaptation in performance did occur subsequent to phase II. For this particular athletic population, a strength and conditioning program utilizing a reduced training volume-load may prove more effective for improving performance in the future.

  14. Changes in muscle activation following balance and technique training and a season of Australian football.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, C J; Elliott, B C; Doyle, T L A; Finch, C F; Dempsey, A R; Lloyd, D G

    2015-05-01

    Determine if balance and technique training implemented adjunct to 1001 male Australian football players' training influenced the activation/strength of the muscles crossing the knee during pre-planned and unplanned sidestepping. Randomized Control Trial. Each Australian football player participated in either 28 weeks of balance and technique training or 'sham' training. Twenty-eight Australian football players (balance and technique training, n=12; 'sham' training, n=16) completed biomechanical testing pre-to-post training. Peak knee moments and directed co-contraction ratios in three degrees of freedom, as well as total muscle activation were calculated during pre-planned and unplanned sidestepping. No significant differences in muscle activation/strength were observed between the 'sham' training and balance and technique training groups. Following a season of Australian football, knee extensor (p=0.023) and semimembranosus (p=0.006) muscle activation increased during both pre-planned sidestepping and unplanned sidestepping. Following a season of Australian football, total muscle activation was 30% lower and peak valgus knee moments 80% greater (p=0.022) during unplanned sidestepping when compared with pre-planned sidestepping. When implemented in a community level training environment, balance and technique training was not effective in changing the activation of the muscles crossing the knee during sidestepping. Following a season of Australian football, players are better able to support both frontal and sagittal plane knee moments. When compared to pre-planned sidestepping, Australian football players may be at increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury during unplanned sidestepping in the latter half of an Australian football season. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Training habits and injuries of masters' level football players: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Newsham-West, R; Button, C; Milburn, P D; Mündermann, A; Sole, G; Schneiders, A G; Sullivan, S J

    2009-05-01

    To profile training habits and injuries in football players participating in a national Masters tournament. A cross-sectional retrospective study design was used to survey male football players attending the 2008 New Zealand Masters Games. Information regarding player demographics, football injuries, football related training, and risk factors for injury were collected. 199 Players were recruited, with a median age of 44 yrs (range 35-73) and a median football playing history of 15 yrs (range 0-66). Irrespective of age, 112 (84%) players included a warm-up and 104 (78%) included a stretching regime in their regular training programme. In the 12 months prior to the tournament, 128 football related injuries were reported by 93 players (64 injuries/100 players or 46 injured players/100 players). The most frequently injured region was the lower limb; specifically the lower leg (n=23), ankle (n=18), hamstring (n=17), knee (n=15), and Achilles tendon (n=15). This study provides a preliminary insight into the training habits and injury profiles of Masters football players. Despite all players including some form of injury prevention strategy in their training, a significant number of players experienced an injury in the 12 months prior to the tournament.

  16. Virus activation and immune function during intense training in rugby football players.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, R; Shimizu, K; Kimura, F; Takemura, M; Suzuki, K; Akama, T; Kono, I; Akimoto, T

    2011-05-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that highly trained athletes are more susceptible to upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) compared with the general population. Upper respiratory symptoms (URS) often appear as either primary invasion of pathogenic organisms and/or reactivation of latent viruses such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between EBV reactivation and the appearance of URS during intensive training in collegiate rugby football players. We evaluated EBV-DNA expression in saliva and examined the relationship between onset of URS and daily changes in EBV-DNA as well as secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) levels among 32 male collegiate rugby football players during a 1-month training camp. The EBV-DNA expression tended to be higher in subjects who exhibited sore throat (p=0.07) and cough (p=0.18) than that of those who had no symptoms, although their differences were not significant. The SIgA level was significantly lower 1 day before the EBV-DNA expression (p<0.05). The number of URS increased along with the EBV-DNA expression and decrease of SIgA levels. These results suggest that the appearance of URS is associated with reactivation of EBV and reduction of SIgA during training. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. The effects of resistance training prioritization in NCAA Division I Football summer training.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robert A; Martin, Gerard J; Szivak, Tunde K; Comstock, Brett A; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Hooper, David R; Flanagan, Shawn D; Looney, David P; Volek, Jeff S; Maresh, Carl M; Kraemer, William J

    2014-01-01

    Resistance training (RT) is an integral part of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I Football performance programs. In the sport of football, there are several components that a strength and conditioning coach must be aware of. These include body mass, size, strength, power, speed, conditioning, and injury prevention, among others. The purpose of this study was to investigate if the RT component of a performance program could be prioritized for specific results using a nonlinear training model, grouping athletes by eligibility year. The NCAA Division I football student athletes were placed into 3 separate groups based on the playing year. All subjects participated in a 10-week, 4 days·week-1 off-season summer resistance training program. The training of group 1 (n = 20, age: 18.95 ± 0.76 years, height: 186.63 ± 7.21 cm, body mass: 97.66 ± 18.17 kg, playing year: 1.05 ± 0.22 years) prioritized hypertrophy-based RT to gain body mass. The training of group 2 (n = 20, age: 20.05 ± 1.05 years, height: 189.42 ± 5.49 cm, body mass: 106.99 ± 13.53 kg, and playing year: 2.35 ± 0.75 years) prioritized strength-based RT to gain strength. The training of group 3 (n = 20, age: 21.05 ± 1.10 years, height: 186.56 ± 6.73 cm, body mass: 109.8 ± 19.96 kg, playing year: 4.4 ± 0.50 years) prioritized power-based RT to gain power. Performance tests were evaluated during the first weeks of March (Spring) and August (Fall). The test measures included body mass (kilograms), 1-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press (kilograms), 1RM back squat (kilograms), 1RM power clean (kilograms), and countermovement vertical jump (CMVJ) height (centimeters). The primary findings of this investigation were as follows: group 1 saw significant increases in bench press maximum, back squat maximum, and power clean maximum (p ≤ 0.05). Group 2 saw significant increases in bench press maximum, back squat maximum, and power clean maximum (p ≤ 0.05). Group 3 saw a significant

  18. Physiological and performance responses to a training camp in the heat in professional Australian football players.

    PubMed

    Racinais, Sebastien; Buchheit, Martin; Bilsborough, Johann; Bourdon, Pitre C; Cordy, Justin; Coutts, Aaron J

    2014-07-01

    To examine the physiological and performance responses to a heat-acclimatization camp in highly trained professional team-sport athletes. Eighteen male Australian Rules Football players trained for 2 wk in hot ambient conditions (31-33°C, humidity 34-50%). Players performed a laboratory-based heat-response test (24-min walk + 24 min seated; 44°C), a YoYo Intermittent Recovery Level 2 Test (YoYoIR2; indoor, temperate environment, 23°C) and standardized training drills (STD; outdoor, hot environment, 32°C) at the beginning and end of the camp. The heat-response test showed partial heat acclimatization (eg, a decrease in skin temperature, heart rate, and sweat sodium concentration, P < .05). In addition, plasma volume (PV, CO rebreathing, +2.68 [0.83; 4.53] mL/kg) and distance covered during both the YoYoIR2 (+311 [260; 361] m) and the STD (+45.6 [13.9; 77.4] m) increased postcamp (P < .01). None of the performance changes showed clear correlations with PV changes (r < .24), but the improvements in running STD distance in hot environment were correlated with changes in hematocrit during the heat-response test (r = -.52, 90%CI [-.77; -.12]). There was no clear correlation between the performance improvements in temperate and hot ambient conditions (r < .26). Running performance in both hot and temperate environments was improved after a football training camp in hot ambient conditions that stimulated heat acclimatization. However, physiological and performance responses were highly individual, and the absence of correlations between physical-performance improvements in hot and temperate environments suggests that their physiological basis might differ.

  19. Changes in knee joint biomechanics following balance and technique training and a season of Australian football.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Cyril J; Elliott, Bruce C; Doyle, Tim L A; Finch, Caroline F; Dempsey, Alasdair R; Lloyd, David G

    2012-10-01

    Determine if balance and technique training (BTT) implemented adjunct to normal Australian football (AF) training reduces external knee loading during sidestepping. Additionally, the authors determined if an athlete's knee joint kinematics and kinetics change over a season of AF. Eight amateur-level AF clubs (n=1,001 males) volunteered to participate in either 28 weeks of BTT or a 'sham' training (ST) adjunct to their normal preseason and regular training. A subset of 34 athletes (BTT, n=20; ST, n=14) were recruited for biomechanical testing in weeks 1-7 and 18-25 of the 28-week training intervention. During biomechanical testing, participants completed a series running, preplanned (PpSS) and unplanned sidestepping (UnSS) tasks. A linear mixed model (α=0.05) was used to determine if knee kinematics and peak moments during PpSS and UnSS were influenced by BTT and/or a season of AF. Both training groups significantly (p=0.025) decreased their peak internal-rotation knee moments during PpSS, and significantly (p=0.022) increased their peak valgus knee moments during UnSS following their respective training interventions. BTT was not effective in changing an athlete's knee joint biomechanics during sidestepping when conducted in 'real-world' training environments. Following normal AF training, the players had different changes to their knee joint biomechanics during both preplanned and unplanned sidestepping. When performing an unplanned sidestepping task in the latter half of a playing season, athletes are at an increased risk of ACL injury. The authors therefore recommend both sidestepping tasks are performed during biomechanical testing when assessing the effectiveness of prophylactic training protocols.

  20. Observations of youth football training: How do coaches structure training sessions for player development?

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Donna; Larkin, Paul; Williams, A Mark

    2017-01-07

    We used systematic observation tools to explore the structure (i.e., activity and inactivity) and sequencing (i.e., the types of activities used) of football coaching sessions in Australia following the implementation of a new National Curriculum. Youth soccer coaches (n = 34), coaching within the Skill Acquisition (U11-U13 n = 19) and Game Training (U14-U17 n = 15) phases of the Football Federation Australia National Curriculum participated. Participants were filmed during a regular coaching session, with systematic observation of the session undertaken to provide a detailed analysis of the practice activities and coach behaviours. Findings indicated a session comprised of Playing Form activities (40.9%), Training Form activities (22.3%), inactivity (31%), and transitions between activities (5.8%). Coaches prescribed more Training Form activities (e.g., individual (5.4%) and drills (15.1%)) early in the session and progressed to Playing Form activities (i.e., small-sided games (15.3%) then larger games (24.8%)) later in the session. Most inactivity reflected the players listening to the coach - either in a team huddle (9.9%) or frozen on the spot during an activity (16.5%). In addition, coaches generally spent over 3 min communicating to players prior to explaining and introducing an activity regardless of when in the session the activity was scheduled.

  1. Increased Training Volume Improves Bone Density and Cortical Area in Adolescent Football Players.

    PubMed

    Varley, Ian; Hughes, David C; Greeves, Julie P; Fraser, William D; Sale, Craig

    2017-03-01

    Habitual football participation has been shown to be osteogenic, although the specific volume of football participation required to cause bone adaptations are not well established. The aim of the present study is to investigate tibial bone adaptations in response to 12 weeks of increased training volume in elite adolescents who are already accustomed to irregular impact training. 99 male adolescent elite footballers participated (age 16±0 y; height 1.76±0.66 m; body mass 70.2±8.3 kg). Tibial scans were performed using peripheral quantitative computed tomography immediately before and 12 weeks after an increase in football training volume. Scans were obtained at 4, 14, 38 and 66% of tibial length. Trabecular density (mg/cm(3)), cortical density (mg/cm(3)), cross-sectional area, cortical area (mm(2)), cortical thickness (mm) and strength strain index (mm(3)) were assessed. Trabecular (4%) and cortical density (14, 38%), cortical cross-sectional area (14, 38%), total cross-sectional area (66%), cortical thickness (14, 38%) and strength strain index (14, 38%) increased following 12 weeks of augmented volume training (P<0.05). Increased density of trabecular and cortical compartments and cortical thickening were shown following an increased volume of training. These adaptive responses may have been enhanced by the adolescent status of the cohort, supporting the role of early exercise intervention in improving bone strength.

  2. Diet supplementation with DHA-enriched food in football players during training season enhances the mitochondrial antioxidant capabilities in blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Capó, Xavier; Martorell, Miquel; Sureda, Antoni; Llompart, Isabel; Tur, Josep A; Pons, Antoni

    2015-02-01

    Exercise induces oxidative stress and causes adaptations in antioxidant defenses. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of a 2-month diet supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the pro-oxidant and antioxidant status of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during football training and after acute exercise. Fifteen male football players, in a randomized double-blind trial, ingested a beverage enriched with DHA or a placebo for 8 weeks. Blood samples were collected in basal conditions before and after the training period and after an acute and intense exercise. The training season increased the carbonyl and nitrotyrosine index but decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Basal catalase activity decreased in both groups after 8 weeks of training, whereas glutathione peroxidase activity increased mainly in the placebo group. Protein levels of uncoupling proteins (UCP2 and UCP3) and inducible nitric oxide synthase significantly increased after the training period. Acute exercise induced redistribution in the number of circulating cells, increased the MDA levels and nitrotyrosine index, and decreased the levels of nitrate. Acute exercise also increased PBMCs reactive oxygen species (ROS) production after immune stimulation. Diet supplementation with DHA significantly increased the UCP3 levels after training and the superoxide dismutase protein levels after acute exercise, and reduced the production of ROS after acute exercise. Docosahexaenoic acid increased the antioxidant capabilities while reducing the mitochondrial ROS production in a regular football training period and reduced the oxidative damage markers in response to acute exercise.

  3. University of Miami Hurricane Football Team Off-Season Strength Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, Ray

    The off-season football strength training and conditioning program at the University of Miami was developed to emphasize commitment and continued intensity of effort on the part of the individual player. The program emphasizes the intrinsic rewards of physical conditioning, positive reinforcement for effort, and individual responsibility for…

  4. University of Miami Hurricane Football Team Off-Season Strength Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, Ray

    The off-season football strength training and conditioning program at the University of Miami was developed to emphasize commitment and continued intensity of effort on the part of the individual player. The program emphasizes the intrinsic rewards of physical conditioning, positive reinforcement for effort, and individual responsibility for…

  5. Strength changes during an in-season resistance-training program for football.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jay R; Kang, Jie

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of both intensity and volume of training during a 2 d.wk(-1) in-season resistance-training program (RTP) for American football players. Fifty-three National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III football players were tested in the 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press and 1RM squat on the first day of summer training camp (PRE) and during the final week of the regular season (POST). Subjects were required to perform 3 sets of 6-8 repetitions per exercise. Significant strength improvements in squat were observed from PRE (155.0 +/- 31.8 kg) to POST (163.3 +/- 30.0 kg), whereas no PRE to POST changes in bench press were seen (124.7 +/- 21.0 kg vs.123.9 +/- 18.6 kg, respectively). Training volume and training compliance were not related to strength improvement. Further analysis showed that athletes training at >or=80% of their PRE 1RM had significantly greater strength improvements than athletes training at <80% of their PRE 1RM, for both bench press and squat. Strength improvements can be seen in American football players, during an in-season RTP, as long as exercise intensity is >or=80% of the 1RM.

  6. Influence of non-preferred foot technical training in reducing lower limbs functional asymmetry among young football players.

    PubMed

    Guilherme, José; Garganta, Júlio; Graça, Amândio; Seabra, André

    2015-01-01

    The functional asymmetry of the lower limbs has been regarded as a relevant factor of the performance of football players. We purposed to ascertain whether a specific technical training programme for the non-preferred foot has implications in the increasing utilisation rate of the respective member during the game. Young football players (n = 71) were randomly divided into experimental group (N = 35; 14.37 ± 1.94 years) and control group (N = 36; 14.50 ± 1.81 years). The study was developed into three stages: first, assessment of the index utilisation of both limbs during the game; second, application of a technical training programme that includes the drilling of specific motor skills exclusively directed to the non-preferred foot; and third, assessment of the new rate of both limbs' utilisation after the predefined six months. The main findings were: (1) the use of the non-preferred foot increased significantly with the technical training programme in the experimental group and remained constant in the control group; (2) the use of the preferred foot decreased significantly in the experimental group and remained similar in control group. We concluded that a systematic and specific technical training for the non-preferred foot increases its use and reduces functional asymmetry in game situation, consequently improving the player's performance.

  7. The impact of football training on motor development in male children.

    PubMed

    Erceg, Marko; Zagorac, Nebojsa; Katić, Ratko

    2008-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of football school program and physical education curriculum on changes in the motor abilities of 7- and 8-year-old boys. The study included a sample of 180 boys divided into group 1 (7-year-old boys), subdivided to experimental (n = 40) and control (n = 50) groups, and group 2 (8-year-old boys), subdivided to experimental (n = 40) and control (n = 50) groups. Experimental groups included children attending three training units of football training over a 9-month period, in addition to the conventional physical education curriculum. Control groups included children attending only conventional physical education curriculum. All study subjects underwent testing with a battery of 12 motor tests at the beginning and at the end of the study. Results obtained by discriminative canonic analysis showed no statistically significant between-group difference in motor abilities at the beginning of the study. However, significant differences in favor of experimental groups were recorded at the end of the study. Favorable changes in all motor variables were observed in both experimental and control groups of children from the initial through the final state. These changes were more pronounced in experimental groups. Analysis of variance for difference variables (final to initial measurement) indicated programmed education in the form of football training in addition to regular physical education curriculum to predominantly influence the development of aerobic endurance, agility, speed and flexibility in 7-year-old boys, and of explosive strength, aerobic endurance, flexibility and speed in 8-year-old boys. In the latter, football training led to the formation of a motor complex integrating explosiveness, speed, coordination, endurance and flexibility as a general motor factor determining future quality development in football.

  8. Influence of training years on upper-body strength and power changes during the competitive season for professional Australian rules football players.

    PubMed

    Hrysomallis, Con; Buttifant, David

    2012-07-01

    To determine if upper-body strength or power changes during the competitive season for elite Australian rules footballers and what influence the number of training years has on any changes. Repeated measures. Twenty elite Australian rules footballers were assessed at preseason, in-season and postseason. Strength was assessed by the 1 Repetition Maximum bench press and power was assessed by bench press throws. Athletes' results were analysed as a whole group as well as being divided into two groups according to training years: less than 3 years training and greater than 3 years training. All athletes performed the same resistance training program. There were no significant differences in height, body mass, or skinfold measurements between the two age groups. As a whole group, there was no significant change in 1RM bench press. There was a small but significant decrease in mean bench throw power in-season (525 W) compared to preseason (542 W) and it then increased at postseason (541 W). Within group analysis revealed the in-season decrease in upper-body power was largely pertaining to the younger athletes. The older group maintained their upper body power levels while the younger group decreased power in-season (4%) before regaining it at season's end. Older footballers were able to maintain their upper body power while the younger footballers had a small but significant decrease in-season before regaining it by season's end. The overall volume of training and playing appears to have affected the younger athletes' power more than older athletes. Both age groups maintained upper body strength. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pre-training perceived wellness impacts training output in Australian football players.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Tania F; Cormack, Stuart J; Gabbett, Tim J; Lorenzen, Christian H

    2016-08-01

    The impact of perceived wellness on a range of external load parameters, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and external load:RPE ratios, was explored during skill-based training in Australian footballers. Fifteen training sessions involving 36 participants were analysed. Each morning before any physical training, players completed a customised perceived wellness questionnaire (sleep quality, fatigue, stress, mood and muscle soreness). Microtechnology devices provided external load (average speed, high-speed running distance, player load and player load slow). Players provided RPE using the modified Borg category-ratio 10 RPE scale. Mixed-effect linear models revealed significant effects of wellness Z-score on player load and player load slow. Effects are reported with 95% confidence limits. A wellness Z-score of -1 corresponded to a -4.9 ± 3.1 and -8.6 ± 3.9% reduction in player load and player load slow, respectively, compared to those without reduced wellness. Small significant effects were also seen in the average speed:RPE and player load slow:RPE models. A wellness Z-score of -1 corresponded to a 0.43 ± 0.38 m·min(-1) and -0.02 ± 0.01 au·min(-1) change in the average speed:RPE and player load slow:RPE ratios, respectively. Magnitude-based analysis revealed that the practical size of the effect of a pre-training perceived wellness Z-score of -1 would have on player load slow was likely negative. The results of this study suggests that monitoring pre-training perceived wellness may provide coaches with information about the intensity of output that can be expected from individual players during a training session.

  10. Effects of hamstring-emphasized neuromuscular training on strength and sprinting mechanics in football players.

    PubMed

    Mendiguchia, J; Martinez-Ruiz, E; Morin, J B; Samozino, P; Edouard, P; Alcaraz, P E; Esparza-Ros, F; Mendez-Villanueva, A

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a neuromuscular training program combining eccentric hamstring muscle strength, plyometrics, and free/resisted sprinting exercises on knee extensor/flexor muscle strength, sprinting performance, and horizontal mechanical properties of sprint running in football (soccer) players. Sixty footballers were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG) or a control group (CG). Twenty-seven players completed the EG and 24 players the CG. Both groups performed regular football training while the EG performed also a neuromuscular training during a 7-week period. The EG showed a small increases in concentric quadriceps strength (ES = 0.38/0.58), a moderate to large increase in concentric (ES = 0.70/0.74) and eccentric (ES = 0.66/0.87) hamstring strength, and a small improvement in 5-m sprint performance (ES = 0.32). By contrast, the CG presented lower magnitude changes in quadriceps (ES = 0.04/0.29) and hamstring (ES = 0.27/0.34) concentric muscle strength and no changes in hamstring eccentric muscle strength (ES = -0.02/0.11). Thus, in contrast to the CG (ES = -0.27/0.14), the EG showed an almost certain increase in the hamstring/quadriceps strength functional ratio (ES = 0.32/0.75). Moreover, the CG showed small magnitude impairments in sprinting performance (ES = -0.35/-0.11). Horizontal mechanical properties of sprint running remained typically unchanged in both groups. These results indicate that a neuromuscular training program can induce positive hamstring strength and maintain sprinting performance, which might help in preventing hamstring strains in football players. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Training and acute exercise modulates mitochondrial dynamics in football players' blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Busquets-Cortés, Carla; Capó, Xavier; Martorell, Miquel; Tur, Josep A; Sureda, Antoni; Pons, Antoni

    2017-07-26

    Regular physical activity induces oxidative stress but also causes adaptations in antioxidant defences including the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway, which activates target genes related to antioxidant defences such as uncoupling proteins (UCPs), and mitochondrial biogenesis mediated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α). The aim of the study was to determine the effect of long-term training and acute exercise on oxidant/antioxidant status and the expression of mitochondrial biogenesis genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Twelve professional football players performed an 8-week exercise programme comprising a daily 2-h football training session. Blood samples were taken before and after the training season. The results reported a significant increase in antioxidant protein levels and in mitochondrial proteins in resting conditions after the 8-week training period. PGC1α, UCP-2 and mitofusin 2 protein levels also increased after acute exercise compared to pre-exercise levels. After the training, the expression of PGC1α, cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV and mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 messenger RNA (mRNA) significantly augmented after the acute physical activity compared to pre-exercise levels; while no changes occurred in these mRNA in basal conditions. NF-κB activation and ROS production reported a significant increase after acute exercise. Training increases the levels of proteins related to mitochondrial biogenesis and improves the antioxidant capabilities of mitochondria in PBMCs among well-trained football players. Acute exercise may act as an inducer of mitochondrial biogenesis through NF-κB activation and PGC1α gene expression.

  12. Fitness determinants of repeated-sprint ability in highly trained youth football players.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Matt; Pyne, David; Santisteban, Juanma; Mujika, Iñigo

    2011-12-01

    Variations in rates of growth and development in young football players can influence relationships among various fitness qualities. To investigate the relationships between repeated-sprint ability and other fundamental fitness qualities of acceleration, agility, explosive leg power, and aerobic conditioning through the age groups of U11 to U18 in highly trained junior football players. Male players (n = 119) across the age groups completed a fitness assessment battery over two testing sessions. The first session consisted of countermovement jumps without and with arm swing, 15-m sprint run, 15-m agility run, and the 20-m Shuttle Run (U11 to U15) or the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test, Level 1 (U16 to U18). The players were tested for repeated-sprint ability in the second testing session using a protocol of 6 × 30-m sprints on 30 s with an active recovery. The correlations of repeated-sprint ability with the assorted fitness tests varied considerably between the age groups, especially for agility (r = .02 to .92) and explosive leg power (r = .04 to .84). Correlations of repeated sprint ability with acceleration (r = .48 to .93) and aerobic conditioning (r = .28 to .68) were less variable with age. Repeated-sprint ability associates differently with other fundamental fitness tests throughout the teenage years in highly trained football players, although stabilization of these relationships occurs by the age of 18 y. Coaches in junior football should prescribe physical training accounting for variations in short-term disruptions or impairment of physical performance during this developmental period.

  13. Efficacy of the National Football League-225 Test to Track Changes in One Repetition Maximum Bench Press After Training in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division IA Football Players.

    PubMed

    Mann, J Bryan; Ivey, Pat A; Stoner, Josh D; Mayhew, Jerry L; Brechue, William F

    2015-11-01

    Numerous investigations have attested to the efficacy of the National Football League (NFL)-225 test to estimate one repetition maximum (1RM) bench press. However, no studies have assessed the efficacy of the test to track changes in strength across a training program. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of the NFL-225 test for determining the change in 1RM bench press in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division IA college football players after training. Over a 4-year period, players (n = 203) were assessed before and after a 6-week off-season resistance program for 1RM bench press and repetitions completed with 102.3 kg (225 lbs). Test sessions typically occurred within 1 week of each other. Players significantly increased 1RM by 4.2 ± 8.6 kg and NFL-225 repetitions by 0.9 ± 2.3, although the effect size (ES) for each was trivial (ES = 0.03 and 0.07, respectively). National Football League 225 prediction equations had higher correlations with 1RM before training (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.95) than after training (ICC = 0.75). The correlation between the change in NFL-225 repetitions and change in 1RM was low and negative (r = -0.22, p < 0.02). Short-term heavy resistance training may alter the association between muscular strength and muscular endurance in college football players and render the NFL-225 test less effective in predicting the change in 1RM bench press strength after short-term training.

  14. Examine Ways to Decrease Training Duration While Maintaining Training Objective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Technical 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) September 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Examine Ways to Decrease Training Duration while Maintaining...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER H92222-10-D-0017/0007 Training Objective 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...ABSTRACT This report provides United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) with insights into the elements of foreign language training that must be

  15. Effect of lifelong football training on the expression of muscle molecular markers involved in healthy longevity.

    PubMed

    Mancini, A; Vitucci, D; Labruna, G; Imperlini, E; Randers, M B; Schmidt, J F; Hagman, M; Andersen, T R; Russo, R; Orrù, S; Krustrup, P; Salvatore, F; Buono, P

    2017-04-01

    We investigated whether lifelong football training affects the expression of healthy longevity-related muscle molecular markers. Biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis muscle of 10 lifelong football-trained men (68.2 ± 3.0 years) and of 10 active untrained healthy men (66.7 ± 1.3 years). Gene and protein expression was measured by RTqPCR on RNA and by western blotting on protein extracts from muscle biopsies, respectively. The expression of AMPKα1/α2, NAMPT, TFAM and PGC1α, which are markers of oxidative metabolism, and MyHC β isoform expression was higher in the muscle of football-trained men vs untrained men. Also citrate synthase activity was higher in trained than in untrained men (109.3 ± 9.2 vs 75.1 ± 9.2 mU/mg). These findings were associated with a healthier body composition in trained than in untrained men [body weight: 78.2 ± 6.5 vs 91.2 ± 11.2 kg; body mass index BMI: 24.4 ± 1.6 vs 28.8 ± 4.0 kg m(-2); fat%: 22.6 ± 8.0 vs 31.4 ± 5.0%)] and with a higher maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max: 34.7 ± 3.8 vs 27.3 ± 4.0 ml/min/kg). Also the expression of proteins involved in DNA repair and in senescence suppression (Erk1/2, Akt and FoxM1) was higher in trained than in untrained men. At BMI- and age-adjusted multiple linear regression analysis, fat percentage was independently associated with Akt protein expression, and VO2max was independently associated with TFAM mRNA and with Erk1/2 protein expression. Lifelong football training increases the expression of key markers involved in muscle oxidative metabolism, and in the DNA repair and senescence suppression pathways, thus providing the molecular basis for healthy longevity.

  16. Physiology of small-sided games training in football: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hill-Haas, Stephen V; Dawson, Brian; Impellizzeri, Franco M; Coutts, Aaron J

    2011-03-01

    Small-sided games (SSGs) are played on reduced pitch areas, often using modified rules and involving a smaller number of players than traditional football. These games are less structured than traditional fitness training methods but are very popular training drills for players of all ages and levels. At present, there is relatively little information regarding how SSGs can best be used to improve physical capacities and technical or tactical skills in footballers. However, many prescriptive variables controlled by the coach can influence the exercise intensity during SSGs. Coaches usually attempt to change the training stimulus in SSGs through altering the pitch area, player number, coach encouragement, training regimen (continuous vs interval training), rules and the use of goalkeepers. In general, it appears that SSG exercise intensity is increased with the concurrent reduction in player number and increase in relative pitch area per player. However, the inverse relationship between the number of players in each SSG and exercise intensity does not apply to the time-motion characteristics. Consistent coach encouragement can also increase training intensity, but most rule changes do not appear to strongly affect exercise intensity. The variation of exercise intensity measures are lower in smaller game formats (e.g. three vs three) and have acceptable reproducibility when the same game is repeated between different training sessions or within the same session. The variation in exercise intensity during SSGs can also be improved with consistent coach encouragement but it is still more variable than traditional generic training methods. Other studies have also shown that SSGs containing fewer players can exceed match intensity and elicit similar intensities to both long- and short-duration high-intensity interval running. It also appears that fitness and football-specific performance can be improved equally with SSG and generic training drills. Future research is

  17. Rugby football.

    PubMed

    Dietzen, C J; Topping, B R

    1999-02-01

    Rugby union football continues to gain in popularity in the United States. Both men's and women's clubs have been established at several colleges and universities. There has been substantial growth in the number of high school rugby football clubs in recent years. With the increase in numbers of young participants in this sport, it is important that great efforts be mounted to attempt to control the injury rates and severity of injuries in rugby football. Players and coaches must be knowledgeable of the rules of the game, and referees must strictly enforce these rules. Physicians and dentists should be involved in educating parents, coaches, players, and school officials about the inherent risks of injury and the means for injury prevention. Medical personnel must also be instrumental in educating players about alcohol abuse/addiction. Rugby players should be encouraged to use the limited protective gear that is allowed: wraps, tape, joint sleeves, scrum caps, and facial grease to prevent lacerations. Mouthguards are strongly recommended at any level of play and should be mandated. The use of helmets, face masks, and shoulder pads has been suggested by some authors. Such rule changes could actually increase injury rates and severity, because this equipment could be used as weapons as they are in American football. It is recommended that rugby clubs purchase or build equipment to practice scrummage skills. Coaches should be experienced and attend clinics or complete video courses on medical emergencies and safe techniques of the game. Injury frequency and severity can be decreased by adequate preseason training and conditioning, proper tackling and falling techniques, strengthening of neck muscles, and allowing only experienced, fit athletes to play in the front row. Medical surveillance must be improved at matches and, ideally, at practice sessions. At present, it is common for no emergency medical personnel or physicians to be present at matches in the United

  18. The effects of game and training loads on perceptual responses of muscle soreness in Australian football.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Paul G; Hopkins, Will G

    2013-05-01

    Australian Football is an intense team sport played over ~120 min on a weekly basis. To determine the effects of game and training load on muscle soreness and the time frame of soreness dissipation, 64 elite Australian Football players (age 23.8 ± 1.8 y, height 183.9 ± 3.8 cm, weight 83.2 ± 5.0 kg; mean ± SD) recorded perceptions of muscle soreness, game intensity, and training intensity on scales of 1-10 on most mornings for up to 3 competition seasons. Playing and training times were also recorded in minutes. Data were analyzed with a mixed linear model, and magnitudes of effects on soreness were evaluated by standardization. All effects had acceptably low uncertainty. Game and training-session loads were 790 ± 182 and 229 ± 98 intensity-minutes (mean ± SD), respectively. General muscle soreness was 4.6 ± 1.1 units on d 1 postgame and fell to 1.9 ± 1.0 by d 6. There was a small increase in general muscle soreness (0.22 ± 0.07-0.50 ± 0.13 units) in the 3 d after high-load games relative to low-load games. Other soreness responses showed similar timelines and magnitudes of change. Training sessions made only small contributions to soreness over the 3 d after each session. Practitioners should be aware of these responses when planning weekly training and recovery programs, as it appears that game-related soreness dissipates after 3 d regardless of game load and increased training loads in the following week produce only small increases in soreness.

  19. Characteristics impacting on session rating of perceived exertion training load in Australian footballers.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Tania; Cormack, Stuart; Gabbett, Tim; Williams, Morgan; Lorenzen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between external training load and session rating of perceived exertion (s-RPE) training load and the impact that playing experience, playing position and 2-km time-trial performance had on s-RPE training load were explored. From 39 Australian Football players, 6.9 ± 4.6 training sessions were analysed, resulting in 270 samples. Microtechnology devices provided external training load (distance, average speed, high-speed running distance, player load (PL) and player loadslow (PLslow)). The external training load measures had moderate to very large associations (r, 95% CI) with s-RPE training load, average speed (0.45, 0.35-0.54), high-speed running distance (0.51, 0.42-0.59), PLslow (0.80, 0.75-0.84), PL (0.86, 0.83-0.89) and distance (0.88, 0.85-0.90). Differences were described using effect sizes (d ±95% CL). When controlling for external training load, the 4- to 5-year players had higher s-RPE training load than the 0- to 1- (0.44 ± 0.33) and 2- to 3-year players (0.51 ± 0.30), ruckmen had moderately higher s-RPE training load than midfielders (0.82 ± 0.58), and there was a 0.2% increase in s-RPE training load per 1 s increase in time-trial (95% CI: 0.07-0.34). Experience, position and time-trial performance impacted the relationship between external training load and s-RPE training load. This suggests that a given external training load may result in different internal responses between athletes, potentially leaving individuals at risk of overtraining or failing to elicit positive adaptation. It is therefore vital that coaches and trainers give consideration to these mediators of s-RPE training load.

  20. Positive effects of 1-year football and strength training on mechanical muscle function and functional capacity in elderly men.

    PubMed

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Andersen, Lars Louis; Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Helge, Jørn Wulff; Suetta, Charlotte; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Bangsbo, Jens; Krustrup, Peter; Aagaard, Per

    2016-06-01

    A decline in physical capacity takes place with increasing age that negatively affects overall physical function including work ability and the ability to perform typical activities of daily living (ADL). The overall aim of the present study was to determine the neuromuscular adaptations to long-term (1 year) football and strength training in older untrained adults, and to assess the concurrent effect on functional ADL capacity. Twenty-seven healthy elderly males (68.2 ± 3.2 years) were randomly assigned to 12 months of either recreational football training (FT: n = 10), strength training (ST: n = 9) or served as inactive controls (CON: n = 8). Recreational football training consisted of small-sided training sessions whereas strength training consisted of high intensity exercises targeting the lower extremity and upper body. Maximal thigh muscle strength and rate of force development (RFD) were assessed with isokinetic dynamometry, while postural balance and vertical jumping performance were evaluated using force plate analysis. Furthermore, functional ability was evaluated by stair-ascent and chair-rising testing. A total of nine, nine and seven participants from FT, ST and CON, respectively, were included in the analysis. Both exercise regimens led to substantial gains in functional ability, evidenced by 24 and 18 % reduced stair-ascent time, and 32 and 21 % increased chair-rising performance in FT and ST, respectively (all P < 0.05). Long-term strength training led to increased concentric (14 %; P < 0.01) and isometric (23 %; P < 0.001) quadriceps and isometric hamstring strength (44 %; P < 0.0001), whereas football training mainly resulted in enhanced hamstring strength (18 %, P < 0.05) and RFD (89 %, P < 0.0001). Long-term (1 year) strength training led to increased quadriceps and hamstring strength, whereas the adaptations to football training mainly included enhanced strength and rapid force capacity of the hamstring muscles

  1. Effect of motor control training on muscle size and football games missed from injury.

    PubMed

    Hides, Julie A; Stanton, Warren R; Mendis, M Dilani; Gildea, Jan; Sexton, Margot J

    2012-06-01

    This panel-randomized intervention trial was designed to examine the effect of a motor control training program for elite Australian Football League players with and without low back pain (LBP). The outcome measures included cross-sectional area (CSA) and symmetry of multifidus, quadratus lumborum, and psoas muscles and the change in CSA of the trunk in response to an abdominal drawing-in task. These measures of muscle size and function were performed using magnetic resonance imaging. Availability of players for competition games was used to assess the effect of the intervention on the occurrence of injuries. The motor control program involved performance of voluntary contractions of the multifidus and transversus abdominis muscles while receiving feedback from ultrasound imaging. Because all players were to receive the intervention, the trial was delivered as a stepped-wedge design with three treatment arms (a 15-wk intervention, a 8-wk intervention, and a waitlist control who received a 7-wk intervention toward the end of the playing season). Players participated in a Pilates program when they were not receiving the intervention. The intervention program was associated with an increase in multifidus muscle size relative to results in the control group. The program was also associated with an improved ability to draw-in the abdominal wall. Intervention was commensurate with an increase in availability for games and a high level of perceived benefit. The motor control program delivered to elite footballers was effective, with demonstrated changes in the size and control of the targeted muscles. In this study, footballers who received the intervention early in the season missed fewer games because of injury than those who received it late in the playing season.

  2. Effects of a small-sided game-based training programme on repeated sprint and change of direction abilities in recreationally-trained football players.

    PubMed

    Bujalance-Moreno, Pascual; García-Pinillos, Felipe; Latorre-Román, Pedro Á

    2017-02-21

    To examine the effects of 6-week periodized small-sided game (SSG) training intervention on change of direction [COD], sprint and repeated sprint ability [RSA] in recreational male football players. Twenty-three young football players (age: 20.86 years) were randomized in a control group (n = 11) and an experimental group (n = 12). The SSG programme was included in the experimental group's training sessions. The players completed two variations of a SSG (i.e. 2 vs. 2 and 4 vs. 4 players) during intervention. To examine the changes in physical performance after the 6-week periodized SSG training intervention, all players were tested 6 weeks apart (i.e. pre-test and post-test) in sprint, COD ability test, and RSA shuttle test. A 2x2 ANOVA showed that 6-week SSG training intervention induced significant improvements (P<0.05, ES>0.7) in COD ability test, and variables related to both sprint test and RSA in the experimental group, whereas the control group remained unchanged (P≥0.05, ES<0.4). Regarding the response to the RSA test - in terms of BLa, both the experimental group (P=0.001, ES=1.270) and the control group (P=0.010, ES=0.939) increased BLa after the intervention. The current study indicates that a 6-week SSG-based training programme could improve decisive parameters in performance in football, such as COD, RSA and sprint in recreationally trained football players.

  3. Quantification of Training and Competition Load Across a Season in an Elite Australian Football Club.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Dean; Hopkins, Will G; Buchheit, Martin; Cordy, Justin; Bartlett, Jonathan D

    2016-05-01

    Load monitoring in Australian football (AF) has been widely adopted, yet team-sport periodization strategies are relatively unknown. The authors aimed to quantify training and competition load across a season in an elite AF team, using rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and GPS tracking. Weekly totals for RPE and GPS loads (including accelerometer data; PlayerLoad) were obtained for 44 players across a full season for each training modality and for competition. General linear mixed models compared mean weekly load between 3 preseason and 4 in-season blocks. Effects were assessed with inferences about magnitudes standardized with between-players SD. Total RPE load was most likely greater during preseason, where the majority of load was obtained via skills and conditioning. There was a large reduction in RPE load in the last preseason block. During in-season, half the total load came from games and the remaining half from training, predominantly skills and upper-body weights. Total distance, high-intensity running, and PlayerLoad showed large to very large reductions from preseason to in-season, whereas changes in mean speed were trivial across all blocks. All these effects were clear at the 99% level. These data provide useful information about targeted periods of loading and unloading across different stages of a season. The study also provides a framework for further investigation of training periodization in AF teams.

  4. The effects of resisted sprint training on acceleration performance and kinematics in soccer, rugby union, and Australian football players.

    PubMed

    Spinks, Christopher D; Murphy, Aron J; Spinks, Warwick L; Lockie, Robert G

    2007-02-01

    Acceleration is a significant feature of game-deciding situations in the various codes of football. However little is known about the acceleration characteristics of football players, the effects of acceleration training, or the effectiveness of different training modalities. This study examined the effects of resisted sprint (RS) training (weighted sled towing) on acceleration performance (0-15 m), leg power (countermovement jump [CMJ], 5-bound test [5BT], and 50-cm drop jump [50DJ]), gait (foot contact time, stride length, stride frequency, step length, and flight time), and joint (shoulder, elbow, hip, and knee) kinematics in men (N = 30) currently playing soccer, rugby union, or Australian football. Gait and kinematic measurements were derived from the first and second strides of an acceleration effort. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment conditions: (a) 8-week sprint training of two 1-h sessions x wk(-1) plus RS training (RS group, n = 10), (b) 8-week nonresisted sprint training program of two 1-h sessions x wk(-1) (NRS group, n = 10), or (c) control (n = 10). The results indicated that an 8-week RS training program (a) significantly improves acceleration and leg power (CMJ and 5BT) performance but is no more effective than an 8-week NRS training program, (b) significantly improves reactive strength (50DJ), and (c) has minimal impact on gait and upper- and lower-body kinematics during acceleration performance compared to an 8-week NRS training program. These findings suggest that RS training will not adversely affect acceleration kinematics and gait. Although apparently no more effective than NRS training, this training modality provides an overload stimulus to acceleration mechanics and recruitment of the hip and knee extensors, resulting in greater application of horizontal power.

  5. Quantifying external load in Australian football matches and training using accelerometers.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Luke J; Ball, Kevin; Aughey, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    To describe the external load of Australian football matches and training using accelerometers. Nineteen elite and 21 subelite Australian footballers wore accelerometers during matches and training. Accelerometer data were expressed in 2 ways: from all 3 axes (player load; PL) and from all axes when velocity was below 2 m/s (PLSLOW). Differences were determined between 4 playing positions (midfielders, nomadics, deeps, and ruckmen), 2 playing levels (elite and subelite), and matches and training using percentage change and effect size with 90% confidence intervals. In the elite group, midfielders recorded higher PL than nomadics and deeps did (8.8%, 0.59 ± 0.24; 34.2%, 1.83 ± 0.39 respectively), and ruckmen were higher than deeps (37.2%, 1.27 ± 0.51). Elite midfielders, nomadics, and ruckmen recorded higher PLSLOW than deeps (13.5%, 0.65 ± 0.37; 11.7%, 0.55 ± 0.36; and 19.5%, 0.83 ± 0.50, respectively). Subelite midfielders were higher than nomadics, deeps, and ruckmen (14.0%, 1.08 ± 0.30; 31.7%, 2.61 ± 0.42; and 19.9%, 0.81 ± 0.55, respectively), and nomadics and ruckmen were higher than deeps for PL (20.6%, 1.45 ± 0.38; and 17.4%, 0.57 ± 0.55, respectively). Elite midfielders, nomadics, and ruckmen recorded higher PL (7.8%, 0.59 ± 0.29; 12.9%, 0.89 ± 0.25; and 18.0%, 0.67 ± 0.59, respectively) and PLSLOW (9.4%, 0.52 ± 0.30; 11.3%, 0.68 ± 0.25; and 14.1%, 0.84 ± 0.61, respectively) than subelite players. Small-sided games recorded the highest PL and PLSLOW and were the only training drill to equal or exceed the load from matches across positions and playing levels. PL differed between positions, with midfielders the highest, and between playing levels, with elite higher. Differences between matches and training were also evident, with PL from small-sided games equivalent to or higher than matches.

  6. Examining the External Training Load of an English Premier League Football Team With Special Reference to Acceleration.

    PubMed

    Akenhead, Richard; Harley, Jamie A; Tweddle, Simon P

    2016-09-01

    Akenhead, R, Harley, J, and Tweddle, S. Examining the external training load of an English Premier League football team with special reference to acceleration. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2424-2432, 2016-Practitioners and coaches often use external training load variables such as distance run and the number of high-speed running (HSR) activities to quantify football training. However, an important component of the external load may be overlooked when acceleration activities are not considered. The aim of this study was to describe the within-microcycle distribution of external load, including acceleration, during in-season 1-game weeks in an elite football team. Global Positioning System technology was used to collect time-motion data from 12 representative 7-day microcycles across a competitive season (48 training days, 295 data sets). Training time, total distance (TD), high-speed running (HSR) distance (>5.8 m·s), sprint running distance (>6.7 m·s) and acceleration variables were recorded during each training session. Data were analysed for interday and interposition differences using mixed linear modeling. The distribution of external load was characterized by the second training day of the microcycle (5 days prematch) exhibiting the highest values for all variables of training load, with the fourth day (1 day prematch) exhibiting the lowest values. Central midfield players covered ∼8-16% greater TD than other positions excluding wide midfielders (p ≤ 0.03, d = 0.2-0.4) and covered ∼17% greater distance accelerating 1-2 m·s than central defenders (p = 0.03, d = 0.7). When expressed relative to training duration and TD, the magnitude of interday and interposition differences were markedly reduced (p = 0.03, d = 0.2-0.3). When managing the distribution of training load, practitioners should be aware of the intensity of training sessions and consider the density of external load within sessions.

  7. Relationship Between Training Load, Fitness, and Injury Over an Australian Rules Football Preseason.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Peter W; Johnston, Rich D

    2017-10-01

    Harrison, PW and Johnston, RD. Relationship between training load, fitness, and injury over an Australian rules football preseason. J Strength Cond Res 31(10): 2686-2693, 2017-Recent research identifies that certain training load (TL) patterns increase the injury risk to athletes. However, physical fitness must also be considered to establish optimal TL patterns. The aim of this study was to identify TL patterns optimal for injury and aerobic fitness by exploring the TL-injury and TL-fitness relationship concurrently over an Australian rules football (ARF) preseason. Individual TL, aerobic fitness, and injury data were collected over a 14-week preseason in 60 subelite ARF players (age = 21.3 ± 2.9 years). Individual TL, assessed through session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE), was compared with noncontact, lower limb soft tissue injury to examine the TL-injury relationship. A 2-km time trial was used as the measure of aerobic fitness to examine the optimal TL for aerobic fitness improvement. Aerobic fitness improved by 4.10 ± 2.20% (range = -7.35-19.05%) over the preseason. Training load between 1,600 and 2,000 AU per week was associated with the greatest aerobic fitness improvement (effect size [ES] = 0.47-1.01). Players with preseason TL <1,250 AU per week had the highest injury rate (ES = 0.52-0.62). Large 2-week TL (>4,000 AU, odds ratio [OR] = 2.80) and spikes in weekly TL (15-49%, OR = 3.76) significantly increased injury risk the following week. Performing small amounts of training seems to be the most detrimental to changes in aerobic fitness and injury rate. High TL is not responsible for injuries and is required to maximize improvements in aerobic fitness. However, TL exceeding 2,000 AU over several weeks may attenuate aerobic fitness improvements and increase injury risk. In addition, large increments in weekly TL increase injury risk.

  8. Effect of motor control training on hip muscles in elite football players with and without low back pain.

    PubMed

    Mendis, M Dilani; Hides, Julie A

    2016-11-01

    Previous research has shown that motor control training improved size and function of trunk muscles in elite football players with and without low back pain (LBP). Imbalances in hip muscles have been found in athletes with LBP and it is not known if motor control training can change these muscles. This study investigated if a motor control intervention program affected hip muscle size in elite football players with and without LBP. Panel-randomised intervention design. Forty-six players from one club in the Australian Football League (AFL) participated in a motor control training program delivered across the season as a stepped-wedge intervention design with 3 treatment arms: 15 weeks intervention, 8 weeks intervention and a wait-list control who received 7 weeks intervention toward the end of the playing season. Presence of LBP was assessed by interview and physical examination. Cross-sectional areas of iliacus, psoas, iliopsoas, sartorius, gluteus minimus, and gluteus medius muscles were measured from magnetic resonance images taken at 3 time points during the season. Iliopsoas, sartorius and gluteus medius muscle size increased for players who received intervention (p<0.05). For players with current LBP, sartorius and gluteus medius muscle size increased for those who received motor control training (p<0.05). Motor control training programs aimed at the lumbo-pelvic region also benefit the hip muscles. For players with current LBP, the intervention mitigated sartorius muscle atrophy and increased gluteus medius muscle size. These findings may help guide the management of LBP in elite football players. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Age-related differences in repeated-sprint ability in highly trained youth football players.

    PubMed

    Mujika, Inigo; Spencer, Matt; Santisteban, Juanma; Goiriena, Juan Jose; Bishop, David

    2009-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the age-related differences in repeated-sprint ability and blood lactate responses in 134 youth football players. Players from the development programme of a professional club were grouped according to their respective under-age team (U-11 to U-18). Following familiarization, the participants performed a repeated-sprint ability test [6 x 30-m sprints 30 s apart, with active recovery (2.0-2.2 m . s(-1)) between sprints]. The test variables were total time, percent sprint decrement, and post-test peak lactate concentration. Total time improved from the U-11 to U-15 age groups (range 33.15 +/- 1.84 vs. 27.25 +/- 0.82 s), whereas no further significant improvements were evident from U-15 to U-18. No significant differences in percent sprint decrement were reported among groups (range 4.0 +/- 1.0% to 5.5 +/- 2.1%). Post-test peak lactate increased from one age group to the next (range 7.3 +/- 1.8 to 12.6 +/- 1.6 mmol . l(-1)), but remained constant when adjusted for age-related difference in body mass. Peak lactate concentration was moderately correlated with sprint time (r = 0.70, P > 0.001). Our results suggest that performance in repeated-sprint ability improves during maturation of highly trained youth football players, although a plateau occurs from 15 years of age. In contrast to expectations based on previous suggestions, percent sprint decrement during repeated sprints did not deteriorate with age.

  10. Heat Stress and Injury Prevention Practices During Summer High School Football Training in South Texas.

    PubMed

    Hearon, Christopher M; Ruiz, Alberto; Taylor, Zachary J

    The purpose was to describe practice conditions influencing the risk of heat stress to athletes in summer football training in South Texas high schools, and to compare these conditions to ACSM recommendations for heat stress/injury risk reduction in this population. Thirty (N=30) high school summer football practices were observed. Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) was measured before/after practices and practices were observed for: duration/structure; athlete clothing; and rest break frequency/duration/content. Practices averaged 125±31 min and WBGT (pre- to post-practice) was 29.7±2.1°C to 31.2±2.2°C for morning, and 31.2±1.6°C to 28.9±1.2°C for evening practices. Most practices included contact (93%), and a majority were full-contact (53%). Most athletes wore full pads (83%) and medium/dark colored clothing (73%). Outside of scheduled breaks athletes removed helmets (63%), sat/knelt (63%), and had access to fluid (90%). Athletic trainers were present at 93% of the practices. A typical practice had 3 rest breaks, each lasting approximately 5 min. During breaks, athletes were provided fluid (93%), removed helmets (89%), and sat/knelt (76%), but were rarely provided shade (2%). While none of the practice sessions were conducted in conditions warranting the cancellation of outside activity (WBGT>33.1°C), the environmental data confirms that this region presents athletes with a very high risk of heat stress/injury. While a majority of the schools were taking many of the precautionary measures recommended by ACSM, many of the guidelines were not being followed. Governing bodies of high school athletics need to encourage compliance with recommendations for the reduction of heat stress/injury in this population.

  11. Heat Stress and Injury Prevention Practices During Summer High School Football Training in South Texas

    PubMed Central

    HEARON, CHRISTOPHER M.; RUIZ, ALBERTO; TAYLOR, ZACHARY J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose was to describe practice conditions influencing the risk of heat stress to athletes in summer football training in South Texas high schools, and to compare these conditions to ACSM recommendations for heat stress/injury risk reduction in this population. Thirty (N=30) high school summer football practices were observed. Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) was measured before/after practices and practices were observed for: duration/structure; athlete clothing; and rest break frequency/duration/content. Practices averaged 125±31 min and WBGT (pre- to post-practice) was 29.7±2.1°C to 31.2±2.2°C for morning, and 31.2±1.6°C to 28.9±1.2°C for evening practices. Most practices included contact (93%), and a majority were full-contact (53%). Most athletes wore full pads (83%) and medium/dark colored clothing (73%). Outside of scheduled breaks athletes removed helmets (63%), sat/knelt (63%), and had access to fluid (90%). Athletic trainers were present at 93% of the practices. A typical practice had 3 rest breaks, each lasting approximately 5 min. During breaks, athletes were provided fluid (93%), removed helmets (89%), and sat/knelt (76%), but were rarely provided shade (2%). While none of the practice sessions were conducted in conditions warranting the cancellation of outside activity (WBGT>33.1°C), the environmental data confirms that this region presents athletes with a very high risk of heat stress/injury. While a majority of the schools were taking many of the precautionary measures recommended by ACSM, many of the guidelines were not being followed. Governing bodies of high school athletics need to encourage compliance with recommendations for the reduction of heat stress/injury in this population. PMID:27182327

  12. The effects of a closed-chain, eccentric training program on hamstring injuries of a professional football cheerleading team.

    PubMed

    Greenstein, Jay S; Bishop, Barton N; Edward, Jean S; Topp, Robert V

    2011-01-01

    Hamstring injuries are a common occurrence among professional football cheerleaders. The purpose of this study is to identify the effects of an eccentric, closed-chain hamstring exercise intervention on hamstring injury-associated pain during the course of the football season among professional football cheerleaders. Forty-three female cheerleaders participated in an eccentric, closed-chain hamstring exercise intervention protocol provided by doctors of chiropractic that incorporated loops of elastic-band or Thera-Band Loops (Hygenic Corporation, Akron, OH) during practice and at home during the regular football season. Hamstring injury-related pain was assessed in June, during team selection; in September, at the start of the season; and in December, at the end of season. No intervention was applied between June and September, although the sample participated in 4 hours of practice 2 to 3 times per week. The intervention was applied to the entire sample regardless of hamstring injury-related pain during the regular football season between September and December. The interventions included 2 exercises and were completed bilaterally 2 times per week at each biweekly practice and were encouraged to be done at least 3 additional times per week at home on nonpractice days. Among the subsample who reported hamstring-related injury pain between June and September, the exercise intervention significantly decreased (P < .007) pain between September (6.07 ± 0.58) and December (3.67 ± 0.65). The eccentric, closed-chain hamstring exercise intervention reduced hamstring injury-related pain among this group of professional football cheerleaders. Copyright © 2011 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Perceptions of wellness to monitor adaptive responses to training and competition in elite Australian football.

    PubMed

    Gastin, Paul B; Meyer, Denny; Robinson, Dean

    2013-09-01

    Perceptions of wellness are often used by athletes and coaches to assess adaptive responses to training. The purpose of this research was to describe how players were coping with the demands of elite level Australian football over a competitive season using subjective ratings of physical and psychological wellness and to assess the ecological validity of such a monitoring approach. Twenty-seven players completed ratings for 9 items (fatigue, general muscle, hamstring, quadriceps, pain/stiffness, power, sleep quality, stress, well-being). Players subjectively rated each item as they arrived at the training or competition venue on a 1-5 visual analog scale, with 1 representing the positive end of the continuum. A total of 2,583 questionnaires were analyzed from completions on 183 days throughout the season (92 ± 24 per player, 103 ± 20 per week; mean ± SD). Descriptive statistics and multilevel modelling were used to understand how player ratings of wellness varied over the season and during the week leading into game day and whether selected player characteristics moderated these relationships. Results indicated that subjective ratings of physical and psychological wellness were sensitive to weekly training manipulations (i.e., improve steadily throughout the week to a game day low, p < 0.001), to periods of unloading during the season (i.e., a week of no competition, p < 0.05) and to individual player characteristics (e.g., muscle strain after a game was poorer in players with high maximum speed, p < 0.01). It is concluded that self-reported player ratings of wellness provide a useful tool for coaches and practitioners to monitor player responses to the rigorous demands of training, competition, and life as a professional athlete.

  14. Sodium balance during U. S. football training in the heat: cramp-prone vs. reference players.

    PubMed

    Horswill, C A; Stofan, J R; Lacambra, M; Toriscelli, T A; Eichner, E R; Murray, R

    2009-11-01

    U. S. football players with a history of heat cramps were evaluated for the effect of physical training, sodium intake, and loss of sweat sodium on whole blood sodium concentration (BNa). Athletes (n=14 males, 24+/-1 y) were recruited and studied based on medical history, age, and position. The reference group (R, n=8 without a cramping history) and cramp-prone group (C, n=6, history of whole-body cramps associated with extensive sweat loss during exercise in the heat) were measured for body mass and BNa (ISTAT) before and after team training of 2.2 h in hot conditions (WBGT=29-32 degrees C). Intake and loss of fluid and sodium were also measured to determine respective acute balance. In R, BNa was stable pre- to post-training (138.9+/-1.8 to 139.0+/-2.0 mmol/L) while it tended to decline in C (137.8+/-2.3 to 135.7+/-4.9 mmol/L), and three subjects in C had BNa values below 135 mmol/L (131.7+/-2.9 mmol/L). C consumed a greater percentage of total fluid as water (p<0.05). Mean sweat sodium concentration was (52.6+/-29.2 mmol/L for C and 38.3+/-18.3 mmol/L for R (p>0.05). Compared to R, C tended to experience a decline in BNa and greater acute sodium imbalance. These changes may place cramp-prone players at greater risks for developing acute sodium deficits during training.

  15. Can motor control training lower the risk of injury for professional football players?

    PubMed

    Hides, Julie A; Stanton, Warren R

    2014-04-01

    Among injuries reported by the Australian Football League (AFL), lower limb injuries have shown the highest incidence and prevalence rates. Deficits in the muscles of the lumbopelvic region, such as a smaller size of multifidus (MF) muscle, have been related to the occurrence of lower limb injuries in the preseason in AFL players. Motor control training programs have been effective in restoring the size and control of the MF muscle, but the relationship between motor control training and occurrence of injuries has not been extensively examined. This pre- and postintervention trial was delivered during the playing season as a panel design with three groups. The motor control program involved voluntary contractions of the MF, transversus abdominis, and pelvic floor muscles while receiving feedback from ultrasound imaging and progressed into a functional rehabilitation program. Assessments of muscle size and function were performed using magnetic resonance imaging and included the measurement of cross-sectional areas of MF, psoas, and quadratus lumborum muscles and the change in trunk cross-sectional area due to voluntarily contracting the transversus abdominis muscle. Injury data were obtained from club records. Informed consent was obtained from all study participants. A smaller size of the MF muscle (odds ratio [OR] = 2.38) or quadratus lumborum muscle (OR = 2.17) was predictive of lower limb injury in the playing season. At the time point when one group of players had not received the intervention (n = 14), comparisons were made with the combined groups who had received the intervention (n = 32). The risk of sustaining a severe injury was lower for those players who received the motor control intervention (OR = 0.09). Although there are many factors associated with injuries in AFL, motor control training may provide a useful addition to strategies aimed at reducing lower limb injuries.

  16. Characteristics of muscle dysmorphia in male football, weight training, and competitive natural and non-natural bodybuilding samples.

    PubMed

    Baghurst, Timothy; Lirgg, Cathy

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify differences in traits associated with muscle dysmorphia between collegiate football players (n=66), weight trainers for physique (n=115), competitive non-natural bodybuilders (n=47), and competitive natural bodybuilders (n=65). All participants completed demographic questionnaires in addition to the Muscle Dysmorphia Inventory (Rhea, Lantz, & Cornelius, 2004). Results revealed a significant main effect for group, and post hoc tests found that the non-natural bodybuilding group did not score significantly higher than the natural bodybuilding group on any subscale except for Pharmacological Use. Both the non-natural and natural bodybuilding groups scored significantly higher than those that weight trained for physique on the Dietary Behavior and Supplement Use subscales. The collegiate football players scored lowest on all subscales of the Muscle Dysmorphia Inventory except for Physique Protection where they scored highest. Findings are discussed with future research expounded.

  17. Comparison of Olympic vs. traditional power lifting training programs in football players.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jay R; Cooper, Joshua; Wendell, Michael; Kang, Jie

    2004-02-01

    Twenty members of an National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III collegiate football team were assigned to either an Olympic lifting (OL) group or power lifting (PL) group. Each group was matched by position and trained 4-days.wk(-1) for 15 weeks. Testing consisted of field tests to evaluate strength (1RM squat and bench press), 40-yard sprint, agility, vertical jump height (VJ), and vertical jump power (VJP). No significant pre- to posttraining differences were observed in 1RM bench press, 40-yard sprint, agility, VJ or in VJP in either group. Significant improvements were seen in 1RM squat in both the OL and PL groups. After log10-transformation, OL were observed to have a significantly greater improvement in Delta VJ than PL. Despite an 18% greater improvement in 1RM squat (p > 0.05), and a twofold greater improvement (p > 0.05) in 40-yard sprint time by OL, no further significant group differences were seen. Results suggest that OL can provide a significant advantage over PL in vertical jump performance changes.

  18. Movement Demands and Perceived Wellness Associated With Preseason Training Camp in NCAA Division I College Football Players.

    PubMed

    Wellman, Aaron D; Coad, Sam C; Flynn, Patrick J; Climstein, Mike; McLellan, Christopher P

    2017-10-01

    Wellman, AD, Coad, SC, Flynn, PJ, Climstein, M, and McLellan, CP. Movement demands and perceived wellness associated with preseason training camp in NCAA Division I college football players. J Strength Cond Res 31(10): 2704-2718, 2017-The aims of this study were to examine the movement demands of preseason practice in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I college football players using portable global positioning system (GPS) technology and to assess perceived wellness associated with preseason practice to determine whether GPS-derived variables from the preceding day influence perceived wellness the following day. Twenty-nine players were monitored using GPS receivers (Catapult Innovations, Melbourne, Australia) during 20 preseason practices. Individual observations (n = 550) were divided into offensive and defensive position groups. Movement variables including low-, medium-, high-intensity, and sprint distance, player load, and acceleration and deceleration distance were assessed. Perceived wellness ratings (n = 469) were examined using a questionnaire which assessed fatigue, soreness, sleep quality, sleep quantity, stress, and mood. A 1-way analysis of variance for positional movement demands and multilevel regressions for wellness measures were used, followed by post hoc testing to evaluate the relational significance between categorical outcomes of perceived wellness scores and movement variables. Results demonstrated significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater total, high-intensity, and sprint distance, along with greater acceleration and deceleration distances for the defensive back and wide receiver position groups compared with their respective offensive and defensive counterparts. Significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences in movement variables were demonstrated for individuals who responded more or less favorably on each of the 6 factors of perceived wellness. Data from this study provide novel quantification of the position-specific physical demands and

  19. Combined strength and power training in high-level amateur football during the competitive season: a randomised-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Faude, Oliver; Roth, Ralf; Di Giovine, Dario; Zahner, Lukas; Donath, Lars

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to analyse the effects of combined strength and power training during the competitive season on physical fitness in high-level amateur football players. Sixteen male players (22.5 (SD 2.5) years, 1.79 (0.05) m, 76.8 (6.1) kg) from one team were randomly assigned to either a strength training (ST, N = 8) or a control (CON, N = 8) group. ST conducted lower extremity resistance exercises combined with plyometrics and/or sprints 2 × 30 min per week for 7 weeks. CON performed technical-tactical training during the same time period. Before and after training several physical fitness parameters were assessed: one-repetition maximum (1-RM, half squat), isometric peak strength and rate of force development (RFD, leg press), jump height (countermovement, CMJ, drop jump, DJ), sprint times, agility, and intermittent endurance. Large significant test × group interactions were found for 1-RM, CMJ, and DJ reactivity index with increases in CT relative to CON(+11 to 18%). Although not significant (P < 0.20), likely practically relevant effects were observed for isometric peak strength and RFD (+24 to 29%). We found no relevant interaction effects for agility, sprint times, and intermittent endurance. A 7-week in-season combined strength and power training program can improve relevant strength and jump parameters in high-level amateur football players.

  20. High chronic training loads and exposure to bouts of maximal velocity running reduce injury risk in elite Gaelic football.

    PubMed

    Malone, Shane; Roe, Mark; Doran, Dominic A; Gabbett, Tim J; Collins, Kieran

    2017-03-01

    To examine the relationship between chronic training loads, number of exposures to maximal velocity, the distance covered at maximal velocity, percentage of maximal velocity in training and match-play and subsequent injury risk in elite Gaelic footballers. Prospective cohort design. Thirty-seven elite Gaelic footballers from one elite squad were involved in a one-season study. Training and game loads (session-RPE multiplied by duration in min) were recorded in conjunction with external match and training loads (using global positioning system technology) to measure the distance covered at maximal velocity, relative maximal velocity and the number of player exposures to maximal velocity across weekly periods during the season. Lower limb injuries were also recorded. Training load and GPS data were modelled against injury data using logistic regression. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated based on chronic training load status, relative maximal velocity and number of exposures to maximal velocity with these reported against the lowest reference group for these variables. Players who produced over 95% maximal velocity on at least one occasion within training environments had lower risk of injury compared to the reference group of 85% maximal velocity on at least one occasion (OR: 0.12, p=0.001). Higher chronic training loads (≥4750AU) allowed players to tolerate increased distances (between 90 to 120m) and exposures to maximal velocity (between 10 to 15 exposures), with these exposures having a protective effect compared to lower exposures (OR: 0.22 p=0.026) and distance (OR=0.23, p=0.055). Players who had higher chronic training loads (≥4750AU) tolerated increased distances and exposures to maximal velocity when compared to players exposed to low chronic training loads (≤4750AU). Under- and over-exposure of players to maximal velocity events (represented by a U-shaped curve) increased the risk of injury. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by

  1. Absolute and Relative Training Load and Its Relation to Fatigue in Football

    PubMed Central

    Zurutuza, Unai; Castellano, Julen; Echeazarra, Ibon; Casamichana, David

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the relationship of external and internal training load (TL) indicators with the objective and subjective fatigue experienced by 15 semi-professional football players, over eight complete weeks of the competition period in the 2015–2016 season, which covered microcycles from 34th to 41st. The maximum heart rate (HRmax) and maximum speed (Vmax) of all the players were previously measured in specific tests. The TL was monitored via questionnaires on rating of perceived exertion (RPE), pulsometers and GPS devices, registering the variables: total distance (TD), player load 2D (PL2D), TD at >80% of the Vmax (TD80), TD in deceleration at < -2 m⋅sec-2 (TDD <-2), TD in acceleration >2 m⋅sec-2 (TDA >2), Edwards (ED), time spent at between 50 and 80% (50–80% HRmax), 80–90% (80–90% HRmax), and >90% of the HRmax (>90% HRmax), and RPE both respiratory/thoracic (RPEres) and leg/muscular (RPEmus). All the variables were analyzed taking into account both the absolute values accumulated over the week and the normalized values in relation to individual mean competition values. Neuromuscular fatigue was measured objectively using the countermovement jump test and subjectively via the Total Quality Recovery (TQR) scale questionnaire. Analytical correlation techniques were later applied within the general linear model. There is a correlation between the fatigue experienced by the player, assessed objectively and subjectively, and the load accumulated over the week, this being assessed in absolute and relative terms. Specifically, the load relative to competition correlated with the physical variables TD (-0.279), PL2D (-0.272), TDD < -2 (-0.294), TDA >2 (-0.309), and sRPEmus (-0.287). The variables related to heart rate produced a higher correlation with TQR. There is a correlation between objectively and subjectively assessed fatigue and the accumulated TL of a player over the week, with a higher sensitivity being shown when compared to

  2. High intensity interval training vs. high-volume running training during pre-season conditioning in high-level youth football: a cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Faude, Oliver; Schnittker, Reinhard; Schulte-Zurhausen, Roman; Müller, Florian; Meyer, Tim

    2013-01-01

    We aimed at comparing the endurance effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with high-volume running training (HVT) during pre-season conditioning in 20 high-level youth football players (15.9 (s 0.8) years). Players either conducted HVT or HIIT during the summer preparation period. During winter preparation they performed the other training programme. Before and after each training period several fitness tests were conducted: multi-stage running test (to assess the individual anaerobic threshold (IAT) and maximal running velocity (Vmax)), vertical jumping height, and straight sprinting. A significant increase from pre- to post-test was observed in IAT velocity (P < 0.001) with a greater increase after HVT (+0.8 km · h(-1) vs. +0.5 km · h(-1) after HIIT, P = 0.04). Maximal velocity during the incremental exercise test also slightly increased with time (P = 0.09). Forty per cent (HIIT) and 15% (HVT) of all players did not improve IAT beyond baseline variability. The players who did not respond to HIIT were significantly slower during 30 m sprinting than responders (P = 0.02). No further significant differences between responders and non-responders were observed. Jump heights deteriorated significantly after both training periods (P < 0.003). Both training programmes seem to be promising means to improve endurance capacity in high-level youth football players during pre-season conditioning.

  3. Influence of physical fitness, age, experience, and weekly training load on match performance in elite Australian football.

    PubMed

    Gastin, Paul B; Fahrner, Brendan; Meyer, Denny; Robinson, Dean; Cook, Jill L

    2013-05-01

    Season long competition schedules in football create unique challenges for coaches in balancing the requirements of recovery, developing and maintaining physical fitness, and adjusting the training load before each match. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of player characteristics (physical fitness, age, and playing experience) and weekly in-season training load on elite match performance across an Australian football season. Twenty-five players (age: 24.1 ± 3.0 years; height: 188.3 ± 7.3 cm; weight: 90.4 ± 8.3 kg) from one elite team participated in this study. Before the season, player's age, experience, height, and weight along with measures of aerobic (6-minute run) and anaerobic (6 × 40 m repeated sprints) physical fitness were recorded. Individual player training load during the season was measured using global positioning system technology for the main training session of the week. Player match performance was calculated weekly from 33 individual playing statistics. Multilevel modeling was used to investigate the relationship between weekly training load and match performance and to explore the influence of player characteristics on this relationship. Playing experience (p < 0.01) and aerobic fitness (p < 0.05) displayed positive relationships with performance, whereas player age (p < 0.01) showed a negative relationship. Most players coped well with weekly variations in training load; however, the relationship was moderated by the results of the preseason repeated sprint test (p < 0.05). The adverse effect on playing performance in selected players after a more intense training session suggests that recovery from the session may be delayed in players who exhibit a better anaerobic fitness profile.

  4. Water and salt balance in young male football players in training during the holy month of Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Shirreffs, Susan M; Maughan, Ronald J

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess water and salt balance in young football players in training during Ramadan. Measurements were made in 92 young male football players before and during the month of Ramadan. Fifty-five participants were observing Ramadan fasting, while the other 37 participants were eating and drinking without restriction. In week 3 of Ramadan, water and salt balance measures were made during a training session of 60-70 min duration that was performed at an ambient temperature of 25-28 degrees C and relative humidity of 50-53%. Body mass was recorded before and after training. Fluid intake was assessed in non-fasting players by weighing drink bottles before and after training, and the volume of any urine output was recorded. Sweat composition was estimated from absorbent patches applied to four skin sites for the duration of training. Mean sweat loss of players amounted to 1.41 litres (s = 0.36) in fasting players and 1.61 litres (s = 0.51) in non-fasting players (P = 0.038). Mean fluid intake during training in non-fasting players was 1.92 litres (s = 0.66). Sweat sodium concentration was 20 mmol . l(-1) (s = 8) in fasting players and 17 mmol . l(-1) (s = 7) in non-fasting players, and total sweat sodium loss during training was 0.67 g (s = 0.41) and 0.65 g (s = 0.37) [corresponding to a salt loss of 1.7 g (s = 1.1) and 1.7 g (s = 0.9)] respectively, with no difference between fasting and non-fasting players. Sweat sodium loss was not related to estimated dietary sodium intake (r = -0.07). These descriptive data show large individual variations in all measured parameters with relatively little difference in sweat parameters between fasting and non-fasting individuals.

  5. The impact of the FIFA 11+ training program on injury prevention in football players: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Barengo, Noël C; Meneses-Echávez, José Francisco; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Cohen, Daniel Dylan; Tovar, Gustavo; Bautista, Jorge Enrique Correa

    2014-11-19

    The FIFA 11+ is a simple, and easy to implement, sports injury prevention program comprising a warm up of 10 conditioning exercises. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the impact of the FIFA 11+ on injury incidence, compliance and cost effectiveness when implemented among football players. MEDLINE, EMBASE and Scopus databases were searched using the search terms "FIFA 11+", "football", "soccer", "injury prevention", and "The 11". The titles and abstracts were screened by two independent reviewers and the data were filtered by one reviewer using a standardized extraction form and thereafter checked by another one. The risk of bias and the methodological quality of the studies were evaluated through the PEDro score and Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP). A total of 911 studies were identified, of which 12 met the inclusion criteria of the review. The FIFA 11+ has demonstrated how a simple exercise program completed as part of warm-up can decrease the incidence of injuries in amateur football players. In general, considerable reductions in the number of injured players, ranging between 30% and 70%, have been observed among the teams that implemented the FIFA 11+. In addition, players with high compliance to the FIFA 11+ program had an estimated risk reduction of all injuries by 35% and show significant improvements in components of neuromuscular and motor performance when participating in structured warm-up sessions at least 1.5 times/week. Most studies had high methodological quality and a low risk of bias. Given the large number of people who play football at amateur level and the detrimental impact of sports injuries on a personal and societal level, the FIFA 11+ can be considered as a fundamental tool to minimize the risks of participation in a sport with substantial health benefits.

  6. Quantification of training load in Canadian football: application of session-RPE in collision-based team sports.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Nick; Farthing, Jonathan P; Norris, Stephen R; Arnold, Bart E; Lanovaz, Joel L

    2013-08-01

    The session-rating of perceived exertion (Session-RPE) method for quantifying internal training load (TL) has proven to be a highly valuable and accurate monitoring tool in numerous team sports. However, the influence of frequent impact during Canadian football on the validity of this subjective rating tool remains unclear. The aim of this study was to validate Session-RPE application to a prolonged, intermittent, high-intensity collision-based team sport through correlation of internal TL data collected using 2 criterion heart rate-based measures known as Polar Training-Impulse (TRIMP) and Edwards' TL. Twenty male participants (age = 22.0 ± 1.4 years) from the competitive roster of the University of Saskatchewan Canadian football team were recruited. Session-RPE, Polar TRIMP, and Edwards' TL data were collected daily over the 2011 Canadian Interuniversity Sport pre-competitive and competitive season (11 weeks; 713 total practice sessions). On average, each player contributed 36 sessions of data to the analysis. Statistically significant correlations (p < 0.01) between Session-RPE with Polar TRIMP (r = 0.65-0.91) and with Edwards' TL (r = 0.69-0.91) were found for all individual players. This study provides confirmation that Session-RPE is an inexpensive and simple tool, which is highly practical and accurately measures an individual's response (internal TL) to the Canadian football practice. Furthermore, when considering the number of individuals involved worldwide in collision-based team sports, this tool has the potential to impact a large proportion of the global sporting community.

  7. [Decreasing systolic blood pressure with isometric muscle training: a CAT].

    PubMed

    Espinoza Salinas, Alexis; Sánchez, Pablo Aguilera; Zafra Santos, Edson; Cofre Bolados, Cristian; Prado Núñez, Hugo; Pavez Von Martens, Gustavo

    2014-09-11

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases such as coronary heart disease or heart failure. One of the interventions for the management of this disorder is isometric muscle training on upper and lower limbs. To prove the validity and applicability of results regarding the effectiveness of isometric training in hypertensive subjects. We also attempt to answer the following question: what is the effectiveness of isometric muscle training on the decrease of systolic blood pressure in hypertensive patients? Critical appraisal of the systematic review and meta-analysis "Isometric exercise training for blood pressure management". Isometric training reduces systolic blood pressure in normotensive and medicated hypertensive subjects, with a standardized mean difference of 6.77 mm Hg (95% confidence interval: 7.93-5.62). It is reasonable to recommend isometric muscle training with the aim of lowering systolic blood pressure, considering the impact of the results of the articles analyzed and the applicability of this type of training.

  8. High-intensity intermittent training in hypoxia: a double-blinded, placebo-controlled field study in youth football players.

    PubMed

    Brocherie, Franck; Girard, Olivier; Faiss, Raphael; Millet, Grégoire P

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of 5 weeks (∼60 minutes per training, 2 d·wk) of run-based high-intensity repeated-sprint ability (RSA) and explosive strength/agility/sprint training in either normobaric hypoxia repeated sprints in hypoxia (RSH; inspired oxygen fraction [FIO2] = 14.3%) or repeated sprints in normoxia (RSN; FIO2 = 21.0%) on physical performance in 16 highly trained, under-18 male footballers. For both RSH (n = 8) and RSN (n = 8) groups, lower-limb explosive power, sprinting (10-40 m) times, maximal aerobic speed, repeated-sprint (10 × 30 m, 30-s rest) and repeated-agility (RA) (6 × 20 m, 30-s rest) abilities were evaluated in normoxia before and after supervised training. Lower-limb explosive power (+6.5 ± 1.9% vs. +5.0 ± 7.6% for RSH and RSN, respectively; both p < 0.001) and performance during maximal sprinting increased (from -6.6 ± 2.2% vs. -4.3 ± 2.6% at 10 m to -1.7 ± 1.7% vs. -1.3 ± 2.3% at 40 m for RSH and RSN, respectively; p values ranging from <0.05 to <0.01) to a similar extent in RSH and RSN. Both groups improved best (-3.0 ± 1.7% vs. -2.3 ± 1.8%; both p ≤ 0.05) and mean (-3.2 ± 1.7%, p < 0.01 vs. -1.9 ± 2.6%, p ≤ 0.05 for RSH and RSN, respectively) repeated-sprint times, whereas sprint decrement did not change. Significant interactions effects (p ≤ 0.05) between condition and time were found for RA ability-related parameters with very likely greater gains (p ≤ 0.05) for RSH than RSN (initial sprint: 4.4 ± 1.9% vs. 2.0 ± 1.7% and cumulated times: 4.3 ± 0.6% vs. 2.4 ± 1.7%). Maximal aerobic speed remained unchanged throughout the protocol. In youth highly trained football players, the addition of 10 repeated-sprint training sessions performed in hypoxia vs. normoxia to their regular football practice over a 5-week in-season period was more efficient at enhancing RA ability (including direction changes), whereas it had no additional effect on improvements in lower-limb explosive power, maximal sprinting, and RSA

  9. Football to tackle overweight in children.

    PubMed

    Faude, O; Kerper, O; Multhaupt, M; Winter, C; Beziel, K; Junge, A; Meyer, T

    2010-04-01

    The present study aimed at analyzing the efficacy of a 6-month football training program compared with a standard exercise program on health and fitness parameters in overweight children. The study design was a 6-month, two-arm, parallel-group randomized trial. Twenty-two overweight children were randomly assigned to two groups (age=10.8+/-1.2 years, height=1.56+/-0.08 m, weight= 65.1+/-11.4 kg). One group conducted a football training program, and the other group an established standard sports program. Both interventions took place three times per week from mid-May to mid-November. Before, after 3 months and after the training period, comprehensive testing was conducted: anthropometric characteristics, cycling ergometry, psychometric monitoring as well as several motor ability tests. Maximal performance capacity increased and submaximal heart rate during cycling ergometry decreased significantly. Several motor skills as well as self-esteem also improved considerably. Body composition and other psychometric variables remained nearly unchanged. No relevant differences were observed between both exercise programs. It can be concluded that a 6-month football training is as efficacious in improving the physical capacity, health-related fitness parameters and self-esteem of overweight children as a standard exercise program. These results provide further evidence that playing football has significant health effects.

  10. Training loads and injury risk in Australian football-differing acute: chronic workload ratios influence match injury risk.

    PubMed

    Carey, David L; Blanch, Peter; Ong, Kok-Leong; Crossley, Kay M; Crow, Justin; Morris, Meg E

    2017-08-01

    (1) To investigate whether a daily acute:chronic workload ratio informs injury risk in Australian football players; (2) to identify which combination of workload variable, acute and chronic time window best explains injury likelihood. Workload and injury data were collected from 53 athletes over 2 seasons in a professional Australian football club. Acute:chronic workload ratios were calculated daily for each athlete, and modelled against non-contact injury likelihood using a quadratic relationship. 6 workload variables, 8 acute time windows (2-9 days) and 7 chronic time windows (14-35 days) were considered (336 combinations). Each parameter combination was compared for injury likelihood fit (using R(2)). The ratio of moderate speed running workload (18-24 km/h) in the previous 3 days (acute time window) compared with the previous 21 days (chronic time window) best explained the injury likelihood in matches (R(2)=0.79) and in the immediate 2 or 5 days following matches (R(2)=0.76-0.82). The 3:21 acute:chronic workload ratio discriminated between high-risk and low-risk athletes (relative risk=1.98-2.43). Using the previous 6 days to calculate the acute workload time window yielded similar results. The choice of acute time window significantly influenced model performance and appeared to reflect the competition and training schedule. Daily workload ratios can inform injury risk in Australian football. Clinicians and conditioning coaches should consider the sport-specific schedule of competition and training when choosing acute and chronic time windows. For Australian football, the ratio of moderate speed running in a 3-day or 6-day acute time window and a 21-day chronic time window best explained injury risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Using awareness training to decrease nervous habits during public speaking.

    PubMed

    Spieler, Claire; Miltenberger, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of awareness training for the reduction of three nervous habits that manifest during public speaking: filled pauses, tongue clicks, and inappropriate use of the word "like." Four university students delivered short speeches during baseline and assessment sessions. Awareness training resulted in meaningful reductions in target behaviors for all participants. Booster awareness training sessions were necessary for all participants to achieve further reductions in target behaviors. Generality probes conducted in front of a small audience indicated that treatment effects generally maintained. Social validity scores indicated that the treatment was acceptable, and participants indicated not only decreased use of verbal fillers, but also improved overall public speaking ability posttreatment.

  12. Effects of long-term football training on the expression profile of genes involved in muscle oxidative metabolism.

    PubMed

    Alfieri, A; Martone, D; Randers, M B; Labruna, G; Mancini, A; Nielsen, J J; Bangsbo, J; Krustrup, P; Buono, P

    2015-02-01

    We investigated whether long-term recreational football training affects the expression of health-related biochemical and molecular markers in healthy untrained subjects. Five untrained healthy men trained for 1 h 2.4 times/week for 12 weeks and 1.3 times/week for another 52 weeks. Blood samples and a muscle biopsy from the vastus lateralis were collected at T0 (pre intervention) and at T1 (post intervention). Gene expression was measured by RTqPCR on RNA extracted from muscle biopsies. The expression levels of the genes principally involved in energy metabolism (PPARγ, adiponectin, AMPKα1/α2, TFAM, NAMPT, PGC1α and SIRT1) were measured at T0 and T1. Up-regulation of PPARγ (p < 0.0005), AMPKα1 (p < 0.01), AMPKα2 (p < 0.0005) and adiponectin was observed at T1 vs T0. Increases were also found in the expression of TFAM (p < 0.001), NAMPT (p < 0.01), PGC1α (p < 0.01) and SIRT1 (p < 0.01), which are directly or indirectly involved in the glucose and lipid oxidative metabolism. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that fat percentage was independently associated with NAMPT, PPARγ and adiponectin expression. In conclusion, long-term recreational football training could be a useful tool to improve the expression of muscle molecular biomarkers that are correlated to oxidative metabolism in healthy males. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Adding heat to the live-high train-low altitude model: a practical insight from professional football

    PubMed Central

    Buchheit, M; Racinais, S; Bilsborough, J; Hocking, J; Mendez-Villanueva, A; Bourdon, P C; Voss, S; Livingston, S; Christian, R; Périard, J; Cordy, J; Coutts, A J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine with a parallel group study design the performance and physiological responses to a 14-day off-season ‘live high-train low in the heat’ training camp in elite football players. Methods Seventeen professional Australian Rules Football players participated in outdoor football-specific skills (32±1°C, 11.5 h) and indoor strength (23±1°C, 9.3 h) sessions and slept (12 nights) and cycled indoors (4.3 h) in either normal air (NORM, n=8) or normobaric hypoxia (14±1 h/day, FiO2 15.2–14.3%, corresponding to a simulated altitude of 2500–3000 m, hypoxic (HYP), n=9). They completed the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 2 (Yo-YoIR2) in temperate conditions (23±1°C, normal air) precamp (Pre) and postcamp (Post). Plasma volume (PV) and haemoglobin mass (Hbmass) were measured at similar times and 4 weeks postcamp (4WPost). Sweat sodium concentration ((Na+)sweat) was measured Pre and Post during a heat-response test (44°C). Results Both groups showed very large improvements in Yo-YoIR2 at Post (+44%; 90% CL 38, 50), with no between-group differences in the changes (−1%; −9, 9). Postcamp, large changes in PV (+5.6%; −1.8, 5.6) and (Na+)sweat (−29%; −37, −19) were observed in both groups, while Hbmass only moderately increased in HYP (+2.6%; 0.5, 4.5). At 4WPost, there was a likely slightly greater increase in Hbmass (+4.6%; 0.0, 9.3) and PV (+6%; −5, 18, unclear) in HYP than in NORM. Conclusions The combination of heat and hypoxic exposure during sleep/training might offer a promising ‘conditioning cocktail’ in team sports. PMID:24282209

  14. The Impact of the FIFA 11+ Training Program on Injury Prevention in Football Players: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Barengo, Noël C.; Meneses-Echávez, José Francisco; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Cohen, Daniel Dylan; Tovar, Gustavo; Correa Bautista, Jorge Enrique

    2014-01-01

    The FIFA 11+ is a simple, and easy to implement, sports injury prevention program comprising a warm up of 10 conditioning exercises. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the impact of the FIFA 11+ on injury incidence, compliance and cost effectiveness when implemented among football players. MEDLINE, EMBASE and Scopus databases were searched using the search terms “FIFA 11+”, “football”, “soccer”, “injury prevention”, and “The 11”. The titles and abstracts were screened by two independent reviewers and the data were filtered by one reviewer using a standardized extraction form and thereafter checked by another one. The risk of bias and the methodological quality of the studies were evaluated through the PEDro score and Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP). A total of 911 studies were identified, of which 12 met the inclusion criteria of the review. The FIFA 11+ has demonstrated how a simple exercise program completed as part of warm-up can decrease the incidence of injuries in amateur football players. In general, considerable reductions in the number of injured players, ranging between 30% and 70%, have been observed among the teams that implemented the FIFA 11+. In addition, players with high compliance to the FIFA 11+ program had an estimated risk reduction of all injuries by 35% and show significant improvements in components of neuromuscular and motor performance when participating in structured warm-up sessions at least 1.5 times/week. Most studies had high methodological quality and a low risk of bias. Given the large number of people who play football at amateur level and the detrimental impact of sports injuries on a personal and societal level, the FIFA 11+ can be considered as a fundamental tool to minimize the risks of participation in a sport with substantial health benefits. PMID:25415209

  15. Sideline coverage of youth football.

    PubMed

    Rizzone, Katie; Diamond, Alex; Gregory, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Youth football is a popular sport in the United States and has been for some time. There are currently more than 3 million participants in youth football leagues according to USA Football. While the number of participants and overall injuries may be higher in other sports, football has a higher rate of injuries. Most youth sporting events do not have medical personnel on the sidelines in event of an injury or emergency. Therefore it is necessary for youth sports coaches to undergo basic medical training in order to effectively act in these situations. In addition, an argument could be made that appropriate medical personnel should be on the sideline for collision sports at all levels, from youth to professional. This article will discuss issues pertinent to sideline coverage of youth football, including coaching education, sideline personnel, emergency action plans, age and size divisions, tackle versus flag football, and injury prevention.

  16. Decreasing the length of residency training: a public policy perspective.

    PubMed

    Whitcomb, Michael E

    2013-12-01

    It is widely recognized that the United States is going to experience a serious shortage of physicians in the coming years unless the number of physicians completing residency training and entering practice is greatly increased. Members of the academic medicine community have approached this issue by calling on Congress to eliminate the cap that currently limits the number of residency positions that Medicare will support. Simply eliminating the cap, however, will not ensure an adequate supply of physicians. In this commentary the author argues that decreasing the length of training required in core clinical specialties will be required to effectively address the workforce shortage by allowing more residents to be trained in core specialties without greatly increasing the number of training programs and the aggregate amount that Medicare currently spends on graduate medical education.

  17. Short-term differential training decreases postural sway.

    PubMed

    James, Eric G

    2014-01-01

    Differential training has been shown to enhance motor learning in sports skills. In the present study differential training was applied to the minimization of postural sway. A differential training group performed 15 one minute practice trials, each with different postural movement instructions. A repetitive practice group performed 15 trials standing as still as possible for one minute. Pre- and post-tests were performed standing as still as possible in 1 and 2-leg stance. Accelerometry data were collected approximately at the level of the center of mass (COM) and at the head. The root mean square jerk (RMSJ) of movement at the COM and head was estimated for the anteroposterior and mediolateral axes of motion. A significant Group × Test interaction revealed that the differential training led to lower anteroposterior RMSJ on the post-test than on the Pre-test in both the 1 and 2-leg stance tasks. A significant Group × Effector × Test interaction revealed that the decrease in anteroposterior RMSJ with differential training occurred in the RMSJ of the head but not the COM. The repetitive practice did not lead to a significant change in anteroposterior RMSJ at either the COM or the head. Neither form of training led to a significant change in mediolateral RMSJ. The results indicated that differential training can enhance motor learning not only in complex sports skills but in relatively simple motor tasks such as maintaining quiet stance.

  18. Rationale for training programs to reduce anterior cruciate ligament injuries in Australian football.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, D G

    2001-11-01

    This commentary presents the rationale for training programs to reduce the incidence of knee injuries. Our studies have revealed that the external knee loading patterns during sidestep cutting are what put the anterior cruciate ligament at greatest risk for injury. Compared to running, sidestep cutting involves similar levels of knee flexion loading but increased loading in varus-valgus and internal rotation of the knee, and these external loads need to be stabilized or supported by the internal structures of the knee. People use a generalized hamstrings and quadriceps co-contraction to stabilize these external loads, thereby reducing ligament loading. It is proposed that perturbation of the joint receptors reinforces the use of selective hamstrings and quadriceps co-contraction patterns superimposed on a generalized co-contraction pattern. This is not by immediate ligamento-muscular protective reflex, which is too slow to provide any adequate support, but by enhanced proprioceptive information that may be used in learning. In contrast, the immediate effect of muscle stretch reflexes would be to reduce co-contraction, a possibly negative outcome for joint stabilization. The effects of different types of training on the control of joint stability are examined. It is proposed that resistance training may not be appropriate because it enhances muscle stretch reflexes, which may reduce co-contraction, and produces no reductions in voluntary activation times and time to peak torque. However, stability and balance training is thought to suppress muscle stretch reflexes and, in turn, enhance co-contraction. Also, stability and balance training that stimulates the knee joint ligament and capsular receptors may reinforce co-contraction patterns to facilitate greater improvements in joint stabilization. Stability and balance training and plyometric training produce reductions in voluntary activation times and times to peak torque, which may decrease muscle response times so

  19. Small Multifidus Muscle Size Predicts Football Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Hides, Julie A.; Stanton, Warren R.; Mendis, M. Dilani; Franettovich Smith, Melinda M.; Sexton, Margot J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In Australian football, lower limb injuries have had the highest incidence and prevalence rates. Previous studies have shown that football players with relatively more severe preseason and playing season hip, groin, and thigh injuries had a significantly smaller multifidus muscle compared with players with no lower limb injuries. Rehabilitation of the multifidus muscle, with restoration of its size and function, has been associated with decreased recurrence rates of episodic low back pain and decreased numbers of lower limb injuries in football players. Assessment of multifidus muscle size and function could potentially be incorporated into a model that could be used to predict injuries in football players. Purpose: To examine the robustness of multifidus muscle measurements as a predictor of lower limb injuries incurred by professional football players. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Ultrasound examinations were carried out on 259 male elite football players at the start of the preseason and 261 players at the start of the playing season. Injury data were obtained from records collected by the Australian Football League (AFL) club staff during the preseason and the playing season. Results: Decreased size of the multifidus muscle at L5 consistently predicted injury in the preseason and playing season. Asymmetry of the multifidus muscle and low back pain were significantly related to lower limb injuries in the preseason, and having no preferred kicking leg was related to season injuries. Seasonal change in the size of the multifidus muscle indicating a decrease in muscle mass was linked to injury. Sensitivity and specificity of the model were 60.6% and 84.9% for the preseason and 91.8% and 45.8% for the playing season, respectively. Conclusion: A model was developed for prediction of lower limb injuries in football players with potential utility for club medical staff. Of particular note is the finding that changes in muscle

  20. Elite synchronized swimmers display decreased energy availability during intensified training.

    PubMed

    Schaal, K; Tiollier, E; Le Meur, Y; Casazza, G; Hausswirth, C

    2017-09-01

    Elite synchronized swimmers follow high-volume training regimen that result in elevated rates of exercise energy expenditure (ExEE). While adequate energy intake (EI) is important to optimize recovery, a number of sport-specific constraints may lead to chronically low energy availability (EA = EI-ExEE). This study aimed to quantify changes in EA, endocrine markers of energy conservation, and perceived fatigue in synchronized swimmers, during a week of baseline training followed by 4 weeks of intensified training (IT). EI, ExEE, and body composition were measured in nine swimmers at Baseline, midpoint (ITWK2 ), and end of IT (ITWK4 ). Waking saliva samples were obtained to measure [leptin]s , [ghrelin]s , and [cortisol]s . Fatigue ratings were provided daily. ExEE increased by 27% during IT. Swimmers increased EI from Baseline to ITWK2 , but decreased it significantly from ITWK2 to ITWK4 . EA, fat mass, and [leptin]s decreased from Baseline to ITWK4 , while [ghrelin]s increased significantly. Fatigue at ITWK4 was inversely correlated with Baseline EI and EA. The significant decrease in EA was accompanied by endocrine signs of energy conservation in elite swimmers. As perceived fatigue was associated with low EA, particular attention should be paid to these athletes' energy intake during phases of heavy training. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Activity profile and physiological response to football training for untrained males and females, elderly and youngsters: influence of the number of players.

    PubMed

    Randers, M B; Nybo, L; Petersen, J; Nielsen, J J; Christiansen, L; Bendiksen, M; Brito, J; Bangsbo, J; Krustrup, P

    2010-04-01

    The present study examined the activity profile, heart rate and metabolic response of small-sided football games for untrained males (UM, n=26) and females (UF, n=21) and investigated the influence of the number of players (UM: 1v1, 3v3, 7v7; UF: 2v2, 4v4 and 7v7). Moreover, heart rate response to small-sided games was studied for children aged 9 and 12 years (C9+C12, n=75), as well as homeless (HM, n=15), middle-aged (MM, n=9) and elderly (EM, n=11) men. During 7v7, muscle glycogen decreased more for UM than UF (28 +/- 6 vs 11 +/- 5%; P<0.05) and lactate increased more (18.4 +/- 3.6 vs 10.8 +/- 2.1 mmol kg(-1) d.w.; P<0.05). For UM, glycogen decreased in all fiber types and blood lactate, glucose and plasma FFA was elevated (P<0.05). The mean heart rate (HR(mean)) and time >90% of HR(max) ranged from 147 +/- 4 (EM) to 162 +/- 2 (UM) b.p.m. and 10.8 +/- 1.5 (UF) to 47.8 +/- 5.8% (EM). Time >90% of HR(max) (UM: 16-17%; UF: 8-13%) and time spent with high speed running (4.1-5.1%) was similar for training with 2-14 players, but more high-intensity runs were performed with few players (UM 1v1: 140 +/- 17; UM 7v7: 97 +/- 5; P<0.05): Small-sided games were shown to elucidate high heart rates for all player groups, independently of age, sex, social background and number of players, and a high number of intense actions both for men and women. Thus, small-sided football games appear to have the potential to create physiological adaptations and improve performance with regular training for a variety of study groups.

  2. Effects of 10-week eccentric overload training on kinetic parameters during change of direction in football players.

    PubMed

    de Hoyo, Moisés; Sañudo, Borja; Carrasco, Luis; Mateo-Cortes, Jesús; Domínguez-Cobo, Sergio; Fernandes, Orlando; Del Ojo, Juan J; Gonzalo-Skok, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to analyse the effect of 10-week eccentric overload training on kinetic parameters during change of direction (COD) in U-19 football players. The outcome measured included relative peak braking (rPB) and propulsive force (rPF), contact time (CT), time spent during braking (BT) and propulsive phase (PT), relative total (rTOT_IMP), braking (rB_IMP) and propulsive (rP_IMP) impulses. Between-group results showed a substantial better improvement (likely) in CT (ES: 0.72) and BT (ES: 0.74) during side-step cutting, and in rPB (ES: 0.84) and rB_IMP (ES: 0.72) during crossover cutting, in the experimental group (EXP) in comparison to control group (CON). Within-group analysis showed a substantially better performance (likely to almost certain) in CT (ES: 1.19), BT (ES: 1.24), PT (ES: 0.70), rPB (ES: 0.75), rPF (ES: 0.68), rTOT_IMP (ES: 0.48) and rB_IMP (ES: 0.50) in EXP during side-step cutting. Regarding crossover cutting, within-group analysis showed a substantial better performance (likely to almost certain) in CT (ES: 0.75), rPB (ES: 0.75), rPF (ES: 1.34), rTOT_IMP (ES: 0.61), rB_IMP (ES: 0.76) and rP_IMP (ES: 0.46) in EXP. In conclusion, the eccentric overload-based programme led to an improvement in kinetic parameters during COD football tasks.

  3. Suitability of FIFA’s “The 11” Training Programme for Young Football Players – Impact on Physical Performance

    PubMed Central

    Kilding, Andrew E; Tunstall, Helen; Kuzmic, Dejan

    2008-01-01

    There is a paucity of evidence regarding the use of injury prevention programmes for preadolescents participating in sport. “The 11 ”injury prevention programme was developed by FIFA’s medical research centre (F-MARC) to help reduce the risk of injury in football players aged 14 years and over. The aim of this study was to determine the suitability and effectiveness of “The 11 ”for younger football players. Twenty-four [12 experimental (EXP), 12 control (CON)] young football players (age 10.4 ± 1.4 yr) participated. The EXP group followed “The 11 ”training programme 5 days per week, for 6 weeks, completing all but one of the 10 exercises. Prior to, and after the intervention, both EXP and CON groups performed a battery of football-specific physical tests. Changes in performance scores within each group were compared using independent t-tests (p ≤ 0.05). Feedback was also gathered on the young players’ perceptions of “The 11”. No injuries occurred during the study in either group. Compliance to the intervention was 72%. Measures of leg power (3 step jump and counter-movement jump) increased significantly (3.4 and 6.0% respectively, p < 0.05). Speed over 20 m improved by 2% (p < 0.05). Most players considered “The 11 ”beneficial but not enjoyable in the prescribed format. Given the observed improvements in the physical abilities and the perceived benefits of “The 11”, it would appear that a modified version of the programme is appropriate and should be included in the training of young football players, for both physical development and potential injury prevention purposes, as well as to promote fair play. To further engage young football players in such a programme, some modification to “The 11 ”should be considered. Key pointsChildren who participate in recreational and competitive sports, especially football, are susceptible to injury.There is a need for the design and assessment of injury prevention programmes for children

  4. Different training programs decrease blood pressure during submaximal exercise.

    PubMed

    Niño, Oscar; Balagué, Natalia; Aragonés, Daniel; Alamo, Juan; Oviedo, Guillermo; Javierre, Casimiro; Guillamo, Elisabet; Delicado, Maria C; Viscor, Gines; Ventura, Josep L

    2017-09-13

    Our purpose was to study the effects of aerobic, resistance, and mixed (aerobic and resistance) training programs on blood pressure, both at rest and during submaximal exercise in healthy people. We randomized 39 physically active, healthy participants into aerobic, resistance, and mixed (aerobic and resistance) exercise groups, and a control group. The exercise groups trained for 60 min three times/week for 6 weeks, and a submaximal cycle ergometer test was performed before and after training, and 3 weeks after detraining. Continuous blood pressure was determined before and during the test. At the submaximal test, both systolic and diastolic blood pressures decreased significantly (p < 0.05) after detraining in the exercise groups. However, between pre-training and detraining, we found significant reductions at rest only in the mixed exercise group (p < 0.05). Although all exercise had similar effects on blood pressure during submaximal exercise, the mixed aerobic and resistance exercise may be optimal for blood pressure reduction, by the addition of diverse physiological pathways.

  5. Differential Effects of 7 and 16 Groups of Muscle Relaxation Training Following Repeated Submaximal Intensity Exercise in Young Football Players.

    PubMed

    Sharifah Maimunah, S M P; Hashim, H A

    2016-02-01

    This study compares two versions of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) training (7 and 16 muscle groups) on oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rates, rating of perceived exertion and choice reaction time. Football (soccer) players (N = 26; M age = 13.4 yr., SD = 0.5) were randomly assigned to either 7 muscle groups PMR, 16 muscle groups PMR, or a control group. PMR training requires the participants to tense a muscle, hold the muscle contraction, and then relax it. Measurement was conducted prior to and after the completion of 12 sessions of PMR. The dependent variables were measured following four bouts of intermittent exercise consisting of 12 min. of running at 60% VO2max for 10 min. followed by running at 90% VO2max for 2 min. with a 3-min. rest for each bout. Lower VO2, heart rate, perceived exertion, and quicker reaction time were expected in both relaxation groups compared to the control group. The results revealed a significant reduction in heart rates and choice reaction time for both relaxation groups, but the longer version produced significantly quicker choice reaction time.

  6. Contrasting effects of a mixed-methods high-intensity interval training intervention in girl football players.

    PubMed

    Wright, Matthew D; Hurst, Christopher; Taylor, Jonathan M

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about the responses of girl athletes to training interventions throughout maturation. This study evaluated group and individual responses to an 8-week, mixed-methods, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) programme in girl football players. Thirty-seven players (age 13.4 ± 1.5 years) were tested for 20-m speed, repeated-sprint ability, change-of-direction speed and level 1 yo-yo intermittent recovery (YYIR). Players were subcategorised into before-, at- and after-PHV (peak height velocity) based on maturity offset. Very likely moderate (25%; ±90% confidence limits = 9.2) improvements occurred in YYIR, but data were unclear in players before-PHV with moderate individual differences in response. Decrements in repeated-sprint ability were most likely very large (6.5%; ±3.2) before-PHV, and likely moderate (1.7%; ±1.0) at-PHV. Data were unclear after-PHV. A very likely moderate (2.7%; ±1.0) decrement occurred in change-of-direction speed at-PHV while there was a very likely increase (-2.4%; ±1.3) in after-PHV players. Possibly small (-1.1%; ±1.4) improvements in 20-m speed occurred before-PHV but the effect was otherwise unclear with moderate to large individual differences. These data reflect specific responses to training interventions in girls of different biological maturity, while highlighting individual responses to HIIT interventions. This can assist practitioners in providing effective training prescription.

  7. The relationship between the piriformis muscle, low back pain, lower limb injuries and motor control training among elite football players.

    PubMed

    Leung, Felix T; Mendis, M Dilani; Stanton, Warren R; Hides, Julie A

    2015-07-01

    Australian Football League (AFL) players have a high incidence of back injuries. Motor control training to increase lumbopelvic neuromuscular control has been effective in reducing low back pain (LBP) and lower limb injuries in elite athletes. Control of pelvic and femoral alignment during functional activity involves the piriformis muscle. This study investigated (a) the effect of motor control training on piriformis muscle size in AFL players, with and without LBP, during the playing season, and (b) whether there is a relationship between lower limb injury and piriformis muscle size. Stepped-wedge intervention. 46 AFL players participated in a motor control training programme consisting of two 30min sessions per week over 7-8 weeks, delivered across the season as a randomised 3 group single-blinded stepped-wedge design. Assessment of piriformis muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) involved magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3 time points during the season. Assessment of LBP consisted of player interview and physical examination. Injury data were obtained from club records. An interaction effect for Time, Intervention Group and LBP group (F=3.7, p=0.03) was found. Piriformis muscle CSA showed significant increases between Times 1 and 2 (F=4.24, p=0.046), and Times 2 and 3 (F=8.59, p=0.006). Players with a smaller increase in piriformis muscle CSA across the season had higher odds of sustaining an injury (OR=1.08). Piriformis muscle size increases across the season in elite AFL players and is affected by the presence of LBP and lower limb injury. Motor control training positively affects piriformis muscle size in players with LBP. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The effects of the GAA 15 training program on neuromuscular outcomes in Gaelic football and hurling players; a randomized cluster trial.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Edwenia; Murphy, John C; McCarthy Persson, Ulrik; Gissane, Conor; Blake, Catherine

    2016-07-07

    Team-based neuromuscular training programs for injury prevention have been tested primarily in female and adolescent athletes in soccer, handball and basketball, with limited research in adult male field sports. This study explored whether the GAA 15, a multifaceted 8-week neuromuscular training program could improve risk factors for lower limb injury in male Gaelic footballers and hurlers. Four Gaelic sports collegiate teams were randomized into intervention or control groups. Two teams, one football, one hurling, (n=41), were allocated to the intervention, undertaking a 15 minute program of neuromuscular training exercises at the start of team training sessions, twice weekly for 8 weeks. Two matched teams (n=37) acted as controls, participating in usual team training. Lower extremity stability (Y-Balance Test) and jump-landing technique using Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) were assessed pre and post intervention. There were moderate effect sizes in favour of the intervention for right (d=0.59) and left (d=0.69) composite YBT scores, with adjusted mean differences between intervention and control of 3.85 ±0.91% and 4.34±0.92% for right and left legs respectively (p<0.001). There was a greater reduction in mean LESS score in favour of the intervention group post exercise training (Cohen's d= 0.72, adjusted mean difference 2.49±0.54, p<0.001). Clinically and statistically significant improvements in dynamic balance and jump-landing technique occurred in collegiate level Gaelic football and hurling players who adopted the GAA 15, when compared to usual training. These findings support application and evaluation of the GAA 15 in other player groups within the Gaelic games playing population.

  9. Gridiron football injuries.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    To review the available football epidemiology literature to identify risk factors, facilitate injury prevention and uncover deficiencies that may be addressed by future research. A literature search of Sports Discus (1940-2003), Eric (1967-2003), EMBASE (1988-2003), MEDLINE (1966-2003), CINAHL (1984-2003), and Web of Science (1993-2003) identified the published articles on American football in athletes of high school age and younger. Injury rate increases with the level of play (grade in school), player age, and player experience. The lower extremity (knee and ankle joints) is most frequently injured. Football injuries are much more common in games than in practice, and occur to players who are being tackled, tackling or blocking. Most injuries are mild, including contusion, strain and sprain. Rule changes with the prohibition of initial contact with the helmet or face-mask reduced catastrophic head and neck injuries. Although no sport or recreational activity is completely risk-free, football epidemiology research is critical to injury prevention. The existing medical literature provides some valuable insights, but an increased emphasis on prospective research is required to test the efficacy of preventative measures. Quality research may contribute to a reduction in football injury risk by defining the role of player conditioning and strength training, coaching of safety fundamentals, avoidance of dangerous activities, as well as proper medical supervision and care. Sports medicine personnel, coaches, and officials must strive to minimize injuries through progressive education, improved coaching techniques, effective officiating, and equipment modifications.

  10. Sleep Quality but Not Quantity Altered With a Change in Training Environment in Elite Australian Rules Football Players.

    PubMed

    Pitchford, Nathan W; Robertson, Sam J; Sargent, Charli; Cordy, Justin; Bishop, David J; Bartlett, Jonathan D

    2017-01-01

    To assess the effects of a change in training environment on the sleep characteristics of elite Australian Rules football (AF) players. In an observational crossover trial, 19 elite AF players had time in bed (TIB), total sleep time (TST), sleep efficiency (SE), and wake after sleep onset (WASO) assessed using wristwatch activity devices and subjective sleep diaries across 8-d home and camp periods. Repeated-measures ANOVA determined mean differences in sleep, training load (session rating of perceived exertion [RPE]), and environment. Pearson product-moment correlations, controlling for repeated observations on individuals, were used to assess the relationship between changes in sleep characteristics at home and camp. Cohen effect sizes (d) were calculated using individual means. On camp TIB (+34 min) and WASO (+26 min) increased compared with home. However, TST was similar between home and camp, significantly reducing camp SE (-5.82%). Individually, there were strong negative correlations for TIB and WASO (r = -.75 and r = -.72, respectively) and a moderate negative correlation for SE (r = -.46) between home and relative changes on camp. Camp increased the relationship between individual s-RPE variation and TST variation compared with home (increased load r = -.367 vs .051, reduced load r = .319 vs -.033, camp vs home respectively). Camp compromised sleep quality due to significantly increased TIB without increased TST. Individually, AF players with higher home SE experienced greater reductions in SE on camp. Together, this emphasizes the importance of individualized interventions for elite team-sport athletes when traveling and/or changing environments.

  11. Exercise Training, Lymphocyte Subsets and Their Cytokines Production: Experience of an Italian Professional Football Team and Their Impact on Allergy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background. In recent years, numerous articles have attempted to shed light on our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of exercise-induced immunologic changes and their impact on allergy and asthma. It is known that lymphocyte subclasses, cytokines, and chemokines show modifications after exercise, but outcomes can be affected by the type of exercise as well as by its intensity and duration. Interesting data have been presented in many recent studies on mouse models, but few studies on humans have been performed to check the long-term effects of exercise over a whole championship season. Methods. This study evaluated lymphocyte subsets and their intracellular IL-2, IL-4, TNF-α, and IFN-γ production in professional football (soccer) players, at three stages of the season, to evaluate if alterations occur, particularly in relation to their allergic status. Results and Conclusion. Despite significant mid-season alterations, no significant lymphocyte subclasses count modifications, except for NKs that were significantly higher, were observed at the end. IL-2 and IL-4 producing cells showed a significant decrease (P = 0.018 and P = 0.001, but in a steady fashion for IL-4), confirming the murine data about the potential beneficial effects of aerobic exercise for allergic asthma. PMID:25050349

  12. Exercise training, lymphocyte subsets and their cytokines production: experience of an Italian professional football team and their impact on allergy.

    PubMed

    Del Giacco, Stefano R; Scorcu, Marco; Argiolas, Federico; Firinu, Davide; Del Giacco, G Sergio

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, numerous articles have attempted to shed light on our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of exercise-induced immunologic changes and their impact on allergy and asthma. It is known that lymphocyte subclasses, cytokines, and chemokines show modifications after exercise, but outcomes can be affected by the type of exercise as well as by its intensity and duration. Interesting data have been presented in many recent studies on mouse models, but few studies on humans have been performed to check the long-term effects of exercise over a whole championship season. This study evaluated lymphocyte subsets and their intracellular IL-2, IL-4, TNF-α, and IFN-γ production in professional football (soccer) players, at three stages of the season, to evaluate if alterations occur, particularly in relation to their allergic status. Despite significant mid-season alterations, no significant lymphocyte subclasses count modifications, except for NKs that were significantly higher, were observed at the end. IL-2 and IL-4 producing cells showed a significant decrease (P = 0.018 and P = 0.001, but in a steady fashion for IL-4), confirming the murine data about the potential beneficial effects of aerobic exercise for allergic asthma.

  13. The nondiscriminating heart: lovingkindness meditation training decreases implicit intergroup bias.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yoona; Gray, Jeremy R; Dovidio, John F

    2014-06-01

    Although meditation is increasingly accepted as having personal benefits, less is known about the broader impact of meditation on social and intergroup relations. We tested the effect of lovingkindness meditation training on improving implicit attitudes toward members of 2 stigmatized social outgroups: Blacks and homeless people. Healthy non-Black, nonhomeless adults (N = 101) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: 6-week lovingkindness practice, 6-week lovingkindness discussion (a closely matched active control), or waitlist control. Decreases in implicit bias against stigmatized outgroups (as measured by Implicit Association Test) were observed only in the lovingkindness practice condition. Reduced psychological stress mediated the effect of lovingkindness practice on implicit bias against homeless people, but it did not mediate the reduced bias against Black people. These results suggest that lovingkindness meditation can improve automatically activated, implicit attitudes toward stigmatized social groups and that this effect occurs through distinctive mechanisms for different stigmatized social groups. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Prevention of Football Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Kirkendall, Donald T; Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Every sport has a unique profile of injury and risk of injury. In recent years, there have been numerous attempts at conducting injury prevention trials for specific injuries or for injuries within specific sports to provide evidence useful to the sports medicine and sport community. Football has been a focus of a number of randomized injury prevention trials. Methods MEDLINE was searched with the first order keywords of “injury prevention” and “sport”. This list was restricted to “clinical trial” or “randomized controlled trial” which had been conducted on children and adults whose goal was preventing common football injuries. Our objective was to find studies with an exercise-based training program, thus projects that used mechanical interventions were excluded. Results A structured, generalized warm-up has been shown to be effective at preventing common injuries in football, reducing injuries by about one-third. Conclusion The huge participation numbers in the worldwide family of football would suggest that any reduction in injury should have a public health impact. Professionals in sports medicine need to promote injury prevention programs that have been shown to be effective. PMID:22375195

  15. Effects of two recovery procedures after a football game on sensory and biochemical markers.

    PubMed

    Kawczyński, A; Mroczek, D; Frąckiewicz, A; Chmura, P; Becella, L; Samani, A; Madeleine, P; Chmura, J

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate recovery processes on pressure pain sensitivity and blood indicators in professional football players after three different post-game training modalities: standard recovery training, no physical activity, delayed onset muscle soreness reduction training. Eleven male football field players participated in the present study. The experiment was performed in three sessions over three weeks after three football league games. The procedure was composed of the following assessments included in each session: measurement of pain pressure threshold, creatine kinase activity and myoglobin (Mb) concentration before, 24 and 48 hours after game. In standard recovery training there was no full recovery in deep structure sensitivity of the frontal thigh muscles at 48 hours after game (P=0.008). In the no physical activity session, sensitivity returned to its level before game. On the contrary, in the delayed onset muscle soreness reduction training sensitivity decreased 48 hours after game (P<0.001). Creatine kinase activity decreased significantly from 24 hours to 48 hours in session with no activity and delayed onset muscle soreness reduction training (P<0.05). None of the recovery methods had an influence on Mb concentration. The present study points towards a potent effect of delayed onset muscle soreness reduction training on recovery after a football game.

  16. Cognitive Support in Teaching Football Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duda, Henryk

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To improve the teaching of football techniques by applying cognitive and imagery techniques. Material and methods: Four groups of subjects, n = 32 each, were studied: male and female physical education students aged 20-21 years, not engaged previously in football training; male juniors and minors, aged 16 and 13 years, respectively,…

  17. Influence of preparation and football skill level on injury incidence during an amateur football tournament.

    PubMed

    Koch, Matthias; Zellner, Johannes; Berner, Arne; Grechenig, Stephan; Krutsch, Volker; Nerlich, Michael; Angele, Peter; Krutsch, Werner

    2016-03-01

    Scientific studies on injury characteristics are rather common in professional football but not in amateur football despite the thousands of amateur football tournaments taking place worldwide each year. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the preparation and injury patterns of players of two different football skill levels who participated in an international amateur football tournament. In a prospective cohort study, an international amateur football tournament of medical doctors in 2011 was analysed with regard to training and warm-up preparation, the level of football played before the tournament and injury data during the tournament by means of standardised injury definitions and data samples for football. Amateur players of registered football clubs had higher training exposure before the tournament (p < 0.001) than recreational players and had more frequently performed warm-up programmes (p < 0.001). Recreational football players showed a significantly higher overall injury incidence (p < 0.002), particularly of overuse injuries (p < 0.001), during the tournament than amateur players. In almost 75% of players in both groups, the body region most affected by injuries and complaints was the lower extremities. Orthopaedic and trauma surgeons had the lowest overall injury incidence and anaesthetists the highest (p = 0.049) during the tournament. For the first time, this study presents detailed information on the injury incidence and injury patterns of an amateur football tournament. Less-trained recreational players sustained significantly more injuries than better-trained amateur players, probably due to the lack of sufficient preparation before the tournament. Preventive strategies against overuse and traumatic injuries of recreational football players should start with regular training and warm-up programmes in preparation for a tournament.

  18. Using Awareness Training to Decrease Nervous Habits during Public Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spieler, Claire; Miltenberger, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of awareness training for the reduction of three nervous habits that manifest during public speaking: filled pauses, tongue clicks, and inappropriate use of the word "like." Four university students delivered short speeches during baseline and assessment sessions. Awareness training resulted in…

  19. Decreasing Students' Stress through Time Management Training: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Häfner, Alexander; Stock, Armin; Oberst, Verena

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a time management training program on perceived control of time and perceived stress in the context of higher education. Twenty-three undergraduate students attended a time management training intervention and reported demands, perceived stress and perceived control of time directly before 2 and…

  20. Using Awareness Training to Decrease Nervous Habits during Public Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spieler, Claire; Miltenberger, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of awareness training for the reduction of three nervous habits that manifest during public speaking: filled pauses, tongue clicks, and inappropriate use of the word "like." Four university students delivered short speeches during baseline and assessment sessions. Awareness training resulted in…

  1. Decreasing Students' Stress through Time Management Training: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Häfner, Alexander; Stock, Armin; Oberst, Verena

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a time management training program on perceived control of time and perceived stress in the context of higher education. Twenty-three undergraduate students attended a time management training intervention and reported demands, perceived stress and perceived control of time directly before 2 and…

  2. Comparison of the incidence, nature and cause of injuries sustained on grass and new generation artificial turf by male and female football players. Part 2: training injuries

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Colin W; Dick, Randall W; Corlette, Jill; Schmalz, Rosemary

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare the incidence, nature, severity and cause of training injuries sustained on new generation artificial turf and grass by male and female footballers. Methods The National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System was used for a two‐season (August to December) prospective study involving American college and university football teams (2005 season: men 52 teams, women 64 teams; 2006 season: men 54 teams, women 72 teams). Injury definitions and recording procedures were compliant with the international consensus statement for epidemiological studies of injuries in football. Athletic trainers recorded details of the playing surface and the location, diagnosis, severity and cause of all training injuries. The number of days lost from training and match play was used to define the severity of an injury. Training exposures (player hours) were recorded on a team basis. Results The overall incidence of training injuries for men was 3.34 injuries/1000 player hours on artificial turf and 3.01 on grass (incidence ratio 1.11; p = 0.21) and for women it was 2.60 injuries/1000 player hours on artificial turf and 2.79 on grass (incidence ratio 0.93; p = 0.46). For men, the mean severity of injuries that were not season ending injuries was 9.4 days (median 5) on artificial turf and 7.8 days (median 4) on grass and, for women, 10.5 days (median 4) on artificial turf and 10.0 days (median 5) on grass. Joint (non‐bone)/ligament/cartilage and muscle/tendon injuries to the lower limbs were the most common general categories of injury on artificial turf and grass for both male and female players. Most training injuries were acute (men: artificial turf 2.92, grass 2.63, p = 0.24; women: artificial turf 1.94, grass 2.23, p = 0.21) and resulted from player‐to‐player contact (men: artificial turf 1.08, grass 0.85, p = 0.10; women: artificial turf 0.47, grass 0.56; p = 0.45). Conclusions There were no major

  3. What do community football players think about different exercise-training programmes? Implications for the delivery of lower limb injury prevention programmes.

    PubMed

    Finch, Caroline F; Doyle, Tim L A; Dempsey, Alasdair R; Elliott, Bruce C; Twomey, Dara M; White, Peta E; Diamantopoulou, Kathy; Young, Warren; Lloyd, David G

    2014-04-01

    Players are the targeted end-users and beneficiaries of exercise-training programmes implemented during coach-led training sessions, and the success of programmes depends upon their active participation. Two variants of an exercise-training programme were incorporated into the regular training schedules of 40 community Australian Football teams, over two seasons. One variant replicated common training practices, while the second was an evidence-based programme to alter biomechanical and neuromuscular factors related to risk of knee injuries. This paper describes the structure of the implemented programmes and compares players' end-of-season views about the programme variants. This study was nested within a larger group-clustered randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness of two exercise-training programmes (control and neuromuscular control (NMC)) for preventing knee injuries. A post-season self-report survey, derived from Health Belief Model constructs, included questions to obtain players' views about the benefits and physical challenges of the programme in which they participated. Compared with control players, those who participated in the NMC programme found it to be less physically challenging but more enjoyable and potentially of more benefit. Suggestions from players about potential improvements to the training programme and its future implementation included reducing duration, increasing range of drills/exercises and promoting its injury prevention and other benefits to players. Players provide valuable feedback about the content and focus of implemented exercise-training programmes, that will directly inform the delivery of similar, or more successful, programmes in the future.

  4. Preventing Australian football injuries with a targeted neuromuscular control exercise programme: comparative injury rates from a training intervention delivered in a clustered randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Twomey, Dara M; Fortington, Lauren V; Doyle, Tim L A; Elliott, Bruce C; Akram, Muhammad; Lloyd, David G

    2016-01-01

    Background Exercise-based training programmes are commonly used to prevent sports injuries but programme effectiveness within community men's team sport is largely unknown. Objective To present the intention-to-treat analysis of injury outcomes from a clustered randomised controlled trial in community Australian football. Methods Players from 18 male, non-elite, community Australian football clubs across two states were randomly allocated to either a neuromuscular control (NMC) (intervention n=679 players) or standard-practice (control n=885 players) exercise training programme delivered as part of regular team training sessions (2× weekly for 8-week preseason and 18-week regular-season). All game-related injuries and hours of game participation were recorded. Generalised estimating equations, adjusted for clustering (club unit), were used to compute injury incidence rates (IIRs) for all injuries, lower limb injuries (LLIs) and knee injuries sustained during games. The IIRs were compared across groups with cluster-adjusted Injury Rate Ratios (IRRs). Results Overall, 773 game injuries were recorded. The lower limb was the most frequent body region injured, accounting for 50% of injuries overall, 96 (12%) of which were knee injuries. The NMC players had a reduced LLI rate compared with control players (IRR: 0.78 (95% CI 0.56 to 1.08), p=0.14.) The knee IIR was also reduced for NMC compared with control players (IRR: 0.50 (95% CI 0.24 to 1.05), p=0.07). Conclusions These intention-to-treat results indicate that positive outcomes can be achieved from targeted training programmes for reducing knee and LLI injury rates in men's community sport. While not statistically significant, reducing the knee injury rate by 50% and the LLI rate by 22% is still a clinically important outcome. Further injury reductions could be achieved with improved training attendance and participation in the programme. PMID:26399611

  5. Study protocol of European Fans in Training (EuroFIT): a four-country randomised controlled trial of a lifestyle program for men delivered in elite football clubs.

    PubMed

    van Nassau, Femke; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Abrahamsen, Frank; Andersen, Eivind; Anderson, Annie S; Bosmans, Judith E; Bunn, Christopher; Chalmers, Matthew; Clissmann, Ciaran; Gill, Jason M R; Gray, Cindy M; Hunt, Kate; Jelsma, Judith G M; La Guardia, Jennifer G; Lemyre, Pierre N; Loudon, David W; Macaulay, Lisa; Maxwell, Douglas J; McConnachie, Alex; Martin, Anne; Mourselas, Nikos; Mutrie, Nanette; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Ria; O'Brien, Kylie; Pereira, Hugo V; Philpott, Matthew; Roberts, Glyn C; Rooksby, John; Rost, Mattias; Røynesdal, Øystein; Sattar, Naveed; Silva, Marlene N; Sorensen, Marit; Teixeira, Pedro J; Treweek, Shaun; van Achterberg, Theo; van de Glind, Irene; van Mechelen, Willem; Wyke, Sally

    2016-07-19

    Lifestyle interventions targeting physical activity, sedentary time and dietary behaviours have the potential to initiate and support behavioural change and result in public health gain. Although men have often been reluctant to engage in such lifestyle programs, many are at high risk of several chronic conditions. We have developed an evidence and theory-based, gender sensitised, health and lifestyle program (European Fans in Training (EuroFIT)), which is designed to attract men through the loyalty they feel to the football club they support. This paper describes the study protocol to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the EuroFIT program in supporting men to improve their level of physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour over 12 months. The EuroFIT study is a pragmatic, two-arm, randomised controlled trial conducted in 15 football clubs in the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal and the UK (England). One-thousand men, aged 30 to 65 years, with a self-reported Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥27 kg/m(2) will be recruited and individually randomised. The primary outcomes are objectively-assessed changes in total physical activity (steps per day) and total sedentary time (minutes per day) at 12 months after baseline assessment. Secondary outcomes are weight, BMI, waist circumference, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure, cardio-metabolic blood biomarkers, food intake, self-reported physical activity and sedentary time, wellbeing, self-esteem, vitality and quality of life. Cost-effectiveness will be assessed and a process evaluation conducted. The EuroFIT program will be delivered over 12 weekly, 90-minute sessions that combine classroom discussion with graded physical activity in the setting of the football club. Classroom sessions provide participants with a toolbox of behaviour change techniques to initiate and sustain long-term lifestyle changes. The coaches will receive two days of training to enable them to create a positive social

  6. Physical and metabolic demands of training and match-play in the elite football player.

    PubMed

    Bangsbo, Jens; Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter

    2006-07-01

    In soccer, the players perform intermittent work. Despite the players performing low-intensity activities for more than 70% of the game, heart rate and body temperature measurements suggest that the average oxygen uptake for elite soccer players is around 70% of maximum (VO(2max). This may be partly explained by the 150 - 250 brief intense actions a top-class player performs during a game, which also indicates that the rates of creatine phosphate (CP) utilization and glycolysis are frequently high during a game. Muscle glycogen is probably the most important substrate for energy production, and fatigue towards the end of a game may be related to depletion of glycogen in some muscle fibres. Blood free-fatty acids (FFAs) increase progressively during a game, partly compensating for the progressive lowering of muscle glycogen. Fatigue also occurs temporarily during matches, but it is still unclear what causes the reduced ability to perform maximally. There are major individual differences in the physical demands of players during a game related to physical capacity and tactical role in the team. These differences should be taken into account when planning the training and nutritional strategies of top-class players, who require a significant energy intake during a week.

  7. The effect of short-term interval training during the competitive season on physical fitness and signs of fatigue: a crossover trial in high-level youth football players.

    PubMed

    Faude, Oliver; Steffen, Anke; Kellmann, Michael; Meyer, Tim

    2014-11-01

    To analyze performance and fatigue effects of small-sided games (SSG) vs high-intensity interval training (HIIT) performed during a 4-wk in-season period in high-level youth football. Nineteen players from 4 youth teams (16.5 [SD 0.8] y, 1.79 [0.06] m, 70.7 [5.6] kg) of the 2 highest German divisions completed the study. Teams were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 training sequences (2 endurance sessions per wk): One training group started with SSG, whereas the other group conducted HIIT during the first half of the competitive season. After the winter break, training programs were changed between groups. Before and after the training periods the following tests were completed: the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes, creatine kinase and urea concentrations, vertical-jump height (countermovement jump [CMJ], drop jump), straight sprint, agility, and an incremental field test to determine individual anaerobic threshold (IAT). Significant time effects were observed for IAT (+1.3%, η(p)(2) = .31), peak heart rate (-1.8%, η(p)(2) = .45), and CMJ (-2.3%, η(p)(2) = .27), with no significant interaction between groups (P > .30). Players with low baseline IAT values (+4.3%) showed greater improvements than those with high initial values (± 0.0%). A significant decrease was found for total recovery (-5.0%, η(p)(2) = .29), and an increase was found for urea concentration (+9.2%, η(p)(2) = .44). Four weeks of in-season endurance training can lead to relevant improvements in endurance capacity. The decreases in CMJ height and total-recovery score together with the increase in urea concentration might be interpreted as early signs of fatigue. Thus, the danger of overtaxing players should be considered.

  8. Implementation of a neuromuscular training programme in female adolescent football: 3-year follow-up study after a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lindblom, Hanna; Waldén, Markus; Carlfjord, Siw; Hägglund, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Neuromuscular training (NMT) has been shown to reduce anterior cruciate ligament injury rates in highly structured clinical trials. However, there is a paucity of studies that evaluate implementation of NMT programmes in sports. To evaluate the implementation of an NMT programme in female adolescent football 3 years after a randomised controlled trial (RCT). Cross-sectional follow-up after an RCT using the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance Sports Setting Matrix (RE-AIM SSM) framework. Questionnaires were sent to the Swedish Football Association (FA), to eight district FAs and coaches (n=303) that participated in the RCT in 2009, and coaches who did not participate in the RCT but were coaching female adolescent football teams during the 2012 season (n=496). Response rates were 100% among the FAs, 57% among trial coaches and 36% among currently active coaches. The reach of the intervention was high, 99% of trial coaches (control group) and 91% of current coaches were familiar with the programme. The adoption rate was 74% among current coaches, but programme modifications were common among coaches. No district FA had formal policies regarding implementation, and 87% of current coaches reported no club routines for programme use. Maintenance was fairly high; 82% of trial coaches from the intervention group and 68% from the control group still used the programme. Reach and adoption of the programme was high among coaches. However, this study identified low programme fidelity and lack of formal policies for its implementation and use in clubs and district FAs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Decreased Self-Reported Cognitive Failures after Memory Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preiss, Marek; Lukavsky, Jiri; Steinova, Dana

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, attention has been focused on investigating the effectiveness of composite memory intervention programs with different age and diagnostics groups. The goal of this study was to measure changes in cognitive lapses by Cognitive Failure Questionnaire (CFQ) in a large trained, dementia free group (Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE]…

  10. Decreased Self-Reported Cognitive Failures after Memory Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preiss, Marek; Lukavsky, Jiri; Steinova, Dana

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, attention has been focused on investigating the effectiveness of composite memory intervention programs with different age and diagnostics groups. The goal of this study was to measure changes in cognitive lapses by Cognitive Failure Questionnaire (CFQ) in a large trained, dementia free group (Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE]…

  11. Football training in men with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy: activity profile and short-term skeletal and postural balance adaptations.

    PubMed

    Uth, Jacob; Hornstrup, Therese; Christensen, Jesper F; Christensen, Karl B; Jørgensen, Niklas R; Helge, Eva W; Schmidt, Jakob F; Brasso, Klaus; Helge, Jørn W; Jakobsen, Markus D; Andersen, Lars L; Rørth, Mikael; Midtgaard, Julie; Krustrup, Peter

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the activity profile of football training and its short-term effects on bone mass, bone turnover markers (BTMs) and postural balance in men with prostate cancer (PCa) undergoing androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). This was a randomised 12-week study in which men with PCa undergoing ADT were assigned to a football intervention group [FTG, n = 29, 67 ± 7 (±SD) years] training 2‒3 times per week for 45‒60 min or to a control group (n = 28, 66 ± 5 years). The activity profile was measured using a 5-Hz GPS. The outcomes were total body and leg bone mineral content (BMC) and density, BTMs and postural balance. In the last part of the 12 weeks, FTG performed 194 ± 41 accelerations and 296 ± 65 decelerations at >0.6 m/s/s and covered a distance of 905 ± 297 m at speeds >6 km/h and 2646 ± 705 m per training session. Analysis of baseline-to-12-week change scores showed between-group differences in favour of FTG in total body BMC [26.4 g, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 5.8-46.9 g, p = 0.013], leg BMC (13.8 g, 95 % CI: 7.0‒20.5 g, p < 0.001) and markers of bone formation: P1NP (36.6 µg/L, 95 % CI: 10.4‒62.8 µg/L, p = 0.008) and osteocalcin (8.6 µg/L, 95 % CI: 3.3‒13.8 µg/L, p < 0.01). The number of decelerations correlated to the increase in leg BMC (r = 0.65, p = 0.012). No between-group differences were observed for the remaining outcomes. Football training involves numerous runs, accelerations and decelerations, which may be linked to marked increases in bone formation markers and preserved bone mass in middle-aged and elderly men with PCa undergoing ADT. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01711892.

  12. Living, training and playing in the heat: challenges to the football player and strategies for coping with environmental extremes.

    PubMed

    Maughan, R J; Shirreffs, S M; Ozgünen, K T; Kurdak, S S; Ersöz, G; Binnet, M S; Dvorak, J

    2010-10-01

    Dehydration and hyperthermia both, if sufficiently severe, will impair exercise performance. Dehydration can also impair performance of tasks requiring cognition and skill. Body temperature may exceed 40 °C in competitive games played in hot weather, but limited data are available. Football played in the heat, therefore, poses a challenge, and effects on some aspects of performance become apparent as environmental temperature increases above about 12-15 °C. Prior acclimatization will reduce the impact of high environmental temperatures but provides limited protection when humidity is also high. Ingestion of fluids is effective in limiting the detrimental effects on performance: drinks with added carbohydrate and electrolytes are generally more effective than plain water and drinks may be more effective if taken cold than if taken at ambient temperature. Pre-exercise lowering of body temperature may aid some aspects of performance, but the efficacy has not been demonstrated in football. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. The effect of previous hamstring strain injuries on the change in eccentric hamstring strength during preseason training in elite Australian footballers.

    PubMed

    Opar, David A; Williams, Morgan D; Timmins, Ryan G; Hickey, Jack; Duhig, Steven J; Shield, Anthony J

    2015-02-01

    Hamstring strain injuries (HSIs) are the most common injury type in Australian football, and the rate of recurrence has been consistently high for a number of years. Long-lasting neuromuscular inhibition has been noted in previously injured athletes, but it is not known if this influences the athlete's adaptive response to training. To determine if elite Australian footballers with a prior unilateral HSI (previously injured group) display less improvement in eccentric hamstring strength during preseason training compared with athletes without a history of HSIs (control group). Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. A total of 99 elite Australian footballers (17 with a history of unilateral HSIs in the previous 12-month period) participated in this study. Eccentric hamstring strength was assessed at the start and end of preseason training using an instrumented Nordic hamstring device. The change in eccentric strength across the preseason was determined in absolute terms and normalized to the start of preseason strength. The start of preseason strength was used as a covariate to control for differences in starting strength. The left and right limbs in the control group showed no difference in absolute or relative change (left limb: 60.7 ± 72.9 N and 1.28 ± 0.34 N, respectively; right limb: 48.6 ± 83.8 N and 1.24 ± 0.43 N, respectively). Similarly, the injured and uninjured limbs in the previously injured group showed no difference in either absolute or relative change (injured limb: 13.1 ± 57.7 N and 1.07 ± 0.18 N, respectively; uninjured limb: 14.7 ± 54.0 N and 1.07 ± 0.22 N, respectively). The previously injured group displayed significantly less increase in eccentric hamstring strength across the preseason (absolute change, 13.9 ± 55.0 N; relative change, 1.07 ± 0.20 N) compared with the control group (absolute change, 54.6 ± 78.5 N; relative change, 1.26 ± 0.39 N) for both absolute and relative measures (P < .001), even after controlling for differences

  14. Dietary supplements for football.

    PubMed

    Hespel, P; Maughan, R J; Greenhaff, P L

    2006-07-01

    Physical training and competition in football markedly increase the need for macro- and micronutrient intake. This requirement can generally be met by dietary management without the need for dietary supplements. In fact, the efficacy of most supplements available on the market is unproven. In addition, players must be cautious of inadequate product labelling and supplement impurities that may cause a positive drug test. Nonetheless, a number of dietary supplements may beneficially affect football performance. A high endurance capacity is a prerequisite for optimal match performance, particularly if extra time is played. In this context, the potential of low-dose caffeine ingestion (2 - 5 mg . kg body mass(-1)) to enhance endurance performance is well established. However, in the case of football, care must be taken not to overdose because visual information processing might be impaired. Scoring and preventing goals as a rule requires production of high power output. Dietary creatine supplementation (loading dose: 15 - 20 g . day(-1), 4 - 5 days; maintenance dose: 2 - 5 g g . day(-1)) has been found to increase muscle power output, especially during intermittent sprint exercises. Furthermore, creatine intake can augment muscle adaptations to resistance training. Team success and performance also depend on player availability, and thus injury prevention and health maintenance. Glucosamine or chondroitin may be useful in the treatment of joint pain and osteoarthritis, but there is no evidence to support the view that the administration of these supplements will be preventative. Ephedra-containing weight-loss cocktails should certainly be avoided due to reported adverse health effects and positive doping outcomes. Finally, the efficacy of antioxidant or vitamin C intake in excess of the normal recommended dietary dose is equivocal. Responses to dietary supplements can vary substantially between individuals, and therefore the ingestion of any supplement must be assessed

  15. Comparison of cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in professional baseball players versus professional football players.

    PubMed

    Helzberg, John H; Waeckerle, Joseph F; Camilo, Joel; Selden, Michael A; Tang, Fengming; Joyce, Steven A; Browne, Jon E; O'Keefe, James H

    2010-09-01

    In 2006, a newspaper report indicated an increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease and early mortality in retired professional football players compared to professional baseball players. This study included 69 professional football players from a 2008 National Football League training camp and 155 professional baseball players from an American League 2009 spring training site who volunteered to participate in a study of cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors. The prevalence of body mass index > or =30 kg/m(2), waist circumference > or =100 cm, waist/height ratio >0.5, blood pressure > or =130/85 mm Hg, triglycerides > or =150 mg/dl, triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio >3.5, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol < or =40 mg/dl, and alanine aminotransferase > or =40 IU/L was determined in baseball players and compared to measurements obtained in a matched cohort from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), professional football players, and linemen and nonlinemen subsets. In conclusion, professional baseball players had favorable cardiovascular parameters, with the exception of an increased prevalence of hypertension, compared to the reference population, and professional baseball players had decreased measures of obesity, hyperglycemia, and the cardiometabolic syndrome compared to professional football lineman. 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Upper-body strength and power changes during a football season.

    PubMed

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2010-02-01

    There are different football codes played around the world, and most of them involve contact and collision during competition. Upper-body strength and power are important for success in American football, rugby league, rugby union, and Australian football. The goal of the preseason conditioning program is usually to maximize muscular fitness before the competitive season. The in-season program is usually intended to maintain the preseason gains, but it is unclear as to whether the preseason levels of upper-body strength and power can be maintained or even increased during the in-season. The aims of this review were to investigate and identify any general trends in the training programs and results of football studies that have monitored levels of upper-body strength and power preseason, in-season, or postseason. Six studies were identified: 4 involved American college football and the other 2 involved rugby codes and included professional athletes. For most studies, resistance training was conducted 4 times per week preseason and reduced to 2 times per week in-season. The bench press exercise was used as the measure of upper-body strength, and only one of the rugby studies measured upper-body power and used bench press throws. It was found that upper-body strength or power could be maintained or even increased past the mid-season point, but this may be dependent on age, football code, and level of play. At the end of the season, decreases were starting to be reported but only for 2 studies. Surprisingly, an increase in strength was reported postseason for college rugby league players. From the available information, it seems that an in-season periodized program that includes high-intensity resistance training may optimize strength and power ability during the in-season, but more research is required that compares the effectiveness of conditioning programs with varying combinations of training variables.

  17. Preventing Australian football injuries with a targeted neuromuscular control exercise programme: comparative injury rates from a training intervention delivered in a clustered randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Finch, Caroline F; Twomey, Dara M; Fortington, Lauren V; Doyle, Tim L A; Elliott, Bruce C; Akram, Muhammad; Lloyd, David G

    2016-04-01

    Exercise-based training programmes are commonly used to prevent sports injuries but programme effectiveness within community men's team sport is largely unknown. To present the intention-to-treat analysis of injury outcomes from a clustered randomised controlled trial in community Australian football. Players from 18 male, non-elite, community Australian football clubs across two states were randomly allocated to either a neuromuscular control (NMC) (intervention n=679 players) or standard-practice (control n=885 players) exercise training programme delivered as part of regular team training sessions (2× weekly for 8-week preseason and 18-week regular-season). All game-related injuries and hours of game participation were recorded. Generalised estimating equations, adjusted for clustering (club unit), were used to compute injury incidence rates (IIRs) for all injuries, lower limb injuries (LLIs) and knee injuries sustained during games. The IIRs were compared across groups with cluster-adjusted Injury Rate Ratios (IRRs). Overall, 773 game injuries were recorded. The lower limb was the most frequent body region injured, accounting for 50% of injuries overall, 96 (12%) of which were knee injuries. The NMC players had a reduced LLI rate compared with control players (IRR: 0.78 (95% CI 0.56 to 1.08), p=0.14.) The knee IIR was also reduced for NMC compared with control players (IRR: 0.50 (95% CI 0.24 to 1.05), p=0.07). These intention-to-treat results indicate that positive outcomes can be achieved from targeted training programmes for reducing knee and LLI injury rates in men's community sport. While not statistically significant, reducing the knee injury rate by 50% and the LLI rate by 22% is still a clinically important outcome. Further injury reductions could be achieved with improved training attendance and participation in the programme. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  18. Effects of weight lifting training combined with plyometric exercises on physical fitness, body composition, and knee extension velocity during kicking in football.

    PubMed

    Perez-Gomez, Jorge; Olmedillas, Hugo; Delgado-Guerra, Safira; Ara, Ignacio; Vicente-Rodriguez, German; Ortiz, Rafael Arteaga; Chavarren, Javier; Calbet, Jose A L

    2008-06-01

    The effects of a training program consisting of weight lifting combined with plyometric exercises on kicking performance, myosin heavy-chain composition (vastus lateralis), physical fitness, and body composition (using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)) was examined in 37 male physical education students divided randomly into a training group (TG: 16 subjects) and a control group (CG: 21 subjects). The TG followed 6 weeks of combined weight lifting and plyometric exercises. In all subjects, tests were performed to measure their maximal angular speed of the knee during in-step kicks on a stationary ball. Additional tests for muscle power (vertical jump), running speed (30 m running test), anaerobic capacity (Wingate and 300 m running tests), and aerobic power (20 m shuttle run tests) were also performed. Training resulted in muscle hypertrophy (+4.3%), increased peak angular velocity of the knee during kicking (+13.6%), increased percentage of myosin heavy-chain (MHC) type IIa (+8.4%), increased 1 repetition maximum (1 RM) of inclined leg press (ILP) (+61.4%), leg extension (LE) (+20.2%), leg curl (+15.9%), and half squat (HQ) (+45.1%), and enhanced performance in vertical jump (all p < or = 0.05). In contrast, MHC type I was reduced (-5.2%, p < or = 0.05) after training. In the control group, these variables remained unchanged. In conclusion, 6 weeks of strength training combining weight lifting and plyometric exercises results in significant improvement of kicking performance, as well as other physical capacities related to success in football (soccer).

  19. [Almaty club "KAIRAT" young football players' health].

    PubMed

    Kausova, G K; Karabaeva, A I

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the investigation was to study young football players' health. The study was conducted on 161 football players (mean age 12.3) of six children football teams of Almaty club "KAIRAT" during the competition period. It was found that 55,5% of the football players are practically healthy; 18,6% of football players have iron deficiency anemia. 32,6% of football players have caries; 5% of football players have problems of cardiopulmonary system. Investigation reveal, that in a junior sportsman was body weigh surging with downtrend during contest, testify to portability of aerobic load and in childhood unconformable of metabolism' level. This tendency was retain also in the oldest sportsman, this testify to most emulative aerobic load in comparison with junior sportsman. According as the age increases it is emulative load's extension and free occurrence of body weigh subsequent reduction but in the oldest sportsman with prevalence macrosomia. Concurrently with improvement of the anthropometric profile as far as increase of age in soccer players it is forming of a high training level. In spite of lowering of energy resources and the physical load organism's adaptation there are these phenomena. According as the age increases in a soccer player's performance of cardiac and respiratory system are improved.

  20. Changing College Students' Conceptions of Autism: An Online Training to Increase Knowledge and Decrease Stigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Brooks, Patricia J.; Someki, Fumio; Obeid, Rita; Shane-Simpson, Christina; Kapp, Steven K.; Daou, Nidal; Smith, David Shane

    2015-01-01

    College students with autism may be negatively impacted by lack of understanding about autism on college campuses. Thus, we developed an online training to improve knowledge and decrease stigma associated with autism among college students. Participants (N = 365) completed a pre-test, online training, and post-test. Women reported lower stigma…

  1. Changing College Students' Conceptions of Autism: An Online Training to Increase Knowledge and Decrease Stigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Brooks, Patricia J.; Someki, Fumio; Obeid, Rita; Shane-Simpson, Christina; Kapp, Steven K.; Daou, Nidal; Smith, David Shane

    2015-01-01

    College students with autism may be negatively impacted by lack of understanding about autism on college campuses. Thus, we developed an online training to improve knowledge and decrease stigma associated with autism among college students. Participants (N = 365) completed a pre-test, online training, and post-test. Women reported lower stigma…

  2. Iron status markers are only transiently affected by a football game.

    PubMed

    Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Douroudos, Ioannis I; Deli, Chariklia K; Draganidis, Dimitrios; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Mohr, Magni; Avloniti, Alexandra; Barbero-Álvarez, Jose C; Margonis, Konstantinos; Mavropalias, Georgios; Stampoulis, Theodoros; Giannakidou, Dimitra; Flouris, Andreas D; Koutedakis, Yannis; Fatouros, Ioannis G

    2015-01-01

    We examined the temporal variation of iron's status markers during a 60 h period following a football game. Thirty-four male football players were randomly assigned to a control group (CG, N = 14, participated only in measurements and training) or an experimental group (EG, N = 20, took part in a football game one week after the completion of the competitive season). All participants trained regularly for two consecutive days after the game. Training and game load was monitored with high time-resolution global positioning system (GPS) devices. Blood samples were collected and muscle damage markers and repeated sprint ability (RSA) were assessed pre-game and at 2 h, 12 h 36 h and 60 h post-game. No changes were noted in CG. Iron concentration decreased (P < 0.05) 2 h post-game and normalised thereafter whereas total iron binding capacity increased (P < 0.05) 12-60 h of recovery (P < 0.05). Erythrocytes, haemoglobin (HGB) concentration, plasma volume, haematocrit, mean cell volume, mean cell HGB, mean cell HGB concentration, red cell width-SD, red cell width-CV, ferritin concentration and transferrin saturation remained unaltered during the intervention period. Creatine kinase activity and muscle soreness increased (P < 0.05) throughout recovery in EG. RSA declined (P < 0.05) until 36 h of recovery and normalised thereafter. Our data demonstrate that iron status markers are only transiently affected by a football game.

  3. Physical demands of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football players during preseason training in the heat.

    PubMed

    DeMartini, Julie K; Martschinske, Jessica L; Casa, Douglas J; Lopez, Rebecca M; Ganio, Matthew S; Walz, Steve M; Coris, Eric E

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate physical demands of football players during preseason practices in the heat. Furthermore, we sought to compare how physical demands differ between positions and playing status. Male National Collegiate Athletic Association Division 1 football players (n = 49) participated in 9 practice sessions (142 ± 16 minutes per session; wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) 28.75 ± 2.11°C) over 8 days. Heart rate (HR) and global positioning system data were recorded throughout the entirety of each practice to determine the distance covered (DC), velocity (V), maximal HR (HRmax), and average HR (HRavg). The subjects were divided into 2 groups: linemen (L) (N = 25; age: 22 ± 1 years, weight: 126 ± 16 kg, height: 190 ± 4 cm,) vs. nonlinemen (NL) (N = 24; age: 21 ± 1 years, weight: 91 ± 11 kg, height: 183 ± 8 cm) and starters (S) (N = 17; age: 21 ± 1 years, weight: 118 ± 21 kg, height: 190 ± 7 cm) vs. nonstarters (NS) (N = 32; age: 20 ± 1 years, weight: 105 ± 22 kg, height: 185 ± 7 cm) for statistical analysis. The DC (3,532 ± 943 vs. 2,573 ± 489 m; p = 0.001) and HRmax (201 ± 9 vs. 194 ± 11 b·min(-1); p = 0.025) were significantly greater in NL compared with that in L. In addition, NL spent more time (p < 0.0001) and covered more distance (p = 0.002) at higher velocities than L did. Differences between S vs. NS were observed (p = 0.008, p = 0.031), with S obtaining higher velocities than NS did. Given the demands of their playing positions, NL were required to cover more distance at higher velocities, resulting in a greater HRmax than that of L. Therefore, it appears that L engage in more isometric work than NL do. In addition, the players exposed to similar practice demands provide similar work output during preseason practice sessions regardless of their playing status.

  4. A longitudinal study examining the effects of a season of American football on lipids and lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Jonathan M; Joubert, Dustin P; Caldwell, Aaron; Martin, Steve E; Crouse, Stephen F

    2015-04-21

    Dyslipidemia is one factor cited for increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in American football players. However, American football players undergo physical conditioning which is known to influence lipids. This study examined if the physical activity of an American football season is associated with changes in lipids and if a relationship exists between lipids and body composition. Fourteen division I freshmen American football players had blood drawn prior to summer training (T1), end of competition (T2), and end of spring training (T3). Samples were analyzed for total cholesterol (TCHL), HDL-C, LDL-C, and triglycerides (TG). Body composition was assessed via dual-x-ray absorptiometry. National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) lipid categorization was used to characterize participants. Pearson correlations were computed to determine relationships. Body mass increased T2 (p=0.008) as a result of increase in fat mass (p=0.005) and remained high despite a decrease T3. Lean mass did not differ significantly at any time. No significant time effects were observed for lipids measured. The number of participants presenting with risk factors attributed to dyslipidemia varied. By T3, no participant was categorized as "low" for HDL-C. TCHL was moderately correlated (r=0.60) with fat mass at T1; whereas a moderate correlation (r=-0.57) was observed between BMI and HDL-C at T2. TG was strongly correlated with fat mass at each time point (T1, r=0.83; T2, r=0.94; T3, r=0.70). The physical activity associated with a season of football results in little change in blood lipids and CVD risk. Further, TG are strongly related to fat mass. Future research should focus on examining the cause of dyslipidemia in American football players.

  5. Injuries in elite youth football players: a prospective three-year study.

    PubMed

    Ergün, Metin; Denerel, H Nevzad; Binnet, Mehmet S; Ertat, K Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and nature of injuries and the influence of age on injury patterns in elite youth football. Fifty-two players of the Under-17 (U-17) male national youth football team were followed during their progression to U-18 and U-19. Individual player exposure and injuries were recorded during the three year study period. Injury incidence was five times higher during matches than training. When medical attention and time loss injuries were considered, injury incidence increased during matches and decreased during training with increasing age. Traumatic injuries were more frequent in matches and were linked with increased age. Overuse injuries were two times higher during training than matches in the U-17 team. The majority of traumatic match injuries (78.3%) led to time loss and the majority of time loss injuries occurred due to traumatic mechanism (62.1%). The majority of muscle and entire ligament injuries occurred during training and contusions during competition. Re-injury rate was 25% and were all overuse injuries. Injury incidences increased during matches and decreased during training. More match injuries were caused by traumatic mechanisms as players aged. Player age might contribute to injury incidence and characteristics in youth football.

  6. Combined carbohydrate and protein ingestion during Australian Rules football matches and training sessions does not reduce fatigue or accelerate recovery throughout a week-long junior tournament.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nathan A; Fell, James W; Pitchford, Nathan W; Hall, Andrew H; Leveritt, Michael D; Kitic, Cecilia M

    2017-03-31

    Australian Rules football (ARF) is a physically demanding sport that can induce high levels of fatigue. Fatigue may be intensified during periods where multiple matches are played with limited recovery time. Combined carbohydrate and protein (CHO+PRO) intake during physical activity may provide performance and recovery benefits. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CHO+PRO ingestion during ARF matches and training sessions throughout a tournament would enhance performance or recovery in comparison to CHO-only ingestion. ARF players (n=21) competing in a 7-day National tournament participated in this randomized and double-blinded study. Beverages containing either CHO (n=10) or CHO+PRO (n=11) were provided during matches (Day-1, Day-4 and Day-7) and training sessions (Day-2 and Day-3). Countermovement jumps (CMJ), ratings of muscle soreness and autonomic function were assessed throughout the tournament. Gastrointestinal discomfort was measured post-matches. CMJ peak velocity increased in the CHO+PRO group (p=0.01), but not for the CHO group. There were no differences in the other CMJ variables. In both groups, muscle soreness increased from Day-0 and Day-1 to Day-2 (p<0.05) but did not remain elevated. R-R intervals (time elapsed between successive peaks in QRS complexes) increased in both groups from Day-1 to Day-7 (MD=59.85 ms, p<0.01). Post-match gastrointestinal discomfort was not different (p>0.05) between groups. When daily dietary protein is adequate (>1.8 g.kg.d), the ingestion of CHO+PRO during matches and training sessions throughout a tournament does not reduce muscle soreness nor have clear benefits for neuromuscular recovery or modulate autonomic function in junior ARF athletes, compared to CHO alone.

  7. Pretraining on Southwestern stations decreases training time and cost for proficiency-based fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery training.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Madelyn E; Castellvi, Antonio O; Goova, Mouza T; Hollett, Lisa A; Dale, Jarrod; Scott, Daniel J

    2009-11-01

    We previously reported a proficiency-based Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) curriculum that uniformly resulted in passing the technical skills certification criteria. We hypothesized that pretraining using the Southwestern (SW) videotrainer stations would decrease costs and training time and maintain benefits. Group I (2nd-year medical student, n = 10) underwent FLS pretesting (Pretest 1), SW station proficiency-based training, repeat FLS testing (Pretest 2), FLS proficiency-based training, and final FLS testing (Posttest). These data were compared with a historic control, group II (2nd-year medical student, n = 10), which underwent FLS pretesting (Pretest 1), proficiency-based training, and final FLS testing (Posttest). During training, group I achieved proficiency (85.4 + or - 26.2 repetitions) for all SW tasks. For both groups, proficiency was achieved for 96% of the FLS tasks, with substantial differences detected for group I and group II repetitions (100.5 + or - 15.9 versus 114 + or - 25.5) and training time (6.0 + or - 1.5 versus 9.2 + or - 2.2 hours), respectively. Per-person material costs were considerably different for groups I and II ($827 + or - 116 versus $1,108 + or - 393). Group I demonstrated significant improvement from Pretest 1 (149 + or - 39; 0% FLS pass rate) to Pretest 2 (293 + or - 83; p < 0.001; 60% FLS pass rate), and to Posttest (444 + or - 60; p < 0.001; 100% FLS pass rate). Group II demonstrated significant improvement from Pretest 1 (158 + or - 78; 0% FLS pass rate) to Posttest (469.7 + or - 12.0; p < 0.001; 100% FLS pass rate). Pretraining on SW stations decreases training time for FLS skill acquisition and maintains educational benefits. This strategy decreases costs associated with using consumable materials for training.

  8. Science and football: a review of applied research in the football codes.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Thomas; Gilbourne, David

    2003-09-01

    Over the last two decades there has been a growth in research directly related to football. Although most of this research is focused on soccer (association football), there has been a steady increase in publications related to the other football codes. There is evidence of more systematic training and selection influencing the anthropometric profiles of players who compete at the highest level. Fitness is being optimized to cope with match demands while accommodating the need for specific requirements of positional roles. There is evidence of work rate being higher in contemporary football games than in previous decades, with consequences for training and dietary practices. Notation analysis of actions during matches is now used regularly to provide detailed objective feedback on performance to players and coaches. Training regimens are designed for game-specific purposes where possible. Sports psychologists working in a football context have a more eclectic body of knowledge to draw from. In the professional soccer clubs, the rewards associated with a successful investment in youth academies have helped to focus attention on talent identification and development models. It is a challenge to those specializing in science and football to contribute to the success of such schemes.

  9. Decreased training volume and increased carbohydrate intake increases oxidized LDL levels.

    PubMed

    Välimäki, I A; Vuorimaa, T; Ahotupa, M; Kekkonen, R; Korpela, R; Vasankari, T

    2012-04-01

    We studied effects of probiotics and training volume on oxidized LDL lipids (ox-LDL), serum antioxidant potential (s-TRAP) and serum antioxidants (s-α-tocopherol, s-γ-tocopherol, s-retinol, s-β-carotene and s-ubiquinone-10) in marathon runners during 3-months training period, 6-days preparation period and marathon run. Runners (n=127) were recruited for a randomized, double-blind intervention during which they received either Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG, probiotic group) or placebo drink (placebo group) during whole study. During the preparation period, subjects decreased training and increased carbohydrate intake. Blood samples were taken at baseline, before 6-days preparation, before and immediately after the marathon. Probiotics did not have any effect on ox-LDL, s-TRAP or serum antioxidants levels during the study. Interestingly, ox-LDL increased by 28% and 33% during the preparation period and decreased by 16% and 19% during the marathon run in the placebo and probiotic groups, respectively (in all, P<0.001). No changes were seen in s-TRAP before marathon, but during run s-TRAP raised by 16% in both groups (both, P<0.001). The increase of ox-LDL level during the preparative period after several months' training suggests that aerobic training may reduce the concentration of ox-LDL and that decrease of training together with increased energy intake, mainly carbohydrate, before marathon is capable of increasing the level of ox-LDL.

  10. Incidence of injury in elite Gaelic footballers.

    PubMed

    Newell, M; Grant, S; Henry, A; Newell, J

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to undertake a comprehensive prospective epidemiological study of injuries sustained by elite Gaelic Football players over one season. The pattern of injury is strikingly similar across all teams with 47% of all injuries occurring in the final quarter of games and training. Injuries to the lower limb, particularly the hamstrings muscles accounted for the majority of injuries. 65% of players were unable to participate fully in Gaelic Football activity for between one and three weeks as a result of injury. The high incidence of injury especially hamstrings injuries in the latter stages of training and games warrants further investigation.

  11. Nutrition for the Australian Rules football player.

    PubMed

    Ebert, T R

    2000-12-01

    This review summarises past and present nutritional practices of Australian Rules Football players, noting changes that have occurred as the footballers have become more receptive to scientific input. Australian Rules Football is a unique sport, with matches involving intermittent high intensity sprints between periods of jogging and walking and repeated physical contact. Endurance, speed, strength, power and agility are essential physical characteristics. Australian Rules footballers exhibit a wide range of anthropometrical attributes due to the positional requirements of the game. Dietary surveys indicate that footballers of the 1980's consumed a diet similar to that of the general Australian population consisting of 44%, 37.5%, 15% and 3.5% of carbohydrate (CHO), fat, protein and alcohol, respectively. However, as dietitians are becoming an integral part of the support staff of teams there is evidence that nutritional practices conducive to optimal sporting performance are now being followed. Due to the prolonged duration and intermittent high intensity activity pattern of Australian Rules, nutritional supplementation such as fluid and CHO intake during training and competition and creatine intake may be beneficial; however, further research needs to be conducted in the field to determine its importance in Australian Rules Football.

  12. High Prevalence of Hypertension Among Collegiate Football Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Karpinos, Ashley Rowatt; Roumie, Christianne L.; Nian, Hui; Diamond, Alex B.; Rothman, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of hypertension among collegiate football athletes is not well described. Methods and Results A retrospective cohort of all male athletes who participated in varsity athletics at a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university between 1999–2012 was examined through chart review. Mandatory annual preparticipation physical examinations included blood pressure, body mass index, medication use, and supplement use. Prevalence of hypertension was compared between football and non-football athletes. A mixed-effects linear regression model examined change in blood pressure over time. 636 collegiate athletes, including 323 football players, were identified. In the initial year of athletic participation, 19.2% of football athletes had hypertension and 61.9% had prehypertension. The prevalence of hypertension was higher among football athletes than non-football athletes in their initial (19.2% vs. 7.0%, P< 0.001) and final (19.2% vs. 10.2%, P=0.001) years of athletic participation. In adjusted analyses, the odds of hypertension was higher among football athletes in the initial year (AOR 2.28, 95% CI 1.21 to 4.30) but not the final year (AOR 1.25, 95% CI 0.69 to 2.28). Over the course of their collegiate career, football athletes had an annual decrease in systolic blood pressure (−0.82 mmHg, P=0.002), while non-football athletes did not (0.18 mmHg, P=0.58). Conclusions Hypertension and prehypertension were common among collegiate football athletes, and football athletes were more likely to have hypertension than male non-football athletes. This presents a potential cardiovascular risk in a young population of athletes. Strategies for increasing awareness, prevention and treatment are needed. PMID:24221829

  13. Sixteen weeks of resistance training can decrease the risk of metabolic syndrome in healthy postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Conceição, Miguel Soares; Bonganha, Valéria; Vechin, Felipe Cassaro; de Barros Berton, Ricardo Paes; Lixandrão, Manoel Emílio; Nogueira, Felipe Romano Damas; de Souza, Giovana Vergínia; Chacon-Mikahil, Mara Patricia Traina; Libardi, Cleiton Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Background The postmenopausal phase has been considered an aggravating factor for developing metabolic syndrome. Notwithstanding, no studies have as yet investigated the effects of resistance training on metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify whether resistance training could reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Methods Twenty postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to a resistance training protocol (n = 10, 53.40 ± 3.95 years, 64.58 ± 9.22 kg) or a control group (n = 10, 53.0 ± 5.7 years, 64.03 ± 5.03 kg). In the resistance training protocol, ten exercises were performed, with 3 × 8−10 maximal repetitions three times per week, and the load was increased every week. Two-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate specific metabolic syndrome Z-score, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, waist circumference, blood pressure, strength, and body composition. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results The main results demonstrated a significant decrease of metabolic syndrome Z-score when the postmenopausal women performed resistance training (P = 0.0162). Moreover, we observed decreases in fasting blood glucose for the resistance training group (P = 0.001), and also significant improvements in lean body mass (P = 0.042, 2.46%), reduction of body fat percentage (P = 0.001, −6.75%) and noticeable increases in muscle strength after resistance training to leg press (P = 0.004, 41.29%) and bench press (P = 0.0001, 27.23%). Conclusion It was concluded that resistance training performed three times a week may reduce the metabolic syndrome Z-score with concomitant decreases in fasting blood glucose, improvements in body composition, and muscle strength in postmenopausal women. PMID:24072967

  14. Mechanical properties of the triceps surae: differences between football and non-football players.

    PubMed

    Faria, Aurélio; Gabriel, Ronaldo; Abrantes, João; Wood, Paola; Moreira, Helena

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the mechanical properties of the triceps surae between professional, junior, and non-football players. Fifty-nine men participated in this study. The mechanical properties of the right legs' triceps surae were measured in vivo using a free oscillation technique; no significant differences existed between the groups. The mean results for musculo-articular stiffness, damping coefficient, and damping ratio were as follows: professional football players (21523 N· m⁻¹, 330.8 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.201); junior football players (21063 N · m⁻¹, 274.4 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.173); and non-players (19457 N · m⁻¹, 281.5 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.184). When analysed according to position, the results were as follows: defender (21447 N · m⁻¹, 308.6 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.189); midfielder (20762 N · m⁻¹, 250.7 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.157); winger (21322 N · m⁻¹, 335.1 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.212); forward (22085 N · m⁻¹, 416.2 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.254); and non-players (19457 N · m⁻¹, 281.5 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.184). Thus, football training, football games, and the position played had no effect on triceps surae mechanical properties. These results may be attributed to opposing adaptations between different types of training that are usually implemented in football. Alternatively, the minimum strain amplitude and/or frequency threshold of the triceps surae required to trigger adaptations of mechanical properties might not be achieved by football players with football training and matches.

  15. Smart real-time cardiac diagnostic sensor systems for football players and soldiers under intense physical training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Prashanth S.; Oh, Sechang; Kwon, Hyeokjun; Rai, Pratyush; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2013-04-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) and acute myocardial infarctions (AMIs) have been reported to be up to 7.6 times higher in rate of occurrence during intense exercise as compared to sedentary activities. The risk is high in individuals with both diagnosed as well as occult heart diseases. Recently, SCDs have been reported with a high rate of occurrence among young athletes and soldiers who routinely undergo vigorous training. Prescreening Electrocardiograms (ECG) and echocardiograms have been suggested as potential means of detecting any cardiac abnormalities prior to intense training to avoid the risk of SCDs, but the benefits of this approach are widely debated. Moreover, the increased risk of SCDs and AMIs during training or exercise suggests that ECGs are of much greater value when acquired real-time during the actual training. The availability of immediate diagnostic data will greatly reduce the time taken to administer the appropriate resuscitation. Important factors to consider in the implementation of this solution are: - cost of overall system, accuracy of signals acquired and unobtrusive design. In this paper, we evaluate a system using printed sensors made of inks with functional properties to acquire ECGs of athletes and soldiers during physical training and basic military training respectively. Using Zigbee, we show that athletes and soldiers can be monitored in real time, simultaneously.

  16. Alteration of subjective feelings in football players undertaking their usual training and match schedule during the Ramadan fast.

    PubMed

    Leiper, John B; Junge, Astrid; Maughan, Ronald J; Zerguini, Yacine; Dvorak, Jiri

    2008-12-01

    Eighty-seven players (54 fasting players, 33 non-fasting players) who carried out their club's scheduled training and competitive matches completed the daily questionnaire before and during Ramadan. Fasting players trained on average 11 h after their last food and drink. While fasting players reported that they were slightly less ready to train during the Ramadan fast than in the period before Ramadan, there was no increase in their perceived effort during training or in training difficulty compared with their ratings before Ramadan, or with those of the non-fasting group during Ramadan. The fasting players were marginally more thirsty, hungry and tired, and slightly less able to concentrate before training during Ramadan than in the pre-Ramadan period. Before Ramadan, both groups averaged more than 9 h sleep each night. The non-fasting players recorded that they had about 105 min less sleep per night during the first week of Ramadan, before reverting back to their pre-Ramadan amount of sleep. The fasting group consistently reported having about 1 h less sleep per night throughout Ramadan, but neither group appeared to find sleep quality to have altered. In the first 2 weeks after Ramadan, the modest changes reported by the fasting players reverted back to their pre-Ramadan values.

  17. [Seasonal alterations in serum iron levels in elite football players].

    PubMed

    Malićević, Sead; Nesić, Dejan; Rosić, Ilija

    2008-01-01

    It is very important to monitor levels of serum iron and other factors of iron metabolism and oxygen transport system as they play a very important role in functional ability of football players. A decrease in serum iron level can be the very first sign of development of iron deficiency anaemia, which seriously influences health and functional ability of an athlete and is a common problem in competitive sports. The aim of this study was to observe and evaluate changes in serum iron values during the competition season in relation to the training process. During four years, serum iron level was measured in 28-34 players of one of the top football clubs in Serbia, four times a year: at the beginning and at peak-point of both half-seasons. Differences between basic and control findings, relative and absolute changes in serum iron levels and statistical significance of the findings were than calculated. There was a significant decrease in mean serum iron levels on each control test, compared to basic values. Mean value of control serum iron levels is significantly lower than mean of preseason values (20.64 +/- 6.58 vs. 16.38 +/- 5.51 micromol/l). A significant decrease in serum iron level among footballers during both half-seasons is most probably due to an increased loss and/or diminished absorption resulting from a high intensity training process. Because the decline in serum iron may be an early sign of iron store depletion and iron deficiency anaemia, it is very important to evaluate it regularly, along with other factors of iron metabolism and oxygen transport system.

  18. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football players' perceptions of women in the athletic training room using a role congruity framework.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Caitlin; Grappendorf, Heidi; Burton, Laura; Harmon, Sandra M; Henderson, Angela C; Peel, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Previous researchers have demonstrated that male and female athletes feel more comfortable with treatment by a same-sex athletic trainer for sex-specific injuries and conditions. To address football players' comfort with care provided by same-sex and opposite-sex athletic trainers for sex-specific and non-sex-specific injuries and conditions through the lens of role congruity theory. Cross-sectional study for the quantitative data and qualitative study for the qualitative data. Two National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Bowl Series university football programs. Male football players within the 2 university programs. We replicated existing methods and an existing survey to address male football players' comfort levels. Additionally, an open-ended question was used to determine male football players' perceptions of female athletic trainers. Paired-samples t tests were conducted to identify differences between the responses for the care given by a male athletic trainer and for the care given by a female athletic trainer. Three categories were analyzed: general medical conditions, psychological conditions, and sex-specific injuries. The qualitative data were coded and analyzed using content analysis. Male football players were more comfortable with treatment by a male athletic trainer (mean = 3.61 +/- 1.16) for sex-specific injuries and conditions than they were with treatment by a female athletic trainer (mean = 2.82 +/- 1.27; P < .001). No significant results were found for comfort with overall psychological conditions, although a female athletic trainer was preferred over a male athletic trainer for the treatment of depression (mean = 3.71 +/- 1.07 versus mean = 3.39 +/- 1.16, respectively; P < .001). Qualitative data provided support for role congruity theory. Both quantitative and qualitative evidence were provided for the support of role congruity theory.

  19. Football with three ‘halves’: A qualitative exploratory study of the football3 model at the Football for Hope Festival 2010

    PubMed Central

    ZA, Kaufman; MA, Clark; ST, McGarvey

    2015-01-01

    The “football3” model refers to a restructuring of traditional football/soccer rules to bring social and developmental benefits to participating youth and their communities. The model incorporates three “halves”: pre-game discussion, football match, and post-game discussion. This study was carried out to shed light on the experiences of youth and adults with the football3 model at the Football for Hope Festival 2010. As an official 2010 FIFA World Cup event, the festival assembled 32 mixed-sex delegations of youth for cultural activities and a football tournament. The study's aim was to inform the model's future design and implementation. Twenty interviews, two focus group discussions, and participant observation were conducted. Findings highlight positive experiences with the model regarding cultural exchange and relationship building, Fair Play and social values, and gender integration. Challenges pertain to misunderstanding of the football3 model, tournament atmosphere, and skill level differences. Recommendations centre on systematically formulating desired outcomes, formalizing a curriculum and training plan, piloting football3 in a range of settings over an extended period of time, and emphasizing monitoring and evaluation to assess the model's effectiveness and impact. Future piloting and research should inform the potential scale-up of the model. PMID:27064214

  20. Concurrent Training Decreases Cortisol but Not Zinc Concentrations: Effects of Distinct Exercise Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Guilherme; Fortes, Marcos de Sá Rego; de Mello, Danielli B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the effects of distinct concurrent training (CT) protocols on zinc and cortisol concentrations and test the correlation between these blood variables. Methods. Samples of serum zinc and cortisol were assessed from 10 male subjects (27.1 ± 4.8 years old; BMI 25.38 ± 0.09) before and immediately after each study session: control (CS = no exercises), concurrent training 1 (CT1 = indoor cycling + strength training), and concurrent training 2 (CT2 = strength training + indoor cycle) with five days of interval between each. Results. There were no significant changes in zinc concentrations after the CS (Δ% = 8.45; p = 0.07), CT1 (Δ% = 4.77; p = 0.49), and CT2 (Δ% = −2.90; p = 0.12) sessions. Cortisol levels showed significant decrease after CS (Δ% = −6.02; p = 0.00), CT1 (Δ% = −26.32; p = 0.02), and CT2 (Δ% = −33.57; p = 0.05) sessions. There was a significant correlation between the variables only at CS (zinc post versus cortisol pre: r = 0.82 and cortisol post: r = 0.82). Conclusions. CT decreases cortisol concentrations regardless of the sequence performed. No changes were found in zinc concentrations after the study sessions. The reduction in serum cortisol concentrations appear to occur by a mechanism independent of the zinc status. PMID:27127684

  1. Cerebrovascular reactivity alterations in asymptomatic high school football players.

    PubMed

    Svaldi, Diana O; Joshi, Chetas; Robinson, Meghan E; Shenk, Trey E; Abbas, Kausar; Nauman, Eric A; Leverenz, Larry J; Talavage, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) is impaired following brain injury, increasing susceptibility to subsequent injury. CVR was tracked in football and non-collision athletes throughout one season. CVR transiently decreased in football athletes during the first half of the season. Results indicate the brain adapts slowly to increases in loading, increasing risk for injury.

  2. Mobile-phone-based home exercise training program decreases systemic inflammation in COPD: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Hua; Chou, Pai-Chien; Joa, Wen-Ching; Chen, Li-Fei; Sheng, Te-Fang; Ho, Shu-Chuan; Lin, Horng-Chyuan; Huang, Chien-Da; Chung, Fu-Tsai; Chung, Kian Fan; Kuo, Han-Pin

    2014-08-30

    Moderate-intensity exercise training improves skeletal muscle aerobic capacity and increased oxidative enzyme activity, as well as exercise tolerance in COPD patients. To investigate whether the home-based exercise training program can reduce inflammatory biomarkers in patients with COPD, twelve patients using mobile phone assistance and 14 with free walk were assessed by incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT), spirometry, strength of limb muscles, and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and inflammatory cytokines. Patients in the mobile phone group improved their ISWT walking distance, with decrease in serum CRP after 2 months, and sustained at 6 months. Patients in the control group had no improvement. Serum IL-8 in the mobile phone group was significantly reduced at 2, 3 and 6 months after doing home exercise training compared to baseline. IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly elevated at 3 and 6 months in control group, while there were no changes in mobile phone group. The strength of limb muscles was significantly greater compared to baseline at 3 and 6 months in the mobile phone group. A mobile-phone-based system can provide an efficient home endurance exercise training program with improved exercise capacity, strength of limb muscles and a decrease in serum CRP and IL-8 in COPD patients. Decreased systemic inflammation may contribute to these clinical benefits. (Clinical trial registration No.: NCT01631019).

  3. Mobile-phone-based home exercise training program decreases systemic inflammation in COPD: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Moderate-intensity exercise training improves skeletal muscle aerobic capacity and increased oxidative enzyme activity, as well as exercise tolerance in COPD patients. Methods To investigate whether the home-based exercise training program can reduce inflammatory biomarkers in patients with COPD, twelve patients using mobile phone assistance and 14 with free walk were assessed by incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT), spirometry, strength of limb muscles, and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and inflammatory cytokines. Results Patients in the mobile phone group improved their ISWT walking distance, with decrease in serum CRP after 2 months, and sustained at 6 months. Patients in the control group had no improvement. Serum IL-8 in the mobile phone group was significantly reduced at 2, 3 and 6 months after doing home exercise training compared to baseline. IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly elevated at 3 and 6 months in control group, while there were no changes in mobile phone group. The strength of limb muscles was significantly greater compared to baseline at 3 and 6 months in the mobile phone group. Conclusions A mobile-phone-based system can provide an efficient home endurance exercise training program with improved exercise capacity, strength of limb muscles and a decrease in serum CRP and IL-8 in COPD patients. Decreased systemic inflammation may contribute to these clinical benefits. (Clinical trial registration No.: NCT01631019) PMID:25175787

  4. Intensity and generalization of treadmill slip training: High or low, progressive increase or decrease?

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuan; Bhatt, Tanvi; Pai, Yi-Chung Clive

    2016-01-25

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of different treadmill slip training protocols on the transfer of reactive and proactive control of center of mass stability to a novel, over-ground slip. Four training protocols were investigated: high-intensity (HI; acceleration of all treadmill slips=12m/s(2)), low-intensity (LO; acceleration of all treadmill slips=6m/s(2)), progressively increasing intensity (INCR; acceleration of treadmill slips increasing from 6m/s(2) to 12m/s(2) over the course of training), and progressively decreasing intensity (DECR; acceleration of treadmill slips decreasing from 12m/s(2) to 6m/s(2) over the course of training). From a pool of 36 young subjects, nine were randomly assigned to each training protocol (HI, LO, INCR, and DECR). In each protocol, subjects underwent a series of 24 treadmill slips before they experienced a novel slip during over-ground walking. Measures from these subjects were compared across groups and to data from control subjects (CTRL, n=9) who had experienced a novel over-ground slip without treadmill training as part of a previous experiment. The results showed that treadmill slip training improved balance control on over-ground slip and had a larger effect on subjects׳ reactive control of stability (44.3%) than on proactive control (27.1%) in comparison with the CTRL group. HI yielded stronger generalization than LO, while INCR was only marginally better than DECR. Finally, the group means of stability displayed a clear ascending order from CTRL, LO, DECR, INCR, to HI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Strength and hypertrophy responses to constant and decreasing rest intervals in trained men using creatine supplementation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of the current study was to compare strength and hypertrophy responses to resistance training programs that instituted constant rest intervals (CI) and decreasing rest intervals (DI) between sets over the course of eight weeks by trained men who supplemented with creatine monohydrate (CR). Methods Twenty-two recreationally trained men were randomly assigned to a CI group (n = 11; 22.3 ± 1 years; 77.7 ± 5.4 kg; 180 ± 2.2 cm) or a DI group (n = 11; 22 ± 2.5 years; 75.8 ± 4.9 kg; 178.8 ± 3.4 cm). Subjects in both groups supplemented with CR; the only difference between groups was the rest interval instituted between sets; the CI group used 2 minutes rest intervals between sets and exercises for the entire 8-weeks of training, while the DI group started with a 2 minute rest interval the first two weeks; after which the rest interval between sets was decreased 15 seconds per week (i.e. 2 minutes decreasing to 30 seconds between sets). Pre- and post-intervention maximal strength for the free weight back squat and bench press exercises and isokinetic peak torque were assessed for the knee extensors and flexors. Additionally, muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) of the right thigh and upper arm was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Results Both groups demonstrated significant increases in back squat and bench press maximal strength, knee extensor and flexor isokinetic peak torque, and upper arm and right thigh CSA from pre- to post-training (p ≤ 0.0001); however, there were no significant differences between groups for any of these variables. The total volume for the bench press and back squat were significantly greater for CI group versus the DI group. Conclusions We report that the combination of CR supplementation and resistance training can increase muscular strength, isokinetic peak torque, and muscle CSA, irrespective of the rest interval length between sets. Because the volume of training was greater for the CI group versus the

  6. The Epidemiology of Overuse Conditions in Youth Football and High School Football Players.

    PubMed

    Morris, Kevin; Simon, Janet; Grooms, Dustin R; Starkey, Chad; Dompier, Thomas P; Kerr, Zachary Y

    2017-09-26

      High-intensity sport training at the youth level has led to increased concern for overuse conditions. Few researchers have examined overuse conditions in youth sports.   To examine the rates, risks, and distributions of overuse conditions between youth and high school football players.   Descriptive epidemiologic study.   Youth and high school football teams.   The Youth Football Safety Study (YFSS) investigated youth football athletes from age 5 to 14 years. The National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION) focused on high school football athletes 14 to 18 years old. The YFSS data consisted of 210 team-seasons, and the NATION data consisted of 138 team-seasons.   Athletic trainers collected football injury and exposure data during the 2012 and 2013 seasons. Injury rates, risks, and distributions were calculated, with injury rate ratios, risk ratios, and injury proportion ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing high school and youth football players.   The YFSS reported 1488 injuries, of which 53 (3.6%) were overuse conditions. The NATION reported 12 013 injuries, of which 339 (2.8%) were overuse conditions. The overuse condition rate did not differ between high school and youth football (3.93 versus 3.72/10 000 athlete exposures; injury rate ratio = 1.06; 95% CI = 0.79, 1.41). However, the 1-season risk of overuse condition was higher in high school than in youth football players (2.66% versus 1.05%; risk ratio = 2.53; 95% CI = 1.84, 3.47). Compared with high school football players, youth football players had greater proportions of overuse conditions that were nontime loss (ie, <24 hours participation-restriction time; 83.0% versus 67.0%; injury proportion ratio = 1.24; 95% CI = 1.07, 1.43) and affecting the lower extremity (92.5% versus 62.5%; injury proportion ratio = 1.48; 95% CI = 1.32, 1.65).   Overuse conditions may not present a primary concern in youth and high school football players. However

  7. Measuring tactical behaviour in football.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, J; Maçãs, V

    2012-05-01

    The present study explored how football players' dynamic positional data can be used to assess tactical behaviour by measuring movement patterns and inter-player coordination. A pre post-test design was used to assess the effects of a 13-week constructivist and cognitivist training program by measuring behaviour in a 5 × 5 football small-sided game, played on a 60 × 40 m outdoor natural turf pitch. Data was captured at 5 Hz by GPS devices (SPI Pro, GPSports, Canberra, Australia) and analysed with non-linear signal processing methods. Approximate entropy values were lower in post-test situations suggesting that these time series became more regular with increasing expertise in football. Relative phase post-test values showed frequent periods with a clear trend to moving in anti-phase, as measured by players' distance to the centre of the team. These advances may open new research topics under the tactical scope and allow narrowing the gap between sports sciences and sports coaching. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Assessment of decision-making performance and in-game physical exertion of Australian football umpires.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Paul; O'Brien, Brendan; Mesagno, Christopher; Berry, Jason; Harvey, Jack; Spittle, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of in-game physical exertion on decision-making performance of Australian football umpires. Fifteen Australian football umpires (Mage = 36, s = 13.5 years; Mgames umpired = 235.2, s = 151.3) volunteered to participate in the study. During five competitive Australian football pre-season games, measures of in-game physical exertion (blood lactate levels, global positioning system [GPS]) and decision-making performance (video-based test) were obtained. There were no significant correlations between physical exertion in a particular quarter and decision-making performance in either the same quarter or any other quarter. Video-based decision-making performance was effected by time in game χ(2)(3) = 24.24, P = 0.001, with Quarter 4 performance significantly better than both Quarter 2 and Quarter 3. In-game physical exertion (blood lactate) significantly decreased over the course of the game χ(2)(3) = 11.58, P = 0.009. Results indicate no definable link between in-game physical exertion and decision-making performance. It is, however, presumed that decision-making performance may be affected by the time or context of the game. Future research is warranted to explore the relationship between physical exertion and decision-making performance to potentially inform Australian football umpire training programmes that replicate in-game physical and decision-making demands.

  9. Strength Training Decreases Inflammation and Increases Cognition and Physical Fitness in Older Women with Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Chupel, Matheus U; Direito, Fábio; Furtado, Guilherme E; Minuzzi, Luciéle G; Pedrosa, Filipa M; Colado, Juan C; Ferreira, José P; Filaire, Edith; Teixeira, Ana M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cognitive impairment that affects older adults is commonly associated with an inflammatory imbalance, resulting in decreased physical fitness. Exercise has been pointed to mitigate immunosenescence and cognitive impairment associated with aging, while increase in physical fitness. However, few studies explored the relationship between changes in cytokine concentration and improvement on cognition due to elastic band strength training. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of strength training on pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines, hematological markers and physical fitness of older women with cognitive impairment. Methods: Thirty-three women (82.7 ± 5.7 years old) participated in the study and were divided in two groups: strength exercise training group (ST; n = 16) and Control Group (CG; n = 17) and were evaluated before and after 28 weeks of the exercise program. The CG did not undergo any type of exercise programs. Data for IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, C-Reactive Protein (CRP), white blood counts (WBC), red blood counts (RBC), Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and physical fitness tests were analyzed in both moments. Results: IL-10 increased in the ST group without changes in CG. TNF-α and CRP increased in the control group while no changes were observed for IFN-γ in both groups. Strength training decreased leukocyte and lymphocyte counts and increase hemoglobin, mean cell volume and mean cell hemoglobin concentration. The MMSE score increased in strength training group but remained unchanged in the control group. A correlation between the variation of granulocyte counts and the MMSE scores was also observed within the total sample. An improvement in physical fitness was observed with strength training. Conclusion: Resistance exercise promoted better anti-inflammatory balance and physical performance simultaneously with an increase in cognitive profile in older women with cognitive impairment.

  10. Strength Training Decreases Inflammation and Increases Cognition and Physical Fitness in Older Women with Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Chupel, Matheus U.; Direito, Fábio; Furtado, Guilherme E.; Minuzzi, Luciéle G.; Pedrosa, Filipa M.; Colado, Juan C.; Ferreira, José P.; Filaire, Edith; Teixeira, Ana M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cognitive impairment that affects older adults is commonly associated with an inflammatory imbalance, resulting in decreased physical fitness. Exercise has been pointed to mitigate immunosenescence and cognitive impairment associated with aging, while increase in physical fitness. However, few studies explored the relationship between changes in cytokine concentration and improvement on cognition due to elastic band strength training. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of strength training on pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines, hematological markers and physical fitness of older women with cognitive impairment. Methods: Thirty-three women (82.7 ± 5.7 years old) participated in the study and were divided in two groups: strength exercise training group (ST; n = 16) and Control Group (CG; n = 17) and were evaluated before and after 28 weeks of the exercise program. The CG did not undergo any type of exercise programs. Data for IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, C-Reactive Protein (CRP), white blood counts (WBC), red blood counts (RBC), Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and physical fitness tests were analyzed in both moments. Results: IL-10 increased in the ST group without changes in CG. TNF-α and CRP increased in the control group while no changes were observed for IFN-γ in both groups. Strength training decreased leukocyte and lymphocyte counts and increase hemoglobin, mean cell volume and mean cell hemoglobin concentration. The MMSE score increased in strength training group but remained unchanged in the control group. A correlation between the variation of granulocyte counts and the MMSE scores was also observed within the total sample. An improvement in physical fitness was observed with strength training. Conclusion: Resistance exercise promoted better anti-inflammatory balance and physical performance simultaneously with an increase in cognitive profile in older women with cognitive impairment. PMID:28659812

  11. Tactical expertise assessment in youth football using representative tasks.

    PubMed

    Serra-Olivares, Jaime; Clemente, Filipe Manuel; González-Víllora, Sixto

    2016-01-01

    Specific football drills improve the development of technical/tactical and physical variables in players. Based on this principle, in recent years it has been possible to observe in daily training a growing volume of small-sided and conditioned games. These games are smaller and modified forms of formal games that augment players' perception of specific tactics. Despite this approach, the assessment of players' knowledge and tactical execution has not been well documented, due mainly to the difficulty in measuring tactical behavior. For that reason, this study aims to provide a narrative review about the tactical assessment of football training by using representative tasks to measure the tactical expertise of youth football players during small-sided and conditioned games. This study gives an overview of the ecological approach to training and the principles used for representative task design, providing relevant contribution and direction for future research into the assessment of tactical expertise in youth football.

  12. Football Fans in Training: the development and optimization of an intervention delivered through professional sports clubs to help men lose weight, become more active and adopt healthier eating habits.

    PubMed

    Gray, Cindy M; Hunt, Kate; Mutrie, Nanette; Anderson, Annie S; Leishman, Jim; Dalgarno, Lindsay; Wyke, Sally

    2013-03-16

    The prevalence of obesity in men is rising, but they are less likely than women to engage in existing weight management programmes. The potential of professional sports club settings to engage men in health promotion activities is being increasingly recognised. This paper describes the development and optimization of the Football Fans in Training (FFIT) programme, which aims to help overweight men (many of them football supporters) lose weight through becoming more active and adopting healthier eating habits. The MRC Framework for the design and evaluation of complex interventions was used to guide programme development in two phases. In Phase 1, a multidisciplinary working group developed the pilot programme (p-FFIT) and used a scoping review to summarize previous research and identify the target population. Phase 2 involved a process evaluation of p-FFIT in 11 Scottish Premier League (SPL) clubs. Participant and coach feedback, focus group discussions and interviews explored the utility/acceptability of programme components and suggestions for changes. Programme session observations identified examples of good practice and problems/issues with delivery. Together, these findings informed redevelopment of the optimized programme (FFIT), whose components were mapped onto specific behaviour change techniques using an evidence-based taxonomy. p-FFIT comprised 12, weekly, gender-sensitised, group-based weight management classroom and 'pitch-side' physical activity sessions. These in-stadia sessions were complemented by an incremental, pedometer-based walking programme. p-FFIT was targeted at men aged 35-65 years with body mass index ≥ 27 kg/m(2). Phase 2 demonstrated that participants in p-FFIT were enthusiastic about both the classroom and physical activity components, and valued the camaraderie and peer-support offered by the programme. Coaches appreciated the simplicity of the key healthy eating and physical activity messages. Suggestions for improvements that

  13. Football Fans in Training: the development and optimization of an intervention delivered through professional sports clubs to help men lose weight, become more active and adopt healthier eating habits

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity in men is rising, but they are less likely than women to engage in existing weight management programmes. The potential of professional sports club settings to engage men in health promotion activities is being increasingly recognised. This paper describes the development and optimization of the Football Fans in Training (FFIT) programme, which aims to help overweight men (many of them football supporters) lose weight through becoming more active and adopting healthier eating habits. Methods The MRC Framework for the design and evaluation of complex interventions was used to guide programme development in two phases. In Phase 1, a multidisciplinary working group developed the pilot programme (p-FFIT) and used a scoping review to summarize previous research and identify the target population. Phase 2 involved a process evaluation of p-FFIT in 11 Scottish Premier League (SPL) clubs. Participant and coach feedback, focus group discussions and interviews explored the utility/acceptability of programme components and suggestions for changes. Programme session observations identified examples of good practice and problems/issues with delivery. Together, these findings informed redevelopment of the optimized programme (FFIT), whose components were mapped onto specific behaviour change techniques using an evidence-based taxonomy. Results p-FFIT comprised 12, weekly, gender-sensitised, group-based weight management classroom and ‘pitch-side’ physical activity sessions. These in-stadia sessions were complemented by an incremental, pedometer-based walking programme. p-FFIT was targeted at men aged 35-65 years with body mass index ≥ 27 kg/m2. Phase 2 demonstrated that participants in p-FFIT were enthusiastic about both the classroom and physical activity components, and valued the camaraderie and peer-support offered by the programme. Coaches appreciated the simplicity of the key healthy eating and physical activity messages

  14. Tackling in Youth Football.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    American football remains one of the most popular sports for young athletes. The injuries sustained during football, especially those to the head and neck, have been a topic of intense interest recently in both the public media and medical literature. The recognition of these injuries and the potential for long-term sequelae have led some physicians to call for a reduction in the number of contact practices, a postponement of tackling until a certain age, and even a ban on high school football. This statement reviews the literature regarding injuries in football, particularly those of the head and neck, the relationship between tackling and football-related injuries, and the potential effects of limiting or delaying tackling on injury risk.

  15. Using quality improvement to decrease birth asphyxia rates after 'Helping Babies Breathe' training in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Rule, Amy R L; Maina, Esther; Cheruiyot, David; Mueri, Priscilla; Simmons, Jeffrey M; Kamath-Rayne, Beena D

    2017-10-01

    The Helping Babies Breathe (HBB) programme is known to decrease neonatal mortality in low-resource settings but gaps in care still exist. This study describes the use of quality improvement to sustain gains in birth asphyxia-related mortality after HBB. Tenwek Hospital, a rural referral hospital in Kenya, identified high rates of birth asphyxia (BA). They developed a goal to decrease the suspected hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (SHIE) rate by 50% within six months after HBB. Rapid cycles of change were used to test interventions including training, retention and engagement for staff/trainees and improved data collection. Run charts followed the rate over time, and chi-square analysis was used. Ninety-six providers received HBB from September to November 2014. Over 4000 delivery records were reviewed. Ten months of baseline data showed a median SHIE rate of 14.7/1000 live births (LB) with wide variability. Ten months post-HBB, the SHIE rate decreased by 53% to 7.1/1000 LB (p = 0.01). SHIE rates increased after initial decline; investigation determined that half the trained midwives had been transferred. Presenting data to administration resulted in staff retention. Rates have after remained above goal with narrowing control limits. Focused quality improvement can sustain and advance gains in neonatal outcomes post-HBB training. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Kata techniques training consistently decreases stereotypy in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Fatimah; Movahedi, Ahmadreza; Marandi, Sayed Mohammad; Abedi, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    The effects of 14 weeks of Kata techniques training on stereotypic behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were investigated. The study included 30 eligible (diagnosed ASD, school age) children with ages ranging from 5 to 16 years whom they assigned to an exercise (n=15) or a no-exercise control group (n=15). Participants of the exercise group received Kata techniques instruction four times per week for 14 weeks (56 sessions). Stereotypy was assessed at baseline (pre-intervention), week 14 (post-intervention), and at one month follow up in both groups. Results showed that Kata techniques training significantly reduced stereotypy in the exercise group. Following participation in Kata techniques training, stereotypy decreased from baseline levels by a M of 42.54% across participants. Interestingly, after 30 days of no practice, stereotypy in the exercise group remained significantly decreased compared to pre-intervention time. The participants of the control group did not show significant changes in the stereotypy. Teaching martial arts techniques to children with ASD for a long period of time consistently decreased their stereotypic behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mindfulness Training in Primary Schools Decreases Negative Affect and Increases Meta-Cognition in Children

    PubMed Central

    Vickery, Charlotte E.; Dorjee, Dusana

    2016-01-01

    Studies investigating the feasibility and impact of mindfulness programs on emotional well-being when delivered by school teachers in pre-adolescence are scarce. This study reports the findings of a controlled feasibility pilot which assessed acceptability and emotional well-being outcomes of an 8-week mindfulness program (Paws b) for children aged 7–9 years. The program was delivered by school teachers within a regular school curriculum. Emotional well-being was measured using self-report questionnaires at baseline, post-training and 3 months follow-up, and informant reports were collected at baseline and follow-up. Seventy one participants aged 7–9 years were recruited from three primary schools in the UK (training group n = 33; control group n = 38). Acceptability of the program was high with 76% of children in the training group reporting ‘liking’ practicing mindfulness at school, with a strong link to wanting to continue practicing mindfulness at school (p < 0.001). Self-report comparisons revealed that relative to controls, the training group showed significant decreases in negative affect at follow-up, with a large effect size (p = 0.010, d = 0.84). Teacher reports (but not parental ratings) of meta-cognition also showed significant improvements at follow-up with a large effect size (p = 0.002, d = 1.08). Additionally, significant negative correlations were found between changes in mindfulness and emotion regulation scores from baseline to post-training (p = 0.038) and baseline to follow-up (p = 0.033). Findings from this study provide initial evidence that the Paws b program in children aged 7–9 years (a) can be feasibly delivered by primary school teachers as part of the regular curriculum, (b) is acceptable to the majority of children, and (c) may significantly decrease negative affect and improve meta-cognition. PMID:26793145

  18. The Preventing Australian Football Injuries with Exercise (PAFIX) Study: a group randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Finch, C; Lloyd, D; Elliott, B

    2009-01-01

    Background: Knee injuries are a major injury concern for Australian Football players and participants of many other sports worldwide. There is increasing evidence from laboratory and biomechanically focused studies about the likely benefit of targeted exercise programmes to prevent knee injuries. However, there have been few international studies that have evaluated the effectiveness of such programmes in the real-world context of community sport that have combined epidemiological, behavioural and biomechanical approaches. Objective: To implement a fully piloted and tested exercise training intervention to reduce the number of football-related knee injuries. In so doing, to evaluate the intervention’s effectiveness in the real-world context of community football and to determine if the underlying neural and biomechanical training adaptations are associated with decreased risk of injury. Setting: Adult players from community-level Australian Football clubs in two Australian states over the 2007–08 playing seasons. Methods: A group-clustered randomised controlled trial with teams of players randomly allocated to either a coach-delivered targeted exercise programme or usual behaviour (control). Epidemiological component: field-based injury surveillance and monitoring of training/game exposures. Behavioural component: evaluation of player and coach attitudes, knowledge, behaviours and compliance, both before and after the intervention is implemented. Biomechanical component: biomechanical, game mobility and neuromuscular parameters assessed to determine the fundamental effect of training on these factors and injury risk. Outcome measures: The rate and severity of injury in the intervention group compared with the control group. Changes, if any, in behavioural components. Process evaluation: coach delivery factors and likely sustainability. PMID:19494090

  19. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Players' Perceptions of Women in the Athletic Training Room Using a Role Congruity Framework

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Caitlin; Grappendorf, Heidi; Burton, Laura; Harmon, Sandra M.; Henderson, Angela C.; Peel, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Previous researchers have demonstrated that male and female athletes feel more comfortable with treatment by a same-sex athletic trainer for sex-specific injuries and conditions. Objective: To address football players' comfort with care provided by same-sex and opposite-sex athletic trainers for sex-specific and non–sex-specific injuries and conditions through the lens of role congruity theory. Design: Cross-sectional study for the quantitative data and qualitative study for the qualitative data. Setting: Two National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Bowl Series university football programs. Patients or Other Participants: Male football players within the 2 university programs. Data Collection and Analysis: We replicated existing methods and an existing survey to address male football players' comfort levels. Additionally, an open-ended question was used to determine male football players' perceptions of female athletic trainers. Paired-samples t tests were conducted to identify differences between the responses for the care given by a male athletic trainer and for the care given by a female athletic trainer. Three categories were analyzed: general medical conditions, psychological conditions, and sex-specific injuries. The qualitative data were coded and analyzed using content analysis. Results: Male football players were more comfortable with treatment by a male athletic trainer (mean  =  3.61 ± 1.16) for sex-specific injuries and conditions than they were with treatment by a female athletic trainer (mean  =  2.82 ± 1.27; P < .001). No significant results were found for comfort with overall psychological conditions, although a female athletic trainer was preferred over a male athletic trainer for the treatment of depression (mean  =  3.71 ± 1.07 versus mean  =  3.39 ± 1.16, respectively; P < .001). Qualitative data provided support for role congruity theory. Conclusions: Both quantitative and qualitative

  20. Nutrition and Gaelic football: review, recommendations, and future considerations.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Kevin J

    2015-02-01

    Gaelic football is the second most popular team sport in Ireland in terms of participation. However, very little research exists on the nutritional considerations for elite male Gaelic footballers. Gaelic football is an intermittent type field game played by two teams of fifteen players. Although amateurs, elite players may train and compete 4-5 times per week and may play for several teams. Research suggests that elite footballers are similar anthropometrically and in fitness to professional soccer players. Work-rate analysis shows that footballers experience longer durations of high-intensity (HI) activity (5-7s) and shorter rest durations than soccer players. Recent data suggests that half-forward/backs perform a greater amount of HI work during games than players in other positions. Fatigue is apparent between the first and second halves and the first and fourth quarters. The limited amount of nutritional studies conducted implies that footballers may be deficient in energy intake and may be at the lower end of recommended carbohydrate intakes to support training. A wide variety of sweat rates have been measured during training, demonstrating the importance of individual hydration strategies. Ergogenic aids such as creatine and caffeine may prove beneficial to performance, although data are extrapolated from other sports. Due to the lack of research in Gaelic football, further population specific studies are required. Future areas of research on the impact of nutrition on Gaelic football performance are examined. In particular, the creation of a test protocol mimicking the activity patterns and intensity of a Gaelic football game is warranted.

  1. Balance Training Exercises Decrease Lower-Limb Strength Asymmetry in Young Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Sannicandro, Italo; Cofano, Giacomo; Rosa, Rosa A.; Piccinno, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The issue of functional asymmetries in the lower-limbs has been the subject of numerous recent investigations concerning many different contact, limited-contact and non-contact sports. The presence of strength asymmetries in the lower-limbs of young athletes practicing various sporting disciplines is considered an intrinsic risk factor for injury; in such cases, compensation strategies should thus be implemented aimed at eliminating, or at least limiting, the degree of asymmetry in order to avoid the negative consequences asymmetries can have upon the health of young sportsmen and women on the long-term. The aim of the present study was to examine the presence of functional asymmetries in the lower-limbs of young tennis players in strength and speed drill performance and to test a specific balance-training programme in its capacity to effectively reduce such asymmetries. Twenty-three young tennis players were randomly assigned to the Experimental Group (EG) (n = 11: 4 females, 7 males; 13.2 ± 0.9 years; 50.8 ± 8.9 Kg; 1.63 ± 0.08 m) or Comparison Group (CG) (n = 12: 4 females, 8 males; 13.0 ± 0.9 years; 51.1 ± 9.2 Kg; 1.61 ± 0.09 m). To quantify percent asymmetries in lower-limb strength before (T0) and following (T1) training, performances were assessed in the one-leg hop test (OLH), side-hop test (SH) and side steps and forward 4.115-m test (4m-SSF). Performances in the 10 and 20m sprint tests and the Foran test were also assessed. The EG completed a total of 12 training sessions directed at balance training: two 30-minute sessions/week over a 6-week period. The CG followed an identical training schedule, but training sessions consisted of tennis-specific drills only. The results reveal significant differences between pre- and post-training tests in the EG only: the degree of lower-limb asymmetry was decreased in the EG following completion of the training programme, as assessed using the OLH test (p < 0.001), SH test (p < 0.001) and 4m-SSF test (p < 0

  2. Balance training exercises decrease lower-limb strength asymmetry in young tennis players.

    PubMed

    Sannicandro, Italo; Cofano, Giacomo; Rosa, Rosa A; Piccinno, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    The issue of functional asymmetries in the lower-limbs has been the subject of numerous recent investigations concerning many different contact, limited-contact and non-contact sports. The presence of strength asymmetries in the lower-limbs of young athletes practicing various sporting disciplines is considered an intrinsic risk factor for injury; in such cases, compensation strategies should thus be implemented aimed at eliminating, or at least limiting, the degree of asymmetry in order to avoid the negative consequences asymmetries can have upon the health of young sportsmen and women on the long-term. The aim of the present study was to examine the presence of functional asymmetries in the lower-limbs of young tennis players in strength and speed drill performance and to test a specific balance-training programme in its capacity to effectively reduce such asymmetries. Twenty-three young tennis players were randomly assigned to the Experimental Group (EG) (n = 11: 4 females, 7 males; 13.2 ± 0.9 years; 50.8 ± 8.9 Kg; 1.63 ± 0.08 m) or Comparison Group (CG) (n = 12: 4 females, 8 males; 13.0 ± 0.9 years; 51.1 ± 9.2 Kg; 1.61 ± 0.09 m). To quantify percent asymmetries in lower-limb strength before (T0) and following (T1) training, performances were assessed in the one-leg hop test (OLH), side-hop test (SH) and side steps and forward 4.115-m test (4m-SSF). Performances in the 10 and 20m sprint tests and the Foran test were also assessed. The EG completed a total of 12 training sessions directed at balance training: two 30-minute sessions/week over a 6-week period. The CG followed an identical training schedule, but training sessions consisted of tennis-specific drills only. The results reveal significant differences between pre- and post-training tests in the EG only: the degree of lower-limb asymmetry was decreased in the EG following completion of the training programme, as assessed using the OLH test (p < 0.001), SH test (p < 0.001) and 4m-SSF test (p < 0

  3. Mindful decision making and inhibitory control training as complementary means to decrease snack consumption.

    PubMed

    Forman, Evan M; Shaw, Jena A; Goldstein, Stephanie P; Butryn, Meghan L; Martin, Lindsay M; Meiran, Nachshon; Crosby, Ross D; Manasse, Stephanie M

    2016-08-01

    Obesity is largely attributable to excess caloric intake, in particular from "junk" foods, including salty snack foods. Evidence suggests that neurobiological preferences to consume highly hedonic foods translate (via implicit processes) into poor eating choices, unless overturned by inhibitory mechanisms or interrupted by explicit processes. The primary aim of the current study was to test the independent and combinatory effects of a computerized inhibitory control training (ICT) and a mindful decision-making training (MDT) designed to facilitate de-automatization. We randomized 119 habitual salty snack food eaters to one of four short, training conditions: MDT, ICT, both MDT and ICT, or neither (i.e., psychoeducation). For 7 days prior to the intervention and 7 days following the intervention, participants reported on their salty snack food consumption 2 times per day, on 3 portions of their days, using a smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment system. Susceptibility to emotional eating cues was measured at baseline. Results indicated that the effect of MDT was consistent across levels of trait emotional eating, whereas the benefit of ICT was apparent only at lower levels of emotional eating. No synergistic effect of MDT and ICT was detected. These results provide qualified support for the efficacy of both types of training for decreasing hedonically-motivated eating. Moderation effects suggest that those who eat snack foods for reasons unconnected to affective experiences (i.e., lower in emotional eating) may derive benefit from a combination of ICT and MDT. Future research should investigate the additive benefit of de-automization training to standard weight loss interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mindfulness Training in Primary Schools Decreases Negative Affect and Increases Meta-Cognition in Children.

    PubMed

    Vickery, Charlotte E; Dorjee, Dusana

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating the feasibility and impact of mindfulness programs on emotional well-being when delivered by school teachers in pre-adolescence are scarce. This study reports the findings of a controlled feasibility pilot which assessed acceptability and emotional well-being outcomes of an 8-week mindfulness program (Paws b) for children aged 7-9 years. The program was delivered by school teachers within a regular school curriculum. Emotional well-being was measured using self-report questionnaires at baseline, post-training and 3 months follow-up, and informant reports were collected at baseline and follow-up. Seventy one participants aged 7-9 years were recruited from three primary schools in the UK (training group n = 33; control group n = 38). Acceptability of the program was high with 76% of children in the training group reporting 'liking' practicing mindfulness at school, with a strong link to wanting to continue practicing mindfulness at school (p < 0.001). Self-report comparisons revealed that relative to controls, the training group showed significant decreases in negative affect at follow-up, with a large effect size (p = 0.010, d = 0.84). Teacher reports (but not parental ratings) of meta-cognition also showed significant improvements at follow-up with a large effect size (p = 0.002, d = 1.08). Additionally, significant negative correlations were found between changes in mindfulness and emotion regulation scores from baseline to post-training (p = 0.038) and baseline to follow-up (p = 0.033). Findings from this study provide initial evidence that the Paws b program in children aged 7-9 years (a) can be feasibly delivered by primary school teachers as part of the regular curriculum, (b) is acceptable to the majority of children, and

  5. Full-Contact Practice and Injuries in College Football.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Mark E; Berkstresser, Brant D; Richardson, Lars; Elia, Greg; Wang, Frank

    Despite recent restrictions being placed on practice in college football, there are little data to correlate such changes with injuries. Football injuries will correlate with a team's exposure to full-contact practice, total practice, and total games. Descriptive epidemiological study. All injuries and athlete injury exposures (AE × Min = athletes exposed × activity duration in minutes) were recorded for an intercollegiate football team over 4 consecutive fall seasons. Weekly injuries and injury rates (injuries per athletic injury exposure) were correlated with the weekly exposures to full-contact practices, total practices, formal scrimmages, and games. The preseason practice injury rate was over twice the in-season practice injury rate ( P < 0.001). For preseason, injury exposures were higher for full-contact practice ( P = 0.0166), total practices ( P = 0.015), and scrimmages/games ( P = 0.034) compared with in-season. Preseason and in-season practice injuries correlated with exposure to full-contact practice combined with scrimmages for preseason ( P < 0.008) and full-contact practice combined with games for in-season ( P = 0.0325). The game injury rate was over 6 times greater than the practice injury rate ( P < 0.0001). Concussions constituted 14.5% of all injuries, and the incidence of concussions correlated with the incidence of all injuries ( P = 0.0001). Strength training did not correlate with injuries. Decreased exposure to full-contact practice may decrease the incidence of practice injuries and practice concussions. However, the game injury rate was over 6 times greater than the practice injury rate and had an inverse correlation with full-contact practice.

  6. Full-Contact Practice and Injuries in College Football

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Mark E.; Berkstresser, Brant D.; Richardson, Lars; Elia, Greg; Wang, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite recent restrictions being placed on practice in college football, there are little data to correlate such changes with injuries. Hypothesis: Football injuries will correlate with a team’s exposure to full-contact practice, total practice, and total games. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: All injuries and athlete injury exposures (AE × Min = athletes exposed × activity duration in minutes) were recorded for an intercollegiate football team over 4 consecutive fall seasons. Weekly injuries and injury rates (injuries per athletic injury exposure) were correlated with the weekly exposures to full-contact practices, total practices, formal scrimmages, and games. Results: The preseason practice injury rate was over twice the in-season practice injury rate (P < 0.001). For preseason, injury exposures were higher for full-contact practice (P = 0.0166), total practices (P = 0.015), and scrimmages/games (P = 0.034) compared with in-season. Preseason and in-season practice injuries correlated with exposure to full-contact practice combined with scrimmages for preseason (P < 0.008) and full-contact practice combined with games for in-season (P = 0.0325). The game injury rate was over 6 times greater than the practice injury rate (P < 0.0001). Concussions constituted 14.5% of all injuries, and the incidence of concussions correlated with the incidence of all injuries (P = 0.0001). Strength training did not correlate with injuries. Conclusion: Decreased exposure to full-contact practice may decrease the incidence of practice injuries and practice concussions. However, the game injury rate was over 6 times greater than the practice injury rate and had an inverse correlation with full-contact practice. PMID:26755741

  7. A physiological review of American football.

    PubMed

    Pincivero, D M; Bompa, T O

    1997-04-01

    American football has been one of the most popular sports in North America within the past century and has recently received support and increased participation from European nations. Two of the biggest concerns regarding participation in American football are the high incidence of injury and the physical demand for preparation. A basic understanding of the physiological systems utilised in the sport of football is necessary in order to develop optimal training programmes geared specifically for preparation as well as the requirements of individual field positions. Previously, it has been assumed that football relies primarily on an anaerobic source of energy for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) resynthesis with approximately 90% coming from the phosphocreatine (PCr) energy system. In lieu of research conducted specifically with football players, it appears that the energy contribution from the anaerobic glycolytic pathway in this sport has been underestimated. The elevated blood lactate levels observed in football players following game participation cast doubt on this hypothesis. Identifying position specific characteristics may also enhance the development of training programmes based on the requirements of the different positions. It appears that offensive and defensive linemen are generally larger, have higher levels of percent body fat and have greater absolute strength scores than all other positions. Offensive backs, defensive backs and wide receivers tend to display the lowest percentages of body fat, lower absolute strength scores, fastest times over 5, 10, 40 and 300m and the highest relative VO2max values. Linebackers appeared to represent a transition group mid way between the backs and linemen for size, body composition, strength, speed and endurance as well as positional duties. Findings within the literature suggest that a lack of cardiovascular development of university and professional football players may prove to be a hindrance to performance with

  8. Upper extremity sensorimotor control among collegiate football players.

    PubMed

    Laudner, Kevin G

    2012-03-01

    Injuries stemming from shoulder instability are very common among athletes participating in contact sports, such as football. Previous research has shown that increased laxity negatively affects the function of the sensorimotor system potentially leading to a pathological cycle of shoulder dysfunction. Currently, there are no data detailing such effects among football players. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the differences in upper extremity sensorimotor control among football players compared with that of a control group. Forty-five collegiate football players and 70 male control subjects with no previous experience in contact sports participated. All the subjects had no recent history of upper extremity injury. Each subject performed three 30-second upper extremity balance trials on each arm. The balance trials were conducted in a single-arm push-up position with the test arm in the center of a force platform and the subjects' feet on a labile device. The trials were averaged, and the differences in radial area deviation between groups were analyzed using separate 1-way analyses of variance (p < 0.05). The football players showed significantly more radial area deviation of the dominant (0.41 ± 1.23 cm2, p = 0.02) and nondominant arms (0.47 ± 1.63 cm2, p = 0.03) when compared with the control group. These results suggest that football players may have decreased sensorimotor control of the upper extremity compared with individuals with no contact sport experience. The decreased upper extremity sensorimotor control among the football players may be because of the frequent impacts accumulated during football participation. Football players may benefit from exercises that target the sensorimotor system. These findings may also be beneficial in the evaluation and treatment of various upper extremity injuries among football players.

  9. Myocardial Na+/H+ exchanger-1 (NHE1) content is decreased by exercise training.

    PubMed

    Feger, Bryan J; Starnes, Joseph W

    2013-06-01

    The effect of exercise training on myocardial Na(+)/H(+) exchanger-1 (NHE1) protein expression was examined. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sedentary (S; n = 8) and exercised (E; n = 9) groups. Twenty-four hours after the last exercise bout, hearts were weighed and connected to an isolated perfused working heart apparatus for evaluation of cardiac functional performance. Heart weight and heart weight/body weight from E rats was significantly increased by 7.1 and 7.2 % (P < 0.05), respectively, compared with S hearts. The E hearts displayed 15 % greater cardiac output and 35 % external cardiac work compared with the S group at both low and high workloads (P < 0.05 for both parameters). Left ventricular tissue from the same hearts was homogenized and NHE1 and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) content determined by Western blotting. E hearts had a 38 % (P < 0.001) reduction in NHE1 content related to S hearts, and there was no difference in NCX content between groups. Cytochrome c oxidase activity in plantaris increased by 100 % (P < 0.05) and was assessed as a marker of mitochondria content and to verify training status. Our data indicate that exercise training at an intensity that results in cardiac hypertrophy and improved performance is accompanied by decreased NHE1 content in heart.

  10. Atkins diet program rapidly decreases atherogenic index of plasma in trained adapted overweight men.

    PubMed

    Caminhotto, Rennan de Oliveira; Fonseca, Felipe Lucas Tavares da; Castro, Natalie Carolina de; Arantes, João Pedro; Sertié, Rogério Antonio Laurato

    2015-12-01

    The Atkins diet program is a great example of the application of low carbohydrate diets for obesity, with the intention of weight loss and improvement in cardiovascular risk (CV risk). A good CV risk predictor is the atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) calculated as log (TG/HDL [mmol]), which is strongly affected by serum triglycerides, which in turn is associated with the carbohydrate intake. This study determined the effect of the initial phase of Atkins diet program, consisting in 20 g/day of carbohydrate intake with positive urinary ketones measure, in AIP of 12 adult overweight trained adapted men. The AIP was calculated before and after intervention. After 14 days, BMI and triglycerides decreased significantly, while HDL-C increased. No alterations were described in LDL plasmatic concentration. Prior to the diet, 58.3% of subjects presented high CV risk and after 14 days of the diet program only 33.3% of subjects were classified as high CV risk, while more than 66% were low CV risk. The intervention was effective in 11 of 12 participants. However, in one person the dietary intervention increased AIP index. The initial phase of Atkins diet program could significantly decrease the AIP in 11 of 12 adult overweight trained adapted men. Dietary individual responses need to be more studied.

  11. Exercise training decreases gene expression of endo- and xeno-sensors in rat small intestine.

    PubMed

    Ngo Sock, Emilienne Tudor; Farahnak, Zahra; Lavoie, Jean-Marc

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that gene expression of members of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily known to act as endo- and xeno-sensors is reduced in the ileum of exercise-trained (Tr) rats. Healthy female rats were either treadmill-trained for 8 weeks, 5 times/week, or remained sedentary (Sed). Training resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in plasma free fatty acid (0.18 ± 0.01 to 0.15 ± 0.01 mmol/L) and glycerol (24.8 ± 0.8 to 18.7 ± 0.8 mg/L) concentrations. Gene expressions of NRs farnesoid X receptor (FXR; p < 0.05), liver X receptor (LXR; p < 0.05), pregnane X receptor (PXR; p < 0.01), and retinoid X receptor (RXR; p < 0.06) were reduced in the ileum of Tr compared with Sed animals. Tr was also associated with a reduction (p < 0.05) in gene expression of FXR downstream heterodimeric organite solute transporters α (OSTα) and β (OSTβ) involved in the transport of bile acids, LXR downstream genes heterodimeric ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABCG5/G8) involved in transport of absorbed cholesterol back to the lumen, and Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) involved in cholesterol absorption. These data indicate that exercise training lowers the expression of molecules involved in the defense system of the ileum against endobiotic and xenobiotic insults under normal conditions, thus, suggesting that regular exercise contributes to the intestinal maintenance of cholesterol and bile acid homeostasis.

  12. Swimming training prevents fat deposition and decreases angiotensin II-induced coronary vasoconstriction in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Endlich, Patrick Wander; Claudio, Erick Roberto Gonçalves; da Silva Gonçalves, Washington Luiz; Gouvêa, Sonia Alves; Moysés, Margareth Ribeiro; de Abreu, Glaucia Rodrigues

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the effects of chronic swimming training (ST) on the deposition of abdominal fat and vasoconstriction in response to angiotensin II (ANG II) in the coronary arterial bed of estrogen deficient rats. Twenty-eight 3-month old Wistar female rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary sham (SS), sedentary-ovariectomized (SO), swimming-trained sham (STS) and swimming-trained ovariectomized (STO). ST protocol consisted of a continuous 60-min session, with a 5% BW load attached to the tail, completed 5 days/week for 8-weeks. The retroperitoneal, parametrial, perirenal and inguinal fat pads were measured. The intrinsic heart rate (IHR), coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) and a concentration-response curve to ANG II in the coronary bed was constructed using the Langendorff preparation. Ovariectomy (OVX) significantly reduced 17-β-estradiol plasma levels in SO and STO groups (p<0.05). The STO group had a significantly reduced retroperitoneal and parametrial fat pad compared with the SO group (p<0.05). IHR values were similar in all groups; however, baseline CPP was significantly reduced in the SO, STS and STO groups compared with the SS group (p<0.05). ANG II caused vasoconstriction in the coronary bed in a concentration-dependent manner. The SO group had an increased response to ANG II when compared with all other experimental groups (p<0.05), which was prevented by 8-weeks of ST in the STO group (p<0.05). OVX increased ANG II-induced vasoconstriction in the coronary vascular bed and abdominal fat pad deposition. Eight weeks of swimming training improved these vasoconstrictor effects and decreased abdominal fat deposition in ovariectomized rats.

  13. Osteoarthritis in Football

    PubMed Central

    Salzmann, Gian M.; Preiss, Stefan; Zenobi-Wong, Marcy; Harder, Laurent P.; Maier, Dirk; Dvorák, Jirí

    2016-01-01

    Football is currently the most popular sporting activity in the world. Multiple reports have shown that a high incidence of osteoarthritis is found in football players. Evidence clearly shows that traumatic injury significantly predisposes players for such pathophysiology. Injuries are frequent in amateur as well as professional football players, with knee and ankle accounting for the most severe injuries. Many professional athletes lose playing time due to injuries and many are forced into early retirement. Posttraumatic osteoarthritis is a common finding among ex-football players with numbers well above the normal population. Today’s surgical techniques are advanced and capable of restoring the joint to a certain extent. However, a restitution ad integrum is reached only in very rare cases. Professional football players that return to play after serious injuries perform their extremely strenuous activity on morphologically compromised joints. Incomplete rehabilitation and pressure to return to play after an injurious event clearly put the athlete at an even higher risk for joint degeneration. Prevention strategies, improved surgical management, strict rehabilitation, as well as future aspects such as early suppression of inflammation, personalized medicine, and predictive genomics DNA profiling are needed to reduce incidence and improve the health perspectives of football players. PMID:28345409

  14. Analysis and evolution of head injury in football.

    PubMed

    Levy, Michael L; Ozgur, Burak M; Berry, Cherisse; Aryan, Henry E; Apuzzo, Michael L J

    2004-09-01

    To review head injury in football through historical, anatomic, and physiological analysis. We obtained data from a thorough review of the literature. The reported incidence of concussion among high school football players dropped from 19% in 1983 to 4% in 1999. During the 1997 Canadian Football League season, players with a previous loss of consciousness in football were 6.15 times more likely to experience a concussion than players without a previous loss of consciousness (P < 0.05). Players with a previous concussion in football were 5.10 times more likely to experience a concussion than players without a previous concussion (P = 0.0001). With the implementation of National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment standards, fatalities decreased by 74% and serious head injuries decreased from 4.25 per 100,000 to 0.68 per 100,000. Significant declines in both the incidence and severity of head injury have been observed. The enhanced safety records in football can be attributed to the application of more stringent tackling regulations as well as the evolving football helmet. The role of a neurosurgeon is critical in further head injury prevention and guidelines in sport.

  15. Creating Well-Being: Increased Creativity and proNGF Decrease following Quadrato Motor Training.

    PubMed

    Venditti, Sabrina; Verdone, Loredana; Pesce, Caterina; Tocci, Nicoletta; Caserta, Micaela; Ben-Soussan, Tal Dotan

    2015-01-01

    Mind-body practices (MBP) are known to induce electrophysiological and morphological changes, whereas reports related to changes of neurotrophins are surprisingly scarce. Consequently, in the current paper, we focused on the Quadrato motor training (QMT), a newly developed whole-body movement-based MBP, which has been reported to enhance creativity. Here we report the effects of 4 weeks of daily QMT on creativity and proNGF level in two interrelated studies. In Study A, we examined the effects of QMT compared with a walking training (WT) in healthy adults, utilizing the alternate uses task. In contrast with the WT, QMT resulted in increased creativity. In addition, the change in creativity negatively correlated with the change in proNGF levels. In Study B, we examined QMT effects on creativity and additional metacognitive functions in children, using a nonintervention group as control. Similar to Study A, following QMT, we found a negative correlation of proNGF with creativity, as well as working memory updating and planning ability. Together, the current results point to the relationship between increased creativity and decreased proNGF following MBP. Thus, the current research emphasizes the importance of widening the scope of examination of "MBP in motion" in relation to metacognition and well-being.

  16. Creating Well-Being: Increased Creativity and proNGF Decrease following Quadrato Motor Training

    PubMed Central

    Venditti, Sabrina; Verdone, Loredana; Pesce, Caterina; Tocci, Nicoletta; Caserta, Micaela; Ben-Soussan, Tal Dotan

    2015-01-01

    Mind-body practices (MBP) are known to induce electrophysiological and morphological changes, whereas reports related to changes of neurotrophins are surprisingly scarce. Consequently, in the current paper, we focused on the Quadrato motor training (QMT), a newly developed whole-body movement-based MBP, which has been reported to enhance creativity. Here we report the effects of 4 weeks of daily QMT on creativity and proNGF level in two interrelated studies. In Study A, we examined the effects of QMT compared with a walking training (WT) in healthy adults, utilizing the alternate uses task. In contrast with the WT, QMT resulted in increased creativity. In addition, the change in creativity negatively correlated with the change in proNGF levels. In Study B, we examined QMT effects on creativity and additional metacognitive functions in children, using a nonintervention group as control. Similar to Study A, following QMT, we found a negative correlation of proNGF with creativity, as well as working memory updating and planning ability. Together, the current results point to the relationship between increased creativity and decreased proNGF following MBP. Thus, the current research emphasizes the importance of widening the scope of examination of “MBP in motion” in relation to metacognition and well-being. PMID:26137470

  17. Aerobic exercise training-induced decrease in plasma visfatin and insulin resistance in obese female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyu-Jin; Shin, Yun-A; Lee, Kyoung-Young; Jun, Tae-Won; Song, Wook

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess differences in the levels of plasma visfatin among female adolescents and changes in plasma visfatin and insulin resistance in obese female adolescents after 12 wk of aerobic exercise training. Twenty normal-weight female students (body-mass index [BMI] < 22.9 kg/m² and body fat ≤ 29.9) and 18 obese female students (BMI ≥ 25 kg/ m² and body fat ≥ 30%) participated in this study. Eleven obese students were assigned to an exercise group and completed a 12-wk aerobic exercise-training program that included four 40- to 50-min sessions per wk with an energy expenditure of 300-400 kcal/d. Seven obese students were assigned to a control group that received no exercise sessions or dietary restriction. The plasma visfatin levels of obese female adolescents were significantly higher (p < .05) than those of the normal-weight female adolescents. The plasma visfatin levels (294.00 ± 124.74 ng/ml to 185.55 ± 67.30 ng/ml, p < .01) and insulin resistance (p < .05) were significantly reduced after 12 wk of aerobic exercise. The results suggest that aerobic exercise resulting in an energy expenditure of 1,200-1,600 kcal/wk for 12 wk decreases plasma visfatin and insulin resistance in obese female adolescents.

  18. Predicting Potential in Football Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDavid, Robert F.

    1977-01-01

    Part 1 of this study demonstrated that a test battery using football skills and motor ability test items had discriminatory power and indicated that football potential may be predicted; part 2 evaluated three different football teams from three strata of competition using the battery tested in Part 1. (MM)

  19. Resistance training decreases 24-hour blood pressure in women with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of eight weeks of resistance training (RT) on 24 hour blood pressure (BP) in patients with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods Seventeen women volunteered to participate in this study, 9 with MetS (37.0 ± 8.7 yrs; body mass 77.3 ± 9.7 kg; body mass index 30.3 ± 4.2 kg · m-2) and 8 without MetS (35.1 ± 7.2 yrs; body mass 61.3 ± 8.1 kg; body mass index 24.2 ± 2.5 kg · m-2). Individuals were subjected to eight weeks (3 times/week) of whole body RT comprised of one exercise for each main muscle group with three sets of 8–12 repetitions of each subject’s maximal load . A rest interval of one minute was allowed between sets and exercises. Twenty-four hour BP was measured by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Results Mean and diastolic night-time BP decreased (−3.9 mmHg, p = 0.04; -5.5 mmHg, p = 0.03, respectively) after eight weeks of training in MetS patients. This decrease was observed at 11:00 pm, 02:00 am (only diastolic), 07:00 am, and 6:00 pm. There was no training effect on BP in women without MetS. Conclusions Considering the elevation of BP as a contributor to the pathogenesis of MetS, and also to the increase of cardiovascular risk, this study supports RT as a non-pharmacological therapy in the management of BP control for MetS. PMID:23711286

  20. Altered plasma and erythrocyte phospholipid fatty acid profile in elite female water polo and football players.

    PubMed

    Arsić, Aleksandra; Vučić, Vesna; Tepšić, Jasna; Mazić, Sanja; Djelić, Marina; Glibetić, Marija

    2012-02-01

    The impact of chronic, intense exercise, such as in elite athletes, on phospholipids fatty acids (FA) composition has not been studied in women so far. This study aimed to investigate FA profiles in plasma and erythrocytes phospholipids in elite female water polo (N = 15) and football (N = 19) players in comparison with sedentary women. In spite of similar dietary patterns, as assessed by a food frequency questionnaire, plasma FA profile in the football players showed significantly higher proportions of stearic acid, oleic acid, and monounsaturated FA (MUFA), and significantly lower proportions of total and n-6 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) than in the water polo and control group. The water polo players had higher percentages of palmitoleic acid and arachidonic acid than the control subjects. Erythrocyte FA profile differed among groups. We found significantly higher proportion of oleic acid and MUFA in the football group than in the controls, and decreased stearic acid and elevated palmitic and palmitoleic acid in the water polo players than in the other 2 groups. Both groups of athletes had significantly lower percentages of n-6 dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, n-6 PUFA, and total PUFA compared with the controls. The estimated activities of elongase and desaturases in erythrocytes were also altered in the athletes. Our results indicate that long-term, intense physical training significantly affects FA status of plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids in women. The observed differences between the water polo and the football players suggest that the type of regular training may contribute to the altered metabolism of FA, although possible genetic differences among the 3 study groups cannot be ruled out.

  1. Palpitations and fatigue in a football player.

    PubMed

    Bassett, C P; Barile, R J; Goodfriend, M A

    1996-03-01

    An 18-year-old college football linebacker reported to the training room physician's office in early September complaining of an irregular heartbeat and lightheadedness while weightlifting. He also noted mild fever and chills and rapid fatigability during practice. He said that he had had a skin eruption several weeks earlier. He denied chest pain or pressure, near syncope or syncope, shortness of breath, or history of palpitations.

  2. Physiological responses of elite junior Australian rules footballers during match-play.

    PubMed

    Veale, James P; Pearce, Alan J

    2009-01-01

    Australian Football (AF) is Australia's major football code. Despite research in other football codes, to date, no data has been published on the physiological responses of AF players during match play. Fifteen athletes (17.28 ± 0.76 yrs) participated in four pre-season matches, sanctioned by Australian Football League (AFL) Victoria, investigating Heart Rate (HR), Blood Lactate (BLa), Core Temperature (Tcore), and Hydration status. Match HR was measured continuously using HR monitors. BLa was measured via finger prick lancet at the end of each quarter of play. Tcore was measured by use of ingestible temperature sensor and measured wirelessly at the end of each quarter of play. Hydration status was measured using refractometry, measuring urine specific gravity, and body weight pre and post-match. Environmental conditions were measured continuously during matches. Results of HR responses showed a high exertion of players in the 85-95% maximum HR range. Elevated mean BLa levels, compared to rest, were observed in all players over the duration of the matches (p = 0.007). Mean Tcore rose 0.68 °C between start and end of matches. Mean USG increased between 0.008 g/ml (p = 0.001) with mean body weight decreasing 1.88 kg (p = 0.001). This study illustrates physiological responses in junior AF players playing in the heat as well as providing physiological data for consideration by AF coaching staff when developing specific training programs. Continued research should consider physiological measurements under varying environments, and at all playing levels of AF, to ascertain full physiological responses during AF matches. Key pointsSpecific conditioning sessions for junior athletes should include high intensity bouts; greater than 85% of heart rate maximum zone.Football anaerobic conditioning activities (e.g. sprint training) should be randomised throughout training sessions to replicate demands of the game (e.g. training in a fatigued state).Coaches and fitness staff

  3. Physiological Responses of Elite Junior Australian Rules Footballers During Match-Play

    PubMed Central

    Veale, James P.; Pearce, Alan J.

    2009-01-01

    Australian Football (AF) is Australia’s major football code. Despite research in other football codes, to date, no data has been published on the physiological responses of AF players during match play. Fifteen athletes (17.28 ± 0.76 yrs) participated in four pre-season matches, sanctioned by Australian Football League (AFL) Victoria, investigating Heart Rate (HR), Blood Lactate (BLa), Core Temperature (Tcore), and Hydration status. Match HR was measured continuously using HR monitors. BLa was measured via finger prick lancet at the end of each quarter of play. Tcore was measured by use of ingestible temperature sensor and measured wirelessly at the end of each quarter of play. Hydration status was measured using refractometry, measuring urine specific gravity, and body weight pre and post-match. Environmental conditions were measured continuously during matches. Results of HR responses showed a high exertion of players in the 85-95% maximum HR range. Elevated mean BLa levels, compared to rest, were observed in all players over the duration of the matches (p = 0.007). Mean Tcore rose 0.68 °C between start and end of matches. Mean USG increased between 0.008 g/ml (p = 0.001) with mean body weight decreasing 1.88 kg (p = 0.001). This study illustrates physiological responses in junior AF players playing in the heat as well as providing physiological data for consideration by AF coaching staff when developing specific training programs. Continued research should consider physiological measurements under varying environments, and at all playing levels of AF, to ascertain full physiological responses during AF matches. Key points Specific conditioning sessions for junior athletes should include high intensity bouts; greater than 85% of heart rate maximum zone. Football anaerobic conditioning activities (e.g. sprint training) should be randomised throughout training sessions to replicate demands of the game (e.g. training in a fatigued state). Coaches and fitness

  4. A review of football injuries on third and fourth generation artificial turfs compared with natural turf.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sean; Hume, Patria A; Kara, Stephen

    2011-11-01

    rotational stiffness properties of shoe-surface interfaces, decreased impact attenuation properties of surfaces, differing foot loading patterns and detrimental physiological responses. Changing between surfaces may be a precursor for injury in soccer. In conclusion, studies have provided strong evidence for comparable rates of injury between new generation artificial turfs and natural turfs. An exception is the likely increased risk of ankle injury on third and fourth generation artificial turfs. Therefore, ankle injury prevention strategies must be a priority for athletes who play on artificial turf regularly. Clarification of effects of artificial surfaces on muscle and knee injuries are required given inconsistencies in incidence rate ratios depending on the football code, athlete, gender or match versus training.

  5. Forty-Eighth Annual Survey of Football Fatalities 1931-1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyth, Carl S.; Schindler, Richard D.

    Statistics on football fatalities from 1931 to 1979 are presented. The report shows that the number of direct fatalities has progressively decreased. This decrease is attributed to changes in the rules of football, improvement of equipment, and more careful monitoring of the activity by coaches and others in positions of responsibility. A…

  6. Forty-Eighth Annual Survey of Football Fatalities 1931-1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyth, Carl S.; Schindler, Richard D.

    Statistics on football fatalities from 1931 to 1979 are presented. The report shows that the number of direct fatalities has progressively decreased. This decrease is attributed to changes in the rules of football, improvement of equipment, and more careful monitoring of the activity by coaches and others in positions of responsibility. A…

  7. Advanced laparoscopic fellowship training decreases conversion rates during laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute biliary diseases: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Abelson, Jonathan S; Afaneh, Cheguevara; Rich, Barrie S; Dakin, Gregory; Zarnegar, Rasa; Fahey, Thomas J; Pomp, Alfons

    2015-01-01

    Acute biliary pathology is a risk factor for conversion to open surgery and increased surgical morbidity during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). The purpose of our study was to examine the impact of an advanced laparoscopic fellowship-trained surgeon on risks of conversion, surgical morbidity, and postoperative complications in this patient population. Of 1382 patients who underwent an LC from January 2008 to August 2011, 592 patients were diagnosed with an acute biliary process and were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups; those operated on by an advanced laparoscopic fellowship-trained surgeon (N=237), and those operated on by a non-laparoscopic fellowship-trained surgeon (N=355). The primary end-points were conversion rates and surgical morbidity. The secondary end-point was operative time. Fellowship-trained surgeons were more likely to perform IOC (57%) versus non-fellowship trained surgeons (20%) (p<0.0001). The conversion rate for the fellowship-trained group was significantly lower than for the non-fellowship trained group (1.7% vs 8.5%, p=0.0004). The intraoperative and postoperative complication rates for the fellowship-trained group were not significantly different. The operative time was slightly longer in the non-fellowship trained group compared to the fellowship-trained group (104 min vs 111 min, p=0.04). Our data demonstrate that advanced laparoscopic fellowship training decreases conversion rates of laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute biliary pathology. Moreover, given the lower conversion rates, patients may have experienced shorter hospitalizations. Formal advanced laparoscopic fellowship training may decrease length of stay among patients presenting with acute biliary pathology who undergo laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Training improves physical fitness and decreases CRP also in asthmatic conscripts.

    PubMed

    Juvonen, Raija; Bloigu, Aini; Peitso, Ari; Silvennoinen-Kassinen, Sylvi; Saikku, Pekka; Leinonen, Maija; Hassi, Juhani; Harju, Terttu

    2008-04-01

    To study the respiratory and physical health of young men, 224 asthmatic and 668 non-asthmatic military conscripts were recruited from the intake groups of July 2004 and January 2005 in Kajaani, Finland. Factors affecting respiratory health were elicited by a questionnaire at the beginning of the service, and results of high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) determination, peak expiratory flow (PEF), and 12-minute running test were collected at the beginning and the end of the service. Respiratory infections were diagnosed by a study physician. Upon entering military service, asthmatics had frequent exercise- and cold-related asthma symptoms (69.6% and 76.3%), and 48% of them had no medication for asthma. At the beginning, 25.8% of asthmatics and 19.1% of non-asthmatics had a poor result of less than 2,200 m (p = 0.05) in the 12-minute running test, and after 180 to 362 days of service, the corresponding percentages were 11.7% and 9.7% (p = 0.434). The levels of hsCRP, a marker of low-grade systemic inflammation, decreased significantly among both asthmatics, 1.5 (p = 0.001), and non-asthmatics, 1.6 mg/L (p < 0.001). Asthmatic men had 0.2 and non-asthmatics 0.1 respiratory infections per month (p < 0.001). In summary, asthmatic conscripts can enhance their physical fitness by training similarly to non-asthmatic ones. Their levels of hsCRP also decrease.

  9. A prospective epidemiological study of injuries in four English professional football clubs.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, R D; Fuller, C W

    1999-06-01

    To define the causes of injuries to players in English professional football during competition and training. Lost time injuries to professional and youth players were prospectively recorded by physiotherapists at four English League clubs over the period 1994 to 1997. Data recorded included information related to the injury, date and place of occurrence, type of activity, and extrinsic Playing factors. In all, 67% of all injuries occurred during competition. The overall injury frequency rate (IFR) was 8.5 injuries/1000 hours, with the IFR during competitions (27.7) being significantly (p < 0.01) higher than that during training (3.5). The IFRs for youth players were found to increase over the second half of the season, whereas they decreased for professional players. There were no significant differences in IFRs for professional and youth players during training. There were significantly (p < 0.01) injuries in competition in the 15 minute periods at the end of each half. Strains (41%), sprains (20%), and contusions (20%) represented the major types of injury. The thigh (23%), the ankle (17%), knee (14%), and lower leg (13%) represented the major locations of injury, with significantly (p < 0.01) more injuries to the dominant body side. Reinjury counted for 22% of all injuries. Only 12% of all injuries were caused by a breach of the rules of football, although player to player contact was involved in 41% of all injuries. The overall level of injury to professional footballers has been showed to be around 1000 times higher times higher than for industrial occupations generally regarded as high risk. The high level of muscle strains, in particular, indicates possible weakness in fitness training programmes and use of warming up and cooling down procedures by clubs and the need for benchmarking players' levels of fitness and performance. Increasing levels of injury to youth players as a season progresses emphasizes the importance of controlling the exposure of young

  10. Newspapers, Football & Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas City Star/Times, MO. Educational Services Dept.

    This booklet focuses on the Kansas City (Missouri) Chiefs professional football team and is designed to teach geography through the use of newspapers. In Section 1, "The Local Scene," the instructional activities help students to learn about the Kansas City metropolitan area through collecting news stories and advertisements. Section 2,…

  11. Changing the Culture: Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santo, Ricky

    2015-01-01

    In this article college football coach Ricky Santo argues that in order to change the ways of the misunderstood world of racism, one needs to acknowledge the sociocultural consciousness in society today. The sociocultural consciousness is a way to understand how people think and behave which is influenced by their race/ethnicity, social class, and…

  12. Heat Illness in Football: Current Concepts.

    PubMed

    Krohn, Austin R; Sikka, Robby; Olson, David E

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing health and safety concerns, American football remains a vastly popular sport in the United States. Unfortunately, even with increased efforts in promoting education and hydration, the incidence of death from exertional heat stroke continues to rise. General risk factors such as hydration status, obesity, fitness level, and football-specific risk factors such as timing of training camp and equipment all contribute to the development of heat illness. At the professional level, changes have been made to effectively reduce mortality from heat stroke with no deaths since August 2001. However, there have been at least 33 total deaths at the high school and collegiate levels since this time. More efforts need to be focused at these levels to mandate exertional heat illness prevention guidelines in order to reverse this trend of mortality in our younger athletes.

  13. Moderate-intensity interval training increases serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor level and decreases inflammation in Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Zoladz, J A; Majerczak, J; Zeligowska, E; Mencel, J; Jaskolski, A; Jaskolska, A; Marusiak, J

    2014-06-01

    It has been demonstrated that physical training increases serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in healthy people. The aim of this study was to establish the effect of physical training on the basal serum level of the BDNF in the Parkinson's disease patients (PD patients) in relation to their health status. Twelve PD patients (mean ± S.E.M: age 70 ± 3 years; body mass 70 ± 2 kg; height 163 ± 3 cm) performed a moderate-intensity interval training (three 1-hour training sessions weekly), lasting 8 weeks. Basal serum BDNF in the PD patients before training amounted to 10,977 ± 756 pg x mL(-1) and after 8 weeks of training it has increased to 14,206 ± 1256 pg x mL(-1) (i.e. by 34%, P=0.03). This was accompanied by an attenuation of total Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) (P=0.01). The training resulted also in a decrease of basal serum soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1) (P=0.001) and serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (P=0.03) levels. We have concluded that the improvement of health status of the Parkinson's disease patients after training could be related to the increase of serum BDNF level caused by the attenuated inflammation in those patients.

  14. Adapted marching distances and physical training decrease recruits' injuries and attrition.

    PubMed

    Roos, Lilian; Boesch, Maria; Sefidan, Sandra; Frey, Franz; Mäder, Urs; Annen, Hubert; Wyss, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    There is evidence that progressive loading of physical demands at the beginning of basic military service and specific physical training can reduce injury incidences. Therefore, aim of this study was to measure the effects of a progressive increase in marching distances and an adapted physical training program on injury incidence and attrition rate in a Swiss Army infantry training school. One company reduced the distances covered on foot during the first 4 weeks of basic military training. A second company performed an adapted physical training program for 10 weeks. A third company participated in both interventions combined, and a fourth company served as a control group without any intervention. The injury incidences and attrition rates of 651 male recruits were registered during 21 weeks of military service. Several predictor variables for injury and attrition, such as physical fitness, previous injuries, level of previous physical activity, smoking, motivation, and socioeconomic factors, were assessed as well. The data were analyzed using binary logistic backward regressions. Each intervention separately had a favorable effect on injury prevention. However, combining the 2 interventions resulted in the greatest reduction in injury incidence rate (-33%). Furthermore, the adapted physical training successfully reduced the military service attrition rates (-53%). Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  15. Modeling a Conventional Electroporation Pulse Train: Decreased Pore Number, Cumulative Calcium Transport and an Example of Electrosensitization.

    PubMed

    Son, Reuben S; Gowrishankar, Thiruvallur R; Smith, Kyle C; Weaver, James C

    2016-03-01

    Pulse trains are widely used in electroporation (EP) for both general biomedical research and clinical applications such as nonthermal tumor ablation. Here we use a computational method based on a meshed transport network to investigate a cell system model's response to a train of identical, evenly spaced electric field pulses. We obtain an unexpected result: the number of membrane pores decreases during the application of twenty 1.0 kV/cm, 100 μs pulses, delivered at 1 Hz. This pulse train initially creates 13,000 membrane pores, but pore number decreases by a factor of 15 to about 830 pores throughout subsequent pulses. We conclude that pore number can greatly diminish during a train of identical pulses, with direct consequences for the transport of solutes across an electroporated membrane. Although application of additional pulses is generally intended to increase the effects of EP, we show that these pulses do not significantly enhance calcium delivery into the cell. Instead, calcium delivery can be significantly increased by varying inter-pulse intervals. We show that inserting a 300-s interruption midway in a widely used eight-pulse train (a protocol for electrosensitization) yields a ∼ twofold delivery increase. Overall, our modeling shows support for electrosensitization, in which multiple pulse protocols that maximize pore number over time can yield significant increase of transport of calcium compared to standard pulse trains.

  16. Football injuries: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Olson, David E; Sikka, Robby Singh; Hamilton, Abigail; Krohn, Austin

    2011-01-01

    Football is one of the most popular sports in the United States and is the leading cause of sports-related injury. A large focus in recent years has been on concussions, sudden cardiac death, and heat illness, all thought to be largely preventable health issues in the young athlete. Injury prevention through better understanding of injury mechanisms, education, proper equipment, and practice techniques and preseason screening may aid in reducing the number of injuries. Proper management of on-field injuries and health emergencies can reduce the morbidity associated with these injuries and may lead to faster return to play and reduced risk of future injury. This article reviews current concepts surrounding frequently seen football-related injuries.

  17. Concussions in American Football.

    PubMed

    Womble, Melissa N; Collins, Michael W

    Major advancements in sport-related concussion (SRC) management have been made across time to improve the safety of contact sports, including football. Nevertheless, these advances are often overlooked due to concerns regarding the potential long-term effects of SRC. Although further research is needed, it is critical that current efforts are focused on better understanding SRC in order to recognize and change ongoing factors leading to prolonged recoveries, increased risk for injury, and potentially long-term effects. To reduce risk for these outcomes, future focus must be placed on increased education efforts, immediate reporting of injury, prevention techniques, targeted treatment, and the development of multidisciplinary treatment teams nationwide. Finally, with the progress in understanding concussion, it is important to remain vigilant of additional advances that will help to further improve the safety of contact sports, including football.

  18. Regular Exercise Training Increases the Number of Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Decreases Homocysteine Levels in Healthy Peripheral Blood

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jeong Kyu; Moon, Ki Myung; Jung, Seok Yun; Kim, Ji Yong; Choi, Sung Hyun; Kim, Da Yeon; Kang, Songhwa; Chu, Chong Woo

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are known to play an important role in the repair of damaged blood vessels. We used an endothelial progenitor cell colony-forming assay (EPC-CFA) to determine whether EPC numbers could be increased in healthy individuals through regular exercise training. The number of functional EPCs obtained from human peripheral blood-derived AC133 stem cells was measured after a 28-day regular exercise training program. The number of total endothelial progenitor cell colony-forming units (EPC-CFU) was significantly increased compared to that in the control group (p=0.02, n=5). In addition, we observed a significant decrease in homocysteine levels followed by an increase in the number of EPC-CFUs (p=0.04, n=5), indicating that the 28-day regular exercise training could increase the number of EPC colonies and decrease homocysteine levels. Moreover, an inverse correlation was observed between small-endothelial progenitor cell colony-forming units (small-EPC-CFUs) and plasma homocysteine levels in healthy men (r=-0.8125, p=0.047). We found that regular exercise training could increase the number of EPC-CFUs and decrease homocysteine levels, thus decreasing the cardiovascular disease risk in men. PMID:24757379

  19. Triceps tendon ruptures in professional football players.

    PubMed

    Mair, Scott D; Isbell, William M; Gill, Thomas J; Schlegel, Theodore F; Hawkins, Richard J

    2004-03-01

    Distal rupture of the triceps tendon is a rare injury, and treatment guidelines are not well established. Football players with triceps tendon ruptures will be able to return to their sport with minimal functional deficits. Uncontrolled retrospective review. Twenty-one partial and complete ruptures of the triceps tendon were identified in 19 National Football League players over a period of 6 years. Team physicians retrospectively reviewed training room, clinical, and operative notes for each of these players. Most of the injured players were linemen. The most common mechanism of injury was an eccentric load to a contracting triceps. Seven players had prodromal symptoms prior to injury, and 5 had received a cortisone injection. Eleven elbows with complete tears underwent surgical repair. Of 10 players with partial tears, 6 healed without surgery. One player suffered a subsequent complete tear requiring surgery, and 3 with residual pain and weakness underwent surgical repair following the season. Two surgical complications occurred, both requiring a second operation. All of the players but 1 returned to play at least one season of professional football after their injury. Partial triceps tendon ruptures can heal without functional deficit. Surgical repair for complete ruptures generally produces good functional results and allows return to play.

  20. Cortisol, testosterone and mood state variation during an official female football competition.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Natalina; Palmeira-DE-Oliveira, Ana; Pereira, Ana; Crisóstomo, Luís; Travassos, Bruno; Costa, Aldo M

    2016-06-01

    Endogenous hormones are essential on the control of physiological reactions and adaptations during sport performance. This study aims to compare the mood state and the salivary levels of cortisol and testosterone during an official female association football tournament. Twenty female football players (22.85±4.2 years) from the Portuguese women's national team were included in the study. Mood, salivary cortisol and testosterone levels were examined in five moments over the championship (M1, neutral measures; M2-M5, on every match day). Saliva samples were collected before breakfast and immediately after each match. Mood was measured by the profile of mood states questionnaire (POMS); hormone levels were measure by immunoassay methods. Iceberg Profiles of POMS were observed during all the moments of evaluation (M2-M5), showing a decrease in vigor and an increase in tension and depression in both team defeats (M2 and M5). There is no relationship between the hormones levels and the outcome of the competition, once cortisol and testosterone decrease from pre-match to post-match in both wins (M2 and M5) and defeats (M3 and M4). For testosterone the observed decrease is significantly different (P<0.05) before and after all matches. Our results show a pattern in mood states behavior. Cortisol and testosterone decrease after match and throughout the tournament, independently of the match outcome. The absence of hormone fluctuations related to competition performance points out that top-level professional football players training systematically and regularly seem to be very well adapted to competition stress effect.

  1. Time-trends and circumstances surrounding ankle injuries in men's professional football: an 11-year follow-up of the UEFA Champions League injury study.

    PubMed

    Waldén, Markus; Hägglund, Martin; Ekstrand, Jan

    2013-08-01

    Ankle injury is common in football, but the circumstances surrounding them are not well characterised. To investigate the rates, especially time-trends, and circumstances of ankle injuries in male professional football. 27 European clubs with 1743 players were followed prospectively between 2001/2002 and 2011/2012. Time loss injuries and individual-player exposure during training sessions and matches were recorded. Injury rate was defined as the number of injuries/1000 h. A total of 1080 ankle injuries were recorded (13% of all injuries) with lateral ligament ankle sprain being the most common injury subtype (51% of all ankle injuries). The rates of ankle injury and ankle sprain were 1/1000 h and 0.7/1000 h, respectively. The ankle sprain rate declined slightly over time during the 11-year study period (on average 3.1%/season) with a statistically significant seasonal trend (p=0.041). Foul play according to the referee was involved in 40% of the match-related ankle sprains. Syndesmotic sprains and ankle impingement were uncommon causes of time loss (3% each of all ankle injuries). Lateral ligament ankle sprain constituted half of all ankle injuries in male professional football, whereas ankle impingement syndromes were uncommon. The ankle sprain rate decreased slightly over time, but many ankle sprains were associated with foul play. Our data extend the body of literature that provides football policy makers with a foundation to review existing rules and their enforcement.

  2. Concussions From Youth Football

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Nathan A.; Buzas, David; Morawa, Lawrence G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Youth football programs across the United States represent an at-risk population of approximately 3.5 million athletes for sports-related concussions. The frequency of concussions in this population is not known. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Over an 11-year span from January 2002 to December 2012, the authors reviewed the concussions sustained by athletes aged 5 to 13 years while playing football, as evaluated in emergency departments (EDs) in the United States and captured by the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) database of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission. Results: There were 2028 (national estimate, 49,185) young football players evaluated in NEISS EDs with concussion from 2002 to 2012. There were 1987 (97.9%) males and 41 (2.1%) females, with a mean age of 11.2 years. The total number of concussions reported increased with age and by year. The majority of concussions were treated in the outpatient setting, with 1878 (91.7%) being treated and released. The total number of head-to-head injury mechanisms mirrored the total number of concussions by year, which increased throughout the 11-year span. The total number of players experiencing a loss of consciousness increased throughout the study period but did not match the total number of concussions over the 11-year time period. Fractures occurred in 11 (0.5%) patients, with 2 being severe (1 skull fracture and 1 thoracic compression fracture). Conclusion: Within the 5- to 13-year age range, there were a significant number of young athletes who presented to EDs with concussion as a result of playing organized football. Older children may be at greater risk for sustaining concussions, fractures, and catastrophic injuries while playing football when compared with younger children. Clinical Relevance: Younger children are more susceptible to long-term sequelae from head injuries, and thus, improved monitoring systems for these athletes are needed to

  3. Kata Techniques Training Consistently Decreases Stereotypy in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahrami, Fatimah; Movahedi, Ahmadreza; Marandi, Sayed Mohammad; Abedi, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    The effects of 14 weeks of Kata techniques training on stereotypic behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were investigated. The study included 30 eligible (diagnosed ASD, school age) children with ages ranging from 5 to 16 years whom they assigned to an exercise (n = 15) or a no-exercise control group (n = 15). Participants of…

  4. Blending Functional Communication Training and Choice Making to Improve Task Engagement and Decrease Problem Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Stephanie M. Peck; Caniglia, Cyndi; Royster, Amy Jo; Macfarlane, Emily; Plowman, Kristen; Baird, Sally Jo; Wu, Nadia

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of choice making within functional communication training (FCT) to increase the task engagement of two participants with inappropriate behaviour. Pretreatment functional analyses indicated that both participants' inappropriate behaviour was maintained by escape. For one of the participants, inappropriate behaviour…

  5. Kata Techniques Training Consistently Decreases Stereotypy in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahrami, Fatimah; Movahedi, Ahmadreza; Marandi, Sayed Mohammad; Abedi, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    The effects of 14 weeks of Kata techniques training on stereotypic behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were investigated. The study included 30 eligible (diagnosed ASD, school age) children with ages ranging from 5 to 16 years whom they assigned to an exercise (n = 15) or a no-exercise control group (n = 15). Participants of…

  6. College Football Games and Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Daniel I.; Schnepel, Kevin T.

    2008-01-01

    There is a great deal of anecdotal evidence that college football games can lead to aggressive and destructive behavior by fans. However, to date, no empirical study has attempted to document the magnitude of this phenomenon. We match daily data on offenses from the NIBRS to 26 Division I-A college football programs in order to estimate the…

  7. College Football Games and Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Daniel I.; Schnepel, Kevin T.

    2008-01-01

    There is a great deal of anecdotal evidence that college football games can lead to aggressive and destructive behavior by fans. However, to date, no empirical study has attempted to document the magnitude of this phenomenon. We match daily data on offenses from the NIBRS to 26 Division I-A college football programs in order to estimate the…

  8. Football: Action on the Gridiron

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2010-01-01

    On any fall weekend across the United States, football reigns as the nation's favorite sport. Thousands of high school teams, the pride of communities from coast to coast, compete under the lights on Friday nights. Saturdays feature the tradition and pageantry of college football. Sundays belong to the 32 professional teams that play in the major…

  9. A History of College Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokosz, Francis M.

    The history of football is traced as it evolved from the English game of rugby. The game as it is known today was conceived only after a long series of changes. Three prominent reasons for the change were: to make football more interesting to the spectator; to balance the competition between offense and defense; and to modify the dangerous…

  10. Recreational football for disease prevention and treatment in untrained men: a narrative review examining cardiovascular health, lipid profile, body composition, muscle strength and functional capacity

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Peter Riis; Dvorak, Jiri; Krustrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, researchers have studied the effects of recreational football training as a health-promoting activity for participants across the lifespan. This has important public health implications as over 400 million people play football annually. Results from the first randomised controlled trial, published in the BJSM in January 2009, showed that football increased maximal oxygen uptake and muscle and bone mass, and lowered fat percentage and blood pressure, in untrained men, and since then more than 70 articles about football for health have been published, including publications in two supplements of the Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports in 2010 and 2014, prior to the FIFA World Cup tournaments in South Africa and Brazil. While studies of football training effects have also been performed in women and children, this article reviews the current evidence linking recreational football training with favourable effects in the prevention and treatment of disease in adult men. PMID:25878072

  11. Recreational football for disease prevention and treatment in untrained men: a narrative review examining cardiovascular health, lipid profile, body composition, muscle strength and functional capacity.

    PubMed

    Bangsbo, Jens; Hansen, Peter Riis; Dvorak, Jiri; Krustrup, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Over the past 10 years, researchers have studied the effects of recreational football training as a health-promoting activity for participants across the lifespan. This has important public health implications as over 400 million people play football annually. Results from the first randomised controlled trial, published in the BJSM in January 2009, showed that football increased maximal oxygen uptake and muscle and bone mass, and lowered fat percentage and blood pressure, in untrained men, and since then more than 70 articles about football for health have been published, including publications in two supplements of the Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports in 2010 and 2014, prior to the FIFA World Cup tournaments in South Africa and Brazil. While studies of football training effects have also been performed in women and children, this article reviews the current evidence linking recreational football training with favourable effects in the prevention and treatment of disease in adult men.

  12. Stretching and injury prevention in football: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Stojanovic, Marko D; Ostojic, Sergej M

    2011-04-01

    Stretching exercises are regularly recommended as a part of football-training sessions and in preparation for competition. There is little sound empirical evidence, however, to substantiate the role of stretching exercises and consequently increased flexibility on injury prevention in football. Furthermore, in the last decade or so, fundamental research has shed some light on the biomechanical adaptation of the muscle-tendon unit following different stretching protocols, improving knowledge about the topic and enabling better understanding of the stretching-injury relationship. The purpose of this review is to examine the literature on the role of stretching and/or increased flexibility on injury prevention in football, with presented results analyzed in the context of the up-to-date basic science research evidence.

  13. Pectoralis major ruptures in professional American football players.

    PubMed

    Tarity, T David; Garrigues, Grant E; Ciccotti, Michael G; Zooker, Chad C; Cohen, Steven B; Frederick, Robert W; Williams, Gerald R; DeLuca, Peter F; Dodson, Christopher C

    2014-09-01

    Pectoralis major injuries are an infrequent shoulder injury that can result in pain, weakness, and deformity. These injuries may occur during the course of an athletic competition, including football. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of pectoralis major ruptures in professional football players and time lost from the sport following injury. We hypothesized that ruptures most frequently occur during bench-press strength training. The National Football League Injury Surveillance System was reviewed for all pectoralis major injuries in all players from 2000 to 2010. Details regarding injury setting, player demographics, method of treatment, and time lost were recorded. A total of 10 injuries-complete ruptures-were identified during this period. Five of the 10 were sustained in defensive players, generally while tackling. Nine occurred during game situations, and 1 occurred during practice. Specific data pertinent to the practice injury was not available. No rupture occurred during weight lifting. Eight ruptures were treated operatively, and 2 cases did not report the method of definitive treatment. The average days lost was 111 days (range, 42-189). The incidence was 0.004 pectoralis major ruptures during the 11-year study period. Pectoralis major injuries are uncommon while playing football. In the National Football League, these injuries primarily occur not during practice or while bench pressing but rather during games. When pectoralis major ruptures do occur, they are successfully treated operatively. Surgery may allow for return to full sports participation. IV, case series.

  14. A pilot study examining injuries in elite gaelic footballers

    PubMed Central

    Cromwell, F; Walsh, J; Gormley, J

    2000-01-01

    Objectives—To quantify injuries in elite gaelic footballers and to determine the nature, sites, and outcome of injuries and the possible risk factors involved. Methods—Information on injuries was collected from six elite gaelic football teams by a questionnaire. The footballers were asked to recall injuries over the preceding six month period. Results—A total of 88 out of 107 subjects sustained injuries over the study period. Ninety five injuries were recorded, giving an incidence rate of 1.78 injuries per subject per year, of which 35% were recurring. It was found that 35% of injuries were sustained during training sessions. Lower body injuries predominated (77%), the ankle being the most commonly injured anatomic site. Most injuries were soft tissue in nature: muscle, 33%; ligament, 32%; tendon, 16%. The most common situations giving rise to injuries were collision (22%) and twist/turn (19%). Foul play only accounted for about 6% of injuries. Mean time off play as a result of injury was 17.3 days, and hospital admission was necessary for 15% of the injuries. Conclusion—Despite the limitations of a retrospective of this nature, the study provides useful and important information on injuries in gaelic footballers. Key Words: elite; gaelic football; injury PMID:10786865

  15. Psychological and sport-specific characteristics of football players.

    PubMed

    Junge, A; Dvorak, J; Rösch, D; Graf-Baumann, T; Chomiak, J; Peterson, L

    2000-01-01

    It is hypothesized that players of different levels of play might differ not only in their football skills but also in their way of playing football and with respect to psychological factors such as concentration, reaction time, or competitive anxiety. The psychological characteristics of a player might influence his way of playing football (in particular with respect to fair play) and also his risk of injury. A group of 588 football players were studied by questionnaire; additionally, reaction time tests were performed. Psychological characteristics were assessed by three established self-evaluation questionnaires: the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory, the State Competitive Anxiety Test, and the State-Trait-Anger-Expression-Inventory. Football-specific characteristics that were investigated included playing experience and positions played, style of play, number of training hours and games, as well as aspects of fair play. Reaction time was tested twice: without the influence of physical exercise and immediately after a 12-minute run. A significant reduction in reaction time was observed after physical exercise. In high-level players, the reaction time immediately after the 12-minute run was significantly shorter than it was in low-level players. The questionnaire answers given regarding fair play clearly indicated that fair play is not paid sufficient respect. The relationship between psychological characteristics and attitudes toward fair play was analyzed and discussed.

  16. The Cognitive Cost of Anticholinergic Burden: Decreased Response to Cognitive Training in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Vinogradov, Sophia; Fisher, Melissa; Warm, Heather; Holland, Christine; Kirshner, Margaret A.; Pollock, Bruce G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Schizophrenia is treated with medications that raise serum anticholinergic activity and are known to adversely affect cognition. The authors examined the relationship between serum anticholinergic activity and baseline cognitive performance and response to computerized cognitive training in outpatients with schizophrenia. Method Fifty-five patients were randomly assigned to either computerized cognitive training or a computer games control condition. A neurocognitive battery based on the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) initiative was performed at baseline and after the intervention. Serum anticholinergic activity, measured at study entry by radioreceptor assay, was available for 49 patients. Results Serum anticholinergic activity showed a significant negative correlation with baseline performance in verbal working memory and verbal learning and memory, accounting for 7% of the variance in these measures, independent of age, IQ, or symptom severity. Patients in the cognitive training condition (N=25) showed a significant gain in global cognition compared to those in the control condition, but this improvement was negatively correlated with anticholinergic burden. Serum anticholinergic activity uniquely accounted for 20% of the variance in global cognition change, independent of age, IQ, or symptom severity. Conclusions Serum anticholinergic activity in schizophrenia patients shows a significant association with impaired performance in MATRICS-based measures of verbal working memory and verbal learning and memory and is significantly associated with a lowered response to an intensive course of computerized cognitive training. These findings underscore the cognitive cost of medications that carry a high anticholinergic burden. The findings also have implications for the design and evaluation of cognitive treatments for schizophrenia. PMID:19570929

  17. Transfer and motor skill learning in association football.

    PubMed

    Weigelt, C; Williams, A M; Wingrove, T; Scott, M A

    2000-10-01

    Transfer of learning involves the influence of previous experiences on the performance or learning of new skills. It is defined as a gain (or loss) in the capability for performance on one task as a result of practice on another. The aim of the study was to examine the degree of transfer between various association football skills. Twenty intermediate male players participated in the study. During pre- and post-training tests, participants juggled a football as many times as possible within 30 s using feet or knees. Further tests required participants to control an approaching football inside a restricted area using the preferred and non-preferred kicking leg. Following performance on the pretest, two matched skill groups were obtained. One group participated in a 4-week training period in which feet-only ball juggling was practised for 10 min daily, while the remaining group acted as a control. Trained participants exhibited superior post-test performance on knee juggling and ball control with preferred and non-preferred leg tasks relative to the control group (p < 0.05). Findings indicate positive transfer of learning from juggling practice with the feet to juggling with the knees and a football control task. Implications for theory and practice are highlighted.

  18. Monitoring of Lower Limb Comfort and Injury in Elite Football

    PubMed Central

    Kinchington, Michael; Ball, Kevin; Naughton, Geraldine

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relation between lower limb comfort scores and injury and to measure the responsiveness of a lower limb comfort index (LLCI) to changes over time, in a cohort of professional footballers. Lower limb comfort was recorded for each individual using a comfort index which assessed the comfort status of five anatomical segments and footwear. Specifically we tested the extent to which comfort zones as measured by the LLCI were related to injury measured as time loss events. The hypothesis for the study was that poor lower limb comfort is related to time loss events (training or match day). A total of 3524 player weeks of data was collected from 182 professional athletes encompassing three codes of football (Australian Rules, Rugby league, Rugby Union). The study was conducted during football competition periods for the respective football leagues and included a period of pre- season training. The results of regression indicated that poor lower limb comfort was highly correlated to injury (R2 =0.77) and accounted for 43.5 time loss events/ 1000hrs football exposure. While poor comfort was predictive of injury 47% of all time loss events it was not statistically relevant (R2 =0.18). The results indicate lower limb comfort can be used to assess the well-being of the lower limb; poor comfort is associated with injury, and the LLCI has good face validity and high criterion-related validity for the relationship between comfort and injury. Key points Comfort as a method to determine the well-being of athletes has a role in injury management. A lower limb comfort index is a mechanism by which lower limb comfort can be evaluated. Poor lower limb comfort is associated with injury in professional football. The use of a comfort as a marker of athlete health has practical and clinical relevance to sports medicine professionals managing musculoskeletal injury. PMID:24149793

  19. Decreased plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor and vascular endothelial growth factor concentrations during military training.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Go; Tokuno, Shinichi; Nibuya, Masashi; Ishida, Toru; Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Mukai, Yasuo; Mitani, Keiji; Tsumatori, Gentaro; Scott, Daniel; Shimizu, Kunio

    2014-01-01

    Decreased concentrations of plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and serum BDNF have been proposed to be a state marker of depression and a biological indicator of loaded psychosocial stress. Stress evaluations of participants in military mission are critically important and appropriate objective biological parameters that evaluate stress are needed. In military circumstances, there are several problems to adopt plasma BDNF concentration as a stress biomarker. First, in addition to psychosocial stress, military missions inevitably involve physical exercise that increases plasma BDNF concentrations. Second, most participants in the mission do not have adequate quality or quantity of sleep, and sleep deprivation has also been reported to increase plasma BDNF concentration. We evaluated plasma BDNF concentrations in 52 participants on a 9-week military mission. The present study revealed that plasma BDNF concentration significantly decreased despite elevated serum enzymes that escaped from muscle and decreased quantity and quality of sleep, as detected by a wearable watch-type sensor. In addition, we observed a significant decrease in plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) during the mission. VEGF is also neurotrophic and its expression in the brain has been reported to be up-regulated by antidepressive treatments and down-regulated by stress. This is the first report of decreased plasma VEGF concentrations by stress. We conclude that decreased plasma concentrations of neurotrophins can be candidates for mental stress indicators in actual stressful environments that include physical exercise and limited sleep.

  20. Monitoring accelerations with GPS in football: time to slow down?

    PubMed

    Buchheit, Martin; Al Haddad, Hani; Simpson, Ben M; Palazzi, Dino; Bourdon, Pitre C; Di Salvo, Valter; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2014-05-01

    The aims of the current study were to examine the magnitude of between-GPS-models differences in commonly reported running-based measures in football, examine between-units variability, and assess the effect of software updates on these measures. Fifty identical-brand GPS units (15 SPI-proX and 35 SPIproX2, 15 Hz, GPSports, Canberra, Australia) were attached to a custom-made plastic sled towed by a player performing simulated match running activities. GPS data collected during training sessions over 4 wk from 4 professional football players (N = 53 files) were also analyzed before and after 2 manufacturer-supplied software updates. There were substantial differences between the different models (eg, standardized difference for the number of acceleration >4 m/s2 = 2.1; 90% confidence limits [1.4, 2.7], with 100% chance of a true difference). Between-units variations ranged from 1% (maximal speed) to 56% (number of deceleration >4 m/s2). Some GPS units measured 2-6 times more acceleration/deceleration occurrences than others. Software updates did not substantially affect the distance covered at different speeds or peak speed reached, but 1 of the updates led to large and small decreases in the occurrence of accelerations (-1.24; -1.32, -1.15) and decelerations (-0.45; -0.48, -0.41), respectively. Practitioners are advised to apply care when comparing data collected with different models or units or when updating their software. The metrics of accelerations and decelerations show the most variability in GPS monitoring and must be interpreted cautiously.

  1. The association football medical research programme: an audit of injuries in professional football

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, R; Hulse, M; Wilkinson, C; Hodson, A; Gibson, M

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To undertake a prospective epidemiological study of the injuries sustained in English professional football over two competitive seasons. Methods—Player injuries were annotated by club medical staff at 91 professional football clubs. A specific injury audit questionnaire was used together with a weekly form that documented each club's current injury status. Results—A total of 6030 injuries were reported over the two seasons with an average of 1.3 injuries per player per season. The mean (SD) number of days absent for each injury was 24.2 (40.2), with 78% of the injuries leading to a minimum of one competitive match being missed. The injury incidence varied throughout the season, with training injuries peaking during July (p<0.05) and match injuries peaking during August (p<0.05). Competition injuries represented 63% of those reported, significantly (p<0.01) more of these injuries occurring towards the end of both halves. Strains (37%) and sprains (19%) were the major injury types, the lower extremity being the site of 87% of the injuries reported. Most injury mechanisms were classified as being non-contact (58%). Re-injuries accounted for 7% of all injuries, 66% of these being classified as either a strain or a sprain. The severity of re-injuries was greater than the initial injury (p<0.01). Conclusions—Professional football players are exposed to a high risk of injury and there is a need to investigate ways of reducing this risk. Areas that warrant attention include the training programmes implemented by clubs during various stages of the season, the factors contributing to the pattern of injuries during matches with respect to time, and the rehabilitation protocols employed by clubs. Key Words: football; injuries; prevention PMID:11157461

  2. Decreasing Stress and Burnout in Nurses: Efficacy of Blended Learning With Stress Management and Resilience Training Program.

    PubMed

    Magtibay, Donna L; Chesak, Sherry S; Coughlin, Kevin; Sood, Amit

    The study's purpose was to assess efficacy of blended learning to decrease stress and burnout among nurses through use of the Stress Management and Resiliency Training (SMART) program. Job-related stress in nurses leads to high rates of burnout, compromises patient care, and costs US healthcare organizations billions of dollars annually. Many mindfulness and resiliency programs are taught in a format that limits nurses' attendance. Consistent with blended learning, participants chose the format that met their learning styles and goals; Web-based, independent reading, facilitated discussions. The end points of mindfulness, resilience, anxiety, stress, happiness, and burnout were measured at baseline, postintervention, and 3-month follow-up to examine within-group differences. Findings showed statistically significant, clinically meaningful decreases in anxiety, stress, and burnout and increases in resilience, happiness, and mindfulness. Results support blended learning using SMART as a strategy to increase access to resiliency training for nursing staff.

  3. Sprint interval training decreases left-ventricular glucose uptake compared to moderate-intensity continuous training in subjects with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes.

    PubMed

    Heiskanen, Marja A; Sjöros, Tanja J; Heinonen, Ilkka H A; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Koivumäki, Mikko; Motiani, Kumail K; Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Virtanen, Kirsi A; Knuuti, Juhani; Hannukainen, Jarna C; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2017-09-05

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with reduced myocardial glucose uptake (GU) and increased free fatty acid uptake (FFAU). Sprint interval training (SIT) improves physical exercise capacity and metabolic biomarkers, but effects of SIT on cardiac function and energy substrate metabolism in diabetic subjects are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that SIT is more effective than moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on adaptations in left and right ventricle (LV and RV) glucose and fatty acid metabolism in diabetic subjects. Twenty-six untrained men and women with T2DM or prediabetes were randomized into two-week-long SIT (n = 13) and MICT (n = 13) interventions. Insulin-stimulated myocardial GU and fasted state FFAU were measured by positron emission tomography and changes in LV and RV structure and function by cardiac magnetic resonance. In contrast to our hypothesis, SIT significantly decreased GU compared to MICT in LV. FFAU of both ventricles remained unchanged by training. RV end-diastolic volume (EDV) and RV mass increased only after MICT, whereas LV EDV, LV mass, and RV and LV end-systolic volumes increased similarly after both training modes. As SIT decreases myocardial insulin-stimulated GU compared to MICT which may already be reduced in T2DM, SIT may be metabolically less beneficial than MICT for a diabetic heart.

  4. Online training on the safe use of fluoroscopy can result in a significant decrease in patient dose.

    PubMed

    Frederick-Dyer, Katherine C; Faulkner, Austin R; Chang, Ted T; Heidel, R Eric; Pasciak, Alexander S

    2013-10-01

    Concerns over medical radiation exposure have received national press in recent years, and training in the appropriate use of radiation has become an essential component of every radiology residency program. Appropriate training is particularly important in fluoroscopy because it is commonly used by inexperienced radiology residents and has the potential to impart relatively high patient radiation doses. In an effort to minimize the radiation doses received by patients, our institution has recently initiated an online training program in the safe use of fluoroscopy. This course is required and must be completed by new radiology residents before their first fluoroscopy rotation. The goal of this study was to determine if the use of an online course in the safe use of fluoroscopy could result in decreased patient dose without affecting diagnostic quality. Four years of retrospective procedural data for residents performing gastrointestinal and genitourinary fluoroscopic procedures without specialized training were reviewed. Incoming residents took an American Medical Association-accredited online training program in the safe use of fluoroscopy the week before their first fluoroscopy rotation. Patient dose and diagnostic quality data, inferred from the frequency of attending physician intervention necessary to complete the procedure, were collected for all exams performed by the new group of residents after completion of the training course. This was then compared to data from prior classes and stratified by procedure type. Statistically significant reductions in both average fluoroscopy time (FT) or dose-area-product (DAP) were found for many of the fluoroscopic procedures performed by residents who participated in the online fluoroscopy training program. Specifically, statistically significant reductions in FT for barium enema, cystogram, defecogram, and esophagram procedures (P < .001) were found. Esophagram and upper gastrointestinal studies were completed with a

  5. Dispelling the Myth: Training in Education or Neuroscience Decreases but Does Not Eliminate Beliefs in Neuromyths.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Kelly; Germine, Laura; Anderson, Alida; Christodoulou, Joanna; McGrath, Lauren M

    2017-01-01

    Neuromyths are misconceptions about brain research and its application to education and learning. Previous research has shown that these myths may be quite pervasive among educators, but less is known about how these rates compare to the general public or to individuals who have more exposure to neuroscience. This study is the first to use a large sample from the United States to compare the prevalence and predictors of neuromyths among educators, the general public, and individuals with high neuroscience exposure. Neuromyth survey responses and demographics were gathered via an online survey hosted at TestMyBrain.org. We compared performance among the three groups of interest: educators (N = 598), high neuroscience exposure (N = 234), and the general public (N = 3,045) and analyzed predictors of individual differences in neuromyths performance. In an exploratory factor analysis, we found that a core group of 7 "classic" neuromyths factored together (items related to learning styles, dyslexia, the Mozart effect, the impact of sugar on attention, right-brain/left-brain learners, and using 10% of the brain). The general public endorsed the greatest number of neuromyths (M = 68%), with significantly fewer endorsed by educators (M = 56%), and still fewer endorsed by the high neuroscience exposure group (M = 46%). The two most commonly endorsed neuromyths across all groups were related to learning styles and dyslexia. More accurate performance on neuromyths was predicted by age (being younger), education (having a graduate degree), exposure to neuroscience courses, and exposure to peer-reviewed science. These findings suggest that training in education and neuroscience can help reduce but does not eliminate belief in neuromyths. We discuss the possible underlying roots of the most prevalent neuromyths and implications for classroom practice. These empirical results can be useful for developing comprehensive training modules for educators that target general

  6. Dispelling the Myth: Training in Education or Neuroscience Decreases but Does Not Eliminate Beliefs in Neuromyths

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, Kelly; Germine, Laura; Anderson, Alida; Christodoulou, Joanna; McGrath, Lauren M.

    2017-01-01

    Neuromyths are misconceptions about brain research and its application to education and learning. Previous research has shown that these myths may be quite pervasive among educators, but less is known about how these rates compare to the general public or to individuals who have more exposure to neuroscience. This study is the first to use a large sample from the United States to compare the prevalence and predictors of neuromyths among educators, the general public, and individuals with high neuroscience exposure. Neuromyth survey responses and demographics were gathered via an online survey hosted at TestMyBrain.org. We compared performance among the three groups of interest: educators (N = 598), high neuroscience exposure (N = 234), and the general public (N = 3,045) and analyzed predictors of individual differences in neuromyths performance. In an exploratory factor analysis, we found that a core group of 7 “classic” neuromyths factored together (items related to learning styles, dyslexia, the Mozart effect, the impact of sugar on attention, right-brain/left-brain learners, and using 10% of the brain). The general public endorsed the greatest number of neuromyths (M = 68%), with significantly fewer endorsed by educators (M = 56%), and still fewer endorsed by the high neuroscience exposure group (M = 46%). The two most commonly endorsed neuromyths across all groups were related to learning styles and dyslexia. More accurate performance on neuromyths was predicted by age (being younger), education (having a graduate degree), exposure to neuroscience courses, and exposure to peer-reviewed science. These findings suggest that training in education and neuroscience can help reduce but does not eliminate belief in neuromyths. We discuss the possible underlying roots of the most prevalent neuromyths and implications for classroom practice. These empirical results can be useful for developing comprehensive training modules for educators that target general

  7. How to Rescue American Football.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, George D; Metzner, David

    2016-04-28

    Blows to the head damage the brain. American football is a contact/collision sport that produces many injuries, including to the brain. Football has many supporters who cite important redeeming characteristics of the activity. Public attention to the hazards of children and adults playing football has heightend recently due to many new scientific discoveries, not least of which is the frequency with which players are seriously harmed and do not recover. It is now incumbent on all interested parties to invent and implement far better safety practices, equipment, rules, and processes or the sport must cease to exist in its current form. This paper presents several safety proposals for consideration and study.

  8. Faster Futsal Players Perceive Higher Training Loads and Present Greater Decreases in Sprinting Speed During the Preseason.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Fábio Y; Pereira, Lucas A; Rabelo, Felipe N; Ramirez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Loturco, Irineu

    2016-06-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the speed-power characteristics of professional futsal players before and after a 9-week preseason and to explore possible relationships with internal training loads. Ten under-20 professional Brazilian futsal players performed unloaded (squat jump [SJ] and countermovement jump [CMJ]) and loaded (jump squat [JS]) jumps and a 20-m sprint test before and after the preseason. Weekly training loads as measured by session rating of perceived exertion (s-RPE) varied between 2,179 and 5,519 a.u. The magnitude-based inference statistics revealed that performance in the SJ, CMJ, and 20-m sprint very likely decreased (effect size [ES] = -0.64, -0.49, and -0.92, respectively), whereas mean propulsive power in the JS likely increased (ES = 0.42) in response to the preseason. The Pearson coefficient of correlation between velocity in the 20 m sprint test and s-RPE during the first 2 weeks of training was 0.66 (p ≤ 0.05) while no significant correlation was detected between total s-RPE (i.e., 9 weeks) and changes in the power-speed tests. The baseline 20-m sprint velocity was very largely and inversely (r = -0.90) correlated with the change in the 20-m sprint performance. In conclusion, futsal preseason training leads to impaired unloaded vertical jump and sprint test performance, with speed decreasing more in faster than slower players. In addition, because of the large correlation between baseline sprint ability and s-RPE, coaches are advised to assess sprinting performance at the beginning of the preseason to finely adjust the training stimuli to each athlete.

  9. Hepatic VLDL-TG production and MTP gene expression are decreased in ovariectomized rats: effects of exercise training.

    PubMed

    Barsalani, R; Chapados, N A; Lavoie, J-M

    2010-11-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of estrogen withdrawal and exercise training on hepatic very low density lipoprotein-triglyceride (VLDL-TG) production and on expression of genes involved in hepatic VLDL synthesis in response to lipid infusion. Female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent ovariectomy (Ovx), sham surgery (Sham), and Ovx with 17β-estradiol supplementation (OvxE2) before being subdivided into sedentary (Sed) and trained (Tr) groups for 8 weeks. Exercise training consisted of continuous running on a rodent treadmill 5 times/wk. At the end of the 8-week period, all rats in the fasted state were intravenously infused with a 20% solution of Intralipid for 3-h followed by an injection of Triton WR-1339 to block lipoprotein lipase activity. Plasma TG accumulation was subsequently measured during 90 min to estimate VLDL-TG production. An additional control group consisting of Sham-Sed rats was infused with saline (0.9% NaCl). Estrogen withdrawal resulted in higher (p<0.01) liver fat accumulation concomitantly with lower (p<0.01) VLDL-TG production and lower mRNA and protein content of hepatic microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP). All of these effects in Ovx rats were corrected with estrogen supplementation. Training in Ovx rats reduced (p<0.01) liver fat accumulation and further reduced (p<0.01) hepatic VLDL-TG production along with gene expression of MTP and diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 (DGAT-2). It is concluded that VLDL-TG synthesis and/or secretion is decreased in Ovx rats probably via MTP regulation and that this decrease may constitute one of the factors involved in hepatic fat accumulation. The training effect on reducing VLDL production was independent of the estrogenic status.

  10. Fans, homophobia and masculinities in association football: evidence of a more inclusive environment.

    PubMed

    Cashmore, Ellis; Cleland, Jamie

    2012-06-01

    This article draws on 3,500 responses from fans and professionals involved in association football (soccer) to an anonymous online survey posted from June 2010 to October 2010 regarding their views towards gay footballers. The overall findings are that, contrary to assumptions of homophobia, there is evidence of rapidly decreasing homophobia within the culture of football fandom. The results advance inclusive masculinity theory with 93 per cent of fans of all ages stating that there is no place for homophobia within football. Fans blame agents and clubs for the lack of openness and challenge football's governing organizations to oppose the culture of secrecy surrounding gay players and to provide a more inclusive environment to support players who want to come out.

  11. Football and doping: study of African amateur footballers

    PubMed Central

    Ama, P; Betnga, B; Ama, M; Kamga, J

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate use and awareness of lawful and unlawful substances by amateur footballers in Yaounde, Cameroon. Methods: A total of 1116 amateur footballers (1037 male and 79 female) out of 1500 contacted participated in this study. They were divided into three groups: elite players (n = 314); local players (n = 723); female players (n = 79). They answered a questionnaire of 30 items grouped under six main topics: identification of players; use of lawful substances subject to certain restrictions on the International Olympic Committee (IOC) list; use of IOC banned substances; doping behaviour; awareness of doping; food supplements. The results of the questionnaire were scrutinised using Microstat software, and the level of significance was p<0.05. Results: (a) Use by our footballers of a banned substance (cocaine) and substances subject to certain restrictions (alcoholic drinks, methylated spirits, and banga (marijuana)). (b) Doping behaviour: use by our footballers of substances with similar effects to some IOC banned substances but not listed as such: tobacco, liboga, wie-wie (narcotic), bilibili (locally made alcohol drink). (c) A large intake of vitamin C (food supplements) in all three groups. In contrast, the footballers' knowledge of doping was vague. Conclusion: Preventive actions and an epidemiological study of doping among footballers are urgently required. PMID:12893714

  12. Football and doping: study of African amateur footballers.

    PubMed

    Ama, P F M; Betnga, B; Ama Moor, V J; Kamga, J P

    2003-08-01

    To investigate use and awareness of lawful and unlawful substances by amateur footballers in Yaounde, Cameroon. A total of 1116 amateur footballers (1037 male and 79 female) out of 1500 contacted participated in this study. They were divided into three groups: elite players (n = 314); local players (n = 723); female players (n = 79). They answered a questionnaire of 30 items grouped under six main topics: identification of players; use of lawful substances subject to certain restrictions on the International Olympic Committee (IOC) list; use of IOC banned substances; doping behaviour; awareness of doping; food supplements. The results of the questionnaire were scrutinised using Microstat software, and the level of significance was p<0.05. (a) Use by our footballers of a banned substance (cocaine) and substances subject to certain restrictions (alcoholic drinks, methylated spirits, and banga (marijuana)). (b) Doping behaviour: use by our footballers of substances with similar effects to some IOC banned substances but not listed as such: tobacco, liboga, wie-wie (narcotic), bilibili (locally made alcohol drink). (c) A large intake of vitamin C (food supplements) in all three groups. In contrast, the footballers' knowledge of doping was vague. Preventive actions and an epidemiological study of doping among footballers are urgently required.

  13. Training for Power and Speed: Effects of Increasing or Decreasing Jump Squat Velocity in Elite Young Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Loturco, Irineu; Nakamura, Fabio Y; Kobal, Ronaldo; Gil, Saulo; Abad, César C Cal; Cuniyochi, Rogério; Pereira, Lucas A; Roschel, Hamilton

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effects of 2 different velocity-oriented power training regimens by either increasing or decreasing the jump squat velocity during jump training sessions applied 3 times a week for 6 weeks in soccer players. Twenty-four elite under-20 soccer players were randomly assigned to an increased bar velocity group (IVG) or a reduced bar velocity group (RVG). Athletes had their countermovement jump heights, mean propulsive velocities (MPVs) in jump squat, leg press maximum dynamic strength (1 repetition maximum [RM]), 20-m sprint times, and zig-zag change of direction (COD) abilities assessed before and after the intervention. Performance in all tests improved after training in both groups. However, greater gains in 1RM and MPV using 50-90% of body mass (BM) were noted for the RVG. The IVG demonstrated greater improvements in speed at 5, 10, and 20 m and MPV with no additional external load and with 40% BM. Both groups improved similarly in countermovement jumps and COD. To conclude, both velocity-oriented power training regimens were effective in eliciting neuromechanical adaptations, leading to better strength/power/speed performances, and the choice as to the most suitable method should be tailored according to players' needs/deficiencies.

  14. Resistance Training Combined With Diet Decreases Body Fat While Preserving Lean Mass Independent of Resting Metabolic Rate: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Miller, Todd; Mull, Stephanie; Aragon, Alan Albert; Krieger, James; Schoenfeld, Brad Jon

    2017-09-05

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of resistance training only (RT n=10), dietary intervention only (DIET n=10), resistance training plus diet (RT+DIET n=10) and control (CON n=10) on body composition and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a cohort of 40 premenopausal female volunteers. Subjects in DIET and RT+DIET were provided with daily macronutrient and calorie goals based on DXA and RMR tests, with protein maintained at 1.4 g/kg/day. Subjects in the RT and RT+DIET groups performed a supervised progressive RT program consisting of exercises for all the major muscle groups of the body. Results showed a significant month-by-group interaction for change in fat mass with no significant linear trend for control. The three treatment groups all showed significant linear decreases in fat mass, but the slope of the decrease became progressively steeper from the RT, to DIET, to RT+DIET. A significant linear increase for lean mass was seen for resistance training-only. There was a non-significant increase in RMR in all groups from Month 0 to Month 4 but no significant month by group interaction. In conclusion, significant reductions in fat mass were achieved by all experimental groups, but results were maximized by RT+DIET. Only the RT group showed significant increases in lean mass.

  15. Treatment of muscle injuries in football.

    PubMed

    Ueblacker, Peter; Haensel, Lutz; Mueller-Wohlfahrt, Hans-Wilhelm

    2016-12-01

    Muscle injuries are frequent and represent one of the most substantial medical problems in professional football. They can have both traumatic and overuse causes with direct practical consequence due to differences in terms of the post-primary care regimen and prognosis. An accurate diagnosis is the first step towards a specific treatment and usually allows to predict return to play (RTP). Current treatment principles have no firm scientific basis; they are practiced largely as empirical medicine due to a lack of prospective randomised studies. Immediate treatment usually follows the PRICE-principle (protection, rest, ice, compression, elevation). Depending on the type of the muscle injury, specific physical and physiotherapeutical procedures as well as rehabilitative exercises and gradual training therapy are used to recondition the injured structure, to restore coordination and proprioception, and to normalise movement patterns. Injection therapy with various substances is frequently used, with positive results empirically, but evidence in form of prospective randomised studies is lacking. A precise rehabilitation plan should be developed for every muscle injury, including recommendations for sport-specific training with increasing intensity. Since there are no guidelines regarding safe RTP, regular follow-up examinations on the current muscle status are crucial to evaluate the progress made in terms of healing and to determine when the injured muscle can be exposed to the next step of load. This narrative review describes the various factors that a medical team should consider during assessment, treatment and rehabilitation of a muscle injury with particular focus on professional football.

  16. Football injury: a literature review *

    PubMed Central

    Kos, John J.

    1979-01-01

    A great deal of concern is recently being expressed relative to the playing of tackle football by adolescent Canadians. The purpose of this literature review is to try to summarize the important data from the available world literature. Very few Canadian statistics are available. Most of the data comes from United States experience. Tackle football injury is examined from various perspectives: 1. Equipment 2. Mechanisms of injury 3. Types of injury, with some emphasis on epiphyseal injury 4. Prevention 5. Comparison with other sports Although no “hard and fast” conclusion is drawn, the paper tends to show that: 1. Football is dangerous 2. Football is damaging to many body systems 3. Prevention of injury is difficult under present conditions 4. Alternate games, such as soccer and rugby seem to provide the same benefits with less catastrophic injuries

  17. Risk Factors for Injuries in Professional Football Players.

    PubMed

    Haxhiu, Bekim; Murtezani, Ardiana; Zahiti, Bedri; Shalaj, Ismet; Sllamniku, Sabit

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors related to the occurrence of injuries in football players. The study included 216 football players from 12 teams in the elite football league. Football-related injury data were collected prospectively during the 2012/2013 competitive season. At baseline the following information was collected for the players: anthropometric measurements (weight, height, BMI, subcutaneous skinfolds), playing experience, injury history, physical fitness performance test (agility run), peak oxygen uptake. The incidence, type and severity of injuries and training and game exposure times were prospectively documented for each player. Most of the players (n = 155, 71.7%) sustained the injures during the study period. The overall injury incidence during the regular season was 6.3 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures (95% confidence interval, 4.31-9.67). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that playing experience (odds ratio [OR] = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.32-0.61, p < 0.01), age (OR = 2.05; 95% CI = 1.49-2.81, p < 0.01) and a previous injury (OR = 4.4; 95% CI = 2.14-9.07, p < 0.01) were significantly correlated to increased risk of injuries. Body mass index was not associated with risk of injury. Strains (34.19%) and sprains (25.81%) were the major injury types. Twenty-seven percent of injured players were absent from football for more than 1 month, with knee injuries (25.42%) being the most severe type. The risk factors that increase injury rates in football players were previous injury, higher age and years of playing. Future research should include adequate rehabilitation program to reduce the risk of injuries.

  18. Lesotho's footballers join the fight against AIDS.

    PubMed

    1995-12-01

    Under Lesotho's traditional HIV/AIDS program, church organizations did outreach work with high risk groups and medical personnel were trained in the care of AIDS patients. Then in 1994 an innovative strategy was introduced: the Footballers Against AIDS campaign. CARE Lesotho enlisted footballers to speak to youth, fans, and the general community about AIDS. An educational football theme comic has also been developed. League matches are designated as HIV/AIDS awareness matches and the players use the opportunity to reach a large audience with information, education, and communication materials. The players have significantly changed their sexual behavior as a result of participating in the program. The first reported case of AIDS in Lesotho occurred in 1986. In June 1993 there were 294 reported cases and by May 1995 there were 580 reported cases. Recent HIV sentinel surveys show that teenage pregnancy is increasing at dramatic rates from 6.9% of antenatal clinic attenders in 1992 to 20.1% in 1993 and that many of the young girls have HIV. Among clinic patients under 24 years of age who were part of the survey, 12% were HIV positive. This age group constituted 58.2% of all HIV-positive people reported in the survey. Because of Lesotho's proximity to South Africa's gold, diamond, and coal mines, Lesotho's work force is very mobile. Between 60% and 70% of men work in the mines most of the year, which is another factor that facilitates the spread of HIV. The National AIDS Prevention and Control Program has recently initiated a peer education program working with secondary school youth for the prevention and control of sexually transmitted diseases, especially HIV/AIDS. CARE will soon begin expanding its sports program. Athletes from many other sports will work with secondary school youth. In addition, educational videos will be produced in the local language. Football-health camps and interschool sporting competitions for secondary school youth will be organized by HIV

  19. Injuries to kickers in American football: the National Football League experience.

    PubMed

    Brophy, Robert H; Wright, Rick W; Powell, John W; Matava, Matthew J

    2010-06-01

    Very little information is available regarding the incidence, causative mechanisms, and expected duration of time lost after injuries to kickers (placekickers and punters) in American football. Lower extremity musculotendinous injuries are the most common type of injury in American football kickers. The injuries related to punting differ from injuries related to placekicking. Descriptive epidemiologic study. A retrospective review of all documented injuries to kickers in the National Football League over a 20-year period (1988-2007) was performed using the League's injury surveillance database. The data were analyzed from multiple perspectives, with emphasis on the type of kick or activity at the time of injury and the factors that affect return to play after injury. There were 488 total injuries over the 20-year period: 72% involved the lower extremity, 9% involved the lumbosacral spine, and 7% involved the head. Muscle-tendon injuries (49%) were the most common, followed by ligamentous injuries (17%). There was a significantly higher risk of injury in games (17.7 per 1000) than during practice (1.91 per 1000). Most injuries (93%) did not require surgery, and the mean time to return to play was 15 days if no surgery was necessary. Kickers over 30 years of age took longer to return to play (mean, 21 days) than younger kickers (mean, 12 days) after nonsurgical injuries (P = .03). Mean return to play after injuries that required surgery was 121 days. Lumbosacral soft tissue injury, lateral ankle sprains, and shoulder injuries were more likely to occur in punters than placekickers. Kicking athletes face a low risk of injury in professional American football. Injuries most commonly involve the lower extremities. Training and injury prevention efforts should reflect that punting is associated with different injuries than placekicking, and that older kickers take longer to recuperate than younger kickers after certain injuries.

  20. Influence of Yo-Yo IR2 Scores on Internal and External Workloads and Fatigue Responses of Tag Football Players during Tournament Competition.

    PubMed

    Hogarth, Luke W; Burkett, Brendan J; McKean, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to: a) identify changes in jump height and perceived well-being as indirect markers of fatigue, b) determine the internal and external workloads performed by players, and c) examine the influence of Yo-Yo IR2 on changes in jump height, perceived well-being and internal and external workloads during a tag football tournament. Microtechnology devices combined with heart rate (HR) chest straps provided external and internal measures of match work-rate and workload for twelve male tag football players during the 2014 Australian National Championships. Jump height and perceived well-being were assessed prior to and during the tournament as indirect measures of fatigue. Changes in work-rate, workload and fatigue measures between high- and low-fitness groups were examined based on players' Yo-Yo IR2 score using a median split technique. The low- and high-fitness groups reported similar mean HR, PlayerloadTM/min, and distance/min for matches, however the low-fitness group reported higher perceived match-intensities (ES = 0.90-1.35) for several matches. Further, the high-fitness group reported higher measures of tournament workload, including distance (ES = 0.71), PlayerloadTM (ES = 0.85) and Edwards' training impulse (TRIMP) (ES = 1.23) than the low-fitness group. High- and low-fitness groups both showed large decreases (ES = 1.46-1.49) in perceived well-being during the tournament, although jump height did not decrease below pre-tournament values. Increased Yo-Yo IR2 appears to offer a protective effect against player fatigue despite increased workloads during a tag football tournament. It is vital that training programs adequately prepare tag football players for tournament competition to maximise performance and minimise player fatigue.

  1. Influence of Yo-Yo IR2 Scores on Internal and External Workloads and Fatigue Responses of Tag Football Players during Tournament Competition

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to: a) identify changes in jump height and perceived well-being as indirect markers of fatigue, b) determine the internal and external workloads performed by players, and c) examine the influence of Yo-Yo IR2 on changes in jump height, perceived well-being and internal and external workloads during a tag football tournament. Microtechnology devices combined with heart rate (HR) chest straps provided external and internal measures of match work-rate and workload for twelve male tag football players during the 2014 Australian National Championships. Jump height and perceived well-being were assessed prior to and during the tournament as indirect measures of fatigue. Changes in work-rate, workload and fatigue measures between high- and low-fitness groups were examined based on players’ Yo-Yo IR2 score using a median split technique. The low- and high-fitness groups reported similar mean HR, PlayerloadTM/min, and distance/min for matches, however the low-fitness group reported higher perceived match-intensities (ES = 0.90–1.35) for several matches. Further, the high-fitness group reported higher measures of tournament workload, including distance (ES = 0.71), PlayerloadTM (ES = 0.85) and Edwards’ training impulse (TRIMP) (ES = 1.23) than the low-fitness group. High- and low-fitness groups both showed large decreases (ES = 1.46–1.49) in perceived well-being during the tournament, although jump height did not decrease below pre-tournament values. Increased Yo-Yo IR2 appears to offer a protective effect against player fatigue despite increased workloads during a tag football tournament. It is vital that training programs adequately prepare tag football players for tournament competition to maximise performance and minimise player fatigue. PMID:26465599

  2. Finger Injuries in Football and Rugby.

    PubMed

    Elzinga, Kate E; Chung, Kevin C

    2017-02-01

    Football and rugby athletes are at increased risk of finger injuries given the full-contact nature of these sports. Some players may return to play early with protective taping, splinting, and casting. Others require a longer rehabilitation period and prolonged time away from the field. The treating hand surgeon must weigh the benefits of early return to play for the current season and future playing career against the risks of reinjury and long-term morbidity, including post-traumatic arthritis and decreased range of motion and strength. Each player must be comprehensively assessed and managed with an individualized treatment plan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Resisting temptation: decreasing alcohol-related affect and drinking behavior by training response inhibition.

    PubMed

    Houben, Katrijn; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Wiers, Reinout W; Jansen, Anita

    2011-07-01

    According to dual-process models, excessive alcohol use emerges when response inhibition ability is insufficient to inhibit automatic impulses to drink alcohol. This study examined whether strengthening response inhibition for alcohol-related cues decreases alcohol intake. Fifty-two heavy drinking students were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: In the beer/no-go condition, participants performed a go/no-go task that consistently paired alcohol-related stimuli with a stopping response, to increase response inhibition for alcohol-related stimuli. In the beer/go condition, in contrast, participants were always required to respond to alcohol-related stimuli during the go/no-go task. Before and after the go/no-go manipulation, we measured weekly alcohol intake and implicit attitudes toward alcohol. In addition, we measured alcohol consumption during a taste test immediately after the go/no-go manipulation. Following the manipulation, participants in the beer/no-go condition demonstrated significantly increased negative implicit attitudes toward alcohol, and a significant reduction in weekly alcohol intake, while participants in the beer/go condition showed a non-significant increase in implicit positive attitudes toward alcohol and a significant increase in weekly alcohol intake. This study demonstrates that repeatedly stopping prepotent responses toward alcohol-related stimuli can be an effective strategy to reduce excessive alcohol use.

  4. Robot-assisted motor training: assistance decreases exploration during reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Sans-Muntadas, Albert; Duarte, Jaime E; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2014-01-01

    Reinforcement learning (RL) is a form of motor learning that robotic therapy devices could potentially manipulate to promote neurorehabilitation. We developed a system that requires trainees to use RL to learn a predefined target movement. The system provides higher rewards for movements that are more similar to the target movement. We also developed a novel algorithm that rewards trainees of different abilities with comparable reward sizes. This algorithm measures a trainee's performance relative to their best performance, rather than relative to an absolute target performance, to determine reward. We hypothesized this algorithm would permit subjects who cannot normally achieve high reward levels to do so while still learning. In an experiment with 21 unimpaired human subjects, we found that all subjects quickly learned to make a first target movement with and without the reward equalization. However, artificially increasing reward decreased the subjects' tendency to engage in exploration and therefore slowed learning, particularly when we changed the target movement. An anti-slacking watchdog algorithm further slowed learning. These results suggest that robotic algorithms that assist trainees in achieving rewards or in preventing slacking might, over time, discourage the exploration needed for reinforcement learning.

  5. Scouting the Elite, Unbreakable Football Player.

    PubMed

    Moore, M

    1981-02-01

    Some NFL football teams see physiological profiling as a means to protect and enhance their competitive and business success. Whether football players will benefit by increased performance and fewer injuries remains to be seen.

  6. Oral administration of vitamin C decreases muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and hampers training-induced adaptations in endurance performance.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Cabrera, Mari-Carmen; Domenech, Elena; Romagnoli, Marco; Arduini, Alessandro; Borras, Consuelo; Pallardo, Federico V; Sastre, Juan; Viña, Jose

    2008-01-01

    Exercise practitioners often take vitamin C supplements because intense muscular contractile activity can result in oxidative stress, as indicated by altered muscle and blood glutathione concentrations and increases in protein, DNA, and lipid peroxidation. There is, however, considerable debate regarding the beneficial health effects of vitamin C supplementation. This study was designed to study the effect of vitamin C on training efficiency in rats and in humans. The human study was double-blind and randomized. Fourteen men (27-36 y old) were trained for 8 wk. Five of the men were supplemented daily with an oral dose of 1 g vitamin C. In the animal study, 24 male Wistar rats were exercised under 2 different protocols for 3 and 6 wk. Twelve of the rats were treated with a daily dose of vitamin C (0.24 mg/cm2 body surface area). The administration of vitamin C significantly (P=0.014) hampered endurance capacity. The adverse effects of vitamin C may result from its capacity to reduce the exercise-induced expression of key transcription factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. These factors are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor co-activator 1, nuclear respiratory factor 1, and mitochondrial transcription factor A. Vitamin C also prevented the exercise-induced expression of cytochrome C (a marker of mitochondrial content) and of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. Vitamin C supplementation decreases training efficiency because it prevents some cellular adaptations to exercise.

  7. Concussion and football: a review and editorial.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Kalil G; Grady, M Sean; Levine, Joshua M

    2015-04-01

    The issue of concussion in football is of substantial interest to players, coaches, fans, and physicians. In this article, we review specific cultural hindrances to diagnosis and treatment of concussion in football. We review current trends in management and identify areas for improvement. We also discuss the obligations that physicians, particularly neurosurgeons and neurologists, have toward brain-injured football players and the larger societal role they may play in helping to minimize football-associated brain injury.

  8. A pilot study evaluating a one-session attention modification training to decrease overeating in obese children

    PubMed Central

    Boutelle, Kerri N.; Kuckertz, Jennie M.; Carlson, Jordan; Amir, Nader

    2014-01-01

    There are a number of neurocognitive and behavioral mechanisms that contribute to overeating and obesity, including an attentional bias to food cues. Attention modification programs, which implicitly train attention away from specific cues, have been used in anxiety and substance abuse, and could logically be applied to food cues. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the initial efficacy of a single session attention modification training for food cues (AMP) on overeating in overweight and obese children. Twenty–four obese children who eat in the absence of hunger participated in two visits and were assigned to an attention modification program (AMP) or attentional control program (ACC). The AMP program trained attention away 100% of the time from food words to neutral words. The ACC program trained attention 50% of the time to neutral and 50% of the time to food. Outcome measures included the eating in the absence of hunger free access session, and measures of craving, liking and salivation. Results revealed significant treatment effects for EAH percent and EAH kcal (group by time interactions p < .05). Children in the ACC condition showed a significant increase over time in the number of calories consumed in the free access session (within group t=3.09, p=.009) as well as the percent of daily caloric needs consumed in free access (within group t=3.37, p=.006), whereas children in the AMP group demonstrated slight decreases in these variables (within group t=−0.75 and −0.63). There was a trend suggesting a beneficial effect of AMP as compared to ACC for attentional bias (group by time interaction p=.073). Changes in craving, liking and saliva were not significantly different between groups (ps=.178 to .527). This is the first study to demonstrate that an AMP program can influence eating in obese children. Larger studies are needed to replicate and extend these results. PMID:24512975

  9. A pilot study evaluating a one-session attention modification training to decrease overeating in obese children.

    PubMed

    Boutelle, Kerri N; Kuckertz, Jennie M; Carlson, Jordan; Amir, Nader

    2014-05-01

    There are a number of neurocognitive and behavioral mechanisms that contribute to overeating and obesity, including an attentional bias to food cues. Attention modification programs, which implicitly train attention away from specific cues, have been used in anxiety and substance abuse, and could logically be applied to food cues. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the initial efficacy of a single session attention modification training for food cues (AMP) on overeating in overweight and obese children. Twenty-four obese children who eat in the absence of hunger participated in two visits and were assigned to an attention modification program (AMP) or attentional control program (ACC). The AMP program trained attention away 100% of the time from food words to neutral words. The ACC program trained attention 50% of the time to neutral and 50% of the time to food. Outcome measures included the eating in the absence of hunger free access session, and measures of craving, liking and salivation. Results revealed significant treatment effects for EAH percent and EAH kcal (group by time interactions p<.05). Children in the ACC condition showed a significant increase over time in the number of calories consumed in the free access session (within group t=3.09, p=.009) as well as the percent of daily caloric needs consumed in free access (within group t=3.37, p=.006), whereas children in the AMP group demonstrated slight decreases in these variables (within group t=-0.75 and -0.63, respectively). There was a trend suggesting a beneficial effect of AMP as compared to ACC for attentional bias (group by time interaction p=.073). Changes in craving, liking and saliva were not significantly different between groups (ps=.178-.527). This is the first study to demonstrate that an AMP program can influence eating in obese children. Larger studies are needed to replicate and extend these results.

  10. Increased Nitric Oxide Bioavailability and Decreased Sympathetic Modulation Are Involved in Vascular Adjustments Induced by Low-Intensity Resistance Training

    PubMed Central

    Macedo, Fabrício N.; Mesquita, Thassio R. R.; Melo, Vitor U.; Mota, Marcelo M.; Silva, Tharciano L. T. B.; Santana, Michael N.; Oliveira, Larissa R.; Santos, Robervan V.; Miguel dos Santos, Rodrigo; Lauton-Santos, Sandra; Santos, Marcio R. V.; Barreto, Andre S.; Santana-Filho, Valter J.

    2016-01-01

    Resistance training is one of the most common kind of exercise used nowadays. Long-term high-intensity resistance training are associated with deleterious effects on vascular adjustments. On the other hand, is unclear whether low-intensity resistance training (LI-RT) is able to induce systemic changes in vascular tone. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the effects of chronic LI-RT on endothelial nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability of mesenteric artery and cardiovascular autonomic modulation in healthy rats. Wistar animals were divided into two groups: exercised (Ex) and sedentary (SED) rats submitted to the resistance (40% of 1RM) or fictitious training for 8 weeks, respectively. After LI-RT, hemodynamic measurements and cardiovascular autonomic modulation by spectral analysis were evaluated. Vascular reactivity, NO production and protein expression of endothelial and neuronal nitric oxide synthase isoforms (eNOS and nNOS, respectively) were evaluated in mesenteric artery. In addition, cardiac superoxide anion production and ventricle morphological changes were also assessed. In vivo measurements revealed a reduction in mean arterial pressure and heart rate after 8 weeks of LI-RT. In vitro studies showed an increased acetylcholine (ACh)-induced vasorelaxation and greater NOS dependence in Ex than SED rats. Hence, decreased phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction was found in Ex rats. Accordingly, LI-RT increased the NO bioavailability under basal and ACh stimulation conditions, associated with upregulation of eNOS and nNOS protein expression in mesenteric artery. Regarding autonomic control, LI-RT increased spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity, which was associated to reduction in both, cardiac and vascular sympathetic modulation. No changes in cardiac superoxide anion or left ventricle morphometric parameters after LI-RT were observed. In summary, these results suggest that RT promotes beneficial vascular adjustments favoring augmented endothelial NO bioavailability and

  11. Eccentric training in patients with chronic Achilles tendinosis: normalised tendon structure and decreased thickness at follow up

    PubMed Central

    Ohberg, L; Lorentzon, R; Alfredson, H; Maffulli, N

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively investigate tendon thickness and tendon structure by ultrasonography in patients treated with eccentric calf muscle training for painful chronic Achilles tendinosis located at the 2–6 cm level in the tendon. Methods: The patients were examined with grey scale ultrasonography before and 3.8 years (mean) after the 12 week eccentric training regimen. At follow up, a questionnaire assessed present activity level and satisfaction with treatment. Results: Twenty six tendons in twenty five patients (19 men and six women) with a mean age of 50 years were followed for a mean of 3.8 years (range 1.6–7.75). All patients had a long duration of painful symptoms (mean 17.1 months) from chronic Achilles tendinosis before treatment. At follow up, 22 of 25 patients were satisfied with treatment and active in Achilles tendon loading activities at the desired level. Ultrasonography showed that tendon thickness (at the widest part) had decreased significantly (p<0.005) after treatment (7.6 (2.3) v 8.8 (3) mm; mean (SD)). In untreated normal tendons, there was no significant difference in thickness after treatment (5.3 (1.3) mm before and 5.9 (0.8) mm after). All tendons with tendinosis had structural abnormalities (hypoechoic areas and irregular structure) before the start of treatment. After treatment, the structure was normal in 19 of the 26 tendons. Six of the seven patients with remaining structural abnormalities experienced pain in the tendon during loading. Conclusions: Ultrasonographic follow up of patients with mid-portion painful chronic Achilles tendinosis treated with eccentric calf muscle training showed a localised decrease in tendon thickness and a normalised tendon structure in most patients. Remaining structural tendon abnormalities seemed to be associated with residual pain in the tendon. PMID:14751936

  12. Train-the-trainer intervention to increase nursing teamwork and decrease missed nursing care in acute care patient units.

    PubMed

    Kalisch, Beatrice J; Xie, Boqin; Ronis, David L

    2013-01-01

    Teamwork is essential for patient safety and results in less missed nursing care. The aim of this study was to test the impact of a train-the-trainer intervention on the level of satisfaction with nursing teamwork and the amount of missed nursing care. This study used a quasiexperimental design with repeated measures taken at pretest, posttest, and 2 months after completion of the intervention. The sample for this study was the nursing staff on three medical-surgical units in three separate acute care hospitals (one unit in each hospital). Three nurses from each unit underwent a training program and then taught the skills and knowledge they acquired to the staff members on their units in three-hour-long sessions. The training involved staff role-playing scenarios based on teamwork problems that occur regularly on inpatient units in acute care hospitals followed by debriefing, which focused on teamwork behaviors (e.g., leadership, team orientation, backup, performance monitoring) and missed nursing care. Four measures were used to test the efficacy of this intervention: The Nursing Teamwork Survey, the MISSCARE Survey, and questions about the knowledge of and satisfaction with teamwork. Return rates for the surveys ranged from 73% to 84%. Follow-up tests individually comparing pretest, posttest, and delayed posttest were conducted within the mixed model and used the Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Teamwork increased (F = 6.91, df = 259.01, p = .001) and missed care decreased (F = 3.59, df = 251.29, p = .03) over time. Nursing staff also reported a higher level of satisfaction with teamwork and an increase of teamwork knowledge after the intervention. The intervention tested in this study shows promise of being an effective and efficient approach to increase nursing teamwork and decrease missed nursing care.

  13. What Research Tells the Coach About Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paige, Roderick R.

    This booklet is designed to make available research findings about football with interpretations for practical application. Chapter 1, "Physical Characteristics of Football Athletes," includes a table comparing the height and weight of National Football League players and All-Star players. Somatotyping and body composition are discussed. In…

  14. What Research Tells the Coach About Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paige, Roderick R.

    This booklet is designed to make available research findings about football with interpretations for practical application. Chapter 1, "Physical Characteristics of Football Athletes," includes a table comparing the height and weight of National Football League players and All-Star players. Somatotyping and body composition are discussed. In…

  15. Injuries of veteran football (soccer) players in Germany.

    PubMed

    Hammes, Daniel; Aus Der Fünten, Karen; Kaiser, Stephanie; Frisen, Eugen; Dvorák, Jirí; Meyer, Tim

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of injury data for the population of veteran football players. Therefore, a prospective study was conducted to investigate injury incidences and characteristics. Over one season, injuries and exposure of 18 teams (n = 265 players, age: 44.2±7.3 years, BMI: 26.6±3.2 kg/m(2)) were documented. Sixty-three players sustained a total of 88 injuries during the season. The incidence of training injuries (4.5 per 1000 hours) was significantly lower than of match injuries (24.7 per 1000 hours). The majority of injuries (n = 73; 83%) were located at the lower extremities, 52 (47%) were muscle injuries. The injury incidence of veteran football players is similar to other male football players of different skill levels and age groups, indicating a need for the implementation of preventive measures. Prevention programmes should consider the specific injury characteristics, with more muscle injuries in this population compared with younger football players.

  16. Fitness determinants of success in men's and women's football.

    PubMed

    Mujika, Iñigo; Santisteban, Juanma; Impellizzeri, Franco M; Castagna, Carlo

    2009-01-15

    In this study, we examined gender and age differences in physical performance in football. Thirty-four elite female and 34 elite male players (age 17 +/- 1.6 to 24 +/- 3.4 years) from a professional football club were divided into four groups (n=17 each) according to gender and competitive level (senior males, senior females, junior males, and junior females). Players were tested for specific endurance (Yo-YoIR1), sprint over 15 m (Sprint-15 m), vertical jump without (CMJ) or with (ACMJ) arm swing, agility (Agility-15 m), and ball dribbling over 15 m (Ball-15 m). The Yo-YoIR1 and Agility-15m performances showed both a gender and competitive level difference (P < 0.001). Senior and junior males covered 97 and 153% more distance during the Yo-YoIR1 than senior and junior females, respectively (P < 0.001). Gender but not age differences were found for Sprint-15 m performance (P < 0.001). No difference in vertical jump and Ball-15 m performances were found between senior and junior males (P > 0.05). More marked gender differences were evident in endurance than in anaerobic performance in female players. These results show major fitness differences by gender for a given competitive level in football players. It is suggested that training and talent identification should focus on football-specific endurance and agility as fitness traits in post-adolescent players of both sexes.

  17. A pilot study examining injuries in elite gaelic footballers.

    PubMed

    Cromwell, F; Walsh, J; Gormley, J

    2000-04-01

    To quantify injuries in elite gaelic footballers and to determine the nature, sites, and outcome of injuries and the possible risk factors involved. Information on injuries was collected from six elite gaelic football teams by a questionnaire. The footballers were asked to recall injuries over the preceding six month period. A total of 88 out of 107 subjects sustained injuries over the study period. Ninety five injuries were recorded, giving an incidence rate of 1.78 injuries per subject per year, of which 35% were recurring. It was found that 35% of injuries were sustained during training sessions. Lower body injuries predominated (77%), the ankle being the most commonly injured anatomic site. Most injuries were soft tissue in nature: muscle, 33%; ligament, 32%; tendon, 16%. The most common situations giving rise to injuries were collision (22%) and twist/turn (19%). Foul play only accounted for about 6% of injuries. Mean time off play as a result of injury was 17.3 days, and hospital admission was necessary for 15% of the injuries. Despite the limitations of a retrospective of this nature, the study provides useful and important information on injuries in gaelic footballers.

  18. A 6-month prospective study of injury in Gaelic football.

    PubMed

    Wilson, F; Caffrey, S; King, E; Casey, K; Gissane, C

    2007-05-01

    To describe the injury incidence in Gaelic football. A total of 83 players from three counties were interviewed monthly about their injury experience, during the 6 months of the playing season. The injury rate was 13.5/1000 h exposure to Gaelic football (95% CI, 10.9 to 16.6). There were nearly twice as many injuries during matches (64.4%, 95% CI, 54.1 to 73.6) as in training (35.6%, 95% CI, 26.4 to 49.5). The ankle was found to be the most commonly injured site (13.3%, 95% CI, 7.8 to 21.9). The musculotendinous unit accounted for nearly 1/3 of all injuries (31.1%). The tackle accounted for 27.8% of the injuries sustained (tackler 10%, 95% CI, 5.4 to 17.9; player being tackled 17.9%, 95% CI, 11.2 to 26.9). Of total match injuries, 56.9% (95% CI, 46.1 to 67.1) were experienced in the second half as opposed to 39.7% (95% CI, 29.8 to 50.5) in the first half. Gaelic footballers are under considerable risk of injury. Greater efforts must be made to reduce this risk so that players miss less time from sport due to injury. Risk factors for injury in Gaelic football must now be investigated so that specific interventions may be established to reduce them.

  19. Kicking the Football?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    1999-10-01

    Here it is, mid-August, and I don't have my syllabus (or all my plans) together for the fall semester that will begin in a couple of weeks. I leave for the ACS meeting in a day and a half. There are so many things to do. Entropy reigns! (Well, only figuratively. See the papers on pages 1382-1397.) Will I get it all together before that big first day of classes? At this time of year I always have great plans, but also I wonder whether I am Charlie Brownthe eternal optimist, ready to try to kick that football one more time. I know I could score a field goal if only the football weren't pulled away at the last millisecond. But it seems invariably to be pulled away. Or maybe I just don't connect with it properly. Why do I keep kicking that football? What is it about a new school year that gets me psyched up and excited? Teaching (that is, devising and implementing environments and experiences that help people learn) is a challenge, largely because we don't really know that much about how to do it effectively. It's so easy for that football to slither away, never having gotten off the ground. That's one of the things that make teaching interesting and exciting. There are so many ideas to try, and it's fun to see whether they will work. Both successes and failures suggest additional new approaches. Teaching science, like science itself, seems always to produce more questions than answers. For those of us who enjoy experiments, it is an ideal profession. Another reason to get fired up is that a new school year offers opportunities to work with such wonderful people. Whether courses are successful depends on teachers, students, and interactions among them. Every fall there are new groups of students, providing teachers with new opportunities, challenges, experiences, and even friendships. Every fall we teachers have new ideas about both content and pedagogy that spur us to greater efforts and thereby help to develop our students' intellects and abilities. Even more

  20. Foot kinematics and loading of professional athletes in American football-specific tasks.

    PubMed

    Riley, Patrick O; Kent, Richard W; Dierks, Tracy A; Lievers, W Brent; Frimenko, Rebecca E; Crandall, Jeff R

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe stance foot and ankle kinematics and the associated ground reaction forces at the upper end of human performance in professional football players during commonly performed football-specific tasks. Nine participants were recruited from the spring training squad of a professional football team. In a motion analysis laboratory setting, participants performed three activities used at the NFL Scouting Combine to assess player speed and agility: the 3-cone drill, the shuttle run, and the standing high jump. The talocrural and first metatarsophalangial joint dorsiflexion, subtalar joint inversion, and the ground reaction forces were determined for the load bearing portions of each activity. We documented load-bearing foot and ankle kinematics of elite football players performing competition-simulating activities, and confirmed our hypothesis that the talocrural, subtalar, and metatarsophalangeal joint ranges of motion for the activities studied approached or exceeded reported physiological limits.

  1. Non-participation in sports injury research: why football players choose not to be involved.

    PubMed

    Braham, R; Finch, C; McCrory, P

    2004-04-01

    To ascertain the reasons behind players not participating in a sports safety research project. During the preseason, 10 Australian football clubs volunteered 23 teams to participate in a protective equipment randomised controlled trial, the Australian Football Injury Prevention Project (AFIPP). All players from these teams were invited to participate. Players who did not agree to participate in AFIPP were surveyed about their reasons for non-involvement. 110 football players (response rate 63.6%) completed the non-responder survey and cited the two main reasons behind non-involvement in the project as "I did not know about the project" (39.4%) and "I was not at training when the research team visited" (36.5%). and implications: Preseason may not be the best time for maximal player recruitment in community based sports safety research. Enhanced communication between researchers and players at community level football clubs during the recruitment phase is likely to improve response rates.

  2. Non-participation in sports injury research: why football players choose not to be involved

    PubMed Central

    Braham, R; Finch, C; McCrory, P

    2004-01-01

    Methods: During the preseason, 10 Australian football clubs volunteered 23 teams to participate in a protective equipment randomised controlled trial, the Australian Football Injury Prevention Project (AFIPP). All players from these teams were invited to participate. Players who did not agree to participate in AFIPP were surveyed about their reasons for non-involvement. Results: 110 football players (response rate 63.6%) completed the non-responder survey and cited the two main reasons behind non-involvement in the project as "I did not know about the project" (39.4%) and "I was not at training when the research team visited" (36.5%). Conclusions and implications: Preseason may not be the best time for maximal player recruitment in community based sports safety research. Enhanced communication between researchers and players at community level football clubs during the recruitment phase is likely to improve response rates. PMID:15039271

  3. Effects of a 12-week intervention period with football and running for habitually active men with mild hypertension.

    PubMed

    Knoepfli-Lenzin, C; Sennhauser, C; Toigo, M; Boutellier, U; Bangsbo, J; Krustrup, P; Junge, A; Dvorak, J

    2010-04-01

    The present study examined the effect of football (F, n=15) training on the health profile of habitually active 25-45-year-old men with mild hypertension and compared it with running (R, n=15) training and no additional activity (controls, C, n=17). The participants in F and R completed a 1-h training session 2.4 times/week for 12 weeks. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased in all groups but the decrease in diastolic blood pressure in F (-9 +/- 5 (+/- SD) mmHg) was higher than that in C (-4 +/- 6 mmHg). F was as effective as R in decreasing body mass (-1.6 +/- 1.8 vs-1.5 +/- 2.1 kg) and total fat mass (-2.0 +/- 1.5 vs -1.6 +/- 1.5 kg) and in increasing supine heart rate variability, whereas no changes were detected for C. Maximal stroke volume improved in F (+13.1%) as well as in R (+10.1%) compared with C (-4.9%). Total cholesterol decreased in F (5.8 +/- 1.2 to 5.5 +/- 0.9 mmol/L) but was not altered in R and C. We conclude that football training, consisting of high-intensity intermittent exercise, results in positive effects on blood pressure, body composition, stroke volume and supine heart rate variability, and elicits at least the same cardiovascular health benefits as continuous running exercise in habitually active men with mild hypertension.

  4. Rehabilitation of Football Players with Lumbar Spine Injury. (Part 2 of 2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saal, Jeffrey A.

    1988-01-01

    The training phase of a rehabilitation program for football players who have sustained lower back injuries proceeds after the pain-control phase, and seeks to minimize risk of reinjury. This phase emphasizes movement training and exercise for strengthening abdominal muscles to stabilize the lumbar spine. A removable exercise guide is included.…

  5. Rehabilitation of Football Players with Lumbar Spine Injury. (Part 2 of 2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saal, Jeffrey A.

    1988-01-01

    The training phase of a rehabilitation program for football players who have sustained lower back injuries proceeds after the pain-control phase, and seeks to minimize risk of reinjury. This phase emphasizes movement training and exercise for strengthening abdominal muscles to stabilize the lumbar spine. A removable exercise guide is included.…

  6. "All boys and men can play football": a qualitative investigation of recreational football in prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Bruun, D M; Krustrup, P; Hornstrup, T; Uth, J; Brasso, K; Rørth, M; Christensen, J F; Midtgaard, J

    2014-08-01

    Evidence is accumulating that exercise-based rehabilitation improves physical capacity and quality of life in cancer survivors. However, recruitment and persistence of male cancer patients in rehabilitation and physical activity are low and novel health promotion strategies are warranted. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the meaning of recreational football as a team and interaction-oriented health-promoting activity in men with prostate cancer (n = 26). Qualitative data were collected through six focus group interviews (n = 4-6) and 20 h of participant observations. The two data sets were analyzed using framework analysis. The analysis produced 11 subthemes that were structured into three overarching themes: (a) motivational drivers; (b) united in sport; and (c) confirmation of own capacity. The findings indicated that participants regarded football as a welcome opportunity to regain control and acquire a sense of responsibility for own health without assuming the patient role, and football training legitimized and promoted mutual caring behavior in a male-oriented context. In conclusion, the study suggests that football, due to its cultural representation of masculine ideals, may be a potent and unique strategy for increasing recruitment and adherence to physical activity in prostate cancer patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A prospective epidemiological study of injuries in four English professional football clubs

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, R. D.; Fuller, C. W.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To define the causes of injuries to players in English professional football during competition and training. METHOD: Lost time injuries to professional and youth players were prospectively recorded by physiotherapists at four English League clubs over the period 1994 to 1997. Data recorded included information related to the injury, date and place of occurrence, type of activity, and extrinsic Playing factors. RESULTS: In all, 67% of all injuries occurred during competition. The overall injury frequency rate (IFR) was 8.5 injuries/1000 hours, with the IFR during competitions (27.7) being significantly (p < 0.01) higher than that during training (3.5). The IFRs for youth players were found to increase over the second half of the season, whereas they decreased for professional players. There were no significant differences in IFRs for professional and youth players during training. There were significantly (p < 0.01) injuries in competition in the 15 minute periods at the end of each half. Strains (41%), sprains (20%), and contusions (20%) represented the major types of injury. The thigh (23%), the ankle (17%), knee (14%), and lower leg (13%) represented the major locations of injury, with significantly (p < 0.01) more injuries to the dominant body side. Reinjury counted for 22% of all injuries. Only 12% of all injuries were caused by a breach of the rules of football, although player to player contact was involved in 41% of all injuries. CONCLUSIONS: The overall level of injury to professional footballers has been showed to be around 1000 times higher times higher than for industrial occupations generally regarded as high risk. The high level of muscle strains, in particular, indicates possible weakness in fitness training programmes and use of warming up and cooling down procedures by clubs and the need for benchmarking players' levels of fitness and performance. Increasing levels of injury to youth players as a season progresses emphasizes the

  8. Dehydration of football referees during a match

    PubMed Central

    Da Silva, A I; Fernandez, R

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To study hydration status in referees (main) and assistant referees (linesmen) during official football matches. Methods: Twelve male football referees were evaluated; all were volunteers. Before and after each match, the referee and one of the assistants were weighed without clothes and a blood sample was taken. Total water loss was determined for each subject from the change in body weight. The main haematological variables were analysed in the blood samples. Total plasma protein concentration and osmolarity were also determined. Variation in plasma volume was determined from changes in packed cell volume and a combination of changes in packed cell volume and haemoglobin concentrations. Results: During a match, total body water loss was 1.60 (0.13) litres, equivalent to 2.05 (0.18)% of body weight. Body weight was reduced by 1.55 (0.12)%, showing that water ingestion during the interval replaces only 24.4% of the body fluids lost during the match. The assistants lost 0.79 (0.19) litre of water, equivalent to 1.05 (0.25)% of body weight. The referees showed a significant decrease in plasma volume of 4.99 (1.33)%. The assistants showed a non-significant increase in plasma volume. The reduction in plasma volume observed in the referees correlated significantly with total body water loss (r = 0.9623). From these data, it is possible to predict that a dehydration of 1% reflects a reduction in plasma volume of nearly 2.5%. Conclusions: Referees are moderately dehydrated after a football match (2%), whereas assistants show a non-significant dehydration of 1% of their body weight. PMID:14665588

  9. Groin pain in footballers: the association between preseason clinical and pubic bone magnetic resonance imaging findings and athlete outcome.

    PubMed

    Slavotinek, John Paul; Verrall, Geoffrey Mark; Fon, Gerald Tau; Sage, Michael Radford

    2005-06-01

    Groin pain and tenderness are common in athletes from a variety of codes of football, but little attention has been directed to the influence of magnetic resonance imaging and such clinical findings on athlete participation. Preseason groin pain, tenderness, and magnetic resonance imaging findings such as pubic bone marrow edema are associated with restricted training capacity and missed games. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Fifty-two Australian footballers in the national competition were recruited. Preseason groin pain and focal tenderness were recorded, and magnetic resonance imaging of the groin was performed within 1 week of examination. Training restriction and games missed owing to groin pain were documented during the subsequent season. Magnetic resonance imaging showed pubic bone marrow edema in 19 of 52 (37%) footballers and linear parasymphyseal T2 hyperintensity in 16 of 52 (31%) footballers. Groin pain restricted training during the season in 22 of 52 (42%) footballers, and 9 of 52 (17%) footballers missed at least 1 game. Preseason pain (P = .0004), pubic bone tenderness (P = .02), and linear parasymphyseal T2 hyperintensity (P = .01) were associated with restricted training capacity during the subsequent season. Preseason groin pain (P = .03) was associated with missed games, but magnetic resonance imaging findings were not. Preseason pubic bone marrow edema, groin pain, and linear parasymphyseal T2 hyperintensity were associated with training restriction, but only preseason groin pain was associated with missed games.

  10. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy and decreased intramuscular fat after unilateral resistance training in spinal cord injury: case report.

    PubMed

    Gorgey, Ashraf S; Shepherd, Collin

    2010-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy is a common adaptation after spinal cord injury (SCI) that results in numerous health-related complications. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been recognized as an effective tool, which attenuates atrophy and evokes hypertrophy. To investigate the effects of NMES resistance training (RT) on individual muscle groups and adipose tissue of the right thigh after stimulation of the knee extensor muscle group in a man with chronic SCI. A 22-year-old man with a complete SCI sustained in a motorcycle accident 5 years prior to participation in this study. The participant underwent training twice a week for 12 weeks, including unilateral progressive RT of the right knee extensor muscle group using NMES and ankle weights. The stimulation was applied to knee extensors while the participant was sitting in his wheelchair. A series of T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired for the whole right thigh prior to and after training. Skeletal muscle cross-sectional areas were measured of the whole thigh, knee extensors, hip adductors, hamstrings, and sartorius and gracilis muscle groups. Additionally, intramuscular fat and subcutaneous fat of the thigh were measured. At the end of 12 weeks, the participant was able to lift 17 lbs during full knee extension. Average skeletal muscle cross-sectional areas increased in all of the measured muscle groups (12%-43%). Hypertrophy ranging from 30% to 112% was detected in multiaxial slices after the NMES RT protocol. Intramuscular fat decreased by more than 50% and subcutaneous fat increased by 24%. Unilateral NMES RT protocol evoked hypertrophy in the knee extensor and adjacent skeletal muscle groups and was associated with a reduction in intramuscular fat in a person with a chronic SCI. Additionally, subcutaneous adipose tissue cross-sectional areas increased in response to RT.

  11. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy and Decreased Intramuscular Fat After Unilateral Resistance Training in Spinal Cord Injury: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Gorgey, Ashraf S; Shepherd, Collin

    2010-01-01

    Background: Skeletal muscle atrophy is a common adaptation after spinal cord injury (SCI) that results in numerous health-related complications. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been recognized as an effective tool, which attenuates atrophy and evokes hypertrophy. Objective: To investigate the effects of NMES resistance training (RT) on individual muscle groups and adipose tissue of the right thigh after stimulation of the knee extensor muscle group in a man with chronic SCI. Participant: A 22-year-old man with a complete SCI sustained in a motorcycle accident 5 years prior to participation in this study. Methods: The participant underwent training twice a week for 12 weeks, including unilateral progressive RT of the right knee extensor muscle group using NMES and ankle weights. The stimulation was applied to knee extensors while the participant was sitting in his wheelchair. A series of T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired for the whole right thigh prior to and after training. Skeletal muscle cross-sectional areas were measured of the whole thigh, knee extensors, hip adductors, hamstrings, and sartorius and gracilis muscle groups. Additionally, intramuscular fat and subcutaneous fat of the thigh were measured. Results: At the end of 12 weeks, the participant was able to lift 17 lbs during full knee extension. Average skeletal muscle cross-sectional areas increased in all of the measured muscle groups (12%–43%). Hypertrophy ranging from 30% to 112% was detected in multiaxial slices after the NMES RT protocol. Intramuscular fat decreased by more than 50% and subcutaneous fat increased by 24%. Conclusion: Unilateral NMES RT protocol evoked hypertrophy in the knee extensor and adjacent skeletal muscle groups and was associated with a reduction in intramuscular fat in a person with a chronic SCI. Additionally, subcutaneous adipose tissue cross-sectional areas increased in response to RT. PMID:20397451

  12. Physical training prevents depressive symptoms and a decrease in brain-derived neurotrophic factor in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Tuon, T; Valvassori, S S; Dal Pont, G C; Paganini, C S; Pozzi, B G; Luciano, T F; Souza, P S; Quevedo, J; Souza, C T; Pinho, R A

    2014-09-01

    Depression is a neuropsychiatric disorder that is commonly found in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Many studies have suggested that physical exercise can have an antidepressant effect by increasing the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and may also prevent neurodegenerative disease. However, different forms of training may promote different changes in the brain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two types of physical training on depressive-like behavior, and on the levels of proBDNF, BDNF, and its receptor, TrkB, in a mouse model of PD. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to 60 days of exercise: either running on a treadmill or performing a strength exercise. PD was induced by striatal administration of 6-OHDA 24h after the last physical exercise session. Seven days after 6-OHDA injection, depressive-like behavior and apomorphine-induced rotational behavior were evaluated. The levels of proBDNF, BDNF, and TRKB were measured in the striatum and the hippocampus of mice by immunoblotting assay. The 6-OHDA-treated animals showed a significant increase in immobility time and rotational behavior compared with the control group. In addition, significant decreases in the levels of proBDNF, BDNF, and its receptor, TrkB were observed in the 6-OHDA group. Both types of physical exercise prevented depressive-like behavior and restored the levels of proBDNF, BDNF, and TrkB in the striatum and hippocampus of mice administered 6-OHDA. Our results demonstrate that exercise training was effective for neuroprotection in the striatum and the hippocampus in an experimental model of PD.

  13. Consistently high urine specific gravity in adolescent American football players and the impact of an acute drinking strategy.

    PubMed

    Stover, E A; Zachwieja, J; Stofan, J; Murray, R; Horswill, C A

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether high-school football players showed risks of fluid deficits during two-a-day training (Part 1), and whether implementing a drinking strategy could acutely improve the markers of hydration (Part 2). In Part 1, pre-training urine specific gravity (USG) and pre- and post-training body weight were measured at the morning session for 5 consecutive days of two-a-day practices to monitor the hydration status of 13 varsity players. The mean pre-training body weight was consistently lower (mean decrease of 0.5 kg, p<0.05) following the first day of measurement. Pre-training USG values remained consistently high each day (range for daily means: 1.022+/-0.003 to 1.024+/-0.005). Part 2 consisted of assessing hydration status in 46 varsity and junior varsity players prior to morning training during two-a-day training before and following implementing a drinking strategy. In association with the strategy, mean body weight increased 0.5 kg (p<0.01) and mean USG decreased from 1.021 to 1.016 (p<0.01) following the drinking protocol. The slight decline in body weight and consistently high USG (Part 1) suggested that standard fluid replacement strategies were less than optimal for a majority of the players. Implementing a drinking strategy appeared to improve hydration status based on changes in body weight and USG (Part 2).

  14. Cervical spine injuries in football.

    PubMed

    Breslow, M J; Rosen, J E

    2000-01-01

    The game of football, as it is played today, poses serious risk of injury for players of all ages. Injury may occur to any structure of the spinal column, including its bony, ligamentous and soft tissue components. The majority of cervical spine injuries occurring in football are self limited, and a full recovery can be expected. While these injuries are relatively uncommon, cervical spine injuries represent a significant proportion of athletic injuries that can produce permanent disability. The low incidence of cervical spine injuries has lead to a lack of emergency management experience of on-site medical staff. This paper will review the numerous injuries sustained by the cervical spine in football players and provide insights into prevention and guidelines for return to play.

  15. How to Rescue American Football

    PubMed Central

    Metzner, David

    2016-01-01

    Blows to the head damage the brain. American football is a contact/collision sport that produces many injuries, including to the brain. Football has many supporters who cite important redeeming characteristics of the activity. Public attention to the hazards of children and adults playing football has heightend recently due to many new scientific discoveries, not least of which is the frequency with which players are seriously harmed and do not recover. It is now incumbent on all interested parties to invent and implement far better safety practices, equipment, rules, and processes or the sport must cease to exist in its current form. This paper presents several safety proposals for consideration and study. PMID:27284499

  16. Left ventricular function in professional football players evaluated by tissue Doppler imaging and strain imaging.

    PubMed

    Tümüklü, Mustafa Murat; Etikan, Ilker; Cinar, Cahide Soydaş

    2008-01-01

    Long-term regular exercise is associated with physiologic and morphologic cardiac alterations. Tissue Doppler Imaging(TDI) and Strain Myocardial Imaging(SI) are new tools in the evaluation systolic and diastolic myocardial function. We sought to compare TDI and SI findings in professional football players and age adjusted sedentary controls to assess the effect of regular athletic training on myocardial function. Transthoracic echocardiography, M-mode, 2-D measurements, Doppler derived mitral-tricuspid annular velocities, reconstructed spectral pulsed wave tissue Doppler velocities, strain and strain rate imaging of seven different myocardial regions were obtained from 24 professional football players and age, sex and weight adjusted 20 controls. Age, body surface area, blood pressure and heart rate were comparable between 2 groups. Football players had significantly increased LV mass, mass index (due to both higher wall thickness and end-diastolic diameter), end-systolic and end-diastolic volume, left atrial diameter and decreased transmitral diastolic late velocity. In athletes TDI analysis showed significantly increased mitral annulus septal TDI peak early diastolic(e) velocity(0.22 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.19 +/- 0.04 m/s, P < 0.05), lateral TDI peak e velocity (0.19 +/- 0.03 vs. 0.16 +/- 0.02 m/s, P < 0.05) and lateral TDI e/a ratio (1.96 +/- 0.41 and 1.66 +/- 0.23, P < 0.05). In SI analysis mid septal walls (1.71 +/- 0.23 in athletes and 1.49 +/- 0.25 in controls, P < 0.05) and mid lateral walls (1.55 +/- 0.28 and 1.34 +/- 0.25 respectively, P < 0.05) peak systolic strain rate values differences were found to be increased in athletes. Professional football playing is associated with morphologic alteration in left ventricle and left atrium and improvement in left ventricle diastolic function which can be detected by TDI. Strain rate imaging may be a new tool to define subtle change in systolic left ventricular function in "athletes heart" which cannot be determined in

  17. Identification of Cardiometabolic Risk Among Collegiate Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Wilkerson, Gary B.; Bullard, J. Todd; Bartal, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Excessive fat mass clearly has adverse effects on metabolic processes that can ultimately lead to the development of chronic disease. Early identification of high-risk status may facilitate referral for definitive diagnostic tests and implementation of interventions to reduce cardiometabolic risk. Objective: To document the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among collegiate football players and to develop a clinical prediction rule that does not require blood analysis to identify players who may possess a high level of cardiometabolic risk. Design: Cross-sectional cohort study. Setting: University athletic training research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Sixty-two National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Championship Subdivision football players (age  =  19.9 ± 1.2 years, height  =  182.6 ± 6.1 cm, mass  =  97.4 ± 18.3 kg). Main Outcome Measure(s): Anthropometric characteristics associated with body fat, isokinetic quadriceps strength, and biometric indicators associated with metabolic syndrome were measured. Participants were classified as high risk or low risk for future development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the cohort was 19% (12 of 62), and 79% (49 of 62) of the players exceeded the threshold for 1 or more of its 5 components. A 4-factor clinical prediction rule that classified individuals on the basis of waist circumference, blood pressure, quadriceps strength, and ethnic category had 92% sensitivity (95% confidence interval  =  65%, 99%) and 76% specificity (95% confidence interval  =  63%, 86%) for discrimination of high-risk or low-risk status. Conclusions: The risk for developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease appears to be exceptionally high among collegiate football players. A lack of race-specific criteria for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome almost certainly contributes to an underestimation of

  18. Football: sideline management of injuries.

    PubMed

    Shah, Selina; Luftman, Joseph P; Vigil, Daniel V

    2004-06-01

    Football is reported to have one of the highest rates of injury among sports. Thus, it is becoming more commonplace for a physician to be present at the sideline to help manage injuries acutely. The team physician should be well equipped to provide game coverage by having the necessary equipment and knowledge of the injuries common in football. The physician should have an understanding of how to evaluate injuries at the sideline and when to send the player to the emergency room for further evaluation.

  19. Thigh Injuries in American Football.

    PubMed

    Lamplot, Joseph D; Matava, Matthew J

    Quadriceps and hamstring injuries occur frequently in football and are generally treated conservatively. While return to competition following hamstring strains is relatively quick, a high rate of injury recurrence highlights the importance of targeted rehabilitation and conditioning. This review describes the clinical manifestations of thigh-related soft-tissue injuries seen in football players. Two of these-muscle strains and contusions-are relatively common, while a third condition-the Morel-Lavallée lesion-is a rare, yet relevant injury.

  20. Football injuries during European Championships 2004-2005.

    PubMed

    Waldén, Markus; Hägglund, Martin; Ekstrand, Jan

    2007-09-01

    The risk of injury in football is high, but few studies have compared men's and women's football injuries. The purpose of this prospective study was to analyse the exposure and injury characteristics of European Championships in football and to compare data for men, women and male youth players. The national teams of all 32 countries (672 players) that qualified to the men's European Championship 2004, the women's European Championship 2005 and the men's Under-19 European Championship 2005 were studied. Individual training and match exposure was documented during the tournaments as well as time loss injuries. The overall injury incidence was 14 times higher during match play than during training (34.6 vs. 2.4 injuries per 1000 h, P < 0.0001). There were no differences in match and training injury incidences between the championships. Teams eliminated in the women's championship had a significantly higher match injury incidence compared to teams going to the semi-finals (65.4 vs. 5.0 injuries per 1000 h, P = 0.02). Non-contact mechanisms were ascribed for 41% of the match injuries. One-fifth of all injuries were severe with absence from play longer than 4 weeks. In conclusion, injury incidences during the European Championships studied were very similar and it seems thus that the risk of injury in international football is at least not higher in women than in men. The teams eliminated in the women's championship had a significantly higher match injury incidence than the teams going to the final stage. Finally, the high frequency of non-contact injury is worrying from a prevention perspective and should be addressed in future studies.

  1. Time-motion and physiological profile of football training sessions performed by under-15, under-17 and under-19 elite Portuguese players.

    PubMed

    Abade, Eduardo A; Gonçalves, Bruno V; Leite, Nuno M; Sampaio, Jaime E

    2014-05-01

    To provide the time-motion and physiological profile of regular training sessions (TS) performed during the competitive season by under-15 (U15), under-17 (U17), and under-19 (U19) elite-level Portuguese soccer players. One hundred fifty-one elite players of U15 (age 14.0 ± 0.2 y, n = 56), U17 (age 15.8 ± 0.4 y, n = 66), and U19 (age 17.8 ± 0.6 y, n = 29) participated in the study during a 9-wk period. Time-motion and body-impact data were collected using GPS technology (15 Hz) across 38 randomly selected TS that resulted in a total of 612 samples. In addition, heart rate (HR) was continuously monitored (1 Hz) in the selected TS. The total distances covered (m) were higher in U17 (4648.3 ± 831.9), followed by U19 (4212.5 ± 935.4) and U15 (3964.5 ± 725.4) players (F = 45.84, P < .001). Total body impacts and relative impacts were lower in U15 (total: 490.8 ± 309.5, F = 7.3, P < .01), but no differences were identified between U17 (total: 584.0 ± 363.5) and U19 (total: 613.1 ± 329.4). U19 players had less high- and very-high-intensity activity (above 16 km/h; F = 11.8, P < .001) and moderate-intensity activity (10.0-15.9 km/h; F = 15.07, P < .001). HR values showed significant effects of zone (F = 575.7, P < .001) and interaction with age group (F = 9.7, P < .001), with pairwise differences between all zones (zone 1, <75%; zone 2, 75-84.9%; zone 3, 85-89.9%; zone 4, ≥90%). All players spent most of their time below 75% HRmax (U15, ~50%; U17, ~42%; U19, ~50%). Results showed high variability between TS, refraining from identifying meaningful trends when measuring performance, although different demands were identified according to age group. The U15 TS were less physiologically demanding, probably because of increased focus on small-sided games to develop basic tactical principles and technical skills. The focus on game-like situations imposed higher external and internal workloads on U17 and U19 players.

  2. The Football Association medical research programme: an audit of injuries in academy youth football

    PubMed Central

    Price, R; Hawkins, R; Hulse, M; Hodson, A

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To undertake a prospective epidemiological study of the injuries sustained in English youth academy football over two competitive seasons. Methods: Player injuries were annotated by medical staff at 38 English football club youth academies. A specific injury audit questionnaire was used together with a weekly return form that documented each club's current injury status. Results: A total of 3805 injuries were reported over two complete seasons (June to May) with an average injury rate of 0.40 per player per season. The mean (SD) number of days absent for each injury was 21.9 (33.63), with an average of 2.31 (3.66) games missed per injury. The total amount of time absent through injury equated to about 6% of the player's development time. Players in the higher age groups (17–19 years) were more likely to receive an injury than those in the younger age groups (9–16 years). Injury incidence varied throughout the season, with training injuries peaking in January (p<0.05) and competition injuries peaking in October (p<0.05). Competition injuries accounted for 50.4% of the total, with 36% of these occurring in the last third of each half. Strains (31%) and sprains (20%) were the main injury types, predominantly affecting the lower limb, with a similar proportion of injuries affecting the thigh (19%), ankle (19%), and knee (18%). Growth related conditions, including Sever's disease and Osgood-Schlatter's disease, accounted for 5% of total injuries, peaking in the under 13 age group for Osgood-Schlatter's disease and the under 11 age group for Sever's disease. The rate of re-injury of exactly the same anatomical structure was 3%. Conclusions: Footballers are at high risk of injury and there is a need to investigate ways of reducing this risk. Injury incidence at academy level is approximately half that of the professional game. Academy players probably have much less exposure to injury than their full time counterparts. Areas that warrant further attention

  3. Gaze location prediction for broadcast football video.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qin; Agrafiotis, Dimitris; Achim, Alin M; Bull, David R

    2013-12-01

    The sensitivity of the human visual system decreases dramatically with increasing distance from the fixation location in a video frame. Accurate prediction of a viewer's gaze location has the potential to improve bit allocation, rate control, error resilience, and quality evaluation in video compression. Commercially, delivery of football video content is of great interest because of the very high number of consumers. In this paper, we propose a gaze location prediction system for high definition broadcast football video. The proposed system uses knowledge about the context, extracted through analysis of a gaze tracking study that we performed, to build a suitable prior map. We further classify the complex context into different categories through shot classification thus allowing our model to prelearn the task pertinence of each object category and build the prior map automatically. We thus avoid the limitation of assigning the viewers a specific task, allowing our gaze prediction system to work under free-viewing conditions. Bayesian integration of bottom-up features and top-down priors is finally applied to predict the gaze locations. Results show that the prediction performance of the proposed model is better than that of other top-down models that we adapted to this context.

  4. Epidemiology of Sport-Related Concussion in an NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision Sample.

    PubMed

    Houck, Zachary; Asken, Breton; Bauer, Russell; Pothast, Jason; Michaudet, Charlie; Clugston, James

    2016-09-01

    Concussions are common in football, and knowledge of their incidence rates across settings is needed to develop strategies to decrease occurrence. To examine sports-related concussion rates in a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I Football Bowl Subdivision sample based on the activity setting where injuries occurred, during which type of play, and when relative to the 2010 NCAA concussion management policy. Descriptive epidemiology study. Medical records from January 2006 to January 2015 for an NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision program were analyzed. Concussion rates (per 1000 athlete-exposures [AEs]) were compared among the following settings: spring practice, preseason training camp, regular season high-contact practice, regular season low-contact practice, bowl game practice, and game competition. Play-type analyses examined incidence rates during offensive, defensive, and special teams plays. Changes in concussion rate coinciding with the 2010 NCAA concussion management policy were also studied. Of the 452 unique players on the roster during the 9-year study period, 118 (26.1%) were diagnosed with a concussion. The concussion rate during games was significantly higher than all practices combined (P < .001). However, when game rate (4.46 per 1000 AEs) was compared with preseason training camp alone (3.81 per 1000 AEs), there was no significant difference (P = .433). The concussion rate during special teams plays was significantly higher than that during offensive (P < .001) or defensive plays (P < .001). The concussion rate in the 4 seasons (2010-2014) after the 2010 NCAA concussion management policy was initiated was significantly higher than the 4 seasons (2006-2009) preceding the policy (P = .036). Study results show that (1) based on activity type, games and preseason training camp present the greatest risk of sustaining a concussion; (2) based on play type, special teams plays pose the greatest risk of sustaining a concussion

  5. A comparison of the physiological profiles of elite Gaelic footballers, hurlers, and soccer players

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, M

    2005-01-01

    Background: Gaelic football, soccer, and hurling are prominent field games in Ireland and involve participants undertaking a variety of playing tasks and skills which place various physiological demands on the participants. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the mid-season physiological profiles of elite players. Methods: Physiological assessment was carried out on 29 inter-county Gaelic footballers, 30 inter-county hurlers, and 21 League of Ireland soccer players. Results: Significant differences were reported for % body fat (p<0.05), aerobic capacity (p<0.05), flexibility (p<0.05), upper body strength (p<0.05), upper body strength endurance (p<0.05), abdominal endurance (p<0.05), and speed endurance (p<0.05), while there were no differences recorded for height, weight, or speed levels. A relatively heterogeneous body size is evident for all three sports. Soccer players had lower body fat levels, greater aerobic capacity, greater strength endurance, and greater flexibility compared to both Gaelic footballers and hurlers, possibly due to specific training and conditioning programmes or physical adaptation to match play The greater strength of both Gaelic footballers and hurlers and the superior speed endurance levels of Gaelic footballers also reflect the physical nature of the sports. Similar speed levels amongst all three sports reflect the importance of speed for performance. Conclusions: The various physiological attributes for Gaelic football, soccer, and hurling reflect the physical requirements for success and participation in each of these field games. PMID:15976166

  6. A comparison of the physiological profiles of elite Gaelic footballers, hurlers, and soccer players.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, M C

    2005-07-01

    Gaelic football, soccer, and hurling are prominent field games in Ireland and involve participants undertaking a variety of playing tasks and skills which place various physiological demands on the participants. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the mid-season physiological profiles of elite players. Physiological assessment was carried out on 29 inter-county Gaelic footballers, 30 inter-county hurlers, and 21 League of Ireland soccer players. Significant differences were reported for % body fat (p<0.05), aerobic capacity (p<0.05), flexibility (p<0.05), upper body strength (p<0.05), upper body strength endurance (p<0.05), abdominal endurance (p<0.05), and speed endurance (p<0.05), while there were no differences recorded for height, weight, or speed levels. A relatively heterogeneous body size is evident for all three sports. Soccer players had lower body fat levels, greater aerobic capacity, greater strength endurance, and greater flexibility compared to both Gaelic footballers and hurlers, possibly due to specific training and conditioning programmes or physical adaptation to match play The greater strength of both Gaelic footballers and hurlers and the superior speed endurance levels of Gaelic footballers also reflect the physical nature of the sports. Similar speed levels amongst all three sports reflect the importance of speed for performance. The various physiological attributes for Gaelic football, soccer, and hurling reflect the physical requirements for success and participation in each of these field games.

  7. High-Intensity Interval Training with Vibration as Rest Intervals Attenuates Fiber Atrophy and Prevents Decreases in Anaerobic Performance

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Sandro Manuel; Aguayo, David; Zuercher, Matthias; Fleischmann, Oliver; Boutellier, Urs; Auer, Maria; Jung, Hans H.; Toigo, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic high-intensity interval training (HIT) improves cardiovascular capacity but may reduce the finite work capacity above critical power (W′) and lead to atrophy of myosin heavy chain (MyHC)-2 fibers. Since whole-body vibration may enhance indices of anaerobic performance, we examined whether side-alternating whole-body vibration as a replacement for the active rest intervals during a 4x4 min HIT prevents decreases in anaerobic performance and capacity without compromising gains in aerobic function. Thirty-three young recreationally active men were randomly assigned to conduct either conventional 4x4 min HIT, HIT with 3 min of WBV at 18 Hz (HIT+VIB18) or 30 Hz (HIT+VIB30) in lieu of conventional rest intervals, or WBV at 30 Hz (VIB30). Pre and post training, critical power (CP), W′, cellular muscle characteristics, as well as cardiovascular and neuromuscular variables were determined. W′ (−14.3%, P = 0.013), maximal voluntary torque (−8.6%, P = 0.001), rate of force development (−10.5%, P = 0.018), maximal jumping power (−6.3%, P = 0.007) and cross-sectional areas of MyHC-2A fibers (−6.4%, P = 0.044) were reduced only after conventional HIT. CP, V̇O2peak, peak cardiac output, and overall capillary-to-fiber ratio were increased after HIT, HIT+VIB18, and HIT+VIB30 without differences between groups. HIT-specific reductions in anaerobic performance and capacity were prevented by replacing active rest intervals with side-alternating whole-body vibration, notably without compromising aerobic adaptations. Therefore, competitive cyclists (and potentially other endurance-oriented athletes) may benefit from replacing the active rest intervals during aerobic HIT with side-alternating whole-body vibration. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01875146 PMID:25679998

  8. High-intensity interval training with vibration as rest intervals attenuates fiber atrophy and prevents decreases in anaerobic performance.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Sandro Manuel; Aguayo, David; Zuercher, Matthias; Fleischmann, Oliver; Boutellier, Urs; Auer, Maria; Jung, Hans H; Toigo, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic high-intensity interval training (HIT) improves cardiovascular capacity but may reduce the finite work capacity above critical power (W') and lead to atrophy of myosin heavy chain (MyHC)-2 fibers. Since whole-body vibration may enhance indices of anaerobic performance, we examined whether side-alternating whole-body vibration as a replacement for the active rest intervals during a 4 x 4 min HIT prevents decreases in anaerobic performance and capacity without compromising gains in aerobic function. Thirty-three young recreationally active men were randomly assigned to conduct either conventional 4 x 4 min HIT, HIT with 3 min of WBV at 18 Hz (HIT+VIB18) or 30 Hz (HIT+VIB30) in lieu of conventional rest intervals, or WBV at 30 Hz (VIB30). Pre and post training, critical power (CP), W', cellular muscle characteristics, as well as cardiovascular and neuromuscular variables were determined. W' (-14.3%, P = 0.013), maximal voluntary torque (-8.6%, P = 0.001), rate of force development (-10.5%, P = 0.018), maximal jumping power (-6.3%, P = 0.007) and cross-sectional areas of MyHC-2A fibers (-6.4%, P = 0.044) were reduced only after conventional HIT. CP, V̇O2peak, peak cardiac output, and overall capillary-to-fiber ratio were increased after HIT, HIT+VIB18, and HIT+VIB30 without differences between groups. HIT-specific reductions in anaerobic performance and capacity were prevented by replacing active rest intervals with side-alternating whole-body vibration, notably without compromising aerobic adaptations. Therefore, competitive cyclists (and potentially other endurance-oriented athletes) may benefit from replacing the active rest intervals during aerobic HIT with side-alternating whole-body vibration. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01875146.

  9. Imaging of American football injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Podberesky, Daniel J; Unsell, Bryan J; Anton, Christopher G

    2009-12-01

    It is estimated that 3.2 million children ages 6 to 14 years participated in organized youth football in the United States in 2007. Approximately 240,000 children play football in the nation's largest youth football organization, with tackle divisions starting at age 5 years. The number of children playing unsupervised football is much higher, and the overall number of children participating in American football is increasing. Sports are the leading cause of injury-related emergency room visits for teenagers, and football is a leading precipitating athletic activity for these visits. Football is also the most hazardous organized sports in the United States. Though most pediatric football-related injuries are minor, such as abrasions, sprains, and strains of the extremities, football accounts for more major and catastrophic injuries than any other sport. Given football's popularity with children in the United States, combined with the high rate of injury associated with participation in this activity, radiologists should be familiar with the imaging features and injury patterns seen in this patient population.

  10. Football injuries at Asian tournaments.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Young Sul; Chai, Michelle; Shin, Dong Won

    2004-01-01

    To examine the incidences and patterns of injuries that required medical attention among Asian football players. A total of 411 Asian football players at both senior and youth (U-20) elite levels were observed during 50 international matches. Independent injury observers and team doctors determined the occurrence of injuries and recorded the location, type, time, and circumstances of the injuries using a protocol sheet. The overall injury frequency rate was 45.8 out of 1000 hours. As the tournaments progressed into the knockout stages, the incidence and severity of the injuries increased. The most common sites of injuries were the knees (18.5%), lower legs (17.3%), and ankles (14.2%). Although most injuries were diagnosed as contusions, the more serious injuries were those diagnosed as sprains (especially concerning the knee and ankle) or strains (thigh and back). The incidences of injuries to Asian football players were higher than those to European players, but the patterns of the injuries showed no major differences. To develop an injury-prevention program, more solid and comprehensive data need to be collected to identify the risk factors and variables associated with higher incidences of injuries to Asian football players.

  11. Football--All Year Long?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Tom E.

    1982-01-01

    Football is the basis for an educational game that is used as a vehicle for class-size instruction that can provide general review, review of recently taught topics, or introduction of new material. Teachers of students of any age are encouraged to consider use of this approach. (MP)

  12. Prevention of craniofacial injuries in football.

    PubMed

    Ranalli, D N

    1991-10-01

    The evolution of rules and regulations governing the development and use of protective football equipment for the prevention of craniofacial and intraoral traumatic injuries to football players have reduced substantially the occurrence of these injuries. Protective football equipment such as helmets, facemasks, and intraoral mouthguards have undergone numerous developmental changes to improve their effectiveness in preventing traumatic injuries to the head, face, and mouth of participants in football during practice sessions as well as in game situations. Unfortunately, however, some of these types of injuries do continue to occur. Various regulatory agencies and football governing bodies have established quality performance standards for equipment and have enacted rulings for their proper use. Penalties have been assessed for rule infractions to aid in curtailing the misuse of such equipment, as occurs for example, when the helmet is used to spear tackle an opponent or when the facemask is grasped, pulled, or twisted by an opposing player. Dentists can contribute significantly to the overall well-being of their patients who participate in football by providing information and advice regarding the proper use of protective football equipment to prevent craniofacial and intraoral traumatic football-related injuries, by fabricating properly fitted mouthguards as one aspect of their total practice of dentistry, and by providing high-quality and expeditious emergency and long-term treatment subsequent to football-related intraoral traumatic injuries. In addition, dentists can contribute on a larger scale to the overall well-being of football athletes by participating in community service activities such as mouthguard days, as consultants to football teams, as team dentists, or as advisors to those interested in research and development to improve protective football equipment, and to those responsible for sponsoring more stringent regulations for player safety in

  13. Does training improve compliance with hand hygiene and decrease infections in the neonatal intensive care unit? A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi-Moghaddam, P; Arjmandnia, M; Shokrollahi, M; Aghaali, M

    2015-01-01

    The most important tool in any infection control program is good hand hygiene. Despite recognizing that hand hygiene is crucial in reducing infection rates, hand hygiene compliance remains suboptimal. This study was designed to determine hand hygiene compliance, before and after an educational intervention and its impact on hospital infection rates. The study was done in neonatal intensive care unit of an educational hospital. All healthcare providers working in the unit at the time of study were trained on importance of hand hygiene and methods of hand hygiene observation; after that hand washing compliance controlled by a physician during postintervention phase. Hand hygiene compliance, healthcare associated infection and mortality rates compared before and after educational intervention. Compliance of health-care workers for all hand hygiene opportunities combined was 30% before intervention and improved to 70% in postintervention. In postintervention phase, healthcare associated infection rates and mortality rates decreased significantly as the hand hygiene compliance improved. Good control of hand hygiene compliance by physician after an educational program may have good effect in healthcare associated infections control in neonatal intensive care unit.

  14. Neuropsychological impairment as a consequence of football (soccer) play and football heading: preliminary analyses and report on university footballers.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, A; Stephens, R; Potter, D; Fernie, G

    2005-04-01

    Previous research has claimed neuropsychological impairment occurs as a result of professional and amateur football play, and, specifically, football heading. However, much of this research exhibits substantial methodological problems. By investigating less committed amateur level footballers, the current study sought to gain some insight into the developmental history of any neuropsychological consequences of football play. University football, rugby and noncontact sports players were compared on a range of biographical and neuropsychological test variables. While playing their chosen sports, rugby players sustained many more head injuries than footballers and noncontact sportsmen, but footballers did not sustain significantly more head injuries than noncontact sportsmen. The number of head injuries sustained predicted Trails B and TAP Divided Attention latencies in a positive fashion. After controlling for the number of head injuries sustained, sport group effects were detected with TAP Divided Attention accuracy scores, with footballers exhibiting poorest performance. After controlling for the number of head injuries sustained, the total amount of heading done by footballers predicted the number of Wisconsin Card Sorting category shifts in a negative fashion. Nevertheless, over interpretation of all of these results should be resisted because of the exploratory nature of the analyses and the possibility that the sport groups may differ in ways other than just the nature of their sports activities.

  15. Effects of expertise on football betting

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Football (soccer) is one of the most popular sports in the world, including Europe. It is associated with important betting activities. A common belief, widely spread among those who participate in gambling activities, is that knowledge and expertise on football lead to better prediction skills for match outcomes. If unfounded, however, this belief should be considered as a form of “illusion of control.” The aim of this study was to examine whether football experts are better than nonexperts at predicting football match scores. Methods Two hundred and fifty-eight persons took part in the study: 21.3% as football experts, 54.3% as laypersons (non-initiated to football), and 24.4% as football amateurs. They predicted the scores of the first 10 matches of the 2008 UEFA European Football Championship. Logistic regressions were carried out to assess the link between the accuracy of the forecasted scores and the expertise of the participants (expert, amateur, layperson), controlling for age and gender. Results The variables assessed did not predict the accuracy of scoring prognosis (R2 ranged from 1% to 6%). Conclusions Expertise, age, and gender did not appear to have an impact on the accuracy of the football match prognoses. Therefore, the belief that football expertise improves betting skills is no more than a cognitive distortion called the “illusion of control.” Gamblers may benefit from psychological interventions that target the illusion of control related to their believed links between betting skills and football expertise. Public health policies may need to consider the phenomenon in order to prevent problem gambling related to football betting. PMID:22578101

  16. Effects of expertise on football betting.

    PubMed

    Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Billieux, Joël; Bizzini, Lucio; Monney, Grégoire; Fresard, Emmanuelle; Thorens, Gabriel; Bondolfi, Guido; El-Guebaly, Nady; Zullino, Daniele; Khan, Riaz

    2012-05-11

    Football (soccer) is one of the most popular sports in the world, including Europe. It is associated with important betting activities. A common belief, widely spread among those who participate in gambling activities, is that knowledge and expertise on football lead to better prediction skills for match outcomes. If unfounded, however, this belief should be considered as a form of "illusion of control." The aim of this study was to examine whether football experts are better than nonexperts at predicting football match scores. Two hundred and fifty-eight persons took part in the study: 21.3% as football experts, 54.3% as laypersons (non-initiated to football), and 24.4% as football amateurs. They predicted the scores of the first 10 matches of the 2008 UEFA European Football Championship. Logistic regressions were carried out to assess the link between the accuracy of the forecasted scores and the expertise of the participants (expert, amateur, layperson), controlling for age and gender. The variables assessed did not predict the accuracy of scoring prognosis (R2 ranged from 1% to 6%). Expertise, age, and gender did not appear to have an impact on the accuracy of the football match prognoses. Therefore, the belief that football expertise improves betting skills is no more than a cognitive distortion called the "illusion of control." Gamblers may benefit from psychological interventions that target the illusion of control related to their believed links between betting skills and football expertise. Public health policies may need to consider the phenomenon in order to prevent problem gambling related to football betting.

  17. Cervical spine injuries in American football.

    PubMed

    Rihn, Jeffrey A; Anderson, David T; Lamb, Kathleen; Deluca, Peter F; Bata, Ahmed; Marchetto, Paul A; Neves, Nuno; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2009-01-01

    American football is a high-energy contact sport that places players at risk for cervical spine injuries with potential neurological deficits. Advances in tackling and blocking techniques, rules of the game and medical care of the athlete have been made throughout the past few decades to minimize the risk of cervical injury and improve the management of injuries that do occur. Nonetheless, cervical spine injuries remain a serious concern in the game of American football. Injuries have a wide spectrum of severity. The relatively common 'stinger' is a neuropraxia of a cervical nerve root(s) or brachial plexus and represents a reversible peripheral nerve injury. Less common and more serious an injury, cervical cord neuropraxia is the clinical manifestation of neuropraxia of the cervical spinal cord due to hyperextension, hyperflexion or axial loading. Recent data on American football suggest that approximately 0.2 per 100,000 participants at the high school level and 2 per 100,000 participants at the collegiate level are diagnosed with cervical cord neuropraxia. Characterized by temporary pain, paraesthesias and/or motor weakness in more than one extremity, there is a rapid and complete resolution of symptoms and a normal physical examination within 10 minutes to 48 hours after the initial injury. Stenosis of the spinal canal, whether congenital or acquired, is thought to predispose the athlete to cervical cord neuropraxia. Although quite rare, catastrophic neurological injury is a devastating entity referring to permanent neurological injury or death. The mechanism is most often a forced hyperflexion injury, as occurs when 'spear tackling'. The mean incidence of catastrophic neurological injury over the past 30 years has been approximately 0.5 per 100,000 participants at high school level and 1.5 per 100,000 at the collegiate level. This incidence has decreased significantly when compared with the incidence in the early 1970s. This decrease in the incidence of

  18. Influence of Ramadan fasting on physiological and performance variables in football players: summary of the F-MARC 2006 Ramadan fasting study.

    PubMed

    Zerguini, Yacine; Dvorak, Jiri; Maughan, Ronald J; Leiper, John B; Bartagi, Zakia; Kirkendall, Donald T; Al-Riyami, Masoud; Junge, Astrid

    2008-12-01

    The timing of food and liquid intake depends on the times of sunset and sunrise during the month of Ramadan. The current body of knowledge presents contradicting results as to the effect of Ramadan fasting on body mass, body composition and metabolic changes. The main objective of the present investigation was to gain additional information and scientific data in conformity with the philosophical background of Islam to allow optimisation of the daily training and dietary regimen in relation to the mental and physical performance of football players. The four teams, along with their coaches and trainers, attended a residential training camp at training centre 3 weeks before the start of Ramadan and throughout the study. Energy intake was relatively stable in the fasting group, but there was a small, albeit significant, decrease of approximately 0.7 kg in body mass. Water intake increased on average by 1.3 l/day in line with the greater energy intake in the non-fasting group in Ramadan. Daily sodium intake fell during Ramadan in the fasting players but increased slightly in the non-fasting group. Fasting players trained on average 11 h after their last food and drink, and reported that they felt slightly less ready to train during the Ramadan fast. None of the assessed performance variables was negatively affected by fasting while nearly all variables showed significant improvement at the third test session, indicating a training effect. Heart rate measurements in one training session during the third week of Ramadan appeared to suggest that the training load during training was marginally greater for the fasting than for the non-fasting players. However, the overall exercise load measures indicated that there was no biologically significant difference between the fasting and non-fasting groups. In the present study, biochemical, nutritional, subjective well-being and performance variables were not adversely affected in young male football players who followed

  19. A conceptual model for worksite intelligent physical exercise training - IPET - intervention for decreasing life style health risk indicators among employees: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health promotion at the work site in terms of physical activity has proven positive effects but optimization of relevant exercise training protocols and implementation for high adherence are still scanty. Methods/Design The aim of this paper is to present a study protocol with a conceptual model for planning the optimal individually tailored physical exercise training for each worker based on individual health check, existing guidelines and state of the art sports science training recommendations in the broad categories of cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength in specific body parts, and functional training including balance training. The hypotheses of this research are that individually tailored worksite-based intelligent physical exercise training, IPET, among workers with inactive job categories will: 1) Improve cardiorespiratory fitness and/or individual health risk indicators, 2) Improve muscle strength and decrease musculoskeletal disorders, 3) Succeed in regular adherence to worksite and leisure physical activity training, and 3) Reduce sickness absence and productivity losses (presenteeism) in office workers. The present RCT study enrolled almost 400 employees with sedentary jobs in the private as well as public sectors. The training interventions last 2 years with measures at baseline as well as one and two years follow-up. Discussion If proven effective, the intelligent physical exercise training scheduled as well as the information for its practical implementation can provide meaningful scientifically based information for public health policy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov, number: NCT01366950. PMID:24964869

  20. Medicolegal aspects of doping in football

    PubMed Central

    Graf‐Baumann, T

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the historical background of the medicolegal aspects of doping in sports and especially in football. The definitions of legal terms are explained and the procedure of individual case management as part of FIFA's approach to doping is presented. Finally, three medicolegal problems awaiting urgent solution are outlined: firstly, the difficulties in decision making arising from the decrease of the T/E ratio from 6 to 4; secondly, the therapeutic application of α‐reductase inhibitors for male pattern baldness in the face of the classification of finasteride as a forbidden masking agent; and lastly, the increasing use of recreational drugs and its social and legal implications in positive cases. PMID:16799105

  1. Relationship Between Agility Tests and Short Sprints: Reliability and Smallest Worthwhile Difference in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division-I Football Players.

    PubMed

    Mann, J Bryan; Ivey, Pat A; Mayhew, Jerry L; Schumacher, Richard M; Brechue, William F

    2016-04-01

    The Pro-Agility test (I-Test) and 3-cone drill (3-CD) are widely used in football to assess quickness in change of direction. Likewise, the 10-yard (yd) sprint, a test of sprint acceleration, is gaining popularity for testing physical competency in football players. Despite their frequent use, little information exists on the relationship between agility and sprint tests as well the reliability and degree of change necessary to indicate meaningful improvement resulting from training. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability and smallest worthwhile difference (SWD) of the I-Test and 3-CD and the relationship of sprint acceleration to their performance. Division-I football players (n = 64, age = 20.5 ± 1.2 years, height = 185.2 ± 6.1 cm, body mass = 107.8 ± 20.7 kg) performed duplicate trials in each test during 2 separate weeks at the conclusion of a winter conditioning period. The better time of the 2 trials for each week was used for comparison. The 10-yd sprint was timed electronically, whereas the I-Test and 3-CD were hand timed by experienced testers. Each trial was performed on an indoor synthetic turf, with players wearing multicleated turf shoes. There was no significant difference (p > 0.06) between test weeks for the I-Test (4.53 ± 0.35 vs. 4.54 ± 0.31 seconds), 3-CD (7.45 ± 0.06 vs. 7.49 ± 0.06 seconds), or 10-yd sprint (1.85 ± 0.12 vs. 1.84 ± 0.12 seconds). The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for 3-CD (ICC = 0.962) and 10-yd sprint (ICC = 0.974) were slightly higher than for the I-Test (ICC = 0.914). These values lead to acceptable levels of the coefficient of variation for each test (1.2, 1.2, and 1.9%, respectively). The SWD% indicated that a meaningful improvement due to training would require players to decrease their times by 6.6% for I-Test, 3.7% for 3-CD, and 3.8% for 10-yd sprint. Performance in agility and short sprint tests are highly related and reliable in college football players, providing quantifiable

  2. Computer-Based Training at a Military Medical Center: Understanding Decreased Participation in Training among Staff and Ways to Improve Completion Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavender, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Military health care facilities make extensive use of computer-based training (CBT) for both clinical and non-clinical staff. Despite evidence identifying various factors that may impact CBT, the problem is unclear as to what factors specifically influence employee participation in computer-based training. The purpose of this mixed method case…

  3. Computer-Based Training at a Military Medical Center: Understanding Decreased Participation in Training among Staff and Ways to Improve Completion Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavender, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Military health care facilities make extensive use of computer-based training (CBT) for both clinical and non-clinical staff. Despite evidence identifying various factors that may impact CBT, the problem is unclear as to what factors specifically influence employee participation in computer-based training. The purpose of this mixed method case…

  4. Physical and performance characteristics of successful high school football players.

    PubMed

    Williford, H N; Kirkpatrick, J; Scharff-Olson, M; Blessing, D L; Wang, N Z

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the performance and physiologic characteristics of a "successful" American high school football team, and to compare the present values with values reported for other groups of high school, college, and professional players. For descriptive purposes, players were divided into two groups: backs (N = 8) and linemen (N = 10). Maximal aerobic power (VO2max) was determined from a maximal treadmill test, and body composition was evaluated by hydrostatic weighing. Maximal strength values were evaluated by one-repetition maximum bench press and squat test; the sit-and-reach test was used to measure flexibility. Speed and power were evaluated by a vertical jump and a 36.6-meter sprint. Results indicate that compared with other groups of college and professional players, as the level of competition increases so do height, weight, and fat-free weight of the players. Similar maximum oxygen consumption values were found for the present group when compared with other groups of these players. From the strength and power standpoint, football players at all levels are becoming stronger. Incorporation of strength training programs has greatly improved strength and performance profiles of football players at all levels of competition.

  5. The nutritional and anthropometric status of Gaelic football players.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Sue; Collins, Kieran

    2003-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary intakes and anthropometric profiles of county and club Gaelic football players and compare them to soccer players and control subjects. Seven-day dietary records were analyzed and anthropometric measurements were taken midway through the Gaelic football competitive season. The county group with a mean height of 1.82 +/- 0.04 m were significantly taller (p < .05) and had less body fat that any other group. The county and club teams consumed 151 +/- 11 and 150 +/- 16 kJ x kg(-1) x day(-1), respectively, with 52.2 +/- 5% and 49.5 +/- 9% of their energy intakes as carbohydrate. This compares to 173 +/- 11 kJ x kg(-1) x day(-1) for the soccer players and 159 +/- 8 kJ x kg(-1) x day(-1) for the controls, with 57 +/- 4% and 44.9 +/- 5% of their energy from carbohydrate. The nature of Gaelic football demands a balanced diet, rich in energy and carbohydrate and with adequate calcium is consumed; the subjects needed to increase these dietary components in order to meet the energetic demands of competition and training. Additional nutritional counseling was provided on an individual basis.

  6. Injury surveillance in the World Football Tournaments 1998–2012

    PubMed Central

    Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    Background International sports bodies should protect the health of their athletes, and injury surveillance is an important pre-requisite for injury prevention. The Fédération International de Football Association (FIFA) has systematically surveyed all football injuries in their tournaments since 1998. Aims Analysis of the incidence, characteristics and changes of football injury during international top-level tournaments 1998–2012. Methods All newly incurred football injuries during the FIFA tournaments and the Olympic Games were reported by the team physicians on a standardised injury report form after each match. The average response rate was 92%. Results A total of 3944 injuries were reported from 1546 matches, equivalent to 2.6 injuries per match. The majority of injuries (80%) was caused by contact with another player, compared with 47% of contact injuries by foul play. The most frequently injured body parts were the ankle (19%), lower leg (16%) and head/neck (15%). Contusions (55%) were the most common type of injury, followed by sprains (17%) and strains (10%). On average, 1.1 injuries per match were expected to result in absence from a match or training. The incidence of time-loss injuries was highest in the FIFA World Cups and lowest in the FIFA U17 Women's World Cups. The injury rates in the various types of FIFA World Cups had different trends over the past 14 years. Conclusions Changes in the incidence of injuries in top-level tournaments might be influenced by the playing style, refereeing, extent and intensity of match play. Strict application of the Laws of the Games is an important means of injury prevention. PMID:23632746

  7. An Acceleration Profile of Elite Gaelic Football Match-Play.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Martin; Malone, Shane; Collins, Kieran

    2017-01-28

    The use of global positioning system (GPS) technology in Gaelic football is the primary source of quantifying game demands. The aim of the current study was to quantify the acceleration profile of elite Gaelic football. Thirty-six elite male Gaelic football players (Mean ± SD, age: 24 ± 6 years; height: 180 ± 7 cm; mass: 81 ± 7 kg) across five playing positions took part in a multiple study (n = 154 observations). Player movement was recorded during nineteen (n = 19) competitive games over 2 seasons using 4-Hz GPS (VXSport, New Zealand). The average total distance (m), high speed running distance (m; ≥17 kmh), very high speed running distance (m; ≥22 kmh) were recorded. Additionally the number (n), distance (m) and the duration of accelerations were quantified. Accelerations were subdivided into 14 equal parts of 5-minute epochs (E1 = 0-5 min, E2 = 5-10 min, E3 = 10-15 min etc. Players performed 166 ± 41 accelerations. High speed running distance and very high speed running distance was 1563 ± 605 and 524 ± 190 m respectively. The mean acceleration distance was 267 ± 45 m distributed between 12 ± 5 accelerations per 5-minute epoch. The maximum acceleration epoch classified as the greatest distance covered accelerating during a predetermined 5-minute epoch was 296 ± 134 m. The PEAK epoch resulted in a significant reduction of acceleration distance covered in the period prior and/or in the subsequent epoch. An understanding of the acceleration profile in Gaelic football can inform the prescription of appropriate training regimen.

  8. Global Positioning System Analysis of a High School Football Scrimmage.

    PubMed

    Gleason, Benjamin H; Sams, Matthew L; Salley, John T; Pustina, A Andrew; Stone, Michael H

    2017-08-01

    Gleason, BH, Sams, M, Salley, JT, Pustina, A, and Stone, MH. Global positioning system analysis of a high school football scrimmage. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2183-2188, 2017-The purpose of this study was to examine the physical demands of a high school American football scrimmage. Male high school football players (N = 25) participated in a spring scrimmage. Global positioning system data and game film were recorded throughout the entirety of the scrimmage to determine the total distance covered, the distance covered in different velocity bands, the number of accelerations and decelerations performed, and the work-to-rest ratio of the scrimmage. The athletes were divided into 2 groups: linemen (L) (N = 7) vs. nonlinemen (NL) (N = 8) for statistical analysis, and independent T-tests with Holm's sequential Bonferroni adjustment were used to determine differences in movement characteristics between the L and NL groups. Average play duration was 5.7 ± 2.1 seconds, whereas the rest interval was 33.4 ± 13.6 seconds between plays, for an overall exercise-to-rest ratio of 1:5.9. Total distance, standing and walking distance, running distance, striding distance, sprinting distance, and total high-speed running distance covered by NL was greater than L (statistically significant at p ≤ 0.05). Distances traveled in each velocity band by position and by play are also included to provide context of our findings. Data from the present study add to the pool of support for the use of position-specific training in preparing high school football players for competition.

  9. A Comparison of Injuries between Flag and Touch Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Stephen L.

    This study was designed to determine whether fewer and less serious injuries result from participation in touch football as compared with flag football. A survey was taken of 30 flag football games and 30 touch football games and the incidence of injuries was recorded on a checklist. Results of the survey suggest the following: (a) intramural or…

  10. Memory Training Program Decreases the Circulating Level of Cortisol and Pro-inflammatory Cytokines in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pesce, Mirko; Tatangelo, Raffaella; La Fratta, Irene; Rizzuto, Alessia; Campagna, Giovanna; Turli, Cinzia; Ferrone, Alessio; Franceschelli, Sara; Speranza, Lorenza; Verrocchio, Maria C.; De Lutiis, Maria A.; Felaco, Mario; Grilli, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    Aging cognitive decline has been associated to impairment of the Hypothalamus Pituitary Adrenals (HPA) axis activity and a higher level of the systemic inflammation. However, little is known about the molecules driving this process at peripheral level. In addition, the cognitive function is to some extent modifiable with Memory Training (MT) programs, even among older adults and beyond. The study aims to evaluate whether MT could contribute to ameliorate cognitive performance and modulate the HPA axis activity as well the low level inflammation in the aging phenotype. Whether the phosphatase WIP-1, a negative regulator for inflammation, is involved in this process was also investigated. We recruited 31 young adults (19–28, years of age) and 62 older adults aged over 60. Thirty-two older adults were submitted to 6-months of MT program (EG), and 28 older adults were no treated and used as Control Group (CG). Global cognitive functioning (MMSE score), verbal and visual memory, and attention were assessed at baseline (T0) and after 6-months (T1). At the same time, plasmatic level of Cortisol (C), IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6, and the expression of WIP-1 mRNA and protein in ex vivo Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells were analyzed in young adults at T0, as well in older adults at T0 and T1. Together, the results suggest that MT improves the global cognitive functionality, verbal and visual memory, as well as the level of attention. At the same time we observed a decrease of the plasmatic level of C, of the cytokines, and an increase of the expression of mRNA and protein of WIP-1. The analysis of correlations highlighted that the level of the mRNA of WIP-1 was positively associated to the MMSE score, and negatively to the C and cytokine levels. In conclusion, we purpose the MT as tool that could help support successful aging through the improving of memory, attention and global cognitive function performance. Furthermore, this approach could participate to maintain lower the

  11. A cognitive-behavioural analysis of mental toughness in national rugby league football teams.

    PubMed

    Golby, Jim; Sheard, Michael; Lavallee, David

    2003-04-01

    This study examined the relations between demographic characteristics of rugby players and selected aspects of psychological performance in rugby league football. Mental toughness was assessed using Psychological Performance Inventory and Hardiness on the Personal Views Survey III-R. Participants (N=70) were international rugby league footballers representing four teams (Wales, France, Ireland, England) in the 2000 Rugby League World Cup. Participants completed the questionnaires in training camp. Welsh-nationality players had a significantly higher mean score on two of the hardiness subscales. Hardiness measures displayed the greatest and most frequently statistically significant differences. The findings concur with previous work indicating superior hardiness is related to improved performance in sports.

  12. The Physics of Kicking a Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brancazio, Peter J.

    1985-01-01

    A physicist's view of the problems involved in kicking a football is described through the principles of projectile motion and aerodynamics. Sample equations, statistical summaries of kickoffs and punts, and calculation of launch parameters are presented along with discussion to clarify concepts of physics illustrated by kicking a football. (JN)

  13. Personality and Performance in Intercollegiate Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Daniel J.; Barry, John R.

    The present study, based on Chelladurai and Carron's (1978) multidimensional theory of leadership, sought to determine if selected personality traits and specific leader behaviors are predictive of performance in collegiate football. Prior to regular season competition, collegiate football players (N=272) from three southeastern United States…

  14. The Physics of Kicking a Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brancazio, Peter J.

    1985-01-01

    A physicist's view of the problems involved in kicking a football is described through the principles of projectile motion and aerodynamics. Sample equations, statistical summaries of kickoffs and punts, and calculation of launch parameters are presented along with discussion to clarify concepts of physics illustrated by kicking a football. (JN)

  15. Emotional Energy among College Football Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Roberta R.; And Others

    Emotional energy levels of football players from a Division I college (large enrollment) and a Division II college (small enrollment) were assessed. The 20-item State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used to measure varsity football players' emotional energy (anxiety) level. The 25 Division I and 36 Division II athletes were initially tested 96…

  16. Ivy League Football: Hard-Core Unemployment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iman, Raymond S.

    1971-01-01

    Decries the discrimination accorded to Ivy League football players by Pro Football owners and suggests corrective measures including a Head Start program involving preseason coaching for Ivy Leaguers, formation of a Department of Recreational Studies headed by Ara Parseghian or Darrell Royal, and a remedial course for punters during Christmas…

  17. Incidence of injury in Gaelic football: a 4-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Murphy, John C; O'Malley, Edwenia; Gissane, Conor; Blake, Catherine

    2012-09-01

    Gaelic football is a national sport of Ireland. While predominantly played in Ireland, it is recognized in North America, the United Kingdom, Europe, and Australasia. Its high-velocity, multidirectional, and high physical contact elements expose players to a risk of injury. To date, prospective injury data for Gaelic football has been of short duration. To describe the incidence and nature of sport-related injuries in elite male Gaelic football players over 4 consecutive seasons. Descriptive epidemiology study. Over the period 2007 to 2010, a total of 851 Gaelic football players were tracked. Players were members of county-level teams who volunteered to be included in the study. Team injury, training, and match play data were submitted by the team physiotherapist on a weekly basis through a dedicated web portal to the National Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) injury database. Injury was defined using a time loss criterion, in accordance with consensus statements in sports applicable to Gaelic games. A total of 1014 Gaelic football injuries were recorded. Incidence of injury was 4.05 per 1000 hours of football training. Match-play injury rates were 61.86 per 1000 hours. Muscle was the most frequently injured tissue (42.6%) and fractures accounted for 4.4% of Gaelic football injuries. Lower extremity injuries predominated (76.0%). Hamstring injuries were the single most common injury overall, representing almost one quarter (24%) of all injuries and over half of muscle injuries. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries accounted for 13% of knee injuries. The majority of injuries were defined as new injuries (74.7%), with recurrent injuries constituting 23% of all injuries. The majority (59%) of match play injuries occurred in the second half of the match. Eighty six percent of injuries caused over one week's absence from play. These findings illustrate injury patterns in Gaelic football using a prospective methodology, over 4 consecutive seasons. Comparison with

  18. Implementation of the FIFA 11+ football warm up program: How to approach and convince the Football associations to invest in prevention

    PubMed Central

    Bizzini, Mario; Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, injury prevention has received a lot of attention in sports medicine, and recently international sports-governing bodies, such as the International Olympic Committee, declared the protection of the athletes’ health as one of their major objectives. In 1994, the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) established its Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-MARC) with the aim ‘to prevent football injuries and to promote football as a health-enhancing leisure activity, improving social behaviour’. Since then, FIFA has developed and evaluated its injury-prevention programmes ‘The 11’ and ‘FIFA 11+’ have demonstrated in several scientific studies how simple exercise-based programmes can decrease the incidence of injuries in amateur football players. This paper summarises 18 years of scientific and on-field work in injury prevention by an international sports federation (FIFA), from formulating the aim to make its sport safer to the worldwide dissemination of its injury-prevention programme in amateur football. PMID:23813485

  19. Implementation of the FIFA 11+ football warm up program: how to approach and convince the Football associations to invest in prevention.

    PubMed

    Bizzini, Mario; Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri

    2013-08-01

    In the last decade, injury prevention has received a lot of attention in sports medicine, and recently international sports-governing bodies, such as the International Olympic Committee, declared the protection of the athletes' health as one of their major objectives. In 1994, the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) established its Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-MARC) with the aim 'to prevent football injuries and to promote football as a health-enhancing leisure activity, improving social behaviour'. Since then, FIFA has developed and evaluated its injury-prevention programmes 'The 11' and 'FIFA 11+' have demonstrated in several scientific studies how simple exercise-based programmes can decrease the incidence of injuries in amateur football players. This paper summarises 18 years of scientific and on-field work in injury prevention by an international sports federation (FIFA), from formulating the aim to make its sport safer to the worldwide dissemination of its injury-prevention programme in amateur football.

  20. Football Fitness - a new version of football? A concept for adult players in Danish football clubs.

    PubMed

    Bennike, S; Wikman, J M; Ottesen, L S

    2014-08-01

    This article explores a new Danish football-based activity for health called Football Fitness (FF). Data are from quantitative and qualitative methods, and the theoretical framework for the analysis of the organizational form of FF is the theory of path dependency (Mahoney) and first- and second-order change (Watzlawick et al.). Theories of Pestoff concerning differences between state, market, and the civil society and theories of voluntary associations in a Danish context (Kaspersen & Ottesen; Ibsen & Seippel) are applied. This article indicates how FF is a result of the changing landscape of sport and argues that it can be beneficial to target sports organizations and include the expertise of non-profit sports clubs if the goal is to raise the physical activity level of the local community and make these long lasting. But the organizations need to consider how this is to be done. FF, established by the Danish Football Association (FA) and managed by the voluntary clubs, is one example in a Danish context. Data indicate that FF is beneficial to the clubs involved in a number of ways. Among other things, it attracts new user groups and improves the club environment, including social activities and parental environment.

  1. Team activity recognition in Association Football using a Bag-of-Words-based method.

    PubMed

    Montoliu, Raúl; Martín-Félez, Raúl; Torres-Sospedra, Joaquín; Martínez-Usó, Adolfo

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a new methodology is used to perform team activity recognition and analysis in Association Football. It is based on pattern recognition and machine learning techniques. In particular, a strategy based on the Bag-of-Words (BoW) technique is used to characterize short Football video clips that are used to explain the team's performance and to train advanced classifiers in automatic recognition of team activities. In addition to the neural network-based classifier, three more classifier families are tested: the k-Nearest Neighbor, the Support Vector Machine and the Random Forest. The results obtained show that the proposed methodology is able to explain the most common movements of a team and to perform the team activity recognition task with high accuracy when classifying three Football actions: Ball Possession, Quick Attack and Set Piece. Random Forest is the classifier obtaining the best classification results.

  2. From childhood to senior professional football: elite youth players' engagement in non-football activities.

    PubMed

    Haugaasen, Mathias; Toering, Tynke; Jordet, Geir

    2014-12-01

    Abstract Despite the large amount of research available on how engagement in football practice relates to future performance level among football players, similar information about the contribution of non-football activities is scarce. Based on data from 745 elite youth players this study aimed to identify the characteristics and contribution of diverse participation towards elite youth and senior professional status. The data were collected using a retrospective questionnaire where the players reported the amount of time spent in other sports than football, in addition to their perceived contribution of different non-football activities for developing football skills. The accumulated hours of time spent in other sports of players who had obtained a senior professional contract were compared to non-professional players, using multilevel modelling (n = 558), while a t-test compared the activity ratings to each other. No significant differences were identified between professional and non-professional players' engagement history, but overall, the players rated sports similar to football to be significantly more relevant for developing football skills than other sports. The results suggests that spending time in non-football activities did not contribute to present differences in performance attainment in football, but also that potential advantages of such activities may be related to their characteristics.

  3. Impact of playing American professional football on long-term brain function.

    PubMed

    Amen, Daniel G; Newberg, Andrew; Thatcher, Robert; Jin, Yi; Wu, Joseph; Keator, David; Willeumier, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    The authors recruited 100 active and former National Football League players, representing 27 teams and all positions. Players underwent a clinical history, brain SPECT imaging, qEEG, and multiple neuropsychological measures, including MicroCog. Relative to a healthy-comparison group, players showed global decreased perfusion, especially in the prefrontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes, and cerebellar regions. Quantitative EEG findings were consistent, showing elevated slow waves in the frontal and temporal regions. Significant decreases from normal values were found in most neuropsychological tests. This is the first large-scale brain-imaging study to demonstrate significant differences consistent with a chronic brain trauma pattern in professional football players.

  4. Executive summary: the health and fitness benefits of regular participation in small-sided football games.

    PubMed

    Krustrup, P; Dvorak, J; Junge, A; Bangsbo, J

    2010-04-01

    The present special issue of Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports deals with health and fitness benefits of regular participation in small-sided football games. One review article and 13 original articles were the result of a 2-year multi-center study in Copenhagen and Zurich and include studies of different age groups analyzed from a physiological, medical, social and psychological perspective. The main groups investigated were middle-aged, former untrained, healthy men and women who were followed for up to 16 months. In addition, elderly, children and hypertensive patients were studied. A summary and interpretations of the main findings divided into an analysis of the physical demands during training of various groups and the effect of a period of training on performance, muscle adaptations and health profile follow. In addition, social and psychological effects on participation in recreational football are considered, the comparison of football training and endurance running is summarized and the effects of football practice on the elderly and children and youngsters are presented.

  5. Hydroxypyrene in urine of football players after playing on artificial sports field with tire crumb infill.

    PubMed

    van Rooij, Joost G M; Jongeneelen, Frans J

    2010-01-01

    Artificial sports fields are increasingly being used for sports. Recycled rubber from automotive and truck scrap rubber tires are used as an infill material for football grounds. There are concerns that football players may be at risk due to exposure from released compounds from rubber infill. Compounds from crumb infill may be inhaled and dermal exposure may occur. A study was performed to assess the exposure of football players to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons due to sporting on synthetic ground with rubber crumb infill. In this study, football players were trained and had a match on the artificial turf pitch during 2.5 h. They had an intensive skin contact with rubber infill. All urine of seven nonsmoking football players was collected over a 3-day period, the day before sporting, the day of sporting and the day after sporting. Urine samples were analyzed for 1-hydroxypyrene. Confounding exposure from environmental sources and diet was controlled for. The individual increase of the amount of excretion over time was used as a measure to assess the uptake of PAH. It appeared that the baseline of excreted 1-hydroxypyrene in 4 of 7 volunteers was sufficient stable and that 1 volunteer out of 4 showed after the 2.5-h period of training and match on the playground an increase in hydroxypyrene in urine. However, concomitant dietary uptake of PAH by this volunteer was observed. This study provides evidence that uptake of PAH by football players active on artificial grounds with rubber crumb infill is minimal. If there is any exposure, than the uptake is very limited and within the range of uptake of PAH from environmental sources and/or diet.

  6. Distance Training in Function-based Interventions to Decrease Student Problem Behavior: Summary of 74 Cases from a University Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pétursdóttir, Anna-Lind

    2017-01-01

    In this study, 188 master-level students received training through a distance education course to conduct functional behavioral assessments (FBAs) and behavior support plans with 68 boys and six girls (aged 3-20 years) displaying persistent behavior problems in inclusive preschools, elementary, and secondary schools. In the course, master-level…

  7. Distance Training in Function-based Interventions to Decrease Student Problem Behavior: Summary of 74 Cases from a University Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pétursdóttir, Anna-Lind

    2017-01-01

    In this study, 188 master-level students received training through a distance education course to conduct functional behavioral assessments (FBAs) and behavior support plans with 68 boys and six girls (aged 3-20 years) displaying persistent behavior problems in inclusive preschools, elementary, and secondary schools. In the course, master-level…

  8. Risk factors for hamstring injuries in community level Australian football

    PubMed Central

    Gabbe, B; Finch, C; Bennell, K; Wajswelner, H

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To identify risk factors for hamstring injury at the community level of Australian football. Methods: A total of 126 community level Australian football players participated in this prospective cohort study. To provide baseline measurements, they completed a questionnaire and had a musculoskeletal screen during the 2000 preseason. All were monitored over the season. Injury surveillance and exposure data were collected for the full season. Survival analysis was used to identify independent predictors of hamstring injury. Results: A hamstring injury was the first injury of the season in 20 players (16%). After adjustment for exposure, increasing age and decreased quadriceps flexibility were identified as significant independent predictors of the time to sustaining a hamstring injury. Older age (⩾23 years) was associated with an increased risk of hamstring injury (RR 3.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1 to 14.0; p = 0.044). Players with increased quadriceps flexibility (as measured by the modified Thomas test) were less likely to sustain a hamstring injury (RR 0.3; 95% CI 0.1 to 0.8; p = 0.022). Conclusions: The findings of this study can be used in the development of hamstring injury prevention strategies and to identify Australian football players at increased risk of hamstring injury. PMID:15665208

  9. Quantifying movement demands of AFL football using GPS tracking.

    PubMed

    Wisbey, Ben; Montgomery, Paul G; Pyne, David B; Rattray, Ben

    2010-09-01

    Global positioning system (GPS) monitoring of movement patterns is widespread in elite football including the Australian Football League (AFL). However documented analysis of this activity is lacking. We quantified the movement patterns of AFL football and differences between nomadic (midfield), forward and defender playing positions, and determined whether the physical demands have increased over a four season period. Selected premiership games were monitored during the 2005 (n=80 game files), 2006 (n=244), 2007 (n=632) and 2008 (n=793) AFL seasons. Players were fitted with a shoulder harness containing a GPS unit. GPS data were downloaded after games and the following measures extracted: total distance (km), time in various speed zones, maximum speed, number of surges, accelerations, longest continuous efforts and a derived exertion index representing playing intensity. In 2008 nomadic players covered per game 3.4% more total distance (km), had 4.8% less playing time (min), a 17% higher exertion index (per min), and 23% more time running >18kmh(-1) than forwards and defenders (all p<0.05). Physical demands were substantially higher in the 2008 season compared with 2005: an 8.4% increase in mean speed, a 14% increase in intensity (exertion index) and a 9.0% decrease in playing time (all p<0.05). Nomadic players in AFL work substantially harder than forwards and defenders in covering more ground and at higher running intensities. Increases in the physical demands of AFL football were evident between 2005 and 2008. The increasing speed of the game has implications for game authorities, players and coaching staff.

  10. Effectiveness of headgear in football

    PubMed Central

    Withnall, C; Shewchenko, N; Wonnacott, M; Dvorak, J; Scott, D

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Commercial headgear is currently being used by football players of all ages and skill levels to provide protection from heading and direct impact. The clinical and biomechanical effectiveness of the headgear in attenuating these types of impact is not well defined or understood. This study was conducted to determine whether football headgear has an effect on head impact responses. Methods: Controlled laboratory tests were conducted with a human volunteer and surrogate head/neck system. The impact attenuation of three commercial headgears during ball impact speeds of 6–30 m/s and in head to head contact with a closing speed of 2–5 m/s was quantified. The human subject, instrumented to measure linear and angular head accelerations, was exposed to low severity impacts during heading in the unprotected and protected states. High severity heading contact and head to head impacts were studied with a biofidelic surrogate headform instrumented to measure linear and angular head responses. Subject and surrogate responses were compared with published injury assessment functions associated with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Results: For ball impacts, none of the headgear provided attenuation over the full range of impact speeds. Head responses with or without headgear were not significantly different (p>0.05) and remained well below levels associated with MTBI. In head to head impact tests the headgear provided an overall 33% reduction in impact response. Conclusion: The football headgear models tested did not provide benefit during ball impact. This is probably because of the large amount of ball deformation relative to headband thickness. However, the headgear provided measurable benefit during head to head impacts. PMID:16046355

  11. Alterations in left ventricular structure and diastolic function in professional football players: assessment by tissue Doppler imaging and left ventricular flow propagation velocity.

    PubMed

    Tumuklu, M Murat; Ildizli, Muge; Ceyhan, Koksal; Cinar, Cahide Soydas

    2007-02-01

    Long-term regular exercise is associated with physiologic and morphologic cardiac alterations. Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and ventricular early flow propagation velocity (Vp) are new tolls in the evaluation of myocardial function. We sought to compare TDI and Vp findings in professional football players and age-adjusted sedentary controls to assess the effect of regular athletic training on myocardial function. Twenty-four professional football players and age-, sex-, and weight-adjusted 20 control subjects underwent standard Doppler echocardiography pulsed TDI, performed parasternal four-chamber views by placing sample volume septal and lateral side of mitral annulus and lateral tricuspid annulus. Vp values were obtained by measuring the slope delineated by first aliasing velocity from the mitral tips toward the apex by using apical four-chamber color M-mode Doppler images. Age, body surface area, blood pressure, and heart rate were comparable between two groups. Football players had significantly increased LV mass, mass index (due to both higher wall thickness and end-diastolic diameter), end-systolic and end-diastolic volume, left atrial diameter, and decreased transmitral diastolic late velocity. In athletes TDI analysis showed significantly increased mitral annulus septal DTI peak early diastolic (e) velocity (0.22 +/- 0.04 vs 0.19 +/- 0.04, P < 0.05), lateral DTI peak e velocity (0.19 +/- 0.03 vs 0.16 +/- 0.02, P < 0.05) and lateral DTI e/a peak velocity ratio (1.96 +/- 0.41 and 1.66 +/- 0.23, P < 0.05). The ratio of transmitral peak early diastolic velocity (E) to e in both lateral (4.72 +/- 1.20 vs 5.95 +/- 1.38, P = 0.007) and septal (3.90 +/- 0.80 vs 5.25 +/- 1.50, P = 0.002) side of mitral annulus were significantly lower in athletes. In Vp evaluation, we found higher Vp values (60.52 +/- 6.95 in athletes and 56.56 +/- 4.24 in controls, P = 0.03) in football players. Professional football playing is associated with morphologic alteration in left

  12. Correlation between ECG changes and early left ventricular remodeling in preadolescent footballers.

    PubMed

    Zdravkovic, M; Milovanovic, B; Hinic, S; Soldatovic, I; Durmic, T; Koracevic, G; Prijic, S; Markovic, O; Filipovic, B; Lovic, D

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the early electrocardiogram (ECG) changes induced by physical training in preadolescent elite footballers. This study included 94 preadolescent highly trained male footballers (FG) competing in Serbian Football League (minimum of 7 training hours/week) and 47 age-matched healthy male controls (less than 2 training hours/week) (CG). They were screened by ECG and echocardiography at a tertiary referral cardio center. Sokolow-Lyon index was used as a voltage electrocardiographic criterion for left ventricular hypertrophy diagnosis. Characteristic ECG intervals and voltage were compared and reference range was given for preadolescent footballers. Highly significant differences between FG and CG were registered in all ECG parameters: P-wave voltage (p < 0.001), S-wave (V1 or V2 lead) voltage (p < 0.001), R-wave (V5 and V6 lead) voltage (p < 0.001), ECG sum of S V1-2 + R V5-6 (p < 0.001), T-wave voltage (p < 0.001), QRS complex duration (p < 0.001), T-wave duration (p < 0.001), QTc interval duration (p < 0.001), and R/T ratio (p < 0.001). No differences were found in PQ interval duration between these two groups (p > 0.05). During 6-year follow-up period, there was no adverse cardiac event in these footballers. None of them expressed pathological ECG changes. Benign ECG changes are presented in the early stage of athlete's heart remodeling, but they are not related to pathological ECG changes and they should be regarded as ECG pattern of LV remodeling.

  13. Regular Football Practice Improves Autonomic Cardiac Function in Male Children

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Luis; Oliveira, Jose; Soares-Miranda, Luisa; Rebelo, Antonio; Brito, Joao

    2015-01-01

    Background: The role of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in the cardiovascular regulation is of primal importance. Since it has been associated with adverse conditions such as cardiac arrhythmias, sudden death, sleep disorders, hypertension and obesity. Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the impact of recreational football practice on the autonomic cardiac function of male children, as measured by heart rate variability. Patients and Methods: Forty-seven male children aged 9 - 12 years were selected according to their engagement with football oriented practice outside school context. The children were divided into a football group (FG; n = 22) and a control group (CG; n = 25). The FG had regular football practices, with 2 weekly training sessions and occasional weekend matches. The CG was not engaged with any physical activity other than complementary school-based physical education classes. Data from physical activity, physical fitness, and heart rate variability measured in time and frequency domains were obtained. Results: The anthropometric and body composition characteristics were similar in both groups (P > 0.05). The groups were also similar in time spent daily on moderate-to-vigorous physical activities (FG vs. CG: 114 ± 64 vs. 87 ± 55 minutes; P > 0.05). However, the FG performed better (P < 0.05) in Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test (1394 ± 558 vs. 778 ± 408 m) and 15-m sprint test (3.06 ± 0.17 vs. 3.20 ± 0.23 s). Also, the FG presented enhanced autonomic function. Significant differences were detected (P < 0.05) between groups for low frequency normalized units (38.0 ± 15.2 vs. 47.3 ± 14.2 n.u (normalized units)), high frequency normalized units (62.1 ± 15.2 vs. 52.8 ± 14.2 n.u.), and LF:HF ratio (0.7 ± 0.4 vs. 1.1 ± 0.6 ms2). Conclusions: Children engaged with regular football practice presented enhanced physical fitness and autonomic function, by increasing vagal tone at rest. PMID:26448848

  14. Septic arthritis in a collegiate football player.

    PubMed

    Madaleno, J A; Allen, J R; Jacobson, K E

    1995-10-01

    A 23-year-old collegiate football player reported to the training room the day after a game, complaining of severe pain in his right shoulder. He recalled no significant injury during the game. Physical examination revealed pain, tenderness, and apprehension with all attempts to palpate or move the joint. There was no obvious effusion, redness, or warmth about the shoulder joint. The neurovascular examination was negative, and x-rays revealed no fracture. The patient's temperature was 102 degrees F. The team orthopedist aspirated 10cc of purulent fluid from the joint. Subsequent analysis revealed a white cell count greater than 50,000 mm(3), but no organisms were seen. The diagnosis of septic arthritis was made on the basis of the elevated cell count of the joint aspirate, in conjunction with fever (102 degrees F) and the clinical findings of an excessively painful joint. The patient was admitted for arthroscopic irrigation and debridement of the joint. Cultures subsequently showed a light growth of a Gram-negative organism. The patient was treated initially with intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotics and was ultimately discharged and put on oral antibiotics at the time of discharge. Rehabilitation followed the usual protocol for diagnostic arthroscopy, and the patient made an excellent recovery. He has had no residual sequelae or recurrence of infection.

  15. Influence of the MCT1 rs1049434 on Indirect Muscle Disorders/Injuries in Elite Football Players.

    PubMed

    Massidda, Myosotis; Eynon, Nir; Bachis, Valeria; Corrias, Laura; Culigioni, Claudia; Piras, Francesco; Cugia, Paolo; Scorcu, Marco; Calò, Carla M

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MCT1 rs1049434 polymorphism and indirect muscle injuries in elite football players. One hundred and seventy-three male elite Italian football players (age = 19.2 ± 5.3 years) were recruited from a first-league football club participating at the Official National Italian Football Championship (Serie A, Primavera, Allievi, Giovanissimi). The cohort was genotyped for the MCT1 rs1049434 polymorphism, and muscle injuries data were collected during the period of 2009-2014 (five football seasons). Genomic DNA was extracted using a buccal swab, and genotyping was performed using PCR method. Structural-mechanical injuries and functional muscle disorder were included in the acute indirect muscle injury group. Participants with the MCT1 AA (AA = 1.57 ± 3.07, n = 69) genotype exhibit significantly higher injury incidents compared to participants with the TT genotype (TT = 0.09 ± 0.25, n = 22, P = 0.04). The MCT1 rs1049434 polymorphism is associated with the incidence of muscle injuries in elite football players. We anticipate that the knowledge of athletes' genetic predisposition to sports-related injuries might aid in individualizing training programs.

  16. Youth Football Injuries: A Prospective Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Andrew R.; Kruse, Adam J.; Meester, Scott M.; Olson, Tyler S.; Riedle, Benjamin N.; Slayman, Tyler G.; Domeyer, Todd J.; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Smoot, M. Kyle

    2017-01-01

    Background: There are approximately 2.8 million youth football players between the ages of 7 and 14 years in the United States. Rates of injury in this population are poorly described. Recent studies have reported injury rates between 2.3% and 30.4% per season and between 8.5 and 43 per 1000 exposures. Hypothesis: Youth flag football has a lower injury rate than youth tackle football. The concussion rates in flag football are lower than in tackle football. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Three large youth (grades 2-7) football leagues with a total of 3794 players were enrolled. Research personnel partnered with the leagues to provide electronic attendance and injury reporting systems. Researchers had access to deidentified player data and injury information. Injury rates for both the tackle and flag leagues were calculated and compared using Poisson regression with a log link. The probability an injury was severe and an injury resulted in a concussion were modeled using logistic regression. For these 2 responses, best subset model selection was performed, and the model with the minimum Akaike information criterion value was chosen as best. Kaplan-Meier curves were examined to compare time loss due to injury for various subgroups of the population. Finally, time loss was modeled using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results: A total of 46,416 exposures and 128 injuries were reported. The mean age at injury was 10.64 years. The hazard ratio for tackle football (compared with flag football) was 0.45 (95% CI, 0.25-0.80; P = .0065). The rate of severe injuries per exposure for tackle football was 1.1 (95% CI, 0.33-3.4; P = .93) times that of the flag league. The rate for concussions in tackle football per exposure was 0.51 (95% CI, 0.16-1.7; P = .27) times that of the flag league. Conclusion: Injury is more likely to occur in youth flag football than in youth tackle football. Severe injuries and concussions were not significantly

  17. The Effect of Recovery Duration on Vastus Lateralis Oxygenation, Heart Rate, Perceived Exertion and Time Motion Descriptors during Small Sided Football Games

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Scott; Kerhervé, Hugo; Lovell, Geoff P.; Gorman, Adam D.; Solomon, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Small sided games (SSG) of football are an effective and efficient format to simultaneously train the physiological, technical, and tactical components of football. The duration of the recovery period between bouts of SSG will affect the physiological response to subsequent bouts. It was hypothesised that decreasing the duration of recovery periods separating serial SSG bouts would increase physiological, and perceptual responses, and decrease high speed running, and distance during SSG bouts. Methods Twelve experienced footballers (mean ± SD; age 21 ± 3 yrs; VO2peak 64 ± 7 ml·min·kg−1; playing experience 15 ± 3 yrs) completed two SSG sessions. Each SSG consisted of 3 vs. 3 players and 6 bouts of 2 min duration, with bouts separated by either 30 s recovery (REC-30) or 120 s recovery (REC-120). Deoxygenated haemoglobin (HHb) in the vastus lateralis (VL) (using near infrared spectroscopy), heart rate (HR) and time motion descriptors (TMD) (speed and distance) were measured continuously during the SSG sessions and perceived exertion (RPE) was measured for each bout. Results During the recovery periods, in REC-30 compared to REC-120, there was a significant (p < 0.05) main effect of a higher HHb and HR. During the bouts, in REC-30 compared to REC-120, there were no significant differences in HHb, HR, RPE, or TMD, but within both REC-30 and REC-120 there were significant increases as a function of bout number in RPE. Conclusions Although a four-fold increase in recovery period allowed a significant increase in the recovery of HHb and HR, this did not increase the physiological, and perceptual responses, or time motion descriptors during the bouts. These results could have been due to the regulation of effort (pacing), in these experienced players performing an exercise task to which they were well adapted. PMID:26919064

  18. Science of rugby league football: a review.

    PubMed

    Gabbett, Tim J

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the science of rugby league football at all levels of competition (i.e. junior, amateur, semi-professional, professional), with special reference to all discipline-specific scientific research performed in rugby league (i.e. physiological, psychological, injury epidemiology, strength and conditioning, performance analysis). Rugby league football is played at junior and senior levels in several countries worldwide. A rugby league team consists of 13 players (6 forwards and 7 backs). The game is played over two 30 - 40 min halves (depending on the standard of competition) separated by a 10 min rest interval. Several studies have documented the physiological capacities and injury rates of rugby league players. More recently, studies have investigated the physiological demands of competition. Interestingly, the physiological capacities of players, the incidence of injury and the physiological demands of competition all increase as the playing standard is increased. Mean blood lactate concentrations of 5.2, 7.2 and 9.1 mmol . l(-1) have been reported during competition for amateur, semi-professional and professional rugby league players respectively. Mean heart rates of 152 beats . min(-1) (78% of maximal heart rate), 166 beats . min(-1) (84% of maximal heart rate) and 172 beats . min(-1) (93% of maximal heart rate) have been recorded for amateur, semi-professional and junior elite rugby league players respectively. Skill-based conditioning games have been used to develop the skill and fitness of rugby league players, with mean heart rate and blood lactate responses during these activities almost identical to those obtained during competition. In addition, recent studies have shown that most training injuries are sustained in traditional conditioning activities that involve no skill component (i.e. running without the ball), whereas the incidence of injuries while participating in skill-based conditioning

  19. Whole-body vibration training decreases ankle systolic blood pressure and leg arterial stiffness in obese postmenopausal women with high blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Arturo; Kalfon, Roy; Wong, Alexei

    2015-04-01

    High ankle systolic blood pressure (SBP; ≥175 mm Hg) is associated with arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity [PWV]) and cardiac events. This study aims to investigate the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) training on ankle SBP and its associations with changes in PWV and aortic SBP in postmenopausal women. Thirty-six postmenopausal women were randomized to a control group (n = 12) or a WBV training group (3 d/wk) that was stratified by ankle SBP into WBV-high (n = 12) and WBV-normal (n = 12). Ankle SBP, brachial SBP, aortic SBP, femoral-ankle PWV (legPWV), carotid-femoral PWV, and brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) were examined before and after 12 weeks. Baseline ankle SBP was higher (P < 0.05) in the WBV-high group compared with the WBV-normal group. WBV-high reduced mean (SEM) ankle SBP (-24 [7] mm Hg, P < 0.05) compared with WBV-normal and control. Both WBV groups decreased (P < 0.05) mean (SEM) brachial SBP (-11 [2] mm Hg), aortic SBP (-11 [3] mm Hg), legPWV (-0.80 [0.17] m/s), and baPWV (-1.18 [0.27] m/s) compared with the control group. Reductions in legPWV were correlated (P < 0.05) with decreases in ankle SBP (r = 0.43), brachial SBP (r = 0.42), aortic SBP (r = 0.42), and baPWV (r = 0.75). WBV training decreases ankle SBP in postmenopausal women with high ankle SBP. WBV training reduces aortic SBP, legPWV, and baPWV, but not carotid-femoral PWV, in postmenopausal women independently of ankle SBP. Therefore, reductions in peripheral and central SBP induced by WBV training are explained by a reduction in peripheral PWV.

  20. The role of ergonomic training interventions on decreasing neck and shoulders pain among workers of an Iranian automobile factory: a randomized trial study

    PubMed Central

    Aghilinejad, Mashallah; Kabir-Mokamelkhah, Elahe; Labbafinejad, Yasser; Bahrami-Ahmadi, Amir; Hosseini, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ergonomic training had been implemented for prevention or reduction of neck and shoulder complaints among workers. The purpose of the present study was to assess the role of ergonomic training intervention on decreasing the prevalence of neck and shoulder complaints among workers of an automobile factory. Methods: Within the present randomized clinical trial, the role of three ergonomic training methods on the prevalence of neck and shoulders pain among 503 workers of an automobile factory (Response rate: 94.23%) was assessed. The eligible workers were randomly allocated into the following three interventional (pamphlet, lecture, workshop) groups and one control group. The Nordic questionnaire was used to assess the prevalence of neck and shoulder complaints. We followed and assessed the prevalence of neck and shoulders complaints among the study employees before and one year after the intervention. We used chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests to compare the prevalence of neck and shoulder complaints between the trial and control groups. A two-tailed P-value less than or equal to 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The prevalence of neck and shoulders complaints among the study employees at the recent week (p= 0.002) and year (p= 0.02) had been significantly decreased in the study employees after participating in the study workshop. The prevalence of neck and shoulders complaints at the recent week and year did not significantly changed in the study employees after receiving the pamphlet and lecture as ergonomic trainings. Conclusion: Workshop as an ergonomic training method had an effective and powerful role on decreasing the prevalence of neck and shoulders complaints among workers. PMID:26034743

  1. Predictors of perceptions of mental illness and averseness to help: a survey of elite football players.

    PubMed

    Jones, Tiffanie-Victoria

    2016-10-01

    Hypermasculinity may impact elite football players' willingness to seek help for mental health problems. This quantitative study sought to identify what set of characteristics, including hypermasculinity, best predicts elite football players' mental health attitudes. The Attitude Scale for Mental Illness, Inventory of Attitudes toward Seeking Mental Health Services, and Athlete's Perception of Masculinity Scale were self-administered to 112 football players from the NFLPA and the Washington, DC metro area. Canonical correlation analysis was used to develop a regression model that best predicts elite football players' mental health attitudes. This study found that though the athletes have high levels of hypermasculinity (x = 19.66, SD = 7.43), other factors, including marital status and sport level lessen the effects of hypermasculinity and facilitate positive perceptions of mental illness and receptivity to help. Predictors suggest that therapeutic efforts targeted toward family and support networks, as well as intervention strategies for decreasing mental illness stigma are essential to encourage positive mental health attitudes in elite football players.

  2. Strategies for injury prevention in Brazilian football: Perceptions of physiotherapists and practices of premier league teams.

    PubMed

    Meurer, Maurício Couto; Silva, Marcelo Faria; Baroni, Bruno Manfredini

    2017-07-25

    To describe the physiotherapists perceptions and the current practices for injury prevention in elite football (soccer) clubs in Brazil. Cross-sectional study. Group of Science in Sports & Exercise, Federal University of Healthy Sciences of Porto Alegre (Brazil). 16 of the 20 football clubs involved in the Brazilian premier league 2015. Physiotherapists answered a structured questionnaire. Most physiotherapists (∼88%) were active in design, testing and application of prevention programs. Previous injury, muscle imbalance, fatigue, hydration, fitness, diet, sleep/rest and age were considered "very important" or "important" injury risk factors by all respondents. The methods most commonly used to detect athletes' injury risk were: monitoring of biochemical markers (100% of teams), isokinetic dynamometry (81%), questionnaires (75%), functional movement screen (56%), fleximetry (56%) and horizontal jump tests (50%). All clubs used strength training, functional training, core exercises and balance/proprioception exercises in their injury prevention program; and Nordic hamstring exercise and other eccentric exercises were used by 94% of clubs. "FIFA 11+" prevention program was adapted by 88% of clubs. Physiotherapists perceptions and current practices of injury prevention within Brazilian elite football clubs were similar to those employed in developed countries. There remains a gap between clinical practice and scientific evidence in high performance football. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Do community football players wear allocated protective equipment? Descriptive results from a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Braham, R A; Finch, C F

    2004-06-01

    Before protective equipment can be adopted as an effective sports safety intervention, its protective effects in reducing the incidence and severity of injury need to be demonstrated, Importantly, it also needs to be well accepted by the players. The Australian Football Injury Prevention Project (AFIPP) was a large scale community-based randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of headgear and mouthguards in preventing head/neck/dental injuries in Australian Football. A subcomponent of this study was to assess the extent to which community football players complied with the requirement to wear protective headgear and/or mouthguards, as this equipment is not compulsory in this sport. Three hundred and one community football players from 23 teams were randomly allocated to one of three protective equipment intervention arms or one control arm. Protective equipment usage was measured by a primary data collector at each training and game session during the 2001 playing season. Mouthguard use was higher than headgear use, with the highest usage for both being measured during games rather than training. Although many players use mouthguards, particularly in games, most do not wear headgear. Given the low adoption of headgear, other strategies to prevent head injuries need further investigation.

  4. Nutrition and hydration concerns of the female football player.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Ronald J; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2007-08-01

    There is little information on the nutritional habits of female football players at any level of the game. There is also a shortage of information on the nutrition and hydration strategies that players should adopt. In general, differences in nutritional needs between males and females are smaller than differences between individuals, so that principles developed for male players also apply to women. There is a need to address energy balance and body composition: prolonged energy deficits cannot be sustained without harm to health and performance. Published reports show mean carbohydrate intakes for female players of about 5 g/kg/day, and this seems to be too low to sustain consistent intensive training. The timing of protein intake may be as important as the amounts consumed, provided that the total intake is adequate. Dehydration adversely affects skill and stamina in women as it does in men, so an individualised hydration strategy should be developed. The prevalence of iron deficiency in women generally is high, but it seems to be alarmingly high in female players. All players should adopt dietary habits that ensure adequate iron intake. Football training seems to increase bone mass in the weight-bearing limbs, with positive implications for bone health in later life, but some players may be at risk from inadequate calcium dietary intake.

  5. The epidemiology of catastrophic spine injuries in high school and college football.

    PubMed

    Gill, Sanjitpal S; Boden, Barry P

    2008-03-01

    Athletic events have long been identified as a source of catastrophic spinal injuries. One of the most notorious sports has been American football. At both the amateur and professional level, this collision sport is associated with the highest number of direct catastrophic injuries including cervical spine trauma and quadriplegia. Although modifications in the rules of play and education of players and coaches have significantly diminished the rate of quadriplegia, there remains a need to decrease the number of catastrophic spine injuries in football. Further research related to the prevention and management of athletic cervical spine trauma is necessary.

  6. Sedentary behaviour among elite professional footballers: health and performance implications

    PubMed Central

    Weiler, Richard; Aggio, Daniel; Taylor, Tom; Kumar, Bhavesh

    2015-01-01

    Background Elite athletes should have little concern about meeting recommended guidelines on physical activity. However, sedentary behaviour is considered a health risk independent of physical activity, and is recognised in public health guidelines advising against prolonged sedentary time. There has been very little research on athletes’ physical activity behaviour outside elite sport. Methods Given health and performance links, we investigated in-season post-training activity levels in 28 elite professional footballers during the English Premiership season. Players volunteered to wear a triaxial wrist accelerometer for 1 week, removing it only for training and matches. In total, 25 players met the inclusion criteria for analysis. Players recorded on average 632.6 min wear time p/day during the post-training period (SD±52.9) for a mean of 3.8 days (SD±1.5). Results On average, players recorded 76.2 min p/day (SD±28.8) of moderate or vigorous activity post-training. The majority (79%) of post-training time was spent in sedentary activities (500.6 min per day±59.0). Conclusions Professional footballers are alarmingly sedentary in their leisure time, and comparatively more so than non-athletic groups of a similar age and older. This raises questions over optimum recovery and performance, as well as long-term health and cardiovascular risk. Worryingly, retirement from elite sport is likely to further imbalance activity and sedentary behaviour. Promoting regular periodic light to moderate leisure time activity could be beneficial. Further research and provision of education and support for players is required in this area. PMID:27110383

  7. Hazard Analysis. Football: Activity and Related Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1974

    Data on football injuries acquired from surveillance sources and in-depth investigations are presented. Results of the study are summarized by descriptions of the accident sequence, diagnosis of the injury, and specific equipment involved in the injury. (JD)

  8. Science and Gaelic football: a review.

    PubMed

    Reilly, T; Doran, D

    2001-03-01

    This review focuses on Gaelic football and scientific reports of the characteristics of its players and the demands of the game. Anthropometric characteristics vary according to positional role, but top players display high muscularity and good all-round fitness at the peak of the competitive season. Match analysis indicates that exercise intensity is roughly equivalent to that for professional soccer. Average heart rates are approximately 160 beats x min(-1) during competitive matches, and average oxygen consumption is about 72% of maximum. Metabolic fatigue in active muscles is unlikely. Conventional biomechanical and electromyographic techniques are useful in gaining insight into individual games skills. Inadequate attention has been given to injury prevention and to psychological aspects of the game. Although possessing unique characteristics, Gaelic football has many similarities with other football codes, especially Australian Rules football where the ball is played by both hands and feet and where tackling is permitted.

  9. The Cheerleader and the Football Player.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patil, Malati

    2001-01-01

    Describes an activity in physics using a narrative about a bet between a cheerleader who claims she can lift a 300-pound football player off the ground. Includes questions, teaching notes, and solutions. (MM)

  10. Hazard Analysis. Football: Activity and Related Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1974

    Data on football injuries acquired from surveillance sources and in-depth investigations are presented. Results of the study are summarized by descriptions of the accident sequence, diagnosis of the injury, and specific equipment involved in the injury. (JD)

  11. Comparison of Two Different Modes of Active Recovery on Muscles Performance after Fatiguing Exercise in Mountain Canoeist and Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Mika, Anna; Oleksy, Łukasz; Kielnar, Renata; Wodka-Natkaniec, Ewa; Twardowska, Magdalena; Kamiński, Kamil; Małek, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to assess if the application of different methods of active recovery (working the same or different muscle groups from those which were active during fatiguing exercise) results in significant differences in muscle performance and if the efficiency of the active recovery method is dependent upon the specific sport activity (training loads). Design A parallel group non-blinded trial with repeated measurements. Methods Thirteen mountain canoeists and twelve football players participated in this study. Measurements of the bioelectrical activity, torque, work and power of the vastus lateralis oblique, vastus medialis oblique, and rectus femoris muscles were performed during isokinetic tests at a velocity of 90°/s. Results Active legs recovery in both groups was effective in reducing fatigue from evaluated muscles, where a significant decrease in fatigue index was observed. The muscles peak torque, work and power parameters did not change significantly after both modes of active recovery, but in both groups significant decrease was seen after passive recovery. Conclusions We suggest that 20 minutes of post-exercise active recovery involving the same muscles that were active during the fatiguing exercise is more effective in fatigue recovery than active exercise using the muscles that were not involved in the exercise. Active arm exercises were less effective in both groups which indicates a lack of a relationship between the different training regimens and the part of the body which is principally used during training. PMID:27706260

  12. Comparison of Two Different Modes of Active Recovery on Muscles Performance after Fatiguing Exercise in Mountain Canoeist and Football Players.

    PubMed

    Mika, Anna; Oleksy, Łukasz; Kielnar, Renata; Wodka-Natkaniec, Ewa; Twardowska, Magdalena; Kamiński, Kamil; Małek, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess if the application of different methods of active recovery (working the same or different muscle groups from those which were active during fatiguing exercise) results in significant differences in muscle performance and if the efficiency of the active recovery method is dependent upon the specific sport activity (training loads). A parallel group non-blinded trial with repeated measurements. Thirteen mountain canoeists and twelve football players participated in this study. Measurements of the bioelectrical activity, torque, work and power of the vastus lateralis oblique, vastus medialis oblique, and rectus femoris muscles were performed during isokinetic tests at a velocity of 90°/s. Active legs recovery in both groups was effective in reducing fatigue from evaluated muscles, where a significant decrease in fatigue index was observed. The muscles peak torque, work and power parameters did not change significantly after both modes of active recovery, but in both groups significant decrease was seen after passive recovery. We suggest that 20 minutes of post-exercise active recovery involving the same muscles that were active during the fatiguing exercise is more effective in fatigue recovery than active exercise using the muscles that were not involved in the exercise. Active arm exercises were less effective in both groups which indicates a lack of a relationship between the different training regimens and the part of the body which is principally used during training.

  13. Morphological profiles for first-year National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football players.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Grady E; Womack, John W; Green, John S; Pollard, Ben; Miller, Greg S; Crouse, Stephen F

    2008-01-01

    We are aware of no published research in which the morphological profiles of first-year collegiate football players are characterized. In light of the known association between obesity and cardiovascular disease and recent data suggesting an increased frequency of obesity and early death in professional football players, we have compiled a morphological profile of 65 freshman and transfer recruits (age = 18.4 +/- 1.2 years) from a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I football program. Measured variables included height (HT), body mass (BM), and body fat percentage (BF) (hydrostatic method). Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using HT and weight variables. Individuals were grouped by player position for descriptive statistical analysis. The means for all 65 players were as follows: HT = 189 +/- 7 cm, BM = 106.5 +/- 4.8 kg, BF = 15 +/- 7%, and BMI = 29.8 +/- 4.7. Mean data from these collegiate athletes were compared to recently published data from professional players. By comparison, the average HT, BM, BF, and BMI of the professional football athletes were 188 +/- 4 cm, 107 +/- 4.8 kg, 14 +/- 5%, and 30.1 +/- 1.9, respectively. While the average BMIs of the collegiate athletes in this study would be classified as overweight or obese, the BFs were found to be within an acceptable range for health status. These data provide important indicators of morphological characteristics and BM health risks of new football recruits at a Division I university. The data presented also provide an historical basis for (a) evaluating both the conditioning of first-year incoming athletes, (b) determining the physical development of the athletes as they progress through the training program, and (c) charting the morphological changes that occur in collegiate football throughout time that may contribute to increased health risks to the athletes.

  14. Drill-specific head impact exposure in youth football practice

    PubMed Central

    Campolettano, Eamon T.; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although 70% of football players in the United States are youth players (6–14 years old), most research on head impacts in football has focused on high school, collegiate, or professional populations. The objective of this study was to identify the specific activities associated with high-magnitude (acceleration > 40g) head impacts in youth football practices. METHODS A total of 34 players (mean age 9.9 ± 0.6 years) on 2 youth teams were equipped with helmet-mounted accelerometer arrays that recorded head accelerations associated with impacts in practices and games. Videos of practices and games were used to verify all head impacts and identify specific drills associated with each head impact. RESULTS A total of 6813 impacts were recorded, of which 408 had accelerations exceeding 40g (6.0%). For each type of practice drill, impact rates were computed that accounted for the length of time that teams spent on each drill. The tackling drill King of the Circle had the highest impact rate (95% CI 25.6–68.3 impacts/hr). Impact rates for tackling drills (those conducted without a blocker [95% CI 14.7–21.9 impacts/hr] and those with a blocker [95% CI 10.5–23.1 impacts/hr]) did not differ from game impact rates (95% CI 14.2–21.6 impacts/hr). Tackling drills were observed to have a greater proportion (between 40% and 50%) of impacts exceeding 60g than games (25%). The teams in this study participated in tackling or blocking drills for only 22% of their overall practice times, but these drills were responsible for 86% of all practice impacts exceeding 40g. CONCLUSIONS In youth football, high-magnitude impacts occur more often in practices than games, and some practice drills are associated with higher impact rates and accelerations than others. To mitigate high-magnitude head impact exposure in youth football, practices should be modified to decrease the time spent in drills with high impact rates, potentially eliminating a drill such as King of the

  15. Drill-specific head impact exposure in youth football practice.

    PubMed

    Campolettano, Eamon T; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Although 70% of football players in the United States are youth players (6-14 years old), most research on head impacts in football has focused on high school, collegiate, or professional populations. The objective of this study was to identify the specific activities associated with high-magnitude (acceleration > 40g) head impacts in youth football practices. METHODS A total of 34 players (mean age 9.9 ± 0.6 years) on 2 youth teams were equipped with helmet-mounted accelerometer arrays that recorded head accelerations associated with impacts in practices and games. Videos of practices and games were used to verify all head impacts and identify specific drills associated with each head impact. RESULTS A total of 6813 impacts were recorded, of which 408 had accelerations exceeding 40g (6.0%). For each type of practice drill, impact rates were computed that accounted for the length of time that teams spent on each drill. The tackling drill King of the Circle had the highest impact rate (95% CI 25.6-68.3 impacts/hr). Impact rates for tackling drills (those conducted without a blocker [95% CI 14.7-21.9 impacts/hr] and those with a blocker [95% CI 10.5-23.1 impacts/hr]) did not differ from game impact rates (95% CI 14.2-21.6 impacts/hr). Tackling drills were observed to have a greater proportion (between 40% and 50%) of impacts exceeding 60g than games (25%). The teams in this study participated in tackling or blocking drills for only 22% of their overall practice times, but these drills were responsible for 86% of all practice impacts exceeding 40g. CONCLUSIONS In youth football, high-magnitude impacts occur more often in practices than games, and some practice drills are associated with higher impact rates and accelerations than others. To mitigate high-magnitude head impact exposure in youth football, practices should be modified to decrease the time spent in drills with high impact rates, potentially eliminating a drill such as King of the Circle

  16. Performance enhancements and muscular adaptations of a 16-week recreational football intervention for untrained women.

    PubMed

    Bangsbo, J; Nielsen, J J; Mohr, M; Randers, M B; Krustrup, B R; Brito, J; Nybo, L; Krustrup, P

    2010-04-01

    The present study investigated the performance effects and physiological adaptations over 16 weeks of recreational football training and continuous running for healthy untrained premenopausal women in comparison with an inactive control group [Football group (FG): n=21; running group (RG): n=18; CO: n=14]. Two weekly 1-h training sessions were performed in FG and RG. After 4 and 16 weeks of training VO(2max) was elevated (P<0.05) by 7% and 15%, respectively, in FG, and by 6% and 10%, respectively, in RG. After 16 weeks, Yo-Yo intermittent endurance level 2 performance was 33% and 19% better (P<0.05) for FG and 29% and 21% better (P<0.05) for RG than after 4 and 0 weeks, respectively. Peak sprinting speed was 12% higher (21.0 +/- 0.6 vs 18.8 +/- 0.7 km/h; P<0.05) for FG after the training period, whereas no difference was observed for RG. After 4 weeks citrate synthase (CS) and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD) activity was 9% and 8%, respectively, higher (P<0.05) than before training in FG with no further changes during the last 12 weeks. In RG, CS increased (P<0.05) by 12% after 4 weeks and no significant increase was observed for HAD. In FG, the number of capillaries per fiber was 18% higher (P<0.05) after 16 weeks (2.44 +/- 0.15 vs 2.07 +/- 0.05 cap/fiber), with no significant difference for RG. No differences were observed between 0 and 16 weeks for CO. In conclusion, recreational women's football leads to significant increases in VO(2max), performance and muscular adaptations throughout a 16-week training period. Thus, football can be used as an activity to elevate the physical capacity of untrained women.

  17. Injury incidence, risk factors and prevention in Australian rules football.

    PubMed

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2013-05-01

    Along with the enjoyment and the other positive benefits of sport participation, there is also the risk of injury that is elevated in contact sport. This review provides a summary of injury incidence in Australian rules football (ARF), identifies injury risk factors, assesses the efficacy of interventions to reduce injury risk and makes recommendations for future research. The most common injuries were found to be muscle strains, particularly hamstrings; joint ligament sprains, especially ankle; haematomas and concussion. The most severe joint injury was anterior cruciate ligament rupture. Mouthguards are commonly worn and have been shown to reduce orofacial injury. There is evidence that thigh pads can reduce the incidence of thigh haematomas. There is a reluctance to wear padded headgear and an attempt to assess its effectiveness was unsuccessful due to low compliance. The most readily identified risk factor was a history of that injury. There were conflicting findings as to the influence strength imbalances or deficit has on hamstring injury risk in ARF. Static hamstring flexibility was not related to risk but low hip flexor/quadriceps flexibility increased hamstring injury risk. High lower-limb and high hamstring stiffness were associated with an elevated risk of hamstring injury. Since stiffness can be modulated through strength or flexibility training, this provides an area for future intervention studies. Low postural balance ability was related to a greater risk of ankle injury in ARF, players with poor balance should be targeted for balance training. There are preliminary data signifying a link between deficiencies in hip range of motion and hip adductor strength with groin pain or injury. This provides support for future investigation into the effectiveness of an intervention for high-risk players on groin injury rate. Low cross-sectional area of core-region muscle has been associated with more severe injuries and a motor control exercise intervention

  18. A neonatal nurse training program in kangaroo mother care (KMC) decreases barriers to KMC utilization in the NICU.

    PubMed

    Hendricks-Munoz, Karen D; Mayers, Roslyn M

    2014-11-01

    This study assessed the impact of a nurse simulation training program on perception of kangaroo mother care (KMC) value and transfer skill competency. An 8-item Likert scale skill survey tool and a 24-item Likert developmental care survey tool were used in a prospective cohort study to analyze perceptions of 30 neonatal nurses who underwent a comprehensive KMC simulation-based training program. Competency skills were evaluated pretraining and tracked by direct observation for 6 months posttraining. Pre- and postsurvey data were analyzed and KMC utilization for preterm infants born at ≤ 34 weeks' gestation was determined. Nurses' competency in infant transfer improved, especially in infants receiving nasal continuous positive airway pressure or ventilator support, from 30 to 93% or 10 to 50%, respectively, p < 0.0001. Neonatal nurses' perceived KMC value increased from 50 to 100%, p < 0.001, and parent KMC utilization increased from 26.5 to 85.9%, p < 0.0001. Nurses' support for parental visitation improved from 38 to 73%, p < 0.001; discussion of KMC with parents on the 1st day increased from 5 to 45%, p < 0.001; and initial day of KMC provision improved from 18.0 ± 2.7 to 5.6 ± 1.2 days, p < 0.001. A comprehensive simulation-based KMC education program improved nurses' perception of KMC value, their competency and comfort in infant transfer for KMC care, and successfully promoted KMC parent utilization for the preterm infant in the neonatal intensive care unit. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  19. Concussion Incidence in Professional Football

    PubMed Central

    Nathanson, John T.; Connolly, James G.; Yuk, Frank; Gometz, Alex; Rasouli, Jonathan; Lovell, Mark; Choudhri, Tanvir

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the United States alone, millions of athletes participate in sports with potential for head injury each year. Although poorly understood, possible long-term neurological consequences of repetitive sports-related concussions have received increased recognition and attention in recent years. A better understanding of the risk factors for concussion remains a public health priority. Despite the attention focused on mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in football, gaps remain in the understanding of the optimal methodology to determine concussion incidence and position-specific risk factors. Purpose: To calculate the rates of concussion in professional football players using established and novel metrics on a group and position-specific basis. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Athletes from the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 National Football League (NFL) seasons were included in this analysis of publicly available data. Concussion incidence rates were analyzed using established (athlete exposure [AE], game position [GP]) and novel (position play [PP]) metrics cumulatively, by game unit and position type (offensive skill players and linemen, defensive skill players and linemen), and by position. Results: In 480 games, there were 292 concussions, resulting in 0.61 concussions per game (95% CI, 0.54-0.68), 6.61 concussions per 1000 AEs (95% CI, 5.85-7.37), 1.38 concussions per 100 GPs (95% CI, 1.22-1.54), and 0.17 concussions per 1000 PPs (95% CI, 0.15-0.19). Depending on the method of calculation, the relative order of at-risk positions changed. In addition, using the PP metric, offensive skill players had a significantly greater rate of concussion than offensive linemen, defensive skill players, and defensive linemen (P < .05). Conclusion: For this study period, concussion incidence by position and unit varied depending on which metric was used. Compared with AE and GP, the PP metric found that the relative risk of concussion for

  20. Interval training based on ventilatory anaerobic threshold increases cardiac vagal modulation and decreases high-sensitivity c-reative protein: randomized clinical trial in coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Tamburus, Nayara Y.; Paula, Roberta F. L.; Kunz, Vandeni C.; César, Marcelo C.; Moreno, Marlene A.; da Silva, Ester

    2015-01-01

    Background: Autonomic dysfunction and inflammatory activity are involved in the development and progression of coronary artery disease (CAD), and exercise training has been shown to confer a cardiovascular benefit. Objective: To evaluate the effects that interval training (IT) based on ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT) has on heart rate variability (HRV) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels, as well as the relationship between both levels, in patients with CAD and/or cardiovascular risk factors (RF). Method: Forty-two men (aged 57.88±6.20 years) were divided into two training groups, CAD-T (n= 12) and RF-T (n= 10), and two control groups, CAD-C (n= 10) and RF-C (n=10). Heart rate and RR intervals in the supine position, cardiopulmonary exercise tests, and hs-CRP levels were measured before and after IT. HRV was analyzed by spectral and symbolic analysis. The CAD-T and RF-T underwent a 16-week IT program of three weekly sessions at training intensities based on the VAT. Results: In the RF-T, cardiac sympathetic modulation index and hs-CRP decreased (p<0.02), while cardiac parasympathetic modulation index increased (p<0.02). In the CAD-T, cardiac parasympathetic modulation index increased, while hs-CRP, systolic, and diastolic blood pressures decreased (p<0.02). Both control groups showed increase in hs-CRP parameters (p<0.02). There was a strong and significant association between parasympathetic and sympathetic modulations with hs-CRP. Conclusion: The IT program based on the VAT promoted a decrease in hs-CRP associated with improvement in cardiac autonomic modulation. PMID:26647745

  1. 3B.03: BLOOD PRESSURE SPECIFITIES IN PREADOLESCENT YOUNG ELITE FOOTBALLERS.

    PubMed

    Zdravkovic, M; Krotin, M; Lisulov, D; Hinic, S; Acimovic, T; Gavrilovic, J; Koncarevic, I; Klasnja, S; Dizdarevic, I; Saric, J; Dimkovic, S; Lovic, D; Prijic, S; Vukomanovic, V

    2015-06-01

    Exaggerated blood pressure (BP) response during exercise is associated with increased risk of worsening hypertension in normotensives, as well as in athletes with high normal blood pressure. To date, conflicting data have been reported concerning the nature (physiologic versus pathologic) remodeling in athletes. Data regarding preadolescents are limited.. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the rest and maximal exercise BP values to the cardiac dimensions in professional elite young preadolescent footballers. Ninety-four highly trained male footballers (mean aged 12.85 ± 0.84) competing in our Football League (at least 7 training hours/week) and 47 age-matched healthy male controls were enrolled in the study. They were screened by ECG and echocardiography at a tertiary referral cardio centre. The control group had sedentary life style (less than 2 training hours/week). Echocardiographic parameters were obtained by standard measurements. All participants had normal blood pressure (BP). Mean BP in footballers was 109.95+/-65.75 and mean BP in controls was 108.19+/-60.75. There was no difference in SDP between these two groups (p > 0.05), but footballers had significantly higher values of the DBP (p < 0.01).The data indicate significant increases in absolute values of LV dimensions, but especially in the dimensions of the aortic root size (p < 0.001) in preadolescent professional footballers compared with the values expected for age-matched controls, whereas there are no differences in absolute values of ventricular septal and posterior wall thickness, LV wall thickness and LVM (p > 0.05). However, regarding aortic root dimensions there is a significant difference even in absolute values. (p < 0.001).No significant correlations between LVMI and rest values of BP were detected. Dimensions of the left atrium and aortic root however significantly correlated with SBP and DBP (p < 0.01). However, significant correlations were

  2. Australian rural football club leaders as mental health advocates: an investigation of the impact of the Coach the Coach project

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mental ill health, especially depression, is recognised as an important health concern, potentially with greater impact in rural communities. This paper reports on a project, Coach the Coach, in which Australian rural football clubs were the setting and football coaches the leaders in providing greater mental health awareness and capacity to support early help seeking behaviour among young males experiencing mental health difficulties, especially depression. Coaches and other football club leaders were provided with Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training. Method Pre-post measures of the ability of those club leaders undertaking mental health training to recognise depression and schizophrenia and of their knowledge of evidence supported treatment options, and confidence in responding to mental health difficulties were obtained using a questionnaire. This was supplemented by focus group interviews. Pre-post questionnaire data from players in participating football clubs was used to investigate attitudes to depression, treatment options and ability to recognise depression from a clinical scenario. Key project stakeholders were also interviewed. Results Club leaders (n = 36) who were trained in MHFA and club players (n = 275) who were not trained, participated in this evaluation. More than 50% of club leaders who undertook the training showed increased capacity to recognise mental illness and 66% reported increased confidence to respond to mental health difficulties in others. They reported that this training built upon their existing skills, fulfilled their perceived social responsibilities and empowered them. Indirect benefit to club players from this approach seemed limited as minimal changes in attitudes were reported by players. Key stakeholders regarded the project as valuable. Conclusions Rural football clubs appear to be appropriate social structures to promote rural mental health awareness. Club leaders, including many coaches, benefit from MHFA

  3. Fitness profiling of elite level adolescent Gaelic football players.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Bryan D; Cregg, Cathal J; Kelly, David T; Hughes, Sarah M; Daly, Pat G; Moyna, Niall M

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anthropometric characteristics and fitness levels of elite level under 18 (U-18) Gaelic football players to establish normative centile scores for selected fitness parameters and to compare the physical and fitness characteristics relative to each playing position. A total of 265 male U-18 Gaelic football players (age: 16.96 ± 0.7 years; height: 178.11 ± 6.27 cm; weight: 72.07 ± 8.68 kg) participated in the study. According to positional roles, players were categorized as goalkeepers (n = 13), defenders (n = 113), midfielders (n = 30), and forwards (n = 109). Height and weight were measured, and skinfolds were taken before participants sequentially performed a sit and reach test (S&R), countermovement jump (CMJ), standing long jump (SLJ), 5- and 20-m speed test, and the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (YYIRT1). The percentage body fat was higher (p < 0.01) in goalkeepers than the other playing positions. Goalkeepers had a higher body mass index than defenders (p < 0.05) and forwards (p < 0.01). Midfielders and goalkeepers were taller (p < 0.01) and heavier (p < 0.01) than defenders and forwards. The total distance covered in the YYIRT1 was significantly lower (p < 0.01) in goalkeepers than the other playing positions. There was no significant positional difference in the performance scores in the S&R test, CMJ, SLJ, and 5- and 20-m running speed. The study findings indicate minimal differences in the anthropometric and physiological characteristics between playing positions in elite youth level Gaelic football players. The norm-referenced percentile scores will enable conditioning coaches to benchmark elite performance and design training programs.

  4. Many College Football Players Lack Vitamin D: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_164139.html Many College Football Players Lack Vitamin D: Study Deficiency could put them at risk ... 2017 THURSDAY, March 16, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Low vitamin D levels are common among college football players ...

  5. Decreasing self-reported cognitive biases and increasing clinical insight through meta-cognitive training in patients with chronic schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Gawęda, Łukasz; Krężołek, Martyna; Olbryś, Joanna; Turska, Agnieszka; Kokoszka, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of meta-cognitive training (MCT) on cognitive biases, symptoms, clinical insight, and general functioning among low-level functioning persons diagnosed with chronic schizophrenia who were attending a daily Community Social Support Group Program; we compared the treatment-as-usual (TAU) condition with the MCT + TAU condition. Forty-four patients diagnosed with chronic schizophrenia were allocated to either the MCT + treatment-as-usual condition or the treatment-as-usual (TAU) condition. Delusion and hallucination severity, cognitive biases, clinical insight, and global functioning were assessed pre- and post-treatment (clinical trial NCT02187692). No significant changes were found in symptom severity as measured with the PSYRATS. Conversely, a medium to large effect size was observed for delusional ideation changes when assessed by the self-report measure (Paranoia Checklist). MCT was found to ameliorate cognitive biases as measured by the self-report scale at large effect size, however, no changes in jumping to conclusions (the Fish Task) and theory of mind deficits ("Reading the Mind in the Eyes" Test) were found in the behavioral tasks. MCT increased insight at large effect size. No changes in global functioning were found between the two conditions. Low intensity intervention. No follow-up assessment was provided. Only PSYRATS was assessed blind to patient allocation. MCT has a beneficial effect on low-functioning chronic schizophrenic patients in ameliorating cognitive biases and increasing clinical insight. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Whole Genome Sequencing of a Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Pseudo-Outbreak in a Professional Football Team

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Deverick J.; Harris, Simon R.; Godofsky, Eliot; Toriscelli, Todd; Rude, Thomas H.; Elder, Kevin; Sexton, Daniel J.; Pellman, Elliot J.; Mayer, Thom; Fowler, Vance G.; Peacock, Sharon J.

    2014-01-01

    Two American football players on the same team were diagnosed with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) skin and soft tissue infections on the same day. Our investigation, including whole genome sequencing, confirmed that players did not transmit MRSA to one another nor did they acquire the MRSA from a single source within the training facility. PMID:25734164

  7. The effect of emotion regulation training in decreasing emotion failures and self-injurious behaviors among students suffering from specific learning disorder (SLD)

    PubMed Central

    Habibzadeh, Abbas; Pourabdol, Saeed; Saravani, Shahzad

    2015-01-01

    Background: A great deal of attention has been given to the study of learning disorders. Hence, the aim of this research was to study the effect of emotion regulation training in decreasing emotion failures and self-injurious behaviors among students suffering from specific learning disorder. Methods: This was an experimental study with the pre-test, post-test and a control group. Research population included all 5th grade male students suffering from specific learning disorder (case study: 5th grade students in Ardabil in 2015). Research sample included 40 male students suffering from specific learning disorder (SLD) who were selected through multi-step cluster sampling and classified into two groups: Experimental group (n= 20) and control group (n= 20). The following tools were used for data collection: Kay Math mathematic Test, Raven Intelligence Test, Reading Test of Shafiei et al, Falahchay Writing Expression, Emotion Failures Scale, Self-Injurious Behavior Questionnaire and Diagnostic Interview based on DSM-5. Data were analyzed by multivariate of variance analysis (MANOVA) model in the SPSS software version 22. Results: The results of MANOVA revealed that emotion regulation training was effective in decreasing emotion failures in all parameters (difficulty in describing feelings, difficulty in identifying feelings, and externally oriented thinking style) and self-injurious behaviors in students suffering from specific learning disorder (p< 0.001). Conclusion: In this study, it was found that since emotion regulation training can have a remarkable effect on reducing negative emotions and increasing the positive ones; this treatment can play an eminent role in decreasing emotion failures and self-injurious behaviors in such students. PMID:26793670

  8. Poor oral health including active caries in 187 UK professional male football players: clinical dental examination performed by dentists.

    PubMed

    Needleman, Ian; Ashley, Paul; Meehan, Lyndon; Petrie, Aviva; Weiler, Richard; McNally, Steve; Ayer, Chris; Hanna, Rob; Hunt, Ian; Kell, Steven; Ridgewell, Paul; Taylor, Russell

    2016-01-01

    The few studies that have assessed oral health in professional/elite football suggest poor oral health with minimal data on impact on performance. The aim of this research was to determine oral health in a representative sample of professional footballers in the UK and investigate possible determinants of oral health and self-reported impact on well-being, training and performance. Clinical oral health examination of senior squad players using standard methods and outcomes carried out at club training facilities. Questionnaire data were also collected. 8 teams were included, 5 Premier League, 2 Championship and 1 League One. 6 dentists examined 187 players who represented >90% of each senior squad. Oral health was poor: 37% players had active dental caries, 53% dental erosion and 5% moderate-severe irreversible periodontal disease. 45% were bothered by their oral health, 20% reported an impact on their quality of life and 7% on training or performance. Despite attendance for dental check-ups, oral health deteriorated with age. This is the first large, representative sample study in professional football. Oral health of professional footballers is poor, and this impacts on well-being and performance. Successful strategies to promote oral health within professional football are urgently needed, and research should investigate models based on best evidence for behaviour change and implementation science. Furthermore, this study provides strong evidence to support oral health screening within professional football. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Alcohol-Related Fan Behavior on College Football Game Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassman, Tavis; Werch, Chudley E.; Jobli, Edessa; Bian, Hui

    2007-01-01

    High-risk drinking on game day represents a unique public health challenge. Objective: The authors examined the drinking behavior of college football fans and assessed the support for related interventions. Participants: The authors randomly selected 762 football fans, including college students, alumni, and other college football fans, to…

  10. Tips to Increase Girls' Participation in Flag Football Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, James C.; Ratliffe, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Despite the apparent popularity of flag football as an activity in physical education class and football as an after-school offering for girls, studies related to gender stereotyping of sports have found overwhelming evidence indicating that football is perceived as a masculine activity among males and females in primary school, secondary school,…

  11. The Helmeted Hero: The Football Player in Recent American Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, David J.

    This paper examines the modern cultural fascination with the game of football and with football players as this concern is reflected in the modern (post-1960) novel. The analysis is based on 31 novels, or portions of novels, which treat the topic of football as a cultural metaphor at the high school, college, and professional levels. Inspecting…

  12. A Demonstration of Ideal Gas Principles Using a Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bare, William D.; Andrews, Lester

    1999-01-01

    Uses a true-to-life story of accusations made against a college football team to illustrate ideal gas laws. Students are asked to decide whether helium-filled footballs would increase punt distances and how to determine whether a football contained air or helium. (WRM)

  13. Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk in Collegiate Football Players and Nonathletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobrosielski, Devon A.; Rosenbaum, Daryl; Wooster, Benjamin M.; Merrill, Michael; Swanson, John; Moore, J. Brian; Brubaker, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Collegiate American football players may be at risk for cardiovascular disease. Objective: To compare cardiovascular disease risk factors and cardiovascular structure and function parameters of football players, stratified by position, to a group of sedentary, nonathletes. Participants: Twenty-six collegiate football players and 13 nonathletes…

  14. Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk in Collegiate Football Players and Nonathletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobrosielski, Devon A.; Rosenbaum, Daryl; Wooster, Benjamin M.; Merrill, Michael; Swanson, John; Moore, J. Brian; Brubaker, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Collegiate American football players may be at risk for cardiovascular disease. Objective: To compare cardiovascular disease risk factors and cardiovascular structure and function parameters of football players, stratified by position, to a group of sedentary, nonathletes. Participants: Twenty-six collegiate football players and 13 nonathletes…

  15. A Demonstration of Ideal Gas Principles Using a Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bare, William D.; Andrews, Lester

    1999-01-01

    Uses a true-to-life story of accusations made against a college football team to illustrate ideal gas laws. Students are asked to decide whether helium-filled footballs would increase punt distances and how to determine whether a football contained air or helium. (WRM)

  16. Tips to Increase Girls' Participation in Flag Football Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, James C.; Ratliffe, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Despite the apparent popularity of flag football as an activity in physical education class and football as an after-school offering for girls, studies related to gender stereotyping of sports have found overwhelming evidence indicating that football is perceived as a masculine activity among males and females in primary school, secondary school,…

  17. Evaluating a standardised tool to explore the nature and extent of foot and ankle injuries in amateur and semi-professional footballers

    PubMed Central

    Evans, S.; Walker-Bone, K.; Otter, S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Football is a popular sport amongst amateurs as well as professionals. To date, most studies of football injuries have included only professional players and data have been collected in a variety of different ways. There is currently no single validated, standardised tool for the assessment of injures. Therefore, we developed a standardised questionnaire based upon an instrument used in rheumatoid arthritis sufferers and used it in a group of semi-professional and amateur footballers. We quantified the prevalence of foot/ankle injuries and evaluated risk factors for these injuries. Method A trained recorder administered a 33-item questionnaire (recording quantitative and qualitative data) in three football teams, 1 amateur and 2 semi-professional. The questionnaire enquired about demography, football specific information such as footwear and orthoses, and nature & extent of injuries. Results 42/42 eligible footballers completed the questionnaire. 34/42 respondents (81%) reported that they had experienced a total of 273 football-related injuries, 114 of which occurred at the foot or ankle. 70 injuries occurred at the ankle and 44 at the foot and 44% of the footballers had suffered one or more foot/ankle injuries in the past 12 months. Statistically significant relationships were seen between occurrence of lower limb and foot/ankle injuries and age, (p=0.03) weight (p=0.01) height (p=0.01) and shorter duration of warm-up (p). Conclusion The standardised tool performed well with an excellent response rate. Foot and ankle injuries were common in semi-professional and amateur footballers. Amongst this relatively small sample, statistically significant risk factors were identified which may be potential targets for prevention strategies but larger studies will be required. PMID:25605413

  18. Patellar tendon ruptures in National Football League players.

    PubMed

    Boublik, Martin; Schlegel, Theodore; Koonce, Ryan; Genuario, James; Lind, Charles; Hamming, David

    2011-11-01

    Although knee injuries are common among professional football players, ruptures of the patellar tendon are relatively rare. Predisposing factors, mechanisms of injury, treatment guidelines, and recovery expectations are not well established in high-level athletes. Professional football players with isolated rupture of the patellar tendon treated with timely surgical repair will return to their sport. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Twenty-four ruptures of the patellar tendon in 22 National Football League (NFL) players were identified from 1994 through 2004. Team physicians retrospectively reviewed training room and clinic records, operative notes, and imaging studies for each of these players. Player game statistics and draft status were analyzed to identify return to play predictors. A successful outcome was defined as participating in 1 regular-season NFL game. Eleven of the 24 injuries had antecedent symptoms. The most common mechanism of injury was an eccentric overload to a contracting extensor mechanism. Physical examination demonstrated a palpable defect in all players. Twenty-two were complete ruptures, and 2 were partial injuries. Three of the 24 cases had a concomitant anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. In 19 of the 24 injuries, the player returned to participate in at least 1 game in the NFL. Players who returned were drafted, on average, in the fourth round, while those who failed to return to play were drafted, on average, in the sixth round. Of those players who returned to play, the average number of games played was 45.4, with a range of 1 to 142 games. Patellar tendon ruptures can occur in otherwise healthy professional football players without antecedent symptoms or predisposing factors. The most common mechanism of injury is eccentric overload. Close attention should be paid to stability examination of the knee given the not uncommon occurrence of concomitant ACL injury. Although this is usually a season-ending injury when it occurs in

  19. Decrease in Behavioral Problems and Trauma Symptoms Among At-Risk Adopted Children Following Web-Based Trauma-Informed Parent Training Intervention.

    PubMed

    Razuri, Erin Becker; Howard, Amanda R Hiles; Parris, Sheri R; Call, Casey D; DeLuna, Jamie Hurst; Hall, Jordan S; Purvis, Karyn B; Cross, David R

    2016-01-01

    Children who have experienced early adversities are at risk for behavioral problems and trauma symptoms. Using a two-group, pre-post intervention design, the authors evaluated the effectiveness of an online parent training for Trust-Based Relational Intervention, a trauma-informed, attachment-based intervention, in reducing behavioral problems and trauma symptoms in at-risk adopted children. Children of parents in the treatment group (n = 48) demonstrated significant decreases in behavioral problems and trauma symptoms after intervention. Scores for children in a matched-sample control group did not change. Findings suggest this intervention can effectively reduce behavioral problems and trauma symptoms in children with histories of adversities.

  20. Comparative Study of Aerobic Performance Between Football and Judo Groups in Prepubertal Boys

    PubMed Central

    Triki, Moez; Rebai, Haithem; Shamssain, Mohammed; Masmoudi, Kaouthar; Fellmann, Nicole; Zouari, Hela; Zouari, Nouri; Tabka, Zouhair

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to compare the impact of the practice of football and judo on lung function and aerobic performance of prepubertal boys. Methods A total of ninety six prepubertal boys were studied. They assessed a measure of body composition using the skin folds method. They performed lung plethysmography at rest, followed by an incremental exercise test. Results There was no significant difference in baseline spirometry between all groups (P>0.05). The maximal oxygen uptake [VO2max] and the VO2 at the ventilatory threshold [VT] were similar between all groups (P>0.05). The maximal minute ventilation [VEmax] of judokas was significantly higher than footballers (P<0.01) and similar at the [VT]. The Heart rate [HR] at [VT] of footballers and judokas was similar and significantly higher than control group (P<0.01). VO2max was significantly related to LM and negatively associated with FM. At the [VT] there was a significant relationship between P[VT] and LM and mainly with VE to VO2 [VT], P[VT] and HR[VT] in all groups. Conclusion Training in football and judo does not affect lung volumes and capacities, VO2max and VO2 at the [VT]. PMID:24427474

  1. Player acceleration and deceleration profiles in professional Australian football.

    PubMed

    Johnston, R J; Watsford, M L; Austin, D; Pine, M J; Spurrs, R W

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the validity and reliability of global positioning system (GPS) units for measuring a standardized set of acceleration and deceleration zones and whether these standardized zones were capable of identifying differences between playing positions in professional Australian football. Eight well trained male participants were recruited to wear two 5 Hz or 10 Hz GPS units whilst completing a team sport simulation circuit to measure acceleration and deceleration movements. For the second part of this article 30 professional players were monitored between 1-29 times using 5 Hz and 10 Hz GPS units for the collection of acceleration and deceleration movements during the 2011 and 2012 Australian Football League seasons. Players were separated into four distinct positional groups - nomadic players, fixed defenders, fixed forwards and ruckman. The GPS units analysed had good to poor levels of error for measuring the distance covered (<19.7%), time spent (<17.2%) and number of efforts performed (<48.0%) at low, moderate and high acceleration and deceleration zones. The results demonstrated that nomadic players and fixed defenders perform more acceleration and deceleration efforts during a match than fixed forwards and ruckman. These studies established that these GPS units can be used for analysing the distance covered and time spent at the acceleration and deceleration zones used. Further, these standardized zones were proven to be capable of distinguishing between player positions, with nomadic players and fixed defenders required to complete more high acceleration and deceleration efforts during a match.

  2. Decrease in blood pressure and improved psychological aspects through meditation training in hypertensive older adults: A randomized control study.

    PubMed

    de Fátima Rosas Marchiori, Márcia; Kozasa, Elisa Harumi; Miranda, Roberto Dischinger; Monezi Andrade, André Luiz; Perrotti, Tatiana Caccese; Leite, José Roberto

    2015-10-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Zen meditation on blood pressure (BP) and quality of life in elderly subjects. A total of 59 volunteers (21 men and 38 women), aged ≥60 years with systolic BP between 130 and 159 mmHg and diastolic BP between 85 and 99 mmHg, were randomly divided into a meditation group (MG), n = 28 and a control group (CG), n = 31. The MG meditated twice a day for 20 min for 3 months, and the CG remained on a waiting list. The BP levels were measured monthly in both groups. The volunteers' medication was kept stable. A quality of life assessment instrument was applied at the beginning and end of the study. For systolic BP, analysis of variance showed the influence of time (F(4,228)  = 4.74, P < 0.01, β = 0.98) and the interaction group × time (F(4,228)  = 3.07, P < 0.01, β = 0.89). The MG showed a significant decrease in systolic BP levels in the second measurement after 1 month of meditation practice when compared with the CG (Newman-Keuls test, P < 0.05). Starting at the second measurement, systolic BP levels in the MG were lower than the baseline and first measurement levels; however, the systolic BP levels were similar to those observed in the CG. In the quality of life assessment evaluation, a significant improvement in psychological aspects and overall quality of life in the MG compared with the CG was observed. These results suggest that Zen meditation is an interesting tool as a complementary treatment for hypertension in elderly subjects. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  3. Selected Musculoskeletal and Performance Characteristics of Members of a Women's Professional Football Team: Application of a Pre-participation Examination

    PubMed Central

    Nett, Beth; Velarde, Lynnuel; Pariser, David P.; Boyce, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Although it is common practice to administer pre-participation examinations (PPE) of athletes prior to training, there are no clearly established formats. Elements integral to the PPE fall within the scope of physical therapist practice, and are often categorized as a form of primary prevention for musculoskeletal disorders as defined in the Guide to Physical Therapist Practice. Purpose The purpose of this study is to describe the design and implementation of a PPE for a women's professional (gridiron) football team. The results and findings from this PPE provide one of the first musculoskeletal profiles and information about selected physical characteristics from members of a female professional football team. Methods Players from the Kentucky Karma women's football team, a member of the National Women's Football League (NWFA), volunteered to participate in a PPE. Of twenty-five eligible team members, thirteen consented to participate. The PPE consisted of a health history questionnaire, a musculoskeletal screening, and a series of physical performance and agility tests. Results The players' average (± SD) age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and body fat percentage were 29.6 (± 5.6) yrs., 1.66 (± .05) m, 66.8 (± 12.6) kg, 24.1 (± 3.7), and 27.4 (± 6.6) %, respectively. Commonly reported injuries were similar to those reported in men's collegiate football. Conclusion This is one of the first papers to report on a model PPE for a women's professional football team. Future research is needed to establish a standard PPE, recognize common injuries, and develop prevention strategies unique to women's professional football. PMID:21509153

  4. Impact of limited hamstring flexibility on vertical jump, kicking speed, sprint, and agility in young football players.

    PubMed

    García-Pinillos, F; Ruiz-Ariza, A; Moreno del Castillo, R; Latorre-Román, P Á

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to analyse the impact of limited hamstring flexibility (HF) on specific football skills, such as sprinting and jumping ability, agility, and kicking speed in young football players. Forty-three male football players (aged 14-18) from a semi-professional football academy participated voluntarily in this study. Data about anthropometric measurements, HF (unilateral passive straight-leg raise test: PSLR), vertical jumping ability (countermovement jump: CMJ), sprinting ability (5, 10, 20 m: S5 m, S10 m, S20 m), agility (Balsom agility test: BAT), and kicking speed in terms of ball speed (dominant and non-dominant leg: KSdom and KSnon-dom) were collected. Cluster analysis grouped according to HF, dividing participants into a flexible group (FG, n = 24) and a non-flexible group (NFG, n = 19) in relation to performances on the PSLR test. Despite finding no significant differences between groups in body composition and age, the FG performed better in terms of sprint scores (S5 m: 6.12%, S10 m: 4.09%, S20 m: 3.29%), BAT score (4.11%), CMJ score (10.49%), and scores for KSdom (6.86%) and KSnon-dom (8%) than the NFG. The results suggest that HF is a key factor for performing football-specific skills, such as sprinting, jumping, agility, and kicking in young football players. These results support the rationale that muscle flexibility must be specifically trained in football players beginning at early ages.

  5. Cavum Septi Pellucidi in Symptomatic Former Professional Football Players.

    PubMed

    Koerte, Inga K; Hufschmidt, Jakob; Muehlmann, Marc; Tripodis, Yorghos; Stamm, Julie M; Pasternak, Ofer; Giwerc, Michelle Y; Coleman, Michael J; Baugh, Christine M; Fritts, Nathan G; Heinen, Florian; Lin, Alexander; Stern, Robert A; Shenton, Martha E

    2016-02-15

    Post-mortem studies reveal a high rate of cavum septi pellucidi (CSP) in chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). It remains, however, to be determined whether or not the presence of CSP may be a potential in vivo imaging marker in populations at high risk to develop CTE. The aim of this study was to evaluate CSP in former professional American football players presenting with cognitive and behavioral symptoms compared with noncontact sports athletes. Seventy-two symptomatic former professional football players (mean age 54.53 years, standard deviation [SD] 7.97) as well as 14 former professional noncontact sports athletes (mean age 57.14 years, SD 7.35) underwent high-resolution structural 3T magnetic resonance imaging. Two raters independently evaluated the CSP, and interrater reliability was calculated. Within National Football League players, an association of CSP measures with cognitive and behavioral functioning was evaluated using a multivariate mixed effects model. The measurements of the two raters were highly correlated (CSP length: rho = 0.98; Intraclass Correlation Coefficient [ICC] 0.99; p < 0.0001; septum length: rho = 0.93; ICC 0.96; p < 0.0001). For presence versus absence of CSP, there was high agreement (Cohen kappa = 0.83, p < 0.0001). A higher rate of CSP, a greater length of CSP, as well as a greater ratio of CSP length to septum length was found in symptomatic former professional football players compared with athlete controls. In addition, a greater length of CSP was associated with decreased performance on a list learning task (Neuropsychological Assessment Battery List A Immediate Recall, p = 0.04) and decreased test scores on a measure of estimate verbal intelligence (Wide Range Achievement Test Fourth Edition Reading Test, p = 0.02). Given the high prevalence of CSP in neuropathologically confirmed CTE in addition to the results of this study, CSP may serve as a potential early in vivo imaging marker to identify those at high risk for CTE

  6. Cavum Septi Pellucidi in Symptomatic Former Professional Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Hufschmidt, Jakob; Muehlmann, Marc; Tripodis, Yorghos; Stamm, Julie M.; Pasternak, Ofer; Giwerc, Michelle Y.; Coleman, Michael J.; Baugh, Christine M.; Fritts, Nathan G.; Heinen, Florian; Lin, Alexander; Stern, Robert A.; Shenton, Martha E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Post-mortem studies reveal a high rate of cavum septi pellucidi (CSP) in chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). It remains, however, to be determined whether or not the presence of CSP may be a potential in vivo imaging marker in populations at high risk to develop CTE. The aim of this study was to evaluate CSP in former professional American football players presenting with cognitive and behavioral symptoms compared with noncontact sports athletes. Seventy-two symptomatic former professional football players (mean age 54.53 years, standard deviation [SD] 7.97) as well as 14 former professional noncontact sports athletes (mean age 57.14 years, SD 7.35) underwent high-resolution structural 3T magnetic resonance imaging. Two raters independently evaluated the CSP, and interrater reliability was calculated. Within National Football League players, an association of CSP measures with cognitive and behavioral functioning was evaluated using a multivariate mixed effects model. The measurements of the two raters were highly correlated (CSP length: rho = 0.98; Intraclass Correlation Coefficient [ICC] 0.99; p < 0.0001; septum length: rho = 0.93; ICC 0.96; p < 0.0001). For presence versus absence of CSP, there was high agreement (Cohen kappa = 0.83, p < 0.0001). A higher rate of CSP, a greater length of CSP, as well as a greater ratio of CSP length to septum length was found in symptomatic former professional football players compared with athlete controls. In addition, a greater length of CSP was associated with decreased performance on a list learning task (Neuropsychological Assessment Battery List A Immediate Recall, p = 0.04) and decreased test scores on a measure of estimate verbal intelligence (Wide Range Achievement Test Fourth Edition Reading Test, p = 0.02). Given the high prevalence of CSP in neuropathologically confirmed CTE in addition to the results of this study, CSP may serve as a potential early in vivo imaging

  7. Head impact exposure in youth football.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Ray W; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M

    2012-04-01

    The head impact exposure for athletes involved in football at the college and high school levels has been well documented; however, the head impact exposure of the youth population involved with football has yet to be investigated, despite its dramatically larger population. The objective of this study was to investigate the head impact exposure in youth football. Impacts were monitored using a custom 12 accelerometer array equipped inside the helmets of seven players aged 7-8 years old during each game and practice for an entire season. A total of 748 impacts were collected from the 7 participating players during the season, with an average of 107 impacts per player. Linear accelerations ranged from 10 to 100 g, and the rotational accelerations ranged from 52 to 7694 rad/s(2). The majority of the high level impacts occurred during practices, with 29 of the 38 impacts above 40 g occurring in practices. Although less frequent, youth football can produce high head accelerations in the range of concussion causing impacts measured in adults. In order to minimize these most severe head impacts, youth football practices should be modified to eliminate high impact drills that do not replicate the game situations.

  8. Fluid consumption and sweating in National Football League and collegiate football players with different access to fluids during practice.

    PubMed

    Godek, Sandra Fowkes; Bartolozzi, Arthur R; Peduzzi, Chris; Heinerichs, Scott; Garvin, Eugene; Sugarman, Eric; Burkholder, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Considerable controversy regarding fluid replacement during exercise currently exists. To compare fluid turnover between National Football League (NFL) players who have constant fluid access and collegiate football players who replace fluids during water breaks in practices. Observational study. Respective preseason training camps of 1 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II (DII) football team and 1 NFL football team. Both morning and afternoon practices for DII players were 2.25 hours in length, and NFL players practiced for 2.25 hours in the morning and 1 hour in the afternoon. Environmental conditions did not differ. Eight NFL players (4 linemen, 4 backs) and 8 physically matched DII players (4 linemen, 4 backs) participated. All players drank fluids only from their predetermined individual containers. The NFL players could consume both water and sports drinks, and the DII players could only consume water. We measured fluid consumption, sweat rate, total sweat loss, and percentage of sweat loss replaced. Sweat rate was calculated as change in mass adjusted for fluids consumed and urine produced. Mean sweat rate was not different between NFL (2.1 +/- 0.25 L/h) and DII (1.8 +/- 0.15 L/h) players (F(1,12) = 2, P = .18) but was different between linemen (2.3 +/- 0.2 L/h) and backs (1.6 +/- 0.2 L/h) (t(14) = 3.14, P = .007). We found no differences between NFL and DII players in terms of percentage of weight loss (t(7) = -0.03, P = .98) or rate of fluid consumption (t(7) = -0.76, P = .47). Daily sweat loss was greater in DII (8.0 +/- 2.0 L) than in NFL (6.4 +/- 2.1 L) players (t(7) = -3, P = .02), and fluid consumed was also greater in DII (5.0 +/- 1.5 L) than in NFL (4.0 +/- 1.1 L) players (t(7) = -2.8, P = .026). We found a correlation between sweat loss and fluids consumed (r = 0.79, P < .001). During preseason practices, the DII players drinking water at water breaks replaced the same volume of fluid (66% of weight lost) as NFL players with constant

  9. Spinal cord injuries in Australian footballers.

    PubMed

    2003-07-01

    Acute spinal cord injury is a serious concern in football, particularly the rugby codes. This Australia-wide study covers the years 1986-1996 and data are compared with those from a previous identical study for 1960-1985. A retrospective review of 80 players with a documented acute spinal cord injury admitted to the six spinal cord injury units in Australia. Personal interview was carried out in 85% of the participants to determine the injury circumstances and the level of compensation. The severity of the neurological deficit and the functional recovery were determined (Frankel grade). The annual incidence of injuries for all codes combined did not change over the study period, but there was some decrease in rugby union and an increase in rugby league. In particular there was a significant decline in the incidence of adult rugby union injuries (P = 0.048). Scrum injuries in union have decreased subsequent to law changes in 1985, particularly in schoolboys, although ruck and maul injuries are increasing; 39% of scrum injuries occurred in players not in their regular position. Tackles were the most common cause of injury in league, with two-on-one tackles accounting for nearly half of these. Schoolboy injuries tended to mirror those in adults, but with a lower incidence. Over half of the players remain wheelchair-dependent, and 10% returned to near-normality. Six players (7.5%) died as a result of their injuries. The rugby codes must be made safer by appropriate preventative strategies and law changes. In particular, attention is necessary for tackle injuries in rugby league and players out of regular position in scrummage. Compensation for injured players is grossly inadequate. There is an urgent need to establish a national registry to analyse these injuries prospectively.

  10. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial H2O2 emission increases with immobilization and decreases after aerobic training in young and older men

    PubMed Central

    Gram, Martin; Vigelsø, Andreas; Yokota, Takashi; Helge, Jørn Wulff; Dela, Flemming; Hey-Mogensen, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mitochondrial dysfunction, defined as increased oxidative stress and lower capacity for energy production, may be seen with ageing and may cause frailty, or it could be that it is secondary to physical inactivity. We studied the effect of 2 weeks of one-leg immobilization followed by 6 weeks of supervised cycle training on mitochondrial function in 17 young (mean ± SEM: 23 ± 1 years) and 15 older (68 ± 1 years) healthy men. Submaximal H2O2 emission and respiration were measured simultaneously at a predefined membrane potential in isolated mitochondria from skeletal muscle using two protocols: pyruvate + malate (PM) and succinate + rotenone (SR). This allowed measurement of leak and ATP generating respiration from which the coupling efficiency can be calculated. The protein content of the anti-oxidants manganese superoxide dismuthase (MnSOD), CuZn superoxide dismuthase, catalase and gluthathione peroxidase 1 was measured by western blotting. Immobilization decreased ATP generating respiration using PM and increased H2O2 emission using both PM and SR similarly in young and older men. Both were restored to baseline after the training period. Furthermore, MnSOD and catalase content increased with endurance training. The young men had a higher leak respiration at inclusion using PM and a higher membrane potential in State 3 using both substrate combinations. Collectively, the findings of the present study support the notion that increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species mediates the detrimental effects seen after physical inactivity. Age, on the other hand, was not associated with impairments in anti-oxidant protein levels, mitochondrial respiration or H2O2 emission using either protocol. Key points Currently, it is not known whether impaired mitochondrial function contributes to human ageing or whether potential impairments in mitochondrial function with age are secondary to physical inactivity. The present study investigated

  11. Can Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Improve the Resistance Strength and Decrease the Rating Perceived Scale in Recreational Weight-Training Experience?

    PubMed

    Lattari, Eduardo; Andrade, Maria L; Filho, Alberto S; Moura, Antônio M; Neto, Geraldo M; Silva, Júlio G; Rocha, Nuno B; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Machado, Sérgio

    2016-12-01

    Lattari, E, Andrade, ML, Filho, AS, Moura, AM, Neto, GM, Silva, JG, Rocha, NB, Yuan, T-F, Arias-Carrión, O, and Machado, S. Can transcranial direct current stimulation improve the resistance strength and decrease the rating perceived scale in recreational weight-training experience? J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3381-3387, 2016-The goal of this study was to evaluate the acute efficacy of anodic transcranial direct current stimulation on the total volume of repetitions and perceived exertion in recreationally trained individuals in strength. The sample consisted of 10 participants trained in exercise against resistance for at least 3 months. Participants underwent elbow flexion exercise at barbell with a specific load of 10 repetition maximum (10RM), responded immediately after the OMNI-RES scale, and were stimulated for 20 minutes with a tDSC protocol (2 mA), depending on randomization. After applying the tDSC, subjects were again subjected to perform elbow flexion with 10RM load and, soon after, again responded to OMNI-RES scale. All subjects underwent the 3 experimental conditions of the study, c-tDSC, a-tDSC, and sham-tDSC, which were randomized. A range of 48-72 hours was allowed between each assessment visit. An interaction to condition and time (F = 52.395; p ≤ 0.001) has shown that repetitions completed after anodic condition were higher compared with the other conditions in the postsession. In relation to perceived exertion, verified by OMNI-RES scale, 2-way analysis of variance for repeated measures showed an interaction between condition and time (F = 28.445; p ≤ 0.001), where the perceived exertion was decreased after the a-tDSC condition and increased after the c-tDSC condition. In strict terms of performance, it seems to be beneficial to attend a session of 20 minutes a-tDSC, when strength training practitioners can no longer support high-volume training and have increased responses in the perceived exertion.

  12. Comparison of preseason, midseason, and postseason neurocognitive scores in uninjured collegiate football players.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jennifer R; Adamson, Gregory J; Pink, Marilyn M; Sweet, John C

    2007-08-01

    College football players sustain an average of 3 subconcussive blows to the head per game. Concussions correlate with decreases in standardized neurocognitive test scores. It is not known whether repetitive, subconcussive microtrauma associated with participation in a full season of collision sport affects neurocognitive test scores. No difference exists between preseason, midseason, and postseason Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC) and Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) scores when collegiate football players sustain subconcussive microtrauma from forceful, repetitive contact activity. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Fifty-eight members of a Division III collegiate football team who had no known concussion during the season voluntarily completed the SAC and ImPACT instruments preseason, midseason, and postseason. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to compare the scores at the 3 time intervals (P < .05). No statistically significant decreases were found in overall SAC or ImPACT scores or in any of the domains or composites of the tests (P < .05) when preseason, midseason, and postseason scores were evaluated. ImPACT and SAC neurocognitive test scores are not significantly altered by a season of repetitive contact in collegiate football athletes who have not sustained a concussion. A diminution in SAC or ImPACT scores in concert with clinical symptoms and findings should be interpreted as evidence of a postconcussive event.

  13. Physiological Profile and Activity Pattern of Minor Gaelic Football Players.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Bryan D; Roantree, Mark T; McCarren, Andrew L; Kelly, David T; OʼConnor, Paul L; Hughes, Sarah M; Daly, Pat G; Moyna, Niall M

    2017-07-01

    Cullen, BD, Roantree, M, McCarren, A, Kelly, DT, O'Connor, PL, Hughes, SM, Daly, PG, and Moyna1, NM. Physiological profile and activity pattern of minor Gaelic football players. J Strength Cond Res 31(7): 1811-1820, 2017-The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physiological profile and activity pattern in club- and county-level under-18 (U-18) Gaelic football players relative to playing position. Participants (n = 85) were analyzed during 17 official 15-a-side matches using global positioning system technology (SPI Pro X II; GPSports Systems, Canberra, Australia) and heart rate (HR) telemetry. During the second part of this study, 63 participants underwent an incremental treadmill test to assess their maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]o2max) and peak HR (HRmax). Players covered a mean distance of 5,774 ± 737 m during a full 60-minute match. The mean %HRmax and %V[Combining Dot Above]O2max observed during the match play were 81.6 ± 4.3% and 70.1 ± 7.75%, respectively. The playing level had no effect on the distance covered, player movement patterns, or %HRmax observed during match play. Midfield players covered significantly greater distance than defenders (p = 0.033). Playing position had no effect on %HRmax or the frequency of sprinting or high-intensity running during match play. The frequency of jogging, cruise running, striding (p = 0.000), and walking (p = 0.003) was greater in the midfield position than in the forward position. Time had a significant effect (F(1,39) = 33.512, p-value = 0.000, and (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.462) on distance covered and %HRmax, both of which showed a reduction between playing periods. Gaelic football is predominantly characterized by low-to-moderate intensity activity interspersed with periods of high-intensity running. The information provided may be used as a framework for coaches in the design and prescription of training strategies. Positional specific training may be warranted given

  14. Preventing lower limb injuries: is the latest evidence being translated into the football field?

    PubMed

    Twomey, Dara; Finch, Caroline; Roediger, Elizabeth; Lloyd, David G

    2009-07-01

    There is accumulating international evidence that lower limb injuries in sport can be prevented through targeted training but the extent to which this knowledge has been translated to real-world sporting practice is not known. A semi-structured questionnaire of all coaches from the nine Sydney Australian Football League Premier Division teams was conducted. Information was sought about their knowledge and behaviours in relation to delivering training programs, including their uptake of the latest scientific evidence for injury prevention. Direct observation of a sample of the coach-delivered training sessions was also undertaken to validate the questionnaire. Coaches ranked training session elements directly related to the game as being of most importance. They strongly favoured warming-up and cooling-down as injury prevention measures but changing direction and side-stepping training was considered to be of little/no importance for safety. Only one-third believed that balance training had some importance for injury prevention, despite accumulating scientific evidence to the contrary. Drills, set play, ball handling and kicking skills were all considered to be of least importance to injury prevention. These views were consistent with the content of the observed coach-led training sessions. In conclusion, current football training sessions do not give adequate attention to the development of skills most likely to reduce the risk of lower limb injury in players. There is a need to improve the translation of the latest scientific evidence about effective injury prevention into coaching practices.

  15. Moderate to severe injuries in football: a one-year prospective study of twenty-four female and male amateur teams.

    PubMed

    Lion, Alexis; Theisen, Daniel; Windal, Thierry; Malisoux, Laurent; Nührenbörger, Christian; Huberty, Robert; Urhausen, Axel; Seil, Romain

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to realize a prospective follow-up of the injuries occurring in female and male football players involved in the highest league in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. Data concerning anthropometric characteristics and football activities were gathered in 125 female and 243 male football players via questionnaires at the beginning of the study. Then, a follow-up of moderate to severe injuries (> 15 days of interruption in football practice) was performed throughout the season 2013-2014. Sixteen injuries (injury incidence = 0.7 injuries/1000 h of exposure) were observed in 13 female football players (10.4%). These injuries concerned mainly the knee (n = 7; 43.7%), with capsules and ligaments being the most often concerned tissues (n = 7; 43.7%). In male football players, 41 severe injuries (injury incidence = 0.6 injuries/1000 h of exposure) were observed in 36 players (14.8%). These injuries concerned mainly the thighs (n = 12; 29.3%) and the muscles and tendons were the most often concerned tissues (n = 18; 43.9%). Injuries in football are predominantly located at the lower limbs, particularly the knees in female football players. The predominant muscle and tendon lesions of the thighs occurring in males could reveal that physical preparation is insufficient or inadequate for a number of players. Regarding these results, it is necessary to implement an injury prevention strategy. The "FIFA 11+" programme could be used as the basic method, but should be personalized according to sex. The injury collection methodology could be optimized with the use of an electronic database, such as the Training and Injury Prevention Platform for Sports (TIPPS). Beside the systematic recording of injury data (as well as the training load) by the players or the medical staff, this system allows to share of important information between stakeholders, follow-up the players, provide risk factor warnings and increase the awareness of the injury problem.

  16. Seasonal variation of leg stiffness in professional Australian rules footballers.

    PubMed

    Pruyn, Elizabeth C; Watsford, Mark L; Murphy, Aron J; Pine, Matthew J; Spurrs, Robert W; Cameron, Matkthew L; Johnston, Richard J

    2013-07-01

    Leg stiffness (Kleg) is an important component to consider in both performance and injury in the Australian Football League (AFL). Kleg has not yet been examined longitudinally throughout an entire AFL season. A unilateral hop test was used to measure Kleg in the left and right legs of 25 professional AFL players (24.9 ± 4.3 years, 86.8 ± 8.1 kg, 187.0 ± 7.3 cm). Kleg was assessed at least once per month for each participant. Furthermore, the session rate of perceived exertion method was used to quantify the average weekly training loads experienced by the participants. One-way analysis of variance revealed no significant difference between the average monthly bilateral Kleg scores; however, average weekly training loads varied between 1,400 and 2,000 AU, depending on the training period. Thirteen participants were randomly selected to perform hop tests on 2 consecutive weeks. Reliability tests revealed these measurements to have a typical error of the measurement of 4.15% and an intraclass correlation of 0.8, proving the methods to be reliable. Although training intensity appears to vary, Kleg does not fluctuate significantly across an entire AFL season, suggesting that weekly training loads between 1,400 and 2,000 AU may be prescribed without the risk of fluctuating stiffness levels.

  17. Epidemiology of injury in male collegiate Gaelic footballers in one season.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, S; McCaffrey, N; Whyte, E F; Moran, K A

    2017-10-01

    Despite the popularity of collegiate Gaelic football in Ireland and the recent expansion into the United Kingdom and United States, no previous study has examined injury incidence. A prospective epidemiological study was implemented to establish injury incidence in 217 (19.3 ± 1.9 years) male collegiate Gaelic footballers from two collegiate institutions in one season. An injury was defined as any injury sustained during training or competition resulting in time lost from play or athlete reported restricted performance. Athletic therapy and training students, alongside a certified athletic and rehabilitation therapist, attended all training/matches over one season, and injuries were recorded using a standardized injury report form. The match injury rate was 25.1 injuries per 1000 h, with a significantly higher match injury rate noted in fresher players (players in their 1st year of higher education) (41.6 injuries per 1000 h) than senior players (12.7 injuries per 1000 h). Lower limb injuries were predominant (71.1%), particularly in the hamstring (15.5%), knee (14.1%), and ankle (11.3%). Soft-tissue injuries predominated, particularly strains (32.4%) and sprains (27.5%). A scan and surgery was required in 31% and 12% of injuries, respectively. Thus, injuries are prevalent in male collegiate Gaelic football, and injury prevention programs are required. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The role of specialisation in the promotion of young football talents: a person-oriented study.

    PubMed

    Zibung, Marc; Conzelmann, Achim

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the controversial question whether it is more effective to promote specialisation in a specific sport at the beginning of a career or whether to encourage a broad range of sports when promoting competitive sports talents in order for them to achieve a high level of performance in adulthood. The issue of promoting talents depends on human developmental processes and therefore raises developmental scientific questions. Based on recent, dynamic-interactionist concepts of development, we assume a person-oriented approach focussing on the person as a whole rather than individual features. Theoretical considerations lead to four interacting factors being summarised to form a subsystem: childhood training. The relative weights of these factors lead to patterns. By relating these to a performance criterion at the age of peak performance, particularly promising developmental patterns may be identified. One hundred fifty-nine former Swiss football talents were retrospectively interviewed about their career and the data analysed using the LICUR method. Two early career patterns were identified as having a favourable influence on adult performance. Both are characterised by an above-average amount of in-club training. One pattern also exhibits an above-average amount of informal football played outside the club, the other above-average scores for activity in other sports. Hence, comprehensive training and practice inside and outside the club form the basis for subsequent football expertise.

  19. 12 weeks' aerobic and resistance training without dietary intervention did not influence oxidative stress but aerobic training decreased atherogenic index in middle-aged men with impaired glucose regulation.

    PubMed

    Venojärvi, Mika; Korkmaz, Ayhan; Wasenius, Niko; Manderoos, Sirpa; Heinonen, Olli J; Lindholm, Harri; Aunola, Sirkka; Eriksson, Johan G; Atalay, Mustafa

    2013-11-01

    Our aim was to determine whether 12 weeks' aerobic Nordic walking (NW) or resistance exercise training (RT) without diet-induced weight loss could decrease oxidative stress and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and MetS score in middle-aged men with impaired glucose regulation (IGR) (n=144. 54.5 ± 6.5 years). In addition, we compared effects of intervention between overweight and obese subgroups. Prevalence of MetS and AIP index decreased only in NW group and MetS score in both NW and RT groups but not in control group. The changes in AIP index correlated inversely with changes in plasma antioxidant capacity. The change in AIP index remained a significant independent predictor of the changes in MetS score after the model was adjusted for age, BMI and volume of exercise (MET h/week) in NW group. There were no changes in the other measured markers of oxidative stress and related cytokines (e.g. osteopontin and osteoprotegerin) in any of the groups. Nordic walking decreased prevalence of MetS and MetS score. Improved lipid profile remained a predictor of decreased MetS score only in NW group and it seems that Nordic walking has more beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease risks than RT training. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of Increased Football Field Width on Player High-Speed Collision Rate.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Jacob R; Khalsa, Siri S; Smith, Brandon W; Park, Paul

    2017-07-01

    High-acceleration head impact is a known risk for mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) based on studies using helmet accelerometry. In football, offensive and defensive players are at higher risk of mTBI due to increased speed of play. Other collision sport studies suggest that increased playing surface size may contribute to reductions in high-speed collisions. We hypothesized that wider football fields lead to a decreased rate of high-speed collisions. Computer football game simulation was developed using MATLAB. Four wide receivers were matched against 7 defensive players. Each offensive player was randomized to one of 5 typical routes on each play. The ball was thrown 3 seconds into play; ball flight time was 2 seconds. Defensive players were delayed 0.5 second before reacting to ball release. A high-speed collision was defined as the receiver converging with a defensive player within 0.5 second of catching the ball. The simulation counted high-speed collisions for 1 team/season (65 plays/game for 16 games/season = 1040 plays/season) averaged during 10 seasons, and was validated against existing data using standard field width (53.3 yards). Field width was increased in 1-yard intervals up to 58.3 yards. Using standard field width, 188 ± 4 high-speed collisions were seen per team per season (18% of plays). When field width increased by 3 yards, high-speed collision rate decreased to 135 ± 3 per team per season (28% decrease; P < 0.0001). Even small increases in football field width can lead to substantial decline in high-speed collisions, with potential for reducing instances of mTBI in football players. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The time-frame of acute resistance exercise effects on football skill performance: the impact of exercise intensity.

    PubMed

    Draganidis, Dimitrios; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Carlos Barbero, Jose; Tsoukas, Dimitrios; Theodorou, Apostolos Spyridon; Margonis, Konstantinos; Michailidis, Yannis; Avloniti, Alexandra; Theodorou, Anastasios; Kambas, Antonis; Fatouros, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the recovery rate of football skill performance following resistance exercise of moderate or high intensity. Ten elite football players participated in three different trials: control, low-intensity resistance exercise (4 sets, 8-10 repetitions/set, 65-70% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) and high-intensity resistance exercise (4 sets, 4-6 repetitions/set, 85-90% 1RM) in a counterbalanced manner. In each experimental condition, participants were evaluated pre, post, and at 24, 48, 72 h post exercise time points. Football skill performance was assessed through the Loughborough Soccer Passing Test, long passing, dribbling, shooting and heading. Delayed onset muscle soreness, knee joint range of motion, and muscle strength (1RM) in squat were considered as muscle damage markers. Blood samples analysed for creatine kinase activity, C-reactive protein, and leukocyte count. Passing and shooting performance declined (P < 0.05) post-exercise following resistance exercise. Strength declined post-exercise following high-intensity resistance exercise. Both trials induced only a mild muscle damage and inflammatory response in an intensity-dependent manner. These results indicate that football skill performance is minimally affected by acute resistance exercise independent of intensity suggesting that elite players may be able to participate in a football practice or match after only 24 h following a strength training session.

  2. Physiological, psychometric, and performance effects of the Christmas break in Australian football.

    PubMed

    Buchheit, Martin; Morgan, Will; Wallace, Jarryd; Bode, Matthew; Poulos, Nick

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to quantify the physiological, psychometric, and performance effects of a 2-wk Christmas break in a professional Australian Football League club. A series of physiological (eg, heart-rate [HR] response to a 5-min submaximal run and skinfold thicknesses), psychometric (rating-of-perceived-exertion [RPE] responses and wellness variables), and performance (running activity during standardized handball games, isometric midthigh pull [IMTP] peak force, and countermovement jump [CMJ]) measures were conducted in the weeks before and after the break. There was a possible and small increase in the sum of 7 skinfolds, while body mass and fat-free mass remained possible and likely unchanged, respectively. Sleep and stress scores remained likely to almost certainly unchanged, but there were some small, possible to likely decreases in fatigue and soreness scores. HR and RPE responses to the 5-min submaximal run were likely slightly lower (ie, improved) after the break. High-intensity running and acceleration distance during a standard handball game were very likely slightly greater, while HR and RPE responses to the game were possibly to very likely unchanged. HR responses to a high-intensity training session remained very likely unchanged. There was also a likely small increase in IMTP peak force but likely to very likely no change in CMJ variables. The results show that players returned from a 2-wk break during preseason well recovered, with preserved to improved levels of strength and cardiorespiratory fitness, despite small increases in skinfold thickness.

  3. Facial fractures in Gaelic football and hurling.

    PubMed

    Carroll, S M; Condon, K C; O'Connor, T P

    1995-01-01

    A one year, retrospective, epidemiological study of all facial fractures, sustained whilst playing the GAA sports of football and hurling, treated in the Cork Regional Hospital was undertaken. The results have been analysed and compared to a similar study performed in this unit in 1975. Of 332 patients treated for facial fractures, 110 (33%) were injured whilst playing sport and 47% of these occurred when playing Gaelic football or hurling (52 injuries in all). Eighty per cent of Gaelic football and hurling patients required operative treatment. All surgery was performed under general anaesthetic. The numbers of hurling fractures have more than halved since 1975-76. This coincides with an increase in the numbers hurling, an increase in the use of protective headgear and vastly improved coaching. This study demonstrates that improved safety can be achieved without diluting sporting enjoyment.

  4. Common Shoulder Injuries in American Football Athletes.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Daniel B; Lynch, T Sean; Nuber, Erika D; Nuber, Gordon W

    2015-01-01

    American football is a collision sport played by athletes at high speeds. Despite the padding and conditioning in these athletes, the shoulder is a vulnerable joint, and injuries to the shoulder girdle are common at all levels of competitive football. Some of the most common injuries in these athletes include anterior and posterior glenohumeral instability, acromioclavicular pathology (including separation, osteolysis, and osteoarthritis), rotator cuff pathology (including contusions, partial thickness, and full thickness tears), and pectoralis major and minor tears. In this article, we will review the epidemiology and clinical and radiographic workup of these injuries. We also will evaluate the effectiveness of surgical and nonsurgical management specifically related to high school, collegiate, and professional football athletes.

  5. Networked Interactive Video for Group Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eary, John

    2008-01-01

    The National Computing Centre (NCC) has developed an interactive video training system for the Scottish Police College to help train police supervisory officers in crowd control at major spectator events, such as football matches. This approach involves technology-enhanced training in a group-learning environment, and may have significant impact…

  6. Networked Interactive Video for Group Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eary, John

    2008-01-01

    The National Computing Centre (NCC) has developed an interactive video training system for the Scottish Police College to help train police supervisory officers in crowd control at major spectator events, such as football matches. This approach involves technology-enhanced training in a group-learning environment, and may have significant impact…

  7. Home advantage in Greek football.

    PubMed

    Armatas, Vasilis; Pollard, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Home advantage as it relates to team performance at football was examined in Superleague Greece using nine seasons of game-by-game performance data, a total of 2160 matches. After adjusting for team ability and annual fluctuations in home advantage, there were significant differences between teams. Previous findings regarding the role of territorial protection were strengthened by the fact that home advantage was above average for the team from Xanthi (P =0.015), while lower for teams from the capital city Athens (P =0.008). There were differences between home and away teams in the incidence of most of the 13 within-game match variables, but associated effect sizes were only moderate. In contrast, outcome ratios derived from these variables, and measuring shot success, had negligible effect sizes. This supported a previous finding that home and away teams differed in the incidence of on-the-ball behaviours, but not in their outcomes. By far the most important predictor of home advantage, as measured by goal difference, was the difference between home and away teams in terms of kicked shots from inside the penalty area. Other types of shots had little effect on the final score. The absence of a running track between spectators and the playing field was also a significant predictor of goal difference, worth an average of 0.102 goals per game to the home team. Travel distance did not affect home advantage.

  8. The Athletic Shoe in Football.

    PubMed

    Jastifer, James; Kent, Richard; Crandall, Jeff; Sherwood, Chris; Lessley, David; McCullough, Kirk A; Coughlin, Michael J; Anderson, Robert B

    Foot and ankle injuries are common in sports, particularly in cleated athletes. Traditionally, the athletic shoe has not been regarded as a piece of protective equipment but rather as a part of the uniform, with a primary focus on performance and subjective feedback measures of comfort. Changes in turf and shoe design have poorly understood implications on the health and safety of players. A literature search of the MEDLINE and PubMed databases was conducted. Keywords included athletic shoewear, cleated shoe, football shoes, and shoewear, and search parameters were between the years 2000 and 2016. Clinical review. Level 5. The athletic shoe is an important piece of protective sports equipment. There are several important structural considerations of shoe design, including biomechanical compliance, cleat and turf interaction, and shoe sizing/fit, that affect the way an athlete engages with the playing surface and carry important potential implications regarding player safety if not understood and addressed. Athletic footwear should be considered an integral piece of protective equipment rather than simply an extension of the uniform apparel. More research is needed to define optimal shoe sizing, the effect that design has on mechanical load, and how cleat properties, including pattern and structure, interact with the variety of playing surfaces.

  9. First aid on field management in youth football.

    PubMed

    Krutsch, Werner; Voss, Andreas; Gerling, Stephan; Grechenig, Stephan; Nerlich, Michael; Angele, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Sufficient first aid equipment is essential to treat injuries on football fields. Deficits in first aid on field are still present in youth football. Injury pattern in youth football over one season and first aid equipment in youth football were analyzed, retrospectively. PRICE and ABC procedure served as basic principles in emergency management to assess the need for first aid equipment on field. Considering financial limits and adapted on youth football injuries, sufficient first aid equipment for youth football was configured. 84% of 73 participating youth football teams had their own first aid kit, but the majority of them were insufficiently equipped. Team coaches were in 60% of all youth teams responsible for using first aid equipment. The injury evaluation presented 922 injuries to 1,778 youth players over one season. Frequently presented types of injury were contusions and sprains of the lower extremity. Based on the analyzed injury data in youth football, first aid equipment with 90 € is sufficient for 100% of all occurred youth football injuries. Current first aid equipment in youth football is insufficient. Scientific-based first aid equipment with 90 € is adequate to serve all injuries. Football coaches need education in first aid management.

  10. Drug use in English professional football

    PubMed Central

    Waddington, I; Malcolm, D; Roderick, M; Naik, R; Spitzer, G

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To examine several issues related to drug use in English professional football. More particularly the project sought to gather data on: players' use of permitted supplements (mineral and vitamin pills and creatine); whether they sought advice, and if so from whom, about their use of supplements; their experience of and attitudes towards drug testing; their views on the extent of the use of banned performance enhancing and recreational drugs in football; and their personal knowledge of players who used such drugs. Methods: With the cooperation of the Professional Footballers Association (PFA), reply paid postal questionnaires were delivered to the home addresses of all 2863 members of the PFA. A total of 706 questionnaires were returned, a response rate of just under 25%. Results: Many players use supplements, although almost one in five players does so without seeking qualified professional advice from anyone within the club. Blood tests are rarely used to monitor the health of players. One third of players had not been tested for drugs within the preceding two years, and 60% felt that they were unlikely to be tested in the next year. The use of performance enhancing drugs appears to be rare, although recreational drugs are commonly used by professional footballers: 6% of respondents indicated that they personally knew players who used performance enhancing drugs, and 45% of players knew players who used recreational drugs. Conclusions: There is a need to ensure that footballers are given appropriate advice about the use of supplements in order to minimise the risk of using supplements that may be contaminated with banned substances. Footballers are tested for drugs less often than many other elite athletes. This needs to be addressed. The relatively high level of recreational drug use is not reflected in the number of positive tests. This suggests that many players who use recreational drugs avoid detection. It also raises doubts about the ability of

  11. RETURN TO DIVISION IA FOOTBALL FOLLOWING A 1ST METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINT DORSAL DISLOCATION

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Chad; Zarzour, Hap; Moorman, Claude T.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Although rare in occurrence, a dorsal dislocation of the 1st metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint has been successfully treated using surgical and/or non-operative treatment. No descriptions of conservative intervention following a dorsal dislocation of the MTP joint in an athlete participating in a high contact sport are present in the literature. Objectives. The purpose of this case report is to describe the intervention and clinical reasoning during the rehabilitative process of a collegiate football player diagnosed with a 1st MTP joint dorsal dislocation. The plan of care and return to play criteria used for this athlete are presented. Case Description. The case involved a 19-year-old male Division IA football player, who suffered a traumatic dorsal dislocation of the 1st MTP joint during practice. The dislocation was initially treated on-site by closed reduction. Non-operative management included immobilization, therapeutic exercises, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, manual treatment, modalities, prophylactic athletic taping, gait training, and a sport specific progression program for full return to Division IA football. Outcomes. Discharge from physical therapy occurred after six weeks of treatment. At discharge, no significant deviations existed during running, burst, and agility related drills. At a six-month follow-up, the patient reported full return to all football activities including contact drills without restrictions. Discussion. This case describes an effective six-week rehabilitation intervention for a collegiate football player who sustained a traumatic great toe dorsal dislocation. Further study is suggested to evaluate the intervention strategies and timeframe for return to contact sports. PMID:21589669

  12. Vitamin D concentration in 342 professional football players and association with lower limb isokinetic function.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Bruce; Whiteley, Rod; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Chalabi, Hakim

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate both the epidemiology of Vitamin D deficiency in Qatar-based footballers originating from a variety of countries and the existence of any relationship between 25 hydroxy-cholecalciferol (25(OH)D) concentration and lower limb isokinetic performance (peak torque) in well trained professional football players. Cross-sectional clinical. Three hundred and forty-two professional footballers based in Qatar were evaluated as part of their routine annual medical assessment. History, examination, blood tests and a lower limb isokinetic evaluation were performed. Association between 25(OH)D concentrations and lower limb isokinetic peak torque was assessed. Eighty four percent of players had 25(OH)D concentrations less than 30 ng/ml; 12% were severely deficient (<10 ng/ml) and there was a significant difference in 25(OH)D level depending on the country of origin of the player. Total body mass and lean mass was significantly higher in players with 25(OH)D levels greater than 20 ng/ml, when compared with the less than 10 ng/ml group. There was no consistent association found between lower limb isokinetic peak torque and 25(OH)D concentration. 25(OH)D deficiency is highly prevalent in Qatar based footballers. Severe 25(OH)D deficiency is associated with lower body mass, and lower lean mass, when compared with footballers with concentrations >20 ng/ml. Vitamin D deficiency was not shown to have a consistent association with lower limb isokinetic peak torque and both the clinical and performance related significance of this high prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency remains unclear. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantification of Competitive Game Demands of NCAA Division I College Football Players Using Global Positioning Systems.

    PubMed

    Wellman, Aaron D; Coad, Sam C; Goulet, Grant C; McLellan, Christopher P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the competitive physiological movement demands of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I college football players using portable global positioning system (GPS) technology during games and to examine positional groups within offensive and defensive teams, to determine if a player's physiological requirements during games are influenced by playing position. Thirty-three NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision football players were monitored using GPS receivers with integrated accelerometers (GPSports) during 12 regular season games throughout the 2014 season. Individual data sets (n = 295) from players were divided into offensive and defensive teams and subsequent position groups. Movement profile characteristics, including total, low-intensity, moderate-intensity, high-intensity, and sprint running distances (m), sprint counts, and acceleration and deceleration efforts, were assessed during games. A one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Bonferroni statistical analysis were used to determine differences in movement profiles between each position group within offensive and defensive teams. For both offensive and defensive teams, significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences exist between positional groups for game physical performance requirements. The results of the present study identified that wide receivers and defensive backs completed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater total distance, high-intensity running, sprint distance, and high-intensity acceleration and deceleration efforts than their respective offensive and defensive positional groups. Data from the present study provide novel quantification of position-specific physical demands of college football games and support the use of position-specific training in the preparation of NCAA Division I college football players for competition.

  14. The Use of Relative Speed Zones in Australian Football: Are We Really Measuring What We Think We Are?

    PubMed

    Murray, Nick B; Gabbett, Tim J; Townshend, Andrew D

    2017-09-05

    This study aimed to examine the difference between absolute and relative workloads, injury likelihood, and the acute:chronic workload ratio (ACWR) in elite Australian football. Single cohort, observational study. Forty-five elite Australian football players from one club participated in this study. Running workloads of players were tracked using Global Positioning System technology, and were categorised using either; (1) absolute, pre-defined speed thresholds, or (2) relative, individualised speed thresholds. Players were divided into three equal groups based on maximum velocity; (1) faster, (2) moderate, or (3) slower. One-week and four-week workloads were calculated, along with the ACWR. Injuries were recorded if they were non-contact in nature and resulted in "time-loss". Faster players demonstrated a significant overestimation of very high-speed running when compared to their relative thresholds (p=0.01, ES=-0.73). Similarly, slower players demonstrated an underestimation of high- (p=0.06, ES=0.55) and very high-speed (p=0.01, ES=1.16) running when compared to their relative thresholds. For slower players, (1) greater amounts of relative very high-speed running had a greater risk of injury than less (RR=8.30, p=0.04), and (2) greater absolute high-speed chronic workloads demonstrated an increase in injury likelihood (RR=2.28, p=0.16), while greater relative high-speed chronic workloads offered a decrease in injury likelihood (RR=0.33, p=0.11). Faster players with a very high-speed ACWR of >2.0 had a greater risk of injury than those between 0.49-0.99 for both absolute (RR=10.31, p=0.09) and relative (RR=4.28, p=0.13) workloads. The individualisation of velocity thresholds significantly alters the amount of very high-speed running performed and should be considered in the prescription of training load.

  15. Does the recent internal load and strain on players affect match outcome in elite Australian football?

    PubMed

    Aughey, Robert J; Elias, George P; Esmaeili, Alireza; Lazarus, Brendan; Stewart, Andrew M

    2016-02-01

    To compare recent internal training load and strain of elite Australian football players for match outcome. Case study. Load was quantified from session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) for individual players from one team in 141 professional Australian football matches over six seasons, then averaged for players that competed for the team each week. Internal weekly-load and weekly-strain (load×monotony) was compared to recent-load and recent-strain (four-week rolling average) as a marker of training-stress balance for each player against the match outcome. Covariates for relative position of teams in the competition and days between matches were modelled. Differences were standardised (effect size; ES) and interpreted using magnitude based inferences. Weekly-load was likely higher for match wins (ES±90% confidence limits; 0.43±0.27), and when days-break was used as a covariate (0.45±0.27) but only possibly higher with relative ladder position covaried (RLP, 0.29±0.33). There was a possibly greater positive training-stress balance for load in wins (0.31; ±0.38) with db (0.39; ±0.39) and RLP covaried (0.27; ±0.48). There were no clear differences for strain for wins and losses or with either covariate. There was a likely greater positive training-stress balance for strain in wins (0.51; ±0.41) with days-break (0.48; ±0.41) but not RLP covaried. Weekly-load and a positive training-stress balance for strain were the best predictors of match success. The higher weekly-load and training-stress balance for strain highlight the conflict between maintaining the training stimulus and minimising fatigue in Australian football players between matches. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Would You Let Your Child Play Football? Attitudes Toward Football Safety.

    PubMed

    Fedor, Andrew; Gunstad, John

    2016-01-01

    An estimated 1.6 million to 3.8 million sports-related concussions occur each year in the United States, and many are related to football. This has generated much discussion in the media on the perceived safety of the sport. In the current study, researchers asked 230 individuals various questions about attitudes toward safety in football. Approximately 92.6% of participants indicated they would allow their child to play football; these participants were more likely to be female (χ(2) = 5.23, p > .05), were slightly younger (t= -2.52, p < .05), and believed an athlete could suffer a higher number of concussions before becoming excessive (t = 2.06, p < .05). Findings suggest most individuals are comfortable with their children playing football, and future studies are needed to clarify factors that inform this opinion.

  17. Evaluating a Nationwide Recreational Football Intervention: Recruitment, Attendance, Adherence, Exercise Intensity, and Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Fløtum, Liljan av; Ottesen, Laila S.; Krustrup, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated a nationwide exercise intervention with Football Fitness in a small-scale society. In all, 741 adult participants (20–72 yrs) were successfully recruited for Football Fitness training in local football clubs, corresponding to 2.1% of the adult population. A preintervention test battery including resting heart rate (RHR), blood pressure, and body mass measurements along with performance tests (Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 1 (Yo-Yo IE1), the Arrowhead Agility Test, and the Flamingo Balance Test) were performed (n = 502). Training attendance (n = 310) was 1.6 ± 0.2 sessions per week (range: 0.6–2.9), corresponding to 28.8 ± 1.0 sessions during the 18 wk intervention period. After 18 wks mean arterial pressure (MAP) was −2.7 ± 0.7 mmHg lower (P < 0.05; n = 151) with even greater (P < 0.05) reductions for those with baseline MAP values >99 mmHg (−5.6 ± 1.5 mmHg; n = 50). RHR was lowered (P < 0.05) by 6 bpm after intervention (77 ± 1 to 71 ± 1 bpm). Yo-Yo IE1 performance increased by 41% (540 ± 27 to 752 ± 45 m), while agility and postural balance were improved (P < 0.05) by ~6 and ~45%, respectively. In conclusion, Football Fitness was shown to be a successful health-promoting nationwide training intervention for adult participants with an extraordinary recruitment, a high attendance rate, moderate adherence, high exercise intensity, and marked benefits in cardiovascular health profile and fitness. PMID:27437401

  18. Evaluating a Nationwide Recreational Football Intervention: Recruitment, Attendance, Adherence, Exercise Intensity, and Health Effects.

    PubMed

    Fløtum, Liljan Av; Ottesen, Laila S; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated a nationwide exercise intervention with Football Fitness in a small-scale society. In all, 741 adult participants (20-72 yrs) were successfully recruited for Football Fitness training in local football clubs, corresponding to 2.1% of the adult population. A preintervention test battery including resting heart rate (RHR), blood pressure, and body mass measurements along with performance tests (Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 1 (Yo-Yo IE1), the Arrowhead Agility Test, and the Flamingo Balance Test) were performed (n = 502). Training attendance (n = 310) was 1.6 ± 0.2 sessions per week (range: 0.6-2.9), corresponding to 28.8 ± 1.0 sessions during the 18 wk intervention period. After 18 wks mean arterial pressure (MAP) was -2.7 ± 0.7 mmHg lower (P < 0.05; n = 151) with even greater (P < 0.05) reductions for those with baseline MAP values >99 mmHg (-5.6 ± 1.5 mmHg; n = 50). RHR was lowered (P < 0.05) by 6 bpm after intervention (77 ± 1 to 71 ± 1 bpm). Yo-Yo IE1 performance increased by 41% (540 ± 27 to 752 ± 45 m), while agility and postural balance were improved (P < 0.05) by ~6 and ~45%, respectively. In conclusion, Football Fitness was shown to be a successful health-promoting nationwide training intervention for adult participants with an extraordinary recruitment, a high attendance rate, moderate adherence, high exercise intensity, and marked benefits in cardiovascular health profile and fitness.

  19. Fuzzy Logic and Its Application in Football Team Ranking

    PubMed Central

    Li, Junhong

    2014-01-01

    Fuzzy set theory and fuzzy logic are a highly suitable and applicable basis for developing knowledge-based systems in physical education for tasks such as the selection for athletes, the evaluation for different training approaches, the team ranking, and the real-time monitoring of sports data. In this paper, we use fuzzy set theory and apply fuzzy clustering analysis in football team ranking. Based on some certain rules, we propose four parameters to calculate fuzzy similar matrix, obtain fuzzy equivalence matrix and the ranking result for our numerical example, T 7, T 3, T 1, T 9, T 10, T 8, T 11, T 12, T 2, T 6, T 5, T 4, and investigate four parameters sensitivity analysis. The study shows that our fuzzy logic method is reliable and stable when the parameters change in certain range. PMID:25032227

  20. Fuzzy logic and its application in football team ranking.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wenyi; Li, Junhong

    2014-01-01

    Fuzzy set theory and fuzzy logic are a highly suitable and applicable basis for developing knowledge-based systems in physical education for tasks such as the selection for athletes, the evaluation for different training approaches, the team ranking, and the real-time monitoring of sports data. In this paper, we use fuzzy set theory and apply fuzzy clustering analysis in football team ranking. Based on some certain rules, we propose four parameters to calculate fuzzy similar matrix, obtain fuzzy equivalence matrix and the ranking result for our numerical example, T 7, T 3, T 1, T 9, T 10, T 8, T 11, T 12, T 2, T 6, T 5, T 4, and investigate four parameters sensitivity analysis. The study shows that our fuzzy logic method is reliable and stable when the parameters change in certain range.

  1. The Effect of Interchange Rotation Period and Number on Australian Football Running Performance.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Paul G; Wisbey, Ben

    2016-07-01

    Montgomery, PG, and Wisbey, B. The effect of interchange rotation period and number on Australian Football running performance. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1890-1897, 2016-To determine the effect of on-field rotation periods and total number of game rotations on Australian Football running performance, elite Australian Football players (n = 21, mean ± SD; 23.2 ± 1.7 years; 183.5 ± 3.7 cm; 83.2 ± 4.5 kg) had Global Positioning System game data from 22 rounds divided into a total of 692 on-field playing periods. These periods were allocated into time blocks of 2:00-minute increments, with the log transformed percentage differences in running performance (m·min) between blocks analyzed by effect size and meaningful differences. A total of 7,730 game rotation and associated average m·min combinations collected over 3 Australian Football seasons were also assessed by effect size and meaningful differences. Running capacity decreases after 5:00 minutes by ∼3% for each 2:00 minutes of on-field time up to 9:00 minutes, with variable responses between positions up to 6.7% for nomadic players. For each rotation less than 6 per game, clear small-to-moderate decreases up to 3.6% in running capacity occurred per rotation. To maintain a high level of running capacity, shorter on-field periods are more effective in Australian Football; however, players and coaches should be aware that with interchange restriction, slightly longer on-field periods achieve similar results.

  2. Heat acclimatization and hydration status of American football players during initial summer workouts.

    PubMed

    Yeargin, Susan W; Casa, Douglas J; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Watson, Greig; Judelson, Daniel A; Psathas, Eleni; Sparrow, Sarah L

    2006-08-01

    This investigation evaluated the new National Collegiate Athletic Association model of heat acclimatization for football players using physiological, psychological, fluid balance, anthropometric, and nutritional variables. Eleven football players (20 +/- 1 year, 1.88 +/- 0.05 m, and 115.36 +/- 18.85 kg) from a Division I football team were observed for the first 8 days of preseason practices. Measurements such as heart rate and gastrointestinal temperature (T(GI)) via telemetric sensor were taken before, 3 times during, and after practice daily. An average 1.39-kg (1.2%) decrease of body mass occurred from prepractice to postpractice (p < 0.01). Consistent with mild body mass losses, urinary indices of hydration status (i.e., color, specific gravity, and osmolality) indicated mild fluid deficits. A significant increase (p < 0.05) from pre- to postpractice was observed in urine color and urine specific gravity, but chronic hypohydration over the 8 days was not noted. The Environmental Symptoms Questionnaire (ESQ) postpractice score was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the prepractice score was, but averages did not differ across practice days. There was no difference in postpractice T(GI) measurements across days (p < 0.05). Heart rate, T(GI), and ESQ measurements indicated that football players experienced gradual heat acclimatization and enhanced heat tolerance, despite progressive increases of exercise variables, clothing, and environmental stressors.

  3. The Ability of American Football Helmets to Manage Linear Acceleration With Repeated High-Energy Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Cournoyer, Janie; Post, Andrew; Rousseau, Philippe; Hoshizaki, Blaine

    2016-01-01

    Context:  Football players can receive up to 1400 head impacts per season, averaging 6.3 impacts per practice and 14.3 impacts per game. A decrease in the capacity of a helmet to manage linear acceleration with multiple impacts could increase the risk of traumatic brain injury. Objective:  To investigate the ability of football helmets to manage linear acceleration with multiple high-energy impacts. Design:  Descriptive laboratory study. Setting:  Laboratory. Main Outcome Measure(s):  We collected linear-acceleration data for 100 impacts at 6 locations on 4 helmets of different models currently used in football. Impacts 11 to 20 were compared with impacts 91 to 100 for each of the 6 locations. Results:  Linear acceleration was greater after multiple impacts (91−100) than after the first few impacts (11−20) for the front, front-boss, rear, and top locations. However, these differences are not clinically relevant as they do not affect the risk for head injury. Conclusions:  American football helmet performance deteriorated with multiple impacts, but this is unlikely to be a factor in head-injury causation during a game or over a season. PMID:26967549

  4. Effects of playing surface on physiological responses and performance variables in a controlled football simulation.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Michael G; Birdsey, Laurence; Meyers, Rob; Newcombe, Daniel; Oliver, Jon Lee; Smith, Paul M; Stembridge, Michael; Stone, Keeron; Kerwin, David George

    2013-01-01

    In spite of the increased acceptance of artificial turf in football, few studies have investigated if matches are altered by the type of surface used and no research has compared physiological responses to football activity on artificial and natural surfaces. In the present study, participants performed a football match simulation on high-quality artificial and natural surfaces. Neither mean heart rate (171 ± 9 beats · min(-1) vs. 171 ± 9 beats · min(-1); P > 0.05) nor blood lactate (4.8 ± 1.6 mM vs. 5.3 ± 1.8 mM; P > 0.05) differed between the artificial and natural surface, respectively. Measures of sprint, jumping and agility performance declined through the match simulation but surface type did not affect the decrease in performance. For example, the fatigue index of repeated sprints did not differ (P > 0.05) between the artificial, (6.9 ± 2.1%) and natural surface (7.4 ± 2.4%). The ability to turn after sprinting was affected by surface type but this difference was dependent on the type of turn. Although there were small differences in the ability to perform certain movements between artificial and natural surfaces, the results suggest that fatigue and physiological responses to football activity do not differ markedly between surface-type using the high-quality pitches of the present study.

  5. The Ability of American Football Helmets to Manage Linear Acceleration With Repeated High-Energy Impacts.

    PubMed

    Cournoyer, Janie; Post, Andrew; Rousseau, Philippe; Hoshizaki, Blaine

    2016-03-01

    Football players can receive up to 1400 head impacts per season, averaging 6.3 impacts per practice and 14.3 impacts per game. A decrease in the capacity of a helmet to manage linear acceleration with multiple impacts could increase the risk of traumatic brain injury. To investigate the ability of football helmets to manage linear acceleration with multiple high-energy impacts. Descriptive laboratory study. Laboratory. We collected linear-acceleration data for 100 impacts at 6 locations on 4 helmets of different models currently used in football. Impacts 11 to 20 were compared with impacts 91 to 100 for each of the 6 locations. Linear acceleration was greater after multiple impacts (91-100) than after the first few impacts (11-20) for the front, front-boss, rear, and top locations. However, these differences are not clinically relevant as they do not affect the risk for head injury. American football helmet performance deteriorated with multiple impacts, but this is unlikely to be a factor in head-injury causation during a game or over a season.

  6. An atherogenic diet decreases liver FXR gene expression and causes severe hepatic steatosis and hepatic cholesterol accumulation: effect of endurance training.

    PubMed

    Côté, Isabelle; Ngo Sock, Emilienne Tudor; Lévy, Émile; Lavoie, Jean-Marc

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of an atherogenic diet (AD; 40 % lipid, 1.25 % cholesterol, kcal) on triglyceride (TAG) and cholesterol accumulation in liver and on gene expression of liver X receptor (LXR) and farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and their target genes and to observe if these responses are affected by endurance training. Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 32) were divided into two groups and randomly assigned to an AD or a standard diet (SD) for 7 weeks. Half of the rats in each group were assigned to an exercise training program for 5 days/week. The AD resulted in a large (P < 0.01) accumulation in liver TAG (4×) along with elevated liver and plasma cholesterol without any gain in peripheral fat mass. The liver TAG and cholesterol accumulations were associated with an important reduction (P < 0.01; 60 %) in FXR, but no change in LXR transcripts. Accompanying the reduction in FXR gene expression, we found an increase (P < 0.001) in SREBP-1c and a decrease (P < 0.01) in MTP mRNAs suggesting an increased lipogenesis and a reduced VLDL production, respectively. The AD was also associated with lower HMG-CoA-r, squalene synthase, and ABCG8 transcripts (P < 0.001). In the intestine, exercise training resulted in higher NPC1L1, ABCG5, and ABCG8 in SD-fed animals, while all these increases were suppressed under the AD feeding. It is concluded that dietary cholesterol favors liver TAG and cholesterol accumulations associated with an important reduction in FXR transcripts.

  7. Factors associated with playing football after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in female football players.

    PubMed

    Fältström, A; Hägglund, M; Kvist, J

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated whether player-related factors (demographic, personality, or psychological factors) or the characteristics of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury were associated with the return to playing football in females after ACL reconstruction (ACLR). We also compared current knee function, knee related quality of life and readiness to return to sport between females who returned to football and those who had not returned. Females who sustained a primary ACL rupture while playing football and underwent ACLR 6-36 months ago were eligible. Of the 460 contacted, 274 (60%) completed a battery of questionnaires, and 182 were included a median of 18 months (IQR 13) after ACLR. Of these, 94 (52%) returned to football and were currently playing, and 88 (48%) had not returned. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified two factors associated with returning to football: short time between injury and ACLR (0-3 months, OR 5.6; 3-12 months OR 4.7 vs reference group > 12 months) and high motivation. Current players showed higher ratings for current knee function, knee-related quality of life, and psychological readiness to return to sport (P < 0.001). Undergoing ACLR sooner after injury and high motivation to return to sports may impact a player's return to football after ACLR.

  8. Evaluation of team-doctor actions during football games in Japanese professional football.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masaaki; Fukuoka, Shigeo; Nagano, Akira

    2009-11-01

    There have been many studies on football (soccer) match injuries both in national leagues and international tournaments, including the World Cup. However, no previous study on the number and types of actions taken by a team-doctor during a football season has been investigated. The aim of this study is to investigate what actions and how much a team doctor acts during professional football matches in a typical season of the Japanese professional football league (J-League). Injuries were prospectively recorded by team doctors with a Japanese professional league club during the 2004 season. Data recorded by the attending doctor after each match included information relating to the injury, time of occurrence and actions taken by the doctor in response to the injuries. The activity of the doctor was graded into 6 categories (grade A to F). During the 42 official matches held throughout the 2004 season, a total of 67 doctor-actions were taken. The overall doctor-action frequency rate (DAFR) was 1.6 actions per match. This study demonstrated how the team doctor acts during an average football match, and provides some useful information for team-doctors who attend football matches.

  9. Decrease in Behavioral Problems and Trauma Symptoms Among At-Risk Adopted Children Following Web-Based Trauma-Informed Parent Training Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Razuri, Erin Becker; Hiles Howard, Amanda R.; Parris, Sheri R.; Call, Casey D.; DeLuna, Jamie Hurst; Hall, Jordan S.; Purvis, Karyn B.; Cross, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Children who have experienced early adversities are at risk for behavioral problems and trauma symptoms. Using a two-group, pre–post intervention design, the authors evaluated the effectiveness of an online parent training for Trust-Based Relational Intervention, a trauma-informed, attachment-based intervention, in reducing behavioral problems and trauma symptoms in at-risk adopted children. Children of parents in the treatment group (n = 48) demonstrated significant decreases in behavioral problems and trauma symptoms after intervention. Scores for children in a matched-sample control group did not change. Findings suggest this intervention can effectively reduce behavioral problems and trauma symptoms in children with histories of adversities. PMID:26072917

  10. Decreased birefringence of the superficial zone collagen network in the canine knee (stifle) articular cartilage after long distance running training, detected by quantitative polarised light microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Arokoski, J P; Hyttinen, M M; Lapveteläinen, T; Takács, P; Kosztáczky, B; Módis, L; Kovanen, V; Helminen, H

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of a one year programme of running training (up to 40 km/day for 15 weeks) on the spatial orientation pattern of collagen and glycosaminoglycans in articular cartilage in different parts of the knee (stifle) and shoulder joints of young beagle dogs. METHODS: Area specific measurements of the optical path difference (= retardation, gamma) and the cartilage zone thickness were performed using conventional procedures and a new computer based quantitative polarised light microscopy method. Transmission electron microscopy was used to determine the zonal volume density of collagen fibrils. The concentrations of collagen and hydroxypyridinium crosslinks were investigated biochemically. RESULTS: Running training decreased gamma by 24-34% (p < 0.05) in the superficial zone of the lateral femoral condyle articular cartilage and at the centre of the tibial condyles. Gamma of glycosaminoglycans decreased by 26% (p < 0.05) in the superficial zone of the lateral condyle of the femur, but at the same site the volume density of collagen fibrils was unchanged. Neither the collagen concentration nor the concentration of hydroxypyridinium crosslinks was altered as a result of running. In both control and runner dogs, the thickness and gamma values of the superficial zone were greater in the humerus and the femur than in the tibia. CONCLUSION: Endurance type running exercise in beagles caused a reduction in the superficial zone birefringence of the articular cartilage, which indicates either a disorganisation or a reorientation of the superficial zone collagen network. Articular cartilage showed marked variability of collagen network organisation over the different knee (stifle) joint articular surfaces. Images PMID:8733443

  11. Match analysis and the physiological demands of Australian football.

    PubMed

    Gray, Adrian J; Jenkins, David G

    2010-04-01

    (longer recovery periods with shorter duration high intensity exercise bouts and less time spent in constant pace running). Endurance fitness remains very important for players at the elite level of competition, as does upper and lower body strength and power. In addition, given the increasing speed at which Australian Football is now played, repeated sprint ability of players is arguably more important now than it was in previous years. There are no significant differences in these measures between playing position. Similarly, speed over 10-40 m does not appear to differ between playing position. Establishing the reliability of distance and velocity-derived GPS data in highly specific game-related activities is needed; once achieved, GPS data have the potential to accurately inform coaches of the position-specific demands on their players and to drive the development of training practices that reflect the changing demands of the game.

  12. Cardiovascular function is better in veteran football players than age-matched untrained elderly healthy men.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J F; Andersen, T R; Andersen, L J; Randers, M B; Hornstrup, T; Hansen, P R; Bangsbo, J; Krustrup, P

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether lifelong football training may improve cardiovascular function, physical fitness, and body composition. Our subjects were 17 male veteran football players (VPG; 68.1 ± 2.1 years) and 26 healthy age-matched untrained men who served as a control group (CG; 68.2 ± 3.2 years). Examinations included measurements of cardiac function, microvascular endothelial function [reactive hyperemic index (RHI)], maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), and body composition. In VPG, left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume was 20% larger (P < 0.01) and LV ejection fraction was higher (P < 0.001). Tissue Doppler imaging revealed an augmented LV longitudinal displacement, i.e., LV shortening of 21% (P < 0.001) and longitudinal 2D strain was 12% higher (P < 0.05), in VPG. In VPG, resting heart rate was lower (6 bpm, P < 0.05), and VO2max was higher (18%, P < 0.05). In addition, RHI was 21% higher (P < 0.05) in VPG. VPG also had lower body mass index (P < 0.05), body fat percentage, total body fat mass, android fat percentage, and gynoid fat percentage (all P < 0.01). Lifelong participation in football training is associated with better LV systolic function, physical fitness, microvascular function, and a healthier body composition. Overall, VPG have better cardiovascular function compared with CG, which may reduce their cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  13. Rugby football injuries, 1980-1983.

    PubMed

    Sparks, J P

    1985-06-01

    The injuries sustained by the boys at one English public school have been recorded and analysed by age, experience, position, phase, duration of the game and of the season. Few injuries have been serious. Detailed reference is made to concussion, injuries from collapsed scrums and injuries of the cervical spine. The paper emphasises that the tackle leads to most injuries. This paper presents the Rugby football injuries sustained by the boarders of Rugby School in the four seasons 1980-1983. The injury rate was 194 per 10,000 player hours, compared with the rate of 198 per 10,000 player hours for the thirty seasons 1950-1979 (Sparks, 1981). Tables I-VI list the injuries by different criteria. Table VII lists the sites of injury; Table VIII the time off Rugby football after injury; Table IX lists some of the more important injuries; Table XI summarises the playing results of the various school teams; Table XIII compares some of the Rugby School figures with those recorded in the Accident and Emergency Department of Christchurch Hospital during the 1979 New Zealand Rugby football season (Inglis and Stewart, 1981); Table XIV records information on three aspects of Rugby football that have occasioned much recent concern, viz:--Time off playing after concussion, injuries caused by collapsed scrums and neck injuries.

  14. The Metamorphosis of a Football Stadium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Have, Pieter J.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the planning, renovation and enlargement, and funding of a new University of Utah football stadium that would also be used in the 2002 Winter Olympics. Contractor selection, solutions to construction challenges, and the steps taken to minimize risk and guarantee success of the projects are discussed, including the fact that the stadium is…

  15. Creating a winning team: lessons from football.

    PubMed

    Simons, Sherri Lee

    2005-01-01

    There are tasks best done on an individual basis when caring for a neonate, but the ultimate outcome for infants and their families results from a team effort. Incorporating ten strategies drawn from football can help the NICU manager create and foster effective teamwork.

  16. Music as Narrative in American College Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCluskey, John Michael

    2016-01-01

    American college football features an enormous amount of music woven into the fabric of the event, with selections accompanying approximately two-thirds of a game's plays. Musical selections are controlled by a number of forces, including audio and video technicians, university marketing departments, financial sponsors, and wind bands. These blend…

  17. Football--A Motivator for Mathematics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogill, Julie; Parr, Alan

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors visited with the Arsenal Double Club Coordinator, Scott an amateur footballer, and a career teacher who is able to bring his considerable experience and administrative skill to the project. The authors were delighted to realise that they were talking to a teacher committed to what is first and foremost an educational…

  18. The Metamorphosis of a Football Stadium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Have, Pieter J.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the planning, renovation and enlargement, and funding of a new University of Utah football stadium that would also be used in the 2002 Winter Olympics. Contractor selection, solutions to construction challenges, and the steps taken to minimize risk and guarantee success of the projects are discussed, including the fact that the stadium is…

  19. Exploring Discrete Mathematics with American Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muldoon Brown, Tricia; Kahn, Eric B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an extended project that offers, through American football, an application of concepts from enumerative combinatorics and an introduction to proofs course. The questions in this paper and subsequent details concerning equivalence relations and counting techniques can be used to reinforce these new topics to students in such a…

  20. Music as Narrative in American College Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCluskey, John Michael

    2016-01-01

    American college football features an enormous amount of music woven into the fabric of the event, with selections accompanying approximately two-thirds of a game's plays. Musical selections are controlled by a number of forces, including audio and video technicians, university marketing departments, financial sponsors, and wind bands. These blend…

  1. Knee Braces to Prevent Injuries in Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Five physicians discuss the use of knee braces to prevent injuries in football players. Questions are raised regarding the strength and design of the braces, whether they prestress the knee in some cases, and whether they actually reduce injuries. More clinical and biomechanical research is called for. (MT)

  2. Exploring Discrete Mathematics with American Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muldoon Brown, Tricia; Kahn, Eric B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an extended project that offers, through American football, an application of concepts from enumerative combinatorics and an introduction to proofs course. The questions in this paper and subsequent details concerning equivalence relations and counting techniques can be used to reinforce these new topics to students in such a…

  3. High School Football Injury Surveillance Studies, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Athletic Trainers' Association, Inc., Greenville, NC.

    This series of newsletters and fact sheets provides information on the incidence of sport-related injuries in scholastic sports. The following topics are addressed: (1) how the National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) measures the number and severity of injuries; (2) facts about NATA; (3) injuries to high school football players; (4)…

  4. Coed Football: Hazards, Implications, and Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falls, Harold B.

    1986-01-01

    Football, it is argued, is too dangerous for most girls and for many boys. Data on male-female differences in size, speed, and strength are reviewed. A preparticipation screening program with equal requirements for both sexes is proposed. (Author/MT)

  5. Football--A Motivator for Mathematics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogill, Julie; Parr, Alan

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors visited with the Arsenal Double Club Coordinator, Scott an amateur footballer, and a career teacher who is able to bring his considerable experience and administrative skill to the project. The authors were delighted to realise that they were talking to a teacher committed to what is first and foremost an educational…

  6. 'Footballs', conical singularities, and the Liouville equation

    SciTech Connect

    Redi, Michele

    2005-02-15

    We generalize the football shaped extra dimensions scenario to an arbitrary number of branes. The problem is related to the solution of the Liouville equation with singularities, and explicit solutions are presented for the case of three branes. The tensions of the branes do not need to be tuned with each other but only satisfy mild global constraints.

  7. Knee Braces to Prevent Injuries in Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Five physicians discuss the use of knee braces to prevent injuries in football players. Questions are raised regarding the strength and design of the braces, whether they prestress the knee in some cases, and whether they actually reduce injuries. More clinical and biomechanical research is called for. (MT)

  8. High School Football Injury Surveillance Studies, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Athletic Trainers' Association, Inc., Greenville, NC.

    This series of newsletters and fact sheets provides information on the incidence of sport-related injuries in scholastic sports. The following topics are addressed: (1) how the National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) measures the number and severity of injuries; (2) facts about NATA; (3) injuries to high school football players; (4)…

  9. Coed Football: Hazards, Implications, and Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falls, Harold B.

    1986-01-01

    Football, it is argued, is too dangerous for most girls and for many boys. Data on male-female differences in size, speed, and strength are reviewed. A preparticipation screening program with equal requirements for both sexes is proposed. (Author/MT)

  10. Coffee intake can promote activity of antioxidant enzymes with increasing MDA level and decreasing HDL-cholesterol in physically trained rats

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eun-Young; Jang, Jin-Young

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of coffee intake and exercise on the antioxidative activity and plasma cholesterol profile of physically trained rats while they were exercising. Forty eight rats were under either the control diet with water (C) or control diet with coffee (CF) and at the same time they were given physical training for 4 weeks. In terms of physical training, the rats were exercised on a treadmill for 30 minutes everyday. At the end of 4 weeks, animals in each dietary group were subdivided into 3 groups: before-exercise (BE); during-exercise (DE); after-exercise (AE). Animals in the DE group were exercised on a treadmill for one hour, immediately before being sacrificed. Animals in the AE group were allowed to take a rest for one hour after exercise. TG levels were significantly high in coffee intake group than in control group. Also TG level of AE group was significantly higher than that of BE group. Exercise and coffee-exercise interaction effects were significant in total cholesterol (P = 0.0004, 0.0170). The AE of coffee intake group showed highest total cholesterol levels. HDL-cholesterol was significantly lower in coffee intake group than in control group. Coffee, exercise, and coffee-exercise interaction effects were significant in SOD (P = 0.0001, 0.0001, and 0.0001). The AE and BE of coffee intake group showed higher SOD levels than the other four groups. Catalase activities were significantly higher in coffee intake group than control group. No significant main effect was found in GSH/GSSG. Coffee, exercise, and coffee-exercise interaction effects were significant in MDA levels (P = 0.0464, 0.0016, and 0.0353). The DE and AE of coffee intake group and the DE of control group showed higher MDA levels than the BE of control group. Therefore, coffee intake can promote activities of antioxidant enzyme but it also increases MDA and decreases HDL-cholesterol in physically trained rats. PMID:20827343

  11. Neuromuscular training with injury prevention counselling to decrease the risk of acute musculoskeletal injury in young men during military service: a population-based, randomised study.

    PubMed

    Parkkari, Jari; Taanila, Henri; Suni, Jaana; Mattila, Ville M; Ohrankämmen, Olli; Vuorinen, Petteri; Kannus, Pekka; Pihlajamäki, Harri

    2011-04-11

    The rapidly increasing number of activity-induced musculoskeletal injuries among adolescents and young adults is currently a true public health burden. The objective of this study was to investigate whether a neuromuscular training programme with injury prevention counselling is effective in preventing acute musculoskeletal injuries in young men during military service. The trial design was a population-based, randomised study. Two successive cohorts of male conscripts in four companies of one brigade in the Finnish Defence Forces were first followed prospectively for one 6-month term to determine the baseline incidence of injury. After this period, two new successive cohorts in the same four companies were randomised into two groups and followed prospectively for 6 months. Military service is compulsory for about 90% of 19-year-old Finnish men annually, who comprised the cohort in this study. This randomised, controlled trial included 968 conscripts comprising 501 conscripts in the intervention group and 467 conscripts in the control group. A neuromuscular training programme was used to enhance conscripts' motor skills and body control, and an educational injury prevention programme was used to increase knowledge and awareness of acute musculoskeletal injuries. The main outcome measures were acute injuries of the lower and upper limbs. In the intervention groups, the risk for acute ankle injury decreased significantly compared to control groups (adjusted hazards ratio (HR) = 0.34, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.15 to 0.78, P = 0.011). This risk decline was observed in conscripts with low as well as moderate to high baseline fitness levels. In the latter group of conscripts, the risk of upper-extremity injuries also decreased significantly (adjusted HR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.99, P = 0.047). In addition, the intervention groups tended to have less time loss due to injuries (adjusted HR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.29 to 1.04). A neuromuscular training and injury

  12. Neuromuscular training with injury prevention counselling to decrease the risk of acute musculoskeletal injury in young men during military service: a population-based, randomised study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The rapidly increasing number of activity-induced musculoskeletal injuries among adolescents and young adults is currently a true public health burden. The objective of this study was to investigate whether a neuromuscular training programme with injury prevention counselling is effective in preventing acute musculoskeletal injuries in young men during military service. Methods The trial design was a population-based, randomised study. Two successive cohorts of male conscripts in four companies of one brigade in the Finnish Defence Forces were first followed prospectively for one 6-month term to determine the baseline incidence of injury. After this period, two new successive cohorts in the same four companies were randomised into two groups and followed prospectively for 6 months. Military service is compulsory for about 90% of 19-year-old Finnish men annually, who comprised the cohort in this study. This randomised, controlled trial included 968 conscripts comprising 501 conscripts in the intervention group and 467 conscripts in the control group. A neuromuscular training programme was used to enhance conscripts' motor skills and body control, and an educational injury prevention programme was used to increase knowledge and awareness of acute musculoskeletal injuries. The main outcome measures were acute injuries of the lower and upper limbs. Results In the intervention groups, the risk for acute ankle injury decreased significantly compared to control groups (adjusted hazards ratio (HR) = 0.34, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.15 to 0.78, P = 0.011). This risk decline was observed in conscripts with low as well as moderate to high baseline fitness levels. In the latter group of conscripts, the risk of upper-extremity injuries also decreased significantly (adjusted HR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.99, P = 0.047). In addition, the intervention groups tended to have less time loss due to injuries (adjusted HR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.29 to 1.04). Conclusions A

  13. Proposal for a Specific Aerobic Test for Football Players: The “Footeval”

    PubMed Central

    Manouvrier, Christophe; Cassirame, Johan; Ahmaidi, Saïd

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility and validity of the “Footeval” test, which evaluates football players’ aerobic level in conditions close to those of football practice (intermittent, including technical skills). Twenty-four highly trained subjects from an elite football academy (17.8 ± 1.4 years, 5 training sessions per week) performed two Footeval sessions in a period of 7 days. Physiological variables measured during these sessions (VO2max 58.1 ± 5.6 and 58.7 ± 6.2 ml·min-1·kg-1; RER 1.18 ± 0.06 and 1.19 ± 0.05; LaMax 11.0 ±1.4 and 10.8 ±1.1 µmol·L-1; HRmax 194 ± 6 and 190 ± 7 b·min-1; Final step 10.71 ± 1.2 and 10.83 ± 1.13 and the RPE = 10) highlighted maximal intensity and confirmed that players reached physiological exhaustion. Comparison of values measured in both sessions showed large to very large correlations (Final level; 0.92, VO2max; 0.79, HRmax; 0.88, LaMax; 0.87) and high ICC (Final level; 0.93, VO2max; 0.87, HRmax; 0.90, LaMax; 0.85) except for RER (r = 0.22, ICC = 0.21). In addition, all subjects performed a time limit (Tlm) exercise with intensity set at maximal aerobic specific speed + 1 km·h-1, in order to check the maximal value obtained during the Footeval test. Statistical analysis comparing VO2max, HRmax and RER from the Footeval and Tlm exercise proved that values from Footeval could be considered as maximal values (r for VO2max; 0.82, HRmax; 0.77 and ICC for VO2max; 0.92, HRmax; 0.91). This study showed that Footeval is a reproducible test that allows maximal aerobic specific speed to be obtained at physiological exhaustion. Moreover, we can also affirm that this test meets the physiological exhaustion criteria as defined in the literature (RER ≥ 1, 1; LaMax ≥ 8 µmol·L-1; HR = HRmax; no increase of VO2 despite the increase of speed; RPE =10). Key points “Footeval” is a new test for football that is able to evaluate aerobic capacity in football specific conditions. This study

  14. Football injuries in children and adolescent players: are there clues for prevention?

    PubMed

    Faude, Oliver; Rößler, Roland; Junge, Astrid

    2013-09-01

    Football (soccer) is the world's most popular sport with most players being younger than 18 years. Playing football can induce beneficial health effects, but there is also a high risk of injury. Therefore, it is necessary to implement measures for preventing injuries. The present review analyzes and summarizes published scientific information on the incidence and characteristics of football injuries in children and adolescent players to arrive at sound conclusions and valid considerations for the development of injury-prevention programs. A literature search was conducted up to November 2012. Fifty-three relevant scientific publications were detected. Thirty-two studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria for pooled analysis. Additional information from the remaining 21 studies was considered where appropriate to obtain a broader perspective on the injury problem in children and youth football. Training injury incidence was nearly constant for players aged 13-19 years, ranging from 1 to 5 injuries per 1,000 h training. Match injury incidence tended to increase with age through all age groups, with an average incidence of about 15 to 20 injuries per 1,000 match hours in players older than 15 years. Between 60 and 90 % of all football injuries were classified as traumatic and about 10-40 % were overuse injuries. Most injuries (60-90 %) were located at the lower extremities with the ankle, knee, and thigh being mostly affected. The frequency of upper-extremity and head/face injuries was higher in those studies that analyzed match injuries only. The most common injury types were strains, sprains, and contusions (10 up to 40 % each). There is some evidence that the risk of traumatic injuries and, in particular, of sustaining a fracture, contusion, or concussion was higher during match play than in practice sessions. Fractures were more frequent in children younger than 15 years than in older players. About half of all time-loss injuries led to an absence from sport of less

  15. A Biomechanical Comparison of the Long Snap in Football Between High School and University Football Players.

    PubMed

    Chizewski, Michael G; Alexander, Marion J L

    2015-08-01

    Limited previous research was located that examined the technique of the long snap in football. The purpose of the study was to compare the joint movements, joint velocities, and body positions used to perform fast and accurate long snaps in high school (HS) and university (UNI) athletes. Ten HS and 10 UNI subjects were recruited for filming, each performing 10 snaps at a target with the fastest and most accurate trial being selected for subject analysis. Eighty-three variables were measured using Dartfish Team Pro 4.5.2 video analysis software, with statistical analysis performed using Microsoft Excel and SPSS 16.0. Several significant comparisons to long snapping technique between groups were noted during analysis; however, the body position and movement variables at release showed the greatest number of significant differences. The UNI athletes demonstrated significantly higher release velocity and left elbow extension velocity, with significantly lower release height and release angle than the HS group. Total snap time (release time + total flight time) was determined to have the strongest correlation to release velocity for the HS group (r