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Sample records for football training decreases

  1. High-intensity training in football.

    PubMed

    Iaia, F Marcello; Rampinini, Ermanno; Bangsbo, Jens

    2009-09-01

    This article reviews the major physiological and performance effects of aerobic high-intensity and speed-endurance training in football, and provides insight on implementation of individual game-related physical training. Analysis and physiological measurements have revealed that modern football is highly energetically demanding, and the ability to perform repeated high-intensity work is of importance for the players. Furthermore, the most successful teams perform more high-intensity activities during a game when in possession of the ball. Hence, footballers need a high fitness level to cope with the physical demands of the game. Studies on football players have shown that 8 to 12 wk of aerobic high-intensity running training (> 85% HR(max)) leads to VO2(max) enhancement (5% to 11%), increased running economy (3% to 7%), and lower blood lactate accumulation during submaximal exercise, as well as improvements in the yo-yo intermittent recovery (YYIR) test performance (13%). Similar adaptations are observed when performing aerobic high-intensity training with small-sided games. Speed-endurance training has a positive effect on football-specific endurance, as shown by the marked improvements in the YYIR test (22% to 28%) and the ability to perform repeated sprints (approximately 2%). In conclusion, both aerobic and speed-endurance training can be used during the season to improve high-intensity intermittent exercise performance. The type and amount of training should be game related and specific to the technical, tactical, and physical demands imposed on each player.

  2. Sprint vs. interval training in football.

    PubMed

    Ferrari Bravo, D; Impellizzeri, F M; Rampinini, E; Castagna, C; Bishop, D; Wisloff, U

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high-intensity aerobic interval and repeated-sprint ability (RSA) training on aerobic and anaerobic physiological variables in male football players. Forty-two participants were randomly assigned to either the interval training group (ITG, 4 x 4 min running at 90 - 95 % of HRmax; n = 21) or repeated-sprint training group (RSG, 3 x 6 maximal shuttle sprints of 40 m; n = 21). The following outcomes were measured at baseline and after 7 weeks of training: maximum oxygen uptake, respiratory compensation point, football-specific endurance (Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test, YYIRT), 10-m sprint time, jump height and power, and RSA. Significant group x time interaction was found for YYIRT (p = 0.003) with RSG showing greater improvement (from 1917 +/- 439 to 2455 +/- 488 m) than ITG (from 1846 +/- 329 to 2077 +/- 300 m). Similarly, a significant interaction was found in RSA mean time (p = 0.006) with only the RSG group showing an improvement after training (from 7.53 +/- 0.21 to 7.37 +/- 0.17 s). No other group x time interactions were found. Significant pre-post changes were found for absolute and relative maximum oxygen uptake and respiratory compensation point (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that the RSA training protocol used in this study can be an effective training strategy for inducing aerobic and football-specific training adaptations.

  3. Early Results of a Helmetless-Tackling Intervention to Decrease Head Impacts in Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Erik E.; Broglio, Steven P.; Cook, Summer B.; Cantu, Robert C.; Ferrara, Michael S.; Guskiewicz, Kevin M.; Myers, Jay L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test a helmetless-tackling behavioral intervention for reducing head impacts in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football players. Design Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting Football field. Patients or Other Participants Fifty collegiate football players (intervention = 25, control = 25). Intervention(s) The intervention group participated in a 5-minute tackling drill without their helmets and shoulder pads twice per week in the preseason and once per week through the season. During this time, the control group performed noncontact football skills. Main Outcome Measure(s) Frequency of head impacts was recorded by an impact sensor for each athlete-exposure (AE). Data were tested with a 2 × 3 (group and time) repeated-measures analysis of variance. Significant interactions and main effects (P < .05) were followed with t tests. Results Head impacts/AE decreased for the intervention group compared with the control group by the end of the season (9.99 ± 6.10 versus 13.84 ± 7.27, respectively). The intervention group had 30% fewer impacts/AE than the control group by season's end (9.99 ± 6.10 versus 14.32 ± 8.45, respectively). Conclusion A helmetless-tackling training intervention reduced head impacts in collegiate football players within 1 season. PMID:26651278

  4. Musculoskeletal health profile for elite female footballers versus untrained young women before and after 16 weeks of football training.

    PubMed

    Jackman, Sarah R; Scott, Suzanne; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Orntoft, Christina; Blackwell, Jamie; Zar, Abdossaleh; Helge, Eva Wulff; Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the musculoskeletal health profile of elite female football players (ET) in comparison to untrained (UT) young women subjected to 16 weeks of football training (2 × 1 h per week). DXA scans, blood sampling, sprint testing and Flamingo postural balance testing were carried out for 27 Danish national team players and 28 untrained women, with eight women being tested after training. At baseline total BMD and BMC were 13% (1.305 ± 0.050 versus 1.159 ± 0.056 g · cm(-2)) and 23% (3047 ± 235 versus 2477 ± 526 g) higher (P <0.001) and leg BMD and BMC were 24 and 28% higher (P <0.01) in ET than in UT. Resting plasma osteocalcin was 45% higher in ET than in UT (28.8 ± 10.9 versus 19.9 ± 9.9 µg · L(-1), P <0.05). Total lean body mass was 14% higher (50.4 ± 3.3 versus 44.3 ± 4.0 kg) in ET compared with UT, with no difference in total body mass. The number of Flamingo test falls was 56-63% less (P <0.01) and 30 m sprinting speed was 31% faster (P <0.001) in ET than UT. After 16 weeks of football training for UT, lean body mass increased by 1.4 ± 0.5 kg and the number of left leg falls decreased by 29% (P <0.05). No significant changes occurred in BMD or BMC, but plasma osteocalcin increased (P <0.05) by 37%. In summary, elite women footballers have an impressive musculoskeletal health profile compared with untrained controls, but short-term football training seems to reduce the risk of falls and increase bone formation.

  5. Motor and cognitive growth following a Football Training Program

    PubMed Central

    Alesi, Marianna; Bianco, Antonino; Padulo, Johnny; Luppina, Giorgio; Petrucci, Marco; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Motor and cognitive growth in children may be influenced by football practice. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess whether a Football Training Program taken over 6 months would improve motor and cognitive performances in children. Motor skills concerned coordinative skills, running, and explosive legs strength. Cognitive abilities involved visual discrimination times and visual selective attention times. Forty-six children with chronological age of ∼9.10 years, were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 24) attended a Football Exercise Program and Group 2 (n = 22) was composed of sedentary children. Their abilities were measured by a battery of tests including motor and cognitive tasks. Football Exercise Program resulted in improved running, coordination, and explosive leg strength performances as well as shorter visual discrimination times in children regularly attending football courses compared with their sedentary peers. On the whole these results support the thesis that the improvement of motor and cognitive abilities is related not only to general physical activity but also to specific ability related to the ball. Football Exercise Programs is assumed to be a “natural and enjoyable tool” to enhance cognitive resources as well as promoting and encouraging the participation in sport activities from early development. PMID:26579014

  6. Cardiovascular health profile of elite female football players compared to untrained controls before and after short-term football training.

    PubMed

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Lars Juel; Orntoft, Christina; Bendiksen, Mads; Johansen, Lars; Horton, Joshua; Hansen, Peter Riis; Krustrup, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the intermittent exercise performance and cardiovascular health profile in elite female football players in comparison to untrained young women, as well as a subgroup subjected to football training 2x1 h · week(-1) for 16 weeks. Twenty-seven Danish national team players (elite trained, ET) and 28 untrained women (UT) underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-scanning (DXA), comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography, treadmill and Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 2 (IE2) testing. Eight women in UT were also tested after the football training period. Maximal oxygen uptake rate (VO2max), peak ventilation and peak lactate were 40, 18 and 51% higher (P< 0.01) in ET than UT, respectively. Cardiac dimensions and function were greater in ET than UT, with left ventricular diastolic diameter, right ventricular diastolic diameter, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and peak transmitral flow in early diastole divided by peak transmitral flow velocity in late diastole during atrial contraction (E/A-ratio) being 13, 19, 27 and 41%, respectively, greater in ET than UT (P< 0.001 to< 0.05). Yo-Yo IE2 performance was 7-fold higher in ET than UT (1772 ± 508 vs. 234 ± 66 m, P< 0.001), fat mass was 51% lower (P< 0.001) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels were 20% higher (P< 0.01). Sixteen weeks of football elevated VO2max and Yo-Yo IE2 performance by 16 and 40%, respectively, and lowered fat mass by 6%. Cardiac function was markedly improved by 16 weeks of football training with 26 and 46% increases in TAPSE and E/A ratio, respectively, reaching levels comparable to ET. In summary, elite female football players have a superior cardiovascular health profile and intermittent exercise performance compared to untrained controls, but short-term football training can markedly improve the cardiovascular health status.

  7. Game and Training Load Differences in Elite Junior Australian Football

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Brendan; Cook, Jill; Kidgell, Dawson J.; Gastin, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    Game demands and training practices within team sports such as Australian football (AF) have changed considerably over recent decades, including the requirement of coaching staff to effectively control, manipulate and monitor training and competition loads. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the differences in external and internal physical load measures between game and training in elite junior AF. Twenty five male, adolescent players (mean ±SD: age 17.6 ± 0.5 y) recruited from three elite under 18 AF clubs participated. Global positioning system (GPS), heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) data were obtained from 32 game files during four games, and 84 training files during 19 training sessions. Matched-pairs statistics along with Cohen’s d effect size and percent difference were used to compare game and training events. Players were exposed to a higher physical load in the game environment, for both external (GPS) and internal (HR, Session-RPE) load parameters, compared to in-season training. Session time (d = 1.23; percent difference = 31.4% (95% confidence intervals = 17.4 – 45.4)), total distance (3.5; 63.5% (17.4 – 45.4)), distance per minute (1.93; 33.0% (25.8 – 40.1)), high speed distance (2.24; 77.3% (60.3 – 94.2)), number of sprints (0.94; 43.6% (18.9 – 68.6)), mean HR (1.83; 14.3% (10.5 – 18.1)), minutes spent above 80% of predicted HRmax (2.65; 103.7% (89.9 – 117.6)) and Session-RPE (1.22; 48.1% (22.1 – 74.1)) were all higher in competition compared to training. While training should not be expected to fully replicate competition, the observed differences suggest that monitoring of physical load in both environments is warranted to allow comparisons and evaluate whether training objectives are being met. Key points Physical loads, including intensity, are typically lower in training compared to competition in junior elite Australian football. Monitoring of player loads in team sports should include both

  8. Nonfunctional overreaching during off-season training for skill position players in collegiate American football.

    PubMed

    Moore, Christopher A; Fry, Andrew C

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the performance and hormonal responses to a 15-week off-season training program for American football. Nine skill position players from a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I-A football team participated as subjects in this study. Following 4 weeks of weight training (phase I), subjects performed weight training concurrently with high-volume conditioning drills (phase II). Phase III consisted of 15 spring football practice sessions executed over a 30-day period. Performance and hormonal changes were assessed prior to phase I, and following phases I, II, and III. Maximal strength was significantly increased (p < 0.05) for all strength tests during phase I. Squat and power clean values decreased following phase II (p < 0.05), with all values returning to baseline upon completion of phase III. Sprinting speed significantly worsened during phase I (p < 0.05), but then returned to baseline during phase III. Vertical jump and agility improved during phase I (p < 0.05), with vertical jump remaining unchanged for the duration of the study and agility returning to baseline following phase II. Testosterone levels decreased during phase II (p < 0.05) prior to returning to baseline levels during phase III. Cortisol and the testosterone/cortisol ratio remained unchanged during the course of the investigation. Even though overtraining did not occur in the current investigation, a significant maladaptation in performance did occur subsequent to phase II. For this particular athletic population, a strength and conditioning program utilizing a reduced training volume-load may prove more effective for improving performance in the future.

  9. The effects of resistance training prioritization in NCAA Division I Football summer training.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robert A; Martin, Gerard J; Szivak, Tunde K; Comstock, Brett A; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Hooper, David R; Flanagan, Shawn D; Looney, David P; Volek, Jeff S; Maresh, Carl M; Kraemer, William J

    2014-01-01

    Resistance training (RT) is an integral part of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I Football performance programs. In the sport of football, there are several components that a strength and conditioning coach must be aware of. These include body mass, size, strength, power, speed, conditioning, and injury prevention, among others. The purpose of this study was to investigate if the RT component of a performance program could be prioritized for specific results using a nonlinear training model, grouping athletes by eligibility year. The NCAA Division I football student athletes were placed into 3 separate groups based on the playing year. All subjects participated in a 10-week, 4 days·week-1 off-season summer resistance training program. The training of group 1 (n = 20, age: 18.95 ± 0.76 years, height: 186.63 ± 7.21 cm, body mass: 97.66 ± 18.17 kg, playing year: 1.05 ± 0.22 years) prioritized hypertrophy-based RT to gain body mass. The training of group 2 (n = 20, age: 20.05 ± 1.05 years, height: 189.42 ± 5.49 cm, body mass: 106.99 ± 13.53 kg, and playing year: 2.35 ± 0.75 years) prioritized strength-based RT to gain strength. The training of group 3 (n = 20, age: 21.05 ± 1.10 years, height: 186.56 ± 6.73 cm, body mass: 109.8 ± 19.96 kg, playing year: 4.4 ± 0.50 years) prioritized power-based RT to gain power. Performance tests were evaluated during the first weeks of March (Spring) and August (Fall). The test measures included body mass (kilograms), 1-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press (kilograms), 1RM back squat (kilograms), 1RM power clean (kilograms), and countermovement vertical jump (CMVJ) height (centimeters). The primary findings of this investigation were as follows: group 1 saw significant increases in bench press maximum, back squat maximum, and power clean maximum (p ≤ 0.05). Group 2 saw significant increases in bench press maximum, back squat maximum, and power clean maximum (p ≤ 0.05). Group 3 saw a significant

  10. Increased Training Volume Improves Bone Density and Cortical Area in Adolescent Football Players.

    PubMed

    Varley, Ian; Hughes, David C; Greeves, Julie P; Fraser, William D; Sale, Craig

    2017-03-01

    Habitual football participation has been shown to be osteogenic, although the specific volume of football participation required to cause bone adaptations are not well established. The aim of the present study is to investigate tibial bone adaptations in response to 12 weeks of increased training volume in elite adolescents who are already accustomed to irregular impact training. 99 male adolescent elite footballers participated (age 16±0 y; height 1.76±0.66 m; body mass 70.2±8.3 kg). Tibial scans were performed using peripheral quantitative computed tomography immediately before and 12 weeks after an increase in football training volume. Scans were obtained at 4, 14, 38 and 66% of tibial length. Trabecular density (mg/cm(3)), cortical density (mg/cm(3)), cross-sectional area, cortical area (mm(2)), cortical thickness (mm) and strength strain index (mm(3)) were assessed. Trabecular (4%) and cortical density (14, 38%), cortical cross-sectional area (14, 38%), total cross-sectional area (66%), cortical thickness (14, 38%) and strength strain index (14, 38%) increased following 12 weeks of augmented volume training (P<0.05). Increased density of trabecular and cortical compartments and cortical thickening were shown following an increased volume of training. These adaptive responses may have been enhanced by the adolescent status of the cohort, supporting the role of early exercise intervention in improving bone strength.

  11. University of Miami Hurricane Football Team Off-Season Strength Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, Ray

    The off-season football strength training and conditioning program at the University of Miami was developed to emphasize commitment and continued intensity of effort on the part of the individual player. The program emphasizes the intrinsic rewards of physical conditioning, positive reinforcement for effort, and individual responsibility for…

  12. Effects of hamstring-emphasized neuromuscular training on strength and sprinting mechanics in football players.

    PubMed

    Mendiguchia, J; Martinez-Ruiz, E; Morin, J B; Samozino, P; Edouard, P; Alcaraz, P E; Esparza-Ros, F; Mendez-Villanueva, A

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a neuromuscular training program combining eccentric hamstring muscle strength, plyometrics, and free/resisted sprinting exercises on knee extensor/flexor muscle strength, sprinting performance, and horizontal mechanical properties of sprint running in football (soccer) players. Sixty footballers were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG) or a control group (CG). Twenty-seven players completed the EG and 24 players the CG. Both groups performed regular football training while the EG performed also a neuromuscular training during a 7-week period. The EG showed a small increases in concentric quadriceps strength (ES = 0.38/0.58), a moderate to large increase in concentric (ES = 0.70/0.74) and eccentric (ES = 0.66/0.87) hamstring strength, and a small improvement in 5-m sprint performance (ES = 0.32). By contrast, the CG presented lower magnitude changes in quadriceps (ES = 0.04/0.29) and hamstring (ES = 0.27/0.34) concentric muscle strength and no changes in hamstring eccentric muscle strength (ES = -0.02/0.11). Thus, in contrast to the CG (ES = -0.27/0.14), the EG showed an almost certain increase in the hamstring/quadriceps strength functional ratio (ES = 0.32/0.75). Moreover, the CG showed small magnitude impairments in sprinting performance (ES = -0.35/-0.11). Horizontal mechanical properties of sprint running remained typically unchanged in both groups. These results indicate that a neuromuscular training program can induce positive hamstring strength and maintain sprinting performance, which might help in preventing hamstring strains in football players.

  13. Efficacy of the National Football League-225 Test to Track Changes in One Repetition Maximum Bench Press After Training in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division IA Football Players.

    PubMed

    Mann, J Bryan; Ivey, Pat A; Stoner, Josh D; Mayhew, Jerry L; Brechue, William F

    2015-11-01

    Numerous investigations have attested to the efficacy of the National Football League (NFL)-225 test to estimate one repetition maximum (1RM) bench press. However, no studies have assessed the efficacy of the test to track changes in strength across a training program. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of the NFL-225 test for determining the change in 1RM bench press in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division IA college football players after training. Over a 4-year period, players (n = 203) were assessed before and after a 6-week off-season resistance program for 1RM bench press and repetitions completed with 102.3 kg (225 lbs). Test sessions typically occurred within 1 week of each other. Players significantly increased 1RM by 4.2 ± 8.6 kg and NFL-225 repetitions by 0.9 ± 2.3, although the effect size (ES) for each was trivial (ES = 0.03 and 0.07, respectively). National Football League 225 prediction equations had higher correlations with 1RM before training (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.95) than after training (ICC = 0.75). The correlation between the change in NFL-225 repetitions and change in 1RM was low and negative (r = -0.22, p < 0.02). Short-term heavy resistance training may alter the association between muscular strength and muscular endurance in college football players and render the NFL-225 test less effective in predicting the change in 1RM bench press strength after short-term training.

  14. Rugby football.

    PubMed

    Dietzen, C J; Topping, B R

    1999-02-01

    Rugby union football continues to gain in popularity in the United States. Both men's and women's clubs have been established at several colleges and universities. There has been substantial growth in the number of high school rugby football clubs in recent years. With the increase in numbers of young participants in this sport, it is important that great efforts be mounted to attempt to control the injury rates and severity of injuries in rugby football. Players and coaches must be knowledgeable of the rules of the game, and referees must strictly enforce these rules. Physicians and dentists should be involved in educating parents, coaches, players, and school officials about the inherent risks of injury and the means for injury prevention. Medical personnel must also be instrumental in educating players about alcohol abuse/addiction. Rugby players should be encouraged to use the limited protective gear that is allowed: wraps, tape, joint sleeves, scrum caps, and facial grease to prevent lacerations. Mouthguards are strongly recommended at any level of play and should be mandated. The use of helmets, face masks, and shoulder pads has been suggested by some authors. Such rule changes could actually increase injury rates and severity, because this equipment could be used as weapons as they are in American football. It is recommended that rugby clubs purchase or build equipment to practice scrummage skills. Coaches should be experienced and attend clinics or complete video courses on medical emergencies and safe techniques of the game. Injury frequency and severity can be decreased by adequate preseason training and conditioning, proper tackling and falling techniques, strengthening of neck muscles, and allowing only experienced, fit athletes to play in the front row. Medical surveillance must be improved at matches and, ideally, at practice sessions. At present, it is common for no emergency medical personnel or physicians to be present at matches in the United

  15. The effects of game and training loads on perceptual responses of muscle soreness in Australian football.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Paul G; Hopkins, Will G

    2013-05-01

    Australian Football is an intense team sport played over ~120 min on a weekly basis. To determine the effects of game and training load on muscle soreness and the time frame of soreness dissipation, 64 elite Australian Football players (age 23.8 ± 1.8 y, height 183.9 ± 3.8 cm, weight 83.2 ± 5.0 kg; mean ± SD) recorded perceptions of muscle soreness, game intensity, and training intensity on scales of 1-10 on most mornings for up to 3 competition seasons. Playing and training times were also recorded in minutes. Data were analyzed with a mixed linear model, and magnitudes of effects on soreness were evaluated by standardization. All effects had acceptably low uncertainty. Game and training-session loads were 790 ± 182 and 229 ± 98 intensity-minutes (mean ± SD), respectively. General muscle soreness was 4.6 ± 1.1 units on d 1 postgame and fell to 1.9 ± 1.0 by d 6. There was a small increase in general muscle soreness (0.22 ± 0.07-0.50 ± 0.13 units) in the 3 d after high-load games relative to low-load games. Other soreness responses showed similar timelines and magnitudes of change. Training sessions made only small contributions to soreness over the 3 d after each session. Practitioners should be aware of these responses when planning weekly training and recovery programs, as it appears that game-related soreness dissipates after 3 d regardless of game load and increased training loads in the following week produce only small increases in soreness.

  16. Characteristics impacting on session rating of perceived exertion training load in Australian footballers.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Tania; Cormack, Stuart; Gabbett, Tim; Williams, Morgan; Lorenzen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between external training load and session rating of perceived exertion (s-RPE) training load and the impact that playing experience, playing position and 2-km time-trial performance had on s-RPE training load were explored. From 39 Australian Football players, 6.9 ± 4.6 training sessions were analysed, resulting in 270 samples. Microtechnology devices provided external training load (distance, average speed, high-speed running distance, player load (PL) and player loadslow (PLslow)). The external training load measures had moderate to very large associations (r, 95% CI) with s-RPE training load, average speed (0.45, 0.35-0.54), high-speed running distance (0.51, 0.42-0.59), PLslow (0.80, 0.75-0.84), PL (0.86, 0.83-0.89) and distance (0.88, 0.85-0.90). Differences were described using effect sizes (d ±95% CL). When controlling for external training load, the 4- to 5-year players had higher s-RPE training load than the 0- to 1- (0.44 ± 0.33) and 2- to 3-year players (0.51 ± 0.30), ruckmen had moderately higher s-RPE training load than midfielders (0.82 ± 0.58), and there was a 0.2% increase in s-RPE training load per 1 s increase in time-trial (95% CI: 0.07-0.34). Experience, position and time-trial performance impacted the relationship between external training load and s-RPE training load. This suggests that a given external training load may result in different internal responses between athletes, potentially leaving individuals at risk of overtraining or failing to elicit positive adaptation. It is therefore vital that coaches and trainers give consideration to these mediators of s-RPE training load.

  17. The effects of resisted sprint training on acceleration performance and kinematics in soccer, rugby union, and Australian football players.

    PubMed

    Spinks, Christopher D; Murphy, Aron J; Spinks, Warwick L; Lockie, Robert G

    2007-02-01

    Acceleration is a significant feature of game-deciding situations in the various codes of football. However little is known about the acceleration characteristics of football players, the effects of acceleration training, or the effectiveness of different training modalities. This study examined the effects of resisted sprint (RS) training (weighted sled towing) on acceleration performance (0-15 m), leg power (countermovement jump [CMJ], 5-bound test [5BT], and 50-cm drop jump [50DJ]), gait (foot contact time, stride length, stride frequency, step length, and flight time), and joint (shoulder, elbow, hip, and knee) kinematics in men (N = 30) currently playing soccer, rugby union, or Australian football. Gait and kinematic measurements were derived from the first and second strides of an acceleration effort. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment conditions: (a) 8-week sprint training of two 1-h sessions x wk(-1) plus RS training (RS group, n = 10), (b) 8-week nonresisted sprint training program of two 1-h sessions x wk(-1) (NRS group, n = 10), or (c) control (n = 10). The results indicated that an 8-week RS training program (a) significantly improves acceleration and leg power (CMJ and 5BT) performance but is no more effective than an 8-week NRS training program, (b) significantly improves reactive strength (50DJ), and (c) has minimal impact on gait and upper- and lower-body kinematics during acceleration performance compared to an 8-week NRS training program. These findings suggest that RS training will not adversely affect acceleration kinematics and gait. Although apparently no more effective than NRS training, this training modality provides an overload stimulus to acceleration mechanics and recruitment of the hip and knee extensors, resulting in greater application of horizontal power.

  18. Examining the External Training Load of an English Premier League Football Team With Special Reference to Acceleration.

    PubMed

    Akenhead, Richard; Harley, Jamie A; Tweddle, Simon P

    2016-09-01

    Akenhead, R, Harley, J, and Tweddle, S. Examining the external training load of an English Premier League football team with special reference to acceleration. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2424-2432, 2016-Practitioners and coaches often use external training load variables such as distance run and the number of high-speed running (HSR) activities to quantify football training. However, an important component of the external load may be overlooked when acceleration activities are not considered. The aim of this study was to describe the within-microcycle distribution of external load, including acceleration, during in-season 1-game weeks in an elite football team. Global Positioning System technology was used to collect time-motion data from 12 representative 7-day microcycles across a competitive season (48 training days, 295 data sets). Training time, total distance (TD), high-speed running (HSR) distance (>5.8 m·s), sprint running distance (>6.7 m·s) and acceleration variables were recorded during each training session. Data were analysed for interday and interposition differences using mixed linear modeling. The distribution of external load was characterized by the second training day of the microcycle (5 days prematch) exhibiting the highest values for all variables of training load, with the fourth day (1 day prematch) exhibiting the lowest values. Central midfield players covered ∼8-16% greater TD than other positions excluding wide midfielders (p ≤ 0.03, d = 0.2-0.4) and covered ∼17% greater distance accelerating 1-2 m·s than central defenders (p = 0.03, d = 0.7). When expressed relative to training duration and TD, the magnitude of interday and interposition differences were markedly reduced (p = 0.03, d = 0.2-0.3). When managing the distribution of training load, practitioners should be aware of the intensity of training sessions and consider the density of external load within sessions.

  19. Heat Stress and Injury Prevention Practices During Summer High School Football Training in South Texas.

    PubMed

    Hearon, Christopher M; Ruiz, Alberto; Taylor, Zachary J

    The purpose was to describe practice conditions influencing the risk of heat stress to athletes in summer football training in South Texas high schools, and to compare these conditions to ACSM recommendations for heat stress/injury risk reduction in this population. Thirty (N=30) high school summer football practices were observed. Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) was measured before/after practices and practices were observed for: duration/structure; athlete clothing; and rest break frequency/duration/content. Practices averaged 125±31 min and WBGT (pre- to post-practice) was 29.7±2.1°C to 31.2±2.2°C for morning, and 31.2±1.6°C to 28.9±1.2°C for evening practices. Most practices included contact (93%), and a majority were full-contact (53%). Most athletes wore full pads (83%) and medium/dark colored clothing (73%). Outside of scheduled breaks athletes removed helmets (63%), sat/knelt (63%), and had access to fluid (90%). Athletic trainers were present at 93% of the practices. A typical practice had 3 rest breaks, each lasting approximately 5 min. During breaks, athletes were provided fluid (93%), removed helmets (89%), and sat/knelt (76%), but were rarely provided shade (2%). While none of the practice sessions were conducted in conditions warranting the cancellation of outside activity (WBGT>33.1°C), the environmental data confirms that this region presents athletes with a very high risk of heat stress/injury. While a majority of the schools were taking many of the precautionary measures recommended by ACSM, many of the guidelines were not being followed. Governing bodies of high school athletics need to encourage compliance with recommendations for the reduction of heat stress/injury in this population.

  20. Sodium balance during U. S. football training in the heat: cramp-prone vs. reference players.

    PubMed

    Horswill, C A; Stofan, J R; Lacambra, M; Toriscelli, T A; Eichner, E R; Murray, R

    2009-11-01

    U. S. football players with a history of heat cramps were evaluated for the effect of physical training, sodium intake, and loss of sweat sodium on whole blood sodium concentration (BNa). Athletes (n=14 males, 24+/-1 y) were recruited and studied based on medical history, age, and position. The reference group (R, n=8 without a cramping history) and cramp-prone group (C, n=6, history of whole-body cramps associated with extensive sweat loss during exercise in the heat) were measured for body mass and BNa (ISTAT) before and after team training of 2.2 h in hot conditions (WBGT=29-32 degrees C). Intake and loss of fluid and sodium were also measured to determine respective acute balance. In R, BNa was stable pre- to post-training (138.9+/-1.8 to 139.0+/-2.0 mmol/L) while it tended to decline in C (137.8+/-2.3 to 135.7+/-4.9 mmol/L), and three subjects in C had BNa values below 135 mmol/L (131.7+/-2.9 mmol/L). C consumed a greater percentage of total fluid as water (p<0.05). Mean sweat sodium concentration was (52.6+/-29.2 mmol/L for C and 38.3+/-18.3 mmol/L for R (p>0.05). Compared to R, C tended to experience a decline in BNa and greater acute sodium imbalance. These changes may place cramp-prone players at greater risks for developing acute sodium deficits during training.

  1. Perceptions of wellness to monitor adaptive responses to training and competition in elite Australian football.

    PubMed

    Gastin, Paul B; Meyer, Denny; Robinson, Dean

    2013-09-01

    Perceptions of wellness are often used by athletes and coaches to assess adaptive responses to training. The purpose of this research was to describe how players were coping with the demands of elite level Australian football over a competitive season using subjective ratings of physical and psychological wellness and to assess the ecological validity of such a monitoring approach. Twenty-seven players completed ratings for 9 items (fatigue, general muscle, hamstring, quadriceps, pain/stiffness, power, sleep quality, stress, well-being). Players subjectively rated each item as they arrived at the training or competition venue on a 1-5 visual analog scale, with 1 representing the positive end of the continuum. A total of 2,583 questionnaires were analyzed from completions on 183 days throughout the season (92 ± 24 per player, 103 ± 20 per week; mean ± SD). Descriptive statistics and multilevel modelling were used to understand how player ratings of wellness varied over the season and during the week leading into game day and whether selected player characteristics moderated these relationships. Results indicated that subjective ratings of physical and psychological wellness were sensitive to weekly training manipulations (i.e., improve steadily throughout the week to a game day low, p < 0.001), to periods of unloading during the season (i.e., a week of no competition, p < 0.05) and to individual player characteristics (e.g., muscle strain after a game was poorer in players with high maximum speed, p < 0.01). It is concluded that self-reported player ratings of wellness provide a useful tool for coaches and practitioners to monitor player responses to the rigorous demands of training, competition, and life as a professional athlete.

  2. Characteristics of muscle dysmorphia in male football, weight training, and competitive natural and non-natural bodybuilding samples.

    PubMed

    Baghurst, Timothy; Lirgg, Cathy

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify differences in traits associated with muscle dysmorphia between collegiate football players (n=66), weight trainers for physique (n=115), competitive non-natural bodybuilders (n=47), and competitive natural bodybuilders (n=65). All participants completed demographic questionnaires in addition to the Muscle Dysmorphia Inventory (Rhea, Lantz, & Cornelius, 2004). Results revealed a significant main effect for group, and post hoc tests found that the non-natural bodybuilding group did not score significantly higher than the natural bodybuilding group on any subscale except for Pharmacological Use. Both the non-natural and natural bodybuilding groups scored significantly higher than those that weight trained for physique on the Dietary Behavior and Supplement Use subscales. The collegiate football players scored lowest on all subscales of the Muscle Dysmorphia Inventory except for Physique Protection where they scored highest. Findings are discussed with future research expounded.

  3. Combined strength and power training in high-level amateur football during the competitive season: a randomised-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Faude, Oliver; Roth, Ralf; Di Giovine, Dario; Zahner, Lukas; Donath, Lars

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to analyse the effects of combined strength and power training during the competitive season on physical fitness in high-level amateur football players. Sixteen male players (22.5 (SD 2.5) years, 1.79 (0.05) m, 76.8 (6.1) kg) from one team were randomly assigned to either a strength training (ST, N = 8) or a control (CON, N = 8) group. ST conducted lower extremity resistance exercises combined with plyometrics and/or sprints 2 × 30 min per week for 7 weeks. CON performed technical-tactical training during the same time period. Before and after training several physical fitness parameters were assessed: one-repetition maximum (1-RM, half squat), isometric peak strength and rate of force development (RFD, leg press), jump height (countermovement, CMJ, drop jump, DJ), sprint times, agility, and intermittent endurance. Large significant test × group interactions were found for 1-RM, CMJ, and DJ reactivity index with increases in CT relative to CON(+11 to 18%). Although not significant (P < 0.20), likely practically relevant effects were observed for isometric peak strength and RFD (+24 to 29%). We found no relevant interaction effects for agility, sprint times, and intermittent endurance. A 7-week in-season combined strength and power training program can improve relevant strength and jump parameters in high-level amateur football players.

  4. High intensity interval training vs. high-volume running training during pre-season conditioning in high-level youth football: a cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Faude, Oliver; Schnittker, Reinhard; Schulte-Zurhausen, Roman; Müller, Florian; Meyer, Tim

    2013-01-01

    We aimed at comparing the endurance effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with high-volume running training (HVT) during pre-season conditioning in 20 high-level youth football players (15.9 (s 0.8) years). Players either conducted HVT or HIIT during the summer preparation period. During winter preparation they performed the other training programme. Before and after each training period several fitness tests were conducted: multi-stage running test (to assess the individual anaerobic threshold (IAT) and maximal running velocity (Vmax)), vertical jumping height, and straight sprinting. A significant increase from pre- to post-test was observed in IAT velocity (P < 0.001) with a greater increase after HVT (+0.8 km · h(-1) vs. +0.5 km · h(-1) after HIIT, P = 0.04). Maximal velocity during the incremental exercise test also slightly increased with time (P = 0.09). Forty per cent (HIIT) and 15% (HVT) of all players did not improve IAT beyond baseline variability. The players who did not respond to HIIT were significantly slower during 30 m sprinting than responders (P = 0.02). No further significant differences between responders and non-responders were observed. Jump heights deteriorated significantly after both training periods (P < 0.003). Both training programmes seem to be promising means to improve endurance capacity in high-level youth football players during pre-season conditioning.

  5. Water and salt balance in young male football players in training during the holy month of Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Shirreffs, Susan M; Maughan, Ronald J

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess water and salt balance in young football players in training during Ramadan. Measurements were made in 92 young male football players before and during the month of Ramadan. Fifty-five participants were observing Ramadan fasting, while the other 37 participants were eating and drinking without restriction. In week 3 of Ramadan, water and salt balance measures were made during a training session of 60-70 min duration that was performed at an ambient temperature of 25-28 degrees C and relative humidity of 50-53%. Body mass was recorded before and after training. Fluid intake was assessed in non-fasting players by weighing drink bottles before and after training, and the volume of any urine output was recorded. Sweat composition was estimated from absorbent patches applied to four skin sites for the duration of training. Mean sweat loss of players amounted to 1.41 litres (s = 0.36) in fasting players and 1.61 litres (s = 0.51) in non-fasting players (P = 0.038). Mean fluid intake during training in non-fasting players was 1.92 litres (s = 0.66). Sweat sodium concentration was 20 mmol . l(-1) (s = 8) in fasting players and 17 mmol . l(-1) (s = 7) in non-fasting players, and total sweat sodium loss during training was 0.67 g (s = 0.41) and 0.65 g (s = 0.37) [corresponding to a salt loss of 1.7 g (s = 1.1) and 1.7 g (s = 0.9)] respectively, with no difference between fasting and non-fasting players. Sweat sodium loss was not related to estimated dietary sodium intake (r = -0.07). These descriptive data show large individual variations in all measured parameters with relatively little difference in sweat parameters between fasting and non-fasting individuals.

  6. Influence of physical fitness, age, experience, and weekly training load on match performance in elite Australian football.

    PubMed

    Gastin, Paul B; Fahrner, Brendan; Meyer, Denny; Robinson, Dean; Cook, Jill L

    2013-05-01

    Season long competition schedules in football create unique challenges for coaches in balancing the requirements of recovery, developing and maintaining physical fitness, and adjusting the training load before each match. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of player characteristics (physical fitness, age, and playing experience) and weekly in-season training load on elite match performance across an Australian football season. Twenty-five players (age: 24.1 ± 3.0 years; height: 188.3 ± 7.3 cm; weight: 90.4 ± 8.3 kg) from one elite team participated in this study. Before the season, player's age, experience, height, and weight along with measures of aerobic (6-minute run) and anaerobic (6 × 40 m repeated sprints) physical fitness were recorded. Individual player training load during the season was measured using global positioning system technology for the main training session of the week. Player match performance was calculated weekly from 33 individual playing statistics. Multilevel modeling was used to investigate the relationship between weekly training load and match performance and to explore the influence of player characteristics on this relationship. Playing experience (p < 0.01) and aerobic fitness (p < 0.05) displayed positive relationships with performance, whereas player age (p < 0.01) showed a negative relationship. Most players coped well with weekly variations in training load; however, the relationship was moderated by the results of the preseason repeated sprint test (p < 0.05). The adverse effect on playing performance in selected players after a more intense training session suggests that recovery from the session may be delayed in players who exhibit a better anaerobic fitness profile.

  7. High-intensity intermittent training in hypoxia: a double-blinded, placebo-controlled field study in youth football players.

    PubMed

    Brocherie, Franck; Girard, Olivier; Faiss, Raphael; Millet, Grégoire P

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of 5 weeks (∼60 minutes per training, 2 d·wk) of run-based high-intensity repeated-sprint ability (RSA) and explosive strength/agility/sprint training in either normobaric hypoxia repeated sprints in hypoxia (RSH; inspired oxygen fraction [FIO2] = 14.3%) or repeated sprints in normoxia (RSN; FIO2 = 21.0%) on physical performance in 16 highly trained, under-18 male footballers. For both RSH (n = 8) and RSN (n = 8) groups, lower-limb explosive power, sprinting (10-40 m) times, maximal aerobic speed, repeated-sprint (10 × 30 m, 30-s rest) and repeated-agility (RA) (6 × 20 m, 30-s rest) abilities were evaluated in normoxia before and after supervised training. Lower-limb explosive power (+6.5 ± 1.9% vs. +5.0 ± 7.6% for RSH and RSN, respectively; both p < 0.001) and performance during maximal sprinting increased (from -6.6 ± 2.2% vs. -4.3 ± 2.6% at 10 m to -1.7 ± 1.7% vs. -1.3 ± 2.3% at 40 m for RSH and RSN, respectively; p values ranging from <0.05 to <0.01) to a similar extent in RSH and RSN. Both groups improved best (-3.0 ± 1.7% vs. -2.3 ± 1.8%; both p ≤ 0.05) and mean (-3.2 ± 1.7%, p < 0.01 vs. -1.9 ± 2.6%, p ≤ 0.05 for RSH and RSN, respectively) repeated-sprint times, whereas sprint decrement did not change. Significant interactions effects (p ≤ 0.05) between condition and time were found for RA ability-related parameters with very likely greater gains (p ≤ 0.05) for RSH than RSN (initial sprint: 4.4 ± 1.9% vs. 2.0 ± 1.7% and cumulated times: 4.3 ± 0.6% vs. 2.4 ± 1.7%). Maximal aerobic speed remained unchanged throughout the protocol. In youth highly trained football players, the addition of 10 repeated-sprint training sessions performed in hypoxia vs. normoxia to their regular football practice over a 5-week in-season period was more efficient at enhancing RA ability (including direction changes), whereas it had no additional effect on improvements in lower-limb explosive power, maximal sprinting, and RSA

  8. Rationale for training programs to reduce anterior cruciate ligament injuries in Australian football.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, D G

    2001-11-01

    This commentary presents the rationale for training programs to reduce the incidence of knee injuries. Our studies have revealed that the external knee loading patterns during sidestep cutting are what put the anterior cruciate ligament at greatest risk for injury. Compared to running, sidestep cutting involves similar levels of knee flexion loading but increased loading in varus-valgus and internal rotation of the knee, and these external loads need to be stabilized or supported by the internal structures of the knee. People use a generalized hamstrings and quadriceps co-contraction to stabilize these external loads, thereby reducing ligament loading. It is proposed that perturbation of the joint receptors reinforces the use of selective hamstrings and quadriceps co-contraction patterns superimposed on a generalized co-contraction pattern. This is not by immediate ligamento-muscular protective reflex, which is too slow to provide any adequate support, but by enhanced proprioceptive information that may be used in learning. In contrast, the immediate effect of muscle stretch reflexes would be to reduce co-contraction, a possibly negative outcome for joint stabilization. The effects of different types of training on the control of joint stability are examined. It is proposed that resistance training may not be appropriate because it enhances muscle stretch reflexes, which may reduce co-contraction, and produces no reductions in voluntary activation times and time to peak torque. However, stability and balance training is thought to suppress muscle stretch reflexes and, in turn, enhance co-contraction. Also, stability and balance training that stimulates the knee joint ligament and capsular receptors may reinforce co-contraction patterns to facilitate greater improvements in joint stabilization. Stability and balance training and plyometric training produce reductions in voluntary activation times and times to peak torque, which may decrease muscle response times so

  9. Activity profile and physiological response to football training for untrained males and females, elderly and youngsters: influence of the number of players.

    PubMed

    Randers, M B; Nybo, L; Petersen, J; Nielsen, J J; Christiansen, L; Bendiksen, M; Brito, J; Bangsbo, J; Krustrup, P

    2010-04-01

    The present study examined the activity profile, heart rate and metabolic response of small-sided football games for untrained males (UM, n=26) and females (UF, n=21) and investigated the influence of the number of players (UM: 1v1, 3v3, 7v7; UF: 2v2, 4v4 and 7v7). Moreover, heart rate response to small-sided games was studied for children aged 9 and 12 years (C9+C12, n=75), as well as homeless (HM, n=15), middle-aged (MM, n=9) and elderly (EM, n=11) men. During 7v7, muscle glycogen decreased more for UM than UF (28 +/- 6 vs 11 +/- 5%; P<0.05) and lactate increased more (18.4 +/- 3.6 vs 10.8 +/- 2.1 mmol kg(-1) d.w.; P<0.05). For UM, glycogen decreased in all fiber types and blood lactate, glucose and plasma FFA was elevated (P<0.05). The mean heart rate (HR(mean)) and time >90% of HR(max) ranged from 147 +/- 4 (EM) to 162 +/- 2 (UM) b.p.m. and 10.8 +/- 1.5 (UF) to 47.8 +/- 5.8% (EM). Time >90% of HR(max) (UM: 16-17%; UF: 8-13%) and time spent with high speed running (4.1-5.1%) was similar for training with 2-14 players, but more high-intensity runs were performed with few players (UM 1v1: 140 +/- 17; UM 7v7: 97 +/- 5; P<0.05): Small-sided games were shown to elucidate high heart rates for all player groups, independently of age, sex, social background and number of players, and a high number of intense actions both for men and women. Thus, small-sided football games appear to have the potential to create physiological adaptations and improve performance with regular training for a variety of study groups.

  10. Using awareness training to decrease nervous habits during public speaking.

    PubMed

    Spieler, Claire; Miltenberger, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of awareness training for the reduction of three nervous habits that manifest during public speaking: filled pauses, tongue clicks, and inappropriate use of the word "like." Four university students delivered short speeches during baseline and assessment sessions. Awareness training resulted in meaningful reductions in target behaviors for all participants. Booster awareness training sessions were necessary for all participants to achieve further reductions in target behaviors. Generality probes conducted in front of a small audience indicated that treatment effects generally maintained. Social validity scores indicated that the treatment was acceptable, and participants indicated not only decreased use of verbal fillers, but also improved overall public speaking ability posttreatment.

  11. Suitability of FIFA’s “The 11” Training Programme for Young Football Players – Impact on Physical Performance

    PubMed Central

    Kilding, Andrew E; Tunstall, Helen; Kuzmic, Dejan

    2008-01-01

    There is a paucity of evidence regarding the use of injury prevention programmes for preadolescents participating in sport. “The 11 ”injury prevention programme was developed by FIFA’s medical research centre (F-MARC) to help reduce the risk of injury in football players aged 14 years and over. The aim of this study was to determine the suitability and effectiveness of “The 11 ”for younger football players. Twenty-four [12 experimental (EXP), 12 control (CON)] young football players (age 10.4 ± 1.4 yr) participated. The EXP group followed “The 11 ”training programme 5 days per week, for 6 weeks, completing all but one of the 10 exercises. Prior to, and after the intervention, both EXP and CON groups performed a battery of football-specific physical tests. Changes in performance scores within each group were compared using independent t-tests (p ≤ 0.05). Feedback was also gathered on the young players’ perceptions of “The 11”. No injuries occurred during the study in either group. Compliance to the intervention was 72%. Measures of leg power (3 step jump and counter-movement jump) increased significantly (3.4 and 6.0% respectively, p < 0.05). Speed over 20 m improved by 2% (p < 0.05). Most players considered “The 11 ”beneficial but not enjoyable in the prescribed format. Given the observed improvements in the physical abilities and the perceived benefits of “The 11”, it would appear that a modified version of the programme is appropriate and should be included in the training of young football players, for both physical development and potential injury prevention purposes, as well as to promote fair play. To further engage young football players in such a programme, some modification to “The 11 ”should be considered. Key pointsChildren who participate in recreational and competitive sports, especially football, are susceptible to injury.There is a need for the design and assessment of injury prevention programmes for children

  12. Decreasing the length of residency training: a public policy perspective.

    PubMed

    Whitcomb, Michael E

    2013-12-01

    It is widely recognized that the United States is going to experience a serious shortage of physicians in the coming years unless the number of physicians completing residency training and entering practice is greatly increased. Members of the academic medicine community have approached this issue by calling on Congress to eliminate the cap that currently limits the number of residency positions that Medicare will support. Simply eliminating the cap, however, will not ensure an adequate supply of physicians. In this commentary the author argues that decreasing the length of training required in core clinical specialties will be required to effectively address the workforce shortage by allowing more residents to be trained in core specialties without greatly increasing the number of training programs and the aggregate amount that Medicare currently spends on graduate medical education.

  13. Short-term differential training decreases postural sway.

    PubMed

    James, Eric G

    2014-01-01

    Differential training has been shown to enhance motor learning in sports skills. In the present study differential training was applied to the minimization of postural sway. A differential training group performed 15 one minute practice trials, each with different postural movement instructions. A repetitive practice group performed 15 trials standing as still as possible for one minute. Pre- and post-tests were performed standing as still as possible in 1 and 2-leg stance. Accelerometry data were collected approximately at the level of the center of mass (COM) and at the head. The root mean square jerk (RMSJ) of movement at the COM and head was estimated for the anteroposterior and mediolateral axes of motion. A significant Group × Test interaction revealed that the differential training led to lower anteroposterior RMSJ on the post-test than on the Pre-test in both the 1 and 2-leg stance tasks. A significant Group × Effector × Test interaction revealed that the decrease in anteroposterior RMSJ with differential training occurred in the RMSJ of the head but not the COM. The repetitive practice did not lead to a significant change in anteroposterior RMSJ at either the COM or the head. Neither form of training led to a significant change in mediolateral RMSJ. The results indicated that differential training can enhance motor learning not only in complex sports skills but in relatively simple motor tasks such as maintaining quiet stance.

  14. Differential Effects of 7 and 16 Groups of Muscle Relaxation Training Following Repeated Submaximal Intensity Exercise in Young Football Players.

    PubMed

    Sharifah Maimunah, S M P; Hashim, H A

    2016-02-01

    This study compares two versions of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) training (7 and 16 muscle groups) on oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rates, rating of perceived exertion and choice reaction time. Football (soccer) players (N = 26; M age = 13.4 yr., SD = 0.5) were randomly assigned to either 7 muscle groups PMR, 16 muscle groups PMR, or a control group. PMR training requires the participants to tense a muscle, hold the muscle contraction, and then relax it. Measurement was conducted prior to and after the completion of 12 sessions of PMR. The dependent variables were measured following four bouts of intermittent exercise consisting of 12 min. of running at 60% VO2max for 10 min. followed by running at 90% VO2max for 2 min. with a 3-min. rest for each bout. Lower VO2, heart rate, perceived exertion, and quicker reaction time were expected in both relaxation groups compared to the control group. The results revealed a significant reduction in heart rates and choice reaction time for both relaxation groups, but the longer version produced significantly quicker choice reaction time.

  15. Elite synchronized swimmers display decreased energy availability during intensified training.

    PubMed

    Schaal, K; Tiollier, E; Le Meur, Y; Casazza, G; Hausswirth, C

    2016-07-01

    Elite synchronized swimmers follow high-volume training regimen that result in elevated rates of exercise energy expenditure (ExEE). While adequate energy intake (EI) is important to optimize recovery, a number of sport-specific constraints may lead to chronically low energy availability (EA = EI-ExEE). This study aimed to quantify changes in EA, endocrine markers of energy conservation, and perceived fatigue in synchronized swimmers, during a week of baseline training followed by 4 weeks of intensified training (IT). EI, ExEE, and body composition were measured in nine swimmers at Baseline, midpoint (ITWK2 ), and end of IT (ITWK4 ). Waking saliva samples were obtained to measure [leptin]s , [ghrelin]s , and [cortisol]s . Fatigue ratings were provided daily. ExEE increased by 27% during IT. Swimmers increased EI from Baseline to ITWK2 , but decreased it significantly from ITWK2 to ITWK4 . EA, fat mass, and [leptin]s decreased from Baseline to ITWK4 , while [ghrelin]s increased significantly. Fatigue at ITWK4 was inversely correlated with Baseline EI and EA. The significant decrease in EA was accompanied by endocrine signs of energy conservation in elite swimmers. As perceived fatigue was associated with low EA, particular attention should be paid to these athletes' energy intake during phases of heavy training.

  16. The effects of the GAA 15 training program on neuromuscular outcomes in Gaelic football and hurling players; a randomized cluster trial.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Edwenia; Murphy, John C; McCarthy Persson, Ulrik; Gissane, Conor; Blake, Catherine

    2016-07-07

    Team-based neuromuscular training programs for injury prevention have been tested primarily in female and adolescent athletes in soccer, handball and basketball, with limited research in adult male field sports. This study explored whether the GAA 15, a multifaceted 8-week neuromuscular training program could improve risk factors for lower limb injury in male Gaelic footballers and hurlers. Four Gaelic sports collegiate teams were randomized into intervention or control groups. Two teams, one football, one hurling, (n=41), were allocated to the intervention, undertaking a 15 minute program of neuromuscular training exercises at the start of team training sessions, twice weekly for 8 weeks. Two matched teams (n=37) acted as controls, participating in usual team training. Lower extremity stability (Y-Balance Test) and jump-landing technique using Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) were assessed pre and post intervention. There were moderate effect sizes in favour of the intervention for right (d=0.59) and left (d=0.69) composite YBT scores, with adjusted mean differences between intervention and control of 3.85 ±0.91% and 4.34±0.92% for right and left legs respectively (p<0.001). There was a greater reduction in mean LESS score in favour of the intervention group post exercise training (Cohen's d= 0.72, adjusted mean difference 2.49±0.54, p<0.001). Clinically and statistically significant improvements in dynamic balance and jump-landing technique occurred in collegiate level Gaelic football and hurling players who adopted the GAA 15, when compared to usual training. These findings support application and evaluation of the GAA 15 in other player groups within the Gaelic games playing population.

  17. Exercise Training, Lymphocyte Subsets and Their Cytokines Production: Experience of an Italian Professional Football Team and Their Impact on Allergy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background. In recent years, numerous articles have attempted to shed light on our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of exercise-induced immunologic changes and their impact on allergy and asthma. It is known that lymphocyte subclasses, cytokines, and chemokines show modifications after exercise, but outcomes can be affected by the type of exercise as well as by its intensity and duration. Interesting data have been presented in many recent studies on mouse models, but few studies on humans have been performed to check the long-term effects of exercise over a whole championship season. Methods. This study evaluated lymphocyte subsets and their intracellular IL-2, IL-4, TNF-α, and IFN-γ production in professional football (soccer) players, at three stages of the season, to evaluate if alterations occur, particularly in relation to their allergic status. Results and Conclusion. Despite significant mid-season alterations, no significant lymphocyte subclasses count modifications, except for NKs that were significantly higher, were observed at the end. IL-2 and IL-4 producing cells showed a significant decrease (P = 0.018 and P = 0.001, but in a steady fashion for IL-4), confirming the murine data about the potential beneficial effects of aerobic exercise for allergic asthma. PMID:25050349

  18. Prevention of Football Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Kirkendall, Donald T; Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Every sport has a unique profile of injury and risk of injury. In recent years, there have been numerous attempts at conducting injury prevention trials for specific injuries or for injuries within specific sports to provide evidence useful to the sports medicine and sport community. Football has been a focus of a number of randomized injury prevention trials. Methods MEDLINE was searched with the first order keywords of “injury prevention” and “sport”. This list was restricted to “clinical trial” or “randomized controlled trial” which had been conducted on children and adults whose goal was preventing common football injuries. Our objective was to find studies with an exercise-based training program, thus projects that used mechanical interventions were excluded. Results A structured, generalized warm-up has been shown to be effective at preventing common injuries in football, reducing injuries by about one-third. Conclusion The huge participation numbers in the worldwide family of football would suggest that any reduction in injury should have a public health impact. Professionals in sports medicine need to promote injury prevention programs that have been shown to be effective. PMID:22375195

  19. The nondiscriminating heart: lovingkindness meditation training decreases implicit intergroup bias.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yoona; Gray, Jeremy R; Dovidio, John F

    2014-06-01

    Although meditation is increasingly accepted as having personal benefits, less is known about the broader impact of meditation on social and intergroup relations. We tested the effect of lovingkindness meditation training on improving implicit attitudes toward members of 2 stigmatized social outgroups: Blacks and homeless people. Healthy non-Black, nonhomeless adults (N = 101) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: 6-week lovingkindness practice, 6-week lovingkindness discussion (a closely matched active control), or waitlist control. Decreases in implicit bias against stigmatized outgroups (as measured by Implicit Association Test) were observed only in the lovingkindness practice condition. Reduced psychological stress mediated the effect of lovingkindness practice on implicit bias against homeless people, but it did not mediate the reduced bias against Black people. These results suggest that lovingkindness meditation can improve automatically activated, implicit attitudes toward stigmatized social groups and that this effect occurs through distinctive mechanisms for different stigmatized social groups.

  20. Physical and metabolic demands of training and match-play in the elite football player.

    PubMed

    Bangsbo, Jens; Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter

    2006-07-01

    In soccer, the players perform intermittent work. Despite the players performing low-intensity activities for more than 70% of the game, heart rate and body temperature measurements suggest that the average oxygen uptake for elite soccer players is around 70% of maximum (VO(2max). This may be partly explained by the 150 - 250 brief intense actions a top-class player performs during a game, which also indicates that the rates of creatine phosphate (CP) utilization and glycolysis are frequently high during a game. Muscle glycogen is probably the most important substrate for energy production, and fatigue towards the end of a game may be related to depletion of glycogen in some muscle fibres. Blood free-fatty acids (FFAs) increase progressively during a game, partly compensating for the progressive lowering of muscle glycogen. Fatigue also occurs temporarily during matches, but it is still unclear what causes the reduced ability to perform maximally. There are major individual differences in the physical demands of players during a game related to physical capacity and tactical role in the team. These differences should be taken into account when planning the training and nutritional strategies of top-class players, who require a significant energy intake during a week.

  1. Using Awareness Training to Decrease Nervous Habits during Public Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spieler, Claire; Miltenberger, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of awareness training for the reduction of three nervous habits that manifest during public speaking: filled pauses, tongue clicks, and inappropriate use of the word "like." Four university students delivered short speeches during baseline and assessment sessions. Awareness training resulted in…

  2. Decreasing Students' Stress through Time Management Training: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Häfner, Alexander; Stock, Armin; Oberst, Verena

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a time management training program on perceived control of time and perceived stress in the context of higher education. Twenty-three undergraduate students attended a time management training intervention and reported demands, perceived stress and perceived control of time directly before 2 and…

  3. Decreased Self-Reported Cognitive Failures after Memory Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preiss, Marek; Lukavsky, Jiri; Steinova, Dana

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, attention has been focused on investigating the effectiveness of composite memory intervention programs with different age and diagnostics groups. The goal of this study was to measure changes in cognitive lapses by Cognitive Failure Questionnaire (CFQ) in a large trained, dementia free group (Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE]…

  4. [Almaty club "KAIRAT" young football players' health].

    PubMed

    Kausova, G K; Karabaeva, A I

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the investigation was to study young football players' health. The study was conducted on 161 football players (mean age 12.3) of six children football teams of Almaty club "KAIRAT" during the competition period. It was found that 55,5% of the football players are practically healthy; 18,6% of football players have iron deficiency anemia. 32,6% of football players have caries; 5% of football players have problems of cardiopulmonary system. Investigation reveal, that in a junior sportsman was body weigh surging with downtrend during contest, testify to portability of aerobic load and in childhood unconformable of metabolism' level. This tendency was retain also in the oldest sportsman, this testify to most emulative aerobic load in comparison with junior sportsman. According as the age increases it is emulative load's extension and free occurrence of body weigh subsequent reduction but in the oldest sportsman with prevalence macrosomia. Concurrently with improvement of the anthropometric profile as far as increase of age in soccer players it is forming of a high training level. In spite of lowering of energy resources and the physical load organism's adaptation there are these phenomena. According as the age increases in a soccer player's performance of cardiac and respiratory system are improved.

  5. Effects of weight lifting training combined with plyometric exercises on physical fitness, body composition, and knee extension velocity during kicking in football.

    PubMed

    Perez-Gomez, Jorge; Olmedillas, Hugo; Delgado-Guerra, Safira; Ara, Ignacio; Vicente-Rodriguez, German; Ortiz, Rafael Arteaga; Chavarren, Javier; Calbet, Jose A L

    2008-06-01

    The effects of a training program consisting of weight lifting combined with plyometric exercises on kicking performance, myosin heavy-chain composition (vastus lateralis), physical fitness, and body composition (using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)) was examined in 37 male physical education students divided randomly into a training group (TG: 16 subjects) and a control group (CG: 21 subjects). The TG followed 6 weeks of combined weight lifting and plyometric exercises. In all subjects, tests were performed to measure their maximal angular speed of the knee during in-step kicks on a stationary ball. Additional tests for muscle power (vertical jump), running speed (30 m running test), anaerobic capacity (Wingate and 300 m running tests), and aerobic power (20 m shuttle run tests) were also performed. Training resulted in muscle hypertrophy (+4.3%), increased peak angular velocity of the knee during kicking (+13.6%), increased percentage of myosin heavy-chain (MHC) type IIa (+8.4%), increased 1 repetition maximum (1 RM) of inclined leg press (ILP) (+61.4%), leg extension (LE) (+20.2%), leg curl (+15.9%), and half squat (HQ) (+45.1%), and enhanced performance in vertical jump (all p < or = 0.05). In contrast, MHC type I was reduced (-5.2%, p < or = 0.05) after training. In the control group, these variables remained unchanged. In conclusion, 6 weeks of strength training combining weight lifting and plyometric exercises results in significant improvement of kicking performance, as well as other physical capacities related to success in football (soccer).

  6. Iron status markers are only transiently affected by a football game.

    PubMed

    Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Douroudos, Ioannis I; Deli, Chariklia K; Draganidis, Dimitrios; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Mohr, Magni; Avloniti, Alexandra; Barbero-Álvarez, Jose C; Margonis, Konstantinos; Mavropalias, Georgios; Stampoulis, Theodoros; Giannakidou, Dimitra; Flouris, Andreas D; Koutedakis, Yannis; Fatouros, Ioannis G

    2015-01-01

    We examined the temporal variation of iron's status markers during a 60 h period following a football game. Thirty-four male football players were randomly assigned to a control group (CG, N = 14, participated only in measurements and training) or an experimental group (EG, N = 20, took part in a football game one week after the completion of the competitive season). All participants trained regularly for two consecutive days after the game. Training and game load was monitored with high time-resolution global positioning system (GPS) devices. Blood samples were collected and muscle damage markers and repeated sprint ability (RSA) were assessed pre-game and at 2 h, 12 h 36 h and 60 h post-game. No changes were noted in CG. Iron concentration decreased (P < 0.05) 2 h post-game and normalised thereafter whereas total iron binding capacity increased (P < 0.05) 12-60 h of recovery (P < 0.05). Erythrocytes, haemoglobin (HGB) concentration, plasma volume, haematocrit, mean cell volume, mean cell HGB, mean cell HGB concentration, red cell width-SD, red cell width-CV, ferritin concentration and transferrin saturation remained unaltered during the intervention period. Creatine kinase activity and muscle soreness increased (P < 0.05) throughout recovery in EG. RSA declined (P < 0.05) until 36 h of recovery and normalised thereafter. Our data demonstrate that iron status markers are only transiently affected by a football game.

  7. Combined carbohydrate and protein ingestion during Australian Rules football matches and training sessions does not reduce fatigue or accelerate recovery throughout a week-long junior tournament.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nathan A; Fell, James W; Pitchford, Nathan W; Hall, Andrew H; Leveritt, Michael D; Kitic, Cecilia M

    2017-03-31

    Australian Rules football (ARF) is a physically demanding sport that can induce high levels of fatigue. Fatigue may be intensified during periods where multiple matches are played with limited recovery time. Combined carbohydrate and protein (CHO+PRO) intake during physical activity may provide performance and recovery benefits. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CHO+PRO ingestion during ARF matches and training sessions throughout a tournament would enhance performance or recovery in comparison to CHO-only ingestion. ARF players (n=21) competing in a 7-day National tournament participated in this randomized and double-blinded study. Beverages containing either CHO (n=10) or CHO+PRO (n=11) were provided during matches (Day-1, Day-4 and Day-7) and training sessions (Day-2 and Day-3). Countermovement jumps (CMJ), ratings of muscle soreness and autonomic function were assessed throughout the tournament. Gastrointestinal discomfort was measured post-matches. CMJ peak velocity increased in the CHO+PRO group (p=0.01), but not for the CHO group. There were no differences in the other CMJ variables. In both groups, muscle soreness increased from Day-0 and Day-1 to Day-2 (p<0.05) but did not remain elevated. R-R intervals (time elapsed between successive peaks in QRS complexes) increased in both groups from Day-1 to Day-7 (MD=59.85 ms, p<0.01). Post-match gastrointestinal discomfort was not different (p>0.05) between groups. When daily dietary protein is adequate (>1.8 g.kg.d), the ingestion of CHO+PRO during matches and training sessions throughout a tournament does not reduce muscle soreness nor have clear benefits for neuromuscular recovery or modulate autonomic function in junior ARF athletes, compared to CHO alone.

  8. High Prevalence of Hypertension Among Collegiate Football Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Karpinos, Ashley Rowatt; Roumie, Christianne L.; Nian, Hui; Diamond, Alex B.; Rothman, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of hypertension among collegiate football athletes is not well described. Methods and Results A retrospective cohort of all male athletes who participated in varsity athletics at a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university between 1999–2012 was examined through chart review. Mandatory annual preparticipation physical examinations included blood pressure, body mass index, medication use, and supplement use. Prevalence of hypertension was compared between football and non-football athletes. A mixed-effects linear regression model examined change in blood pressure over time. 636 collegiate athletes, including 323 football players, were identified. In the initial year of athletic participation, 19.2% of football athletes had hypertension and 61.9% had prehypertension. The prevalence of hypertension was higher among football athletes than non-football athletes in their initial (19.2% vs. 7.0%, P< 0.001) and final (19.2% vs. 10.2%, P=0.001) years of athletic participation. In adjusted analyses, the odds of hypertension was higher among football athletes in the initial year (AOR 2.28, 95% CI 1.21 to 4.30) but not the final year (AOR 1.25, 95% CI 0.69 to 2.28). Over the course of their collegiate career, football athletes had an annual decrease in systolic blood pressure (−0.82 mmHg, P=0.002), while non-football athletes did not (0.18 mmHg, P=0.58). Conclusions Hypertension and prehypertension were common among collegiate football athletes, and football athletes were more likely to have hypertension than male non-football athletes. This presents a potential cardiovascular risk in a young population of athletes. Strategies for increasing awareness, prevention and treatment are needed. PMID:24221829

  9. Mechanical properties of the triceps surae: differences between football and non-football players.

    PubMed

    Faria, Aurélio; Gabriel, Ronaldo; Abrantes, João; Wood, Paola; Moreira, Helena

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the mechanical properties of the triceps surae between professional, junior, and non-football players. Fifty-nine men participated in this study. The mechanical properties of the right legs' triceps surae were measured in vivo using a free oscillation technique; no significant differences existed between the groups. The mean results for musculo-articular stiffness, damping coefficient, and damping ratio were as follows: professional football players (21523 N· m⁻¹, 330.8 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.201); junior football players (21063 N · m⁻¹, 274.4 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.173); and non-players (19457 N · m⁻¹, 281.5 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.184). When analysed according to position, the results were as follows: defender (21447 N · m⁻¹, 308.6 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.189); midfielder (20762 N · m⁻¹, 250.7 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.157); winger (21322 N · m⁻¹, 335.1 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.212); forward (22085 N · m⁻¹, 416.2 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.254); and non-players (19457 N · m⁻¹, 281.5 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.184). Thus, football training, football games, and the position played had no effect on triceps surae mechanical properties. These results may be attributed to opposing adaptations between different types of training that are usually implemented in football. Alternatively, the minimum strain amplitude and/or frequency threshold of the triceps surae required to trigger adaptations of mechanical properties might not be achieved by football players with football training and matches.

  10. Changing College Students' Conceptions of Autism: An Online Training to Increase Knowledge and Decrease Stigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Brooks, Patricia J.; Someki, Fumio; Obeid, Rita; Shane-Simpson, Christina; Kapp, Steven K.; Daou, Nidal; Smith, David Shane

    2015-01-01

    College students with autism may be negatively impacted by lack of understanding about autism on college campuses. Thus, we developed an online training to improve knowledge and decrease stigma associated with autism among college students. Participants (N = 365) completed a pre-test, online training, and post-test. Women reported lower stigma…

  11. Football with three ‘halves’: A qualitative exploratory study of the football3 model at the Football for Hope Festival 2010

    PubMed Central

    ZA, Kaufman; MA, Clark; ST, McGarvey

    2015-01-01

    The “football3” model refers to a restructuring of traditional football/soccer rules to bring social and developmental benefits to participating youth and their communities. The model incorporates three “halves”: pre-game discussion, football match, and post-game discussion. This study was carried out to shed light on the experiences of youth and adults with the football3 model at the Football for Hope Festival 2010. As an official 2010 FIFA World Cup event, the festival assembled 32 mixed-sex delegations of youth for cultural activities and a football tournament. The study's aim was to inform the model's future design and implementation. Twenty interviews, two focus group discussions, and participant observation were conducted. Findings highlight positive experiences with the model regarding cultural exchange and relationship building, Fair Play and social values, and gender integration. Challenges pertain to misunderstanding of the football3 model, tournament atmosphere, and skill level differences. Recommendations centre on systematically formulating desired outcomes, formalizing a curriculum and training plan, piloting football3 in a range of settings over an extended period of time, and emphasizing monitoring and evaluation to assess the model's effectiveness and impact. Future piloting and research should inform the potential scale-up of the model. PMID:27064214

  12. Smart real-time cardiac diagnostic sensor systems for football players and soldiers under intense physical training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Prashanth S.; Oh, Sechang; Kwon, Hyeokjun; Rai, Pratyush; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2013-04-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) and acute myocardial infarctions (AMIs) have been reported to be up to 7.6 times higher in rate of occurrence during intense exercise as compared to sedentary activities. The risk is high in individuals with both diagnosed as well as occult heart diseases. Recently, SCDs have been reported with a high rate of occurrence among young athletes and soldiers who routinely undergo vigorous training. Prescreening Electrocardiograms (ECG) and echocardiograms have been suggested as potential means of detecting any cardiac abnormalities prior to intense training to avoid the risk of SCDs, but the benefits of this approach are widely debated. Moreover, the increased risk of SCDs and AMIs during training or exercise suggests that ECGs are of much greater value when acquired real-time during the actual training. The availability of immediate diagnostic data will greatly reduce the time taken to administer the appropriate resuscitation. Important factors to consider in the implementation of this solution are: - cost of overall system, accuracy of signals acquired and unobtrusive design. In this paper, we evaluate a system using printed sensors made of inks with functional properties to acquire ECGs of athletes and soldiers during physical training and basic military training respectively. Using Zigbee, we show that athletes and soldiers can be monitored in real time, simultaneously.

  13. Cerebrovascular reactivity alterations in asymptomatic high school football players.

    PubMed

    Svaldi, Diana O; Joshi, Chetas; Robinson, Meghan E; Shenk, Trey E; Abbas, Kausar; Nauman, Eric A; Leverenz, Larry J; Talavage, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) is impaired following brain injury, increasing susceptibility to subsequent injury. CVR was tracked in football and non-collision athletes throughout one season. CVR transiently decreased in football athletes during the first half of the season. Results indicate the brain adapts slowly to increases in loading, increasing risk for injury.

  14. Assessment of decision-making performance and in-game physical exertion of Australian football umpires.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Paul; O'Brien, Brendan; Mesagno, Christopher; Berry, Jason; Harvey, Jack; Spittle, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of in-game physical exertion on decision-making performance of Australian football umpires. Fifteen Australian football umpires (Mage = 36, s = 13.5 years; Mgames umpired = 235.2, s = 151.3) volunteered to participate in the study. During five competitive Australian football pre-season games, measures of in-game physical exertion (blood lactate levels, global positioning system [GPS]) and decision-making performance (video-based test) were obtained. There were no significant correlations between physical exertion in a particular quarter and decision-making performance in either the same quarter or any other quarter. Video-based decision-making performance was effected by time in game χ(2)(3) = 24.24, P = 0.001, with Quarter 4 performance significantly better than both Quarter 2 and Quarter 3. In-game physical exertion (blood lactate) significantly decreased over the course of the game χ(2)(3) = 11.58, P = 0.009. Results indicate no definable link between in-game physical exertion and decision-making performance. It is, however, presumed that decision-making performance may be affected by the time or context of the game. Future research is warranted to explore the relationship between physical exertion and decision-making performance to potentially inform Australian football umpire training programmes that replicate in-game physical and decision-making demands.

  15. Tactical expertise assessment in youth football using representative tasks.

    PubMed

    Serra-Olivares, Jaime; Clemente, Filipe Manuel; González-Víllora, Sixto

    2016-01-01

    Specific football drills improve the development of technical/tactical and physical variables in players. Based on this principle, in recent years it has been possible to observe in daily training a growing volume of small-sided and conditioned games. These games are smaller and modified forms of formal games that augment players' perception of specific tactics. Despite this approach, the assessment of players' knowledge and tactical execution has not been well documented, due mainly to the difficulty in measuring tactical behavior. For that reason, this study aims to provide a narrative review about the tactical assessment of football training by using representative tasks to measure the tactical expertise of youth football players during small-sided and conditioned games. This study gives an overview of the ecological approach to training and the principles used for representative task design, providing relevant contribution and direction for future research into the assessment of tactical expertise in youth football.

  16. Decreased training volume and increased carbohydrate intake increases oxidized LDL levels.

    PubMed

    Välimäki, I A; Vuorimaa, T; Ahotupa, M; Kekkonen, R; Korpela, R; Vasankari, T

    2012-04-01

    We studied effects of probiotics and training volume on oxidized LDL lipids (ox-LDL), serum antioxidant potential (s-TRAP) and serum antioxidants (s-α-tocopherol, s-γ-tocopherol, s-retinol, s-β-carotene and s-ubiquinone-10) in marathon runners during 3-months training period, 6-days preparation period and marathon run. Runners (n=127) were recruited for a randomized, double-blind intervention during which they received either Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG, probiotic group) or placebo drink (placebo group) during whole study. During the preparation period, subjects decreased training and increased carbohydrate intake. Blood samples were taken at baseline, before 6-days preparation, before and immediately after the marathon. Probiotics did not have any effect on ox-LDL, s-TRAP or serum antioxidants levels during the study. Interestingly, ox-LDL increased by 28% and 33% during the preparation period and decreased by 16% and 19% during the marathon run in the placebo and probiotic groups, respectively (in all, P<0.001). No changes were seen in s-TRAP before marathon, but during run s-TRAP raised by 16% in both groups (both, P<0.001). The increase of ox-LDL level during the preparative period after several months' training suggests that aerobic training may reduce the concentration of ox-LDL and that decrease of training together with increased energy intake, mainly carbohydrate, before marathon is capable of increasing the level of ox-LDL.

  17. Tackling in Youth Football.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    American football remains one of the most popular sports for young athletes. The injuries sustained during football, especially those to the head and neck, have been a topic of intense interest recently in both the public media and medical literature. The recognition of these injuries and the potential for long-term sequelae have led some physicians to call for a reduction in the number of contact practices, a postponement of tackling until a certain age, and even a ban on high school football. This statement reviews the literature regarding injuries in football, particularly those of the head and neck, the relationship between tackling and football-related injuries, and the potential effects of limiting or delaying tackling on injury risk.

  18. Football Fans in Training: the development and optimization of an intervention delivered through professional sports clubs to help men lose weight, become more active and adopt healthier eating habits

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity in men is rising, but they are less likely than women to engage in existing weight management programmes. The potential of professional sports club settings to engage men in health promotion activities is being increasingly recognised. This paper describes the development and optimization of the Football Fans in Training (FFIT) programme, which aims to help overweight men (many of them football supporters) lose weight through becoming more active and adopting healthier eating habits. Methods The MRC Framework for the design and evaluation of complex interventions was used to guide programme development in two phases. In Phase 1, a multidisciplinary working group developed the pilot programme (p-FFIT) and used a scoping review to summarize previous research and identify the target population. Phase 2 involved a process evaluation of p-FFIT in 11 Scottish Premier League (SPL) clubs. Participant and coach feedback, focus group discussions and interviews explored the utility/acceptability of programme components and suggestions for changes. Programme session observations identified examples of good practice and problems/issues with delivery. Together, these findings informed redevelopment of the optimized programme (FFIT), whose components were mapped onto specific behaviour change techniques using an evidence-based taxonomy. Results p-FFIT comprised 12, weekly, gender-sensitised, group-based weight management classroom and ‘pitch-side’ physical activity sessions. These in-stadia sessions were complemented by an incremental, pedometer-based walking programme. p-FFIT was targeted at men aged 35-65 years with body mass index ≥ 27 kg/m2. Phase 2 demonstrated that participants in p-FFIT were enthusiastic about both the classroom and physical activity components, and valued the camaraderie and peer-support offered by the programme. Coaches appreciated the simplicity of the key healthy eating and physical activity messages

  19. Nutrition and Gaelic football: review, recommendations, and future considerations.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Kevin J

    2015-02-01

    Gaelic football is the second most popular team sport in Ireland in terms of participation. However, very little research exists on the nutritional considerations for elite male Gaelic footballers. Gaelic football is an intermittent type field game played by two teams of fifteen players. Although amateurs, elite players may train and compete 4-5 times per week and may play for several teams. Research suggests that elite footballers are similar anthropometrically and in fitness to professional soccer players. Work-rate analysis shows that footballers experience longer durations of high-intensity (HI) activity (5-7s) and shorter rest durations than soccer players. Recent data suggests that half-forward/backs perform a greater amount of HI work during games than players in other positions. Fatigue is apparent between the first and second halves and the first and fourth quarters. The limited amount of nutritional studies conducted implies that footballers may be deficient in energy intake and may be at the lower end of recommended carbohydrate intakes to support training. A wide variety of sweat rates have been measured during training, demonstrating the importance of individual hydration strategies. Ergogenic aids such as creatine and caffeine may prove beneficial to performance, although data are extrapolated from other sports. Due to the lack of research in Gaelic football, further population specific studies are required. Future areas of research on the impact of nutrition on Gaelic football performance are examined. In particular, the creation of a test protocol mimicking the activity patterns and intensity of a Gaelic football game is warranted.

  20. Concurrent Training Decreases Cortisol but Not Zinc Concentrations: Effects of Distinct Exercise Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Guilherme; Fortes, Marcos de Sá Rego; de Mello, Danielli B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the effects of distinct concurrent training (CT) protocols on zinc and cortisol concentrations and test the correlation between these blood variables. Methods. Samples of serum zinc and cortisol were assessed from 10 male subjects (27.1 ± 4.8 years old; BMI 25.38 ± 0.09) before and immediately after each study session: control (CS = no exercises), concurrent training 1 (CT1 = indoor cycling + strength training), and concurrent training 2 (CT2 = strength training + indoor cycle) with five days of interval between each. Results. There were no significant changes in zinc concentrations after the CS (Δ% = 8.45; p = 0.07), CT1 (Δ% = 4.77; p = 0.49), and CT2 (Δ% = −2.90; p = 0.12) sessions. Cortisol levels showed significant decrease after CS (Δ% = −6.02; p = 0.00), CT1 (Δ% = −26.32; p = 0.02), and CT2 (Δ% = −33.57; p = 0.05) sessions. There was a significant correlation between the variables only at CS (zinc post versus cortisol pre: r = 0.82 and cortisol post: r = 0.82). Conclusions. CT decreases cortisol concentrations regardless of the sequence performed. No changes were found in zinc concentrations after the study sessions. The reduction in serum cortisol concentrations appear to occur by a mechanism independent of the zinc status. PMID:27127684

  1. Upper extremity sensorimotor control among collegiate football players.

    PubMed

    Laudner, Kevin G

    2012-03-01

    Injuries stemming from shoulder instability are very common among athletes participating in contact sports, such as football. Previous research has shown that increased laxity negatively affects the function of the sensorimotor system potentially leading to a pathological cycle of shoulder dysfunction. Currently, there are no data detailing such effects among football players. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the differences in upper extremity sensorimotor control among football players compared with that of a control group. Forty-five collegiate football players and 70 male control subjects with no previous experience in contact sports participated. All the subjects had no recent history of upper extremity injury. Each subject performed three 30-second upper extremity balance trials on each arm. The balance trials were conducted in a single-arm push-up position with the test arm in the center of a force platform and the subjects' feet on a labile device. The trials were averaged, and the differences in radial area deviation between groups were analyzed using separate 1-way analyses of variance (p < 0.05). The football players showed significantly more radial area deviation of the dominant (0.41 ± 1.23 cm2, p = 0.02) and nondominant arms (0.47 ± 1.63 cm2, p = 0.03) when compared with the control group. These results suggest that football players may have decreased sensorimotor control of the upper extremity compared with individuals with no contact sport experience. The decreased upper extremity sensorimotor control among the football players may be because of the frequent impacts accumulated during football participation. Football players may benefit from exercises that target the sensorimotor system. These findings may also be beneficial in the evaluation and treatment of various upper extremity injuries among football players.

  2. Strength and hypertrophy responses to constant and decreasing rest intervals in trained men using creatine supplementation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of the current study was to compare strength and hypertrophy responses to resistance training programs that instituted constant rest intervals (CI) and decreasing rest intervals (DI) between sets over the course of eight weeks by trained men who supplemented with creatine monohydrate (CR). Methods Twenty-two recreationally trained men were randomly assigned to a CI group (n = 11; 22.3 ± 1 years; 77.7 ± 5.4 kg; 180 ± 2.2 cm) or a DI group (n = 11; 22 ± 2.5 years; 75.8 ± 4.9 kg; 178.8 ± 3.4 cm). Subjects in both groups supplemented with CR; the only difference between groups was the rest interval instituted between sets; the CI group used 2 minutes rest intervals between sets and exercises for the entire 8-weeks of training, while the DI group started with a 2 minute rest interval the first two weeks; after which the rest interval between sets was decreased 15 seconds per week (i.e. 2 minutes decreasing to 30 seconds between sets). Pre- and post-intervention maximal strength for the free weight back squat and bench press exercises and isokinetic peak torque were assessed for the knee extensors and flexors. Additionally, muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) of the right thigh and upper arm was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Results Both groups demonstrated significant increases in back squat and bench press maximal strength, knee extensor and flexor isokinetic peak torque, and upper arm and right thigh CSA from pre- to post-training (p ≤ 0.0001); however, there were no significant differences between groups for any of these variables. The total volume for the bench press and back squat were significantly greater for CI group versus the DI group. Conclusions We report that the combination of CR supplementation and resistance training can increase muscular strength, isokinetic peak torque, and muscle CSA, irrespective of the rest interval length between sets. Because the volume of training was greater for the CI group versus the

  3. Kata techniques training consistently decreases stereotypy in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Fatimah; Movahedi, Ahmadreza; Marandi, Sayed Mohammad; Abedi, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    The effects of 14 weeks of Kata techniques training on stereotypic behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were investigated. The study included 30 eligible (diagnosed ASD, school age) children with ages ranging from 5 to 16 years whom they assigned to an exercise (n=15) or a no-exercise control group (n=15). Participants of the exercise group received Kata techniques instruction four times per week for 14 weeks (56 sessions). Stereotypy was assessed at baseline (pre-intervention), week 14 (post-intervention), and at one month follow up in both groups. Results showed that Kata techniques training significantly reduced stereotypy in the exercise group. Following participation in Kata techniques training, stereotypy decreased from baseline levels by a M of 42.54% across participants. Interestingly, after 30 days of no practice, stereotypy in the exercise group remained significantly decreased compared to pre-intervention time. The participants of the control group did not show significant changes in the stereotypy. Teaching martial arts techniques to children with ASD for a long period of time consistently decreased their stereotypic behaviors.

  4. Mindfulness Training in Primary Schools Decreases Negative Affect and Increases Meta-Cognition in Children

    PubMed Central

    Vickery, Charlotte E.; Dorjee, Dusana

    2016-01-01

    Studies investigating the feasibility and impact of mindfulness programs on emotional well-being when delivered by school teachers in pre-adolescence are scarce. This study reports the findings of a controlled feasibility pilot which assessed acceptability and emotional well-being outcomes of an 8-week mindfulness program (Paws b) for children aged 7–9 years. The program was delivered by school teachers within a regular school curriculum. Emotional well-being was measured using self-report questionnaires at baseline, post-training and 3 months follow-up, and informant reports were collected at baseline and follow-up. Seventy one participants aged 7–9 years were recruited from three primary schools in the UK (training group n = 33; control group n = 38). Acceptability of the program was high with 76% of children in the training group reporting ‘liking’ practicing mindfulness at school, with a strong link to wanting to continue practicing mindfulness at school (p < 0.001). Self-report comparisons revealed that relative to controls, the training group showed significant decreases in negative affect at follow-up, with a large effect size (p = 0.010, d = 0.84). Teacher reports (but not parental ratings) of meta-cognition also showed significant improvements at follow-up with a large effect size (p = 0.002, d = 1.08). Additionally, significant negative correlations were found between changes in mindfulness and emotion regulation scores from baseline to post-training (p = 0.038) and baseline to follow-up (p = 0.033). Findings from this study provide initial evidence that the Paws b program in children aged 7–9 years (a) can be feasibly delivered by primary school teachers as part of the regular curriculum, (b) is acceptable to the majority of children, and (c) may significantly decrease negative affect and improve meta-cognition. PMID:26793145

  5. Predicting Potential in Football Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDavid, Robert F.

    1977-01-01

    Part 1 of this study demonstrated that a test battery using football skills and motor ability test items had discriminatory power and indicated that football potential may be predicted; part 2 evaluated three different football teams from three strata of competition using the battery tested in Part 1. (MM)

  6. Balance Training Exercises Decrease Lower-Limb Strength Asymmetry in Young Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Sannicandro, Italo; Cofano, Giacomo; Rosa, Rosa A.; Piccinno, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The issue of functional asymmetries in the lower-limbs has been the subject of numerous recent investigations concerning many different contact, limited-contact and non-contact sports. The presence of strength asymmetries in the lower-limbs of young athletes practicing various sporting disciplines is considered an intrinsic risk factor for injury; in such cases, compensation strategies should thus be implemented aimed at eliminating, or at least limiting, the degree of asymmetry in order to avoid the negative consequences asymmetries can have upon the health of young sportsmen and women on the long-term. The aim of the present study was to examine the presence of functional asymmetries in the lower-limbs of young tennis players in strength and speed drill performance and to test a specific balance-training programme in its capacity to effectively reduce such asymmetries. Twenty-three young tennis players were randomly assigned to the Experimental Group (EG) (n = 11: 4 females, 7 males; 13.2 ± 0.9 years; 50.8 ± 8.9 Kg; 1.63 ± 0.08 m) or Comparison Group (CG) (n = 12: 4 females, 8 males; 13.0 ± 0.9 years; 51.1 ± 9.2 Kg; 1.61 ± 0.09 m). To quantify percent asymmetries in lower-limb strength before (T0) and following (T1) training, performances were assessed in the one-leg hop test (OLH), side-hop test (SH) and side steps and forward 4.115-m test (4m-SSF). Performances in the 10 and 20m sprint tests and the Foran test were also assessed. The EG completed a total of 12 training sessions directed at balance training: two 30-minute sessions/week over a 6-week period. The CG followed an identical training schedule, but training sessions consisted of tennis-specific drills only. The results reveal significant differences between pre- and post-training tests in the EG only: the degree of lower-limb asymmetry was decreased in the EG following completion of the training programme, as assessed using the OLH test (p < 0.001), SH test (p < 0.001) and 4m-SSF test (p < 0

  7. Altered plasma and erythrocyte phospholipid fatty acid profile in elite female water polo and football players.

    PubMed

    Arsić, Aleksandra; Vučić, Vesna; Tepšić, Jasna; Mazić, Sanja; Djelić, Marina; Glibetić, Marija

    2012-02-01

    The impact of chronic, intense exercise, such as in elite athletes, on phospholipids fatty acids (FA) composition has not been studied in women so far. This study aimed to investigate FA profiles in plasma and erythrocytes phospholipids in elite female water polo (N = 15) and football (N = 19) players in comparison with sedentary women. In spite of similar dietary patterns, as assessed by a food frequency questionnaire, plasma FA profile in the football players showed significantly higher proportions of stearic acid, oleic acid, and monounsaturated FA (MUFA), and significantly lower proportions of total and n-6 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) than in the water polo and control group. The water polo players had higher percentages of palmitoleic acid and arachidonic acid than the control subjects. Erythrocyte FA profile differed among groups. We found significantly higher proportion of oleic acid and MUFA in the football group than in the controls, and decreased stearic acid and elevated palmitic and palmitoleic acid in the water polo players than in the other 2 groups. Both groups of athletes had significantly lower percentages of n-6 dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, n-6 PUFA, and total PUFA compared with the controls. The estimated activities of elongase and desaturases in erythrocytes were also altered in the athletes. Our results indicate that long-term, intense physical training significantly affects FA status of plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids in women. The observed differences between the water polo and the football players suggest that the type of regular training may contribute to the altered metabolism of FA, although possible genetic differences among the 3 study groups cannot be ruled out.

  8. Mindfulness Training in Primary Schools Decreases Negative Affect and Increases Meta-Cognition in Children.

    PubMed

    Vickery, Charlotte E; Dorjee, Dusana

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating the feasibility and impact of mindfulness programs on emotional well-being when delivered by school teachers in pre-adolescence are scarce. This study reports the findings of a controlled feasibility pilot which assessed acceptability and emotional well-being outcomes of an 8-week mindfulness program (Paws b) for children aged 7-9 years. The program was delivered by school teachers within a regular school curriculum. Emotional well-being was measured using self-report questionnaires at baseline, post-training and 3 months follow-up, and informant reports were collected at baseline and follow-up. Seventy one participants aged 7-9 years were recruited from three primary schools in the UK (training group n = 33; control group n = 38). Acceptability of the program was high with 76% of children in the training group reporting 'liking' practicing mindfulness at school, with a strong link to wanting to continue practicing mindfulness at school (p < 0.001). Self-report comparisons revealed that relative to controls, the training group showed significant decreases in negative affect at follow-up, with a large effect size (p = 0.010, d = 0.84). Teacher reports (but not parental ratings) of meta-cognition also showed significant improvements at follow-up with a large effect size (p = 0.002, d = 1.08). Additionally, significant negative correlations were found between changes in mindfulness and emotion regulation scores from baseline to post-training (p = 0.038) and baseline to follow-up (p = 0.033). Findings from this study provide initial evidence that the Paws b program in children aged 7-9 years (a) can be feasibly delivered by primary school teachers as part of the regular curriculum, (b) is acceptable to the majority of children, and

  9. A review of football injuries on third and fourth generation artificial turfs compared with natural turf.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sean; Hume, Patria A; Kara, Stephen

    2011-11-01

    rotational stiffness properties of shoe-surface interfaces, decreased impact attenuation properties of surfaces, differing foot loading patterns and detrimental physiological responses. Changing between surfaces may be a precursor for injury in soccer. In conclusion, studies have provided strong evidence for comparable rates of injury between new generation artificial turfs and natural turfs. An exception is the likely increased risk of ankle injury on third and fourth generation artificial turfs. Therefore, ankle injury prevention strategies must be a priority for athletes who play on artificial turf regularly. Clarification of effects of artificial surfaces on muscle and knee injuries are required given inconsistencies in incidence rate ratios depending on the football code, athlete, gender or match versus training.

  10. Physiological responses of elite junior Australian rules footballers during match-play.

    PubMed

    Veale, James P; Pearce, Alan J

    2009-01-01

    Australian Football (AF) is Australia's major football code. Despite research in other football codes, to date, no data has been published on the physiological responses of AF players during match play. Fifteen athletes (17.28 ± 0.76 yrs) participated in four pre-season matches, sanctioned by Australian Football League (AFL) Victoria, investigating Heart Rate (HR), Blood Lactate (BLa), Core Temperature (Tcore), and Hydration status. Match HR was measured continuously using HR monitors. BLa was measured via finger prick lancet at the end of each quarter of play. Tcore was measured by use of ingestible temperature sensor and measured wirelessly at the end of each quarter of play. Hydration status was measured using refractometry, measuring urine specific gravity, and body weight pre and post-match. Environmental conditions were measured continuously during matches. Results of HR responses showed a high exertion of players in the 85-95% maximum HR range. Elevated mean BLa levels, compared to rest, were observed in all players over the duration of the matches (p = 0.007). Mean Tcore rose 0.68 °C between start and end of matches. Mean USG increased between 0.008 g/ml (p = 0.001) with mean body weight decreasing 1.88 kg (p = 0.001). This study illustrates physiological responses in junior AF players playing in the heat as well as providing physiological data for consideration by AF coaching staff when developing specific training programs. Continued research should consider physiological measurements under varying environments, and at all playing levels of AF, to ascertain full physiological responses during AF matches. Key pointsSpecific conditioning sessions for junior athletes should include high intensity bouts; greater than 85% of heart rate maximum zone.Football anaerobic conditioning activities (e.g. sprint training) should be randomised throughout training sessions to replicate demands of the game (e.g. training in a fatigued state).Coaches and fitness staff

  11. Myocardial Na+/H+ exchanger-1 (NHE1) content is decreased by exercise training.

    PubMed

    Feger, Bryan J; Starnes, Joseph W

    2013-06-01

    The effect of exercise training on myocardial Na(+)/H(+) exchanger-1 (NHE1) protein expression was examined. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sedentary (S; n = 8) and exercised (E; n = 9) groups. Twenty-four hours after the last exercise bout, hearts were weighed and connected to an isolated perfused working heart apparatus for evaluation of cardiac functional performance. Heart weight and heart weight/body weight from E rats was significantly increased by 7.1 and 7.2 % (P < 0.05), respectively, compared with S hearts. The E hearts displayed 15 % greater cardiac output and 35 % external cardiac work compared with the S group at both low and high workloads (P < 0.05 for both parameters). Left ventricular tissue from the same hearts was homogenized and NHE1 and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) content determined by Western blotting. E hearts had a 38 % (P < 0.001) reduction in NHE1 content related to S hearts, and there was no difference in NCX content between groups. Cytochrome c oxidase activity in plantaris increased by 100 % (P < 0.05) and was assessed as a marker of mitochondria content and to verify training status. Our data indicate that exercise training at an intensity that results in cardiac hypertrophy and improved performance is accompanied by decreased NHE1 content in heart.

  12. Forty-Eighth Annual Survey of Football Fatalities 1931-1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyth, Carl S.; Schindler, Richard D.

    Statistics on football fatalities from 1931 to 1979 are presented. The report shows that the number of direct fatalities has progressively decreased. This decrease is attributed to changes in the rules of football, improvement of equipment, and more careful monitoring of the activity by coaches and others in positions of responsibility. A…

  13. Swimming training prevents fat deposition and decreases angiotensin II-induced coronary vasoconstriction in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Endlich, Patrick Wander; Claudio, Erick Roberto Gonçalves; da Silva Gonçalves, Washington Luiz; Gouvêa, Sonia Alves; Moysés, Margareth Ribeiro; de Abreu, Glaucia Rodrigues

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the effects of chronic swimming training (ST) on the deposition of abdominal fat and vasoconstriction in response to angiotensin II (ANG II) in the coronary arterial bed of estrogen deficient rats. Twenty-eight 3-month old Wistar female rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary sham (SS), sedentary-ovariectomized (SO), swimming-trained sham (STS) and swimming-trained ovariectomized (STO). ST protocol consisted of a continuous 60-min session, with a 5% BW load attached to the tail, completed 5 days/week for 8-weeks. The retroperitoneal, parametrial, perirenal and inguinal fat pads were measured. The intrinsic heart rate (IHR), coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) and a concentration-response curve to ANG II in the coronary bed was constructed using the Langendorff preparation. Ovariectomy (OVX) significantly reduced 17-β-estradiol plasma levels in SO and STO groups (p<0.05). The STO group had a significantly reduced retroperitoneal and parametrial fat pad compared with the SO group (p<0.05). IHR values were similar in all groups; however, baseline CPP was significantly reduced in the SO, STS and STO groups compared with the SS group (p<0.05). ANG II caused vasoconstriction in the coronary bed in a concentration-dependent manner. The SO group had an increased response to ANG II when compared with all other experimental groups (p<0.05), which was prevented by 8-weeks of ST in the STO group (p<0.05). OVX increased ANG II-induced vasoconstriction in the coronary vascular bed and abdominal fat pad deposition. Eight weeks of swimming training improved these vasoconstrictor effects and decreased abdominal fat deposition in ovariectomized rats.

  14. Changing the Culture: Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santo, Ricky

    2015-01-01

    In this article college football coach Ricky Santo argues that in order to change the ways of the misunderstood world of racism, one needs to acknowledge the sociocultural consciousness in society today. The sociocultural consciousness is a way to understand how people think and behave which is influenced by their race/ethnicity, social class, and…

  15. Creating Well-Being: Increased Creativity and proNGF Decrease following Quadrato Motor Training

    PubMed Central

    Venditti, Sabrina; Verdone, Loredana; Pesce, Caterina; Tocci, Nicoletta; Caserta, Micaela; Ben-Soussan, Tal Dotan

    2015-01-01

    Mind-body practices (MBP) are known to induce electrophysiological and morphological changes, whereas reports related to changes of neurotrophins are surprisingly scarce. Consequently, in the current paper, we focused on the Quadrato motor training (QMT), a newly developed whole-body movement-based MBP, which has been reported to enhance creativity. Here we report the effects of 4 weeks of daily QMT on creativity and proNGF level in two interrelated studies. In Study A, we examined the effects of QMT compared with a walking training (WT) in healthy adults, utilizing the alternate uses task. In contrast with the WT, QMT resulted in increased creativity. In addition, the change in creativity negatively correlated with the change in proNGF levels. In Study B, we examined QMT effects on creativity and additional metacognitive functions in children, using a nonintervention group as control. Similar to Study A, following QMT, we found a negative correlation of proNGF with creativity, as well as working memory updating and planning ability. Together, the current results point to the relationship between increased creativity and decreased proNGF following MBP. Thus, the current research emphasizes the importance of widening the scope of examination of “MBP in motion” in relation to metacognition and well-being. PMID:26137470

  16. Aerobic exercise training-induced decrease in plasma visfatin and insulin resistance in obese female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyu-Jin; Shin, Yun-A; Lee, Kyoung-Young; Jun, Tae-Won; Song, Wook

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess differences in the levels of plasma visfatin among female adolescents and changes in plasma visfatin and insulin resistance in obese female adolescents after 12 wk of aerobic exercise training. Twenty normal-weight female students (body-mass index [BMI] < 22.9 kg/m² and body fat ≤ 29.9) and 18 obese female students (BMI ≥ 25 kg/ m² and body fat ≥ 30%) participated in this study. Eleven obese students were assigned to an exercise group and completed a 12-wk aerobic exercise-training program that included four 40- to 50-min sessions per wk with an energy expenditure of 300-400 kcal/d. Seven obese students were assigned to a control group that received no exercise sessions or dietary restriction. The plasma visfatin levels of obese female adolescents were significantly higher (p < .05) than those of the normal-weight female adolescents. The plasma visfatin levels (294.00 ± 124.74 ng/ml to 185.55 ± 67.30 ng/ml, p < .01) and insulin resistance (p < .05) were significantly reduced after 12 wk of aerobic exercise. The results suggest that aerobic exercise resulting in an energy expenditure of 1,200-1,600 kcal/wk for 12 wk decreases plasma visfatin and insulin resistance in obese female adolescents.

  17. Creating Well-Being: Increased Creativity and proNGF Decrease following Quadrato Motor Training.

    PubMed

    Venditti, Sabrina; Verdone, Loredana; Pesce, Caterina; Tocci, Nicoletta; Caserta, Micaela; Ben-Soussan, Tal Dotan

    2015-01-01

    Mind-body practices (MBP) are known to induce electrophysiological and morphological changes, whereas reports related to changes of neurotrophins are surprisingly scarce. Consequently, in the current paper, we focused on the Quadrato motor training (QMT), a newly developed whole-body movement-based MBP, which has been reported to enhance creativity. Here we report the effects of 4 weeks of daily QMT on creativity and proNGF level in two interrelated studies. In Study A, we examined the effects of QMT compared with a walking training (WT) in healthy adults, utilizing the alternate uses task. In contrast with the WT, QMT resulted in increased creativity. In addition, the change in creativity negatively correlated with the change in proNGF levels. In Study B, we examined QMT effects on creativity and additional metacognitive functions in children, using a nonintervention group as control. Similar to Study A, following QMT, we found a negative correlation of proNGF with creativity, as well as working memory updating and planning ability. Together, the current results point to the relationship between increased creativity and decreased proNGF following MBP. Thus, the current research emphasizes the importance of widening the scope of examination of "MBP in motion" in relation to metacognition and well-being.

  18. Resistance training decreases 24-hour blood pressure in women with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of eight weeks of resistance training (RT) on 24 hour blood pressure (BP) in patients with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods Seventeen women volunteered to participate in this study, 9 with MetS (37.0 ± 8.7 yrs; body mass 77.3 ± 9.7 kg; body mass index 30.3 ± 4.2 kg · m-2) and 8 without MetS (35.1 ± 7.2 yrs; body mass 61.3 ± 8.1 kg; body mass index 24.2 ± 2.5 kg · m-2). Individuals were subjected to eight weeks (3 times/week) of whole body RT comprised of one exercise for each main muscle group with three sets of 8–12 repetitions of each subject’s maximal load . A rest interval of one minute was allowed between sets and exercises. Twenty-four hour BP was measured by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Results Mean and diastolic night-time BP decreased (−3.9 mmHg, p = 0.04; -5.5 mmHg, p = 0.03, respectively) after eight weeks of training in MetS patients. This decrease was observed at 11:00 pm, 02:00 am (only diastolic), 07:00 am, and 6:00 pm. There was no training effect on BP in women without MetS. Conclusions Considering the elevation of BP as a contributor to the pathogenesis of MetS, and also to the increase of cardiovascular risk, this study supports RT as a non-pharmacological therapy in the management of BP control for MetS. PMID:23711286

  19. Football injuries: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Olson, David E; Sikka, Robby Singh; Hamilton, Abigail; Krohn, Austin

    2011-01-01

    Football is one of the most popular sports in the United States and is the leading cause of sports-related injury. A large focus in recent years has been on concussions, sudden cardiac death, and heat illness, all thought to be largely preventable health issues in the young athlete. Injury prevention through better understanding of injury mechanisms, education, proper equipment, and practice techniques and preseason screening may aid in reducing the number of injuries. Proper management of on-field injuries and health emergencies can reduce the morbidity associated with these injuries and may lead to faster return to play and reduced risk of future injury. This article reviews current concepts surrounding frequently seen football-related injuries.

  20. Concussions in American Football.

    PubMed

    Womble, Melissa N; Collins, Michael W

    Major advancements in sport-related concussion (SRC) management have been made across time to improve the safety of contact sports, including football. Nevertheless, these advances are often overlooked due to concerns regarding the potential long-term effects of SRC. Although further research is needed, it is critical that current efforts are focused on better understanding SRC in order to recognize and change ongoing factors leading to prolonged recoveries, increased risk for injury, and potentially long-term effects. To reduce risk for these outcomes, future focus must be placed on increased education efforts, immediate reporting of injury, prevention techniques, targeted treatment, and the development of multidisciplinary treatment teams nationwide. Finally, with the progress in understanding concussion, it is important to remain vigilant of additional advances that will help to further improve the safety of contact sports, including football.

  1. Training improves physical fitness and decreases CRP also in asthmatic conscripts.

    PubMed

    Juvonen, Raija; Bloigu, Aini; Peitso, Ari; Silvennoinen-Kassinen, Sylvi; Saikku, Pekka; Leinonen, Maija; Hassi, Juhani; Harju, Terttu

    2008-04-01

    To study the respiratory and physical health of young men, 224 asthmatic and 668 non-asthmatic military conscripts were recruited from the intake groups of July 2004 and January 2005 in Kajaani, Finland. Factors affecting respiratory health were elicited by a questionnaire at the beginning of the service, and results of high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) determination, peak expiratory flow (PEF), and 12-minute running test were collected at the beginning and the end of the service. Respiratory infections were diagnosed by a study physician. Upon entering military service, asthmatics had frequent exercise- and cold-related asthma symptoms (69.6% and 76.3%), and 48% of them had no medication for asthma. At the beginning, 25.8% of asthmatics and 19.1% of non-asthmatics had a poor result of less than 2,200 m (p = 0.05) in the 12-minute running test, and after 180 to 362 days of service, the corresponding percentages were 11.7% and 9.7% (p = 0.434). The levels of hsCRP, a marker of low-grade systemic inflammation, decreased significantly among both asthmatics, 1.5 (p = 0.001), and non-asthmatics, 1.6 mg/L (p < 0.001). Asthmatic men had 0.2 and non-asthmatics 0.1 respiratory infections per month (p < 0.001). In summary, asthmatic conscripts can enhance their physical fitness by training similarly to non-asthmatic ones. Their levels of hsCRP also decrease.

  2. A History of College Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokosz, Francis M.

    The history of football is traced as it evolved from the English game of rugby. The game as it is known today was conceived only after a long series of changes. Three prominent reasons for the change were: to make football more interesting to the spectator; to balance the competition between offense and defense; and to modify the dangerous…

  3. Football: Action on the Gridiron

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2010-01-01

    On any fall weekend across the United States, football reigns as the nation's favorite sport. Thousands of high school teams, the pride of communities from coast to coast, compete under the lights on Friday nights. Saturdays feature the tradition and pageantry of college football. Sundays belong to the 32 professional teams that play in the major…

  4. College Football Games and Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Daniel I.; Schnepel, Kevin T.

    2008-01-01

    There is a great deal of anecdotal evidence that college football games can lead to aggressive and destructive behavior by fans. However, to date, no empirical study has attempted to document the magnitude of this phenomenon. We match daily data on offenses from the NIBRS to 26 Division I-A college football programs in order to estimate the…

  5. Recreational football for disease prevention and treatment in untrained men: a narrative review examining cardiovascular health, lipid profile, body composition, muscle strength and functional capacity

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Peter Riis; Dvorak, Jiri; Krustrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, researchers have studied the effects of recreational football training as a health-promoting activity for participants across the lifespan. This has important public health implications as over 400 million people play football annually. Results from the first randomised controlled trial, published in the BJSM in January 2009, showed that football increased maximal oxygen uptake and muscle and bone mass, and lowered fat percentage and blood pressure, in untrained men, and since then more than 70 articles about football for health have been published, including publications in two supplements of the Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports in 2010 and 2014, prior to the FIFA World Cup tournaments in South Africa and Brazil. While studies of football training effects have also been performed in women and children, this article reviews the current evidence linking recreational football training with favourable effects in the prevention and treatment of disease in adult men. PMID:25878072

  6. Recreational football for disease prevention and treatment in untrained men: a narrative review examining cardiovascular health, lipid profile, body composition, muscle strength and functional capacity.

    PubMed

    Bangsbo, Jens; Hansen, Peter Riis; Dvorak, Jiri; Krustrup, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Over the past 10 years, researchers have studied the effects of recreational football training as a health-promoting activity for participants across the lifespan. This has important public health implications as over 400 million people play football annually. Results from the first randomised controlled trial, published in the BJSM in January 2009, showed that football increased maximal oxygen uptake and muscle and bone mass, and lowered fat percentage and blood pressure, in untrained men, and since then more than 70 articles about football for health have been published, including publications in two supplements of the Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports in 2010 and 2014, prior to the FIFA World Cup tournaments in South Africa and Brazil. While studies of football training effects have also been performed in women and children, this article reviews the current evidence linking recreational football training with favourable effects in the prevention and treatment of disease in adult men.

  7. Stretching and injury prevention in football: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Stojanovic, Marko D; Ostojic, Sergej M

    2011-04-01

    Stretching exercises are regularly recommended as a part of football-training sessions and in preparation for competition. There is little sound empirical evidence, however, to substantiate the role of stretching exercises and consequently increased flexibility on injury prevention in football. Furthermore, in the last decade or so, fundamental research has shed some light on the biomechanical adaptation of the muscle-tendon unit following different stretching protocols, improving knowledge about the topic and enabling better understanding of the stretching-injury relationship. The purpose of this review is to examine the literature on the role of stretching and/or increased flexibility on injury prevention in football, with presented results analyzed in the context of the up-to-date basic science research evidence.

  8. The association football medical research programme: an audit of injuries in professional football

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, R; Hulse, M; Wilkinson, C; Hodson, A; Gibson, M

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To undertake a prospective epidemiological study of the injuries sustained in English professional football over two competitive seasons. Methods—Player injuries were annotated by club medical staff at 91 professional football clubs. A specific injury audit questionnaire was used together with a weekly form that documented each club's current injury status. Results—A total of 6030 injuries were reported over the two seasons with an average of 1.3 injuries per player per season. The mean (SD) number of days absent for each injury was 24.2 (40.2), with 78% of the injuries leading to a minimum of one competitive match being missed. The injury incidence varied throughout the season, with training injuries peaking during July (p<0.05) and match injuries peaking during August (p<0.05). Competition injuries represented 63% of those reported, significantly (p<0.01) more of these injuries occurring towards the end of both halves. Strains (37%) and sprains (19%) were the major injury types, the lower extremity being the site of 87% of the injuries reported. Most injury mechanisms were classified as being non-contact (58%). Re-injuries accounted for 7% of all injuries, 66% of these being classified as either a strain or a sprain. The severity of re-injuries was greater than the initial injury (p<0.01). Conclusions—Professional football players are exposed to a high risk of injury and there is a need to investigate ways of reducing this risk. Areas that warrant attention include the training programmes implemented by clubs during various stages of the season, the factors contributing to the pattern of injuries during matches with respect to time, and the rehabilitation protocols employed by clubs. Key Words: football; injuries; prevention PMID:11157461

  9. Monitoring accelerations with GPS in football: time to slow down?

    PubMed

    Buchheit, Martin; Al Haddad, Hani; Simpson, Ben M; Palazzi, Dino; Bourdon, Pitre C; Di Salvo, Valter; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2014-05-01

    The aims of the current study were to examine the magnitude of between-GPS-models differences in commonly reported running-based measures in football, examine between-units variability, and assess the effect of software updates on these measures. Fifty identical-brand GPS units (15 SPI-proX and 35 SPIproX2, 15 Hz, GPSports, Canberra, Australia) were attached to a custom-made plastic sled towed by a player performing simulated match running activities. GPS data collected during training sessions over 4 wk from 4 professional football players (N = 53 files) were also analyzed before and after 2 manufacturer-supplied software updates. There were substantial differences between the different models (eg, standardized difference for the number of acceleration >4 m/s2 = 2.1; 90% confidence limits [1.4, 2.7], with 100% chance of a true difference). Between-units variations ranged from 1% (maximal speed) to 56% (number of deceleration >4 m/s2). Some GPS units measured 2-6 times more acceleration/deceleration occurrences than others. Software updates did not substantially affect the distance covered at different speeds or peak speed reached, but 1 of the updates led to large and small decreases in the occurrence of accelerations (-1.24; -1.32, -1.15) and decelerations (-0.45; -0.48, -0.41), respectively. Practitioners are advised to apply care when comparing data collected with different models or units or when updating their software. The metrics of accelerations and decelerations show the most variability in GPS monitoring and must be interpreted cautiously.

  10. Fans, homophobia and masculinities in association football: evidence of a more inclusive environment.

    PubMed

    Cashmore, Ellis; Cleland, Jamie

    2012-06-01

    This article draws on 3,500 responses from fans and professionals involved in association football (soccer) to an anonymous online survey posted from June 2010 to October 2010 regarding their views towards gay footballers. The overall findings are that, contrary to assumptions of homophobia, there is evidence of rapidly decreasing homophobia within the culture of football fandom. The results advance inclusive masculinity theory with 93 per cent of fans of all ages stating that there is no place for homophobia within football. Fans blame agents and clubs for the lack of openness and challenge football's governing organizations to oppose the culture of secrecy surrounding gay players and to provide a more inclusive environment to support players who want to come out.

  11. How to Rescue American Football.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, George D; Metzner, David

    2016-04-28

    Blows to the head damage the brain. American football is a contact/collision sport that produces many injuries, including to the brain. Football has many supporters who cite important redeeming characteristics of the activity. Public attention to the hazards of children and adults playing football has heightend recently due to many new scientific discoveries, not least of which is the frequency with which players are seriously harmed and do not recover. It is now incumbent on all interested parties to invent and implement far better safety practices, equipment, rules, and processes or the sport must cease to exist in its current form. This paper presents several safety proposals for consideration and study.

  12. Football and doping: study of African amateur footballers

    PubMed Central

    Ama, P; Betnga, B; Ama, M; Kamga, J

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate use and awareness of lawful and unlawful substances by amateur footballers in Yaounde, Cameroon. Methods: A total of 1116 amateur footballers (1037 male and 79 female) out of 1500 contacted participated in this study. They were divided into three groups: elite players (n = 314); local players (n = 723); female players (n = 79). They answered a questionnaire of 30 items grouped under six main topics: identification of players; use of lawful substances subject to certain restrictions on the International Olympic Committee (IOC) list; use of IOC banned substances; doping behaviour; awareness of doping; food supplements. The results of the questionnaire were scrutinised using Microstat software, and the level of significance was p<0.05. Results: (a) Use by our footballers of a banned substance (cocaine) and substances subject to certain restrictions (alcoholic drinks, methylated spirits, and banga (marijuana)). (b) Doping behaviour: use by our footballers of substances with similar effects to some IOC banned substances but not listed as such: tobacco, liboga, wie-wie (narcotic), bilibili (locally made alcohol drink). (c) A large intake of vitamin C (food supplements) in all three groups. In contrast, the footballers' knowledge of doping was vague. Conclusion: Preventive actions and an epidemiological study of doping among footballers are urgently required. PMID:12893714

  13. Football injury: a literature review *

    PubMed Central

    Kos, John J.

    1979-01-01

    A great deal of concern is recently being expressed relative to the playing of tackle football by adolescent Canadians. The purpose of this literature review is to try to summarize the important data from the available world literature. Very few Canadian statistics are available. Most of the data comes from United States experience. Tackle football injury is examined from various perspectives: 1. Equipment 2. Mechanisms of injury 3. Types of injury, with some emphasis on epiphyseal injury 4. Prevention 5. Comparison with other sports Although no “hard and fast” conclusion is drawn, the paper tends to show that: 1. Football is dangerous 2. Football is damaging to many body systems 3. Prevention of injury is difficult under present conditions 4. Alternate games, such as soccer and rugby seem to provide the same benefits with less catastrophic injuries

  14. Blending Functional Communication Training and Choice Making to Improve Task Engagement and Decrease Problem Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Stephanie M. Peck; Caniglia, Cyndi; Royster, Amy Jo; Macfarlane, Emily; Plowman, Kristen; Baird, Sally Jo; Wu, Nadia

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of choice making within functional communication training (FCT) to increase the task engagement of two participants with inappropriate behaviour. Pretreatment functional analyses indicated that both participants' inappropriate behaviour was maintained by escape. For one of the participants, inappropriate behaviour…

  15. Kata Techniques Training Consistently Decreases Stereotypy in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahrami, Fatimah; Movahedi, Ahmadreza; Marandi, Sayed Mohammad; Abedi, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    The effects of 14 weeks of Kata techniques training on stereotypic behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were investigated. The study included 30 eligible (diagnosed ASD, school age) children with ages ranging from 5 to 16 years whom they assigned to an exercise (n = 15) or a no-exercise control group (n = 15). Participants of…

  16. Lesotho's footballers join the fight against AIDS.

    PubMed

    1995-12-01

    Under Lesotho's traditional HIV/AIDS program, church organizations did outreach work with high risk groups and medical personnel were trained in the care of AIDS patients. Then in 1994 an innovative strategy was introduced: the Footballers Against AIDS campaign. CARE Lesotho enlisted footballers to speak to youth, fans, and the general community about AIDS. An educational football theme comic has also been developed. League matches are designated as HIV/AIDS awareness matches and the players use the opportunity to reach a large audience with information, education, and communication materials. The players have significantly changed their sexual behavior as a result of participating in the program. The first reported case of AIDS in Lesotho occurred in 1986. In June 1993 there were 294 reported cases and by May 1995 there were 580 reported cases. Recent HIV sentinel surveys show that teenage pregnancy is increasing at dramatic rates from 6.9% of antenatal clinic attenders in 1992 to 20.1% in 1993 and that many of the young girls have HIV. Among clinic patients under 24 years of age who were part of the survey, 12% were HIV positive. This age group constituted 58.2% of all HIV-positive people reported in the survey. Because of Lesotho's proximity to South Africa's gold, diamond, and coal mines, Lesotho's work force is very mobile. Between 60% and 70% of men work in the mines most of the year, which is another factor that facilitates the spread of HIV. The National AIDS Prevention and Control Program has recently initiated a peer education program working with secondary school youth for the prevention and control of sexually transmitted diseases, especially HIV/AIDS. CARE will soon begin expanding its sports program. Athletes from many other sports will work with secondary school youth. In addition, educational videos will be produced in the local language. Football-health camps and interschool sporting competitions for secondary school youth will be organized by HIV

  17. Influence of Yo-Yo IR2 Scores on Internal and External Workloads and Fatigue Responses of Tag Football Players during Tournament Competition

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to: a) identify changes in jump height and perceived well-being as indirect markers of fatigue, b) determine the internal and external workloads performed by players, and c) examine the influence of Yo-Yo IR2 on changes in jump height, perceived well-being and internal and external workloads during a tag football tournament. Microtechnology devices combined with heart rate (HR) chest straps provided external and internal measures of match work-rate and workload for twelve male tag football players during the 2014 Australian National Championships. Jump height and perceived well-being were assessed prior to and during the tournament as indirect measures of fatigue. Changes in work-rate, workload and fatigue measures between high- and low-fitness groups were examined based on players’ Yo-Yo IR2 score using a median split technique. The low- and high-fitness groups reported similar mean HR, PlayerloadTM/min, and distance/min for matches, however the low-fitness group reported higher perceived match-intensities (ES = 0.90–1.35) for several matches. Further, the high-fitness group reported higher measures of tournament workload, including distance (ES = 0.71), PlayerloadTM (ES = 0.85) and Edwards’ training impulse (TRIMP) (ES = 1.23) than the low-fitness group. High- and low-fitness groups both showed large decreases (ES = 1.46–1.49) in perceived well-being during the tournament, although jump height did not decrease below pre-tournament values. Increased Yo-Yo IR2 appears to offer a protective effect against player fatigue despite increased workloads during a tag football tournament. It is vital that training programs adequately prepare tag football players for tournament competition to maximise performance and minimise player fatigue. PMID:26465599

  18. Influence of Yo-Yo IR2 Scores on Internal and External Workloads and Fatigue Responses of Tag Football Players during Tournament Competition.

    PubMed

    Hogarth, Luke W; Burkett, Brendan J; McKean, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to: a) identify changes in jump height and perceived well-being as indirect markers of fatigue, b) determine the internal and external workloads performed by players, and c) examine the influence of Yo-Yo IR2 on changes in jump height, perceived well-being and internal and external workloads during a tag football tournament. Microtechnology devices combined with heart rate (HR) chest straps provided external and internal measures of match work-rate and workload for twelve male tag football players during the 2014 Australian National Championships. Jump height and perceived well-being were assessed prior to and during the tournament as indirect measures of fatigue. Changes in work-rate, workload and fatigue measures between high- and low-fitness groups were examined based on players' Yo-Yo IR2 score using a median split technique. The low- and high-fitness groups reported similar mean HR, PlayerloadTM/min, and distance/min for matches, however the low-fitness group reported higher perceived match-intensities (ES = 0.90-1.35) for several matches. Further, the high-fitness group reported higher measures of tournament workload, including distance (ES = 0.71), PlayerloadTM (ES = 0.85) and Edwards' training impulse (TRIMP) (ES = 1.23) than the low-fitness group. High- and low-fitness groups both showed large decreases (ES = 1.46-1.49) in perceived well-being during the tournament, although jump height did not decrease below pre-tournament values. Increased Yo-Yo IR2 appears to offer a protective effect against player fatigue despite increased workloads during a tag football tournament. It is vital that training programs adequately prepare tag football players for tournament competition to maximise performance and minimise player fatigue.

  19. Concussion and football: a review and editorial.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Kalil G; Grady, M Sean; Levine, Joshua M

    2015-04-01

    The issue of concussion in football is of substantial interest to players, coaches, fans, and physicians. In this article, we review specific cultural hindrances to diagnosis and treatment of concussion in football. We review current trends in management and identify areas for improvement. We also discuss the obligations that physicians, particularly neurosurgeons and neurologists, have toward brain-injured football players and the larger societal role they may play in helping to minimize football-associated brain injury.

  20. Decreased plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor and vascular endothelial growth factor concentrations during military training.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Go; Tokuno, Shinichi; Nibuya, Masashi; Ishida, Toru; Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Mukai, Yasuo; Mitani, Keiji; Tsumatori, Gentaro; Scott, Daniel; Shimizu, Kunio

    2014-01-01

    Decreased concentrations of plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and serum BDNF have been proposed to be a state marker of depression and a biological indicator of loaded psychosocial stress. Stress evaluations of participants in military mission are critically important and appropriate objective biological parameters that evaluate stress are needed. In military circumstances, there are several problems to adopt plasma BDNF concentration as a stress biomarker. First, in addition to psychosocial stress, military missions inevitably involve physical exercise that increases plasma BDNF concentrations. Second, most participants in the mission do not have adequate quality or quantity of sleep, and sleep deprivation has also been reported to increase plasma BDNF concentration. We evaluated plasma BDNF concentrations in 52 participants on a 9-week military mission. The present study revealed that plasma BDNF concentration significantly decreased despite elevated serum enzymes that escaped from muscle and decreased quantity and quality of sleep, as detected by a wearable watch-type sensor. In addition, we observed a significant decrease in plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) during the mission. VEGF is also neurotrophic and its expression in the brain has been reported to be up-regulated by antidepressive treatments and down-regulated by stress. This is the first report of decreased plasma VEGF concentrations by stress. We conclude that decreased plasma concentrations of neurotrophins can be candidates for mental stress indicators in actual stressful environments that include physical exercise and limited sleep.

  1. What Research Tells the Coach About Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paige, Roderick R.

    This booklet is designed to make available research findings about football with interpretations for practical application. Chapter 1, "Physical Characteristics of Football Athletes," includes a table comparing the height and weight of National Football League players and All-Star players. Somatotyping and body composition are discussed. In…

  2. Injuries of veteran football (soccer) players in Germany.

    PubMed

    Hammes, Daniel; Aus Der Fünten, Karen; Kaiser, Stephanie; Frisen, Eugen; Dvorák, Jirí; Meyer, Tim

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of injury data for the population of veteran football players. Therefore, a prospective study was conducted to investigate injury incidences and characteristics. Over one season, injuries and exposure of 18 teams (n = 265 players, age: 44.2±7.3 years, BMI: 26.6±3.2 kg/m(2)) were documented. Sixty-three players sustained a total of 88 injuries during the season. The incidence of training injuries (4.5 per 1000 hours) was significantly lower than of match injuries (24.7 per 1000 hours). The majority of injuries (n = 73; 83%) were located at the lower extremities, 52 (47%) were muscle injuries. The injury incidence of veteran football players is similar to other male football players of different skill levels and age groups, indicating a need for the implementation of preventive measures. Prevention programmes should consider the specific injury characteristics, with more muscle injuries in this population compared with younger football players.

  3. Foot kinematics and loading of professional athletes in American football-specific tasks.

    PubMed

    Riley, Patrick O; Kent, Richard W; Dierks, Tracy A; Lievers, W Brent; Frimenko, Rebecca E; Crandall, Jeff R

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe stance foot and ankle kinematics and the associated ground reaction forces at the upper end of human performance in professional football players during commonly performed football-specific tasks. Nine participants were recruited from the spring training squad of a professional football team. In a motion analysis laboratory setting, participants performed three activities used at the NFL Scouting Combine to assess player speed and agility: the 3-cone drill, the shuttle run, and the standing high jump. The talocrural and first metatarsophalangial joint dorsiflexion, subtalar joint inversion, and the ground reaction forces were determined for the load bearing portions of each activity. We documented load-bearing foot and ankle kinematics of elite football players performing competition-simulating activities, and confirmed our hypothesis that the talocrural, subtalar, and metatarsophalangeal joint ranges of motion for the activities studied approached or exceeded reported physiological limits.

  4. Kicking the Football?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    1999-10-01

    Here it is, mid-August, and I don't have my syllabus (or all my plans) together for the fall semester that will begin in a couple of weeks. I leave for the ACS meeting in a day and a half. There are so many things to do. Entropy reigns! (Well, only figuratively. See the papers on pages 1382-1397.) Will I get it all together before that big first day of classes? At this time of year I always have great plans, but also I wonder whether I am Charlie Brownthe eternal optimist, ready to try to kick that football one more time. I know I could score a field goal if only the football weren't pulled away at the last millisecond. But it seems invariably to be pulled away. Or maybe I just don't connect with it properly. Why do I keep kicking that football? What is it about a new school year that gets me psyched up and excited? Teaching (that is, devising and implementing environments and experiences that help people learn) is a challenge, largely because we don't really know that much about how to do it effectively. It's so easy for that football to slither away, never having gotten off the ground. That's one of the things that make teaching interesting and exciting. There are so many ideas to try, and it's fun to see whether they will work. Both successes and failures suggest additional new approaches. Teaching science, like science itself, seems always to produce more questions than answers. For those of us who enjoy experiments, it is an ideal profession. Another reason to get fired up is that a new school year offers opportunities to work with such wonderful people. Whether courses are successful depends on teachers, students, and interactions among them. Every fall there are new groups of students, providing teachers with new opportunities, challenges, experiences, and even friendships. Every fall we teachers have new ideas about both content and pedagogy that spur us to greater efforts and thereby help to develop our students' intellects and abilities. Even more

  5. Hepatic VLDL-TG production and MTP gene expression are decreased in ovariectomized rats: effects of exercise training.

    PubMed

    Barsalani, R; Chapados, N A; Lavoie, J-M

    2010-11-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of estrogen withdrawal and exercise training on hepatic very low density lipoprotein-triglyceride (VLDL-TG) production and on expression of genes involved in hepatic VLDL synthesis in response to lipid infusion. Female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent ovariectomy (Ovx), sham surgery (Sham), and Ovx with 17β-estradiol supplementation (OvxE2) before being subdivided into sedentary (Sed) and trained (Tr) groups for 8 weeks. Exercise training consisted of continuous running on a rodent treadmill 5 times/wk. At the end of the 8-week period, all rats in the fasted state were intravenously infused with a 20% solution of Intralipid for 3-h followed by an injection of Triton WR-1339 to block lipoprotein lipase activity. Plasma TG accumulation was subsequently measured during 90 min to estimate VLDL-TG production. An additional control group consisting of Sham-Sed rats was infused with saline (0.9% NaCl). Estrogen withdrawal resulted in higher (p<0.01) liver fat accumulation concomitantly with lower (p<0.01) VLDL-TG production and lower mRNA and protein content of hepatic microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP). All of these effects in Ovx rats were corrected with estrogen supplementation. Training in Ovx rats reduced (p<0.01) liver fat accumulation and further reduced (p<0.01) hepatic VLDL-TG production along with gene expression of MTP and diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 (DGAT-2). It is concluded that VLDL-TG synthesis and/or secretion is decreased in Ovx rats probably via MTP regulation and that this decrease may constitute one of the factors involved in hepatic fat accumulation. The training effect on reducing VLDL production was independent of the estrogenic status.

  6. Faster Futsal Players Perceive Higher Training Loads and Present Greater Decreases in Sprinting Speed During the Preseason.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Fábio Y; Pereira, Lucas A; Rabelo, Felipe N; Ramirez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Loturco, Irineu

    2016-06-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the speed-power characteristics of professional futsal players before and after a 9-week preseason and to explore possible relationships with internal training loads. Ten under-20 professional Brazilian futsal players performed unloaded (squat jump [SJ] and countermovement jump [CMJ]) and loaded (jump squat [JS]) jumps and a 20-m sprint test before and after the preseason. Weekly training loads as measured by session rating of perceived exertion (s-RPE) varied between 2,179 and 5,519 a.u. The magnitude-based inference statistics revealed that performance in the SJ, CMJ, and 20-m sprint very likely decreased (effect size [ES] = -0.64, -0.49, and -0.92, respectively), whereas mean propulsive power in the JS likely increased (ES = 0.42) in response to the preseason. The Pearson coefficient of correlation between velocity in the 20 m sprint test and s-RPE during the first 2 weeks of training was 0.66 (p ≤ 0.05) while no significant correlation was detected between total s-RPE (i.e., 9 weeks) and changes in the power-speed tests. The baseline 20-m sprint velocity was very largely and inversely (r = -0.90) correlated with the change in the 20-m sprint performance. In conclusion, futsal preseason training leads to impaired unloaded vertical jump and sprint test performance, with speed decreasing more in faster than slower players. In addition, because of the large correlation between baseline sprint ability and s-RPE, coaches are advised to assess sprinting performance at the beginning of the preseason to finely adjust the training stimuli to each athlete.

  7. Rehabilitation of Football Players with Lumbar Spine Injury. (Part 2 of 2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saal, Jeffrey A.

    1988-01-01

    The training phase of a rehabilitation program for football players who have sustained lower back injuries proceeds after the pain-control phase, and seeks to minimize risk of reinjury. This phase emphasizes movement training and exercise for strengthening abdominal muscles to stabilize the lumbar spine. A removable exercise guide is included.…

  8. Dehydration of football referees during a match

    PubMed Central

    Da Silva, A I; Fernandez, R

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To study hydration status in referees (main) and assistant referees (linesmen) during official football matches. Methods: Twelve male football referees were evaluated; all were volunteers. Before and after each match, the referee and one of the assistants were weighed without clothes and a blood sample was taken. Total water loss was determined for each subject from the change in body weight. The main haematological variables were analysed in the blood samples. Total plasma protein concentration and osmolarity were also determined. Variation in plasma volume was determined from changes in packed cell volume and a combination of changes in packed cell volume and haemoglobin concentrations. Results: During a match, total body water loss was 1.60 (0.13) litres, equivalent to 2.05 (0.18)% of body weight. Body weight was reduced by 1.55 (0.12)%, showing that water ingestion during the interval replaces only 24.4% of the body fluids lost during the match. The assistants lost 0.79 (0.19) litre of water, equivalent to 1.05 (0.25)% of body weight. The referees showed a significant decrease in plasma volume of 4.99 (1.33)%. The assistants showed a non-significant increase in plasma volume. The reduction in plasma volume observed in the referees correlated significantly with total body water loss (r = 0.9623). From these data, it is possible to predict that a dehydration of 1% reflects a reduction in plasma volume of nearly 2.5%. Conclusions: Referees are moderately dehydrated after a football match (2%), whereas assistants show a non-significant dehydration of 1% of their body weight. PMID:14665588

  9. Training for Power and Speed: Effects of Increasing or Decreasing Jump Squat Velocity in Elite Young Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Loturco, Irineu; Nakamura, Fabio Y; Kobal, Ronaldo; Gil, Saulo; Abad, César C Cal; Cuniyochi, Rogério; Pereira, Lucas A; Roschel, Hamilton

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effects of 2 different velocity-oriented power training regimens by either increasing or decreasing the jump squat velocity during jump training sessions applied 3 times a week for 6 weeks in soccer players. Twenty-four elite under-20 soccer players were randomly assigned to an increased bar velocity group (IVG) or a reduced bar velocity group (RVG). Athletes had their countermovement jump heights, mean propulsive velocities (MPVs) in jump squat, leg press maximum dynamic strength (1 repetition maximum [RM]), 20-m sprint times, and zig-zag change of direction (COD) abilities assessed before and after the intervention. Performance in all tests improved after training in both groups. However, greater gains in 1RM and MPV using 50-90% of body mass (BM) were noted for the RVG. The IVG demonstrated greater improvements in speed at 5, 10, and 20 m and MPV with no additional external load and with 40% BM. Both groups improved similarly in countermovement jumps and COD. To conclude, both velocity-oriented power training regimens were effective in eliciting neuromechanical adaptations, leading to better strength/power/speed performances, and the choice as to the most suitable method should be tailored according to players' needs/deficiencies.

  10. A prospective epidemiological study of injuries in four English professional football clubs

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, R. D.; Fuller, C. W.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To define the causes of injuries to players in English professional football during competition and training. METHOD: Lost time injuries to professional and youth players were prospectively recorded by physiotherapists at four English League clubs over the period 1994 to 1997. Data recorded included information related to the injury, date and place of occurrence, type of activity, and extrinsic Playing factors. RESULTS: In all, 67% of all injuries occurred during competition. The overall injury frequency rate (IFR) was 8.5 injuries/1000 hours, with the IFR during competitions (27.7) being significantly (p < 0.01) higher than that during training (3.5). The IFRs for youth players were found to increase over the second half of the season, whereas they decreased for professional players. There were no significant differences in IFRs for professional and youth players during training. There were significantly (p < 0.01) injuries in competition in the 15 minute periods at the end of each half. Strains (41%), sprains (20%), and contusions (20%) represented the major types of injury. The thigh (23%), the ankle (17%), knee (14%), and lower leg (13%) represented the major locations of injury, with significantly (p < 0.01) more injuries to the dominant body side. Reinjury counted for 22% of all injuries. Only 12% of all injuries were caused by a breach of the rules of football, although player to player contact was involved in 41% of all injuries. CONCLUSIONS: The overall level of injury to professional footballers has been showed to be around 1000 times higher times higher than for industrial occupations generally regarded as high risk. The high level of muscle strains, in particular, indicates possible weakness in fitness training programmes and use of warming up and cooling down procedures by clubs and the need for benchmarking players' levels of fitness and performance. Increasing levels of injury to youth players as a season progresses emphasizes the

  11. How to Rescue American Football

    PubMed Central

    Metzner, David

    2016-01-01

    Blows to the head damage the brain. American football is a contact/collision sport that produces many injuries, including to the brain. Football has many supporters who cite important redeeming characteristics of the activity. Public attention to the hazards of children and adults playing football has heightend recently due to many new scientific discoveries, not least of which is the frequency with which players are seriously harmed and do not recover. It is now incumbent on all interested parties to invent and implement far better safety practices, equipment, rules, and processes or the sport must cease to exist in its current form. This paper presents several safety proposals for consideration and study. PMID:27284499

  12. Cervical spine injuries in football.

    PubMed

    Breslow, M J; Rosen, J E

    2000-01-01

    The game of football, as it is played today, poses serious risk of injury for players of all ages. Injury may occur to any structure of the spinal column, including its bony, ligamentous and soft tissue components. The majority of cervical spine injuries occurring in football are self limited, and a full recovery can be expected. While these injuries are relatively uncommon, cervical spine injuries represent a significant proportion of athletic injuries that can produce permanent disability. The low incidence of cervical spine injuries has lead to a lack of emergency management experience of on-site medical staff. This paper will review the numerous injuries sustained by the cervical spine in football players and provide insights into prevention and guidelines for return to play.

  13. Thigh Injuries in American Football.

    PubMed

    Lamplot, Joseph D; Matava, Matthew J

    Quadriceps and hamstring injuries occur frequently in football and are generally treated conservatively. While return to competition following hamstring strains is relatively quick, a high rate of injury recurrence highlights the importance of targeted rehabilitation and conditioning. This review describes the clinical manifestations of thigh-related soft-tissue injuries seen in football players. Two of these-muscle strains and contusions-are relatively common, while a third condition-the Morel-Lavallée lesion-is a rare, yet relevant injury.

  14. Football injuries during European Championships 2004-2005.

    PubMed

    Waldén, Markus; Hägglund, Martin; Ekstrand, Jan

    2007-09-01

    The risk of injury in football is high, but few studies have compared men's and women's football injuries. The purpose of this prospective study was to analyse the exposure and injury characteristics of European Championships in football and to compare data for men, women and male youth players. The national teams of all 32 countries (672 players) that qualified to the men's European Championship 2004, the women's European Championship 2005 and the men's Under-19 European Championship 2005 were studied. Individual training and match exposure was documented during the tournaments as well as time loss injuries. The overall injury incidence was 14 times higher during match play than during training (34.6 vs. 2.4 injuries per 1000 h, P < 0.0001). There were no differences in match and training injury incidences between the championships. Teams eliminated in the women's championship had a significantly higher match injury incidence compared to teams going to the semi-finals (65.4 vs. 5.0 injuries per 1000 h, P = 0.02). Non-contact mechanisms were ascribed for 41% of the match injuries. One-fifth of all injuries were severe with absence from play longer than 4 weeks. In conclusion, injury incidences during the European Championships studied were very similar and it seems thus that the risk of injury in international football is at least not higher in women than in men. The teams eliminated in the women's championship had a significantly higher match injury incidence than the teams going to the final stage. Finally, the high frequency of non-contact injury is worrying from a prevention perspective and should be addressed in future studies.

  15. Resisting temptation: decreasing alcohol-related affect and drinking behavior by training response inhibition.

    PubMed

    Houben, Katrijn; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Wiers, Reinout W; Jansen, Anita

    2011-07-01

    According to dual-process models, excessive alcohol use emerges when response inhibition ability is insufficient to inhibit automatic impulses to drink alcohol. This study examined whether strengthening response inhibition for alcohol-related cues decreases alcohol intake. Fifty-two heavy drinking students were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: In the beer/no-go condition, participants performed a go/no-go task that consistently paired alcohol-related stimuli with a stopping response, to increase response inhibition for alcohol-related stimuli. In the beer/go condition, in contrast, participants were always required to respond to alcohol-related stimuli during the go/no-go task. Before and after the go/no-go manipulation, we measured weekly alcohol intake and implicit attitudes toward alcohol. In addition, we measured alcohol consumption during a taste test immediately after the go/no-go manipulation. Following the manipulation, participants in the beer/no-go condition demonstrated significantly increased negative implicit attitudes toward alcohol, and a significant reduction in weekly alcohol intake, while participants in the beer/go condition showed a non-significant increase in implicit positive attitudes toward alcohol and a significant increase in weekly alcohol intake. This study demonstrates that repeatedly stopping prepotent responses toward alcohol-related stimuli can be an effective strategy to reduce excessive alcohol use.

  16. Robot-assisted motor training: assistance decreases exploration during reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Sans-Muntadas, Albert; Duarte, Jaime E; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2014-01-01

    Reinforcement learning (RL) is a form of motor learning that robotic therapy devices could potentially manipulate to promote neurorehabilitation. We developed a system that requires trainees to use RL to learn a predefined target movement. The system provides higher rewards for movements that are more similar to the target movement. We also developed a novel algorithm that rewards trainees of different abilities with comparable reward sizes. This algorithm measures a trainee's performance relative to their best performance, rather than relative to an absolute target performance, to determine reward. We hypothesized this algorithm would permit subjects who cannot normally achieve high reward levels to do so while still learning. In an experiment with 21 unimpaired human subjects, we found that all subjects quickly learned to make a first target movement with and without the reward equalization. However, artificially increasing reward decreased the subjects' tendency to engage in exploration and therefore slowed learning, particularly when we changed the target movement. An anti-slacking watchdog algorithm further slowed learning. These results suggest that robotic algorithms that assist trainees in achieving rewards or in preventing slacking might, over time, discourage the exploration needed for reinforcement learning.

  17. Imaging of American football injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Podberesky, Daniel J; Unsell, Bryan J; Anton, Christopher G

    2009-12-01

    It is estimated that 3.2 million children ages 6 to 14 years participated in organized youth football in the United States in 2007. Approximately 240,000 children play football in the nation's largest youth football organization, with tackle divisions starting at age 5 years. The number of children playing unsupervised football is much higher, and the overall number of children participating in American football is increasing. Sports are the leading cause of injury-related emergency room visits for teenagers, and football is a leading precipitating athletic activity for these visits. Football is also the most hazardous organized sports in the United States. Though most pediatric football-related injuries are minor, such as abrasions, sprains, and strains of the extremities, football accounts for more major and catastrophic injuries than any other sport. Given football's popularity with children in the United States, combined with the high rate of injury associated with participation in this activity, radiologists should be familiar with the imaging features and injury patterns seen in this patient population.

  18. A pilot study evaluating a one-session attention modification training to decrease overeating in obese children.

    PubMed

    Boutelle, Kerri N; Kuckertz, Jennie M; Carlson, Jordan; Amir, Nader

    2014-05-01

    There are a number of neurocognitive and behavioral mechanisms that contribute to overeating and obesity, including an attentional bias to food cues. Attention modification programs, which implicitly train attention away from specific cues, have been used in anxiety and substance abuse, and could logically be applied to food cues. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the initial efficacy of a single session attention modification training for food cues (AMP) on overeating in overweight and obese children. Twenty-four obese children who eat in the absence of hunger participated in two visits and were assigned to an attention modification program (AMP) or attentional control program (ACC). The AMP program trained attention away 100% of the time from food words to neutral words. The ACC program trained attention 50% of the time to neutral and 50% of the time to food. Outcome measures included the eating in the absence of hunger free access session, and measures of craving, liking and salivation. Results revealed significant treatment effects for EAH percent and EAH kcal (group by time interactions p<.05). Children in the ACC condition showed a significant increase over time in the number of calories consumed in the free access session (within group t=3.09, p=.009) as well as the percent of daily caloric needs consumed in free access (within group t=3.37, p=.006), whereas children in the AMP group demonstrated slight decreases in these variables (within group t=-0.75 and -0.63, respectively). There was a trend suggesting a beneficial effect of AMP as compared to ACC for attentional bias (group by time interaction p=.073). Changes in craving, liking and saliva were not significantly different between groups (ps=.178-.527). This is the first study to demonstrate that an AMP program can influence eating in obese children. Larger studies are needed to replicate and extend these results.

  19. A pilot study evaluating a one-session attention modification training to decrease overeating in obese children

    PubMed Central

    Boutelle, Kerri N.; Kuckertz, Jennie M.; Carlson, Jordan; Amir, Nader

    2014-01-01

    There are a number of neurocognitive and behavioral mechanisms that contribute to overeating and obesity, including an attentional bias to food cues. Attention modification programs, which implicitly train attention away from specific cues, have been used in anxiety and substance abuse, and could logically be applied to food cues. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the initial efficacy of a single session attention modification training for food cues (AMP) on overeating in overweight and obese children. Twenty–four obese children who eat in the absence of hunger participated in two visits and were assigned to an attention modification program (AMP) or attentional control program (ACC). The AMP program trained attention away 100% of the time from food words to neutral words. The ACC program trained attention 50% of the time to neutral and 50% of the time to food. Outcome measures included the eating in the absence of hunger free access session, and measures of craving, liking and salivation. Results revealed significant treatment effects for EAH percent and EAH kcal (group by time interactions p < .05). Children in the ACC condition showed a significant increase over time in the number of calories consumed in the free access session (within group t=3.09, p=.009) as well as the percent of daily caloric needs consumed in free access (within group t=3.37, p=.006), whereas children in the AMP group demonstrated slight decreases in these variables (within group t=−0.75 and −0.63). There was a trend suggesting a beneficial effect of AMP as compared to ACC for attentional bias (group by time interaction p=.073). Changes in craving, liking and saliva were not significantly different between groups (ps=.178 to .527). This is the first study to demonstrate that an AMP program can influence eating in obese children. Larger studies are needed to replicate and extend these results. PMID:24512975

  20. Effects of expertise on football betting

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Football (soccer) is one of the most popular sports in the world, including Europe. It is associated with important betting activities. A common belief, widely spread among those who participate in gambling activities, is that knowledge and expertise on football lead to better prediction skills for match outcomes. If unfounded, however, this belief should be considered as a form of “illusion of control.” The aim of this study was to examine whether football experts are better than nonexperts at predicting football match scores. Methods Two hundred and fifty-eight persons took part in the study: 21.3% as football experts, 54.3% as laypersons (non-initiated to football), and 24.4% as football amateurs. They predicted the scores of the first 10 matches of the 2008 UEFA European Football Championship. Logistic regressions were carried out to assess the link between the accuracy of the forecasted scores and the expertise of the participants (expert, amateur, layperson), controlling for age and gender. Results The variables assessed did not predict the accuracy of scoring prognosis (R2 ranged from 1% to 6%). Conclusions Expertise, age, and gender did not appear to have an impact on the accuracy of the football match prognoses. Therefore, the belief that football expertise improves betting skills is no more than a cognitive distortion called the “illusion of control.” Gamblers may benefit from psychological interventions that target the illusion of control related to their believed links between betting skills and football expertise. Public health policies may need to consider the phenomenon in order to prevent problem gambling related to football betting. PMID:22578101

  1. Physical training prevents depressive symptoms and a decrease in brain-derived neurotrophic factor in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Tuon, T; Valvassori, S S; Dal Pont, G C; Paganini, C S; Pozzi, B G; Luciano, T F; Souza, P S; Quevedo, J; Souza, C T; Pinho, R A

    2014-09-01

    Depression is a neuropsychiatric disorder that is commonly found in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Many studies have suggested that physical exercise can have an antidepressant effect by increasing the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and may also prevent neurodegenerative disease. However, different forms of training may promote different changes in the brain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two types of physical training on depressive-like behavior, and on the levels of proBDNF, BDNF, and its receptor, TrkB, in a mouse model of PD. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to 60 days of exercise: either running on a treadmill or performing a strength exercise. PD was induced by striatal administration of 6-OHDA 24h after the last physical exercise session. Seven days after 6-OHDA injection, depressive-like behavior and apomorphine-induced rotational behavior were evaluated. The levels of proBDNF, BDNF, and TRKB were measured in the striatum and the hippocampus of mice by immunoblotting assay. The 6-OHDA-treated animals showed a significant increase in immobility time and rotational behavior compared with the control group. In addition, significant decreases in the levels of proBDNF, BDNF, and its receptor, TrkB were observed in the 6-OHDA group. Both types of physical exercise prevented depressive-like behavior and restored the levels of proBDNF, BDNF, and TrkB in the striatum and hippocampus of mice administered 6-OHDA. Our results demonstrate that exercise training was effective for neuroprotection in the striatum and the hippocampus in an experimental model of PD.

  2. Prevention of Football Injuries: A Review of the Literature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    prophylactic double upright knee orthosis by Division I collegiate football players from the Iowa State University during the period of 1979 to...Jt Dis 59(4):201-210. 36. Brodersen, M.P., Symanowski, J.T. 1993. “Use of a double upright knee orthosis prophylactically to decrease...Prophylactic double upright knee orthosis Brace=503 Non brace=273 - Overall knee injury: nonbraced: 44% braced: 26% - Knee injury severity (time

  3. Cervical spine injuries in American football.

    PubMed

    Rihn, Jeffrey A; Anderson, David T; Lamb, Kathleen; Deluca, Peter F; Bata, Ahmed; Marchetto, Paul A; Neves, Nuno; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2009-01-01

    American football is a high-energy contact sport that places players at risk for cervical spine injuries with potential neurological deficits. Advances in tackling and blocking techniques, rules of the game and medical care of the athlete have been made throughout the past few decades to minimize the risk of cervical injury and improve the management of injuries that do occur. Nonetheless, cervical spine injuries remain a serious concern in the game of American football. Injuries have a wide spectrum of severity. The relatively common 'stinger' is a neuropraxia of a cervical nerve root(s) or brachial plexus and represents a reversible peripheral nerve injury. Less common and more serious an injury, cervical cord neuropraxia is the clinical manifestation of neuropraxia of the cervical spinal cord due to hyperextension, hyperflexion or axial loading. Recent data on American football suggest that approximately 0.2 per 100,000 participants at the high school level and 2 per 100,000 participants at the collegiate level are diagnosed with cervical cord neuropraxia. Characterized by temporary pain, paraesthesias and/or motor weakness in more than one extremity, there is a rapid and complete resolution of symptoms and a normal physical examination within 10 minutes to 48 hours after the initial injury. Stenosis of the spinal canal, whether congenital or acquired, is thought to predispose the athlete to cervical cord neuropraxia. Although quite rare, catastrophic neurological injury is a devastating entity referring to permanent neurological injury or death. The mechanism is most often a forced hyperflexion injury, as occurs when 'spear tackling'. The mean incidence of catastrophic neurological injury over the past 30 years has been approximately 0.5 per 100,000 participants at high school level and 1.5 per 100,000 at the collegiate level. This incidence has decreased significantly when compared with the incidence in the early 1970s. This decrease in the incidence of

  4. Influence of Ramadan fasting on physiological and performance variables in football players: summary of the F-MARC 2006 Ramadan fasting study.

    PubMed

    Zerguini, Yacine; Dvorak, Jiri; Maughan, Ronald J; Leiper, John B; Bartagi, Zakia; Kirkendall, Donald T; Al-Riyami, Masoud; Junge, Astrid

    2008-12-01

    The timing of food and liquid intake depends on the times of sunset and sunrise during the month of Ramadan. The current body of knowledge presents contradicting results as to the effect of Ramadan fasting on body mass, body composition and metabolic changes. The main objective of the present investigation was to gain additional information and scientific data in conformity with the philosophical background of Islam to allow optimisation of the daily training and dietary regimen in relation to the mental and physical performance of football players. The four teams, along with their coaches and trainers, attended a residential training camp at training centre 3 weeks before the start of Ramadan and throughout the study. Energy intake was relatively stable in the fasting group, but there was a small, albeit significant, decrease of approximately 0.7 kg in body mass. Water intake increased on average by 1.3 l/day in line with the greater energy intake in the non-fasting group in Ramadan. Daily sodium intake fell during Ramadan in the fasting players but increased slightly in the non-fasting group. Fasting players trained on average 11 h after their last food and drink, and reported that they felt slightly less ready to train during the Ramadan fast. None of the assessed performance variables was negatively affected by fasting while nearly all variables showed significant improvement at the third test session, indicating a training effect. Heart rate measurements in one training session during the third week of Ramadan appeared to suggest that the training load during training was marginally greater for the fasting than for the non-fasting players. However, the overall exercise load measures indicated that there was no biologically significant difference between the fasting and non-fasting groups. In the present study, biochemical, nutritional, subjective well-being and performance variables were not adversely affected in young male football players who followed

  5. Relationship Between Agility Tests and Short Sprints: Reliability and Smallest Worthwhile Difference in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division-I Football Players.

    PubMed

    Mann, J Bryan; Ivey, Pat A; Mayhew, Jerry L; Schumacher, Richard M; Brechue, William F

    2016-04-01

    The Pro-Agility test (I-Test) and 3-cone drill (3-CD) are widely used in football to assess quickness in change of direction. Likewise, the 10-yard (yd) sprint, a test of sprint acceleration, is gaining popularity for testing physical competency in football players. Despite their frequent use, little information exists on the relationship between agility and sprint tests as well the reliability and degree of change necessary to indicate meaningful improvement resulting from training. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability and smallest worthwhile difference (SWD) of the I-Test and 3-CD and the relationship of sprint acceleration to their performance. Division-I football players (n = 64, age = 20.5 ± 1.2 years, height = 185.2 ± 6.1 cm, body mass = 107.8 ± 20.7 kg) performed duplicate trials in each test during 2 separate weeks at the conclusion of a winter conditioning period. The better time of the 2 trials for each week was used for comparison. The 10-yd sprint was timed electronically, whereas the I-Test and 3-CD were hand timed by experienced testers. Each trial was performed on an indoor synthetic turf, with players wearing multicleated turf shoes. There was no significant difference (p > 0.06) between test weeks for the I-Test (4.53 ± 0.35 vs. 4.54 ± 0.31 seconds), 3-CD (7.45 ± 0.06 vs. 7.49 ± 0.06 seconds), or 10-yd sprint (1.85 ± 0.12 vs. 1.84 ± 0.12 seconds). The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for 3-CD (ICC = 0.962) and 10-yd sprint (ICC = 0.974) were slightly higher than for the I-Test (ICC = 0.914). These values lead to acceptable levels of the coefficient of variation for each test (1.2, 1.2, and 1.9%, respectively). The SWD% indicated that a meaningful improvement due to training would require players to decrease their times by 6.6% for I-Test, 3.7% for 3-CD, and 3.8% for 10-yd sprint. Performance in agility and short sprint tests are highly related and reliable in college football players, providing quantifiable

  6. Physical and performance characteristics of successful high school football players.

    PubMed

    Williford, H N; Kirkpatrick, J; Scharff-Olson, M; Blessing, D L; Wang, N Z

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the performance and physiologic characteristics of a "successful" American high school football team, and to compare the present values with values reported for other groups of high school, college, and professional players. For descriptive purposes, players were divided into two groups: backs (N = 8) and linemen (N = 10). Maximal aerobic power (VO2max) was determined from a maximal treadmill test, and body composition was evaluated by hydrostatic weighing. Maximal strength values were evaluated by one-repetition maximum bench press and squat test; the sit-and-reach test was used to measure flexibility. Speed and power were evaluated by a vertical jump and a 36.6-meter sprint. Results indicate that compared with other groups of college and professional players, as the level of competition increases so do height, weight, and fat-free weight of the players. Similar maximum oxygen consumption values were found for the present group when compared with other groups of these players. From the strength and power standpoint, football players at all levels are becoming stronger. Incorporation of strength training programs has greatly improved strength and performance profiles of football players at all levels of competition.

  7. A Comparison of Injuries between Flag and Touch Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Stephen L.

    This study was designed to determine whether fewer and less serious injuries result from participation in touch football as compared with flag football. A survey was taken of 30 flag football games and 30 touch football games and the incidence of injuries was recorded on a checklist. Results of the survey suggest the following: (a) intramural or…

  8. High-Intensity Interval Training with Vibration as Rest Intervals Attenuates Fiber Atrophy and Prevents Decreases in Anaerobic Performance

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Sandro Manuel; Aguayo, David; Zuercher, Matthias; Fleischmann, Oliver; Boutellier, Urs; Auer, Maria; Jung, Hans H.; Toigo, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic high-intensity interval training (HIT) improves cardiovascular capacity but may reduce the finite work capacity above critical power (W′) and lead to atrophy of myosin heavy chain (MyHC)-2 fibers. Since whole-body vibration may enhance indices of anaerobic performance, we examined whether side-alternating whole-body vibration as a replacement for the active rest intervals during a 4x4 min HIT prevents decreases in anaerobic performance and capacity without compromising gains in aerobic function. Thirty-three young recreationally active men were randomly assigned to conduct either conventional 4x4 min HIT, HIT with 3 min of WBV at 18 Hz (HIT+VIB18) or 30 Hz (HIT+VIB30) in lieu of conventional rest intervals, or WBV at 30 Hz (VIB30). Pre and post training, critical power (CP), W′, cellular muscle characteristics, as well as cardiovascular and neuromuscular variables were determined. W′ (−14.3%, P = 0.013), maximal voluntary torque (−8.6%, P = 0.001), rate of force development (−10.5%, P = 0.018), maximal jumping power (−6.3%, P = 0.007) and cross-sectional areas of MyHC-2A fibers (−6.4%, P = 0.044) were reduced only after conventional HIT. CP, V̇O2peak, peak cardiac output, and overall capillary-to-fiber ratio were increased after HIT, HIT+VIB18, and HIT+VIB30 without differences between groups. HIT-specific reductions in anaerobic performance and capacity were prevented by replacing active rest intervals with side-alternating whole-body vibration, notably without compromising aerobic adaptations. Therefore, competitive cyclists (and potentially other endurance-oriented athletes) may benefit from replacing the active rest intervals during aerobic HIT with side-alternating whole-body vibration. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01875146 PMID:25679998

  9. Personality and Performance in Intercollegiate Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Daniel J.; Barry, John R.

    The present study, based on Chelladurai and Carron's (1978) multidimensional theory of leadership, sought to determine if selected personality traits and specific leader behaviors are predictive of performance in collegiate football. Prior to regular season competition, collegiate football players (N=272) from three southeastern United States…

  10. The Physics of Kicking a Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brancazio, Peter J.

    1985-01-01

    A physicist's view of the problems involved in kicking a football is described through the principles of projectile motion and aerodynamics. Sample equations, statistical summaries of kickoffs and punts, and calculation of launch parameters are presented along with discussion to clarify concepts of physics illustrated by kicking a football. (JN)

  11. Ivy League Football: Hard-Core Unemployment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iman, Raymond S.

    1971-01-01

    Decries the discrimination accorded to Ivy League football players by Pro Football owners and suggests corrective measures including a Head Start program involving preseason coaching for Ivy Leaguers, formation of a Department of Recreational Studies headed by Ara Parseghian or Darrell Royal, and a remedial course for punters during Christmas…

  12. Implementation of the FIFA 11+ football warm up program: How to approach and convince the Football associations to invest in prevention

    PubMed Central

    Bizzini, Mario; Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, injury prevention has received a lot of attention in sports medicine, and recently international sports-governing bodies, such as the International Olympic Committee, declared the protection of the athletes’ health as one of their major objectives. In 1994, the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) established its Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-MARC) with the aim ‘to prevent football injuries and to promote football as a health-enhancing leisure activity, improving social behaviour’. Since then, FIFA has developed and evaluated its injury-prevention programmes ‘The 11’ and ‘FIFA 11+’ have demonstrated in several scientific studies how simple exercise-based programmes can decrease the incidence of injuries in amateur football players. This paper summarises 18 years of scientific and on-field work in injury prevention by an international sports federation (FIFA), from formulating the aim to make its sport safer to the worldwide dissemination of its injury-prevention programme in amateur football. PMID:23813485

  13. Football Fitness - a new version of football? A concept for adult players in Danish football clubs.

    PubMed

    Bennike, S; Wikman, J M; Ottesen, L S

    2014-08-01

    This article explores a new Danish football-based activity for health called Football Fitness (FF). Data are from quantitative and qualitative methods, and the theoretical framework for the analysis of the organizational form of FF is the theory of path dependency (Mahoney) and first- and second-order change (Watzlawick et al.). Theories of Pestoff concerning differences between state, market, and the civil society and theories of voluntary associations in a Danish context (Kaspersen & Ottesen; Ibsen & Seippel) are applied. This article indicates how FF is a result of the changing landscape of sport and argues that it can be beneficial to target sports organizations and include the expertise of non-profit sports clubs if the goal is to raise the physical activity level of the local community and make these long lasting. But the organizations need to consider how this is to be done. FF, established by the Danish Football Association (FA) and managed by the voluntary clubs, is one example in a Danish context. Data indicate that FF is beneficial to the clubs involved in a number of ways. Among other things, it attracts new user groups and improves the club environment, including social activities and parental environment.

  14. Team activity recognition in Association Football using a Bag-of-Words-based method.

    PubMed

    Montoliu, Raúl; Martín-Félez, Raúl; Torres-Sospedra, Joaquín; Martínez-Usó, Adolfo

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a new methodology is used to perform team activity recognition and analysis in Association Football. It is based on pattern recognition and machine learning techniques. In particular, a strategy based on the Bag-of-Words (BoW) technique is used to characterize short Football video clips that are used to explain the team's performance and to train advanced classifiers in automatic recognition of team activities. In addition to the neural network-based classifier, three more classifier families are tested: the k-Nearest Neighbor, the Support Vector Machine and the Random Forest. The results obtained show that the proposed methodology is able to explain the most common movements of a team and to perform the team activity recognition task with high accuracy when classifying three Football actions: Ball Possession, Quick Attack and Set Piece. Random Forest is the classifier obtaining the best classification results.

  15. Impact of playing American professional football on long-term brain function.

    PubMed

    Amen, Daniel G; Newberg, Andrew; Thatcher, Robert; Jin, Yi; Wu, Joseph; Keator, David; Willeumier, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    The authors recruited 100 active and former National Football League players, representing 27 teams and all positions. Players underwent a clinical history, brain SPECT imaging, qEEG, and multiple neuropsychological measures, including MicroCog. Relative to a healthy-comparison group, players showed global decreased perfusion, especially in the prefrontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes, and cerebellar regions. Quantitative EEG findings were consistent, showing elevated slow waves in the frontal and temporal regions. Significant decreases from normal values were found in most neuropsychological tests. This is the first large-scale brain-imaging study to demonstrate significant differences consistent with a chronic brain trauma pattern in professional football players.

  16. A conceptual model for worksite intelligent physical exercise training - IPET - intervention for decreasing life style health risk indicators among employees: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health promotion at the work site in terms of physical activity has proven positive effects but optimization of relevant exercise training protocols and implementation for high adherence are still scanty. Methods/Design The aim of this paper is to present a study protocol with a conceptual model for planning the optimal individually tailored physical exercise training for each worker based on individual health check, existing guidelines and state of the art sports science training recommendations in the broad categories of cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength in specific body parts, and functional training including balance training. The hypotheses of this research are that individually tailored worksite-based intelligent physical exercise training, IPET, among workers with inactive job categories will: 1) Improve cardiorespiratory fitness and/or individual health risk indicators, 2) Improve muscle strength and decrease musculoskeletal disorders, 3) Succeed in regular adherence to worksite and leisure physical activity training, and 3) Reduce sickness absence and productivity losses (presenteeism) in office workers. The present RCT study enrolled almost 400 employees with sedentary jobs in the private as well as public sectors. The training interventions last 2 years with measures at baseline as well as one and two years follow-up. Discussion If proven effective, the intelligent physical exercise training scheduled as well as the information for its practical implementation can provide meaningful scientifically based information for public health policy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov, number: NCT01366950. PMID:24964869

  17. Risk factors for hamstring injuries in community level Australian football

    PubMed Central

    Gabbe, B; Finch, C; Bennell, K; Wajswelner, H

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To identify risk factors for hamstring injury at the community level of Australian football. Methods: A total of 126 community level Australian football players participated in this prospective cohort study. To provide baseline measurements, they completed a questionnaire and had a musculoskeletal screen during the 2000 preseason. All were monitored over the season. Injury surveillance and exposure data were collected for the full season. Survival analysis was used to identify independent predictors of hamstring injury. Results: A hamstring injury was the first injury of the season in 20 players (16%). After adjustment for exposure, increasing age and decreased quadriceps flexibility were identified as significant independent predictors of the time to sustaining a hamstring injury. Older age (⩾23 years) was associated with an increased risk of hamstring injury (RR 3.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1 to 14.0; p = 0.044). Players with increased quadriceps flexibility (as measured by the modified Thomas test) were less likely to sustain a hamstring injury (RR 0.3; 95% CI 0.1 to 0.8; p = 0.022). Conclusions: The findings of this study can be used in the development of hamstring injury prevention strategies and to identify Australian football players at increased risk of hamstring injury. PMID:15665208

  18. Quantifying movement demands of AFL football using GPS tracking.

    PubMed

    Wisbey, Ben; Montgomery, Paul G; Pyne, David B; Rattray, Ben

    2010-09-01

    Global positioning system (GPS) monitoring of movement patterns is widespread in elite football including the Australian Football League (AFL). However documented analysis of this activity is lacking. We quantified the movement patterns of AFL football and differences between nomadic (midfield), forward and defender playing positions, and determined whether the physical demands have increased over a four season period. Selected premiership games were monitored during the 2005 (n=80 game files), 2006 (n=244), 2007 (n=632) and 2008 (n=793) AFL seasons. Players were fitted with a shoulder harness containing a GPS unit. GPS data were downloaded after games and the following measures extracted: total distance (km), time in various speed zones, maximum speed, number of surges, accelerations, longest continuous efforts and a derived exertion index representing playing intensity. In 2008 nomadic players covered per game 3.4% more total distance (km), had 4.8% less playing time (min), a 17% higher exertion index (per min), and 23% more time running >18kmh(-1) than forwards and defenders (all p<0.05). Physical demands were substantially higher in the 2008 season compared with 2005: an 8.4% increase in mean speed, a 14% increase in intensity (exertion index) and a 9.0% decrease in playing time (all p<0.05). Nomadic players in AFL work substantially harder than forwards and defenders in covering more ground and at higher running intensities. Increases in the physical demands of AFL football were evident between 2005 and 2008. The increasing speed of the game has implications for game authorities, players and coaching staff.

  19. Effectiveness of headgear in football

    PubMed Central

    Withnall, C; Shewchenko, N; Wonnacott, M; Dvorak, J; Scott, D

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Commercial headgear is currently being used by football players of all ages and skill levels to provide protection from heading and direct impact. The clinical and biomechanical effectiveness of the headgear in attenuating these types of impact is not well defined or understood. This study was conducted to determine whether football headgear has an effect on head impact responses. Methods: Controlled laboratory tests were conducted with a human volunteer and surrogate head/neck system. The impact attenuation of three commercial headgears during ball impact speeds of 6–30 m/s and in head to head contact with a closing speed of 2–5 m/s was quantified. The human subject, instrumented to measure linear and angular head accelerations, was exposed to low severity impacts during heading in the unprotected and protected states. High severity heading contact and head to head impacts were studied with a biofidelic surrogate headform instrumented to measure linear and angular head responses. Subject and surrogate responses were compared with published injury assessment functions associated with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Results: For ball impacts, none of the headgear provided attenuation over the full range of impact speeds. Head responses with or without headgear were not significantly different (p>0.05) and remained well below levels associated with MTBI. In head to head impact tests the headgear provided an overall 33% reduction in impact response. Conclusion: The football headgear models tested did not provide benefit during ball impact. This is probably because of the large amount of ball deformation relative to headband thickness. However, the headgear provided measurable benefit during head to head impacts. PMID:16046355

  20. Youth Football Injuries: A Prospective Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Andrew R.; Kruse, Adam J.; Meester, Scott M.; Olson, Tyler S.; Riedle, Benjamin N.; Slayman, Tyler G.; Domeyer, Todd J.; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Smoot, M. Kyle

    2017-01-01

    Background: There are approximately 2.8 million youth football players between the ages of 7 and 14 years in the United States. Rates of injury in this population are poorly described. Recent studies have reported injury rates between 2.3% and 30.4% per season and between 8.5 and 43 per 1000 exposures. Hypothesis: Youth flag football has a lower injury rate than youth tackle football. The concussion rates in flag football are lower than in tackle football. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Three large youth (grades 2-7) football leagues with a total of 3794 players were enrolled. Research personnel partnered with the leagues to provide electronic attendance and injury reporting systems. Researchers had access to deidentified player data and injury information. Injury rates for both the tackle and flag leagues were calculated and compared using Poisson regression with a log link. The probability an injury was severe and an injury resulted in a concussion were modeled using logistic regression. For these 2 responses, best subset model selection was performed, and the model with the minimum Akaike information criterion value was chosen as best. Kaplan-Meier curves were examined to compare time loss due to injury for various subgroups of the population. Finally, time loss was modeled using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results: A total of 46,416 exposures and 128 injuries were reported. The mean age at injury was 10.64 years. The hazard ratio for tackle football (compared with flag football) was 0.45 (95% CI, 0.25-0.80; P = .0065). The rate of severe injuries per exposure for tackle football was 1.1 (95% CI, 0.33-3.4; P = .93) times that of the flag league. The rate for concussions in tackle football per exposure was 0.51 (95% CI, 0.16-1.7; P = .27) times that of the flag league. Conclusion: Injury is more likely to occur in youth flag football than in youth tackle football. Severe injuries and concussions were not significantly

  1. Computer-Based Training at a Military Medical Center: Understanding Decreased Participation in Training among Staff and Ways to Improve Completion Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavender, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Military health care facilities make extensive use of computer-based training (CBT) for both clinical and non-clinical staff. Despite evidence identifying various factors that may impact CBT, the problem is unclear as to what factors specifically influence employee participation in computer-based training. The purpose of this mixed method case…

  2. The Effect of Recovery Duration on Vastus Lateralis Oxygenation, Heart Rate, Perceived Exertion and Time Motion Descriptors during Small Sided Football Games

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Scott; Kerhervé, Hugo; Lovell, Geoff P.; Gorman, Adam D.; Solomon, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Small sided games (SSG) of football are an effective and efficient format to simultaneously train the physiological, technical, and tactical components of football. The duration of the recovery period between bouts of SSG will affect the physiological response to subsequent bouts. It was hypothesised that decreasing the duration of recovery periods separating serial SSG bouts would increase physiological, and perceptual responses, and decrease high speed running, and distance during SSG bouts. Methods Twelve experienced footballers (mean ± SD; age 21 ± 3 yrs; VO2peak 64 ± 7 ml·min·kg−1; playing experience 15 ± 3 yrs) completed two SSG sessions. Each SSG consisted of 3 vs. 3 players and 6 bouts of 2 min duration, with bouts separated by either 30 s recovery (REC-30) or 120 s recovery (REC-120). Deoxygenated haemoglobin (HHb) in the vastus lateralis (VL) (using near infrared spectroscopy), heart rate (HR) and time motion descriptors (TMD) (speed and distance) were measured continuously during the SSG sessions and perceived exertion (RPE) was measured for each bout. Results During the recovery periods, in REC-30 compared to REC-120, there was a significant (p < 0.05) main effect of a higher HHb and HR. During the bouts, in REC-30 compared to REC-120, there were no significant differences in HHb, HR, RPE, or TMD, but within both REC-30 and REC-120 there were significant increases as a function of bout number in RPE. Conclusions Although a four-fold increase in recovery period allowed a significant increase in the recovery of HHb and HR, this did not increase the physiological, and perceptual responses, or time motion descriptors during the bouts. These results could have been due to the regulation of effort (pacing), in these experienced players performing an exercise task to which they were well adapted. PMID:26919064

  3. Nutrition and hydration concerns of the female football player.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Ronald J; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2007-08-01

    There is little information on the nutritional habits of female football players at any level of the game. There is also a shortage of information on the nutrition and hydration strategies that players should adopt. In general, differences in nutritional needs between males and females are smaller than differences between individuals, so that principles developed for male players also apply to women. There is a need to address energy balance and body composition: prolonged energy deficits cannot be sustained without harm to health and performance. Published reports show mean carbohydrate intakes for female players of about 5 g/kg/day, and this seems to be too low to sustain consistent intensive training. The timing of protein intake may be as important as the amounts consumed, provided that the total intake is adequate. Dehydration adversely affects skill and stamina in women as it does in men, so an individualised hydration strategy should be developed. The prevalence of iron deficiency in women generally is high, but it seems to be alarmingly high in female players. All players should adopt dietary habits that ensure adequate iron intake. Football training seems to increase bone mass in the weight-bearing limbs, with positive implications for bone health in later life, but some players may be at risk from inadequate calcium dietary intake.

  4. Hazard Analysis. Football: Activity and Related Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1974

    Data on football injuries acquired from surveillance sources and in-depth investigations are presented. Results of the study are summarized by descriptions of the accident sequence, diagnosis of the injury, and specific equipment involved in the injury. (JD)

  5. The epidemiology of catastrophic spine injuries in high school and college football.

    PubMed

    Gill, Sanjitpal S; Boden, Barry P

    2008-03-01

    Athletic events have long been identified as a source of catastrophic spinal injuries. One of the most notorious sports has been American football. At both the amateur and professional level, this collision sport is associated with the highest number of direct catastrophic injuries including cervical spine trauma and quadriplegia. Although modifications in the rules of play and education of players and coaches have significantly diminished the rate of quadriplegia, there remains a need to decrease the number of catastrophic spine injuries in football. Further research related to the prevention and management of athletic cervical spine trauma is necessary.

  6. Drill-specific head impact exposure in youth football practice

    PubMed Central

    Campolettano, Eamon T.; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although 70% of football players in the United States are youth players (6–14 years old), most research on head impacts in football has focused on high school, collegiate, or professional populations. The objective of this study was to identify the specific activities associated with high-magnitude (acceleration > 40g) head impacts in youth football practices. METHODS A total of 34 players (mean age 9.9 ± 0.6 years) on 2 youth teams were equipped with helmet-mounted accelerometer arrays that recorded head accelerations associated with impacts in practices and games. Videos of practices and games were used to verify all head impacts and identify specific drills associated with each head impact. RESULTS A total of 6813 impacts were recorded, of which 408 had accelerations exceeding 40g (6.0%). For each type of practice drill, impact rates were computed that accounted for the length of time that teams spent on each drill. The tackling drill King of the Circle had the highest impact rate (95% CI 25.6–68.3 impacts/hr). Impact rates for tackling drills (those conducted without a blocker [95% CI 14.7–21.9 impacts/hr] and those with a blocker [95% CI 10.5–23.1 impacts/hr]) did not differ from game impact rates (95% CI 14.2–21.6 impacts/hr). Tackling drills were observed to have a greater proportion (between 40% and 50%) of impacts exceeding 60g than games (25%). The teams in this study participated in tackling or blocking drills for only 22% of their overall practice times, but these drills were responsible for 86% of all practice impacts exceeding 40g. CONCLUSIONS In youth football, high-magnitude impacts occur more often in practices than games, and some practice drills are associated with higher impact rates and accelerations than others. To mitigate high-magnitude head impact exposure in youth football, practices should be modified to decrease the time spent in drills with high impact rates, potentially eliminating a drill such as King of the

  7. Drill-specific head impact exposure in youth football practice.

    PubMed

    Campolettano, Eamon T; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Although 70% of football players in the United States are youth players (6-14 years old), most research on head impacts in football has focused on high school, collegiate, or professional populations. The objective of this study was to identify the specific activities associated with high-magnitude (acceleration > 40g) head impacts in youth football practices. METHODS A total of 34 players (mean age 9.9 ± 0.6 years) on 2 youth teams were equipped with helmet-mounted accelerometer arrays that recorded head accelerations associated with impacts in practices and games. Videos of practices and games were used to verify all head impacts and identify specific drills associated with each head impact. RESULTS A total of 6813 impacts were recorded, of which 408 had accelerations exceeding 40g (6.0%). For each type of practice drill, impact rates were computed that accounted for the length of time that teams spent on each drill. The tackling drill King of the Circle had the highest impact rate (95% CI 25.6-68.3 impacts/hr). Impact rates for tackling drills (those conducted without a blocker [95% CI 14.7-21.9 impacts/hr] and those with a blocker [95% CI 10.5-23.1 impacts/hr]) did not differ from game impact rates (95% CI 14.2-21.6 impacts/hr). Tackling drills were observed to have a greater proportion (between 40% and 50%) of impacts exceeding 60g than games (25%). The teams in this study participated in tackling or blocking drills for only 22% of their overall practice times, but these drills were responsible for 86% of all practice impacts exceeding 40g. CONCLUSIONS In youth football, high-magnitude impacts occur more often in practices than games, and some practice drills are associated with higher impact rates and accelerations than others. To mitigate high-magnitude head impact exposure in youth football, practices should be modified to decrease the time spent in drills with high impact rates, potentially eliminating a drill such as King of the Circle

  8. Performance enhancements and muscular adaptations of a 16-week recreational football intervention for untrained women.

    PubMed

    Bangsbo, J; Nielsen, J J; Mohr, M; Randers, M B; Krustrup, B R; Brito, J; Nybo, L; Krustrup, P

    2010-04-01

    The present study investigated the performance effects and physiological adaptations over 16 weeks of recreational football training and continuous running for healthy untrained premenopausal women in comparison with an inactive control group [Football group (FG): n=21; running group (RG): n=18; CO: n=14]. Two weekly 1-h training sessions were performed in FG and RG. After 4 and 16 weeks of training VO(2max) was elevated (P<0.05) by 7% and 15%, respectively, in FG, and by 6% and 10%, respectively, in RG. After 16 weeks, Yo-Yo intermittent endurance level 2 performance was 33% and 19% better (P<0.05) for FG and 29% and 21% better (P<0.05) for RG than after 4 and 0 weeks, respectively. Peak sprinting speed was 12% higher (21.0 +/- 0.6 vs 18.8 +/- 0.7 km/h; P<0.05) for FG after the training period, whereas no difference was observed for RG. After 4 weeks citrate synthase (CS) and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD) activity was 9% and 8%, respectively, higher (P<0.05) than before training in FG with no further changes during the last 12 weeks. In RG, CS increased (P<0.05) by 12% after 4 weeks and no significant increase was observed for HAD. In FG, the number of capillaries per fiber was 18% higher (P<0.05) after 16 weeks (2.44 +/- 0.15 vs 2.07 +/- 0.05 cap/fiber), with no significant difference for RG. No differences were observed between 0 and 16 weeks for CO. In conclusion, recreational women's football leads to significant increases in VO(2max), performance and muscular adaptations throughout a 16-week training period. Thus, football can be used as an activity to elevate the physical capacity of untrained women.

  9. Concussion Incidence in Professional Football

    PubMed Central

    Nathanson, John T.; Connolly, James G.; Yuk, Frank; Gometz, Alex; Rasouli, Jonathan; Lovell, Mark; Choudhri, Tanvir

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the United States alone, millions of athletes participate in sports with potential for head injury each year. Although poorly understood, possible long-term neurological consequences of repetitive sports-related concussions have received increased recognition and attention in recent years. A better understanding of the risk factors for concussion remains a public health priority. Despite the attention focused on mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in football, gaps remain in the understanding of the optimal methodology to determine concussion incidence and position-specific risk factors. Purpose: To calculate the rates of concussion in professional football players using established and novel metrics on a group and position-specific basis. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Athletes from the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 National Football League (NFL) seasons were included in this analysis of publicly available data. Concussion incidence rates were analyzed using established (athlete exposure [AE], game position [GP]) and novel (position play [PP]) metrics cumulatively, by game unit and position type (offensive skill players and linemen, defensive skill players and linemen), and by position. Results: In 480 games, there were 292 concussions, resulting in 0.61 concussions per game (95% CI, 0.54-0.68), 6.61 concussions per 1000 AEs (95% CI, 5.85-7.37), 1.38 concussions per 100 GPs (95% CI, 1.22-1.54), and 0.17 concussions per 1000 PPs (95% CI, 0.15-0.19). Depending on the method of calculation, the relative order of at-risk positions changed. In addition, using the PP metric, offensive skill players had a significantly greater rate of concussion than offensive linemen, defensive skill players, and defensive linemen (P < .05). Conclusion: For this study period, concussion incidence by position and unit varied depending on which metric was used. Compared with AE and GP, the PP metric found that the relative risk of concussion for

  10. Comparison of Two Different Modes of Active Recovery on Muscles Performance after Fatiguing Exercise in Mountain Canoeist and Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Mika, Anna; Oleksy, Łukasz; Kielnar, Renata; Wodka-Natkaniec, Ewa; Twardowska, Magdalena; Kamiński, Kamil; Małek, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to assess if the application of different methods of active recovery (working the same or different muscle groups from those which were active during fatiguing exercise) results in significant differences in muscle performance and if the efficiency of the active recovery method is dependent upon the specific sport activity (training loads). Design A parallel group non-blinded trial with repeated measurements. Methods Thirteen mountain canoeists and twelve football players participated in this study. Measurements of the bioelectrical activity, torque, work and power of the vastus lateralis oblique, vastus medialis oblique, and rectus femoris muscles were performed during isokinetic tests at a velocity of 90°/s. Results Active legs recovery in both groups was effective in reducing fatigue from evaluated muscles, where a significant decrease in fatigue index was observed. The muscles peak torque, work and power parameters did not change significantly after both modes of active recovery, but in both groups significant decrease was seen after passive recovery. Conclusions We suggest that 20 minutes of post-exercise active recovery involving the same muscles that were active during the fatiguing exercise is more effective in fatigue recovery than active exercise using the muscles that were not involved in the exercise. Active arm exercises were less effective in both groups which indicates a lack of a relationship between the different training regimens and the part of the body which is principally used during training. PMID:27706260

  11. Australian rural football club leaders as mental health advocates: an investigation of the impact of the Coach the Coach project

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mental ill health, especially depression, is recognised as an important health concern, potentially with greater impact in rural communities. This paper reports on a project, Coach the Coach, in which Australian rural football clubs were the setting and football coaches the leaders in providing greater mental health awareness and capacity to support early help seeking behaviour among young males experiencing mental health difficulties, especially depression. Coaches and other football club leaders were provided with Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training. Method Pre-post measures of the ability of those club leaders undertaking mental health training to recognise depression and schizophrenia and of their knowledge of evidence supported treatment options, and confidence in responding to mental health difficulties were obtained using a questionnaire. This was supplemented by focus group interviews. Pre-post questionnaire data from players in participating football clubs was used to investigate attitudes to depression, treatment options and ability to recognise depression from a clinical scenario. Key project stakeholders were also interviewed. Results Club leaders (n = 36) who were trained in MHFA and club players (n = 275) who were not trained, participated in this evaluation. More than 50% of club leaders who undertook the training showed increased capacity to recognise mental illness and 66% reported increased confidence to respond to mental health difficulties in others. They reported that this training built upon their existing skills, fulfilled their perceived social responsibilities and empowered them. Indirect benefit to club players from this approach seemed limited as minimal changes in attitudes were reported by players. Key stakeholders regarded the project as valuable. Conclusions Rural football clubs appear to be appropriate social structures to promote rural mental health awareness. Club leaders, including many coaches, benefit from MHFA

  12. Distance Training in Function-based Interventions to Decrease Student Problem Behavior: Summary of 74 Cases from a University Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pétursdóttir, Anna-Lind

    2017-01-01

    In this study, 188 master-level students received training through a distance education course to conduct functional behavioral assessments (FBAs) and behavior support plans with 68 boys and six girls (aged 3-20 years) displaying persistent behavior problems in inclusive preschools, elementary, and secondary schools. In the course, master-level…

  13. Evaluating a standardised tool to explore the nature and extent of foot and ankle injuries in amateur and semi-professional footballers

    PubMed Central

    Evans, S.; Walker-Bone, K.; Otter, S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Football is a popular sport amongst amateurs as well as professionals. To date, most studies of football injuries have included only professional players and data have been collected in a variety of different ways. There is currently no single validated, standardised tool for the assessment of injures. Therefore, we developed a standardised questionnaire based upon an instrument used in rheumatoid arthritis sufferers and used it in a group of semi-professional and amateur footballers. We quantified the prevalence of foot/ankle injuries and evaluated risk factors for these injuries. Method A trained recorder administered a 33-item questionnaire (recording quantitative and qualitative data) in three football teams, 1 amateur and 2 semi-professional. The questionnaire enquired about demography, football specific information such as footwear and orthoses, and nature & extent of injuries. Results 42/42 eligible footballers completed the questionnaire. 34/42 respondents (81%) reported that they had experienced a total of 273 football-related injuries, 114 of which occurred at the foot or ankle. 70 injuries occurred at the ankle and 44 at the foot and 44% of the footballers had suffered one or more foot/ankle injuries in the past 12 months. Statistically significant relationships were seen between occurrence of lower limb and foot/ankle injuries and age, (p=0.03) weight (p=0.01) height (p=0.01) and shorter duration of warm-up (p). Conclusion The standardised tool performed well with an excellent response rate. Foot and ankle injuries were common in semi-professional and amateur footballers. Amongst this relatively small sample, statistically significant risk factors were identified which may be potential targets for prevention strategies but larger studies will be required. PMID:25605413

  14. Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk in Collegiate Football Players and Nonathletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobrosielski, Devon A.; Rosenbaum, Daryl; Wooster, Benjamin M.; Merrill, Michael; Swanson, John; Moore, J. Brian; Brubaker, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Collegiate American football players may be at risk for cardiovascular disease. Objective: To compare cardiovascular disease risk factors and cardiovascular structure and function parameters of football players, stratified by position, to a group of sedentary, nonathletes. Participants: Twenty-six collegiate football players and 13 nonathletes…

  15. Tips to Increase Girls' Participation in Flag Football Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, James C.; Ratliffe, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Despite the apparent popularity of flag football as an activity in physical education class and football as an after-school offering for girls, studies related to gender stereotyping of sports have found overwhelming evidence indicating that football is perceived as a masculine activity among males and females in primary school, secondary school,…

  16. A Demonstration of Ideal Gas Principles Using a Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bare, William D.; Andrews, Lester

    1999-01-01

    Uses a true-to-life story of accusations made against a college football team to illustrate ideal gas laws. Students are asked to decide whether helium-filled footballs would increase punt distances and how to determine whether a football contained air or helium. (WRM)

  17. Alcohol-Related Fan Behavior on College Football Game Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassman, Tavis; Werch, Chudley E.; Jobli, Edessa; Bian, Hui

    2007-01-01

    High-risk drinking on game day represents a unique public health challenge. Objective: The authors examined the drinking behavior of college football fans and assessed the support for related interventions. Participants: The authors randomly selected 762 football fans, including college students, alumni, and other college football fans, to…

  18. Whole Genome Sequencing of a Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Pseudo-Outbreak in a Professional Football Team

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Deverick J.; Harris, Simon R.; Godofsky, Eliot; Toriscelli, Todd; Rude, Thomas H.; Elder, Kevin; Sexton, Daniel J.; Pellman, Elliot J.; Mayer, Thom; Fowler, Vance G.; Peacock, Sharon J.

    2014-01-01

    Two American football players on the same team were diagnosed with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) skin and soft tissue infections on the same day. Our investigation, including whole genome sequencing, confirmed that players did not transmit MRSA to one another nor did they acquire the MRSA from a single source within the training facility. PMID:25734164

  19. REHABILITATION AFTER HIP ARTHROSCOPY AND LABRAL REPAIR IN A HIGH SCHOOL FOOTBALL ATHLETE

    PubMed Central

    Kolber, Morey J.

    2012-01-01

    Study Design: Case Report Background: Femoral acetabular impingement (FAI) has been implicated in the etiology of acetabular labral tears. The rehabilitation of younger athletes following arthroscopic surgery for FAI and labral tears is often complex and multifactorial. A paucity of evidence exists to describe the rehabilitation of younger athletes who have undergone arthroscopic hip surgery. Case Presentation: This case report describes a four-phase rehabilitation program for a high school football player who underwent hip arthroscopy with a labral repair and chondroplasty. Outcomes: The player returned to training for football 16 weeks later and at the 4 month follow-up was pain free with no signs of FAI. Discussion: There is little evidence regarding the rehabilitation of younger athletes who undergo arthroscopic hip surgery. This case study described a four phase rehabilitation program for a high school football player who underwent hip arthroscopy and labral repair. The patient achieved positive outcomes with a full return to athletic activity and football. The overall success of these patients depends on the appropriate surgical procedure and rehabilitation program. Key Words: Femoral acetabular impingement (FAI), hip, hip impingement Level of evidence: 4-Case report PMID:22530192

  20. Impact of limited hamstring flexibility on vertical jump, kicking speed, sprint, and agility in young football players.

    PubMed

    García-Pinillos, F; Ruiz-Ariza, A; Moreno del Castillo, R; Latorre-Román, P Á

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to analyse the impact of limited hamstring flexibility (HF) on specific football skills, such as sprinting and jumping ability, agility, and kicking speed in young football players. Forty-three male football players (aged 14-18) from a semi-professional football academy participated voluntarily in this study. Data about anthropometric measurements, HF (unilateral passive straight-leg raise test: PSLR), vertical jumping ability (countermovement jump: CMJ), sprinting ability (5, 10, 20 m: S5 m, S10 m, S20 m), agility (Balsom agility test: BAT), and kicking speed in terms of ball speed (dominant and non-dominant leg: KSdom and KSnon-dom) were collected. Cluster analysis grouped according to HF, dividing participants into a flexible group (FG, n = 24) and a non-flexible group (NFG, n = 19) in relation to performances on the PSLR test. Despite finding no significant differences between groups in body composition and age, the FG performed better in terms of sprint scores (S5 m: 6.12%, S10 m: 4.09%, S20 m: 3.29%), BAT score (4.11%), CMJ score (10.49%), and scores for KSdom (6.86%) and KSnon-dom (8%) than the NFG. The results suggest that HF is a key factor for performing football-specific skills, such as sprinting, jumping, agility, and kicking in young football players. These results support the rationale that muscle flexibility must be specifically trained in football players beginning at early ages.

  1. Selected Musculoskeletal and Performance Characteristics of Members of a Women's Professional Football Team: Application of a Pre-participation Examination

    PubMed Central

    Nett, Beth; Velarde, Lynnuel; Pariser, David P.; Boyce, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Although it is common practice to administer pre-participation examinations (PPE) of athletes prior to training, there are no clearly established formats. Elements integral to the PPE fall within the scope of physical therapist practice, and are often categorized as a form of primary prevention for musculoskeletal disorders as defined in the Guide to Physical Therapist Practice. Purpose The purpose of this study is to describe the design and implementation of a PPE for a women's professional (gridiron) football team. The results and findings from this PPE provide one of the first musculoskeletal profiles and information about selected physical characteristics from members of a female professional football team. Methods Players from the Kentucky Karma women's football team, a member of the National Women's Football League (NWFA), volunteered to participate in a PPE. Of twenty-five eligible team members, thirteen consented to participate. The PPE consisted of a health history questionnaire, a musculoskeletal screening, and a series of physical performance and agility tests. Results The players' average (± SD) age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and body fat percentage were 29.6 (± 5.6) yrs., 1.66 (± .05) m, 66.8 (± 12.6) kg, 24.1 (± 3.7), and 27.4 (± 6.6) %, respectively. Commonly reported injuries were similar to those reported in men's collegiate football. Conclusion This is one of the first papers to report on a model PPE for a women's professional football team. Future research is needed to establish a standard PPE, recognize common injuries, and develop prevention strategies unique to women's professional football. PMID:21509153

  2. Player acceleration and deceleration profiles in professional Australian football.

    PubMed

    Johnston, R J; Watsford, M L; Austin, D; Pine, M J; Spurrs, R W

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the validity and reliability of global positioning system (GPS) units for measuring a standardized set of acceleration and deceleration zones and whether these standardized zones were capable of identifying differences between playing positions in professional Australian football. Eight well trained male participants were recruited to wear two 5 Hz or 10 Hz GPS units whilst completing a team sport simulation circuit to measure acceleration and deceleration movements. For the second part of this article 30 professional players were monitored between 1-29 times using 5 Hz and 10 Hz GPS units for the collection of acceleration and deceleration movements during the 2011 and 2012 Australian Football League seasons. Players were separated into four distinct positional groups - nomadic players, fixed defenders, fixed forwards and ruckman. The GPS units analysed had good to poor levels of error for measuring the distance covered (<19.7%), time spent (<17.2%) and number of efforts performed (<48.0%) at low, moderate and high acceleration and deceleration zones. The results demonstrated that nomadic players and fixed defenders perform more acceleration and deceleration efforts during a match than fixed forwards and ruckman. These studies established that these GPS units can be used for analysing the distance covered and time spent at the acceleration and deceleration zones used. Further, these standardized zones were proven to be capable of distinguishing between player positions, with nomadic players and fixed defenders required to complete more high acceleration and deceleration efforts during a match.

  3. Cavum Septi Pellucidi in Symptomatic Former Professional Football Players.

    PubMed

    Koerte, Inga K; Hufschmidt, Jakob; Muehlmann, Marc; Tripodis, Yorghos; Stamm, Julie M; Pasternak, Ofer; Giwerc, Michelle Y; Coleman, Michael J; Baugh, Christine M; Fritts, Nathan G; Heinen, Florian; Lin, Alexander; Stern, Robert A; Shenton, Martha E

    2016-02-15

    Post-mortem studies reveal a high rate of cavum septi pellucidi (CSP) in chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). It remains, however, to be determined whether or not the presence of CSP may be a potential in vivo imaging marker in populations at high risk to develop CTE. The aim of this study was to evaluate CSP in former professional American football players presenting with cognitive and behavioral symptoms compared with noncontact sports athletes. Seventy-two symptomatic former professional football players (mean age 54.53 years, standard deviation [SD] 7.97) as well as 14 former professional noncontact sports athletes (mean age 57.14 years, SD 7.35) underwent high-resolution structural 3T magnetic resonance imaging. Two raters independently evaluated the CSP, and interrater reliability was calculated. Within National Football League players, an association of CSP measures with cognitive and behavioral functioning was evaluated using a multivariate mixed effects model. The measurements of the two raters were highly correlated (CSP length: rho = 0.98; Intraclass Correlation Coefficient [ICC] 0.99; p < 0.0001; septum length: rho = 0.93; ICC 0.96; p < 0.0001). For presence versus absence of CSP, there was high agreement (Cohen kappa = 0.83, p < 0.0001). A higher rate of CSP, a greater length of CSP, as well as a greater ratio of CSP length to septum length was found in symptomatic former professional football players compared with athlete controls. In addition, a greater length of CSP was associated with decreased performance on a list learning task (Neuropsychological Assessment Battery List A Immediate Recall, p = 0.04) and decreased test scores on a measure of estimate verbal intelligence (Wide Range Achievement Test Fourth Edition Reading Test, p = 0.02). Given the high prevalence of CSP in neuropathologically confirmed CTE in addition to the results of this study, CSP may serve as a potential early in vivo imaging marker to identify those at high risk for CTE

  4. Cavum Septi Pellucidi in Symptomatic Former Professional Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Hufschmidt, Jakob; Muehlmann, Marc; Tripodis, Yorghos; Stamm, Julie M.; Pasternak, Ofer; Giwerc, Michelle Y.; Coleman, Michael J.; Baugh, Christine M.; Fritts, Nathan G.; Heinen, Florian; Lin, Alexander; Stern, Robert A.; Shenton, Martha E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Post-mortem studies reveal a high rate of cavum septi pellucidi (CSP) in chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). It remains, however, to be determined whether or not the presence of CSP may be a potential in vivo imaging marker in populations at high risk to develop CTE. The aim of this study was to evaluate CSP in former professional American football players presenting with cognitive and behavioral symptoms compared with noncontact sports athletes. Seventy-two symptomatic former professional football players (mean age 54.53 years, standard deviation [SD] 7.97) as well as 14 former professional noncontact sports athletes (mean age 57.14 years, SD 7.35) underwent high-resolution structural 3T magnetic resonance imaging. Two raters independently evaluated the CSP, and interrater reliability was calculated. Within National Football League players, an association of CSP measures with cognitive and behavioral functioning was evaluated using a multivariate mixed effects model. The measurements of the two raters were highly correlated (CSP length: rho = 0.98; Intraclass Correlation Coefficient [ICC] 0.99; p < 0.0001; septum length: rho = 0.93; ICC 0.96; p < 0.0001). For presence versus absence of CSP, there was high agreement (Cohen kappa = 0.83, p < 0.0001). A higher rate of CSP, a greater length of CSP, as well as a greater ratio of CSP length to septum length was found in symptomatic former professional football players compared with athlete controls. In addition, a greater length of CSP was associated with decreased performance on a list learning task (Neuropsychological Assessment Battery List A Immediate Recall, p = 0.04) and decreased test scores on a measure of estimate verbal intelligence (Wide Range Achievement Test Fourth Edition Reading Test, p = 0.02). Given the high prevalence of CSP in neuropathologically confirmed CTE in addition to the results of this study, CSP may serve as a potential early in vivo imaging

  5. Moderate to severe injuries in football: a one-year prospective study of twenty-four female and male amateur teams.

    PubMed

    Lion, Alexis; Theisen, Daniel; Windal, Thierry; Malisoux, Laurent; Nührenbörger, Christian; Huberty, Robert; Urhausen, Axel; Seil, Romain

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to realize a prospective follow-up of the injuries occurring in female and male football players involved in the highest league in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. Data concerning anthropometric characteristics and football activities were gathered in 125 female and 243 male football players via questionnaires at the beginning of the study. Then, a follow-up of moderate to severe injuries (> 15 days of interruption in football practice) was performed throughout the season 2013-2014. Sixteen injuries (injury incidence = 0.7 injuries/1000 h of exposure) were observed in 13 female football players (10.4%). These injuries concerned mainly the knee (n = 7; 43.7%), with capsules and ligaments being the most often concerned tissues (n = 7; 43.7%). In male football players, 41 severe injuries (injury incidence = 0.6 injuries/1000 h of exposure) were observed in 36 players (14.8%). These injuries concerned mainly the thighs (n = 12; 29.3%) and the muscles and tendons were the most often concerned tissues (n = 18; 43.9%). Injuries in football are predominantly located at the lower limbs, particularly the knees in female football players. The predominant muscle and tendon lesions of the thighs occurring in males could reveal that physical preparation is insufficient or inadequate for a number of players. Regarding these results, it is necessary to implement an injury prevention strategy. The "FIFA 11+" programme could be used as the basic method, but should be personalized according to sex. The injury collection methodology could be optimized with the use of an electronic database, such as the Training and Injury Prevention Platform for Sports (TIPPS). Beside the systematic recording of injury data (as well as the training load) by the players or the medical staff, this system allows to share of important information between stakeholders, follow-up the players, provide risk factor warnings and increase the awareness of the injury problem.

  6. The time-frame of acute resistance exercise effects on football skill performance: the impact of exercise intensity.

    PubMed

    Draganidis, Dimitrios; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Carlos Barbero, Jose; Tsoukas, Dimitrios; Theodorou, Apostolos Spyridon; Margonis, Konstantinos; Michailidis, Yannis; Avloniti, Alexandra; Theodorou, Anastasios; Kambas, Antonis; Fatouros, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the recovery rate of football skill performance following resistance exercise of moderate or high intensity. Ten elite football players participated in three different trials: control, low-intensity resistance exercise (4 sets, 8-10 repetitions/set, 65-70% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) and high-intensity resistance exercise (4 sets, 4-6 repetitions/set, 85-90% 1RM) in a counterbalanced manner. In each experimental condition, participants were evaluated pre, post, and at 24, 48, 72 h post exercise time points. Football skill performance was assessed through the Loughborough Soccer Passing Test, long passing, dribbling, shooting and heading. Delayed onset muscle soreness, knee joint range of motion, and muscle strength (1RM) in squat were considered as muscle damage markers. Blood samples analysed for creatine kinase activity, C-reactive protein, and leukocyte count. Passing and shooting performance declined (P < 0.05) post-exercise following resistance exercise. Strength declined post-exercise following high-intensity resistance exercise. Both trials induced only a mild muscle damage and inflammatory response in an intensity-dependent manner. These results indicate that football skill performance is minimally affected by acute resistance exercise independent of intensity suggesting that elite players may be able to participate in a football practice or match after only 24 h following a strength training session.

  7. The role of specialisation in the promotion of young football talents: a person-oriented study.

    PubMed

    Zibung, Marc; Conzelmann, Achim

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the controversial question whether it is more effective to promote specialisation in a specific sport at the beginning of a career or whether to encourage a broad range of sports when promoting competitive sports talents in order for them to achieve a high level of performance in adulthood. The issue of promoting talents depends on human developmental processes and therefore raises developmental scientific questions. Based on recent, dynamic-interactionist concepts of development, we assume a person-oriented approach focussing on the person as a whole rather than individual features. Theoretical considerations lead to four interacting factors being summarised to form a subsystem: childhood training. The relative weights of these factors lead to patterns. By relating these to a performance criterion at the age of peak performance, particularly promising developmental patterns may be identified. One hundred fifty-nine former Swiss football talents were retrospectively interviewed about their career and the data analysed using the LICUR method. Two early career patterns were identified as having a favourable influence on adult performance. Both are characterised by an above-average amount of in-club training. One pattern also exhibits an above-average amount of informal football played outside the club, the other above-average scores for activity in other sports. Hence, comprehensive training and practice inside and outside the club form the basis for subsequent football expertise.

  8. Seasonal variation of leg stiffness in professional Australian rules footballers.

    PubMed

    Pruyn, Elizabeth C; Watsford, Mark L; Murphy, Aron J; Pine, Matthew J; Spurrs, Robert W; Cameron, Matkthew L; Johnston, Richard J

    2013-07-01

    Leg stiffness (Kleg) is an important component to consider in both performance and injury in the Australian Football League (AFL). Kleg has not yet been examined longitudinally throughout an entire AFL season. A unilateral hop test was used to measure Kleg in the left and right legs of 25 professional AFL players (24.9 ± 4.3 years, 86.8 ± 8.1 kg, 187.0 ± 7.3 cm). Kleg was assessed at least once per month for each participant. Furthermore, the session rate of perceived exertion method was used to quantify the average weekly training loads experienced by the participants. One-way analysis of variance revealed no significant difference between the average monthly bilateral Kleg scores; however, average weekly training loads varied between 1,400 and 2,000 AU, depending on the training period. Thirteen participants were randomly selected to perform hop tests on 2 consecutive weeks. Reliability tests revealed these measurements to have a typical error of the measurement of 4.15% and an intraclass correlation of 0.8, proving the methods to be reliable. Although training intensity appears to vary, Kleg does not fluctuate significantly across an entire AFL season, suggesting that weekly training loads between 1,400 and 2,000 AU may be prescribed without the risk of fluctuating stiffness levels.

  9. Common Shoulder Injuries in American Football Athletes.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Daniel B; Lynch, T Sean; Nuber, Erika D; Nuber, Gordon W

    2015-01-01

    American football is a collision sport played by athletes at high speeds. Despite the padding and conditioning in these athletes, the shoulder is a vulnerable joint, and injuries to the shoulder girdle are common at all levels of competitive football. Some of the most common injuries in these athletes include anterior and posterior glenohumeral instability, acromioclavicular pathology (including separation, osteolysis, and osteoarthritis), rotator cuff pathology (including contusions, partial thickness, and full thickness tears), and pectoralis major and minor tears. In this article, we will review the epidemiology and clinical and radiographic workup of these injuries. We also will evaluate the effectiveness of surgical and nonsurgical management specifically related to high school, collegiate, and professional football athletes.

  10. Home advantage in Greek football.

    PubMed

    Armatas, Vasilis; Pollard, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Home advantage as it relates to team performance at football was examined in Superleague Greece using nine seasons of game-by-game performance data, a total of 2160 matches. After adjusting for team ability and annual fluctuations in home advantage, there were significant differences between teams. Previous findings regarding the role of territorial protection were strengthened by the fact that home advantage was above average for the team from Xanthi (P =0.015), while lower for teams from the capital city Athens (P =0.008). There were differences between home and away teams in the incidence of most of the 13 within-game match variables, but associated effect sizes were only moderate. In contrast, outcome ratios derived from these variables, and measuring shot success, had negligible effect sizes. This supported a previous finding that home and away teams differed in the incidence of on-the-ball behaviours, but not in their outcomes. By far the most important predictor of home advantage, as measured by goal difference, was the difference between home and away teams in terms of kicked shots from inside the penalty area. Other types of shots had little effect on the final score. The absence of a running track between spectators and the playing field was also a significant predictor of goal difference, worth an average of 0.102 goals per game to the home team. Travel distance did not affect home advantage.

  11. Drug use in English professional football

    PubMed Central

    Waddington, I; Malcolm, D; Roderick, M; Naik, R; Spitzer, G

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To examine several issues related to drug use in English professional football. More particularly the project sought to gather data on: players' use of permitted supplements (mineral and vitamin pills and creatine); whether they sought advice, and if so from whom, about their use of supplements; their experience of and attitudes towards drug testing; their views on the extent of the use of banned performance enhancing and recreational drugs in football; and their personal knowledge of players who used such drugs. Methods: With the cooperation of the Professional Footballers Association (PFA), reply paid postal questionnaires were delivered to the home addresses of all 2863 members of the PFA. A total of 706 questionnaires were returned, a response rate of just under 25%. Results: Many players use supplements, although almost one in five players does so without seeking qualified professional advice from anyone within the club. Blood tests are rarely used to monitor the health of players. One third of players had not been tested for drugs within the preceding two years, and 60% felt that they were unlikely to be tested in the next year. The use of performance enhancing drugs appears to be rare, although recreational drugs are commonly used by professional footballers: 6% of respondents indicated that they personally knew players who used performance enhancing drugs, and 45% of players knew players who used recreational drugs. Conclusions: There is a need to ensure that footballers are given appropriate advice about the use of supplements in order to minimise the risk of using supplements that may be contaminated with banned substances. Footballers are tested for drugs less often than many other elite athletes. This needs to be addressed. The relatively high level of recreational drug use is not reflected in the number of positive tests. This suggests that many players who use recreational drugs avoid detection. It also raises doubts about the ability of

  12. Interval training based on ventilatory anaerobic threshold increases cardiac vagal modulation and decreases high-sensitivity c-reative protein: randomized clinical trial in coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Tamburus, Nayara Y.; Paula, Roberta F. L.; Kunz, Vandeni C.; César, Marcelo C.; Moreno, Marlene A.; da Silva, Ester

    2015-01-01

    Background: Autonomic dysfunction and inflammatory activity are involved in the development and progression of coronary artery disease (CAD), and exercise training has been shown to confer a cardiovascular benefit. Objective: To evaluate the effects that interval training (IT) based on ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT) has on heart rate variability (HRV) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels, as well as the relationship between both levels, in patients with CAD and/or cardiovascular risk factors (RF). Method: Forty-two men (aged 57.88±6.20 years) were divided into two training groups, CAD-T (n= 12) and RF-T (n= 10), and two control groups, CAD-C (n= 10) and RF-C (n=10). Heart rate and RR intervals in the supine position, cardiopulmonary exercise tests, and hs-CRP levels were measured before and after IT. HRV was analyzed by spectral and symbolic analysis. The CAD-T and RF-T underwent a 16-week IT program of three weekly sessions at training intensities based on the VAT. Results: In the RF-T, cardiac sympathetic modulation index and hs-CRP decreased (p<0.02), while cardiac parasympathetic modulation index increased (p<0.02). In the CAD-T, cardiac parasympathetic modulation index increased, while hs-CRP, systolic, and diastolic blood pressures decreased (p<0.02). Both control groups showed increase in hs-CRP parameters (p<0.02). There was a strong and significant association between parasympathetic and sympathetic modulations with hs-CRP. Conclusion: The IT program based on the VAT promoted a decrease in hs-CRP associated with improvement in cardiac autonomic modulation. PMID:26647745

  13. RETURN TO DIVISION IA FOOTBALL FOLLOWING A 1ST METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINT DORSAL DISLOCATION

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Chad; Zarzour, Hap; Moorman, Claude T.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Although rare in occurrence, a dorsal dislocation of the 1st metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint has been successfully treated using surgical and/or non-operative treatment. No descriptions of conservative intervention following a dorsal dislocation of the MTP joint in an athlete participating in a high contact sport are present in the literature. Objectives. The purpose of this case report is to describe the intervention and clinical reasoning during the rehabilitative process of a collegiate football player diagnosed with a 1st MTP joint dorsal dislocation. The plan of care and return to play criteria used for this athlete are presented. Case Description. The case involved a 19-year-old male Division IA football player, who suffered a traumatic dorsal dislocation of the 1st MTP joint during practice. The dislocation was initially treated on-site by closed reduction. Non-operative management included immobilization, therapeutic exercises, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, manual treatment, modalities, prophylactic athletic taping, gait training, and a sport specific progression program for full return to Division IA football. Outcomes. Discharge from physical therapy occurred after six weeks of treatment. At discharge, no significant deviations existed during running, burst, and agility related drills. At a six-month follow-up, the patient reported full return to all football activities including contact drills without restrictions. Discussion. This case describes an effective six-week rehabilitation intervention for a collegiate football player who sustained a traumatic great toe dorsal dislocation. Further study is suggested to evaluate the intervention strategies and timeframe for return to contact sports. PMID:21589669

  14. Quantification of Competitive Game Demands of NCAA Division I College Football Players Using Global Positioning Systems.

    PubMed

    Wellman, Aaron D; Coad, Sam C; Goulet, Grant C; McLellan, Christopher P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the competitive physiological movement demands of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I college football players using portable global positioning system (GPS) technology during games and to examine positional groups within offensive and defensive teams, to determine if a player's physiological requirements during games are influenced by playing position. Thirty-three NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision football players were monitored using GPS receivers with integrated accelerometers (GPSports) during 12 regular season games throughout the 2014 season. Individual data sets (n = 295) from players were divided into offensive and defensive teams and subsequent position groups. Movement profile characteristics, including total, low-intensity, moderate-intensity, high-intensity, and sprint running distances (m), sprint counts, and acceleration and deceleration efforts, were assessed during games. A one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Bonferroni statistical analysis were used to determine differences in movement profiles between each position group within offensive and defensive teams. For both offensive and defensive teams, significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences exist between positional groups for game physical performance requirements. The results of the present study identified that wide receivers and defensive backs completed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater total distance, high-intensity running, sprint distance, and high-intensity acceleration and deceleration efforts than their respective offensive and defensive positional groups. Data from the present study provide novel quantification of position-specific physical demands of college football games and support the use of position-specific training in the preparation of NCAA Division I college football players for competition.

  15. Would You Let Your Child Play Football? Attitudes Toward Football Safety.

    PubMed

    Fedor, Andrew; Gunstad, John

    2016-01-01

    An estimated 1.6 million to 3.8 million sports-related concussions occur each year in the United States, and many are related to football. This has generated much discussion in the media on the perceived safety of the sport. In the current study, researchers asked 230 individuals various questions about attitudes toward safety in football. Approximately 92.6% of participants indicated they would allow their child to play football; these participants were more likely to be female (χ(2) = 5.23, p > .05), were slightly younger (t= -2.52, p < .05), and believed an athlete could suffer a higher number of concussions before becoming excessive (t = 2.06, p < .05). Findings suggest most individuals are comfortable with their children playing football, and future studies are needed to clarify factors that inform this opinion.

  16. Evaluating a Nationwide Recreational Football Intervention: Recruitment, Attendance, Adherence, Exercise Intensity, and Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Fløtum, Liljan av; Ottesen, Laila S.; Krustrup, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated a nationwide exercise intervention with Football Fitness in a small-scale society. In all, 741 adult participants (20–72 yrs) were successfully recruited for Football Fitness training in local football clubs, corresponding to 2.1% of the adult population. A preintervention test battery including resting heart rate (RHR), blood pressure, and body mass measurements along with performance tests (Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 1 (Yo-Yo IE1), the Arrowhead Agility Test, and the Flamingo Balance Test) were performed (n = 502). Training attendance (n = 310) was 1.6 ± 0.2 sessions per week (range: 0.6–2.9), corresponding to 28.8 ± 1.0 sessions during the 18 wk intervention period. After 18 wks mean arterial pressure (MAP) was −2.7 ± 0.7 mmHg lower (P < 0.05; n = 151) with even greater (P < 0.05) reductions for those with baseline MAP values >99 mmHg (−5.6 ± 1.5 mmHg; n = 50). RHR was lowered (P < 0.05) by 6 bpm after intervention (77 ± 1 to 71 ± 1 bpm). Yo-Yo IE1 performance increased by 41% (540 ± 27 to 752 ± 45 m), while agility and postural balance were improved (P < 0.05) by ~6 and ~45%, respectively. In conclusion, Football Fitness was shown to be a successful health-promoting nationwide training intervention for adult participants with an extraordinary recruitment, a high attendance rate, moderate adherence, high exercise intensity, and marked benefits in cardiovascular health profile and fitness. PMID:27437401

  17. Evaluating a Nationwide Recreational Football Intervention: Recruitment, Attendance, Adherence, Exercise Intensity, and Health Effects.

    PubMed

    Fløtum, Liljan Av; Ottesen, Laila S; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated a nationwide exercise intervention with Football Fitness in a small-scale society. In all, 741 adult participants (20-72 yrs) were successfully recruited for Football Fitness training in local football clubs, corresponding to 2.1% of the adult population. A preintervention test battery including resting heart rate (RHR), blood pressure, and body mass measurements along with performance tests (Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 1 (Yo-Yo IE1), the Arrowhead Agility Test, and the Flamingo Balance Test) were performed (n = 502). Training attendance (n = 310) was 1.6 ± 0.2 sessions per week (range: 0.6-2.9), corresponding to 28.8 ± 1.0 sessions during the 18 wk intervention period. After 18 wks mean arterial pressure (MAP) was -2.7 ± 0.7 mmHg lower (P < 0.05; n = 151) with even greater (P < 0.05) reductions for those with baseline MAP values >99 mmHg (-5.6 ± 1.5 mmHg; n = 50). RHR was lowered (P < 0.05) by 6 bpm after intervention (77 ± 1 to 71 ± 1 bpm). Yo-Yo IE1 performance increased by 41% (540 ± 27 to 752 ± 45 m), while agility and postural balance were improved (P < 0.05) by ~6 and ~45%, respectively. In conclusion, Football Fitness was shown to be a successful health-promoting nationwide training intervention for adult participants with an extraordinary recruitment, a high attendance rate, moderate adherence, high exercise intensity, and marked benefits in cardiovascular health profile and fitness.

  18. Fuzzy logic and its application in football team ranking.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wenyi; Li, Junhong

    2014-01-01

    Fuzzy set theory and fuzzy logic are a highly suitable and applicable basis for developing knowledge-based systems in physical education for tasks such as the selection for athletes, the evaluation for different training approaches, the team ranking, and the real-time monitoring of sports data. In this paper, we use fuzzy set theory and apply fuzzy clustering analysis in football team ranking. Based on some certain rules, we propose four parameters to calculate fuzzy similar matrix, obtain fuzzy equivalence matrix and the ranking result for our numerical example, T 7, T 3, T 1, T 9, T 10, T 8, T 11, T 12, T 2, T 6, T 5, T 4, and investigate four parameters sensitivity analysis. The study shows that our fuzzy logic method is reliable and stable when the parameters change in certain range.

  19. The Effect of Interchange Rotation Period and Number on Australian Football Running Performance.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Paul G; Wisbey, Ben

    2016-07-01

    Montgomery, PG, and Wisbey, B. The effect of interchange rotation period and number on Australian Football running performance. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1890-1897, 2016-To determine the effect of on-field rotation periods and total number of game rotations on Australian Football running performance, elite Australian Football players (n = 21, mean ± SD; 23.2 ± 1.7 years; 183.5 ± 3.7 cm; 83.2 ± 4.5 kg) had Global Positioning System game data from 22 rounds divided into a total of 692 on-field playing periods. These periods were allocated into time blocks of 2:00-minute increments, with the log transformed percentage differences in running performance (m·min) between blocks analyzed by effect size and meaningful differences. A total of 7,730 game rotation and associated average m·min combinations collected over 3 Australian Football seasons were also assessed by effect size and meaningful differences. Running capacity decreases after 5:00 minutes by ∼3% for each 2:00 minutes of on-field time up to 9:00 minutes, with variable responses between positions up to 6.7% for nomadic players. For each rotation less than 6 per game, clear small-to-moderate decreases up to 3.6% in running capacity occurred per rotation. To maintain a high level of running capacity, shorter on-field periods are more effective in Australian Football; however, players and coaches should be aware that with interchange restriction, slightly longer on-field periods achieve similar results.

  20. The Ability of American Football Helmets to Manage Linear Acceleration With Repeated High-Energy Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Cournoyer, Janie; Post, Andrew; Rousseau, Philippe; Hoshizaki, Blaine

    2016-01-01

    Context:  Football players can receive up to 1400 head impacts per season, averaging 6.3 impacts per practice and 14.3 impacts per game. A decrease in the capacity of a helmet to manage linear acceleration with multiple impacts could increase the risk of traumatic brain injury. Objective:  To investigate the ability of football helmets to manage linear acceleration with multiple high-energy impacts. Design:  Descriptive laboratory study. Setting:  Laboratory. Main Outcome Measure(s):  We collected linear-acceleration data for 100 impacts at 6 locations on 4 helmets of different models currently used in football. Impacts 11 to 20 were compared with impacts 91 to 100 for each of the 6 locations. Results:  Linear acceleration was greater after multiple impacts (91−100) than after the first few impacts (11−20) for the front, front-boss, rear, and top locations. However, these differences are not clinically relevant as they do not affect the risk for head injury. Conclusions:  American football helmet performance deteriorated with multiple impacts, but this is unlikely to be a factor in head-injury causation during a game or over a season. PMID:26967549

  1. Effects of playing surface on physiological responses and performance variables in a controlled football simulation.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Michael G; Birdsey, Laurence; Meyers, Rob; Newcombe, Daniel; Oliver, Jon Lee; Smith, Paul M; Stembridge, Michael; Stone, Keeron; Kerwin, David George

    2013-01-01

    In spite of the increased acceptance of artificial turf in football, few studies have investigated if matches are altered by the type of surface used and no research has compared physiological responses to football activity on artificial and natural surfaces. In the present study, participants performed a football match simulation on high-quality artificial and natural surfaces. Neither mean heart rate (171 ± 9 beats · min(-1) vs. 171 ± 9 beats · min(-1); P > 0.05) nor blood lactate (4.8 ± 1.6 mM vs. 5.3 ± 1.8 mM; P > 0.05) differed between the artificial and natural surface, respectively. Measures of sprint, jumping and agility performance declined through the match simulation but surface type did not affect the decrease in performance. For example, the fatigue index of repeated sprints did not differ (P > 0.05) between the artificial, (6.9 ± 2.1%) and natural surface (7.4 ± 2.4%). The ability to turn after sprinting was affected by surface type but this difference was dependent on the type of turn. Although there were small differences in the ability to perform certain movements between artificial and natural surfaces, the results suggest that fatigue and physiological responses to football activity do not differ markedly between surface-type using the high-quality pitches of the present study.

  2. Evaluation of team-doctor actions during football games in Japanese professional football.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masaaki; Fukuoka, Shigeo; Nagano, Akira

    2009-11-01

    There have been many studies on football (soccer) match injuries both in national leagues and international tournaments, including the World Cup. However, no previous study on the number and types of actions taken by a team-doctor during a football season has been investigated. The aim of this study is to investigate what actions and how much a team doctor acts during professional football matches in a typical season of the Japanese professional football league (J-League). Injuries were prospectively recorded by team doctors with a Japanese professional league club during the 2004 season. Data recorded by the attending doctor after each match included information relating to the injury, time of occurrence and actions taken by the doctor in response to the injuries. The activity of the doctor was graded into 6 categories (grade A to F). During the 42 official matches held throughout the 2004 season, a total of 67 doctor-actions were taken. The overall doctor-action frequency rate (DAFR) was 1.6 actions per match. This study demonstrated how the team doctor acts during an average football match, and provides some useful information for team-doctors who attend football matches.

  3. Networked Interactive Video for Group Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eary, John

    2008-01-01

    The National Computing Centre (NCC) has developed an interactive video training system for the Scottish Police College to help train police supervisory officers in crowd control at major spectator events, such as football matches. This approach involves technology-enhanced training in a group-learning environment, and may have significant impact…

  4. The effect of emotion regulation training in decreasing emotion failures and self-injurious behaviors among students suffering from specific learning disorder (SLD)

    PubMed Central

    Habibzadeh, Abbas; Pourabdol, Saeed; Saravani, Shahzad

    2015-01-01

    Background: A great deal of attention has been given to the study of learning disorders. Hence, the aim of this research was to study the effect of emotion regulation training in decreasing emotion failures and self-injurious behaviors among students suffering from specific learning disorder. Methods: This was an experimental study with the pre-test, post-test and a control group. Research population included all 5th grade male students suffering from specific learning disorder (case study: 5th grade students in Ardabil in 2015). Research sample included 40 male students suffering from specific learning disorder (SLD) who were selected through multi-step cluster sampling and classified into two groups: Experimental group (n= 20) and control group (n= 20). The following tools were used for data collection: Kay Math mathematic Test, Raven Intelligence Test, Reading Test of Shafiei et al, Falahchay Writing Expression, Emotion Failures Scale, Self-Injurious Behavior Questionnaire and Diagnostic Interview based on DSM-5. Data were analyzed by multivariate of variance analysis (MANOVA) model in the SPSS software version 22. Results: The results of MANOVA revealed that emotion regulation training was effective in decreasing emotion failures in all parameters (difficulty in describing feelings, difficulty in identifying feelings, and externally oriented thinking style) and self-injurious behaviors in students suffering from specific learning disorder (p< 0.001). Conclusion: In this study, it was found that since emotion regulation training can have a remarkable effect on reducing negative emotions and increasing the positive ones; this treatment can play an eminent role in decreasing emotion failures and self-injurious behaviors in such students. PMID:26793670

  5. Football injuries in children and adolescent players: are there clues for prevention?

    PubMed

    Faude, Oliver; Rößler, Roland; Junge, Astrid

    2013-09-01

    Football (soccer) is the world's most popular sport with most players being younger than 18 years. Playing football can induce beneficial health effects, but there is also a high risk of injury. Therefore, it is necessary to implement measures for preventing injuries. The present review analyzes and summarizes published scientific information on the incidence and characteristics of football injuries in children and adolescent players to arrive at sound conclusions and valid considerations for the development of injury-prevention programs. A literature search was conducted up to November 2012. Fifty-three relevant scientific publications were detected. Thirty-two studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria for pooled analysis. Additional information from the remaining 21 studies was considered where appropriate to obtain a broader perspective on the injury problem in children and youth football. Training injury incidence was nearly constant for players aged 13-19 years, ranging from 1 to 5 injuries per 1,000 h training. Match injury incidence tended to increase with age through all age groups, with an average incidence of about 15 to 20 injuries per 1,000 match hours in players older than 15 years. Between 60 and 90 % of all football injuries were classified as traumatic and about 10-40 % were overuse injuries. Most injuries (60-90 %) were located at the lower extremities with the ankle, knee, and thigh being mostly affected. The frequency of upper-extremity and head/face injuries was higher in those studies that analyzed match injuries only. The most common injury types were strains, sprains, and contusions (10 up to 40 % each). There is some evidence that the risk of traumatic injuries and, in particular, of sustaining a fracture, contusion, or concussion was higher during match play than in practice sessions. Fractures were more frequent in children younger than 15 years than in older players. About half of all time-loss injuries led to an absence from sport of less

  6. Proposal for a Specific Aerobic Test for Football Players: The “Footeval”

    PubMed Central

    Manouvrier, Christophe; Cassirame, Johan; Ahmaidi, Saïd

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility and validity of the “Footeval” test, which evaluates football players’ aerobic level in conditions close to those of football practice (intermittent, including technical skills). Twenty-four highly trained subjects from an elite football academy (17.8 ± 1.4 years, 5 training sessions per week) performed two Footeval sessions in a period of 7 days. Physiological variables measured during these sessions (VO2max 58.1 ± 5.6 and 58.7 ± 6.2 ml·min-1·kg-1; RER 1.18 ± 0.06 and 1.19 ± 0.05; LaMax 11.0 ±1.4 and 10.8 ±1.1 µmol·L-1; HRmax 194 ± 6 and 190 ± 7 b·min-1; Final step 10.71 ± 1.2 and 10.83 ± 1.13 and the RPE = 10) highlighted maximal intensity and confirmed that players reached physiological exhaustion. Comparison of values measured in both sessions showed large to very large correlations (Final level; 0.92, VO2max; 0.79, HRmax; 0.88, LaMax; 0.87) and high ICC (Final level; 0.93, VO2max; 0.87, HRmax; 0.90, LaMax; 0.85) except for RER (r = 0.22, ICC = 0.21). In addition, all subjects performed a time limit (Tlm) exercise with intensity set at maximal aerobic specific speed + 1 km·h-1, in order to check the maximal value obtained during the Footeval test. Statistical analysis comparing VO2max, HRmax and RER from the Footeval and Tlm exercise proved that values from Footeval could be considered as maximal values (r for VO2max; 0.82, HRmax; 0.77 and ICC for VO2max; 0.92, HRmax; 0.91). This study showed that Footeval is a reproducible test that allows maximal aerobic specific speed to be obtained at physiological exhaustion. Moreover, we can also affirm that this test meets the physiological exhaustion criteria as defined in the literature (RER ≥ 1, 1; LaMax ≥ 8 µmol·L-1; HR = HRmax; no increase of VO2 despite the increase of speed; RPE =10). Key points “Footeval” is a new test for football that is able to evaluate aerobic capacity in football specific conditions. This study

  7. High School Football Injury Surveillance Studies, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Athletic Trainers' Association, Inc., Greenville, NC.

    This series of newsletters and fact sheets provides information on the incidence of sport-related injuries in scholastic sports. The following topics are addressed: (1) how the National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) measures the number and severity of injuries; (2) facts about NATA; (3) injuries to high school football players; (4)…

  8. Coed Football: Hazards, Implications, and Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falls, Harold B.

    1986-01-01

    Football, it is argued, is too dangerous for most girls and for many boys. Data on male-female differences in size, speed, and strength are reviewed. A preparticipation screening program with equal requirements for both sexes is proposed. (Author/MT)

  9. Football--A Motivator for Mathematics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogill, Julie; Parr, Alan

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors visited with the Arsenal Double Club Coordinator, Scott an amateur footballer, and a career teacher who is able to bring his considerable experience and administrative skill to the project. The authors were delighted to realise that they were talking to a teacher committed to what is first and foremost an educational…

  10. Creating a winning team: lessons from football.

    PubMed

    Simons, Sherri Lee

    2005-01-01

    There are tasks best done on an individual basis when caring for a neonate, but the ultimate outcome for infants and their families results from a team effort. Incorporating ten strategies drawn from football can help the NICU manager create and foster effective teamwork.

  11. Exploring Discrete Mathematics with American Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muldoon Brown, Tricia; Kahn, Eric B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an extended project that offers, through American football, an application of concepts from enumerative combinatorics and an introduction to proofs course. The questions in this paper and subsequent details concerning equivalence relations and counting techniques can be used to reinforce these new topics to students in such a…

  12. Knee Braces to Prevent Injuries in Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Five physicians discuss the use of knee braces to prevent injuries in football players. Questions are raised regarding the strength and design of the braces, whether they prestress the knee in some cases, and whether they actually reduce injuries. More clinical and biomechanical research is called for. (MT)

  13. Music as Narrative in American College Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCluskey, John Michael

    2016-01-01

    American college football features an enormous amount of music woven into the fabric of the event, with selections accompanying approximately two-thirds of a game's plays. Musical selections are controlled by a number of forces, including audio and video technicians, university marketing departments, financial sponsors, and wind bands. These blend…

  14. Rugby football injuries, 1980-1983.

    PubMed

    Sparks, J P

    1985-06-01

    The injuries sustained by the boys at one English public school have been recorded and analysed by age, experience, position, phase, duration of the game and of the season. Few injuries have been serious. Detailed reference is made to concussion, injuries from collapsed scrums and injuries of the cervical spine. The paper emphasises that the tackle leads to most injuries. This paper presents the Rugby football injuries sustained by the boarders of Rugby School in the four seasons 1980-1983. The injury rate was 194 per 10,000 player hours, compared with the rate of 198 per 10,000 player hours for the thirty seasons 1950-1979 (Sparks, 1981). Tables I-VI list the injuries by different criteria. Table VII lists the sites of injury; Table VIII the time off Rugby football after injury; Table IX lists some of the more important injuries; Table XI summarises the playing results of the various school teams; Table XIII compares some of the Rugby School figures with those recorded in the Accident and Emergency Department of Christchurch Hospital during the 1979 New Zealand Rugby football season (Inglis and Stewart, 1981); Table XIV records information on three aspects of Rugby football that have occasioned much recent concern, viz:--Time off playing after concussion, injuries caused by collapsed scrums and neck injuries.

  15. The Metamorphosis of a Football Stadium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Have, Pieter J.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the planning, renovation and enlargement, and funding of a new University of Utah football stadium that would also be used in the 2002 Winter Olympics. Contractor selection, solutions to construction challenges, and the steps taken to minimize risk and guarantee success of the projects are discussed, including the fact that the stadium is…

  16. 'Footballs', conical singularities, and the Liouville equation

    SciTech Connect

    Redi, Michele

    2005-02-15

    We generalize the football shaped extra dimensions scenario to an arbitrary number of branes. The problem is related to the solution of the Liouville equation with singularities, and explicit solutions are presented for the case of three branes. The tensions of the branes do not need to be tuned with each other but only satisfy mild global constraints.

  17. Cardiovascular function is better in veteran football players than age-matched untrained elderly healthy men.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J F; Andersen, T R; Andersen, L J; Randers, M B; Hornstrup, T; Hansen, P R; Bangsbo, J; Krustrup, P

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether lifelong football training may improve cardiovascular function, physical fitness, and body composition. Our subjects were 17 male veteran football players (VPG; 68.1 ± 2.1 years) and 26 healthy age-matched untrained men who served as a control group (CG; 68.2 ± 3.2 years). Examinations included measurements of cardiac function, microvascular endothelial function [reactive hyperemic index (RHI)], maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), and body composition. In VPG, left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume was 20% larger (P < 0.01) and LV ejection fraction was higher (P < 0.001). Tissue Doppler imaging revealed an augmented LV longitudinal displacement, i.e., LV shortening of 21% (P < 0.001) and longitudinal 2D strain was 12% higher (P < 0.05), in VPG. In VPG, resting heart rate was lower (6 bpm, P < 0.05), and VO2max was higher (18%, P < 0.05). In addition, RHI was 21% higher (P < 0.05) in VPG. VPG also had lower body mass index (P < 0.05), body fat percentage, total body fat mass, android fat percentage, and gynoid fat percentage (all P < 0.01). Lifelong participation in football training is associated with better LV systolic function, physical fitness, microvascular function, and a healthier body composition. Overall, VPG have better cardiovascular function compared with CG, which may reduce their cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  18. Decrease in Behavioral Problems and Trauma Symptoms Among At-Risk Adopted Children Following Web-Based Trauma-Informed Parent Training Intervention.

    PubMed

    Razuri, Erin Becker; Howard, Amanda R Hiles; Parris, Sheri R; Call, Casey D; DeLuna, Jamie Hurst; Hall, Jordan S; Purvis, Karyn B; Cross, David R

    2016-01-01

    Children who have experienced early adversities are at risk for behavioral problems and trauma symptoms. Using a two-group, pre-post intervention design, the authors evaluated the effectiveness of an online parent training for Trust-Based Relational Intervention, a trauma-informed, attachment-based intervention, in reducing behavioral problems and trauma symptoms in at-risk adopted children. Children of parents in the treatment group (n = 48) demonstrated significant decreases in behavioral problems and trauma symptoms after intervention. Scores for children in a matched-sample control group did not change. Findings suggest this intervention can effectively reduce behavioral problems and trauma symptoms in children with histories of adversities.

  19. Detection and classification of football players with automatic generation of models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Jorge R.; Jaraba, Elias Herrero; Montañés, Miguel Angel; Contreras, Francisco Martínez; Uruñuela, Carlos Orrite

    2010-01-01

    We focus on the automatic detection and classification of players in a football match. Our approach is not based on any a priori knowledge of the outfits, but on the assumption that the two main uniforms detected correspond to the two football teams. The algorithm is designed to be able to operate in real time, once it has been trained, and is able to detect partially occluded players and update the color of the kits to cope with some gradual illumination changes through time. Our method, evaluated from real sequences, gave better detection and classification results than those obtained by a system using a manual selection of samples to compute a Gaussian mixture model.

  20. Hyperthermic-related challenges in aquatics, athletics, football, tennis and triathlon.

    PubMed

    Mountjoy, Margo; Alonso, Juan-Manuel; Bergeron, Michael F; Dvorak, Jiri; Miller, Stuart; Migliorini, Sergio; Singh, Dato' Gurcharan

    2012-09-01

    Although many elite sporting events occur in climate-controlled venues, some athletes train and compete in environments that can potentially pose a risk to the athlete's health. In particular, athletes in aquatics, track and field, tennis, football and triathlon can be exposed to extreme heat during competition or while training. The International Federations responsible for these sports are aware of these health risks and have implemented measures to help protect the health of their athletes. This review paper outlines the sport-specific environmental health risks and the safety standards implemented to safeguard athlete health.

  1. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial H2O2 emission increases with immobilization and decreases after aerobic training in young and older men

    PubMed Central

    Gram, Martin; Vigelsø, Andreas; Yokota, Takashi; Helge, Jørn Wulff; Dela, Flemming; Hey-Mogensen, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mitochondrial dysfunction, defined as increased oxidative stress and lower capacity for energy production, may be seen with ageing and may cause frailty, or it could be that it is secondary to physical inactivity. We studied the effect of 2 weeks of one-leg immobilization followed by 6 weeks of supervised cycle training on mitochondrial function in 17 young (mean ± SEM: 23 ± 1 years) and 15 older (68 ± 1 years) healthy men. Submaximal H2O2 emission and respiration were measured simultaneously at a predefined membrane potential in isolated mitochondria from skeletal muscle using two protocols: pyruvate + malate (PM) and succinate + rotenone (SR). This allowed measurement of leak and ATP generating respiration from which the coupling efficiency can be calculated. The protein content of the anti-oxidants manganese superoxide dismuthase (MnSOD), CuZn superoxide dismuthase, catalase and gluthathione peroxidase 1 was measured by western blotting. Immobilization decreased ATP generating respiration using PM and increased H2O2 emission using both PM and SR similarly in young and older men. Both were restored to baseline after the training period. Furthermore, MnSOD and catalase content increased with endurance training. The young men had a higher leak respiration at inclusion using PM and a higher membrane potential in State 3 using both substrate combinations. Collectively, the findings of the present study support the notion that increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species mediates the detrimental effects seen after physical inactivity. Age, on the other hand, was not associated with impairments in anti-oxidant protein levels, mitochondrial respiration or H2O2 emission using either protocol. Key points Currently, it is not known whether impaired mitochondrial function contributes to human ageing or whether potential impairments in mitochondrial function with age are secondary to physical inactivity. The present study investigated

  2. Can Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Improve the Resistance Strength and Decrease the Rating Perceived Scale in Recreational Weight-Training Experience?

    PubMed

    Lattari, Eduardo; Andrade, Maria L; Filho, Alberto S; Moura, Antônio M; Neto, Geraldo M; Silva, Júlio G; Rocha, Nuno B; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Machado, Sérgio

    2016-12-01

    Lattari, E, Andrade, ML, Filho, AS, Moura, AM, Neto, GM, Silva, JG, Rocha, NB, Yuan, T-F, Arias-Carrión, O, and Machado, S. Can transcranial direct current stimulation improve the resistance strength and decrease the rating perceived scale in recreational weight-training experience? J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3381-3387, 2016-The goal of this study was to evaluate the acute efficacy of anodic transcranial direct current stimulation on the total volume of repetitions and perceived exertion in recreationally trained individuals in strength. The sample consisted of 10 participants trained in exercise against resistance for at least 3 months. Participants underwent elbow flexion exercise at barbell with a specific load of 10 repetition maximum (10RM), responded immediately after the OMNI-RES scale, and were stimulated for 20 minutes with a tDSC protocol (2 mA), depending on randomization. After applying the tDSC, subjects were again subjected to perform elbow flexion with 10RM load and, soon after, again responded to OMNI-RES scale. All subjects underwent the 3 experimental conditions of the study, c-tDSC, a-tDSC, and sham-tDSC, which were randomized. A range of 48-72 hours was allowed between each assessment visit. An interaction to condition and time (F = 52.395; p ≤ 0.001) has shown that repetitions completed after anodic condition were higher compared with the other conditions in the postsession. In relation to perceived exertion, verified by OMNI-RES scale, 2-way analysis of variance for repeated measures showed an interaction between condition and time (F = 28.445; p ≤ 0.001), where the perceived exertion was decreased after the a-tDSC condition and increased after the c-tDSC condition. In strict terms of performance, it seems to be beneficial to attend a session of 20 minutes a-tDSC, when strength training practitioners can no longer support high-volume training and have increased responses in the perceived exertion.

  3. A Comparison of Athletic Movement Among Talent-Identified Juniors From Different Football Codes in Australia: Implications for Talent Development.

    PubMed

    Woods, Carl T; Keller, Brad S; McKeown, Ian; Robertson, Sam

    2016-09-01

    Woods, CT, Keller, BS, McKeown, I, and Robertson, S. A comparison of athletic movement among talent-identified juniors from different football codes in Australia: implications for talent development. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2440-2445, 2016-This study aimed to compare the athletic movement skill of talent-identified (TID) junior Australian Rules football (ARF) and soccer players. The athletic movement skill of 17 TID junior ARF players (17.5-18.3 years) was compared against 17 TID junior soccer players (17.9-18.7 years). Players in both groups were members of an elite junior talent development program within their respective football codes. All players performed an athletic movement assessment that included an overhead squat, double lunge, single-leg Romanian deadlift (both movements performed on right and left legs), a push-up, and a chin-up. Each movement was scored across 3 essential assessment criteria using a 3-point scale. The total score for each movement (maximum of 9) and the overall total score (maximum of 63) were used as the criterion variables for analysis. A multivariate analysis of variance tested the main effect of football code (2 levels) on the criterion variables, whereas a 1-way analysis of variance identified where differences occurred. A significant effect was noted, with the TID junior ARF players outscoring their soccer counterparts when performing the overhead squat and push-up. No other criterions significantly differed according to the main effect. Practitioners should be aware that specific sporting requirements may incur slight differences in athletic movement skill among TID juniors from different football codes. However, given the low athletic movement skill noted in both football codes, developmental coaches should address the underlying movement skill capabilities of juniors when prescribing physical training in both codes.

  4. Knee Injuries in American Football: An Epidemiological Review.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, Paul; Grau, Luis; Kaplan, Lee; Baraga, Michael G

    Football has the highest injury rate amongst popular American sports. Of those injuries that end seasons or careers, the knee is the most common culprit. This is of particular concern because knee injuries are most common in football. This article reviews 4 of the most common knee injuries in American football, with emphasis on epidemiology, risk factors, and treatment outcomes. The injuries reviewed are tears of the anterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament, medial patellofemoral ligament, and posterior cruciate ligament.

  5. Expertise and decision-making in American football.

    PubMed

    Woods, Adam J; Kranjec, Alexander; Lehet, Matt; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2015-01-01

    In American football, pass interference calls can be difficult to make, especially when the timing of contact between players is ambiguous. American football history contains many examples of controversial pass interference decisions, often with fans, players, and officials interpreting the same event differently. The current study sought to evaluate the influence of experience with concepts important for officiating decisions in American football on the probability (i.e., response criteria) of pass interference calls. We further investigated the extent to which such experience modulates perceptual biases that might influence the interpretation of such events. We hypothesized that observers with less experience with the American football concepts important for pass interference would make progressively more pass interference calls than more experienced observers, even when given an explicit description of the necessary criteria for a pass interference call. In a go/no-go experiment using photographs from American football games, three groups of participants with different levels of experience with American football (Football Naïve, Football Player, and Football Official) made pass interference calls for pictures depicting left-moving and right-moving events. More experience was associated with progressively and significantly fewer pass interference calls [F (2,48) = 10.4, p < 0.001], with Football Naïve participants making the most pass interference calls, and Football Officials the least. In addition, our data replicated a prior finding of spatial biases for interpreting left-moving images more harshly than identical right-moving images, but only in Football Players. These data suggest that experience with the concepts important for making a decision may influence the rate of decision-making, and may also play a role in susceptibility to spatial biases.

  6. Incidence of exercise-induced asthma in adolescent athletes under different training and environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Sidiropoulou, Maria P; Kokaridas, Dimitrios G; Giagazoglou, Paraskevi F; Karadonas, Michalis I; Fotiadou, Eleni G

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to establish if there were differences in the incidence of exercise-induced bronchospasm between athletes in different sports, which take place under different environmental conditions such as open places, closed courses, and swimming pools with similar exercise intensity (football, basketball, water polo) using the free running test. The study included 90 adolescents (3 groups of 30) aged 14-18 years recruited from academies in northern Greece. All the participants were initially subjected to (a) a clinical examination and cardiorespiratory assessment by a physician and (b) free running test of a 6-minute duration and measurement with a microspirometer of the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV₁). Only the participants who had measured a decrease in FEV₁ ≥ 10% were reevaluated with the microspirometer during a training session. The examination of all the participants during the free running test showed that 22 athletes, that is, 9, 8, and 5 of football, basketball, and water polo athletes, respectively, demonstrated an FEV₁ ≥ 10 drop. Reevaluation of the 22 participants during training showed that 5 out 9 (55%) football athletes, 4 out of 8 basketball athletes (50%), and none of the 5 athletes of the water polo team displayed a drop of FEV₁ ≥ 10%. Despite the absence of any significant statistical differences between the 3 groups, the analysis of variances did show a trend of a lower incidence of EIA in the water polo athletes. It was found that a football or basketball game can induce EIA in young athletes but to a lesser degree than the free running test can induce. The water polo can be a safer sport even for participants with a medical history of asthma or allergies.

  7. Travelling Fellowship Program for Football Medicine; Report on an Experience

    PubMed Central

    Seifbarghi, Tohid; Hashemi, Akram; Halabchi, Farzin

    2012-01-01

    Football medicine has developed in the world in recent years. AFC Medical Committee, established the idea of football medicine travelling fellowship two years ago and provided high-level healthcare services to football players in Asian countries. This is a report on my one month experience in a travelling fellowship program for football medicine which is attempting to tell the reader about the interesting event that I experienced. This course has been held between Jan 15 to Feb 10, 2012 in 3 Asian countries: Qatar, Thailand and Malysia. The experience provided me with the valuable suggestions for future travelling fellowship periods. PMID:23012644

  8. Injuries of football referees: a representative survey of Swiss referees officiating at all levels of play.

    PubMed

    Bizzini, M; Junge, A; Bahr, R; Dvorak, J

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency and characteristics of injury and musculo-skeletal complaints in Swiss football referees of all levels. A representative sample of 489 Swiss referees was interviewed regarding their socio-demographic characteristics, refereeing qualifications, time spent in training and in matches, history of injuries and musculo-skeletal complaints caused by training or refereeing, and other medical problems. A total of 110 referees (22.5%) reported having suffered at least one injury related to officiating, and 126 referees (25.8%) at least one refereeing-related musculo-skeletal complaint. Thigh strains and ankle sprains were the most frequent injuries, with the most frequent locations of complaints being the knee and lower back. The incidence of match injuries in the last 12 months was on average 2.06 per 1000 match hours; the incidence of training injuries was substantially lower (0.09 per 1000 training hours). The injury rates were similar for referees officiating at an adult level, but lower at a junior level. In comparison with elite football referees, the incidence of training injuries and the prevalence of musculo-skeletal complaints were lower in amateur referees. Nevertheless, preventive programs are indicated for referees at all levels, especially when considering the length of a referee's career.

  9. Sleep-Disordered Breathing in the National Football League

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Thomas B.; Dunn, Reginald E.; Lincoln, Andrew E.; Tucker, Andrew M.; Vogel, Robert A.; Heyer, Robert A.; Yates, Anthony P.; Wilson, Peter W. F.; Pellmen, Elliot J.; Allen, Thomas W.; Newman, Anne B.; Strollo, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: Prior studies have suggested that the prevalence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) among players in the National Football League (NFL) is disproportionately high. SDB can increase cardiovascular disease risk and is correlated with hypertension. NFL players have a higher prevalence of hypertension, and we sought to determine the prevalence of SDB among players the NFL and the associations of SDB with anthropometric measures and cardiovascular risk factors. Design: Cross-sectional cohort study. Setting: NFL athletic training facilities from April to July 2007. Participants: A total of 137 active veteran players from 6 NFL teams. Measurements: This evaluation of SDB among players in the NFL used a single-channel, home-based, unattended, portable, sleep apnea monitor. Multiple domains of self-reported sleep were assessed. Weight, body mass index, body fat percentage, neck circumference, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio, as well as blood pressure, cholesterol, and fasting glucose concentrations were measured. Results: The mean respiratory disturbance index was 4.7 (± 12), with a median (interquartile range) of 2 (1,4). The prevalence of at least mild SDB (RDI ≥ 5) was 19% (95% confidence interval, 12.8%-26.6%). Only 4.4% (95% confidence interval, 1.6%-9.2%) of participants had respiratory disturbance index of 15 or greater. Linemen and non-linemen were not different in their prevalence or severity of SDB. No single anthropometric measure was highly associated with SDB, and SDB was not well correlated with cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions: The prevalence of SDB in active NFL players was modest, predominately mild, and positively associated with several measures of adiposity. SDB did not account for excess cardiovascular risk factors. Citation: Rice TB; Dunn RE; Lincoln AE; Tucker AM; Vogel RA; Heyer RA; Yates AP; Wilson PWF; Pellmen EJ; Allen TW; Newman AB; Strollo PJ. Sleep-disordered breathing in the National Football League

  10. Diurnal variation in temperature, mental and physical performance, and tasks specifically related to football (soccer).

    PubMed

    Reilly, Thomas; Atkinson, Greg; Edwards, Ben; Waterhouse, Jim; Farrelly, Kelly; Fairhurst, Emma

    2007-01-01

    Football (soccer) training and matches are scheduled at different times throughout the day. Association football involves a variety of fitness components as well as psychomotor and game-related cognitive skills. The purpose of the present research, consisting of two separate studies, was to determine whether game-related skills varied with time of day in phase with global markers of both performance and the body clock. In the first study, eight diurnally active male association football players (19.1+/-1.9 yrs of age; mean+/-SD) with 10.8+/-2.1 yrs playing experience participated. Measurements were made on different days at 08:00, 12:00, 16:00, and 20:00 h in a counterbalanced manner. Time-of-day changes in intra-aural temperature (used as a marker of the body clock), grip strength, reaction times, flexibility (markers of aspects of performance), juggling and dribbling tasks, and wall-volley test (football-specific skills) were compared. Significant (repeated measures analysis of variance, ANOVA) diurnal variations were found for body temperature (p<0.0005), choice reaction time (p<0.05), self-rated alertness (p<0.0005), fatigue (p<0.05), forward (sit-and-reach) flexibility (p<0.02), and right-hand grip strength (p<0.02), but not left-hand grip strength (p=0.40) nor whole-body (stand-and-reach) flexibility (p=0.07). Alertness was highest and fatigue lowest at 20:00 h. Football-specific skills of juggling performance showed significant diurnal variation (p<0.05, peak at 16:00 h), whereas performance on the wall-volley test tended to peak at 20:00 h and dribbling showed no time-of-day effect (p=0.55). In a second study, eight diurnally active subjects (23.0+/-0.7 yrs of age) completed five test sessions, at the same times as in the first study but with a second session at 08:00 h. Test-re-test comparisons at 08:00 h for all components indicated good reliability. Intra-aural temperature showed a significant time-of-day effect (p<0.001) with mean temperature at 16:00 h

  11. Effects of β-alanine supplementation on performance and body composition in collegiate wrestlers and football players.

    PubMed

    Kern, Ben D; Robinson, Tracey L

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of β-alanine as an ergogenic aid in tests of anaerobic power output after 8 weeks of high-intensity interval, repeated sprint, and resistance training in previously trained collegiate wrestlers (WR) and football (FB) players. Twenty-two college WRs (19.9 ± 1.9 years, age ± SD) and 15 college FB players (18.6 ± 1.5 years) participated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Each subject ingested either 4 g·d β-alanine or placebo in powdered capsule form. Subjects were tested pre and posttreatment in timed 300-yd shuttle, 90° flexed-arm hang (FAH), body composition, and blood lactate after 300-yd shuttle. Although not statistically significant (p > 0.05) subjects taking β-alanine achieved more desirable results on all tests compared to those on placebo. Performance improvements were greatest in the FB supplement group, decreasing 300 shuttle time by 1.1 seconds (vs. 0.4-second placebo) and increasing FAH (3.0 vs. 0.39 seconds). The wrestlers, both placebo and supplement, lost weight (as was the goal, i.e., weight bracket allowance); however, the supplement group increased lean mass by 1.1 lb, whereas the placebo group lost lean mass (-0.98 lb). Both FB groups gained weight; however, the supplement group gained an average 2.1-lb lean mass compared to 1.1 lb for placebo. β-Alanine appears to have the ability to augment performance and stimulate lean mass accrual in a short amount of time (8 weeks) in previously trained athletes. Training regimen may have an effect on the degree of benefit from β-alanine supplementation.

  12. Football versus football: effect of topic on /r/ realization in American and English sports fans.

    PubMed

    Love, Jessica; Walker, Abby

    2013-12-01

    Can the topic of a conversation, when heavily associated with a particular dialect region, influence how a speaker realizes a linguistic variable? We interviewed fans of English Premier League soccer at a pub in Columbus, Ohio. Nine speakers of British English and eleven speakers of American English were interviewed about their favorite American football and English soccer teams. We present evidence that the soccer fans in this speech community produce variants more consistent with Standard American English when talking about American football than English soccer. Specifically, speakers were overall more /r/-ful (F3 values were lower in rhotic environments) when talking about their favorite American football team. Numeric trends in the data also suggest that exposure to both American and British English, being a fan of both sports, and task may mediate these effects.

  13. Injuries in professional football: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Olson, David; Sikka, Robby S; Labounty, Abby; Christensen, Trent

    2013-01-01

    Professional football is one of the most popular sports in the United States. There is a common constellation of injuries that are seen frequently. Much attention has been focused on concussions and their long-term outcomes in this population. Other common causes of morbidity include cervical spine injuries, knee injuries including anterior cruciate ligament and other ligamentous injuries, ankle sprains, and medical issues including cardiac and sickle trait. Several recent studies have focused on hip impingement and hamstring injuries, among others, as sources of missed playing time as well. This review describes some of the frequently seen injuries and medical issues in professional football players. Proper management of both medical disease and on-field injuries can reduce morbidity and may lead to faster return to play and reduced risk of future injury.

  14. 'Bataille's boys': postmodernity, Fascists and football fans.

    PubMed

    Smith, T

    2000-09-01

    In his analysis of football hooliganism, Anthony King claims to reveal the historical, conceptual scheme young, male supporters draw upon. This 'masculine vision', he states, is similar to that held by the Freikorps. Both groups are said to adhere to modernist notions of masculinity, sexuality and nationhood, reinforced by rituals which maintain boundaries between these 'proper' males and deviant 'others'. Occasionally, football hooligans breach these boundaries in acts of postmodern transgression. King also claims that fans link sex and violence in their imaginations. In this response I examine King's critique of his fellow theorists; challenge his 'Freikorps-Fans' analogy; demonstrate the problem he has in establishing the sex-violence link and question the relevance of his concept of postmodernity.

  15. Artificial turf surfaces: perception of safety, sporting feature, satisfaction and preference of football users.

    PubMed

    Burillo, Pablo; Gallardo, Leonor; Felipe, Jose Luis; Gallardo, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to understand the experience of the football sector on the use of artificial turf (satisfaction, safety, sporting feature, or the advantages and disadvantages). The study was conducted on a random selection of 627 male participants (404 amateur/semi-professional footballers, 101 coaches and 122 referees) that regularly train/compete on artificial turf in Spanish football leagues. The results of the skin abrasion, muscle strain and the possibility of sustaining an injury, on a Likert-type 10-point interval scale, gave a perception of 'somewhat dissatisfied' for the participants. The main advantages of artificial turf were their sports features, the evenness of the surface and the good state of conservation. Participants were satisfied with the artificial turf surface. Approximately three out of four participants gave an overall ranking of highly satisfied. The players were significantly less satisfied than the coaches and referees. The overall satisfaction with artificial turf fields was strongly influenced by previous experience, particularly those who had previously played on dirt pitches. These results highlight the versatility of artificial turf to adapt to any circumstance or requirement for local sport and top-level professional competitions alike.

  16. An Examination of the Relationship Between Movement Demands and Rating of Perceived Exertion in Australian Footballers.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Richard J; Watsford, Mark L; Austin, Damien J; Pine, Matthew J; Spurrs, Robert W

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to determine whether a relationship existed between movement demands, match events, and perceptual match load, as determined by rating of perceived exertion (RPE) in professional Australian footballers. The movement variables were collected between 1 and 22 times using global positioning system units from 21 players during the 2011 and 2012 Australian Football League seasons. A range of movement demands and match events were collected to obtain a complete insight into the physical demands and work rates of these athletes. These data were separated into the high-load (HL, ≥9) and low-load (LL, ≤8) RPE groups. A Mann-Whitney U-test, independent samples t-test, and effect sizes were used to determine whether any differences existed between the 2 groups and the size of the difference. The results revealed that the HL groups covered more distance, spent more time, and produced more efforts at the high deceleration zone (2.4-6.7%). Further, the HL group had more possessions and disposals of the football than the LL group (9.2-29.6%). The findings have highlighted the importance of monitoring accelerations, decelerations, and instantaneous power outputs to obtain a comprehensive insight into the physical demands placed on team sport athletes. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that training sessions should involve a focus on drills that are composed of both skill development and physical stimulus element.

  17. Movement Demands and Metabolic Power Comparisons Between Elite and Subelite Australian Footballers.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Richard J; Watsford, Mark L; Austin, Damien J; Pine, Matthew J; Spurrs, Robert W

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the differences in movement demands and metabolic power output of elite and subelite Australian football (AF) players and quantified the movement profiles of a subelite AF competition. Movement variables were collected from AF players using Global Positioning System devices over 2 AF League (elite) and North East Australian Football League (NEAFL, subelite) seasons. A total of 500 files were collected from 37 elite and subelite nomadic AF players. NEAFL players covered 13,547 m at an average speed of 124.5 m·min(-1). Elite players performed more high-speed running (5.7-6.3%) and high acceleration and deceleration efforts (1.9-14.7%, p ≤ 0.05). The elite players had a higher mean metabolic power output (3.2%) and time spent at the very high power zone (15.9%, p ≤ 0.05). In contrast, elite players recorded a lower total match duration than the subelite players (4%, p ≤ 0.05). The contrasting amount of high-intensity activities performed by the 2 groups demonstrates the need to alter the training programs of subelite players to ensure they are capable of meeting the demands of elite football. The differences in match duration suggest that reducing subelite players' match time through increasing their rotations would assist the replication of movement profiles of elite players.

  18. Decrease in Behavioral Problems and Trauma Symptoms Among At-Risk Adopted Children Following Web-Based Trauma-Informed Parent Training Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Razuri, Erin Becker; Hiles Howard, Amanda R.; Parris, Sheri R.; Call, Casey D.; DeLuna, Jamie Hurst; Hall, Jordan S.; Purvis, Karyn B.; Cross, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Children who have experienced early adversities are at risk for behavioral problems and trauma symptoms. Using a two-group, pre–post intervention design, the authors evaluated the effectiveness of an online parent training for Trust-Based Relational Intervention, a trauma-informed, attachment-based intervention, in reducing behavioral problems and trauma symptoms in at-risk adopted children. Children of parents in the treatment group (n = 48) demonstrated significant decreases in behavioral problems and trauma symptoms after intervention. Scores for children in a matched-sample control group did not change. Findings suggest this intervention can effectively reduce behavioral problems and trauma symptoms in children with histories of adversities. PMID:26072917

  19. Decreased birefringence of the superficial zone collagen network in the canine knee (stifle) articular cartilage after long distance running training, detected by quantitative polarised light microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Arokoski, J P; Hyttinen, M M; Lapveteläinen, T; Takács, P; Kosztáczky, B; Módis, L; Kovanen, V; Helminen, H

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of a one year programme of running training (up to 40 km/day for 15 weeks) on the spatial orientation pattern of collagen and glycosaminoglycans in articular cartilage in different parts of the knee (stifle) and shoulder joints of young beagle dogs. METHODS: Area specific measurements of the optical path difference (= retardation, gamma) and the cartilage zone thickness were performed using conventional procedures and a new computer based quantitative polarised light microscopy method. Transmission electron microscopy was used to determine the zonal volume density of collagen fibrils. The concentrations of collagen and hydroxypyridinium crosslinks were investigated biochemically. RESULTS: Running training decreased gamma by 24-34% (p < 0.05) in the superficial zone of the lateral femoral condyle articular cartilage and at the centre of the tibial condyles. Gamma of glycosaminoglycans decreased by 26% (p < 0.05) in the superficial zone of the lateral condyle of the femur, but at the same site the volume density of collagen fibrils was unchanged. Neither the collagen concentration nor the concentration of hydroxypyridinium crosslinks was altered as a result of running. In both control and runner dogs, the thickness and gamma values of the superficial zone were greater in the humerus and the femur than in the tibia. CONCLUSION: Endurance type running exercise in beagles caused a reduction in the superficial zone birefringence of the articular cartilage, which indicates either a disorganisation or a reorientation of the superficial zone collagen network. Articular cartilage showed marked variability of collagen network organisation over the different knee (stifle) joint articular surfaces. Images PMID:8733443

  20. Biomechanics of subdural hemorrhage in American football: review of the literature in response to rise in incidence.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Jonathan A; Zuckerman, Scott; Abla, Adib A; Mocco, J; Bode, Ken; Eads, Todd

    2014-02-01

    The number of catastrophic head injuries recorded during the 2011 football season was the highest since data collection began in 1984--the vast majority of these cases were secondary to subdural hemorrhage (SDH). The incidence of catastrophic head injury continues to rise: the average yearly incidence from 2008 to 2012 was 238% that of the average yearly incidence from 1998 to 2002. Greater than 95% of the football players who suffered catastrophic head injury during this period were age 18 or younger. Currently, the helmet industry utilizes a standard based on data obtained at Wayne State University approximately 50 years ago that seeks to limit severity index--a surrogate marker of translational acceleration. In this manuscript, we utilize a focused review of the literature to better characterize the biomechanical factors associated with SDH following collisions in American football and discuss these data in the context of current helmet standard. Review of the literature indicates the rotational acceleration (RA) threshold above which the risk of SDH becomes appreciable is approximately 5,000 rad/s(2). This value is not infrequently surmounted in typical high school football games. In contrast, translational accelerations (TAs) experienced during even elite-level impacts in football are not of sufficient magnitude to result in SDH. This information raises important questions about the current helmet standard--in which the sole objective is limitation of TA. Further studies will be necessary to better define whether helmet constructs and quality assurance standards designed to limit RA will also help to decrease the risk of catastrophic head injury in American football.

  1. Impact energy attenuation performance of football headgear

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, A.; McCrory, P.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives—Commercially available football head protectors were tested to determine their impact energy attenuation performance and ability to reduce the likelihood of concussion. Methods—Prospective study using standardised impact test methods with both rigid (magnesium) and Hybrid III headforms. Results—Eight commercially available head protectors from six manufacturers were tested. The magnitude of the headform accelerations increased as the drop height was increased, ranging from a minimum of 64 g from a height of 0.2 m to a maximum of 1132 g from a height of 0.6 m. The head injury criterion and maximum headform acceleration values followed a similar trend. A steep increase was noted in the magnitude of maximum headform acceleration and head injury criterion when the drop height was increased from 0.4 to 0.5 m. This indicates that the foam material was completely compressed at an impact energy above about 20 J and therefore offers little protection against impacts of greater severity. Repeated tests using a drop height of 0.3 m showed that some helmets exhibit a "memory" effect, whereby impact performance is reduced by up to 50% with repeated impacts. Conclusions—Laboratory tests indicate that current commercially available football headgear performance will not reduce the likelihood of concussion. The absence of internationally recognised standards for soft headgear designed to ameliorate concussion is a major deficiency in sports injury prevention. Key Words: football; headgear; helmet; head; concussion PMID:11049142

  2. A 6‐month prospective study of injury in Gaelic football

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, F; Caffrey, S; King, E; Casey, K; Gissane, C

    2007-01-01

    Objective To describe the injury incidence in Gaelic football. Methods A total of 83 players from three counties were interviewed monthly about their injury experience, during the 6 months of the playing season. Results The injury rate was 13.5/1000 h exposure to Gaelic football (95% CI, 10.9 to 16.6). There were nearly twice as many injuries during matches (64.4%, 95% CI, 54.1 to 73.6) as in training (35.6%, 95% CI, 26.4 to 49.5). The ankle was found to be the most commonly injured site (13.3%, 95% CI, 7.8 to 21.9). The musculotendinous unit accounted for nearly 1/3 of all injuries (31.1%). The tackle accounted for 27.8% of the injuries sustained (tackler 10%, 95% CI, 5.4 to 17.9; player being tackled 17.9%, 95% CI, 11.2 to 26.9). Of total match injuries, 56.9% (95% CI, 46.1 to 67.1) were experienced in the second half as opposed to 39.7% (95% CI, 29.8 to 50.5) in the first half. Conclusions Gaelic footballers are under considerable risk of injury. Greater efforts must be made to reduce this risk so that players miss less time from sport due to injury. Risk factors for injury in Gaelic football must now be investigated so that specific interventions may be established to reduce them. PMID:17138631

  3. Utilization of Practice Session Average Inertial Load to Quantify College Football Injury Risk.

    PubMed

    Wilkerson, Gary B; Gupta, Ashish; Allen, Jeff R; Keith, Clay M; Colston, Marisa A

    2016-09-01

    Wilkerson, GB, Gupta, A, Allen, JR, Keith, CM, and Colston, MA. Utilization of practice session average inertial load to quantify college football injury risk. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2369-2374, 2016-Relatively few studies have investigated the potential injury prevention value of data derived from recently developed wearable technology for measurement of body mass accelerations during the performance of sport-related activities. The available evidence has been derived from studies focused on avoidance of overtraining syndrome, which is believed to induce a chronically fatigued state that can be identified through monitoring of inertial load accumulation. Reduced variability in movement patterns is also believed to be an important injury risk factor, but no evidence currently exists to guide interpretation of data derived from inertial measurement units (IMUs) in this regard. We retrospectively analyzed archived data for a cohort of 45 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division 1-football bowl subdivision football players who wore IMUs on the upper back during practice sessions to quantify any associations between average inertial load measured during practice sessions and occurrence of musculoskeletal sprains and strains. Both the coefficient of variation for average inertial load and frequent exposure to game conditions were found to be strongly associated with injury occurrence. Having either or both of the 2 risk factors provided strong discrimination between injured and noninjured players (χ = 9.048; p = 0.004; odds ratio = 8.04; 90% CI: 2.39, 27.03). Our findings may facilitate identification of individual football players who are likely to derive the greatest benefit from training activities designed to reduce injury risk through improved adaptability to rapidly changing environmental demands.

  4. Death in Community Australian Football: A Ten Year National Insurance Claims Report

    PubMed Central

    Finch, Caroline F.

    2016-01-01

    While deaths are thought to be rare in community Australian sport, there is no systematic reporting so the frequency and leading causes of death is unknown. The aim of this study was to describe the frequency and cause of deaths associated with community-level Australian Football (AF), based on insurance-claims records. Retrospective review of prospectively collected insurance-claims for death in relation to community-level AF activities Australia-wide from 2004 to 2013. Eligible participants were aged 15+ years, involved in an Australian football club as players, coaches, umpires or supporting roles. Details were extracted for: year of death, level of play, age, sex, anatomical location of injury, and a descriptive narrative of the event. Descriptive data are presented for frequency of cases by subgroups. From 26,749 insurance-claims relating to AF, 31 cases were in relation to a death. All fatalities were in males. The initial event occurred during on-field activities of players (football matches or training) in 16 cases. The remainder occurred to people outside of on-field football activity (n = 8), or non-players (n = 7). Road trauma (n = 8) and cardiac conditions (n = 7) were the leading identifiable causes, with unconfirmed and other causes (including collapsed or not yet determined) comprising 16 cases. Although rare, fatalities do occur in community AF to both players and people in supporting roles, averaging 3 per year in this setting alone. A systematic, comprehensive approach to data collection is urgently required to better understand the risk and causes of death in participants of AF and other sports. PMID:27467365

  5. The Secondary School Football Coach's Relationship With the Athletic Trainer and Perspectives on Exertional Heat Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Adams, William M.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Casa, Douglas J.; Huggins, Robert A.; Burton, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Context: Prior researchers have examined the first-aid knowledge and decision making among high school coaches, but little is known about their perceived knowledge of exertional heat stroke (EHS) or their relationships with an athletic trainer (AT). Objective: To examine secondary school football coaches' perceived knowledge of EHS and their professional relationship with an AT. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Web-based management system. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty-eight secondary school head football coaches (37 men, 1 woman) participated in this study. Their average age was 47 ± 10 years old, and they had 12 ± 9 years' experience as a head football coach. Data Collection and Analysis: Participants responded to a series of online questions that were focused on their perceived knowledge of EHS and professional relationships with ATs. Data credibility was established through multiple-analyst triangulation and peer review. We analyzed the data by borrowing from the principles of a general inductive approach. Results: Two dominant themes emerged from the data: perceived self-confidence of the secondary school coach and the influence of the AT. The first theme highlighted the perceived confidence, due to basic emergency care training, of the coach regarding management of an emergency situation, despite a lack of knowledge. The second theme illustrated the secondary school coach's positive professional relationships with ATs regarding patient care and emergency procedures. Of the coaches who participated, 89% (34 out of 38) indicated positive interactions with their ATs. Conclusions: These secondary school coaches were unaware of the potential causes of EHS or the symptoms associated with EHS, and they had higher perceived levels of self-confidence in management abilities than indicated by their perceived knowledge level. The secondary school football coaches valued and understood the role of the AT regarding patient and emergency care. PMID:24933433

  6. Neuromuscular training with injury prevention counselling to decrease the risk of acute musculoskeletal injury in young men during military service: a population-based, randomised study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The rapidly increasing number of activity-induced musculoskeletal injuries among adolescents and young adults is currently a true public health burden. The objective of this study was to investigate whether a neuromuscular training programme with injury prevention counselling is effective in preventing acute musculoskeletal injuries in young men during military service. Methods The trial design was a population-based, randomised study. Two successive cohorts of male conscripts in four companies of one brigade in the Finnish Defence Forces were first followed prospectively for one 6-month term to determine the baseline incidence of injury. After this period, two new successive cohorts in the same four companies were randomised into two groups and followed prospectively for 6 months. Military service is compulsory for about 90% of 19-year-old Finnish men annually, who comprised the cohort in this study. This randomised, controlled trial included 968 conscripts comprising 501 conscripts in the intervention group and 467 conscripts in the control group. A neuromuscular training programme was used to enhance conscripts' motor skills and body control, and an educational injury prevention programme was used to increase knowledge and awareness of acute musculoskeletal injuries. The main outcome measures were acute injuries of the lower and upper limbs. Results In the intervention groups, the risk for acute ankle injury decreased significantly compared to control groups (adjusted hazards ratio (HR) = 0.34, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.15 to 0.78, P = 0.011). This risk decline was observed in conscripts with low as well as moderate to high baseline fitness levels. In the latter group of conscripts, the risk of upper-extremity injuries also decreased significantly (adjusted HR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.99, P = 0.047). In addition, the intervention groups tended to have less time loss due to injuries (adjusted HR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.29 to 1.04). Conclusions A

  7. Sport or School? Dreams and Dilemmas for Talented Young Danish Football Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; Sorensen, Jan Kahr

    2009-01-01

    Today's young semi-professional football players are expected to continue their education while honing their talents as footballers. This means they must balance the contradictory demands that come from their education establishments and their football clubs. The present study explores how young Danish male football talents experience and describe…

  8. Annotated Football Bibliography. An Applied Project in Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemence, William J., Jr.; Pitts, James Walter

    This annotated bibliography was compiled to assist physical education majors, especially those having a major interest in football and football coaching. The bibliography is limited to the areas of coaching techniques and philosophy, fundamentals, offense, defense, injuries, and conditioning at the high school and college level. These broader…

  9. A Personality Profile of Southeastern Conference Football Officials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ittenbach, Richard F.; Eller, Ben F.

    Despite the importance of officiating, there is little information available on how major college football officials view their sport, themselves, and their role as officials. Southeastern Conference (SEC) football officials (N=39) responded to a survey packet consisting of the California Psychological Inventory (CPI) and a four-page profile of…

  10. Annual Survey of Catastrophic Football Injuries, 1977-1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Frederick O.; Blyth, Carl S.

    Football injuries which resulted in permanent spinal cord injury are reported in this survey, part of a concerted effort by individuals and research organizations to reduce the steady increase of football head and neck injuries since the late 1950s. In addition to the reporting of injuries, this document describes steps taken to eliminate the…

  11. Playoffs & Payoffs: The College Football-Coaching Carousel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Jennifer Lee

    2015-01-01

    The circulation of head football coaches is a well-established practice, and with it, salary costs are significantly outpacing other spending as institutions compete in the pursuit of prestige. This movement of college football coaches is known in the popular press as the "coaching carousel." The carousel is a fitting metaphor for a…

  12. Division IAA Football Players and Risk Factors for Metabolic Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repovich, Wendy E. S.; Babcock, Garth J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if body composition and blood pressure (BP), two markers for Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), were correlated in college football players. Height, weight, BMI, systolic (SBP) and Diastolic (DBP) blood pressure and body composition (three measures) were assessed in a Division IAA football team (N = 55). Data…

  13. Metaphorical Conceptualizations of Football Coach through Social Cognitive Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dervent, Fatih; Inan, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the metaphors which were used to describe the concept "football coach" by some stakeholders in football, such as players, club officials and referees. Each individual (N = 389) within the study group was asked to reveal the single metaphor s/he has in mind in respect of the concept of football…

  14. Coaching Peripheral Vision Training for Soccer Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marques, Nelson Kautzner, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Brazilian Soccer began developing its current emphasis on peripheral vision in the late 1950s, by initiative of coach of the Canto do Rio Football Club, in Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, a pioneer in the development of peripheral vision training in soccer players. Peripheral vision training gained world relevance when a young talent from Canto do Rio,…

  15. The Effectiveness of Shin Guards Used by Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Tatar, Yasar; Ramazanoglu, Nusret; Camliguney, Asiye Filiz; Saygi, Evrim Karadag; Cotuk, Hasan Birol

    2014-01-01

    In football, injuries from opponent contact occur commonly in the lower extremities. FIFA the world’s governing body for football requires players to wear shin guards. The aim of this study was to compare the protective effectiveness of polypropylene based shin guards with custom-made carbon fiber ones. Three commercial polypropylene shin guards (Adidas Predator™, Adidas UCL™, and Nike Mercurial™) and two custom-made carbon fiber shin guards were examined. The experimental setup had the following parts: 1) A pendulum attached a load cell at the tip (CAS Corp., Korea) and a fixed prosthetic foot equipped with a cleat to simulate an attacker’s foot. 2) An artificial tibia prepared by condensed foam and reinforced by carbon fibers protected with soft clothing. 3) A multifunctional sensor system (Tekscan Corp., F-Socket System, Turkey) to record the impact on the tibia. In the low impact force trials, only 2.79-9.63 % of the load was transmitted to the sensors. When comparing for mean force, peak force and impulse, both carbon fiber shin guards performed better than the commercial ones (Adidas Predator™, Adidas UCL™, and Nike Mercurial™) (p = 0.000). Based on these same parameters, the Nike Mercurial™ provided better protection than the Adidas Predator™ and the Adidas UCL™ (p = 0.000). In the high impact force trials, only 5.16-10.90 % of the load was transmitted to the sensors. For peak force and impulse, the carbon fiber shin guards provided better protection than all the others. Carbon fiber shin guards possess protective qualities superior to those of commercial polypropylene shin guards. Key Points Shin guards decrease the risk of serious injuries. Carbon shin guards provide sufficient protection against high impact forces. Commercially available Polypropylene based shin guards do not provide sufficient protection against high impact forces. PMID:24570615

  16. The effectiveness of shin guards used by football players.

    PubMed

    Tatar, Yasar; Ramazanoglu, Nusret; Camliguney, Asiye Filiz; Saygi, Evrim Karadag; Cotuk, Hasan Birol

    2014-01-01

    In football, injuries from opponent contact occur commonly in the lower extremities. FIFA the world's governing body for football requires players to wear shin guards. The aim of this study was to compare the protective effectiveness of polypropylene based shin guards with custom-made carbon fiber ones. Three commercial polypropylene shin guards (Adidas Predator™, Adidas UCL™, and Nike Mercurial™) and two custom-made carbon fiber shin guards were examined. The experimental setup had the following parts: 1) A pendulum attached a load cell at the tip (CAS Corp., Korea) and a fixed prosthetic foot equipped with a cleat to simulate an attacker's foot. 2) An artificial tibia prepared by condensed foam and reinforced by carbon fibers protected with soft clothing. 3) A multifunctional sensor system (Tekscan Corp., F-Socket System, Turkey) to record the impact on the tibia. In the low impact force trials, only 2.79-9.63 % of the load was transmitted to the sensors. When comparing for mean force, peak force and impulse, both carbon fiber shin guards performed better than the commercial ones (Adidas Predator™, Adidas UCL™, and Nike Mercurial™) (p = 0.000). Based on these same parameters, the Nike Mercurial™ provided better protection than the Adidas Predator™ and the Adidas UCL™ (p = 0.000). In the high impact force trials, only 5.16-10.90 % of the load was transmitted to the sensors. For peak force and impulse, the carbon fiber shin guards provided better protection than all the others. Carbon fiber shin guards possess protective qualities superior to those of commercial polypropylene shin guards. Key PointsShin guards decrease the risk of serious injuries.Carbon shin guards provide sufficient protection against high impact forces.Commercially available Polypropylene based shin guards do not provide sufficient protection against high impact forces.

  17. Football and exchange rates: empirical support for behavioral economics.

    PubMed

    Eker, Gulin; Berument, Hakan; Dogan, Burak

    2007-10-01

    Recently, economic theory has been expanded to incorporate emotions, which have been assumed to play an important role in financial decisions. The present study illustrates this by showing a connection between the sports performance of popular national football teams (Besiktas, Fenerbahce, and Galatasaray) and performance of the Turkish economy. Specifically, a significant positive association was found between the success of three major professional Turkish football teams and the exchange rate of the Turkish lira against the U.S. dollar. The effect of the football success of several Turkish football teams on the exchange rate of the Turkish lira was examined using the simultaneous multiple regression model with predictor measures of wins, losses, and ties for different combinations of teams to predict the depreciation rate of the Turkish lira between the years 1987 and 2003. Wins by Turkish football teams against foreign (non-Turkish) rivals increased with exchange rate depreciation of the Turkish lira against the U.S. dollar.

  18. Science and football: evaluating the influence of science on performance.

    PubMed

    Drust, B; Green, M

    2013-01-01

    The scientific study of football has its origins in the early research completed in the 1970's. Since these early efforts the available scientific knowledge base related to football has developed substantially. The ability of this scientific information to influence practice in the day-to-day activity of football organisations, especially elite teams, has been largely taken for granted. The close examination of this impact can lead to more uncertainty regarding the usefulness of the scientific data to the sport. Few articles are available that have attempted to critique the link between science and football practice. As such, the aims of this article are 2-fold; (i) to examine the historical background to "science and football" and to analyse the influence of sports science research on the current practice of coaches and practitioners within the sport and (ii) to identify potential ways to increase the influence of scientific research on practice in the "real world".

  19. Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Training Adaptation in Well-Trained Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Jastrzębska, Maria; Kaczmarczyk, Mariusz; Jastrzębski, Zbigniew

    2016-09-01

    Jastrzębska, M, Kaczmarczyk, M, and Jastrzębski, Z. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on training adaptation in well-trained soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2648-2655, 2016-There is growing body of evidence implying that vitamin D may be associated with athletic performance, however, studies examining the effects of vitamin D on athletic performance are inconsistent. Moreover, very little literature exists about the vitamin D and training efficiency or adaptation, especially in high-level, well-trained athletes. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on training adaptation in well-trained football players. The subjects were divided into 2 groups: the placebo group (PG) and the experimental group (SG, supplemented with vitamin D, 5,000 IU per day). Both groups were subjected to High Intensity Interval Training Program. The selection to the groups was based on peak power results attained before the experiment and position on the field. Blood samples for vitamin D level were taken from the players. In addition, total work, 5, 10, 20, and 30 m running speed, squat jump, and countermovement jump height were determined. There were no significant differences between SG and PG groups for any power-related characteristics at baseline. All power-related variables, except the 30 m sprint running time, improved significantly in response to interval training. However, the mean change scores (the differences between posttraining and pretraining values) did not differ significantly between SG and PG groups. In conclusion, an 8-week vitamin D supplementation in highly trained football players was not beneficial in terms of response to High Intensity Interval Training. Given the current level of evidence, the recommendation to use vitamin D supplements in all athletes to improve performance or training gains would be premature. To avoid a seasonal decrease in 25(OH)D level or to obtain optimal vitamin D levels, the

  20. Training

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Drinking Water Academy provides online training and information to ensure that water professionals, public officials, and involved citizens have the knowledge and skills necessary to protect our drinking water supply.

  1. The seasonal variations in anthropometric and performance characteristics of elite inter county Gaelic football players.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Richard A; Collins, Kieran

    2017-02-13

    There is limited research assessing the anthropometric and performance variations in elite Gaelic football. The aim of the current study was to assess the anthropometric and performance characteristics of an elite inter-county squad within a season. Following ethical approval and informed consent 26 participants were assessed at the start of pre-season (November), following early in-season (January) and mid-season (March). Measurements included stature, body mass, sum of 8 skinfold sites (ΣSkf8), estimated body fat (bf%), squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ), 5-, 10- and 20- m sprint time, upper and lower body strength (1RM) and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test 2 (Yo-Yo IR2). A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to determine seasonal and positional variations. Anthropometric variations were observed with an overall increase in participants' body mass and a concomitant decrease in ΣSkf8 and bf% (-21.5%, p = 0.002, η = 0.15; -1.43 %, p = 0.004, η = 0.13). Performance variations showed improvements in sprint time over 5- (p = 0.001, η = 0.19) and 10-m (p = 0.008, η = 0.11), SJ (p = 0.013, η = 0.1), CMJ (p = 0.013, η = 0.1) height and Yo-Yo IRT2 (p < 0.001, η = 0.34) noted from pre-season to mid-season. Significant anthropometric variations are observed between the pre-season and early in-season, meanwhile significant performance variations are observed between the pre-season and mid-season. Distinct positional variations are evident for both anthropometric and performance characteristics at all time points. Applied practitioners should consider these findings when implementing a seasonal training plan.

  2. Activity profile and physical demands of football referees and assistant referees in international games.

    PubMed

    Krustrup, Peter; Helsen, Werner; Randers, Morten B; Christensen, Jesper F; MacDonald, Christopher; Rebelo, Antonio Natal; Bangsbo, Jens

    2009-09-01

    Time-motion analyses and physiological measurements were performed to investigate the physiological demands of football referees (n = 15) and assistant referees (n = 15) in international games and to examine whether high-intensity running (HIR) correlates to the referees' ability to keep up with play. Total distance covered (10.27 +/- 0.90 vs. 6.76 +/- 0.83 km) and HIR (1.92 +/- 0.58 vs. 0.97 +/- 0.22 km) was higher (P < 0.05) for referees than assistant referees, while sprinting distance was not different. Referees covered 0.89 +/- 0.37 km by backwards running and assistant referees covered 1.54 +/- 0.66 km by sideways running. Mean heart rate was higher (P < 0.05) for referees than assistant referees (150 +/- 3 vs. 123 +/- 3 b.p.m.), whereas blood lactate was not different. Backwards/sideways running decreased (P < 0.05) from the first to the last 15-min period for referees (49%) and assistant referees (42%), whereas HIR was unaltered. HIR was inversely correlated with the five highest distances from infringements in both halves (r = -0.60 and -0.58, P < 0.05). In conclusion, international match officials carry out an important amount of HIR throughout games, while low-intensity and unorthodox running activities are reduced during games. Referees performing the most high-intensity work are better to keep up with play. The match activities differ significantly between referees and assistant referees, which should be considered in training and testing procedures.

  3. Knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of Muslim footballers towards Ramadan fasting during the London 2012 Olympics: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Christopher P; Zerguini, Yacine; Almudahka, Fuad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Muslims observe fasting during the month of Ramadan by abstaining from eating and drinking from dawn to sunset. Available literature shows that although several studies have been conducted on athletes to determine the effects of Ramadan fasting in terms of physical fitness and performance, little data are available regarding the knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of athletes (particularly footballers) towards Ramadan fasting during high-level competitions. This study explored the knowledge, beliefs and attitudes towards Ramadan fasting among football players participating in the London 2012 Olympics football tournament. Design Cross-sectional study. Settings Team training facility. Participants 54 Muslim footballers participating in the London Olympics, 2012 Outcome measures Each participant was asked to complete a pre-validated structured questionnaire to assess knowledge, beliefs and attitudes regarding Ramadan fasting and their intention to fast during London 2012. Results Of the 54 participating athletes, 21(39%) reported that they intended to fast during Ramadan, but not on a match day. This attitude differed across three teams interviewed —83%, 15% and 0%—showing cross-cultural variation. Overall, there was a lack of knowledge among footballers regarding the effects of Ramadan fasting on sleep and performance; around 30% of athletes gave incorrect responses. This knowledge was independent of their decision to fast on non-competition days (p>0.05). Conclusions This is the first study to describe the knowledge, beliefs and attitudes towards Ramadan fasting among athletes from Muslim-majority countries participating in a high-level competition. Appropriate knowledge can ensure optimum performance for athletes during Ramadan fasting. Coaches, family members and friends also in possession of this knowledge can provide moral support to the players. PMID:27670523

  4. Quantification of Accelerometer Derived Impacts Associated With Competitive Games in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I College Football Players.

    PubMed

    Wellman, Aaron D; Coad, Sam C; Goulet, Grant C; McLellan, Christopher P

    2017-02-01

    Wellman, AD, Coad, SC, Goulet, GC, and McLellan, CP. Quantification of accelerometer derived impacts associated with competitive games in National Collegiate Athletic Association division I college football players. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 330-338, 2017-The aims of the present study were to (a) examine positional impact profiles of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) division I college football players using global positioning system (GPS) and integrated accelerometry (IA) technology and (b) determine if positional differences in impact profiles during competition exist within offensive and defensive teams. Thirty-three NCAA division I Football Bowl Subdivision players were monitored using GPS and IA (GPSports) during 12 regular season games throughout the 2014 season. Individual player data sets (n = 294) were divided into offensive and defensive teams, and positional subgroups. The intensity, number, and distribution of impact forces experienced by players during competition were recorded. Positional differences were found for the distribution of impacts within offensive and defensive teams. Wide receivers sustained more very light and light to moderate (5-6.5 G force) impacts than other position groups, whereas the running backs were involved in more severe (>10 G force) impacts than all offensive position groups, with the exception of the quarterbacks (p ≤ 0.05). The defensive back and linebacker groups were subject to more very light (5.0-6.0 G force) impacts, and the defensive tackle group sustained more heavy and very heavy (7.1-10 G force) impacts than other defensive positions (p ≤ 0.05). Data from the present study provide novel quantification of positional impact profiles related to the physical demands of college football games and highlight the need for position-specific monitoring and training in the preparation for the impact loads experienced during NCAA division I football competition.

  5. Physiological profile in relation to playing position of elite college Gaelic footballers

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, M; Hall, M

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the physiological profile, and its relation to playing position, of elite college Gaelic footballers. Method: The subjects were 28 elite Gaelic footballers (12 backs, 12 forwards, and four midfielders; mean (SD) age 21 (1.67) years), who won a major intervarsity tournament (Sigerson Cup) three times in succession. Results: There was general similarity among the members of the team, probably the result of a typical, common training programme. The team means for stature (1.81 (0.05) m), body mass index (81.6 (6.5)) and percentage body fat (14.5 (3.1)%), power output by Wingate test (absolute power 912 (152) W or 10.72 (1.6) W/kg) and sit and reach test (22.3 (5.5) cm) displayed no significant differences when analysed according to playing position. However, midfielders did have significantly larger body mass than backs (p<0.05) and greater maximal oxygen consumption (p<0.01) and greater vertical jumping ability than backs and forwards (vertical jump power output, p<0.01; vertical jump, p<0.01). Midfielders also had greater absolute handgrip strength (p<0.01). Conclusion: The differences exhibited by midfielders despite identical training suggests that they stem from physiological adaptation to competition rather than training. PMID:15849287

  6. Longitudinal morphological and performance profiles for American, NCAA Division I football players.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Bert H; Conchola, Eric G; Glass, Rob G; Thompson, Brennan J

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the changes in anthropomorphism and performance over a 4-year eligibility career of American football players. A total of 92 offensive and defensive linemen and 64 skill (wide receivers and defensive backs) player observations were included in the analysis. Data from preseason testing over a 7-year period were compiled, sorted, and analyzed by players' year in school. Assessments of strength included 1 repetition maximum bench press, squat, power clean, and a 225-lb maximum repetition muscle endurance test. Power and speed measures included vertical jump (VJ) and 40-yd (36.6-m) sprint. All strength measures improved significantly (p < 0.05) over the years of training. Skill players demonstrated a significant increase in power between years 1 and 2 but at no other time. Linemen did not demonstrate significant changes in VJ. Speed did not change significantly for either group over the 4 years of training. These data provide a theoretically predictable 4-year rate of change in anthropometric, strength, and power variables for Division I football players. By having a longitudinal assessment of expected physical improvement, it may be possible for strength training personnel to determine those who may need additional attention in an area to more closely improve as expected. Additionally, it is suggested that elite athletes may possess genetically superior attributes and therefore, when selecting athletes, particular attention should be paid to the selection of those who have previously demonstrated superior speed and power.

  7. Analysis of Body Mass Components in National Club Football Players in Republic of Macedonia

    PubMed Central

    Nikolic, Slobodan; Todorovska, Lidija; Maleska, Vesela; Dejanova, Beti; Efremova, Ljudmila; Zivkovic, Vujica; Pluncevic-Gligoroska, Jasmina

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to analyze body composition in adult male football players and its changes during adulthood. Methods: Adult male football players (n=942, mean age 24.11 ±4.69y), all members of national competitive clubs from Macedonia were included in the study. The absolute and the relative body components were calculated: lean body mass (LBMkg), muscle mass (MMkg; MM%), bone mass (BMkg; BM%) and fat components (FMkg; FM%), using the anthropometric protocol by Matiegka. Results: Mean values of anthropometric measures for all included participants were as follows: height=178.39±6.11cm; weight=77.02±7.57; LBM=65.65±6.38; MM%=53.23±2.78; BM%=17.05±1.27; FM%=14.58±1.48. Descriptive statistics for these parameters was made for age specific groups. Conclusions: The results obtained could be used as reference values for adult football players in Republic of Macedonia. In the examined age span (18-35 years) a slight increase of absolute values of all three body components has been registered with advancing age. The most significant increase in the absolute values was registered for the muscle component, followed by the fat and bone components, respectively. Regarding the relative values (%), the muscle and the fat components showed an equally slight positive correlation with the age increase of 1 year, whilst the bone component decreased with advancing age. PMID:25568532

  8. Development of a modified Margaria-Kalamen anaerobic power test for American football athletes.

    PubMed

    Hetzler, Ronald K; Vogelpohl, Rachele E; Stickley, Christopher D; Kuramoto, Allison N; Delaura, Mel R; Kimura, Iris F

    2010-04-01

    This study examined a modification of the Margaria-Kalamen test for football players. The football stair climb test (FST) protocol used in this study increased the vertical displacement (20 steps, 3.12 m) so that the mean best time for the test was 2.048 +/- 0.267 seconds. Fifty-eight Division I-A football players volunteered to participate (mean +/- SD age = 20.2 +/- 1.8 yr, height = 184.1 +/- 7.7 cm, weight = 102.5 +/- 19.4 kg). Subjects performed 25 trials with 30 to 40 seconds of rest between trials. Test-retest reliability was determined using 34 subjects by way of intraclass correlation coefficients with a value of 0.73 for peak power and SEM of 105.4 W, indicating an acceptable level of reliability. Subjects were divided into 3 groups by position: linemen (Line), skill, and linebackers (LB). Alpha level was p < 0.05. Peak power was 1674.5 +/- 300.8, 1712.6 +/- 251.5, and 1388.6 +/- 210.4 W for the LB, Line, and Skill groups, respectively. Groups were significantly different (p < 0.0001), with the LB and Line found to be more powerful than the Skill group. Peak power continued to increase throughout the 25 trials in the Skill and LB group but plateaued after approximately 17 trials in the Line group. It was concluded that the FST was a reliable test for measuring peak anaerobic power in collegiate football players, which, theoretically, should provide more accurate measures of peak power caused by increased vertical displacement and longer duration, resulting in a decreased influence of cheating strategies during test administration. To achieve maximal power in stair climbing tasks, coaches may need to incorporate a greater number of trials or a more intense warm-up than has been previously reported.

  9. Injuries during football tournaments in 45,000 children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kolstrup, Line Agger; Koopmann, Kristian Ugelvig; Nygaard, Uffe Harboe; Nygaard, Rie Harboe; Agger, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Four percent of the world's population, or 265 million people, play football, and many players are injured every year. The present study investigated more than 1800 injuries in over 45,000 youth players participating in three consecutive international football tournaments in Denmark in 2012-2014. The aim was to investigate the injury types and locations in children and adolescent football players and the differences between genders and age groups (11-15 and 16-19 years of age). An overall injury rate of 15.3 per 1000 player hours was found. The most common injury location was lower extremities (66.7%), and the most common injury type was contusion (24.4%). Girls had a relative risk of injury of 1.5 compared with boys, p < .001, and they had a higher proportion of injuries to knee and lower leg, 23.8%, than boys, 19.0%, p < .01. Boys had a higher proportion of fracture, 6.8%, as opposed to 3.3% among girls, p < .001. In conclusion, we found the youngest girls to have a higher incidence of almost all injury categories than any other group. In general, the incidence of injury decreased with age. The study provides a detailed insight into the injuries that may be expected at a large youth football tournament. These findings are of great value for organizations and healthcare professionals planning similar events and for planning injury prevention strategies, which would be of special interest in the youngest female players in general.

  10. University Football Players, Postural Stability, and Concussions.

    PubMed

    Graves, Barbara Sue

    2016-02-01

    Concussion in football athletes is certainly more prevalent and has potentially serious outcomes. With current concerns and increasing return-to-play issues, additional assessment focus is needed. Division 1 college football athletes, from 18 to 20.9 years (n = 177; age, 19.7 ± 1.2 years; height, 182.3 ± 4.5 cm; weight, 97.3 ± 10.6 kg), before fall practice, over a period of 3 years, underwent baseline postural stability testing (sensory organization test [SOT], NeuroCom). Individuals, who were diagnosed with a concussion (headache, dizziness, fatigue, confusion, or loss of consciousness) during practice or actual competition (n = 15; age, 18.9 ± 0.9 years; height, 181.8 ± 2.5 cm; weight, 86.6 ± 3.6 kg), underwent serial evaluation after injury and 24 hours after concussion. As soon as the player was considered asymptomatic, the test was completed on the first and 14th day. A control group of noninjured male athletes (n = 15; age, 19.1 ± 0.4 years; height, 178.2 ± 3.2 cm; weight, 78.6 ± 2.1 kg) were tested for the same time frame. This particular study was only one part of the total evaluation conducted for the concussed athlete's return to play. Results indicated that the concussion group had a statistically significant (p = 0.037) change from their baseline SOT score and the control group (p = 0.025). This change remained significant until day 14 of posttesting. These data indicate that the SOT, when available, may be a positive additional assessment of concussed college-aged football players. Professionals, when dealing with concussion in competitive sports, do need to continue to work together, but awareness of SOT assessments may also contribute to the return-to-play decisions.

  11. FIFA's approach to doping in football

    PubMed Central

    Dvorak, J; Graf‐Baumann, T; D'Hooghe, M; Kirkendall, D; Taennler, H; Saugy, M

    2006-01-01

    Background and objectives FIFA's anti‐doping strategy relies on education and prevention. A worldwide network of physicians guarantees doping control procedures that are straightforward and leave no place for cheating. FIFA actively acknowledges its responsibility to protect players from harm and ensure equal chances for all competitors by stringent doping control regulations, data collection of positive samples, support of research, and collaboration with other organisations. This article aims to outline FIFA's approach to doping in football. Method Description of FIFA's doping control regulations and procedures, statistical analysis of FIFA database on doping control, and comparison with data obtained by WADA accredited laboratories as for 2004. Results Data on positive doping samples per substance and confederation/nation documented at the FIFA medical office from 1994 to 2005 are provided. According to the FIFA database, the incidence of positive cases over the past 11 years was 0.12%, with about 0.42% in 2004 (based on the assumption of 20 750 samples per year) and 0.37% in 2005. Especially important in this regard is the extremely low incidence of the true performance enhancing drugs such as anabolic steroids and stimulants. However, there is a need for more consistent data collection and cross checks among international anti‐doping agencies as well as for further studies on specific substances, methods, and procedures. With regard to general health impairments in players, FIFA suggests that principles of occupational medicine should be considered and treatment with banned substances for purely medical reasons should be permitted to enable players to carry out their profession. At the same time, a firm stand has to be taken against suppression of symptoms by medication with the aim of meeting the ever increasing demands on football players. Conclusion Incidence of doping in football seems to be low, but much closer collaboration and further

  12. Foot and Ankle Injuries in American Football.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Andrew R; Anderson, Robert B

    Physicians need to be aware of a variety of foot and ankle injuries that commonly occur in American football, including turf toe, Jones fractures, Lisfranc injuries, syndesmotic and deltoid disruption, and Achilles ruptures. These injuries are often complex and require early individual tailoring of treatment and rehabilitation protocols. Successful management and return to play requires early diagnosis, a thorough work-up, and prompt surgical intervention when warranted with meticulous attention to restoration of normal foot and ankle anatomy. Physicians should have a high suspicion for subtle injuries and variants that can occur via both contact and noncontact mechanisms.

  13. How the Iranian Football Coaches and Players Know About Doping?

    PubMed Central

    Seif Barghi, Tohid; Halabchi, Farzin; Dvorak, Jiri; Hosseinnejad, Heydar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, doping is an intricate dilemma. Football is the nationally popular sport in Iran. On the other hand, doping is a serious health hazard sport faces today. Studies dealing with athletes’ knowledge, attitudes and behavior concerning doping in football are scarce. Objectives: Therefore, we aimed to investigate the knowledge and attitudes toward doping among the football coaches and players. Patients and Methods: In a cross sectional study, 375 participants (239 football players and 136 coaches) were studied. A specially made questionnaire was applied. In this study, football teams of different provinces of the country were selected by randomized clustered sampling and questionnaires were distributed among coaches and players. Results: Knowledge of football coaches and players in three categories of doping definitions, recognition of prohibited drugs and side effects of anabolic steroids was poor or moderate in 45.3%, 88.5% and 96.5%, respectively. Conclusions: Football players and coaches have poor knowledge about doping in Iran. Moreover, they believe in some inappropriate myths without any scientific or rational basis.It seems necessary to design a comprehensive educational program for all of the athletes and coaches in Iran. PMID:26448840

  14. Denatured proteins facilitate the formation of the football-shaped GroEL-(GroES)2 complex.

    PubMed

    Sameshima, Tomoya; Iizuka, Ryo; Ueno, Taro; Funatsu, Takashi

    2010-03-29

    Controversy exists over whether the chaperonin GroEL forms a GroEL-(GroES)2 complex (football-shaped complex) during its reaction cycle. We have revealed previously the existence of the football-shaped complex in the chaperonin reaction cycle using a FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) assay [Sameshima, Ueno, Iizuka, Ishii, Terada, Okabe and Funatsu (2008) J. Biol. Chem. 283, 23765-23773]. Although denatured proteins alter the ATPase activity of GroEL and the dynamics of the GroEL-GroES interaction, the effect of denatured proteins on the formation of the football-shaped complex has not been characterized. In the present study, a FRET assay was used to demonstrate that denatured proteins facilitate the formation of the football-shaped complex. The presence of denatured proteins was also found to increase the rate of association of GroES to the trans-ring of GroEL. Furthermore, denatured proteins decrease the inhibitory influence of ADP on ATP-induced association of GroES to the trans-ring of GroEL. From these findings we conclude that denatured proteins facilitate the dissociation of ADP from the trans-ring of GroEL and the concomitant association of ATP and the second GroES.

  15. Sports Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Practitioners of martial arts have long seen a need for a precise method of measuring the power of a karate kick or a boxer's punch in training and competition. Impax sensor is a piezoelectric film less than one thousandth of an inch thick, yet extremely durable. They give out a voltage impulse when struck, the greater the force of impact, the higher the voltage. The impulse is transmitted to a compact electronics package where voltage is translated into a force-pounds reading shown on a digital display. Impax, manufactured by Impulse Technology, Inc. is used by martial arts instructors, practitioners, U.S. Olympic Committee Training Center, football blocking sleds, and boxers as well as police defensive tactics, providing a means of evaluating the performance of recruits.

  16. Exercise training decreases activation of the mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related protein-1 in insulin-resistant human skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Fealy, Ciaran E.; Mulya, Anny; Lai, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Defects in mitochondrial dynamics, the processes of fission, fusion, and mitochondrial autophagy, may contribute to metabolic disease including type 2 diabetes. Dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp1) is a GTPase protein that plays a central role in mitochondrial fission. We hypothesized that aerobic exercise training would decrease Drp1 Ser616 phosphorylation and increase fat oxidation and insulin sensitivity in obese (body mass index: 34.6 ± 0.8 kg/m2) insulin-resistant adults. Seventeen subjects performed supervised exercise for 60 min/day, 5 days/wk at 80–85% of maximal heart rate for 12 wk. Insulin sensitivity was measured by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, and fat oxidation was determined by indirect calorimetry. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle before and after the 12-wk program. The exercise intervention increased insulin sensitivity 2.1 ± 0.2-fold (P < 0.01) and fat oxidation 1.3 ± 0.3-fold (P < 0.01). Phosphorylation of Drp1 at Ser616 was decreased (pre vs. post: 0.81 ± 0.15 vs. 0.58 ± 0.14 arbitrary units; P < 0.05) following the intervention. Furthermore, reductions in Drp1 Ser616 phosphorylation were negatively correlated with increases in fat oxidation (r = −0.58; P < 0.05) and insulin sensitivity (rho = −0.52; P < 0.05). We also examined expression of genes related to mitochondrial dynamics. Dynamin1-like protein (DNM1L; P < 0.01), the gene that codes for Drp1, and Optic atrophy 1 (OPA1; P = 0.05) were significantly upregulated following the intervention, while there was a trend towards an increase in expression of both mitofusin protein MFN1 (P = 0.08) and MFN2 (P = 0.07). These are the first data to suggest that lifestyle-mediated improvements in substrate metabolism and insulin sensitivity in obese insulin-resistant adults may be regulated through decreased activation of the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1. PMID:24947026

  17. Management of concussion in the professional football player.

    PubMed

    Pieroth, Elizabeth M; Hanks, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    There is no other sport that has come under greater scrutiny surrounding the incidence and treatment of concussion than football, and there is no other professional sports league that has experienced more intense focus of its handling of concussions than the National Football League (NFL). The NFL has received significant criticism of their management of concussion in players from both the popular press and the medical community. However, those working with active NFL players have changed their assessment and treatment of these injuries as the knowledge of concussions has evolved over time. We review the current approach to the management of concussions in the professional football player.

  18. Epidemiology of neurodegeneration in American-style professional football players

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the history of head injuries in relation to American-style football play, summarize recent research that has linked football head injuries to neurodegeneration, and provide a discussion of the next steps for refining the examination of neurodegeneration in football players. For most of the history of football, the focus of media reports and scientific studies on football-related head injuries was on the acute or short-term effects of serious, traumatic head injuries. Beginning about 10 years ago, a growing concern developed among neurologists and researchers about the long-term effects that playing professional football has on the neurologic health of the players. Autopsy-based studies identified a pathologically distinct neurodegenerative disorder, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, among athletes who were known to have experienced concussive and subconcussive blows to the head during their playing careers. Football players have been well represented in these autopsy findings. A mortality study of a large cohort of retired professional football players found a significantly increased risk of death from neurodegeneration. Further analysis found that non-line players were at higher risk than line players, possibly because of an increased risk of concussion. Although the results of the studies reviewed do not establish a cause effect relationship between football-related head injury and neurodegenerative disorders, a growing body of research supports the hypothesis that professional football players are at an increased risk of neurodegeneration. Significant progress has been made in the last few years on detecting and defining the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases. However, less progress has been made on other factors related to the progression of those diseases in football players. This review identifies three areas for further research: (a) quantification of exposure - a consensus is needed on the use of clinically

  19. Severe Brachial Plexus Injuries in American Football.

    PubMed

    Daly, Charles A; Payne, S Houston; Seiler, John G

    2016-11-01

    This article reports a series of severe permanent brachial plexus injuries in American football players. The authors describe the mechanisms of injury and outcomes from a more contemporary treatment approach in the form of nerve transfer tailored to the specific injuries sustained. Three cases of nerve transfer for brachial plexus injury in American football players are discussed in detail. Two of these patients regained functional use of the extremity, but 1 patient with a particularly severe injury did not regain significant function. Brachial plexus injuries are found along a spectrum of brachial plexus stretch or contusion that includes the injuries known as "stingers." Early identification of these severe brachial plexus injuries allows for optimal outcomes with timely treatment. Diagnosis of the place of a given injury along this spectrum is difficult and requires a combination of imaging studies, nerve conduction studies, and close monitoring of physical examination findings over time. Although certain patients may be at higher risk for stingers, there is no evidence to suggest that this correlates with a higher risk of severe brachial plexus injury. Unfortunately, no equipment or strengthening program has been shown to provide a protective effect against these severe injuries. Patients with more severe injuries likely have less likelihood of functional recovery. In these patients, nerve transfer for brachial plexus injury offers the best possibility of meaningful recovery without significant morbidity. [ Orthopedics. 2016; 39(6):e1188-e1192.].

  20. Site recycling: From Brownfield to football field

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.; Haas, W.L.

    1995-07-01

    The Carolina Panther`s new home, Carolinas Stadium, will be impressive. It will include a 75,000-seat stadium, about 2,000 parking spaces, and a practice facility equipped with three full-sized football fields, all located on 30 acres bordering the central business district of Charlotte, NC. Fans of the NFL expansion team may never know that, until recently, 13 of those 30 acres were a former state Superfund site contaminated by a commercial scrapyard that had operated from the early 1930s to 1983. The salvage of nonferrous metals from lead-acid batteries, copper from transformers and other electrical equipment, and ferrous metal scrap from junk automobiles at the Smith Metal and Iron (SMI) site had left a complex contamination legacy. The soil contained lead, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lesser amounts of semivolatiles (polyaromatic hydrocarbons, or PAHs), and volatile organic compounds and petroleum hydrocarbons. The site had remained dormant, like many former industrial sites that have come be called {open_quotes}brownfields,{close_quotes} for nearly a decade when in 1993, Charlotte was selected as the future home of the Carolina Panthers, a National Football League expansion team. The city was able to attract the team in part by offering to redevelop the site, a prime location adjacent to the downtown area. An eight-month-long site remediation effort by HDR Engineering Inc. was completed March 31, on schedule for a June 1996 unveiling of the team`s new facility.

  1. Parent Training on Generalized Use of Behavior Analytic Strategies for Decreasing the Problem Behavior of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Data-Based Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crone, Regina M.; Mehta, Smita Shukla

    2016-01-01

    Setting variables such as location of parent training, programming with common stimuli, generalization of discrete responses to non-trained settings, and subsequent reduction in child problem behavior may influence the effectiveness of interventions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of home-versus clinic-based training…

  2. Sympathetic enhancement in futsal players but not in football players after repeated sprint ability test

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yung-Sheng; Liao, Chih-Jung; Lu, Wan-An; Kuo, Cheng-Deng

    2015-01-01

    Background Heart rate variability (HRV) can disclose the specific adaptation of sympathovagal modulation to exercise. This study investigated the change in HRV measures after anaerobic and aerobic intermittent exercises in university football and futsal players. Method 36 male university students with physically active lifestyle (n=14), football (n=12), and futsal (n=10) participated in this study. The participants completed the repeated sprint ability (RSA) test and Yo-Yo (YY) intermittent recovery test level 1 in randomised order. ECG signals of the participants were recorded in supine position 15 min before and 30 min after exercises. Before exercise, and 5 and 30 min after exercise, the blood pressures were also taken. Results In the RSA protocol, the percentage changes in normalised high-frequency power (nHFP) were significantly decreased, while the percentage changes in the very low/high frequency power ratio (VLHR) and low/high frequency power ratio (LHR) were significantly increased in futsal players after exercise, as compared with the controls. No significant changes in all HRV indices were found in the YY protocol, except the respiratory frequency. Conclusions After exercise, the percent decrease in vagal modulation in futsal players was significantly reduced, while the percentage increase in sympathetic modulation in futsal players was significantly enhanced in the RSA test, but not in the YY test, as compared with the control group. The increase in sympathetic activity and the decrease in vagal activity in the futsal players were greater than the corresponding increase and decrease in the football players in the RSA test. PMID:27900135

  3. The F-MARC study on Ramadan and football: research design, population, and environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Leiper, John B; Maughan, Ronald J; Kirkendall, Donald T; Bartagi, Zakia; Zerguini, Yacine; Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri

    2008-12-01

    Ramadan is a month of penance during which Muslims take food or drink only after sunset and before the sun rises. This fast can present a considerable challenge to the Muslim athlete. Sports performance in those who observe Ramadan and those who do not has not been formally compared. Four Tunisian junior football squads participated in the study, and it was the individual's choice whether they observed the Ramadan fast. In this study, 64 players fasted while 36 players did not. Players completed daily questionnaires on perception of training difficulty before and during Ramadan. Anthropometric data were recorded 3 weeks before Ramadan, during the second and fourth weeks of Ramadan, and into the third week after Ramadan. Performance tests (sprint, leg power, agility, aerobic endurance, football-specific skills) were also measured on these test days. Nutritional intake was recorded by recall three times during each phase of the study. Haematological and biochemical analyses were performed on a 7-ml blood sample taken from each participant on each of the test days. Sweat samples were collected during a training session in the third week of Ramadan, when heart rate was also measured. The data analyses are presented and discussed elsewhere in this issue.

  4. Reliability and smallest worthwhile difference of the NFL-225 test in NCAA Division I football players.

    PubMed

    Mann, J Bryan; Ivey, Pat J; Brechue, William F; Mayhew, Jerry L

    2014-05-01

    The NFL-225 test is widely used to assess the strength level and evaluate the progress of college football players during resistance training. Despite the studies evaluating the validity of this test, there are no reports assessing its reliability. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability and smallest worthwhile difference (SWD) of the NFL-225 test in Division I college football players. Seventy-two players were assessed for more than 3 weeks for the number of repetitions completed with a constant load of 102.3 kg (225 lbs) during winter conditioning. Test sessions occurred on the same day and at the same time 1 week apart. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) between weeks 1 and 2 (ICC = 0.987), weeks 2 and 3 (ICC = 0.981), and across weeks 1, 2, and 3 (ICC = 0.988) indicated high relative reliability. A small technical error (TE) (TE = 0.5 repetitions) provided strong absolute reliability. The SWD suggests that a change in performance of 3 repetitions or more after training would indicate a meaningful improvement in performance for this test.

  5. An Update on Football Deaths and Catastrophic Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Frederick O.; Blyth, Carl S.

    1986-01-01

    The latest figures (1985) indicate a continued decline in football deaths and catastrophic injuries, which is credited to a ban on spearing and to a helmet standard. Guidelines for prevention of fatalities and injuries are listed. (Author/MT)

  6. How Many Blades of Grass Are on a Football Field?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, Christina M.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the use of a problem-based instructional task in an elementary classroom. After estimating the number of blades of grass on a football field, students write letters to explain the results of their research.

  7. Many College Football Players Lack Vitamin D: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_164139.html Many College Football Players Lack Vitamin D: Study Deficiency could put them at risk for muscle injuries ... vitamin D. Supplements are usually prescribed for a vitamin D deficiency, the researchers said. The study was to be ...

  8. "Deflategate": Time, Temperature, and Moisture Effects on Football Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenthal, Jack; Beljak, Lauren; Macatangay, Dahlia-Marie; Helmuth-Malone, Lilly; McWilliams, Catharina; Raptis, Sofia

    2016-09-01

    In a recent paper in TPT, DiLisi and Rarick used the National Football League "Deflategate" controversy to introduce to physics students the physics of a bouncing ball. In this paper, we measure and analyze the environmental effects of time, ambient temperature, and moisture on the internal pressure of an NFL football. We focus on the rate of pressure recovery that occurs when a cold football (either wet or dry) is returned to the warm locker room environment where the pressure was initially measured. Both studies stem from the so-called NFL "Deflategate" controversy in which footballs that initially met a minimum internal pressure requirement were rechecked at halftime of the AFC Championship game, and in some cases were reported to have fallen below the minimum pressure requirement. The question is whether the pressure changes were due to environmental exposure or rather to some air being released from the balls, or both.

  9. EPA Applauds College Football Playoff National ChampionshipGreen Endeavors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (Jan. 12, 2015) The first College Football Playoff (CFP) National Championship is leading the way in environmental stewardship by incorporating sustainability as a key part of its operations. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is reco

  10. A profile of a National Football League team.

    PubMed

    Pryor, J Luke; Huggins, Robert A; Casa, Douglas J; Palmieri, Gerard A; Kraemer, William J; Maresh, Carl M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the physical profiles of players on the 2011 New York Giants (NYG) team and to make comparisons with the historical literature on previous National Football League (NFL) player profiles. In this study, height, body mass (BM), body fat percentage (BF%) using skinfold measurements, and several predicted 1 repetition maximal strength and power measures in 30 returning players from the 2011 NYG team, who recently won the Super Bowl, were collected. Players were grouped by position: running back, quarterback (QB), wide receiver (WR), tight end, offensive lineman (OL), defensive lineman (DL), linebacker (LB), and defensive back (DB). Pooled and weighted mean differences (NYG - NFL) and effect sizes were used to evaluate height, BM, and BF% comparisons of NYG to previous NFL studies from 1998 to 2009. The characteristics of the players as a group were: age, height, BM, BF%: 26 ± 2 years, 183.8 ± 9.0 cm, 144.9 ± 20.8 kg, 14.3 ± 5.5%, respectively. Comparisons highlight distinct position-specific dissimilarity in strength measures, BM, and BF%, which reflect current strength training, conditioning, and team play strategy. As expected, NYG positional differences were found for height (p ≤ 0.05), BM (p ≤ 0.037), BF% (p ≤ 0.048), bench press (p ≤ 0.048), inclined bench press (p ≤ 0.013), and squat (p ≤ 0.026). Anthropometrics profiles did not significantly differ from previously published trends in NFL players indicating equity in physical characteristics over the past 13 years. However, NYG LBs, DLs, OLs, QBs, and WRs trended toward less BF% but generally similar BM compared with NFL players, suggesting greater lean BM in these positions. This study adds new players' data to prototypical position-specific databases that may be used as templates for comparison of players for draft selection or physical training.

  11. Recovery Kinetics of Knee Flexor and Extensor Strength after a Football Match

    PubMed Central

    Draganidis, Dimitrios; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Avloniti, Alexandra; Barbero-Álvarez, José C.; Mohr, Magni; Malliou, Paraskevi; Gourgoulis, Vassilios; Deli, Chariklia K.; Douroudos, Ioannis I.; Margonis, Konstantinos; Gioftsidou, Asimenia; Fouris, Andreas D.; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Fatouros, Ioannis G.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the temporal changes of isokinetic strength performance of knee flexor (KF) and extensor (KE) strength after a football match. Players were randomly assigned to a control (N = 14, participated only in measurements and practices) or an experimental group (N = 20, participated also in a football match). Participants trained daily during the two days after the match. Match and training overload was monitored with GPS devices. Venous blood was sampled and muscle damage was assessed pre-match, post-match and at 12h, 36h and 60h post-match. Isometric strength as well as eccentric and concentric peak torque of knee flexors and extensors in both limbs (dominant and non-dominant) were measured on an isokinetic dynamometer at baseline and at 12h, 36h and 60h after the match. Functional (KFecc/KEcon) and conventional (KFcon/KEcon) ratios were then calculated. Only eccentric peak torque of knee flexors declined at 60h after the match in the control group. In the experimental group: a) isometric strength of knee extensors and knee flexors declined (P<0.05) at 12h (both limbs) and 36h (dominant limb only), b) eccentric and concentric peak torque of knee extensors and flexors declined (P<0.05) in both limbs for 36h at 60°/s and for 60h at 180°/s with eccentric peak torque of knee flexors demonstrating a greater (P<0.05) reduction than concentric peak torque, c) strength deterioration was greater (P<0.05) at 180°/s and in dominant limb, d) the functional ratio was more sensitive to match-induced fatigue demonstrating a more prolonged decline. Discriminant and regression analysis revealed that strength deterioration and recovery may be related to the amount of eccentric actions performed during the match and athletes' football-specific conditioning. Our data suggest that recovery kinetics of knee flexor and extensor strength after a football match demonstrate strength, limb and velocity specificity and may depend on match physical overload and players' physical

  12. Staffing Levels at National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Bowl Subdivision-Level Institutions

    PubMed Central

    MS, Suzie Aparicio; Welch Bacon, Cailee E.; Parsons, John T.; Bay, R. Curtis; Cohen, Randy P.; DeZeeuw, Terry; McLeod, Tamara C. Valovich

    2015-01-01

    Context The “Appropriate Medical Coverage for Intercollegiate Athletics” (AMCIA) document was created to support assessment and calculation of athletic training personnel requirements. However, little is known regarding disparities between current and recommended staffing practices. Objective To identify the staffing and employment characteristics of athletic health care services at Football Bowl Subdivision-level institutions. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Web-based survey. Patients or Other Participants Head athletic trainers and athletic training staff members who were knowledgeable about budget and staff. Main Outcome Measure(s) The survey, Assessment of Staffing Levels at National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Bowl Subdivision-Level Institutions, was used to evaluate personal, university, and staff demographics; staffing and employment topics; and AMCIA variables and use. Results The survey was accessed and partially completed by 104 individuals (response rate = 84.6%). A total of 79 athletic trainers (response rate = 76%) completed the entire survey. One-third of the respondents (34.2%, n = 26) met the recommended number of full-time equivalents (FTEs) for football, two-thirds of the respondents (65.7%, n = 50) failed to meet the recommendation, and 26.2% (n = 27) were missing data needed for FTE calculation. Among those who did not meet the recommended FTEs (n = 50), 38.0% (n = 19) were within 1 FTE of being compliant, 26.0% (n = 13) were within 2 FTEs, and 24.0% (n = 12) were within 3 FTEs. About one-third of respondents (35.9%, n = 37) reported not using the AMCIA, citing lack of funding (29.7%, n = 11), lack of administrative support (21.6%, n = 8), and other reasons (37.8%, n = 14). Conclusions The majority of institutions that used the AMCIA were able to provide justification for staffing. For most of the institutions that failed to meet their recommendation, adding 1–3 FTE athletic trainers for football would change their

  13. Linear and angular head acceleration measurements in collegiate football.

    PubMed

    Rowson, Steven; Brolinson, Gunnar; Goforth, Mike; Dietter, Dave; Duma, Stefan

    2009-06-01

    Each year, between 1.6x10(6) and 3.8x10(6) concussions are sustained by athletes playing sports, with football having the highest incidence. The high number of concussions in football provides a unique opportunity to collect biomechanical data to characterize mild traumatic brain injury. Human head acceleration data for a range of impact severities were collected by instrumenting the helmets of collegiate football players with accelerometers. The helmets of ten Virginia Tech football players were instrumented with measurement devices for every game and practice for the 2007 football season. The measurement devices recorded linear and angular accelerations about each of the three axes of the head. Data for each impact were downloaded wirelessly to a sideline data collection system shortly after each impact occurred. Data were collected for 1712 impacts, creating a large and unbiased data set. While a majority of the impacts were of relatively low severity (<30 g and <2000 rad/s2), 172 impacts were greater than 40 g and 143 impacts were greater than 3000 rad/s2. No instrumented player sustained a clinically diagnosed concussion during the 2007 season. A large and unbiased data set was compiled by instrumenting the helmets of collegiate football players. Football provides a unique opportunity to collect head acceleration data of varying severity from human volunteers. The addition of concurrent concussive data may advance the understanding of the mechanics of mild traumatic brain injury. With an increased understanding of the biomechanics of head impacts in collegiate football and human tolerance to head acceleration, better equipment can be designed to prevent head injuries.

  14. Hidden power law patterns in the top European football leagues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Silva, Sergio; Matsushita, Raul; Silveira, Eliza

    2013-11-01

    Because sports are stylized combat, sports may follow power laws similar to those found for wars, individual clashes, and acts of terrorism. We show this fact for football (soccer) by adjusting power laws that show a close relationship between rank and points won by the clubs participating in the latest seasons of the top fifteen European football leagues. In addition, we use Shannon entropy for gauging league competitive balance. As a result, we are able to rank the leagues according to competitiveness.

  15. Walking football as sustainable exercise for older adults - A pilot investigation.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Peter; Dias, Irundika; Holland, Carol; Campbell, Niyah; Nagar, Iaysha; Connolly, Luke; Krustrup, Peter; Hubball, Harry

    2017-06-01

    The health benefits of playing football and the importance of exercise and social contact for healthy ageing are well established, but few older adults in the UK take enough exercise. Football is popular, flexible in format and draws players into engrossing, effortful and social exercise, but the physical demands of play at full speed may make it unsustainable for some older adults. Restricted to walking pace, will play still be engaging? Will health benefits be retained? Will physical demands remain manageable? This pilot study aims to investigate: (1) the experience of older adults playing walking football every week, is it sustainable and rewarding, (2) the intensity and locomotor pattern of walking football, (3) the scale and nature of walking football health benefits and (4) possible cognitive benefits of playing walking football through measures of processing speed, selective and divided attention and updating and inhibition components of executive function.
 'Walking football' and 'waiting list' groups were compared before and after 12 weeks of one-hour per week football. Walking football was found to be engaging, sustainable for older adults and moderately intensive; however, selective health and cognitive benefits were not found from this brief intervention. Highlights Walking football is a lower impact but authentic form of football that enables older players to extend their active participation. Walking football is enjoyable and moderately demanding and may be a sustainable form of exercise for older adults. Health and cognitive benefits to playing walking football were not found.

  16. Taking time to feel our body: Steady increases in heartbeat perception accuracy and decreases in alexithymia over 9 months of contemplative mental training.

    PubMed

    Bornemann, Boris; Singer, Tania

    2017-03-01

    The ability to accurately perceive signals from the body has been shown to be important for physical and psychological health as well as understanding one's emotions. Despite the importance of this skill, often indexed by heartbeat perception accuracy (HBPa), little is known about its malleability. Here, we investigated whether contemplative mental practice can increase HBPa. In the context of a 9-month mental training study, the ReSource Project, two matched cohorts (n = 77 and n = 79) underwent three training modules of 3 months' duration that targeted attentional and interoceptive abilities (Presence module), socio-affective (Affect module), and socio-cognitive (Perspective module) abilities. A third cohort (n = 78) underwent 3 months of practice (Affect module) and a retest control group (n = 84) did not undergo any training. HBPa was measured with a heartbeat tracking task before and after each training module. Emotional awareness was measured by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS). Participants with TAS scores > 60 at screening were excluded. HBPa was found to increase steadily over the training, with significant and small- to medium-sized effects emerging after 6 months (Cohen's d = .173) and 9 months (d = .273) of mental training. Changes in HBPa were concomitant with and predictive of changes in emotional awareness. Our results suggest that HBPa can indeed be trained through intensive contemplative practice. The effect takes longer than the 8 weeks of typical mindfulness courses to reach meaningful magnitude. These increments in interoceptive accuracy and the related improvements in emotional awareness point to opportunities for improving physical and psychological health through contemplative mental training.

  17. The major traumas in youth football.

    PubMed

    Volpi, P; Pozzoni, R; Galli, M

    2003-11-01

    For 4 years we followed a group of football players in the youth division of a professional club, ranging in age from 9 to 19 years, and analyzed the major injuries, i.e., those which required them to be sidelined for at least 4 weeks. We observed 23 sprains, 16 fractures, 16 cases of osteochondrosis, 7 muscle lesions, 6 cases of groin pain (athletic pubalgia), and 4 tendonopathies. The most frequent sites were the knee (n=30) and the ankle (n=11); the trauma factor was predominant (65.2%) with respect to overuse; noncontact traumas were more numerous (63.8%) than those resulting from contrast. Of a total 72 cases 8 regarded goalkeepers, and the remaining 64 cases were distributed among the other positions. As regards the age categories we detected a prevalence of osteochondrosis, traumatic detachments, and some fractures in the younger players, while in the older athletes we observed more sprains, muscle lesions, and tendonopathies.

  18. Cervical spine injuries in football players.

    PubMed

    Thomas, B E; McCullen, G M; Yuan, H A

    1999-01-01

    Cervical spine injuries have been estimated to occur in 10% to 15% of football players, most commonly in linemen, defensive ends, and linebackers. The overwhelming majority of such injuries are self-limited, and full recovery can be expected. However, the presenting symptoms of serious cervical spine injuries may closely resemble those of minor injuries. The orthopaedic surgeon frequently must make a judgment, on the field or later in the office, about the advisability of returning the athlete to the game. These decisions can have an enormous impact on the player and his family. Most severe cervical spine injuries share the common mechanism of application of an axial load to the straightened spine. Avoiding techniques that employ head-down "spear" tackling and wearing properly fitted equipment markedly reduce the risk of serious injury.

  19. Allometric scaling of strength scores in NCAA division I-A football athletes.

    PubMed

    Oba, Yukiya; Hetzler, Ronald K; Stickley, Christopher D; Tamura, Kaori; Kimura, Iris F; Heffernan, Thomas P

    2014-12-01

    This study examined population-specific allometric exponents to control for the effect of body mass (BM) on bench press, clean, and squat strength measures among Division I-A collegiate football athletes. One repetition maximum data were obtained from a university pre-season football strength assessment (bench press, n = 207; clean, n = 88; and squat n = 86) and categorized into 3 groups by positions (line, linebacker, and skill). Regression diagnostics and correlations of scaled strength data to BM were used to assess the efficacy of the allometric scaling model and contrasted with that of ratio scaling and theoretically based allometric exponents of 0.67 and 0.33. The log-linear regression models yielded the following exponents (b): b = 0.559, 0.287, and 0.496 for bench press, clean, and squat, respectively. Correlations between bench press, clean, and squat to BM were r = -0.024, -0.047, and -0.018, respectively, suggesting that the derived allometric exponents were effective in partialling out the effect of BM on these lifts and removing between-group differences. Conversely, unscaled, ratio-scaled, and allometrically scaled (b = 0.67 or 0.33) data resulted in significant differences between groups. It is suggested that the exponents derived in the present study be used for allometrically scaling strength measures in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I-A football athletes. Use of the normative percentile rank scores provide coaches and trainers with a valid means of judging the effectiveness of their training programs by allowing comparisons between individuals without the confounding influence of BM.

  20. Risk of injury on artificial turf and natural grass in young female football players

    PubMed Central

    Steffen, Kathrin; Andersen, Thor Einar; Bahr, Roald

    2007-01-01

    Background Artificial turf is becoming increasingly popular, although the risk of injury on newer generations of turf is unknown. Aim To investigate the risk of injury on artificial turf compared with natural grass among young female football players. Study design Prospective cohort study. Methods 2020 players from 109 teams (mean (SD) 15.4 (0.8) years) participated in the study during the 2005 football season. Time‐loss injuries and exposure data on different types of turf were recorded over an eight‐month period. Results 421 (21%) players sustained 526 injuries, leading to an injury incidence of 3.7/1000 playing hours (95% CI 3.4 to 4.0). The incidence of acute injuries on artificial turf and grass did not differ significantly with respect to match injuries (rate ratio (RR) 1.0, 95% CI 0.8 to 1.3; p = 0.72) or training injuries (RR 1.0, 95% CI 0.6 to 1.5, p = 0.93). In matches, the incidence of serious injuries was significantly higher on artificial turf (RR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.2; p = 0.03). Ankle sprain was the most common type of injury (34% of all acute injuries), and there was a trend towards more ankle sprains on artificial turf than on grass (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.2; p = 0.06). Conclusion In the present study among young female football players, the overall risk of acute injuries was similar between artificial turf and natural grass. PMID:17550919

  1. Acceleration and sprint profiles of a professional elite football team in match play.

    PubMed

    Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen; Dalen, Terje; Hjelde, Geir Håvard; Drust, Barry; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise the acceleration and sprint profiles of elite football match play in one Norwegian elite football team (Rosenborg FC). Fifteen professional players in five playing positions took part in the study (n = 101 observations). Player movement was recorded during every domestic home game of one full season (n = 15) by an automatic tracking system based on microwave technology. Each player performed 91 ± 21 accelerations per match, with a lower number in the second compared with the first half (47 ± 12 vs. 44 ± 12). Players in lateral positions accelerated more often compared to players in central positions (98.3 ± 20.5 vs. 85.3 ± 19.5, p < 0.05). Average sprint distance was 213 ± 111 m distributed between 16.6 ± 7.9 sprints, with no differences between first (106 ± 60 m, 8.2 ± 4.2 sprints) and second halves (107 ± 72 m, 8.3 ± 4.8 sprints). Players in lateral positions sprinted longer distances (287 ± 211 m vs. 160 ± 76 m, p < 0.05) and tended to sprint more often (21.6 ± 7.8 vs. 13.0 ± 5.7, p = 0.064) compared to players in central positions. We found more walking and less of the more intense activities during the last third of the season compared to the first. The main finding in this study was that Norwegian elite players had substantially less number of accelerations and fewer but longer sprints than previous studies reported for higher-ranked leagues. Also, less high-intensity activity was found towards the end of the season. Ultimately, these data provide useful information for the fitness coach (1) in planning of position-specific football training and (2) to avoid the decline in high-intensity activities the last third of the competitive season.

  2. Post-Effort Changes in Activity of Traditional Diagnostic Enzymatic Markers in Football Players’ Blood

    PubMed Central

    Chamera, Tomasz; Spieszny, Michał; Klocek, Tomasz; Kostrzewa-Nowak, Dorota; Nowak, Robert; Lachowicz, Milena; Buryta, Rafał; Ficek, Krzysztof; Eider, Jerzy; Moska, Waldemar; Cięszczyk, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Long-term and intensive physical effort causes metabolic and biochemical adaptations for both athletic and non-athletic objectives. Knowing the importance of aerobic training in football players, the aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the activity of: creatinine kinase (CK), creatine kinase MB (CKMB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH), cholinesterase (ChE) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in response to a semi-long distance outdoor run under aerobic conditions among both female and male football players. Methods Sixteen participants aged 21.9±2 years (women) and 18.4±0.5 years (men), all of them voluntarily recruited football players, took part in an outdoor run, the women covering a distance of 7.4±0.3 km while men covered a distance of 10.7±1.0 km. Plasma activities of the studied enzymes were determined using an appropriate diagnostic assay kit. Results Our results indicate that total LDH activity could be a useful tool in evaluating physical fitness among athletes. We simultaneously established that ChE could not be a marker useful in assessing metabolic response to physical effort in athletes. Moreover, our results suggest that post-effort changes in ALP activity might be used to estimate early symptoms of certain vitamin deficiencies in an athlete’s diet. Conclusions We confirmed that the assessment of activity of selected traditional diagnostic enzymatic markers provides information about muscle state after physical effort. PMID:28356830

  3. Do weight management programmes delivered at professional football clubs attract and engage high risk men? A mixed-methods study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity in men in the UK is amongst the highest in Europe but men are less likely than women to use existing weight loss programmes. Developing weight management programmes which are appealing and acceptable to men is a public health priority. Football Fans in Training (FFIT), a men-only weight management programme delivered to groups of men at top professional football clubs, encourages men to lose weight by working with, not against, cultural ideals of masculinity. To inform further development of interventions in football club settings, the current study explored who is attracted to FFIT and why overweight/obese men choose to take part. Methods A mixed-methods study analysing baseline data on 747 men aged 35–65 years with BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2 who were participants in a randomised controlled trial of FFIT, and data from 13 focus group discussions with 63 men who had attended the programme. Results Objectively-measured mean body mass index was 35.3 kg/m2 (sd 4.9). Overall over 90% of participants were at very high or extremely high risk of future ill-health. Around three-quarters of participants in all age groups were at ‘very high’ risk of type 2 diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease (72%, 73% and 80% of men aged 35–44, 45–54 and 55–64 years respectively). A further 21%, 16% and 13% were at ‘extremely high’ risk. Qualitative data revealed that the powerful ‘draw’ of the football club attracted men otherwise reluctant to attend existing weight management programmes. The location and style of delivery of early FFIT sessions fostered team spirit; men appreciated being with others ‘like them’ and the opportunity to undertake weight management in circumstances that enhanced physical and symbolic proximity to something they valued highly, the football club. Conclusions The delivery of a weight management intervention via professional football clubs attracted men at high risk of ill-health. The setting

  4. Investigating Two Different Training Time Frames during Ramadan Fasting

    PubMed Central

    Kordi, Ramin; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Memari, Amir-Hossein; Najafabadi, Mahboubeh Ghayour

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Muslim athletes may continue training and competing while they are fasting. There is a concern about negative effects of fasting on sports performance. This study aimed to investigate the influence of two training time frames on athletes’ body composition and performance during Ramadan fasting. Methods An observational study was conducted and thirty four male volunteer athletes from different sports including volleyball, karate, taekwondo and football were assigned in two groups. The first group included 14 elite athletes who during Ramadan voluntarily participated in training sessions at 1 hour before Iftar (BI) and the second group of 20 elite athletes who during Ramadan participated in training sessions at 3 hours after Iftar (AI). Testing was performed one week before; in the first and fourth weeks of Ramadan and one week after Ramadan. Weights, heights and skinfold thickness were assessed at each time point and body mass index was calculated. Each player was assessed for agility and explosive strength as well. Results The mean weight and body mass index of both groups decreased significantly during Ramadan (P<0.001). Performance variables were not negatively affected by fasting in BI or AI group athletes. Conclusions Weight reduction might come with either BI or AI training schedules in Ramadan. Daytime or evening training did not inversely affect the agility and power performances in a group of elite athletes during Ramadan fasting. PMID:22375240

  5. Junior football players' classification of runners as their teammates from 400-msec. video clips.

    PubMed

    Steel, Kylie A; Adams, Roger D; Canning, Colleen G

    2008-08-01

    It was hypothesized that a specialized gait recognition skill enables humans to distinguish the gait of familiar from unfamiliar individuals, and that this may have relevance in team sports. Runners seen for less than half a second can be classified as teammates or not by adult players, so it may be asked whether this skill would also be demonstrated by young team players. In the current study, junior football players (M age = 10.0 yr., SD = 0.8, N = 13) viewed 400-msec. video clips of runners sprinting past a fixed forward facing digital video camera and similarly showed teammate recognition scores significantly above chance. Given the variation among the junior players in this skill, it seems possible for researchers to assess whether improvement can be obtained with structured training for young team players, where running teammates are seen in peripheral vision during training drills.

  6. Brain Harm May Last Long After College Football Players' Final Game

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Brain Harm May Last Long After College Football Players' Final Game Small study found evidence of ... tissue thinning is still evident in former college football players several years after they stop playing, a ...

  7. Biomechanical investigation of head impacts in football

    PubMed Central

    Withnall, C; Shewchenko, N; Gittens, R; Dvorak, J

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: This study sought to measure the head accelerations induced from upper extremity to head and head to head impact during the game of football and relate this to the risk of mild traumatic brain injury using the Head Impact Power (HIP) index. Furthermore, measurement of upper neck forces and torques will indicate the potential for serious neck injury. More stringent rules or punitive sanctions may be warranted for intentional impact by the upper extremity or head during game play. Methods: Game video of 62 cases of head impact (38% caused by the upper extremity and 30% by the head of the opposing player) was provided by F-MARC. Video analysis revealed the typical impact configurations and representative impact speeds. Upper extremity impacts of elbow strike and lateral hand strike were re-enacted in the laboratory by five volunteer football players striking an instrumented Hybrid III pedestrian model crash test manikin. Head to head impacts were re-enacted using two instrumented test manikins. Results: Elbow to head impacts (1.7–4.6 m/s) and lateral hand strikes (5.2–9.3 m/s) resulted in low risk of concussion (<5%) and severe neck injury (<5%). Head to head impacts (1.5–3.0 m/s) resulted in high concussion risk (up to 67%) but low risk of severe neck injury (<5%). Conclusion: The laboratory simulations suggest little risk of concussion based on head accelerations and maximum HIP. There is no biomechanical justification for harsher penalties in this regard. However, deliberate use of the head to impact another player's head poses a high risk of concussion, and justifies a harsher position by regulatory bodies. In either case the risk of serious neck injury is very low. PMID:16046356

  8. Appetite - decreased

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer Ovarian cancer Stomach cancer Pancreatic cancer Other causes of decreased appetite include: Chronic liver disease Chronic kidney disease Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Dementia Heart failure ...

  9. Plyometrics: A Legitimate Form of Power Training?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duda, Marty

    1988-01-01

    Plyometric exercises or drills combine speed and strength to produce an explosive-reactive movement or increased power. Some world-class athletes have used plyometric-training in sports such as high-jumping, hurdles, football, baseball, and hockey. The method is still considered experimental. Sample exercises are described. (JL)

  10. Neural network modelling and dynamical system theory: are they relevant to study the governing dynamics of association football players?

    PubMed

    Dutt-Mazumder, Aviroop; Button, Chris; Robins, Anthony; Bartlett, Roger

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies have explored the organization of player movements in team sports using a range of statistical tools. However, the factors that best explain the performance of association football teams remain elusive. Arguably, this is due to the high-dimensional behavioural outputs that illustrate the complex, evolving configurations typical of team games. According to dynamical system analysts, movement patterns in team sports exhibit nonlinear self-organizing features. Nonlinear processing tools (i.e. Artificial Neural Networks; ANNs) are becoming increasingly popular to investigate the coordination of participants in sports competitions. ANNs are well suited to describing high-dimensional data sets with nonlinear attributes, however, limited information concerning the processes required to apply ANNs exists. This review investigates the relative value of various ANN learning approaches used in sports performance analysis of team sports focusing on potential applications for association football. Sixty-two research sources were summarized and reviewed from electronic literature search engines such as SPORTDiscus, Google Scholar, IEEE Xplore, Scirus, ScienceDirect and Elsevier. Typical ANN learning algorithms can be adapted to perform pattern recognition and pattern classification. Particularly, dimensionality reduction by a Kohonen feature map (KFM) can compress chaotic high-dimensional datasets into low-dimensional relevant information. Such information would be useful for developing effective training drills that should enhance self-organizing coordination among players. We conclude that ANN-based qualitative analysis is a promising approach to understand the dynamical attributes of association football players.

  11. A Review of Self-Esteem of the Hearing Impaired Football Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Açak, Mahmut; Kaya, Oktay

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed at reviewing the level of self-esteem of the hearing impaired football players. The sample of the study was composed of 95 football players who played in the 1st hearing impaired football league. To gather the study-data; a Personal Information Form and Self-esteem Scale were used. The data obtained were analyzed through…

  12. Reclassification to the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision: A Case Study at Western Kentucky University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upright, Paula A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the reclassification process of Western Kentucky University's football program from the Football Championship Subdivision (FCS) to the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS), the highest and most visible level of NCAA competition. Three research questions guided the study: (a) Why did Western Kentucky University…

  13. Relationship between Leg Mass, Leg Composition and Foot Velocity on Kicking Accuracy in Australian Football

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Nicolas H.; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Cochrane, Jodie L.; Newton, Robert U.

    2016-01-01

    Kicking a ball accurately over a desired distance to an intended target is arguably the most important skill to acquire in Australian Football. Therefore, understanding the potential mechanisms which underpin kicking accuracy is warranted. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between leg mass, leg composition and foot velocity on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian Footballers (n = 31; age: 22.1 ± 2.8 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.07 m; weight: 85.1 ± 13.0 kg; BMI: 25.9 ± 3.2) each performed ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were separated into accurate (n = 15) and inaccurate (n = 16) kicking groups. Leg mass characteristics were assessed using whole body DXA scans. Foot velocity was determined using a ten-camera optoelectronic, three-dimensional motion capture system. Interactions between leg mass and foot velocity evident within accurate kickers only (r = -0.670 to -0.701). Relative lean mass was positively correlated with kicking accuracy (r = 0.631), while no relationship between foot velocity and kicking accuracy was evident in isolation (r = -0.047 to -0.083). Given the evident importance of lean mass, and its interaction with foot velocity for accurate kickers; future research should explore speed-accuracy, impulse-variability, limb co-ordination and foot-ball interaction constructs in kicking using controlled with-in subject studies to examine the effects of resistance training and skill acquisition programs on the development of kicking accuracy. Key points Accurate kickers expressed a very strong inverse relationship between leg mass and foot velocity. Inaccurate kickers were unable to replicate this, with greater volatility in their performance, indicating an ability of accurate kickers to mediate foot velocity to compensate for leg mass in order to deliver the ball over the required distance. Accurate kickers exhibited larger quantities of relative lean mass and lower

  14. Relationship between Leg Mass, Leg Composition and Foot Velocity on Kicking Accuracy in Australian Football.

    PubMed

    Hart, Nicolas H; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Cochrane, Jodie L; Newton, Robert U

    2016-06-01

    Kicking a ball accurately over a desired distance to an intended target is arguably the most important skill to acquire in Australian Football. Therefore, understanding the potential mechanisms which underpin kicking accuracy is warranted. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between leg mass, leg composition and foot velocity on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian Footballers (n = 31; age: 22.1 ± 2.8 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.07 m; weight: 85.1 ± 13.0 kg; BMI: 25.9 ± 3.2) each performed ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were separated into accurate (n = 15) and inaccurate (n = 16) kicking groups. Leg mass characteristics were assessed using whole body DXA scans. Foot velocity was determined using a ten-camera optoelectronic, three-dimensional motion capture system. Interactions between leg mass and foot velocity evident within accurate kickers only (r = -0.670 to -0.701). Relative lean mass was positively correlated with kicking accuracy (r = 0.631), while no relationship between foot velocity and kicking accuracy was evident in isolation (r = -0.047 to -0.083). Given the evident importance of lean mass, and its interaction with foot velocity for accurate kickers; future research should explore speed-accuracy, impulse-variability, limb co-ordination and foot-ball interaction constructs in kicking using controlled with-in subject studies to examine the effects of resistance training and skill acquisition programs on the development of kicking accuracy. Key pointsAccurate kickers expressed a very strong inverse relationship between leg mass and foot velocity. Inaccurate kickers were unable to replicate this, with greater volatility in their performance, indicating an ability of accurate kickers to mediate foot velocity to compensate for leg mass in order to deliver the ball over the required distance.Accurate kickers exhibited larger quantities of relative lean mass and lower quantities

  15. Constraints on dynamic stability during forward, backward and lateral locomotion in skilled football players.

    PubMed

    Mehdizadeh, Sina; Arshi, Ahmed Reza; Davids, Keith

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate effects of speed and plane of motion on stability during locomotion in skilled football players. Ten male national-level football players participated in this study to run forward, backward and in lateral directions on a treadmill at 80%, 100% and 120% of their preferred running speeds. The coordinate data of passive reflective markers attached to body segments were recorded using motion capture systems. Time series data obtained from the ankle marker were used for further analyses. The largest finite-time Lyapunov exponent and maximum Floquet multiplier were adopted to quantify local and orbital dynamic stabilities, respectively. Results showed that speed did not significantly change local and orbital dynamic stabilities in any of running patterns. However, both local and orbital dynamic stability were significantly higher in the secondary plane of progression. Data revealed that in running, unlike walking, stability in the direction perpendicular to the direction of running is significantly higher, implying that less active control is required in the secondary plane of progression. The results of this study could be useful in sports training and rehabilitation programmes where development of fundamental exercise programmes that challenge both speed and the ability to maintain stability might produce a tangible enhancement of athletic skill level.

  16. Anticipatory postural adjustments during cutting manoeuvres in football and their consequences for knee injury risk.

    PubMed

    Mornieux, Guillaume; Gehring, Dominic; Fürst, Patrick; Gollhofer, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs), i.e. preparatory positioning of the head, the trunk and the foot, are essential to initiate cutting manoeuvres during football games. The aim of the present study was to determine how APA strategies during cutting manoeuvres are influenced by a reduction of the time available to prepare the movement. Thirteen football players performed different cutting tasks, with directions of cutting either known prior to the task or indicated by a light signal occurring 850, 600 or 500 ms before ground contact. With less time available to prepare the cutting manoeuvre, the head was less orientated towards the cutting direction (P = 0.033) and the trunk was even more rotated in the opposite direction (P = 0.002), while the foot placement was not significantly influenced. Moreover, the induced higher lateral trunk flexion correlated with the increased knee abduction moment (r = 0.41; P = 0.009). Increasing lateral trunk flexion is the main strategy used to successfully perform a cutting manoeuvre when less time is available to prepare the movement. However, higher lateral trunk flexion was associated with an increased knee abduction moment and therefore an increased knee injury risk. Reducing lateral trunk flexion during cutting manoeuvres should be part of training programs seeking the optimisation of APAs.

  17. The Irish brawn drain: English League clubs and Irish footballers, 1946-1995.

    PubMed

    McGovern, P

    2000-09-01

    This paper draws on world systems and resource dependency theories to show how the changing recruitment practices of English League clubs have deepened the brawn drain from Irish football, thereby compounding its underdevelopment. An analysis of the origins, method of recruitment and destinations of Irish players (North and South) who appeared in the English League between 1946 and 1995 shows that English clubs imported large numbers of Irish players throughout the second half of the twentieth century. However, it was the inclusion of Irish teenagers within the youth policies of the largest clubs in the period after the 1970s that marked a break from the traditional pattern of buyer-supplier relations. Instead of continuing to purchase players who had established reputations within the Irish leagues, English clubs began to hire the most promising schoolboys before they joined Irish sides. As this practice spread, it eventually eliminated a valuable source of income: the selling of players to English clubs. Despite this development it would, however, be inappropriate to view the relationship between the Irish and English football industries as a simple zero sum game as Irish clubs benefit from employing highly trained young players who return home after failing to establish careers in England.

  18. Exploring Team Passing Networks and Player Movement Dynamics in Youth Association Football.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Bruno; Coutinho, Diogo; Santos, Sara; Lago-Penas, Carlos; Jiménez, Sergio; Sampaio, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how youth football players base their game interactions may constitute a solid criterion for fine-tuning the training process and, ultimately, to achieve better individual and team performances during competition. The present study aims to explore how passing networks and positioning variables can be linked to the match outcome in youth elite association football. The participants included 44 male elite players from under-15 and under-17 age groups. A passing network approach within positioning-derived variables was computed to identify the contributions of individual players for the overall team behaviour outcome during a simulated match. Results suggested that lower team passing dependency for a given player (expressed by lower betweenness network centrality scores) and high intra-team well-connected passing relations (expressed by higher closeness network centrality scores) were related to better outcomes. The correlation between the dyads' positioning regularity and the passing density showed a most likely higher correlation in under-15 (moderate effect), indicating a possible more dependence of the ball position rather than in the under-17 teams (small/unclear effects). Overall, this study emphasizes the potential of coupling notational analyses with spatial-temporal relations to produce a more functional and holistic understanding of teams' sports performance. Also, the social network analysis allowed to reveal novel key determinants of collective performance.

  19. Exploring Team Passing Networks and Player Movement Dynamics in Youth Association Football

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, Diogo; Santos, Sara; Lago-Penas, Carlos; Jiménez, Sergio; Sampaio, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how youth football players base their game interactions may constitute a solid criterion for fine-tuning the training process and, ultimately, to achieve better individual and team performances during competition. The present study aims to explore how passing networks and positioning variables can be linked to the match outcome in youth elite association football. The participants included 44 male elite players from under-15 and under-17 age groups. A passing network approach within positioning-derived variables was computed to identify the contributions of individual players for the overall team behaviour outcome during a simulated match. Results suggested that lower team passing dependency for a given player (expressed by lower betweenness network centrality scores) and high intra-team well-connected passing relations (expressed by higher closeness network centrality scores) were related to better outcomes. The correlation between the dyads’ positioning regularity and the passing density showed a most likely higher correlation in under-15 (moderate effect), indicating a possible more dependence of the ball position rather than in the under-17 teams (small/unclear effects). Overall, this study emphasizes the potential of coupling notational analyses with spatial-temporal relations to produce a more functional and holistic understanding of teams’ sports performance. Also, the social network analysis allowed to reveal novel key determinants of collective performance. PMID:28141823

  20. Exercise program for prevention of groin pain in football players: a cluster-randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Hölmich, P; Larsen, K; Krogsgaard, K; Gluud, C

    2010-12-01

    Groin injuries cause major problems in sports and particularly in football. Exercise is effective in treating adductor-related groin pain, but no trials have been published regarding the specific prevention of groin pain or prevention specifically targeting overuse injuries in sport using exercise programs. We performed a cluster-randomized trial including 55 football clubs representing 1211 players. The clubs were randomized to an exercise program aimed at preventing groin injuries (n=27) or to a control group training as usual (n=28). The intervention program consisted of six exercises including strengthening (concentric and eccentric), coordination, and core stability exercises for the muscles related to the pelvis. Physiotherapists assigned to each club registered all groin injuries. Twenty-two clubs in each group completed the study, represented by 977 players. There was no significant effect of the intervention (HR=0.69, 95% CI 0.40-1.19). The risk of a groin injury was reduced by 31%, but this reduction was not significant. A univariate analysis showed that having had a previous groin injury almost doubles the risk of developing a new groin injury and playing at a higher level almost triples the risk of developing a groin injury.

  1. The impact of the achievement motive on athletic performance in adolescent football players.

    PubMed

    Zuber, Claudia; Conzelmann, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Researchers largely agree that there is a positive relationship between achievement motivation and athletic performance, which is why the achievement motive is viewed as a potential criterion for talent. However, the underlying mechanism behind this relationship remains unclear. In talent and performance models, main effect, mediator and moderator models have been suggested. A longitudinal study was carried out among 140 13-year-old football talents, using structural equation modelling to determine which model best explains how hope for success (HS) and fear of failure (FF), which are the aspects of the achievement motive, motor skills and abilities that affect performance. Over a period of half a year, HS can to some extent explain athletic performance, but this relationship is not mediated by the volume of training, sport-specific skills or abilities, nor is the achievement motive a moderating variable. Contrary to expectations, FF does not explain any part of performance. Aside from HS, however, motor abilities and in particular skills also predict a significant part of performance. The study confirms the widespread assumption that the development of athletic performance in football depends on multiple factors, and in particular that HS is worth watching in the medium term as a predictor of talent.

  2. Preparation for football competition at moderate to high altitude.

    PubMed

    Gore, C J; McSharry, P E; Hewitt, A J; Saunders, P U

    2008-08-01

    Analysis of approximately 100 years of home-and-away South American World Cup matches illustrate that football competition at moderate/high altitude (>2000 m) favors the home team, although this is more than compensated by the likelihood of sea-level teams winning at home against the same opponents who have descended from altitude. Nevertheless, the home team advantage at altitudes above approximately 2000 m may reflect that traditionally, teams from sea level or low altitude have not spent 1-2 weeks acclimatizing at altitude. Despite large differences between individuals, in the first few days at high altitude (e.g. La Paz, 3600 m) some players experience symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS) such as headache and disrupted sleep, and their maximum aerobic power (VO2max) is approximately 25% reduced while their ventilation, heart rate and blood lactate during submaximal exercise are elevated. Simulated altitude for a few weeks before competition at altitude can be used to attain partial ventilatory acclimation and ameliorated symptoms of AMS. The variety of simulated altitude exposures usually created with enriched nitrogen mixtures of air include resting or exercising for a few hours per day or sleeping approximately 8 h/night in hypoxia. Preparation for competition at moderate/high altitude by training at altitude is probably superior to simulated exposure; however, the optimal duration at moderate/high altitude is unclear. Preparing for 1-2 weeks at moderate/high altitude is a reasonable compromise between the benefits associated with overcoming AMS and partial restoration of VO2max vs the likelihood of detraining.

  3. Short Duration Heat Acclimation in Australian Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Monica; Gastin, Paul B.; Dwyer, Daniel B; Sostaric, Simon; Snow, Rodney J.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined if five sessions of short duration (27 min), high intensity, interval training (HIIT) in the heat over a nine day period would induce heat acclimation in Australian football (AF) players. Fourteen professional AF players were matched for VO2peak (mL·kg-1·min-1) and randomly allocated into either a heat acclimation (Acc) (n = 7) or Control (Con) group (n = 7). The Acc completed five cycle ergometer HIIT sessions within a nine day period on a cycle ergometer in the heat (38.7 ± 0.5 °C; 34.4 ± 1.3 % RH), whereas Con trained in thermo-neutral conditions (22.3 ± 0.2 °C; 35.8 ± 0. % RH). Four days prior and two days post HIIT participants undertook a 30 min constant load cycling test at 60% V̇O2peak in the heat (37.9 ± 0.1 °C; 28.5 ± 0.7 % RH) during which VO2, blood lactate concentration ([Lac-]), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal comfort, core and skin temperatures were measured. Heat acclimation resulted in reduced RPE, thermal comfort and [Lac-] (all p < 0.05) during the submaximal exercise test in the heat. Heart rate was lower (p = 0.007) after HIIT, in both groups. Heat acclimation did not influence any other measured variables. In conclusion, five short duration HIIT sessions in hot dry conditions induced limited heat acclimation responses in AF players during the in-season competition phase. In practice, the heat acclimation protocol can be implemented in a professional team environment; however the physiological adaptations resulting from such a protocol were limited. Key points Some minor heat acclimation adaptations can be induced in professional AF players with five 27 min non-consecutive, short duration HIIT sessions in the heat. The heat acclimation protocol employed in this study was able to be implemented in a professional team sport environment during an actual competitive season. Elevating and maintaining a high core temperature sufficient for heat acclimation likely requires a longer heat

  4. Short Duration Heat Acclimation in Australian Football Players.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Monica; Gastin, Paul B; Dwyer, Daniel B; Sostaric, Simon; Snow, Rodney J

    2016-03-01

    This study examined if five sessions of short duration (27 min), high intensity, interval training (HIIT) in the heat over a nine day period would induce heat acclimation in Australian football (AF) players. Fourteen professional AF players were matched for VO2peak (mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and randomly allocated into either a heat acclimation (Acc) (n = 7) or Control (Con) group (n = 7). The Acc completed five cycle ergometer HIIT sessions within a nine day period on a cycle ergometer in the heat (38.7 ± 0.5 °C; 34.4 ± 1.3 % RH), whereas Con trained in thermo-neutral conditions (22.3 ± 0.2 °C; 35.8 ± 0. % RH). Four days prior and two days post HIIT participants undertook a 30 min constant load cycling test at 60% V̇O2peak in the heat (37.9 ± 0.1 °C; 28.5 ± 0.7 % RH) during which VO2, blood lactate concentration ([Lac(-)]), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal comfort, core and skin temperatures were measured. Heat acclimation resulted in reduced RPE, thermal comfort and [Lac(-)] (all p < 0.05) during the submaximal exercise test in the heat. Heart rate was lower (p = 0.007) after HIIT, in both groups. Heat acclimation did not influence any other measured variables. In conclusion, five short duration HIIT sessions in hot dry conditions induced limited heat acclimation responses in AF players during the in-season competition phase. In practice, the heat acclimation protocol can be implemented in a professional team environment; however the physiological adaptations resulting from such a protocol were limited. Key pointsSome minor heat acclimation adaptations can be induced in professional AF players with five 27 min non-consecutive, short duration HIIT sessions in the heat.The heat acclimation protocol employed in this study was able to be implemented in a professional team sport environment during an actual competitive season.Elevating and maintaining a high core temperature sufficient for heat acclimation likely requires a longer heat

  5. Cafeteria diet-induced insulin resistance is not associated with decreased insulin signaling or AMPK activity and is alleviated by physical training in rats.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Nina; De Bock, Katrien; Richter, Erik A; Hespel, Peter

    2010-08-01

    Excess energy intake via a palatable low-fat diet (cafeteria diet) is known to induce obesity and glucose intolerance in rats. However, the molecular mechanisms behind this adaptation are not known, and it is also not known whether exercise training can reverse it. Male Wistar rats were assigned to 12-wk intervention groups: chow-fed controls (CON), cafeteria diet (CAF), and cafeteria diet plus swimming exercise during the last 4 wk (CAF(TR)). CAF feeding led to increased body weight (16%, P < 0.01) and increased plasma glucose (P < 0.05) and insulin levels (P < 0.01) during an IVGTT, which was counteracted by training. In the perfused hindlimb, insulin-stimulated glucose transport in red gastrocnemius muscle was completely abolished in CAF and rescued by exercise training. Apart from a tendency toward an approximately 20% reduction in both basal and insulin-stimulated Akt Ser(473) phosphorylation (P = 0.051) in the CAF group, there were no differences in insulin signaling (IR Tyr(1150/1151), PI 3-kinase activity, Akt Thr(308), TBC1D4 Thr(642), GSK3-alpha/beta Ser(21/9)) or changes in AMPKalpha1 or -alpha2, GLUT4, Munc18c, or syntaxin 4 protein expression or in phosphorylation of AMPK Thr(172) among the groups. In conclusion, surplus energy intake of a palatable but low-fat cafeteria diet resulted in obesity and insulin resistance that was rescued by exercise training. Interestingly, insulin resistance was not accompanied by major defects in the insulin-signaling cascade or in altered AMPK expression or phosphorylation. Thus, compared with previous studies of high-fat feeding, where insulin signaling is significantly impaired, the mechanism by which CAF diet induces insulin resistance seems different.

  6. The globalization of football: a study in the glocalization of the 'serious life'.

    PubMed

    Giulianotti, Richard; Robertson, Roland

    2004-12-01

    Sport, in particular football, constitutes one of the most dynamic, sociologically illuminating domains of globalization. This paper examines the globalization of football with particular reference to Robertson's theorizations of global processes. We examine football's cultural globalization through the concept of 'glocalization', which highlights the interdependence of local and global processes within the game's identities and institutions. We address economic globalization in football by considering the world's leading clubs as 'glocal' transnational corporations. We assess the political globalization of football with reference to the possible enhancement of democracy within the game's international governance. We conclude by affirming the utility of sport in advancing our empirical and theoretical understanding of globalization processes.

  7. Football Players' Perceptions of Future Risk of Concussion and Concussion-Related Health Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Baugh, Christine M; Kroshus, Emily; Kiernan, Patrick T; Mendel, David; Meehan, William P

    2017-02-15

    Concussion is increasingly recognized as a risk of participation in contact and collision sports. There have been few examinations of athletes' perceptions of their susceptibility to concussion or concussion-related health consequences. We examine college football players' perceptions of their risk of sustaining a concussion and concussion-related health consequences in their future, whether these perceptions change over time, and how concussion history is related to perceived future risk of concussion and concussion-related health consequences. A survey was administered to National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Championship Series athletes on 10 teams in 2013 and to nine of those teams in 2014. Athletes answered questions assessing their perceptions of concussion and potential concussion-related health consequences. Approximately 40% of athletes believed there was a strong possibility that they would sustain a concussion in the future, while approximately one-in-four thought a concussion would make them miss a few games. About one-in-10 athletes predicted dementia, Alzheimer's disease, or chronic traumatic encephalopathy would develop from concussions. These beliefs were stronger among athletes who had sustained previous concussions. Across the two years studied, athletes' perceptions of the risk of concussion and missing a few games because of concussion decreased significantly. Overall, a substantial proportion of college football players believe they will have long-term health consequences as a result of sustaining sport-related concussions. The true incidence and prevalence of many of these outcomes are unknown. Further research is needed to determine whether athletes have an accurate perception of the risks of these outcomes developing.

  8. Longitudinal changes in linguistic complexity among professional football players.

    PubMed

    Berisha, Visar; Wang, Shuai; LaCross, Amy; Liss, Julie; Garcia-Filion, Pamela

    2017-03-16

    Reductions in spoken language complexity have been associated with the onset of various neurological disorders. The objective of this study is to analyze whether similar trends are found in professional football players who are at risk for chronic traumatic encephalopathy. We compare changes in linguistic complexity (as indexed by the type-to-token ratio and lexical density) measured from the interview transcripts of players in the National Football League (NFL) to those measured from interview transcripts of coaches and/or front-office NFL executives who have never played professional football. A multilevel mixed model analysis reveals that exposure to the high-impact sport (vs no exposure) was associated with an overall decline in language complexity scores over time. This trend persists even after controlling for age as a potential confound. The results set the stage for a prospective study to test the hypothesis that language complexity decline is a harbinger of chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

  9. Glucocorticosteroids in football: use and misuse

    PubMed Central

    Dvorak, J; Feddermann, N; Grimm, K

    2006-01-01

    Background and objectives Glucocorticosteroids are widely used in medicine and have shown unchallenged therapeutic potential in several chronic inflammatory and other diseases. They are also widely used in sports medicine for the treatment of conditions such as asthma and acute injuries. In fact, as banned substances, most requests for therapeutic use exemption concern glucocorticosteroids. Nevertheless, their beneficial effect in certain conditions in sports, where inflammation is only a secondary reaction, remains to be validated. This paper aimed to provide a comprehensive review of the literature covering the therapeutic use of glucocorticosteroids since 1977 in conditions ranging from chronic rheumatic illness to peritendinous or intra‐articular injection in acute injuries. Methods Search of the medical literature published between 1977 and 2006 using PubMed. Articles relevant to the question “When and if at all is the use of glucocorticosteroids justified in football?” were selected and analysed. Results and conclusions The findings clearly point out that, despite the common use of glucocorticosteroids in acute injuries in sports, there is actually limited evidence of the true benefits of such a practice. Physicians must take the possible adverse effects into consideration. In an athlete with clinically verified asthma, inhalational glucocorticosteroids remain first line therapy. Finally, for the purposes of education and prevention of misuse, it should be stressed that a measurable performance enhancing effect of glucocorticoids could not be proved on the basis of the results of the scientific studies to date. PMID:16799104

  10. Enhanced bone mass and physical fitness in prepubescent footballers.

    PubMed

    Vicente-Rodriguez, G; Jimenez-Ramirez, J; Ara, I; Serrano-Sanchez, J A; Dorado, C; Calbet, J A L

    2003-11-01

    Not much is known about the osteogenic effects of sport activities before puberty. We tested the hypothesis that football (soccer) participation is associated with enhanced bone mineral content (BMC) and areal density (BMD) in prepubertal boys. One hundred four healthy white boys (9.3 +/- 0.2 years, Tanner stages I-II) participated in this study: 53 footballers and 51 controls. The footballers devoted at least 3 h per week to participation in football, while the controls did not perform in any kind of regular physical activity other than that programmed during the compulsory physical education courses. Bone variables were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The maximal leg extension isometric force in the squat position with knees bent at 90 degrees and the peak force, mean power, and height jumped during vertical jumps were assed with a force plate. Additionally, 30-m running speed, 300-m run (anaerobic capacity), and 20-m shuttle-run tests (maximal aerobic power) were also performed. Compared to the controls, the footballers attained better results in the physical fitness test and had lower body mass (-10%, P < 0.05) due to a reduced percentage of body fat (4% less, P < 0.05). The footballers exhibit enhanced trochanteric BMC (+17%, P < 0.001). Likewise, femoral and lumbar spine BMD were also greater in the football players (P football participation is associated with improved physical fitness, reduced fat mass, increased lean

  11. Value of neuropsychological testing after head injuries in football

    PubMed Central

    McCrory, P; Makdissi, M; Davis, G; Collie, A

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the pros and cons of the traditional paper and pencil and the newer computerised neuropsychological tests in the management of sports concussion. The differences between diagnosing concussion on the field and neuropsychological assessment at follow up and decision making with regard to return to play are described. The authors also discuss the issues involved in interpreting the results of neuropsychological testing (comparison with population norms versus player's own baseline test results) and potential problems of such testing in football. Finally, suggested recommendations for neuropsychological testing in football are given. PMID:16046357

  12. Concurrent little leaguer's elbow and shoulder in a 15-year-old baseball pitcher and football quarterback.

    PubMed

    Domes, Christopher M; Petering, Ryan C; Chesnutt, James C; Mirarchi, Adam

    2012-01-16

    Little leaguer's elbow and Little leaguer's shoulder are overuse pathologies seen in overhead-throwing athletes. No instance of simultaneously occurring pathologies has been published. A 15-year-old baseball pitcher and football quarterback developed pain in his throwing shoulder and elbow during spring baseball, which partially resolved with several months of rest. During fall football practice, he felt a pop and pain over his medial throwing elbow. Five days after the initial injury, medial elbow tenderness, mild swelling, and decreased range of motion were noted. Radiographs revealed a Salter I avulsion fracture of the medial humeral epicondyle (Little leaguer's elbow) and a periosteal reaction along the lateral aspect of the humeral metadiaphysis with slight widening (Little leaguer's shoulder). Surgical fixation of the medial epicondyle fracture and nonoperative treatment of the shoulder pathology were performed. Two-year follow-up radiographs showed a healed medial epicondylar fracture and resolution of the periosteal reaction of the humeral metadiaphysis. The patient returned to full activity and was starting quarterback for his football team. Biomechanical forces specific to overhead-throwing activities are associated with the development of Little leaguer's elbow and shoulder. Treatments of both pathologies remain controversial, with either initial operative vs nonoperative care. In this patient, a good outcome was achieved with surgical fixation of the elbow fracture and conservative management of the shoulder pathology. Educating coaches and parents on proper throwing technique and pitching limits should be the first step in reducing the occurrence of either pathology in this population.

  13. Analysis of the work rates and heart rates of association football referees.

    PubMed Central

    Catterall, C; Reilly, T; Atkinson, G; Coldwells, A

    1993-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the work-rate profiles of referees during soccer matches and record heart-rate responses during these games. Using video-recordings 14 referees were observed and their heart rates during the games were monitored by short-range radio telemetry. These included 11 football league matches. The exercise intensity was largely submaximal with a change in activity every 6 s. The mean distance covered during the game was 9.44 km; a significant fall in work rate was noted in the second half (P < 0.05). The mean heart rate of 165 beats min-1 did not vary between first and second halves. The work rate and heart rate varied more between individuals than with the importance of the match, but this variation was small. It was considered that refereeing top level soccer places high physiological demands on the official. This has implications for training and fitness assessment. PMID:8242278

  14. A Critical Examination of the Use of Trained Health Coaches to Decrease the Metabolic Syndrome for Participants of a Community-Based Diabetes Prevention and Management Program.

    PubMed

    Lucke-Wold, Brandon; Shawley, Samantha; Ingels, John Spencer; Stewart, Jonathan; Misra, Ranjita

    2016-01-01

    The epidemic of obesity and diabetes in the United States poses major challenge to the prevention and management of chronic diseases. Furthermore, when this is viewed in other components of the metabolic syndrome (i.e., the burden of high cholesterol and hypertension), the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome continues to rise in the USA continued challenge is how to deal with this epidemic from a medical and public health standpoint. Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) is a unique approach and offers a novel perspective for answering this challenge. A critical set of goals for CBPR is to address health disparities and social inequalities while getting community members engaged in all aspects of the research process. Utilizing the West Virginia Diabetes Prevention and Management Program and trained Health Coaches as a model, we discuss topics of consideration related to CBPR, involving trained health coaches, optimizing early adoption of healthy lifestyle behaviors, and enhancing participation. Through careful project planning and design, questions regarding disparities increasing susceptibility and preventive efforts within the community can be addressed successfully. These topics are part of a broader integration of theories such as participatory research, community engagement, and outcomes measurement. The understanding of the pathophysiology and epidemiology of the metabolic syndrome can help frame an appropriate strategy for establishing long-term community-wide changes that promote health. In order to continue to improve investigations for preventing the metabolic syndrome, it will be necessary to have aggressive efforts at the individual and population level for developing culturally sensitive programs that start early and are sustainable in practical environments such as the workplace. In this comprehensive review, we will discuss practical considerations related to project design, implementation, and how to measure effectiveness in regards to

  15. A Critical Examination of the Use of Trained Health Coaches to Decrease the Metabolic Syndrome for Participants of a Community-Based Diabetes Prevention and Management Program

    PubMed Central

    Lucke-Wold, Brandon; Shawley, Samantha; Ingels, John Spencer; Stewart, Jonathan; Misra, Ranjita

    2016-01-01

    The epidemic of obesity and diabetes in the United States poses major challenge to the prevention and management of chronic diseases. Furthermore, when this is viewed in other components of the metabolic syndrome (i.e., the burden of high cholesterol and hypertension), the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome continues to rise in the USA continued challenge is how to deal with this epidemic from a medical and public health standpoint. Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) is a unique approach and offers a novel perspective for answering this challenge. A critical set of goals for CBPR is to address health disparities and social inequalities while getting community members engaged in all aspects of the research process. Utilizing the West Virginia Diabetes Prevention and Management Program and trained Health Coaches as a model, we discuss topics of consideration related to CBPR, involving trained health coaches, optimizing early adoption of healthy lifestyle behaviors, and enhancing participation. Through careful project planning and design, questions regarding disparities increasing susceptibility and preventive efforts within the community can be addressed successfully. These topics are part of a broader integration of theories such as participatory research, community engagement, and outcomes measurement. The understanding of the pathophysiology and epidemiology of the metabolic syndrome can help frame an appropriate strategy for establishing long-term community-wide changes that promote health. In order to continue to improve investigations for preventing the metabolic syndrome, it will be necessary to have aggressive efforts at the individual and population level for developing culturally sensitive programs that start early and are sustainable in practical environments such as the workplace. In this comprehensive review, we will discuss practical considerations related to project design, implementation, and how to measure effectiveness in regards to

  16. American football and fatal exertional heat stroke: a case study of Korey Stringer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundstein, Andrew; Knox, John A.; Vanos, Jennifer; Cooper, Earl R.; Casa, Douglas J.

    2017-03-01

    On August 1, 2001, Korey Stringer, a Pro Bowl offensive tackle for the Minnesota Vikings, became the first and to date the only professional American football player to die from exertional heat stroke (EHS). The death helped raise awareness of the dangers of exertional heat illnesses in athletes and prompted the development of heat safety policies at the professional, collegiate, and interscholastic levels. Despite the public awareness of this death, no published study has examined in detail the circumstances surrounding Stringer's fatal EHS. Using the well-documented details of the case, our study shows that Stringer's fatal EHS was the result of a combination of physiological limitations, organizational and treatment failings, and extreme environmental conditions. The COMfort FormulA (COMFA) energy budget model was used to assess the relative importance of several extrinsic factors on Stringer's EHS, including weather conditions, clothing insulation, and activity levels. We found that Stringer's high-intensity training in relation to the oppressive environmental conditions was the most prominent factor in producing dangerous, uncompensable heat stress conditions and that the full football uniform played a smaller role in influencing Stringer's energy budget. The extreme energy budget levels that led to the fatal EHS would have been avoided according to our modeling through a combination of reduced intensity and lower clothing insulation. Finally, a long delay in providing medical treatment made the EHS fatal. These results highlight the importance of modern heat safety guidelines that provide controls on extrinsic factors, such as the adjustment of duration and intensity of training along with protective equipment modifications based on environmental conditions and the presence of an emergency action plan focused on rapid recognition and immediate on-site aggressive cooling of EHS cases.

  17. A comparison of injuries in elite male and female football players: A 5-Season prospective study.

    PubMed

    Larruskain, Jon; Lekue, Jose A; Diaz, Nerea; Odriozola, Adrian; Gil, Susana M

    2017-02-16

    The aim was to compare the epidemiology of injuries between elite male and female football players from the same club. Injuries and individual exposure time in a male team and a female team, both playing in the Spanish first division, were prospectively recorded by the club's medical staff for five seasons (2010-2015) following the FIFA consensus statement. Total, training and match exposure hours per player-season were 20% higher for men compared to women (P < 0.01). Total, training and match injury incidence were 30-40% higher in men (P ≤ 0.04) mainly due to a 4.82 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.30-10.08] times higher incidence of contusions, as there were no differences in the incidence of muscle and joint/ligament injuries (P ≥ 0.44). The total number of absence days was 21% larger in women owing to a 5.36 (95% CI 1.11-25.79) times higher incidence of severe knee and ankle ligament injuries. Hamstring strains and pubalgia cases were 1.93 (95% CI 1.16-3.20) and 11.10 (95% CI 1.48-83.44) times more frequent in men, respectively; whereas quadriceps strains, anterior cruciate ligament ruptures and ankle syndesmosis injuries were 2.25 (95% CI 1.22-4.17), 4.59 (95% CI 0.93-22.76) and 5.36 (95% CI 1.11-25.79) times more common in women, respectively. In conclusion, prevention strategies should be tailored to the needs of male and female football players, with men more predisposed to hamstring strains and hip/groin injuries, and women to quadriceps strains and severe knee and ankle ligament injuries. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Timescales for exploratory tactical behaviour in football small-sided games.

    PubMed

    Ric, Angel; Hristovski, Robert; Gonçalves, Bruno; Torres, Lorena; Sampaio, Jaime; Torrents, Carlota

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the dynamics of tactical behaviour emerging on different timescales in football small-sided games and to quantify short- and long-term exploratory behaviour according to the number of opponents. Two teams of four professional male footballers played small-sided games against two different teams with a variable number of opponents (3, 5 and 7). Data were collected using a combination of systematic observation and a non-differential global positioning system (15 Hz). The temporal diversity and structural flexibility of the players were determined by calculating the dynamic overlap order parameter q, entropy and trapping strength. Analysis of the exploratory dynamics revealed two different timescales, forming a different metastable landscape of action for each constraint. Fast dynamics lasted on average a few seconds and consisted of changes in tactical patterns. The long timescale corresponded to the shared tasks of offence and defence lasting tens of seconds. The players' tactical diversity decreased with an increasing number of opponents, especially in defence. Manipulating numerical imbalance is likely to promote changes in the diversity, unpredictability and flexibility of tactical solutions. The fact that the temporally nested structure of constraints shaped the emergence of tactical behaviour provides a new rationale for practice task design. The manipulation of numerical imbalance on the timescale of a few tens of seconds, on which the exploratory behaviour of players saturates, may help coaches to optimise the exploratory efficiency of the small-sided games.

  19. Risk of injury in elite football played on artificial turf versus natural grass: a prospective two‐cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ekstrand, J; Timpka, T; Hägglund, M

    2006-01-01

    Objective To compare injury risk in elite football played on artificial turf compared with natural grass. Design Prospective two‐cohort study. Setting Male European elite football leagues. Participants 290 players from 10 elite European clubs that had installed third‐generation artificial turf surfaces in 2003–4, and 202 players from the Swedish Premier League acting as a control group. Main outcome measure Injury incidence. Results The incidence of injury during training and match play did not differ between surfaces for the teams in the artificial turf cohort: 2.42 v 2.94 injuries/1000 training hours and 19.60 v 21.48 injuries/1000 match hours for artificial turf and grass respectively. The risk of ankle sprain was increased in matches on artificial turf compared with grass (4.83 v 2.66 injuries/1000 match hours; rate ratio 1.81, 95% confidence interval 1.00 to 3.28). No difference in injury severity was seen between surfaces. Compared with the control cohort who played home games on natural grass, teams in the artificial turf cohort had a lower injury incidence during match play (15.26 v 23.08 injuries/1000 match hours; rate ratio 0.66, 95% confidence interval 0.48 to 0.91). Conclusions No evidence of a greater risk of injury was found when football was played on artificial turf compared with natural grass. The higher incidence of ankle sprain on artificial turf warrants further attention, although this result should be interpreted with caution as the number of ankle sprains was low. PMID:16990444

  20. Good maintenance of exercise-induced bone gain with decreased training of female tennis and squash players: a prospective 5-year follow-up study of young and old starters and controls.

    PubMed

    Kontulainen, S; Kannus, P; Haapasalo, H; Sievänen, H; Pasanen, M; Heinonen, A; Oja, P; Vuori, I

    2001-02-01

    This prospective 5-year follow-up study of 64 adult female racquet sports players and 27 controls assessed the changes in the playing-to-nonplaying arm bone mineral content (BMC) differences to answer three questions: (1) Are training-induced bone gains lost with decreased training? (2) Is the bone response to decreased training different if the playing career has been started before or at puberty rather than after it? (3) Are the possible bone changes related to the changes in training? The players were divided into two groups according to the starting age of their tennis or squash playing. The mean starting age was 10.5 years (SD, 2.2) among the players who had started training before or at menarche (young starters; n = 36) while 26.4 years (SD, 8.0) among those players who had begun training a minimum of 1 year after menarche (old starters; n = 28). At baseline of the 5-year follow-up, the mean age of the young starters was 21.6 years (SD, 7.6) and that of old starters was 39.4 years (SD, 10.5). During the follow-up, the young starters had reduced the average training frequency from 4.7 times a week (2.7) to 1.4 times a week (1.3) and the old starters from 4.0 times a week (1.4) to 2.0 times a week (1.4), respectively. The 5-year follow-up revealed that despite reduced training the exercise-induced bone gain was well maintained in both groups of players regardless of their clearly different starting age of activity and different amount of exercise-induced bone gain. The gain was still 1.3-2.2 times greater in favor of the young starters (at the follow-up, the dominant-to-nondominant arm BMC difference was 22% [8.4] in the humeral shaft of the young starters versus 10% [3.8] in the old starters, and 3.5% [2.4] in controls). In the players, changes in training were only weakly related to changes in the side-to-side BMC difference (r(s) = 0.05-0.34, all NS), and this was true even among the players who had stopped training completely a minimum 1 year before the

  1. What’s in a game? A systems approach to enhancing performance analysis in football

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Performance analysis (PA) in football is considered to be an integral component of understanding the requirements for optimal performance. Despite vast amounts of research in this area key gaps remain, including what comprises PA in football, and methods to minimise research-practitioner gaps. The aim of this study was to develop a model of the football match system in order to better describe and understand the components of football performance. Such a model could inform the design of new PA methods. Method Eight elite level football Subject Method Experts (SME’s) participated in two workshops to develop a systems model of the football match system. The model was developed using a first-of-its-kind application of Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) in football. CWA has been used in many other non-sporting domains to analyse and understand complex systems. Result Using CWA, a model of the football match ‘system’ was developed. The model enabled identification of several PA measures not currently utilised, including communication between team members, adaptability of teams, playing at the appropriate tempo, as well as attacking and defending related measures. Conclusion The results indicate that football is characteristic of a complex sociotechnical system, and revealed potential new and unique PA measures regarded as important by SME’s, yet not currently measured. Importantly, these results have identified a gap between the current PA research and the information that is meaningful to football coaches and practitioners. PMID:28212392

  2. The Comparison of Some Physical and Physiological Parameters of Footballers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekinci, Ezgi Samar; Beyleroglu, Malik; Ulukan, Hasan; Konuklar, Ercan; Gürkan, Alper Cenk; Erbay, Adem

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it's to aim for comparison of some physical and physiological parameters of footballers at "The Erenler Sport Team" and "Didim Municipality Sport Team". Thirty volunteers sportsman from each two teams joined to this research. It measured the values of age, weight, length, flexibility, balance, power of left-right…

  3. Nutrition and culture in professional football. A mixed method approach.

    PubMed

    Ono, Mutsumi; Kennedy, Eileen; Reeves, Sue; Cronin, Linda

    2012-02-01

    An adequate diet is essential for the optimal performance of professional football (soccer) players. Existing studies have shown that players fail to consume such a diet, without interrogating the reasons for this. The aim of this study was to explore the difficulties professional football players experience in consuming a diet for optimal performance. It utilized a mixed method approach, combining nutritional intake assessment with qualitative interviews, to ascertain both what was consumed and the wider cultural factors that affect consumption. The study found a high variability in individual intake which ranged widely from 2648 to 4606 kcal/day. In addition, the intake of carbohydrate was significantly lower than that recommended. The study revealed that the main food choices for carbohydrate and protein intake were pasta and chicken respectively. Interview results showed the importance of tradition within the world of professional football in structuring the players' approach to nutrition. In addition, the players' personal eating habits that derived from their class and national habitus restricted their food choice by conflicting with the dietary choices promoted within the professional football clubs.

  4. External foam layers to football helmets reduce head impact severity.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuka, Austin S; Yamamoto, Loren G

    2014-08-01

    Current American football helmet design has a rigid exterior with a padded interior. Softening the hard external layer of the helmet may reduce the impact potential of the helmet, providing extra head protection and reducing its use as an offensive device. The objective of this study is to measure the impact reduction potential provided by external foam. We obtained a football helmet with built-in accelerometer-based sensors, placed it on a boxing mannequin and struck it with a weighted swinging pendulum helmet to mimic the forces sustained during a helmet-to-helmet strike. We then applied layers of 1.3 cm thick polyolefin foam to the exterior surface of the helmets and repeated the process. All impact severity measures were significantly reduced with the application of the external foam. These results support the hypothesis that adding a soft exterior layer reduces the force of impact which may be applicable to the football field. Redesigning football helmets could reduce the injury potential of the sport.

  5. Teaching Australian Football in Physical Education: Constraints Theory in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pill, Shane

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines a constraints-led process of exploring, modifying, experimenting, adapting, and developing game appreciation known as Game Sense (Australian Sports Commission, 1997; den Duyn, 1996, 1997) for the teaching of Australian football. The game acts as teacher in this constraints-led process. Rather than a linear system that…

  6. Stitching Footballs: Voices of Children in Sailkot, Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Rachel; Husselbee, David; Shah, Faiz; Harper, Annie; Ali, Bahar

    This report details a situation analysis of children working in football stitching around Sialkot, Pakistan. The analysis (1) examined the reasons that children work and the probable impact of eradicating children's involvement and phasing out home-based production and (2) determined a baseline for monitoring changes in children's and families'…

  7. In a Tough Economy, Charlotte Makes a Play for Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Libby

    2008-01-01

    Despite tough economic times, the University of North Carolina at Charlotte hopes to win trustees' approval to raise funds to field a Division I-AA football team. Athletics officials and supporters at Charlotte are hopeful that they will raise the more than $45-million in capital expenses necessary to get the program up and running. However, the…

  8. Concussion Education for High School Football Players: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manasse-Cohick, Nancy J.; Shapley, Kathy L.

    2014-01-01

    This survey study compared high school football players' knowledge and attitudes about concussion before and after receiving concussion education. There were no significant changes in the Concussion Attitude Index. Results revealed a statistically significant difference in the athletes' scores for the Concussion Knowledge Index, "t"(244)…

  9. Concussion Incidences and Severity in Secondary School Varsity Football Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerberich, Susan Goodwin; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Study of Minnesota high school football players found an injury rate of 78 per 100 players; 19/100 players reported a concussion experience characterized by loss of consciousness/awareness. Of these, 69 percent returned to play the same day. Illegal blocking and tackling contributed to increased concussion. Lasting effects were prevalent. (GC)

  10. The Body Composition of a College Football Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickkiser, John D.; Kelly, John M.

    This study focuses on the body composition and anthropometric measurements of 65 college football players. Body composition was determined by underwater weighing with an accurate assessment of residual volume. The anthropometric measurements included height, weight, seven skinfolds, waist circumference, and wrist diameter. A step-wise multiple…

  11. How the Football Coach Can Help Principals and Teachers Score

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Neal

    2012-01-01

    Classroom teachers could learn a lesson from football coaches. Evidence suggests they know more about how their coaching affects their athletes' performance than classroom teachers do regarding student achievement. It is equally possible that the athletes are learning more quickly and in a deeper way than students in the classroom. Why? One reason…

  12. "Deflategate": Time, Temperature, and Moisture Effects on Football Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenthal, Jack; Beljak, Lauren; Macatangay, Dahlia-Marie; Helmuth-Malone, Lilly; McWilliams, Catharina; Raptis, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    In a recent paper in "The Physics Teacher (TPT)", DiLisi and Rarick used the National Football League "Deflategate" controversy to introduce to physics students the physics of a bouncing ball. In this paper, we measure and analyze the environmental effects of time, ambient temperature, and moisture on the internal pressure of…

  13. Huddle: At DeMatha High, Football Is Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asayesh, Gelareh

    1993-01-01

    The football program at DeMatha High School in Hyattsville (Maryland), illustrates ways in which a sports program can build unity and racial tolerance among students. The shared team effort carries over into schoolwork and life outside of school. (SLD)

  14. Preparticipation Screening of Athletic Officials: SEC Football Referees at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, John L., Jr.; Walters, Rod; Leski, Mark J.; Saywell, Robert M., Jr.; Wooldridge, J. Scott

    2003-01-01

    Reviewed prevalence data on health parameters for football officials, noting outcomes when screening criteria were applied in preseason exams. Referees had a lower risk than the national 10-year coronary heart disease risk but a higher risk compared with that of the low-risk population. Results suggested that more graded exercise testing was…

  15. New Fantasy Football League Tests NCAA's Rules on Amateur Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Kate

    2008-01-01

    The long-simmering debate over the commercialization of college sports reached a boiling point recently when CBS, the NCAA's key corporate partner, announced that it was creating a fantasy football league that uses college athletes' names. Not everyone however, is quite so enthusiastic. Some observers see it as part of a continuing assault on the…

  16. A Critical Analysis of Football Bowl Subdivision Coaching Contract Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Justin Keith

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study is designed to inventory and analyze contract components used by Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) institutions in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) to further contribute to the body research. The FBS is comprised of 120 institutions and 94 of those institutions submitted contracts to "USA Today"…

  17. Antitrust Challenge to Football Group Dismissed by Judge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederman, Douglas

    1991-01-01

    An administrative-law judge dismissed the Federal Trade Commission's antitrust complaint against the College Football Association (CFA), saying it had no jurisdiction over the association. CFA's five-year television contract with the American Broadcasting Company was found to have a nonprofit purpose. (MSE)

  18. Football Pools and the Reactivity Series of Metals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heselden, Russ

    2001-01-01

    Describes an activity which presents the reactivity of metals series as a football pool with more reactive metals at the top of the table and unreactive metals at the bottom. Describes how the activity can be applied in different ways for different ability groups. (Author/MM)

  19. Soccer-Speedball-Flag Football Guide. June 1974-June 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faber, Dolores, Ed.; And Others

    This guide, produced by the National Association for Girls and Women in Sport (NAGWS), is a collection of essays by various authors on soccer, speedball, and flag football. There is a separate section for each sport. In the section, the following topics are covered: goalkeeping, the use of tires as a teaching aid, skill testing, problem-solving…

  20. If Football Referees Made Accreditation Calls: A Modest Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleson, Robert R.

    2004-01-01

    Barely a week passes without the "Chronicle of Higher Education" or another periodical decrying the perverse influence of college football on academic quality. Faculty keep saying (justifiably) that sports advocates care more about athletic prowess than about student learning, that even assistant coaches make more money than tenured faculty, and…

  1. Modifying Flag Football for Gender Equitable Engagement in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahan, David

    2008-01-01

    Flag or touch football is a popular activity unit in American secondary physical education curricula. However, unlike other sports its stigmatization as a masculine-typed activity and frequent inequitable distribution of game play opportunities at the skill positions (e.g., receiver, quarterback) results in the marginalization of female…

  2. Dynamic Social Networks in High Performance Football Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occhino, Joseph; Mallett, Cliff; Rynne, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sports coaching is largely a social activity where engagement with athletes and support staff can enhance the experiences for all involved. This paper examines how high performance football coaches develop knowledge through their interactions with others within a social learning theory framework. Purpose: The key purpose of this study…

  3. Trained and dedicated staff appears to be the main factor in decreasing anxiety and improving overall satisfaction during urodynamic testing: A prospective, randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Khavari, Rose; Gu, Cindy; Tran, Anastasia C.; Chan, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We sought to determine whether listening to patient-selected music during urodynamic study (UDS) reduced pain and anxiety while increasing overall patient satisfaction and willingness to repeat the procedure. Methods: Fifty-one (51) patients who underwent UDS from March to July 2014 were randomized into two groups: Group 1 with patient-selected music during the procedure (n=27) and Group 2 without music (n=24). Standard multichannel filling cystometry was performed. Anxiety was self-assessed using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, while overall pain, satisfaction, and willingness to undergo the procedure again were self-measured using a visual analogue scale. Results: Demographic characteristics and reasons for testing were similar between the two groups. The state score for Groups 1 and 2 were 27.04 and 29.5, respectively (p=0.3225) and 31.78 and 33.86, respectively (p=0.4970) for the trait score. The mean pain scores were 1.04 and 1.57, respectively (p=0.2047); the mean satisfaction scores were 0.65 and 0.52, respectively (p=0.8169); and the scores for willingness to undergo the procedure again were 0.77 and 0.74, respectively (p=0.9442). While there were no significant differences between the two groups in anxiety and satisfaction scores, pain, and willingness to undergo the procedure again, both groups commented on the nurse as the most important factor in their overall comfort. Conclusions: Music during UDS did not appear to lower pain and anxiety, nor increase overall satisfaction and willingness to repeat the procedure. The most important aspect in alleviating patients’ pain and anxiety was the person actually performing the testing, highlighting the importance of having trained and dedicated staff. PMID:27713797

  4. Quantifying the Chasm: Exploring the Impact of the BCS on Total Football Revenues for Division One Football Programs from 2002-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Cary A.

    2014-01-01

    The Bowl Championship Series served as a collection of bowl games that were designed to crown the national champion in Division One football. The BCS created two classifications of institutions in Division football, those that were granted automatic access (AQ) to the post-season games, and those that were not (non-AQ). The BCS also generated…

  5. Can helmet design reduce the risk of concussion in football?

    PubMed

    Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M; Greenwald, Richard M; Beckwith, Jonathan G; Chu, Jeffrey J; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Mihalik, Jason P; Crisco, Joseph J; Wilcox, Bethany J; McAllister, Thomas W; Maerlender, Arthur C; Broglio, Steven P; Schnebel, Brock; Anderson, Scott; Brolinson, P Gunnar

    2014-04-01

    Of all sports, football accounts for the highest incidence of concussion in the US due to the large number of athletes participating and the nature of the sport. While there is general agreement that concussion incidence can be reduced through rule changes and teaching proper tackling technique, there remains debate as to whether helmet design may also reduce the incidence of concussion. A retrospective analysis was performed of head impact data collected from 1833 collegiate football players who were instrumented with helmet-mounted accelerometer arrays for games and practices. Data were collected between 2005 and 2010 from 8 collegiate football teams: Virginia Tech, University of North Carolina, University of Oklahoma, Dartmouth College, Brown University, University of Minnesota, Indiana University, and University of Illinois. Concussion rates were compared between players wearing Riddell VSR4 and Riddell Revolution helmets while controlling for the head impact exposure of each player. A total of 1,281,444 head impacts were recorded, from which 64 concussions were diagnosed. The relative risk of sustaining a concussion in a Revolution helmet compared with a VSR4 helmet was 46.1% (95% CI 28.1%-75.8%). When controlling for each player's exposure to head impact, a significant difference was found between concussion rates for players in VSR4 and Revolution helmets (χ(2) = 4.68, p = 0.0305). This study illustrates that differences in the ability to reduce concussion risk exist between helmet models in football. Although helmet design may never prevent all concussions from occurring in football, evidence illustrates that it can reduce the incidence of this injury.

  6. Head Impacts During High School Football: A Biomechanical Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Broglio, Steven P; Sosnoff, Jacob J; Shin, SungHoon; He, Xuming; Alcaraz, Christopher; Zimmerman, Jerrad

    2009-01-01

    Context: Little is known about the impact biomechanics sustained by players during interscholastic football. Objective: To characterize the location and magnitude of impacts sustained by players during an interscholastic football season. Design: Observational design. Setting: On the field. Patients or Other Participants: High school varsity football team (n  =  35; age  =  16.85 ± 0.75 years, height  =  183.49 ± 5.31 cm, mass  =  89.42 ± 12.88 kg). Main Outcome Measure(s): Biomechanical variables (linear acceleration, rotational acceleration, jerk, force, impulse, and impact duration) related to head impacts were categorized by session type, player position, and helmet impact location. Results: Differences in grouping variables were found for each impact descriptor. Impacts occurred more frequently and with greater intensity during games. Linear acceleration was greatest in defensive linemen and offensive skill players and when the impact occurred at the top of the helmet. The largest rotational acceleration occurred in defensive linemen and with impacts to the front of the helmet. Impacts with the highest-magnitude jerk, force, and impulse and shortest duration occurred in the offensive skill, defensive line, offensive line, and defensive skill players, respectively. Top-of-the-helmet impacts yielded the greatest magnitude for the same variables. Conclusions: We are the first to provide a biomechanical characterization of head impacts in an interscholastic football team across a season of play. The intensity of game play manifested with more frequent and intense impacts. The highest-magnitude variables were distributed across all player groups, but impacts to the top of the helmet yielded the highest values. These high school football athletes appeared to sustain greater accelerations after impact than their older counterparts did. How this finding relates to concussion occurrence has yet to be elucidated. PMID:19593415

  7. Cavum Septum Pellucidum in Retired American Pro-Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Christopher P.; Brus-Ramer, Marcel; Possin, Katherine L.; Cohn-Sheehy, Brendan I.; Kramer, Joel H.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Yaffe, Kristine; Miller, Bruce; Rabinovici, Gil D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies report that cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) is frequent among athletes with a history of repeated traumatic brain injury (TBI), such as boxers. Few studies of CSP in athletes, however, have assessed detailed features of the septum pellucidum in a case-control fashion. This is important because prevalence of CSP in the general population varies widely (2% to 85%) between studies. Further, rates of CSP among American pro-football players have not been described previously. We sought to characterize MRI features of the septum pellucidum in a series of retired pro-football players with a history of repeated concussive/subconcussive head traumas compared with controls. We retrospectively assessed retired American pro-football players presenting to our memory clinic with cognitive/behavioral symptoms in whom structural MRI was available with slice thickness ≤2 mm (n=17). Each player was matched to a memory clinic control patient with no history of TBI. Scans were interpreted by raters blinded to clinical information and TBI/football history, who measured CSP grade (0–absent, 1–equivocal, 2–mild, 3–moderate, 4–severe) and length according to a standard protocol. Sixteen of 17 (94%) players had a CSP graded ≥2 compared with 3 of 17 (18%) controls. CSP was significantly higher grade (p<0.001) and longer in players than controls (mean length±standard deviation: 10.6 mm±5.4 vs. 1.1 mm±1.3, p<0.001). Among patients presenting to a memory clinic, long high-grade CSP was more frequent in retired pro-football players compared with patients without a history of TBI. PMID:25970145

  8. Impact attenuation capabilities of football and lacrosse helmets.

    PubMed

    Breedlove, Katherine M; Breedlove, Evan L; Bowman, Thomas G; Nauman, Eric A

    2016-09-06

    Although the National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) standards are similar for football and lacrosse helmets, it remains unknown how helmets for each sport compare on drop tests. Due to the increased concern over head injury in sport and the rapid growth in lacrosse participation, it is useful to compare the performance of various football and lacrosse helmets. Therefore, the goal of this study was to document the impact attenuation properties of football and lacrosse helmets and to identify the relative performance between helmets for the two sports. Six models of football and six models of lacrosse helmets were tested using a drop tower at three prescribed velocities and six locations on the helmets. A repeated measures ANOVA was conducted to determine the effect of sport on Gadd Severity Index (GSI) scores and linear accelerations. The interaction between location and sport was significant at the low (F2.64,89.71=7.68, P<.001, η(2)=.025), medium (F2.85,96.85=16.78, P<.001, η(2)=.085), and high (F2.96,100.69=16.67, P<.001, η(2)=.093) velocities for GSI scores. When comparing peak acceleration results, we found a significant interaction between location and sport for the medium (F3.40,115.616=5.57, P=.001, ω(2)=.031) and high (F3.46,117.50=6.4(2), P<.001, ω(2)=.047) velocities. Features of football helmet design provide superior protection compared to lacrosse helmets. Further investigation of helmet design features across sports will yield insight into how design features influence helmet performance during laboratory testing.

  9. Cavum Septum Pellucidum in Retired American Pro-Football Players.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Raquel C; Hess, Christopher P; Brus-Ramer, Marcel; Possin, Katherine L; Cohn-Sheehy, Brendan I; Kramer, Joel H; Berger, Mitchel S; Yaffe, Kristine; Miller, Bruce; Rabinovici, Gil D

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies report that cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) is frequent among athletes with a history of repeated traumatic brain injury (TBI), such as boxers. Few studies of CSP in athletes, however, have assessed detailed features of the septum pellucidum in a case-control fashion. This is important because prevalence of CSP in the general population varies widely (2% to 85%) between studies. Further, rates of CSP among American pro-football players have not been described previously. We sought to characterize MRI features of the septum pellucidum in a series of retired pro-football players with a history of repeated concussive/subconcussive head traumas compared with controls. We retrospectively assessed retired American pro-football players presenting to our memory clinic with cognitive/behavioral symptoms in whom structural MRI was available with slice thickness ≤2 mm (n=17). Each player was matched to a memory clinic control patient with no history of TBI. Scans were interpreted by raters blinded to clinical information and TBI/football history, who measured CSP grade (0-absent, 1-equivocal, 2-mild, 3-moderate, 4-severe) and length according to a standard protocol. Sixteen of 17 (94%) players had a CSP graded ≥2 compared with 3 of 17 (18%) controls. CSP was significantly higher grade (p<0.001) and longer in players than controls (mean length±standard deviation: 10.6 mm±5.4 vs. 1.1 mm±1.3, p<0.001). Among patients presenting to a memory clinic, long high-grade CSP was more frequent in retired pro-football players compared with patients without a history of TBI.

  10. Age at First Exposure to Football Is Associated with Altered Corpus Callosum White Matter Microstructure in Former Professional Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Stamm, Julie M.; Koerte, Inga K.; Muehlmann, Marc; Pasternak, Ofer; Bourlas, Alexandra P.; Baugh, Christine M.; Giwerc, Michelle Y.; Zhu, Anni; Coleman, Michael J.; Bouix, Sylvain; Fritts, Nathan G.; Martin, Brett M.; Chaisson, Christine; McClean, Michael D.; Lin, Alexander P.; Cantu, Robert C.; Tripodis, Yorghos; Shenton, Martha E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Youth football players may incur hundreds of repetitive head impacts (RHI) in one season. Our recent research suggests that exposure to RHI during a critical neurodevelopmental period prior to age 12 may lead to greater later-life mood, behavioral, and cognitive impairments. Here, we examine the relationship between age of first exposure (AFE) to RHI through tackle football and later-life corpus callosum (CC) microstructure using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Forty retired National Football League (NFL) players, ages 40–65, were matched by age and divided into two groups based on their AFE to tackle football: before age 12 or at age 12 or older. Participants underwent DTI on a 3 Tesla Siemens (TIM-Verio) magnet. The whole CC and five subregions were defined and seeded using deterministic tractography. Dependent measures were fractional anisotropy (FA), trace, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity. Results showed that former NFL players in the AFE <12 group had significantly lower FA in anterior three CC regions and higher radial diffusivity in the most anterior CC region than those in the AFE ≥12 group. This is the first study to find a relationship between AFE to RHI and later-life CC microstructure. These results suggest that incurring RHI during critical periods of CC development may disrupt neurodevelopmental processes, including myelination, resulting in altered CC microstructure. PMID:26200068

  11. A Study about Problem Solving Skill Variable in Terms of Some Variables of Footballers Who Play Football Professionally

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpinar, Selahattin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present the problem solving skill levels of sportsmen who play football professionally, and to determine whether problem solving skill levels differ according to sportsmen's, sports club, age, marital status, parents' educational status, father's occupation, occupation in the game, year of playing football…

  12. Age at First Exposure to Football Is Associated with Altered Corpus Callosum White Matter Microstructure in Former Professional Football Players.

    PubMed

    Stamm, Julie M; Koerte, Inga K; Muehlmann, Marc; Pasternak, Ofer; Bourlas, Alexandra P; Baugh, Christine M; Giwerc, Michelle Y; Zhu, Anni; Coleman, Michael J; Bouix, Sylvain; Fritts, Nathan G; Martin, Brett M; Chaisson, Christine; McClean, Michael D; Lin, Alexander P; Cantu, Robert C; Tripodis, Yorghos; Stern, Robert A; Shenton, Martha E

    2015-11-15

    Youth football players may incur hundreds of repetitive head impacts (RHI) in one season. Our recent research suggests that exposure to RHI during a critical neurodevelopmental period prior to age 12 may lead to greater later-life mood, behavioral, and cognitive impairments. Here, we examine the relationship between age of first exposure (AFE) to RHI through tackle football and later-life corpus callosum (CC) microstructure using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Forty retired National Football League (NFL) players, ages 40-65, were matched by age and divided into two groups based on their AFE to tackle football: before age 12 or at age 12 or older. Participants underwent DTI on a 3 Tesla Siemens (TIM-Verio) magnet. The whole CC and five subregions were defined and seeded using deterministic tractography. Dependent measures were fractional anisotropy (FA), trace, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity. Results showed that former NFL players in the AFE <12 group had significantly lower FA in anterior three CC regions and higher radial diffusivity in the most anterior CC region than those in the AFE ≥12 group. This is the first study to find a relationship between AFE to RHI and later-life CC microstructure. These results suggest that incurring RHI during critical periods of CC development may disrupt neurodevelopmental processes, including myelination, resulting in altered CC microstructure.

  13. Creating a Supportive Environment among Youth Football Players: A Qualitative Study of French and Norwegian Youth Grassroots Football Coaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Torill; Van Hoye, Aurelie; Tjomsland, Hege Eikeland; Holsen, Ingrid; Wold, Bente; Heuzé, Jean-Philippe; Samdal, Oddrun; Sarrazin, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The health promoting benefits of sport participation are under-utilized and should be further developed, particularly at the grassroots level. The purpose of this paper is to examine how grassroots coaches in youth football perceive their coaching practices after participating in a community-based coach education program aimed at…

  14. NFL-225 test to predict 1RM bench press in NCAA Division I football players.

    PubMed

    Mann, J Bryan; Stoner, Josh D; Mayhew, Jerry L

    2012-10-01

    The National Football League (NFL)-225 test has gained popularity for assessing muscular performance among college football programs. Although the test is a measure of absolute muscular endurance, it was reputed to be highly correlated with maximum muscular strength. The purposes of this study were to assess the predictive potential of the NFL-225 test for estimating 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press performance in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I college football players and to evaluate the accuracy of previous NFL-225 prediction equations. Players (n = 289) in a successful Division I program were assessed over a period of 5 years for 1RM bench press and repetitions completed with 102.3 kg (225 lb). Test sessions occurred within 1 week of each other during the off-season training period. In a validation group (n = 202), repetitions were significantly correlated with 1RM (r = 0.95), producing a prediction equation (1RM [kg] = 103.5 + 3.08 Reps) with a standard error of estimate = 6.4 kg (coefficient of variation = 4.3%). In a randomly selected cross-validation group (n = 87), the new equation nonsignificantly underpredicted by 0.9 ± 7.2 kg produced a high correlation with actual 1RM (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.967), had a limit of agreement of -15.0 to 13.2 kg, and predicted 69% of the group within ±4.5 kg of their actual 1RM. The best previous equation was that of Slovak et al., which was nonsignificantly underpredicted by -0.5 ± 6.7 kg, produced a high correlation with actual 1RM (ICC = 0.975), and predicted 68% of the group within ±4.5 kg of their actual 1RM. The new NFL-225 test seems to be a reasonable predictor of 1RM bench press in Division I players but should be further assessed on players from other high-level programs.

  15. A Prospective Analysis of the Injury Incidence of Young Male Professional Football Players on Artificial Turf

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Antonino; Spedicato, Mirco; Petrucci, Marco; Messina, Giuseppe; Thomas, Ewan; Nese Sahin, Fatma; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effects of synthetic surfaces on the risk of injuries is still debated in literature and the majority of published data seems to be contradictory. For such reasons the understanding of injury incidence on such surfaces, especially in youth sport, is fundamental for injury prevention. Objectives: The aim of this study was to prospectively report the epidemiology of injuries in young football players, playing on artificial turfs, during a one sports season. Patients and Methods: 80 young male football players (age 16.1 ± 3.7 years; height 174 ± 6.6 cm; weight 64.2 ± 6.3 kg) were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. The participants were then divided in two groups; the first included players age ranging from 17 to 19 (OP) whereas the second included players age ranging from 13 to 16 (YP). Injury incidence was recorded prospectively, according to the consensus statement for soccer. Results: A total of 107 injuries (35 from the OP and 72 from the YP) were recorded during an exposure time of 83.760 hours (incidence 1.28/1000 per player hours); 22 during matches (incidence 2.84/1000 per player hours, 20.5%) and 85 during training (incidence 1.15/1000 per player hours, 79.5%). Thigh and groin were the most common injury locations (33.6% and 21.5%, respectively) while muscle injuries such as contractures and strains were the most common injury typologies (68.23%). No statistical differences between groups were displayed, except for the rate of severe injuries during matches, with the OP displaying slightly higher rates compared to the YP. Severe injuries accounted for 10.28% of the total injuries reported. The average time lost due to injuries was 14 days. Re-injuries accounted for 4.67% of all injuries sustained during the season. Conclusions: In professional youth soccer injury rates are reasonably low. Muscle injuries are the most common type of injuries while groin and thigh the most common locations. Artificial turf pitches don’t seem to

  16. Emerging data on the incidence of concussion in football practice at all levels of amateur play.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Robert M

    2015-11-01

    There has been increasing concern, particularly in the US, about potential long-term neurological deterioration syndromes seen in the US football players. Recurrent concussions are a potential area of concern. The authors of this paper have used data bases from three levels of amateur US football to identify the rate and risk of concussion injury in both football games and practice at the youth, high school, and college levels. This information is very important initial data around concussion rates at these levels.

  17. Changes in Body Composition in Division I Football Players Over a Competitive Season and Recovery in Off-Season.

    PubMed

    Binkley, Teresa L; Daughters, Seth W; Weidauer, Lee A; Vukovich, Matthew D

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated changes in body composition over 1 competitive football season in D-I collegiate football players (N = 53; by position, 21 linemen vs. 32 nonline; or by seniority, 30 upperclassmen vs. 23 underclassmen) and additional changes by the following spring season (N = 46; 20 linemen vs. 26 nonline; 27 upperclassmen vs. 19 underclassmen). Body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was completed pre- and post-season and the following spring. For the team as a whole, player weight decreased 1.3 kg (1.2%) and lean mass decreased 1.4 kg (1.6%) over the season. Absolute fat mass showed no change; however, percent body fat showed a 0.5% increase. There was an interaction between player position and seniority for changes in lean mass (p < 0.01). In nonline positions upperclassmen lost more lean mass than underclassmen, whereas in line positions underclassmen lost more lean mass than upperclassmen. Spring measures indicate that weight did not increase during the off-season, but improvement in body composition was noted. Lean mass increased by 2.2 kg (2.6%), whereas absolute fat mass decreased by 1.4 kg (6.7%). Although weight and lean mass losses during the competitive season were recovered in the off-season, changes in collegiate football programs that include nutrition counseling, dietary recommendations, monitoring of weight, and skin-fold testing as an estimate of body fat change would be beneficial to players. Strength and conditioning coaches and staff need to consider strategies to incorporate these practices into their programs.

  18. The Mental Skills Training of University Soccer Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadeghi, Hassan; Omar-Fauzee, Mohd-Sofian; Jamalis, Marjohan; Ab-Latif, Rozita; Cheric, Majid Chahrdah

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the kind of mental skills training needed most by the university soccer players. Eight male university football players (aged 25 to 36) from one large university in Kuala Lumpur agreed to participate in this study. On average, they have 10 years of playing experience. All of them have signed the informed…

  19. Intensive Training in Youth Sport: An Example of Unequal Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Stephen R. W.; Graham, Philip J.

    1999-01-01

    Examined the social composition of an unselected sample of 282 English 8- to 16-year olds involved in intensive training in football, swimming, tennis, and gymnastics. Found that working-class children and those from single-parent families were underrepresented in all sports. Concluded that financial considerations and difficulties in accessing…

  20. The neuropsychology of heading and head trauma in Association Football (soccer): a review.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Andrew; Stephens, Richard; Potter, Douglas

    2003-09-01

    Association Football (soccer) is the most popular and widespread sport in the world. A significant proportion of the injuries suffered in football are head injuries involving trauma to the brain. In normal play, head trauma frequently arises from collisions, but some researchers have claimed that it also may arise as a consequence of heading the ball. Although assessments based on biomechanical analyses are equivocal on the potential for brain injury due to football heading, a growing literature seems to support the claim that neuropsychological impairment results from general football play and football heading in particular. However, this review suggests a distinction is required between the neuropsychological effects of concussive and subconcussive head trauma and that all of the neuropsychological studies conducted so far suffer from methodological problems. At best, a few of these studies may be regarded as exploratory. The review concludes that presently, although there is exploratory evidence of subclinical neuropsychological impairment as a consequence of football-related concussions, there is no reliable and certainly no definitive evidence that such impairment occurs as a result of general football play or normal football heading. The neuropsychological consequences of football-related subconcussive effects await confirmatory investigation.

  1. Estimating Contact Exposure in Football Using the Head Impact Exposure Estimate

    PubMed Central

    Littleton, Ashley C.; Cox, Leah M.; DeFreese, J.D.; Varangis, Eleanna; Lynall, Robert C.; Schmidt, Julianne D.; Marshall, Stephen W.; Guskiewicz, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Over the past decade, there has been significant debate regarding the effect of cumulative subconcussive head impacts on short and long-term neurological impairment. This debate remains unresolved, because valid epidemiological estimates of athletes' total contact exposure are lacking. We present a measure to estimate the total hours of contact exposure in football over the majority of an athlete's lifespan. Through a structured oral interview, former football players provided information related to primary position played and participation in games and practice contacts during the pre-season, regular season, and post-season of each year of their high school, college, and professional football careers. Spring football for college was also included. We calculated contact exposure estimates for 64 former football players (n=32 college football only, n=32 professional and college football). The head impact exposure estimate (HIEE) discriminated between individuals who stopped after college football, and individuals who played professional football (p<0.001). The HIEE measure was independent of concussion history (p=0.82). Estimating total hours of contact exposure may allow for the detection of differences between individuals with variation in subconcussive impacts, regardless of concussion history. This measure is valuable for the surveillance of subconcussive impacts and their associated potential negative effects. PMID:25603189

  2. Estimating Contact Exposure in Football Using the Head Impact Exposure Estimate.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Littleton, Ashley C; Cox, Leah M; DeFreese, J D; Varangis, Eleanna; Lynall, Robert C; Schmidt, Julianne D; Marshall, Stephen W; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2015-07-15

    Over the past decade, there has been significant debate regarding the effect of cumulative subconcussive head impacts on short and long-term neurological impairment. This debate remains unresolved, because valid epidemiological estimates of athletes' total contact exposure are lacking. We present a measure to estimate the total hours of contact exposure in football over the majority of an athlete's lifespan. Through a structured oral interview, former football players provided information related to primary position played and participation in games and practice contacts during the pre-season, regular season, and post-season of each year of their high school, college, and professional football careers. Spring football for college was also included. We calculated contact exposure estimates for 64 former football players (n = 32 college football only, n = 32 professional and college football). The head impact exposure estimate (HIEE) discriminated between individuals who stopped after college football, and individuals who played professional football (p < 0.001). The HIEE measure was independent of concussion history (p = 0.82). Estimating total hours of contact exposure may allow for the detection of differences between individuals with variation in subconcussive impacts, regardless of concussion history. This measure is valuable for the surveillance of subconcussive impacts and their associated potential negative effects.

  3. Activity Profiles and Physiological Responses of Representative Tag Football Players in Relation to Playing Position and Physical Fitness.

    PubMed

    Hogarth, Luke W; Burkett, Brendan J; McKean, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the physical fitness, match-activity profiles and physiological responses of representative tag football players and examined the relationship between physical fitness and the match-activity profile. Microtechnology devices and heart rate (HR) chest straps were used to determine the match-activity profiles of sixteen tag football players for five matches during the 2014 Australian National Championships. The relationships between lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) and the match-activity profile were examined using Pearson's correlation coefficients. Outside players had greater lower body muscular power (ES = 0.98) and straight line running speed (ES = 1.03-1.18) than inside players, and also covered greater very high-speed running (VHSR) distance/min (ES = 0.67) and reached higher peak running speeds (ES = 0.95) during matches. Inside and outside players performed a similar number of repeated high-intensity effort (RHIE) bouts and reported similar mean and maximum efforts per RHIE bout. However, there were differences between playing positions for mean and maximal RHIE effort durations (ES = 0.69-1.15) and mean RHIE bout recovery (ES = 0.56). Inside and outside players also reported small to moderate differences (ES = 0.43-0.80) for times spent in each HR zone. There were a number of moderate to very large correlations between physical fitness measures and match-activity profile variables. This study found lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo IR2 to be related to the match-activities of representative tag football players, although differences between inside and outside players suggest that athlete testing and training practices should be modified for different playing positions.

  4. Acute Effects of Three Neuromuscular Warm-Up Strategies on Several Physical Performance Measures in Football Players.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Francisco; Calderón-López, Ana; Delgado-Gosálbez, Juan Carlos; Parra-Sánchez, Sergio; Pomares-Noguera, Carlos; Hernández-Sánchez, Sergio; López-Valenciano, Alejandro; De Ste Croix, Mark

    2017-01-01

    No studies have analysed the acute effects of the FIFA 11+ and Harmoknee warm-up programmes on major physical performance measures. The aim of this study was to analyse the acute (post-exercise) effects of the FIFA 11+, Harmoknee and dynamic warm-up routines on several physical performance measures in amateur football players. A randomized, crossover and counterbalanced study design was used to address the purpose of this study. A total of sixteen amateur football players completed the following protocols in a randomized order on separate days: a) FIFA 11+; b) Harmoknee; and c) dynamic warm-up (DWU). In each experimental session, 19 physical performance measures (joint range of motion, hamstring to quadriceps [H/Q] strength ratios, dynamic postural control, 10 and 20 m sprint times, jump height and reactive strength index) were assessed. Measures were compared via a magnitude-based inference analysis. The results of this study showed no main effects between paired comparisons (FIFA 11+ vs. DWU, Harmoknee vs. DWU and Harmoknee vs. FIFA 11+) for joint range of motions, dynamic postural control, H/Q ratios, jumping height and reactive strength index measures. However, significant main effects (likely effects with a probability of >75-99%) were found for 10 (1.7%) and 20 (2.4%) m sprint times, demonstrating that both the FIFA 11+ and Harmoknee resulted in slower sprint times in comparison with the DWU. Therefore, neither the FIFA 11+ nor the Harmoknee routines appear to be preferable to dynamic warm-up routines currently performed by most football players prior to training sessions and matches.

  5. Activity Profiles and Physiological Responses of Representative Tag Football Players in Relation to Playing Position and Physical Fitness

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the physical fitness, match-activity profiles and physiological responses of representative tag football players and examined the relationship between physical fitness and the match-activity profile. Microtechnology devices and heart rate (HR) chest straps were used to determine the match-activity profiles of sixteen tag football players for five matches during the 2014 Australian National Championships. The relationships between lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) and the match-activity profile were examined using Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Outside players had greater lower body muscular power (ES = 0.98) and straight line running speed (ES = 1.03–1.18) than inside players, and also covered greater very high-speed running (VHSR) distance/min (ES = 0.67) and reached higher peak running speeds (ES = 0.95) during matches. Inside and outside players performed a similar number of repeated high-intensity effort (RHIE) bouts and reported similar mean and maximum efforts per RHIE bout. However, there were differences between playing positions for mean and maximal RHIE effort durations (ES = 0.69–1.15) and mean RHIE bout recovery (ES = 0.56). Inside and outside players also reported small to moderate differences (ES = 0.43–0.80) for times spent in each HR zone. There were a number of moderate to very large correlations between physical fitness measures and match-activity profile variables. This study found lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo IR2 to be related to the match-activities of representative tag football players, although differences between inside and outside players suggest that athlete testing and training practices should be modified for different playing positions. PMID:26642320

  6. Acute Effects of Three Neuromuscular Warm-Up Strategies on Several Physical Performance Measures in Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, Francisco; Calderón-López, Ana; Delgado-Gosálbez, Juan Carlos; Parra-Sánchez, Sergio; Pomares-Noguera, Carlos; Hernández-Sánchez, Sergio; López-Valenciano, Alejandro; De Ste Croix, Mark

    2017-01-01

    No studies have analysed the acute effects of the FIFA 11+ and Harmoknee warm-up programmes on major physical performance measures. The aim of this study was to analyse the acute (post-exercise) effects of the FIFA 11+, Harmoknee and dynamic warm-up routines on several physical performance measures in amateur football players. A randomized, crossover and counterbalanced study design was used to address the purpose of this study. A total of sixteen amateur football players completed the following protocols in a randomized order on separate days: a) FIFA 11+; b) Harmoknee; and c) dynamic warm-up (DWU). In each experimental session, 19 physical performance measures (joint range of motion, hamstring to quadriceps [H/Q] strength ratios, dynamic postural control, 10 and 20 m sprint times, jump height and reactive strength index) were assessed. Measures were compared via a magnitude-based inference analysis. The results of this study showed no main effects between paired comparisons (FIFA 11+ vs. DWU, Harmoknee vs. DWU and Harmoknee vs. FIFA 11+) for joint range of motions, dynamic postural control, H/Q ratios, jumping height and reactive strength index measures. However, significant main effects (likely effects with a probability of >75–99%) were found for 10 (1.7%) and 20 (2.4%) m sprint times, demonstrating that both the FIFA 11+ and Harmoknee resulted in slower sprint times in comparison with the DWU. Therefore, neither the FIFA 11+ nor the Harmoknee routines appear to be preferable to dynamic warm-up routines currently performed by most football players prior to training sessions and matches. PMID:28060927

  7. Homophobic and sexist yet uncontested: examining football fan postings on Internet message boards.

    PubMed

    Kian, Edward M; Clavio, Galen; Vincent, John; Shaw, Stephanie D

    2011-01-01

    Although a homophobic and sexist archetype of heterosexual masculinity has been thought to permeate competitive teamsport, matters have been rapidly changing. This is evident in research on openly gay athletes, attitudes among heterosexual athletes, and recent studies on decreasing homophobia among sport media content. In this research, however, we examine how some men still adhere to a homophobic and sexist masculine deposition when discussing sport on the Internet. A textual analysis was used to analyze hegemonic masculinity from a popular American football message board. Although posts related to hegemonic masculinity did not permeate the data, we found that this traditional form of masculinity was upheld through misogyny, homophobia, and the objectification of women. Thus, whereas mainstream sport media is increasingly policed for homophobia and sexism, this research shows that the anonymity of the Internet permits hegemonic masculinity to flourish in specific locations, without contestation.

  8. Continuity, change and complexity in the performance of masculinity among elite young footballers in England.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Steven; Anderson, Eric; Magrath, Rory

    2016-10-31

    Following recent research evidencing that young men are redefining the essential components of what it is to be a man, this paper draws on qualitative interviews with 22 elite-level, English Premier League academy level football (soccer) players to investigate their performances and understandings of masculinity in relation to decreasing homohysteria. Even in this gender-segregated, near-total institution, these working-class, non-educationally aspiring adolescents evidence an attenuated performance of 'maleness' and improved attitudinal disposition toward homosexuality. Congruent with insights developed by inclusive masculinity scholars, respondents maintained emotional closeness and physical tactility with male teammates and friends. These more inclusive attitudes and homosocial behaviours were, however, slightly more conservative than in other recent research. We close by explaining this variation with reference to theoretical apparatus' provided by Goffman and Bourdieu to advance theoretical debates about social class and masculinities.

  9. Hypoconnectivity and hyperfrontality in retired American football players.

    PubMed

    Hampshire, Adam; MacDonald, Alex; Owen, Adrian M

    2013-10-17

    Recent research has raised concerns about the long-term neurological consequences of repetitive concussive and sub-concussive injuries in professional players of American Football. Despite this interest, the neural and psychological status of retired players remains unknown. Here, we evaluated the performances and brain activation patterns of retired National Football League players (NFL alumni) relative to controls using an fMRI-optimised neuropsychological test of executive function. Behaviourally, the NFL alumni showed only modest performance deficits on the executive task. By contrast, they showed pronounced hyperactivation and hypoconnectivity of the dorsolateral frontal and frontopolar cortices. Critically, abnormal frontal-lobe function was correlated with the number of times that NFL alumni reported having been removed from play after head injury and was evident in individual players. These results support the hypothesis that NFL alumni have a heightened probability of developing executive dysfunction and suggest that fMRI provides the most sensitive biomarker of the underlying neural abnormality.

  10. A network-based ranking system for US college football

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Juyong; Newman, M. E. J.

    2005-10-01

    American college football faces a conflict created by the desire to stage national championship games between the best teams of a season when there is no conventional play-off system for deciding which those teams are. Instead, ranking of teams is based on their records of wins and losses during the season, but each team plays only a small fraction of eligible opponents, making the system underdetermined or contradictory or both. It is an interesting challenge to create a ranking system that at once is mathematically well founded, gives results in general accord with received wisdom concerning the relative strengths of the teams, and is based upon intuitive principles, allowing it to be accepted readily by fans and experts alike. Here we introduce a one-parameter ranking method that satisfies all of these requirements and is based on a network representation of college football schedules.

  11. Concussion in the national football league: an overview for neurologists.

    PubMed

    Casson, Ira R; Pellman, Elliot J; Viano, David C

    2008-02-01

    The authors' studies have yielded a great deal of data regarding the biomechanics of head injury and the clinical picture of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) in the National Football League (NFL). The research has demonstrated the link between the effects of biomechanical forces on the brain and the clinical symptomatology of the concussed players. New insights into the mechanisms of injury are leading to new ways of protecting football players from the effects of MTBI. The clinical data validate the effectiveness of the current NFL physician approach to the evaluation and treatment of the player who sustains MTBI. There are still many more questions to answer and much more knowledge to be gained from continuing research in this area.

  12. Concussion management in US college football: progress and pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Kroshus, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Reducing the frequency and severity of concussions from sport is an important issue in public health currently addressed by a multifaceted approach. Given the large number of participants and the comparatively high risk of injury, American football is an important sport to consider when examining concussion management practices. Focusing on American football at the collegiate level, this manuscript describes current research regarding concussion epidemiology, policy, implementation of clinical diagnosis, management and return-to-play standards and athlete concussion education. Although American collegiate sports leagues have put forth concussion-related policies in recent years, the implementation of these policies and related effects on athlete concussion education, clinical management of concussion and ultimately athlete health outcomes are not well understood. Additional research is needed. PMID:27064258

  13. Concussion in the National Football League: an overview for neurologists.

    PubMed

    Casson, Ira R; Pellman, Elliot J; Viano, David C

    2009-02-01

    The authors' studies have yielded a great deal of data regarding the biomechanics of head injury and the clinical picture of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) in the National Football League (NFL). The research has demonstrated the link between the effects of biomechanical forces on the brain and the clinical symptomatology of the concussed players. New insights into the mechanisms of injury are leading to new ways of protecting football players from the effects of MTBI. The clinical data validate the effectiveness of the current NFL physician approach to the evaluation and treatment of the player who sustains MTBI. There are still many more questions to answer and much more knowledge to be gained from continuing research in this area.

  14. [Prevalence of genital anomalies in young football players].

    PubMed

    Mónaco, M; Verdugo, F; Bodell, M; Avendaño, E; Til, L; Drobnic, F

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of genital examination (GE) during the Pre-participation Physical Examination (PPE) is to identify the state of maturity, and rule out any genital pathology. To describe genital anomalies (GA) and estimate the awareness of GE in young football players. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 280 elite football players from the results of PPE over two seasons. There was a detection rate of 5.4% GA, with varicocele being 3.2%, and of which only 13% were aware of their condition. Although this study shows a low incidence of genital abnormality in the study population, only 13% were aware of the GE prior to assessment. These findings demonstrate a low incidence of GA in this population. While GE is recommended during PPE, it is not a routine practice performed by family doctors or sports medicine specialists. This article attempts to raise awareness of the importance of GE in PPE as a preventive health strategy.

  15. Racial athletic stereotype confirmation in college football recruiting.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Grant; Good, Jessica J; Gross, Alexi R

    2015-01-01

    The present study tested real-world racial stereotype use in the context of college athletic recruiting. Stereotype confirmation suggests that observers use stereotypes as hypotheses and interpret relevant evidence in a biased way that confirms their stereotypes. Shifting standards suggest that the evaluative standard to which we hold a target changes as a function of their group membership. We examined whether stereotype confirmation and shifting standards effects would be seen in college football coaches during recruiting. College football coaches evaluated a Black or White player on several attributes and made both zero- and non-zero-sum allocations. Results suggested that coaches used the evidence presented to develop biased subjective evaluations of the players based on race while still maintaining equivalent objective evaluations. Coaches also allocated greater overall resources to the Black recruit than the White recruit.

  16. Hypoconnectivity and Hyperfrontality in Retired American Football Players

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampshire, Adam; MacDonald, Alex; Owen, Adrian M.

    2013-10-01

    Recent research has raised concerns about the long-term neurological consequences of repetitive concussive and sub-concussive injuries in professional players of American Football. Despite this interest, the neural and psychological status of retired players remains unknown. Here, we evaluated the performances and brain activation patterns of retired National Football League players (NFL alumni) relative to controls using an fMRI-optimised neuropsychological test of executive function. Behaviourally, the NFL alumni showed only modest performance deficits on the executive task. By contrast, they showed pronounced hyperactivation and hypoconnectivity of the dorsolateral frontal and frontopolar cortices. Critically, abnormal frontal-lobe function was correlated with the number of times that NFL alumni reported having been removed from play after head injury and was evident in individual players. These results support the hypothesis that NFL alumni have a heightened probability of developing executive dysfunction and suggest that fMRI provides the most sensitive biomarker of the underlying neural abnormality.

  17. High school and collegiate football athlete concussions: a biomechanical review.

    PubMed

    Broglio, Steven P; Surma, Tyler; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2012-01-01

    Researchers are striving to understand the biomechanics of concussive injury that occur in the context of sport by using a number of methodologies. Animal models, video reconstruction, and helmet-based accelerometers have all been used, but have their limitations. The Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) System permits the real-time in vivo tracking of all impacts that occur on the football field and has been used in both the high school and collegiate setting. This review provides a theoretical discussion of concussion mechanics and examines the current literature on the effects of the number of impacts, impact magnitude, impact distribution, and concussion threshold in high school and collegiate football athletes recorded by the HIT System.

  18. Visual status of Nepalese national football and cricket players.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, Kishor; Koirala, Shashank; Shakya, Suraj; Chaudhary, Meenu; Paudel, Prakash

    2006-12-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the visual acuity, refractive status, stereopsis, colour vision and ocular morbidity of Nepalese national footballers and cricketers. Ninety-five national football and cricket players of different age group, who had at least played one international tournament representing Nepal, were included in the study. A thorough ocular examination of the players was done in the study period of six months, which revealed that higher-level professional players have significant visual problems. Among the players 70.0% had never had complete ocular examination, 8.0% were found with refractive error, 60.0% with stereo acuity equal or less than 40" of arc and 65.0% with ocular complaints.

  19. Turf-toe: a shoe-surface related football injury.

    PubMed

    Bowers, K D; Martin, R B

    1976-01-01

    Plantar capsule-ligament sprain of the great toe metatarsophalangeal joint, herein referred to as "turf-toe," is discussed with emphasis on two apparantly predisposing factors, playing surface hardness and shoe stiffness. Surface hardness studies have previously been performed by the authors on natural grass and AstroTurf. A study of football shoe flexibility is presented and the results correlated with the occurrence of turftoe. We have not encountered this entity in players wearing relatively stiff conventional seven posted football shoes or the more flexible soccer style shoe on natural grass fields. We have found it to be a not uncommon injury among players wearning the soccer style shoe on AstroTurf.

  20. 'Coz football is what we all have': masculinities, practice, performance and effervescence in a gender-sensitised weight-loss and healthy living programme for men.

    PubMed

    Bunn, Christopher; Wyke, Sally; Gray, Cindy M; Maclean, Alice; Hunt, Kate

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we use a social practice approach to explore men's experience of Football Fans in Training (FFIT), a group-based weight management programme for men that harnesses men's symbolic attachment to professional football clubs to engage them in lifestyle change. FFIT is delivered by community coaches in clubs' stadia and is gender-sensitised in relation to context, content and style of delivery. Using a 'toolkit' of concepts from the work of Bourdieu, Goffman and Durkheim we analysed data from 13 focus group discussions with participants, and fieldwork notes from programme observations to investigate the appeal and success of FFIT, and how it worked to support change. Our analysis builds on our work on the importance of shared symbolic commitment to the football club and being with 'men like me' to understand how the interaction context facilitated 'effervescent' experiences. These experiences encouraged men to make changes to their diet and physical activity, talk about them, practice performing them and implement them in their lives. Thus a social practice approach illuminated the social processes through which lifestyle change was achieved, and we argue that it can deepen and enrich both intervention design and evaluation.

  1. The colour of a football outfit affects visibility and team success.

    PubMed

    Olde Rikkert, Joris; Haes, Vincent De; Barsingerhorn, Annemiek D; Theelen, Thomas; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the impact of the colour of football outfits on localising football players and on the results of football matches. Two studies were conducted: an experimental study examining the effects of outfit colour on the assessment of the positions of computer-animated football players in a video set-up (study 1) and a retrospective study on professional football clubs' performances dependent on their outfit colours (study 2). The studies were conducted with 18 human volunteers aged 15-18 years (study 1) and league results from 10 professional European football teams over 17 years (1995-2013) (study 2). We analysed the number of correct assessments of the positions of virtual football players with different outfit colours (study 1) and analysed the relationship between match results and outfits' colours (study 2). Study 1 showed that the position of players wearing white outfits was better assessed in 5.2% of the trials compared to players wearing green outfits (P = 0.007). Study 2 showed that Manchester City conceded less goals against in away games in highly visible kits (r = 0.62; P = 0.024), while Newcastle United conceded less goals and won more points while playing in kits associated with low visibility (r = 0.63; P = 0.007; r = 0.50; P = 0.040, respectively). We conclude that the colour of football outfits affects evaluations of football players' positions on the field, with white tricots resulting in the best location assessment. The outfit colour may indirectly influence football match results, warranting more attention to the home and away shirts by team managers and football scientists.

  2. Cumulative head impact burden in high school football.

    PubMed

    Broglio, Steven P; Eckner, James T; Martini, Douglas; Sosnoff, Jacob J; Kutcher, Jeffrey S; Randolph, Christopher

    2011-10-01

    Impacts to the head are common in collision sports such as football. Emerging research has begun to elucidate concussion tolerance levels, but sub-concussive impacts that do not result in clinical signs or symptoms of concussion are much more common, and are speculated to lead to alterations in cerebral structure and function later in life. We investigated the cumulative number of head impacts and their associated acceleration burden in 95 high school football players across four seasons of play using the Head Impact Telemetry System (HITS). The 4-year investigation resulted in 101,994 impacts collected across 190 practice sessions and 50 games. The number of impacts per 14-week season varied by playing position and starting status, with the average player sustaining 652 impacts. Linemen sustained the highest number of impacts per season (868); followed by tight ends, running backs, and linebackers (619); then quarterbacks (467); and receivers, cornerbacks, and safeties (372). Post-impact accelerations of the head also varied by playing position and starting status, with a seasonal linear acceleration burden of 16,746.1g, while the rotational acceleration and HIT severity profile burdens were 1,090,697.7 rad/sec(2) and 10,021, respectively. The adolescent athletes in this study clearly sustained a large number of impacts to the head, with an impressive associated acceleration burden as a direct result of football participation. These findings raise concern about the relationship between sub-concussive head impacts incurred during football participation and late-life cerebral pathogenesis, and justify consideration of ways to best minimize impacts and mitigate cognitive declines.

  3. Cumulative Head Impact Burden in High School Football

    PubMed Central

    Eckner, James T.; Martini, Douglas; Sosnoff, Jacob J.; Kutcher, Jeffrey S.; Randolph, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Impacts to the head are common in collision sports such as football. Emerging research has begun to elucidate concussion tolerance levels, but sub-concussive impacts that do not result in clinical signs or symptoms of concussion are much more common, and are speculated to lead to alterations in cerebral structure and function later in life. We investigated the cumulative number of head impacts and their associated acceleration burden in 95 high school football players across four seasons of play using the Head Impact Telemetry System (HITS). The 4-year investigation resulted in 101,994 impacts collected across 190 practice sessions and 50 games. The number of impacts per 14-week season varied by playing position and starting status, with the average player sustaining 652 impacts. Linemen sustained the highest number of impacts per season (868); followed by tight ends, running backs, and linebackers (619); then quarterbacks (467); and receivers, cornerbacks, and safeties (372). Post-impact accelerations of the head also varied by playing position and starting status, with a seasonal linear acceleration burden of 16,746.1g, while the rotational acceleration and HIT severity profile burdens were 1,090,697.7 rad/sec2 and 10,021, respectively. The adolescent athletes in this study clearly sustained a large number of impacts to the head, with an impressive associated acceleration burden as a direct result of football participation. These findings raise concern about the relationship between sub-concussive head impacts incurred during football participation and late-life cerebral pathogenesis, and justify consideration of ways to best minimize impacts and mitigate cognitive declines. PMID:21787201

  4. Multiple Past Concussions in High School Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Brian L.; Mannix, Rebekah; Maxwell, Bruce; Zafonte, Ross; Berkner, Paul D.; Iverson, Grant L.

    2017-01-01

    Background There is increasing concern about the possible long-term effects of multiple concussions, particularly on the developing adolescent brain. Whether the effect of multiple concussions is detectable in high school football players has not been well studied, although the public health implications are great in this population. Purpose To determine if there are measureable differences in cognitive functioning or symptom reporting in high school football players with a history of multiple concussions. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods Participants included 5232 male adolescent football players (mean [±SD] age, 15.5 ± 1.2 years) who completed baseline testing between 2009 and 2014. On the basis of injury history, athletes were grouped into 0 (n = 4183), 1 (n = 733), 2 (n = 216), 3 (n = 67), or ≥4 (n = 33) prior concussions. Cognitive functioning was measured by the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) battery, and symptom ratings were obtained from the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale. Results There were no statistically significant differences between groups (based on the number of reported concussions) regarding cognitive functioning. Athletes with ≥3 prior concussions reported more symptoms than did athletes with 0 or 1 prior injury. In multivariate analyses, concussion history was independently related to symptom reporting but less so than developmental problems (eg, attention or learning problems) or other health problems (eg, past treatment for psychiatric problems, headaches, or migraines). Conclusion In the largest study to date, high school football players with multiple past concussions performed the same on cognitive testing as those with no prior concussions. Concussion history was one of several factors that were independently related to symptom reporting. PMID:27474382

  5. Evidence for the aetiology of injuries in Australian football

    PubMed Central

    Norton, K; Schwerdt, S; Lange, K

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To determine in Australian football (a) the influence of ground hardness and playing grade (level) on game speed and structure, and (b) player movement patterns throughout the game and across levels. Methods—The design consisted of several studies. Seventeen games played on grounds of different hardness in 2000 were used to determine game speed and structure. Four first grade and four second grade grand final games (1994, 1996, 1997, 1999) were used to determine the game speed and structure on the same ground but at different levels. Fifty one players (44 first grade and seven second grade) were used to measure movement patterns within games and across levels during the 2000 season. Results—There was a significant relation between ground hardness and game speed, which could lead to higher injury rates when the ground is harder. There was a 6.7% difference in game speed between the first and second grade levels reflecting differences in injury incidence. The first grade games were also characterised by a greater number of shorter, high intensity play periods and longer stop periods than the second grade games. Midfield players in the first grade games covered about 24% greater distance than their second grade counterparts, and there was a significant difference in their playing speeds. Conclusions—Over the past 40 years, the game speed in the top level of Australian football has approximately doubled. Over the same time, the number of collisions and the estimated injury incidence have also doubled. This study provides additional support to the suggestion that these variables are strongly linked. Factors such as ground hardness, playing level, and time during the game influence game speed and are therefore important in injury development in Australian football. Key Words: aetiology; injuries; Australian football PMID:11726478

  6. Football fever: goal distributions and non-Gaussian statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittner, E.; Nußbaumer, A.; Janke, W.; Weigel, M.

    2009-02-01

    Analyzing football score data with statistical techniques, we investigate how the not purely random, but highly co-operative nature of the game is reflected in averaged properties such as the probability distributions of scored goals for the home and away teams. As it turns out, especially the tails of the distributions are not well described by the Poissonian or binomial model resulting from the assumption of uncorrelated random events. Instead, a good effective description of the data is provided by less basic distributions such as the negative binomial one or the probability densities of extreme value statistics. To understand this behavior from a microscopical point of view, however, no waiting time problem or extremal process need be invoked. Instead, modifying the Bernoulli random process underlying the Poissonian model to include a simple component of self-affirmation seems to describe the data surprisingly well and allows to understand the observed deviation from Gaussian statistics. The phenomenological distributions used before can be understood as special cases within this framework. We analyzed historical football score data from many leagues in Europe as well as from international tournaments, including data from all past tournaments of the “FIFA World Cup” series, and found the proposed models to be applicable rather universally. In particular, here we analyze the results of the German women’s premier football league and consider the two separate German men’s premier leagues in the East and West during the cold war times as well as the unified league after 1990 to see how scoring in football and the component of self-affirmation depend on cultural and political circumstances.

  7. Movement Profiles, Match Events, and Performance in Australian Football.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Richard J; Watsford, Mark L; Austin, Damien J; Pine, Matthew J; Spurrs, Robert W

    2016-08-01

    Johnston, RJ, Watsford, ML, Austin, D, Pine, MJ, and Spurrs, RW. Movement profiles, match events, and performance in Australian football. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2129-2137, 2016-This study examined the relationship between movement demands, match events, and match performance in professional Australian football. Data were collected from 19 players using global positioning system units during 2 Australian Football League seasons. A range of movement demands and instantaneous power measures were collected. The players were divided into high-caliber (HC, ≥17/20) and low-caliber (LC, ≤8/20) groups based on the rating score by their coaches. A Mann-Whitney U-test, independent samples t-test, and effect sizes were used to determine whether any differences existed between the 2 groups. The HC group had a significantly higher match duration (7.2%), higher total distance (9.6%), and covered more distance and spent more time high-speed running per minute (12.7 and 11.9%). Although not significant, the effect sizes revealed that the HC group tended to have a higher mean metabolic power output (2.6%) and spent more time at the high power zone (7.9%). For the match event data, the HC group had significantly more involvements with the football. The results demonstrated the higher physical demands placed on the HC group. The findings suggest that analyzing instantaneous power measures can provide valuable information about the physical demands placed on team sport athletes to coaches and conditioning staff.

  8. Big-Time Teams Will Fight Cuts in Football; Income Must Pay for Other Sports, They Say.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Charles S.

    1987-01-01

    The members of the College Football Association are determined that college football not be "held hostage" to correct the economic imbalance of college sports. Self-determination for Division I-A football, academic standards, and TV coverage are discussed. (MLW)

  9. Exploring the Relationship between Violent Behavior and Participation in Football during Adolescence: Findings From a Sample of Sibling Pairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Barnes, J. C.; Boutwell, Brian B.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the association between playing high school football and involvement in violent behaviors in sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The analysis revealed that youth who played high school football self-reported more violence than those youth who did not play football.…

  10. 76 FR 41691 - Safety Zone; BGSU Football Gridiron Classic Golf and Dinner Fireworks, Catawba Island Club, Port...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; BGSU Football Gridiron Classic Golf and... Lake Erie during the BGSU Football Gridiron Classic Golf and Dinner Fireworks. This temporary safety..., Bowling Green State University will hold its BGSU Football Gridiron Classic Golf and Dinner Fireworks,...

  11. BCS or Just BS: How College Football Could Crown the Wrong National Champion? Just Do the Math--Correctly!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teasley, C.E. Wynn; Hornyak, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The 2009 college football season is here, but there has been a continuing controversy swirling over how the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) selects its national champion. College football uses a multi-criterion decision matrix (MCDM) evaluation technique to determine which two teams will play for the national championship. We analyzed the BCS…

  12. Etiology and Biomechanics of Tarsometatarsal Injuries in Professional Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Richard W.; Lievers, W. Brent; Riley, Patrick O.; Frimenko, Rebecca E.; Crandall, Jeff R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tarsometatarsal (TMT) dislocations are uncommon yet debilitating athletic injuries, particularly in American football. To date, the mechanisms of athletic TMT dislocation have been described only anecdotally. This lack of information confounds the development of preventative countermeasures. Purpose: To use video analysis to provide direct, independent identification of the etiologic and mechanistic variables responsible for TMT dislocations in professional football players. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Sixteen professional National Football League players who sustained publicly reported TMT dislocations were identified. Publicly broadcast game footage of the plays in which injury occurred was reviewed by a panel of 5 biomechanists. Consensus was reached regarding the details surrounding injury, and a weighting was assigned to each detail based on the panel’s confidence. Results: Roughly 90% of injuries occurred while the injured player was engaged with or by another player, a detail that has heretofore been undocumented. Few injuries resulted from direct loading of either the foot or the ipsilateral limb; however, the injured foot was frequently subjected to axial loading from ground engagement with the foot in plantar flexion and the toes dorsiflexed. Injurious loading was often due to external rotation of the midfoot (86%). Fifteen of 16 injuries were season ending. Conclusion: TMT dislocations are frequently associated with engagement by or with a second player but infrequently caused by a direct blow to the foot. Axial loading of the foot, external rotation, and pronation/supination are the most common conditions during injurious loading. PMID:26535306

  13. Compression and texture in socks enhance football kicking performance.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Hosni; Davids, Keith; Chow, Jia Yi; Kerr, Graham

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe effects of wearing textured insoles and clinical compression socks on organisation of lower limb interceptive actions in developing athletes of different skill levels in association football. Six advanced learners and six completely novice football players (15.4±0.9years) performed 20 instep kicks with maximum velocity, in four randomly organised insoles and socks conditions, (a) Smooth Socks with Smooth Insoles (SSSI); (b) Smooth Socks with Textured Insoles (SSTI); (c) Compression Socks with Smooth Insoles (CSSI) and (d), Compression Socks with Textured Insoles (CSTI). Reflective markers were placed on key anatomical locations and the ball to facilitate three-dimensional (3D) movement recording and analysis. Data on 3D kinematic variables and initial ball velocity were analysed using one-way mixed model ANOVAs. Results revealed that wearing textured and compression materials enhanced performance in key variables, such as the maximum velocity of the instep kick and increased initial ball velocity, among advanced learners compared to the use of non-textured and compression materials. Adding texture to football boot insoles appeared to interact with compression materials to improve kicking performance, captured by these important measures. This improvement in kicking performance is likely to have occurred through enhanced somatosensory system feedback utilised for foot placement and movement organisation of the lower limbs. Data suggested that advanced learners were better at harnessing the augmented feedback information from compression and texture to regulate emerging movement patterns compared to novices.

  14. Wireless nanosensors for monitoring concussion of football players

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasamy, Mouli; Harbaugh, Robert E.; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2015-04-01

    Football players are more to violent impacts and injuries more than any athlete in any other sport. Concussion or mild traumatic brain injuries were one of the lesser known sports injuries until the last decade. With the advent of modern technologies in medical and engineering disciplines, people are now more aware of concussion detection and prevention. These concussions are often overlooked by football players themselves. The cumulative effect of these mild traumatic brain injuries can cause long-term residual brain dysfunctions. The principle of concussion is based the movement of the brain in the neurocranium and viscerocranium. The brain is encapsulated by the cerebrospinal fluid which acts as a protective layer for the brain. This fluid can protect the brain against minor movements, however, any rapid movements of the brain may mitigate the protective capability of the cerebrospinal fluid. In this paper, we propose a wireless health monitoring helmet that addresses the concerns of the current monitoring methods - it is non-invasive for a football player as helmet is not an additional gear, it is efficient in performance as it is equipped with EEG nanosensors and 3D accelerometer, it does not restrict the movement of the user as it wirelessly communicates to the remote monitoring station, requirement of individual monitoring stations are not required for each player as the ZigBee protocol can couple multiple transmitters with one receiver. A helmet was developed and validated according to the above mentioned parameters.

  15. Influence of Extrinsic Risk Factors on National Football League Injury Rates

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, David W.; Comper, Paul; Hutchison, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The risk of injury associated with American football is significant, with recent reports indicating that football has one of the highest rates of all-cause injury, including concussion, of all major sports. There are limited studies examining risk factors for injuries in the National Football League (NFL). Purpose: To identify risk factors for NFL concussions and musculoskeletal injuries. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Injury report data were collected prospectively for each week over the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 regular seasons for all 32 teams. Poisson regression models were used to identify the relationship between predetermined variables and the risk of the 5 most frequent injuries (knee, ankle, hamstring, shoulder, and concussion). Results: A total of 480 games or 960 team games (TGs) from the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 regular seasons were included in this study. A trend to an increasing risk of concussion and TG ankle injury with decreasing mean game-day temperature was observed. The risk of TG concussion (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 2.16; 95% CI, 1.35-3.45; P = .001) and TG ankle injury (IRR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.10-1.98; P = .01) was significantly greater for TGs played at a mean game-day temperature of ≤9.7°C (≤49.5°F) compared with a mean game-day temperature of ≥21.0°C (≥69.8°F). The risk of TG shoulder injury was significantly increased for TGs played on grass surfaces (IRR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.02-1.81; P = .038) compared with synthetic surfaces. The risk of TG injury was not associated with time in season, altitude, time zone change prior to game, or distance traveled to a game. Conclusion: This study evaluated extrinsic risk factors for injury in the NFL. A hazardous association was identified for risk of concussion and ankle injury with colder game-day temperature. Further research should be conducted to substantiate this relationship and its potential implication for injury prevention initiatives. PMID

  16. Decreasing strabismus surgery

    PubMed Central

    Arora, A; Williams, B; Arora, A K; McNamara, R; Yates, J; Fielder, A

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether there has been a consistent change across countries and healthcare systems in the frequency of strabismus surgery in children over the past decade. Methods: Retrospective analysis of data on all strabismus surgery performed in NHS hospitals in England and Wales, on children aged 0–16 years between 1989 and 2000, and between 1994 and 2000 in Ontario (Canada) hospitals. These were compared with published data for Scotland, 1989–2000. Results: Between 1989 and 1999–2000 the number of strabismus procedures performed on children, 0–16 years, in England decreased by 41.2% from 15 083 to 8869. Combined medial rectus recession with lateral rectus resection decreased from 5538 to 3013 (45.6%) in the same period. Bimedial recessions increased from 489 to 762, oblique tenotomies from 43 to 121, and the use of adjustable sutures from 29 to 44, in 2000. In Ontario, operations for squint decreased from 2280 to 1685 (26.1%) among 0–16 year olds between 1994 and 2000. Conclusion: The clinical impression of decrease in the frequency of paediatric strabismus surgery is confirmed. In the authors’ opinion this cannot be fully explained by a decrease in births or by the method of healthcare funding. Two factors that might have contributed are better conservative strabismus management and increased subspecialisation that has improved the quality of surgery and the need for re-operation. This finding has a significant impact upon surgical services and also on the training of ophthalmologists. PMID:15774914

  17. Offside decisions by expert assistant referees in association football: Perception and recall of spatial positions in complex dynamic events.

    PubMed

    Gilis, Bart; Helsen, Werner; Catteeuw, Peter; Wagemans, Johan

    2008-03-01

    This study investigated the offside decision-making process in association football. The first aim was to capture the specific offside decision-making skills in complex dynamic events. Second, we analyzed the type of errors to investigate the factors leading to incorrect decisions. Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA; n = 29) and Belgian elite (n = 28) assistant referees (ARs) assessed 64 computer-based offside situations. First, an expertise effect was found. The FIFA ARs assessed the trials more accurately than the Belgian ARs (76.4% vs. 67.5%). Second, regarding the type of error, all ARs clearly tended to raise their flag in doubtful situations. This observation could be explained by a perceptual bias associated with the flash-lag effect. Specifically, attackers were perceived ahead of their actual positions, and this tendency was stronger for the Belgian than for the FIFA ARs (11.0 vs. 8.4 pixels), in particular when the difficulty of the trials increased. Further experimentation is needed to examine whether video- and computer-based decision-making training is effective in improving the decision-making skills of ARs during the game.

  18. Reliability and validity of Yo-Yo tests in 9- to 16-year-old football players and matched non-sports active schoolboys.

    PubMed

    Póvoas, Susana C A; Castagna, Carlo; Soares, José M C; Silva, Pedro M R; Lopes, Mariana V M F; Krustrup, Peter

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the test-retest reliability and construct validity of three age-adapted Yo-Yo intermittent tests in football players aged 9-16 years (n = 70) and in age-matched non-sports active boys (n = 72). Within 7 days, each participant performed two repetitions of an age-related intensity-adapted Yo-Yo intermittent test, i.e. the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children's test for 9- to 11-year-olds; the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance level 1 for 12- to 13-year-olds and the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance level 2 test for 14- to 16-year-olds. Peak heart rate (HRpeak) was determined for all tests. The distance covered in the tests was 57% (1098 ± 680 vs. 700 ± 272 m), 119% (2325 ± 778 vs. 1062 ± 285 m) and 238% (1743 ± 460 vs. 515 ± 113 m) higher (p ≤ .016), respectively for football-trained than for non-sports active boys aged 9-11, 12-13 and 14-16 years. The typical errors of measurement for Yo-Yo distance, expressed as a percentage of the coefficient of variation (confidence interval), were 11.1% (9.0-14.7%), 10.1% (8.1-13.7%) and 8.5% (6.7-11.7%) for football players aged 9-11, 12-13 and 14-16 years, respectively, with corresponding values of 9.3% (7.4-12.8%), 10.2% (8.1-14.0%) and 8.5% (6.8-11.3%) for non-sports active boys. Intraclass correlation coefficient values for test-retest were excellent in both groups (range: 0.844-0.981). Relative HRpeak did not differ significantly between the groups in test and retest. In conclusion, Yo-Yo intermittent test performances and HRpeak are reliable for 9- to 16-year-old footballers and non-sports active boys. Additionally, performances of the three Yo-Yo tests were seemingly better for football-trained than for non-sports active boys, providing evidence of construct validity.

  19. Concussion in the National Football League: viewpoint of an elite player.

    PubMed

    DeLamielleure, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy resulting from head hits and concussions is an unfortunate illness that has affected numerous football players, especially in the National Football League. Many of my fellow players suffer from this problem, and many have died prematurely because of it. I make some suggestions for improving the situation for retired and current players.

  20. The Effects of Personality and Perceived Leader Behaviors on Performance in Collegiate Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Daniel J.; Barry, John R.

    The present study utilized a multidimensional model of leadership (Chelladurai & Carron, 1978) to examine the influence of personality traits and perceived leader behaviors on performance in collegiate football. Collegiate football players (n=272) from three southeastern United States universities were administered Cattell's Sixteen Personality…

  1. The Economic Efficiency of European Football Clubs--Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyatunin, Aleksey V.; Vishnyakova, Angelina B.; Sherstneva, Natalia L.; Mironova, Svetlana P.; Dneprov, Sergey A.; Grabozdin, Yuriy P.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of this paper lies in the fact that football business has grown significantly in the past 20 years and football clubs have become large companies, which in an effort to be profitable and successful on the field need to improve the efficiency of their business. The aim of this article is to measure economic efficiency of 48 big…

  2. Comparison of Speed, Agility, Anaerobic Strength and Anthropometric Characteristics in Male Football and Futsal Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kartal, Resat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare speed, agility, anaerobic strength and some anthropometric characteristics in male football and futsal players. The sample of the study is composed of male futsal team players of Aydin Adnan Menderes University (19-24 aged) (n = 12) and Aydin Merkez Yeniköy Football Club players (19-24 aged) (n = 12). Within…

  3. Return to Play Guidelines Cannot Solve the Football-Related Concussion Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L. Syd M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: High school football players are the single largest cohort of athletes playing tackle football, and account for the majority of sport-related concussions. Return to play guidelines (RTPs) have emerged as the preferred approach for addressing the problem of sport-related concussion in youth athletes. Methods: This article reviews…

  4. Does Becoming a Member of the Football Bowl Subdivision Increase Institutional Attractiveness to Potential Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Willis A.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a number of colleges and universities have made the decision to pursue membership in the NCAA's Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) with the idea that participating in higher profile intercollegiate football can help attract students to their institution. This belief, however, has not been empirically examined. Using…

  5. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Collegiate American Football Players, by Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Emily Millard; Wagner, Dale R.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to determine overweight and obesity prevalence in a collegiate football team. Participants: Eighty-five National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I football players volunteered to participate. Methods: The authors measured height, weight, and waist circumference (WC), and estimated…

  6. Alcohol-Related Emergency Department Visits Associated with Collegiate Football Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shook, Janice; Hiestand, Brian C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In 2003, after several post-college football game riots, multiple strategies including strict enforcement of open container laws were instituted by the authors' city and university. The authors compared alcohol-related visits to the on-campus emergency department (ED) associated with home football games in 2002 and 2006, hypothesizing…

  7. Australian Football League clinics promoting health, hygiene and trachoma elimination: the Northern Territory experience.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Josie R; Boudville, Andrea I; Stanford, Emma E; Lange, Fiona D; Anjou, Mitchell D

    2014-01-01

    Australia is the only developed country to suffer trachoma and it is only found in remote Indigenous communities. In 2009, trachoma prevalence was 14%, but through screening, treatment and health promotion, rates had fallen to 4% in 2012. More work needs to be done to sustain these declining rates. In 2012, 25% of screened communities still had endemic trachoma and 8% had hyperendemic trachoma. In addition, only 58% of communities had reached clean face targets in children aged 5-9 years. Australian Football League (AFL) players are highly influential role models and the community love of football provides a platform to engage and strengthen community participation in health promotion. The University of Melbourne has partnered with Melbourne Football Club since 2010 to run trachoma football hygiene clinics in the Northern Territory (NT) to raise awareness of the importance of clean faces in order to reduce the spread of trachoma. This activity supports Federal and state government trachoma screening and treatment programs. Between 2010 and 2013, 12 football clinics were held in major towns and remote communities in the NT. Almost 2000 children and adults attended football clinics run by 16 partner organisations. Awareness of the football clinics has grown and has become a media feature in the NT trachoma elimination campaign. The hygiene station featured within the football clinic could be adapted for other events hosted in remote NT community events to add value to the experience and reinforce good holistic health and hygiene messages, as well as encourage interagency collaboration.

  8. Self-Esteem Profile among the Female Futsal-Football Players at Jordanian Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khasawneh, Aman

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the level of physical and body self-esteem among the female futsal - football players at Jordanian clubs. The sample of the study was composed of (38) female players among the Jordanian clubs' players of futsal-football who were chosen randomly out of the study community, and the self-esteem scale was used,…

  9. Alumni Perceptions of a Move to NCAA Division IA Football Membership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Donald P.; Harmon, Susan K.; Graeff, Timothy R.

    2003-01-01

    Because of its prominent role, football has the potential to positively impact a university in several ways. Previous research on college athletics has focused on the financial impact of athletic success on institutions (e.g., donations). This research examines the marketing capabilities of college football by measuring alumni perceptions of a…

  10. Project NFFL: The Niagara Fantasy Football League and Sport Marketing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dexter J.

    2012-01-01

    Estimates are that 32 million people currently play fantasy football every year. Project Based Learning (PBL) is one method of engaging students in the educational process. This paper outlines a semester long project undertaken by undergraduate sport management students that uses fantasy football as a vehicle to enhance student knowledge of basic…

  11. The Use of Cattell's Profile Similarity Coefficient in the Classification of Football Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Virden; Johnson, DeWayne

    Using Cattell's Profile Similarity Coefficient, 154 high school football players from 21 different public high schools were classified as being successful or unsuccessful. Seventeen physical and motor ability variables relating to athletic ability were administered to the football players. The variables included: (1) standard height; (2) body…

  12. The Heritage Fallacy: Race, Loyalty, and the First Grambling-Southern Football Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiello, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    On Armistice Day 1932, the Southern University Bushmen football team left Baton Rouge and traveled to Monroe, Louisiana to play the Tigers of Louisiana Negro Normal and Industrial Institute for the first time. Normal was far younger than Southern. It was a two-year junior college in the northeast cotton town of Grambling, and its football team was…

  13. High School Football Players and Their Coaches: A Qualitative Study of Their Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaza, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    This basic qualitative study of high school football coach-player relationships explores the players' perceptions of these relationships, specifically the perceptions the players have of how these relationships influenced their lives. This study allowed the researcher to examine the characteristics of high school football coaches as they relate to…

  14. Heat Balance Limits in Football Uniforms: How Different Uniform Ensembles Alter the Equation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulka, Hasha J.; Kenney, W. Larry

    2002-01-01

    Because football season becomes dangerous when warm weather collides with the need for protective gear, researchers investigated critical heat balance limits in non-heat- acclimatized men who wore various football uniform ensembles and exercised at 35 percent VO2 max in a programmable environmental chamber. The air temperature and humidity limits…

  15. Behavioral Intervention for Teaching Tackling Skills to High School Football Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, John V.; Luiselli, James K.; Reed, Derek D.

    2010-01-01

    Between 2001 and 2005, football-related injuries accounted for 1,060,823 emergency room visits to U.S. hospitals (Mello, Myers, Christian, Palmisciano, & Linakis, 2009). Among high school football athletes, statistics reveal that for the period of 1984 to 1999, there were 63 injuries resulting in permanent disability (Mueller, 2001). Additional…

  16. Athletics, Applications, & Yields: The Relationship between Successful College Football and Institutional Attractiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Willis A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the impact of fielding a successful college football team on institutional popularity using a dependent variable (admissions yield) and an independent variable (bowl game television rating) which have been unexamined in previous research on this topic. The findings suggest that college football success is correlated with a…

  17. Reading the Defense: Conceptualizations of Literacy by Male Football Student-Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Pamela H.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how college football student-athletes conceptualize the academic and athletic literacies they experience inside and outside the classroom. Participants included sophomore, junior, and senior football student-athletes who all attended a large public university in the Mid-Atlantic area. Three distinct research tools…

  18. The Dilemma: Career Transition of African American Male Football Players at Division I Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northcutt, Kellen Jamil

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore and understand perceptions of African American male football athletes at Division I institutions that also played professional football, regarding their collegiate experiences and transition from athletics to post-playing careers. The study examined issues of race and social…

  19. Isolated tears of pectoralis minor muscle in professional football players: a case series.

    PubMed

    Zvijac, John E; Zikria, Bashir; Botto-van Bemden, Angie

    2009-03-01

    Our objective is to include pectoralis minor injuries in the comprehensive assessment of differential diagnoses for anterior chest wall pain or medial anterior shoulder pain sustained during blocking activities, which may present in football players. In this article, we report 2 cases of isolated pectoralis minor tears in professional football players and present mechanisms of injury, clinical presentations, appropriate diagnostic studies, and treatments.

  20. Noise exposure, characterization, and comparison of three football stadiums.

    PubMed

    Engard, Derek J; Sandfort, Delvin R; Gotshall, Robert W; Brazile, William J

    2010-11-01

    Personal noise exposure samples were collected from five workers at a large-sized college football stadium and five workers at a medium-sized college football stadium in northern Colorado during three home football games, for a total of 30 personal noise exposures. In addition, personal noise exposure samples were collected from five fans at a National Football League (NFL) stadium, and from two fans at each of the college stadiums during three home football games, for a total of 27 personal noise exposure samples. None of the workers' noise doses were above the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit of 90 dBA. However, 11 of 28 (39%) workers' noise doses exceeded the OSHA action level of 85 dBA that would require enrollment in a hearing conservation program. Following ACGIH® recommendations for noise exposure limits, 27 of 28 (96%) workers would be considered overexposed. In addition, 24 of 25 fans (96%) were also overexposed according to ACGIH and World Health Organization recommendations. At the 95% confidence level, workers' and fans' noise exposures were not significantly different between the three stadiums. However, there was significant noise level variability between the games in each individual stadium (e.g., 82 dbA vs. 87 dbA mean worker OSHA noise exposure for two games at the large-sized college stadium, p=0.001). Given the personal sampling results for the stadium workers, the investigators believe that stadium management at these two universities should implement a hearing conservation program and provide hearing protection. Management should include a warning of possible loud-noise exposure during any sporting events held at the stadiums in fan guides, pamphlets, websites, or other appropriate communication tools. This information should include the health effects of loud noise exposure, namely, noise-induced hearing loss, the information should also be specifically targeted to parents of young children

  1. Positional Match Running Performance in Elite Gaelic Football.

    PubMed

    Malone, Shane; Solan, Barry; Collins, Kieran D; Doran, Dominic A

    2016-08-01

    Malone, S, Solan, B, Collins, KD, and Doran, DA. Positional match running performance in elite Gaelic football. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2292-2298, 2016-There is currently limited information available on match running performance in Gaelic football. The objective of the current study was to report on the match running profile of elite male Gaelic football and assess positional running performance. In this observational study, 50 elite male Gaelic football players wore 4-Hz global positioning systems units (VX Sports) across 30 competitive games with a total of 215 full game data sets collected. Activity was classed according to total distance, high-speed distance (≥17 km·h), sprint distance (≥22 km·h), mean velocity (km·h), peak velocity (km·h), and number of accelerations. The average match distance was 8,160 ± 1,482 m, reflective of a relative distance of 116 ± 21 m·min, with 1,731 ± 659 m covered at high speed, which is reflective of a relative high-speed distance of 25 ± 9 m·min. The observed sprint distance was 445 ± 169 m distributed across 44 sprint actions. The peak velocity was 30.3 ± 1.8 km·h with a mean velocity of 6.5 ± 1.2 km·h. Players completed 184 ± 40 accelerations, which represent 2.6 ± 0.5 accelerations per minute. There were significant differences between positional groups for both total running distance, high-speed running distance, and sprint distance, with midfielders covering more total and high-speed running distance, compared with other positions (p < 0.001). There was a reduction in high-speed and sprint distance between the first and second half (p < 0.001). Reductions in running performance were position dependent with the middle 3 positions experiencing the highest decrement in performance. The current study is the first to communicate a detailed description of match running performance during competitive elite Gaelic football match play.

  2. Football in inter-war Northern Ireland: Ballymena Football and Athletic Club Limited - religious and political exclusivity or civic inclusivity?

    PubMed

    Laverty, David; Garnham, Neal

    2010-01-01

    Historians have almost universally seen association football in the north of Ireland as a divisive influence. The impacts of sectarian and political tensions on the game have been stressed, alongside the extent to which this sport supposedly feeds into existing divisions. Much of the work carried out has concentrated on the last four decades, though even studies outside this period of widespread civil disorder have highlighted these problems. This paper uses the surviving records of the Ballymena Football and Athletic Club, the local press, census returns and other records to consider aspects of one particular Northern Irish club in the 1920s and 1930s. This short consideration of the players, supporters and shareholders suggests that at least in this case football was successful in bringing together and developing cooperation between men of widely differing political and religious views. While the club was a not a financial success, it was a social and sporting one. The evidence available suggests there was little exhibition of sectarian tension at any level.

  3. A matter of life and death: population mortality and football results

    PubMed Central

    Kirkup, W; Merrick, D

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether football results are associated with mortality from circulatory disease. Design: Retrospective study, comparing mortality on days of football matches between 18 August 1994 and 28 December 1999 with the results of the football matches. Setting: Newcastle and North Tyneside, Sunderland, Tees, and Leeds Health Authority areas of England. Subjects: All persons resident in Newcastle and North Tyneside, Sunderland, Tees, and Leeds Health Authority areas of England. Main outcome measures: Mortality attributable to acute myocardial infarction and stroke. Results: On days when the local professional football team lost at home, mortality attributable to acute myocardial infarction and stroke increased significantly in men (relative risk 1.28, 95% confidence intervals 1.11 to 1.47). No increase was observed in women. Conclusions: Results achieved by the local professional football team are associated systematically with circulatory disease death rates over a five year period in men, but not women. PMID:12775788

  4. Foul or dive? Motor contributions to judging ambiguous foul situations in football.

    PubMed

    Renden, Peter G; Kerstens, Sander; Oudejans, Raôul R D; Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen

    2014-01-01

    Football (soccer) referees frequently face situations in which they have to distinguish dives and fouls. Yet, little is known about the contributing factors that characterise the ability to judge these ambiguous situations correctly. To this end, in the current article we tested the hypothesis that motor experience of observers contributes to the visual identification of deceptive actions. Thereto, we asked skilled football referees, skilled football players, wheelchair bounded football fans (thus with limited motor experience) and novices to judge whether potential tackle situations in football were either fouls or dives. Results revealed that the referees (accuracy 72.2%, s=6.2) and players (accuracy 72.0%, s=6.4) were better at discriminating fouls and dives than the fans (accuracy 61.1%, s=7.2) and the novices (accuracy 57.4%, s=7.0) (P < 0.001). The results seem to point to an added value of motor experience in detecting deceptive movements.

  5. Historical Patterns and Variation in Treatment of Injuries in NFL (National Football League) Players and NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association) Division I Football Players.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Eric C; Kraeutler, Matthew J; Langner, Paula; Cook, Shane; Ellis, Byron; Godfrey, Jenna M

    We conducted a study to identify and contrast patterns in the treatment of common injuries that occur in National Football League (NFL) players and National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I football players. Orthopedic team physicians for all 32 NFL and 119 NCAA Division I football teams were asked to complete a survey regarding demographics and preferred treatment of a variety of injuries encountered in football players. Responses were received from 31 (97%) of the 32 NFL and 111 (93%) of the 119 NCAA team physicians. Although patellar tendon autograft was the preferred graft choice for both groups of team physicians, the percentage of NCAA physicians who allowed return to football 6 months or less after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction was significantly (P = .03) higher than that of NFL physicians. Prophylactic knee bracing, which may prevent medial collateral ligament injuries, was used at a significantly (P < .0001) higher rate by NCAA teams (89%) than by NFL teams (28%). Ketorolac injections were given by a significantly (P < .01) higher percentage of NFL teams (93%) than of NCAA teams (62%). Understanding the current trends in the management of these injuries is beneficial in designing studies that may help improve the treatment and prevention of injuries in football players.

  6. Exercise training in obese older adults prevents increase in bone turnover and attenuates decrease in hip bone mineral density induced by weight loss despite decline in bone-active hormones.

    PubMed

    Shah, Krupa; Armamento-Villareal, Reina; Parimi, Nehu; Chode, Suresh; Sinacore, David R; Hilton, Tiffany N; Napoli, Nicola; Qualls, Clifford; Villareal, Dennis T

    2011-12-01

    Weight loss therapy to improve health in obese older adults is controversial because it causes further bone loss. Therefore, it is recommended that weight loss therapy should include an intervention such as exercise training (ET) to minimize bone loss. The purpose of this study was to determine the independent and combined effects of weight loss and ET on bone metabolism in relation to bone mineral density (BMD) in obese older adults. One-hundred-seven older (age >65 years) obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30  kg/m(2) ) adults were randomly assigned to a control group, diet group, exercise group, and diet-exercise group for 1 year. Body weight decreased in the diet (-9.6%) and diet-exercise (-9.4%) groups, not in the exercise (-1%) and control (-0.2%) groups (between-group p  <  0.001). However, despite comparable weight loss, bone loss at the total hip was relatively less in the diet-exercise group (-1.1%) than in the diet group (-2.6%), whereas BMD increased in the exercise group (1.5%) (between-group p  <  0.001). Serum C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and osteocalcin concentrations increased in the diet group (31% and 24%, respectively), whereas they decreased in the exercise group (-13% and -15%, respectively) (between-group p  <  0.001). In contrast, similar to the control group, serum CTX and osteocalcin concentrations did not change in the diet-exercise group. Serum procollagen propeptide concentrations decreased in the exercise group (-15%) compared with the diet group (9%) (p  =  0.04). Serum leptin and estradiol concentrations decreased in the diet (-25% and -15%, respectively) and diet-exercise (-38% and -13%, respectively) groups, not in the exercise and control groups (between-group p  =  0.001). Multivariate analyses revealed that changes in lean body mass (β  =  0.33), serum osteocalcin (β  = -0.24), and one-repetition maximum (1-RM) strength (β  =  0.23) were independent predictors of changes in hip BMD (all p  <

  7. The National Football League and chronic traumatic encephalopathy: legal implications.

    PubMed

    Korngold, Caleb; Farrell, Helen M; Fozdar, Manish

    2013-01-01

    The growing awareness of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) has the potential to change the public perception and on-field rules of the National Football League (NFL). More than 3,000 ex-NFL players or their relatives are engaged in litigation alleging that the NFL failed to acknowledge and address the neuropsychiatric risks associated with brain injuries that result from playing in the NFL. This article explores the intersection between the medical and legal aspects of CTE in the NFL from a forensic psychiatry perspective.

  8. Duodenal rupture secondary to blunt trauma from a football.

    PubMed

    Luther, Alison; Mann, Christopher; Hart, Colin; Khalil, Khalil

    2013-01-04

    Duodenal rupture secondary to blunt trauma is a relatively uncommon event and is usually a result of a road traffic accident. As the duodenum is a retroperitoneal organ, delays in diagnosis can occur, as the patient may present with vague abdominal symptoms and other non-specific signs. Computed tomographic scanning is therefore a useful tool in the diagnosis of this condition. We present a 19-year-old girl who was hit in the abdomen with a football and subsequently had a duodenal rupture.

  9. F-MARC: promoting the prevention and management of sudden cardiac arrest in football

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Efraim Benjamin; Dvorak, J; Schmied, C; Meyer, T

    2015-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death is the most common cause of unnatural death in football. To prevent and urgently manage sudden cardiac arrest on the football field-of-play, F-MARC (FIFA Medical and Research Centre) has been fully committed to a programme of research, education, standardisation and practical implementation. This strategy has detected football players at medical risk during mandatory precompetition medical assessments. Additionally, FIFA has (1) sponsored internationally accepted guidelines for the interpretation of an athlete's ECG, (2) developed field-of-play-specific protocols for the recognition, response, resuscitation and removal of a football player having sudden cardiac arrest and (3) introduced and distributed the FIFA medical emergency bag which has already resulted in the successful resuscitation of a football player who had a sudden cardiac arrest on the field-of-play. Recently FIFA, in association with the Institute of Sports and Preventive Medicine in Saarbrücken, Germany, established a worldwide Sudden Death Registry with a view to documenting fatal events on the football field-of-play. These activities by F-MARC are testimony to FIFA's continued commitment to minimising sudden cardiac arrest while playing football. PMID:25878076

  10. Effects of a high-intensity intermittent training program on aerobic capacity and lipid profile in trained subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ouerghi, Nejmeddine; Khammassi, Marwa; Boukorraa, Sami; Feki, Moncef; Kaabachi, Naziha; Bouassida, Anissa

    2014-01-01

    Background Data regarding the effect of training on plasma lipids are controversial. Most studies have addressed continuous or long intermittent training programs. The present study evaluated the effect of short-short high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) on aerobic capacity and plasma lipids in soccer players. Methods The study included 24 male subjects aged 21–26 years, divided into three groups: experimental group 1 (EG1, n=8) comprising soccer players who exercised in addition to regular short-short HIIT twice a week for 12 weeks; experimental group 2 (EG2, n=8) comprising soccer players who exercised in a regular football training program; and a control group (CG, n=8) comprising untrained subjects who did not practice regular physical activity. Maximal aerobic velocity and maximal oxygen uptake along with plasma lipids were measured before and after 6 weeks and 12 weeks of the respective training program. Results Compared with basal values, maximal oxygen uptake had significantly increased in EG1 (from 53.3±4.0 mL/min/kg to 54.8±3.0 mL/min/kg at 6 weeks [P<0.05] and to 57.0±3.2 mL/min/kg at 12 weeks [P<0.001]). Maximal oxygen uptake was increased only after 12 weeks in EG2 (from 52.8±2.7 mL/min/kg to 54.2±2.6 mL/min/kg, [P<0.05]), but remain unchanged in CG. After 12 weeks of training, maximal oxygen uptake was significantly higher in EG1 than in EG2 (P<0.05). During training, no significant changes in plasma lipids occurred. However, after 12 weeks, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels had decreased (by about 2%) in EG1 but increased in CG. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased in EG1 and EG2, but decreased in CG. Plasma triglycerides decreased by 8% in EG1 and increased by about 4% in CG. Conclusion Twelve weeks of short-short HIIT improves aerobic capacity. Although changes in the lipid profile were not significant after this training program, they may have a beneficial impact on health. PMID:25378960

  11. What a Nostril Knows: Olfactory Nerve-Evoked AMPA Responses Increase while NMDA Responses Decrease at 24-h Post-Training for Lateralized Odor Preference Memory in Neonate Rat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Qi; Harley, Carolyn W.

    2012-01-01

    Increased AMPA signaling is proposed to mediate long-term memory. Rat neonates acquire odor preferences in a single olfactory bulb if one nostril is occluded at training. Memory testing here confirmed that only trained bulbs support increased odor preference at 24 h. Olfactory nerve field potentials were tested at 24 h in slices from trained and…

  12. Equipment and running surface alter sprint performance of college football players.

    PubMed

    Brechue, William F; Mayhew, Jerry L; Piper, Fontaine C

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of football equipment and running surface on sprint performance in NCAA Division II football players (n = 68). Players were timed in the 40-yd sprint on an indoor rubberized track (Day 1) and on an outdoor, natural-grass football field (Day 2) wearing either regulation football equipment or shorts and a T-shirt. Each player was assigned randomly to perform 2 trials under each condition on each surface, and the average of the 2 trials was used for analysis. Offensive backs, defensive backs, and linebackers were significantly faster than were offensive and defensive linemen in all trials, and subjects were collapsed into 2 groups, backs and linemen. Football equipment significantly impaired performance on the track (-2.8% +/- 1.7%) and the field (-2.9% +/- 1.8%). The increase in body mass due to the football equipment was significantly greater for backs (7.2% +/- 0.7%) than for linemen (6.5% +/- 1.0%), but produced a significantly greater impairment in sprint performance in linemen (-3.3% +/- 1.1%) as compared with backs (-2.5% +/- 1.5%). Sprint performance was significantly and equivalently impaired when running on grass (backs: -2.5 +/- 1.1%; linemen: -2.8 +/- 1.4%) as compared with the track. Thus, running a 40-yd sprint in football equipment on a natural grass field impairs performance by an average of 5.5% (+/- 2.3%) compared with running indoors with minimal apparel. Football equipment and running surface significantly impair sprint performance in college football players, the effect being greater in linemen than in backs, and is likely related to differences in muscle strength/power and body fat.

  13. Sports teams as complex adaptive systems: manipulating player numbers shapes behaviours during football small-sided games.

    PubMed

    Silva, Pedro; Vilar, Luís; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2016-01-01

    Small-sided and conditioned games (SSCGs) in sport have been modelled as complex adaptive systems. Research has shown that the relative space per player (RSP) formulated in SSCGs can impact on emergent tactical behaviours. In this study we adopted a systems orientation to analyse how different RSP values, obtained through manipulations of player numbers, influenced four measures of interpersonal coordination observed during performance in SSCGs. For this purpose we calculated positional data (GPS 15 Hz) from ten U-15 football players performing in three SSCGs varying in player numbers (3v3, 4v4 and 5v5). Key measures of SSCG system behaviours included values of (1) players' dispersion, (2) teams' separateness, (3) coupling strength and time delays between participants' emerging movements, respectively. Results showed that values of participants' dispersion increased, but the teams' separateness remained identical across treatments. Coupling strength and time delay also showed consistent values across SSCGs. These results exemplified how complex adaptive systems, like football teams, can harness inherent degeneracy to maintain similar team spatial-temporal relations with opponents through changes in inter-individual coordination modes (i.e., players' dispersion). The results imply that different team behaviours might emerge at different ratios of field dimension/player numbers. Therefore, sport pedagogists should carefully evaluate the effects of changing RSP in SSCGs as a way of promoting increased or decreased pressure on players.

  14. Examine Ways to Decrease Training Duration While Maintaining Training Objective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Five model, which consists of conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism and openness to experience (Barrick & Mount, 1991...humility, and altruism. Neuroticism refers to the individual characteristics of anxiety, insecurity, depression, and negative affectivity. Finally...Greenwood (2004) found that extraversion was significantly related to speaking ability, but neuroticism was not. A meta-analysis found that personality

  15. Football's coming home?: Digital reterritorialization, contradictions in the transnational coverage of sport and the sociology of alternative football broadcasts.

    PubMed

    David, Matthew; Millward, Peter

    2012-06-01

    This article critically utilizes the work of Manuel Castells to discuss the issue of parallel imported broadcasts (specifically including live-streams) in football. This is of crucial importance to sport because the English Premier League is premised upon the sale of television rights broadcasts to domestic and overseas markets, and yet cheaper alternative broadcasts endanger the price of such rights. Evidence is drawn from qualitative fieldwork and library/Internet sources to explore the practices of supporters and the politics involved in the generation of alternative broadcasts. This enables us to clarify the core sociological themes of 'milieu of innovation' and 'locale' within today's digitally networked global society.

  16. Examining the relationships between challenge and threat cognitive appraisals and coaching behaviours in football coaches.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Martin; Turner, Martin J; Gillman, Jamie

    2016-12-26

    Previous research demonstrates that sports coaching is a stressful activity. This article investigates coaches' challenge and threat cognitive appraisals of stressful situations and their impact on coaching behaviour, using Blascovich and Mendes' (2000) biopsychosocial model as a theoretical framework. A cross-sectional correlational design was utilised to examine the relationships between irrational beliefs (Shortened general attitude and belief scale), challenge and threat appraisals (Appraisal of life events scale), and coaching behaviours (Leadership scale for sports) of 105 professional football academy coaches. Findings reveal significant positive associations between challenge appraisals and social support, and between threat appraisals and autocratic behaviour, and a significant negative association between threat appraisals and positive feedback. Results also show that higher irrational beliefs are associated with greater threat, and lesser challenge cognitive appraisals. However, no associations were revealed between irrational beliefs and challenge cognitive appraisals. Additionally, findings demonstrate a positive relationship between age and training and instruction. Results suggest that practitioners should help coaches to appraise stressful situations as a challenge to promote positive coaching behaviours.

  17. Body density differences between negro and caucasian professional football players

    PubMed Central

    Adams, J.; Bagnall, K. M.; McFadden, K. D.; Mottola, M.

    1981-01-01

    Other workers have shown that the bone density for the average negro is greater than for the average caucasian. This would lead to greater values of body density for the average negro but it is confused because the average negro has a different body form (and consequently different proportions of body components) compared with the average caucasian. This study of body density of a group of professional Canadian football players investigates whether or not to separate negroes from caucasians when considering the formation of regression equations for prediction of body density. Accordingly, a group of 7 negroes and 7 caucasians were matched somatotypically and a comparison was made of their body density values obtained using a hydrostatic weighing technique and a closed-circuit helium dilution technique for measuring lung volumes. The results show that if somatotype is taken into account then no significant difference in body density values is found between negro and caucasian professional football players. The players do not have to be placed in separate groups but it remains to be seen whether or not these results apply to general members of the population. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:7317724

  18. Spinal-cord injuries in Australian footballers, 1960-1985.

    PubMed

    Taylor, T K; Coolican, M R

    1987-08-03

    A review of 107 footballers who suffered a spinal-cord injury between 1960 and 1985 has been undertaken. Since 1977, the number of such injuries in Rugby Union, Rugby League and Australian Rules has increased, from an average of about two injuries a year before 1977 to over eight injuries a year since then. Rugby Union is clearly the most dangerous game, particularly for schoolboys; all of the injuries in schoolboy games for this code have occurred since 1977. This study has shown that collision at scrum engagement, and not at scrum collapse, is the way in which the majority of scrum injuries are sustained. These injuries are largely preventable, and suggestions for rule changes are made. Half the injured players recovered to Frankel grades D or E. The financial entitlements of those injured were grossly inadequate; this warrants action. A national register for spinal-cord injuries from football should be established to monitor the effects of desirable rule changes in Rugby Union and Rugby League.

  19. Football supporters' perceptions of their role in the home advantage.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, Sandy; Wakelin, Delia; Lewis, Matthew

    2005-04-01

    Football fans' views on their role in the home advantage were obtained by placing links to an internet questionnaire on supporters' websites. Altogether, 461 fans from clubs which had been promoted, relegated or unchanged in the past season of the English football leagues rated crowd support as significantly more influential than familiarity, travel, territoriality and referee bias in contributing to the home advantage. Fans felt responsible for inspiring their team to victory, took credit for distracting opponents, and believed that they could influence officials into making decisions in their team's favour. However, they did not accept personal blame for poor results. No effects for gender, age or the team's outcome in the promotion/relegation battle emerged, though season ticket holders were more extreme in their feelings of responsibility overall. Furthermore, it was suggested that mechanisms such as the perception of being superior to rivals can encourage fans to retain their allegiance to their teams, even when outcomes are disappointing. Indeed, affiliation may become so incorporated into self-identity that supporters may not have the option of abandoning their team, but instead perceive a reciprocal relationship in which both they and the team are expected to do their best to achieve success.

  20. Hamstrings strength imbalance in professional football (soccer) players in Australia.

    PubMed

    Ardern, Clare L; Pizzari, Tania; Wollin, Martin R; Webster, Kate E

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the isokinetic thigh muscle strength profile of professional male football players in Australia. Concentric (60° and 240°·s(-1)) and eccentric (30° and 120°·s(-1)) hamstrings and quadriceps isokinetic strength was measured with a HUMAC NORM dynamometer. The primary variables were bilateral concentric and eccentric hamstring and quadriceps peak torque ratios, concentric hamstring-quadriceps peak torque ratios, and mixed ratios (eccentric hamstring 30°·s(-1) ÷ concentric quadriceps 240°·s(-1)). Hamstring strength imbalance was defined as deficits in any 2 of: bilateral concentric hamstring peak torque ratio <0.86, bilateral eccentric hamstring peak torque ratio <0.86, concentric hamstring-quadriceps ratio <0.47, and mixed ratio <0.80. Fifty-five strength tests involving 42 players were conducted. Ten players (24%) were identified as having hamstring strength imbalance. Athletes with strength imbalance had significantly reduced concentric and eccentric bilateral hamstring peak torque ratios at all angular velocities tested; and reduced eccentric quadriceps peak torque (30°·s(-1)) in their stance leg, compared with those without strength imbalance. Approximately, 1 in 4 players had preseason hamstring strength imbalance; and all strength deficits were observed in the stance leg. Concentric and eccentric hamstrings strength imbalance may impact in-season football performance and could have implications for the future risk of injury.

  1. Salivary Biomarker Responses to Two Final Matches in Women’s Professional Football

    PubMed Central

    Maya, Javiera; Marquez, Pablo; Peñailillo, Luis; Contreras-Ferrat, Ariel; Deldicque, Louise; Zbinden-Foncea, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the link between salivary concentrations of cortisol, testosterone, immunoglobulin A (IgA) and the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) as a measure of internal load after two final matches played 3 days apart by professional women football players. Saliva samples were taken before and after the two matches (M1, M2). RPE was used to monitor the exercise intensity after each match. Testosterone concentrations increased after each match (M1: +42%, p = 0.002; M2: +50%, p < 0.001) while cortisol increased only after M1 (+116%, p < 0.001). The testosterone-to-cortisol ratio decreased only after M1 (-32.4%, p < 0.001). IgA concentration did not change after any match. Testosterone concentrations were correlated with IgA concentrations after each match (M1: R = 0.59, p = 0.008; M2: R=0.51, p = 0.02). RPE was correlated with cortisol concentrations after M1 (R = 0.57; p = 0.01), but not after M2 (R = 0.38; p = 0.07). All these results suggest that salivary cortisol and testosterone concentrations increase especially after the first match of a final, without affecting IgA levels. We speculate that increased testosterone concentration in women after football matches may play a protecting role against immune suppression usually observed after intense exercise. Key points In our sample space, IgA concentrations did not change for teams even, before and after separated match. Suggesting that salivary IgA determinations after physical activities remain under debate. Testosterone concentrations were the only one hormone showing a consequent increase in both matches after physical activity carrying. The T/C ratio decrease only after M1 according with a higher cortisol level reach after M1 get-together, suggesting a differential impact over anxiety-associated team performance. So M2 play gives a more stable psychological state. PMID:27274677

  2. Salivary Biomarker Responses to Two Final Matches in Women's Professional Football.

    PubMed

    Maya, Javiera; Marquez, Pablo; Peñailillo, Luis; Contreras-Ferrat, Ariel; Deldicque, Louise; Zbinden-Foncea, Hermann

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the link between salivary concentrations of cortisol, testosterone, immunoglobulin A (IgA) and the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) as a measure of internal load after two final matches played 3 days apart by professional women football players. Saliva samples were taken before and after the two matches (M1, M2). RPE was used to monitor the exercise intensity after each match. Testosterone concentrations increased after each match (M1: +42%, p = 0.002; M2: +50%, p < 0.001) while cortisol increased only after M1 (+116%, p < 0.001). The testosterone-to-cortisol ratio decreased only after M1 (-32.4%, p < 0.001). IgA concentration did not change after any match. Testosterone concentrations were correlated with IgA concentrations after each match (M1: R = 0.59, p = 0.008; M2: R=0.51, p = 0.02). RPE was correlated with cortisol concentrations after M1 (R = 0.57; p = 0.01), but not after M2 (R = 0.38; p = 0.07). All these results suggest that salivary cortisol and testosterone concentrations increase especially after the first match of a final, without affecting IgA levels. We speculate that increased testosterone concentration in women after football matches may play a protecting role against immune suppression usually observed after intense exercise. Key pointsIn our sample space, IgA concentrations did not change for teams even, before and after separated match. Suggesting that salivary IgA determinations after physical activities remain under debate.Testosterone concentrations were the only one hormone showing a consequent increase in both matches after physical activity carrying.The T/C ratio decrease only after M1 according with a higher cortisol level reach after M1 get-together, suggesting a differential impact over anxiety-associated team performance. So M2 play gives a more stable psychological state.

  3. Comparison of somatotype values of football players in two professional league football teams according to the positions.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Ozlem; Sagir, Mehmet; Zorba, Erdal

    2013-06-01

    This study compared the somatotype values of football players according to their playing positions. The study aimed to determine the physical profiles of players and to analyze the relationships between somatotypes and playing positions. Study participants were members of two teams in the Turkey Professional Football League, Gençlerbirligi Sports Team (GB) (N = 24) and Gençlerbirligi Oftas Sports Team (GBO) (N = 24). Anthropometric measurements of the players were performed according to techniques suggested by the Anthropometric Standardization Reference Manual (ASRM) and International Biological Program (IBP). In somatotype calculations, triceps, subscapular, supraspinale and calf skinfold thickness, humerus bicondylar, femur bicondylar, biceps circumference, calf circumference and body weight and height were used. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using the Graph Pad prism Version 5.00 for Windows (Graph Pad Software, San Diego California USA); somatotype calculations and analyses used the Somatotype 1.1 program and graphical representations of the results were produced. Analysis of non-parametric (two independent samples) Mann-Whitney U Test of the player data showed that there were no statistically significant differences between the two teams. The measurements indicated that, when all of the GB and GBO players were evaluated collectively, their average somatotypes were balanced mesomorph. The somatotypes of GBO goalkeepers were generally ectomorphic mesomorph; GB goalkeepers were balanced mesomorphic, although they were slightly endomorphic.

  4. The Anatomy of the Global Football Player Transfer Network: Club Functionalities versus Network Properties

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Professional association football is a game of talent. The success of a professional club hinges largely on its ability of assembling the best team. Building on a dataset of player transfer records among more than 400 clubs in 24 world-wide top class leagues from 2011 to 2015, this study aims to relate a club’s success to its activities in the player transfer market from a network perspective. We confirm that modern professional football is indeed a money game, in which larger investment spent on the acquisition of talented players generally yields better team performance. However, further investigation shows that professional football clubs can actually play different strategies in surviving or even excelling this game, and the success of strategies is strongly associated to their network properties in the football player transfer network. PMID:27253198

  5. The first concussion crisis: head injury and evidence in early American football.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Emily A

    2014-05-01

    In the early 21st century, sports concussion has become a prominent public health problem, popularly labeled "The Concussion Crisis." Football-related concussion contributes much of the epidemiological burden and inspires much of the public awareness. Though often cast as a recent phenomenon, the crisis in fact began more than a century ago, as concussions were identified among footballers in the game's first decades. This early concussion crisis subsided-allowing the problem to proliferate-because work was done by football's supporters to reshape public acceptance of risk. They appealed to an American culture that permitted violence, shifted attention to reforms addressing more visible injuries, and legitimized football within morally reputable institutions. Meanwhile, changing demands on the medical profession made practitioners reluctant to take a definitive stance. Drawing on scientific journals, public newspapers, and personal letters of players and coaches, this history of the early crisis raises critical questions about solutions being negotiated at present.

  6. In Wake of Football Scandal, Southern Methodist Confronts Tough Questions About Its Reputation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederman, Douglas

    1987-01-01

    The trustees at Southern Methodist University are expected to approve a plan that will cut the board's size in half and revamp a much-maligned governance system. This transformation was impelled by a devastating football scandal. (MLW)

  7. The Anatomy of the Global Football Player Transfer Network: Club Functionalities versus Network Properties.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao Fan; Liu, Yu-Liang; Lu, Xin-Hang; Wang, Qi-Xuan; Wang, Tong-Xing

    2016-01-01

    Professional association football is a game of talent. The success of a professional club hinges largely on its ability of assembling the best team. Building on a dataset of player transfer records among more than 400 clubs in 24 world-wide top class leagues from 2011 to 2015, this study aims to relate a club's success to its activities in the player transfer market from a network perspective. We confirm that modern professional football is indeed a money game, in which larger investment spent on the acquisition of talented players generally yields better team performance. However, further investigation shows that professional football clubs can actually play different strategies in surviving or even excelling this game, and the success of strategies is strongly associated to their network properties in the football player transfer network.

  8. Effect of Physical and Academic Stress on Illness and Injury in Division 1 College Football Players.

    PubMed

    Mann, J Bryan; Bryant, Kirk R; Johnstone, Brick; Ivey, Patrick A; Sayers, Stephen P

    2016-01-01

    Stress-injury models of health suggest that athletes experience more physical injuries during times of high stress. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of increased physical and academic stress on injury restrictions for athletes (n = 101) on a division I college football team. Weeks of the season were categorized into 3 levels: high physical stress (HPS) (i.e., preseason), high academic stress (HAS) (i.e., weeks with regularly scheduled examinations such as midterms, finals, and week before Thanksgiving break), and low academic stress (LAS) (i.e., regular season without regularly scheduled academic examinations). During each week, we recorded whether a player had an injury restriction, thereby creating a longitudinal binary outcome. The data were analyzed using a hierarchical logistic regression model to properly account for the dependency induced by the repeated observations over time within each subject. Significance for regression models was accepted at p ≤ 0.05. We found that the odds of an injury restriction during training camp (HPS) were the greatest compared with weeks of HAS (odds ratio [OR] = 2.05, p = 0.0003) and LAS (OR = 3.65, p < 0.001). However, the odds of an injury restriction during weeks of HAS were nearly twice as high as during weeks of LAS (OR = 1.78, p = 0.0088). Moreover, the difference in injury rates reported in all athletes during weeks of HPS and weeks of HAS disappeared when considering only athletes that regularly played in games (OR = 1.13, p = 0.75) suggesting that HAS may affect athletes that play to an even greater extent than HPS. Coaches should be aware of both types of stressors and consider carefully the types of training methods imposed during times of HAS when injuries are most likely.

  9. Physical qualities predict change-of-direction speed but not defensive agility in Australian rules football.

    PubMed

    Young, Warren B; Miller, Ian R; Talpey, Scott W

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between selected physical qualities, change-of-direction (COD) speed, and defensive agility performance in Australian Rules football players. Twenty-four male community-level players were assessed on sprint acceleration (10-m time), maximum strength (3 repetition-maximum half squat), leg power (countermovement jump), reactive strength (drop jump), and a single COD speed test and a defensive agility test. Change-of-direction speed was correlated with reactive strength (r = -0.645, p = 0.001) and sprint acceleration (r = 0.510, p = 0.011). Multiple regression indicated that the combined physical qualities explained 56.7% of the variance associated with COD speed (adjusted R = 0.567, p ≤ 0.05). Participants were median split into faster and slower COD speed groups, and these were compared by independent t-tests. The faster group was significantly better (p ≤ 0.05) on the sprint acceleration and reactive strength tests (large effect size). The correlations between physical qualities and agility were trivial to small (r = -0.101 to 0.123, p > 0.05) and collectively explained only 14.2% of the variance associated with agility performance (adjusted R = -0.142, p > 0.05). When faster and slower agility groups were compared, there were trivial to moderate differences (p > 0.05) in all physical qualities. It was concluded that reactive strength and sprint acceleration are important for COD speed, but the physical qualities assessed are not associated with defensive agility performance. For agility tasks similar to those in this study, sprint and resistance training should not be emphasized, and training other factors, such as the development of sport-specific technique and cognitive skill, is recommended.

  10. Detecting deficits in change of direction performance using the preplanned multidirectional Australian football league agility test.

    PubMed

    Hart, Nicolas H; Spiteri, Tania; Lockie, Robert G; Nimphius, Sophia; Newton, Robert U

    2014-12-01

    The Australian Football League (AFL) agility test is a preplanned multidirectional circuit involving 5 directional changes of various magnitudes that might differently assess athletes of particular leg dominance. This study served to establish whether the AFL agility test appropriately examines athletes of differing limb dominance, while also quantifying performance deficits prevalent between limbs of Australian Footballers. Fifty-eight Australian Footballers were recruited from the Western Australian Football League (age = 21.9 ± 2.8 years; height = 183.7 ± 5.9 cm; weight = 86.4 ± 4.7 kg). Two circuits of the AFL agility test were set up in accordance with official specifications. The finish line of the second circuit was relocated to the opposite side to modify the starting direction. Footballers were randomized and counterbalanced between versions, performing 3 trials in each direction. Paired t-tests (p ≤ 0.05) were used to examine differences between dominant and nondominant trials. Independent t-tests (p ≤ 0.05) were used to identify differences between left and right leg dominant groups. The current version of the AFL agility test appropriately examined ∼61% of footballers in this cohort. The remaining ∼39% produced significantly faster times during the alternate version (0.63-0.82 seconds; p ≤ 0.001). All footballers demonstrated a performance deficit of 5-10% between limbs (∼0.72 seconds; p ≤ 0.001). Limb dominance (directional preference) was evident for all footballers. Change of direction capabilities should therefore be examined bilaterally to eliminate bias toward athletes with particular leg dominance profiles and to provide a limb deficit measure for enhanced athletic profiling outcomes.

  11. The Season After: A Football Coach Moves on after 27 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerson, Gary D.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares his experience of being a football coach for 27 years and describes how he moves on after these years. For the first time in 27 years, he is not on the field with boys for two-a-days and scrimmages. And he is not going to be there for the games. So, there is no more football. This is after four years of walk-on…

  12. Blood (Breath) Alcohol Concentration Rates of College Football Fans on Game Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassman, Tavis; Braun, Robert; Reindl, Diana M.; Whewell, Aubrey

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the Blood (breath) Alcohol Concentration (BrAC) rates of college football fans on game day. Researchers employed a time-series study design, collecting data at home football games at a large university in the Midwest. Participants included 536 individuals (64.4% male) ages 18-83 (M = 28.44, SD = 12.32).…

  13. Exploring athletic identity in elite-level English youth football: a cross-sectional approach.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Tom O; Nesti, Mark; Richardson, David; Midgley, Adrian W; Eubank, Martin; Littlewood, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This study is the first empirical investigation that has explored levels of athletic identity in elite-level English professional football. The importance of understanding athletes' psychological well-being within professional sport has been well documented. This is especially important within the professional football industry, given the high attrition rate (Anderson, G., & Miller, R. M. (2011). The academy system in English professional football: Business value or following the herd? University of Liverpool, Management School Research Paper Series. Retrieved from http://www.liv.ac.uk/managementschool/research/working%20papers/wp201143.pdf ) and distinct occupational practices (Roderick, M. (2006). The work of professional football. A labour of love? London: Routledge). A total of 168 elite youth footballers from the English professional football leagues completed the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS). Multilevel modelling was used to examine the effect of playing level, living arrangements and year of apprentice on the total AIMS score and its subscales (i.e., social identity, exclusivity and negative affectivity). Football club explained 30% of the variance in exclusivity among players (P = .022). Mean social identity was significantly higher for those players in the first year of their apprenticeship compared to the second year (P = .025). All other effects were not statistically significant (P > .05). The novel and unique findings have practical implications in the design and implementation of career support strategies with respect to social identity. This may facilitate the maintenance of motivation over a 2-year apprenticeship and positively impact on performance levels within the professional football environment.

  14. Performance and blood pressure characteristics of first-year national collegiate athletic association division I football players.

    PubMed

    Carbuhn, Aaron F; Womack, John W; Green, John S; Morgan, Kent; Miller, Greg S; Crouse, Stephen F

    2008-07-01

    The authors were aware of no published studies in which the performance characteristics of first-year National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate football players were reported. From 2003 to 2006, 73 freshman and 12 transfer football recruits were tested before twice-a-day practices for bench press (BP), squat (SQ), power clean (PC), vertical jump (VJ), calculated jump power (CP), treadmill endurance capacity (Vo2peak), and maximal treadmill time (MTT). Individuals were grouped by player position for descriptive statistical analysis. As a group, offensive linemen (OL), defensive linemen (DL), linebackers (LB), tight ends (TE), and running backs (RB) averaged 152.8 kg for BP, 210.5 kg for SQ, 127.3 kg for PC, and 224.2 W for CP. These values were 22% to 30% higher than those for quarterbacks (QB), wide receivers (WR), defensive backs (DB), and kickers (K), who together averaged 120.2 kg for BP, 163.4 kg for SQ, 104.6 kg for PC, and 172.4 W for CP. Quarterbacks, WR, DB, and K as a group showed the highest MTT (13:13 m.s) and Vo2peak values (47.24 mL.kg.min), 15% to 20% higher than those for OL, DL, LB, RB, and TE, who averaged 11:27 m.s for MTT and 39.51 mL.kg.min for Vo2peak. Running backs, TE, LB, DB, and WR averaged 82.56 cm for VJ, which was 14% higher than that for DL, QB, K, and OL, who averaged 72.72 cm. On the basis of average resting blood pressure, 23.5% (20 players) were categorized as hypertensive (i.e., >/=140/90 mm Hg), 54% (46 players) as prehypertensive (i.e., 120-139/80-89 mm Hg), and 22.5% (19 players) as normal (i.e., <120/80 mm Hg). These data serve as a basis for comparisons among other Division I programs, benchmarking development and improvement through training, and creating position performance norms for incoming football athletes.

  15. Measuring training load in sports.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Michael Ian; Borresen, Jill

    2010-09-01

    The principle of training can be reduced to a simple "dose-response" relationship. The "response" in this relationship can be measured as a change in performance or the adaptation of a physiological system. The "dose" of training, or physiological stress associated with the training load, is more difficult to measure as there is no absolute "gold standard" which can be used in the field, making it difficult to validate procedures. Attempts have been made to use heart rate as a marker of intensity during training, but the theoretical attractiveness of this method is not supported by the accuracy and the practicality of using this method during training or competition. The session RPE, based on the product of training duration and perceived intensity is more practical and can be used in a variety of sports. However, the score depends on a subjective assessment, and the intersubject comparisons may be inaccurate. The demands of different sports vary and therefore the methods of assessing training need to vary accordingly. The time has come to reach consensus on assessing training accurately in different sports. There is a precedent for this consensus approach with scientists having already done so for the assessment of physical activity, and for defining injuries in rugby, football and cricket. Standardizing these methods has resulted in the quality of research in these areas increasing exponentially.

  16. Reliability and validity of a novel intermittent peak running speed test for Australian football.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Mitchell G; Hunter, Jayden R; O'Brien, Brendan J; Berry, Jason T; Young, Warren B

    2011-04-01

    Australian football requires frequent intermittent sprinting close to peak running speed. However, tests assessing the capability to maintain intermittent peak running speed are not reported in scientific literature. Therefore, our objective is to report the reliability and validity of a novel intermittent peak running speed test. The intermittent peak running speed test required footballers to perform 10 repetitions on 25-second intervals. Each repetition required 15-m jogging, 20-m acceleration to peak speed, 10 m to sustain peak speed, 20-m deceleration, and finally a 15-m jog. Intermittent peak running speed was determined by portable global positioning system. To assess reliability, 26 footballers performed the intermittent peak running speed test on 2 occasions 3-5 days apart. Our results revealed that average peak speed had a coefficient of variation of 2.2% and an intraclass correlation of 0.91. To assess construct validity, average peak speed was compared between elite, sub-elite, and regional footballers. The average peak speed of the elite footballers (28.6 ± 1.7 km · h(-1)) was higher than that of the sub-elite (27.4 ± 1.7 km · h(-1)) and regional (27 ± 1.9 km · h(-1)) competitors (p < 0.05). Our study revealed that the intermittent peak running speed test possesses acceptable reliability and distinguishes between elite and sub-elite footballers.

  17. Can watching football be a component of developing a state of mental health for men?

    PubMed

    Pringle, Alan

    2004-05-01

    Football supporters, by and large, continue to have a negative image and be presented in a very destructive way by the media generally. This has been reflected academically by the fact that much of the research that has been done into football and football fans has focused on negative aspects of small numbers of supporters' behaviours such as hooliganism and racism. This paper describes a two stage study exploring some of the more positive effects noted during studies with football fans from Mansfield Town, a team currently in the third division of the English Football League. The study explores the perceived benefits to mental health for fans gained from the supporting experience in such areas as stress relief, catharsis and the development of good parent-child relationships. Discussion takes place around the paradox that some of the behaviours described by supporters as beneficial and done in 'the spirit of carnival' may challenge liberal beliefs and be viewed as antisocial and offensive. The key feature in health promotional terms is the overwhelming view of fans that the 'carnivalesque' behaviours stay in the football ground where such behaviours are viewed as acceptable and socially sanctioned.

  18. Can subjective comfort be used as a measure of plantar pressure in football boots?

    PubMed

    Okholm Kryger, Katrine; Jarratt, Vicky; Mitchell, Séan; Forrester, Steph

    2017-05-01

    Comfort has been shown to be the most desired football boot feature by players. Previous studies have shown discomfort to be related to increased plantar pressures for running shoes which, in some foot regions, has been suggested to be a causative factor in overuse injuries. This study examined the correlation between subjective comfort data and objective plantar pressure for football boots during football-specific drills. Eight male university football players were tested. Plantar pressure data were collected during four football-specific movements for each of three different football boots. The global and local peak pressures based on a nine-sectioned foot map were compared to subjective comfort measures recorded using a visual analogue scale for global discomfort and a discomfort foot map for local discomfort. A weak (rs = -0.126) yet significant (P < 0.05) correlation was shown between the peak plantar pressure experienced and the visual analogue scale rated comfort. The model only significantly predicted (P > 0.001) the outcome for two (medial and lateral forefoot) of the nine foot regions. Subjective comfort data is therefore not a reliable measure of increased plantar pressures for any foot region. The use of plantar pressure measures is therefore needed to optimise injury prevention when designing studded footwear.

  19. The role of community in the development of elite handball and football players in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Rossing, N N; Nielsen, A B; Elbe, A-M; Karbing, D S

    2016-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the place of early development in a sample of Danish male elite and youth handball and football players. The sample included 366 handball and football players from the elite Danish league in the season 2011-2012 and a comparison sample of youth players under the age of 12 from 2003, including 147,221 football and 26,290 handball players. Odds ratio analysis showed that both population size and density significantly affected the proportional number of youth players per community and the odds of athletes reaching an elite level in football and handball. The odds for youth player registrations in both handball and football increased in rural in contrast to urban communities. However, elite football players primarily came from communities of high density (>1000 pop./km(2)), whereas elite handball players primarily came from less densely populated communities (100 to <250 pop./km(2)). Furthermore, there seems to be a relation between representation of elite and talent clubs in different communities and the probability of becoming an elite player in both sports. The limited number of elite players in both sports from rural communities may be due to national talent development strategies that do not incorporate development support for clubs in rural areas. Additionally, the results of the study clearly suggest the need to include the youth player population to advance research findings in birthplace effect studies.

  20. Player Selection Bias in National Football League Draftees.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Kyle S; Fukuda, David H; Redd, Michael J; Stout, Jeffrey R; Hoffman, Jay R

    2016-11-01

    Beyer, KS, Fukuda, DH, Redd, MJ, Stout, JR, and Hoffman, JR. Player selection bias in National Football League draftees. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 2965-2971, 2016-Relative age effects (RAEs) have been studied as a potential factor associated with player selection bias in numerous sports. However, little research has examined the role of RAEs among National Football League (NFL) draftees. The purpose of the current study was to determine the existence of RAEs in NFL draftees from the last 10 NFL drafts. Draftee birth dates were collected and divided into calendar and scholastic quarters (SQ1-SQ4). To determine the presence of RAEs in specific subsets, NFL draftees were grouped according to round drafted, position, level of conference play, and age at the time of the draft. Significant χ tests (p ≤ 0.05) comparing observed birth-date distributions vs. the expected birth-date distribution from the general population were followed up by calculating the standardized residual for each quarter (z > ±2.0 indicating significance). Overall, no RAEs were seen when birth-date distribution was assessed using calendar quarters (p = 0.47), but more draftees were born in SQ2 (December-February) than expected (p < 0.01; z = +2.2). Significantly more draftees were born in SQ2 than expected for middle-round draftees (p = 0.01; z = +2.4), skill positions (p = 0.03; z = +2.3), Power Five college draftees (p < 0.01; z = +2.6), and early draftees (p < 0.01; z = +3.1). However, reverse RAEs were seen among late draftees, with fewer draftees being born in SQ2 (z = -3.6) and more being born in SQ4 (June-August; z = +2.6) than expected. In contrast to previous research, the current study observed significant RAEs in NFL draftees from the last 10 years. This player selection bias should be considered when evaluating long-term athlete development models in American football.

  1. Anthropometrics, Physical Performance, and Injury Characteristics of Youth American Football

    PubMed Central

    Caswell, Shane V.; Ausborn, Ashley; Diao, Guoqing; Johnson, David C.; Johnson, Timothy S.; Atkins, Rickie; Ambegaonkar, Jatin P.; Cortes, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prior research has described the anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of professional, collegiate, and high school American football players. Yet, little research has described these factors in American youth football and their potential relationship with injury. Purpose: To characterize anthropometric and physical performance measures, describe the epidemiology of injury, and examine the association of physical performance measures with injury among children participating within age-based divisions of a large metropolitan American youth football league. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Demographic, anthropometric, and physical performance characteristics and injuries of 819 male children were collected over a 2-year period (2011-2012). Injury data were collected by the league athletic trainer (AT) and coaches. Descriptive analysis of demographic, anthropometric, and physical performance measures (40-yard sprint, pro-agility, push-ups, and vertical jump) were conducted. Incidence rates were computed for all reported injuries; rates were calculated as the number of injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs). Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify whether the categories of no injury, no-time-loss (NTL) injury, and time-loss (TL) injury were associated with physical performance measures. Results: Of the 819 original participants, 760 (92.8%) completed preseason anthropometric measures (mean ± SD: age, 11.8 ± 1.2 years; height, 157.4 ± 10.7 cm; weight, 48.7 ± 13.3 kg; experience, 2.0 ± 1.8 years); 640 (78.1%) players completed physical performance measures. The mean (±SD) 40-yard sprint and pro-agility measures of the players were 6.5 ± 0.6 and 5.7 ± 0.5 seconds, respectively; the number of push-ups and maximal vertical jump height were 16.5 ± 9.3 repetitions and 42.3 ± 8.4 cm, respectively. Players assigned to different teams within age divisions demonstrated no differences in

  2. Game story space of professional sports: Australian rules football

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiley, Dilan Patrick; Reagan, Andrew J.; Mitchell, Lewis; Danforth, Christopher M.; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2016-05-01

    Sports are spontaneous generators of stories. Through skill and chance, the script of each game is dynamically written in real time by players acting out possible trajectories allowed by a sport's rules. By properly characterizing a given sport's ecology of "game stories," we are able to capture the sport's capacity for unfolding interesting narratives, in part by contrasting them with random walks. Here we explore the game story space afforded by a data set of 1310 Australian Football League (AFL) score lines. We find that AFL games exhibit a continuous spectrum of stories rather than distinct clusters. We show how coarse graining reveals identifiable motifs ranging from last-minute comeback wins to one-sided blowouts. Through an extensive comparison with biased random walks, we show that real AFL games deliver a broader array of motifs than null models, and we provide consequent insights into the narrative appeal of real games.

  3. Anti-doping testing at the 2008 European football championship.

    PubMed

    Vouillamoz, Marc; Thom, Caroline; Grisdale, Richard; Saugy, Martial; Giraud, Sylvain; Robinson, Neil; Gmeiner, Günter; Geisendorfer, Thomas

    2009-11-01

    Big sports events like the 2008 European Football Championship are a challenge for anti-doping activities, particularly when the sports event is hosted by two different countries and there are two laboratories accredited by the World Anti-Doping Agency. This challenges the logistics of sample collection as well as the chemical analyses, which must be carried out timeously. The following paper discusses the handling of whereabouts information for each athlete and the therapeutic use exemption system, experiences in sample collection and transportation of blood and urine samples, and the results of the chemical analysis in two different accredited laboratories. An overview of the analytical results of blood profiling and growth hormone testing in comparison with the distribution of the normal population is also presented.

  4. A 20-Year Comparison of Football-Related Injuries in American and Canadian Youth Aged 6 to 17 Years: A Replication Study.

    PubMed

    Keays, Glenn; Friedman, Debbie; Gagnon, Isabelle

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Little is known about Canadian youth football injuries. The objectives of this study were (a) to contrast the injuries in Canadian and American football players aged 6 to 17 years and (b) compare the injuries sustained during organized football with those in nonorganized football. Methods Using a retrospective cohort design based on data from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program and the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System a comparison of injuries was made. Results Trends in injuries were comparable. Proportions and odds of injuries were similar, except for a few exceptions. In Canada, more girls were injured and fractures were more prevalent. Compared with nonorganized football, organized football players were older, involved more males, and suffered more traumatic brain injuries and injuries to their lower extremities. Conclusion Canadian and American youth football injuries were similar. The type of football, be it organized or nonorganized, has an impact on injuries.

  5. Statistical properties for directional alignment and chasing of players in football games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narizuka, Takuma; Yamazaki, Yoshihiro

    2016-12-01

    Focusing on motion of two interacting players in football games, two velocity vectors for the pair of one player and the nearest opponent player exhibit strong alignment. Especially, we find that there exists a characteristic interpersonal distance r≃ 500 \\text{cm} below which the circular variance for their alignment decreases rapidly. By introducing the order parameter φ(t) in order to measure the degree of alignment of the players' velocity vectors, we also find that the angle distribution between the nearest players' velocity vectors becomes of wrapped Cauchy type (φ ≲ 0.7) and the mixture of von Mises and wrapped Cauchy distributions (φ ≳ 0.7) , respectively. To understand these findings, we construct a simple model for the motion of the two interacting players with the following rules: chasing between the players and the reset of the chasing. We numerically show that our model successfully reproduces the results obtained from the actual data. Moreover, from the numerical study, we find that there is another characteristic distance r≃ 1000 \\text{cm} below which player's chasing starts.

  6. Training Standardization

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2003-09-01

    The article describes the benefits of and required process and recommendations for implementing the standardization of training in the nuclear power industry in the United States and abroad. Current Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) enable training standardization in the nuclear power industry. The delivery of training through the Internet, Intranet and video over IP will facilitate this standardization and bring multiple benefits to the nuclear power industry worldwide. As the amount of available qualified and experienced professionals decreases because of retirements and fewer nuclear engineering institutions, standardized training will help increase the number of available professionals in the industry. Technology will make it possible to use the experience of retired professionals who may be interested in working part-time from a remote location. Well-planned standardized training will prevent a fragmented approach among utilities, and it will save the industry considerable resources in the long run. It will also ensure cost-effective and safe nuclear power plant operation.

  7. Concussion in professional football: summary of the research conducted by the National Football League's Committee on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Pellman, Elliot J; Viano, David C

    2006-10-15

    PIn 1994 the National Football League (NFL) initiated a comprehensive clinical and biomechanical research study of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), a study that is ongoing. Data on mild TBIs sustained between 1996 and 2001 were collected and submitted by NFL team physicians and athletic trainers, and these data were analyzed by the NFL's Committee on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. At the same time, analysis of game videos was performed for on-field mild TBIs to quantify the biomechanics involved and to develop means to improve the understanding of these injuries so that manufacturers could systematically improve and update their head protective equipment. The findings and analysis of the Committee have been presented in a series of articles in Neurosurgery.

  8. Evidence for axis-aligned motion bias: football axis-trajectory misalignment causes systematic error in projected final destinations of thrown American footballs.

    PubMed

    Dolgov, Igor; McBeath, Michael K; Sugar, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The axis-aligned motion (AAM) bias is the tendency of observers to assume that symmetric moving objects maintain axis-trajectory alignment and to bias their judgments of trajectory toward the axis when they are misaligned. We tested whether humans exhibit an AAM bias in a realistic, cue-rich, 3-D setting by examining the impact of axis-trajectory misalignment on estimates of final destinations of thrown American footballs. In experiments 1 and 2 we show that observers are significantly worse in judging destinations of footballs than those of volleyballs and basketballs. This difference in performance is due to the deviation of the football's axis from trajectory in flight, as shown by the correspondence of participants' lateral judgment error and the football's lateral axial deviation from trajectory, which was predicted by passer handedness. Nearly all animals exhibit bilateral symmetry and maintain axis-trajectory alignment during locomotion, and we argue that the AAM bias is complementary mental attunement to the natural regularity of this axis-aligned motion. Furthermore, this bias is also a prototypical example of a perceptual regularity that is a mixed blessing-advantageous in perceptual judgment tasks of axis trajectory-aligned moving entities like most living creatures, and disadvantageous in tasks demanding judgments of axis-trajectory-misaligned moving objects which are typically artifacts.

  9. Inter-Investigator Reliability of Anthropometric Prediction of 1RM Bench Press in College Football Players

    PubMed Central

    SCHUMACHER, RICHARD M.; ARABAS, JANA L.; MAYHEW, JERRY L.; BRECHUE, WILLIAM F.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of inter-investigator differences in anthropometric assessments on the prediction of one-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press in college football players. Division-II players (n = 34, age = 20.4 ± 1.2 y, 182.3 ± 6.6 cm, 99.1 ± 18.4 kg) were measured for selected anthropometric variables and 1RM bench press at the conclusion of a heavy resistance training program. Triceps, subscapular, and abdominal skinfolds were measured in triplicate by three investigators and used to estimate %fat. Arm circumference was measured around a flexed biceps muscle and was corrected for triceps skinfold to estimate muscle cross-sectional area (CSA). Chest circumference was measured at mid-expiration. Significant differences among the testers were evident in six of the nine anthropometric variables, with the least experienced tester being significantly different from the other testers on seven variables, although average differences among investigators ranged from 1–2% for circumferences to 4–9% for skinfolds. The two more experienced testers were significantly different on only one variable. Overall agreement among testers was high (ICC>0.895) for each variable, with low coefficients of variation (CV<10.7%). Predicted 1RMs for testers (126.9 ± 20.6, 123.4 ± 22.0, and 132.1 ± 28.4 kg, respectively) were not significantly different from actual 1RM (129.2 ± 20.6 kg). Individuals with varying levels of experience appear to have an acceptable level of ability to estimate 1RM bench press using a non-performance anthropometric equation. Minimal experience in anthropometry may not impede strength and conditioning specialists from accurately estimating 1RM bench press. PMID:27766130

  10. A cross-sectional lower-body power profile of elite and subelite Australian football players.

    PubMed

    Caia, Johnpaul; Doyle, Tim L A; Benson, Amanda C

    2013-10-01

    Australian football (AF) is a sport which requires a vast array of physiological qualities, including high levels of strength and power. However, the power characteristics of AF players, particularly at the subelite level have not been extensively studied with further investigation warranted to understand the power capabilities and training requirements of elite and subelite AF groups. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to develop a lower-body power profile of elite and subelite AF players. Eighteen elite and 12 subelite AF players completed a 1 repetition maximum (1RM) squat test to determine maximal lower-body strength, and countermovement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ) testing to assess lower-body muscular power performance. Maximal lower-body strength was not statistically different between groups (p > 0.05). Elite players produced greater levels of peak power for CMJ at loads of 0, 30 (p < 0.05), and 40% (p < 0.01) of 1RM in comparison to subelite players. Squat jump peak power was statistically different between groups at 0, 20, 30, and 40% (p < 0.01) of 1RM; with elite players producing greater power than their subelite counterparts at all measured loads for SJ. Findings from this investigation demonstrate that elite AF players are able to generate greater levels of lower-body power than subelite AF players, despite no significant differences existing in maximal lower-body strength or body mass. As lower-body power levels clearly differentiate elite and subelite AF players, emphasis may be placed on improving the power levels of subelite players, particularly those aspiring to reach the elite level.

  11. Determination of the Footballers' Anger Expression Styles in Terms of Some Variable at Different Universities and High Schools in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nas, Kazim

    2016-01-01

    This research aims at revealing whether or not footballers' anger expression styles show an alteration in terms of different variables. The descriptive method which is one of the quantitative research methods was adopted as the research model. Research group consists of 154 footballers who play in 8 teams from 12 teams in fifth-group in the…

  12. Concept Map for Environmental Education Planning: Capacitation of Volunteers for the FIFA Football World Cup in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Carlos Hiroo

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian Ministry of Sports organized a system of volunteers to receive the visitors during the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) Football World Cup. The instructional material to capacitate these volunteers focused on environment and sustainability issues and it was developed in an integrative systemic framework…

  13. High-Level Football and Appropriations to Universities: Are Sports-Crazed Representatives Responsive to NCAA Divisional Affiliation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Willis A.

    2015-01-01

    Does fielding a Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) program help an institution of higher education obtain aid in the form of state appropriations? Two published studies have found some evidence of a positive correlation between having an FBS-level football program and the amount of appropriations received by public universities. This study looked to…

  14. A Case Analysis of the Turkish Football in Regard to the UEFA's 10-Point Action Plan against Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerrahoglu, Necati

    2016-01-01

    Football is enjoyable and meaningful together with the fans. However, the hate crimes (racism, discrimination, humiliation, xenophobia and Islamophobia) are social diseases of some fan groups, and threaten public safety and the social life. UEFA has been determined to fight against hate crimes in football by creating a network called FARE, and by…

  15. Offside Decisions by Expert Assistant Referees in Association Football: Perception and Recall of Spatial Positions in Complex Dynamic Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilis, Bart; Helsen, Werner; Catteeuw, Peter; Wagemans, Johan

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the offside decision-making process in association football. The first aim was to capture the specific offside decision-making skills in complex dynamic events. Second, we analyzed the type of errors to investigate the factors leading to incorrect decisions. Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA; n = 29)…

  16. Psychological Factors in the Development of Football-Talent from the Perspective of an Integrative Sport-Talent Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orosz, Robert; Mezo, Ferenc

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a new, integrative model of sports talent. Following the theoretical part of the study a football-talent research is presented, in which a theoretical framework is provided by this new theory of sports talent. This research examines the role of psychological factors in football talent development. The sample was N = 425…

  17. Bringing the Game into Disrepute": The Ben Cousins Saga, Sports Entertainment, Player Welfare and Surveillance in the Australian Football League

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Peter; Hickey, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    In 2007 the elite Australian Rules footballer Ben Cousins was suspended by the Australian Football League for 12 months for "bringing the game into disrepute". Cousins was the first, and at the time of writing, the only player to be suspended by the AFL for actions and behaviors that were claimed to be damaging to the reputation of the…

  18. Recovery-stress balance and injury risk in professional football players: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Laux, Philipp; Krumm, Bertram; Diers, Martin; Flor, Herta

    2015-01-01

    Professional football is a contact sport with a high risk of injury. This study was designed to examine the contribution of stress and recovery variables as assessed with the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes (RESTQ-Sport) to the risk of injury in professional football players. In a prospective, non-experimental cohort design, 22 professional football players in the highest German football league were observed over the course of 16 months. From January 2010 until April 2011, the players completed the RESTQ-Sport a total of 222 times in monthly intervals. In addition, injury data were assessed by the medical staff of the club. Overall, 34 traumatic injuries and 10 overuse injuries occurred. Most of the injuries were located in the lower limb (79.5%), and muscle and tendon injuries (43.2%) were the most frequently occurring injury type. In a generalised linear model, the stress-related scales Fatigue (OR 1.70, P = 0.007), Disturbed Breaks (OR 1.84, P = 0.047) and Injury (OR 1.77, P < 0.001) and the recovery-related scale Sleep Quality (OR 0.53, P = 0.010) significantly predicted injuries in the month after the assessment. These results support the importance of frequent monitoring of recovery and stress parameters to lower the risk of injuries in professional football.

  19. Profile of self-reported problems with executive functioning in college and professional football players.

    PubMed

    Seichepine, Daniel R; Stamm, Julie M; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Riley, David O; Baugh, Christine M; Gavett, Brandon E; Tripodis, Yorghos; Martin, Brett; Chaisson, Christine; McKee, Ann C; Cantu, Robert C; Nowinski, Christopher J; Stern, Robert A

    2013-07-15

    Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), such as that experienced by contact-sport athletes, has been associated with the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Executive dysfunction is believed to be among the earliest symptoms of CTE, with these symptoms presenting in the fourth or fifth decade of life. The present study used a well-validated self-report measure to study executive functioning in football players, compared to healthy adults. Sixty-four college and professional football players were administered the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, adult version (BRIEF-A) to evaluate nine areas of executive functioning. Scores on the BRIEF-A were compared to published age-corrected normative scores for healthy adults Relative to healthy adults, the football players indicated significantly more problems overall and on seven of the nine clinical scales, including Inhibit, Shift, Emotional Control, Initiate, Working Memory, Plan/Organize, and Task Monitor. These symptoms were greater in athletes 40 and older, relative to younger players. In sum, football players reported more-frequent problems with executive functioning and these symptoms may develop or worsen in the fifth decade of life. The findings are in accord with a growing body of evidence that participation in football is associated with the development of cognitive changes and dementia as observed in CTE.

  20. Football Fan Aggression: The Importance of Low Basal Cortisol and a Fair Referee

    PubMed Central

    van der Meij, Leander; Almela, Mercedes; van Lange, Paul A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Fan aggression in football (soccer) is a societal problem that affects many countries worldwide. However, to date, most studies use an epidemiological or survey approach to explain football fan aggression. This study used a controlled laboratory study to advance a model of predictors for fan aggression. To do so, football fans (n = 74) saw a match summary in which their favorite team lost against their most important rival. Next, we measured levels of aggression with the hot sauce paradigm, in which fans were given the opportunity to administer a sample of hot sauce that a rival football supporter had to consume. To investigate if media exposure had the ability to reduce aggression, before the match fans saw a video in which fans of the rival team commented in a neutral, negative, or positive manner on their favorite team. Results showed that the media exposure did not affect aggression. However, participants displayed high levels of aggression and anger after having watched the match. Also, aggression was higher in fans with lower basal cortisol levels, which suggests that part of the aggression displayed was proactive and related to anti-social behavior. Furthermore, aggression was higher when the referee was blamed and aggression was lower when the performance of the participants’ favorite team was blamed for the match result. These results indicate that aggression increased when the match result was perceived as unfair. Interventions that aim to reduce football fan aggression should give special attention to the perceived fairness of the match result. PMID:25844939

  1. A pilot study of the attitudes of Australian Rules footballers towards protective headgear.

    PubMed

    Finch, C F; McIntosh, A S; McCrory, P; Zazryn, T

    2003-12-01

    Despite a relatively high risk of injury to participants of Australian Rules football, very few players report wearing protective equipment. The aim of this paper is to describe the results of a pilot survey of the attitudes of community-level Australian Rules football players towards protective headgear and the risk of head injury. Seventy players from four purposefully chosen clubs in metropolitan Melbourne completed a self-report questionnaire at the end of the 2000-playing season. Almost all players (91.4%) reported they did not wear protective headgear during the 2000 season. Non-headgear users said that headgear was too uncomfortable (47.4%) and they didn't like it (42.1%). However, 80.0% of non-users said they would wear it if it prevented injury. The major motivation for wearing headgear was to prevent injury. Players considered rugby, boxing and driving a car, to be associated with a higher-risk of head injury than Australian Rules football. As a group, the players perceived the risk of head injury in Australian Rules football to be low to moderate when compared to other sports and activities. This partially explains why so few players wore protective headgear. Repeat surveys on a larger sample should be conducted to further understand the attitudes towards protective headgear and perceptions of risk in community-level Australian football players.

  2. The toll of the gridiron: damage-associated molecular patterns and hypertension in American football

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Cameron G.; Webb, R. Clinton

    2016-01-01

    American football has unequivocally been linked to elevations in blood pressure and hypertension, especially in linemen. However, the mechanisms of this increase cannot be attributed solely to increased body weight and associated cardiometabolic risk factors (e.g.,dyslipidemia or hyperglycemia). Therefore, understanding the etiology of football-associated hypertension is essential for improving the quality of life in this mostly young population, as well as for lowering the potential for chronic disease in the future. We propose that inflammatogenic damage–associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) released into the circulation from football-induced musculoskeletal trauma activate pattern-recognition receptors of the innate immune system—specifically, high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) and mitochondrial (mt)DNA which activate Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 and -9, respectively. Previously, we observed that circulating levels of these 2 DAMPs are increased in hypertension, and activation of TLR4 and -9 causes endothelial dysfunction and hypertension. Therefore, our novel hypothesis is that musculoskeletal injury from repeated hits in football players, particularly in linemen, leads to elevated circulating HMGB1 and mtDNA to activate TLRs on endothelial cells leading to impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation, increased vascular tone, and hypertension.—McCarthy, C. G., Webb, R. C. The toll of the gridiron: damage-associated molecular patterns and hypertension in American football. PMID:26316270

  3. Splenic Artery Avulsion in a High School Football Player: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ralston, David J.; Scherm, Michael J.

    2004-06-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present the case of a high school football player who sustained avulsion of 2 branches of the splenic artery from his spleen as he was tackled and landed on the football. BACKGROUND: A high school football player was tackled and fell onto the football, left side first. He was examined by a certified athletic trainer and an internist. On evaluation, he had a positive Kehr sign, exquisite left upper abdominal quadrant tenderness, and complaint of nausea. He also exhibited signs of the onset of shock, including diaphoresis, a rapid pulse, and hypotension. He was immediately transported by ambulance to the local emergency facility. DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS: Splenic rupture, splenic laceration, splenic artery avulsion, or ruptured viscus. TREATMENT: Emergency surgery was performed, with removal of 2800 mL of blood and ligation of the 2 arterial branches avulsed from the spleen. The patient fully recovered within 6 weeks and was cleared to resume all sports activities. UNIQUENESS: Injury to the spleen in football is a known yet very uncommon injury. Even more unusual is the avulsion of splenic artery branches from the spleen. CONCLUSIONS: It is critical that athletic trainers and team physicians have an understanding of the mechanisms, signs, and symptoms of splenic injury. Because the spleen is a highly vascular organ, severe hemorrhage can be fatal in just minutes if not recognized and appropriately treated.

  4. Recovery–stress balance and injury risk in professional football players: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Laux, Philipp; Krumm, Bertram; Diers, Martin; Flor, Herta

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Professional football is a contact sport with a high risk of injury. This study was designed to examine the contribution of stress and recovery variables as assessed with the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes (RESTQ-Sport) to the risk of injury in professional football players. In a prospective, non-experimental cohort design, 22 professional football players in the highest German football league were observed over the course of 16 months. From January 2010 until April 2011, the players completed the RESTQ-Sport a total of 222 times in monthly intervals. In addition, injury data were assessed by the medical staff of the club. Overall, 34 traumatic injuries and 10 overuse injuries occurred. Most of the injuries were located in the lower limb (79.5%), and muscle and tendon injuries (43.2%) were the most frequently occurring injury type. In a generalised linear model, the stress-related scales Fatigue (OR 1.70, P = 0.007), Disturbed Breaks (OR 1.84, P = 0.047) and Injury (OR 1.77, P < 0.001) and the recovery-related scale Sleep Quality (OR 0.53, P = 0.010) significantly predicted injuries in the month after the assessment. These results support the importance of frequent monitoring of recovery and stress parameters to lower the risk of injuries in professional football. PMID:26168148

  5. The Impact of Circadian Misalignment on Athletic Performance in Professional Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Roger S.; Efron, Bradley; Mah, Cheri D.; Malhotra, Atul

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We hypothesized that professional football teams would perform better than anticipated during games occurring close to their circadian peak in performance. Design: We reviewed the past 40 years of evening and daytime professional football games between west coast and east coast United States teams. In order to account for known factors influencing football game outcomes we compared the results to the point spread which addresses all significant differences between opposing teams for sports betting purposes. One sample t-tests, Wilcoxon signed ranked tests, and linear regression were performed. Comparison to day game data was included as a control. Setting: Academic medical center Participants: N/A. Interventions: N/A. Results: The results were strongly in favor of the west coast teams during evening games against east coast teams, with the west coast teams beating the point spread about twice as often (t = 3.95, P < 0.0001) as east coast teams. For similar daytime game match-ups, we observed no such advantage. Conclusions: Sleep and circadian physiology have profound effects on human function including the performance of elite athletes. Professional football players playing close to the circadian peak in performance demonstrate a significant athletic advantage over those who are playing at other times. Application of this knowledge is likely to enhance human performance. Citation: Smith RS; Efron B; Mah CD; Malhotra A. The impact of circadian misalignment on athletic performance in professional football players. SLEEP 2013;36(12):1999-2001. PMID:24293776

  6. Football fan aggression: the importance of low Basal cortisol and a fair referee.

    PubMed

    van der Meij, Leander; Klauke, Fabian; Moore, Hannah L; Ludwig, Yannick S; Almela, Mercedes; van Lange, Paul A M

    2015-01-01

    Fan aggression in football (soccer) is a societal problem that affects many countries worldwide. However, to date, most studies use an epidemiological or survey approach to explain football fan aggression. This study used a controlled laboratory study to advance a model of predictors for fan aggression. To do so, football fans (n = 74) saw a match summary in which their favorite team lost against their most important rival. Next, we measured levels of aggression with the hot sauce paradigm, in which fans were given the opportunity to administer a sample of hot sauce that a rival football supporter had to consume. To investigate if media exposure had the ability to reduce aggression, before the match fans saw a video in which fans of the rival team commented in a neutral, negative, or positive manner on their favorite team. Results showed that the media exposure did not affect aggression. However, participants displayed high levels of aggression and anger after having watched the match. Also, aggression was higher in fans with lower basal cortisol levels, which suggests that part of the aggression displayed was proactive and related to anti-social behavior. Furthermore, aggression was higher when the referee was blamed and aggression was lower when the performance of the participants' favorite team was blamed for the match result. These results indicate that aggression increased when the match result was perceived as unfair. Interventions that aim to reduce football fan aggression should give special attention to the perceived fairness of the match result.

  7. Community football players' attitudes towards protective equipment—a pre-season measure

    PubMed Central

    Braham, R; Finch, C; McIntosh, A; McCrory, P

    2004-01-01

    Background: The Australian football injury prevention project (AFIPP) was a randomised controlled trial examining the effects of protective equipment on injury rates in Australian Football. Objective: To present the results of the AFIPP baseline survey of community football players' attitudes towards protective equipment. Methods: Teams of players were recruited from the largest community football league in Victoria, Australia, during the 2001 playing season; 301 players were enrolled in the study and all were surveyed before the season began about their attitudes towards protective headgear and mouthguards. Results: Almost three quarters of the players (73.6%) reported wearing mouthguards during the previous playing season (year 2000) compared with only 2.1% wearing headgear. The most common reasons for not wearing headgear and mouthguards (in non-users) were: "I don't like wearing it" (headgear: 44.8%; mouthguards: 30.6%), and "It is too uncomfortable" (headgear: 40.7%; mouthguards: 45.8%). Conclusions: The higher mouthguard usage reflects the favourable attitudes towards mouthguards by Australian football players generally. Similarly, the low headgear usage reflects the low acceptance of this form of protection in this sport. Further research should be directed towards establishing the reasons why players seem to believe that headgear plays a role in injury prevention yet few wear it. PMID:15273177

  8. Kicking velocity and physical, technical, tactical match performance for U18 female football players--effect of a new ball.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Thomas B; Bendiksen, Mads; Pedersen, Jens M; Ørntoft, Christina; Brito, João; Jackman, Sarah R; Williams, Craig A; Krustrup, Peter

    2012-12-01

    We investigated kicking velocity and physical, technical, and tactical match performance for under-18 (U18) female football players and evaluated the effect of using a newly developed lighter smaller ball. Ten regional league teams participated. Maximal ball velocity was 4±1% higher when kicking the new ball (NB) compared with the standard ball (SB) in a laboratory testing situation (23.2±0.4 vs. 22.4±0.3 ms(-1); p<.05). Mean HR was similar during games with NB and SB (169±2 vs. 170±2 bmin(-1); p>.05), but lower-limb muscular RPE was lower with NB (4.2±0.4 vs. 5.2±0.3; p<.05). The number of activity changes (1387±76 vs. 1401±55), total distance covered (9.09±0.25 vs. 9.11±0.25 km) and high-intensity running (1.04±0.08 vs. 1.11±0.07 km) were not different between NB and SB (p>.05). High-intensity running decreased (p<.05) from 0-20 to 60-80 min with NB (34%) and SB (37%). The number and success rate of long and short passes did not differ between NB and SB (p>.05). In conclusion, physiological demands were high in youth female football games, and decrements in running performance occurred towards the end of games. The players kicked faster and reported lower muscular exertion during games played with a lighter smaller ball, but locomotor activities, heart rate and overall technical-tactical game performance remained unaffected.

  9. Football-related injuries among 6- to 17-year-olds treated in US emergency departments, 1990-2007.

    PubMed

    Nation, Adam D; Nelson, Nicolas G; Yard, Ellen E; Comstock, R Dawn; McKenzie, Lara B

    2011-03-01

    Football is one of the most popular youth sports in the United States despite the high rate of injuries. Previously published studies have investigated football-related injuries that occurred in organized play but have excluded those that occurred during unorganized play. Through use of the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database, cases of football-related injuries were identified for analysis. Sample weights were used to calculate national estimates. An estimated 5 252 721 children and adolescents 6 to 17 years old were treated in US emergency departments for football-related injuries. The annual number of cases increased by 26.5% over the 18-year study period. The 12- to 17-year-old age group accounted for 77.8% of all injuries and had nearly twice the odds of sustaining a concussion. The findings suggest the need for increased prevention efforts to lower the risk of football-related injury in children and adolescents.

  10. Epidemiology of football (soccer) injuries in the 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 seasons of the Italian Serie A.

    PubMed

    Falese, Lavinia; Della Valle, Pietro; Federico, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies on football (soccer) injuries are needed to assess both the magnitude of the problem and the effectiveness of preventive programmes. However, few data are available for Italy, which hosts one of the main football leagues in Europe. In this study, we aimed to describe the epidemiology of football injuries in the 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 seasons of the Italian Serie A. Information about injury location, type, date of occurrence and duration of absence was obtained from www.football-lineups.com , a free collaborative international database on football. Overall, 363 injuries occurred throughout the two seasons affecting 286 players. The most commonly reported injuries were thigh-strain and knee injury, which accounted for 42% and 19% of all injuries, respectively. Injury incidence increased with age and was particularly higher from August to October. Results suggest that injury prevention strategies should be introduced from the preseason to reduce the risk of injuries, especially muscle strains.

  11. Repeated sprint training improves intermittent peak running speed in team-sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Jayden R; O'Brien, Brendan J; Mooney, Mitchell G; Berry, Jason; Young, Warren B; Down, Neville

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of 2 repeated sprint training interventions on an intermittent peak running speed (IPRS) test designed for Australian Rules football. The test required participants to perform 10 × 10-m maximal efforts on an 80-m course every 25 seconds, for each of which the mean peak speed (kilometers per hour) was recorded to determine IPRS. The training interventions were performed twice weekly for 4 weeks immediately before regular football training. In the constant volume intervention (CVol), sprint repetition number remained at 10 (n = 9), and in the linear increase in volume (LIVol) intervention, repetition number increased linearly each week by 2 repetitions (n = 12). Intermittent peak running speed, 300-m shuttle test performance, and peak running speed were assessed before and upon completion of training. All measures were compared to a control group (CON; n = 8) in which players completed regular football training exclusively. Intermittent peak running speed performance in CVol and LIVol improved significantly (p < 0.01) by 5.2 and 3.8%, respectively, with no change in IPRS for CON. There were no differences in IPRS changes between CVol and LIVol. Additionally, peak running speed improved significantly (p < 0.01) by 5.1% for CVol, whereas 300-m shuttle performance improved significantly (p < 0.01) by 2.6% for LIVol only. Intermittent peak running speed, 300-m shuttle performance and peak running speed were improved after 4 weeks of training; however, progressively increasing sprint repetition number had no greater advantage on IPRS adaptation. Additionally, exclusive regular football training over a 4-week period is unlikely to improve IPRS, peak running speed, or 300-m shuttle performance.

  12. Effect of kinesio taping on the isokinetic muscle function in football athletes with a knee injury.

    PubMed

    Hong, SoonKwon; Shim, JeMyung; Kim, SungJoong; Namkoong, Seung; Roh, HyoLyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the difference in isokinetic muscle function in football athletes with a knee injury with and without kinesio taping. [Subjects] The subjects for this study were 10 football athletes (males) with a knee injury. [Methods] Measurements were performed by using Cybex dynamometer under uniform motion before and after the application of kinesio tape to the quadriceps and hamstring muscle. Maximal concentric knee extension and flexion at three angular velocities (60°/s, 120°/s, and 180°/s) were measured. [Results] A significant difference was found in peak torque and total work of the flexion at 120°/s and 180°/s, as well as in the average power of extension at 180°/s. [Conclusion] Though it is not the main therapy for muscle function in football athletes with injury, kinesio taping was an effective adjunct therapy.

  13. Effect of kinesio taping on the isokinetic muscle function in football athletes with a knee injury

    PubMed Central

    Hong, SoonKwon; Shim, JeMyung; Kim, SungJoong; Namkoong, Seung; Roh, HyoLyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the difference in isokinetic muscle function in football athletes with a knee injury with and without kinesio taping. [Subjects] The subjects for this study were 10 football athletes (males) with a knee injury. [Methods] Measurements were performed by using Cybex dynamometer under uniform motion before and after the application of kinesio tape to the quadriceps and hamstring muscle. Maximal concentric knee extension and flexion at three angular velocities (60°/s, 120°/s, and 180°/s) were measured. [Results] A significant difference was found in peak torque and total work of the flexion at 120°/s and 180°/s, as well as in the average power of extension at 180°/s. [Conclusion] Though it is not the main therapy for muscle function in football athletes with injury, kinesio taping was an effective adjunct therapy. PMID:26957761

  14. The behaviour of share returns of football clubs: An econophysics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Paulo; Loures, Luís; Nunes, José Rato; Dionísio, Andreia

    2017-04-01

    Football is a sport that moves thousands of people and millions of euros. Since 1983, several clubs entered the stock markets with shares, and now twenty two clubs are listed in the Stoxx Football Index. In this study, we analyse the behaviour of the return rates of such shares, with Detrended Fluctuation Analysis and Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis (and its correlation coefficient). With Detrended Fluctuation Analysis, we are able to observe that the shares of several clubs are far from the behaviour of a random walk, which is expected by the theory. Using Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis, we calculate the cross correlations of clubs' returns with national indexes and then with the Stoxx Football Index. Although almost all of them are positive, they do not seem to be strong.

  15. Effects of youth football on selected clinical measures of neurologic function: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Munce, Thayne A; Dorman, Jason C; Odney, Tryg O; Thompson, Paul A; Valentine, Verle D; Bergeron, Michael F

    2014-12-01

    We assessed 10 youth football players (13.4 ± 0.7 y) immediately before and after their season to explore the effects of football participation on selected clinical measures of neurologic function. Postseason postural stability in a closed-eye condition was improved compared to preseason (P = .017). Neurocognitive testing with the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) battery revealed that reaction time was significantly faster at postseason (P = .015). There were no significant preseason versus postseason differences in verbal memory (P = .507), visual memory (P = .750), or visual motor speed (P = .087). Oculomotor performance assessed by the King-Devick test was moderately to significantly improved (P = .047-.115). A 12-week season of youth football did not impair the postural stability, neurocognitive function, or oculomotor performance measures of the players evaluated. Though encouraging, continued and more comprehensive investigations of this at-risk population are warranted.

  16. Masculinity, moral atmosphere, and moral functioning of high school football players.

    PubMed

    Steinfeldt, Jesse A; Rutkowski, Leslie A; Vaughan, Ellen L; Steinfeldt, Matthew C

    2011-04-01

    In order to identify factors associated with on-field moral functioning among student athletes within the unique context of football, we examined masculine gender role conflict, moral atmosphere, and athletic identity. Using structural equation modeling to assess survey data from 204 high school football players, results demonstrated that moral atmosphere (i.e., the influence of coaches and teammates) was significantly associated with participants' process of on-field moral functioning across the levels of judgment, intention, and behavior. Neither masculine gender role conflict nor athletic identity significantly predicted moral functioning, but the results indicated that participants' identification with the athlete role significantly predicted conflict with socialized gender roles. Results suggest that in the aggressive and violent sport of football, coaches can have a direct influence on players' moral functioning process. Coaches can also have an indirect effect by influencing all the players so that a culture of ethical play can be cultivated among teammates and spread from the top down.

  17. Frostbite in an Adolescent Football Player: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Rivlin, Michael; King, Marnie; Kruse, Richard; Ilyas, Asif M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To present the case of vascular compromise of a finger from a confluent circumferential blister due to an inappropriately applied commercial cold pack in a high school athlete and to describe the mechanism of iatrogenic injury, acute surgical management, rehabilitation, and pathophysiology of frostbite and constriction injuries. Background: A 17-year-old male football player presented with a frostbite and constriction injury to the index finger secondary to prolonged use of a cooling pack after a mild traumatic injury to the digit. He developed a prolonged sensory deficit from thermal injury, as well as acute vascular compromise requiring urgent operative intervention. Differential Diagnosis: Frostbite and constriction injury to the index finger. Treatment: Emergency surgical decompression and occupational therapy. Uniqueness: Frostbite injuries can occur iatrogenically because of inappropriate use of cooling devices or gel packs. Fingers are commonly injured extremities that are particularly susceptible to frostbite and compression injuries. To our knowledge, no case of vascular compromise from the blister constriction of digits has been reported. Conclusions: Patients and their caregivers must be educated about how to properly use cooling devices. Clinicians need to fully evaluate patients with iatrogenic frostbite injuries, giving particular attention to neurovascular status, and must recognize the need for surgical release of constriction syndrome to prevent substantial morbidity. PMID:24143903

  18. Practice effects on intra-team synergies in football teams.

    PubMed

    Silva, Pedro; Chung, Dante; Carvalho, Thiago; Cardoso, Tiago; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2016-04-01

    Developing synchronised player movements for fluent competitive match play is a common goal for coaches of team games. An ecological dynamics approach advocates that intra-team synchronization is governed by locally created information, which specifies shared affordances responsible for synergy formation. To verify this claim we evaluated coordination tendencies in two newly-formed teams of recreational players during association football practice games, weekly, for fifteen weeks (thirteen matches). We investigated practice effects on two central features of synergies in sports teams - dimensional compression and reciprocal compensation here captured through near in-phase modes of coordination and time delays between coupled players during forward and backwards movements on field while attacking and defending. Results verified that synergies were formed and dissolved rapidly as a result of the dynamic creation of informational properties, perceived as shared affordances among performers. Practising once a week led to small improvements in the readjustment delays between co-positioning team members, enabling faster regulation of coordinated team actions. Mean values of the number of player and team synergies displayed only limited improvements, possibly due to the timescales of practice. No relationship between improvements in dimensional compression and reciprocal compensation were found for number of shots, amount of ball possession and number of ball recoveries made. Findings open up new perspectives for monitoring team coordination processes in sport.

  19. Football experts versus sports economists: Whose forecasts are better?

    PubMed

    Frick, Bernd; Wicker, Pamela

    2016-08-01

    Given the uncertainty of outcome in sport, predicting the outcome of sporting contests is a major topic in sport sciences. This study examines the accuracy of expert predictions in the German Bundesliga and compares their predictions to those of sports economists. Prior to the start of each season, a set of distinguished experts (head coaches and players) express their subjective evaluations of the teams in school grades. While experts may be driven by irrational sentiments and may therefore systematically over- or underestimate specific teams, sports economists use observable characteristics to predict season outcomes. The latter typically use team wage bills given the positive pay-performance relationship as well as other factors (average team age, tenure, appearances on national team, and attendance). Using data from 15 consecutive Bundesliga seasons, the predictive accuracy of expert evaluations and sports economists is analysed. The results of separate estimations show that relative grade and relative wage bill significantly affect relative points, while age, tenure, appearances, and attendance are insignificant. In a joint model, relative grade and relative wage bill are still statistically significant, suggesting that the two types of predictions are complements rather than substitutes. Consequently, football experts and sports economists seem to rely on completely different sources of information when making their predictions.

  20. Minimizing Liability Risks of Head and Neck Injuries in Football

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Jonathan F.; Weis, Michael P.; Gartland, James M.; Weis, Craig R.

    1994-01-01

    Although catastrophic head and neck injuries in football occur infrequently, their occurrence is almost always followed by litigation. The athletic trainer has to be sure he/she has adequate liability insurance to cover the costs of a defense and a possible judgment. General claims filed against athletic staffs usually deal with instruction, equipment, matching of participants, supervision, and/or postinjury care. The defenses to these claims include: statutory immunity, assumption of risk, releases or waivers, and the reckless disregard standard. The athletic trainer plays a key role in head and neck injury prevention and care, and must be aware of litigation possibilities, along with methods of risk management. We present recommendations aimed at minimizing the risk of head and neck injuries and the risk of liability. The areas covered are: preparing for head and neck lawsuits, preventing head and neck injuries, and postcatastrophic injury care. We base these recommendations on principles that the athletic trainer can easily apply to other areas, broadening the risk management concept presented. ImagesFig 1.Fig 5.Fig 6.Fig 7. PMID:16558275